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"Girls play with dolls and boys play with soldiers"

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Material Information

Title:
"Girls play with dolls and boys play with soldiers" examining teachers and parents' gender beliefs and the gender identity of 8-10 year old Jamaican boys
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Clarke, Christopher Carlyle
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Masculinity
Caribbean
Homophobia
Underachievement
Hegemony
Dissertations, Academic -- Childhood Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: This multi-case ethnographic study examined the gender beliefs of two teachers and 12 parents and the gender identity of thirty 8-10 year old boys in two primary schools in Jamaica. The study was conducted against the background of gross underachievement among Jamaican boys and the research literature pointing to gender socialization as a factor in the declining results and interest in academic studies. Through 10 weeks of observations, interviews and focus group discussions answers were sought for the following questions: 1. What beliefs do teachers hold about gender? 2. What beliefs do parents hold about gender?3. What are boys' perceptions of their gender identity? From the data collected it was revealed that teachers' expressed beliefs was not always consistent with their classroom practices; teachers traditional methods even though recognising that girls and boys have different learning styles; boys arrived at school far less prepared to work than girls; they were more likely to be off task than were girls; they identified strongly and early with traditional masculinity in the process devaluing anything feminine; parents, particularly mothers felt powerless to change the attitudes of boys towards school work; they allow their boys far more latitude to play at home and in many instances failed to help them develop a sense of responsibility. Parents held traditional gender beliefs guided mostly by religious teachings. In the matter of careers however, they were prepared to allow their sons to work in traditional female careers.The findings suggest the need for a radical redefinition of what it means to be masculinity, one which will allow boys to embrace feminine values and attitudes. The central education authorities in Jamaica need a clear gender policy for schools; schools need to work closer with parents for a greater level of consistency in the socialization of boys. Finally, teacher preparation programmes need to pay more than lip service to gender in the education process. Teachers in training need to understand that their socialization practices are driven by their beliefs and impact the development of boys and girls' identities.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Christopher Carlyle Clarke.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 261 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002001058
oclc - 319440342
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002560
usfldc handle - e14.2560
System ID:
SFS0026877:00001


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“Girls Play with Dolls and Boys Play with Soldiers”: Examining Teachers and Parents' Gender Beliefs and the Gender Identity of 8-10 Year Old Jamaican Boys by Christopher Carlyle Clarke A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Childhood Education College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Stephen Graves, PhD. Elizabeth Larkin, EdD. John Ferron, PhD. Brenda Townsend, PhD. Roger Brindley, EdD. Date of Approval: June 18, 2007 Keywords: masculinity, Caribbean, ho mophobia, underachievement, hegemony, socialization, teaching philosophy Copyright 2008, Christ opher Carlyle Clarke

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Dedication To the boys whose stories are to ld herein; their parents and te achers who work tirelessly to make them productive, worthwhile, responsible men of tomorrow.

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Acknowledgements A work of this magnitude is obviously not a solo effort. It is in fact the product of unqualified support given me by a host of prof essionals, friends, family members, and even just well-wishers. I firstly acknowle dge the inspiration and energy provided by God especially at those moments when I felt like giving up; thanks too to my wife Noreen who endured spousal deprivation during my times away studying and even when I returned and was completing the study. She taught me true love; thanks also to my major professor and committee members who guided me through choppy seas, for the most part uncharted for me. They encouraged me throughout my residency, held me to high standards and are deserving of any praise wh ich may come as a result of this study. I am indebted to the over 30 boys, the parents/gua rdians and teachers who provided the data that helped me answer the questions I had. Over the period in the field I made friends with these boys, men and women and profession als. I remember the laughter, the tears, the pain of some as they talked about their sons, the sincerity with which they shared, the expressions for help and the expectations that something positive will come for the boys of Jamaica; thanks also to my research a ssistants who helped me to see beyond the page at times, to the many colleagues who listened and provided valuable feedback as I wrote and tried to separate soup from noodles; to Beverly Whyte and George Dawkins, the APA specialist and critical friend respectivel y. Quite frankly but for their invaluable input I would still be struggli ng with the work. Finally to my principal and boss, Elaine Foster-Allen who not only found time to read parts of the study but was willing to give

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me time off to dedicate to the completion of the writing. I am a better person because all these individuals touched my life and left their mark. I shall forever thank them.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables vii Abstract viii Chapter One: Introduction and Background to Study 1 Introduction 1 Hegemonic Masculinity and Gender Identity 6 Social and Economic Conditions in Jamaica 11 Early childhood education and care 12 Socialization, Gender Identity and Belie fs 15 Purpose of Study 17 Rationale for Research 17 Definition of Terms 19 Summary 19 Chapter Two: Review of Relevant Lite rature 20 Hegemonic Masculinity 20 New Research 22 Socialization and Gender Identity 26 Socialization at home. 27 Socialization at school. 30 Gender Identity 34

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ii Teacher and Parents’ Beliefs 38 Definitions of Beliefs and Teacher Beliefs 39 The Research Literature 41 Parent Beliefs 43 Attribution approaches. 45 Information-processing models (I-P). 46 Constructivist perspectives. 47 Transactional perspectives. 48 Summary of Parental Beliefs 49 Summary 50 Chapter Three: Methodology 52 Research Design 52 Gaining Entry 54 Data Collection 55 Interviews 56 Measuring Children’s Perspectives 56 Focus Group Interviews 59 Teacher interviews. 62 Parent interviews. 63 Observation 64 Teacher observation. 65 Participant observation. 67 Observation routine. 68

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iii Data Collection Schedule 69 Participants 70 Teachers 70 The teachers. 73 Students. 73 Parents. 75 Context 75 The Research Sites 78 Kingston Primary. 78 The observation classroom. 80 Lewiston Primary. 81 The observation classroom. 83 Data Analysis 84 Data management. 85 Detailed analyses. 86 Editing interview transcripts. 88 The Researcher’s Role 89 Verification 90 Ethical Considerations 93 Limitations of the Study 95 Summary 96 Chapter Four: Presentation of Themes 97 Cases of Boys at Work and Play 97

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iv Oscar. 97 Chester. 104 Kenroy. 114 Jermaine. 119 Corey. 128 Delroy. 132 Focus Group Summaries 141 Kingston Primary Focus Group 143 Themes 146 Education. 146 Masculinity (and gender identity). 148 Free time. 151 At home. 152 Relationships. 153 Influences. 161 The Teacher’s Story 162 Patricia Henry. 162 Arlene Williams. 168 Emergent Themes from Teachers 179 Boys and girls at school. 180 Expectations of boys. 181 Philosophy of teaching. 181 Entry to teaching. 182

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v Influences on teaching. 182 Relationship with boys. 183 Teachers’ roles. 185 Gender beliefs. 185 Socialization of boys. 187 The Parents’ Perspectives 187 Religion. 188 Education. 189 Career choice. 190 Punishment. 191 Former teacher. 191 Frustration. 193 Socialization. 193 Ideal man. 196 Gender beliefs. 197 Summary 202 Chapter Five: Findings, Conclusions, Recommenda tions 204 Introduction 204 Gender Identity and School Work 205 Gender Beliefs, Expectations and Socializa tion 212 Summary of Findings 215 Boys. 215 Parents. 216

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vi Teachers. 217 Implications of the Findings 217 Recommendations 221 References 22 4 Appendices 24 9 A Teacher Interview Protocol 249 B Parent/Guardian Interview Protocol 253 C Boys Focus Group Interview Protocol 256 D Individual Boys Interview Protocol 259 About the Author End Page

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vii List of Tables Table 1: Summary of Data Collect ed 69 Table 2: Academic Profile of Boys 74

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viii Examining Teachers and Parents’ Gender Beliefs and the Construction of Gender Identity of Jamaican 8-10 yr. old Boys Christopher C. Clarke ABSTRACT This multi-case ethnographic study examined the gender beliefs of two teachers and 12 parents and the gender identity of thir ty 8-10 year old boys in two primary schools in Jamaica. The study was conducted against the background of gross underachievement among Jamaican boys and the research literat ure pointing to gender socialization as a factor in the declining resu lts and interest in academic studies. Through 10 weeks of observations, interviews and focus group di scussions answers were sought for the following questions: 1. What beliefs do teachers hold about gender? 2. What beliefs do parents hold about gender? 3. What are boys’ perceptions of their gender identity? From the data collected it was revealed that teachers’ expressed beliefs was not always consistent with their classroom practices; teachers traditional methods even though recognising that girls and boys have different learni ng styles; boys arrived at school far less prepared to work than girls; they were more likely to be off task than were girls; they identified strongl y and early with traditional masculinity in the process devaluing anything feminine; parents, partic ularly mothers felt powerless to change the

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ix attitudes of boys towards school work; they allow their boys far more latitude to play at home and in many instances failed to help them develop a sense of responsibility. Parents held traditional gender beliefs guided mostly by religious teachings. In the matter of careers however, they were prepared to allow their sons to work in traditional female careers. The findings suggest the need for a radical redefinition of what it means to be masculinity, one which will allow boys to embrace feminine values and attitudes. The central education authorities in Jamaica need a clear gender policy for schools; schools need to work closer with parents for a greate r level of consistency in the socialization of boys. Finally, teacher preparation programmes n eed to pay more than lip service to gender in the education process. Teachers in training need to understand that their socialization practices are driven by their beliefs and im pact the development of boys and girls’ identities.

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About the Author Christopher Carlyle Clarke is Vice Principal of Jamaica’s second larg est teachers college. His undergraduate degree was obtained at the Un iversity of the West Indies (Mona), his Masters at McGill University in Montreal, Cana da and his doctorate at the University of South Florida, USA. He has also done shor t courses in Israel, Singapore, and England where he also taught for a year. In his gra duate and post graduate work he majored in Early Childhood Education and Higher Educatio n. He has published in both regional and international journals. His research inte rest includes gender in education, teacher development, and early childhood curriculum.


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"Girls play with dolls and boys play with soldiers" :
b examining teachers and parents' gender beliefs and the gender identity of 8-10 year old Jamaican boys
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by Christopher Carlyle Clarke.
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University of South Florida,
2008.
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Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
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ABSTRACT: This multi-case ethnographic study examined the gender beliefs of two teachers and 12 parents and the gender identity of thirty 8-10 year old boys in two primary schools in Jamaica. The study was conducted against the background of gross underachievement among Jamaican boys and the research literature pointing to gender socialization as a factor in the declining results and interest in academic studies. Through 10 weeks of observations, interviews and focus group discussions answers were sought for the following questions: 1. What beliefs do teachers hold about gender? 2. What beliefs do parents hold about gender?3. What are boys' perceptions of their gender identity? From the data collected it was revealed that teachers' expressed beliefs was not always consistent with their classroom practices; teachers traditional methods even though recognising that girls and boys have different learning styles; boys arrived at school far less prepared to work than girls; they were more likely to be off task than were girls; they identified strongly and early with traditional masculinity in the process devaluing anything feminine; parents, particularly mothers felt powerless to change the attitudes of boys towards school work; they allow their boys far more latitude to play at home and in many instances failed to help them develop a sense of responsibility. Parents held traditional gender beliefs guided mostly by religious teachings. In the matter of careers however, they were prepared to allow their sons to work in traditional female careers.The findings suggest the need for a radical redefinition of what it means to be masculinity, one which will allow boys to embrace feminine values and attitudes. The central education authorities in Jamaica need a clear gender policy for schools; schools need to work closer with parents for a greater level of consistency in the socialization of boys. Finally, teacher preparation programmes need to pay more than lip service to gender in the education process. Teachers in training need to understand that their socialization practices are driven by their beliefs and impact the development of boys and girls' identities.
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Advisor: Stephen Graves, Ph.D.
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Masculinity
Caribbean
Homophobia
Underachievement
Hegemony
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Dissertations, Academic
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x Childhood Education
Doctoral.
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u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.2560