Determining Fort Walton burial patterns and their relationship within the greater Mississippian world

Determining Fort Walton burial patterns and their relationship within the greater Mississippian world

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Determining Fort Walton burial patterns and their relationship within the greater Mississippian world
Shahramfar, Gabrielle
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[Tampa, Fla]
University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Mortuary variability
Northwest Florida
Skeletal analysis
Prehistoric archaeology
Pensacola culture
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- Masters -- USF ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


ABSTRACT: The objective of my research was to compile all known burial data from the Fort Walton culture located in northwest Florida (A.D. 1000 to contact) to determine any patterns in burial practices. A thorough literature review of all published material was conducted to obtain the burial data. I also reviewed burial practices of other contemporaneous late prehistoric cultures in the Southeast, including the Pensacola and Rood cultures. The burial data clearly indicate that Fort Walton burial practices varied greatly; 14 different burial types were identified from all of the sites. A similar pattern is seen among Pensacola, Rood and Mississippian ceremonial centers. However, secondary burials were dominant at mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola and Pensacola sites when compared to classic Fort Walton burial sites. This may have been the result of European contact, which might have changed native burial practices in northwest Florida, as a result of disease and displacement; however, future studies are needed to assess this hypothesis. Caches of pottery and burials capped with pottery appear to be a unique characteristic among Pensacola burial sites. Two major dissimilarities observed at Rood burials were the practice of dyeing teeth and a mass burial with an altar. Of all of the Fort Walton sites, the elite burials from the Lake Jackson site most closely resembles the elite burials discovered at Etowah, Moundville, and Spiro, due to the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC) goods and the elaborate tombs.
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Includes bibliographical references.
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by Gabrielle Shahramfar.

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Determining Fort Walton burial patterns and their relationship within the greater Mississippian world
h [electronic resource] /
by Gabrielle Shahramfar.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 120 pages.
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
3 520
ABSTRACT: The objective of my research was to compile all known burial data from the Fort Walton culture located in northwest Florida (A.D. 1000 to contact) to determine any patterns in burial practices. A thorough literature review of all published material was conducted to obtain the burial data. I also reviewed burial practices of other contemporaneous late prehistoric cultures in the Southeast, including the Pensacola and Rood cultures. The burial data clearly indicate that Fort Walton burial practices varied greatly; 14 different burial types were identified from all of the sites. A similar pattern is seen among Pensacola, Rood and Mississippian ceremonial centers. However, secondary burials were dominant at mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola and Pensacola sites when compared to classic Fort Walton burial sites. This may have been the result of European contact, which might have changed native burial practices in northwest Florida, as a result of disease and displacement; however, future studies are needed to assess this hypothesis. Caches of pottery and burials capped with pottery appear to be a unique characteristic among Pensacola burial sites. Two major dissimilarities observed at Rood burials were the practice of dyeing teeth and a mass burial with an altar. Of all of the Fort Walton sites, the elite burials from the Lake Jackson site most closely resembles the elite burials discovered at Etowah, Moundville, and Spiro, due to the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC) goods and the elaborate tombs.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Advisor: Nancy White, Ph.D.
Mortuary variability
Northwest Florida
Skeletal analysis
Prehistoric archaeology
Pensacola culture
Dissertations, Academic
x Anthropology
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856


Determining Fort Walton Burial Patterns and Their Relationship within the Greater Mississippian by Gabrielle Shahramfar A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Nancy White, Ph.D. Erin Kimmerle, Ph.D. Thomas Pluckhahn, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 12, 2008 Keywords: mortuary variability, northwest Florida, skeletal analysis, prehistoric archaeology, Pensacola culture Copyright 2008, Gabrielle A. Shahramfar


i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES iii LIST OF FIGURES vi ABSTRACT vi ii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION A ND GOALS OF RESEARCH 1 CHAPTER 2: REEXAMINATION OF SKELETAL REMAINS FROM THE CURLEE SITE 10 Background 10 Osteology 11 Materials and Methods 12 Results 22 Summary 25 CHAPTER 3: FORT WALTON BURIAL DA TA 27 Introduction 27 Classic Fort Walton Burial Site s 29 8BY194/Kenslinger-Sellars 29 8CA142/Corbin-Tucker Site 30 8FR19/Cool Spring Mound 31 8GU5/Chipola Cutoff 32 8JA8/J-5/Chattahoochee River #1 33 8JA65/Waddell's Mill Pond Site 34 8JE622/Aucilla Shores 10 35 8JE977/The Last Caw Mound 35 8LE1/Lake Jackson Mound 36 8LE164/Winewood 39 8LI2/Yon Mound and Village 40 8WA1/Marsh Island 41 8WA15/St. Marks Lookout Tower 43 8WA52/Snow Beach 44 Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola Buri al Sites 45 8OK6/Fort Walton Temple Mound 45 8OK35/Chambless 49 8WL9/Cemetery on Hogtown Bayou 50 8WL15/Jolly Bay 51


ii 8W L16/Cemetery Near Point Washington 51 8WL21/Bunker Cutoff 54 8WL30/Johnson 54 Summary of Classic and Mixed Fort Walton Burial Sites 55 CHAPTER 4: COMPARISON OF FORT WALTON BURIALS TO ROOD AND PENSACOLA BURIALS 68 Introduction 68 Rood Burials 69 9CLA62/Cemochechobee 69 9QU1/ Garys Fish Pond 72 9QU5/Cool Branch Site 72 9SW1/Rood's Landing Site 73 Summary of Rood Burials 74 Pensacola Burials 78 1BA1/Bear Point 78 8ES1280/Hickory Ridge 79 8SA36/Navy Liveoak Reservation Cemetery 81 8SR10/Eighteen-Mile Point on Santa Rosa Sound 82 Summary of Pensacola Burials 83 Conclusion 87 CHAPTER 5: COMPARISON OF FORT WALTON BURIAL DATA WITH SELECTED MISSISSIPPIAN CERE MONIAL CENTERS 89 Introduction 89 Etowah 89 Moundville 93 Spiro 100 Summary 104 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTU RE STUDIES 110 REFERENCES 113


iii LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Locations of Archaeological Collections. 8 Table 2 Human Bones from Curlee Site in CM NH Collections to 13 be Returned to Florida DHR BAR Collections. Table 3 Probable Human Bone s from Curlee Site. 19 Table 4 Age Estimation of 71-A-240 from Curlee Site. 24 Table 5 Classic Fort Walton and Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola 28 Burial Sites. Table 6 Kenslinger-Sellars Mortuary Data (Haisten and Hais ten 1983). 30 Table 7 Corbin-Tucker Mortuary Data (White 1994; Du Vernay et al. 2007; 31 Marsh 2006). Table 8 Cool Spring Mound Burial Data (M oore 1902). 32 Table 9 Burial Data from Chipola Cu toff (Moore 1903). 33 Table 10 Chattahoochee River #1 Burial Da ta (Bullen 1958). 34 Table 11 Waddells Mill Pond Site Burial Data (Gardner 1966; Tesar 2008). 35 Table 12 Aucilla Shores 10 Burial Da ta (Jones 1989). 35 Table 13 Last Caw Mound Artifacts (Memor y and Stanton 1998). 36 Table 14 Lake Jackson Mortuary Data (Jones 1982 and 1994). 37 Table 15 Burial Data from Winewood (Jones and Penman 1973). 40 Table 16 Yon Mound and Village Burial Data (Du Vernay et al. 2007; 41 White 1996). Table 17 Burial Data from Marsh Island (Moore 1902; Willey 1949). 42


iv Table 18 St. Marks Lookout Tower (Goggin 1947; FDAHRM n.d.). 43 Table 19 Snow Beach Mortuary Data (Magoon et al. 2001; Klingle 2006). 45 Table 20 Burial Data from Fort Walton Temple Mound (Moore 1901; 46 Willey 1949). Table 21 Burial Data from Fairbanks s (1965) Excavation at the Fort Walton Temple Mound. 48 Table 22 Skeletal Information from DePauw Univ ersitys excavation at Fort 49 Walton Temple Mound (Lazarus and Fornaro 1975). Table 23 Chambless Skeletal Remains (Adams and Lazarus 1960). 49 Table 24 Burial Data from Cemetery on Hogtown Bayou (Moore 1918). 50 Table 25 Artifacts Found in Associati on with Burials at Jolly Bay (Moore 51 1901; Willey 1949). Table 26 Burials Covered by Ceramic Vessels at Cemetery Near Point 53 Washington (Moore 1901; Willey 1949). Table 27 Burial Data from Bunker Cuto ff (Moore 1918; Willey 1949). 54 Table 28 Johnson Burial Data (Lazarus and Johnson n.d.; Lazarus and 55 Hawkins 1976). Table 29 Summary of Fort Walton Burial Data (Classic Sites). 56 Table 30 Summary of Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola Burial Sites. 57 Table 31 Comparison of Classic Fort Walt on to Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola 64 Burial Types. Table 32 Summary of Fort Walton Burial T ypes from All Sites. 65 Table 33 Results of Skeletal Analysis from CemochechobeeExcavation Area 70 XUA (Hill-Clark 1981). Table 34 Results of Skeletal Analysis from CemochechobeeExcavation Area 71 XUB (Hill-Clark 1981). Table 35 Garys Fish Pond (Huscher 1959; Blitz and Lorenz 2006). 72


v Table 36 Cool Branch Site Mortuary Data (Huscher 1963; Blitz; Lorenz 2006). 73 Table 37 Roods Landing Site (C aldwell 1955; Blitz and Lore nz 2006). 74 Table 38 Summary of Rood-Phase Burial Data. 75 Table 39 Comparison of Rood-Phas e Burial Types to Classic and Mixed Fort 75 Walton Burial Types. Table 40 Comparison of Rood-Phas e Burial Types to All Fort Walton Sites. 76 Table 41 Burial Data from Bear Point (Moore 1901; Willey 1949). 78 Table 42 Artifacts Associated wi th Burials at Hickory Ridge (P hillips 1995). 81 Table 43 Burial Data for Navy Liveoak Reserva tion Cemetery Site (Lazarus 82 et al. 1967). Table 44 Burial Data for Eighteen-Mile Poin t on Santa Rosa Sound (Lewis 83 1931; Willey 1949). Table 45 Summary of Pensacola Buri al Data. 84 Table 46 Comparison of Pensacola to Classic Fo rt Walton and Mixed Fort 85 Walton/Pensacola Burial Types. Table 47 Comparison of Pensacola and All Fo rt Walton Burial Types. 86 Table 48 Burial Data from Etowah. 90 Table 49 Summary of Moundvilles Mort uary Data. 97 Table 50 Results of Peebless Cluster Analys is of Moundville Burials. 97 Table 51 Summary of Spiros Burial Practices. 103 Table 52 Burial Data Summar y from Three Mississippian Centers. 105


vi LIST OF F IGURES Figure 1 Mississippian Ceremonial Sites and Cultural Regions. 2 Figure 2 Ilium (71-A-41) from the Curl ee Site. 14 Figure 3 Right Parietal (71-A-187) from the Curlee Site. 14 Figure 4 Right Parietal ( 71-A-220) from the Curlee Site. 15 Figure 5 Left Ilium (71-A-50) from the Curlee Site. 15 Figure 6 Palate (71-A-240) from the Curlee Site. 16 Figure 7 Right 2nd Premolar (71-A-45) from the Curlee Site. 16 Figure 8 Left 2nd Incisor (71-A-108) from the Curlee Site. 17 Figure 9 Cervical Vertebra (71-A-44) from the Curlee Site. 17 Figure 10 Right Ulna (71A-70) A from the Curlee Site. 18 Figure 11 Left Lumbar Verteb ra (71-A-70) B from the Curlee Site. 18 Figure 12 Proximal End of the Ulna (71-A-11 ) from the Curlee Site. 19 Figure 13 Radius (71-A-13) from the Curlee Site. 19 Figure 14 Cranial Fragments (71-A-14) from the Curlee Site. 20 Figure 15 Articular Surface of Thoracic Vert ebra (71-A-16) from the 20 Curlee Site. Figure 16 Cranial Fragment (71-A-17) from the Curlee Site. 21 Figure 17 Cranial Fragments (71-A-132) from the Curlee Site. 21 Figure 18 Femoral Head (71-A-200) from the Curlee Site. 22 Figure 19 Map of Fort Walton, Pensacola, and Rood Burial Site Locations. 29


vii Figure 20 Approximate Percentages for Burial Types. 63 Figure 21 Comparison of the Approximated Per centages of Classic 65 Fort Walton to Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola Burial Types. Figure 22 Approximate Percentages for All Fo rt Walton Burial Types. 66 Figure 23 Comparison of Rood, Mixed and Cl assic Fort Walton. 76 Figure 24 Comparison of Burial Types among RoodPhase and Fort Walton 77 Culture. Figure 25 Comparison of Pensacola to Classic Fort Walton and Mixed Fort 85 Walton/Pensacola Burial Types. Figure 26 Comparison of Pensacola to Combined Fort Walton Burial Types. 86


viii Determining Fort Walton Burial Pattern s and Their Relat ionship within the Greater Mississippian World Gabrielle A. Shahramfar ABSTRACT The objective of my research was to comp ile all known burial data from the Fort Walton culture located in northwest Florid a (A.D. 1000 to contact) to determine any patterns in burial practices. A thorough literature review of all published material was conducted to obtain the burial data. I al so reviewed burial practices of other contemporaneous late prehistoric cultures in the Southeast, including the Pensacola and Rood cultures. The burial data clearly indica te that Fort Walton bur ial practices varied greatly; 14 different burial types were identified from all of the sites. A similar pattern is seen among Pensacola, Rood and Mississippian ceremonial centers. However, secondary burials were dominant at mixed Fort Wa lton/Pensacola and Pensacola sites when compared to classic Fort Walton burial sites. This may have been the result of European contact, which might have changed native buri al practices in north west Florida, as a result of disease and displacement; however, future studies are needed to assess this hypothesis. Caches of pottery and burials capped with pottery appear to be a unique characteristic among Pensacola burial sites. Two major dissimilarities observed at Rood burials were the practice of dyeing teeth and a mass burial with an altar. Of all of the Fort Walton sites, the elite burials from the Lake Jackson site most closely resembles the


ix elite burials discovered at Etowah, Moundvill e, and Spiro, due to the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC) goods and the elaborate tombs.


1 CHAPTE R 1 INTRODUCTION AND GOALS OF RESEARCH The late prehistoric Mississippian cultu re dates from circa A.D. 1000 to 1500 and covered much of the southeastern United Stat es. This period was characterized by an increased reliance on maize, increased soci al stratification, and the construction of mounds, mostly flat-topped earthen pyramids (Smith 1990; Muller 1997). Fort Walton culture is the Mississippian variant in northwest Florida; however, litt le research has been conducted to analyze how it relates to the wi der Mississippian world. Thus the current understanding of Fort Walton culture is shor tsighted. The objectiv e of my Masters thesis is to begin addressing this proble m by compiling all known burial data from the Fort Walton culture to verify any patterns in burial practices and to compare these practices to those exhibite d at other major Mississippian centers such as Etowah, Moundville, and Spiro (Figure 1). These centers were picked as a sample of Mississippian sites because there is much skeletal data available, since these are the largest sites among the hundreds of Mississippian sites. Howe ver, these three sites all contain mounds, though not all of the Fort Walt on burials were located in mounds. In the future, all data on Mississippian burial sites should be comp iled for comparison with Fort Walton burials. A thorough literature review of all published material wa s conducted to obtain the burial data. However, as with most res earch projects, there were numerous problems encountered while researching Fort Walton burials, including issues with curation, poorly


docum ented excavations, conflic ting cultural interpretations, and a scarcity of thorough reports. To understand these complications, it is necessary to document them carefully and be aware of biases in previous cultu ral interpretations of Fort Walton culture. Figure 1: Mississippian Ceremonia l Sites and Cultural Regions. 2


3 Earlier definitions of Fort W alton culture focused primarily on ceramic types, which have made it difficult to develop a holistic understanding of the complete Fort Walton cultural adaptation. The earliest defi nitions were formulated by Gordon Willey and Richard Woodbury (1942), who defined it as the last aboriginal ceramic complex, before European contact, in northwest Florida. Willeys (1949) Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast expanded this definition to incl ude a chronologica l period, ceramic complex, and a culture (Scarry 1984:332-334). As a result of the remarkable influence of the Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast Fort Walton continues to be defined primarily as a ceramic complex. According to Wille ys (1949) classification, the Fort Walton Complex contains both Fort Walton Series and Pensacola Series ceramics. Willey did not classify the two different pottery series as representi ng two different archaeological cultures. The main difference between the tw o series is the temper type: Fort Walton ceramics contain grit, grog or sand, while Pens acola ceramics have shell temper similar to the majority of other, mainstream Mi ssissippian ceramics. In addition, Pensacola ceramics are found from northwestern Flor ida to Louisiana (Knight 1984:201-202). William Sears (1977) made the most significan t alterations to Willeys definition: he extended the inland boundary to include the R ood Phases and separated Pensacola culture from Fort Walton culture, ci ting that the two series do not overlap in space significantly (1977:176). Rood Phases I, II, and III are ceramic phases located in the upper part of the lower Chattahoochee River ar ea. Dates for each of these phases are as follows respectively: A.D. 1100-1200, A.D. 1200-1300, and A.D. 1300-1400 (Blitz and Lorenz 2006:67-70). These dates are within th e range of Fort Walton culture. However, Rood Phase I and III, in contrast to phase II, contain very little Fort Walton ceramics.


4 Rood II is dom inated by grit-tempered C ool Branch Incised (68-77 percent) and Columbia Incised (4-12 percen t), and meager amounts of a bout Moundville Incised (2-7 percent), Lamar Plain (2-12 percent), and Fo rt Walton Incised (<5 percent) (Blitz and Lorenz 2006:67-70). Brose (1985:161) states that durin g the 1940s it was believed that the Middle Mississippian expansion occurr ed in the late proto-hist oric or historic times; consequently, Willeys conflation of Fort Walton and Pensacola was an almost inevitable consequence of this chronological perspective of the 1940s. At the time, the Mississippian period was condensed to a short time span of about 200 years. Fort Walton culture occurs in the early to late Mississipp ian; however, in Florida Pensacola occurs in the late Mississippian pe riod (Brose 1985:162). White (1985:174) suggests that the di fferences between Pensacola and Fort Walton pottery (shell-tempered versus grit-tempered) could be as a result of availability of resources. Pensacola site s that are on the coast would have relied more on shellfish, whereas Fort Walton sites that are located on the interior relied more on agriculture, probably due to obvious ecological reasons. Ho wever, interior and coastal sites maybe seasonal manifestations of th e same culture (White 1985:174 ). Yet another possibility, proposed by Marrinan and White (2007:294), is that Fort Walton people did not have a shortage of shell and may have purposely avoided using shell temper for technological reasons or to maintain a regi onal identity. The Fort Walton versus Pensacola dilemma is still unresolved and demonstrates the n eed for more rigorous research. The current definition of Fort Walton culture is based on a long trait list: 1. Occupations range from small to large, with large sites usually


5 contain ing a mound and adjacent plaza. 2. Mound centers are located on or near bodies of water and exhibit Mississippian architecture. 3. Mounds and/or village areas have evidence of structures. 4. Characteristic subsistence remains included maize, wild plants, and a wide variety of fauna, such as deer, fish, shellfish, turtle, and small mammals. 5. Coastal sites maybe small and seem to have relied more heavily on marine fauna. 6. Burials of elites are typically in terred in temple and/or burial mounds. 7. Many larger Fort Walton sites have other cultural components. 8. There are fewer ceremonial cente rs during the Fort Walton period (A.D.1000-1500), as compared with Woodland times. 9. Burial practices were not standardized as they were in the Woodland period. 10. There are significantly fewer chippedstone tools than in earlier or later periods. 11. There is also little evidence of defensive architecture as compared with other Mississippian sites. 12. Ceramic temper consists predominatel y of grit, but also some sand, and/or grog and excludes shell-tempered ceramics. 13. Most Fort Walton ceramic types share the same vessel forms and decorative motifs as Mississippian wa res (Marrinan and White 2007:292-293).


6 Fort Walton culture is confined geogr aphically between the Choctawhatchee Bay on the west and the Aucilla River on the east, but it also ex tends up the entirety of the Apalachicola River and approximately 50 miles up the Chattahoochee River. This includes most of northwestern Florida, and por tions of the interior of southern Alabama and Georgia (Marrinan and White 2007:294). The area around the C hoctawahatchee Bay is a transitional zone between Fort Walton and Pensacola culture, since sites in this area contain both Fort Walton and Pensacola-Seri es ceramics. Little is known about Fort Walton culture in Alabama and Georgia outsid e this valley; however, Blitz and Lorenz (2006) have made attempts to document Mississippian sites of this area. For the most part, archaeologists agree that Fort Walton culture is a conglomerate of Mississippian and Weeden Island influen ces, though it has been pos tulated that Fort Walton people invaded northwest Florida. Check-stamped pottery and maize agriculture were present during the Late Woodland peri od. Both continued during the early Fort Walton period, though check-stamped pottery ta pered off and agriculture intensified (Marrinan and White 2007:294-295). One of the main problems encountered while compiling information about Fort Walton burials was outdated information. As a result of Willeys influence, archaeologists before the 1960s labeled sites as Fort Walton even if they contained Pensacola ceramics. Since these sites were late r reclassified as Pens acola by Sears, it was necessary to verify which site s are actually Fort Walton based on the current definition, with the decisive factor being ceramic types. Furthermore, there are burials that contain a mixture of Fort Walton Series and Pensacola Series ceramics, thus I only classified


7 buria ls as Fort Walton if they were within the Fort Walton area. All of the mixed burial sites clustered around the Choctawhatchee Bay. These cultures are based on ceramic types, but ceramic types alone cannot define a culture. Such definitions have neglected to focus on the relationship between Pensacola and Fort Walton and their relationship to the greater Mississippian culture. To remedy this situation, I decided to compare all of the class ic Fort Walton burials to a sample of burials from the Rood Phase and Pensacola culture. These data are then compared to the burial practices exhibited at the largest Mississippi an sites of Etowah, Moundville, and Spiro. The goal is that these comparisons will result in a more holistic view of Fort Walton people in their cultural surroundings. To complicate matters further, the majori ty of the mortuary data are based on isolated burials or poorly executed excavat ions, such as those conducted by Moore a century ago, as well as others that are onl y minimally documented in the Florida Master Site File (FMSF). I compiled the locations of archaeological collections from all the sites that I discussed to aid in future studies, which may provide more valuable data (Table 1). Curation problems also hindered the process. Some of the field notes are missing from the sites that have little information in reports. There are two missing unpublished manuscripts, specifically on two different buria l sites. In addition, some sites did not yield much information about burials due to th e destruction of the s ites caused by natural processes and looting. One such case is that of the Curlee site, which had been looted and greatly affected by erosion. However, I wa s able to reexamine some of the skeletal remains from the Curlee site, which helped to add more information.


8 Table 1: Locations of A rchaeological Collections. Site Name Collection Location/Status Bear Point Lost Hickory Ridge skeletal remains were not collected Navy Liveoak Reservation Cemetery Site Gulf Islands National Naval Live Oaks Reservation Museum Eighteen Mile Point on Santa Rosa Sound Lost Cemochechobee University of Georgia, Athens? Aucilla Shores 10 Undetermined Bunker Cutoff Lost Cemetery Near Point Washington Lost Cemetery on Hogtown Bayou Lost Chambless Floridas Bureau of Archaeological Research Chattahoochee River #1 Florida Natural Museum of History? Chipola Cutoff Lost Cool Branch Site Smithsonian Instit ution Center Suitland, Maryland Cool Spring Mound Lost Corbin-Tucker Site University of South Florida Curlee Site Floridas Bureau of Archaeological Research and University South Florida Etowah University of West Georgia Fort Walton Temple Mound Floridas Bureau of Archaeological Research Garys Fish Pond Smithsonian Instit ution Center Suitland, Maryland Johnson Floridas Bureau of Archaeological Research Jolly Bay Undetermined Kenslinger-Sella rs Undetermined Lake Jackson Mound Floridas Bureau of Archaeological Research Marsh Island Lost Moundville Laboratory for Human Osteolog y at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa Rood's Landing Smithsonian Instit ution Center Suitland, Maryland Snow Beach Floridas Bureau of Archaeological Research Spiro Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History St. Marks Lookout Tower Undetermined The Last Caw Mound Floridas Bureau of Archaeological Research Waddell's Mill Pond Site Floridas Bureau of Archaeological Research Winewood Floridas Bureau of Archaeological Research Yon Mound and Village Floridas Bureau of Archaeological Research and University South Florida


9 I began this project for a bioarchaeo logy class I was taking with Dr. Erin Ki mmerle in the fall of 2006. Dr. Nancy White, my advisor, needed someone to reexamine the human skeletal remains from the Curlee Site (8Ja7), before the all of the artifacts and bones were returned from the Cl eveland Museum of Natural History to the Bureau of Archaeological Research Collections in Tallahassee. I compiled an inventory of all skeletal remains and when possible estimated sex, age, and pathology. The project then expanded into a comp ilation and comparison of all known Fort Walton burials.


10 CHAPTE R 2 REEXAMINATION OF SKELETAL RE MAINS FROM THE CURLEE SITE Background The Curlee Site (8Ja7) is an early Fort Walton cemetery and village along the upper Apalachicola River (White 1982). Ra diocarbon dating yielde d a date of 760 50 B.P. (DIC-1048), with a calibrated date range of A.D. 1216-1272 (2 ). The cemetery was destroyed but it did have several Mississippian primary burials. Construction of a dam along the river caused the erosion of much of the site. All of the bones were collected from the surface since they had washed out of their original graves as the site eroded away on the riverbank. In addition, gr ave goods were also collected, but it is not possible to know which artifacts were associated with skel etal remains. Many of the recovered skeletal remains from the site were collected by a resident of the area, Coleman Bevis, who allowed his collecti on to be studied. Other reside nts also had collections that were recorded. Excavations were conducte d in 1974 and 1975 by Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), in 1978 the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (CMNH), and White (1982) reported the results. Stephanie Belovich (1982: 340-345), a student at the tim e, conducted the original analysis of the skeletal remains uncovere d by archaeologists, from CWRU and CMNH, and from Beviss private collection. Both collections were poorly preserved due to erosion from soil abrasion and water to the peri osteal surfaces, as well as root growth and


11 rodent burrows. As a result, the analysis was constrained to taking an inventory, estim ating age and analyzing paleopathology. Osteology According to the report by Belovich ( 1982), metric analysis and sex estimation were not possible because of the fragmentary nature of the remains. However, my study shows that even with these conditions it is possible to do some metric analysis and sex estimation. Belovich based her age estimati ons on dental eruption and epiphyseal fusion. She determined the minimum number of individuals is twelve: four infants (0-3 years), two children (4-16 years), and six adults (25+ years). She observed four categories of pathological lesions: developmental, degenera tive, infectious, and traumatic. Observed pathology consisted of dental caries, abscesses, occlusal wear, osteophytosis, periostitis, and one case of trauma on a cranium. Howe ver, most bones were free of any pathology (Belovich 1982). Belovich did not examine the the Ingram collection in Chattahoochee, which contained some human remains from the Curlee site (White 1982:333). In this collection there were two or three skulls with moderate lambdoidal flattening and some longbones that exhibited evidence of trauma. The dental pathology and occlusal wear is not unexpected for people who were farming maize in a sandy area. The cons umption of large amounts of carbohydrates can lead to caries. And it is hi ghly probable that sand and gr it would get into the food and ultimately damage teeth. However, the unexpected large number of infants and children found might suggest that social statuses may have been ascribed from birth as well as achieved during life, a condition to be expected in a chiefdom with hereditary ranks or status, if these were high-status burials in the Curlee site cemeter y (White 1982:131). It


12 is im portant to note that it is not possible to determine the social status of infants and children based on this data due to the small sample size. Materials and Methods The skeletal remains and the rest of the cultural materials from the Curlee Site were curated at the CMNH for approximately 30 years. In 2005, the museum decided to return the materials to Florida since the ar tifacts were recovered from state land. Dr. White transported the boxes fr om Ohio and was granted permission to study the artifacts and bones at USF before returning them to the collections in Tallahass ee. This analysis was conducted on a very small portion of the 382 teeth and bones that Belovich examined. To be exact, there are only ten different human bones and teeth (15 fragments total) in the box labeled human bones am ong the ten boxes of materials from CMNH which were temporarily housed at USF from the Curlee Site (Table 2 and Figures 2-11). However, among the other bags of artifacts excavated and recovered from the surface by CMNH operations were seven di fferent bones (14 fragments total) that are probably human, but it is not definite because the fragments are so small and badly worn (Table 3 and Figures 12-18). The rest of the bone s examined by Belovich must have been returned to the collector or lost during curation for 30 years. For my osteological analysis, I followed the anthropological protocol, according to Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains, for metric measurements, description of morphology, estimating se x and age, and identifying pathology when possible (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994). Byerss (2005) stature equation was utilized for the ulna. Inventory was take n for all of the bones and teeth. A maxillary


13 suture closu re form was also completed to estimate the age for the palate (Mann et al. 1987; Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994). Table 2: Human Bones from Curlee Site in CMNH Collections to be Returned to Florida DHR BAR Collections. MNI 1 adult, 1 subadult Catalogue No. Bone Side Segment Completeness Wt (g) Ct Excavation Curation Damage Subadult 1 (5-7 yrs) 71-A-50 Ilium L -2 47.1 1 -(5-7 yrs) 71-A-108 Tooth-2nd Incisor L -1 0.4 1 -Adult 1 (30+ yrs) 71-A-41 Ilium L -3 4.9 1 -(20-40 yrs) 71-A-70 A Ulna R P1/3 1 28.9 5 present (20-40 yrs) 71-A-70 B Vertebra Lumbar L B 3 1.7 1 present (35+) 71-A-240 Palate I -1 10.9 2 present Additional Adult Remains 71-A-44 Vertebra Cervical (5th/6th) I B 1 3.9 1 present 71-A-220 Parietal R -3 8.1 1 present 71-A-187 Parietal R -1 80.3 1 present 71-A-45 Tooth-2nd Premolar R -1 0.5 1 present Key L=Left R=Right I=Indeterminate Completeness: 3= <25% present 2= 25% present 1= >75% present


Figure 2: L eft Ilium (71-A-41) from the Curlee Site. Figure 3: Right Parietal (71A-187) from the Curlee Site. 14


Figure 4: Right Parietal (71A-220) from the C urlee Site. Figure 5: Left Ilium (71-A-50) from the Curlee Site. 15


Figure 6: P alate (71-A-240) from the Curlee Site. Figure 7: Right 2nd Premolar (71-A-45) from the Curlee Site. 16


Figure 8: L eft 2nd Incisor (71-A-108) from the Curlee Site. Figure 9: Cervical Vertebra ( 71-A-44) from the Curlee Site. 17


Figure 10: Right Ulna (71-A70) A from the Curlee Site. Figure 11: Left Lumbar Vertebra ( 71-A-70) B from the Curlee Site. 18


Table 3: Probable Human Bones from Curlee Site from the Curlee Site. Catalogue Number Bone Completeness Weight(g) Count 71-A-11 ulna 3 0.4 1 71-A-13 radius 3 2.6 1 71-A-14 vertebra 3 0.6 2 71-A-16 cranium 3 3.5 1 71-A-17 cranium 3 0.4 1 71-A-132 cranium 3 5.0 5 71-A-200 femur 3 15.4 3 Figure 12: Proximal End of the Ulna (71-A-11) from the Curlee Site. Figure 13: Radius (71-A-13) from the Curlee Site. 19


Figure 14: Cranial Fragments (7 1-A-14) from the Curlee Site. Figure 15: Articular Surface of Thoracic Vertebra (71-A-16) from the Curlee Site. 20


Figure 16: Cranial Fragment (7 1-A-17) from the Curlee Site. Figure 17: Cranial Fragments (71A-132) from the Curlee Site. 21


Figure 18: Femoral Head (71-A200) from the Curlee Site. Results Table 2 is the inventory of all the known human bones. All the bones have a tan color all over the surface with traces of dirt, providing evidence of burial. As Belovich (1982) stated, the bones are poorly preserved an d greatly fragmented. It is obvious that all of the bones have been exposed to the el ements because of the degree of weathering on all of the bones caused by natu ral processes. Almost all damage was postmortem, probably due to the abrasive forces of soil and water, and root growth as they washed out of the cemetery. However, there is some m odern damage: excavation or curation damage with several of the bones (Table 2). Yuellig (2007:84) notes that ceramics from the Curlee site were used for educational purpos es at CMNH; it is po ssible that the bones were used the same way and damaged in the pr ocess. There is no evidence of any animal 22


23 tooth m arks, postmortem rituals, or cranial deformation. Sex was indeterminate for all of the remains. Figure 2 shows a left ilium with about a third of the acetabulum present. The bone cortex is eroded and cancel lous bone is exposed on most of it, with some porosity on the cortex, resulting from the natu ral aging process (30+ years). Figure 3 depicts a fairly complete right pa rietal with evidence of surface change caused by plant roots. The outer surface of the bone is differentially weathered due to natural processes; there are no ove rt pathological attr ibutes. It is from an adult, based on the size and morphology; however, it is not possible to give a narrow age range. A small fragment of a right parietal is specimen number 71-A-220 (Figure 4), but the size and morphology indicate that it is not a part of the individual represented by specimen 71-A-187, but is from an adult. The large fragment of a left ilium (Figure 5) consists of two pieces that have been glued together. The acetabulum and auricula r surface have been heavily weathered. It has a height of 84 mm and widt h of 103 mm. I estimate that the ilium is from a subadult 5 2 years, based on the size and morphology and the lack of fusion of the acetabulum. The adult palate (Figure 6) has extensiv e traces of surface change caused by plant roots. The incisors are missing for an unknown reason. The canines and premolars were lost postmortem and the first and sec ond molars were lost antemortem. However, 71-A-45, a permanent, right, second maxillary premolar (Figure 7), seems to articulate with the palate. Most likely these two do go together because the palate had lost the first molars antemortem There are no caries, calculus, or hypoplasia, but there is a significant amount of attrition to the occlusal surface. The mesial/distal


24 diam eter is 6.3 mm and buccal/lingual diameter is 8.2 mm. In addition, there is a large amount of wear on the side where the molar should have been, suggesting that the molar was missing antemortem and that this individu al used this tooth while in the mouth as a tool for unknown purpose. Furthermore, the sockets for the right second molar shows evidence for remodeling. Table 4 is the maxillary suture closure form that shows the amount of closure for each of the sutures. Only th e incisive, intermaxillary, and interpalatine sutures were present, but all were completely closed. Based on these results, I estimate that this individual wa s 35+ years old. Table 4: Age Estimation of 71-A-240 from Curlee Site. Final Age Estimation: 25-50+yr. Suture Closure Amount of Closure (0-3) Age (years) Incisive Suture (IN) *20-25 yr. 3 20-25 Intermaxillary Suture (AMP) *50+ yr. 3 50+ Palatomaxillary Suture (TP) Medial *40+ yr. Lateral *35+ yr. NA Interpalatine Suture (PMP) *25-30 yr. 3 25-30 Greater Palatine Foramen Suture *30-85 yr. NA *Approximate Age of Complete Closure Adult Age Determination: Maxillary Suture Closure (Mann et al 1987, Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994) Figure 8 shows a deciduous, left, second maxillary incisor. The mesial/distal diameter is 6.2 mm and buccal/lingual is 5.5 mm. This tooth has pits from caries on the mesial surface. There is quite a bit of wear on the occlusal surface of the tooth as well. The root is 3/4 formed, which corresponds to the average age for a female of 6.4 and 7.4 for a male; however the sex could not be estimated.


25 Figure 9 dep icts a cervical vertebra, either th e fifth or sixth. It is from an adult but the sex could not be estimated. Only the proximal 2/3 of the right ulna (F igure 10) is present and it is broken into two main pieces and three small pieces. It is estimated to be from a young adult 20-40 years old because there is no os teoarthritis. The muscle atta chments indicate robustness. The anteroposterior diameter is 153 mm, medi olateral diameter is 12.6 mm, and proximal breadth 20.6 mm. Because the ulna was not complete, an exact measurement of the maximum length is not possible; but, estimation is possible when compared to an ulna with a similar proximal 2/3. Using a simila r ulna, the maximum length is approximately 228.5 mm. Using Byerss statur e equation for white females, this person was 1.5 to 1.6 meters or about 5 foot to 5 foot 3 inches tall. Figure 11 represents a left piece of the interior articular su rface of a lumbar vertebra. It has no signs of os teoporosis, so this is probably a young adult (20-40 years). Summary Based on these data, the minimum number of individuals represented by the human bones from the Curlee site in the CM NH collection are one adult + years of age and one subadult 5-7 years old. The adult (20-40 years of age) was short (5 to 5) by modern standards based on the ulna, but was strong. The only apparent health problem appears to have been dental, possi bly from a gritty diet high in carbohydrates from maize. These results complement Bel ovichs (1982) study of the entire collection, in which she stated that the remains indicated that this population was healthy, but there were some issues, mainly dental caries.


26 These graves were probably accom panied by grave goods, though there is no definitive proof that artifacts were in the same context of the burials because all of the human remains from the Bevis collection had been removed by amateurs, and by the time excavations conducted by CWRU and CMNH to ok place, the skeletal remains had been eroded and exposed on the surface, along with th e artifacts. However, a summary of the different types of artifacts recovered from the site is necessary to gain a better understanding of people that occupied this village. Numerous ceramic vessels and fragments were recovered from the disturbed central part of the site where the burials were located. The ceramics were mostly of the Fort Walton Series, though there were some possible Late Woodland and Pensacola, including Fort Walton Incised, Marsh Island Incised, Washington Point Incised, Cool Branch Incised, Lake Jackson Plain and Incised, Wakulla Check-Stamped, Pensacola Plain and Incised (White 1982:110-111). Other artifacts discovered include many ceramic disks and clay daub. Collectors over the years found two clay elbow pipes and three greenstone celts. The excavations yielded very few chipped-stone tools (four Pinellas or Madison points, one biface, one uniface, and some chert cores and flakes) (White 1982: 116-125). Greenstone celts are high-status items and may have been part of elite buria ls. At some other Fort Walton sites, highstatus individuals were buri ed with greenstone celts and additional exotic items. To determine burial patterns, all of the Fort Wa lton burials must be examined and compared, for both elite and lower-class buri als alike, though apparently few of the latter exist, as judged by the presence or absence of valuable mortuary offerings.


27 CHAPTE R 3 FORT WALTON BURIAL DATA Introduction In addition to the Curlee Site, I have identified all of the known Fort Walton burial sites to resolve how Fort Walton peoples cared for their deceased. All of these sites are in Florida, though th is does not mean there are not more burials in Alabama and Georgia which have been poorly documented. Unfortunately, not all of the skeletal remains from these sites have been analyzed or properly report ed. In addition, the analyses of these sites were hindered in se veral cases due to the poor preservation of the bones caused by natural processe s and looting. Most of th e sites definitely contain burials that are Fort Walton; however, due to the problems with analysis, reporting and preservation, there are some cases which cultur al affiliation of burials cannot be clearly shown to be from the Fort Walton component at the site. Willey (1949:456) was the first to note that the burial practices among the Fort Walton culture are inconsistent, unlike t hose from the Woodland period, Santa RosaSwift Creek or Weeden Island, although he did not study the burial pr actices in detail. He remarks that burials were known to be found in cemeteries, temple mounds and burials mounds, and that some of these buria ls were placed in earlier mounds from the Weeden Island period. However, it is crucial to compile all of the burial data to look for possible patterns, not simply to mention the burial types of a few know n burials as Willey


28 did. This is especially important when c onsidering that W illey combined Fort Walton and Pensacola sites and these two cu ltures are now differentiated. Therefore, I combed the literature fo r all published sources on Fort Walton burials, as well as some unpublished sources, and utilized the FMSF for sites that had little to no known published data I compiled all of the avai lable data and attempted to ascertain any patterns in the burial customs. I separated the mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola burial sites near the Choctawhatchee Bay from the classic Fort Walton sites for comparison purposes and present the data in a different section. The mixed sites contain both Fort Walton and Pensacola ceramics only around the Choctawhatchee Bay, where Fort Walton and Pensacola cultures overlap in space. There are a total of 22 Fort Walton burial sites; 15 of which are classic Fort Wa lton and 7 are mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola. The sites are presented in alphabetic order by county and then numerically by site number (Table 5). All of the burial sites are shown on Figure 19. Table 5: Classic Fort Walton and Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola Burial Sites. Classic Fort Walton Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola Site No. Site Name Site No. Site Name 8By194 Kenslinger-Sellars 8Ok6 Fort Walton Temple Mound 8Ca142 Corbin-Tucker Site 8Ok35 Chambless 8Fr19 Cool Spring Mound 8Wl9 Cemetery on Hogtown Bayou 8Gu5 Chipola Cutoff 8Wl15 Jolly Bay 8Ja7 Curlee Site 8Wl16 Cemetery Near Point Washington 8Ja8/J-5 Chattahoochee River #1 8Wl21 Bunker Cutoff 8Ja65 Waddell's Mill Pond Site 8Wl30 Johnson 8Je622 Aucilla Shores 10 8Je977 The Last Caw Mound 8Le1 Lake Jackson Mound 8Le164 Winewood 8Li2 Yon Mound and Village 8Wa1 Marsh Island 8Wa15 St. Marks Lookout Tower 8Wa52 Snow Beach


Figure 19: Map of Fort Walton, P ensacol a, and Rood Burial Site Locations. Classic Fort Walton Burial Sites 8By194/Kenslinger-Sellars The only available information about Kenslinge r-Sellars is on file with the FMSF. Haisten and Haisten (1983) did not provide much detailed information about the burial, such as sex, age, interment type, and orie ntation. Table 6 summ arizes the available mortuary data. This site consists of a small burial mound which was reported as culturally affiliated with Swift Creek, Weed en Island, and Fort Walton cultures. The excavation yielded a broken projectile point a thick piece of mica, three celts, 15 whole pots, 10 partial pots and 3000 potsherds, and two shell drinking cups. However, the FMSF did not state the cultural affiliations of these ceramics. There was one burial which consisted of a skull only. The record er of the form was not present when the 29


30 cranium was removed, but the man who removed it claimed that there was a conch shell lodged in the cranium. Also there we re about 20 broken bones recovered among complicated stamped (Swift Creek) and plai n sherds. Weeden Island ceramics were found with kill holes and sheet mica wa s found with bundle buria ls (Haisten and Haisten 1983). It is unclear if any of these burials are Fo rt Walton due to the lack of information about the plain sherd associated with the 20 broken bones and the lack of context with the skull. Table 6: Kenslinger-Sellars Mortuary Data (Haisten and Haisten 1983). Burial Type Artifacts skull-only conch shell 20 fragmented bones Swift Creek sherds unknown number of bundle burials Weeden Island sherds and sheet mica 8Ca142/Corbin-Tucker Site Corbin-Tucker site is a Fort Walton vill age which contains a cemetery. It was test-excavated by USF in 1988 and 1990. The t ype of mortuary artifacts indicates that Corbin-Tucker Site is a high-status cemetery, including greenstone celts, six-pointed vessels, a large shell cup, and copper disks (White 1994: 196). The highest status individual was buried with a celt under the chin and a coppe r disk on the forehead, and a second celt was found with a cluster of teeth from a subadult (White 1994:171 and 191). Elan Marsh, with the help of Dr. Erin Ki mmerle and two of her graduate students, Cristina Echazabal and Rafael Guerra, reexamin ed the skeletal remains from the site for Marshs undergraduate honors thesis. She conc luded that the previous assessment of the remains was correct and added more informa tion. The minimum number of individuals represented in this cemetery is twelve, of which there are at least four adults and one


31 subadult. T he remains of 6 indi viduals are associated with a Busycon shell cup and a ceramic mushroom-shaped object, probably utilized to smooth pottery, and a second greenstone celt. Long bone fragments from one individual, interred with the shell cup, were AMS-dated to A.D. 380 40 (Beta-217850) with a calibrated date range of A.D. 1440-1640 (2 ). An adult female, lying on her right side facing north was buried with a foot-long, five-pound greenstone cel t under her chin and a copper disk on her forehead. Teeth of at least 4 other indi viduals were associated with her, including a canine from a child between 3-10 years old near her cranium. Fort Walton series ceramics, including those from a six-pointed bowl, accompanied th ese burials. A second AMS date of A.D. 180 40 (Beta-213055) with a calibrate d date range of A.D. 1650-1880 (2 ) produced from a different long bone, indicates the cem etery, not to mention Fort Walton culture, continued into the Mission and possibly pos t-mission period (Du Vernay et al 2007; Marsh 2006:22). Table 7 summarizes the limite d data for the Corbin-Tucker site. Table 7: Corbin-Tucker Mortuary Data (White 1994; Du Vernay et al. 2007; Marsh 2006). MNI Age Sex Artifacts 4 adults 1 female, 3 unknown 12 3-10 yrs ? greenstone celts, copper disk, FW ceramics pt bowl, Busycon shell cup, ceramic tool 8Fr19/Cool Spring Mound This burial mound was orig inally excavated by Moor e (1902:216), who did not provide much detailed information; such is th e case with many of the sites he excavated. At the base of the mound and two or thr ee feet above it, Moore (1902:216) discovered burials consisting of trunks of skeletons extended on the back with thighs and legs


32 som etimes drawn up against the body or draw n up at right angles to the trunk, or extended laterally. The only artifacts accompa nying the graves are a piece of mica and a chert lance-head. Moore does not give the number of these flexed and extended burials nor does he give much of a description of th e artifacts, which hinders cultural time period assessment (Table 8). The reason this site is in cluded in this thesis is its proximity to the Fort Walton part of the Pierce site, 8Fr14, which has a temple mound approximately 350 meters west of Cool Spring Mound. Table 8: Cool Spring Mound Burial Data (Moore 1902). Burial Type Artifacts flexed and extended mica and chert lance-head 8Gu5/Chipola Cutoff Moore (1903:446-466) excavated 42 burials from the mound at Chipola Cutoff. Unfortunately he only discusses seven of 42 th e burials (Table 9). The interment types included flexed, bundle, bowl-over skull, and skull-only burials. Cranial deformation was not observed. There were numerous artif acts with these burials including several earthenware vessels (one inverted over a skull) shell chisels, shell beads, hematite, celts, 2 hones, chert flakes, 1 glass bead, bone awls, fish hooks, brass disks, shell hair pins, and columellae. The ceramic types included Fort Walton Incised, Point Washington Incised, Lake Jackson Plain, St. Petersburg Incise d, Pensacola Incised, Weeden Island Incised, Weeden Island Plain, and Swift Creek Complicated Stamped; however, the majority of the vessels are from the Fort Walton Series (Willey 1949:254-256).


33 Table 9: Burial Data from Chipola Cutoff (Moore 1903). Burial No. Burial Type Artifacts 15 bundle 2 columellae, 2 shell hair pins, mussel shells, 1 celt, shell beads, 2 shell chisels, 2 shell gouges, 4 deer bones, and bone fish hook 19 few fragments of bone in a pit 2 pots, disk of sheet-brass, and 3 glass beads 25 few bones shell beads and celt 30 2 skulls Busycon shell 32 few bones circular sheet-brass ornament 41 bundle in a pit 1 Pt Washington Inc. pot, 1 unknown pot 42 child skull undecorated disk sheet-brass Based on the ceramic types, there must be a Woodland component as well as Fort Walton in this mound. In addition, the one vessel Moore (1903) recorded as being immediately over a skull is similar to the protohistoric/early histor ic Burial Urn or Alabama River Phase to the west, dated to circa A.D. 1500-1700 (Sheldon 1974; Walthal 1980:257-62; Curren 1984). Furthermore, the gl ass beads and sheet-brass disks date the Fort Walton component of the site to post-cont act. The brass disks were Spanish artifacts that had been traded with the natives and were worn as neck/chest ornaments (White 2004). Waselkov (1989:124) classifies the bra ss disk from burial 19 as a variety that dates to approximately A.D. 1630-1700. 8Ja8/J-5/Chattahoochee River #1 In 1953, Ripley Bullen excavated this Fort Walton village and uncovered two burials. Both individuals had been placed in separate pits (Table 10). The first burial contained cranial fragments and seven plai n Fort Walton sherds. The second was a bundle burial that included the cranium and long bones, along with a deer tooth, two chert flakes, charcoal, six Fort Walton Inci sed and 22 plain Fort Walton sherds. Both individuals were adolescents, probably in their late teens (Bu llen 1958:345). Radiocarbon


34 dating from a charcoal sample uncovered from the Fort Walton occupation at this site, yielded a date of A.D. 1400 200 years (M392). The calibrated date range of A.D. 1317 to 1467 (2 ) clearly places this occupation in the middle to late Fort Walton, possibly even post-contact (Marrinan and White 2007). Table 10: Chattahoochee River #1 Burial Data (Bullen 1958). Burial Type Age Artifacts skull-only adolescent 7 plain FW sherds bundle adolescent deer tooth, 2 chert flakes, charcoal, 6 FW Incised and 22 plain FW sherds 8Ja65/Waddell's Mill Pond Site This is a Fort Walton site that has tw o mounds, a possible pali saded village, and cave. There is also a large Middle Woodl and (Swift-Creek-Early Weeden Island) component. Only one burial was located in a midden in a cave. It was primary and semiflexed. It was identified as the remains of an adolescent female. There was evidence of occipital flattening. The burial was laid on the right side with the cranium oriented to the west. No artifacts were associated with this burial (Gardner 1966:55-56). Tesar is currently working on compiling a report on B. Calvin Joness 1973-74 investigation. There are at least two more bur ials that are clearly Fort Wa lton. Burials 1 and 2 are both extended adults excavated from a mound. Burial 1 had no bu rial goods, but Burial 2 was interred with shell beads around the cranium. Bu rials 1 and 2 were in grave pits that had been laid on a palette on top of logs on the bottom of the p it (Tesar 2008). All of the burial data are summarized in Table 11.


35 Table 11: Waddells Mill Pond Site Burial Data (Gardn er 1966; Tesar 2008). Burial Type Age Sex Cranial Modification Artifacts semiflexed adolescent female present none extended adult ? absent none extended adult ? absent shell beads 8Je622/Aucilla Shores 10 The FMSF is the only source of information that could be found for this site. Jones mentions on the site form that ther e was an unpublished document written by D.L. von Burger in 1986 titled, The Aucilla River Survey ; however, I was unable to locate this document. Aucilla Shores 10 site functioned as a campsite, farmstead, and extractive site. The only other information given about Aucilla Shores 10 is that there were Fort Walton bundle burials, and the artifacts incl uded lithics and Lake Jackson and Fort Walton pottery (Table 12) (Jones 1989). Table 12: Aucilla Shores 10 Burial Data (Jones 1989). Burial Type Artifacts bundle lithics and Lake Jackson and Fort Walton ceramics 8Je977/The Last Caw Mound The Last Caw site is located on the wester n sloughs of the Wacissa River. The site form obtained from the FMSF has very little information on this site. The Last Caw Mound was said to have functioned probably as a prehistoric hab itation, burial site, quarry, lithic workshop, and activity area (M emory and Stanton 1998). The Last Caw site does have a Fort Walton component; however, the form does not specify if the


36 prehistoric burials are Fort W alton. Human remains were observed but not collected from the burial mound and no other information was given about the bu rials. There were 28 artifacts, including ceramics (Deptford Plain, Deptford Bold Check Stamped, Lake Jackson Incised, and unidentified plain sand temper ed pottery), and lithic artifacts (flakes, a scrapper, and a bifacial t ool) (Memory and Stanton 1998). Table 13 lists the different types of artifacts that were excavated. Table 13: Last Caw Mound Artifa cts (Memory and Stanton 1998). Artifacts CeramicsDeptford Plain, Deptford Bold Check Stamped, Lake Jackson Incised Lithicsflakes, scrapper, bifacial tool 8Le1/Lake Jackson Mound The Lake Jackson site functioned as a ma jor ceremonial center in the Southeast. Because of its exotic high-status grave goods in the style of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC), it is affiliated with other large Mississippian chiefdom centers, such as Moundville (Alabama), Etowah (Georgia), and Spiro (Oklahoma), circa A.D. 1250-1500 (Jones 1982:21,1994:121). Lake Jacksons ceremoni al complex consisted of six mounds, covering 66 acres. The largest mound was 25 f eet high with a ramp. The mounds were built over several hundred years, with residential occupation near by. Calvin Jones excavated one of these mounds and discovered seve ral layers of clay th at served as floors of successive structures built on top of the mound (Jones 1982 and 1994). Chiefs and other elites, sacrificial victim s, and trophy skulls were interred in Mound 3 at the Lake Jackson site. The tombs of 24 individuals were found in the floors of the structure (Table 14). Most of the skeletal remain s were from young to middle-age


37 adults, but there was at least one child interred and also a dog burial (Jones 1982:10-11, 14). All of the interm ents were single buria ls, which greatly varied in orientation and position, from upper and lower floor levels. Fi ve of the nine lower-level burials were oriented northwest, two were northeast, and two were southeast. Nine of the 12 upperfloor level burials were orient ed southwest, two were north west, and one was northeast. For the lower levels, five were extended and f our were either flexed or semi-flexed. But for the upper levels, only four were extended and six were semi-flexed or flexed, mostly on the left side or back (Jones 1982:11). Table 14: Lake Jackson Mortuary Data (Jones 1982 and 1994). Interment Type Age Sex Orientation Artifacts extended, flexed, semiflexed, wooden litter mostly youngmiddle age adults, 1 child mostly males, 2 females, and 1 possible female northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest, fabrics, textiles, copper plates, galena, mica, steatite, graphite, anthracite, and greenstone, shell necklaces, pearls, shark teeth, pottery, bone hairpins, pipes, red ocher The oval or rectangular pits were six f eet deep, covered by split logs. Fragments of woven mats, cloth, and leat her clothing were preserved be cause of the presence of copper. One individual was buried with a woode n litter. These elite s were covered with a layer of clothing and another layer of woven mats, and a final layer of leather. Copper plates were wrapped in cloth and then placed on top of the covered body. Other opulent artifacts accompanied these burials, made of ra w materials such as ga lena, mica, steatite, graphite, anthracite, and greenst one, none of which are native to Florida. Other native objects that affirm the prestige and wealth of these individuals are shell necklaces, pearl


38 beads, shark teeth, bone hairpins, and potter y. Artifacts discovered in Mound 3 included T-shaped steatite pipes, fired-clay elbow pi pes, a clay lizard effigy pipe, a lim estone bowl, a paint palette with re d ochre, a shark jaw knife, a nd stone axes (Jones 1982:11-13, 1994:128-139). Copper is rare at Fort Walton sites; ho wever, extravagant copper artifacts were unearthed at Lake Jackson. The most resple ndent copper artifacts are four sheet copper repouss plates found in association with three different burials from Mound 3. Two plates decorated with bird-dancers were disc overed in two different graves. The other two were found in a grave stacked together: one was decorated with a bird-dancer and the other a falcon, both were stylis tically similar to designs on pl ates from Etowah and Spiro. Other copper artifacts were excavated such as other plates of different forms (oval, circular edge-embossed, five-edged embossed, et c.), headdress spangles, hair ornaments, and pendants. The copper breastplates recovered from Mound 3 were carved to represent dancers in bird costumes, who were either reve red ancestors or supernat ural beings. It is possible that these copper plates were produced in specialized workshops from sites to the north and were traded with the elite Fort Walton people (Jones 1982:15-18, 1994:128130). The burial patterns at Lake Jackson are uncommon for a Mississippian culture so they must represent the most elite people. Two of the individuals who are buried with copper breastplates are definitely older females. Storey (2005) identified the third individual as male, but states that Hutchis on and Larsen classified it as female. One female was interred with a copper plate of a dancer wearing moccasins, a beaded belt, an apron, a shell necklace, and a feathered cape. The dancer carries a mace, as a symbol of


39 authority, and a severed head (Marrinan a nd W hite 2007:309). The figure resembles the Long-Nosed God found frequently in Mississippia n artwork in the Southeast. One of the other copper plates represents an elder-bird person, which might have been a worshiped ancestor. He or she is wearing a feather head dress and the wings of the cloak are closed. The third probable female was buried with a breastplate depicting a raptor, usually only identified with men. It is interesting to not e that all of the breastplates were probably heirlooms, suggested by the obvious mending. It is possible that these symbols of leadership were retired after death of the leader (Marrinan and White 2007:309). 8Le164/Winewood Located in the Tallahassee area, Winewood is a small outlying village that is thought to have served the ceremonial site of Lafayette Mound, about four miles away. Eight of eleven observed features were either partially or fully excavated, some of which contained burials (Jones and Pe nman 1973:67). All of the buri als from this site were poorly preserved due to the acidic soil (Table 15). Two burials were a part of F eature 2 that was also utilized as a fire and trash pit. The remains were of two adults side by side, semi-flexed, and oriented to the northeast. No artifacts were observed with these burials, although they we re not fully excavated. Feature 3 was a trash and fire pit, which contained a small human cranial fragment found in association with a cache of Fort Walton ve ssels, including Lake Jackson Incised, Fort Walton Incised, and Safety Harbor Incised. Feature 4 was yet another trash pit that contained a burial. The fragme ntary remains of a human tibia from either a juvenile or adult were found in association with a Lake Jackson Incised bowl, a clay elbow pipe, 59 sherds, and one chert spall (Jones and Penman 1973:69). Features 5-7 were partially-


40 excavated extended burial pits. Not much in form ation was provided in the report other than that no burial goods were observed with these three burials (Jones and Penman 1973:72). Jones and Penman (1973:86) conclu ded by suggesting that Features 2-4 had been used prior to burial for trash dumpi ng and cooking. However, they also make the argument that in Feature 2 and 3 the placement of the charcoal lenses could also be caused by raking ashes by the interment or cerem onial fires. Due to the absence of such lenses in Feature 5-7, Jones and Penman (1973: 86) assert that perv ious cooking and trash is more realistic. However, this site has no radiocarbon dates and th ere is a possibility that some or all of the burials were from the Mission period and intruded upon or continued a post-contact Fort Walton occupation. The reason for considering them as possible mission burials is that they are laid out in parallel rows similar to burials in church cemeteries (Marrinan and White 2007:308). Table 15: Burial Data from Wi newood (Jones and Penman 1973). Feature No. Burial Type Age Orientation Artifacts 2 semi-flexed 2 adults northeast none 3 cranial fragment ? ? cache FW vessels 4 juvenile or adult ? Lake Jackson Incised bowl, elbow pipe, 1 chert spall 5-7 extended ? ? none 8Li2/Yon Mound and Village Moore (1903:473) was the first to excavate this site and found burials at the top and base of the mound. Regrettably, Moore di d not provide the number of burials or any other details about them. In 1995, the USF crew also found the remains of an extended


41 adult burial in the platform m ounds lower slope (Table 16). A greenstone celt was found inside the arm of the skeleton, and another greenstone celt was found directly above this burial although it is one stratum above it and appears to ha ve been thrown onto the top of the burial pit (White 1996:12-13). Charcoal was found in association with this burial. A curved line of charcoal ran al ong the left side of the skelet al remains; it could represent the remains of a wooden artifact or fabr ic. Two AMS dates were obtained on this charcoal: 990 60 B.P. (Beta-91164), with a range from A.D. 1010-1225; and 930 50 B.P. (Beta-91165) with a calibrated date range of A.D. 970-1195. Charcoal from the lowest stratum of the mound was dated to 820 50 B.P. (Beta-91844) with the calibrated date range of A.D. 1065-1285 (White 1996:10). This date is counterintuitive because it indicates that the building of the mound began 200 years after the burial, but the stratigraphy clearly shows that the burial intruded into the existing mound. The given explanation is that the charco al from around the skeletal rema ins came from an heirloom wooden artifact (Du Vernay et al. 2007). Table 16: Yon Mound and Village Burial Da ta (Du Vernay et al. 2007; White 1996). Burial Type Age Artifacts extended adult a greenstone celt and charcoal 8Wa1/Marsh Island Marsh Island is an oblong mound with round ed corners. There are two groups of burials within the mound. Seven burials, some of which contain more than one skeleton, were from the upper portion of the mound a nd approximately 100 burials were in the lower portion. The burials from the upper portion are intrusive, dati ng to the Fort Walton period, but the lower portion burials are Weeden Island. In these seven intrusive graves,


42 five contained m ore than one individual (Tab le 17). The interment type represented was secondary: mass burials consisting of skulls a nd long bones, as well as skull-only burials and cremation. Burial No. 91 consists of a skul l buried with an infant inside an urn; in addition, this is the only burial that cont ained any pottery: two Marsh Island Incised vessels. Burial No. 104 showed signs of pa rtial calcination of bones, indicating the possibility of cremation. The only native artifacts were shell pins, shell beads, and pottery vessels. The majority of the other artifacts were of European origin: tubular glass beads, sleigh bells, scissors, iron tools or weapons, glass beads, and brass bracelets, showing this to be a post-contact, even mi ssion-period site. There was a single discodial stone with two concave sides that was not in association with any particular burial, but was found in the upper portion where the Fort Walton burials were located. It is interesting to note that most of the crania had fronto-occipital deformation (Moore 1902: 274-281; Willey 1949:286-288). Table 17: Burial Data from Mars h Island (Moore 1902; Willey 1949). Burial No. Interment Type Artifacts Cranial Deformation 61 skull only unknown present 70 4 skulls and long bones scissors, iron and steel tools or weapons, glass beads, 1 shell bead, 1 copper or brass sleigh bell, and 11 tubular brass beads undetermined, badly crushed 85 7 skulls and 18 femurs and other bones 1 glass bead present 91 1 skull and urn with infant 2 Marsh Island Incised vessels absent 92 7 skulls and other bones iron and steel articles 6 present, 1 undetermined, badly crushed 104 some burnt and calcined bones, cremation none 1 present and 2 undetermined, badly crushed 105 11 skulls and other bones 3 copper or brass sleigh bells, iron or steel artifacts, and 3 shell hair pins 6 present, 5 undetermined, badly crushed


43 8Wa15/St. Marks Lookout Tow er The FMSF does not record for this site the number of burials or individuals because of the destruction caused by looters. The mound at St. Marks Lookout Tower contained a few flexed, but mostly extended bur ials (Table 18). Most of the burials contained the bones of infants and children. Shell beads, pipe bowl or toy pots, and copper ornaments were identified as being bur ied with children. Also, a copper ornament was buried with an infant. Traces of red ochre were found among two of the burials. Numerous artifacts were buried with human remains at these site including: fresh water mussel shell, Fort Walton Incised vessels, ch eck-stamped sherds, celts, an axe, polished stone discoidals, an iron knife stone pendants, copper orname nts, an incised elbow pipe, a shell disk, worked shell, beads (glass, shell, gold, silv er, and copper), unknown stone artifacts, a Spanish trade bell, ear plugs (gold, silver, and copper), and projectile points (Goggin 1947:273-276; FDAHRM n .d.). Griffin (1947:183) mentions an unpublished manuscript describing the earlier excavations of this site and the burials written by William W. Kay; unfortunately, I was not able to locate this item. Table 18: St. Marks Lookout Tower (Goggin 1947; FDAHRM n.d.). Burial Type Age Artifacts flexed and extended mostly infants and children beads (shell, glass, gold, silver, and copper), shell disk, a Spanish trade bell, ear plugs (gold, silver, and copper), projectile points, iron knife, stone pendants, copper ornaments, a incised elbow pipe, red oc her, stone discoidals, an axe, celts, and FW Incised ceramics


44 8Wa52/Snow Beach Snow Beach is a conical burial mound s ituated on top of a large Swift Creek midden in Wakulla County, Florida. It was originally excavated by David Phelps in 1967 and 1968 (Magoon et al. 2001). This burial mound represents hist oric, seventeenth century Fort Walton people, as indicated by the presence of European artifacts. Excavations unearthed seven burials of eight individuals (Table 19). Magoon et al.s (200119-20) burial analysis determined that th ere were at least two adult females from the ages of 15-21 years and 40-55 years and one male age 25-35 years. Sex could not be estimated for the remainder, but it was possible to estimate the age, except for the first burial which had been completely looted. The only multiple interment contained the remains of an extended adult (at least 17 years old) and disarticulated bones of a subadult (3-5 years old). The other tw o single interments consisted of an adult or older subadult and an individual age 15-21 years (Magoon et al. 2001:20). All of the burials were primary, with 86 percent in the extended supi ne position and 14 percen t were flexed. The orientation also varied, with 67 percent as northwest, 17 percent southwest, and 17 percent northeast. Mortuary artifacts accompanied 43 percent of the burials (Klingle 2006:260). The presence of high-status bur ial goods, including copper jewelry, glass beads, and red ocher, indicates that this wa s an elite group. The presence of glass beads is also important, again because it indicates the persistence of Fort Walton culture after European contact. Furthermore, fronto-occipi tal cranial deformation was observed in all of the crania (Magoon et al. 2001:19-20).


45 Table 19: Snow Beach Mortuary Data (Magoon et al. 200 1; Klingle 2006). No. of Individuals Burial Type Age Sex Orient. Cranial Modification Artifacts 8 extended, flexed, multiple, disarticulated 6 adults (15-21, 40-55, 2535, 17+, 15-21) 1 subadult (3-5) 2 females, 1 male ne, nw, sw observed in all crania copper jewelry, glass beads and red ocher Mixed Fort Walton/Pens acola Burial Sites The sites around the Choctawhatchee Bay are considered mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola sites due to the blending of both cultures in the area as evidenced by the presence of both Fort Walt on-series and Pensacola-series ceramics (Figure 19). Pure Pensacola sites are not discussed in th is chapter, but in Chapter 4. 8Ok6/Fort Walton Temple Mound One of the largest mound and village si tes in northwest Florida and the most famous is the Fort Walton Temple Mound. Ironically, the Fort Walton Temple Mound was originally designated as the type site for Fort Walton culture. Now the site is considered a Pensacola site because most of the ceramics are from the Pensacola-series shell-tempered but the site is located inside of the Fort Walton ar ea in the transitional area around Choctawhatchee Bay. The temple mound is a flat-topped recta ngular mound. Moore (1901) was one of the first to conduct extensive excavations at the site, and uncovere d 66 burials, all of which were intrusive into the mound, both primary (extended) and secondary burials (skull-only and bundle burials). In addition, caches of broke n pottery were discovered not in association with burials (Moore 1901:435-454, Willey 1949:72-88). Willey (1949: 213-214) identified the i llustrated ceramics from Moore s (1901) report and classified


46 them as the following types: Fort Walton Incised, Point Washington Incised, Pensacola Incised and Plain, and Moundville Engraved. There is also one instance of St. Andrews Complicated Stamped, which suggests an Early/Middle Woodland component. The mixture of Pensacola and Fort Walton Series ceramics makes it diffi cult to handle these mixed sites within the current definition of Fort Walton culture. Yet again, Moore (1901: 435-454) does not provide a thorough description of the burials but he does discuss the vessels in depth, some of which were in association with burials (Table 20). Table 20: Burial Data from Fort Walton Temple Mound (Moore 1901; Willey 1949). Vessel No. Burial Type Age Mortuary Artifacts 1 unknown ? Fort Walton Incised vase 2 Fort Walton Incised bowl over skull child 2 hair pins, projectile pt 4 skull-only ? vessel, 5 projectile pts 5 dish over phalanges ? Pt Washington Incised dish 6 bowl over skull ? Moundville Engraved bowl 8 bundle burial ? Pensacola Incised bowl 9 bowl over unknown bone ? Pensacola Incised bowl 11 bowl over 2 skulls (adult &adol.) & vertebrae & clavicle (child) adult, adolescent, child Pensacola Incised bowl 14-16 3 vessels over skull infant blackware dish, Fort Walton Incised dish, unknown vessel 19-20 fragments btw 2 bowls child blackware dish, Fort Walton Incised bowl 21 unknown ? 4 knobbed bowl 22 bowl over skull & other bones ? vessel fragment 24 bowl over skull infant Fort Walton Incised bowl 27 unknown ? Pensacola Incised bowl 28 bowl over bone fragments ? bowl 29 bowl over bones infant, child numerous shell beads 31 bowl over skull adult bowl 39 ceramic fragments over bones infant ceramic fragments, shell beads 41 bowl over long bones young adult bowl 42 skull only child Pensacola Incised double cup 44 unknown infant vessel 45 bowl over skull infant or child bowl 46 skull only child Pensacola Incised bowl 47 pot over skull infant pot w/ 2 handles, 3 mussel shells In 1960, Fairbanks (1965) further excavated parts of the Fort Walton Temple Mound to understand the st ratigraphy and constructi on of the mound. Based on


47 ceram ics, Fairbanks (1960:243) dated this site from A.D. 1500 to 1650. The presence of Deptford ceramics also revealed that ther e was an Early Woodland component to this site. The excavation yielded 13 burials with at least 17 indivi duals (Table 21). Burials 1, 2, 4, and 10 were located in a pit--Feature 9. The burials appeared to be disturbed due to the clutter of bones; however, th ere were a few vertebrae in an atomical order. Only one individual was mentioned among these four buria ls: the skull was identified as a mature male. The fragmentary condition of the other bones must have made it difficult to discern sex and age. These bur ials contained artifacts: a mini ature Pensacola Incised pot, two shell beads, an awl, and two projectile points. Burials 3, 5, and 6 were found very close to one another, probably buried together at the same time. Burial 3 consisted of tibiae and fibulae probably from an adult in an extended position, but no burial goods (Fairbanks 1965:245-246). Burial 5 contain only pelvis and leg bones from an adult, possibly a male. There were some funerary ar tifacts with Burial 5 including shell beads, worked shell, and sherds from two Pensacola In cised pots. Burial 6 was also an extended burial of an adult buried directly below Burial 5, without gr ave goods. Burial 7 was close to Burials 3, 5, and 6 but south of them. This burial contained the remains of a sevenyear-old child. The bones were scattered but it was determined that the child was extended on the back with the legs flexed to the left. At the right shoulder, there was a mass of resin, which could be a form of copal, incense used in Mesoamerica, or a similar resin from the local sweetgum tree (Fairba nks 1965:247). In addition, there were over 300 shell beads and three shell pins. Burials 8 and 9 were either infants or small children and were badly disturbed; neither of them contained any burial goods, but it was determined that Burial 8 was flexed. Buri al 11 was also of an infant without any


48 artifacts. B urial 12 contained at least two indi viduals with at least one adult. There were numerous artifacts interr ed: shell beads, a shell hair pin, worked shells, a bone needle, awls, yellow ochre, and an Archaic project ile point. Burial 13 did not contain any artifacts, but was composed of a few skull fragments, vertebrae, and a hand. Mostly multiple burials were encountered during this excavation, frequently with bodies directly on top of each other (Fairbanks 1965:248-249). Table 21: Burial Data from Fairbankss (1965) Excavation at the Fort Walton Temple Mound. Burial No. Burial Type Age Sex Burial Goods 1,2,4,10 multiple, mostly disarticulated 1 mature adult 1 male 1 mini Pensacola Incised pot, 2 shell beads, 1 awl, 2 projectile points 3 extended 1 adult ? none 5 ? 1 adult possible male shell beads, worked shell, Pensacola Incised sherds 6 extended 1 adult ? none 7 semi-flexed child ? resin, 300 shell beads, 3 shell pins 8 flexed subadult ? none 9 ? subadult ? none 11 ? infant ? none 12 multiple at least 1 adult ? shell beads, shell hair pin, worked shell, bone needle, awls, yellow ochre, Archaic projectile point 13 ? ? ? none DePauw University conducted testing in 1973 to obtain more information about the temple mound. During the course of thei r testing, they uncovered an articulated human skeleton (Table 22). The remains we re extended on the back oriented northwest to southeast, with the arms at the side and the cranium oriented to the northwest. No burial goods were found in associ ation with this individual. Examination of the bones revealed that it was a female 40-50 years of age possibly with cranial deformation from cradleboarding (Lazarus and Fornaro1975:166).


49 Table 22: Skeletal Inform ation from DePauw Universitys excavation at Fort Walton Temple Mound (Lazarus and Fornaro 1975). Burial Type Age Sex Artifacts Cranial Deformation extended 40-50 female none present 8Ok35/Chambless The Chambless site is a very small cemete ry, located near Choctawhatchee Bay in Okaloosa County. This site contained 11 broken and 10 whol e Fort Walton-type ceramic vessels, projectile points, she ll beads, shell hair pins, Busycon shell celts, chunky stones, and two ear plugs. What makes this cemeter y unusual is that two of the whole vessels contained human crania; these vessels were located under a large number of pots (Adams and Lazarus 1960). It was determined that the two crania represented two adults, one male and one female (Table 23). Fragments from a third cranium were found in the same context, although there were no other human bones found. The male cranium was in a classic incised Fort Walton vessel that is grayish-black with a diamond-dot pattern and lacks a rim collar. Adams and Lazarus (1960:112) state that the vessel that contained the female cranium is a Pensacola Incised. Furthermore, it was noted that the female had occipital deformation, due to the practice of cradleboarding, yet this was absent in the male. Table 23: Chambless Skeletal Remains (Adams and Lazarus 1960). Burial Type Age Sex Artifacts Cranial Deformation jar adult male jar, ceramic cache none jar adult female jar, ceramic cache present


50 8Wl9/Cemetery on Hogtow n Bayou Moore (1918) excavated the Cemetery on Hogtown Bayou, uncovering over 100 burials. Unfortunately, he neglected to describe all of the burials, although he did state that the most common burial type was a bow l covering a skull only, or skull with few other bones (Moore 1918:535-541). Willey (1949: 220) states that the vessels described by Moore are part of the Fort Walton Comple x, but he was not able to specify Fort Walton and/or Pensacola-series because the pottery was not illustrated, only described. The presence of glass beads and a brass bell da tes the site to the hi storic period. Table 24 below provides all the burial data Moore presented, as well as can be summarized. Table 24: Burial Data from Cemet ery on Hogtown Bayou (Moore 1918). Burial No. Burial Type Age Grave Goods 2 unknown adult 2 chert spearheads, celt, ceramic stopper 3 bowl over long bones and teeth ? 2 vessels 5 unknown ? 8 projectile points, quartz discoidal, chert and sandstone 10 bowl over skull ? shell ear-plug 17 no bones left ? ceramic sherds, vessels, 6-pt platter 19 unknown ? 1 bowl, 3 pots, 2 shell beads 33 bowl over bones ? ceramic sherds, bowls 36 unknown ? bowl 39 unknown ? ceramic sherds 45 bundle burial, 3 skulls ? shell beads, metal shears, brass bell 47 bowl over skull ? 6 pointer platter 63 bowl over skull ? 2 copper lanceheads, glass bead, celt, 3 chert projectile points 67 unknown ? ceramic, glass, and shell beads 69 skull and long bones ? 2 bottles, 2 bowls, and 1 other vessel 91 bowl over jar and bones ? shell beads 97 2 bowls over skull and other bones ? bowls 99 bowl over skull, 3 feet from burial 97 ? bowl 111 bowl over skull ? bowl 112 bowl under skull, under burial 111 ? bowl


51 8Wl15/Jolly Bay Moore (1901:459-465) excavated 27 burials from this m ound, including skullonly, skulls and long bones, and long bonesonly. Yet again, Moore does not provide much of any other details about these burials. However, he mentions that one cranium was found in association with a lancepoint; yet another cr anium was found with five quartzite and three jasper projectile points. Another burial was interred with a columella shell tool (Moore 1901:459-465). Other artifacts mentioned, not in association with burials, included a chisel, celt, and several pr ojectile points, one of which was made of blue quartz. In addition, ther e were fourteen vessels found in association with burials. The pottery from this site is classified as Fort Walton Incised, Pensacola Incised, Moundville Engraved, and Pensacola-series adornos (Willey 1949:224). However, it is not known how many vessels belong to each of these classifications, since Willey only identified seven of the 14 vessels. Table 25 summarizes the artifacts recovered from Jolly Bay. Table 25: Artifacts Found in Association with Burials at Jolly Bay (Moore 1901; Willey 1949). Artifacts lancepoint, 5 quartzite and 3 jasper projectile points, a collummella shell tool, 14 vesselsFW Incised, Pensacola Incised, Moundville Engraved, Pensacolaseries adornos 8Wl16/Cemetery Near Point Washington This site was excavated by Moore (1901), who did not provide data for all of the burials, nor did he indicate how many buria ls or individuals we re unearthed. Moore


52 (1901:473) notes that it was not level but there w ere a number of irregular rises, which in three cases contained large am ounts of human bone. One of these deposits had 17 adult crania and one subadult cranium and large number of long bones. Other deposits included skull-only, skull-a nd-long-bone, and a few long-bone-only burials. There were also numerous instances of burials found under earthenware vessels (Table 26). Nearly all the burials without ceramic vessel coverings were in low-lying areas, and burials covered by earthenware were typically located in the raised areas or in the depression between them. In addition, cranial deform ation caused by compression was present in some of the individuals. There were also caches of pottery with wh ich there were no buria ls in association. Most of the artifacts consis t of pottery, though there were a piece of iron, numerous glass beads, numerous shell beads, several undeco rated shell gorgets, 11 chert pieces, two projectile points, two glass finger-rings, two arrowhead-sty led shell pendants, and one shell and one limestone tool (Moore 1901:472-496). The majori ty of the ceramic vessels were from the Fort Walton-series, though th ere were some from the Pensacola-series, including Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jacks on Plain, Point Washington Incised, Pensacola Incised, Pensacola Three-line Incised, and Pensacola Plain (Will ey 1949:225-226). The European artifacts indicate this is another postcontact Fort Walton site.


53 Table 26: Burials Covered by Ceramic Vesse ls at Cemetery Near Point Washington (Moore 1901; Willey 1949). Vessel No. Burial Information Othe r Artifacts Cranial Deformation 6 star-shaped vessel inverted over skull 3 large shell beads and 2 pebbles none 10 and 11 Pensacola Three-lined Incised bottles buried with 17 skulls and other human bones none none 12 Pensacola Three-lined Incised bottle near 10 and 11, beside small human bone fragments none none 14 Pt Washington Incised bowl inverted over adult skull, also several long bones and 11 skulls none none 17 bowl inverted over skull with clavicle and some vertebrae iron or steel chisel none 18 bowl inverted over adult skull none none 21 large fragment over skull none none 23 bowl inverted over skull of subadult none none 25 bowl inverted over skull of older adult none present 26 near 25, Pt Washington Incised bowl inverted over adult skull with piece of tibia, ulna, humerus, pelvis and mandible none none 27 under vessel 26, bowl over female skull none none 30 dipper-shaped Pt Washington Incised vessel inverted over adult skull none none 31 dipper-shaped Pt Washington Incised vessel inverted over adolescent skull none none 32 Pt Washington Incised bowl inverted over fragment skull none none 33 Pt Washington Incised bowl over adult skull in contact with 32 none none 35 bowl over skull none none 37 Fort Walton Incised bowl over adult skull none none 38 bowl over skull fragment with a few long bones none none 40 Pensacola Incised bowl contained fragment of human skull and other bones with a fragment of a vessel covering the bowl none none 41 Fort Walton Incised bowl over adult skull none none 42 bowl over adult skull 1 shell bead none 43 star-shaped blackware dish over bone fragments none none 46 star-shaped yellow-ware over bones of child shell beads none 47 bowl over skull none none 48 bowl over adult skull none none 50 Pt Washington Incised bowl over adult skull none none 51 Pt Washington Incised bottle beside fragmented bones none none 54 Fort Walton Incised bottle with mass of bones with 51 none none 55 Fort Walton Incised bowl over child skull none none


54 8Wl21/Bunker Cutoff This conical m ound was excavated by Moore (1918:519-521), who neglected to provide adequate information about the site. Willey (1949:227) states that the ceramics are from the Fort Walton Complex, both Fort Walton and Pensacola Series, but he does not indicate which group dominated. Willey ( 1949:227) also states that there was check stamp pottery. Approximately six burials we re found, all of which were secondary, most of which were probably bundle burials (Table 27). A few of the burials were in submound burial pits. Some of the artifacts that were known to be in c ontext with the burials include: a bi-conical ceramic pipe with trace s of red paint, a discoidal stone, and undecorated pottery. Other artifacts from the mound, in which the context was not specifically stated, included: chert fragments hammer-stone, iron spik e, projectile point or knife, limestone tool, a nd sherds (Moore 1918:519-521; W illey 1949:227). The iron spike suggests a post-contact date. Table 27: Burial Data from B unker Cutoff (Moore 1918; Willey1949). No. of Burials Burial Type Artifacts 6 secondary, mostly bundle burials a bi-conical ceramic pipe, a discoidal stone and pottery 8Wl30/Johnson Minimal information was given by the FMSF about the site and burials. The burial mound at the Johnson site contained a bundle burial in asso ciation with Fort Walton artifacts. The bundle burial consisted of a cranium and a pelvis and was found in association with three shell beads and a plain Fort Walton bowl inverted over the cranium (Lazarus and Johnson n.d.). There were also an unidentified number of other bundle


55 burials and urn interm ents (Table 28). There were numerous artifacts found, although it is not stated if they were found in associat ion with any of the burials. They include wooden and shell digging tools, one cache containing 17 shell cups, and a few stone tools, such as a greenstone celt and some wo rked stone. The ceramics were probably of ceremonial origin due to the good quality and intricat e designs, such as several bird and human effigies (Lazarus and Hawkins 1976:22-23). Table 28: Johnson Burial Data (Lazarus and Johnson n.d.; Lazarus and Hawkins 1976). Burial Types Artifacts bundle, bowl over bundle, urn shell beads and FW ceramics Summary of Classic and Mixed Fort Walton Burial Sites Tables 29 and 30 summarize the burial data fo r the Fort Walton sites. The lack of detailed information, due to poor repor ting and publication, on many of these sites greatly hinders identifyi ng burial patterns, since we are left with only a partial picture of Fort Walton culture. In addition, assigning cultural affiliation of Fort Walton or Pensacola is difficult in the cases of the mixed burial sites, which ar e on the western edge or outskirts of Fort Walton territory. Willey could not identify the ceramics from the Cemetery on Hogtown Bayou because Moore did not provide any illust rations, only descriptions, so he was only able to tell that they belonged to the Fort Walton Complex. The other mixed sites have mixtures of the two but it is difficult to tell which series dominates. The picture is further complicated by the additional earlier components at some sites. These sites illustrate the problem with defining cultures based on ceramic types, especially when the different


56 Table 29: Summary of Fort Walton Burial Data (Class ic Sites). Site No./ Name Site Type No. Burials MNI Burial Type Orient Age Sex Cranial Mod. Elite Time Period (A.D.) 8By194 KenslingerSellars burial mound ? ? skull-only, bundle ? ? ? ? X ? 8Ca142 CorbinTucker Site cem. ? 12 ? north 4 adults 1 suba. 1 f. ? X 14401640, 16501880 8Fr19 Cool Spring Mound burial mound ? ? extended flexed ? ? ? ? ? ? Gu5 Chipola Cutoff burial mound 42 ? flexed, bundle, skull-only, vessel over remains ? ? ? ? X post contact 8Ja7 Curlee Site village and cem. ? 12 ? ? 6 adults 6 suba. 1 f. X ? 12161272 8Ja8 village 2 2 skull-only, bundle ? 2 suba. ? ? ? 1317 1467 8Ja65 Waddell's Mill Pond Site burial mound, village, cave 3 3 semiflexed, extended west 1 suba. 2 adults 1 f. X ? ? 8Je622 Aucilla Shores 10 camp ? ? bundle ? ? ? ? ? ? 8Je977 The Last Caw Mound mound ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 8Le1 Lake Jackson Mound burial mound 24 24 extended, flexed, semi-flexed nw, ne, se, sw, most adults, 1 suba. 2 f., 1 f., 1m. ? X 12501500 8Le164 Winewood village 5 5 semi-flexed ne 2 adults ? ? ? ? 8Li2 Yon Mound and Village burial mound, village ? ? extended ? 1 adult ? ? X 10651285, 10101225, 970-1195 8Wa1 Marsh Island burial mound over 100 ? mass skulls &long bones, skull-only, cremation ? 1 infant ? X X contact 8Wa15 St. Marks Lookout Tower burial mound ? ? flexed, extended ? mostly suba. ? ? X contact 8Wa52 Snow Beach conical burial mound 7 8 extended, flexed, disart., multiple nw, sw, ne 4 adults, 1 suba. 2 f., 1 m. X X contact


57 Table 30: Summary of Mixed Fort Walton/Pen sacola Burial Sites. Site No./ Name Site Type No. Burials MNI Burial Type Orient Age Sex Cranial Mod. High Status Time Period 8Ok6/ Fort Walton Temple Mound temple mound 80 35 extended, skullonly, bundle, multiple nw 8 adults 18 subad 1f 1 m 1 prob. male X X 15001650 8Ok35/ Chambless cem. 2 3 jar ? 2 adults 1 m, 1 f X ? ? 8Wl9/ Cemetery on Hogtown Bayou cem. over 100 ? vessel over remains, skullonly, bundle, multiple ? 1 adult ? ? X post contact 8Wl15/ Jolly Bay burial mound 27 ? skull only, skull & long bones, long bonesonly ? ? ? ? ? ? 8Wl16/ Cemetery Near Point Washington cem. ? ? mass burials, skullonly, skull & long bones, long bonesonly, vessel over remains ? 10 adults 4 subad 1 f X ? post contact 8Wl21/ Bunker Cutoff conical burial mound 6 ? bundle ? ? ? ? ? pos. post contact 8Wl30/ Johnson burial mound ? ? vessel over remains, bundle, urns ? ? ? ? X ? types frequently coexist. Archaeologists need to begin addressing these problems with tying cultural affiliation strictly to ceramic types. Nevertheless, it is necessary to discuss what is known, which may be helpful in the fu ture if more burials are excavated or if these burials are reinvestigated.


58 High-status burials are indicated by the pres ence of ceremonial items such as greenstone celts, mica, and copper disks. The sites that contained high-status artifacts include Kenslinger-Sellars, Corbin-Tucker, Chipola Cutoff, Lake Jackson, Yon, Marsh Island, St. Marks Lookout Tower, Snow Beach, Johnson, Fort Walton Temple Mound, and the Cemetery on Hogtown Bayou. These sites constitute half of the Fort Walton sites (11/22), both pure and mixed. Another pote ntial indicator of wealth, red and yellow ochre, was found at Lake Jackson, St. Marks Lookout Tower, Snow Beach, Fort Walton Temple Mound, and Bunker Cutoff, with Bunker Cutoff being the only one that does not appear to contain any other elite articles. (It is not certain if Curlee had any elite burials but supposedly collectors found greenstone celts and whole vessels with human remains.) It is important to note that Johnson containe d high-status items, such as a cache of 17 shell cups and a greenstone cel t; however, it was not explici tly stated in the FMSF if these items were found in direct association with any of the burials, though it is likely that they were. Another interesting pattern is that all of the sites cont aining high-status burials, with two exceptions, were burial mounds. Corbin-Tucker and the Cemetery on Hogtown Bayou, the two exceptions, are cemeteries. Th e presence of elite burials in mounds seems to be part of the Missi ssippian culture, since this tren d is seen at the major sites (Etowah, Moundville, and Spiro), as discusse d in further detail in Chapter 5. Looting and poor bone preservation great ly affected many of the sites. Consequently, only at a few sites were archaeol ogists able to estimate the age and sex of the individual burials. Based on these da ta, little can be said about population demographics or gender, although it is apparent that adults and subadults were buried


59 together and som e females and subadults were buried with high-status goods. The burials at Lake Jackson suggest that women might have been leaders, since the elaborate artifacts, such as copper plates, may have been symbols of aut hority. In addition, a female at the Corbin-Tucker site was buried with a greenstone celt and a copper plate. Where sex and age were identified, I can say that adults and children were interred at Corbin-Tucker, Waddells Mill Pond, Lake Jackson, St. Marks Lookout Tower, Snow Beach, Cemetery Near Poin t Washington, and the Fort Walton Temple Mound. Of these seven sites, which make up about 32 percent of all the Fort Walton sites, five sites (~23 percent) contain high-stat us burials. The presence of children/infants with adults might indicate di fferent perceptions a bout subadults, such as that they were regarded as important individua ls in the community, or they inherited their social status from the parents, and/or children were sacr ificed to accompany elite adult burials. The Fort Walton Temple Mound and St. Marks Lookout Tower in particular stand out because most of the burials contain infants and children. In addition, at both of these sites it is significant that some of the infa nts and children were buried with prestigious items. The richest burial at the Fort Walton Temple Mound consisted of a seven year old boy with over 300 shell beads and incense resin. The presence of this resin makes this burial unlike any of the other Fort Walton buria ls. Such treatment is also highly unusual given that this was of a child buried without an adult. Since both sites date to the historic period, these burials may reflect the results of Spanish cultural influence and/or Spanish diseases that may have targeted subadults Throughout the Southeast, other historic Native American sites often have many elaborat e grave goods with children. There is the possibility that European diseases may have decimated the native Fort Walton


60 population. As a result late Fort W alton child burials may have contained more grave goods because children may have become more valued as populations dropped. However, the skeletal remains need to be reexamined to confirm or disprove this interpretation. Also, examining ethnographi c accounts of Native Americans in northwest Florida may aid in understanding the social status of women and children. Concerning site types, it appears that most burials were interred in mounds (14/22); however, five sites we re cemeteries, two were villages, one was a cave, and one was a campsite. It seems that social status alone did not necessar ily determine if an individual was buried in a bur ial mound, since presumably lo wer-status burials (with few or no grave goods) were found at Cool Spri ng Mound, Waddells Mill Pond Site, Bunker Cutoff, Jolly Bay, and the Last Caw Mound. In addition, some of the burial mounds that contained elite mortuary offerings also c ontained lower-status graves, including Chipola Cutoff, Marsh Island, Fort Walton Temple Mo und, and Johnson. It is possible that some lower-status individuals were interred to acco mpany elite individuals, though that cannot be determined based on the data. Of course, it is equally possible that burials that did not contain any grave goods or a few low-status goods may have contained elaborate highstatus artifacts of perishable materials, such as wood or plant remains that quickly decompose in Florida soil. Poor preservation and documentation, as we ll as the quality of excavations, also affected the data concerning or ientation. Orientations of burials are known at only four sites, and there does not appear to be a clea r pattern. Burials were oriented north, west, northwest, northeast, southeast, and southw est. At Lake Jackson and Snow Beach, multiple directions were observed.


61 Evidence of cranial m odification was obser ved and recorded at seven sites. Cranial deformation can be the result of intentional deformation of the skull from infancy for aesthetic purposes/social custom or unint entional deformation from cradleboarding. In either case, it reveals importa nt childrearing and social prac tices. Crania with occipital flattening from cradleboarding were observed with a female from Waddells Mill Pond site, a female from Chambless, and possibl y a female from the Fort Walton Temple Mound. Fronto-occipital fla ttening, a purposeful type of cranial deformation, was observed with most from Marsh Island, some from the Cemetery near Point Washington, and all crania from Snow Beach. Two or three crania from the Curlee site had lambdoidal flattening. Fort Walton peoples fr om Marsh Island, the Cemetery near Point Washington, Fort Walton Temple Mound, and Snow Beach practiced cranial deformation and all dated to the contact period, based on the presence of European artifacts. It seems that cranial deformation was not pervasive in Fort Walton culture based on these data, however, poor documentation and preservati on might have skewed the data. With regard to time, eight to ten sites (depending on Bunker Cutoff and Chattahoochee River 1#) date to after Eu ropean contact, based on the presence of European items, radiocarbon dates, and ceramics. In fact, none of the sites I studied dated to the early Fort Walton period and of those that could be dated, most were late or post-contact. Spanish influence does not appear as if it changed where they buried their deceased; six were burial mounds, three cemeterie s, and one village, which is similar to the overall picture of Fort Walton burial sites. Interment type may have changed with time. Seven of the ten sites that date to European contact are dominated by various secondary burials and a few mass burials. It is possible that these mass burials could be


62 rela ted to high morbidity rates due to the in troduction of Spanish diseases, resulting in mass deaths from epidemics. Secondary burials may have been the result of people dying away from traditional burial pl aces and fragmentary remains bei ng returned to these sites. However, this is a very small sample, especially considering that not all of the sites are dated nor were all of the interment types recorded. Numerous interment types were practiced by Fort Walton peoples, with over half of the sites (12/22) observing at least two different burial trea tments. Overall, there are 14 different burial practices observed by Fort Walton peoples. A cautionary note about interment types is in order due to the i ssues with preservati on that plagued my investigations of these sites. Poor b one preservation could lead to mistaken interpretations of certain interment types, including s kull-only, long bones-only, and skull and long bones. I am especially wary of classifying burials based on Moores descriptions, since his excavations were poorly conducted. In addition, Moores descriptions of some of the burials fro m Chipola Cutoff, Marsh Island, Fort Walton Temple Mound, the Cemetery on Hogtown Bayou, and the Cemetery Near Point Washington indicate the fragmentar y nature of the remains. With this being said, there are seven site s that have the burial types skull-only, long bones-only, and/or skull and long bones. Overall, primary burials, including th e extended, flexed, and semi-flexed positions, were present at 32 percent of the sites. Fifty-three percent of the sites contained secondary burials, which includes bundle burials, skullonly, skull and long bones, long bones, cremation, disarticulated, ja r, and urn. Mass and multiple burials were present at nine percent of th e sites, which includes primary and secondary burials. In


addition, six percent of the sites contain bur ials where vessels were place over hum an remains (Figure 20). Figure 20: Approximate Percentages for Burial Types. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 PrimarySecondaryMass & Multiple Vessel over Remains Burial Types There are a couple of intere sting correlations regard ing primary burials. The flexed and extended positions were observed toge ther at four sites. In addition, at sites that contained burials that were extended a nd other interment type s, skeletons in the extended position always outnumbered the othe r burial types, except at the Fort Walton Temple Mound. Concerning patterns with site type, the positions extended and flexed were only discovered in burial mounds; however, these were not the only types found in burial mounds. There do not appear to be any corr elations between other burial types and site type. There may be a relationship between high-status burials and the extended and flexed positions, since five of the eleven sites that have exotic goods also have individuals buried in either ex tended and/or flexed position. However, not all burials that were extended or flexed were interred with va luable items. In addition, at one of the sites that contained exotic artifacts, the inte rment type is unknown (C orbin-Tucker site), though possibly skull-only and bundle burials. 63


64 Exam ining mortuary variability based on the number of burials of each type reveals a different pattern than looking at th e percentage of the occurrence of the various burial types at the 22 sites. Based on these data, it is not possible to determine which examination more accurately portrays the bur ial patterns because the number of burials were not given at all of the si tes nor were all of the interment types identified for all of the burials. However, it is necessary to examine the data both using both methods. Table 31 and Figure 21 illustrate the great differences between classic Fort Walton and mixed Fort Walton/Pe nsacola burials. Primary bur ials are the most prevalent among classic sites, whereas the burial type vessels over remains, constitutes the majority of mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola buri als. Table 32 and Figure 22 summarize the combined data from classic and mixed sites. Table 31: Comparison of Classic Fort Walton to Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola Burial Types. Classic Fort Walton Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola Burial Type Number of Burials Percentage Number of Burials Percentage extended 18/53 33.9 3/73 4.1 flexed 1/53 1.8 1/73 1.3 semi-flexed 13/53 24.5 1/73 1.3 multiple 3/53 5.6 4/73 5.4 mass 4/53 7.5 2/73 2.7 skull-only 6/53 11.3 3/73 4.1 skull-and-long bones 2/53 3.7 3/73 4.1 disarticulated 1/53 1.8 1/73 1.3 bundle 3/53 5.6 2/73 2.7 urn 1/53 1.8 0 0 cremation 1/53 1.8 0 0 jar 0 0 2/73 2.7 vessel over remains 0 0 51/73 69.8


Figure 21: Compariso n of the Approximated Percen tages of Classic Fort Walton to Mixed Fort Walton/Pens acola Burial Types. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 PrimarySecondaryMass & Multiple Vessel over Remains Classic FW Mixed FW Table 32: Summary of Fort Walton Burial Types from All Sites. Burial Type Number of Burials Percentage extended 21/126 16.6 flexed 2/126 1.5 semi-flexed 14/126 11.1 multiple 7/126 5.5 mass 6/126 4.7 skull-only 9/126 7.1 skull-and-long bones 5/126 3.9 disarticulated 2/126 1.5 bundle 5/126 3.9 urn 1/126 .7 cremation 1/126 .7 jar 2/126 1.5 vessel over remains 51/126 40.4 65


Figure 22: Approximate Percen tages for All Fort Walton Burial Types. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 PrimaryMass & Multiple Burial Types There are a few main differences be tween Fort Walton and mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola sites. The majority of burials in the latter consist of vessels placed over human remains. In addition, all of the mixed sites contain s econdary burials, with only 5 primary burials at the Fort Walton Temple Mound. Moreover, there were caches of pottery only at mixed sites (Fort Walt on Temple Mound, Chambless, Cemetery Near Point Washington, and Johnson). It is possibl e that secondary buria ls and caches of pottery may have been more characteristic of Pensacola culture. Other complications in gaining understanding of Fort Walton bur ial practices are the issues with classification of Fort Walton si tes. There are two sites (Kenslinger-Sellars and Last Caw) that are cla ssified as Fort Walton, alt hough the reports do not provide proof of this. It is unknown if the burials from Kenslinger-Sellars are Fort Walton due to the lack of context. The site form on the Last Caw Mound does not specify if the burials are Fort Walton, which is especially problem atic due to the presence of Early Woodland types of ceramics. Furthermore, the nature of the mixed sites questions the current definitions of Fort Walton and Pensacola cultures, and the difficulty of isolating what is 66


67 Fort W alton. In order to address this matte r, it is important to compare Fort Walton burials to Pensacola burial si tes to the west, as well to R ood burials to the north since there are some similarities between Rood and Fort Walton culture.


68 CHAPTE R 4 COMPARISON OF FORT WALTON BU RIALS TO ROOD AND PENSACOLA BURIALS Introduction To present a holistic view of Fort Walt on culture and attempt to address issues with classifying cultural aff iliation, it is necessary to compare Fort Walton burial data to a sample of sites from the ceramically-defin ed Rood and Pensacola cultures, which were located north and west, respectively, of the Fort Walton culture area. Rood Phases are geographically confined to the upper part of the lower Chatta hoochee River. Of the three Rood Phases, only phase II is dominated by grit -tempered ceramics. Pensacola ceramics are similar in style to Fort Walton-series, although the Pensacola-se ries are exclusively shell-tempered. Pensacola ceramic types ar e also found in a larger geographic area, stretching from northwestern Flor ida to eastern Louisiana. Three Rood Phase sites are discussed here, as well as four Pensacola sites (Figure 19). It is essential to question the inclusi on of Rood as part of Fort Walton when only Rood II is dominated by Fort Walton-series cera mics. In addition, justification is needed for the separation of Pensacola based solely on temper. A more comprehensive study of Rood and Pensacola burials should be conducted in the future; however, this sample will aid in testing cultural definitions. The ultimate goal is to gain a be tter understanding of Fort Walton people and their burial practices.


69 Rood Burials 9Cla62/Cemochechobee This site was a large village area dating to A.D. 900 to 1350, surrounding three platform mounds on the Chattahoochee River in Clay County, Georgia (Schnell et al. 1981:1; Knight 1981:251). Hill-Clark (1981) analyzed the skeletal remains from 36 burials recovered during the ex cavation (Table 33 and 34). Her analysis revealed that there were five children (6-10), one adoles cent (12-15), ten young adults (18-25), seven older adults (30-50), and 11 individuals for which age could not be determined. Estimating sex was difficult due to poor preservation; however Hill-Clark (1981:256262) concluded there were three probable fema les, one female, four probable males, five males, and 21 individuals of undetermin ed sex. There are a couple of unique characteristics observed at Cemochechobee : burials of children were separate from those of adults, and several individua ls had teeth which were stai ned with red-black vegetable dye. In addition, interment type varied (sem i-flexed, extended, disarticulated, and bundle burials) as did orientation ( east, north, and west) (Schne ll et al 1981:37-39, 44-54, 67-68, 75-83, 88, and 93-95).


70 Table 33: Results of Skeletal Analysis from CemochechobeeExcavation Area XUA (Hill-Clark 1981). Burial No. Age Sex Vegetable Dye-Stained Teeth Interment Type Orient. Artifacts 1 810 ? X possible secondary ? ceramic vessel and bowl 2 ? ? ? ? ? 2 Lake Jackson sherds and Cool Branch vessels 3 18-25 ? X semi-flexed on left side west several marine shell beads 4 adult probable female X skull only on right side north shell ear pin, pebbles, shell, 2 vessels, human effigy bottle, and dog effigy bottle 5 ? ? ? ? ? shell necklace 6 probable young adult ? ? semi-flexed on right side west none 7 young adult probable male ? semi-flexed on left side east plain pottery vessel and bowl 8 probable adult ? ? ? ? Lake Jackson sherd 9 young adult probable male X sitting, crossed legged ne greenstone celt and small piece mica 10 adult ? ? semi-flexed on right side east shell necklace 11 40-50 male ? disarticulated face-down, possibly flexed ? greenstone celt, marine shell cup, and plain sherd 12 19-23 ? X skull only ? none 13 adult ? ? only lower extremities, semi-flexed ? none 14 25-35 probable female X semi-flexed on left side north none 15 40-50 -? ? ? Lake Jackson sherds and plain sherds 16 young adult female ? semi-flexed on right side east chert flake and numerous plain and Lake Jackson sherds 17 adult ? X semi-flexed on right side north 5 chert flakes, numerous plain sherds and 2 Andrews Decorated beaker sherds 18 3-4 ? ? bundle burial ? shell beads 19 8-10 ? X possible skull only (bowl covering) ? ceramic bowl, beaver effigy adorno, Point Washington Incised vessel and 2 hammerstones 20 20-24 probable female ? partially flexed on back east columella bead necklace, shell disk ear ornaments, hundreds of shell beads 21 40-50 male ? semi-flexed on back southea st large plain sherd 22 40-50 male X extended on back west Lake Jackson Decorated jar, 1 small animal bone and charred matting 23 probable young adult ? ? long bones only ? none 24 8-10 ? ? ? ? none 25 12-15 ? X ? ? none 26 adult ? semi-flexed south none


71 Table 33 (Continued). 27 30-40 male X extended on back east none 28 adult probable male X disarticulated, face-down ? copper arrowhead headdress and 3 Nunnally Incised sherds 29 probable adult ? ? completely disarticulated ? small amounts of animal bone 30 probable adult ? ? disarticulated west 3 Andrews Decorated beakers and effigy bowl 31 young adult probable male ? one leg, torso and upper extremities missing west charred wood on tomb floor, 12 sherds, and bowl with duck effigy 32 probable young adult ? X probably disarticulated ? none 33 probable adult ? ? small human bone fragments in ceramic vessel ? pottery vessel Table 34: Results of Skeletal Analysis from CemochechobeeExcavation Area XUB (Hill-Clark 1981). Burial No. Age Sex Vegetable DyeStained Teeth Interment Type Orientation Artifacts 1 adult male X extended on back, feet severed east 4 charred logs or bark stripes and elongated greenstone pole spud 2 probable adult ? ? mandible fragment, no pit outline, possible trophy curation ? none 3 6-8 ? ? semiflexed on left side south none


72 9Qu1/ Garys Fish Pond This is a single m ound site in whic h Huscher found one burial on the pre-mound ground surface. The grave contained the remain s of a single partially flexed adult, whose head was lying east but was facing south (Tab le 35). The only grave goods were a Cool Branch Incised sherd and a clay bead. A ccording to radiocarbon dating, the pre-mound ground surface dates to Rood I and Rood II Phases (A.D. 1100-1200 and A.D. 1200-1300 respectively) (Huscher 1959:69,100; B litz and Lorenz 2006:47-48, 198-208). Table 35: Garys Fish Pond (Huscher 1959; Blitz and Lorenz 2006). Burial Type Age Artifacts semi-flexed adult Cool Branch Incised sherd and a clay bead 9Qu5/Cool Branch Site The Cool Branch Site is a single mound w ith one of the most extensive palisades in the Mississippian Southeast. The rect angular palisade surrounds a single platform mound in the center. Radiocarbon dates place the pre-mound surface, palisade, and mound in the Rood I Phase (A.D. 1100-1200) There were two wattle-and-daub structures (Hematite House and Spud House) on the pre-mound surface, but only Spud House contained human remains (Table 36). Huscher (1963:2) uncovered a fired-clay hearth and a rectangular tomb in Spud H ouse. As a result of poor preservation, the remains of an undetermined number of adults were unearthed, although it was noted that adult ribs and long bones were present. In a ssociation with these bone s were mica sheets, a ground slab of greenstone, shell tempered pottery, and a raised clay platform, which was interpreted by Huscher (1963:2) as an alta r or dais. However, the majority of the pottery elsewhere at this site was gritor sa nd-tempered. Close to the clay platform, were


73 two elongated spatulate greenston e celts. In addition, rem ains of a scaffold were found which would have been erected over the hear th, which itself would have served as a charnel pit (Huscher 1963:2; Blitz and Lorenz 2006:48-55 and 208-214). Table 36: Cool Branch Site Mortuary Data (Huscher 1963; Blitz; Lorenz 2006). Burial Type Age Artifacts mass unknown number of adults mica sheets, a ground slab of greenstone, shell tempered pottery, and a raised clay platform 9Sw1/Rood's Landing Site Caldwell (1955), along with assistance from Eugene Cline and David W. Chase, excavated four of the five flat-topped mounds at Roods Landing (Mounds A, B, C, D, and E), which surround an open plaza. However, only two burials were unearthed at this site, from Mounds A and B (Table 37). Construction at Mound A ended (A.D. 15501600, Stewart Phase) with the funeral of an a dult male and child (approximately six years old). Both individuals were extended with th e left legs crossed ove r the right. The only mortuary offering was a jar. Stones were pl aced over the upper pa rt of the grave and large pieces of burnt plaster were piled on the lower end, s uggesting that the burials had taken place after buildings collapsed from a fi re, possibly a ritual burning. In Mound B, one burial was discovered which belonged to an infant, and dated to A.D. 1300 to 1400 (Rood III Phase). The bones were in poor condi tion but it was conclude d that the cranium was oriented northwest. It is possible that the infant was cremated because the bones were in poor condition and lay on a bed of fire d clay. No mortuary goods were found in


74 association with the infant (Caldwe ll 1955:31, 33; Blitz and L orenz 2006:33-36, 145157). Table 37: Roods Landing Site (Caldwell 1955; Blitz and Lorenz 2006). Location Burial Type Age/Sex Artifacts Mound A extended adult male and child (6 yrs) jar Mound B possible cremation infant none Summary of Rood-Phase Burials Rood burials have some similarities to Fort Walton burials, but it appears that there are more differences (Table 38). Th e similarities include a wide variety of interment types exhibited, with a mixture of primary and secondary burials, even though this is a small sample. All of the burials are interred in burial m ounds, similar to most Fort Walton burials. In addition, subadults we re included in the burial sites with adults, though they may be buried separately. All of individuals buried at Cemochechobee were buried in single graves, similar to the majority of Fort Walton burial sites. However, both Rood and Fort Walton sites have multiple interments and mass burials. Furthermore, elite burials at Cemochechobee had artifacts si milar to those at elite Fort Walton burials, including greenstone celts, shell cu ps, mica, and a copper headdress. Table 39 and Figure 23 compare the pr evalence of burial types among Rood, classic and mixed Fort Walton cultures. It seems that Rood-Phase is dominated by primary burials and overall the pattern is more similar to classic Fort Walton than mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola. Consequently, the ove rall picture of Fort Walton culture is different than the Rood-phase as exhibite d by Table 40 and Figure 24. However, these


75 differences m ay not be cultural or geographi c, but temporal since many of the Fort Walton burials date to the historic period. Table 38: Summary of Rood-Phase Burial Data. Site No. Name Site Type No. Burials MNI Age Sex Interment Type Orient. 9Cla62/ Cemochechobee burial mound 36 36 6 subadults 17 adults 3 probable females, 1 female, 4 probable males, 5 males semi-flexed, bundle, disart., extended, vessel over remains, jar, sitting, long bones-only, skull-only north, east, west 9Qu1/ Garys Fish Pond burial mound 1 1 adult ? semi-flexed east/ south 9Qu5/Cool Branch Site burial mound ? ? adults ? mass ? 9Sw1/Rood's Landing burial mound 3 3 adult child, infant 1 adult male extended, cremation, multiple nw Table 39: Comparison of Rood-Phase Bu rial Types to Classic and Mixed Fort Walton Burial Types. Rood-Phase Classic Fort Walton Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola Burial Type No. of Burials % No. of Burials % No. of Burials % extended 4/31 12.9 18/53 33.9 3/73 4.1 flexed 1/31 3.2 1/53 1.8 1/73 1.3 semi-flexed 11/31 35.4 13/53 24.5 1/73 1.3 multiple 1/31 3.2 3/53 5.6 4/73 5.4 mass 1/31 3.2 4/53 7.5 2/73 2.7 skull-only 2/31 6.4 6/53 11.3 3/73 4.1 skull-andlong bones 0 0 2/53 3.7 3/73 4.1 disarticulated 5/31 16.1 1/53 1.8 1/73 1.3 bundle 1/31 3.2 3/53 5.6 2/73 2.7 urn 0 0 1/53 1.8 0 0 cremation 1/31 3.2 1/53 1.8 0 0 jar 1/31 3.2 0 0 2/73 2.7 vessel over remains 1/31 3.2 0 0 51/73 69.8 sitting 1/31 3.2 0 0 0 0 long-bonesonly 1/31 3.2 0 0 0 0


Figure 23: Comparison of Rood, Mixed and Classic Fort Walton. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 PrimarySecondaryMass & Multiple Vessel over Remains Rood Classic FW Mixed FW Table 40: Comparison of Rood-Phase Bu rial Types to All Fort Walton Sites. Rood-Phase Fort Walton Burial Type Number of Burials Approximate Percentage Number of Burials Approximate Percentage extended 4/31 12.9 21/126 16.6 flexed 1/31 3.2 2/126 1.5 semi-flexed 11/31 35.4 14/126 11.1 multiple 1/31 3.2 7/126 5.5 mass 1/31 3.2 6/126 4.7 skull-only 2/31 6.4 9/126 7.1 skull-andlong bones 0 0 5/126 3.9 disarticulated 5/31 16.1 2/126 1.5 bundle 1/31 3.2 5/126 3.9 urn 0 0 1/126 .7 cremation 1/31 3.2 1/126 .7 jar 1/31 3.2 2/126 1.5 vessel over remains 1/31 3.2 51/126 40.4 sitting 1/31 3.2 0 0 long-bonesonly 1/31 3.2 0 0 76


Figure 24: Comparison of Burial Types Among Rood-Phase and Fort Walton Culture 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Primary Mass & Multiple Rood Fort Walton There are many differences in burial practices. For example, there were some unusual traits with the remains at Cemoch echobee and Cool Branch. Most of the individuals at Cemochechobee had teeth stained with vegetable dye, which is not seen so far in any of the Fort Walton sites. Also, there was one position that was observed at Cemochechobee that was not present in Fort Walton sites, the sitt ing position, although there was only one instance of this. These ma y be characteristics of Rood-Phases burials or possibly anomalies. Cool Branch was al so different because there were high-status goods, mica and slab greenstone, in associati on with an altar in a charnel pit with a jumble of human remains. There are no altars known with any of th e Fort Walton burials nor were any of the elite burials so disorgan ized. Another difference is the absence of cranial deformation in all of these Rood burial sites. Of course, it is possible that if a larger sample was employed different patter ns would emerge. A comprehensive study of Rood burials, as well as Pensacola, would and in understanding variation within Mississippian culture. 77


78 Pensacola Burials 1Ba1/Bear Point Moore (1901:423-432) excavated Bear Poin t (in Alabama), which he described as a circular mound with a flat top. All the co mplete vessels and 44 burials were recovered from the bottom layer or from pits in the upper layer (Table 41). The remains were poorly preserved, as with many other sites in Florida and Alabama. The burial types at this site are suspect, since ma ny of the burials are skull-only or skull and long bones, but the entire skeletons could have been present. There were many artifacts not associated with any of the burials, but loose in th e sand of the mound, including hammerstones, pebble-hammers, projectile points, celts, chisel s, hematite, limonite, and discoidal stones (Moore 1901:423-432). Willey identified the di agnostic ceramic types from Bear Point: Pensacola Plain and Incised (1949:197-200). Table 41: Burial Data from Bear Point (Moore 1901; Willey 1949). Burial No. Burial Remains Age Burial Goods 1 long bones only ? none 2 2 skulls-only ? conch shell 3-5 1 skull-only each ? none 6 bowl over skull ? bowl 7-9 1 skull-only each ? none 10 long bones only ? none 11 long bones only ? chert lancehead 12 skull-only ? 2 shell beads 13 skull and long bones ? none 14 long bones only ? none 15 long bones only ? none 16-17 1 skull-only each ? none 18 skull w/few bones ? none 19 few unknown bones ? none 20 few unknown bones ? Pensacola Incised vessel 21 bowl over skull child Pensacola Incised bowl, 4 shell beads 22 skull and long bones ? blackware bottle, iron nail 23 bowl over bones ? blackware bowl 24 long bones-only ? projectile point 25 only molar ? blackware bowl 26 skull w/few bones ? none


79 Table 40 (Continued). 27 skull w/few bones ? none 28 2 skulls and other bones probably in wooden box ? dust all that remained of wooden box with iron nails & clamps, also glass beads 29 skull and other bones 1 child, 1 adult 30 shell beads, 3 shell hairpins, shanks 30 bowl over fragments ? shell, bitumen, 12 silver buttons, glass beads, Mexican silver coin, iron spike, decorated sheet brass/copper 31 bowl over skull adult Pensacola Plain bowl, vase filled w/marine bivalves 32 unknown infant 22 shell beads 33 skull w/few bones ? none 34 bowl over skull w/vertebrae adult blackware bowl 35 bowl over skull adult blackware bowl 36 bowl over skull child blackware bowl 37 bowl over skull young adult Pensacola Three-line Incised bowl ,2 shell ear-plugs, 2 iron nails, shell, quartz pebbles, chert flakes, vase 38 bowl over skull adolescent brownware bowl 39 2 skulls 1 adult, 1 child Pensacola Incised bowl 40 numerous bones from at least 3 individuals ? Pensacola Incised bowl, iron piece 41 no remains left ? bowl 42 skull w/ long bones ? discoidal stone, iron piece 43 5 skulls and various other bones ? none 44 skull w/few bones ? none 8Es1280/Hickory Ridge John Phillips (1995:72-96) excavated Hickory Ridge in 1989; the cemetery yielded three burials and eight features. The features were concentrated areas of broken ceramic vessels. Two of the features were associated with burials: Feature Two with Burial Two and Feature Five with Burial Three. The other features may have been associated with other burials, but that coul d not be confirmed during testing. However, all of the features and burials were lo cated in the same stratigraphic zone.


80 Soil acidity greatly affected the bone preservation of the three burials (Table 42). Burials could only be recognized by dark organic stains caused by decomposition, surrounding little remaining bone. Consequent ly, burial type, orie ntation, sex, and age could not be identified. In addition, buria l pit outlines could not be detected, which complicated the association of grave goods. A variety of ceramic types were en countered at Hickor y Ridge including Pensacola Incised, Mississippi Plain, M oundville Incised, DOlive Incised, and Bell Plain. All of the vessels associated with th e burials appear to ha ve been intentionally broken and placed over the burials. Mortuary offerings associated with Buri al One included seven vessels, mica, and one projectile point. Seven vessels types in cluded Pensacola Incised in the shapes of subglobular bottles, a beaker and a casuela bow l, a Moundville jar, and a DOlive plate. A charcoal sample associated with Burial One produced a radiocarbon date of 500 B.P. 60 years (Beta 30702) with a calibrate d date range of A.D. 1390-1510 (2 ). Burial two contained three Pensacola Incised vessels, one whelk columella, hematite, mica, two greenstone celts, and one projec tile point. Burial three was associated with one Moundville Incised jar, a concentration of Pensacola Incised sherds and a whelk columella. A layer of sherds crowned this cem etery, similar to other Mississippian burial practices at Navy Liveoak cemet ery and other burials excavated by Moore. The exotic nature of the burial goods suggests that thes e were high-status burials (Phillips 1995:7684 and 94).


81 Table 42: Artifacts Associated w ith Bu rials at Hickory Ridge (Phillips 1995). Burial Number Artifacts 1 Pensacola Incised bottles, a beaker, a casuela bowl, a Moundville jar, a Dolive plate, mica, a projectile point 2 Pensacola Incised vessels, a columella, hematite, mica, 2 greenstone celts, a projectile point 3 Moundville Incised jar, Pe nsacola Incised sherds, a columella 8Sa36/Navy Liveoak Reservation Cemetery In 1956, W.C. Lazarus (1967) conducted archaeological surveys and excavations with the aid of Don Sharon and his family at the Navy Liveoak Reservation Cemetery, located near Gulf Breeze, Florida. Thirteen bur ials were unearthed at this site dating to the protohistoric period, circa A.D. 1710, base d on artifacts and ceremonial practices (Table 43). Pensacola Incise d and Moundville engraved vessel s were present in the form of bowls and bottles. Ceremonial events seem to have taken place after the deceased were buried, including fires, and offeri ngs, capped by a layer of sherds near the perimeter. Lazarus et al. (1967:110-113) repor ted that there were two adults, at least three children, and several indi viduals who could not be aged. The sex of only two adults could be estimatedone male and one female. Bone preservation was very poor due to the acidic soil, which limited the analysis. There are several different burial types, including a possible mass burial and single skull burials. In additi on, there were several high-status artifacts including brass and copper disks and shell pendants.


82 Table 43: Burial Data for Navy Liveoak Rese rvation Cemetery Site (Laz arus et al. 1967). Burial No. Burial Type Sex Age Grave Goods 1 bowl inverted over skull-only, some cranial deformation M 40-50 Moundville Engraved casuela bowl, copper and iron frags, chert flakes 2 ? ? ? shell beads and iron frags 3 ? ? ? 65 disk-like shell beads, shell pendant 4 bundle burial ? 8 brass disk, shell, shell beads, glass beads, sherd, iron piece 5 skull-only ? ? none 6 skull-only, other human remains in association and childs teeth ? child shell, 2 bottle caches and cache of sherds 7 skull and long bones, bowl over, possible other human remains ? ? hematite hone, chert flakes, and iron frags 8 skull and long bones only, possible other human remains ? ? sherds, worked shell, shell and glass beads, iron frags and chert flakes 9 ? ? chert flake, bird effigy 10 skull and long bones ? ? copper/brass residue, iron frags, shell, and bird effigy 11 skull on platter, covered by bowl F adult -12 multiple ? child shell pendants 13 possible mass grave ? ? not known 8Sr10/Eighteen-Mile Point on Santa Rosa Sound Archaeologist, T. M. N. Lewis (1931: 124-127), uncovered 11 primary, extended burials on the floor of the mound. All of the individuals were laid face up with their arms extended to the sides. Lewis (1931:124-124) me ntioned that he estimated the sex based on the crania, however he failed to report how many were male or female. He did point out that only the female crania had cranial deformation of the front al bones. Numerous ceramic vessels had been placed in a sand la yer and rested upon a shell layer where the burials were located (Table 44). None of the vessels were intact, but only 25 vessels were restored with a multitude of unreconstructable sherds. There was a hole in the bottom of each of the intact vessels. In addition, a neck lace of conch shell beads was


83 found in association with two fe males, and one of these females had two conch shell ear pendants. Willey (1949:210) identified some of the pottery and classified them as Pensacola Incised (13) and Pe nsacola Plain (two). Table 44: Burial Data for Eighteen-Mil e Point on Santa Rosa Sound (Lewis 1931; Willey 1949). No. of Burials Interment Type Cranial Deformation Artifacts 11 extended only females numerous ceramic vessels (13 Pensacola Incised and 2 Pensacola Plain) Summary of Pensacola Burials Comparing Fort Walton to Pensacola demonstr ates that the burial practices of the two cultures are very similar, although there are a few unique traits (Table 45). All of the Pensacola burials discussed here were inte rred in mounds or cemeteries with a wide variety of interment types. The main diffe rence is that the extended position was not predominant and flexed and semi-flexed were absent. In addition, Tables 46 and 47 and Figures 25 and 26 reveal another importan t difference between Pensacola and Fort Walton cultures. Pensacola culture has the highest percentage of secondary burials. However, this is only based on a sample of four sites and th e burial type was not identified for all of the Pensacola burials, although the overwhelming of majority of the burials was identified.


84 Table 45: Summary of Pe nsacola Burial Data. Site No. Name Site Type No. of Burials Interment Type Age Sex Cranial Mod. Post Contact Elite 1Ba1/ Bear Point burial mound 44 skull-only, long bonesonly, vessel over remains, multiple, possible box burial 6 adults 6 subad ? ? X X 8Es1280/ Hickory Ridge cem. 3 ? ? ? ? X X 8Sa36/ Navy Liveoak Reservation Cemetery Site cem. 13 mass burial, skull-only, bundle, vessel over remains, skull & long bones, multiple 2 adult, 3 subad 1 adult male, 1 adult female X X X 8Sr10/ Eighteen Mile Point on Santa Rosa Sound burial mound 11 extended ? 2 females X ? ?


Table 46: Comparison of Pensacola to Classic Fort Walton and Mixed Fort Walton/Pen sacola Burial Types. Pensacola Classic Fort Walton Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola Burial Type No. of Burials Appr. % No. of Burials Appr. % No. of Burials Appr. % extended 11/53 20.7 18/53 33.9 3/73 4.1 flexed 0 0 1/53 1.8 1/73 1.3 semi-flexed 0 0 13/53 24.5 1/73 1.3 multiple 6/53 11.3 3/53 5.6 4/73 5.4 mass 1/53 1.8 4/53 7.5 2/73 2.7 skull-only 8/53 15.0 6/53 11.3 3/73 4.1 skull-andlong bones 6/53 11.3 2/53 3.7 3/73 4.1 disarticulated 0 0 1/53 1.8 1/73 1.3 bundle 1/53 1.8 3/53 5.6 2/73 2.7 urn 0 0 1/53 1.8 0 0 cremation 0 0 1/53 1.8 0 0 jar 0 0 0 0 2/73 2.7 vessel over remains 13/53 24.5 0 0 51/73 69.8 box 1/53 1.8 0 0 0 0 long-bonesonly 6/53 11.3 0 0 0 0 Figure 25: Comparison of Pensacola to Classic Fort Walton and Mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola Burial Types. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 PrimarySecondaryMass & Multiple Vessel Box Pensacola Classic FW Mixed FW 85


Table 47: Comparison of Pensacola and All Fort Walton Burial Types. Pensacola Fort Walton Burial Type Number of Burials Approximate Percentage Number of Burials Approximate Percentage extended 11/53 20.7 21/126 16.6 flexed 0 0 2/126 1.5 semi-flexed 0 0 14/126 11.1 multiple 6/53 11.3 7/126 5.5 mass 1/53 1.8 6/126 4.7 skull-only 8/53 15.0 9/126 7.1 skull-andlong bones 6/53 11.3 5/126 3.9 disarticulated 0 0 2/126 1.5 bundle 1/53 1.8 5/126 3.9 urn 0 0 1/126 .7 cremation 0 0 1/126 .7 jar 0 0 2/126 1.5 vessel over remains 13/53 24.5 51/126 40.4 box 1/53 1.8 0 0 long-bonesonly 6/53 11.3 0 0 Figure 26: Comparison of Pensacola to Combined Fort Walton Burial Types. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 PrimarySecondaryMass & Multiple Vessel Box Pensacola Fort Walton 86 At Bear Point there are two very unusual bur ials. There is a possibility that the bones from Burial 28 were buried in a wooden box. Considering that Bear Point dates to post contact, this burial type might reflect European burial conventions of the use of coffins. Unfortunately, only dust remained of the wooden part. It would have been interesting to know the dimensions of the box, to assess better the idea of European


87 influence. Also, Moore desc ribes a burial that containe d bitum en. Burial 30 was a particularly wealthy burial interred with bitumen and prestigious goods, including 12 silver buttons, a Mexican silver coin, and d ecorated sheet brass/copper. The bitumen at Bear Point may have served the same purpose as the resin found at the Fort Walton site St. Marks Lookout Tower. Cranial modification was present with so me of the individuals, unlike the Rood burials. Due to the small sample it is not possible to determine if intentional or unintentional cranial modification was associated with European contact or high-status. Moreover, there were caches of potte ry at Hickory Ridge, Navy Liveoak, and Eighteen Mile Point. These caches may be a unique Pensacola characteristic since they occur at Pensacola sites and mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola sites (Fort Walton Temple Mound, Chambless, Cemetery near Point Wash ington, and Johnson), but never at classic Fort Walton sites. However, only Pensacola sites were capped by layers of sherds (Hickory Ridge, Navy Liveoak, a nd Eighteen Mile Point). An important note, of the Pensacola sites discussed here, three sites are located in Florida and one in Alabama. It is possible that sites farther west from the Fort Walton area in the center of northwest Florida may have different burial patterns. In the future, it is especially important to conduct a more co mprehensive study of Pensacola burials. Conclusion Based on the current data on the Rood Ph ases, it seems that this is another Mississippian variant similar to Fort Walton cu lture, but not the same. Ceramic studies show that most Rood ceramics are shell-tempered, and only Rood II contains mostly grittempered pottery, but many types are differe nt from Fort Walton types. Although the


88 burial sam ple represented here is very sma ll, there were several practices that were strikingly different when compared to Fort Walton culture, such as the dye-stained teeth, the sitting position observed at Cemochechob ee, and the presence of an altar at Cool Branch. Pensacola culture, on the other hand, shares many similarities with Fort Walton. The main distinctions are the capping of a few burial sites with sherds, the lack of flexed and semi-flexed positions, and the dominance of secondary burials. It is possible that the small sample of Pensacola burials may have sk ewed the overall picture or even the small amount of data on Fort Walton burials. Re gardless, a complete study of all Rood and Pensacola burials should be conducted to ai d in determining if these cultures are distinctive from Fort Walton.


89 CHAPTE R 5 COMPARISON OF FORT WALTON BU RIAL DATA WITH BURIALS AT SELECTED MISSISSIPPIAN CEREMONIAL CENTERS Introduction The largest and most famous Mississ ippian ceremonial centers are Etowah, Moundville, and Spiro, because of the con centration of Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC) artifacts at th ese sites, though the materials and themes vary from site to site (Figure 1). To gain perspective of Fort Walton burial practices, it is necessary to compare them to the greater Mississippian wo rld, since Fort Walton culture is a local Mississippian variant. These three sites we re chosen for comparison purposes because of the large numbers of burials that were excavated from thes e sites, as well as the fact that the burial data are relatively well documente d. It is especially important in the case of the Lake Jackson site, which contains large amounts of SECC goods, linking it with Etowah, Moundville, and Spir o (Cobb and King 2005:167-192). Etowah Etowah is composed of six mounds (A-F ), but only three mounds contain burials (A-C). Also there is a village which contained burials. A ll of the burial mounds are flattopped pyramidal mounds, while Mounds D th rough F are rectangular to oblong platform mounds. The entire site is surrounded by a moat and bastioned palisade. It was occupied throughout the Mississippian period A.D. 1000-1600, although not continuously. Over 360 burials were unearthed from Mound C al one. Etowah is well known for elaborate

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90 mortuary artifacts that w ere recovered fr om Mound C, such as copper plates and headdresses and flint swords, associated with the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Individual burials located in the village n ear Mound A and intrusive burials in Mound B have not been studied as t horoughly as the burials from M ound C, although the burials from Mounds A and B date to the early histor ic period. More extensive excavations were conducted at Mound C, although Mound A is th e largest of the mounds (Larson 1971; King 2003:50-80). Consequently, the majority of the discussion on Etowah will be devoted to the burials and exotic artifact s from Mound C. Table 48 shows the various interment types and artifacts that were discovered at Etowah. Table 48: Burial Data from Etowah. Burial Types Artifacts log tombs, extended, disarticulated, multiple shell beads, shell gorgets, copper headdresses and ornaments, chert blades, ceramic vessels, columella jewelry, necklaces, hairpins, turtle shell and mica ornaments, rattles, axes, stone and copper celts, pipes, shell bowls, and bone tools Burials from Mound C can be reduced to two categories: those associated with a construction phase and those that are intrusive at the base. Burials associated with the early construction phase of Mound C were simp ler than in the final construction phase. Most of these burials were pits or pits lined with limestone blocks, most of which did not contain burials good, but those th at did typically had shell beads and occasionally shell gorgets. However, there were a few burials that consisted of elaborate mortuary offerings, such as headdresses and copper or naments, chert blades, and ceramic vessels (King 2003:68).

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91 All final m antle burials were primary buria ls, usually of one i ndividual, placed in square or rectangular pits, totaling about 100 burials. Not all mantle graves contained burial goods, however those that did usually fell into two categories those with ornaments or with weapons. Some of the ornaments include copper ear ornaments, necklaces of shell beads, engraved shell go rgets, columella jewelry, copper-plated wood beaded necklaces, headdresses and hair pins, turtle shell and mica ornaments, and rattles made of copper and wood. Weapons/ceremonial items recovered from the mantle burials include monolithic axes, spatulate celts, st one celts, copper celts, and copper-covered stone celts. There were a fe w burials that contained items that do not fit into the other two categories, including ceramic vessels, shell bowls, and stone paint palettes. It is interesting to note that it was ra re to find pottery with any of the burial types in Mound C. These items are utilita rian, whereas most of the arti facts in Mound C are luxurious ceremonial items. The majority of the fi nal mantle burials were organized in an interesting pattern. They were placed end to end with the long axes on the side, parallel to the sides of the mound. Almost all of th ese burials were extended. In addition, there were very few burials that intruded on one another, thus all of the burials were constructed at the same time or were marked (Larson 1971:61-64). Another significant burial that preceded the final mantle bur ials is a log tomb (Burial 57). The tomb was composed of a wall of vertical log posts about 40 inches high and the floor covered with walnut planks with poles constructed for the roof, enclosing an area of eight square feet. On ly one individual was interred, a large male, in association with a multitude of artifacts: two copper axes eight large conch shell bowls, five copper plates, a plethora of shell beads, two copper ear disks, and an engraved bird person

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92 motif shell g orget. After the deceased and funerary objects were placed in the tomb, a small mound of clay was used to encl ose the tomb and the palisade line was reconstructed, extending around the grave. Fi ve feet northeast from the log tomb was a seven foot deep pit containing an extended pr imary burial of a female. Her grave goods pale in comparison to those of the male in the log tomb: only a plain ceramic vessel, strings of shell beads around th e ankles, wrists, and neck, a lthough it is possible that there were perishable grave goods. Six feet northwe st of the log burial is another pit, but shallow about 18 inches deep, that contai ned seven individuals all in an extended position, but the remains were poorly preserved so age and sex determinations were not possible (Larson 1971:64). Burial 38 bears a striking resemblance to Burial 57, since it is also a log tomb constructed in the same manner as the form er, though it lacked floorboards. However, Burial 38 contained the remains of 4 indi viduals all in an extended position, one individual next to all four sides of the tomb. Each person was accompanied by a headdress with copper ornaments, hawk skins an d other feathers, in addition to a pair of copper-covered wooden ear disks and a c opper celt with a wooden handle (Larson 1971:65). One of the last burials constructed in Mound C before Etowah was abandoned showed signs of haste in th e burial arrangement, which may have been the result of Etowah being attacked. Burial 15 was also a log tomb, but it contained the disarticulated remains of four individuals, who had been scattered across the floor along with numerous artifacts, including copper ear spools, shell b eads, copper ornaments, antler projectiles, stone and clay pipes. The most famous arti facts recovered from this burial are the large

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93 painted m arble statues of a male and female. Both of the statues were broken, as if they had been thrown in the burial. It is believe d that these statues represent the elite family who ruled at Etowah (King 2003:79-80). Blakelys (1977) demographic study illustra tes the social stratification of the burial population within the chie fdom at Etowah. Samples from the burial populations in Mound C (n=171) and Etowah village (n= 76) depict two very different mortality profiles. The profile at the Etowah vill age indicates a stable population, drastically contrasting with Mound C, where child ren and adolescents are statistically underrepresented. In addition, there is about a 1:1 ratio of male to female in the village population, but there is an une qual ratio at Mound C with more males being present 94:71; however, a chi-square test revealed that this ratio does not deviate significantly from the expected 1:1 ratio (Blakely 1977:45-66). Moundville About 3051 burials had been excavated at Moundville at the time that Peebles (1977) wrote his dissertation, 801 by C. B. Moore and 2249 by the Alabama Museum of Natural History from 1929 to 1951. Curre ntly, about 1,500 individuals from Moundville are curated at the Laboratory for Human Osteology at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. Remains recovered from Moores excavations were transferred in the 1920s from the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science to the Museum of the American Indian in New York, and were deaccessioned. Powell (1991) wanted to conduct research on the skeletal remains and attempted to lo cate these remains but was unsuccessful. Consequently, she was only able to anal yze the remains excavated by the Alabama Museum of Natural History. Steponaitis (1998 :26-43) was able to date 505 burials from

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94 Moundville based on associated pottery. Based on his ceramic analysis, he estim ates the percentage of burials associated with each Moundville period seven percent Moundville I (A.D. 1050-1250), 38 percent Moundville II (A.D. 1250-1400), 53 percent Moundville III (A.D. 1400-1500), and less than 2 percen t Moundville IV (A.D. 1550-1650). Thus, most of the burials examined by Ste ponaitis (1998) date to A.D. 1400-1650. Peebles has done most of the research and interpretation about the burials at Moundville. Peebless dissertation (1977:80) fo cuses on a sample of 2053 individuals. Burials were uncovered in nume rous different places, except the main plaza, although the density of burials greatly varies. Most of the burials came from in and around the numerous mounds (B, C, D, E, G, F, N, J, and P). There were areas north of the main plaza that were cemeteries and the plaza ma rgins contained charnel houses used to deflesh the corpses. Village areas had a low density of burials (Peebles 1977:80-81). The burial sample that Peebles utilized in his study consisted of 77.2 percent adults (18 years and up), 13 percent child ren (2-17 years), and 6.4 percen t infants (0-1 years). Age was a significant factor in the placement of the burials. There were more adults and fewer infants and children in the mounds th an in the cemeteries (Peebles 1977:83). Moundville was the subject of McKenzies (1965) dissertation but he did not go into much depth at all about th e burials. He did state that the orientation was random, but his sample only included 224 burials. However, Peebles (1977:85-86) shows that it was not random: 895 of the 2053 burials have orient ation data: 269 (30 pe rcent) heads were oriented toward east, with the majority of the 895 burials (84.25 percent) facing north, east, or south. It seems that the orientati on is linked to the placement at the site. Northern areas tend to be oriented to the east, and the farther south of Mound B the more

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95 variable the orientat ion becom es. Single inhumations account for 80.6 percent in mounds and 74.9 percent in the cemeteries. There is no significant difference between the two (Peebles 1977:86). The majority (85.6 percen t) of burials was not associated with buildings; however, near the northwest corner of the plaza was a concentration of isolated skull burials. Most of the burials are primary (50.9 pe rcent), but 9.4 percen t are bundle burials and 6.0 percent are isolated skull burials (Table 49). Also, there were two mandible-only burials and four cremations. Cemeteries contained mostly primary burials, whereas the mounds contained mostly secondary, bundle bur ials, and isolated skulls. Extended position accounts for 90 percent of the primary inhumations, and 10 percent were either partially or fully flexed. Over 94 percent were interred on their backs and less than 6 percent on their right or left side or face dow n. The form of the burial is significantly associated with the age of the individual. Most secondary burials are adults, but the age is not a significant factor with the position, orientation, presence of grave goods, or inclusion of a multiple burial. More females were partially flexed and a few were fully flexed. Sex was not a significant factor with th e form (primary or secondary), orientation, presence of grave goods, or inclusion of a mu ltiple burial. The burial form (primary or secondary) is significantly associated with th e inclusion of mortuary artifacts. Secondary burials are less likely to have mortuary artifacts. In addition, secondary burials are more likely to be a part of a multiple burial. Grave goods accompanied 41.1 percent of burials in mounds and 37.7 percent in cemeteries, which was not a significant difference (Peebles 1977:92). Almost all technomic artifacts were found in the cem eteries: hammerstones, grinding stones,

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96 whetrocks, projectile points, stone celts and axes, bone awls and fishhooks. Also pendants m ade from animals teeth, effigy vessels, and raw materials (stone and bone) were found almost exclusively in the cemeter ies. Bowls, water bottles and jars were found in both mounds and cemeteries, whereas decorated bowls and water bottles were found mostly in mounds. There is no signifi cant difference in the number of projectile points which were contained in burials from the mounds and cemeteries. Items associated with the SECC were also found in the mounds and cemeteries. However, large copper axes, copper hair ornaments, cere monial celts, and ceremonial flints were exclusively found in associati on with burials in the mounds. Copper-clad cylinders of wood or bone were exclusively found with burials in cemeteries (Peebles 1977:93). Peebles (1977:94) claims that the skull bur ials in many instances were artifacts to accompany other burials. Toy vessels (miniatures) were only found with infants and crude clay figurines were only found with children. Child ren and adolescents were associated with small bone awls. Decorated vessels, most e ffigy vessels, technomic artifacts, pipes, minerals, and paints were associated with adults (Peebles 1977:95). Most SECC items were found only with adults, but not all: stone disks, palettes, and pearl beads were only buried with adults; copper gor gets were found with adults and infants, and shell beads with individuals of all ages (Peebles 1977:9596). Infants found in mounds had no grave goods, but according to Peebles were mostly r itual accompaniments (s acrifices) to central burials.

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97 Table 49: Summary of Moundvilles Mortuary Data. Age Burial Types Artifacts Adults.2 % children% infants.4% extended, flexed, semiflexed, bundle, skull-only, cremations, and multiple stone and bone tools, celts, effigy vessels, bowls, water bottles, jars, copper axes, copper ornaments, ceremonial flints, copper cylinders, pipes, pigments, pearl beads, copper gorgets, and copper plates Of the 778 burials in this sample that contain grave goods, 719 were chosen by Peebles (1977:96) for cluster an alyses. Cluster analysis rev ealed the hierarchical nature of Moundville society with ten different clusters (Table 50). Table 50: Results of Peebless Clus ter Analysis of Moundville Burials. Cluster Number Predominant Types of Burial Goods Percentage of Adults Percentage of Children Percentage of Infants I SECC 95.6 4.4 0 II shell, copper, galena 77.2 14.0 8.8 III effigy vessels, decorated bowls and pots, toys 74.6 7.5 7.9 IV stone and ceramic discodials, large bone awls, projectile points 84.8 8.7 6.5 V plain pots and jars 72.9 18.8 8.3 VI plain water bottles 86.9 13.1 0 VII plain water bottles 87.8 10.2 2 VIII plain bowls 67.9 21.4 10.7 IX decorated water bottles 97.7 2.3 0 X large sherds 86 10.5 3.5 In Cluster I, burials were associated with the prestigious SECC, which included exotic items such as engraved copper plates The majority of these burials were in mounds and in cemeteries north of the pl aza (Peebles 1977:130-131). Cluster II, the

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98 second wealthiest burials, contained mostly sh ell, but also copper gorgets and galena; however, this also contained the second highest percentage of infants (Peebles 1977:131). Cluster III w as dominated by the presence of effigy vessels in 79.5 percent of all the burials for this group, but some of the bur ials also contained decorated bowls (10.9 percent), decorated pots or jars (1.4 percen t), and toy vessels (3.3 percent) (Peebles 1977:132). Also, 17.4 percent of the burials c ontained un-worked shell and unmodified animal bone and 3.8 percent contained mica (Peebles 1977:133). These burials were located throughout the site. Among burials in Cluster IV, 50 percent were associated with stone or pottery discoidals, large bone awls (46 percent), projectile points (26 percent), red paint (8 percen t) and un-worked bone (6 pe rcent) (Peebles 1977:134). Ninety-four percent of these burials were lo cated in the village and cemeteries. In Cluster V, 94.5 percent of these burials contai ned plain pots or jars (Peebles 1977:135). In Cluster VI, 100 percent of the burials cont ained plain water bottles, 82.2 percent with plain bowls and 44.4 percent had plain pots or jars. Burials from this group were found throughout the site. Cluster VII also had 100 percent of the burials in this group contained plain water bottles; these burials were located in the cemeteries and mounds (Peebles 1977:136-137). Cluster VIII all had pl ain bowls and the lowest percentage of adults. In addition, this group was almost exclusively from the village and cemetery areas (Peebles 1977:137). Cluster IX was do minated by decorated water bottles (97.8 percent). Finally, Cluster X contained mostly large sherds (97.1 percent) and none from this group came from m ounds (Peebles 1977:138). Clusters I and II have the majority of the exotic or imported materials, and Cluster III is defined by the presence of shell gorgets and ceremonial celts, which are also high-

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99 status item s (Peebles 1977:139). Clusters I through III represent the presumed highest ranking individuals. Seventy percent of buria ls in the mounds come from Clusters I through III, few from Clusters IV through IX and none from Cluster X. The majority of the burials was located in Cluster IV through X, and was distributed throughout the cemetery and village areas. In addition, tec hnomic items dominate Clusters IV through X (Peebles 1977:141). In general, then, the least complex buria ls are located farther away from the main plaza; the more complex bur ials are located nearer the main plaza especially in areas north of Mound B; and the richest burials are found in the mounds (Peebles 1977:140; Peebles and Kus 1977:438-439) However, most of the society (sixty-two percent of burials ) had no grave goods regardless of age (Peebles 1977:190). Table 51 summarizes Peebless results. Overall, Clusters I, VI, VIII, and IX have fewer infants than expected and Clusters II, III, V and VII have more infants and children than expected. Clusters IV and X have a pproximately the expected number of adults, children and infants. In general, infants a nd children were excluded from clusters defined by decorated water bottles; infants were ex cluded from those groups with plain water bottles, sherds, or bone awls. [T]he soci al identities mirrored by these artifacts are not open to membership from all ages (Peebles 1977:184). When Powell (1991:27-28) studied the M oundville remains, she maintained the same ratio that Peebles observed between adults and subadults; 140 subadults (24.8 percent) and 424 adults (75.2 percent) were used for this study. Among this sample, subadults were generally more complete th an adults. Powell (1991:29) concurs with Peebless observation that s ubadults are seriously underrepresented. The life tables composed by Weiss (1973) for anthropologica l populations show th at those under the age

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100 of fifteen should m ake up 30 to 50 of th e population, whereas in this sample, 110/564 (19.5 percent) are 15 years old or younger. Spiro The Spiro site is located in Oklahoma and c onsists of a village and a series of nine mounds. The earthworks present at this site are buried ch arnel houses, platform mounds, and burial mounds. Burials were recovered from four different cont exts: top and flanks of platform mounds, cemeteries, charnel house, and burial m ounds. Dates for the burials range from approximately A.D. 700-1450. Un fortunately, the major early excavations were conducted by looters, who destr oyed valuable data (Brown 1971:92-112; 1996a:183-191). Craig Mound is the most famous burial mound at Spiro due to the extensive excavations that revealed its contents, about 800 burials, many of which included impressive burial goods, hence the name the Great Mortuary. Buri al practices were extremely diverse, including primary (ext ended, flexed, semi-flexed), dismembered skeletons, skull-only, mass/multiple burials, va rious bundle burials, litter burials, copper plate, container burial ( jar and box), burials with numerous amounts of conch shell, and cremation. Most of the burials from Spiro were either mass burials or disarticulated scattered remains (Brown 1971:92-112; 1996a:183-191). Brown (1996a:183-191; 1996b: 299-316) desc ribes each of these types: Semi-flexed and articulated three bu rials were excavated where the deceased was laid on his or her back with the knees brought up to the pe lvic area. Single burials of this type were found at the foot of mounds and in the cemetery.

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101 Flexed and semi-flexed, partly disartic ulated 11 burials belong to this group, which is defined as being composed of burials where the main individual is articulated, but is associated with the remains of one or two disarticulated or cremated remains of one to two other individuals. Such groups were buried typically in isolated pits in a cemetery or mounds. Extended, partly disarticulated 19 interm ents that consist of a skull with a few limb bones. Multiple parallel, extended burials 30 burials consisted of several individuals in an extended position all parallel and oriented in the same direction. Some of the remains were disarticulated. Mass and multiple burials, partly disarticulated or completely disarticulated the over whelming majority, about 600, burials fa ll under this category. The number of individuals buried together ranges from 2 to 32, with the average being 15.8. Some of the skeletal remains included are flexed, se mi-flexed, and extended. Most of these mass burials were placed in large pits located in the cemetery. Disarticulated bones with marine shel l an unknown number of burials, where disarticulated bones of one of more indivi duals intermingled with artifacts, always included broken conch shell cups. This type is specific to the Great Mortuary context. Skull-only burials 23 isolated single or multiple crania were typically found in the mantle of the Craig Mound. Various bundle burialsThere were fi ve instances of long-bones of multiple individuals laid parallel to one another. There were also several different types of bundle burials totaling 26 burials that were all unparalleled: long bones only; groups of long

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102 bones, skull, and pelvis; stacks of bones from multiple individuals; and long-bones and skull. Litter burials eight different litters made of cedar poles contained fragmentary remains along with luxury goods, including co nch shell cups, ceramic cups, and shell beads. With few exceptions, these burials only consisted of the remains of one individual. These burials were only unearthed in mounds. Conch shell burials resemble litter burials without the presence of cedar poles. Conch shell burials consist of compact depos its of conch shell cups and ceramic cups, which were mixed with human bones and other artif acts. It is thought that these are litter burials, but the wood has decaye d, especially since there were only four of this burial type. Copper plate burials bone fragments are associated with one or more copper headdress plates. Archaeologists uncovered 13 different burials, in which plates were placed over the human remains, usually only cr ania. These burials were also associated with perishable artifacts such as cane flat w eave mats, leather, textiles, and feathers. Copper plate burials were pr obably bundle burials that were wrapped in leather and textiles and then placed in baskets. This burial type is present in Craig Mound and is often confused with litter burials because they occasionally contain conch shell cups and shell beads. Chest burials few incidents of this type occur among the prestigious burials in the Craig Mound. Engraved shells and coppe r artifacts, among other high-status items were interred with human remains in wooden chests.

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103 Jar burials there were three instances of skeletal remains in jars, usually bones from hands and feet. These may have come from some of the flexed and semi-flexed remains that were missing these bones or fr om possibly trophies taken from a population outside of Spiro. Cremations there were seven examples of this burial type. Cremations were always in association with other burials. Thes e burials were probably originally placed in containers and may be an alternative to the jar burials previo usly discussed. All of the burial data is summarized in Table 51. Table 51: Summary of Spiros Burial Practices. Burial Type No. of Burials Semi-flexed and articulated 3 flexed and semi-flexed, partly disarticulated 11 extended, partly disarticulated 19 multiple parallel, extended 30 mass and multiple, partly or completely disarticulated about 600 disarticulated with marine shell unknown skull-only 23 various types of bundle burials 31 litter burials 8 conch shell burials 4 copper plate burials 13 chest burials few jar burials 3 cremation 7 Skeletal analysis also produced inte resting facts concerning demographics. Children were statistically underrepresented, as was the case at Etowah and Moundville. Less than seven percent were under the age of 20 years and about two percent were younger than 14 years of age. When children were present they tended to be buried with adults, but only in low-status graves, and us ually the bones were disarticulated. It has

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104 been suggested that since the bones of children were only scraps that they were accidental burial inclus ions, similar to mound fill containing scraps of deer bone that were interred with adults. Due to poor preservation and th e fragmentary nature of the majority of the remains, identifying the sex of individuals wa s not possible, thus no patterns relating to gender could be established (Brown 1971: 92-112, 1996a:183-191; Brues 1996:317-324). The most sumptuous burials were found in the Great Mortuary feature of the Craig mound. More conch shell, copper and carved stone was recovered from Craig Mound alone than any other major Mississipp ian ceremonial centers. Some of the artifacts recovered were pieces of baskets, te xtiles, numerous projectile points, thousands of shell beads, hundreds of pearl beads, a nd thousands of shell cup fragments. The central chamber of Craig Mound appears to be a constructed vault in the interior of the mound that housed the most prestigious Spiro elite. WPA excavators noted that the soil around the cavity was much harder in comparison to the other parts of the mound. It seems probable that there must have been a sp ecial construction that protected the burials from the crushing weight of the mound and deterioration, especia lly considering the incredible preservation of perishable items in the chamber. A total of 42 elite burials were unearthed from this cavity. Among th e most elite burials, skeletons were dismembered and either place on a wooden li tter or placed in a wooden chest with engraved shells and copper artifacts (Brown 1996a:85-103; Peterson 1989:114-121). Summary It is clear that among Mississippian sites, a wide variety of interment types were employed as shown by Fort Walton, Rood, Pensacola, and Mississippian centers (Table 52). I chose to examine the burial patterns from Etowah, Moundville, and Spiro because

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105 there was a multitude of skeletal data av ailable for these sites, although there are hundreds of other Mississippian sites. Of all the sites discussed, Spir o exhibited the most variation of burial types. On the other hand, the overwhelming majority of burials at Spiro were mass and multiple burials of partially or completely disarticulated individuals, whereas, the singular, extended burials dom inated at Etowah and Moundville. Table 52: Burial Data Summary from Three Mississippian Centers. Site Name Site Type Interment Type Etowah pyramidal mounds, village log tombs, extended, disarticulated, multiple Moundville burial mounds, cemeteries, village extended, flexed, semi-flexed, bundle, skullonly, multiple, cremation Spiro platform and burial mounds, cemeteries, village extended, flexed, semi-flexed, dismembered, skull-only, mass, multiple, bundle, long bone bundle, litter burials, container burials, cremation Most of the burial types demonstrated at Etowah, Moundville, and Spiro were also present at many of the Fort Walton s ites, and some of the Rood and Pensacola. However, neither the log tombs at Etowah nor the copper plate burials at Spiro are observed at Fort Walton sites, though both have traits similar to burials at Lake Jackson. There are several other Spiro buria l practices that are similar in some respects. Jar burials usually included hands and feet at Spiro, how ever at Chambless (Fort Walton) crania were found lodged in vessels and the remains of an infant were in an urn at Marsh Island (Fort Walton). Few occurrences of cremation were reported at Spiro, which was also the case with Rood and Fort WaltonRoods Landing (Rood) and Marsh Island (Fort Walton). Spiro shell cup deposit burials consisted of numerous broken conch shell cups with the remains of disarticul ated individuals. At the Johns on site (Fort Walton), a cache of 17 shell cups was discovered, but it is not stated if the cache was in association with

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106 any of the burials in the m ound, although it is highly probable. Nevertheless, at Johnson, there were not any disarticulated remains, only bundles, bowl over bundles, and urns. In addition, there were a few cases of burials at Spiro contained in wooden chests. Sim ilarly, at Bear Point (Pensacola) human bones, along with glass beads seem to have been packed into a wooden box, although only dus t, iron nails, and clamps remain of the box itself. It would be intere sting to know if this was the result of European influence, although there are no such burials at any of the Fort Walton sites that date to European contact, and Spiro is also pre-contact. The most prestigious goods recovered fr om Moundville, Etowah, and Spiro were placed in mounds. Such is the case also with Lake Jackson, containing the highest elite Fort Walton people. It seems that even am ong burials classified as elite, they can be further divided by those that contain copious amounts of purely luxury goods and those that contain some luxury and some utilitarian items (based on our modern, possibly ethnocentric definitions). Graves at Lake Jackson resemble those at Etowah, Moundville, and Spiro with regard to the SECC items. And the actual organi zation of the Lake Jackson burials is reminiscent of Etowahs log tombs, Spiro litter burials, and Spiro copper plate burials. The burials at Lake Jack son were placed in pits with floors covered with split logs; there were no wooden poles like the log tombs from Etowah. One individual at Lake Jackson was buried in a w ooden litter similar to the eight discovered at Spiro. Finally, the elite at La ke Jackson were covered in clothing, mats, and leather and were interred with copper plates and a wide variety of exotic goods. This is almost exactly like the copper plate bu rials at Spiro, the main diff erence being that the Lake

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107 Jackson burials were prim ary (extended, flexe d, and semi-flexed), whereas those at Spiro were secondary (bundle burials). Presumably utilitarian items, such as ceramic vessels, were rarely buried with the most prestigious burials as seen at Lake Jackson, Moundville, Spiro, and Etowah, although, pottery was frequently interred with other elite Fort Walton individuals. Pigments present in some elite Fort Walton and Pensacola burials were only mentioned to be with some adult burials at Moundville (Cluster IV). Though these burials at Moundville included other artifacts, they were not as opulent as those seen at Lake Jackson. With regard to gender, not much can be said about these Mississippian chiefdoms because analysis of relationships between sex and elite burials has not been conducted. However, there is some indication that Fort Walton burials of adult females with highstatus goods may suggest gender complementarity or even women chiefs (Marrinan and White 2007). On the other hand, more is known about differences resu lting from age. Children and infants are statistically underrepr esented in populations at Etowah (Mound C), Moundville, and Spiro and were commonl y found in lower-status burials. At Moundville, fewer infants and children were in mounds than in cemeteries, since mounds typically contained more prestigious adults. Peebles argues that infants with no burial goods are ritual accompaniments to adult burials; however, it is difficult to produce evidence to support such a claim. Yet, some SECC objects were buried with subadults at Moundville. At Spiro, most subadults are us ually buried with adults, and only in lowstatus graves, generally disarticulated.

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108 It cannot be established if subadults are underrepresented at Fort Walton sites due to the small sample size, or because age was not determined for most of the remains. However, this trend in these Mississippian chiefdoms is in striking contrast to the situations at St. Marks Lookout Tower (F ort Walton) and Fort Walton Temple Mound (Fort Walton), which are dominated by infant s and children many of which are buried with prestigious objects However, toy vessels were found with infants at Moundville, which were also discovere d at Fort Walton Temple Mound and St. Marks Lookout Tower, both of which are mounds. A miniat ure Pensacola Incised vessel was found in association with disturbed bones at Fort Walton Temple Mound, which probably were that of a subadult since most of the remains we re of subadults. Toy pots were also said to have accompanied children at St. Marks Lookout Tower. The presence and handling of elite artifacts are equally important for understanding a site. This is apparent at Tomb 15 which was di sorganized, unlike the other, wealthier burials. It contained multip le individuals with el ite goods that appeared to be carelessly thrown into the burial and broken. Cool Branch (Rood) was also a wealthy burial site that contained many indivi duals and was located in a buried charnel house, analogous to Spiro, which also contained burials in charne l houses. Warfare has been offered as an explanation to Etowahs Tomb 15; warfare could also apply to Cool Branch. There is much variation at Mississippian burial sites. There does not appear to be standardization of burial pract ices anywhere in the Mississippian world. Fort Walton burials are comparable to those at other Mi ssissippian sites in many regards, though there are regional differences. It is possible that different conclu sions could have been reached

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109 if a sample of burial sites that were not ceremonial sites had been chosen. Future scholarship would be greatly aided by an extensive study of Mississippian burial practices.

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110 CHAPTE R 6 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE STUDIES Examining Fort Walton burial data revealed interesting patterns. Variation is the dominant pattern observed in Fort Walton buri al practices, with 14 different burial types observed. Overall, primary burials appear to be more prominent among classic Fort Walton sites, whereas mixed sites contained mos tly remains that were topped by vessels. Most of the burial sites contained elite burials, with most elite burials being interred in burial mounds, sim ilar to other Mississippian cult ures. Of all the Fort Walton sites, Lake Jackson is the most similar to the major Mississippian ceremonial centers. Clearly there was communication and trad e occurring between these sites. Another interesting occurrence is the high-status burials of women at Lake Jackson and Corbin-Tucker, which might suggest gender equality or complementarity. In addition, the burials at the Fort Walton Te mple Mound and St. Marks Lookout Tower are significant because most of the burials contain the remains of infants and children, some of which were buried with elite goods. Fort Walton Temple Mound and St. Marks Lookout Tower are both protohistoric sites. Spanish influence could explain these interesting sites, since at many historic sites children are buried with grave goods. Furthermore, Spanish disease could have kill ed off the children in the population. There is also some indication that Spanish influen ce and disease could also be the reason for the high occurrence of secondary and mass burials among historic Fort Walton sites.

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111 Pensacola and Fort W alton burial sites bear strong resemblance to one another. The main divergences at Pensacola sites are the practice of capping burials with sherds and the lack of flexed and semi-flexed burials There is also a trend with mixed Fort Walton/Pensacola and Pensacola sites, which are dominated by secondary burials, whereas classic Fort Walton sites have a mi xture of primary and secondary burials. Caches of pottery were also present at some transitional and Pensacola burial sites, but absent from all of the classic Fort Walt on burial sites. Rood-Phase burials appear peculiar in comparison to Fort Walton practices, specifically, the dyeing of teeth at Cemochechobee and chaotic elite burial at Cool Branch. Ceramic studies of Rood sites reveal that only Rood II sites contai n mostly Fort Walton ceramics. Reexamination of the definition of Fort Walton culture is in order to address concerns with Pensacola culture. Based on current understandings it is difficult to handle the sites that have mixtures of Fort Walton a nd Pensacola-Series ceramics. A study of the ceramics from sites excavated by Moore would help to clarify if Fort Walton-series or Pensacola-se ries ceramics dominated certain sites where Moore did not illustrate the ceramics. Furthermore, studies should be conducted to compare Pensacola to Fort Walton and to the larger Mississippia n tradition. A follow-up study of this thesis is necessary to compile all known Pensaco la and Rood burials for comparison purpose with Fort Walton burial sites. In addition, extens ive research of Mi ssissippian burials, both elite and non-elite, may yield interesting results. Finally, a reassessment of skeletal remain s from the Fort Walton sites that were not originally examined for pathology, age, a nd sex, in conjunction with field notes, is necessary to understand Fort Walton culture better. This is especially important for the

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112 sites that Moore excavated and the others that were poorly docum ented. These skeletal remains could provide more significant inform ation regarding the social status of Fort Walton women and children. New data may also assist in formulating interpretations about Spanish influence on burial patterns from disease and/or culture.

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113 REFE RENCES Adams, Grey L. and William C. Lazarus 1960 Two Skulls from a Fort Walton Period Ce metery Site (OK-35). The Florida Anthropologist 13(4):109-114. Belovich, Stephanie J. 1982 Appendix D. Human Skeletal Remains from the Curlee Site. In The Curlee site (8Ja7) and Fort Walton development in the upper Apalachicolalower Chattahoochee Valley by Nancy White, pp. 340345. Ph. D. dissertation Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland. Blakely, Robert L. 1977 Biocultural Implica tions of Demographic Data fr om Etowah, Georgia. In Bioculturual Adaptation in Prehistoric America edited by Robert L. Blakely, pp. 45-66. Southern Anthropological Soci ety Proceedings No.11. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Blitz, John H. and Karl G. Lorenz 2006 The Chattahoochee Chiefdoms University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Brose, David S. 1985 Willey-Nilly or Archaeology of Northwest Florida and Adjacent Borderlands Revisited. In Archaeology of Northwest Florida and Adjacent Borderlands, edited by Nancy White, pp. 156-162. Florid a Anthropological Society Publications No. 11, Florida Anthropologist 38 Brown, James A. 1971 The Dimensions of Status in the Burials at Spiro. In Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices, edited by James A. Brown, pp. 92-112. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology No. 25. 1996a The Spiro Ceremonial Center The Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern Oklahoma,Vol. 1 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 1996b The Spiro Ceremonial Center. The Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern OklahomaVol. 2 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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114 Brues, Alice M. 1996 Skeletal Analysis. In The Spiro Ceremonial Center. T he Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern Oklahoma, Vol. 2 edited by James A. Brown, pp. 317324. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Buikstra, Jane E. and Douglas H. Ubelaker 1994 Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains Arkansas Archaeological Survey, Fayetteville. Bullen, Ripley P. 1958 Six Sites Near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Woodruff Reservoir Area, Florida. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 169 (14):315-357. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Byers, Steven N. 2005 Introduction to Forensic Anthropology Pearson Education, Inc., Boston. Caldwell, Joseph R. 1955 Investigations at Rood s Landing, Stewart County, Georgia. Early Georgia 2:2249. Cobb, Charles R. and Adam King 2005 Re-Inventing Mississippian Tradition at Etowah, Georgia. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 12(3):167-192. Curren, Caleb 1984 The Protohistoric Period in Central Alabama. Alabama Tombigbee Regional Commission, Camden, Alabama Du Vernay, Jeffery P., Nancy Marie White, and Amber J. Yuellig 2007 Fort Walton Culture in the Apal achicola Valley, Northwest Florida. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Knoxville. Fairbanks, Charles H. 1965 Excavations at the Fort Walton Temple Mound, 1960. Florida Anthropologist 18 (4):239-264. Florida Division of Archives, History, and Records Management (DAHRM) renamed Florida Division of Hist orical Resources (DHR) n.d. Lookout Tower 8Wa15. Manuscript on file, Florida Master Site, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Fl orida Department of State, Tallahassee. Gardner, William M. 1966 The Waddells Mill Pond Site. Florida Anthropologist 19(2):43-64.

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115 Goggin, John M. 1947 Manifestations of a South Fl orida Cult in Northwest Florida. Am erican Antiquity 12(4):273-276. Griffin, John W. 1947 Comments on a Site in the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, Wakulla County, Florida. American Antiquity 2:182-183. Haisten, Jim and Joan Haisten 1983 Kenslinger-Sellars -8By194 Site form on file, Florida Master Site File, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Fl orida Department of State, Tallahassee. Hill-Clark, Mary C. 1981 A Skeletal Analysis of the Human Burials from 9Cla62. In Cemochechobee: Archaeology of a Mississippian Ceremonial Center on the Chattahoochee River by Frank T. Schnell, Vernon J. Knight, Jr., and Gail S. Schnell, pp. 256-262. Ripley P. Bullen Monographs in Anthr opology and History No. 3. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Huscher, Harold A. 1959 Appraisal of the Archaeological Resource s of the Walter F. George Reservoir Area, Chattahoochee River, Alabama and Georgia River Basin Surveys, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 1963 The Cool Branch Site, 9QU5, Quitman County, Georgia: A Fortified Mississippian Town with Tower Bas tions. Paper presented at the Eastern United States Archaeologi cal Federation, Philadelphia. Jones, B. Calvin 1982 Southern Cult Manifestations at th e Lake Jackson Site, Leon County, Florida: Salvage Excavation of Mound 3. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 7(1):3-44. 1989 Aucilla Shores 10 -8Je622. Site form on file, Florida Mast er Site, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Flor ida Department of St ate, Tallahassee. 1994 The Lake Jackson Mound Complex: Stability and Change in Fort Walton Culture. Florida Anthropologist 47(2):120-146. Jones, B. Calvin and John T. Penman 1973 Winewood: An Inland Ft. Wa lton Site in Tallahassee, Florida. Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties Bulletin No.3, pp. 65-90. Department of State, Tallahassee, Florida.

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116 King, Ada m 2003 Etowah: The Political History of a Chiefdom Capital University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Klingle, David 2006 Burial in Florida: Culture, Ritual, Health, and Status: the Archaic to Seminole Periods. Masters Thesis, Depart ment of Anthropology, Flor ida State University, Tallahassee. Accessed on March 12, 2007. Knight, Vernon James. Jr. 1984 Late Prehistoric Adaptation in the Mobile Bay Region. In Perspectives on Gulf Coast Prehistory edited by Dave D. Davis, pp. 198-215. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville. Larson, Lewis H. 1971 Archaeological Implications of Social Stratification at the Etowah Site, Georgia. In Approaches to the Social Dime nsions of Mortuary Practices edited by James A. Brown, pp. 58-67. Society for American Archaeology, Washington. Lazarus, William C. and J. M. Johnson n.d. Johnson Site -8Wl30. Site form on file, Florida Master Site, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Fl orida Department of State, Tallahassee. Lazarus, Yulee W. and Robert J. Fornaro 1975 Fort Walton Temple Mound (8OK6M) : Further Test Excavations, DePAUW 1973. Florida Anthropologist 28(4):159-177. Lazarus, Yulee W. and Carolyn B. Hawkins 1976 Pottery of the Fort Walton Period Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach, FL. Lazarus, Yulee W., W.C. Lazarus, and Donald W. Sharon 1967 The Navy Liveoak Reservation Cemetery Site, 8Sa36. Florida Anthropologist 20(3-4):103-116. Lewis, T. M. N. 1931 A Florida Burial Mound. Wisconsin Archeologist 10(4):123-128. Magoon, Dane, Lynette Norr, Dale L. Hutchinson, and Charles R. Ewen 2001 An Analysis of Human Skeletal Ma terials from the Snow Beach Site (8WA52). Southeastern Archaeology 20(1):18-31. Mann, Robert W., Steven A. Symes, and William M.Bass 1987 Maxillary Suture Obliteration: Aging th e Hum an Skeleton Based on Intact or Fragmentary Maxilla. Journal of Forensic Science 32:148-157.

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117 Marrinan Rochelle A. and Nancy M. W hite 2007 Modeling Fort Walton Cu lture in Northwest Florida. Southeastern Archaeology 26(2):292-318. Marsh, Elan 2006 Fort Walton Burial Practices in the Apalachicola R iver Valley. Unpublished Undergraduate thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa. McKenzie, Douglas Hugh 1964 The Moundville Phase and Its Positi on in Southeastern Prehistory. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Departm ent of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge. Memory, Melissa and William Stanton 1998 The Last Caw Mound 8Je977. Site form on file, Florida Master Site, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Florida Department of State, Tallahassee. Moore, Clarence B. 1901 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida Coast. Part I. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 11:421-497. 1902 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida Coast. Part II. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 12:127-358. 1903 Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Apalachicola River. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 12:441-492. 1918 The Northwestern Florida Coast Revisited. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 16:514-580. Muller, Jon 1997 Mississippian Political Economy. Plenum Press, New York. Peebles, Christopher S. 1977 Moundville: the Organization of a Prehistoric Community and Culture Ph.D. dissertation, University of Californi a, Santa Barbara. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor. Peebles, Christopher S. and Susan M. Kus 1977 Some Archaeological Correlates of Ranked Societies. American Antiquity 42(3):421-448.

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118 Peterson, Dennis A. 1989A History of Excavations and Interpre tations of Artifacts from the Spiro Mounds Site. In The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex: Artifacts and Analysis. The Cottonlandia Conference edited by Patricia Galloway, pp. 114-121. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. Phillips, John C. 1995 Hickory Ridge: A Mississippian Period Cemetery in Northwest Florida. Florida Anthropologist 48(2):72-96. Powell, Mary Lucas 1991 Ranked Status and Health in the Mississippian Chiefdom at Moundville. In What Mean These Bones? Studies in Southeas tern Bioarchaeology, edited by Mary Lucas Powell, Patricia S. Bridges, and A nn Marie Wagner Mires, pp. 22-51. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Scarry, John Francis 1984 Fort Walton Development: Mississippi an Chiefdoms in the Lower Southeast Ph.D. dissertation, Case Western Reserv e University, Cleveland. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor. Schnell, Frank T., Vernon J. Knight, and Gail S. Schnell 1981 Cemochechobee: Archaeology of a Missi ssippian Ceremonial Center on the Chattahoochee River Ripley P Bullen Monographs in Anthropology and History No. 3. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Sears, William H. 1977 Prehistoric Culture Areas and Cu lture Change on the Gulf Coast Plain. In For the Director: Research Essays in Honor of James B. Griffin edited by C. E. Cleland, pp. 152-185. Anthropological Paper N o. 61. University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor. Sheldon, Craig T. 1974 The Mississippian-Historic Trans ition in Central Alabama Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, Euge ne. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor. Smith, Bruce D. 1990 The Mississippian Emergence Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. Steponaitis, Vincas P. 1998 Population Trends at Moundville. In Archaeology of the Moundville Chiefdom edited by Vernon James Knight Jr. and Vincas P. Steponaitis, pp. 26-43. Smithsonian Inst itution Press, Washington.

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119 Storey, Reb ecca 2005 Notes on Lake Jackson Pathologies Copy of email correspondence between Rebecca Storey and David A. Kli ngle. On file at Depa rtment of Anthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee. Tesar, Louis 2008 Notes on burials at Waddells Mill Pond Site. Copy of email correspondence between Nancy White and Louis Tesar, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee. Walthal, John A. 1980 Prehistoric Indians of the Southeast. Archaeology of Alabama and the Middle South. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Waselkov, Gregory A. 1989 Seventeenth-Century Tr ade in the Colonial Southeast. Southeastern Archaeology 8:117-133. Weiss, K.M. 1973 Demographic Models for Anthropology. SAA Memoirs 27. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C. White, Nancy Marie 1982 The Curlee Site (8Ja7) and Fort Walton Development in the Upper Apalachicola-Lower Chattahoochee Valley Ph.D. dissertation, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland. University Microfilm s, Ann Arbor. 1985 Nomenclature and Interpreta tion in Borderland Chronology: A Critical Overview of No rthwest Florida Prehistory. In Archaeology of Northwest Florida and Adjacent Borderlands edited by Nancy White, pp. 163-174. Florida Anthropological Society Publications No. 11, Florida Anthropologist 38. 1994 Archaeological Investigations at Six S ites in the Apalachicola R iver Valley Northwest Florida. Report to National Oc eanic and Atmospheric Adm inistration U.S. Department of Commerce. Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa. 1996 Archaeological Investigations of the 1994 Record Flood Im pacts in the Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida. Report to th e Divisi on of Historical Resources, Tallahassee. Department of Anth ropology, University of South Florida, Tampa. 2004 Protohistoric and Historic Native Cultures of the Apalachico la Valley, Northwest Florida. Paper pres ented at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, St. Louis.

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120 Willey, Gordon R. 1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Willey, Gordon R. and R. B. Woodbury 1942 A Chronological Outline for the Northwest Florida Coast. American Antiquity 7(3):232-254. Yuellig, Amber J. 2007 Fort Walton Ceramics in the Perry Collection, Apalachicola Valley, Northwest Florida. Masters thesis, De partment of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa.


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