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U.S. based business needs for technical/occupational employees with international skills

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Title:
U.S. based business needs for technical/occupational employees with international skills considerations for community college and sub-baccalaureate programs in the Tampa Bay economic zone
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Book
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English
Creator:
Olney, Ronald L
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Technical programs
Occupational programs
Intercultural skills
Global skills
Needs assessment
Dissertations, Academic -- Adult, Career and Higher Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Significance: This study provides the first systematic needs assessment of a U.S. business region to determine if businesses want international skills taught in community college technical and occupational programs. Without this assessment, community college leaders and faculty are not able to determine whether they are adequately preparing students in these skills to be successful in tomorrow's fast paced, mobile and integrated global workforce. Research Aims: 1. Conduct a needs assessment to determine whether international skills were considered important for employment entry or movement 2. Determine where businesses obtain international skills training. 3. Garner business recommendations for the improvement of international skills education in community college technical and occupational programs. Research Questions: 1. What international skills do surveyed U.S.business and industry executives believe are important for the sub-baccalaureate technical/occupational employees that they hire and promote? 2. How do surveyed U.S. business and industry executives engage their companies' sub-baccalaureate technical/occupational employees in international skills training programs? 3. How do surveyed business and industry executives think U.S. community college technical/occupational degree programs should change with respect to their international skills objectives? Methods: This study utilized a researcher created and empirically validated survey and two focus groups. The survey was sent to 1,920 businesses randomly sampled from Tampa Bay's 64,000 businesses. Response data from 145 returned questionnaires were analyzed and then discussed by business and community college focus groups.Findings: 1. Appreciation of Cross Cultural Differences and Foreign Language Skills were rated significantly (p < or = .05) higher higher in importance than other international skills. 2. Businesses utilize in-house trainers more often than any other type of training resource for international training. Community Colleges are rarely used as a training resource for international skills. 3. Community colleges should investigate whether to increase their academic outreach to businesses, mandate foreign language training in programs, and emphasize learning about other world areas in the curriculum. 4. Nation-wide surveys of Fortune 500 firms to determine international business practices and training needs may not translate to regional business communities.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ronald L. Olney.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 180 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

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aleph - 002001390
oclc - 319705833
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002630
usfldc handle - e14.2630
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ABSTRACT: Significance: This study provides the first systematic needs assessment of a U.S. business region to determine if businesses want international skills taught in community college technical and occupational programs. Without this assessment, community college leaders and faculty are not able to determine whether they are adequately preparing students in these skills to be successful in tomorrow's fast paced, mobile and integrated global workforce. Research Aims: 1. Conduct a needs assessment to determine whether international skills were considered important for employment entry or movement 2. Determine where businesses obtain international skills training. 3. Garner business recommendations for the improvement of international skills education in community college technical and occupational programs. Research Questions: 1. What international skills do surveyed U.S.business and industry executives believe are important for the sub-baccalaureate technical/occupational employees that they hire and promote? 2. How do surveyed U.S. business and industry executives engage their companies' sub-baccalaureate technical/occupational employees in international skills training programs? 3. How do surveyed business and industry executives think U.S. community college technical/occupational degree programs should change with respect to their international skills objectives? Methods: This study utilized a researcher created and empirically validated survey and two focus groups. The survey was sent to 1,920 businesses randomly sampled from Tampa Bay's 64,000 businesses. Response data from 145 returned questionnaires were analyzed and then discussed by business and community college focus groups.Findings: 1. Appreciation of Cross Cultural Differences and Foreign Language Skills were rated significantly (p < [or] = .05) higher higher in importance than other international skills. 2. Businesses utilize in-house trainers more often than any other type of training resource for international training. Community Colleges are rarely used as a training resource for international skills. 3. Community colleges should investigate whether to increase their academic outreach to businesses, mandate foreign language training in programs, and emphasize learning about other world areas in the curriculum. 4. Nation-wide surveys of Fortune 500 firms to determine international business practices and training needs may not translate to regional business communities.
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U.S.BasedBusinessNeedsforTechnical/OccupationalEmployeeswithInternational Skills:ConsiderationsforCommunityCollegeandSub-BaccalaureatePrograms intheTampaBayEconomicZone. by RonaldL.Olney Adissertationsubmittedinpartialfulfillment oftherequirementsforthedegreeof DoctorofPhilosophy DepartmentofAdult,CareerandHigherEducation CollegeofEducation UniversityofSouthFlorida MajorProfessor:DonaldDellow,Ed.D. Member:VictorHernandez-Gantes,Ph.D. Member:JeffreyKromrey,Ph.D. Member:WilliamH.YoungIII,Ed.D. DateofApproval: October7,2008 Keywords:TechnicalPrograms,OccupationalPrograms,InterculturalSkills,Global Skills,NeedsAssessment,SurveyValidation Copyright2008,RonaldL.Olney

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Dedication Thisdissertationisdedicatedtomybride,ChristineOlney,whohasbeenmy lover,mybestfriend,myinspirationandmymatefor30shortyears.Itisalsodedicated toourchildren,ElizabethandHannah:theyaremyhopefortheworldsfuture,andtomy siblings,GregOlney,DonnaPassmoreandSueBeck:theyaremygrounding.Finally, thisdissertationisdedicatedtomyparents,GregandVelOlney.Myfathertaughtme selflessservicetohighercallingsandmymothertaughtmetobepassionateaboutliving. Withtheseforcesencouragingandsupportingme,therehavebeennohillsforthis stepper.

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Acknowledgements Iwouldliketoexpressmygratitudetomydissertationchairandcommitteefor theirguidanceandsupportthroughoutthisdissertationprocess.Theywerethebest mentorsontheplanet.Iwouldalsoliketoacknowledgetheassistanceprovidedbymy advisorsandsubjectmatterexperts:BillHunter,ChrisPinkney,DavidOrtinau,Larry Hanson,MariaCrummettandLauraBerkowitz,aswellasthemanyvolunteers, neighbors,friends,businessandcommunitycollegeprofessionalsintheTampaBayarea thathelpedkeepthisworkinfocusandtheauthorontask.Finally,Ineedtothankt he CouncilfortheStudyofCommunityColleges(CSCC),theFloridaAssociationforCareer andTechnicalEducation(FACTE)andtheAssociationfortheStudyofHigherEducation (ASHE)fortheirsupportofmystudy.Itismyferventdesiretohavethisstudyreplicated nationally.

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i TableofContents ListofTablesvi Abstractvii ChapterOne:Introduction1 Background2 Purpose6 SignificanceoftheStudy7 Framework8 ResearchQuestions8 DelimitationsandLimitations9 Delimitations9 Limitations9 DefinitionofTerms10 ChapterSummary12 ChapterTwo:ReviewoftheLiterature13 GlobalizationandInternationalSkills14 Globalization14 InternationalSkills15 InternationalSkillsinBusiness19 CommunityCollegeTechnicalandOccupationalPrograms21 TheoreticalFramework23 CareerDevelopment23 NeedsAssessment24 SystemsTheory25 ChapterSummary26 ChapterThree:Method28 StudyDesign28 Setting29 SamplingMethod31 BusinessSampling31 FocusGroupSampling32 ProtectionofHumanSubjects33 Instrumentation34

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ii InstrumentDevelopment34 SurveyofU.S.BusinessNeedsforTechnical/Occupational EmployeeswithInternationalExpertise34 FocusGroupDiscussionOutline40 Procedures40 DataManagement42 Security42 AnalysisPlan42 ChapterSummary44 ChapterFour:OverviewoftheFindings45 AnalyticalStrategy45 SurveyRespondentsandBusinessDemographics46 SurveyRespondents46 BusinessDemographics47 FocusGroupParticipants51 FocusGroupInitialObservations51 StudyQuestions53 QuestionOne53 SurveyRespondents53 FocusGroupParticipants61 QuestionTwo63 SurveyRespondents63 FocusGroupParticipants64 QuestionThree66 SurveyRespondents66 FocusGroupParticipants69 ChapterSummary73 ChapterFive:Discussion74 Demographics75 StudyQuestions78 QuestionOne78 QuestionTwo79 QuestionThree80 TheoreticalContext81 CareerDevelopment81 NeedsAssessment82 SystemsTheory83 StudyLimitations83 ImplicationsforCommunityColleges84 ImplicationsforBusiness86 FutureResearchRecommendations87 ChapterSummary88

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iii References89 Appendices98 Appendix1:TheoreticalFrameworkSystemsTheory99 Appendix2:InternationalKnowledge,SkillsandAttitudinal Components100 Appendix3:KediaandDanielStudyResults101 Appendix4:TheOlneySurveyofU.S.BusinessNeedsfor Technical/OccupationalEmployeeswith InternationalExpertise102 Appendix5:FocusGroupDemographics110 Appendix6;HumanParticipantProtectionCertificate111 Appendix7:CoverLetterforSurveyInstrument112 Appendix8:InformedConsentForm113 Appendix9:OpenEndedQuestionsforFocusGroups116 Appendix10:RequesttoUsetheKediaandDanielSurvey117 Appendix11:U.S.BusinessNeedsforTechnical/Occupational EmployeeswithInternationalExpertise118 Appendix12:QuestionnaireAdvisorsandValiditySubject MatterExperts126 Appendix13:SurveyQuestionsbyConstructQuestion127 Appendix14:IRBApprovalforPilotStudy128 Appendix15:ChiSquaredGoodnessofFitforBusinessType, BusinessSizeandBusinessSales130 Appendix16:Test-RetestReliabilityParticipantsforPilotStudy132 Appendix17:PilotTestRetestAnswersthatDiffered133 Appendix18:PilotTest-RetestRespondentChangesandDirection134 Appendix19:Initialand11dayPostCardNotices135 Appendix20:CoverLetterforSurveyInstrument136 Appendix21:RecruitmentPosterforFocusGroupBusiness137 Appendix22:SolicitationforFocusGroupBusiness138 Appendix23:RecruitmentPosterforFocusGroupAcademic139 Appendix24:SolicitationforFocusGroupAcademic140 Appendix25:DescriptivesofRespondents141 Appendix26:ChiSquaredGoodnessofFitforBusinessType, BusinessSizeandBusinessSales142 Appendix27CorrelationsofBusinessSizeandSaleswith InternationalSkills144 Appendix28:DescriptivesofCompanies145 Appendix29:PercentofEmployeePositionsRequiring InternationalSkills146 Appendix30:ImportanceofRegionstoInternationalActivities: MeanScores147 Appendix31:FutureGrowthofInternationalActivities148

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iv Appendix32:BusinessesemployingTechnical/Occupational Sub-baccalaureateEmployeesbyCareerField andtypeofEducation149 Appendix33:InternationalBusinessManagement150 Appendix34:ShortagesofInternationalSkills151 Appendix35:TrainingProgramsandProviders152 Appendix36:ShortagesofInternationalSkills153 Appendix37:CommunityCollegeShortcomings154 Appendix38:NumberandSizeofCompaniesinStudyandin Kedia/DanielStudy155 Appendix39:FirmsbyPercentageinStudyandKedia/DanielStudy156 Appendix40:FirmsbyCompanySizePercentage:Current andKedia/DanielStudy157 Appendix41:InternationalSalesasaPercentageofTotalSales: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy158 Appendix42:CurrentStaffingPracticesformanagement positionsininternationalbusinessoperations: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy159 Appendix43:PercentageofEmployeesworkinginPositions RequiringInternationalKnowledgeorExpertise: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy160 Appendix44:CurrentandFutureImportanceofRegions: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy161 Appendix45:ImportanceofWorldRegionstoRespondents InternationalActivities:CurrentStudyand Kedia/DanielStudy162 Appendix46:CurrentGrowthofInternationalActivitiescompared toDomesticActivities:CurrentStudyand Kedia/DanielStudy163 Appendix47:PercentofTotalSalesRevenuefromInternational Businesswithinthenext10years:CurrentStudy andKedia/DanielStudy164 Appendix48:InternationalBusinessOpportunities:CurrentStudy andKedia/DanielStudy165 Appendix49:Overallbusinessincreaseifmoreinternational expertisewereavailable:CurrentStudyand Kedia/DanielStudy166 Appendix50:Difficultyinlocatinginternationallyskilled employees:CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy167 Appendix51:Internationalemphasisinthenext10years: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy168 Appendix52:Importanceofinternationalskillsforprofessional linestaffandlinemanagement:CurrentStudy169

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v Appendix53:Importanceofinternationalskillsforprofessional linestaffandlinemanagement:Kedia/DanielStudy170 Appendix54:Importanceofinternationalskillsexpertisefor staffandlineemployeesbyPercentages:Current StudyandKedia/DanielStudy171 Appendix55:Importanceofinternationalskillsexpertisefor technical/occupationalstaffemployeesbyLevel: CurrentStudy172 Appendix56:Importanceofinternationalskillsexpertisefor technical/occupationallineemployeesbyLevel: CurrentStudy173 Appendix57:Importanceofinternationalskillsexpertisefor professionalstaffbyLevel:Kedia/DanielStudy174 Appendix58:Importanceofinternationalskillsexpertiseforline positionsbyLevel:Kedia/DanielStudy175 Appendix59:OfferingofInternationalSkillprograms176 Appendix60:InternationalTrainingandSources:Current StudyandKedia/DanielStudy177 Appendix61:InternationalTrainingProgramSatisfaction: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy178 Appendix62:ImportanceofImprovedInternationalBusiness Education:CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy179 Appendix63:ImprovementsforInternationalEducation: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy180 EndPage

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vi ListofTables Table1:InternationalSkillsandStaffingDecisions55 Table2:ImportanceofInternationalSkills56 Table3:RepeatedMeasuresANOVAtestingformeansdifferences ofInternationalSkillsbyTechnical/OccupationalPositions58 Table4:CorrelationofCareerFieldswithInternationalSkills60 Table5:ProportionsandConfidenceIntervalsofInternationalSkills ProvidersandProgramTypes63 Table6:SuggestedImprovementsofInternationalSkillsProgramsI65 Table7:SuggestedImprovementsofInternationalSkillsProgramsII66 Table8:CorrelationsofSuggestionsforImprovementswithCareer Fields67

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vii U.S.BasedBusinessNeedsforTechnical/OccupationalEmployeeswithInternational Skills:ConsiderationsforCommunityCollegeandSub-BaccalaureatePrograms intheTampaBayEconomicZone. RonaldL.Olney ABSTRACT Significance ThisstudyprovidesthefirstsystematicneedsassessmentofaU.S.business regiontodetermineifbusinesseswantinternationalskillstaughtincommunitycollege technicalandoccupationalprograms.Withoutthisassessment,communitycollege leadersandfacultyarenotabletodeterminewhethertheyareadequatelypreparing studentsintheseskillstobesuccessfulintomorrowsfastpaced,mobileandintegrated globalworkforce. ResearchAims 1.Conductaneedsassessmenttodeterminewhetherinternationalskillswere consideredimportantforemploymententryormovement 2.Determinewherebusinessesobtaininternationalskillstraining. 3.Garnerbusinessrecommendationsfortheimprovementofinternationalskills educationincommunitycollegetechnicalandoccupationalprograms.

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viii ResearchQuestions 1.WhatinternationalskillsdosurveyedU.S.businessandindustryexecutives believeareimportantforthesub-baccalaureatetechnical/occupationalemployeesthat theyhireandpromote? 2.HowdosurveyedU.S.businessandindustryexecutivesengagetheir companies'sub-baccalaureatetechnical/occupationalemployeesininternationalskills trainingprograms? 3.HowdosurveyedbusinessandindustryexecutivesthinkU.S.community collegetechnical/occupationaldegreeprogramsshouldchangewithrespecttotheir internationalskillsobjectives? Methods Thisstudyutilizedaresearchercreatedandempiricallyvalidatedsurveyandtwo focusgroups.Thesurveywassentto1,920businessesrandomlysampledfromTampa Bays64,000businesses.Responsedatafrom145returnedquestionnaireswereanalyzed andthendiscussedbybusinessandcommunitycollegefocusgroups. Findings 1.AppreciationofCrossCulturalDifferencesandForeignLanguageSkillswere ratedsignificantly(p.05)higherinimportancethanotherinternationalskills. 2.Businessesutilizein-housetrainersmoreoftenthananyothertypeoftraining resourceforinternationaltraining.CommunityCollegesarerarelyusedasatraining resourceforinternationalskills.

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ix 3.Communitycollegesshouldinvestigatewhethertoincreasetheiracademic outreachtobusinesses,mandateforeignlanguagetraininginprograms,andemphasize learningaboutotherworldareasinthecurriculum. 4.Nation-widesurveysofFortune500firmstodetermineinternationalbusiness practicesandtrainingneedsmaynottranslatetoregionalbusinesscommunities.

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1 ChapterOne Introduction Communitycollegesarecrucialtothetrainingandeducationofthetechnical andoccupationalemployeesofAmericanindustry(Kirby,2006).Inrecentdecades thisrolehasbecomemoredynamicduetoacceleratingglobalizationandinternational marketcompetition(CommitteeforEconomicDevelopment,2006;Hughes,2006; Kirby,2006;Levin,2000).Toprovideaworkforcethatisabletomeetindustrys demands,communitycollegeshavedevelopedvariousstrategiesandpartnershipsthat havehelpedensurethatformertechnicalandoccupationalstudentshavetherequisite skillstooperatestate-of-the-artequipmentandmanagethenewestbusinesssystems (Brown,2001;Dougherty&Bakai,2000;Levine,2004;Marshall,2006;TheNEW CommissionontheSkillsoftheAmericanWorkforce,2006).Further,therehasbeena growingdemandforU.S.employeestodemonstrateskillsinworkingproductivelywith andwithindifferentculturesandnationalsettings,aswellasaneedformanagersto demonstrateaglobalperspectiveinproblemsolving(Green&Olson,2003;Kedia& Daniel,2003).Whileitisevidentthatbusinessownersandseniorbusinessleadersof U.S.firmsrecognizetheneedfortheseinternationalskillsinseniorleaderstoremain competitiveintheworld-widemarketplace,itiscurrentlyunclearwhethertheneedfor theseskillshavefiltereddownpastthemanagementlevelstothetechnicaland occupationalpositionsfilledbysub-baccalaureateemployees.

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2 Background ThemissionofU.S.communitycollegesincludesastrongcommitmentto providingtechnologicalandoccupationaltrainingandeducationprogramsforthe Americanworkforce.Fromtheirinceptionandagrarianroots,communitycolleges havegrownandbroadenedtheirofferingsandhaveremainedinstrumentalinthe preparationoftheskilledoperatorsneededbybusiness(Cohen&Brawer,2003).This missionbeganwhenthedemandforhighereducationoutgrewuniversitycapabilitiesin theearly20 th century.Academicianssupportedtheseparationoflowerdivisionand vocationaleducationclassesfromthemoreintenseresearchbaseofupperdivisionand postgraduateprograms(Eells,1941).Itwasenvisionedthatthecreationofposthigh schoolvocationaltraininginstitutionswouldallowmassesofskilledlaborerstobe trainedinthelatesttechnologiesandoccupationswhileprovidingtheopportunityfor youngpeopletogainmaturityandinsightsintotheworkenvironment(Douglass,2000; Koos,1924).Juniorcolleges,andlatercommunitycolleges,tookonthemajorityof thisstudentload. From1915tomid1970s,junior(community)collegesgrewfrom74toabout 1230institutions(Cohen&Brawer,2003).Thisgrowthwasspurredonbynumerous stateandfederaleducationandworkforceprogramsandapopulationdemanding generaleducation,remedialeducation,continuingeducation,communityeducationas wellasincreasinglydiversevocationalandtechnologicalprograms(Cohen&Brawer, 2003;Levin,2000). The1917Smith-HughActcreatedthefirstofmanyfederalprogramsthathave supported,moldedandbroadenedvocationaltraininginthecommunity(junior)

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3 collegesoverthepastcentury.Theseprograms,workinginconjunctionwith,and sometimesinoppositionto,stateandlocalprograms,havebeeninstrumentalin allowingthecommunitycollegestoremaincostefficientandviableprovidersofa skilledworkforcefortheU.S.economicengine(Cohen&Brawer,2003). Inconjunctionwiththefundingsupportofvocational/technicaleducationover thepastcentury,threeothertrendshaveinfluencedthegrowthofvocationalprograms inrecentdecades.Thesetrendsincludeachangeinthepublicsperceptionofthe purposeofcollegefromprovidingaliberaleducationtoprovidingprofession-specific technicalskills,thegrowingtrendforincreasedcredentialingwithinanexpanding numberofU.S.industries,andthetransformationofindustriesbroughtaboutby globalization(Friedman,2005;Jacobs,2001;Michie&Smith,1998). Asaforceoftransformation,globalizationhastakenonamantleofurgencyin U.S.businessesandcolleges.Widelydefinedaswhathappenswhenthemovement ofpeople,goods,orideasamongcountriesandregionsaccelerates(Coatsworth, 2004),globalizationhasmanifestitselfinparticularchangesinthewaybusinessis beingdone.Inparticular,changesinU.S.businesshaveincludedincreasedglobal competition,disintermediation,offshoringofmanufacturing,backroomandcustomer supportoperations,morediverseclientelesinU.S.establishmentsandcloser internationalcoordinationofbusinessprocessesatlowerlevelsofoperation(Kearney, 2004). Communitycollegeshaveexperiencedthesechangesinboththeir administrativeandacademicoperations.Asbusinesses,communitycollegeshave experiencedtheeffectsofglobalizationintheirdaytodayoperationsandintheir

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4 institutionalcompetitionwithotherhighereducationorganizations.Asteaching organizations,communitycollegeshavebeensubjectedtotransformationalforcesthat havecausedrapidchangesandalterationsincurriculumcontentandmethodsinan attempttomeettheacceleratingchangesdemandedbystudents,businessesandthe publicandinresponsetorapidinformationgrowth(Levin,S.L.,2002). Inresponsetoindustrysdemandsfordifferenttechnical/occupationalskillsets, communitycollegeshaveparticipatedinvariousstrategiestoaligncurriculumswith needs(CommitteeonScienceandTechnology,2007;Levin,2000;Vaughn,2006). Thesestrategieshaveincludeddualenrollmentinitiatives,corporateadvisoryand partnershipinitiatives,local,stateandfederalworkforceprogramsandstrategiesto align2yearand4yeararticulationagreementsbetweeninstitutions.Theseactions havebeenbothproactiveandreactive.Proactively,communitycollegeshave attemptedtocreateatrainedworkforceforanticipatednewtechnologieslocatingin theirgeographiccatchbasinaswellasinpreparationfortheadoptionand implementationofgrowinginternationalstandardinmanyindustries(Committeeon ScienceandTechnology,2007;Kasper,2003;MacAllum,Yoder&Poliakoff,2004;C. L.Marshall,IowaLakesCommunityCollege,personalcommunication,October2, 2006;TheNEWCommissionontheSkillsoftheAmericanWorkforce,2006). Reactively,theyhaveintroducedandeliminatedprogramsandmethodsinresponseto recognizedchangesinthelocalbusinesscommunityandstudentdemands(LaLonde, 1995). Sincetheearly1970s,U.S.institutionsofhighereducationhavebeenincreasingly awareofaneedtoincludeissuesofdiversityandculturalunderstandingintotheliberal

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5 artscurriculum.Thisawarenesstendedtofocusprimarilyondomesticsocialequity issuesandlessonglobalperspectivesandunderstanding(Bruch,Higbee&Lundell, 2002).Businessesalsorecognizedtheneedforthesesoftskillsasanincreasingly diverseworkforceenteredintotheinformationageandcollaborativeteamworkwas stressedintheworkplace(Overtoom,2000;SecretarysCommissiononAchieving NecessarySkills,1991;USFGlobalizationResearchCenter,2004).Presently,alarge numberofemploymentagencies,associations,andlicensingexaminationsinclude diversityandcollaborativeworkskillsintheircriteriaforsuccess(Hake,2007; NationalWorkReadinessCouncil,2007).Further,withinthetechnicaland occupationalprograms,atrendtowardanewvocationalismhasattemptedtoincrease softskillintegrationintotheirprograms,withafocusonproblemsolving, collaboration,communicationsskillsanddiversityawareness(Green&Olson,2003). Forthepastdecade,universitiesandparticularlyCollegesofBusinesshave beenstudyingtheimpactsofglobalizationonbusiness.Theirstudieshaveexamined thechangingskillsrequiredbyworkersintheglobalizedeconomies,emphasizing regionalornationalindustrytrendsandonthechanginginterpersonalneedsofsenior businessmanagers.Todate,fewstudieshavebeenpublishedonthechanging social/interpersonalskillsneededbyentrylevelemployeesornewlinemanagersin orderforbusinessesandindividualstoexcelinthenewglobalizedeconomy.Whathas beenwrittenhasconcentratedonlargecorporations,universityinstructionandbusiness majors(Kedia&Daniel,2003;Bikson&Law,1994). Anation-wideFortune500study(Kedia&Daniel,2003)examineduniversity businessmajorstodeterminewhethercorporateleadersweresatisfiedwith

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6 internationaleducationcomponentsofexistingcollegiate,corporateandgovernmental businessprograms.Thestudyidentifiedsixinternationalskillsets:countrysocioeconomic/politicalknowledge,appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences,aglobal perspective,understandingoflocalmarkets/businesspractices,internationalwork experience,andforeignlanguageskills.Further,the111respondentsreportedastrong demandfortheskillsandsomedifficultyinfindingorretainingmanagerswiththe desiredinternationalskills(Kedia&Daniel,2003). TheKediaandDaniel(2003)studywasnotthefirstofitstype.In1994,the RANDInstituteonEducationandTraining(Bikson&Law,1994)publishedacase studyfocusingonexpandingcross-culturalcompetencerequirements;in1997the CenterforInternationalBusinessEducationandResearch(Moxon,OShea,Brown& Escher,1998)presentedtheresultsofasurveystudythatreportedanincreasedneedfor internationalskills;andin2000JohnLevinsmultiplecasestudyfoundthegrowing demandforneweconomyskills.FollowingtheKediaandDaniel2003report,the discussionturnedtowardcreatingaclearerdefinitionofinternationalskillsandthe relatedcross-culturalcompetenceandglobalcompetence(Kedia&Daniel,2003; Reilly,2004;Sizoo&Serrie,2004;Hunter,2004). Purpose Theprimarypurposeofthisstudywastodetermineifthereisaneducational needforinternationalskillsforsub-baccalaureatetechnical/occupationalemployees. Thisneedsassessmentwasconductedtodeterminewhetherinternationalskillswere consideredimportantforemploymententryormovement,andifconsideredimportant, thentodeterminewherebusinesseshavebeenobtainingtrainingininternationalskills.

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7 Inaddition,thisstudygarneredbusinessrecommendationsfortheimprovementof internationalskillseducationincommunitycollegeoccupationalandtechnical programs. SignificanceoftheStudy Withanon-goingfocusonlargecorporations,universityinstruction,and businessmajors,todatetherehadnotbeenasystematicneedsassessmentfor internationalskillstobetaughtincommunitycollegeoccupationalandtechnical programs.Withoutthisassessment,communitycollegeleadersandfacultyhavenot beenabletodeterminewhethertheyareadequatelypreparingstudentsintheseskillsto besuccessfulintomorrowsfastpaced,mobileandintegratedglobalworkforce. TheliteraturehastoldusthateverycategoryandaspectofU.S.businesshas beenaffectedbyglobalization,thatbusinesseshavebeeninteractingacrossculturaland nationalboundariesatanincreasingrateandthatourcitizenryhasbeengrowingmore ethnicallyandculturallydiverse.Wealsoknowthatourcommunitycollegesystems havehadamissiontooffereducationandtrainingacrossthetechnicalandoccupational spectrumandtoworktoprovidebusinessestheskilledworkerstheyneed. Inanchoringthisstudyintheliterature,thefindingsofthisstudywere comparedtotheresultsofanearliernationalstudyofFortune500MBAprogram graduatestodeterminewhetherthenationalresultsaregeneralizabletoasingle economicregionwithemphasisoncommunitycollegeoccupationalandtechnical students.

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8 Framework TheNeedsAssessmentPlanningprocessoutlinedbyWilliamRothwell&H.C. Kazanas(1998)actedastheeducationaltemplateforthisstudy.Focusedonensuring theperformancerequirementsoftheemploymentpositionsaresatisfied,thisprocess actedtolimitthestudytothespecificinternationalskillsetsoutlinedbytheKediaand Daniel(2003)study. Thetheoreticalframeworkofthisstudywasbasedinsystemstheory(Appendix 1).Inaworldofglobalchange(globalization),studentsgothroughaneducational processandgainknowledge,skillsandattributeswhicharethenutilizedinbusiness andindustry.Duetothedynamicsofchange,theneedsofstudents,theavailable knowledge,skillsandattributes,andtheneedsofbusinessandindustrycontinually transform.Needsassessmentsareperformedbybusinessandindustryinorderto identifyeducationalneedsintheircurrentandperspectiveemployees.Theseidentified needsarethencodifiedintoeducationalprogramsandpresentedtostudentstomitigate theshortcomingconsequences.Theclosedloopnatureoftheframeworkacknowledges thattheglobaltransformationleadstoaneedforlifelonglearning. ResearchQuestions Thespecificresearchquestionsforthisstudyaretodetermine: 1.WhatinternationalskillsdosurveyedU.S.businessandindustryexecutives believeareimportantforthesub-baccalaureatetechnicalandoccupationalemployees thattheyhireandpromote?

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9 2.HowdosurveyedU.S.businessandindustryexecutivesengagetheir companies'sub-baccalaureatetechnicalandoccupationalemployeesintraining programstodevelopinternationalskills? 3.InwhatwaysdosurveyedbusinessandindustryexecutivesthinkU.S. communitycollegetechnicalandoccupationaldegreeprogramsshouldchangewith respecttotheirinternationalskillsobjectives? DelimitationsandLimitations Delimitation: Thestudyspopulationforthesurveywasdelimitedtobusinesseswithfiveormore employeesandamailingaddresswithintheTampaBayEconomicZoneaslistedinthe ReferenceUSAdatabase.Fromthispopulation,arandomsamplingof1,920businesses wasaskedtoparticipateinthestudyand145businessesresponded.Thestudysbusiness focusgroupconsistedofaconveniencesampleof12businessmanagersfromtheTampa BayEconomicZoneandthestudyscommunitycollegefocusgroupwascomprisedofa conveniencesamplingof4communitycollegeadministratorsorcommunitycollege technical/occupationalinstructorsfromtheTampaBayEconomicZone. Limitations Thisstudywaslimitedbyanumberofconditions.Theentirestudywas conductedintheTampaBayEconomicZonewithnoattempttodetermineifthe internationalizationorcompositionofcompanieswithinthezonewerecomparableto otherareasoftheworld.Thisstudydidnotconfirmthatsub-baccalaureate technical/occupationalemployeeshadattendedcommunitycollegeswithintheGreater TampaBayEconomicZone.ThedataintheReferenceUSAdatabasethatwereused

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10 inthisstudywerenotindependentlyverifiedforaccuracybytheauthor.Thesurvey instrumentprovidesonlyindividualmanagersperceptionsofthedemographicsofthe companyandtheinternationalskillsneededbytechnical/occupationalemployeesand shouldnotbeconstruedasacompletegapassessment.Thesurveysthatwerereceived wereaconveniencesamplingofthesurveysmailed,andtheresulting145respondents providedaconfidencelevelofonly76%withamarginoferrorof+/-5%.Therewas noattemptbytheauthortoprovidesurveysinlanguagesotherthanEnglish.TheFocus GroupswereconveniencesamplessolicitedbyaprofessionalfromtheChamberof Commerceandbyaseniorcommunitycollegeadministrator.TheCommunityCollege Focusgroupconsistedofonlyfourmemberswhichlimiteditsrepresentationandmay haveeffectedthegroupdiscussions.Theanalysisofthefocusgroupdiscussionswere qualitativeinnatureandconsequently,donotattesttomeettherigorofqualitative research. DefinitionofTerms Aglobalperspective:Anabilitytoconsidertheinterdependenceofactions acrosstheplanet.Thisperspectiveallowsindividualstoconsiderandintegratethe impactsofinternationalactionsonthelocalenvironment,aswellastheimpactsof localactionsontherestoftheworld. Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences:Anunderstandingthatthereare culturaldifferencesthroughouttheU.S.andtheworldandthatthesedifferencesare opportunitiesforbusinessgrowthandenrichedeconomicrelationshipsthroughthe leveragingofmultipleperspectivesandadaptability.

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11 Foreignlanguageskills:Degreesofunderstandingofawrittenorspoken language,notEnglish,aswellasthedegreesofabilitytoconciselytranslatetheintent andmeaningofnon-EnglishlanguagesbetweeneachotherandwithEnglish. Internationalworkexperience:Anindividualshistoryofconductingbusiness activitiesoutsideoftheUnitedStates.Thisactivitycouldbeclassifiedasbeing physicallypostedoutsideoftheU.S.andlivingforaperiodoftimeonforeignsoil,or asoccupyingapositionintheU.S.thatrequiresdirectworkintheinternationalarena. Knowledgeofacountryssocio-economicandpoliticalstructures:Awareness ofthesocial,economicandpoliticalstructuresandinstitutionswithinforeigncountries thatareormaybeofbusinessinteresttoyourfirm. LinePersonnel:Managersoremployeesworkinginprimaryrevenue generatingunitsinsupportoftheorganizationalmission. StaffPersonnel:Managersoremployeesworkinginpositionsthatareancillary totheprimaryrevenuegeneratingunitsofanorganization. Technical/OccupationalPrograms:Communitycollegeprogramswithafocus onworkforcedevelopmentversusprogramsintendedtoprovidestudentswithgeneral educationrequirementsforacceptanceintoafouryearprogram. U.S.Businesses:BusinessesthatareregisteredwithintheUnitedStatesand withmailingaddresseswithintheU.S.ThesebusinessesmaybeU.S.orforeign owned. Understandingofinternationaltechnical/occupationalstandards:Knowledge andunderstandingofacceptedinternationalstandardswithinones technical/occupationalfield.

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12 Understandingoflocalmarket/businesspractices:Anunderstandingofthe actualwaybusinessissuccessfullyconductedincountry/culturalsettingsofinterest. ChapterSummary ChapterOnepresentedabriefoverviewofwhatisknownabouttheneedfor internationalskillsinbusinessandprovidedastatementofthepurposeofthestudyto furtherunderstandtherelationship.Therewasashortdiscussionabouthowthehistory oftechnical/occupationalprogramsincommunitycollegeshasevolvedovertimeand anoutlineoftheresearchthathasbeenconductedontheneedforinternationalskillsto betaughtintheUnitedStates.Theprimarypurposeofthisstudywaspresented:to determinewhetherbusinessleadersbelieveinternationalskillsareimportantforsubbaccalaureatetechnical/occupationalemployees.Further,asecondpurposepresented wastodeterminehowbusinessescurrentlytrainemployeesininternationalskills.The thirdpurposepresentedwastoexploretherelationshipbetweenthecommunity collegesandlocalbusinessesasitrelatestointernationalskillseducation.Lastly,the significanceofthestudysectiondiscussedtheneedforcommunitycollegestoprovide businesseswithemployeesthathavethenecessaryinternationalskillsfortheU.S. economytofunctioneffectivelyintheevolvingglobalizedworld.

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13 ChapterTwo ReviewoftheLiterature ChapterTwopresentsareviewoftherelevantliteratureregardingtheteaching ofandtheperceivedneedsforinternationalskillsintheworkplace.Briefoverviewsof theeffectsofglobalizationoncommunitycollegesandinternationalskillsare presented.Areviewofinternationalskillsliteratureasitrelatestothisstudyisalso presented.Thisreviewisfollowedbyadiscussionofcommunitycollegetechnicaland occupationalprogramsastheyrelatetothisstudyandadiscussionoftheframework andtheoreticalunderpinningsofthestudy. InitialcomputerizedsearchesonWilsonOmniFile,EBSCOHostResearch DatabasesandProQuestusingtheheadingsofinternationalskills,globalizationskills, internationalcompetenceorglobalcompetenceresultedinmorethan7,000 publications.SearchesusingtheBooleanANDtermforinternationalskills+ training,globalskills+trainingorglobalcompetence+educationandcross-cultural competenceidentifiedover1,300articles.Areviewofthereferenceswithinthese locatedarticlesresultedinmanyadditionalrelevantsources.Additionalresourceswere providedbysubjectmatterexpertswithinthefieldregardingglobalization, internationalskillsandtechnical/occupationalprogramswithincommunitycolleges.

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14 GlobalizationandInternationalSkills Globalization Globalizationisabroadcontroversialconceptthatspeaksoftherapid interactionsofculturesacrossdistances.Broadlystated,globalizationconcernsitself withthewaysandmeansbywhichideas,peopleandgoodsaretransferredfromone placetoanotherandtheresultingchangesthatseemtooccurasaresultofthese movements.Researchershavediscussedthesechangesfromstructural,political, humanandsymbolicframesofreference(Boleman&Deal,2003;Coatsworth,2004; Raby,2000)andopinedoptimismandconcernsabouttheintendedandunintended consequencesoftheseinteractions(Raby,2000;Tierney,2004). Communitycollegeshavebeenimpactedbytheeffectsofglobalizationboth administrativelyandacademically(Levin,J.S.,2002;Tierney,2004). Administratively,theeffectshavebeeninstrumentalinincreasingworld-wide competitionbetweeneducationalinstitutions,usheringinincreasedneedsfor economizingandamorebusiness-likeapproachtocollegeaffairs,increased accountability,anincreasedneedtointernationalizethecampus,anincreaseinthe potentialstudentbaseandadecreaseininsularitywithinthecollegecommunity. Academically,globalizationhasincreasedtheamountandspeedofinformation transfer,hasallowedacademicstoexpandtheirreachbeyondtheclassroomwalls,has madeitmoreimportantformostprofessorstostayup-to-datewithintheirfield,has changedstudentdemographicsandneedsandhasthreatenedmanytraditionalcourses andteachingmethodswithobsolescence(Currie&Subotzky,2000;Levin,2000; Suarez-Orozco&Qin-Hilliard,2004).

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15 InternationalSkills Astheimpactsofglobalizationhavebeenrecognized,therehasbeenagrowing awarenessthattheremaybeaneedforadifferentskillsettoallowworkersinaglobal economytoperformmoreeffectively.Variousresearchershavecoinedtermssuchas globalskills,globalcompetence,cross-culturalcompetenceandinternationalskillsto describethephenomenaandvariousresearchershaveprovidedoverlappingskillsets (Appendix2). Firstintroducedintotheliteratureasculturalcompetencein1988byPaul Pedersen,thisphenomenonhassinceenteredthelexiconofvirtuallyeverynationand humanenterprise.Basedonageneralbeliefthatindividualsandsystemsshould acknowledgeandtrytocontextuallyaccommodateforthedifferencesbetweensubcategoryofhumansociety,researchershavestudiedtheconceptanditsimpactsfrom individual(behavioral,affectiveandknowledge)(Harper,2006;Sue,2001),cultural (religion,business,family,government,education)(Bikson&Law,1994;Diller& Moule,2005;Hampden-Turner&Trompenaars,2000;Ogbu,1981)andglobal (migration)(Bean,2006)perspectives.Levelsofcompetencearegenerallydetermined bythe degree of understanding,clarityofcommunicationandeffectivenessof interactionswithpeopleorsystemsacrosscultures(U.S.DepartmentofDefense, 2006).Itremainsaworkinprogress. AreviewofthegeneralizedskillsetsinAppendix2revealscommonalities.All oftheskillsetsincludedaneedtoperformtaskswithinamixedculturalsetting(Bikson &Law,1994;Deardorff,2006;Hunter,2004;Kedia&Daniel,2003;Lambert,1996; Moxon,OShea,Brown&Escher,1998;Reilly,2004;Rollins,2005;Sizoo&Serrie,

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16 2004;USFGlobalizationResearchCenter,2004;Zeszotarski,2001);allbutfive includedtheneedtodemonstrateaglobalperspective(Bikson&Law,1994;Deardorff, 2006;Hunter,2004;Kedia&Daniel,2003;Rollins,2005;Zeszotarski,2001);allbut fiveemphasizedtheneedtohaveknowledgeofotherpoliticaloreconomicalsystems (Bikson&Law,1994;Hunter,2004;Kedia&Daniel,2003;Lambert,1996;Moxon, OShea,Brown&Escher,1998;Rollins,2005;Sizoo&Serrie,2004;Zeszotarski, 2001);andallbutfourhighlightedtheneedtoappreciateculturaldifferences(Bikson& Law,1994;Hunter,2004;Kedia&Daniel,2003;Lambert,1996;Sizoo&Serrie,2004; USFGlobalizationResearchCenter,2004;Zeszotarski,2001).Additionalreview indicatesthateightoftheskillsetshighlightaneedformorethanonelanguage(Bikson &Law,1994;Hunter,2004;Kedia&Daniel,2003;Lambert,1996;Moxon,OShea, Brown&Escher,1998;Reilly,2004;Rollins,2005;USFGlobalizationResearch Center,2004).Otherskillsdescribedbyfourormoreauthorsincludedappreciationsof geographic,religiousandsociologicaldifferences/similarities,theabilitytounderstand selfinamulticulturalcontextandanunderstandingofbusinesspracticesinother nationsandcultures(Bikson&Law,1994;Deardorff,2006;Hunter,2004;Kedia& Daniel,2003;Lambert,1996;Moxon,OShea,Brown&Escher,1998;Reilly,2004; Rollins,2005;Sizoo&Serrie,2004;Zeszotarski,2001). In2003,KediaandDanielreportedfindingsfromtheirstudydesignedto determinewhichinternationalskillsseniorFortune500businessexecutivesconsidered importantfornewandsubordinatebusinessschoolgraduates(Kedia&Daniel,2003). Thestudywasbasedonanearlierwork(Moxon,OShea,Brown&Escher,1998)that identifiedcross-culturalskills,foreignlanguageskills,countryspecificknowledge,

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17 internationalbusinessexperienceandinterpersonalskillsashavingsometogreat importancetoacross-sectionofsmalltolargebusinesseswithaninternational presence.KediaandDaniel,usingsubject-matterexpertsrefinedtheskillslistto: countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge,appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences, aglobalperspective,understandingoflocalmarkets/businesspractices,international workexperienceand,foreignlanguageskills.Their11%return(n=111)ofusable surveysindicatedthattheinternationalbusinesscommunitybelievedthatallsixofthe listedinternationalskillswereofsomeorofgreatimportanceforbothprofessionalstaff andlinemanagementpersonnel(Appendix3). Otherexplorationsregardingthetopicofinternationalskillshavebeen conducted.Forexample,anearlierstudybyRANDCorporation(Bikson&Law, 1994)approachedtheissueofinternationalskillstodiscoverhumanresource implications.Commissionedinsupportofcollegeplanningandplacementand corporatehumanresourceprofessionals,thestudyexaminedhumanresourcepolicies andcurriculumimplicationsofaglobalizedworkforce.Thecasestudyconsistedof interviewsandgroupdiscussionsin16multinationalcorporationsand16universities fromfourU.S.urbanenvironments.Selectedbusinessprofessionalsincludedsenior management,seniorhumanrelationsprofessionals,seniorlinemanagementanda representativeentrylevelprofessionalwithabaccalaureatedegree.University participantsparalleledbusinesseswithseniordecision-makers,placementspecialists, seniorfacultyandgraduatingstudents.BiksonandLaw(1994)identifieddomain knowledge,cognitive,socialandpersonalskills,priorworkexperience,onthejob trainingandcross-culturalcompetenceasthegeneralcategoriesofdesiredattributes.

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18 Ofthesecategories,onlycross-culturalcompetencewasidentifiedasacriticalnew requirementformultinationalcorporations.Cross-culturalcompetencewasdefinedas includinganinternationalperspectivetobusiness,anappreciationofthedifferences betweencultures,anunderstandingofonesownculture,anunderstandingofhistory, geography,andpoliticsfromdifferentculturalcontexts,anunderstandingoflocal customsandlanguage,andtheabilitytoworkwithincross-culturalgroups. Conveningsubject-matterexperts,MaryReilly(2004)createdatentativelistof competenciesandskillsforinternationalbusinessprofessionals.Usingastratified conveniencesamplingof548internationalbusinessmanagers,humanrelations specialists,universityacademiciansandrecentbusinessgraduates,thesamplegarnered a13%returnratethatheavilyweightedtheacademicians(71%).Theresponsesrated the160competenciesona5-pointLikert-likescale.Fifty-nineitemsreceivedan averageratingofveryimportantorimportant.Thesefiftynineitemsarecombined underthecategories:appreciationofthedifferencesbetweencultures,understandingof localmarkets/businesspractices,culturalsocio-economic/politicalknowledge, understandingofonesownculture,abilitytoworkwithincross-culturalgroups,a globalperspectiveandforeignlanguageskills. UsingamixedthreeroundDelphitechniquewith18panelistsandasurvey administeredto141internationaleducatorsand42transnationalhumanrelations directors,BillHunter(2004)focusedoncapturingaworkingdefinitionofglobal competence(87%agreement)andreachingaconsensusonthemeritofsuggested knowledge,skillsandattitudinalcomponentsinthedefiningofagloballycompetent person.Theresultsconsistedof19itemssummeduptoinclude:selfawarenessofown

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19 culture,abilitytocompeteacrossculturessuccessfully,broadcultural/social/linguistic/ historic/currentknowledge,foreignlanguageskills,nativeexperienceinothercultures, aglobalperspectiveandopenness,andawarenessandrespectculturaldiversityand pluralism.Itisworthnotingthatforeignlanguageskillswererankedbetweenagreeand neutralandthuswasonlymarginallyincludedintheabovelist. Focusingontheneedtolearncross-culturalskillsthroughintellectualand experientialmeans,SizooandSerrie(2004)concludedthatcross-culturaldifferences shouldbemanagedatthreelevels:selfinresponsetothealienculture,relationships withinanalienculture,andorganizationalstructuresandfunctionsinconcertwithan alienculture.Inlearningknowledgeandskills,itwasenvisionedthattheindividual woulddemonstrateanappreciationofcross-culturaldifferences,becapableofadapting toadifferentculturalenvironment,managecross-culturaldifferencesatthe interpersonallevel,demonstratecountrygeo-socio-economic/politicalknowledge,local markets/businesspractices,anddemonstratetheabilitytoworkwithincross-cultural groups. InternationalSkillsinBusiness Technologicaladvancementsandtherapidtransportofgoodsandideasare forcingbusinessestoreconsidertheskillsetsneededbyemployees.Besetwith increasingcompetitionandincreasinginterdependencewithfar-flungassociationsas wellasanincreasinglydiverseclientpopulation,businessownersandperspective employeesareexpendingconsiderableresourcestoimprovetheskillsthatwillincrease thechancesforfinancialsuccess.Manystudieslistinternationalskillsofvarying

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20 importanceforsuccess.AreviewoftheinternationalskillsidentifiedbyKediaand Daniel(2003)highlightsthisobservation(Appendix2). Fromtheliterature,businessexpectsemployeestobewellgroundedinthe technicalaspectsoftheirchosenfield,althoughthedemandforcompetenceincurrent internationalstandardsvariesbyindustryandcompany(Laanan,Compton&Friedel, 2006;Moxon,OShea,Brown&Escher,1998).Thisvariancebyindustryand companyholdstruefortheneedtounderstandlocalmarkets/businesspracticesoutside oftheU.S.(Moxon,OShea,Brown&Escher,1998).Anappreciationofcrossculturaldifferences,toincludethecelebrationofdiversity,cross-culturalcompetence andculturalknowledge,arealsoconsideredimportantbusinessattributes(Bikson& Law,1994;CommitteeforEconomicDevelopment,2006;Hunter,White&Godbey, 2006;Kearney,2004;Moxon,OShea,Brown&Escher,1998).Possessingaglobal perspective,toincludeglobalknowledgeandaglobalmindset,isidentifiedas important,howeveronestudyfindsitonlymarginallyimportant(Hunter,White& Godbey,2006)whileanotherstudydeemshavingaglobalperspectiveofsignificant andgrowingimportance(Moxon,OShea,Brown&Escher,1998).Internationalwork experienceisofconsiderableimportancetobusinesses(Bikson&Law,1994; CommissiononInternationalEducation,1998;CommitteeforEconomicDevelopment, 2006;Kearney,2004;Moxon,OShea,Brown&Escher,1998;StanleyFoundation, 2000),butthereisaconcernthatcollege/universitystudyabroadprogramsandother programsthatdonotcontainprolongedemersionexperientialcomponentsare inadequate(Sizoo&Serrie,2004).Foreignlanguageskillsarealsoconsideredan importantinternationalskill,buttherewasaperceptionthatcollege/university

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21 programsarefocusedonliteratureandnotonaculturalintegrationoflanguagewhich wouldbeusefulintheworkplace(Bikson&Law,1994;CommitteeforEconomic Development,2006;Hunter,White&Godbey,2006;KediaandDaniel,2003;Moxon, OShea,Brown&Escher,1998). CommunityCollegeTechnicalandOccupationalPrograms Communitycollegetechnicalandoccupationalprogramsareimportantto individualsuccess,communitygrowthandnationalprosperity.Currently,almosthalf ofallcommunitycollegestudentsareenrolledintechnicalandoccupationalcourses, over90%ofhighschoolstudentstaketechnicalandoccupationalcourses,andthreefourthsofallU.S.employeesareemployedinmid-skillpositionstypicallyservedby technicalandoccupationalprograms(AssociationforCareerandTechnicalEducation, 2006;Boggs,2007;Laanan,Compton,&Friedel,2006).Theseprogramshavebeen essentialtoretrainingfromoldindustryskillsandinfillingbothtraditionaland emerginghighskilljobsinlocaleconomies(Dellow,2007;Fahy,2005;Green&Siaya, 2005;Jacobs,2001;Jacobs&Voorhees,2006;Laanan,Compton,&Friedel,2006). Therelationshipbetweenthesetechnicalandoccupationalprogramsandtheindustries thattheysupporthasnotbeenwithouttension. Tornbetweenitsnumerousmissionsandphilosophicalunderpinnings, communitycollegeshavestruggledtomaintaintheappropriatebalancebetween competingentitieswhilenegotiatingchangesinlegislativeandfinancialsupport.Over thedecadesnumerousfederalacts,toincludetheSmith-HughsAct(1917),the ServicemensReadjustmentAct(1944),theManpowerDevelopmentTrainingAct (1962),theVocationalEducationAct(1963)withvariousamendmentsand

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22 reauthorizations,theCarlD.PerkinsVocationalandAppliedTechnologyAct(1984) withvariousamendmentsandreauthorizationsandtheWorkforceInvestmentAct (1998),haveprovidednationalsupportforstateandlocalinitiatives.Theseinitiatives havelongprovidedthemandateforvocationalandoccupationalprogramswithinthe communitycollegesystems.Commontoalloftheseactshasbeenarequirementthat vocationalandoccupationaltrainingbegearedtowardcreatingalocalworkforcewith skillstoenhancecommunityeconomicdevelopment.Beginninginthe1990s, financialsupportforvocationalandoccupationalprogramsincreasinglyshiftedtothe studentsandtheindustriesthatneededtheskilledworkers(CommitteeonScienceand Technology,2007;Hauptman,1997).Moreprogramsarebeingco-sponsoredby specificlocalbusinessesandindustrieswithvestedinterestsinproprietarytechnologies andaneedfortechnicallytrainedorcredentialedoperators,whilemanytraditional programsarebeingscrappedduetosmallcensusoralackoffinancialsupport. Theinterrelatedeffectsofglobalization,thenewvocationalismandagrowing capitalisticapproachtoeducationarechangingcommunitycollegetechnicaland occupationalprograms.Communitycollegesneedtoeconomizeduetoincreased competitionfromotherproviders,anincreasedstudentbodyandreducedgovernmental financialsupport(Hauptman,1997).Local,stateandnationalpoliticalandbusiness leaderslooktothecommunitycollegestoprovidethemid-skilledworkforcewiththe technicalandsoftskillsnecessaryforlifelonglearningwithinaviablecareerpathwhile simultaneouslyinsistingoneconomizingandthemaintenanceofothercommunity collegemissions(Levin,2000).Technicalandoccupationalprogramstudentswantto

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23 betaughtworkrelatedskillsthatwillimprovetheiremployability,advancement opportunitiesandmakethemmorecompetitiveintheglobaleconomy(Ryland,2000). Thenewvocationalismhighlightstheneedforlearningsoftskillswithin technicalandoccupationalprograms.Thisemphasisstemsfromanunderlying principleofthenewvocationalismthatstudentsneedtohavethecapabilityand expectationoflife-longlearning,aholisticunderstandingoftheirchosenfieldandthe skillsneededtoadapttotheever-changingglobaleconomy(Bragg,2001;Townsend, 2001).Insupportofthisrecognition,communitycollegetechnicalandoccupational programshavebeenencouragedtoincreasegeneraleducationrequirementswithin programsandtoincludethelearningofinternationalskillsneededbybusiness (Townsend,2001;Dellow,2007). TheoreticalFramework CareerDevelopment Centraltoanunderstandingofthenewvocationalismandthegrowing awarenessoftheincreasedneedforbusinesssoftskillsisthecareerdevelopment process.Thisprocess,encompassingenhancingself-awareness,environmental awarenessandcareerdecisionmaking,consistsofbehavioral,attitudinaland knowledgefactorsassociatedwithindividualaswellasinstitutionalresponsibilities (Tuckman,1974).Influencedbybothcareerpathsandbiologicalage,thecareer developmentprocessesofbothindividualsandinstitutionsareaffectedbyfar-reaching environmentalfactorssuchasglobalization(Super&Hall,1978)whichchangethe natureofsociety,industry,individualjobsandindividuals.Globalization,withits increasedandacceleratedinteractionswithdiversegroupsandideashasaffectedthe

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24 veryfabricoftheU.S.populationandhowthatpopulationworks,playsandthinks (Friedman,2005). NeedsAssessment Inthereviewofliterature,evidencewaspresenteddemonstratingthatmany businessleadersofinternationalcorporationswantbusinessschoolgraduatestopossess variousinternationalskills,buttherewaslittleresearchtodeterminewhetherthisneed forinternationalskillshasreachedthemid-leveltechnicalandoccupationalemployees orisneededbylocalandnationalbusinesses. Torecognizeaneducationalneed,itiscommonlyacceptedthataneeds assessmentmustbeconducted.Theneedsassessmentidentifiesdifferencesbetween whatstudentscurrentlydemonstrate,possessorknow,anddesiredknowledge,attitudes orcapabilities(Queeney,1995).Theestablishmentofdesiredendstateswasthefocus ofthisstudy.Withinthisframeworkofgoalsetting,determiningneedsandoutlining educationalpurposes(Posner,1998),societalstakeholderswithintheU.S.identifieda genericneedforinternationalskillsinorderforU.S.businessestothriveinthe globalizedworld(Hunter,2004;Kedia&Daniel,2003;Levin,2000;OShea,Brown& Escher,1998;Reilly,2004;Sizoo&Serrie,2004).Focusingonthesocietalneeds assessmentofthisstudy,theinstitutionalstakeholders,intheformofbusinessleaders, wereaskediftheybelievedthisneedforinternationalskillshadreacheddowninto businessorganizationstotheleveloftechnicalandoccupationalemployeeswithsubbaccalaureatedegrees.Theirresponses,gatheredthroughsurveyandfocusgroup designs,providedempiricalandjudgmentassessmentsthroughobservation,evaluation

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25 anddiscussionwithstakeholdersthatpossessexpertknowledge(Cervano&Wilson, 2006;Grier,2005). Inparticular,theneedsassessmentplanningprocessoutlinedbyRothwelland Kazanas(1998)actedastheeducationaltemplateforthisstudy.Aspartoftheprocess toidentifyskillsneededintaskperformance,itiscommonforsupervisorstoprovide inputintotheneedsassessment.Thisinputhelpsidentifytheimportanceandrelevance ofskillstothesuccessfulperformanceoftasksandsub-tasksrequiredordesiredfora particularjoborclassofjobs.Inthisstudy,companyleaderswereaskedtoprovide inputastotheimportanceandrelevanceofinternationalskillstothesuccessful performanceoftasksandsub-tasksrequiredordesiredforemployeesfilling occupationalandtechnicalpositionswithintheorganization.Theinternationalskills assessedwerefromtheKediaandDaniel(2003)study. SystemsTheory Systemstheoryprovidedtheframeworkforthisresearchproject(Banathy, 1991).Systemstheoryfocusesonthedynamicinteractionofpartswithinalarger systemandrecognizesthatmostsocialsystemsareinherentlyopentooutside influences(Bailey,1994).Thisstudywasconductedwithinthecontextofeducating andtrainingstudentsforemploymentpurposeswithinaglobalizedworld(Appendix1). Withinthesystem,studentsincludeallcurrentorperspectiveemployeesofbusiness thatareengagedinformalorinformaltechnical/occupationaltrainingoreducational endeavors.Thesetrainingoreducationalendeavorsareconductedinpublicandprivate institutions,toincludecommunitycolleges.Intheprocessofthetrainingor educationalendeavor,studentsgainknowledge,skillsandattributesthatenhancetheir

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26 abilitiestobeproductiveemployeesforbusinessandindustrialemployers.Business andindustryincludesallcompaniesandorganizationsthatprovidepublicorprivate servicesorproductsforconsumptionormarketshare.Theyaretheemployersofthe studentsorformerstudents,andassuch,haveaneedtoensurethattheemployeesthat theyhire,retainandpromote,haveand/oracquiretheknowledge,skillsandattitudes neededtoenhancebusinesssuccessinmeetingorexceedingtheorganizationsmission, visionandgoals.Theidentificationofbusinesstrainingandeducationalneedsisan integralpartoftheneedsassessmentprocess.Oncebusinessneedsareformallyor informallyidentified,anassessmentisconductedtodetermineifthereisadifference betweentheknowledge,skillsandattributesofcurrentandperspectiveemployeesand theneedsofthebusiness.Thisstudyfocusedonthebusinessandindustrypartofthe systemandaskedbusinessmanagerswhethertheyhaveneedsforadefinedsetof internationalskills,andthenasksthemtoidentifyanyperceivedshortcomingsinthe currentoranticipatedfutureinternationalskillsexhibitedbytechnical/occupational sub-baccalaureateemployees.Thismodelisanopensystem,setatthemacrolevel. Whenthisframeworkisfocusedonagivengeographicarea,thereisarecognized growthintheopennessofthesystemasstudents,businessesandindustriesenterand leavethegeographicareaforeconomicandeducationalopportunities. ChapterSummary ChapterTwohasprovidedabriefoverviewoftheimpactsofglobalizationon thecommunitycollegeanddiscussionsonthedefinitionsofinternationalskills.A reviewofliteraturepertainingtostudiesoninternationalskillswaspresentedand discussedwhichhighlightedthelackofresearchontheneedfortechnicaland

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27 occupationalemployeestodemonstrateinternationalskills.Anintroductionofneeds assessmentsfollowedwhichclarifiedthescopeofthedatagathering.Systemstheory providesthetheoreticalbasisfordeterminingwhetherthereisanunfulfilledneedfor businessestohavetechnicalandoccupationalemployeeswithinternationalskills.This frameworkisaholisticmodelinwhichasurveycanbeconductedataparticularpoint.

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28 ChapterThree Method Chapterthreepresentsthemethodusedinthisstudy.Includedarethestudy design,setting,sampling,instrumentation,procedureandthedataanalysisplan. StudyDesign Thisneedsassessmentstudyisasurveydesignwithfollow-onfocusgroups. Surveyparticipantswererandomlyselectedfromthepopulation.Allprospective participantsweremailedapre-surveyalertingpostcard,thesurveywithcoverletterand stampedreturnenvelopeandapostsurveyreminderpostcard(Babbie,2001;Dillman, 2000).Aconveniencesampleofbusinessleadersandaconveniencesampleof communitycollegeleaderswereconvenedasfocusgroupstodiscussthesurveyresults. Thestudydesignblindedtheinvestigatortothesurveyrespondentandcorresponding businessnames. Thestudyprovidedanopportunitytoconductasystematicneedsassessmentof specificbusinesseducationalrequirements.Further,thestudytargetedtheresulting recommendationsdirectlytothesupportingcommunitycollegesforconsiderationin occupational/technicalprograms.Thismulti-methoddesignincludedbothamixed quantitative-qualitativequestionnaireandqualitativeinnaturefocusgroupprocessesto providedepthandcontexttothequestionnairefindings(OBrien,1993;Teddlie& Tashakkori,2003).ThequestionnaireTheOlneySurveyofU.S.BusinessNeedsfor Technical/OccupationalEmployeeswithInternationalExpertise(Appendix4)wasthe

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29 instrumentmailedtobusinessesinthisstudy.Thistypeofcomprehensiveapproach wasessentialinordertounderstandtheeffectsofglobalizationontheneedfor internationalskillsinstructionincommunitycollegeoccupational/technicalprograms. Setting TheresearchtookplaceintheTampaBayEconomicZone,definedbytheState ofFloridatoencompasseightCentralGulfCounties(Citrus,Hernando,Pasco, Hillsborough,Pinellas,Polk,ManateeandSarasota)aswellasthecampusesofsix CommunityColleges(CentralFlorida,Pasco-Hernando,Hillsborough,StPetersburg, PolkandManatee).TheTampaBayEconomicZoneisaneightcountyareainwest centralFloridathatborderstheGulfofMexicoandispiercedbyInterstates4and75. Containingalaborforceofabout2million,over163foreignaffiliatedcompaniesand over64,000businesses,thezoneispositionedtotakeadvantageofthelargestseaport inFlorida,aninternationalgatewaytoeverycontinent,andavisionofmassive internationaltradeexpansion(EnterpriseFlorida,2007;ReferenceUSA,2007;Tampa PortAuthority,2007).Theareaemploysincreasingnumbersofinternationalworkers, hasincreasingforeigninvestment,andhasgarneredincreasesininternationaltradeasa percentageoftotaltrade.Thebusinesscommunityhasreportedaneedforincreased culturalsensitivityandtheemergenceofglobalizationasacorecompetency(USF GlobalizationResearchCenter,2004). Thecommunitycollegesarespreadthroughoutthezoneandarewithinand aroundthethreecontiguousmetropolitanareasofTampa-St.Petersburg-Clearwater, Lakeland-WinterHaven,andBrandon-Sarasota-Venice.Theirheadcountsin2006 rangedfrom5,825(CentralCommunityCollege)to24,558(St.PetersburgCollege)

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30 andatotalheadcountofover75,000students.ThestudentsarepredominatelyWhite, butalsoincludeethnicitiesofBlack(13%),Hispanic(11%)andAsian(3%).Over 1.5%ofthe75,000studentsarelistedasAlienResidents.Thecommunitycolleges offerprogramsleadingtodegreesinArtsandScience,AssociatesofArts,Associatesof AppliedArts,AssociatesinAppliedScienceandlimitedBachelorsdegrees.Programs leadingtocertificatesanddiplomasincludeAppliedTechnologies,Advanced Technical,CollegeCredit,PostSecondary,Vocational,TechnicalPreparationand Workforce(FloridaDepartmentofEducation,2007;TampaBayPartnership,2008). Thereareabout4millionresidentsintheTampaBayEconomicZone.The adultsofthispopulationarepredominatelyWhite,13%areHispanic,10%Blackand 2%ofAsiandescent.Eight-onepercenthaveahighschooldegreeorhigher,29%have completedsomecollegebuthavenotattainedabaccalaureatedegree,over160,000 peopleareenrolledindegreegrantinginstitutionsand11,000incareerdevelopment institutions.Twentypercentofthetotalpopulationisbetween18and34yearsofage. Thebusinesscommunityhasexperienceda12%growthinnon-farmjobsfrom2000to 2007(national=4.4%),a14%growthinthelaborforce(national=7.4%)anda positivemigrationthatisexpectedtocontributetoan8.73%growthinpopulationin thenext4years.WitheightFortune1000companysheadquartersandalarge presenceinprofessionalandbusinessservices,retailtrade,education,healthservices, governmentandleisureandhospitalitybusinesses,theareahasbeentoutedasthe southsWallStreet.Theareaboaststwoseaportswithdeepwaterchannels,proximity tothePanamaCanal,newcontainerterminals,gantrycranesandexpansioncapability. Theportsareconnectedtoastate-of-the-artrailtotruckdistributioncenterlocatedin

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31 PolkCountyandboasthandlingover48milliontonsofcargoandamillionpassengers in2006(FloridaDepartmentofEducation,2007;TampaBayPartnership,2008). SamplingMethod BusinessSampling Tocaptureacompletelistingofthepopulation,theresearcherusedthedatabase ofReferenceUSA(2007).Thisinternet-basedreferenceserviceisdesignedforuseas areferencetoolinlibrariesandcontainsdetailedinformationonmorethan14million U.S.businesses.ReferenceUSAusespublicdocuments,directories,annualreports, U.S.PostalServicerecords,governmentdatabases,SecuritiesandExchange Commissiondataanddirectcontactwithbusinessestomaintaintheaccuracyofits files.Recordsarematchedandcleaned(ReferenceUSA,2007). Basedonthesizeofthepopulationidentifiedbytheauthorina2006pilotstudy ofthisresearchwithintheeightcountyTampaBayEconomicZone,itwasexpected thatadatabaseofabout64,000businesseswithfiveemployeesormorewouldbe identified.Aminimumoffiveemployeeswaschosentoreducetheburdenonsmall owner/operatorbusinesses,lackoftrainingplansandhistoricallypoorreturn(L. Hanson,BusinessIntelligenceOfficer,TampaBayPartnerships,personal communication,April30,2007).Demographicinformationaboutthebusinesses includedbusinessnames,addresses,NAICScodes,salesincomes,employeesizesand thenamesandtitlesofprinciplesofeachbusiness. OncetheentiredatabasewasdownloadedintoanExcelfile,thebusinesseswere numberedstartingwiththenumberone.Thestudyssamplewasselectedfromthe

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32 populationdatabaseusingarandomnumbergeneratorandidentifyingthe correspondingbusiness. Theresearchers2007pilotstudyhadareturnof20%.Withrandomsampling, independentobservationsandusingtheCentralLimitsTheorem n x ,this researcherintendedtoachieveresultswith95%certainty(+/-5%).Thisrequireda returnof384businesssurveys(CreativeResearchSystems,2007).Togain384returns witha20%returnrateasachievedinthepilotstudy,arandomsamplingof384times5 or1,920businesseswasselected.Resultswith95%certainty(+/-5%)areconsidered standardpracticeforeducationalresearch(J.Kromrey,personalcommunication, November27,2007). FocusGroupSampling SolicitationofthebusinessFocusGroupwasaccomplishedbyMs.Gloria Anthony,VicePresidentofWorkforceandCommunityDevelopmentfortheGreater TampaBayChamberofCommerceasaconveniencesampling.Emailscontainingan outlineoftheresearchproject,anexplanationofthepurposeofthefocusgroup,anda copyoftheconsentformweresenttomembersoftheChamber.Solicitations requestedfivetotenbusinessparticipantstomeetattheChamberofficesforabout90 minutes.Prospectivememberselectronicallyconfirmedtheirintenttoattendtothe Chamberpointofcontact.TwelvebusinessmembersfromthegreaterTampaBay economiczoneagreedtoparticipateandsignedtheinformedconsentform.Thegroup consistedoffivemanagers,fourvicepresidents,onesupervisor,onedirectorandone staffdevelopmentofficer.Theywereemployedbyfourfinancialinstitutions,onereal

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33 estatecompany,onehumanresourcecompany,andengineering/constructionfirm,a manufacturingcompany,amarketingcompany,aconsultingfirmandahospitalityfirm (Appendix5). TheCommunityCollegeFocusGroupwasaconveniencesampleconvenedby Dr.MichaelF.Brennan,DirectorofInternationalEducationforHillsborough CommunityCollege(HCC)inFlorida.Emailscontaininganoutlineoftheresearch project,anexplanationofthepurposeofthefocusgroupandconsentformweresentto prospectivemembersfillingpositionsascommunitycollegeadministratorsand technical/occupationaleducatorsinthegreaterTampaBayarea.Solicitationsrequested fivetotenparticipantstomeetattheHillsboroughCommunityCollegeYborCity Campusforabout90minutes.Prospectivememberselectronicallyconfirmedtheir intenttoattendtotheHCCpointofcontact.Foureducationprofessionalsfromthe greaterTampaBayeconomiczoneagreedtoparticipateandsignedtheinformed consentforms.Thegroupconsistedofoneacademicdean,onememberwhowasboth aprofessorandanacademicprogrammanager,atechnicalprogramsdirectorandan internationalbusinessinstructor(Appendix5). ProtectionofHumanSubjects ThisstudywasreviewedandapprovedbytheUniversityofSouthFlorida HumanSubjectsInstitutionalReviewBoardandallelementsofthisstudywerein compliancewiththeirguidelinesandstresstheprotectionofresearchparticipants (Appendix6).Safetyandsecurityofbusinessandpersonalinformationwas maintained.Thesurveycoverletter(Appendix7)statedthatinformationcollected wouldnotbeattributedtospecificbusinessesorrespondents.Surveysdidnotcontain

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34 businessnamesorthenameoftherespondent(Babbie,2001).Theresearcherdidnot placebusinessnamesonthestamped,returnaddressedenvelopesprovidedtothe businesses.Membersofthefocusgroupssignedconsentformsindicatingthatthey acknowledgethattheinformationcollectedandthatstatementswouldbeanalyzedbut notattributedtospecificmembersinpublications(Appendix8). Instrumentation Thisstudyutilizedtwoinstruments.Theinstrumentswere:TheOlneySurveyof U.S.BusinessNeedsforTechnical/OccupationalEmployeeswithInternational Expertise(Appendix4);andtheFocusGroupQuestionOutline(Appendix9). InstrumentDevelopment TheOlneySurveyofU.S.BusinessNeedsforTechnical/Occupational EmployeeswithInternationalExpertise Reviewingtheliterature,theauthorwasdrawntotheKediaandDaniel(2003) studyduetoitsfocusandpractitionerorientation.BenKediaandShirleyDaniel createdthe U.S.BusinessNeedsforEmployeeswithInternationalExpertise questionnaireinordertoascertainthebusinessmansperspectiveonspecificentrylevel managementandprofessionalstaffskillsrequirements.Their28questioninstrument wasbrokenintofoursubtopics:CompanyProfileandInternationalActivity;Staffing NeedsandPatterns;InternationalTrainingPrograms,and;RespondentInformation. AftergainingpermissiontousetheKediaandDanielquestionnaire(B.Kedia,personal communication,October26,2006)(Appendix10),theresearcherbegandevelopinga pilotquestionnaireentitledU.S.BusinessNeedsforTechnical/Occupational EmployeeswithInternationalExpertise(Appendix11)forthisnewpopulation.

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35 UsingDonDillmans(2006)surveydesigntextforguidelinestodevelopthe pilotinstrument,theauthorpresentedthedevelopingquestionnairetosubjectarea specialists,beginningwithdoctoralstudents,forreviewandcomment.Theserepeated reviewsprovidedinsightsintousabilityandstructure.AccordingtoFuller,Edwards, VorakitphokatornandSermsri(1993),whenadaptingasurveyinstrumenttoanew populations,theresearcherscanusefocusgroupstoimprovethevalidityand interpretationsofthenewinstrument.Followingthepeerreviews,thestudydesignand draftquestionnairewerepresentedattheCouncilfortheStudyofCommunityCollege ResearchCouncil(CSCC)annualmeeting(Olney,2007).Thisroundtablepresentation resultedinfurthersuggestionsforimprovementandanendorsementofthestudyitself. Attendees,includingapastpresidentoftheCSCC,statedthatthiswasanecessaryand timelystepinthestudyofcommunitycollegesandencouragedtheauthortoexpandthe studynationwide.Overthenextseveralmonthstheinstrumentwasdiscussedwithand reviewedbyvariousexpertsinthefieldsofbusinessmeasurement,internationalstudies andbusinessmanagementinordertominimizethelimitationsofthesurveydesign (Mann,1998).Theseadvisors(Appendix12)broughtfurtherfocustothequestions, providedfeedbackonthereadabilityandinterpretabilityofthefindingsandprovided insightsintosurveyingbusinessessuccessfully.Fromthesereviewsthesurvey subtopicInternationalTrainingProgramswasexpandedtoensurethatCommunity Collegeswererepresentedinthepossibleanswerstoappropriatequestionsandthe additionalinternationalskillofUnderstandingtheinternationaltechnical/occupational standardswasidentified.Concurrentwiththesereviews,theauthorcompiledthe

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36 populationdatabaseusingReferenceUSA(2007)forthegreaterTampaBayeconomic zones(EnterpriseFlorida,2007). Nexttheauthorsolicitedthreesubjectmatterexpertstoevaluatethevalidityof theinstrument(Crocker&Algina,1986).Theseexpertshadtaughtatthecommunity college,hadworkedincommunityorbusinessdevelopment,hadexperienceworking withdiversepopulations,andfeltthattheyhadarelativelygoodgraspoftheTampa Baybusinesscommunity(Appendix12).Theseexpertswerechosenduetotheirbroad backgroundsandtheirfamiliaritytothetargetaudience.Theirinputwasessentialin ensuringthattheauthorwasnotinstitutionallybiasedorblindtoissuesthatmayaffect thebusinesscommunity.Theyprovidedaneededperspectivetotheorientationand designofthesurvey(Guba&Lincoln,1982).Utilizingtworoundsofevaluation,all threeexpertswereaskedtoevaluatethecoverletterforclarityandeachsurvey questionforrelevanceandclarity.Afterthefirstroundofevaluation,questionsthat werenotunanimouslyconsideredappropriateandclearwereeditedorremoved.After thesecondreview,allquestionswerescoredasrelevantandclearbyallevaluators (Appendix13).Inaddition,thesubjectmatterexpertswereaskedtodeterminewhich surveyquestionsmeasuredwhichresearchquestions.Allthreeexpertswerein agreementonthealignmentofsurveyquestionswithresearchquestions(Appendix13) andthepilotinstrumententitled U.S.BusinessNeedsforTechnical/Occupational EmployeeswithInternationalExpertise wasfinalized(Appendix11). FollowingapprovaloftheIRBbytheUniversityofSouthFlorida(Appendix 14),thequestionnairewithcoverletterandreturnenvelopewasmailedto100 randomlysampledbusinessesfromthepopulationof64,000businessesinthe8county

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37 TampaBayEconomicZone.After7and14days,follow-uppostcardsweresentto eachrecipienttoimprovingtheresponserate(Babbie,2001).After35days,21percent hadrespondedwith20usablequestionnaires.Onereturnedsurveywasblank.An anticipatedreturnrateof20%wasusedforthisstudy. Usinggoodness-of-fitchi-square(Glass&Hopkins,1996),areviewofthe population,randomsampleandrespondentdatarevealedthattherearenosignificant differencesbetweenproportions(Appendix15)forthenumberofbusinessemployees, typesofbusinessesandthesalesindollarsdemographics.Thepilotsampleappearedto beafairreflectionofthepopulationforthesecollecteddemographics. Reviewofthese20datasetsindicatednoconfusionwiththecoverletteror surveyinstructions,andallquestionsappearedtohavebeenansweredwithappropriate attention.Therewasonerecommendationmadeby2participantsthatresultedina changeinthesurvey.Thischangewastothesecondanswertoquestion1,SectionC InternationalTrainingPrograms.TheoriginalanswerreadNo(ifNo,gotoquestion 2)anditwasrecommendedthatthisbechangedtoreadNo(ifNo,gotoquestion 3).Afterareviewofquestions1,2and3,theauthoragreedwiththe recommendationsandchangedanswer2inquestion1.Thisactionwastakentoreduce confusion. Toestablishreliability(Crocker&Algina,1986),nexttheauthorsoliciteda conveniencesampleofsixbusinessmentotakethesurveyandthentakethesurveya secondtime7to10dayslaterinatest-retestformat.Thisconveniencesamplewas gatheredfromtheTampaBayEconomicZoneandconsistedofacrosssectionof businessexecutivefromvariousfields,businesstypesandsales.

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38 Theparticipantswereeachgiventheduplicatesurveysintwoseparate addressedenvelopesandaskedtocompletesurveyoneandsealitimmediately.The participantswereaskedtocompletesurveytwo7to10dayslaterandreturnthe completedsurveystotheresearcherimmediately.Noneofthe6participantscompleted thesurveyswithinthetimeallotted,soasecondconveniencesetof6participantswas solicitedandallsurveyswerecompletedwithinthe7to10daytimeframe(Appendix 16). Areviewoftheirresponsedatashowsthattherewasa98%overallagreement betweentheanswersgivenbytherespondentsinthetwoadministrationsofthe instrument(Appendix17).Ofthe1422pairsofanswersgivenbythesixparticipants, only29answersintheretestdidnotmatchtheoriginaltest.Inaddition,allfourofthe studysquestionshadagreementratesofatleast95%whilesurveyanswershad agreementsfrom100%to66.6%.Onlyfivesurveyquestionshadagreement percentagesoflessthan95%.TheywerequestionsA3,A6,D4,A9andC6(Appendix 18). QuestionA3hadonepersonchangeoneanswerinafill-in-the-blankquestion aboutemployees.Theanswerwaschangedfrom15%to20%. QuestionA6hadtworespondentschangeatotaloffiveanswersregardingthe importanceofvariousworldregionsnowandtenyearsfromnow.Respondent2 changedfouranswersmovingallfouranswersonelevelclosertocenterontheLikertlikescale.Respondent5changedoneanswermovingonenumberonelevelawayfrom centerontheLikert-likescale.

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39 QuestionD4askedaboutrespondentsperceivedcareerpathandwhetheritwas domestic,internationalormixed.Thistrifurcatedanswerwaschangedbyone respondentfrommixedtodomestic. QuestionA9hadfiverespondentschangeatotalofnineanswerspertainingto theimportanceofinternationalskillstostaffandlinepersonnel.Respondent1changed oneanswer,movingittwolevelsthroughthecentertomoreimportance.Respondent2 changesfouranswers.Threeofthefouranswerswerechangedonelevelcloserto centerandoneanswerwaschangedonelevelfartherawayfromcenterontheLikertlikescale.Respondent3changedoneanswerandmoveditonelevelfartherawayfrom centerontheLikert-likescale.Respondent5changedtwoanswers,movingonea singlelevelclosertocenterandmovingoneasinglelevelfartherfromcenteronthe Likert-likescales.Respondent6changedoneresponseandmoveditonelevelfarther fromcenterontheLikert-likescale. QuestionC6hastworespondentsthatchangedtheiransweraboutthevalueofa certificateininternationalskills.Respondent4movedtheansweronelevelawayfrom thecenterandRespondent5movedtheansweronelevelclosertothecenteronthe Likert-likescales. Changeratesdifferedbyrespondentandrangedfrom11changesfor Respondent2downtothreechangesforRespondents1and6.Atotalof18responses onLikert-likescaleswerechangedwith11movingtowardthecenter,7movingaway fromthecenterandoneanswermovingthroughthecenter.Ofthefivedichotomous answersthatchanges,fivemovedfromnegativetopositiveandfourmovedfrom

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40 positivetonegative.Theonetrifurcatedanswerthatchangedmovedfromamixed responsetoasingularresponse. Afterreview,therewerenopatternsinthechangedresponsesthatindicateda problemwiththesurvey.Changesinresponsesappearedtobemarginalreevaluations ofthequestionsandtheresponsesdidnotfocusonanyparticularissues.Changeson Likert-likescalestendedtomovetowardthecenterwiththerepeatedmeasurement. Thepilotinstrumentnamed U.S.BusinessNeedsforTechnical/Occupational EmployeeswithInternationalExpertise wasrenamed TheOlneySurveyofU.S. BusinessNeedsforTechnical/OccupationalEmployeeswithInternationalExpertise andwasusedinthisstudy(Appendix4). FocusGroupDiscussionOutline Afocusgroupofbusinessexecutivesandafocusgroupofcommunitycollege employeeswithinterestintechnicalandoccupationalprogramcurriculumwas convenedtoconsiderstudyfindingsandtoprovidearichercontexttoaction recommendations(Kitzinger,1995).Afterthepresentationoftheinstrumentresults, identicalopenendedquestions(Krueger,1994)wereaskedofthetwogroups (Appendix9).Theintentofthequestionswastodiscoverwhatmeaningmembersof thesetwodifferentusergroupswouldfindinthereportedresultsofquestionnairedata. Procedures FollowingapprovaloftheIRBbytheUniversityofSouthFlorida,anew populationdatabaseofbusinesseswithfiveormoreemployeesfromthe8county TampaBayEconomicZonewasdownloadedfromReferenceUSA(2007)duringthe secondweekofFebruary2008.Arandomsampleof1,920businesseswasselected

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41 usingtheExcelrandomnumbergenerator.Nextapostcard(Appendix19)wassentto the1,920randomlysampledbusinessesonMarch10,2008askingthemtoexpectthe surveywithintheweekandtocompleteit.OnMarch12,2008thesurveywithcover letter(Appendix20)andreturnenvelopewasmailedtothesamebusinessaddresses. OnMarch19,2008,afollow-uppostcard(Appendix19)wassenttoeachrecipientto improvetheresponserate.DataanalysisbeganonApril15,2008. Descriptiveandcomparativedatawereorganizedtosupportthestudyquestions andweregraphedforPowerPointpresentationtothetwofocusgroups.Thebusiness leaderfocusgroupwasconvenedfirst,followedthreeweekslaterbythecommunity collegefocusgroup.AllattendeeswerebriefedoninformedconsentandanInformed ConsentFormwassignedbyeachparticipant(Appendix8). Thebusinessleaderfocusgroupplancalledforfivetotenbusinessleadersfrom thegreaterTampaBayarea.TheirparticipationwassolicitedthroughtheGreater TampaBayChamberofCommerceusingmaterialpreparedbytheresearcher (Appendix21andAppendix22).Twelvefocusgroupmembersconvenedina conferenceroomintheGreaterTampaBayChamberofCommerceofficesandthe researcherbriefedon,andreceivedInformedConsentsfromallparticipants.The researcherthenconductedtheintroductionoffindingsandtheensuingdiscussion.The researcherscribedforthediscussionandthediscussionaudiowasrecorded.The qualitativelydescriptiveanalysisofthediscussionwaslimitedtoareviewoffocus grouprecordingandsummarynotestoaddcontextanddepthtothefindings. Thecommunitycollegefocusgroupplancalledforfivetotencommunity collegepersonnelwithinterestintechnicalandoccupationalprogramcurriculafrom

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42 thegreaterTampaBayarea.Theirparticipationwastobesoliciteddirectlyfrom communitycollegeadministrativeoffices(Appendix23),andagreementtoparticipate verifiedelectronically(Appendix24).Fourfocusgroupmembersconvenedina classroomattheHillsboroughCommunityCollegeYborCityCampusandthe researcherbriefedon,andreceivedsignedInformedConsentsfromallparticipants. Theresearcherthenconductedtheintroductionoffindingsandtheensuingdiscussion. Theresearcherscribedforthediscussionandthediscussionaudiowasrecorded.The qualitativelydescriptiveanalysisofthediscussionwaslimitedtoareviewoffocus grouprecordingandsummarynotestoaddcontextanddepthtothefindings. DataManagement Security Alldataweregatheredonpaperandarekeptinalockedcabinetwhennotbeing analyzed.DatafromtheinstrumentwereloadedonanExcelfilebytheresearcher. Identifiableindividualandbusinessinformationwasnotrequestedandwasnotloaded intheExcelfiles.Allelectronicfileswereplacedunderpasswordprotectionand backeduponexternaldrivewhichhasbeenlockedupwiththepapercopiesofdata. TheelectronicaudiorecordingwasdigitallystoredonanOlympusVN2100 DigitalVoiceRecorderthatiskeptinalockedcabinetwhennotbeinganalyzed.All audioanalysistookplacedinasingleoccupancyroom. AnalysisPlan Randomsampleandrespondentdatawereanalyzedusinggoodness-of-fitchisquare(Glass&Hopkins,1996)todetermineiftherandomsampleandrespondents wereafairrepresentationofthepopulation.Questionnairedataweretabulatedand

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43 analyzed.Resultsofthestudyanalysiswerediscussedwithafocusgroupofarea businessmenandafocusgroupofareacommunitycollegepersonnelwithaninterestin technicalandoccupationalprograms.Resultsofthesediscussionshavebeenreported inthisstudy. Demographicdataprovidedbytherespondentsusingquestionsfromquestions A1throughA8,B1andsectionDwerecomparedtothepopulationdatatodetermineif therewasadifferencebetweenthepopulationandrespondentsastheyrelatedto businesstypes,employeenumbersordomesticsales. Studyquestion1was:WhatinternationalskillsdosurveyedU.S.businessand industryexecutivesbelieveareimportantforthesub-baccalaureatetechnicaland occupationalemployeesthattheyhireandpromote?Thisquestionwasevaluatedusing answersprovidedtoquestionsA9,A12,B2,B3andB4.Descriptivedataandrepeated measureANOVAtotestfordifferencesinthemeansratingsforthetwodifferent employeeskilllevelswasconductedtodeterminethelevelatwhichinternationalskills becomeimportantconsiderationsforhiringandpromotion.Thisrepeatedmeasure analysisisaonebetween(businessleaders)andtwowithin(employeeskillleveland internationalskills).Thisdesignallowsforthesubdividingofthebusinessleaders perceptionsintotwogroupingvariables(Stevens,2002).Inaddition,careerfieldswere correlatedwithinternationalskillsneeded.Theresultsofthisquestionwerethen discussedwiththetwofocusgroupsandthediscussionhighlightsreported. Studyquestion2was:HowdosurveyedU.S.businessandindustryexecutives engagetheircompanies'sub-baccalaureatetechnicalandoccupationalemployeesin trainingprogramstodevelopinternationalskills?Toanswerthisquestion,the

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44 researcheranalyzedtherespondentanswerstoquestionC1todetermineproportions andconfidenceintervalsandthenutilizedbusinessdemographicinformationtorelate theresultsbacktothepopulation.Theresultsofthisquestionwerethendiscussedwith thetwofocusgroupsandthediscussionhighlightsreported. Studyquestion3asked:Inwhatwaysdosurveyedbusinessandindustry executivesthinkU.S.communitycollegetechnicalandoccupationaldegreeprograms shouldchangewithrespecttotheirinternationalskillsobjectives?Toanswerthis question,descriptiveanalysisandANOVAwereperformedontheresponsestosurvey questionsC4andC5andtheresultsrankedbymeanscore.Inaddition,careerfields fromquestionA12werecorrelatedwithsuggestedimprovementsinprograms.The resultsofthisquestionwerethendiscussedwiththetwofocusgroupsandthe discussionhighlightsreported. ChapterSummary Chapterthreeoutlinedthemethodsusedinconductingthisresearch.Thestudy design,setting,samplingmethods,instrumentation,proceduresanddatamanagement werepresented.Emphasiswasplacedonthevalidationof TheOlneySurveyofU.S. BusinessNeedsforTechnical/OccupationalEmployeeswithInternationalExpertise andtheprotectionofhumansubjects.

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45 ChapterFour OverviewoftheFindings Theprimarypurposeofthisstudywastoconductaneedsassessmentto determinewhetherinternationalskillswereconsideredimportantforemploymententry ormovementforsub-baccalaureatetechnical/occupationalemployees,andtodetermine wherebusinesseshavebeenobtainingtrainingininternationalskills.Inaddition,this studygarneredbusinessrecommendationsfortheimprovementofinternationalskills educationincommunitycollegeoccupationalandtechnicalprograms.Thischapter presentstherespondentandbusinessdemographics,andresponsesfromthesurvey respondentsandthetwofocusgroupsforeachofthethreeresearchquestions. AnalyticalStrategy Unlikestudiesthatmeasureinternationalskillsbyfocusingonbusinessmajors ordiscussionswithacademics,thisstudywasdesignedtogathertheopinionsof technical/occupationalemployersaboutinternationalskillsneededbytheirsubbaccalaureateemployees.Usingthedataprovidedbyresponsestoarandomsampling, thisstudyuseddemographics,chisquared,proportions,andanalysisofvariance (ANOVA)todeterminethecurrentstatusofinternationalskillneeds,theusageof variousinternationalskilltrainingproviders,therecommendationsforchangesin technical/occupationalprogramstoimproveinternationalskillsandtocapturedesired supportfrombusinesses.TheassumptionsofANOVAandchi-squaredwereassessed forviolations.Ifviolationswerefound,thenecessaryadjustmentsweremade.

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46 SurveyRespondentandBusinessDemographics SurveyRespondents Fromapopulationof64,694businesses,1,920businesseswererandomly selectedandhadquestionnaires(Appendix4)mailedtothem.Atotalof145responses werecompletedandreturned.Thisrepresenteda7%returnandprovidedaconfidence levelofonly76%withamarginoferrorof+/-5%. Questionspertainingtorespondentinformation,companyprofilesand internationalactivitiesconsistedoffillintheblank,dichotomous,continuous,discrete andLikert-likescales.Fillintheblankquestionsfocusedontherespondentstitleand levelofeducation.Dichotomousanswers,byfarthemostnumerous,lookedatjob responsibilities,overseasexperience,languageskills,barrierstointernationalbusiness endeavors,careerfieldsandemployeeeducationlevels.Continuousscaleswereused tocapturerespondentserviceoverseas,companysizesandsales,growthin internationalactivity,andtheimpactsofshortagesinemployeeswithinternational skills.Discreteanswerswereusedtoidentifyfirmtypes,andLikert-likescaleswere utilizedtocapturetheimportanceofrespondentduties,thecurrentandfuture importanceofinternationalbusinessandworldregionstothefirm,andtheimportance ofvariousinternationalskillstotechnical/occupationalstaffandlinepersonnel. Thequestionnaireswerecompletedby145businessleaderswith141providing personaldemographics.Respondentsthatdefinedthemselvesasownersconstituted 25%ofresponsesandmanagers24%(Appendix25).Oftherespondentleaders,most (56%)hadresponsibilityforinternationalbusinessdecisions,hadneverbeenassigned outsideoftheUnitedStates(80%),considertheircareerpathstobedomestic(81%),

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47 spokeonlyEnglish(66%),andhadabachelors(32%)ormastersdegree(24%)as theirhighestacademicattainment. BusinessDemographics Chi-SquaredGoodnessofFitcomparingthebusinesstypes,businesssizesand businesssalesofthepopulationwiththerespondentsrevealsthattheresultsforall threeweresignificantwithvaluesof20.89,52.39and138.80respectively(Appendix 26).TheeffectsizesfortheChi-SquaredGoodnessofFitcomparisonsofthe populationandrespondentswere:businesstypes(=.082,smalleffect);businesssizes (=.206,mediumeffect)and;businesssales(=.548,largeeffect)(Cohen,1988). Whentherespondentbusinessesnumberofemployeesandtotaldollarsaleswere correlatedwiththeinternationalskills,abouthalfofthecorrelationswerepositiveand significant(Appendix27).Therespondentsworkedinbusinessesthatspannedthe typesandsizeslocatedintheTampaBayEconomicZone.Retail(19%),HealthCare, SocialAssistanceServices(17%),Professional,Scientific,TechnicalServices(12%) andAccommodations/FoodServices(10%)madeupthelargestofthebusinesstypes. Businessesthatemployed10orlesspersonnel(41%)and11to20personnel(27%) accountedforover65%ofbusinesseswhileonly9%ofbusinessesemployedmorethan 120employees(Appendix27).MeasuringtherespondentsbusinessesbytotalU.S. dollarsalesshowedthatover44%ofthebusinessesreportedonemilliondollarsorless inannualsalesandover90%hadlessthan20milliondollarsinannualsales(Appendix 28).Whenitcametorequiringemployeestohaveinternationalskills,50%ofthe businessesrespondedthatatleastsomeoftheiremployeesneededtheskills(Appendix 29).

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48 ThissampleofbusinessesintheTampaBayEconomicZonebelievedthe followingcurrentandfutureforeignregionsareimportanttobusiness(inorderof importance):LatinAmerica( M =1.98, SD =1.22),Europe( M =1.65, SD =1.03), Asia( M =1.41, SD =0.94),MiddleEast( M =1.22, SD =0.62),andAfrica( M =1.20, SD =0.64)(Appendix30).Regardingcurrentgrowthofinternationalactivities comparedtodomesticactivitiesinthissample,44%(n=61)believedtheinternational activitiesweregrowingatthesamerateormorerapidlythanthedomesticactivities. Further,15%ofthebusinessesbelievedthatinternationalsaleswouldbeasignificant orcriticalcomponentoftheirincomeinthenext10years(Appendix31).Someofthe businesses(15%,n=21)statedthatemployeeslackingininternationalskill competenciesimpactedtheirincome.Alargerpercentage(45%,n=64)believedthat withmoreinternationalexpertisetheiroverallbusinesswouldincrease. Eighty-eightpercentoftherespondentsindicatedthattheyemployedhigh schoolgraduatesthathadcompletedsub-baccalaureatecourseworkastheirhighest levelofeducation.Thebusinessesreportedthattheyhadtheseemployeesworkingin variouscareerfieldstoinclude:businessmanagement(51%),businesssupport(49%), trade/industry(26%),marketing(24%),healthsciences(21%),computer/information sciences(19%)andeducation(15%)(Appendix32).Fifty-sixpercentofthecompanies reportedemployingworkerswithanassociatesdegreeastheirhighesteducation,46% withcommunitycollegecourseworkwithoutattainingacertificateordegree,45%with acommunitycollegeprogramcertificateand22%withanothersub-baccalaureate degree.

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49 Thesamplecompaniesreportedthatover77%hadnointernationalbusiness operationsandthat18%conductedallinternationalbusinessoperationsfromtheU.S. Only2%ofthesampledcompaniesreportedhavingofficesoutsideoftheUnitedStates (Appendix33). WhenaskediftheyhaddifficultyfindingU.S.nationalswithdesired internationalskills,over21%(n=30)indicatedthattheydidhavedifficulty.The respondentswentontohighlightaneedforlanguageskills,comfortworkingin international/multiculturalgroups,knowledgeofnon-Englishtechnicalterms,and knowledgeofbusinesscultureandpracticesinothercountriesastheirmostpressing needs(Appendix34).Thirtytwopercent(n=46)oftherespondentsindicatedthat overthenext10yearstheircompanieswouldbeplacinggreateremphasison internationalskillsfortechnical/occupationalmanagersandemployees. Thedataprovidedbytherespondentslookingatinternationaltrainingprograms consistedofamixtureofdichotomousandLikert-likescales.Thedichotomousscales identifiedengagementintrainingprograms,providertypes,programtypes,training obstacles,recommendedchangesincommunitycollegetechnical/occupational programsandthewillingnessbytherespondenttopartnerwithcommunitycollegesto createaCertificateinInternationalSkills.TheLikert-likescalesfocusedonthe importanceofvarioussuggestedimprovementsincommunitycollege technical/occupationalprogramsandthevalueofaCertificateinInternationalSkills. Seventeenpercentofbusinesses(n=24)reportedthattheypresentinternational trainingprogramstotheiremployees.Respondentcompaniesstatedthattheyprovided multiculturalstaffmanagementtrainingmostoften(17%,n=24).Thiswasfollowed

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50 byforeignlanguagetraining(7%),internationaltechnicalstandards(6%),businessor globalbusinesspractices(6%),regionalorglobalupdates(4%),internationalcrossculturalseminars(5%),pre-departuretrainingbeforeforeignassignment(2%)and cross-nationalfunctionalteamtraining(2%).Over18%ofbusinessesreportedthat theyusedin-houseproviderstoconductinternationalskillstraining.Theyalsoreported theuseofconsultingfirms(6%),non-profit/governmentproviders(3.5%),community collegeproviders(3%)anduniversityproviders(2%)(Appendix35). Whenaskediftrainingneedswerebeingmet,34%ofreportingbusinesses (n=20)statedthattheirinternationaltrainingneedswerenotbeingmet.Ofthe unsatisfiedbusinesses,theyreportedthatthetrainingwasnotfocusedontheirtraining needs(n=7),wastooexpensive(n=4),wastoodifficulttocoordinate(n=4),and wasnotkeptcurrentwiththeinternationalbusinessenvironment(n=2)(Appendix36). Next,therespondentswhodidnotutilizecommunitycollegeresourcesfor internationaltrainingwereaskedtoexplainwhytheywerenotusingthecommunity colleges.Inorder,theyrespondedthat:theirneedswerebeingmetorexceeded elsewhere(n=85),theywerenotawareofwhatthecommunitycollegecouldoffer (n=56),thecommunitycollegehasnotmetwiththemabouttheirneeds(n=10),the communitycollegewont/doesntofferwhattheirfirmneeds(n=5),theclass scheduleswerenotflexibleenoughtomeettheirneeds(n=2)andthecommunity collegeprogramsweretoodifficulttosetup(n=2)(Appendix37). Thefinaldatasetprovidedbytherespondentslookedatwhetherbusinesses wouldvalueaCertificateinInternationalSkillsandifbusinesseswouldbewillingto partnerwiththelocalcommunitycollegetocreatesuchacertificate.Onaverage,

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51 businessesonlyslightlyvaluedthecertificate( M =2.05of5.0, SD =0.95)(1=notat allvalued,2=onlyslightlyvalued,3=somewhatvalued,4=valued,5=critically valued).Ofthe141responses,35(25%)businessesstatedthattheywouldvalueor criticallyvaluethecertificate.Withregardtopartneringwiththecommunitycollegeto createtheCertificateinInternationalSkills,12companies(8%)statedthattheywould beinterestedinpartneringwiththecommunitycollegetocreatethecertificate. FocusGroupParticipants TheBusinessFocusGroupconsistedoftwelvebusinessmembersfromthe greaterTampaBayeconomiczone.Thegroupconsistedoffivemanagers,fourvice presidents,onesupervisor,onedirectorandonestaffdevelopmentofficer.Theywere employedbyfourfinancialinstitutions,onerealestatecompany,onehumanresource company,andengineering/constructionfirm,amanufacturingcompany,amarketing company,aconsultingfirmandahospitalityfirm(Appendix5). TheCommunityCollegeFocusGrouphadfoureducationprofessionalsfrom thegreaterTampaBayeconomiczone.Thegroupconsistedofoneacademicdean,one memberwhowasbothaprofessorandanacademicprogrammanager,atechnical programsdirectorandaninternationalbusinessinstructor(Appendix5).Thisgroupdid notcontainrepresentationfromeachoftheareacommunitycolleges,whichmayhave biasedthediscussions. FocusGroupInitialObservations TheBusinessFocusGroupfirstreviewedthestudydesign,methods,sampleand populationdemographics,andthelistofinternationalskills.Whenaskedtocomment, thediscussionfirstfocuseduponthelistofinternationalskills.Therewasaconsensus

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52 thatthelistofinternationalskillsprovidedagoodfoundationforreviewingbusiness needswhilestayingvagueenoughtobepoignant.Oneofthemembersgavean anecdoteaboutstudyinginSingaporeandrelatedthathehadtobetoldbyalocal merchantthatSingaporehadbeenunderBritishruleandthateveryonetherestudied English.HeexpressedhisdisappointmentinnotknowingthehistoryofSingaporeand toldthefocusgroupthattheunderstandingofthese[international]skillsmeans showingcommonrespectfortheculturesofourclientsandpartners.Anothermember relatedthathisfirmhadinternationalclientsandpartnersthatworkedintheirTampa officeandthathisfirmsemployeeshadtolearnabouttheculturalneedsofthese residents.Theseneedshaveincludedaccommodationsforprayerrooms,work schedules,foods,socialexpectations,officeetiquette,andglobalperspectives.Within thefocusgrouptherewasalsoaconsensusthattheresearchershouldreviewwhether theremaybeaneedtofleshoutreligionasanimportantsubsetoftheinternational skillpertainingtohavingknowledgeofacountryssocio-economicandpolitical structures.Thegroupthendiscussedwhethertheneedforforeignlanguageskillswas decreasingwiththeincreaseduseofEnglisharoundtheworld.Thisdiscussion concludedthatwithexistingmarketstheremaybeadecreasingneedforforeign languageskills,butthattodevelopinternationalmarketsinnewareas,foreignlanguage wasimperative. TheCommunityCollegeFocusGroupfirstreviewedthestudydesign,methods, sampleandpopulationdemographics,andthelistofinternationalskills.Therewasan openingstatementbyamemberofthegroupthatitisextremelyimperativethatwe teachtheculture,economicsandpoliticsofothernationsifwewanttocompeteinthe

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53 internationalmarket.Thisstatementwasfollowedbyalengthydiscussionaboutthe listofinternationalskills.Thislivelydiscussionquestionedthelogicbehindtheorder ofthelistedskills,questionedwhetherthelistedskillsoverlappedandquestioned whetherthepurposeofthelistwastoprovideanaccountingforrsumpurposesorto providealistofwhatneededtobetaughtandtrained.Thediscussionquestioned whethertherewasaneedtoaddeducationsystemasanimportantsubsetofthe internationalskillpertainingtohavingknowledgeofacountryssocio-economicand politicalstructures.Thegroupalsodiscussedwhethertheneedforforeignlanguage skillswasdecreasingwiththeincreaseduseofEnglisharoundtheworld.Aftera discussion,itwasconcludedwithastatementthatitwasamootpointbecauseforeign languagemustpoliticallystayonthelist. StudyQuestions QuestionOne Thefirststudyquestionwas:WhatinternationalskillsdosurveyedU.S. businessesandindustryexecutivesbelieveareimportantforthesub-baccalaureate technicalandoccupationalemployeesthattheyhireandpromote? SurveyRespondents. Thisquestionwasansweredusingdescriptivedatafromfourquestionnaire responses,analysisofvariancetotestthedifferenceinthemeanratingsforentrylevel andmanagementleveltechnical/occupationalstaffandlinepositionsandbycorrelating careerfieldswithinternationalskillsneeded.Theresultsofthisquestionwerethen discussedbythetwofocusgroupsandthediscussionhighlightsreported.

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54 Themajorityofresponses(56%,n=78)indicatedthatatleastoneinternational skillwasanimportantfactorinthestaffingdecisionprocessintermsofhiring, reassignment,and/orpromotiondecisionsforatleastsometechnical/occupational positions.Ofthosethatchoseonlyoneskill(8of11)asimportant,they overwhelmingly(73%)choseforeignlanguageskills,althoughhavinganappreciation forcross-culturaldifferenceswaschosenmostoftenamongallrespondents,including thosethatchosemorethanoneskillasimportant.Inresponsetowhetherinternational skillswereimportanttostaffingdecisionsaboutentryormanagementlevel technical/occupationalstafforlinepositions,therespondentsratedtheappreciationof cross-culturaldifferencesandforeignlanguageskillsthehighestoftheinternational skillsforalltechnical/occupationallevelandpositionstaffingdecisions.International workexperiencewasratedlowestonthenotimportantcriticallyimportantscalefor alllevelsandpositions(Table1). Overall,whenevaluatingtheimportanceofinternationalskillsona5point Likert-likescale,themeanrespondentratingforeachofthesevenskillswasbetween 1.27and2.23.(1=notatallimportant;2=onlyslightlyimportant;3=somewhat important)withstandarddeviationsbetween0.61and1.25.ForeignLanguageskills fortechnical/occupationalstaff( M =2.15, SD =1.16)andlinepersonnel( M =2.19, SD =1.18)aswellasAppreciationofcross-culturaldifferencesforstaff( M =2.23, SD =1.25)andlinepersonnel( M =2.17, SD =1.25)receivingthehighestmeanscores. Thebusinessleadersmeanscoresforappreciationofcross-culturaldifferences( M = 2.20, SD =1.25)andforeignlanguageskills( M =2.17, SD =1.17)werehigherthanthe otherfiveinternationalskillsonthenoimportance/importancescaleforboth

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55 Table1 InternationalSkillsandStaffingDecisions Occupationallevelsatwhichvariousinternationalskillsbecomeimportantfactorsinhiring,reassignment,orpromotiondecisions? Technical/OccupationalPositions(n=142) Rawscores InternationalSkills ENTRY Level Tech/Occ STAFF Positions MGMT Level Tech/Occ STAFF Positions ALL Tech/Occ STAFF Positions ENTRY Level Tech/Occ LINE Positions MGMT Level Tech/Occ LINE Positions ALL Tech/Occ LINE Positions ALL Tech/Occ ENTRY Level Positions ALL Techl/Occ MGMT Level Positions ALL Tech/Occ Positions Countrysocio-economic/PoliticalKnowledge 8152341418122941 Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences 3051813145766196157 Aglobalperspective 11213282436194564 Understandingoflocalmarket/business practices 9213082331174461 Internationalworkexperience 2791101131720 Foreignlanguage 3537723136696673139 TOTAL 9515224783152235178304482 NOTE:Totalrawscoresonadichotomous(0=notimportantand1=important)scale.

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56 technical/occupationalstaffandlinepersonnel.Inorder,thesewerefollowedby understandingoflocalmarket/businesspractices( M =1.69, SD =1.17),aglobal perspective( M =1.60, SD =0.96),understandingofinternational technical/occupationalstandards( M =1.49, SD =0.98)andcountrysocioeconomic/politicalknowledge( M =1.45, SD =0.85).Thelowestmeanscorewasfor possessinginternationalworkexperience( M =1.27, SD =0.67)(Table2). Whenutilizingthesesamedataandlookingatthepercentageofrespondents thatconsidertheinternationalskillstobesomewhatimportant,importantorcritically importanttopossess,itbecameevidentthatinternationalskillsweredesiredbymany businesses.Overall,between5%and38%ofrespondentsratedeachofthesevenskills somewhatimportant,importantorcriticallyimportantandbetween0.7%and20%of therespondentsratedeachofthesevenskillsimportantorcriticallyimportant. Breakingouttheindividualskillsbystaffandline:Appreciationofcrosscultural differenceswasconsideredsomewhatimportant,importantorcriticallyimportantfor staffpersonnelby38%ofrespondentsandby38%ofrespondentsforlinepersonnel; Appreciationofcrossculturaldifferenceswasconsideredimportantorcritically importantforstaffpersonnelby15.5%ofrespondentsandfor16.2%ofrespondentsfor linepersonnel;Foreignlanguagewasconsideredsomewhatimportant,importantor criticallyimportantforstaffpersonnelby38%ofrespondentsandby34.5%of respondentsforlinepersonnel;Foreignlanguagewasconsideredimportantorcritically importantforstaffpersonnelby18.3%ofrespondentsandfor20.4%ofrespondentsfor linepersonnel;Understandingoflocalmarket/businesspracticeswasconsidered somewhatimportant,importantorcriticallyimportantforstaffpersonnelby20.4%of

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57 respondentsandby15.5%ofrespondentsforlinepersonnel;Understandingoflocal market/businesspracticeswasconsideredimportantorcriticallyimportantforstaff personnelby8.5%ofrespondentsandfor6.3%ofrespondentsforlinepersonnel;A globalperspectivewasconsideredsomewhatimportant,importantorcritically importantforstaffpersonnelby19.0%ofrespondentsandby17.6%ofrespondentsfor linepersonnel;Aglobalperspectivewasconsideredimportantorcriticallyimportant forstaffpersonnelby12.7%ofrespondentsandfor9.9%ofrespondentsforline personnel;Countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledgewasconsideredsomewhat important,importantorcriticallyimportantforstaffpersonnelby13.4%ofrespondents andby12.0%ofrespondentsforlinepersonnel;Countrysocio-economic/political knowledgewasconsideredimportantorcriticallyimportantforstaffpersonnelby7.7% ofrespondentsandfor9.2%ofrespondentsforlinepersonnel;Understandingof internationaltechnical/occupationalstandardswasconsideredsomewhatimportant, importantorcriticallyimportantforstaffpersonnelby12.7%ofrespondentsandby 9.9%ofrespondentsforlinepersonnel;Understandingofinternational technical/occupationalstandardswasconsideredimportantorcriticallyimportantfor staffpersonnelby7.7%ofrespondentsandfor3.5%ofrespondentsforlinepersonnel; Internationalworkexperiencewasconsideredsomewhatimportant,importantor criticallyimportantforstaffpersonnelby7.0%ofrespondentsandby5.6%of respondentsforlinepersonnel;Internationalworkexperiencewasconsideredimportant orcriticallyimportantforstaffpersonnelby0.7%ofrespondentsandfor1.4%of respondentsforlinepersonnel(Table2).;

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58 Table2 ImportanceofInternationalSkills InternationalSkillsStaffPersonnelLinePersonnel MSDSW+I +C 95CL Lower Upper I+C95CL Lower Upper MSD SW+I+ C 95CL Lower Upper I+C95CL Lower Upper Appreciationofcrossculturaldifferences 2.231.25.38 .30 .46 .16 .10 .22 2.171.25.38 .30 .46 .16 .11 .23 Foreignlanguage 2.151.16.38 .30 .46 .18 .13 .25 2.191.18.35 .27 .43 .20 .14 .27 Understandingoflocal market/businesspractices 1.731.22.20 .14 .27 .09 .05 .14 1.651.11.16 .10 .22 .06 .03 .11 Aglobalperspective 1.641.01.19 .13 .26 .13 .08 .19 1.550.90.18 .13 .25 .10 .06 .16 Countrysocioeconomic/Political Knowledge 1.510.93.13 .08 .19 .08 .05 .14 1.390.76.12 .08 .18 .09 .05 .15 Understandingof International technical/occupational standards 1.470.96.13 .08 .19 .08 .05 .14 1.510.99.10 .06 .16 .04 .02 .08 Internationalwork experience 1.270.61 .07 .04 .12.01 .00 .04 1.270.61 .06 .03 .11.01 .00 .05 Note1: Responsesprovidedon5-pointresponsescale(1=Notatallimportant,2=onlyslightlyimportant,3=somewhatimportant, 4=important,5=Criticallyimportant). Note2:SW=SomewhatImportant,I=Important,C=CriticallyImportant Note3:95CL=95%ConfidenceLimit

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59 Themeanratingsbetweenentrylevelandmanagementlevelscoresforthe importanceofinternationalskillsweresignificantlydifferent( F =233.75, p <.0001) (Table3).Thisrepeatedmeasureanalysisisaonebetween(businessleaders)andtwo within(employeeskilllevelandinternationalskills).Thisdesignallowsforthe subdividingofthebusinessleadersperceptionsintotwogroupingvariables(Stevens, 2002).Comparingaggregatescoresfortechnical/occupationalentrylevelpositionsto managementlevelpositions,respondentsreportedthattheyconsiderinternationalskills moreoftenwhenmakingstaffingdecisionsformanagementpositions(63%,n=304), exceptwhenconsideringforeignlanguageskills(47%,n=139).Foreignlanguage skillswereequallyimportantforstaffingdecisionsforbothentryleveland managementlevelpositions( F =.061, p =.6068).Appreciationofcross-cultural differences(33%,n=159)andForeignlanguageskills(29%,n=140)werethemost frequentlyconsideredinternationalskillsforentrylevelstaffandlinepositions(Table 3),aswellasformanagementlevelstaffandlinepositions(Table1). Correlatingindividualcareerfieldswiththeimportanceofindividualinternational skillsrevealed11weaktomediumstrengthcorrelations( p <.05).Agriculturaland NaturalResourcecareerscorrelatedwithUnderstandingoflocalmarket/business practices(r=.26).BusinessmanagementcorrelatedwithForeignLanguage(r=.25). BusinesssupportcorrelatedwithCountrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge (r=-.16),withAppreciationofcross-culturaldifferences(r=.23)andwithForeign language(r=.19).Threecareerfields:Computerandinformationsciencecareers; Engineering,architectural,andsciencetechnologiesandTradeandindustrycareers correlatedwithInternationalworkexperience(r=.21,.29,.29respectively).Finally,

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60 Table3 RepeatedMeasuresANOVAtestingformeansdifferencesofInternationalSkillsby Technical/OccupationalPositions RepeatedMeasuresANOVAtestingformeansdifferencesofInternationalSkillsby Technical/OccupationalPositions TestedMeansdfMSFP Between231.43817.06*<.0001 AllInternationalSkillsbyAllpositions Within3197 0.084 Between30.1924.96*.0022Countrysocio-economic/political knowledgebyAllpositionsWithin417 .039 Between30.77310.26*<.0001 Appreciationofcross-cultural differencesbyAllpositionsWithin417 0.075 Between30.4248.74*<.0001 AglobalperspectivebyAllpositions Within417 0.049 Between30.4408.76*<.0001 Understandingoflocal markets/businesspracticesbyAll positions Within417 0.050 Between30.1294.62*.0034InternationalworkexperiencebyAll positionsWithin417 0.028 Between30.0490.061.6068ForeignlanguagebyAllpositions Within417 0.081 Between51.2718.9*<.0001 EntryLevelStaffbyAllInternational SkillsWithin695 0.067 Between51.8220.8*<.0001 ManagementLevelStaffbyAll InternationalSkillsWithin695 0.088 Between51.3119.86*<.0001 EntryLevelLinebyAllInternational SkillsWithin695 0.066 Between51.2414.80*<.0001 ManagementLevelLinebyAll InternationalSkillsWithin6950.084 Between297427233.75* <.0001 AllManagementLevelbyAllEntry LevelWithin142416.8

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61 thefieldofPublic,legal,andsocialservicescorrelatedwiththreeinternationalskills: Countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge(r =.42);Appreciationofcross-cultural differences(r=.18);andAglobalperspective(r=.26)(Table4). FocusGroupParticipants. TheBusinessFocusGroupparticipantsexpressedsurprisethattheratingsfor theinternationalskillswerenothigheroverall,butrationalizedtherelativelylowscores bynotingthatthelargenumberofsmallbusinesseswithinthegreaterTampaBay communitymaysensethattheyhaveverylittleinternationalexposure.Thegroup universallyagreedthatsub-baccalaureatedegreeemployeesarehavingmorecontact withotherculturesthantheyusedtoandthattheneedforinternationalskillswas extremelyimportantintheTampamarketasitgrowsintoamorediversecommunity andbusinesshub.Thediscussionmovedtoadiscussionontheimportanceofcultural sensitivityandtheneedforAmericanstotempertheirarroganceandstretchouttoother culturesandcountriesbyunderstandingtheirgovernments,socialsystemsand histories.OneofthememberstoldthestoryofanOrlandohospitalitybusinessmanthat organizedadrivetopurchasewaterpurifiersforHaitiafterarecenthurricane.His expressedempathysoendearedhimtohislargeHaitianemployeepopulationthathis customersatisfactionhasmarkedlyimproved.Anothermemberbluntlystatedthatifhe hadmoreSpanishspeakingemployees,hecouldsellmoreproductslocallyandabroad. Asagrouptherewasabeliefthatculturalcompetencewasmoreimportantthan languageacquisition,althoughlanguagewasstillinstrumentalindevelopinguntapped internationalbusinessareas.Whenthegrouplookedatthesignificantcorrelations betweencareerfieldsandinternationalskills,therewasabeliefthatthissectionwas

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62 Table4 CorrelationsofCareerFieldswithInternationalSkills CareerFields InternationalSkills M SD ISCOISAPISAGISUNISIWISFL AgricultureandNatural Resources 0.080.27.03-.02-.05.26**.09.06 BusinessManagement 0.520.50-.11.08-.03.11.11.25** BusinessSupport 0.490.50-.16*.23**.07.12.07.19* Communicationsand Design 0.080.28-.01-.02-.06.16.07.02 Computerand InformationSciences 0.190.39.01.07.05.23**.21*.10 Education 0.150.36.07.10.06.05-.00-.09 Engineering, ArchitecturalandScience Technologies 0.13 0.34 .12 .10 .16 .08 .29** -.05 HealthSciences 0.210.41.08.02-.01-.01-.05.05 Marketing 0.240.43.02.08.01.12.18*.14 PersonalServices 0.110.31-.05.02-.03.12.04-.02 ProtectiveServices 0.080.27-.01-.06-.05.06.08-.05 Public,Legal,andSocial Services 0.130.34.42**.18.26**.11.11.12 TradeandIndustry 0.240.43-.06.06.04.04.30**.15 InternationalSkills Countrysocioeconomic/political knowledge 0.290.77 AppreciationofcrossculturalDifferences 1.101.50 Aglobalperspective 0.451.00 Understandingoflocal markets/business practices 0.430.95 Internationalwork experience 0.140.45 Foreignlanguage0.971.42 NOTE. ISCO=Countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge;ISAP=Appreciationofcross-cultural differences;ISAG=Aglobalperspective;ISUN=Understandingoflocalmarkets/businesspractices; ISIW=Internationalworkexperience;ISFL=Foreignlanguage.n=143.*p<.05.**p<.01

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63 extremelyimportantanddemonstratedthediversityofinternationalskillsneededby differentsub-baccalaureatecareerfields. TheCommunityCollegeFocusGroupparticipantsexpressedconcernthatthe datawasskewedbecausesmallbusinesseswithnointernationalexpertiseweregiven equalvoicewithlargeinternationalcorporations,butexpressedthatthisequalitymay pointtowardthereasonwhyitissodifficulttogetpublicsupportandfundingfor internationaleducationprograms.Thegroupexpressednosurprisethattherewouldbe aperceivedneedforinternationalskillswithinsub-baccalaureate technical/occupationalemployeesbutquestionedwhetherrespondentshadinterpreted thequestionswithinapersonal,politicalorglobalcontext.Oneofthemembers equatedthelackofexpertiseinthesurveysamplerespondentstohavingchefsand policemenonanadvisorycommitteetodevelopaweldingprogram. QuestionTwo Thesecondquestion:HowdosurveyedU.S.businessandindustryexecutives engagetheircompanies'sub-baccalaureatetechnicalandoccupationalemployeesin trainingprogramstodevelopinternationalskills?,wasaddressedbyanalyzingthe respondentanswerstoonequestiontodetermineproportionsandconfidenceintervals andthenutilizedbusinessdemographicinformationtorelatetheresultsbacktothe population.Theresultsofthisquestionwerethendiscussedwiththetwofocusgroups andthediscussionhighlightsreported. SurveyRespondents. Intotal,therewasahigherpercentage(33%,n=47)ofIn-Housetraining providersthananyotherinternationalskillstrainingprovider.Thiswasfollowedby

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64 ConsultingFirms(10%,n=15)andbyNon-Profit/Government(7%,n=10), CommunityColleges(4%,n=6)andUniversityproviders(2%,n=3)(Table4). Therewasalsoahigherpercentage(22%,n=32)ofMulticulturalStaffManagement trainingprogramsthananyotherinternationalskillsprogramtype.Thiswasfollowed byInternationalTechnicalStandards(9%,n=13),ForeignLanguage(7%,n=10), RegionalorGlobalBusinessPractices(6%,n=9),InternationalCross-Cultural Seminars(5%,n=6),RegionalorGlobalUpdates(3%,n=5),Pre-DepartureTraining (2%,n=3)andCross-NationalFunctionalTeam(2%,n=3)trainingprograms (Table5). FocusGroupParticipants. TheBusinessFocusGroupparticipantsagreedthatasmallproportionof businessesengagetheircompanies'sub-baccalaureatetechnicalandoccupational employeesintrainingprogramstodevelopinternationalskills.Theyagreedthatthe majorityoftrainingthatisprovidedisin-houseandbyconsultants.Therewassome surprisethatsofewbusinessesreportedthattheyengagedcommunitycollegesfor internationalskillstraining.TheBusinessFocusGroupsurmisedthatthereareso manybarriersforsmall(10person)firmsfeelingthattheycompeteinternationally,that theyoftenfailtorecognizetheneedtocreateopportunitiesthrougheducationand training.Itwasfeltthatmanybusinessesdontknowwhattheydontknowabout internationalbusinessandclients. TheCommunityCollegeFocusGroupparticipantsexpressednosurpriseinthe dataforstudyquestion2.Therewasadiscussiononwhyin-housetrainingprograms andconsultingfirmswerelistedseparatelythatconcludedwithanunderstandingthat

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65 Table5 ProportionsandConfidenceIntervalsofInternationalSkillsProviderandProgram Types ProportionsandConfidenceIntervalsforInternationalSkillsProviderTypesand InternationalSkillsProgramTypes PROVIDERTYPE nProportion LowerLimit (Confidence=95) UpperLimit (Confidence=95) In-House47 .33.26.41 ConsultantFirm15 .10.06.16 Non-Profit/Government 10.07.04.12 CommunityCollege6 .04.02.09 University3 .02.01.06 PROGRAMTYPE NProportion LowerLimit (Confidence=95) UpperLimit (Confidence=95) MulticulturalStaffManagement32 .22.16.29 InternationalTechnicalStandards13 .09.05.15 ForeignLanguageTraining10 .07.04.12 RegionalorGlobalBusinessPractices 9.06.03.11 InternationalCross-CulturalSeminars6 .05.02.10 RegionalorGlobalUpdates5 .03.01.08 Pre-DepartureTrainingBeforeForeign Assignment 3.02.01.06 Cross-NationalFunctionalTeams 3 .02 .01 .06 thesetwoprovidersfilleduniquetaxingandcontrolnichesforbusinessesandrepresent uniquecompetitivechallengesforthecommunitycolleges.Inaddition,thegroup discussedthelimitedforeignlanguageofferingsofthelocalcommunitycollegesand

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66 questionedwhethertherewasaneedtoreconsiderofferingadditionallanguagesto meetgrowingandchangingbusinessandgovernmentneeds. QuestionThree Thethirdstudyquestion:Inwhatwaysdosurveyedbusinessandindustry executivesthinkU.S.communitycollegetechnicalandoccupationaldegree programsshouldchangewithrespecttotheirinternationalskillsobjectives?,was answeredusingdescriptivedataandananalysisofvarianceonLikert-likeand dichotomousresponsestoquestionsaboutrecommendedimprovement.Theseresults werethenrankedinorderofimportance.Inaddition,careerfieldswerecorrelatedwith suggestedimprovementsinprograms.Theresultsofthisquestionwerethendiscussed withthetwofocusgroupsandthediscussionhighlightsreported. SurveyRespondents. Mandatoryforeignlanguagetraining(M=2.19,S=1.25)(Table6)and requiringforeignlanguageandmoreculturaleducationinthecurriculum(28%,n=33) (Table7)werethehighestscoresonboththe5-pointresponsescaleandthe dichotomousscalequestionssuggestingimprovementsintechnical/occupational programs.Theresponsescalequestionmeanscontinuedindescendingorderwith: Improvedacademicoutreachinbusinessesseekinggreaterinternationalcompetence (M=1.98,S=1.21);Moreemphasisonlearningaboutotherworldareas/countriesand cultures(M=1.96,S=1.23);Strongerinternationalemphasisintechnical/occupational programcurricula(M=1.78,S=1.16);Creationofdatabanks/clearinghouseson internationalresources(M=1.65,S=1.04);andMoreemphasisonexchange/overseas

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67 Table6 SuggestedImprovementsofInternationalSkillsProgramsI Importanceofsuggestionsforimprovinginternationalskillscontentintechnicalandoccupationalprograms(n=143) InternationalSkills MSD SW+I+C Lower Limit (95%) Upper Limit (95%) I+C Lower Limit (95%) Upper Limit (95%) Mandatoryforeignlanguagetraining 2.19 1.25 .40 .32 .48 18% .13 .25 Improvedacademicoutreachto businessesseekinggreater internationalcompetence 1.981.21.35.28.4315%.10.22 Moreemphasisonlearningabout otherworldareas/countriesand cultures 1.961.23.31.24%.3917%.12.24 Strongerinternationalemphasisin technical/occupationalprogram curricula 1.781.16.25.19.3312%.08.18 Creationofdatabanks/clearing housesoninternationalresources 1.651.04.24.18.327.0%.04.12 Moreemphasisonexchange/overseas internshipprograms 1.561.05.17.12.249.0%.05.15 Note1: Responsesprovidedon5-pointresponsescale(1=Notatallimportant,2=onlyslightlyimportant,3=somewhatimportant, 4=important,5=criticallyimportant). Note2:SW=SomewhatImportant,I=Important,C=CritiallyImportant Note3:95%CI=95%ConfidenceLimit

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68 internshipprograms(M=1.56,S=1.05)(Table6).Aftertheforeignlanguage response,the118answerstothedichotomouschangesuggestions,indescendingorder were:Beflexibleinprovidingclassesandprograms(21%);Teachinternational standardsandtechnicalterms(19%);Meetwithmyfirmaboutmyneeds(11%); Incorporateinternationalskillsbyusingpresentationmethodsthatincrease internationalexpertise(11%);andIncreaseoverseasexperienceintheprogram(8%) (Table7). Correlatingcareerfieldswithsuggestionsforimprovementsrevealed19 significantcorrelations(p<.05,n=141)(Table8).ThesuggestiontoMeetwithmy firmwassignificantforbusinessesemployingcareerfields:Agricultureandnatural resources(r=.218);Communicationsanddesign(r=.166);Protectiveservices(r= .373)andEngineering,architectsandsciencetechnologies(r=.172).Requiringmore Foreignlanguageandculturaleducationinthecurriculumwassignificantforthecareer fieldsof:Agricultureandnaturalresources(r=.198);Education(r=.170);Personal services(r=.172);andProtectiveservices(r=.214).Therecommendationtoplace moreemphasisonlearningaboutotherworldareas/countriesandculturescorrelated with:Public,legalandsocialservices(r=.183);andnegativelywithTradeand industry(r=-.210).Arequestforstrongerinternationalemphasisin technical/occupationalprogramcurriculacorrelatedwithAgricultureand naturalresources(r=.506)andHealthsciences(r=.220).Othercorrelationsincluded: IncreasedoverseasexperiencewithHealthsciences(r=.172);Teachinginternational standardsandtechnicaltermswithProtectiveservices(r=.312);Improveacademic outreachtobusinessesseekinggreaterinternationalcompetencewithBusiness

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69 Table7 SuggestedImprovementsofInternationalSkillsProgramsII SuggestionsforchangestoexistingCommunityCollegeTechnicalandOccupational programstobettersupportyourglobalbusinessendeavors? Explanations npct Requiremoreforeignlanguageandcultural educationinthecurriculum 3328 Beflexibleinprovidingclassesandprograms 2521 Teachinternationalstandardsandtechnicalterms 2319 Meetwithmyfirmaboutourneeds 1311 Incorporateinternationalskillsbyusingpresentation methodsthatincreaseinternationalexpertise 1311 Increaseoverseasexperienceintheprograms 108 Other 11 TOTAL118100 management(r=.233);andCreationofdatabanks/clearinghousesoninternational resourceswithHealthsciences(r=.246).Therewerenineteencorrelationsthatwere significant(p<.05).Ofthese,16effectsweresmall,twoweremediumandonewas large(Cohen,1988). FocusGroupParticipants. TheBusinessFocusGroupparticipantsfeltthatcommunitycollege technical/occupationalprogramsshouldincludeacourseinculturalstudiesthatspent about2weeksonthehistory,culturesandthesocial/businesspracticesofeachmajor worldregion.Asagrouptheywerewillingtogiveuponetechnicalcourseto

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70 Table8 CorrelationsofSuggestionsforImprovementswithCareerFields CorrelationofSuggestionsforImprovementwithCareerFields(n=138) AGBMBSCMCPEDENHEMAPEPRPUTR IMP .032 .233** -.042 -.012 -.045 -.004 -.024 .147 -.080 .085 .119 .029 -.093 CRE .063 .117 -.065 .007 -.059 .029 -.032 .246** -.046 .037 .127 .057 -.127 MAN .074 .097 -.044 .116 -.036 -.020 -.028 .101 -.052 .086 .080 .086 -.146 MEX .001 .073 -.088 -.063 -.119 -.011 .002 .135 -.043 .068 -.001 .050 -.107 MLE .080 .153 .034 .011 -.012 .015 .014 .132 -.021 .067 .096 .183* -.210* STR .506** .101 -.071 -.029 -.124 .012 -.018 .220** -.063 .089 .079 .059 -.163 NOTE1. IMP=Improvedacademicoutreachtobusinessesseekinggreaterinternationalcompetence;CRE=Creationofdatabanks/clearinghousesoninternationalresources; MAN=Mandatoryforeignlanguagetraining;MEX=Moreemphasisonexchange/overseasinternshipprograms;MLE=Moreemphasisonlearningaboutotherworld areas/countriesandcultures;STR=Strongerinternationalemphasisintechnical/occupationalprogramcurricula. NOTE2. AG=Agricultureandnaturalresources;BM=Businessmanagement;BS=Businesssupport;CM=Communicationsanddesign;CP=Computerandinformation sciences;ED=Education;EN=Engineering,architectural,andsciencetechnologies;HE=Healthsciences;MA=Marketing;PE=PersonalServices;PR=ProtectiveServices; PU=Public,legal,andsocialservices;TR=Tradeandindustry. *p<.05.**p<.01.

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71 Table8(Continued) CorrelationsofSuggestionsforImprovementswithCareerFields CorrelationofSuggestionsforImprovementwithCareerFields(n=141) AGBMBSCMCPEDENHEMAPEPRPUTR MEE .218** .107 .076 .166* .032 .066 .172* .134 .101 .118 .373** .161 .044 BEF -.041 .053 -.072 -.070 -.077 .013 -.060 .087 -.086 .165 .009 -.068 -.129 INC .117 .107 -.022 -.009 .032 -.002 -.048 .134 .044 -.037 .090 -.054 -.126 REQ .198* .123 -.013 .071 .029 .178* .090 .040 .031 .172* .214* -.022 -.046 TEA .127 .135 .042 .009 -.011 .192* .011 .063 .067 .031 .312** .059 -.111 INC .140 -.041 -.077 .006 -.074 -.052 .047 .172* .078 .063 .014 .401 .017 IHA -.185* -.057 .064 .001 .011 -.146 -.061 -.049 -.011 -.058 -.229** .039 .086 OTH -.022 .080 .085 -.040 -.041 -.036 -.032 .085 -.049 .054 -.025 -.033 -.049 NOTE1. MEE=Meetwithmyfirmaboutourneeds;BEF=Beflexibleinprovidingclassesandprograms;INC=Incorporateinternationalskillsbyusingpresentationmethods thatincreaseinternationalexpertise;REQ=Requiremoreforeignlanguageandculturaleducationinthecurriculum;TEA=Teachinternationalstandardsandtechnicalterms; INC=Increaseoverseasexperienceintheprograms;IHA=Ihavenosuggestionsforchange;OTH=Other. NOTE2. AG=Agricultureandnaturalresources;BM=Businessmanagement;BS=Businesssupport;CM=Communicationsanddesign;CP=Computerandinformation sciences;ED=Education;EN=Engineering,architectural,andsciencetechnologies;HE=Healthsciences;MA=Marketing;PE=PersonalServices;PR=ProtectiveServices; PU=Public,legal,andsocialservices;TR=Tradeandindustry. *p<.05.**p<.01.

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72 accommodatethiscourseofinstruction.Therewasalsoabeliefthatcommunity collegeshavenoteffectivelyconductedoutreachtothesmallbusinesseswithinthe TampaBayarea.Therewasadiscussionabouthowthecommunitycollegesusethe localChambersofCommerceandWorkforceDevelopmentBoardsasintermediaries withsmallbusinessandaconsensusthatthisstructuresilencedinputfrommanysmall businessownersthatmayhavetrainingneeds,butdonothaveanaffiliationwiththe Chamberoradesiretobetreatedlikealargercorporation.Theconversationsegued intoadebateaboutthenameoftheHCCbusinesstrainingcenter.Thecenter,named theCorporateTrainingCenterwasviewedtoexcludesmallentrepreneurialorfamily ownedbusinessesthatshuncorporateidentity. TheCommunityCollegeFocusGroupparticipantsexpressedabeliefthatmany businessesdonotusetheirservicesanddonotknowthatthecommunitycollegescan tailorprogramstomeetanybusinessneeds.Theyacknowledgedthattheyneedto improvemarketingandoutreachtosmallbusinessesiftheyhopetoincreasemarket shareorremainvitaltobusiness.Therewasagreementthatthisstudywarrants follow-onstudiestofocusonindustriesandbusinessesthatdoorplantodosignificant internationalbusinesstodeterminewhethertheyhavespecificinternationalskillsthat theyneedfortheiremployees.Theyacknowledgedthattheyareunsureifexisting communitycollegeadvisorycommitteesfrombusinessandindustryhaveapulseonthe internationalcommunity.Thefinaldiscussionofthegroupbanteredaboutwhether therewasroomtoaddinternationalskillsintoexistingtechnicalandoccupational programs.Therewasagreementthatitcouldbeaddedthroughdifferentmethodsand statedthattheneedtoaddittoprogramswasanobrainer.Thegroupconcludedthat

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73 theinternationalskills:Knowledgeofacountryssocio-economicandpolitical structures;Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences,Aglobalperspective,and; Foreignlanguageskillsweregenerictopicsandcouldbetaughtinallprograms.The groupalsoconcludedthatUnderstandingoflocalmarket/businesspracticesand UnderstandingofInternationaltechnical/occupationalstandardswereinternational skillsthatwereoccupational/technicalprogramspecific,andthatInternationalwork experiencewasbeyondthescopeoftechnical/occupationalprogramsunlessitwaspart ofanapprenticeshipprogram. ChapterSummary Chapterfourcontainedthefindingsoftheresearch.Thechapterpresented demographicresponsedataabouttherespondentsandtheirbusinesses.Italsopresented theresponsesfromthesurveyrespondentsandthetwofocusgroupsforeachofthe threeresearchquestions.

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74 ChapterFive Discussion Communitycollegeshavealonghistoryofprovidingtechnical/occupational programstomeettheneedsofthelocalbusinesscommunityandcareerfields (AssociationofCareerandTechnicalEducation,2006).Businessesalsohavealong historyofestablishingtrainingprogramsinordertoensurethatemployeeshavethe requisiteskillsforpromotingbusinesssuccess(Shaw&Craig,1994).Therehasalso beengrowingevidencethatemployeesofU.S.businessesneedincreasedinternational skillsinorderforbusinessesandindividualstosuccessfullycompeteinthegrowing globalizedmarket(Bikson&Law,1994;Kedia&Daniel,2003).Whathasnotbeen knownwaswhethertheneedforinternationalskillshaddisseminatedpastpositions traditionallyfilledbypostbaccalaureatebusinessmajorsandintotheranksofsubbaccalaureatetechnical/occupationalemployees.Therefore,withthisquestioninmind, thecurrentstudyproposedtodeterminewhatinternationalskillsareimportantforsubbaccalaureatetechnicalandoccupationalemployees,howcompaniesengagetheirsubbaccalaureatetechnicalandoccupationalemployeesintrainingprogramstodevelop internationalskills,andwhatwayssurveyedbusinessesbelieveU.S.community collegetechnicalandoccupationaldegreeprogramsshouldchangewithrespecttotheir internationalskillsobjectives. ThediscussioninChapterFiveisanchoredintheliteratureandwillpresenta comparisonofthisstudysfindingswiththefindingsoftheKediaandDaniel(2003)

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75 study.TheKediaandDanielstudywasconductedusingasurveyinstrumentthat focusedonFortune500companiesandtheinternationalskillrequirementsandtraining shortcomingsforpostbaccalaureateandpostgraduatelevelemployeeswithdegreesin business.TheKediaandDanielstudydatawaspresentedinpercentileswithlimited discussion.Thischapterwillthenalignthefindingswiththetheoreticalframeworkand providerecommendationsforfurtherstudy. Demographics Therespondentstothecurrentstudytypicallyreportedthattheyhad responsibilityforinternationalbusinessdecisions,hadneverbeenassignedoutsideof theUnitedStates,considertheircareerpathstobedomestic,spokeonlyEnglish,and hadabachelorsormastersdegreeastheirhighestacademicattainment.Their businesseswerepredominatelysmallandlocallyownedwithlittleperceivedexposure totheinternationalmarket.RespondentstotheKediaandDanielstudyrepresented influentialcorporationswithnationalandinternationalreputations(Appendix38; Appendix39;Appendix40).Thesesmallerandmorediverselocalbusinessesmakeup thevastmajorityofU.Sbusinessesandprovideanalternativerepresentationofthe cross-sectionoftheU.S.businesscommunity(U.S.CensusBureau,2007).These smallercompaniesalsodonothavededicatedtrainingspecialistslikelarge corporationsandmaynothavetheexpertisetorecognizetrainingneeds(Kalantaridis, 2004;Kotey&Folker,2007). ThelargercorporationssampledintheKediaandDanielstudyareoften surveyedtodeterminebusinessneedsintheU.S.,eventhoughtheymaynotadequately

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76 representthevastmajorityofemployeesthatworkforsmalllocalfirms(U.S.Census Bureau,2007). Surprisingly,over40%oflocalbusinessesclaimedinternationalsalesand29% reporthavinginternationalbusinessoperationsinthecurrentstudy.Whilethisisa largepercentage,theFortune500companiesoftheKediaandDaniel(2003)study tendedtohavehigherpercentagesofbusinesssalesfromtheinternationalcommunity andreportthat100%oftheirbusinesseshaveinternationalbusinessoperations (Appendix41;Appendix42). Itwasalsonoteworthythatinthecurrentstudyover50%oflocalbusinesses claimedthattheyhaveemployeesworkinginpositionsrequiringinternational knowledgeorexpertise.Thisisalargepercentageoflocalemployeesthoughmuch lessthantheFortune500companiesoftheKediaandDaniel(2003)study,which tendedtohavehigherpercentagesofemployeesworkinginpositionsrequiring internationalknowledgeanexpertise(Appendix43). ThecurrentstudyfocusedonthegreaterTampaBayareaofFloridaand reporteddifferentworldregionsofimportancethanthenationallevelKediaandDaniel (2003)study.ThecurrentstudyplacedthemostimportanceonLatinAmerica, followedbyEurope,Asia,withtheMiddleEastandAfricahavingverylittle importance.TheKediaandDanielstudyrespondentsratedAsiaasthemostimportant region,followedbyEurope,LatinAmerica,theMiddleEastandAfrica.Bothstudies believedthatallinternationalregionswouldbeofmoreimportanceinthefuture (Appendix44;Appendix45).ThisregionaldifferencemayhighlightTampas

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77 proximitytoLatinandSouthAmericaandhighlightsthecautionsthatmustbetaken whenusingnationalstudiestoprovideguidanceforunderstandinglocaltrends. Comparingresponsesaboutcurrentgrowthofinternationalactivitiesrelativeto domesticactivities(Appendix46),thecurrentTampaBaystudyresponseswere skewedtowardinternationalactivitiesgrowinglessrapidlythandomesticactivities, withonlyninepercentofrespondentsbelievingthatinternationalactivitieswere growingmorerapidlythanthedomesticmarket.Incontrast,theKediaandDaniel studyrespondentsweremoreevenlysplitbetweenclassifyingrelativegrowthof businessactivityaslessrapidly(34%),aboutthesame(27%),ormorerapidly(39%). Scalesforcomparisonofthepercentoftotalsalesrevenuefrominternational businesswithinthenext10yearsweredifferentforeachstudy(Appendix47).What wasapparentwasthattherewasamuchlowerpercentageofTampaBaycompanies thatbelievedinternationalsaleswillbeacorecompetencyforfuturesuccesswithover 80%ofbusinessesbelievingthatnooraminimumpercentageofbusinesswillbe derivedinternationallycomparedtotheKediaandDanielstudywhichfoundthat63% ofbusinessesbelievedinternationalsalespercentageswillbehigherinthenext10 years.Whileonly14%ofthecurrentstudyparticipantsbelievedthatinternational saleswillcompriseasignificantorcriticalpercentageofoverallsalesand9%of respondentsfromthecurrentstudybelieveinternationalsalesaregrowingmorerapidly thandomesticactivity,thesepercentagesstillspeaksoftheimportanceofthe internationalmarketandtheeffectsofglobalizationontheTampaBayeconomiczone. Earlierstudiesoftheareaalsofoundthatthefutureofthecommunitywillrelyheavily uponitsinternationalgateways(USFGlobalizationResearchCenter,2004).

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78 Bothstudieshadasignificantpercentageofresponsesindicatingthatthe employmentofinsufficientnumbersofinternationallycompetentpersonnelhad resultedinafailuretoexploitinternationalbusinessopportunities(Appendix48).An evenlargerandmoresubstantialpercentageofstudyparticipantsfrombothstudies believedthatoverallbusinesswouldincreaseiftheyhadmoreinternationalbusiness expertise(Appendix49).Bothstudieshadanoteworthypercentageofrespondents statethatitwasdifficulttofindU.S.nationalswiththeinternationalskillsneeded (Appendix50).Onethirdofcurrentstudyrespondentsand78%ofKediaandDaniel (2003)respondentsreportedthattheywillplacegreateremphasisoninternationalskills inthenext10years(Appendix51).Withthegrowingcompetitionoftheglobalized market,marketshareforbusinessesisbecomingincreasinglyimportanttomaintain. StudyQuestions QuestionOne Thefirststudyquestionwas:WhatinternationalskillsdosurveyedU.S. businessesandindustryexecutivesbelieveareimportantforthesub-baccalaureate technicalandoccupationalemployeesthattheyhireandpromote?Thisstudyfound thatthereappearstobeevidenceindicatingthatbusinessandindustryexecutives believethatinternationalskillsareneededbyatleastsomesub-baccalaureate technical/occupationalemployees.Thisneedappearstohavesomebasisincareer fieldsandthatthereareindicationsthattheinternationalskillsofAppreciationofcrossculturaldifferencesandForeignlanguagearesignificantlymoreimportantthanthe otherskills.Thereisalsoanindicationthatallinternationalskillsexceptforeign languageskillsmaybemoreimportantformanagersthanentrylevel

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79 technical/occupationalemployeesbutthatforeignlanguageskillsareofequallyhigh importancetobothlevels.Thereisalsoevidencethattheremaybeatendencyfor businesseswithlargernumberofemployeesandmoresalesrevenuestoconsidermore internationalskillsinhiringandpromotiondecisionsforsub-baccalaureate technical/occupationalemployees(Appendix27). Contrastingthetwostudies,thecurrentstudyclearlyhighlightedforeign languageskillsandtheappreciationofcross-culturaldifferencesasthehighestrated internationalskills(Appendix52),whereasintheKediaandDanielstudythe appreciationofcrossculturaldifferencesandpossessionofaglobalperspectivewere ratedonlyslightlymoreimportantthantheotherinternationalskills(Appendix53). TheStateofFloridaandtheTampaBayRegionhavealargeHispanicpopulationandit mightbespeculatedthatthiswasamajorinfluenceonthedifferingresultsbetweenthe twostudiesontheissueoftheimportanceoflanguageskills. Bothstudiesfoundthatinternationalskillsweremoreimportantfor managementlevelemployeesthanentrylevelemployees.Thistrendwastrueforall internationalskills,exceptforeignlanguageskillsfortechnical/occupational employees.Thecurrentstudyfoundthatforeignlanguageskillswereequallyand relativelyhighlyimportanttoentrylevelandmanagementlevelemployeesalike (Appendix54;Appendix55;Appendix56;Appendix57;Appendix58). QuestionTwo Thesecondquestionwas:HowdosurveyedU.S.businessandindustry executivesengagetheircompanies'sub-baccalaureatetechnicalandoccupational employeesintrainingprogramstodevelopinternationalskills?Thisstudyfound

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80 evidencethatrelativelyfewbusinessesconductanyinternationalskillstraining. Trainingthatisprovidedappearstobetaughtprimarilybyin-houseresources. Externaltrainingresourcesappearedtobeusedveryinfrequently,withcommunity collegesusedbylessthan4%ofcompanies. Lessthan20%ofrespondentsinthecurrentstudyandover50%ofKediaand Danielstudyrespondentsstatethattheirfirmsengageininternationalskillstraining programs(Appendix59).Ofthosethatparticipate,themajorityoftrainingwas conductedusingin-houseresources.Consultantswerethenextmostfrequentlyused internationalskillstrainingresourceforbothstudyparticipantswithothersources fallingoffbymorethan50%(Appendix60).Aboutonethirdofrespondentsfromboth studiesstatedthattheirinternationaltrainingneedswerenotbeingmet(Appendix61). Thisisatremendousshortfallforbusinessestorecognize,andanopportunityfor trainingproviders. QuestionThree Thethirdstudyquestionwas:Inwhatwaysdosurveyedbusinessandindustry executivesthinkU.S.communitycollegetechnicalandoccupationaldegreeprograms shouldchangewithrespecttotheirinternationalskillsobjectives?Thisstudyfound evidencethatbusinessesbelievethatcommunitycollegesshouldchangewithrespectto theirinternationalskillsobjectives.Thereappearstobesomeindicationthatbusinesses wantcommunitycollegestoimproveacademicoutreachtobusinesses,particularly smallbusinesses,seekinggreaterinternationalcompetence,mandateforeignlanguage trainingintechnical/occupationalprogramsandplacemoreemphasisonlearningabout otherworldareas/countriesandcultures.

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81 Bothstudiespresentedstrongevidencethatbusinesseswouldliketosee changesintheinternationaleducationandassistanceprovidedbyacademicinstitutions. ThemajorityofbusinessesintheKediaandDanielstudywantedsweeping enhancementstotheinternationalaspectsofgraduateandundergraduatebusiness programs.Withinthecurriculum,thissentimentstronglyendorsedstronger internationalemphasisonlearningaboutotherworldareas,astrongerinternational emphasisinthecurriculumandmandatoryforeignlanguagetraining.Fiftypercentor moreofrespondentstothecurrentstudyechoedneedsforimprovedacademicoutreach forbusinesses,strongerinternationalemphasisinthecurriculumandmandatoryforeign languagetrainingwithinthecommunitycollegetechnical/occupationalprograms (Appendix62;Appendix63).TheBusinessFocusgroupwithinthecurrentstudy endorsedthesefindingswithoutreservationwhiletheCommunityCollegefocusgroup indicatedthattherewasastrongbeliefthatthesefindingswereaccurate,buttherewas needforfurtherstudy. TheoreticalContext CareerDevelopment Students,employersandacademicinstitutionsareinherentlyinvolvedinthe workofcareerdevelopment.Influencingthenewvocationalismandthegrowing awarenessoftheincreasedneedforbusinesssoftskills,globalizationhasbeen recognizedasadrivingforcethatisinfluencingself-awareness,environmental awarenessandcareerdecisionmaking(Super&Hall,1978).Consistingofbehavioral, attitudinalandknowledgefactorsassociatedwithindividualaswellasinstitutional responsibilities(Tuckman,1974),thisstudyrecognizedthatthereisasymbiotic

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82 relationshipbetweenthesefactorswhichworkstochangethenatureofsociety, industry,individualjobsandindividuals.Globalizationaffectstheserelationshipsand hasbeenintegraltothegrowinginterdependenceofculturesandthechangingfabricof workskills(Friedman,2005). NeedsAssessment Thisstudygathereddatatodemonstratewhethertherewasaneedforsubbaccalaureatetechnical/occupationalemployeestopossessinternationalskills,to determineiftherewasadisconnectbetweentheneededinternationalskillsandthe possessionofinternationalskills,todeterminewheretheseskillswerebeingtaught, andtoascertainwhethercommunitycollegesshouldchangepracticestobetterprovide businesseswiththeresourcesdesiredtocompeteintheinternationalmarket.Focusing onthesocietalneedsassessmentofthisstudy,theinstitutionalstakeholders,inthe formofbusinessleaders,wereaskediftheybelievedthisneedforinternationalskills hadreacheddownintobusinessorganizationstotheleveloftechnicalandoccupational employeeswithsub-baccalaureatedegrees.Theirresponses,gatheredthroughsurvey andfocusgroupdesigns,providedempiricalandjudgmentassessmentsthrough observation,evaluationanddiscussionwithstakeholdersthatpossessexpertknowledge (Cervano&Wilson,2006;Grier,2005).Thisstudyfoundindicationsofaneedfor internationalskills,shortcomingsinthepossessionofinternationalskills,discovered theprovidersofinternationalskillsinstructionanddeterminedthatthereisadifference betweentheinternationaleducationservicesdesiredbybusinessesfromcommunity collegesandtheinternationaleducationservicesthatbusinessesperceivethatare offeredbycommunitycolleges(Queeney,1995).

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83 SystemsTheory Systemstheoryprovidedtheframeworkforthisresearchproject(Banathy, 1991).Focusedonthedynamicinteractionofpartswithinalargersystemand recognizesthatmostsocialsystemsareinherentlyopentooutsideinfluences(Bailey, 1994),thisstudywasconductedwithinthecontextofeducatingandtrainingstudents foremploymentpurposeswithinaglobalizedworld(Appendix1).Inthemicrocontext oftheGreaterTampaBayeconomiczone,thisstudydiscoveredevidencethatbusiness andindustryleadersdobelievethatglobalizationhasinfluencedtheirbusiness activitiesandhasinfluencedtheknowledge,skillsandattributesthat technical/occupationalstudentsneedtoacquireinordertobetterservetheneedsof employers.Thebusinessandindustryleadersfurtherindicatedthatthereappearedto beadifferencebetweentheacquiredinternationalskillsandthedesiredinternational skillspossessedbycurrentsub-baccalaureatetechnical/occupationalemployees.Asan opensystem,themodelbecamemoreporousasstudents,businessesandindustries enterandleavethegeographicareaforeconomicandeducationalopportunities.This permeabilityhasresultedinaneedtoensurethatthelimitationsofthisstudiesfindings includedarecognitiontherenodatawerecollectedtohelpdetermineifbusinessleaders werereportingontheirobservationsandemploymentofsub-baccalaureate technical/occupationalemployeesthathadreceivedtrainingandeducationfromwithin theGreaterTampaBayeconomiczone,orfromoutsideofthearea. StudyLimitations Thisstudyislimitedbyanumberofconditions.Theentirestudywas conductedintheTampaBayEconomicZonewithnoattempttodetermineifthe

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84 internationalizationorcompositionofcompanieswithinthezonewerecomparableto otherareasoftheworld.ThedataintheReferenceUSAdatabasethatwereusedinthis studywerenotindependentlyverifiedforaccuracybytheauthor.Thesurvey instrumentprovidesonlyindividualmanagersperceptionsofthedemographicsofthe companyandtheinternationalskillsneededbytechnical/occupationalemployees,and cannotbeconstruedasacompletegapassessment.Thesurveysthatwerereceived wereaconveniencesamplingofthesurveysmailed,andtheresulting145respondents providedaconfidencelevelofonly76%withamarginoferrorof+/-5%.Thisnonresponsebiasmayhavecontributedtotherespondentcompaniesnotstatistically representingthepopulationinsizes,typesorsalestotals,andbecauseofthesignificant correlationsbetweenbusinesssizesanddollarsaleswiththeinternationalskills,this cannotbediscountedasabiaswithintheresults.Therewasnoattemptbytheauthor toprovidesurveysinlanguagesotherthanEnglish.TheFocusGroupswere conveniencesamplessolicitedbyunblindedprofessionalswhomayhavebiasedthe groupscompositionandresultingconclusions.TheCommunityCollegeFocusGroup hadonlyfourmemberswhichdidnotproviderepresentationfromeachofthearea communitycollegesandthesizeofwhichmayhavestifledthefreeexchangesofa largergroup(Kitzinger,1995).Theanalysisofthefocusgroupdiscussionswere qualitativeinnature,butdidnotmeettherigorofqualitativeresearch. ImplicationsforCommunityColleges Communitycollegesplaycriticalrolesinournation.Amongthemissionsisa mandatetohelpprovidebusinesswithaworkforcethatistrainedandcapableof keepingtheU.S.economyproductiveinthenewmillennium(MacAllum,Yoder&

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85 Poliakoff,2004).Thisstudyhasfocusedonwhethertheneedforinternationalskills hadpermeatedbusinesstothelevelthattechnicalandoccupationalemployeesneedto betrainedintheseinternationalskillsinordertoallowTampaBaybusinessesto remaincompetitiveintheworldeconomy,whetherandhowbusinessesareproviding internationalskillstraining,andwhetherandhowbusinessesbelievecommunity collegesshouldchangeinordertobettersupportU.S.endeavorstoexpand internationalbusinesspractices. ThisstudyhasshownthattherespondentbusinessleadersintheTampaBay areaappeartobelievethatcommunitycollegesshouldprovideadditionalinternational skillstrainingandeducationtosub-baccalaureatetechnical/occupationalstudents.This beliefwasechoedbytheBusinessFocusGroup.Themostpressingskillsrequested wereforanappreciationofcross-culturaldifferencesandforeignlanguageskills.After yearsofdeclineinforeignlanguagestudies,thereappearstobearesurgenceofinterest, sparkedbyinternationaltrade,agrowingconcernforournationalcompetitivenessand thegrowingacceptanceofculturalmixing.Thisrequestfordifferentskillsetswill needtobeformallymanagedwithaneedsassessmentbyprogramsand/orindustries andcommunitycollegeswillneedtodeterminethebestwaystomeetthisemergent businessneed.TherewasanindicationfromtheBusinessFocusGroupthattheywere willingtoeliminatesometechnical/occupationalskillstraininginordertoaddthe appreciationofcross-culturaldifferencesandlanguageskillsintothecurricula.In addition,therewasacallfromboththesurveyrespondentsandtheBusinessFocus Groupforcommunitycollegestodirectlyquerysmallbusinessesintheiracademic catchbasinstobetterunderstandtheirtrainingandeducationalneeds.Inthisvein,it

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86 maybeappropriateforcommunitycollegestoapproachbusinessHumanResource Departments(HRDs)todetermineifpartnershipswouldbeappropriatetoimprove internationalskillstraining. TheBusinessFocusGroupchallengedwhetherthecommunitycollegeswere expendingtheresourcesnecessarytoassesssmallbusinessneeds,oriftheywere primarilyusingthedatagatheredbythirdpartiesthathadconstituenciesandagendas thatmaynothaveemphasizedtheneedsofmanysmallbusinesses. ImplicationsforBusiness Businessleadersneedtorecognizethattheirtechnical/occupationalemployees maybeexperiencinganincreasedrequirementtopossessinternationalskillsinorderto fulfilltheirduties.Globaltrendshaveincreasedthequantityandrapidityofcontacts betweendisparatebusinessclients,partners,ownersandemployees.Thesetrends, coupledwiththeflatteningoforganizationsthathaveresultedinbroader responsibilitiesanddecisionmakingrequirementsatlowerlevelsinmany organizationshavecreatedtheneedfornewskillsetsformanyemployeesthathave traditionallybeenisolatedfrominteractionwithculturalorinternationaldiversity. Businessesneedtore-evaluateworkerskillsetrequirementsinlightofthechanging worldeconomyandstrivetoensurethattheyareprovidingthetrainingand organizationalstructuretocapitalizeofthebusinessenvironmentofthe21 st century.In addition,thebusinesscommunityneedstoinvesttime,energyandresourcestobetter partnerwithcommunitycollegestoshapeandutilizethecommunitycollegeresources forbusinessprosperity.ItmaybeappropriateforbusinessHumanResource

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87 Departments(HRDs)toapproachlocalcommunitycollegestodetermineif partnershipswouldbeappropriatetoimproveinternationalskillstraining. FutureResearchRecommendations Thisstudyopensthedoorforanewlineofinquiryonrequirementsfor internationalskillsfortechnical/occupationalemployees.Possibleareasoffuture researchinclude: 1.Refinementofthelistofinternationalskills. 2.Studyreplicationusingdifferentgeographicareas. 3.Studyreplicationfocusingonspecificbusinesstypes,businesssizesor internationalbusinessfocus. 4.Studyreplicationfocusingonspecificcareerfieldsortechnical/occupational programs. 5.Methodsreplicationbutfocusingonasingleinternationalskill. 6.Determinetheeffectivenessofvariousforeignexchange,studyabroadand internationalapprenticeshipprogramsareatinstillinginternationalskillsin technical/occupationalstudents. 7.Qualitativeneedsassessmentofinternationalskillsrequirements 8.LongitudinalstudyoftheTampaBayareautilizingthisstudyasthepreassessmentandconductingthepost-assessmentatsomepointinthefutureaftera significantchangeininternationaltrade(openingofthenewPanamaCanal), internationalagreements(newinternationaltradeagreements),businessprosperity. 9.Surveybusinessesandrankorderacombinedlistingofinternationalskills andsoftskillstobroadentheunderstandingoftherelativeimportanceoftheseskills.

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88 10.Determinewhetherthereisthereaneedforinternationalskillstobetaught intheK-12curriculum? 11.Determinetheimpactoftheneedforinternationalskillstrainingon TechnicalColleges,WorkforceDevelopmentPrograms,CareerSchoolsorRetraining Programs. 12.SurveyFacultyofvariousacademicinstitutionsanddetermineofthereisa recognizedneedforinternationalskillstobetaughtinparticulardisciplines,regions,or institutionaltypesorlevels. ChapterSummary Inthischaptertheauthordiscussedtheimplicationsofrespondentandfocus groupdemographicsandstudyquestionresponses,andcomparedthefindingsofthis studytoKediaandDaniel(2003)studyinordertogroundthefindingsintheliterature. Inaddition,thischapterplacedthediscussionwithinthestudystheoreticalcontextand provideddiscussionsonthestudylimitations,implicationsforcommunitycolleges, implicationsforbusinessesandrecommendationsforfutureresearch.

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89 References AssociationforCareerandTechnicalEducation(2006). Issuesbrief:Careerand technicaleducationsroleinAmericancompetitiveness. Alexandria,VA:The AssociationforCareerandTechnicalEducationPublications. Babbie,E.(2001). ThePracticeofSocialResearch (9 th ed.).Belmont,California: Wadsworth/ThomsonLearning. Bailey,K.D.(1994). Sociologyandthenewsystemstheory:Towardatheoretical synthesis .NewYork:StateofNewYorkPress. Banathy,B.(1991). Systemsdesignofeducation:Ajourneytocreatethefuture EnglewoodCliffs:EducationalTechnologyPublications. Bell,C.C.,&Mattis,J.(2000).Theimportanceofculturalcompetenceinministering toAfricanAmericanvictimsofdomesticviolence. ViolenceAgainstWomen6 515-532.RetrievedMarch22,2008fromSageJournalOn-Linewebsite http://vaw.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/6/5/515. Bean,R.(2006). Theeffectivenessofcross-culturaltrainingintheAustraliancontext. DepartmentofImmigrationandMulticulturalAffairs .RetrievedonMarch23, 2008fromCommonwealthofAustraliawebsite: http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/research/cross_cultural/Contents_E xecutive_Summary.pdf Bruch,P.L.,Higbee,J.L.&Lundell,D.B.(2002,May). Multiculturallegaciesforthe 21 st century:AconversationwithJamesA.Banks. RetrievedSeptember15, 2007fromUniversityofMinnesotawebsite: http://www.gen.umn.edu/research/crdeul/pdf/monograph/4-a.pdf#page=41 Bikson,T.K.,&Law,S.A.(1994). Globalpreparednessandhumanresources: Collegeandcorporateperspectives. SantaMonica,CA:RAND. Boggs,G.R.(2007).Lessonsinleadership:Willcommunitycollegessavetheday? CommunityCollegeJournal,77 (5),14-17.

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98 Appendices

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99 Appendix1 TheoreticalFrameworkSystemsTheory Globalization Students Business Industry Knowledge Skills Attitudes InternationalSkillsNeedsSurvey Countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocalmarkets/businesspractices Internationalworkexperience Foreignlanguageskills Understandingifinternationaltechnical/ occupationalstandards

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100 Appendix2 InternationalKnowledge,SkillsandAttitudinalComponents Countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocalmarkets/businesspractices Internationalworkexperience Foreignlanguageskills -(Kedia&Daniel,2003) Interculturalcompetencies Understandingnationalandworldissues Languageskills Resiliencyandcopingskills:Individual-oriented Teamworkandleadershipskills/traits:Group-orientation Understandingoforganizationalgovernanceandstrategies Understandingofcomputertechnologiesinsociety -(Reilly,2004) Awareofdiversity,commonalities,andinterdependence Recognizesthegeopoliticalandeconomicinterdependenceof theworld AppreciatestheimpactofotherculturesonAmericanlife Acceptstheimportanceofallpeoples Capableofworkingindiversegroups Understandingofthenon-universalityofculture,religion,and values Acceptsresponsibilityforglobalcitizenship -(Zeszotarski,2001) Selfawarenessofownculture Abilitytocompeteacrossculturessuccessfully Broadcultural/social/linguistic/historic/currentknowledge Foreignlanguageskills Nativeexperienceinothercultures Aglobalperspectiveandopenness Awarenessandrespectculturaldiversityandpluralism -(Hunter,2004) Knowledgeofglobalcurrentevents Relatetopeopleofothercultures Foreignlanguageskills Abilitytoperformtasksindiversecultural Appreciationofdiversity -(Lambert,1996) Secondlanguageproficiency Comparativeglobalknowledge Interculturalassimilation Disciplinarypracticeinaglobalcontext -(Rollins,H.A.,2005) Internationalperspectiveofbusiness Appreciationofthedifferencesbetweencultures Understandingofonesownculture Understandingofhistory,geography,andpoliticsfrom differentculturalcontexts Understandingoflocalcustomsandlanguage Abilitytoworkwithincross-culturalgroups -(Bikson&Law,1994) Effectiveinterculturalcommunication Abletoshiftculturalframeofreference Abletobehaveappropriatelyinanewculture Effectiveworkpracticesinnewculture Effectiveinterculturalinterpersonalskills Atransformingglobalperspective -(Deardorff,2006) Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences Capableofadaptingtoadifferentculturalenvironment Managecross-culturaldifferencesattheinterpersonallevel Countrygeo-socio-economic/politicalknowledge Understandingoflocalmarkets/businesspractices Abilitytoworkwithincross-culturalgroups -(Sizoo&Serrie,2004) Cross-culturalskills Foreignlanguageskills Countryspecificknowledge Internationalbusinessexperience Interpersonalskills -(Moxon,OShea,Brown&Escher,1998) Flexibility Teamwork Comfortwithdiversity Creativity Drive/initiative Organizationalskills Sensitivityandfacultywithlanguages andcultures -(USFGlobalizationResearchCenter,2004)

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101 Appendix3 KediaandDanielStudyResults ImportanceofInternationalExpertiseforProfessionalStaffandLineManagement InternationalKnowledgeandSkills Importancefor ProfessionalStaff ImportanceforLine Management NoneSomeGreatNoneSomeGreat Countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge 13%52%36%22%50%28% Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences 7%35%58%16%38%46% Aglobalperspective 9%36%56%22%43%34% Understandingoflocalmarkets/businesspractices 9%42%49%21%42%37% Internationalworkexperience 25%52%24%36%38%25% Foreignlanguageskills 27%55%18%32%47%21% (Kedia&Daniel,2003,p19)

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102 Appendix4 TheOlneySurveyofU.S.BusinessNeedsforTechnical/OccupationalEmployeeswith InternationalExpertise ______________________________________________________________________________________ Asurveyofbusinessneedsfortechnical/occupationalemployeeswithinternationalbusinessknowledge,skills,and experience ______________________________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE Thissurveywillbeusedtohelpeducatorsknowifbusinessconditionshavechangedthe training/educationalneedsofyouremployeesandiftheneedforinternationalskillshasfiltered downtoemployeepositionsthatrequireoccupationalandtechnicalexpertise.International skillsmaybeimportantsoftskillsforbothinternationalanddomesticbusinessendeavors. INSTRUCTIONS Thissurveywilltakeapproximately20minutestocomplete.Pleasefilloutthesurveyby answeringeachquestionaccuratelyusingadarkpencilorpenandreturnthecompletedsurvey intheenclosedenvelopebyApril15,2008. GLOSSARYOFTERMS InternationalSkills: Knowledgeofacountryssocio-economicandpoliticalstructures (Awarenessofthesocial,economicand politicalstructuresandinstitutionswithinforeigncountriesthatareormaybeofbusinessinteresttoyourfirm), Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences (Anunderstandingthatthereareculturaldifferencesthroughout theU.S.andtheworldandthatthesedifferencesareopportunitiesforbusinessgrowthandenrichedeconomic relationshipsthroughtheleveragingofmultipleperspectivesandadaptability), Aglobalperspective (Anabilitytoconsidertheinterdependenceofactionsacrosstheplanet.Thisperspective allowsindividualstoconsiderandintegratetheimpactsofinternationalactions on thelocalenvironment,aswellas theimpactsoflocalactionsontherestoftheworld), Understandingoflocalmarket/businesspractices (Anunderstandingoftheactualwaybusinessissuccessfully conductedincountry/culturalsettingsofinterest), Internationalworkexperience (AnindividualshistoryofconductingbusinessactivitiesoutsideoftheUnited States.ThisactivitycouldbeclassifiedasbeingphysicallypostedoutsideoftheU.S.andlivingforaperiodoftime onforeignsoil,orasoccupyingapositionintheU.S.thatrequiresdirectworkintheinternationalarena), Foreignlanguageskills (Degreesofunderstandingofawrittenorspokenlanguage,notEnglish,aswellasthe degreesofabilitytoconciselytranslatetheintentandmeaningofnon-Englishlanguagesbetweeneachotherand withEnglish)and, UnderstandingofInternationaltechnical/occupationalstandards (Knowledgeandunderstandingofaccepted internationalstandardswithinonestechnical/occupationalfield). LinePersonnel: Managersoremployeesworkinginprimaryrevenuegeneratingunitsinsupportofthe organizationalmission. StaffPersonnel: Managersoremployeesworkinginpositionsthatareancillarytotheprimarygenerating positions. Thankyou! CONTINUETONEXTPAGE

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103 ____________________________________ Appendix4(Continued) ________________________________________ SectionA-CompanyProfileandInternationalActivities 1.WhichoneofthefollowingU.S.Governmentcategoriesbestdescribesyourfirm?(Clearlymarkone) O ManufacturingFirm O Accommodations/FoodServices O HealthCare,SocialAssistanceServices O Financial/InsuranceServices O RetailFirm O Construction O Professional,Scientific,Technical services O WholesaleTrade O Other(specify) ____________________________ __ 2.Approximatelyhowmanyemployeesdoesyourcompanycurrentlyemploy? O 10orless O 11-20 O 21-39 O 40-80 O 81-120 O 121-215 O 216-500 O Greater than500 3.Approximatelywhatpercentage ofyouremployeesworkinpositionsrequiringinternationalknowledgeor expertise? 4.ApproximatelywhatwasyourfirmstotalU.S.dollarsales duringthelastfiscalyear? O $250,000or less O $250,000to $500,000 O $500,001to $1M O $1M$3M O $3M-$10M O $10M-$20M O $20M-$50M O $50M$300M O $300M$1.5B O Greaterthan $1.5B 5.Approximatelywhatpercentage ofyourfirmstotalsaleswasgeneratedfrominternationalbusiness? 6.Howimportantorunimportantarethefollowingregionstoyour international activitiesNOWandintheFUTURE(thenext10years)forthatregion? NOW Notatall important Onlyslightly important Somewhat important ImportantCritically important Europe Asia LatinAmerica MiddleEast Africa Other(specify): FUTURE(thenext10Years) Notatall important Onlyslightly important Somewhat important ImportantCritically important Europe Asia LatinAmerica MiddleEast Africa Other(specify): 7.Overall,howwouldyousayyourinternationalactivitiesaregrowingincomparisontoyourdomesticactivities? O Lessrapidly O Aboutthesame O Morerapidly 8.Basedonyourknowledgeandexperience,pleaseselecttheoneresponsethatbestestimatesyourfirms internationalbusiness,asapercentageoftotalbusinesswithinthenext10years. O Nobusinesswillbe derived internationally O Aminimalpercentageof businesswillbe derived internationally O Asignificant percentageof businesswillbe derived internationally O Acriticallylarge percentageof businesswillbe derived internationally CONTINUETONEXTPAGE _______% _______%

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104 ____________________________________ Appendix4(Continued) ________________________________________ 9.ForeachofthefollowingInternationalSkills,howimportantorunimportantisitforyourtechnical/occupational staffandyourtechnical/occupationallinepersonneltohavethefollowinginternationalskills? (Seepage1fordefinitionsofInternationalSkills) Technical/OccupationalStaff Personnel InternationalSkills Notatall important Onlyslightly important Somewhat important ImportantCritically important Countrysocio-economic/Political Knowledge Appreciationofcross-cultural differences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocal market/businesspractices Internationalworkexperience Foreignlanguageskills UnderstandingofInternational technical/occupationalstandards Technical/OccupationalLine Personnel InternationalSkills Notatall important Onlyslightly important Somewhat important ImportantCritically important Countrysocio-economic/Political Knowledge Appreciationofcross-cultural differences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocal market/businesspractices Internationalworkexperience Foreignlanguageskills UnderstandingofInternational technical/occupationalstandards 10.Ifyourtechnical/occupationalstaffdemonstratedmoreproficiencywithinternationalskills,towhatdegreedo youfeelyouroverallbusinesswouldincrease? O Tonodegreeatall O Tosomedegree O Toalargedegree 11.Inthepastfiveyears hasyourfirmfailedtofullycapitalizeoninternationalbusinessopportunitiesdueto insufficientinternationallyskilledtechnicaloroccupationalpersonnel? O Yes O No (ifNo,gotoquestion12) Ifyes,inwhatwayorwayshasinsufficientinternationalcompetenceamongyourtechnical/occupational personnelaffectedyourfirm?(markallthatapply) Wehave. missedsignificantmarketing/businessopportunitiesabroad. failedtorecognizeimportantshiftsinhostcountrypoliciestowardforeignownedcompanies. sufferedfromabiastowardaUnitedStatespointofview. attimes,failedtoanticipatetheneedsofourinternationalcustomers. notfullycapitalizedonexpertiseavailableortechnologicaladvancesoccurringabroad. Other(Pleasespecify): CONTINUETONEXTPAGE ____________________________________ Appendix4(Continued) ________________________________________

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105 12.Foreachlistedcareerfieldbelow,pleasecheckallboxesthatdescribethevariouseducationlevelsofyour employeeswhohavecompletedtheirhighschooleducationbutdonothavebachelorsdegrees.MARKALLTHAT APPLY Inthesefieldsweemployworkersthathaveastheirhighestposthighschooleducation.. CareerFields ofEmployees communitycollege coursework(withoutanearned certificateordegree) acommunity collegeprogram certificate .an Associates degrees anothersubbaccalaureate degree Agriculturalandnatural resources Businessmanagement Businesssupport Communicationsanddesign Computerandinformation sciences Education Engineering,architectural, andsciencetechnologies Healthsciences Marketing Personalservices Protectiveservices Public,legal,andsocial services Tradeandindustry Other(Pleasespecify): _______________________ Other(Pleasespecify): _______________________ Other(Pleasespecify): _______________________ CONTINUETONEXTPAGE

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106 ____________________________________ Appendix4(Continued) ________________________________________ SectionB-StaffingNeedsandPatterns 1.Pleaseindicatewhere(USorForeignOffices)andhow(USorForeignnationals)yourcompanycurrentlyfills technicalandoccupationalpositions inyourinternationalbusinessoperations. InU.S.Offices InForeign Offices Wehavenointernationalbusinessoperations Wehavenoforeignoffices;allInternationaloperationsarehandledfrom theU.S. AlmostexclusivelywithU.S.nationals MostlywithU.S.nationals,butwithsomeforeignnationals WithamixofU.S.andforeignnationals Mostlywithforeignnationals,butwithsomeU.S.nationals Almostexclusivelywithforeignnationals 2.Intermsofhiring,reassignment,orpromotiondecisions,atwhichoccupationallevelsdothevariousinternational skillsbecomeanimportantfactorinthestaffingdecisionprocess?MARKALLTHATAPPLY. Seepage1fordefinitionsofInternationalSkills. InternationalSkills EntryLevel Technical/ OccupationalStaff Positions ManagementLevel Technical/ OccupationalStaff Positions EntryLevel Technical/ OccupationalLine Positions ManagementLevel Technical/ OccupationalLine Positions Countrysocioeconomic/Political Knowledge Appreciationofcrossculturaldifferences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocal market/businesspractices Internationalwork experience Foreignlanguage 3.IsitdifficultforyoutofindU.S.nationalswiththeinternationalknowledge,expertiseand/orlanguageskills neededforyourfirm? O Yes O No (ifNo,gotoquestion4) Ifyes,pleaseidentifyordescribetheknowledge,expertise,orskillsthataredifficulttofind: \4.Overthenext10yearswillyourcompanyplaceagreateremphasisoninternationalskillsamong technical/occupationalmanagersandemployees? O Yes O No CONTINUETONEXTPAGE Knowledgeofthebusinesscultureandpracticesinothercountries Comfortwithworkingininternational/multiculturalgroups Internationaltravelexperiencebeyondavacation Internationalworkexperience Skillsthatmeetinternationaltechnicalstandards Knowledgeoftechnicaltermsusedinotherlanguages AbletobeunderstoodinalanguageotherthanEnglish Other(pleasedescribe):

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107 ____________________________________ Appendix4(Continued) ________________________________________ SectionC-InternationalTrainingPrograms 1.Hasyourfirmengagedinprogramsdesignedtopromoteinternationalskills? O Yes O No (ifNo,gotoquestion3) Ifyes,pleaseindicatebelowwhichproviderspresentprogramstoyouremployees.Pleasemarkallboxesthatapply: TypeofProgram In-House Provider Community CollegeProvider University Provider Consulting FirmProvider Non-Profit/ GovernmentProvider InternationalCrossCulturalSeminars Pre-Departure trainingbefore foreignassignment ForeignLanguage Training RegionalorGlobal Updates MulticulturalStaff Management Cross-National FunctionalTeams International TechnicalStandards RegionalorGlobal BusinessPractices 2.Havetheseprogramsyouselectedabovemetyourinternationalbusinessneeds? O .Yes (IfYes,gotoquestion3) O .No IfNo,pleaseexplainwhy.(Markallthatapplyanddescribeasappropriate) 3.IfyourfirmhasnotusedCommunityCollegesasaresourcetoassistinthedevelopmentofinternational competencies,pleaseexplainwhy.(Markallboxesthatapplyandprovidedescriptionsasappropriate) CONTINUETONEXTPAGE Notfocusedonmybusinessneeds Toodifficulttocoordinateclassesandassignments Tooexpensive Notcurrenttointernationalbusinessenvironment(datedinformation) Other(pleasedescribe): Iamnotawareofwhatthecommunitycollegecanoffer Myneedsarebeingmetorexceededelsewhere Thecommunitycollegehasnotmetwithmeaboutmyneeds Theclassschedulesarenotflexibleenoughtomeetmyneeds TheCommunityCollegeprogramsaretooexpensive TheCommunityCollegeprogramsaretoodifficulttosetup TheCommunityCollegewont/doesntofferwhatmyfirmneeds Other(pleasedescribe):

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108 ____________________________________ Appendix4(Continued) ________________________________________ 4.TherehasbeenconsiderablediscussionaboutimprovinginternationaleducationinCommunityCollegeTechnical andOccupationalprograms.Listedbelowareanumberofspecificsuggestionsforimprovinginternationalskills contentintechnicalandoccupationalprograms.ForeachofthefollowingSuggestionsforImprovement,please indicatehowimportantorunimportanteachsuggestionistoyourfirmsfutureneeds: SuggestionsforImprovement Notatall important Onlyslightly important Somewhat important ImportantCritically important Improvedacademicoutreach tobusinessesseekinggreater internationalcompetence Creationofdatabanks/clearing housesoninternational resources Mandatoryforeignlanguage training Moreemphasison exchange/overseasinternship programs Moreemphasisonlearning aboutotherworld areas/countriesandcultures Strongerinternational emphasisin technical/occupational programcurricula 5.WhatchangeswouldyousuggestforexistingCommunityCollegeTechnicalandOccupationalprogramstobetter supportyourglobalbusinessendeavors?(Pleasecheckallthatapply) 6.IfyourlocalCommunityCollegeestablishedaCertificatebasedupontheInternationalSkillsmentionedinthis questionnaire,whatvaluewouldyouplaceonthecertificateforhiringorpromotiondecisions. Nota tall valued Onlyslightly valued Somewhat valued Valued Critically valued 7.WouldyourfirmbewillingtopartnerwithyourlocalCommunityCollegetodevelopanacademicprogramthat producedaCertificateinInternationalSkills? O .Yes O .No CONTINUETONEXTPAGE Meetwithmyfirmaboutourneeds Beflexibleinprovidingclassesandprograms Incorporateinternationalskillsbyusingpresentationmethodsthatincreaseinternationalexpertise Requiremoreforeignlanguageandculturaleducationinthecurriculum Teachinternationalstandardsandtechnicalterms Increaseoverseasexperienceintheprograms Ihavenosuggestionsforchange Other(pleasedescribe):

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109 ____________________________________ Appendix4(Continued) ________________________________________ SectionD-RespondentInformation 1.Whatisthetitleofyourposition? ____________________________________________________________________________________ __ 2.Doyouhaveresponsibilityforyourcompanysinternationalbusiness? O Yes O No (IfNo,gotoquestion3) Ifyes,pleaseindicatewhichcategorybestrepresentsyourresponsibilities: O Responsibleforthetotalorganization O Responsiblefortheorganizationsinternationalendeavors O Responsibleforaspecificcountryorregion O Responsibleforaspecificfunctionalarea O Responsibleforaspecifictechnical/occupationalfield 3.HaveyoueverbeenassignedtoworkoutsideoftheUnitedStates? O Yes O No(IfNo,gotoquestion4) Ifyes,howmanytimeshaveyouservedoutsideoftheUnitedStates? O Once O Twice O Threeormoretimes 4.Whichofthefollowingbestreflectshowyouperceiveyourcareerpathintermsofdomesticor internationalfocus? O Domestic O Mixedinternationalanddomestic O International 5.DoyouspeakanylanguageotherthanEnglish? O Yes O No 6.Areyouinvolvedinmakinginternationalhiringand/oroverseasassignmentdecisions? O Yes O No(IfNo,gotoquestion7) Ifyes,howimportantorunimportantarethesedecisionstoyoursuccessinyourcurrentposition? O Notatall important O OnlySlightly important O Somewhat important O Important O Definitely important 7.Whatisyourhighestlevelofschooling? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ---------------------------------------------------EndofSurvey---------------------------------------------------------Thankyoufortakingthetimetocompletethissurvey!By(EnterDATE),pleasemail thissurveyto:GlobalizationinTechnical/OccupationalPositions: ACommunityCollege/USFStudy C/ORonaldL.Olney 5106SterlingManorDrive Tampa,FL33647 ______________________________________________________________________

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110 Appendix5 FocusGroupDemographics BusinessFocusGroup ManagingPartner RealEstateDevelopmentCo BusinessDevelopmentManager HumanResourceCo VicePresident InvestmentCo ProcessEngineeringSupervisor Engineering/ConstructionCo VicePresidentHumanResources ResidentialHealthcare VicePresidentPerformance&Training InvestmentCo ExportManager ManufacturingCo BusinessDevelopmentManager ITServices StrategicBusinessDirector ConsultingManagementCo GeneralManager HospitalityCo StaffDevelopmentOfficer BankingInstitution AssistantVicePresident InvestmentCo CommunityCollegeFocusGroup AcademicDean,AssociateofScience ProfessorandProgramManager TechnicalProgramsDirector InternationalBusinessInstructor

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111 Appendix6 HumanParticipantProtectionCertificate CompletionCertificate Thisistocertifythat RonaldOlney hascompletedthe HumanParticipantsProtectionEducationforResearch Teams onlinecourse,sponsoredbytheNationalInstitutesofHealth(NIH),on 01/13/2008. Thiscourseincludedthefollowing: keyhistoricaleventsandcurrentissuesthatimpactguidelinesand legislationonhumanparticipantprotectioninresearch. ethicalprinciplesandguidelinesthatshouldassistinresolvingthe ethicalissuesinherentintheconductofresearchwithhuman participants. theuseofkeyethicalprinciplesandfederalregulationstoprotecthuman participantsatvariousstagesintheresearchprocess. adescriptionofguidelinesfortheprotectionofspecialpopulationsin research. adefinitionofinformedconsentandcomponentsnecessaryforavalid consent. adescriptionoftheroleoftheIRBintheresearchprocess. theroles,responsibilities,andinteractionsoffederalagencies, institutions,andresearchersinconductingresearchwithhuman participants. NationalInstitutesofHealth http://www.nih.gov

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112 Appendix7 CoverLetterforSurveyInstrument OfficeandCompanyAddress Subject:HelpNeededtoBetterUnderstandHowtoImproveOurCommunity CollegeTechnicalandOccupationalProgramstoMeetBusinessNeeds Greetings.IamRonOlney,aresearcherattheUniversityofSouthFlorida,working withtheTampaBayPartnership.Iampleasedtotellyouthatyourcompanyhasbeen selectedtoprovidefeedbacktocommunitycollegeleadersaboutthecommunity collegetechnicalandoccupationalprogramstakenbyyouremployeesandapplicants. Thissurveyisimportant.TampaBayisexpandingrapidlyandbusinessesneedto ensurethattheworkforceisgettingthetrainingandskillsneededtosuccessfully competeinthemarketplace.Yourresponsestothisquestionnairewillhelpensurethat educatorshaveaccurateinformationtohelpyourbusinessprosperinthefuture. Irespectyourprivacytimeandyourtime.Thenameofyourbusinessandthename oftheindividualfillingoutthequestionnairearenotnecessary.Thiswillhelpensure thatyourprivacyismaintained.Theinformationcollectedfromthequestionnairemay bepublished,butthereisnointenttoidentifyindividualbusinessesorrespondents. Thisquestionnaireshouldbecompletedbyanindividualwithinyourfirmthatis awareofcurrentandanticipatededucationalneedsofyourbusinessandan understandingofyourclientbase.Itwilltake10to20minutestocomplete,depending upontheamountofdiscussionyouwishtopresent.Pleasefillitoutcompletelyand mailitbackintheself-addressedstampedenvelopeassoonasyouaredone. Ifyoufeelthatyoudonothavetheappropriateknowledgetoanswerthequestions, pleasefeelfreetogivethequestionnaireandthiscoverlettertotheappropriateparty forcompletion. Thankyouforyourassistanceinthisimportantendeavor.Pleasecallmeat(813) 210-4363ifyouhaveanyquestions. Sincerely, RonOlney DoctoralCandidate UniversityofSouthFlorida,CollegeofEducation CWY408 Tampa,FL33647 (813)210-4363

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113 Appendix8 InformedConsentForm InformedConsenttoParticipateinResearch InformationtoConsiderBeforeTakingPartinthisResearchStudy ________________________________________________________________________ ResearchersattheUniversityofSouthFlorida(USF)studymanytopics.Todothis,weneedthehelpof peoplewhoagreetotakepartinaresearchstudy.Thisformtellsyouaboutthisresearchstudy. Weareaskingyoutotakepartinaresearchstudythatiscalled:U.S.BusinessNeedsfor Technical/OccupationalEmployeeswithInternationalExpertise:ANeedsAssessmentintheTampaBay EconomicZone. ThepersonwhoisinchargeofthisresearchstudyisRonaldL.Olney. HeiscalledthePrincipal InvestigatorandheisaPhD.candidateattheUniversityofSouthFlorida.Thisprojectishisdissertation andhewillbecollectingthedatabyhimselfonthisproject. TheresearchwillbedoneinsmallgroupmeetingsintheTampaBayarea. ________________________________________________________________________Purposeofthe study:ThepurposeofthisstudyistoconductaneedsassessmentintheTampaBayEconomicZoneto determinewhetherinternationalskillsareconsideredimportantforemploymententryormovement,andif consideredimportant,thentodeterminewherebusinessesobtaintrainingininternationalskills.Inaddition, thisstudywillgarnerbusinessrecommendationsfortheimprovementofinternationalskillseducationin communitycollegeoccupationalandtechnicalprograms. StudyProcedures Ifyoutakepartinthisstudy,youwillbeaskedto Gatherwith5-10otherinterestedparticipantsinameetingroomattheUniversityofSouthFloridaorother convenientlocationandlistentoa15-20minutepresentationoftheresultsofasurveyconductedwith businessesintheTampaBayEconomicZone.Afterthepresentation,participantswillbeaskedtojoininan oraldiscussionaboutthesurveyresultsinorderfortheprincipalinvestigatortobetterunderstandhowthe resultsmayaffectpractice.Generalconclusionsofthediscussionwillbevisuallydisplayedand participantswillbeabletomodifythem.Therewillbeaudiorecordingofthediscussiontoensurethat salientpointsarekeptincontextbytheresearcher.Conclusionsanddiscussionpointsfromthegroupwill beusedtoprovideadditionalinsightsandcontexttotheresultsandrecommendationssectionsofthestudy. Theentireperiodofparticipationisexpectedtolastsixtytoninetyminutes,dependingupondiscussion activity. Alternatives Youhavethealternativetochoosenottoparticipateinthisresearchstudy. Benefits Thepotentialbenefittoyouisgreaterinsightintointernationalskillsandtheeffectsofglobalizationonthe TampaBayEconomicZone. RisksorDiscomfort Therearenoknownriskstothosewhotakepartinthisstudy.

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114 Appendix8(Continued) InformedConsentForm Compensation Wewillnotpayyouforthetimeyouvolunteerwhilebeinginthisstudy. Confidentiality Wemustkeepyourstudyrecordsconfidential.Allrecordsfromthismeetingtoincludethisconsentform andthewrittengeneralconclusionswillbestoredinalockedcontainerwhennotbeingactivelyusedbythe investigator.Theaudiorecordingwillbeusedinasingleoccupantroomandwillbestoredinalocked containerwhennotbeingactivelyusedbytheinvestigator.Excerptsfromthegeneralconclusionsand audiotapeswillbeusedinthedissertationandsubsequentpublications.Noindividualnamesof participantswillbeusedinthedissertationorsubsequentpublications.Allrecords,toincludetheaudio tapewillbedestroyedwithin2yearsofthisdate. However,certainpeoplemayneedtoseeyourstudyrecords.Bylaw,anyonewholooksatyourrecords mustkeepthemcompletelyconfidential.Theonlypeoplewhowillbeallowedtoseetheserecordsare: Theresearchteam,includingthePrincipalInvestigator,theDissertationChairandDissertation CommitteeMembers,and theUniversityofSouthFloridaInstitutionalReviewBoard(IRB)andthestaffthatworkforthe IRB.OtherindividualswhoworkforUSFthatprovideotherkindsofoversightmayalsoneedto lookatyourrecords. Wemaypublishwhatwelearnfromthisstudy.Ifwedo,wewillnotletanyoneknowyourname.Wewill notpublishanythingelsethatwouldletpeopleknowwhoyouare. VoluntaryParticipation/Withdrawal Youshouldonlytakepartinthisstudyifyouwanttovolunteer.Youshouldnotfeelthatthereisany pressuretotakepartinthestudy,topleasetheinvestigatorortheresearchstaff.Youarefreetoparticipate inthisresearchorwithdrawatanytime.Therewillbenopenaltyorlossofbenefitsyouareentitledto receiveifyoustoptakingpartinthisstudy Newinformationaboutthestudy Duringthecourseofthisstudy,wemayfindmoreinformationthatcouldbeimportanttoyou.This includesinformationthat,oncelearned,mightcauseyoutochangeyourmindaboutbeinginthestudy.We willnotifyyouassoonaspossibleifsuchinformationbecomesavailable. Questions,concerns,orcomplaints Ifyouhaveanyquestions,concernsorcomplaintsaboutthisstudy,call RonaldL.Olney at 813210-4363. Ifyouhavequestionsaboutyourrightsasaparticipantinthisstudy,generalquestions,orhavecomplaints, concernsorissuesyouwanttodiscusswithsomeoneoutsidetheresearch,calltheDivisionofResearch IntegrityandComplianceoftheUniversityofSouthFloridaat(813)974-9343. Ifyouexperienceanadverseeventorunanticipatedproblemcall RonaldL.Olney at 813-210-4363.

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115 Appendix8(Continued) InformedConsentForm ConsenttoTakePartinthisResearchStudy Itisuptoyoutodecidewhetheryouwanttotakepartinthisstudy.Ifyouwanttotakepart,pleasesign theform,ifthefollowingstatementsaretrue. Ifreelygivemyconsenttotakepartinthisstudy. IunderstandthatbysigningthisformIamagreeing totakepartinresearch.Ihavereceivedacopyofthisformtotakewithme. ___________________________________________________________________________ SignatureofPersonTakingPartinStudyDate PrintedNameofPersonTakingPartinStudy StatementofPersonObtainingInformedConsent Ihavecarefullyexplainedtothepersontakingpartinthestudywhatheorshecanexpect. Iherebycertifythatwhenthispersonsignsthisform,tothebestofmyknowledge,heorsheunderstands: Whatthestudyisabout. Whatprocedures/interventions/investigationaldrugsordeviceswillbeused. Whatthepotentialbenefitsmightbe. Whattheknownrisksmightbe. Ialsocertifythatheorshedoesnothaveanyproblemsthatcouldmakeithardtounderstandwhatitmeans totakepartinthisresearch.Thispersonspeaksthelanguagethatwasusedtoexplainthisresearch. Thispersonreadswellenoughtounderstandthisformor,ifnot,thispersonisabletohearandunderstand whentheformisreadtohimorher. Thispersondoesnothaveamedical/psychologicalproblemthatwouldcompromisecomprehensionand thereforemakesithardtounderstandwhatisbeingexplainedandcan,therefore,giveinformedconsent. Thispersonisnotunderanytypeofanesthesiaoranalgesicthatmaycloudtheirjudgmentormakeithard tounderstandwhatisbeingexplainedand,therefore,canbeconsideredcompetenttogiveinformed consent. SignatureofPersonObtainingInformedConsentDate PrintedNameofPersonObtainingInformedConsent

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116 Appendix9 OpenEndedQuestionsforFocusGroups 1.Whatareyourthoughtsonthelistofinternationalskillspresented? 2.Whatdoyouthinkaboutthesurveyresultsonwhetherinternationalskillsare importantforthesub-baccalaureatetechnicalandoccupationalemployees? 3.Whatdoyouthinkaboutthesurveyresultsonhoworwhethertoengagesubbaccalaureatetechnicalandoccupationalemployeesintrainingprogramstodevelop internationalskills? 4.WhatdoyouthinkaboutthesurveyresultsandifU.S.communitycollegetechnical andoccupationaldegreeprogramsshouldchangewithrespecttotheirinternational skillsobjectives? 5.Whatdoyoubelievelocalcommunitycollegesshoulddowiththeseresults? 6.WhatdoyoubelievetheTampaBaybusinesscommunityatlargeshoulddowith theseresults?

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117 Appendix10 RequesttoUsetheKediaandDanielSurvey From: bkedia@memphis.edu[mailto:bkedia@memphis.edu] Sent: Saturday,October28,200620:18PM To: Olney,Ron Subject: RE:RequestforHelp:U.S.BusinessNeedsforEmployeeswithInternationalExpertise D earMr.Olney, Dr.DellowandItalkedbrieflyaboutmystudy.Youarewelcometousetheinstrumentwe developed.Unfortunately,duetotimeconstraint,wedidnotdoanyreliabilityandvaliditytesting onourinstruments.TheresultsofthestudyareavailableonDukeUniversitywebsiteundersome GlobalConference(Iforgettheexacttitle). Nextweek,IamplanningtoleaveforIndiaandthereforeatthistime,Imaynotbeabletohelp youmuch.Thankyouforyourinterest.Goodlucktoyou. BenL.Kedia,Ph.D. WangProfessorofInt'lBusiness Director,WangCIBER TheUniversityofMemphis 220FogelmanExecutiveCenter 330InnovationDrive Memphis,TN38152-3130 T:901-678-2805 F:901-678-3678 From: Olney,Ron[mailto:olney@jmslc.usf.edu] Sent: Thursday,October26,20069:51AM To: BenwariLKedia(bkedia) Subject: RequestforHelp:U.S.BusinessNeedsforEmployeeswithInternationalExpertise DrKedia: IamRonOlney,adoctoralcandidateworkingwithDr.DellowattheUniversityofSouth Florida.IintendtoextendyourresearchonU.S.BusinessNeedsforEmployeeswith InternationalExpertisebyaddressingtheTampaBayBusinessCommunityandCommunity CollegeTechnical/Occupationalprograms.Dr.Dellowtellsmethathespoketoyouearlierthis monthwhenyouwereattheUniversityofSouthFlorida.Healsostatedthatyougaveus permissiontouseyourquestionnaire.IamveryexcitedtostartthisprojectandIwouldliketo confirmthatImayuseyourquestionnaire. Inaddition,Iaminterestedinknowingmoreaboutyourinstrumentdevelopment, instrumentvalidationandanyreliabilitydatathatyoumayhavegarnered.Ilookforwardto correspondingwithyouonthistopic.Thankyouforyourtimeandconsideration. Thankyou.Sincerely,RonOlney,PhD(Candidate)

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118 Appendix11 U.S.BusinessNeedsforTechnical/OccupationalEmployeeswithInternationalExpertise ______________________________________________________________________________________ Asurveyofbusinessneedsfortechnical/occupationalemployeeswithinternationalbusinessknowledge,skills,and experience ______________________________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE Thissurveywillbeusedtohelpeducatorsknowifbusinessconditionshavechangedthe training/educationalneedsofyouremployeesandiftheneedforinternationalskillshasfiltered downtoemployeepositionsthatrequireoccupationalandtechnicalexpertise.Internationalskills maybeimportantsoftskillsforbothinternationalanddomesticbusinessendeavors. INSTRUCTIONS Thissurveywilltakeapproximately20minutestocomplete.Pleasefilloutthesurveyby answeringeachquestionaccuratelyusingadarkpencilorpenandreturnthecompletedsurveyin theenclosedenvelopebyAugust1,2007. GLOSSARYOFTERMS InternationalSkills: Knowledgeofacountryssocio-economicandpoliticalstructures (Awarenessofthesocial,economicand politicalstructuresandinstitutionswithinforeigncountriesthatareormaybeofbusinessinteresttoyourfirm), Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences (Anunderstandingthatthereareculturaldifferencesthroughoutthe U.S.andtheworldandthatthesedifferencesareopportunitiesforbusinessgrowthandenrichedeconomicrelationships throughtheleveragingofmultipleperspectivesandadaptability), Aglobalperspective (Anabilitytoconsidertheinterdependenceofactionsacrosstheplanet.Thisperspective allowsindividualstoconsiderandintegratetheimpactsofinternationalactions on thelocalenvironment,aswellasthe impactsoflocalactionsontherestoftheworld), Understandingoflocalmarket/businesspractices (Anunderstandingoftheactualwaybusinessissuccessfully conductedincountry/culturalsettingsofinterest), Internationalworkexperience (AnindividualshistoryofconductingbusinessactivitiesoutsideoftheUnited States.ThisactivitycouldbeclassifiedasbeingphysicallypostedoutsideoftheU.S.andlivingforaperiodoftimeon foreignsoil,orasoccupyingapositionintheU.S.thatrequiresdirectworkintheinternationalarena), Foreignlanguageskills (Degreesofunderstandingofawrittenorspokenlanguage,notEnglish,aswellasthe degreesofabilitytoconciselytranslatetheintentandmeaningofnon-Englishlanguagesbetweeneachotherandwith English)and, UnderstandingofInternationaltechnical/occupationalstandards (Knowledgeandunderstandingofaccepted internationalstandardswithinonestechnical/occupationalfield). LinePersonnel: Managersoremployeesworkinginprimaryrevenuegeneratingunitsinsupportofthe organizationalmission. StaffPersonnel: Managersoremployeesworkinginpositionsthatareancillarytotheprimarygenerating positions. Thankyou! CONTINUETONEXTPAGE

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119 ___________________________________ Appendix11(Continued) __________________________________________ SectionA-CompanyProfileandInternationalActivities 1.WhichoneofthefollowingU.S.Governmentcategoriesbestdescribesyourfirm?(Clearlymarkone) O ManufacturingFirm O Accommodations/FoodServices O HealthCare,SocialAssistanceServices O Financial/InsuranceServices O RetailFirm O Construction O Professional,Scientific, Technicalservices O WholesaleTrade O Other(specify) _____________________________ 2.Approximatelyhowmanyemployeesdoesyourcompanycurrentlyemploy? O 10or less O 11-20 O 21-39 O 40-80 O 81-120 O 121-215 O 216500 O Greater than500 3.Approximatelywhatpercentage ofyouremployeesworkinpositionsrequiringinternationalknowledgeorexpertise? 4.ApproximatelywhatwasyourfirmstotalU.S.dollarsales duringthelastfiscalyear? O $250,000or less O $250,000to $500,000 O $500,001 to$1M O $1M$3M O $3M-$10M O $10M-$20M O $20M-$50M O $50M$300M O $300M$1.5B O Greaterthan $1.5B 5.Approximatelywhatpercentage ofyourfirmstotalsaleswasgeneratedfrominternationalbusiness? 6.Howimportantorunimportantarethefollowingregionstoyour international activitiesNOWandintheFUTURE (thenext10years)forthatregion? NOW Notatall important Onlyslightly important Somewhat important ImportantCritically important Europe Asia LatinAmerica MiddleEast Africa Other(specify): FUTURE(thenext10Years) Notatall important Onlyslightly important Somewhat important ImportantCritically important Europe Asia LatinAmerica MiddleEast Africa Other(specify): 7.Overall,howwouldyousayyourinternationalactivitiesaregrowingincomparisontoyourdomesticactivities? O Lessrapidly O Aboutthesame O Morerapidly 8.Basedonyourknowledgeandexperience,pleaseselecttheoneresponsethatbestestimatesyourfirmsinternational business,asapercentageoftotalbusinesswithinthenext10years. O Nobusinesswillbe derived internationally O Aminimalpercentageof businesswillbe derived internationally O Asignificant percentageof businesswillbe derived internationally O Acriticallylarge percentageof businesswillbe derived internationally CONTINUETONEXTPAGE _______% _______%

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120 ____________________________________ Appendix11(Continued) _________________________________________ 9.ForeachofthefollowingInternationalSkills,howimportantorunimportantisitforyourtechnical/occupational staffandyourtechnical/occupationallinepersonneltohavethefollowinginternationalskills? (Seepage1fordefinitionsofInternationalSkills) Technical/OccupationalStaff Personnel InternationalSkills Notatall important Onlyslightly important Somewhat important ImportantCritically important Countrysocio-economic/Political Knowledge Appreciationofcross-cultural differences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocal market/businesspractices Internationalworkexperience Foreignlanguageskills UnderstandingofInternational technical/occupationalstandards Technical/OccupationalLine Personnel InternationalSkills Notatall important Onlyslightly important Somewhat important ImportantCritically important Countrysocio-economic/Political Knowledge Appreciationofcross-cultural differences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocal market/businesspractices Internationalworkexperience Foreignlanguageskills UnderstandingofInternational technical/occupationalstandards 10.Ifyourtechnical/occupationalstaffdemonstratedmoreproficiencywithinternationalskills,towhatdegreedoyou feelyouroverallbusinesswouldincrease? O Tonodegreeatall O Tosomedegree O Toalargedegree 11.Inthepastfiveyears hasyourfirmfailedtofullycapitalizeoninternationalbusinessopportunitiesdueto insufficientinternationallyskilledtechnicaloroccupationalpersonnel? O Yes O No (ifNo,gotoquestion12) Ifyes,inwhatwayorwayshasinsufficientinternationalcompetenceamongyourtechnical/occupational personnelaffectedyourfirm?(markallthatapply) Wehave. missedsignificantmarketing/businessopportunitiesabroad. failedtorecognizeimportantshiftsinhostcountrypoliciestowardforeignownedcompanies. sufferedfromabiastowardaUnitedStatespointofview. attimes,failedtoanticipatetheneedsofourinternationalcustomers. notfullycapitalizedonexpertiseavailableortechnologicaladvancesoccurringabroad. Other(Pleasespecify): CONTINUETONEXTPAGE

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121 ____________________________________ Appendix11(Continued) _________________________________________ 12.Foreachlistedcareerfieldbelow,pleasecheckallboxesthatdescribethevariouseducationlevelsofyour employeeswhohavecompletedtheirhighschooleducationbutdonothavebachelorsdegrees.MARKALLTHAT APPLY Inthesefieldsweemployworkersthathaveastheirhighestposthighschooleducation.. CareerFields ofEmployees communitycollege coursework(withoutanearned certificateordegree) acommunity collegeprogram certificate .an Associates degrees anothersubbaccalaureate degree Agriculturalandnatural resources Businessmanagement Businesssupport Communicationsanddesign Computerandinformation sciences Education Engineering,architectural, andsciencetechnologies Healthsciences Marketing Personalservices Protectiveservices Public,legal,andsocial services Tradeandindustry Other(Pleasespecify): _______________________ Other(Pleasespecify): _______________________ Other(Pleasespecify): _______________________ CONTINUETONEXTPAGE

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122 ____________________________________ Appendix11(Continued) _________________________________________ SectionB-StaffingNeedsandPatterns 1.Pleaseindicatewhere(USorForeignOffices)andhow(USorForeignnationals)yourcompanycurrentlyfills technicalandoccupationalpositions inyourinternationalbusinessoperations. InUSOffices InForeign Offices Wehavenointernationalbusinessoperations Wehavenoforeignoffices;allInternationaloperationsare handledfromtheU.S. AlmostexclusivelywithU.S.nationals MostlywithU.S.nationals,butwithsomeforeignnationals WithamixofU.S.andforeignnationals Mostlywithforeignnationals,butwithsomeU.S.nationals Almostexclusivelywithforeignnationals 2.Intermsofhiring,reassignment,orpromotiondecisions,atwhichoccupationallevelsdothevariousinternational skillsbecomeanimportantfactorinthestaffingdecisionprocess?MARKALLTHATAPPLY. Seepage1fordefinitionsofInternationalSkills. InternationalSkills EntryLevel Technical/ Occupational Staff Positions ManagementLevel Technical/ OccupationalStaff Positions EntryLevel Technical/ Occupational Line Positions ManagementLevel Technical/ OccupationalLine Positions Countrysocioeconomic/Political Knowledge Appreciationofcrossculturaldifferences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocal market/businesspractices Internationalwork experience Foreignlanguage 3.IsitdifficultforyoutofindU.S.nationalswiththeinternationalknowledge,expertiseand/orlanguageskillsneeded foryourfirm? O Yes O No (ifNo,gotoquestion4) Ifyes,pleaseidentifyordescribetheknowledge,expertise,orskillsthataredifficulttofind: \4.Overthenext10yearswillyourcompanyplaceagreateremphasisoninternationalskillsamong technical/occupationalmanagersandemployees? O Yes O No CONTINUETONEXTPAGE Knowledgeofthebusinesscultureandpracticesinothercountries Comfortwithworkingininternational/multiculturalgroups Internationaltravelexperiencebeyondavacation Internationalworkexperience Skillsthatmeetinternationaltechnicalstandards Knowledgeoftechnicaltermsusedinotherlanguages AbletobeunderstoodinalanguageotherthanEnglish Other(pleasedescribe):

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123 ___________________________________ Appendix11(Continued) _________________________________________ SectionC-InternationalTrainingPrograms 1.Hasyourfirmengagedinprogramsdesignedtopromoteinternationalskills? O Yes O No (ifNo,gotoquestion2) Ifyes,pleaseindicatebelowwhichproviderspresentprogramstoyouremployees.Pleasemarkallboxesthatapply: TypeofProgram In-House Provider Community CollegeProvider University Provider Consulting FirmProvider Non-Profit/ GovernmentProvider InternationalCrossCulturalSeminars Pre-Departure trainingbefore foreignassignment ForeignLanguage Training RegionalorGlobal Updates MulticulturalStaff Management Cross-National FunctionalTeams International TechnicalStandards RegionalorGlobal BusinessPractices 2.Havetheseprogramsyouselectedabovemetyourinternationalbusinessneeds? O .Yes (IfYes,gotoquestion3) O .No IfNo,pleaseexplainwhy.(Markallthatapplyanddescribeasappropriate) 3.IfyourfirmhasnotusedCommunityCollegesasaresourcetoassistinthedevelopmentofinternational competencies,pleaseexplainwhy.(Markallboxesthatapplyandprovidedescriptionsasappropriate) CONTINUETONEXTPAGE Notfocusedonmybusinessneeds Toodifficulttocoordinateclassesandassignments Tooexpensive Notcurrenttointernationalbusinessenvironment(datedinformation) Other(pleasedescribe): Iamnotawareofwhatthecommunitycollegecanoffer Myneedsarebeingmetorexceededelsewhere Thecommunitycollegehasnotmetwithmeaboutmyneeds Theclassschedulesarenotflexibleenoughtomeetmyneeds TheCommunityCollegeprogramsaretooexpensive TheCommunityCollegeprogramsaretoodifficulttosetup TheCommunityCollegewont/doesntofferwhatmyfirmneeds Other(pleasedescribe):

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124 ___________________________________ Appendix11(Continued) __________________________________________ 4.TherehasbeenconsiderablediscussionaboutimprovinginternationaleducationinCommunityCollegeTechnical andOccupationalprograms.Listedbelowareanumberofspecificsuggestionsforimprovinginternationalskills contentintechnicalandoccupationalprograms.ForeachofthefollowingSuggestionsforImprovement,please indicatehowimportantorunimportanteachsuggestionistoyourfirmsfutureneeds: SuggestionsforImprovement Notatall important Onlyslightly important Somewhat important ImportantCritically important Improvedacademicoutreachto businessesseekinggreater internationalcompetence Creationofdatabanks/clearing housesoninternationalresources Mandatoryforeignlanguage training Moreemphasison exchange/overseasinternship programs Moreemphasisonlearningabout otherworldareas/countriesand cultures Strongerinternationalemphasisin technical/occupationalprogram curricula 5.WhatchangeswouldyousuggestforexistingCommunityCollegeTechnicalandOccupationalprogramstobetter supportyourglobalbusinessendeavors?(Pleasecheckallthatapply) 6.IfyourlocalCommunityCollegeestablishedaCertificatebasedupontheInternationalSkillsmentionedinthis questionnaire,whatvaluewouldyouplaceonthecertificateforhiringorpromotiondecisions. Nota tall valued Onlyslightly valued Somewhat valued Valued Critically valued 7.WouldyourfirmbewillingtopartnerwithyourlocalCommunityCollegetodevelopanacademicprogramthat producedaCertificateinInternationalSkills? O .Yes O .No CONTINUETONEXTPAGE Meetwithmyfirmaboutourneeds Beflexibleinprovidingclassesandprograms Incorporateinternationalskillsbyusingpresentationmethodsthatincreaseinternationalexpertise Requiremoreforeignlanguageandculturaleducationinthecurriculum Teachinternationalstandardsandtechnicalterms Increaseoverseasexperienceintheprograms Ihavenosuggestionsforchange Other(pleasedescribe):

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125 ________________________________________ Appendix11(Continued) _____________________________________ SectionD-RespondentInformation 1.Whatisthetitleofyourposition? ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2.Doyouhaveresponsibilityforyourcompanysinternationalbusiness? O Yes O No (IfNo,gotoquestion3) Ifyes,pleaseindicatewhichcategorybestrepresentsyourresponsibilities: O Responsibleforthetotalorganization O Responsiblefortheorganizationsinternationalendeavors O Responsibleforaspecificcountryorregion O Responsibleforaspecificfunctionalarea O Responsibleforaspecifictechnical/occupationalfield 3.HaveyoueverbeenassignedtoworkoutsideoftheUnitedStates? O Yes O No(IfNo,gotoquestion4) Ifyes,howmanytimeshaveyouservedoutsideoftheUnitedStates? O Once O Twice O Threeormoretimes 4.Whichofthefollowingbestreflectshowyouperceiveyourcareerpathintermsofdomesticor internationalfocus? O Domestic O Mixedinternationalanddomestic O International 5.DoyouspeakanylanguageotherthanEnglish? O Yes O No 6.Areyouinvolvedinmakinginternationalhiringand/oroverseasassignmentdecisions? O Yes O No(IfNo,gotoquestion7) Ifyes,howimportantorunimportantarethesedecisionstoyoursuccessinyourcurrentposition? O Notatall important O OnlySlightly important O Somewhat important O Important O Definitely important 7.Whatisyourhighestlevelofschooling? _____________________________________________________________________________________ ---------------------------------------------------EndofSurvey---------------------------------------------------------Thankyoufortakingthetimetocompletethissurvey.ByMarch16,2007,pleasemail thissurveyto:GlobalizationinTechnical/OccupationalPositions: ACommunityCollege/USFStudy C/ORonaldL.Olney 5106SterlingManorDrive Tampa,FL33647 **Ifyouwouldbewillingtodiscussinternationalskillswithmeinthefuture,pleaseinclude contactinformationwiththissurvey(Nameandtelephone,e-mailand/ordirectmailaddresses). ________________________________________________________________________

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126 Appendix12 QuestionnaireAdvisorsandValiditySubjectMatterExperts QuestionnaireAdvisors: BillHunter,PhD.Professor,LeHighUniversity.RepresentativetotheUnitedNations. DirectoroftheGlobalUnion,DirectoroftheOfficeofInternationalStudentsand Scholars.Currentacademicfocus:Curriculumdevelopmentandglobalcompetence. ChrisPinkney,MBA,Entrepreneur,BusinessOwner. DavidOrtinau,PhD,ProfessorofMarketingandMarketResearch,UniversityofSouth FloridaCollegeofBusiness. ValiditySubjectMatterExperts: LarryHanson,BusinessIntelligenceOfficer,TampaBayPartnership,Tampa,FL. ResumeincludesCommunityCollegeInstructor,BusinessOwnerandCityManager. MariaCrummett,PhD.DeanofInternationalAffairs,CollegeofArtsandSciences, UniversityofSouthFlorida. LauraBerkowitz,SeniorResearchManager,DepartmentofEconomicDevelopment, PinellasCounty,FL.ResumeincludesCommunityCollegeInstructor.

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127 Appendix 13 SurveyQuestionsbyConstructQuestion 1.DEMOGRAPHICS:Whatarethedemographicsofbusinessesandrespondentsthatcompletethisinstrument? 1A1A2A3A4A5A6A7A8A12B1D1D2D3D4D5D6D7AVE Relevance4.04.03.674.04.04.04.03.683.333.333.673.674.03.673.674.03.673.79 Clarity4.03.673.673.674.03.674.03.333.03.674.03.674.03.674.03.673.673.73 2.SKILLS:WhatinternationalskillsdoU.S.executivesbelieveareimportantforthe sub-baccalaureatetechnicalandoccupationalemployeesthattheyhireandpromote? 2A9A10A11B2B3B4AVE Relevance4.04.03.673.674.04.03.893.89 Clarity3.673.673.333.334.03.673.613.61 3.TREAINING:HowdoU.S.executivesengagetheircompanies'sub-baccalaureatetechnical andoccupationalemployeesintrainingprogramstodevelopinternationalskills? 3C1C2C6AVE Relevance4.04.04.04.04.0 Clarity4.04.04.04.04.0 4.IMPROVEMENT:InwhatwaysdoexecutivesthinkU.S.communitycollegetechnicalandoccupational degreeprogramsshouldchangewithrespecttotheirinternationalskillsobjectives? 4C3C4C5C7AVE Relevance3.673.674.04.03.843.84 Clarity3.333.333.674.03.583.58 4=HighlyRelevant/VeryClear,3=Relevant/Clear,2=NotRelevant/NotClear,1=HighlyIrrelavent/HighlyUnclear

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128 Appendix14 IRBApprovalforPilotStudy

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129 Appendix14(Continued) IRBApprovalforPilotStudy

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130 Appendix15 ChiSquaredGoodnessofFitforBusinessType,BusinessSizeandBusinessSales POPTYPEA1RESPTYPEA1SAMTYPEA1Popvs.RespPopvs.Sam POPTYPEA1FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent 130014.8230014.8215776.72199E-050.009859751 2657910.56958015.3831512120.0186681820.001963636 3738511.851696527.2352512120.145926161.89873E-05 4757512.162454039.391513130.0421592110.000580263 51468623.573922662.9652526260.0008675860.002505261 647257.584395170.5521010100.0077261210.007726121 749727.984892378.53210880.0051132835.01253E-07 838036.15272684.6315660.0019836071.63934E-05 9957315.376229910000660.15370.057122251 POPSIZEA2RESPSIZEA2SAMSIZEA27.524227393 ChiSquare 7.979316603 ChiSquare POPSIZEA2FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent 13395654.523395654.5294559590.0166233310.003681291 21443723.184839377.773519190.0602728210.007537705 3671610.785510988.4921012120.0005643780.001380705 437265.985883594.4700880.05980.006823411 514762.376031196.8415000.0291852320.0237 611871.916149898.7400110.01910.004335602 75720.926207099.6615000.180939130.0092 82100.346228010000110.00340.012811765 7.397697865 ChiSquare6.947047937 ChiSquare

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131 Appendix15(Continued) ChiSquaredGoodnessofFitforBusinessType,BusinessSizeandBusinessSales POPSALESA4RESPSALESA4SAMSALESA4Popvs.RespPopvs.Sam POPSALESA4FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent 116863.0816863.081522.110.0119688310.00305487 248008.76648611.8431577.370.0444493150.002205594 31158521.151807132.995253132.630.0070082740.062312246 41830033.413637166.45252829.470.021169740.004646393 51354224.724991391.134202021.050.0090122980.005448584 622764.165218995.280033.160.04160.002403846 716573.035384698.311522.110.0128082510.002793399 88611.575470799.881522.110.0749356690.001857325 9490.095475699.9700000.00090.0009 10170.035477310000000.00030.0003 4.483047548 ChiSquare 8.16261445 ChiSquare

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132 Appendix16 Test-RetestReliabilityParticipantsforPilotStudy Participant TitleBusinessType #EmployeesUSSales$ 1Supervisor ManufacturingFirmGreaterthan500 Greaterthan$1.5B 2PresidentProfessional, Scientific,Technical Services 10orless$250,000orless 3OwnerRetailFirm 11-20$1M-$2.5M 4CEOWholesaleTrade 10orless$500,000to$1M 5OwnerConstruction 40-80$2.5M-$10M 6PartnerProfessional, Scientific,Technical Services 11-20$2.5M-$10M

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133 Appendix17 PilotTestRetestAnswersthatDiffered Study Question Survey Question Number Pairs Differ Total Pairs %Different 18660 1.2 1A316 16.7 1A6572 6.9 1A121384 0.3 1D416 16.7 211336 3.3 2A9984 10.7 2B3254 3.7 34288 1.4 3C11246 0.4 3C2136 2.8 3C626 33.3 46138 4.3 4C3448 8.3 4C4236 5.6 TOTAL11291422 2.0

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134 Appendix18 PilotTest-RetestRespondentChangesandDirection Survey Question Changes StudyQuestion Changes Changesper Respondent Changeand DirectionforLikertlikeanswers Descriptionof Dichotomousscale changes Relationshipof Changestocenter ofLikert-likescale 11Survey questions change Question1: 8changes Question2: 11changes Question3: 4changes Question4: 6changes Respondent1 3changes Respondent2 9changes Respondent3 4changes Respondent4 5changes Respondent5 5changes Respondent6 3changes 15changedpositive 3changednegative 5changedNotoYes 4changedYestoNo 11towardcenter 6awayfromcenter 1throughcenter

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135 Appendix19 Initialand11dayPostCardNotices DearSir/Ms. InthenextfewdaysIwillmailandenvelopetoyouwithasurvey questionnaireinsidethatistitledTheOlneySurveyforU.S.BusinessNeeds forTechnical/OccupationalEmployeeswithInternationalExpertise.This surveyisimportanttothecontinuedbusinessgrowthofTampaBay. Pleasebelookingforthequestionnaireandpromptlycompleteand returnitinthepre-addressedenvelope.Ifforanyreasonyoudonotreceivethe survey,pleasecallmeat(813)210-4363andIwillsendanothercopytoyou. Thankyouverymuchforyourassistance. Sincerely,RonOlney MPA,PhD(Candidate), Researcher UniversityofSouthFlorida DearSir/Ms. AfewweeksagoIsentanenvelopetoyouwithasurveyquestionnaire insidethatistitledTheOlneySurveyforU.S.BusinessNeedsfor Technical/OccupationalEmployeeswithInternationalExpertise.Thissurvey isimportanttothecontinuedbusinessgrowthofTampaBay. Ifyouhavenotalreadycompletedandreturnedthequestionnaire, PLEASEdoso.Thiswillensurethatthebusinessesthatyourepresenthavea voiceintheoutcomes. IfyouhavealreadyreturnedyourcompletedsurveyTHANKYOU!! Ifyoudidnotreceiveacopyofthesurveyorhavemisplacedit,pleasecallme at(813)210-4363andIwillsendanothercopytoyou.Thankyouverymuch foryourassistance. Sincerely,RonOlney MPA,PhD(Candidate), Researcher UniversityofSouthFlorida

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136 Appendix20 CoverLetterforSurveyInstrument OfficeandCompanyAddress Subject:HelpNeededtoBetterUnderstandHowtoImproveOurCommunity CollegeTechnicalandOccupationalProgramstoMeetBusinessNeeds Greetings.IamRonOlney,aresearcherattheUniversityofSouthFlorida,working withtheTampaBayPartnership.Iampleasedtotellyouthatyourcompanyhasbeen selectedtoprovidefeedbacktocommunitycollegeleadersaboutthecommunitycollege technicalandoccupationalprogramstakenbyyouremployeesandapplicants. Thissurveyisimportant.TampaBayisexpandingrapidlyandbusinessesneedto ensurethattheworkforceisgettingthetrainingandskillsneededtosuccessfullycompete inthemarketplace.Yourresponsestothisquestionnairewillhelpensurethateducators haveaccurateinformationtohelpyourbusinessprosperinthefuture. Irespectyourprivacytimeandyourtime.Thenameofyourbusinessandthename oftheindividualfillingoutthequestionnairearenotnecessary.Thiswillhelpensurethat yourprivacyismaintained.Theinformationcollectedfromthequestionnairemaybe published,butthereisnointenttoidentifyindividualbusinessesorrespondents. Thisquestionnaireshouldbecompletedbyanindividualwithinyourfirmthatis awareofcurrentandanticipatededucationalneedsofyourbusinessandanunderstanding ofyourclientbase.Itwilltake10to20minutestocomplete,dependingupontheamount ofdiscussionyouwishtopresent.Pleasefillitoutcompletelyandmailitbackintheselfaddressedstampedenvelopeassoonasyouaredone. Ifyoufeelthatyoudonothavetheappropriateknowledgetoanswerthequestions, pleasefeelfreetogivethequestionnaireandthiscoverlettertotheappropriatepartyfor completion. Thankyouforyourassistanceinthisimportantendeavor.Pleasecallmeat(813) 210-4363ifyouhaveanyquestions. Sincerely, RonOlney DoctoralCandidate UniversityofSouthFlorida,CollegeofEducation,CWY408 PED213 Tampa,FL33647 (813)210-4363

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137 Appendix21 RecruitmentPosterforFocusGroup-Business Wanted 5-10BusinessManagers tojoinastudyby discussingtheresultsofasurveyconductedwitharea businessmanagerslastmonthtodeterminewhat internationalskillswereneededbytechnical/ occupationalemployeesintheTampaBayarea. ThisispartofadoctoraldissertationforRonOlneyat USF Date,TimeandLocationwillbeatthegroups discretionandwilllast60to90minutes Ifyouareinterestedorwouldlikemoreinformation, pleasecontactRonOlneyat: olney@jmslc.usf.edu CellPhone:813-210-4363 HomePhone:813-977-2453 WorkPhone813-974-2615

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138 Appendix22 SolicitationforFocusGroupBusiness NameandAddress Hello,IamRonOlney,adoctoralcandidateattheUniversityofSouthFlorida.Ihavebeen conductingmydissertationstudyonwhethertechnicalandoccupationalemployeesinthe TampaBayareaneedtohavesomespecificskillstobettercompeteintheglobaleconomy.I havecollecteddatafromvolunteersinalmost2000companiesandhaveanalyzedthedatafor insightsandtrendsthatmaybeofinteresttoyouandyourbusiness. Iamconveningasmallfocusgroupofbusinessmenfromaroundtheeightcountyareato hearmyfindingsandtohelpmetounderstandwhatthefindingsmeantothebusiness community.Iwouldlikeyoutobepartofthisfocusgroup. Themeetingwillbeheldat_____________on_____________andwilllastabout1hour. Therearenocosts,feesormonetaryincentivesassociatedwiththismeeting. AswithallresearchatUSF,Iamrequiredtogetyourwrittenauthorizationtoparticipateina researchproject,sowewillbegoingovertheInformedConsentFormatthebeginningofour meeting(enclosed). Pleaseletmeknowby________ifIcancountonyourattendance.Ilookforwardtogaining insightsfromyouandyourfellowbusinessleadersintheregion..Itshouldbefun.Ifyou haveanyquestions,donothesitatetocalloremail. Sincerely, RonOlney,MPA,MA DoctoralCandidate LieutenantColonel,U.S.Army(Retired) Work:(813)974-2615 Cell(813)210-4363 Email:olney@jmslc.usf.edu Encl InformedConsentForm

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139 Appendix23 RecruitmentPosterforFocusGroup-Academic Wanted 5-10Technical/OccupationalProgram InstructorsorAdministrators tojoina studybydiscussingtheresultsofasurveyconducted withareabusinessmanagerslastmonthtodetermine whatinternationalskillswereneededbytechnical/ occupationalemployeesintheTampaBayarea. ThisispartofadoctoraldissertationforRonOlneyat USF Date,TimeandLocationwillbeatthegroups discretionandwilllast60to90minutes Ifyouareinterestedorwouldlikemoreinformation, pleasecontactRonOlneyat: olney@jmslc.usf.edu CellPhone:813-210-4363 HomePhone:813-977-2453 WorkPhone813-974-2615

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140 Appendix24 SolicitationforFocusGroup-Academics NameandAddress Hello,IamRonOlney,adoctoralcandidateattheUniversityofSouthFlorida.Ihavebeen conductingmydissertationstudyonwhethertechnicalandoccupationalemployeesinthe TampaBayareaneedtohavesomespecificskillstobettercompeteintheglobaleconomy.I havecollecteddatafromvolunteersinalmost2000companiesandhaveanalyzedthedatafor insightsandtrendsthatmaybeofinteresttoyouandyourcommunitycollege. Iamconveningasmallfocusgroupofcommunitycollegefacultyandadministratorsfrom aroundtheeightcountyareatohearmyfindingsandtohelpmetounderstandwhatthe findingsmeantothetechnologicalandoccupationalprogramsinouracademiccommunity.I wouldlikeyoutobepartofthisfocusgroup. Themeetingwillbeheldat_____________on_____________andwilllastabout1hour. Therearenocosts,feesormonetaryincentivesassociatedwiththismeeting. AswithallresearchatUSF,Iamrequiredtogetyourwrittenauthorizationtoparticipateina researchproject,sowewillbegoingovertheInformedConsentFormatthebeginningofour meeting(enclosed). Pleaseletmeknowby________ifIcancountonyourattendance.Ilookforwardtogaining insightsfromyouandyourfellowacademiciansintheregion.Itshouldbefun.Ifyouhave anyquestions,donothesitatetocalloremail. Sincerely, RonOlney,MPA,MA DoctoralCandidate LieutenantColonel,U.S.Army(Retired) Work:(813)974-2615 Cell(813)210-4363 Email:olney@jmslc.usf.edu Encl InformedConsentForm

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141 Appendix25 DescriptivesofRespondents PositionsnPercent HighestEducation Attainments nPercent Owner3525.00BachelorsDegree4532.14 Manager3424.10MastersDegree3323.57 President/COO/ GM/Dir 21 14.90AssociatesDegree 20 14.29 ExecVP/AsstVP107.09SomeCollege1812.90 Director96.38HighSchool128.57 Administrator/ Principal 7 4.96 TerminalDegree10 7.14 Partner74.95PostDoctorate21.43 AsstManager64.30 CEO/Chairman42.84 Foreman/Leader42.84 Specialist21.42 CorpCompliance Officer 1 0.71 Supervisor1 0.71 Total141100140100

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142 Appendix26 Chi-SquaredGoodnessofFitforStudyBusinessTypes,BusinessSizesandBusinessSales POPULATIONTYPERESPONDENTSTYPESAMPLETYPEPopvsRespPopvsSam TYPEFrequencyPercentCumFreqCumPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent 130724.7630724.7696.29985.120.0049178570.000272269 2679010.52986215.281510.4921911.438.55513E-070.000787167 3781712.121767927.42517.4824512.790.023704290.00037038 4819112.72587040.142.8024412.740.0771732281.25984E-06 51197718.563784758.662718.8833817.645.51724E-050.000456034 650237.794287066.45149.791387.200.0051347880.000446855 748457.514771573.961711.891407.310.025545145.32623E-05 838395.955155479.9185.591115.790.0002178154.30252E-05 91296520.09645191002416.7838219.940.0054535091.11996E-05 Chi-SquareChi-Square 20.8861**4.7948 POPULATIONSIZERESPONDENTSSIZESAMPLESIZEPopvsRespPopvsSam SIZEFrequencyPercentCumFreqCumPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent 13529654.593529654.595840.56102553.400.0360580510.000259406 214869235016577.593826.5742221.990.0052448680.000524036 3703210.885719788.471913.2924212.610.0053383270.002750827 438375.936103494.496.291045.420.0018492452.71698E-05 515492.46258396.864.20623.230.0126950820.002557787 612401.926382398.7264.20341.770.0270750.000117188 76020.936442599.6521.40221.150.0023752690.00052043 82270.356465210053.5070.360.28352.85714E-06 Chi-SquareChi-Square 52.3902**14.1882*

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143 Appendix26(Continues) Chi-SquaredGoodnessofFitforStudyBusinessTypes,BusinessSizesandBusinessSales POPULATIONSALESRESPONDENTSSALESSAMPLESALESPopvsRespPopvsSam SALESFrequencyPercentCumFreqCumPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent 130545.3830545.381410.531066.300.0492332560.001560946 237426.59679611.971712.781036.120.0581860080.000337777 31197921.111877533.082720.3036221.500.0003098047.30895E-05 41895533.43773066.483727.8252731.300.0093212730.001315585 51396724.615169791.092619.5542225.070.0104062068.47892E-05 623274.15402495.1943.01734.340.002910580.000136074 717523.095577698.2821.50492.910.0081424930.000104157 89011.595667799.8721.50352.084.67323E-050.001503906 9560.15673399.9721.5040.240.1970654440.001893376 10180.035675110021.5030.180.7240288130.00732108 Chi-SquareChi-Square 138.7978**24.1186**

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144 Appendix27 CorrelationsofBusinessSizeandSaleswithInternationalSkills InternationalSkillsM SD NumberofEmployeesTotalSales$ Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences 2.20 1.25 .219**.111 Foreignlanguageskills 2.17 1.17 .202*.201* Understandingoflocalmarket/businesspractices 1.77 1.27 .293**.228** Aglobalperspective 1.59 0.95 .179*.005 Understandingofinternationaltech/occstandards 1.49 0.97 .150.274** Countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge 1.45 0.84 .171**-.050 Internationalworkexperience 1.27 0.61 .036.071 *p <.05.**p <.01

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145 Appendix28 DescriptivesforCompanies BusinessCategoryn Pct Numberof Employees nPctTotalU.S.Dollar Sales($) nPct RetailFirms2718.88 10orless5840.85250korless1410.37 HealthCare,Social AssistanceServices 2517.48 11203826.76250k500k1712.59 Other2416.78 21-401913.38500k1M2921.48 Professional, Scientific,Technical Services 1711.89 408096.341M2.5M3727.41 Accommodations/ FoodServices 1510.49 8112053.522.5M10M2619.29 Construction149.79 12121564.2310M20M42.96 ManufacturingFirm96.29 21650021.4120M50M21.48 WholesaleTrade85.59 Greaterthan50053.5250M300M21.48 Financial/Insurance Services 42.80 300M1.5B21.48 Greaterthan1.5B 2 1.48 TOTAL143100142100135100

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146 Appendix29 PercentofemployeepositionsrequiringInternationalSkills Percentageofemployeesthatworkin positionsrequiringinternational knowledgeorexpertise(n=141). Percentn%ofTotal 0%7050.00 1%117.90 2%42.86 4%10.71 5%107.14 10%86.43 14%10.71 15%53.57 20%75.00 25%32.14 30%21.43 35%10.71 45%10.71 50%64.29 67%10.71 70%10.71 80%10.71 90%10.71 95%10.71 100%64.29 TOTAL140100

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147 Appendix30 ImportanceofRegionstoInternationalActivities:MeanScores REGIONNOWFUTURE (next10years) n MSD n MSD LatinAmerica 1431.871.151432.081.30 Europe 1431.570.971431.731.09 Asia 1431.370.891411.450.99 MiddleEast 1421.170.541421.270.70 Africa1411.140.571411.250.72 Note: Responsesprovidedon5-pointresponsescale(1=Notatallimportantto5= Criticallyimportant).

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148 Appendix31 FutureGrowthofInternationalActivities EstimatedInternationalBusinessGrowthasaPercentofTotalBusinessGrowth within10years(n=142) STATEMENTnPct Nobusinesswillbederivedinternationally6646.48 Aminimumpercentageofbusinesswillbederivedinternationally5438.03 Asignificantpercentageofbusinesswillbederivedinternationally1812.68 Acriticallylargepercentageofbusinesswillbederived internationally 42.82 TOTAL142100

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149 Appendix32 BusinessesemployingTechnical/OccupationalSub-baccalaureateEmployeesbyCareer FieldsandtypeofEducation(n=143) CareerFields of Employees Businessesemploying technical/occupational careerfieldswithpost highschoolbutsubbaccalaureate education communitycollege coursework(without anearnedcertificate ordegree) community college program certificate Associates degrees Another subbaccalaureate degree Totalcells checked Businesssupport 7117 2544 1095 Business management 7413 2152 692 Healthsciences 3013 1518 652 Tradeandindustry 3712 1219 548 Public,legal,and socialservices 199 108 936 Marketing 3512 611 635 Computerand information sciences 278 149 234 Education 2213 74 529 Engineering, architectural,and science technologies 195 810 427 Personalservices 176 57 119 Agriculturaland naturalresources 128 23 013 Communications anddesign 124 32 312 Other 75 32 212 Protectiveservices 113 33 211 Totals 393128 134192 61515 Companiesthat checked 12166 6580 32

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150 Appendix33 InternationalBusinessManagement Where(USorForeignOffices)andhow(USorForeignnationals)companiescurrentlyfilledtechnicaland occupationalpositions intheirinternationalbusinessoperations(n=143) InUSOffices InForeign Offices Nointernationalbusinessoperations 111 Noforeignoffices;allInternationaloperationsarehandledfrom theU.S. 26 AlmostexclusivelywithU.S.nationals 61 MostlywithU.S.nationals,butwithsomeforeignnationals 30 MixofU.S.andforeignnationals 20 Mostlywithforeignnationals,butwithsomeU.S.nationals 10 Almostexclusivelywithforeignnationals 12

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151 Appendix34 ShortagesofInternationalSkills Positiveresponsesto:IsitdifficultforyoutofindU.S.nationalswiththeinternational knowledge,expertiseand/orlanguageskillsneededforyourfirm(n=30)? Identifiedknowledge,expertiseandskillsthataredifficulttofind Nos.Percent AbletobeunderstoodinalanguageotherthanEnglish 20 22.22 Comfortwithworkingininternational/multiculturalgroups 17 18.89 Knowledgeoftechnicaltermsusedinotherlanguages 15 16.67 Knowledgeoftechnicaltermsusedinotherlanguages 15 16.67 Skillsthatmeetinternationaltechnicalstandards 10 11.11 Internationaltravelexperiencebeyondavacation 7 7.78 Internationalworkexperience 7 7.78 Other 00.00 TOTAL 90100

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152 Appendix35 TrainingProgramsandProviders Positiveresponsesto:Hasyourfirmengagedinprogramsdesignedtopromote internationalskills?(n=140) TypesofProgramsbyTrainingProviders Typeof Program InHouse Provider Community College Provider University Provider Consulting Firm Provider Non-Profit/ Government Provider Total cell checks Total companies Multicultural Staff Management 2021813224 Foreign Language Training 44020109 International Technical Standards 70123138 Regionalor Global Business Practices 5012198 International Cross-Cultural Seminars 5001065 Regionalor Global Updates 1000455 Pre-Departure trainingbefore foreign assignment 3000033 Cross-National Functional Teams 2000133 Total 4763151081

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153 Appendix36 ShortagesofInternationalSkills Responsesto:Whytrainingprogramshavenotmetinternationalbusinessneeds (N=18) Response Nos. Pct Notfocusedonmybusinessneeds 7 38.89 Toodifficulttocoordinateclassesandassignments 4 22.22 Tooexpensive 4 22.22 Notcurrenttointernationalbusinessenvironment(datedinformation) 2 11.11 Other 1 11.11 TOTAL 18 100

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154 Appendix37 CommunityCollegeShortcomings ExplanationswhyfirmshavenotusedCommunityCollegesasaresourcetoassistin thedevelopmentofinternationalcompetencies(n=126) Explanations Numberof Responses Pct Myneedsarebeingmetorexceededelsewhere 8552.80 Iamnotawareofwhatthecommunitycollege canoffer 5634.78 Thecommunitycollegehasnotmetwithme aboutmyneeds 106.21 TheCommunityCollegewont/doesntoffer whatmyfirmneeds 53.11 TheCommunityCollegeprogramsaretoo difficulttosetup 21.24 Theclassschedulesarenotflexibleenoughto meetmyneeds 21.24 Other(Ihavenoneedforinternational competencies) 10.62 TheCommunityCollegeprogramsaretoo expensive 00 TOTAL161100

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155 Appendix38 NumberandSizeofCompaniesinStudyandinKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY CompanySizemeasuredasnumberofemployees Industry 10or Less 11 to 20 21 to 40 41 to 80 81to 120 121 to 215 216 to 500 More than 500 Total RetailFirm 12 9 2 1 1 2 0 0 27 HealthCare,Social Assistance 5742410225 Other 9 7 3 3 0 2 0 0 24 Professional, Scientific, Technical 8521000117 Accommodations/ FoodService 4 5 4 1 0 0 0 1 15 Construction9310001014 Manufacturing Firm 5 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 9 WholesaleTrade512000008 Financial/Insurance 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 4 Total58381996625143 KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY CompanySizemeasuredasnumberofemployees Industry Less than 500 501 to 5,000 5,000 to 20,000 More than 20,000 Total ManufacturingFirm 24 14 2 7 47 ServiceFirm2032328 Other 15 4 0 3 22 FinancialServiceFirm31127 Telecommunicationsand/orInternet Firm 3 1 0 0 4 RetailFirm12003 Total6625515111 Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.7.

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156 Appendix39 FirmsbyIndustryPercentageinStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY Manuf6% Acc/Food 10% Retail19% Fin/Insur3% Prof/Tech 12% Const10% Health/SA 18% Whlsale5% Othr17% Manuf Acc/Food Retail Fin/Insur Prof/Tech Const Health/SA Whlsale Othr KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY Manuf42% Svc25% Retail3% Finance6% Telecom/IS 4% Othr20% Manuf Svc Retail Finance Telecom/IS Othr Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.7.

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157 Appendix40 FirmsbyCompanySizePercentage:CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY 10orLess 41% 11to20 27% 21to80 19% 81to500 9% 500ormore 4% 10orLess 11to20 21to80 81to500 500ormore KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY Lessthan 500,58% 501to5,000, 23% 5,001to 20,000,5% Morethan 20,000,14% Lessthan500 501to5,000 5,001to20,000 Morethan20,000 Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.8.

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158 Appendix41 InternationalSalesasaPercentageofTotalSales:CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy 81 28 25 2 0 27 40 26 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 NoneLessThan5%5%To30%MoreThan30% InternationalSalesPercentage B u s i n e s s e s CurrentStudy Kedia/DanielStudy Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.9.

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159 Appendix42 CurrentStaffingPracticesformanagementpositionsininternationalbusinessoperations: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDYTechnicalandoccupationalpositionsonly StaffingPracticeUsedInU.S.OfficesInForeignOffices Wehavenointernationalbusinessoperations 71% AlmostexclusivelywithU.S.nationals4%1% MostlywithU.S.Nationals,butwithsome foreignnationals 2% 0% WithamixofU.S.andforeignnationals1%0% Mostlywithforeignnationals,butwithsome U.S.nationals 1% 0% Almostexclusivelywithforeignnationals1%1% Wehavenoforeignoffices;international operationsarehandledfromtheU.S. 17% KEDIA/DANIELSTUDYAllmanagementpositions StaffingPracticeUsedInU.S.OfficesInForeignOffices Wehavenointernationalbusinessoperations 0% AlmostexclusivelywithU.S.nationals59%2% MostlywithU.S.Nationals,butwithsome foreignnationals 23% 4% WithamixofU.S.andforeignnationals12%8% Mostlywithforeignnationals,butwithsome U.S.nationals 2% 16% Almostexclusivelywithforeignnationals1%21% Wehavenoforeignoffices;international operationsarehandledfromtheU.S. 49% Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.16

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160 Appendix43 PercentageofEmployeesworkinginPositionsRequiringInternationalKnowledgeor Expertise:CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy 68 16 36 19 0 46 37 17 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 NoneLessThan5%5%To30%MoreThan30% EmployeesRequiringInternationalSkills B u s i n e s s e s CurrentStudy Kedia/DanielStudy Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.9.

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161 Appendix44 CurrentandFutureImportanceofRegions:CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY 11.21.41.61.822.22.42.62.83 Africa MiddleEast LatinAmerica Asia Europe W o r l d R e g i o n s Importance(1=noimportance;5=criticalimportance) Current Future KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY I 11.522.53 Africa MiddleEast LatinAmerica Asia Europe W o r l d R e g i o n s Importance(1=notimportant;3=greatimportance) Current Future Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.11.

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162 Appendix45 ImportanceofWorldRegionstoRespondentsInternationalActivities: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY WorldRegionImportanceNowImportanceintheFuture NoneSomeGreatNoneSomeGreat LatinAmerica55%33%12%50%28%21% Europe68%26%6%61%26%12% Asia80%13%6%76%14%9% MiddleEast88%11%1%81%16%3% Africa91%8%1%85%12%3% KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY WorldRegionImportanceNow(%)ImportanceintheFuture(%) NoneSomeGreatNoneSomeGreat Asia16%29%55%4%20%76% Europe17%38%45%8%31%62% LatinAmerica28%40%31%15%31%54% MiddleEast56%27%17%37%36%27% Africa66%25%9%42%35%23% Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.11.

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163 Appendix46 CurrentGrowthofInternationalActivitiescomparedtoDomesticActivities: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy 9 37 55 39 27 34 01020304050607080 Morerapidly Aboutthesame Lessrapidly PercentofRespondents Kedia/DanielStudy CurrentStudy Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.12 C u r r e n t I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i v i t y

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164 Appendix47 Percentoftotalsalesrevenuefrominternationalbusinesswithinthenext10years: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY 1 13 38 48 01020304050607080 Critical% internationally Significant% internationally Minimum% internationally No% internationally F u t u r e % I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y PercentofRespondents CurrentStudy KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY 63 18 19 01020304050607080 Higher% Same% Small% F u t u r e % I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y PercentofRespondents Kedia/DanielStudy Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.13. F u t u r e % I n t e r n a t i o n a l F u t u r e % I n t e r n a t i o n a l

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165 Appendix48 Internationalbusinessopportunities:CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDYDidyourbusinessfailtofullyexploitinternationalbusiness opportunitiesduetoinsufficientinternationallycompetentpersonnelinthepastfive years:Technicaloroccupationalpersonnelonly. NO 84% YES 16% NO YES KEDIA/DANIELSTUDYDidyourbusinessfailtofullyexploitinternationalbusiness opportunitiesduetoinsufficientinternationallycompetentpersonnelinthepastfive years. NO 70% YES 30% NO YES Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.14.

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166 Appendix49 Overallbusinessincreaseifmoreinternationalexpertisewereavailable: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy 1 44 56 13 65 23 01020304050607080 Largedegree Some Notatall PercentofCompanies Kedia/DanielStudy CurrentStudy Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.12

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167 Appendix50 Difficultyinlocatinginternationallyskilledemployees: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY.IsitdifficulttofindU.S.nationalwithinternationalknowledge, expertiseand/orlanguageskillsneeded? NO 78% YES 22% NO YES KEDIA/DANIELSTUDYIsitdifficulttofindU.S.nationalwithinternational knowledge,expertiseand/orlanguageskillsneeded? NO 69% YES 31% NO YES Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.22.

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168 Appendix51 Internationalemphasisinthenext10years: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY.Overthenext10yearswillyourcompanyplaceagreateremphasis oninternationalskillsamongtechnical/occupationalmanagersandemployees? NO 68% YES 32% NO YES KEDIA/DANIELSTUDYOverthenext10yearswillyourcompanyplaceagreater emphasisoninternationalskillsamongmanagementandemployees? NO 22% YES 78% NO YES Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.23.

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169 Appendix52 Importanceofinternationalskillsforprofessionallinestaffandlinemanagement: CurrentStudy CURRENTSTUDY:Technical/occupationallineandstaffonly 1.4 2.17 1.56 1.64 1.29 2.19 1.5 1.52 2.24 1.65 1.7 1.27 2.16 1.46 11.522.53 Countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocalmarkets/businesspractices Internationalworkexperience Foreignlanguageskills Understandingofinternationaltechnical/occupational standards CompanyResponses1=notimportant;5=criticallyimportant STAFF LINE

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170 Appendix53 Importanceofinternationalskillsforprofessionallinestaffandlinemanagement: Kedia/DanielStudy KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY:Allprofessionalstaffandlinemanagement 2.05 2.18 2.15 2.18 1.8 1.85 2.2 2.5 2.42 2.35 2 1.9 11.522.53 Countrysocioeconomic/political knowledge Appreciationof cross-cultural differences Aglobal perspective Understandingof localmarkets/ businesspractices Internationalwork experience Foreignlanguage skills CompanyResponses1=notimportant;3=greatimportance STAFF LINE Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.18.

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171 Appendix54 ImportanceofinternationalskillsexpertiseforstaffandlineemployeesbyPercentages: CurrentstudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY:Technical/OccupationalStaffandLinePersonnelonly. InternationalSkillsImportancefor Tech/OccStaff Importancefor Tech/OccLine NoneSomeGreatNoneSomeGreat Appreciationofcross-cultural differences 39% 42% 19% 42% 37% 21% Foreignlanguageskills41%44%16%39%44%16% Aglobalperspective 66% 26% 9% 66% 28% 6% Understandingoflocal market/businesspractices 66%21%12%67%24%9% Countrysocioeconomic/politicalknowledge 69% 23% 8% 74% 23% 4% Understandingofinternational tech/occstandards 76%17%7%72%19%9% Internationalworkexperience 81% 18% 1% 79% 19% 1% KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY:ProfessionalStaffandLineManagement. InternationalSkillsImportancefor ProfessionalStaff ImportanceforLine Management NoneSomeGreatNoneSomeGreat Appreciationofcross-cultural differences 7% 35% 58% 16% 38% 46% Aglobalperspective9%36%56%22%43%34% Understandingoflocal market/businesspractices 9% 42% 49% 21% 42% 37% Countrysocioeconomic/politicalknowledge 13%52%36%22%50%28% Internationalworkexperience 25% 52% 24% 36% 38% 25% Foreignlanguageskills27%55%18%32%47%21% Understandingofinternational standards Notmeasured Notmeasured Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.19.

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172 Appendix55 Importanceofinternationalskillsexpertisefortechnical/occupationalstaffemployeesby Level:CurrentStudy 0.11 0.36 0.15 0.15 0.05 0.26 0.06 0.21 0.08 0.13 0.01 0.25 00.10.20.30.40.5 Countrysocio-economic/ politicalknowledge Appreciationofcrossculturaldifferences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocal markets/business practices Internationalwork experience Foreignlanguageskills CompanyResponses0=notimportant;1=important Entry Management

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173 Appendix56 Importanceofinternationalskillsexpertisefortechnical/occupationallineemployeesby Level:CurrentStudy 0.1 0.32 0.17 0.16 0.08 0.26 0.03 0.22 0.06 0.06 0.01 0.22 00.10.20.30.40.5 Countrysocio-economic/ politicalknowledge Appreciationofcrossculturaldifferences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocal markets/business practices Internationalwork experience Foreignlanguageskills CompanyResponses0=notimportant;1=important Entry Management

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174 Appendix57 ImportanceofinternationalskillsexpertiseforprofessionalstaffbyLevel: Kedia/DanielStudy 0.545 0.625 0.675 0.615 0.465 0.4 0.21 0.425 0.245 0.285 0.15 0.31 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.8 Countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocalmarkets/business practices Internationalworkexperience Foreignlanguageskills CompanyResponses0=notimportant;1=important Entry Management Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.20.

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175 Appendix58 ImportanceofinternationalskillsexpertiseforlinepositionsbyLevel: Kedia/DanielStudy 0.27 0.4 0.39 0.39 0.27 0.325 0.075 0.29 0.13 0.12 0.08 0.23 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.8 Countrysocio-economic/politicalknowledge Appreciationofcross-culturaldifferences Aglobalperspective Understandingoflocalmarkets/business practices Internationalworkexperience Foreignlanguageskills CompanyResponses0=notimportant;1=important Entry Management Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.21.

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176 Appendix59 OfferingsofInternationalskillsprograms: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY:Hasyourfirmengagedinprogramsdesignedtopromote internationalskills? NO 83% YES 17% NO YES KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY:Hasyourfirmengagedinprogramsdesignedtopromote internationalskills? NO 48% YES 52% NO YES Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.24.

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177 Appendix60 InternationalTrainingandSources: CurrentstudyandKedia/Danielstudy CURRENTSTUDY TypeofProvide TrainingFocus Inhouse program Community college UniversityConsultant Non-profit /Govt. Internationalcrossculturalseminars 18% 0% 0% 1% 0% Pre-departuretraining forexpatriates 2%0%0%0%0% Foreignlanguage training 3% 3% 0% 1% 0% Regionalorglobal updates 4%0%1%1%1% Multi-culturalstaff management 14% 1% 1% 6% 1% Cross-national functionalteams 1%0%0%0%1% Internationaltechnical standards 5% 0% 1% 1% 2% KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY TypeofProvider TrainingFocus Inhouse program Community college UniversityConsultant Non-profit /Govt. Internationalcrossculturalseminars 14% Not measured 11% 11% 11% Pre-departuretraining forexpatriates 16% Not measured 1%10%3% Foreignlanguage training 14% Not measured 10% 16% 0% Regionalorglobal updates 23% Not measured 10%12%17% Multi-culturalstaff management 12% Not measured 4% 5% 2% Cross-national functionalteams 15% Not measured 4%5%1% Internationaltechnical standards Notmeasured Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.25.

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178 Appendix61 InternationalTrainingProgramSatisfaction: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY:Areyourinternationaltrainingneedsbeingmet? NO 34% YES 66% NO YES KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY:Havetheseprogramsmetyourinternationalbusinessneeds? NO 29% YES 71% NO YES Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.26.

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179 Appendix62 ImportanceofImprovedInternationalBusinessEducation: CurrentStudyandKedia/DanielStudy CURRENTSTUDY:Forcommunitycollegetechnical/occupationalprograms 123 Createint'lresourcedatabanks Academicoutreacttobusinesses Strogerint'lemphasisincurricula Emphasisonlearningaboutother worldareas Mandatoryforeignlanguage Emphasisonexchangeprograms I m p r o v e m e n t s Response:1=notatallimportant;5=criticallyimportant CurrentStudy KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY:Forgraduate/undergraduatebusinessprograms 123 Createint'lresourcedatabanks Academicoutreacttobusinesses Strogerint'lemphasisincurricula Emphasisonlearningaboutotherworld areas Mandatoryforeignlanguage Emphasisonexchangeprograms I m p r o v e m e n t s Response:1=notimportant;3=Ofgreatimportance Kedia/DanielStudy Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.27.

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180 Appendix63 Improvementsforinternationaleducation: CurrentstudyandKedia/Danielstudy CURRENTSTUDY:ForCommunitycollegetechnical/occupationalprograms. ImportanceofImprovement SuggestedInternationalEducationImprovements NoneSomeGreat Improvedacademicoutreachforbusiness 39%43%18% Strongerintlemphasisincurricula 51%32%17% Mandatoryforeignlanguage 51%35%15% Moreemphasisonlearningaboutotherworldareas 59%29%12% Moreemphasisonexchangeprograms 63%30%7% Creationofintlresourcesdatabases/clearinghouses68%23%8% KEDIA/DANIELSTUDY:Forgraduate/undergraduatebusinessprograms. ImportanceofImprovement SuggestedInternationalEducationImprovements NoneSomeGreat Strongerintlemphasisincurricula 15%31%54% Moreemphasisonlearningaboutotherworldareas 13%37%51% Improvedacademicoutreachforbusiness 24%44%33% Mandatoryforeignlanguage 24%49%28% Creationofintlresourcesdatabases/clearinghouses 23%54%24% Moreemphasisonexchangeprograms26%52%23% Kedia&Daniel,2003,p.28.

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AbouttheAuthor RonaldL.OlneyreceivedhisBachelorsDegreeinGeneralEngineeringfromtheUnited StatedMilitaryAcademy,WestPoint,NY,in1975.Mr.OlneysearnedaMastersdegreein PersonnelAdministrationfromCentralMichiganUniversityin1982andaMastersDegreein AdultEducationfromtheUniversityofSouthFloridain2005. Duringhis20yearmilitarycareer,Mr.Olneyworkedinlawenforcement,engineering andteachingpositionsworld-wideandauthorednumerouscoursesinlawenforcement,leadership andtrainingmanagement.Since1995,hehasworkedasacattlerancher,inpolicyenforcement, asanemergencyservicesdirector,andasaresearcher. Mr.Olneyintendstopursuemultipleareasofinquirypertainingtoglobalization,the rehabilitationofinjuredmilitaryveterans,leadershipstudies,jointmilitaryeducationandthe managementandconductofpublicandprivategrants. Heandhisbride,Dr.ChristineM.Olney,resideinTampa,Florida.