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Bekman, Nicole M.
The relationship between individual differences in cognitive, social and personality development and the increase in complexity of children's alcohol expectancies
h [electronic resource] /
by Nicole M. Bekman.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
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Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to simultaneously examine cognitive, social and personality development in a cross-sectional sample of 3rd, 4th and 5th grade children to explore the interplay among these processes and how they relate to changes in children's understanding of alcohol. To replicate previous work, this study comprehensively examined relative increases in types of expectancies as a function of development. Results demonstrated that children in higher grades held more positive, negative and sedating expectancies of alcohol and positive alcohol expectancies increased more than negative alcohol expectancies. Improved performance on cognitive measures were associated with positive alcohol expectancy endorsement, indicating that children's ability to incorporate positive beliefs about alcohol, which are conflicting with information typically taught to children in this age range, may be related to their ability to form and articulate concepts with age.Among male participants, sensation seeking increased with age and was strongly associated with positive ideas about alcohol use, such as wanting to experiment with alcohol or planning to drink as an adult. Social influences on alcohol expectancies included exposure to drinking. When children's parents drank more, they had higher positive, negative and sedating alcohol expectancies, indicating that they had a greater understanding of all potential consequences of drinking, while children whose friends drank had higher positive but not other types of expectancies. Additionally, children who turned to adults for advice held increasing levels of negative and sedating alcohol expectancies across age, while children who sought support from their peers showed higher levels of positive and arousing expectancies across age groups.The interplay between cognitive development and risk factors such as social awareness of alcohol, source of social influence, and sensation seeking personality begins to demonstrate key relationships to alcohol expectancies in late childhood. These social and personality risk factors are likely to play an even greater role in early adolescence as children move to middle school and experience puberty. This study provides a basis for future elaboration of the roles these constructs play in an individual's ability to understand the multifaceted expectations that are held in our society about the effects of alcohol on human behavior.
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Advisor: Mark Goldman, Ph.D.
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
The Relationship Between Individual Differenc es in Cognitive, Social and Personality Development and the Increase in Complex ity of Childrens Alcohol Expectancies by Nicole M. Bekman A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctorate of Arts Department of Psychology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Mark Goldman, Ph.D. Thomas Brandon, Ph.D. Cheryl Kirstein, Ph.D. Geoffrey Potts, Ph.D. Jon Rottenberg, Ph.D. Date of Approval: June 9, 2008 Keywords: Sensation Seeking, Peer Influence, Parental Influence, Alcohol Norms, Concept Formation Copyright 2008, Nicole Bekman
Dedication This dissertation is dedicated to Edward Phillips, the most loving and supportive grandfather anyone could hope to have. He was so encouraging a nd proud of me, and valued my education above all else.
Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge Mark Goldman for his mentoring and guidance, and teaching by example how to conduct quality res earch. I would also like to thank Jack Darkes, Karen Brandon, Fran del Boca, Richie Reich, Paul Greenbaum, Amy Green, Inna Fishman, Ashlee Carter, Molly Below, John Ray and Ty Brumback for helping me to hammer out the specifics of my concepts, challenged me to think of things from different perspectives and cheeri ng me on when the project got tough. I would like to thank my parents, Kenneth and Linda Bekman, my family and friends for their encouragement, insp iration, love and care, and for listening to my hopes and dreams and helping me to reach those goals. I also thank Debbie Zenk and the School Age Child Care after-school programs in the School District of Hillsborough County, as well as YMCA Latchkey after-school programs for helping me to collect permission slips, coordinate on-site data collection and tolerating my multiple phone calls to schedule visits. Finally and most importantly I would like to thank my research assistants, who helped with data collection, project coordination, data entry and cleaning. Special thanks to Ashley Sanders who served as my right-h and throughout and likely knows more than I do about our project activities.
i Table of Contents List of Tables iii List of Figures v Abstract vi Introduction 1 Development of alcohol expectancies 3 Influences on alcohol expectancies in children 6 Biopsychosocial model of developmental risk for alcoholism 9 Cognitive development and its relation to alcohol expectancies 12 Educational significance 16 Current Study 18 Method 20 Participants 20 Measures 21 Slossons Oral Reading Test (SORT) 21 Controlled Oral Word Association Task (COWAT) 21 Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS-Sorting) 21 Free Associates (FA) 22 Alcohol Expectancy Card Sorting Task (CST-Alc) 22 Animal Card Sorting Task (CST-An) 23 Memory Model-Based Expectancy Questionnaire (MMBEQ) 23 Sensation Seeking Scale for Children (SSSC) 23 Demographics and Dr inking Questionnaire (DDQ) 24 Transformation of non-normally distributed variables 24 Procedure 25 Results 26 Alcohol Expectancies 26 Mean differences in expectancies by age and grade 27 Associations between expectancies and age/grade 30 Item-by-item exploration of expectancies 30 Alcohol expectancy complexity 32 Summary of alcohol expectancy finding 34 Cognitive Influences 35 Mean differences in cognitive complexity by age and grade 35 Associations between cognitive ability and alcohol expectancies 38 Summary of cognitive influe nces on alcohol expectancies 40 Personality Influences 41
ii Mean differences in sensation seeking by age and grade 41 Associations between sensation seeking and alcohol expectancies 41 Summary of personality influe nces on alcohol expectancies 43 Social influences 44 Social influences in the current sample 45 Mean differences in social influences by age and grade 45 Associations between social influences and alcohol expectancies 46 Associations between social influences and sensation seeking 48 Summary of social influe nces on alcohol expectancies 49 Current and future drinking 50 Interplay between risk and protective factors and current drinking 52 Discussion 54 Alcohol expectancies 54 Cognitive influences 55 Personality influences 56 Social influences 58 Summary 60 Limitations 61 Conclusions and future directions 64 Reference List 66 Appendices 73 Appendix A: Slossons Oral Reading Test 74 Appendix B: Cont rolled Oral Word Association Task 75 Appendix C: Delis Kaplan Executive Functioning System Sorting Task 79 Appendix D: Free Associates 86 Appendix E: Alcohol Expectancy Card Sorting Task 88 Appendix F: Animal Card Sorting Task 92 Appendix G: Survey Administration 96 Appendix H: Memory Model-Based Expectancy Questionnaire 97 Appendix I: Sensation Seeking Scale for Children 107 Appendix J: Dr inking and Demographics Questionnaire 110 Appendix K: Descriptiv e Statistics for Original and Transformed Variables 116 About the Author End Page
iii List of Tables Table 1 One-way ANOVAs of differe nces in alcohol expectancy measures by age and grade 29 Table 2 Zero-order correlations betw een alcohol expectancy endorsement and grade/age 30 Table 3 Chi-Square item-by-item analyses by age 31 Table 4 Chi-Square item-by-item analyses by grade 31 Table 5 One-way ANOVAs of differences in alcohol card sorting task by age and grade 34 Table 6 One-way ANOVAs of differen ces in cognitive measures by age and grade 37 Table 7 Zero-order correlations between cognitive variables and alcohol expectancies 39 Table 8 Partial correlations between cognitive variables and alcohol expectancies controlli ng for verbal fluency 40 Table 9 Zero-order correlations between alcohol expectancy measures and sensation seeking subscales for male and female participants 44 Table 10 Zero-order correlations be tween social variables, alcohol expectancy endorsement and sensation seeking subscales 47 Table 11 One-way ANOVAs of differe nces in alcohol expectancy measures by age and grade for children more influenced by either adults or peers 48 Table 12 Zero-order correlations betw een social influence and sensation seeking subscales 49 Table 13 One-way ANOVAs of differences in expected future drinking by age and grade for male a nd female participants 51 Table 14 Descriptive statistics fo r all measures of interest 116 Table 15 Descriptive statistics of the transformed variables 117
iv List of Figures Figure 1 Mean differences in Alcohol Expectancy endorsement by grade 28 Figure 2 Mean differences in Alcohol Expectancy endorsement by age 29 Figure 3 Mean differences in the Alc ohol Expectancy card sorting task 33 Figure 4 Mean differences in cognitive measures by age 36 Figure 5 Mean differences in cognitive measures by grade 37 Figure 6 Mean differences in Sensation Seeking by age for male and female participants 42
v The Relationship between Individual Differenc es in Cognitive, Social and Personality Development and the Increase in Complex ity of Childrens Alcohol Expectancies Nicole M. Bekman ABSTRACT The current study aimed to simultaneous ly examine cognitive, social and personality development in a cross-sectional sample of 3 rd 4 th and 5 th grade children to explore the interplay among these processes and how they relate to changes in childrens understanding of alcohol. To replicate pr evious work, this study comprehensively examined relative increases in types of expectancies as a function of development. Results demonstrated that children in highe r grades held more positive, negative and sedating expectancies of alcohol and positive alcohol expectancies increased more than negative alcohol expectancies. Improved performance on cognitive measures were associated with positive alcohol expectancy endorsement, indicating that childrens ability to incorporate positive beliefs about alcohol, which are conflicting with information typically taught to children in this age range, may be relate d to their ability to form and articulate concepts with age. Among male participants, sensation seeking increased with age and was strongly associated with positive ideas about alcohol use, such as wanting to experiment with alcohol or planning to drink as an adult. Social influences on alcohol expectancies included exposure to drinking. When childre ns parents drank more, they had higher positive, negative and sedating alcohol expectancies, indicating that they had a greater
vi understanding of all potential consequences of drinking, while children whose friends drank had higher positive but not other types of expectancies. A dditionally, children who turned to adults for advice held increasi ng levels of negative and sedating alcohol expectancies across age, wh ile children who sought support from their peers showed higher levels of positive and arousing expectancies across age groups. The interplay between cognitive development and risk factor s such as social awareness of alcohol, source of social influence, and sensation s eeking personality begins to demonstrate key relationships to alcohol expect ancies in late childhood. Thes e social and personality risk factors are likely to play an even greater ro le in early adolescence as children move to middle school and experience puberty. This stud y provides a basis for future elaboration of the roles these constructs play in an i ndividuals ability to understand the multifaceted expectations that are held in our society a bout the effects of alc ohol on human behavior.
1 Introduction The consequences of problematic alcohol use and abuse are far reaching, influencing the physical and emotional health of the individual, in addition to his or her family members, friends, the surrounding comm unity and society overall. In the past several decades, research examining potential risk factors of pr oblematic alcohol use points to psychosocial development during childhood and adolescen ce as a time when foundational cognitive, biological, emotional, and social determ inants of risk converge in ways that encourage or deter indivi duals from risky alcohol consumption. Underage alcohol use is normative in U.S. society, with almost 74% of persons age twenty-one or older reporting that they started drinking alcohol before reaching the legal age. Fifty percent of children had already tried alcohol by age fifteen (NewesAdeyi, Chen, Williams, & Faden, 2005). Although underage alcohol use is common, the risks associated with alcohol use during ke y periods of development are significant. Grant and Dawson (1997) found that individuals who begin drinking before age fifteen are at four times the risk of meeting criteria for alcohol dependence as compared to those who begin after age twenty. Additionally, th ere is evidence indicating that the human brain continues to develop in to a person's early twenties (S pear, 2000). Adolescents who are dependent on alcohol have displayed me mory impairment, distorted perception of spatial relationships, and weakened verbal skills (Brown, Tapert, Granholm & Delis, 2000). Teenagers who drink heavily are also at greater risk for suicide (National Institute
2 on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; NIAAA, 1996, as cited in Leadership for a Drug Free America, 2002), injury (Hingston, Heere n, Jamanka & Howland, 2000), fatal crashes (National Highway and Safety Patrol; NHSP, 2001) and risky sexual behavior (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2002). Application of expectancy theory in this area has been valuable in efforts to understand peoples motivations to drink alcohol. Alcohol expectancies refer to an individuals knowledge and be liefs about the effects and consequences of alcohol consumption. These expectancies have been thought to be acquired early in life and are stored in a semantic memory network (G oldman, 1989; 1999). Numerous studies have indicated that adolescents and adults expectancies about alcohol influence the amount of alcohol that they cons ume (Brown, Goldman & Chri stiansen, 1985, Christiansen, Smith, Roehling & Goldman, 1989, Darkes & Gold man 1993). There is also significant evidence that childrens expect ancies about alcohol can influe nce their intentions to drink in the future (Austin & Meili, 1994) and ar e hypothesized to predict future drinking behavior (Dunn & Goldman, 1996; 1998; 2000). Several researchers have e xplored the possibility that alcohol expectancies may serve as a mediator between identified risk factors for problem drinking and drinking behavior (Finn, Sharkansky, Brandt, & Turcotte, 2000; He nderson, Goldman, Coovert, & Carnevalla, 1994). Expectancy research can help clarify how risk factors for problems with alcohol transfer to actual alcohol use over the course of a ch ilds development. Childrens expectancies of the effects of alcohol may also facilitate or inhibit the influence of other risk factors on drinking behavior.
3 Childrens expectancies about the effect s of alcohol develop well before the individual has any experience drinking alc ohol (eg. Noll, Zucker & Greenbaum, 1990; Dunn & Goldman 1996; 1998; 2000). Therefore, they must learn these expectancies through other means such as societal norms, pa rental behavior, various forms of media, and peer groups. How and when children acquire information about the effects of alcohol may vary based on individual risk factors that increase the probability of developing problems with alcohol. Development of Alcohol Expectancies At very young ages, children develop a cogni tive schema for alcohol and its use. Even preschool aged children have been shown to discriminate alcohol from other liquids, and can express awareness that adults usually drink alcohol ra ther than children (Noll et al., 1990). Further exploration of ch ildrens knowledge of alcohol (Miller, Smith & Goldman, 1990) revealed that children held expectancies about al cohol at all of the ages evaluated (ages 6-11). Through thorough exploration of the development of alcohol expectancies across studies, it has been well-documented that both positive and negative alcohol expectancies increas e across age groups, from as young as first grade up through the twelfth grade (Dunn & Goldman, 1996, 1998, 2000; Johnson & Johnson, 1995; Cameron, Stritzke & Durkin, 2003) Additionally, several of these studies point to the age range between third and sixth grade as a time when there is a large increase in endorsement of alcohol expectancies (Dunn & Goldman, 1996, 1998; Johnson & Johnson, 1995).
4 This phenomenon has been illustrated th rough the use of individual differences scaling and preference mapping techniques us ed to develop a model of an alcohol expectancy memory network in multidim ensional space (Dunn & Goldman, 1996, 1998). Using words elicited from children to describe the effects of alcohol and ratings of how often alcohol causes a specific expected fee ling in adults, these researchers mapped the expectancy responses on two derived axes (good-bad, and sedating-arousing) based on a score from a four-point Like rt scale of how often thes e effects of drinking are experienced. Preference mapping was then used to plot a vector through the hypothetical expectancy network to model the association pathways as a function of grade. This vector represented the judged frequency of occurrence for each alcohol expectancy word and demonstrated that younger children were more likely to have negative expectancies, make judgments based on value (positive vs. ne gative) rather than arousal (arousal or sedation). Older children, however, had more positive expectancies, such as cool or wild, and more arousing expectancies as we ll. These findings were extended to show that children with personal drinking experience, or whose parents and peers had higher rates of drinking, were more likely to have positive and arousing expectancies than children who do not (Dunn & Goldman, 1998). This method was also extended to a different measure of expectancies, free asso ciates to the phrase Alcohol makes people (Dunn & Goldman, 2000). This measure wa s thought to be a more direct means of retrieving uncontaminated memory conten ts, and again younger and lower drinking children were more likely to report negative outcomes, like bad, while older and higher drinking children would report more positive outcomes, such as happy.
5 Other research in the field has compar ed alcohol expectan cies to non-alcohol beverages, especially consumed primarily by adults, to distinguish alcohol expectancies as a unique, salient and qualitatively different construct than othe r beverages or adult concepts (Cameron et al., 2003; Query, Rose nberg & Tisak, 1998). Researchers have demonstrated the salience of social conse quences for adolescent or underage drinking among children as young as first grade, both in regards to negative consequences in the eyes of their parents and also positive consequences expected among their friends (Johnson & Johnson, 1996). Evidence has indicated that older children feel that social and peer approval strongly influence an adoles cents decision to drink (i.e., that older children are more likely to describe alcohol as cool such as in Dunn & Goldman, 1996). Researchers have examined hypotheses that because of these mixed expectations, children have specific and ambivalent opi nions regarding alcohol, which may be reflective of increased cognitive sophisticati on over developmental periods (Cameron et al., 2003). This relationship may also be a si gn of the continued process of differentiation of alcohol-related concepts from less culturally laden concepts, a process that begins at very early ages (Noll et al., 1990, Miller et al., 1990). More recently, alcohol expectancy res earch among children and adolescence has focused on the role of measurement error in troduced by differences in the psychometric properties of an instrument across developmental time periods ( Shell, Martino, Ellickson, Collins & McCaffrey, 2005) and between ge nders (Randolph, Gerend & Miller, 2006) While Randolph and colleagues were able to confirm measurement i nvariance in regards to gender in their sample, Shell and colleagues found psychometric differences in items
6 based on age, specifically in regards to differe nces in the meaning of some of the items. For example, older students felt that forge t their problems or act wild were more positive outcomes than did younger children. Additionally, these researchers modeled alcohol expectancies using tw o factors: Alcohol Positivity (loads positively on positive items and negatively on negative items) and Alcohol Potency (likelihood of both positive and negative outcomes as a result of alcohol use). After the researchers controlled for psychometric differences in items based on ag e, they found that older students viewed alcohol more positively and as more potent than younger students, independent of their own personal experience with alcohol. Influences on alcohol expectancies in children Two of the most researched influences on childrens expectancies of alcohol are parental drinking and media, specifically alcohol advertis ing. Numerous studies have identified children of alcoholics (COAs) as a group at high risk for future alcohol abuse and dependence (Schuckit, 1994). However, how it is that some COAs experience these problems while others do not is still unknown. Alcohol expectancies might play some role in this distinction. Studies compari ng young COAs to controls (Miller et. al., 1990; Kraus, Smith & Ratner, 1994) have found that young COAs have more negative expectancies of alcohol than their counterparts, indicating that at this age COAs expectancies may reflect their negative expe riences with an alcoholic parent. On the other hand, older adolescent COAs are more lik ely than their controls to have higher positive expectancies towards alcohol (Brown, Creamer & Stetson, 1987).
7 Besides exposure to alcohol information within the family environment, children also learn a significant amount of alcohol expectancy inform ation from media sources. Austin and Meili (1994) examined the alcoho l expectancies of a sample of children considered at-risk for alcohol abuse. The authors examined childrens perceptions of alcohol use by adults at home and people on television. They compared these perceptions to childrens expectancies of th e effects of alcohol, and their intention to drink alcohol in the future. They also expl ored the extent to which the child felt that television represents real life, how often they saw alcohol in real life, what kinds of television shows they were most likely to wa tch and how often. Results showed that both childrens identification with television and mo deling at home were positive predictors of risky expectancies of alcohol use. These expectancies were in turn predictors of intention to drink. An experimental study con cerning the effects of alc ohol advertising found that children had significantly higher positive expectancies of alcohol after evaluating five beer commercials when compared to a control group that ev aluated five soda commercials (Dunn & Yniguez, 1999). Usi ng the Childrens Expectancy Measure and First Associate Expectancy Measure, the authors mapped childrens paths of association through a memory network. They found that ch ildren in the four th grade who were exposed to five beer commercials had more arousing and positive expectancies and were more similar to fifth-grade control students than fourth grade controls. In turn, fifth grade students who had seen beer commercials had more arousing and positive expectancies than fifth grade controls. Although the results of this study are striking, it is important to
8 remember that the effects of these five beer commercials on students in a classroom could have temporarily changed childrens expectan cies. It does not n ecessarily predict how these same children would react hours or days after seeing the same commercials. Additionally, the study did litt le to explain the long-ter m effects that hundreds of commercials have on children over time as they experience in life. This study does not account for individual differences of expos ure these students had to television and alcohol commercials before th eir experience during their part icipation in research began. These basic findings illustra te some of the existing social influences on alcohol use and alcohol expectancies during childhood and adolescence. They do not, however, examine the mechanisms by which some childre n may be more susceptible to this risk than other children and how th is interactive process may ch ange across development. The age at which alcohol expectancies begin to shift occurs in the early stages of the transition between childhood and adolescence, a period which includes significant and rapid transformation in an individuals intern al and external environment. Specifically, developmental changes in a childs cognitive capabilities, in addition to shifts in the salience of and exposure to social influences regarding alcohol, may combine to encourage or deter positive expectancies abou t alcohol, and subsequent alcohol use. Due to the timing of these changes in relation to the larger developmental processes associated with transition into adolescence, these differe nces must be examined within the context of adolescent development.
9 Biopsychosocial Model of Developmental Risk for Alcohol Use Adolescence is a period of continual fl ux, during which an individual is moving between childhood and adulthood. During this time biological, social and emotional developmental processes combine to foster re lative independence and prepare individuals for increased levels of responsibility and the possibility of sexua l reproduction. These changes progress and regress over the course of adolescence, and are desynchronous with one another (Steinberg, Dahl, Keating, Kupfer, Masten & Pi ne, 2004). These processes, for many reasons, also place the adolescent at risk for abusing alcohol and other drugs. Several studies have demonstrated that th ere may be developmental differences in an individuals propensity towards sensation seeking, or willingness to engage in risky behavior to experience novel and complex sensations (Zuckerman, 1979). Sensationseeking has been shown to increase from adolescence to adulthood and then decrease across years later in life (Zuc kerman & Neeb 1980). Increases in novelty seeking, risk taking and sensation seeki ng during adolescence occurs across species, including humans, rats and non-human primates, and ma y be a result of decr eased sensitivity to stimulation (Martin, Kelly, Rayens, Brogli, Br enzel et al., 2002; Sp ear, 2000). In fact, more than half of adolescents have enga ged in drunk driving, unprotected sex, illegal drug use, and/or minor crim inal activity (Arnett, 1992). In addition to an increased desire to e ngage in risky behavior adolescents may be less biologically sensitive to drug and alcohol us e. Often the effects seen in adults are absent or dampened in adolescent drug use (Spear, 2000). Because of this decreased sensitivity, adolescents are in danger of increas ing the dosage of a drug to achieve the
10 desired effect, leading to increased levels of exposure to the harmful effects of the drug. Specifically with alcohol, a dolescents who are feeling the positive effects of the drug without any sedative effects may find it easier to flood the brain with alcohol without awareness of just how much they are drinking. During adolescence, increases in levels of sensation seeking and decreased sensitivity to alcohol may combine with the tr emendous increase in soci al interaction with same-age or similar-age peers to further the likelihood of alcohol use. Alcohol is often used in our culture to ease social interacti ons, and these interactions between peers are particularly reinforcing during adolescence. Adolescents report f eeling happiest in the company of their peers, and they report enjoyi ng this social time more than any other point in the day (Spear, 2000). Adolescents may feel pr essure to explore new things in their peer group, particularly activities associated with mature, adult activity, such as alcohol use. Another socially based source of inform ation about alcohol use is the family environment. Observation of parental and sibling drinking behavior can affect what a developing adolescent feels is appropriate for themselves, for other adolescents and for adults (Ellis, Zucker & Fitzgerald, 1997). Parental attitudes towards their own drinking and towards the childrens potential drinki ng habits can also shape an individuals expectations of alcohol use (Jacob & Johns on, 1997). During adolescence, parenting practices are often strained as increases in pa rent-child conflicts begi n. Some research has shown that children were found to be more likel y to drink if the leve l of closeness between a child and a parent was low, the amount of parental monitoring of the childs behavior was low, and the child perceives his or her pare nt as permissive rath er than authoritative
11 (Jackson, Henriksen & Dickenson, 2004). All of these facets of paren ting style are tested in new ways as children approach adolescence. Increased desire for independence, social pressures and emotional dysregulation as a resu lt of relatively fast paced developmental capabilities can often place a dded strain to the consistency of parenting practices. Apart from family environmen t, genetic determinants of risk can be observed in the relationship between parental drinking and the drinking patterns of their children. However, genetics influence other factors, such as personality ch aracteristics, which in turn influence the childs choice of peer group (d eviant vs. non-deviant; Schulenberg & Maggs, 2001), the parents ability to maintain healt hy parenting practices, the likelihood of passing on predisposition to psychopathology (Sher, 1997), etc., all of which are risk factors for problematic alcohol use. The interrelatedness of these variables makes it difficult to tease them apart and illustrate a single, causal pathway of risk. This convergence of increased sensation seeking, decreased biological sensitivity and heightened social motivation may be evol utionarily adaptive in that these variables encourage individuals to explor e novel things and new territo ries during a critical time period of sexual maturation and development towards adulthood. These processes may serve a function in that they may minimize inbreeding (Spear, 2000). Some researchers have argued that small amounts of risk ta king may be considered developmentally appropriate experimentation, because a dolescents engaging in some risk taking behaviors have been found to be more socia lly competent than both their abstaining and frequent risk taking counte rparts (Shedler & Block, 1990) Risk taking may allow adolescents to explore adult experiences a nd opportunities and meet critical social
12 milestones (Spear, 2000), such as distancing themselves from their caregivers and becoming closer to their peer group. Despite these advantages, th e increases in risk taking during adolescence have serious cons equences, including the dangers associated with alcohol use mentioned earlier. Cognitive Development and its Relation to Alcohol Expectancies While many changes are taking place duri ng the transition into adolescence that influence variables related to personality and socialization, additional changes are occurring in relation to the individuals cognitive abilities. During late childhood and early adolescence cognitive processes become increasingly complex. Recent research regarding childrens alcohol e xpectancies has pointed to th ese developmental changes in cognition as a potential pathwa y explaining how and why olde r children and adolescents have more alcohol expectancies and more di verse types of alcohol expectancies than do younger children (Cameron et al., 2003; D unn & Goldman, 2000; Shell et al., 2005). Current theories regarding cognitive development support this hypothesis. Piagets (1964) early models of cognitive development described four distinct stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor (ages 0-2), pre-operational (ages 2-7), concrete operational (ages 7-11) and formal operational (from age 11). During late childhood, the concrete operational period, child ren learn about classification, ordering, spatial and temporal properties, and can comp rehend more than one aspect of a problem or object simultaneously. Cognitive maps become increasingly organized and accurate during this time period (Piaget, 1964). Ch ildren at this age, however, can reason logically about concrete, tangible informati on, but they have difficulty with abstract
13 ideas. During the formal operational period, ad olescents begin to th ink abstractly and form hypotheses, rather than relying on concrete ideas solidified through actual experience (Berk, 1997). While recent science has not supported Piagets ideas that these stages are distinct, isolated and sequential, Piagetian th eory still provides a useful framework for understanding the general process of cognitive development. Development through these stages is now considered to be more gra dual, with considerable overlap, and to be influenced by the cultural and experientia l context in which they occur (Berk, 1997). This shift in cognitive ability from co ncrete, one-dimensional thought to abstract, multidimensional reasoning seems to occur in a linear fashion between the ages of 6 and 16, the age at which most adolescents ar e able to match a dult capabilities. Several aspects of Piaget ian theory apply to th e increase in amount and complexity of alcohol expectancies during th is developmental period. The increased use of classification and ability to understand more than one aspect of a problem could lead to increased retention and comprehension of different potential effects of alcohol, even when they are not consistent with one anothe r. Additionally, movement from concrete to abstract reasoning may allow an individual to think beyond his or her personal exposure to messages regarding alcohol and begin to incorporate informati on about how alcohol affects others; particularly peers, family members and media figures. These ideas are supported by empirical evidence, which demonstrates that children develop an increased ability to cat egorize during development. In an early study, Frith and Frith (1978) de monstrated that between th e ages of 4 and 16, children
14 use more types of features to categorize obj ects. Between the ages of 8 and 12, children are also more likely to use categorizing strate gies to remember pictures of objects than younger children (Schlagmuller & Schneider, 2002). In this study, as children got older, they also used strategies that were incr easingly complex in terms of the number of dimensions used. This finding is compatible with the existing literature that documents a transition from emphasizing only one, negative dimension of alcohol expectancies, to including both positive and ne gative expectancies, and finally to including dimensions of arousal and sedation. Another study by Greve and colleagues (2000) sought to determine whether performance on the California Card Sor ting Task (CCST) follows the same developmental pathway as other measures of categorization abilities. When comparing younger children ages 7-9, older children ag es 10-12, young adults ages 17-19 and young adults ages 20-22, the authors found that th e very young children performed more poorly on the CCST than did the older children a nd the older children differed from the young adults on description scores but not on sort scores. This study indicates that very young children, who are still developing their abilities to describe con cepts to others, are not as sophisticated in their categoriz ation abilities as ol der children, whose s ophisticated ability to categorize and understand more closely parallels that of adults. This ability to categorize based on multiple features may be due in part to the childs increased ability to recognize these features. One task used to demonstrate recognition of spatial complexity is the picture fragment task, in which a participant must study a picture and then later identify which pictures he or she had seen previously.
15 Participants are required to identify pictures that are either complete or fragmented to some degree. One study showed that younger pa rticipants were only able to identify pictures with less or no frag mentation, while older children and adults were able to recognize pictures with high degrees of fragmentation (Cycowicz, Friedman, Snodgrass & Rothstein, 2000). In another example, Siegler (1985) examin ed childrens ability to remember the amount of a weight placed on a balance, and the distance it was placed from the fulcrum. Children were only able to remember one of these dimensions prior to age 8. Sandberg (2000) also tested the multidimensionality of childrens memory by asking them to remember and indicate the location of a point in a square in a spatial memory task. The youngest children (age 5) were ab le to identify which half of the square the point fell on, using one dimension, either vertical or horizon tal. Children a bit older located the correct quadrant that the point was located in using both dimensions. The oldest children (age 10) used both dimensions, and also were able to specify the angle and distance of the point from the center of the square. These studies support the idea th at childrens ability to organize and remember verbal and spat ial relationships is based on increasingly complex strategies. Since alcohol expectan cies are hypothesized to be processed and retrieved within a semantic association network, increasing levels of cognitive complexity in this network, as well as improve d abilities of categoriz ation and retrieval, provide viable hypotheses to explain how alcohol expectan cies develop and diversify with age.
16 Educational Significance Traditionally, schools have been involved in efforts to reduce student involvement with drugs and alcohol. The prevention pr ograms available in schools have become increasingly guided by research, and have br oadened their focus from the individual to include environmental influences and so cial norms (Bangert-Drowns 1988; Dielman 1995). Although some of these programs have b een shown to be valuable, effect sizes tend to be small for general youth populations and even less effective with higher risk youth (National Institute on Al cohol and Alcoholism; NIAAA, 2005). More research is necessary to establish a mean s of preventing alcohol use from a developmental approach that takes into account the inte rplay of risk and protective f actors at physiological, social and environmental levels. There has been some promising research in the area of prevention using alcohol expectancy theory. Despite evidence that children primar ily hold negative alcohol expectancies, previous prevention efforts, su ch as DARE, have attempted to teach these ideas to children (teaching them what they alre ady know). As they grow older, however, they increasingly attend to th e physiological responses to al cohol, and begin to expect that alcohol will either have arousing or se dating effects on their mood. Because of this pattern, Dunn and Goldman (1998) theorized that prevention efforts will be more effective if they emphasize the sedating eff ects of alcohol, as mo st young people drink to experience the more desirable, arousing feelings that increase their ab ility to socialize. Several researchers (Kraus et. al., 19 94; Wooten, 1995; Cruz & Dunn, 2003) have attempted to challenge the positive expect ancies of children and adolescents using
17 different media and with varying levels of success. Across all studies, more interactive approaches that were particularly salient to the children were more effective. Additionally, in all studies, expectancy-based programs were more effective than traditional alcohol-information programs. The current study can serve to improve prevention efforts by targeting underage drinking within a developmental framework. If the interplay between developmental processes and changes in cognition rega rding alcohol is be tter understood, than prevention efforts can be developed to target (1) the children who are at risk, and (2) the social and cognitive processes that lead to increased emphasis on positive and arousing expectancy information. This study, as we ll as continued expectancy and prevention research, are crucial towards effo rts to reduce underage drinking. Overview As described previously in this document, specific expect ancies related to alcohol use have been measured in children as young as 3 years old and develop over the course of childhood and adolescence, even prior to actual drinking experience. During normative development, older children and adolescents have quantitatively more expectations about the effect s of alcohol, and more divers e expectations of alcohol. Specifically, while individuals hold both positiv e and negative alcohol expectancies at all ages, younger children have significantly mo re negative expectancies of alcohol than positive (Miller et al., 1990). Across the de velopmental period between childhood and adolescence, there is an increase in both positive and negative alcohol expectancies, with positive expectancies increasing at a faster ra te than their negative counterparts (Cameron
18 et al., 2003; Shell et al., 2005). Techniques mapping the hypothetical expectancy network demonstrate that younge r children are more likely to emphasize associational pathways using the valence dimension than older children, and by late adolescence and early adulthood, individuals are likely to categorize alcohol e xpectancies along two dimensions of valence and arousal. Fina lly, when individuals have more personal experience with alcohol, they are also likely to have more diverse alcohol expectancies and use more than one dimension to cl assify that experience (Dunn & Goldman, 1996, 1998, 2000). Several distinct biopsychosocial pr ocesses are undergoing significant transformations at the onset of adolescence, during the same developmental time period that alcohol expectancies are transitio ning. These processes, including social, personality, cognitive, environm ental and biological changes, interact with one another, as well as with influences of risk for problematic alcohol use. Previous research has established that alcohol expectancies may pa rtially mediate the effects of some risk factors, such as sensation seeking (Finn et al., 2000). Current Study The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative importance of aspects of three of these influences: cognitiv e, personality and social development, on changes in alcohol expectancies. Cognitiv e development during late childhood and early adolescence is substantial and cognitive capacity increases and becomes increasingly complex with age. Modification of alcohol expectancies across this time period appears to mirror this increase in complexity in that children begin to categorize alcohol
19 expectancy information along at least two dimensions (positive/negative and arousing/sedating) rather than just one. Additionally, increased use of abstract reasoning and assimilation of new information outside of ones personal experience, leads directly to an increase in alcohol expectancies. This relationship is especially true of positive expectancies, because the individual is no l onger relying on personal experience, such as negative messages about underage al cohol use taught at school. Instead, he or she is able to incorporate more distant sources of info rmation, such as beer commercials, spring break television programs, stories about sibli ngs or peers experien ce with alcohol, and finally, positive and negative information a bout parental (adult) drinking and underage alcohol use. The current study aimed to simultaneously examine aspects of cognitive, personality and social development in a cross-sectional sample to understand the variations in each that underpin changes in alcohol expectancies beginning within this age range. Although these are only three of multiple significant facets to development within this age range, each of these areas has specific relevance to the process of forming expectations of how alcohol affects people. To replicate and expand upon previous work, this study comprehensively examined relative in creases in different types of expectancies as a function of development. Because many of the developmental changes associated with adolescence begin in middle childhood, th is study examined the onset of alcohol expectancy development by comparing children in grades 3, 4 and 5.
20 Method Participants A sample was drawn from 3 rd to 6 th grade children atte nding after-school programs offered either by YMCA Latchkey or School Age Child Care (SACC), which is run by the School District of Hillsborough County. These programs were chosen because they are the two largest after-school programs in the area and are available to children in a representative sample of neighborhoods in Hillsborough County. An active informed consent procedure was used in which the st udy was described to parents and they were asked to provide permission for their child to participate. Only students who returned the parental consent forms were allowed to partic ipate. 32 percent of the children contacted returned their parental permission slips and of these individuals, 75 percent agreed to participate. The resulting sample included 300 3 rd to 6 th grade students, 88 percent of which were recruited from SACC programs (12 percen t YMCA). Both sites were similar in terms of setting (usually the school cafeteria), program structure, staff, etc. No site differences were found for any of the inde pendent or dependent variables. All participants were between 7 and 12 years old, with a mean age of 9.36 years (SD = 1.01). 60 percent of participants were female. This sample was diverse; 44.3 percent of participants identified themselves as Wh ite/Caucasian, 8 percent as Black/African-
21 American, 20.7 percent as Hi spanic/Latino(a), 6 percent as Asian, and 24 percent as Other. Measures Slossons Oral Reading Test (SORT). This measure was given to ensure that participants met the minimum reading level requi red to complete the rest of the measures in this study. The Slossons Oral Readi ng Test was administer ed individually and includes 200 words that are so rted into 10 lists based on or der of difficulty. The first group is considered equivalent to a 1 st grade reading level, the second group, to 2 nd grade reading level, etc. If the participants could not read at a 2 nd grade level, than the researcher read the questionnaires out loud to the participant. To maintain the participants comfort level regarding the confidentiality of their data and minimize response bias, they were asked to record th eir own responses on a measure in front of them after each item was read to them. Controlled Oral Word Asso ciation Test (COWAT). To control for more general cognitive ability, the Controlled Oral Word A ssociation Test was used to measure verbal fluency and speed of information proce ssing (Benton & Hamsher, 1976). For the COWAT, participants were asked to produ ce as many items in a category, such as animals and boys names or clothes and girls names, as they can think of in a 1-minute trial. The resulting score was the sum total of all admissible words that fit within the category. Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System Sorting Task (DKEFS-Sorting). This task was modeled after the Californi a Card Sorting Task and was designed to
22 measure aspects of concept formation and cat egorization development through the use of three indexes: errors in ca tegorization, perseverative erro rs, and categories achieved (Greve, Farrell & Besson, 1995). In this task th e participants explain their sorting choice, which allows the administrator to assess additio nal outcomes such as concept articulation. Scores on the California Card Sorting Task have been shown to improve with normal development, reaching adult levels by age 10 (Greve, Love & Dickens, 2000). Free Associates (FA). Participants were asked to complete an open-ended freeassociates task in which participants answer the question How do people feel when they drink alcohol? with the first several responses that come to mind. This task is believed to be the purest indicator of automatica lly accessed memory contents (McNamara, 1992; Nelson et al., 1998, 2000). In this study, the first associates gene rated by participants were examined based on both the number produced as well as the range in content that is represented (number produced along th e arousal and valence dimensions). Alcohol Expectancy Card Sorting Task (CST-Alc). An additional card-sorting task was administered in which participants were asked to sort cards labeled with common alcohol expectancy terms into separa te piles and name each pile that they produce. Having participants group expectan cies in this fashion provides co-occurrence values that can be used as estimates of semantic relatedness in memory (Rosenberg, 1979). These estimates can be analyzed using multidimensional scaling techniques or through cluster analysis. In th is study, the card sorting piles were assessed based on the number of categories present in each childs final sort, as well as their ability to articulate the concepts used to create this sort.
23 Animal Card Sorting Task (CST-An). This task was developed specifically for this study to provide an alternate measure of cognitive complexity. This measure differs from the DKEFS-Sorting in that participants were asked to sort cards along more than one dimension simultaneously. This process would potentially help differentiate between cognitive complexity in general and more specific categorization processes that occur concurrently. Participants were asked to sort cards labeled with different types of animals into separate piles and then name each pile that they produce. Memory Model-Based Expectanc y Questionnaire (MMBEQ). The MMBEQ is an explicit alcohol expectancy measures that allo ws for factor score computation to examine mean changes in expectancies across age groups It consists of 41 items which can be scored into 4 factors (positive-social, negative-arousal, sedated-impaired, and wildcrazy). Coefficients alpha for the four scal es ranges from .82 .92, and their correlations with drinking in a wide range of drinkers ranges from -.14 (sedated-impaired) to .38 (positive-social) (Dunn, 1999). Sensation Seeking Scale for Children (SSSC). This scale was used to measure each participants level of sensation seeking. Developed through modification of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS; Zuckerman, Kolin, Price & Zoob, 1964), authors of the SSSC selected items from the SSS that were re levant to children between the ages of 7 and 12 years old (Russo, Lahey, Christ & Fric k, 1991). These items were further refined (Russo, Lahey, Stokes & Christ, 1993) when th e authors added more child relevant items and deleted items that had poor internal consis tency in a child sample. Also included in this revision were a set of appropriately modified items regarding substance use and
24 sexual activity. The scale consists of 26 fo rced-choice items that form three factors: Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS), Drug and Alcohol Attitude s (DAA) and Social Disinhibition (SD). The corre cted split-half reliability estimate for the SSSC was r (828) = .85 and the coefficient alpha was .83. Demographics and Drinking Questionnaire (DDQ). This instrument was compiled for the current study and contains items from state and national youth surveys and other studies of childrens drinking. Items include: demographics, such as age, gender and ethnicity; alcohol use and age of ons et; future intentions to drink; perceived peer and parental norms of pre-adolescent alcohol use; participants evaluations of drinking by individuals of different ages (e.g., adults, peers, family); and questions regarding sources of social infl uence in the participants life. Transformation of Non-Normally Distributed Variables When examining the variables of intere st, it was noted that several were nonnormally distributed, including two subscales of the SSSC, th e number of piles produced in both card sorting tasks developed for this study and all measures of social understanding of alcohol and alcohol use. All of these variable s were transformed by taking the logarithm [log( t +1)], square root [( t +1) ] or inverse [1/(t +1)] of the variable. These transformations served to improve the skewness and kurtosis for the majority of these variables. The original descriptive statistics, as well as the results of these transformations can be found in Appendix K. Those that were not approaching a normal distribution were examined using non-parametric statistical procedures, such as chisquare analyses.
25 Procedure Students were given written information and informed consent forms to bring home for their parents to si gn. Students whose parents completed the consent forms were tested individually. At the beginning of the session, the administrator explained the informed consent to the participant, as well as a brief outline of what the study entailed. Then the administrator began the assessment battery in the following order: Slossons Oral Reading Test (SORT); Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT); DelisKaplan Executive Functioning System Sor ting Task (DKEFS-Sorting); Free Associates (FA); Alcohol Expectancy Card Sorting Task (CST-Alc); Animal Card Sorting Task (CST-An); Memory Model-Based Expectan cy Questionnaire (MMBEQ); Sensation Seeking Scale for Children (SSSC); and th e Demographics and Drinking Questionnaire (DDQ). The total assessment time took an average of 80 minutes (Range: 35-150 minutes). After the measures were comple ted, each participant was thanked for their participation and compensated for their time with a small toy.
26 Results Overview Results of the analyses performed were reported in four major sections examining each area explored in the current study. Th ese areas include: (1) alcohol expectancies and (2) cognitive, (3) personality and (4) soci al influences. For each of these sections, changes across age and grade were examined first, and then their relationship to alcohol expectancies was explored. For sensation se eking, these analyses were divided by gender due to significant differences between males a nd females. Additionally, actual and future predicted drinking was examined to explore the relationships between drinking and each of the areas of interest within the current sample. Because of the cross-sectional nature of this study, none of these associations can be considered causal but instead are helpful in understanding the relationships between these constructs. Alcohol Expectancies Alcohol expectancies were hypothesized to have a substantial influence on individual decisions to drink al cohol, and likely to play an im portant role in the onset of drinking and problematic undera ge drinking. Previous lite rature had indicated that significant changes in these cognitions regarding alcohol were occurring in middle childhood, and specifically that children have more expectations about alcohol and that the emphasis shifts from more negative and sedating expectancies to more positive and arousing expectancies.
27 Mean differences in expect ancies by age and grade. To further explore these findings in the literature re garding changes in alcohol e xpectancies across age groups, differences in the mean total number of items endorsed on the MMBEQ in each grade/age group were examined (see Table 1). When participants responded to this survey they utilized a Likert scale and rated the frequency of that expectancy as either never, sometimes, usually or alway s, however for the purposes of this study items on this survey were coded as either e ndorsed (1) or not endorse d (0). To convert the responses never was coded as not endorse d and all others were coded as endorsed. The total score for each subscal e indicates the number of alcohol expectancies endorsed on that scale rather than the extent to which they were endorsed in a Likert scale format and allows the data to represent differen ces in the quantity of expectancies each participant holds about alcohol. The total number of items endorsed incr eased by both age and grade, and this result was supported by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showing that more items were endorsed in higher ages and grades than were in lower ages and grades. More items were endorsed with higher grade level on the Positive-Social, Negative-Arousal and Sedated-Impaired subscales of the MMBEQ (see Figure 1) and on the Positive-Social and Negative Arousal subscales with age (s ee Figure 2). Additionally, significant differences were found in the number of fr ee associates produced by age but not by grade. These results supported the hypothesis that overall expectancies increased as a function of age and grade, and indicated that children develop a broa der understanding of both positive and negative consequences of drinking alcohol during late childhood.
28 Figure 1 Mean differences in Alcohol Expectancy endorsement by grade 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 MMBEQ: PositiveSocial MMBEQ: Negative Arousal MMBEQ: SedatedImpaired MMBEQ: Wild & Crazy Free AssociatesScore Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5
Figure 2 Mean differences in Alcohol Expectancy endorsement by age 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 MMBEQ: PositiveSocial MMBEQ: Negative Arousal MMBEQ: SedatedImpaired MMBEQ: Wild & Crazy Free AssociatesScore Age 8 Age 9 Age 10 Age 11 Table 1 One-way ANOVAs of differences in alc ohol expectancy measures by age and grade Age Grade Scale F df p F df p MMBEQ: PS 3.681 3 .013 9.884 2 .000 MMBEQ: NA 3.020 3 .030 6.617 2 .002 MMBEQ: WC 0.626 3 .599 1.654 2 .193 MMBEQ: SI 1.816 3 .144 3.028 2 .050 MMBEQ: Total 5.311 3 .001 13.413 2 .000 Free Associates 3.784 3 .011 0.252 2 .777
30 Associations between ex pectancies and age/grade. All correlati onal relationships between alcohol expectancy endorsement a nd age or grade were positive in nature, indicating that all in creased across developmental time points. As hypothesized, greater relationships existed between positive e xpectancy endorsement and age/grade as compared to negative expect ancy endorsement. This di fference was not found to be significant, however, when examined using a t-test comparing the difference of two dependent correlations from the same sa mple (t=.62, p=.54; Chen & Popovich, 2002). While this difference was not significant, this trend may serve as a partial explanation for the overall shift from more negative expectanci es to more positive expectancies that have been established in the literature. While a ll expectancies may have increased over time, the relative emphasis of expectancies sh ifted towards the positive as a result of differential rate of acquisition of positive over negative cognitions related to alcohol. Table 2 Zero-order correlations between alcohol expectancy endorsement and grade/age Grade Age FA: # of Free Associates .04 .11 MMBEQ: Positive Social .25** .18** MMBEQ: Negative Arousal .20** .16** MMBEQ: Sedated/Impaired .13* .06 MMBEQ: Wild & Crazy .08 .03 Note. p < .05; ** p < .01 Item-by-item exploration of expectancies. A more detailed examination of alcohol expectancies was conducted by determining which specific items were differentially endorsed across age and grade (see Tables 3 and 4) and which of these differences were significant using item-by-item ch i-square analyses. In general, out of 41
31 total items, at least 50% of participants in 3 rd grade endorsed 31 items, compared to 34 items endorsed by 50% of 4 th graders and 39 items endorsed by 50% of 5 th graders. Specifically, several positive expectancy word s such as friendly, fun and happy increased from less than half of the 3 rd grade participants to more than half of 5 th graders. Although there were negative and sedating words that increased in endorsement as well, these positive items were more likely to be highly endorsed in all age or grade groups. For example, although cocky and mean increased si gnificantly with age and grade, even in 3 rd grade over 70% of participants endorsed these items. The 4 items that were the least likely to be endorsed within the overall sample were positive expectan cies: smart, pretty, friendly and nice; and among these four, th ree showed significant increases in endorsement by age and grade. Table 3 Chi-Square Item-by-item analyses by age Word 8 9 10 11 Chi-Square df p Cocky 85.3% 87.6% 95.6% 100.0% 10.469 3 .014 Content 50.0% 69.0% 63.0% 75.0% 8.947 3 .030 Friendly 30.9% 32.0% 43.3% 52.5% 7.624 3 .054 Fun 39.7% 55.7% 56.7% 70.0% 10.084 3 .018 Happy 39.7% 50.5% 60.0% 70.0% 11.456 3 .010 Mad 73.5% 86.6% 82.2% 92.5% 7.828 3 .050 Mean 73.5% 89.7% 88.9% 92.5% 11.979 3 .007 Pretty 17.6% 41.2% 43.3% 47.5% 15.055 3 .002 Relaxed 35.3% 46.4% 55.6% 57.5% 8.000 3 .046 Sad 44.1% 60.8% 70.0% 75.0% 14.544 3 .002 Slow 77.9% 92.8% 92.2% 90.0% 10.739 3 .013
32 Table 4 Chi-Square Item-by-item analyses by grade Word 3 rd 4 th 5 th Chi-Square df p Carefree 72.3% 81.0% 89.5% 8.532 2 .014 Cocky 85.1% 91.4% 96.5% 7.108 2 .029 Forgetful 76.6% 82.9% 95.4% 12.468 2 .002 Friendly 25.5% 36.2% 50.0% 11.586 2 .002 Fun 42.6% 53.3% 66.3% 10.176 2 .003 Happy 38.3% 55.2% 64.0% 12.432 2 .002 Pretty 20.2% 41.9% 46.5% 15.852 2 .001 Relaxed 41.5% 43.8% 60.5% 7.687 2 .021 Sad 43.6% 69.5% 69.8% 17.933 2 .001 Slow 81.9% 92.4% 93.0% 7.537 2 .023 Smart 17.0% 20.0% 39.5% 14.314 2 .001 Alcohol expectancy complexity. In addition to understa nding differences in subscales of alcohol expectan cies and changes in endorseme nt of individual items, a measure was developed for this study to exam ine changes in the complexity of childrens organization of alcohol expectancies. Utili zing a card sorting format, it was hypothesized that level of complexity would be represente d by the number of piles produced and that this number would increase with age and grad e. Contrary to this hypothesis, the number of piles produced decreased significantly with age and grade (see Table 5), indicating that (a) increased number of piles is not a good indicator of complexi ty within this task or (b) alcohol expectancy complexity did not increase with age and grade. It is possible that consolidation of items into fewer piles is another, unanticipated way to demonstrate complexity of thought about alcohol expectancies, although further examination is necessary to clarify if a nd how complexity may be expressed using this task. To further explore differences in sorti ng by age and grade, independent raters examined the quality of the sorts and rated how well the piles produced met the rules that
33 the child developed for their card sorting strategy. Raters al so examined the frequency in which children overtly used alcohol concep ts during the task (mentioned an alcoholrelated term in the pile names). Inter-rater reliability was adequate, =.72. Scores between the two raters were av eraged, producing an overall scal e of sort quality for this task. While there was no significant differen ce in the sort quality by age or grade, chi square analyses indicated that the percentage of individuals that inco rporated alcohol as a concept increased by age (8 years old= 24.6%, 9 years old=31.7%, 10 years old=41.6%, 11 years old= 50.0%; Chi-square=7.8 73, df=3, p=.049) and by grade (3 rd grade=23.6%, 4 th grade=38.2%, 5 th grade=43.5%; Chi-square=8.257, df=2, p=.016). Figure 3 Mean differences in the Alcohol Expectancy card sorting task 8 9 10 11Age 0 2 4 6 8A l c o h o l E x p e c t a n c i e s T o t a l # o f P i l e s 6765 7891 01 1Age 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00C S T A l c o h o l : U s e o f a l c o h o l 0.250.320.420.50
34 Table 5 One-way ANOVAs of differences in alc ohol card sorting task by age and grade Age Grade Scale F df p F df p CST-Alcohol: # of Piles 9.482 3 .000 18.256 2 .000 CST-Alcohol: Sort Quality 1.496 3 .216 2.705 2 .069 Summary of alcohol expectancy findings. This examination revealed that as hypothesized, alcohol expectanci es increased differentially across age and grade based on the type of expectancy endorsed. Positive al cohol expectancies demonstrated the largest increase across development, followed by ne gative and then sedating expectancies for alcohol. Because these changes occurred in a sample that largely did not endorse actual drinking, these findings provide d evidence that these change s occur prior to drinking experience. Although organization of alcohol expectan cies was hypothesized to increase in complexity with age and grade, the sorting method used to assess complexity did not reflect the construct as expected (i.e. increase in number of piles produced). Even when other methods were used to approximate th is concept (i.e. how well the piles met the childs reported sorting strate gy), significant differences were not found between groups. Interestingly, the number of children who over tly used the concept of alcohol in their sorting task did increase with age and grade, indicating that younger children may have been less likely to hold to th e relationship between expectancy words and alcohol while completing the task, or they were less comf ortable describing their sorts in that way despite being instructed and a llowed to do so. This finding may be an overall indication
35 of a weaker relationship betw een the expectancy words and the concept of alcohol among younger children when compared to older children. Cognitive Influences Although changes in alcohol expectanci es in late childhood have been well documented, as well as supported by the curren t findings, it has been unclear why and how these changes occur. It was hypothesized that one key factor in the differences in alcohol expectancies by age and grade ma y be changes in cognitive development occurring within this age range. Followi ng replication of in creases in alcohol expectancies with age and grade, cognitive developmental tasks occurring in this age range were explored to determine whether th ey may play a role in these changes in alcohol expectancies. Mean differences in cognitive abilities by age and grade. To establish the baseline phenomenon of improvement in c ognitive skills, significant increases in cognitive ability with age a nd grade were demonstrated with increased raw scores on several measures; including the Slosson s Oral Reading Test, COWAT letter and category subscales, and DKEFS Sorting Task subscales (see Figures 4 & 5) and supported using one-way ANOVAs (see Table 6). Unfortunate ly, similarly to the CSTAlcohol, the number of piles and sort qual ity for the CST-Animal, which was developed to mirror other measures of cognitive development, did not differentiate participants by age or grade. These results demonstrate that children improved in reading level, verbal fluency, concept formation and articulation, and categorization development across age and grade.
36 Figure 4 Mean differences in cognitive measures by age 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 COWAT: Letter Fluency COWAT: Category Fluency DKEFS: Confirmed Correct Sorts DKEFS: Free Sorting Description DKEFS: Sort Recognition Description CST Animal: # of Piles CST Animal: Sort QualityScore Age 8 Age 9 Age 10 Age 11
Figure 5 Mean differences in cognitive measures by grade 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 COWAT: Letter Fluency COWAT: Category Fluency DKEFS: Confirmed Correct Sorts DKEFS: Free Sorting Description DKEFS: Sort Recognition Description CST Animal: # of Piles CST Animal: Sort QualityScore Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Table 6 One-way ANOVAs of differences in cognitive measures by age and grade Age Grade Scale F df p F df p Slossons Oral Reading 10.61 3 .000 33.52 2 .000 COWAT: Letter 8.75 3 .000 12.39 2 .000 COWAT: Category 4.39 3 .005 8.06 2 .000 DKEFS: Correct Sort 3.37 3 .019 6.97 2 .001 DKEFS: Free Description 3.05 3 .029 8.00 2 .000 DKEFS: Recognition Des. 0.50 3 .679 2.40 2 .092 CST-Animal: # Piles 1.36 3 .254 0.32 2 .724 CST-Animal: Sort Quality 0.43 3 .729 0.17 2 .847
38 Associations between cognitive ability and alcohol expectancies. Correlational analyses were performed to examine the relationships between these changes in cognitive ability and alcohol expectancy endorsement (s ee Table 7). Scaled scores were used for all cognitive measures to remove variance accounted for by age because of increases in both cognitive scales and alcohol expectancy scales with age and grade. These analyses demonstrated that cognitive abilities, pa rticularly regarding concept formation and articulation and categorization development, were correlated with positive alcohol expectancies while controlling for age, indicating that children with more mature conceptual skills were more likely to e ndorse positive beliefs about alcohol. As predicted, cognitive maturity or flexibility was associated with an increase in positive alcohol expectancies, which ar guably represent th e most difficult alcohol expectancies for a child to incorporate given that most of the information given to children about alcohol is typically negative. In addition, expected positive relationsh ips were found between verbal fluency and the ability to produce more free associ ates indicating that improved ability to verbalize a concept was presen t in an alcohol context as well as among more general concepts. Interestingly, in creased category-based verbal fluency was found to be associated with heightened endorsement of negative, sedating and ar ousing expectancies. Finally, individuals who were ab le to describe card sorts done by the task administrator provided fewer free associates. These findings were unexpected and proved difficult to interpret. Further research is necessary to establish the reliability of these relationships in other samples, as well as their potential meaning.
39 Table 7 Zero-order correlations between cognitive variable s and alcohol expectancies MMBEQ Positive MMBEQ Negative MMBEQ Sedation MMBEQ Arousal Free Associates COWAT: Letter -0.03 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.19** COWAT: Category 0.01 0.13* 0.21** 0.12* 0.22** DKEFS: Correct Sort 0.13* -0.09 0.03 -0.04 -0.06 DKEFS: Free Description 0.16** -0.03 0.08 0.00 -0.03 DKEFS: Recognition 0.18** 0.05 0.10 0.03 -0.19** Note. p < .05; ** p < .01 To control for the potential effect of verbal fluency on the relationship between cognitive complexity and alc ohol expectancies, partial co rrelations were conducted (see Table 8). In these analyses positive correlations were st ill found between DKEFS scores and positive alcohol expectancies, and these correlations were not affected by controlling for verbal fluency. Negative relationships became significant, however, between DKEFS scores and free associates. This relationship between DKEFS scores and free associates is unexpected, and is distinct from the child s verbal fluency ability because verbal fluency scores were positively correlated to DKEFS scores (rs=.13-.23). While the reliability of this finding should be tested in future research, it i ndicates that potentially children who can more effectively form and articulate concepts, are less able to find words to describe the effects of alcohol, desp ite their ability to find words that describe other concepts. It is unclear from the present study why that would be true.
40 Table 8 Partial correlations between cognitive variab les and alcohol expectanci es controlling for verbal fluency MMBEQ Positive MMBEQ Negative MMBEQ Sedation MMBEQ Arousal Free Associates DKEFS: Correct Sort 0.13* -0.11 0.01 -0.05 -0.12* DKEFS: Free Description 0.16** -0.05 0.05 -0.01 -0.10 DKEFS: Recognition 0.18** 0.03 0.06 0.01 -0.26** Note. p < .05; ** p < .01 Summary of cognitive influences on alcohol expectancies. As expected, positive relationships were found between various indi ces of cognitive abiliti es and both age and grade. Additionally, hypothe sized relationships were f ound between cognitive abilities and alcohol expectancies, while controlling for changes associ ated with age, indicating that these changes in cognitive processes may contribute to the development of alcohol expectancies. Specifically, concept formation and articulation, and categorization development were correlated with positive alcohol expectancies, and this finding was robust when controlling for verbal fluency. Th is association is valuable to understanding how developing cognitive abilities may assi st the incorporation of new ideas about alcohol, among other concepts. The ability to recognize and assimilate information to broaden conceptual understanding of a topi c, such as alcohol, and categorize the information gathered, may play a role in the development of alcohol expectancies. Additionally, verbal fluency was associated with the number of free associates produced; indicating that improved ability to verbalize a concept is present in an alcohol context as well as among more general concepts.
41 Personality Influences In addition to cognitive changes across developmental time periods, personality differences in sensation seeking were also examined because individuals high in thrill seeking and social disinhibition have been shown to be at hi gher risk for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Additionally, resear ch has shown that sensation seeking may increase as children approach adolescence. Due to significant differences in mean sensation seeking by gender, data was examined separately for male and female participants. Mean differences in sensation seeking by age and grade. Among male participants, significant increas es were found in sensation seeking scores across ages [F (3,176)=.759, p=.05] (see Figure 6). No di fferences were found by grade or among female participants by either age or grade. This difference indicates that increases in sensation seeking occurred earlie r in males than in females, which may be related to a consistent finding that males show higher rates of sensation seeking overall. Association between sensation seeking and alcohol expectancies. Contrary to previous literature, however sensation seeking was not correlated with the MMBEQ subscales or free associates produced in the overall sample. When this was examined separately by gender, other measures that reflect childrens positive expectancies of alcohol were included, such as the drug and alcohol attitudes subscale of the SSSC and childrens expectations of the frequency and qua ntity of alcohol they will drink once they become adults. Both of these measures relate to how positively children feel towards
42 drinking or using substances and are correlated with positive alcohol expectancy endorsement on the MMBEQ (r = .17, .22 and .20 respectively, p<.01). Figure 6 Mean differences in Sensation Seeking by age for male and female participants 8 9 10 11Female Age 0 5 10 15S S S C T o t a l ( w i t h o u t D A A ) 8778 8 9 10 11Male Age 0 5 10 15S S S C T o t a l ( w i t h o u t D A A ) 9101112 Table 9 clarifies how relationships betw een alcohol expectancies and sensation seeking differed between male and female participants. Within both groups, drug and alcohol attitudes were correlated positivel y with social disinhibition, and future expectations of drinking were correlated with both thrill a nd adventure seeking and social disinhibition, as predicted. This finding i ndicates that children who scored higher in sensation seeking were more likely to show interest in experimenting with drugs or alcohol or drinking more once they reach adulthood. Among male participants, no subscales on the MMBEQ were found to be related to sensation seeking, although the
43 correlation between thrill and adventure seeking and positive alcohol expectancies approached significance in the hypothesized di rection. This finding is contrary to the literature, which has shown that positive exp ectancies are strongly related to sensation seeking, both in children (Anderson et.al. 2005; Bekman, 2005) and adults (Zuckerman, 1979). Negative and sedating alcohol expectanci es were positively associated with social disinhibition in female participants, whic h was unexpected. Although it is unclear why this gender difference was present, there was some evidence that female participants endorsed negative and sedating expe ctancies at a slightly (non -significantly) higher rate than male participants. It is possible that female children who were at higher risk for alcohol-related problems also had higher leve ls of social disinhibition and greater exposure to consequences of alcohol use thr ough their family environment, increasing the likelihood of endorsing more alcohol expectanci es. It may be true that because these children were female, they were more likely to endorse negative and sedating expectancies because those are more salient to females in this age range. Data in this sample that help support this theory indicat ed that in female participants, social disinhibition was significantly associated with family al cohol use (r=.17, p=.046). It may be important to explore these relationships further in future studies with larger sample sizes to determine if this finding is stable across samples and what additional factors may be related. Summary of personality influence s on alcohol expectancies. In summary, among male participants sensation seeking did incr ease significantly with age, and in general sensation seeking demonstrated expected correlations with positive attitudes towards
44 drugs and alcohol, as well as to the quanti ty and frequency with which participants predicted they would drink as adults. Se nsation seeking subscales, however, showed insignificant or unexpected relationships with MMBEQ subscales, although the relationship between male thrill and adventure seeking and positive alcohol expectancies approached significance. The differences betw een these results and previous studies may in part be due to measurement differences, as other studies utilized expectancy measures based on the Alcohol Expectancy Ques tionnaire-Adolescent Version (AEQ-A). Table 9 Zero-order correlations between alcohol expectancy measur es and sensation seeking subscales for male and female participants Male Female SSSC TAS SSSC SD SSSC Total SSSC TAS SSSC SD SSSC Total MMBEQ Positive .14 .02 .11 .08 .11 .09 MMBEQ Negative .03 -.16 -.05 .10 .16* .14 MMBEQ Sedation .01 -.04 -.04 .11 .17* .16* MMBEQ Arousal .04 -.16 -.09 -.02 .04 .01 MMBEQ Total .10 -.08 .04 .11 .18** .16* Free Associates .01 -.05 -.02 .04 .12 .08 SSSC DAA .15 .34** .24** .11 .34** .22** Future Frequency .34** .26** .34** .30** .35** .37** Future Quantity .37** .30** .38** .30** .35** .38** Note. p < .05; ** p < .01 Social Influences Finally, a third area of development hypothe sized to contribute significantly to the development of alcohol expectancies is soci al development. Items from the DDQ were examined to determine if there was an increase in social influences regarding alcohol and a shift in the source of social influence, fr om parents to peers, as children approach
45 adolescence. To examine cha nges in participants social understanding of alcohol use, several variables were computed using these items, including: perceived social norms for alcohol (amount participant be lieves other childre n their age are drinking), perceived beliefs about alcohol use (participants impr essions about how others would feel if the participant drank alcohol), peer drinking, pare ntal drinking, and overa ll social awareness of alcohol (combined score of all questions regarding social unders tanding of alcohol). Social influences in the current sample. In general, these scales revealed relatively low levels of expos ure to and awareness of alc ohol use in their environment among participants in the sample. Out of the total sample, 90% reported that their friends had not had a drink of alcohol in the past year, over 95% fe lt that only a few students in their grade had ever tasted alcohol or been drunk, and over 90% said that their friends would be unhappy if the participant drank al cohol, and that they would feel unhappy if their friends drank alcohol. Mean differences in social influences by age and grade. When these variables were examined across grade and age, no signi ficant differences were found, either using one-way ANOVAs or chi-square an alyses. It is likely that th is lack of differences was due to low levels of drinking exposure and discussion about alcohol among participants and their peers at this age range since they were relatively yo ung. It is also possible that the measure used was unable to accurately dete ct smaller levels of variation of these social constructs in this sample. In addition to social information about al cohol, three sources of social influence (and potentially this informati on about alcohol) were examined using the last 5 questions
46 of the DDQ (e.g. who understands you bette r than anyone else). Based on the participants responses, scores demonstrated the extent to which participants were influenced by (a) peers, (b) adults and (c) media. The amount that participants were influenced by each of these social groups was examined using chi-square analyses; however no significant relationshi ps were found relative to ag e or grade, even though it was expected that social influence by peer s would increase across this time period and parental influence would decrease. Associations between social in fluences and alcohol expectancies. Despite the lack of predicted changes in social influen ces with age and grade, when relationships between social understanding of alcohol and alcohol expectancies were examined, several relationships became apparent. Correlations were found between the number of items endorsed on the Positive-Social scale of the MMBEQ and social norms regarding alcohol, beliefs about whether others would approve of the participant drinking alcohol and overall social awareness of alcohol (s ee Table 12). This finding indicated that children with a heightened awareness and understanding of alcohol, as well as more lenient norms about whether their peers are dr inking alcohol, were more likely to endorse positive alcohol expectancies. In addition, e xposure to parental drinking was correlated with endorsement of alcohol expectancies on three of the four subscales, including Positive-Social, Negative-Arousal and Sedated -Impaired while exposure to peer drinking was primarily correlated to Positive-Social alcohol expectancies (see Table 12). This relationship indicated that children whose parents drink had more knowledge of multiple effects of alcohol, both positive and negativ e, than children whose parents do not.
47 Alternatively, children whose peers drank demonstrated increased knowledge of only the positive effects of alcohol, probably because their friends were less likely to have experienced or talked about the negative effects of al cohol at such a young age. Table 10 Zero-order correlations between social va riables, alcohol expect ancy endorsement and sensation seeking subscales MMBEQ Positive MMBEQ Negative MMBEQ Sedation MMBEQ Arousal Social Norms .18** .03 -.02 .10 Alcohol Beliefs .14* .02 .04 .04 Peer Drinking .12* -.01 -.10 .01 Parent Drinking .21** .13* .13* .09 Overall Awareness .23** .08 .03 .05 Social Influence: Adult .04 -.04 .02 -.02 Social Influence: Peer -.03 .04 -.04 .01 Social Influence: Me dia -.03 -.03 .07 .02 Note. p < .05; ** p < .01 In addition to social experience of alcohol the investigator wa s interested in how different sources of social influence, such as peers, adults or media, would affect childrens understandin g of alcohol. Although no signifi cant differences were found in the amount in which these influences were present in each age or grade group, differences were found in the rate at whic h alcohol expectancies were acquired by age and grade based on who the children were infl uenced by (see Table 11). As predicted, among children most influenced by peers, there were significant increases in positive and arousing alcohol expectancies by grade, and positive expectancies by age. Among children most influenced by adults, negative and sedating experiences increased by grade, but not by age. So although in both groups, al cohol expectancies in creased overall with
48 age/grade, different expectancies were le arned within different groups of children. Unfortunately, because this data was cross-sect ional in nature we cannot insure that this pattern would hold true if it was the same children followed over time, but this data lends support to the idea that whethe r children are more influenced by peers or adults may serve as a risk or protective factor while developing a greater understanding of alcohol. Table 11 One-way ANOVAs of differences in alc ohol expectancy measures by age and grade for children more influenced by either adults or peers Age Grade Scale F df p F df p Participants more influenced by peers (N=100; N=105) MMBEQ: PS 7.358 3 .000 15.056 2 .000 MMBEQ: NA .503 3 .681 1.589 2 .209 MMBEQ: SI 1.968 3 .124 0.767 2 .467 MMBEQ: WC .244 3 .865 3.650 2 .030 Participants more influenced by adults (N=171; N=176) MMBEQ: PS .165 3 .920 1.581 2 .209 MMBEQ: NA 2.224 3 .087 3.891 2 .022 MMBEQ: SI 1.058 3 .369 3.193 2 .044 MMBEQ: WC .279 3 .841 0.377 2 .686 Associations between social influences and sensation seeking. Also important to note is that all measures of social awarene ss of alcohol, including both peer and parent measures, were correlated with sensation seeking subscales (see Table 12). Of interest, thrill and adventure s eeking had the strongest relationshi p with frequency of parental drinking, and social di sinhibition was most strongly relate d to higher rates of drinking among their peers. This association ma y indicate a biological predisposition for
49 sensation seeking for children whose parents are heavier drinkers, and distorted social norms of alcohol use in individuals with higher social disinhibition. In addition to relationships to alcohol exp ectancies, further anal yses revealed that the source of social influence for participants was also differentially related to sensation seeking. Specifically, children who were more socially influenced by adults endorsed less social disinhibition and lower drug and alcohol attitudes. On the other hand, children who were more socially influenced by medi a endorsed higher social disinhibition and children more socially influenced by peer s endorsed higher drug and alcohol attitudes. Table 12 Zero-order correlations between social influence and sensation seeking subscales SSSC: TAS SSSC: DAA SSS: SD Social Norms .13* .23* .12* Alcohol Beliefs .19** .27** .22** Peer Drinking .21** .25** .21** Parent Drinking .23** .02 .16* Overall Awareness .29** .19** .19** Social Influence: Adult -.07 -.18** -.13* Social Influence: Peer .05 .16** .08 Social Influence: Media .02 .08 .15** Note. p < .05; ** p < .01 Summary of social influen ces on alcohol expectancies. In summary, although hypothesized changes were not found across age and grade for social awareness of alcohol and differences in the primary source of social influence, social awareness was correlated with positive alcohol expectancies as well as sens ation seeking, indicating that these three indices of risk were strongly in terrelated in this sample and influenced childrens ideas about alcohol Specifically, parental drinking was most robustly associated with positive alcohol expectancies, and also served as the only social variable
50 to be associated with higher rates of three out of four types of alc ohol expectancies. This relationship indicated the stre ngth of influence that pare ntal drinking has on childrens understanding of alcohol. Finally, who children were most likely to be influenced by significantly affected the types of ideas they held about alcohol. Children influenced by adults were more likely to develop negative and sedating alcohol expectancies across age or grade, have lower rates of positive drug and alcohol attitudes and less social disinhibition. Children more influenced by peers were more likel y to develop positive and arousing alcohol expectancies with age and grade, and had higher levels of positive drug and alcohol attitudes. In combination with the relationships between soci al and personality variables, these results indicate that while these ch ildren may be too young to be demonstrating significant changes in these as pects of development, these influences are still closely related to the ideas that child ren have about alcohol and ar e strong indicators of risk. Current and Future Drinking In addition to exploring the relationships between influential variables on alcohol expectancy development, it is helpful to note how the phenomenon of early-onset drinking presented in this sample. To assess current drinking, ch ildren were asked the frequency and quantity with which they have drank alcohol, how old they were the first time they drank alcohol, whether they had their parents permi ssion to drink alcohol when they did, and in what setting they have had a drink of alcohol. Out of a sample of 300 participants, 30 participants indicated that they had at le ast a few sips of a drink of alcohol in their lifetime. Of these children, only 5 indicate d that they had more than a
51 few sips of a drink, and only 7 indicated that they have had a drink of alcohol one time a year or more. Within this sample, three chil dren indicated that they have a drink with alcohol at least 1-4 times per week. Of those children who have had a drink of alcohol, 11 children said their first drink was at age 7 or 8, and only 5 participants said that they did not have their parents permission to dr ink. Five of these ch ildren reported drinking at a religious event, 6 reported drinking duri ng a holiday or special occasion, 12 reported drinking at home and 3 at a restaurant. Although over 60% of the total sample beli eved that they would not drink alcohol in their future, the amount that participants believed they would drink alcohol increased across both age and grade, and also differe d significantly by gender (see Table 13). Male participants planned to drink more often and larger amounts as adults than female participants, but female participants showed no significant increase in future drinking expectancies either by age or grade. Similar to findings in regards to sensation seeking, it is likely that risk for drinki ng onset begins at younger ages for males than for females. Table 13 One-way ANOVAs of differences in expected future drinking by age and grade for male and female participants Age Grade Scale F df p F df p Males Future Drinking Frequency 1.979 3 .121 4.837 2 .010 Future Drinking Quantity 3.358 3 .021 7.202 2 .001 Females Future Drinking Frequency 1.413 3 .241 1.703 2 .185 Future Drinking Quantity 0.844 3 .471 1.035 2 .358
52 Interplay Between Risk and Protective Factors and Current Drinking. To illustrate the relationships found between constr ucts measured within this study, and their risk and protective roles in late childhood al cohol use, 10 children were selected as drinkers and their assessment results were examined in a more qualitative manner. These children were selected e ither because they had more than a few sips of an alcoholic drink or they drink alcohol at least one time per year. Due to the low base rate of drinking in this age range, it was significant to explore how these children compared to other children their age, although given the small nu mber of children, it was also important to take into account reporting errors or exaggerations that may have explained some of their data. These 10 children were on average sligh tly older and more advanced in school than the general sample. Six of these children were female and seven were white or Hispanic. Eight of these children expected that they will drink alcohol at least once a year or more as adults, and six of them expect ed that they will drink at least two or more drinks per occasion. This percentage was significantly more than the general sample, of which only 28% believed they would drink at least once a year, and only 11% believed they would drink at least two or more drinks per occasion. Five of these children indicat ed that one of their pare nts drank at least once a month, in contrast to 30 percen t of the general sample. Th ey also endorsed much higher perceptions of drinking among th eir peers, particularly amon g their close friends. These children reported that they tr usted and turned to their frie nds for support, and were less likely to turn to adults in th eir life. Although they did not differ in the amount of alcohol
53 expectancies endorsed on any of the MMBEQ subscales, they scored higher on all sensation seeking subscales. Cognitively, th ese children appeared to perform equally to the overall sample on verbal fluency tasks and slightly worse than the overall sample on the DKEFS card sorting task subscales, indi cating that they may lack some cognitive maturity and flexibility that other children their age may have.
54 Discussion The purpose of the current investigation wa s to explore the relationships existing between cognitive, social and personality development and changes in alcohol expectancies as children appr oach adolescence. Differences were found between types of alcohol expectancies acquired, a nd their relationships to shifts occurring in each area of biopsychosocial development. The relationshi ps between these cons tructs proved to be complex and not always as originally predicted. Alcohol Expectancies As the primary building block for this st udy due to their role in decisions to initiate drinking or engage in problematic drinking behavior s (Christiansen et al., 1989; Smith, Goldman & Greenbaum, 1995), relative changes in alcohol expectancies were examined to demonstrate a developmental pa ttern of alcohol expectancy acquisition as individuals move through middle childhood. Three of the four alcohol expectancy subscales and the number of free associates produced showed increases across age and grade, with larger increa ses among positive expectancies and smaller increases in negative and sedating subscales. These results support findings in the l iterature that late childhood is a key developmental time point during which childrens understanding of alcohol is changing both in quant ity and relative content, not just in regards to positive vs. negative content but al so sedating alcohol expectan cies (Dunn and Goldman, 1996,
55 1998, 2000; Cameron et al., 2003; Shell et al., 20 05). Additionally, when sorting alcohol expectancy words, the number of children w ho overtly used the concept of alcohol in their sorting task also increas ed with age and grade. This finding may mean that older children are more likely to maintain a conn ection between the concept of alcohol and adjectives that can be used to described how alcohol can influence people throughout the course of the task, potentia lly indicating a stronger rela tionship between the concepts. These findings also clarify a discrepancy in the literature discussed by Cameron and colleagues (2003), by demonstrating th at throughout childhood i ndividuals hold all types of expectancies, positive, negative, arousing and sedating, but that the emphasis shifts as children age. Due to a misunde rstanding of the mul tidimensional scaling methodology, Cameron et al. (2003) had pr oposed that Dunn and Goldman (1996, 1998, 2000) were demonstrating that children have an overwhelmingly negative view of alcohol. The data from Dunn and Gold man (1996, 1998, 2000) as well as this study demonstrated that the relative changes in e xpectancies move from primarily negative to increasingly positive, but this is a result of the rate at which these expectancies are obtained rather than the absence of on e type of expectancy or another. Cognitive Influences One of the primary areas of inquiry fo r this project was to examine whether improvements in cognitive development occurring within this age range, such as abilities to solve complex cognitive tasks (Luna & Sweeny, 2004), were related to the acquisition of alcohol expectancies. In addition to improvements found in various indices of cognitive ability with age and grade, relati onships between cognitive abilities and alcohol
56 expectancies were partially supported. Sp ecifically, concept formation and articulation, and categorization development were found to be correlated w ith positive alcohol expectancies, and this finding was robust when controlling for verbal fluency. Additionally, verbal fluency was associated with the number of free associates produced; verifying that ease of verbal description of a concept increases with age or grade and this association is similarly true whethe r the topic is cl othing or alcohol. Although improvement in cognitive skills woul d not be expected to put a child at increased risk, a possible explanation would be that those children who were able to think more complexly may be able to recognize, hol d and categorize more alcohol expectancies and a broader range of types of alcohol expe ctancies than other children their age. Because most children hold negative beliefs of alcohol, it is possi ble that adding positive alcohol expectancies may be associated with cognitive maturity, as was true in this sample. This increased understanding of positive alcohol expectancies, which may be more distal information for children at this age, may be a partial explanation for an increase in overall risk for alcohol use as children approach adolescence. Personality Influences Sensation seeking was explored due to the well-documented role that high novelty seeking, reward dependence and related featur es of impulsivity, behavioral undercontrol and poor response inhibition play in relation to risk for problems with alcohol in the future (Finn, Mazas, Justus, Steinmetz, 2002; Nigg, Glass, Zucker et al., 2004; Nigg, Wong, Martel et al., 2006). Prev ious research has demonstrated an increase in sensation seeking during adolescence, and in this samp le, sensation seeking increased with age
57 among males but not among females, potenti ally indicating an earlier onset of personality-based risk for males. This fi nding is opposite to studi es examining pubertal development, which indicate that females expe rience earlier onset of puberty than males. Although sensation seeking is hypo thesized to be closely rela ted to pubertal development, this finding indicates further that this personality trait has a specifically strong and distinct influence within ma les that may overwhelm this difference in onset of pubertal development. Sensation seeking was associated with positive attitudes towards drugs and alcohol, and to participants expectations of future drinking quantity and frequency as adults, however was not correlated with MMB EQ subscales as predicted. Previous research has found a positive correlation between sensation seeking and expectancies in children as young as fifth grade (Anderson et al., 2005; Bekman, 2005) but both of these studies used items based on the AEQ-A. One potential reason for this is that the alcohol expectancy measure in this sample may refl ect the beliefs about alcohol in a different way than other measures of alcohol expectan cies have in the past specifically using vocabulary with which children were less familiar and providing minimal sentence context for the expectancy words provided. To alleviate this concern, children were given standardized definitions of any words that they did not know, but this still may have affected their responses in an unknown way. Regardless of this, strong relationships between sensation seeking and other risk factor s such as family and social influences on alcohol use indicate that even at this age, sensation seeking was associated with risk in this sample as it has been in others.
58 Social Influences Another key set of variables that may ha ve contributed to changes in alcohol expectancies were differences in the so cial environment as children approach adolescence. Although children approaching adolescence have been shown to spend more time with peers and less time with adults, predicted increases in exposure to drinking among peers, expectati ons about peer drinking, beli efs about the appropriateness of alcohol use among peers and differences in source of social in fluence across age and grade were not supported by the data from this sample. Several explanations can account for this: (1) this type of increase in social approval, awareness a nd exposure do not occur in children within this age range, (2) sma ll changes in these concepts could not be detected using the current measure (3) small effect sizes could not be found in a sample of this size. Due to the re lationships found between variable s of interest, as well as the low base rate of actual drinking in the sa mple, it was likely that the young age of the participants accounted for the lack of findi ngs in this area. This was supported by findings in the literature that peer influence actually increases in ear ly adolescence rather than late childhood, and peaks between ages 1113, just following the ages of children in this sample (Berndt, 1979; Steinberg & Silverberg, 1986). Although unrelated to age or grade, social variables were found to be associated with positive alcohol expectancies and sensation seeking, indi cating that these three areas of development are strongly re lated to one another. Speci fically, parental drinking was associated with increases in positive, negative and sedating alcohol expectancies, indicating that children w ith parents who drank had a broader understanding of the
59 perceived effects of alcohol. The relations hip existing between so cial disinhibition and increased social awareness, exposure and more lenient norms and beliefs about drinking might have been due to the fact that thes e children were less familiar with what is appropriate for children their age in social si tuations. Based on this study, the direction of this relationship is unclear, but provides interesting preliminary data as to some ways that personality risk may combine with social understanding of alcohol to promote alcohol expectancy development, even in young children before these aspects of risk are fully developed. Important to note is that it is unclear if these participants perception of how much their parents drink is an accurate reflection of thei r parents actual drinking. Miller and colleagues (1999) found that in third through sixth grade, childrens perceptions of parent drinki ng were correlated with pare nts reports of their own drinking, although there was a si gnificant portion of reliable, unshared variance as well, indicating that there was consider able error in childrens report of their parents drinking. Two important factors that may influence ch ildrens perceptions of their parents drinking habits include how open their parent s are about their drinking behavior, as well as the childs attention to the presence of al cohol in their home or other environments. Previous research (Steinberg, 2003; Bekma n, 2005) has indicated th at the attention to, and recognition of, alcohol in the environment may in itself be associated with risk for alcohol-related problems because children who are more likely to note the presence of alcohol may also be intrigued by it and have a heightened level of interest in consuming alcohol.
60 Another factor examined in this study wa s the extent to which outside influences affect childrens perceptions of alcohol. Within this sample, influence by peers, adults or the media were not directly co rrelated with age, grade or alcohol expectancies, however greater reliance on peer influence was associat ed with increases in positive and arousing alcohol expectancies across grade, and thes e participants also had higher levels of positive drug and alcohol attitudes. These result s may relate to findings in the literature indicating that adolescen ts who relate more cl osely with peers are more likely to engage in risky behavior and associate with delinquent peer groups (Fuligni, Eccles, Barber & Clements, 2001). This relationship may indicate that individuals who are more influenced by peers may be less familiar with age-appropriate behaviors in general, including drinking behavior. Greater adult influence was as sociated with increases in negative and sedating alcohol expectancies acro ss grade, as well as lower rates of positive drug and alcohol attitudes and less social disinhibition. This finding likely also relates to the benefits that have been found in supportiv e adult relationships that provide warmth, moderate discipline, and help to reduce st ress (Shedler & Block, 1990). The connection of this information regarding social influe nce and personality predisposition and further relationships to alcohol expectancy developmen t indicate a potential pathway of risk that may be explored further in future longitudinal studies. Summary Although a complex series of relationships were revealed in these results, several key findings should be highlighted: (a) Alcohol expectancies increased and broadened across middle childhood.
61 (b) Cognitive skill in concept formation and ar ticulation, and categorization increased in middle childhood and were correlated with positive alcohol expectancies. (c) Sensation seeking increased for male part icipants with age, and was associated with positive ideas about alcohol in all children, but not with MMBEQ subscales. (d) Although social awareness of alcohol did not incr ease significantly with development, exposure to alcohol and mo re permissive ideas about alcohol use were strongly associated with se nsation seeking and positive alcohol expectancies, all indicators of risk for future alcohol use. (e) Parental drinking was the most significant social predictor for all subscales of alcohol expectancies. (f) Although children did not demonstrate incr eased peer influence and decreased adult influence across devel opment, those who were influenced by peers were at higher risk for positive views of drugs and alcohol and those influenced by adults were more likely to develop negative view s of substance use and show less social disinhibition. These relations hips strengthened with age. Limitations When evaluating the current findings, some limitations of this study should be taken into account. The most important limita tion to note is the draw back of using crosssectional data to explore a developmental phenomenon, which essentially only allows for the demonstration of correlational relationships. While using the current design we were able to make inferences about how these changes occur across time, it would add a
62 tremendous value to follow children as they develop and examine these changes as they occur across individuals over time. Another drawback to this study is th at data was gathered from children approaching adolescence but who have still not undergone pubertal or environmental shifts (i.e. middle school) that may dramatical ly affect the developmental processes being examined. Although the sample was selected sp ecifically to target children prior to the onset of drinking, it is possible that these children ma y have been too young to adequately capture influences of social environment and persona lity on expectancy development. Further exploration in a middl e school population may be able to elaborate on the next stages of some of the pr ocesses that may have barely begun among participants in the sample at hand. This sample was collected in after-school programs rather than the regular school day (during formal school hours), which may a ffect how representativ e the sample is of children in this age range. It is estima ted that only 15% of grade school children are enrolled in after-school programs and these children are more likely to come from working families and families with single parents (Afterschool Alliance, 2004). Children who participate in af ter-school care may also be at lower risk for substance use, depression, poor academic performance and risky sexual behavior, potentially in part as a result of being in an after-school pr ogram (Miller, 2003). In support of the representativeness of the cu rrent sample, public schools and the YMCA are the top two providers of after-school care in the nation (Afterschool Alliance, 2004). Another factor influencing sample representativeness was the rate at which parents gave consent for
63 their children to participate using an active consent procedure. 32 percent of the children contacted returned their pare ntal permission slips and of these individuals, 75 percent agreed to participate. Dent and colleague s (1993) found that students who were assessed without receiving active consen t from parents were less likely to live with both parents and were higher in risk-taking, lower in self-e steem, and lower in as sertiveness than those whose parents had responded. In these resp ects, children in the current study may have been at lower risk for substance use problems in the futu re than children who did not participate but attended the same after-school programs. Taking all of these factors into account, these children may be at higher risk than their peers in some respects but at lower risk in others. Additionally, although this sample could be considered large in light of the depth of the assessment s performed, it is likely that it may not have been large enough to detect smaller, more subtle diffe rences between age groups or among higherrisk youth. This may be especially true for items regarding social conceptualization of alcohol, given the low base-rate of drinki ng among this sample and also among their friends or peers. Finally, measurement of the complexity of alcohol expectancies was not sufficiently captured with proposed measure and limited the authors ability to clarify the relationship between alcohol expectancy comp lexity and overall cognitive development. Contrary to hypotheses, childre n did not produce more piles in the alcohol expectancy card sorting task at higher ages or grades as an indication of incr eased complexity of thought in regards to alcohol. It is unclear if these expect ed differences were not found because (a) complexity of thought surrounding alcohol expectancies does not change
64 within this age range, (b) this task was not sensitive to those changes, or (c) number of piles produced is a poor indicator of complex ity. Although the researcher did attempt to further examine the data produced by this task by comparing ratings of the quality of the sorts, judged as how well the piles met the rule s that the child set for themselves, this data also did not demonstrate differe nces by age or grade. Given that both card sorting tasks developed specifically for this study produced identical patterns of data in terms of the number of piles produced, it is lik ely that further exploration of ways to score or interpret this data may provide additional insight into both alcohol expectancy complexity and the manner in which this type of card sort is approached by children in this age range. Conclusions and Future Directions The complex relationships between constructs and developmental processes illustrated in this study point to the importan ce of continued research in this field. Several hypothesized relationships were re vealed, including increases in alcohol expectancies across age groups, relationships between cogniti ve flexibility and alcohol expectancy development, social influences in the lives of the participants and relative increases in positive and arousing or negativ e and sedating alcohol expectancies, and a complicated series of relationships betw een early social unde rstanding of alcohol, personality predisposition, heredity, environm ental exposure and al cohol expectancies. While some of these analyses performed were able to elaborate on processes that have been well-established at this age, many othe r influences had only just begun or not yet started to play a role in the development of cognitions about alc ohol, including pubertal development and further changes in the soci al environment as children transition into
65 middle and high school. As has been shown in previous research, these processes continue through high school and young a dulthood, also interplaying with an accumulation of drinking experiences that both confirm and deny previously held beliefs. Longitudinal exploration of these interactiv e events can begin to tease apart causal relationships and better prepare resear chers to understand this phenomenon and potentially focus prevention efforts. There is a growing interest in the literature regarding the ways in which alcohol expectancies form during childhood and con tinue to develop across adolescence and adulthood. These preliminary findings specifically regardin g cognition and development indicate that this may be a time during which these views are fi rst consolidating and broadening to incorporate information in the childs environment. Ultimately, a better understanding of the development of alcohol ex pectancies in children, and how much this intake of information is affected by preexis ting internal characteristics as compared to environmental cues, may provide society wi th the tools to intervene prior to the development of problematic drinking problems that are associated with high positive alcohol expectancies later in life.
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74 Appendix A: Slossons Oral Reading Test Materials: Slosson Oral Reading Test Word Lists Record Form Instructions: I want to see how many of these words you can read. Please begin here and read each word aloud as carefully as you can. (Point to the first word on the word list card) When you come to a difficult word, do th e best you can and if you cannot read it, say pass and go on to the next word. Begin with a list two grade levels below the participants current grade. Present one list at a time to the examinee. If the participants is not able to read all of the words on their starting list, than administer the lists prior until they are able to read the entire list correctly. Keep a tally of the number of words the participant reads correctly. Discontinue testing once the participant gets 10 or more words incorr ect on one list, or once they complete the 5 th grade list. Make sure participant does not see if the answer is right or wrong. If the participant asks if his/her answer is right or wrong, give a non-definite answer, such as: You are doing very well or No one is expected to get all the words correct Score as an error any word that is misp ronounced (except intern ational or regional accents) or omitted, as well as a word that takes more then about 5 seconds to pronounce (unless the person has a speech defect). Count it as an error if the participant gives more than one pronunciation or seems uncertain about a word. Also, count it as an error if the word ending is changed, the tense of the word is changed, or part of the word is changed. Count the total number of words pronounced co rrectly on each word lis t and record this in the space marked total. In addition, sum the total for lists P-5. Any lists not administered prior to the first 20 scor e should also be counted as 20 points. List P List 1 List 2 Total: Total: Total: List 3 List 4 List 5 Total: Total: Total: Grand Total:
75 Appendix B: Controlled Oral Word Association Task Materials: Record Form Stop watch Pen or Pencil Instructions: Im going to say a letter of the alphabet. Wh en I say begin, I want you to tell me as many words as you can that begin with th at letter. You will have 60 seconds before I tell you to stop. None of the words can be names of people, or places, or numbers. For example, if I gave you the letter T, you could say take, toy, tooth, and so forth, but you should not say Tom because that is a persons name, you should not say Texas because that is the name of a pla ce, and you should not say twelve because that is a number. Also, do not give me the same word with different endings. For example, if you say take, you should not al so say takes and taking. Do you have any questions? Display the summarized in structions and say: Here is a page that will he lp you remember the rules. The first letter is F. Ready? Begin. Start timing. On the record form, write the examinees responses verbatim in the column labeled F. Record responses that the ex aminee generates during the first 15 seconds in the first box, and so forth. If the examinee fails to make a res ponse after any 15 second interval, say: Keep going. Provide this prompt only once per trial. The first time an examinee generates three consecutive words that do not start with the designated letter, say, The letter we are using now is ___. Provide this prompt only once per trial. After 60 seconds say: Stop. The next letter is A. Ready? Begin. Start timing. Record the examinees responses. After 60 seconds, say: Stop The next letter is S. Ready? Begin. Start timing. Record the examinees responses. After 60 seconds say:
76 Appendix B: (Continued) Stop. Now we are going to do something a little diff erent. This time, I want you to tell me as many items of clothing as you can. It doesnt matter what letter they start with. You will have 60 seconds before I tell you to stop. Do you have any questions? Ready? Begin. Start timing. On the record form, write the examinees responses verbatim in the column labeled clothing. At the end of 60 seconds, say: Stop Now tell me as many girls names as you can. You will have 60 seconds before I tell you to stop. Ready? Begin. Start timing. Record the examinees res ponses. At the end of 60 seconds, say: Stop. Scoring: Circle each incorrect response (Name of person, place or number, grammatical variants of an earlier respons e, wrong letter or category) Circle each repeated response and mark with an R Mark the number correct in each 15 s econd interval in the small box in the bottom, right-hand corner. Add the total number correct per letter/category Record the number incorrect due to: o Set-Loss o Repetition Contractions (e.g. arent), slang word s, swear words, and compound words are scored as correct (eg. apple, applesauce, etc.) Grammatical variants are counted as inco rrect (e.g. fast, fa ster, etc.) and are recorded as a set-loss error. Clothing: o Items typically sold in a clothi ng store or a clothing department o Jewelry items and cloth (e.g. cott on) are not scored as correct o Similar items of clothing are all counte d as correct (e.g. dre ss shirt, t-shirt, etc.) Girls Names: o All names are counted as correct, in cluding names used for both boys and girls, unusual names, variations of the same name, nicknames, and language variations (e.g. John, Juan).
77 Appendix B: (Continued) F A S First Interval 1-15 seconds Second Interval 16-30 seconds Third Interval 31-45 seconds Fourth Interval 46-60 seconds Total Correct ____ Total Correct ____ Total Correct ____ Total Set Loss Errors ____ Total Set Loss Errors ____ Total Set Loss Errors ____ Letter Total: _____ Scaled Score: _____ Total Repetition Errors ____ Total Repetition Total Repetition Errors ____ Errors ____
78 Appendix B: (Continued) Items of Clothing Girls Names First Interval 1-15 seconds Second Interval 16-30 seconds Third Interval 31-45 seconds Fourth Interval 46-60 seconds Total Correct ____ Total Correct ____ Total Set Loss Errors ____ Total Set Loss Errors ____ Category Total: _____ Scaled Score: Total Repetition Total Repetition _____ Errors ____ Errors ____
Appendix C: Delis-Kaplan Executive F unctioning System Sorting Task Materials: Record Form Practice Card Set Card Sets 1 and 2 Stopwatch Discontinue: For Condition 1: Free Sorting; discontinue admi nistration of each card set after any of the following conditions is met: a. The examinee indicates that he or she cannot identify any more sorts, even after receiving a single prompt to keep trying b. 240 seconds (4 minutes) of cumulative sort ing time have elapsed (note that the time the examinee takes to describe the sorting rules or concepts is not included in this cumulative sorting time) c. The examinee has completed 10 attempted sorts For Condition 2: Sort recognition; administer all 8 target sorts of each card set regardless of the number of times an examinee fails to describe the correct sorting rules. Discontinue administration of each sort af ter any of the following conditions is met: a. The examinee provides a correct or incorrect description b. The examinee indicates that he or sh e cannot identify the sorting rules c. 45 seconds have elapsed after the examiner made the sort and the examinee failed to provide a description response Instructions: Screening Pretest Place stimulus sheet in front of the examinee. Say: Id like you to read these words out loud and tell me if there are any words you would like me to explain. Go ahead. If the examinee reads a word incorrectly, record the word in the designated space on the record form and provide the correct pronuncia tion. After the examinee reads all of the words, say: Do you know the meaning of all of these words? If the examinee does not know the meaning of a word, read the definition provided in the following list. You may repeat these definitions if the examinee asks you to do so. In the space provided in the record form, record any word with which the examinee has difficulty understanding. Sum the number of words that the examinee read incorrectly. Also sum the number of words that the examin ee failed to understand and for which he or she required explanation. 79
Appendix C: (Continued) Airplane a vehicle that flies in the air with wings Bus a large motor vehicle th at can carry many people Car a motor vehicle moving on four wheels Coffee a hot drink often used to start the day Duck a swimming bird with a bill and webbed feet Eagle a bird of prey known for its sharp vision and flying ability Ears parts of the body used for hearing Hat something worn on the head for warmth or shade Heat Wave a period of time when it is unusually hot Iced Tea a cold drink prepared from tea leaves Milk Shake a drink usually made from milk, syrup and ice cream Mouth a part of the head used for eating and speaking Rice a white or brown grain that is ofte n eaten with vegetables or sauces River a large stream of flowing water Rocks hard pieces of mineral or stone Sandwich two slices of bread containing food such as meat and cheese Sea a large body of salt water Shoe something worn on the foot for warmth and protection Snow water that freezes into soft, white flakes and falls from the sky Soup a liquid food usually with meat, fi sh or vegetable flavor and is usually served hot Sunshine light or rays from the sun Tiger a large, meat eating animal that belongs to the cat family Toes the 5 front parts of a foot Condition 1: Free Sorting Practice Set Use the following prompts as indicated: If 30 seconds elapse with no sorting response, say, Try to sort them into two groups. Provide this prompt only once for each card set. If a description response is not given after a sort, say, How did you make the two groups? Explain only once each new rule violat ion made during the entire sorting test (including Condition 2) For only the first overly abst ract description, say, Good, but how did you specifically sort each group? Provide this prompt only once for the entire sorting test (including Condition 2) The examinee may be reminded of prev ious description responses for a card but only if he or she explicitly requests that information. If the examinee indicates that he or she cannot identify any more sorts, give the prompt to keep trying only one time each. Say: 80
Appendix C: (Continued) Im going to show you six cards that can be sorted in different w ays. I want you to see how many different ways you can sort th e cards. Let me show you what I mean with these cards. Place the six cards of the practice set in a random, oval arrangement on the table in front of the examinee. Position the cards about one inch apart from one another. Make sure the words on the card are facing the examinee. Say: Look at these cards. Watch how I sort them into two groups, with three cards in each group. Sort the cards into groups of circles and s quares. Align the two groups of three cards each in two vertical columns. Poin t to the appropriate groups and say: Next Ill explain how I sorted them by s aying this group has circles and this group has squares. Notice how I explained both groups and not just one of them. Mix up the six cards again and say: Now watch while I sort them another way, again with two groups and three cards in each group. Sort the cards into male and female names and say: I will explain how I sorted them by saying, this group has boys names and this group has girls names. Do you have any questions about how I did this? Condition 1: Free Sorting Card Set 1 Say: Im going to show you six new cards that ca n be sorted in many different ways. Id like to see how many different ways you can sort these cards. Each time, make only two groups with three cards in each group. The three cards in each group should be the same in some way. After you sort the cards into two groups, tell me how you did it. Be sure to tell me how you sorted bo th groups, not just one of them. Once you sort the cards one way, do not sort them that way again. Work as quickly as you can. Here is a page that will help you remember these rules. Place the six cards from Card Set 1 in a random, oval arrangement in front of the examinee. Make sure the words on the cards are facing the examinee. Say: Now try sorting these cards in as many diff erent ways as you can. Ready? Begin. Start timing. Allow the examin ee to sort the cards into two groups. The examinee is not required to arrange the card groups into vertic al columns, but simply to cluster them 81
Appendix C: (Continued) together in some way. Stop the stopwatch when the examinee has completed his or her sort and begins to describe his or her fi rst sorting strategy. Record verbatim the examinees description, the sorting response ma de and the elapsed sorting time. Do not reset the stopwatch to zero. The previous so rting time is added to all subsequent sorting times within each card set. Then mix up the cards and place them in a random, oval arrangement in front of the examinee, with the words on the cards facing the examinee. Say: Now try to sort them in a different way Start timing. Repeat these procedures fo r each sort produced by the examinee until a discontinue criterion is met. After recording the total cumulative sorting time for the first card set administered, rese t the stopwatch to zero. Condition 1: Free Sorting Card Set 2 Say: Im going to show you six new cards that can be sorted in many different ways. Like before, Id like to see how many diff erent ways you can sort these cards. Each time, make only two groups wi th three cards in each group. The three cards in each group should be the same in some way. After you sort the cards into two groups, tell me how you did it. Be sure to tell me how your sorted both groups, not just one of them. Once your sort the cards one way, do not sort them that way again. Work as quickly as you can. Again, here is the page that will help you remember these rules. Place the six cards from Card Set 2 in a random, oval arrangement in front of the examinee. Make sure the words on the cards are facing the examinee. Say: Now try sorting these cards in as many di fferent ways as you can. Ready? Begin. Start timing. Allow the examin ee to sort the cards into two groups. The examinee is not required to arrange the card groups into ver tical columns, but simply to cluster them together in some way. Stop the stopwatch when the examinee has completed his or her sort and begins to describe his or her fi rst sorting strategy. Record verbatim the examinees description, the sorting response made and the elapsed sorting time. Do not reset the stopwatch to zero. The previous so rting time is added to all subsequent sorting times within each card set. Then mix up the cards and place them in a random, oval arrangement in front of the examinee, with the words on the cards facing the examinee. Say: Now try to sort them in a different way 82
Appendix C: (Continued) Start timing. Repeat these procedures fo r each sort produced by the examinee until a discontinue criterion is met. After recording the total cumulative sorting time for the first card set administered, rese t the stopwatch to zero. Condition 2: Sort Recognition Card Set 1 Use the following prompts for the Sort Recognition condition: If no response given 30 seconds after a sort is made by the examiner, say, How are the cards in each group the same? Explain only once each new rule violat ion made during the entire Sorting Test. If a rule violation was made and explained in Condition 1 (Free Sort), do not explain it again if the same rule violation is committed in Condition 2 (Sort Recognition). Place the cards in a single random group in front of the examinee. Say: Now Im going to put these cards into two groups of three cards each. The three cards in each group will be the same in so me way. I want you to tell me how the cards are the same in each group. Be sure to tell me how I sorted both groups, not just one of them. I will use a different way of sorting the cards each time I put them into groups. Place the cards into two groups (in vertical co lumns) for the first sort according to the sorting rules specified here. Start timi ng to ensure that the examinee provides a description response within the time limit (45 se conds). Record verbatim the examinees description of the sort in the designated space in the record form. Reset the stopwatch to zero for the next sort. After recording the examinees descri ption of the first sort, say. Good. Now Im going to sort the cards in a different way. Again, I want you to tell me how I sorted the two groups. Present each sort in the order listed here (s ee next page). Each time you begin a new sort say: Now try this one. Record verbatim the examinees description of each sort and reset the stopwatch to zero. Condition 2: Sort Recognition Card Set 2 Place the cards from Card Set 2 in a single ra ndom group in front of the examinee. Say: Like before, Im going to put these cards into two groups of three cards each. The three cards in each group will be the same in some way. I want you to tell me how the cards are the same in each group. Be sure to tell me how I sorted both groups, 83
Appendix C: (Continued) not just one of them. I will use a different way of sorting the cards each time I put them into groups. Place the cards into two groups for the first so rt according to the so rting rules specified here and in the record form. Start timi ng to ensure that the examinee provides a description response within the time limit (45 se conds). Record verbatim the examinees description of the sort in the designated space in the record form. Reset the stopwatch to zero for the next sort. After recording the examinees desc ription of the first sort, say: Good. Now Im going to sort the cards in a different way. Again, I want you to tell me how I sorted the two groups. Present each sort in the order listed here and in the record form Each time you begin a new sort, say: Now try this one. Record verbatim the examinees description of each sort and reset the stopwatch to zero. Card Set 1 Card Set 2 1 st Small Cards (Bus, Car, Eagle) Diagonals Close (Ears, Shoe, Socks) Large Cards (Airplane, Duck, Tiger) Diagonals Apart (Hat, Mouth, Toes) 2 nd Animals (Duck, Eagle, Tiger) Body Parts (Ears, Mouth Toes) Transportation (Airplane, Bus, Car) Clothing (Hat, Shoe, Socks) 3 rd Straight Outer Edges (Airplane, Bus Tiger) Curved Outer Edges (Car, Duck, Eagle) Triangles Above Word (Ears, Mouth Socks) Triangles Below Word (Hat, Shoe, Toes) 4 th One-Syllable Words (Bus, Car, Duck) Two-Syllable Words (Airplane, Eagle, Tiger) Cursive Letters (Ears, Hat, Toes) Printed Letters (Mouth, Shoe, Socks) 5 th Blue Cards (Bus, Duck, Tiger) Yellow Cards (Airplane, Car, Eagle) Plural Words (Ears, Socks, Toes) Singular Words (Mouth, Shoe, Hat) 6 th Air (Airplane, Duck, Eagle) Land (Bus, Car, Tiger) Diagonals Slope Up (Ears, Hat, Shoe) Diagonals Slope Down (Mouth, Socks, Toes) 7 th Red Label (Airplane, Bus, Duck) White Label (Car, Eagle, Tiger) Related to Head (Ears, Hat, Mouth) Related to Feet (Shoe, Socks, Toes) 8 th Uppercase Letters (Bus, Duck, Eagle) Filled Triangles (Ears, Mouth, Shoe) Lowercase Letters (Airplane, Car, Tiger) Empty Triangles (Hat, Socks, Toes) 84
Appendix C: (Continued) Scoring: The examinees description of each group of a sort is scored independently (2, 1, or 0 points). If the examinee gives a novel corr ect description to a repeated sort, the description can be scored as correct, even though the actual sort is coded as a repeat sort. 2 point description: Reflects the general concept, rule or category of items found in that group. Is not limited only to a specific feature or attribute of the members of the group. Is not overly inclusive. 1 point description: Conveys only a specific feature common to all of the members of the group. Reflects an overly inclusive category that applies not only to all of the members of the group but also to re lated items outside the group. Is an overly abstract descri ption that represents a supe rordinate category of both groups of sorted cards but fails to identify each specific group. Applies to all of the members of the group but in an imprecise or partially accurate way. Is a vague description that is clarified by the examin ees pointing to indicate the correct rule or concept. 0 point description: Is dont know or no response. Is incorrect for the group generated. Identifies a category or concept only of a subgroup of the larger target group. Conveys a specific feature or attribute that is found in some but not all of the members of the group. Identifies one of the target sorting rules for the card set, but the rule does not match the actual sort generated. Represents a -1 response in which the examinee identifies two objects and one object found in each group. Is so overly inclusive that it could apply to items in both groups and does not identify or distingu ish the two groups. Consists of the three stimulus words si mply linked together in one or more sentences. Is a repetition of a previously correct description. Not Statements: An examinee might describe the two groups by labeling one of the groups and stating that the other group does not have that attribute. In most cases a not statement receives a score of 0 points for the group it describes. Not statements can be awarded 1 point if the two target concepts are opposites because then the negation of one of the concepts does identify the concept of the other group. 85
Appendix D: Free Associates Materials: Record Form Stop watch Pen or Pencil Instructions: In a moment, I am going to ask you a question. When I say begin, I want you to tell me as many words or short phrases as you can think of. You will have 60 seconds before I tell you to stop, so do this as quickly as you can. For example, if the question was: Please name as many pieces of furniture as you can. You might say: Chair Table Couch Bookshelf Desk Bed Dresser Night Stand Cabinet Lamp Please remember that all of your answers are confidential. The question is: How do people feel when they drink alcohol? Ready, begin. 86
Appendix D: (Continued) Alcohol First Interval 1-15 seconds Second Interval 16-30 seconds Third Interval 31-45 seconds Fourth Interval 46-60 seconds Total # of Responses: _____ 87
Appendix E: Alcohol Expectancy Card Sorting Task Materials : Stimulus Cards Scoring Sheet Administration : The AECST consists of 41 stimulus cards with a single word printed on each card. Participants are asked to sort the cards into pile s and state the rule upon which they based their sorting strategy (Free Sort). They have up to 10 minutes to complete this task. Instructions : Place stimulus sheet in front of the examinee. Say: Id like you to read these words out loud and tell me if there are any words you would like me to explain. Some of these words are harder than others. Go ahead. If the examinee reads a word incorrectly, record the word in the designated space on the record form and provide the correct pronuncia tion. After the examinee reads all of the words, say: Do you know the meaning of all of these words? If the examinee does not know the meaning of a word, read the definition provided in the following list. You may repeat these definitions if the examinee asks you to do so. In the space provided in the record form, record any word with which the examinee has difficulty understanding. Su m the number of words that th e examinee read incorrectly. Also sum the number of words that the examinee asked to be defined. Less nervous less emotional or less scared Active energetic or moving around a lot Cocky thinking too much of yourself, conceited Content satisfied with things as they are, comfortable or happy Dangerous unsafe, hazardous or something that could hurt or kill you Dizzy faint, lightheaded, feels like you head is spinning Dumb not smart, stupid Friendly liking to be with other people or liking to meet other people Funny something that is fun or humorous that makes you feel good Happy cheerful and joyous Loud unpleasant sound or harsh sound Mad feeling or showing anger Nasty to hurt others and to be mean Pretty beautiful, attractive, and pleasing Relaxed quiet and mellow Rude not polite Sad depressed or miserable 88
Appendix E: (Continued) Scared nervous, anxious, or upset Sleepy drowsy or tired Slow not moving quickly, sluggish Smart clever, intelligent, and able to learn Talkative talking a lot Wild unpredictable or crazy Calm quiet, peaceful, mellow Fun happy and exciting Jolly cheerful and joyous Outgoing social and liking to meet others, friendly Quiet making little or no noise Cool not goofy or nerdy Goofy silly or foolish Less upset less scared or less emotional Mean unkind, making other people feel bad Nice being good to others and making them feel good Sick not feeling well with st omach pain or headaches Hurt others to cause pain or harm to people Forgetful someone does not remember things Crazy reckless and uncontrollable Good pleasant, enjoyable Stupid dumb or unintelligent Carefree not worried about anything Hyper full of energy Then say: In this card game you will be presented with some words that describe ways people sometimes feel when they have been drinki ng alcohol and are under the influence of alcohol. These words will be presented on cards that can be sorted in many different ways. Your task is to sort these words into groups that you think belong together based on the meaning of the words. You may create as many groups as you would like and each group may have as ma ny words as you want Each word may only go in one group. You may change the groups until you are happy with the final groups. After you have finished the game, pick a label name for each group and then describe to me how you sorted the ca rds. If you have any questions, let me know at this time. If the examinee begins to sort the words ba sed on word length, alpha betical order, etc., please remind them that should sort the word s into groups that belong together based on their meaning. Ask the child to label each pile and then to describe how they sorted the cards. Write their responses word for word, as best as you can. 89
Appendix E: (Continued) Alcohol Expectancy Card Sorting Task (AECST) Record Form Total # of piles: _____ Total incorr ect: ______ Total not understood: ______ Words incorrectly read: 1. _________________ 2. _________________ 3. _________________ 4. _________________ 5. _________________ 6. _________________ 7. _________________ 8. _________________ 9. _________________ Words not understood: 1. _________________ 2. _________________ 3. _________________ 4. _________________ 5. _________________ 6. _________________ 7. _________________ 8. _________________ 9. _________________ Description of sorting: 90
Appendix E: (Continued) Alcohol Expectancy Card Sorting Task (AECST) Record Form Pile #1 Name: Pile #2 Name: # of items: # of items: 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. 7. 7. 8. 8. 9. 9. 10. 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. Pile #3 Name: Pile #4 Name: # of items: # of items: 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. 7. 7. 8. 8. 9. 9. 10. 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 91
Appendix F: Animal Card Sorting Task (ACST) Materials : Stimulus Cards Scoring Sheet Administration : The ACST consists of 41 stimulus cards with a single word printed on each card. Participants are asked to sort the cards into pile s and state the rule upon which they based their sorting strategy (Free Sort). They have up to 10 minutes to complete this task. Instructions : Place stimulus sheet in front of the examinee. Say: Id like you to read these words out loud and tell me if there are any words you would like me to explain. Some of these words are harder than others. Go ahead. If the examinee reads a word incorrectly, record the word in the designated space on the record form and provide the correct pronuncia tion. After the examinee reads all of the words, say: Do you know the meaning of all of these words? If the examinee does not know the meaning of a word, read the definition provided in the following list. You may repeat these definitions if the examinee asks you to do so. In the space provided in the record form, record any word with which the examinee has difficulty understanding. Sum the number of words that the examinee read incorrectly. Also sum the number of words that the examinee asked to be defined. Alligator large reptiles having shar p teeth and powerful jaws Bear a mammal with a shaggy coat and a short tail Camel a humped, long-necked mammal Cat a household pet that meows Chicken a common farm bird that clucks Cow a farm animal that produces milk and moos Crocodile large reptiles having sh arp teeth and powerful jaws Deer hoofed mammals, the males have antlers Dog a household pet that barks Dolphin a water mammal smaller than a whale and with a long snout Duck swimming birds with a broad, flat bill and webbed feet Fish cold-blooded water animals with fins and gills Frog amphibian with webbed feet and long hind legs that croaks Gorilla a large ape with a large body and coarse, dark hair Hamster small rodent pet with large cheek pouches and a short tail Hawk birds of prey with a short hooked beak and strong claws Horse large hoofed mammal with a long mane and tail Koala an Australian marsupial with thick gray fur and large ears Lion large meat-eating cat with a tufted tail, and the males have a mane 92
Appendix F: (Continued) Lizard reptiles with a scal y long body, four legs, and a long tail Manatee water mammals with front flippers and a horizontall y flattened tail Monkey long-tailed, medium-sized primates Moose hoofed mammal, males have large antlers Mouse small rodents with a pointed nose, small ears and a long tail Owl nighttime bird with hooked claws, a round face and short beak Panda mammal that looks like a bear with black and white markings Penguin water birds with wings like flippers and webbed feet Pig mammals with short legs, hooves, bristly hair, and a snout Rabbit long-eared, short-tailed mammals Robin songbirds with gray and black feathers on top Seal water mammals with a smooth body and flippers Shark large meat-eating fish with small, sharp scales Sheep woolly mammal with horns Snake reptiles with no arms and legs a S shaped long body and fangs Toad related to frogs, but spend more time on land and have drier skin Turkey a large farm bird with brow n feathers and a bare head Turtle a reptile with a shell that can pull in its head and legs Vulture a bird of prey with dark f eathers that eats dead animals Whale a water mammal with flippers, a tail and blowholes for breathing Wolf a wild dog that lives and hunts in packs Zebra a fast, wild mammal that looks li ke a horse, with white and black stripes Then say: In this card game you will be presented wi th different kinds of animals. These words will be presented on cards that can be sorted in many different ways. Your task is to sort these words into groups th at you think belong together based on the meaning of the words. You may create as many groups as you would like and each group may have as many words as you want. Each word may only go in one group. You may change the groups until you are happy with the final groups. After you have finished the game, pick a label name for each group and then describe to me how you sorted the cards. If you have any questions, let me know at this time. If the examinee begins to sort the words ba sed on word length, alpha betical order, etc., please remind them that should sort the word s into groups that belong together based on their meaning. Ask the child to label each pile and then to describe how they sorted the cards. Write their responses word for word, as best as you can. 93
Appendix F: (Continued) Animal Card Sorting Task (ACST) Record Form Total # of piles: _____ Total incorr ect: ______ Total not understood: ______ Words incorrectly read: 1. _________________ 2. _________________ 3. _________________ 4. _________________ 5. _________________ 6. _________________ 7. _________________ 8. _________________ 9. _________________ Words not understood: 1. _________________ 2. _________________ 3. _________________ 4. _________________ 5. _________________ 6. _________________ 7. _________________ 8. _________________ 9. _________________ Description of sorting: 94
95 Appendix F: (Continued) Animal Card Sorting Task (ACST) Record Form Pile #1 Name: Pile #2 Name: # of items: # of items: 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. 7. 7. 8. 8. 9. 9. 10. 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. Pile #3 Name: Pile #4 Name: # of items: # of items: 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. 7. 7. 8. 8. 9. 9. 10. 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19.
96 Appendix G: Survey Administration Materials : Survey packet, Pen or pencil Administration : For each survey, please read the instructions ou t loud to the participant and then ask them if they have any questions before allowing th em to proceed with each one. At the end, please check each survey to make sure that all questions were answered, and that only one answer was give for each question Surveys: MMBEQ Directions: In this survey, each question will tell you a feeling and ask you how often people feel that way when they drink alcohol: never, sometimes, usually, or always. The four boxes next to each question are the same as never, which is like the empty box, sometimes, which is li ke the next box that is filled a little bit, usually, which is like the next box that is mostly filled, and always, which is like the last box that is filled all the way up. There are spaces under the boxes to mark your answer. Tell me if there are any word s you would like me to explain. Remember, this is not a test, there is no right or wrong answers and this won't be graded. SSSC Directions: Each of the items in this booklet has two choices, A and B. Please circle the letter that best describes what you like or how you feel. In some cases you may find it hard to decide between the two choices. Please circle the one that is most like you are. Do not circle both choices or leave any items blank. We are interested in what you like or how you feel, not in how others feel or how one is supposed to feel. There is no right or wrong answer, so please be honest. DDQ Directions: Read the questions below and check or ci rcle the option that best describes you. After they complete the first 6 questions, then read: For the following questions, drinking alcohol means drinking any drink with alcohol in it such as beer, wine, wine coolers, whiskey, rum, vodka, gin, and alcoholic mixed drinks. A drink is one beer, a glass of wine, a shot of alcohol, or one mixed drink. Remember, your answers will be kept confidential
97 Appendix H: Memory Model-Ba sed Expectancy Questionnaire 1) How often do people feel LESS NERVOUS when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 2) How often do people feel ACTIVE when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 3) How often do people feel COCKY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 4) How often do people feel CONTENT when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 5) How often do people feel DANGEROUS when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always
98 Appendix H: (Continued) 6) How often do people feel DIZZY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 7) How often do people feel DUMB when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 8) How often do people feel FRIENDLY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 9) How often do people feel FUNNY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 10) How often do people feel HAPPY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always
99 Appendix H: (Continued) 11) How often do people feel LOUD when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 12) How often do people feel MAD when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 13) How often do people feel NASTY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 14) How often do people feel PRETTY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 15) How often do people feel RELAXED when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always
100 Appendix H: (Continued) 16) How often do people feel RUDE when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 17) How often do people feel SAD when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 18) How often do people feel SCARED when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 19) How often do people feel SLEEPY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 20) How often do people feel SLOW when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always
101 Appendix H: (Continued) 21) How often do people feel SMART when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 22) How often do people feel TALKATIVE when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 23) How often do people feel WILD when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 24) How often do people feel CALM when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 25) How often do people feel FUN when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always
102 Appendix H: (Continued) 26) How often do people feel JOLLY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 27) How often do people feel OUTGOING when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 28) How often do people feel QUIET when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 29) How often do people feel COOL when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 30) How often do people feel GOOFY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always
103 Appendix H: (Continued) 31) How often do people feel LESS UPSET when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 32) How often do people feel MEAN when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 33) How often do people feel NICE when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 34) How often do people feel SICK when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 35) How often do people HURT OTHERS when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always
104 Appendix H: (Continued) 36) How often do people feel FORGETFUL when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 37) How often do people feel CRAZY when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 38) How often do people feel GOOD when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 39) How often do people feel STUPID when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always 40) How often do people feel CAREFREE when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always
105 Appendix H: (Continued) 41) How often do people feel HYPER when they drink alcohol? Never Sometimes Usually Always
106 Appendix H: (Continued) Scoring Directions : Factor scores are obtained by simply summing responses to items. Two items need to be reversed coded as indicated below. Positive-Social Negative Arousal Items Score Items Score 1. Less Nervous 3. Cocky 2. Active 5. Dangerous 4. Content 12. Mad 8. Friendly 13. Nasty 9. Funny 16. Rude 10. Happy 18. Scared 15. Relaxed 32. Mean 22. Talkative 35. Hurt Others 25. Fun 17. Sad 26. Jolly Total 27. Outgoing 31. Less Upset 33. Nice 38. Good 40. Carefree 29. Cool 21. Smart 14. Pretty Total Sedated/Impaired Wild and Crazy Items Score Items Score 6. Dizzy 11. Loud 7. Dumb 23. Wild 19. Sleepy 30. Goofy 20. Slow 37. Crazy 34. Sick 41. Hyper 36. Forgetful 24. Calm (reverse coded) 39. Stupid 28. Quiet (reverse coded) Total Total Positive-Social Negative Arousal Sedated/Impaired Wild and Crazy Total Score
107 Appendix I: Sensation Seeking Scale for Children Directions : Each of the items in this booklet has tw o choices, A and B. Please circle the letter that best describes what you like or how you feel. In some cases you may find it hard to decide between the two choices. Pleas e circle the one that is most like you are. Do not circle both choices or leave any items blank. It is important that you answer all items with only one choice, A or B. We are interested in what you like or how you feel, not in how othe rs feel or how one is supposed to feel. There is no right or wrong an swer, so please be honest. 1. A. Id like to try mountain climbing. B. I think people who do dangerous thin gs like mountain climbing are foolish. 2. A. Too many movies show peopl e falling in love and kissing B. I enjoy watching movies which show people kissing each other 3. A. I would like to try smoking marijuana B. I would never smoke marijuana 4. A. Its more exciting to be around kids older than myself B. I like to be with kids my own age or younger 5. A. Id never do anyt hing thats dangerous B. I sometimes like to do thi ngs that are a little scary 6. A. I think riding fast on a skateboard is fun B. Some of the daring acts of skate board riders seem very scary to me 7. A. I like to be with larg e groups of kids with so mething exciting happening B. I like quiet times with only 1 or 2 friends 8. A. I would not like to learn to fly an airplane B. I think it would be fun to learn to fly an airplane 9. A. I dont like to swim in wa ter that is over my head B. I like to swim in deep water 10. A. I would like to try jumping from a plane with a parachute B. I would never try jumping from a plane with a parachute 11. A. People probably feel good af ter drinking alcoholic drinks B. Something must be wrong with people who need a few drinks to feel good 12. A. I like kids who make jokes even if they sometimes hurt other kids feelings B. I dont like kids who think it s fun to hurt other kids feelings
108 Appendix I: (Continued) 13. A. I dont like it when people get drunk, talk loud and act silly B. When people get drunk, it se ems like they are having fun 14. A. Sailing on the ocean in a small boa t would be dangerous and foolish B. I think it would be fun to sail on the ocean in a small boat 15. A. I think skiing fast down a s nowy mountain would be dangerous B. I think skiing fast down a snowy mountain would be exciting and fun 16. A. Id never touch a bug or snake B. Bugs or snakes are fun to hold and play with 17. A. I think it would be exciting to go on a date B. Im not interested in dating yet 18. A. I enjoy the feeling of riding my bike fast down a big hill B. Riding a bike fast down a big hill is too scary for me 19. A. I think its too dangerous for people to take drugs B. I sometimes wonder what it would feel like to be high on drugs, even though I know it would be dangerous 20. A. I dont like being around ki ds who act wild and crazy B. I enjoy being around kids who sometimes act wild and crazy 21. A. I dont think Id like the feeling of getting drunk B. I think I might like to find out what it feels like to get drunk 22. A. I dont do anything I think I might get in trouble for B. I like to do new and exciting things, even if I think I might get in trouble for doing them 23. A. Riding dirt-bikes or motorcycles seems like a lot of fun B. It seems scary and dangerous to ride dirt-bikes or motorcycles 24. A. I like to do wheelies on my bike B. Kids who do wheelies on their bi kes will probably get hurt sometimes 25. A. The worst thing a kid can do is be rude to his/her friends B. The worst think a kid can do is be boring around his/her friends 26. A. If I could, Id see a movie with an R rating B. Im not interested in movies made for older people
109 Appendix I: (Continued) Childs Interest and Preferen ce Test (SSSC) Scoring Scoring Directions : Add 1 for each response that matches the coded responses listed below. Sum responses for each subscale score; sum subscale scores for total SSC score. Thrill & Adventure Seeking (TAS) Drug & Alcohol Attitudes (DAA) Social Disinhibition (SD) Key Response Score Key Response Score Key Response Score 1. (A) 3. (A) 2. (B) 5. (B) 11. (A) 4. (A) 6. (A) 12 (A) 7. (A) 8. (B) 13. (B) 17. (A) 9. (B) 19. (B) 20. (B) 10. (A) 21. (B) 22. (B) 14. (B) 25. (B) 26. (A) 15. (B) DAA SD 16. (B) 18. (A) 23. (A) 24. (A) TAS SSSC Score TAS DAA SD Total
110 Appendix J: Demographics and Drinking Questionnaire Directions : Read the questions below and check or circle the option th at best describes you. 1. You are a: Girl Boy 2. Birthday Month:_________________ Day: _______ Year:_______ 3. Circle your grade: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4. Circle your age: 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5. Your school is: ________________________________________________ 6. Check the item that best describes your family: American Indian Asian Black/African American Hispanic/Latino(a) White/Caucasian Other: ______________
111 Appendix J: (Continued) Directions : For the following questions, drinking alcohol means drinking any drink with alcohol in it such as beer, wine, wine coolers, whiskey, rum, vodka, gin, and alcoholic mixed drinks. A drink is one beer, a glass of wine, a shot of alcohol, or one mixed drink. Remember, your answers will be kept confidential 1) How often do you drink alcohol? A. I do not drink alcohol B. Less than 4 drinks in life C. Drink 1 or 2 times a year D. Drink 3 to 8 times a year E. Drink 1 or 2 times a month F. Drink 3 or 4 times a month G. Drink 1 or 2 times a week H. Drink 3 or 4 times a week I. Drink almost every day 2) How much alcohol did you have the last few times you drank? A. I do not drink alcohol B. A few sips of a drink C. Usually 1 drink or less D. Usually 2 drinks E. Usually 3 drinks F. Usually 4 drinks G. Usually 5 drinks H. Usually 6 drinks I. Usually 7 drinks or more 3) How old were you when you had your very firs t whole drink, more than a few sips? Age: _________ I do not drink alcohol 4) The last few times that you drank alcohol, were you: A. I do not drink alcohol B. At a religious event C. Celebrating a holiday or special occasion D. At home E. At a friends house F. At a party G. Other ________________________________ 5) When you drink alcohol, do you have permissi on from your parents or guardians? A. I do not drink alcohol B. Yes C. No
112 Appendix J: (Continued) 6) When you are an adult (21 or older) how often do you think you will drink? A. I will not drink alcohol B. Less than 4 drinks in life C. Drink 1 or 2 times a year D. Drink 3 to 8 times a year E. Drink 1 or 2 times a month F. Drink 3 or 4 times a month G. Drink 1 or 2 times a week H. Drink 3 or 4 times a week I. Drink almost every day 7) When you are an adult (21 or older), how much alcohol do you think you will have when you drink? A. I will not drink alcohol B. A few sips of a drink C. Usually 1 drink or less D. Usually 2 drinks E. Usually 3 drinks F. Usually 4 drinks G. Usually 5 drinks H. Usually 6 drinks I. Usually 7 drinks or more 8) How many of the students in your grade at school would you say have tried to drink alcoholic beverages? A. None of them B. A few of them C. Half of them D. Most of them E. All of them 9) How many of the students in your grade at school would you say have gotten drunk? A. None of them B. A few of them C. Half of them D. Most of them E. All of them
113 Appendix J: (Continued) 10) How do you feel about someone your age ha ving one or two drinks of alcohol? A. Very unhappy B. Somewhat unhappy C. Neither happy nor unhappy D. Somewhat happy E. Very happy 11) How often do you think your close friends ha ve had a drink of alcohol in the past year? A. Not at all B. Once or twice this year C. About once a month D. A few times a month E. Once or twice a week F. Almost every day 12) How often do you think your best friend has ha d a drink of alcohol in the past year? A. Not at all B. Once or twice this year C. About once a month D. A few times a month E. Once or twice a week F. Almost every day 13) How do you think your close friends would feel about you having one or two drinks of an alcoholic beverage? A. Very unhappy B. Somewhat unhappy C. Neither happy nor unhappy D. Somewhat happy E. Very happy 14) How do you think your best friend would feel about you having one or two drinks of an alcoholic beverage? A. Very unhappy B. Somewhat unhappy C. Neither happy nor unhappy D. Somewhat happy E. Very happy
114 Appendix J: (Continued) The next questions ask about your parents. By parents we mean your biological parents, adoptive parents, stepparents, or ad ult guardians who live in your household. 15) How do you think your pare nts would feel about you having one or two drinks of an alcoholic beverage? A. Very unhappy B. Somewhat unhappy C. Neither happy nor unhappy D. Somewhat happy E. Very happy 16) How often do you think your parents have ha d a drink of alcohol in the past year? A. Not at all B. Once or twice this year C. About once a month D. A few times a month E. Once or twice a week F. Almost every day G. Dont know 17) During the past 6 months have you talked with either of your parents about the dangers of tobacco, alcohol, or drug use? A. Yes B. No 18) Who do you most want to be like? A. My best friend B. Some other friend C. My brother or sister D. An older kid, or older kids at school E. My mother or father or guardian F. A famous person (actor, singer, athlete): ______________________________ G. Some other adult: ______________________________ H. Some other person or persons: ______________________________ 19) Who understands you better than anyone else? A. My best friend B. Some other friend C. My brother or sister D. An older kid, or older kids at school E. My mother or father or guardian F. A famous person (actor, singer, athlete): ______________________________ G. Some other adult: ______________________________ H. Some other person or persons: ______________________________
115 Appendix J: (Continued) 20) Whose opinion do you respect the most? A. My best friend B. Some other friend C. My brother or sister D. An older kid, or older kids at school E. My mother or father or guardian F. A famous person (actor, singer, athlete): ______________________________ G. Some other adult: ______________________________ H. Some other person or persons: ______________________________ 21) If you wanted to talk to someone about a problem, which of the following people would you turn to? A. My best friend B. Some other friend C. My brother or sister D. An older kid, or older kids at school E. My mother or father or guardian F. A famous person (actor, singer, athlete): ______________________________ G. Some other adult: ______________________________ H. Some other person or persons: ______________________________ 22) Who best understands kids your age? A. My best friend B. Some other friend C. My brother or sister D. An older kid, or older kids at school E. My mother or father or guardian F. A famous person (actor, singer, athlete): ______________________________ G. Some other adult: ______________________________ H. Some other person or persons: ______________________________
116 Appendix K Descriptive St atistics for Original and Transformed Variables Table 14 Descriptive statistics for all measures of interest Measure N Min Max Mean SD Skewness Kurtosis Cognitive Slossons Oral Reading Test 294 59 120 108.26 11.51 -1.811 3.629 COWAT: Letter 300 6 43 22.96 7.46 0.242 -0.297 COWAT: Category 300 8 42 22.25 6.01 0.421 0.273 CST-Animal: # of Piles 292 2 19 5.28 3.35 1.650 3.260 CST-Animal: Sort Quality 291 1.5 5 4.69 0.53 -2.709 9.970 DKEFS: Correct Sorts 294 2 14 8.23 2.37 -0.450 0.015 DKEFS: Free Sorting 294 0 51 29.17 8.98 -0.547 0.148 DKEFS: Sort Recognition 289 0 49 23.46 10.79 0.086 -0.694 Personality SSSC: TAS 299 0 12 6.32 3.31 -0.113 -1.027 SSSC: DAA 299 0 4 0.42 0.79 2.131 4.422 SSSC: SD 299 0 7 2.24 1.77 0.482 -0.519 SSSC: Total (No DAA) 299 0 18 8.56 4.70 0.028 -0.903 Social Perceived Social Norms 298 0 6 0.93 1.32 1.642 2.607 Perceived Alcohol Beliefs 297 0 15 0.99 2.14 2.764 9.037 Perceived Peer Drinking 298 0 8 0.42 1.06 3.975 19.934 Perceived Parental Drinking 243 0 5 1.41 1.49 1.071 0.236 Overall Alcohol Awareness 241 0 25 3.32 3.78 2.235 7.577 Social Influence: Adult 298 0 5 2.81 1.56 -0.307 -0.971 Social Influence: Peer 298 0 5 1.88 1.59 0.467 -0.896 Social Influence: Media 209 0 3 0.31 0.50 1.382 1.936 Social Influence: Total 209 0 5 2.11 1.66 0.310 -1.073 Alcohol Expectancies FA: # of Free Associates 298 0 15 6.00 2.79 0.387 -0.036 CST-Alcohol: # of Piles 292 0 22 5.99 4.40 1.37 1.39 CST-Alcohol: Sort Quality 288 1.5 5 4.22 0.66 -0.847 0.984 CST-Alcohol: Use of Alcohol 290 0 1 0.35 0.48 0.640 -1.601 MMBEQ: Positive Social 299 0 18 10.47 4.42 -0.042 -0.961 MMBEQ: Negative Arousal 299 0 9 7.35 1.85 -1.372 1.776 MMBEQ: Wild & Crazy 299 0 7 6.43 1.10 -2.701 8.732 MMBEQ: Sedated/Impaired 299 0 7 6.41 1.13 -2.694 9.033 MMBEQ: Total 299 6 41 30.66 5.73 -0.681 0.935 Alcohol Use Future Drinking Frequency 299 0 8 1.10 1.88 1.855 2.756 Future Drinking Quantity 299 0 6 0.80 1.20 1.487 1.768
117 Appendix K: (Continued) Table 15 Descriptive statistics of the transformed variables Measure N Min Max Mean SD Skewness Kurtosis Cognitive Ln (CST-An: # of Piles) 292 0.69 2.94 1.49 0.58 0.272 -0.650 Personality Sq Rt (SSSC: TAS) 299 1.00 3.61 2.62 0.67 -0.551 -0.562 Ln (SSSC: DAA) 299 0.00 1.61 0.24 0.42 1.446 0.834 Social Log (Perceived Social Norms) 298 0.00 0.85 0.21 0.25 0.747 -0.759 Inv (Perceived Alcohol Beliefs) 297 0.06 1.00 0.86 0.28 -1.608 0.822 Inv (Perceived Peer Drinking) 298 -1.00 -0.11 -0.87 0.25 1.581 0.824 Sq Rt (Perceived Parental Drinking) 243 1.00 2.45 1.48 0.45 0.646 -0.568 Log (Overall Alcohol Awareness) 241 0.00 1.41 0.49 0.35 0.072 -0.863 Log (Social Influence: Media) 298 0.00 0.60 0.09 0.14 1.004 -0.652 Ln (Social Influence: Total) 209 0.00 1.79 0.97 0.62 -0.391 -1.110 Alcohol Expectancies Log (CST-Alc: # of Piles) 292 0.00 1.28 0.31 0.28 0.649 -0.040 Alcohol Use Ln (Future Drinking Frequency) 299 0.00 2.20 0.47 0.68 1.077 -0.308 Log (Future Drinking Quantity) 299 0.00 0.85 0.18 0.24 0.850 -0.807
About the Author Nicole Bekman was born in Queens, NY. After receiving an outstanding sciencebased education at Stuyvesant High School in Manhattan, she continued on to obtain her bachelors degree in Human Development at Cornell Universitys College of Human Ecology. Although her interest in clinical psychology bega n early on, it was during her undergraduate years that she began to focus her interests on developmental psychopathology and risk-taking be haviors during adolescence. Under the mentorship of Dr. Mark Goldman at the University of South Florida, she explored the influences of a constellation of developmental processes and ri sk factors on the growth of a conceptual understanding of alcohol duri ng late childhood, which serves as a predictor of later drinking behavior. She is cu rrently living in San Diego, Ca lifornia and will continue to pursue this research interest through an NIAAA Postdoctoral Fellowship under the guidance of Dr. Sandra A. Brown at University of California, San Diego.