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The development of Hemingway's female characters

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Title:
The development of Hemingway's female characters Catherine from A farewell to arms to The garden of eden
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Recla, Amy K
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Use of names night
War
Haircuts
Clothing
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This paper explores the possibility that Hemingway scholars are overlooking the development of Hemingway as a writer by concentrating too much on the autobiographical elements of his writing. I am not suggesting that scholars ignore the autobiographical aspects of the writing, but rather propose that scholars acknowledge and look for the development of Hemingway's craft of writing in his novels by comparing the early texts with his posthumous works. I have chosen to show this development by comparing A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden, especially through his use of the females characters Catherine in both novels. I assert that whether consciously or unconsciously, Hemingway's reuse of the name Catherine in The Garden of Eden was his attempt to address criticism of his writing by invoking a comparison of the two characters he created in an effort to show how he was able to portray a more sophisticated female character when he was an older, more mature writer. The specific writing tools Hemingway employed to accomplish this task include the use of names, details about the physical appearances of his characters, the vocation of his characters, and the dialogue of his characters.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Amy K Recla.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 40 pages.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002004856
oclc - 352874880
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002682
usfldc handle - e14.2682
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SFS0026999:00001


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ABSTRACT: This paper explores the possibility that Hemingway scholars are overlooking the development of Hemingway as a writer by concentrating too much on the autobiographical elements of his writing. I am not suggesting that scholars ignore the autobiographical aspects of the writing, but rather propose that scholars acknowledge and look for the development of Hemingway's craft of writing in his novels by comparing the early texts with his posthumous works. I have chosen to show this development by comparing A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden, especially through his use of the females characters Catherine in both novels. I assert that whether consciously or unconsciously, Hemingway's reuse of the name Catherine in The Garden of Eden was his attempt to address criticism of his writing by invoking a comparison of the two characters he created in an effort to show how he was able to portray a more sophisticated female character when he was an older, more mature writer. The specific writing tools Hemingway employed to accomplish this task include the use of names, details about the physical appearances of his characters, the vocation of his characters, and the dialogue of his characters.
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Hemingways Development of the Fe male Characters Catherine from A Farewell to Arms to The Garden of Eden by Amy K. Recla A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of English College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Lawrence Broer, Ph. D. Gail Sinclair, Ph. D. Ray Vince, Ph. D. Date of Approval November 17, 2008 Keywords: use of names night war, haircuts, clothing Copyright 2008, Amy K. Recla

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i Table of Contents Abstract ii Introduction: What Is Missing from Hemingway Sc holarship? 1 Chapter One: Whats in a Name? The Use of Names in A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden 5 Chapter Two: Details, Details, Details 14 Chapter Three: Hemingways Use of Dialogue in Character Devel opment: The Similar Voices of Catherine Barkley and Catherine Bourne 21 Chapter Four: The Kept Man: Hemingways Use of Occupation in A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden 25 Chapter Five: The Use of Night as a Character and Theme in A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden 28 Conclusion: An Appreciation of the Man as a Writer 34 References 38 Bibliography 39

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ii Hemingway’s Development of the Fe male Character Catherine from A Farewell to Arms to The Garden of Eden Amy K. Recla ABSTRACT This paper explores the possibility th at Hemingway scholars are overlooking the development of Hemingway as a writ er by concentrating too much on the autobiographical elements of his writing. I am not suggesting that scholars ignore the autobiographical aspects of the writing, but rather propose th at scholars acknowledge and look for the development of Hemingway’s craf t of writing in his novels by comparing the early texts with his posthumous works. I have chosen to show this development by comparing A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden especially throu gh his use of the females characters Catherine in both novels. I assert that whether consciously or unconsciously, Hemingway’s reuse of the name Catherine in The Garden of Eden was his attempt to address criticism of his writing by invoking a comparison of the two characters he created in an effort to show how he was able to portray a more sophisticated female character when he was an older, more mature writer. The specific writing tools Hemingway employed to accomplish this task in clude the use of names, details about the physical appearances of his characters, the voc ation of his characters and the dialogue of his characters.

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1 Introduction: What Is Missing from Hemingway Scholarship? Having recently decided to write on Hemingway’s novels, A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden I began my research and was amazed at how much of the focus on Hemingway’s progression from an early wr iter into a more ma ture, sophisticated writer. For this paper I woul d like to try to leave Hemingw ay the man out of my paper and focus instead on Hemingway the writer. I am not suggesting that the vast catalogue of Hemingway criticism that deals with the autobiogra phical is wrong; it would be ignorant to suggest Hemingway did not writ e out many of his personal and professional issues. The autobiographical aspects of his writing have been thoroughly and competently documented and discussed in such works as Mark Spilka’s book Hemingway’s Quarrel with Androgyny, Rose Marie Burwell’s treatment of the posthumous novels in The Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels and Kenneth Lynn’s biography, Hemingway all of which (among others) were read prior to the writing of this paper. I am also not suggesting that the separation of man and write r will be easy. Too much of the myth of Hemingway prevails in popular culture to do that and too much of the man Hemingway shows up in the works by Hemingway the writer What I am suggesting is that if critics are to continue to call Hemi ngway one of the, if not THE great American writer, that we should all look more closely at his craft of writing and the improvements he made to it over the span of his lifetime and career. By comparing A Farewell to Arms and The

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2 Garden of Eden and more specifically, the female characters, Catherine Barkley and Catherine Bourne, I intend to demonstrate this improvement. In the introduction to his book, The Face in the Mirror: Hemingway’s Writers, Robert Fleming discusses much of the wr iting skills and work ethic that made Hemingway a successful writer for such a long period of time. Hemingway’s writing career began in 1917 when he joined the Kansas City Star as a reporter and continued until his death in 1961. During that time he published such acclaimed novels as The Sun Also Rises and For Whom the Bell Tolls and wrote many magazine articles on a vast number of subjects including the Spanish Ci vil War. Hemingway’s greatest critical success occurred in 1954 when he won the Nobel Prize for The Old Man and the Sea Discussing the mechanics of his writing, Fleming writes, “his best time for writing [early in the morning]; his best manner of writi ng [longhand, except when dialogue was going particularly well, sitting at a table early in his career and standing at a writing board in later years]; his habit of reading over several previous days’ work before starting his daily writing stint; his emphasis on rewriting until he was satisfied with a passage; and his refusal to talk about a work in progress” were all well known to interviewers of Hemingway (4). And in his Nobel Pri ze acceptance speech, Hemingway acknowledged that “one of his goals was to measure himself against great writers of the past and to try to surpass their work” (Fleming 5). Given the vast amount of literary criticism published about Hemingway on a yearly basis and the importance of his work in American literature, I would argue that he met these standards. Some obvious questions regarding the above statement arise: If the posthumous works are superior to his earlier writi ngs, then why didn’t Hemingway publish the

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3 posthumous works while he was alive and why we re some of the texts so unwieldy as to require heavy editing? And if the novels were so heavily edited, can they be said to be the novels Hemingway intended? The answer to th e first question is twofold. As Spilka, Burwell, and Lynn (among many others) have documented, many of the elements of the posthumous works were autobiographical a nd Hemingway did not want to witness the frenzy of psychoanalytical articles which we re sure to follow the publication of these novels. Hemingway disdained people psyc hoanalyzing his works and did not want anyone undoing the macho image he had created. Burwell tells us that Hemingway “was not fond of literary scholars . and speculated that if he shot the one who was irritating him at the moment [Phillip Young, whose book had begun in his Ph.D. thesis], he would bleed footnotes” (11). Secondly, by the time Hemingway began to write the posthumous works, his mental health had begun to fa il and his alcoholism was rampant, making it emotionally and psychologically hard for him to complete and edit the novels. One result was that others would edit these works after He mingway’s suicide into cohesive texts. As to the question of whether or not the post humous works represent the texts Hemingway intended them to be, my answer is that the wo rds are all his and so even if portions of the novels have been deleted, what remains are Hemingway’s words and themes and the remaining texts are enough to make the assertion that Hemingway’s writing had improved over his earlier nove ls. I realize certain Hemi ngway critics refuse to acknowledge the posthumous works as represen tative of Hemingway, but I would like to point out that editing is a natural part of the writing process and that Hemingway himself often edited out large portions of hi s novels prior to their publication.

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4 The striking similarities be tween the two Catherines from A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden have always struck me as a deliberate attempt by Hemingway to draw comparisons between the two women Their physical appearances are similar, their roles in relation to the main male character are similar, and the dialogue each speaks is remarkably similar. I am not the only reader to notice these similarities. Carl Eby writes, “In Catherine Bourne, it seems almost as if Catherine Barkley has returned from the grave, mad as hell and out for revenge” (207). The similarities found between the two characters lead me to question why it is that Hemingway chose to reuse the name Catherine and why he gave the characters so many similarities. My conclusion is that Hemingway was asking us, his re aders/critics, to look more closely at the two women and to draw comparisons between them as his atte mpt to answer his critics who asserted that he was unable to write a complex and whole female character.1 By comparing A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden I intend to show how Hemingway’s writing improved and how he does deserve to retain his reputati on as one of the great American writers. I also hope to re-focus some of the criticism back to Hemingway as a writer with an incredible work ethic who spent a great deal of time and effort to perfect his craft. The irony of course, is that it was Hemingway himself who spent a lot of time crafting the legend and persona of the man who has come to overshadow the craf t of the writer.

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5 Chapter One: What’s in a Name? The Use of Names in A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden Characters’ names in fictional literature are often significant in the way they define the character and how the reader feel s about him/her. Each writer has infinite possibilities for names and most choose th em carefully. Hemingway was no exception and each of his characters a has rich name that help to define him/her. The characters in A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden are certainly suited to their names. Carl Eby writes in his book, Hemingway’s Fetishism that in 1947 Hemingway sent a series of letters to his fourth wife, Mary, in which, “he calls Mary ‘Peter’ and aligns himself with a mysterious ‘Catherine’ –Mary’ s girl – who appears in the night” (13). Obviously the name Catherine was of some importance to Hemingway’s view of himself, but going beyond the autobiographical meanings of the name, it is certainly no coincidence that Hemingway chose to use the name in his second novel, A Farewell to Arms, and again in the posthumous work, The Garden of Eden In revisiting the name Catherine, I believe he was trying to show his critics the continued development of his pr ototype of a strong female character. Hemingway’s critics have ofte n criticized him for his failure to create complex female characters and several of them chastised him for creating Catherine Barkley as a subservient fema le character whose love for Frederic Henry destroys him through isolation and dependency. In her ar ticle, “Hemingway’s Unknown Soldier: Catherine Barkley, the Critics, and the Great War,” Sandra Whipple Spanier discusses the different ways Catherine Barkley has been perceived by critics over time and she

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6 attributes much of the negative view of Ca therine to Edmund W ilson in 1939, asserting this negativity continued until the 1980’s when critics “recognized her crucial role in the education of Frederic” (79). Hemingway was certainly aware of his critics and surely would have seen their criticism as a challenge to improve on his skill as a writer. So how then does a comparison of the female characte rs Catherine Barkley and Catherine Bourne affect our views of Hemi ngway’s writing skills? We are introduced to Catherine in A Farewell to Arms as Miss Barkley, a beautiful English girl whom Rinaldi “will probably marry” (17). Her name sounds very formal and grown-up and she is often addresse d in the novel either by her full name or by Miss Barkley. The continued use of this form al name serves to give the reader the impression that she is older than Frederic Henry and deserving of the reader’s and Frederic’s respect. The name Catherine is of Greek origin and means “pure.” This too fits well with the character of Catherine that Hemingway has drawn. Catherine Barkley makes a big issue of telling Frederic on the day they meet that she has remained pure (virginal) and much regrets not giving herself fully to her now dead fianc: “You see I didn’t care about the other thing and he could have had it all. He could have had anything he wanted if I would have known . I know all about it now” (23). It is ironic that the surrendering of her purity to Fr ederic results in her demise – death in childbirth – as Catherine feared giving her purity to her fi anc would distract him from his duties and result in his death in war. Hemingway even has Frederic acknowledge that Catherine’s loss of purity has been her downfall when sh e is dying at the end of the novel: “And this was the price you paid for sleeping together This was the end of the trap” (287). Hemingway’s decision to have his now impure Catherine die at the end of the novel was

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7 a convenient way for him to wrap up the nove l without having to write or imagine a world for Frederic with a common law wife and illegitimate child. His treatment of the impure Catherine Bourne in The Garden of Eden is more favorable. Catherine’s last name Barkley reminds one of a drill sergeant barking orders at young soldiers. How well this fits into this novel set in World War I. The barking of orders also matches the characterization of a young girl acting as the on ly night nurse in a hospital during wartime and helps to define the relationship between Catherine and Frederic. While Catherine seemingly allows Fred eric to think he is in charge of their relationship by repeatedly telling him she only ex ists when he is around, it is very clear to the readers by the end of the novel that it ha s been Catherine all al ong orchestrating their lives together and it is from Ca therine’s death that Frederic fi nally learns to be a man. In the hospital scene where Catherine is rece iving anesthetics through a mask, she tells Frederic of the mask, “It doesn’t work. It doesn’t work. It doesn’t work” (289). Besides the obvious meaning of her words, this passage is an acknowledgement that the subservient mask Catherine ha s been wearing around Frederic is no longer able to mask the emotional pain she experienced at the lo ss of her fianc. The passage is also an acknowledgement by Hemingway that Catherin e is not the shallo w good girl she tells Frederic she is throughout the novel. The Cath erine with the mask is only the tip of the iceberg of the Catherine behind the mask. Unfortunately, Hemingway chose to unmask Catherine late in the novel. With Catherine Bourne Hemingway is able to unmask her true nature much earlier in the novel resul ting in a more comple x Catherine throughout the text.

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8 Since Catherine never legally marries Fr ederic she remains throughout the novel a Barkley. The only time her name changes is when she enters the hospital to give birth to their child and she registers as Catherine He nry. However, she only uses this name a few hours before she dies in childbirth. Hemi ngway’s decision to leave Catherine and Frederic unwed throughout the novel and spl it from each other through death at the close of the novel shows his reluctan ce to combine the masculine and feminine into a whole unit despite Catherine’s and Frederic’s assert ions that they are one person. Hemingway even goes so far as to make sure the uni on of their physical joining—their son—does not survive either: “He had never b een alive” (293). This early He mingway is also unready or unable to imagine and write a novel with a fa mily consisting of a mother, father, and child. Through Frederic Hemi ngway voices this fear in the anesthetics scene with Catherine: “I was afraid of the numbers above two” (289). In sharp contrast to the reader’s introduction to Catherine Barkley, it is several chapters before we learn Catherine Bourne’s name and half-way through The Garden of Eden before Hemingway tells us Catherine’ s maiden name, Hill (not only did Hemingway reuse the name Catherine, but the two characters have the same initials: C.B. and C.H.). The purity of Catherine Bourne is less obvious than the virginity of Catherine Barkley. The reader meets Catherine B ourne while she is on her honeymoon and therefore already deflowered (whether by David or someone else, we are not told). The purity that she does possess is in the perfect garden she and David have created, which we later learn cannot be sustained due to Cath erine’s failure to create and her frustration at what she thinks is David’s desire for her to be the perfect, suppor tive wife. Catherine is frustrated at her inability to create anythi ng, even a baby with David and she blames him

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9 for it. Discussing Catherine’s frustration at being unable to create art, Rose Marie Burwell writes, “Catherine’s is the most comp lex characterization of the novel, and she is unique among Hemingway’s women because she insists upon some accomplishment of her own” (110). Catherine Barkley however, is happy (or at least good at wearing her mask and pretending to be happy) playing the good wife to Frederic and tells him, “Why darling, I don’t live at all when I’m not with you” (270). Catherine’s last name, Bourne, take s on numerous meanings throughout the novel. Catherine is constantly being reborn in her roles as male and female: “I’m a girl. But now I’m a boy too and I can do anything and anything and anyt hing” (15). And as Carl Eby pointed out, Catherine Barkley is reborn into Catherine Bourne. Catherine Bourne is also constantly changing her appear ance as an attempt to give birth to a new Catherine who is able to create and therefor e feel fulfilled. Catherine influences people’s reactions to her by dressing in shocking ways: “No one wore shorts either around the village and the girl could not wear them when they rode their bicycles . But the girl went to mass on Sunday and wearing a skirt and a long-sleeved cashmere sweater with her hair covered . and the wearing of s horts in the village was regarded as an eccentricity” (6). Catherine Bourne’s artistic outlet is her appearance and she seeks to change it by recreating her skin color and ha ir color and length. Her constantly changing appearance is the way in which Catherine and Hemingway are able to express her inward turmoil. In her article “Rewriting the Self Against the National Text: Ernest Hemingway’s The Garden of Eden,” Blythe Tellefsen writes, “Catherine’s constant selffashioning can be understood as a result of this frustrated artistry; unable to create more traditional forms of art, she turns to her body as the one palette available to her“ (66). The

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10 irony of her last name is that throughout the novel she is unable to conceive life or to create art imitating life. This birth/creati on is left to her husband, David. The name Bourne is also similar to ‘burn’ and Ca therine burns David’s creations—his writings— when he refuses to finish the novel he ha s begun about them and their Eden. Of the burned manuscripts David says, “Crazy woman burned out th e Bournes” (243). Catherine’s maiden name Hill is an allusion to her breasts which Hemingway spends ample time in the novel discussing: “He held her tight around her breasts . feeling her and the hard erec t freshness between his fingers ” (17). Hemingway often uses her breasts in juxtaposition with her shor t boy haircut when she and David are in bed together. This mixing of the masculine and femi nine physical traits is in marked contrast to the always female Catherine Barkley. The name Hill also suggests an up and down motion and alludes to the up and down nature of Catherine’s moods: She is one moment a boy and the next a girl. She also tells Da vid throughout the novel th at at times she is crazy and at times she is herself again: Her mind and moods are in constant motion. The range of moods that Hemingway is able to show Catherine e xperiencing shows his growth as a writer. He is unafraid to let this Catherine be angry, frustrated, and vengeful. The inflatable Catherine Barkley doll who c onstantly uses her mask to suppresses her emotions is gone. Hemingway also uses hi lls to foreshadow Catherine’s unfulfilled suicide by having David warn her about driv ing too fast through the hills in the countryside in their unreliable car when she de cides to leave him to Marita: “Just drive carefully and don’t pass on hills” (227). The only other significant female in either of the novels is Marita in The Garden of Eden and her name means “Little Mary.” In the Bible Mary is the ultimate mother and

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11 nuturer (Hemingway was also married to hi s wife Mary while writing the novel). The biblical Mary gave birth to Je sus in a virgin state; much as Marita comes to David as a lesbian, seemingly un-experienced by another man (the reader is never told if she has had a male lover before David although the unedi ted manuscript mentions an ex-husband).2 Marita acts as a foil to Catherine and provi des for David the feminine mothering that Catherine is unable or unwilling to do. In Ch apter Twelve Catherine and Marita return from a morning outing and it is Marita who asks if David has worked well and Catherine responds, “That’s being a good wife . I forgot to ask” (109). Mari ta also helps David create his work by fostering an environm ent conducive to writing and by providing him with editorial criticism. Hemingway even pl aces Marita’s bedroom adjacent to David’s workroom, an area Catherine is kept locked out of and separate from—her bedroom is at the other end of the house. While Marita is no barren woman in the sense that she is able to help David create art, she does not actually create anything herself and her criticism of David’s work is all positive. Despite Marita ’s usurping of Catherine’s place in her marriage, the characterization of her in the novel is much less developed than that of Catherine. She seems more of a throw-back to Catherine Barkley than the complex Catherine Bourne. Highlighting his growth as a writer, Hemingway has David prefer the more complex Catherine at the end of the unedited manuscript as Marita has left the relationship and Catherin e and David are reunited.3 Hemingway’s use of the male names in th ese two novels also helps to define the characters of the two Catherines. Catherin e Barkley always presents herself as the consummate female. She is a nurse, a typically female role; she is fertile; and she is in physical appearance all female-long, golden hair and shapely figur e. Frederic Henry’s

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12 name however, could not be more mascu line. Hemingway not onl y gave Frederic a strong, masculine first name, but his last name is also commonly used as a masculine first name: He is a double male. There is no que stioning his gender or sexuality. While Catherine is busy growing the life inside her body that will ultimately kill her, Frederic is busy making himself stronger by going on long walks and boxing. He also grows a beard during Catherine’s later pregnancy as if Hemingway were reminding his readers that Frederic is a strong, virile man capable of re producing while Catherine is a weak female at the mercy of biology. David Bourne’s last name however, ha s decidedly feminine connotations. While everyone is born, only females can do the bear ing. However, it is David who is giving birth throughout the novel to his work. He cr eates and recreates lif e through his writing. Even when Catherine destroys his African storie s, David is able to rise again and recreate his work, only better. He is the phoenix being born of the ashes of Catherine’s destruction, better than before (critics have poi nted out that Frederic is also made better after Catherine Barkley is destroyed in ch ildbirth). Hemingway uses the confusion of David’s gender and sexuality to show th e strength and dichotomy of Catherine by contrasting his confusion with the strength of her conviction th at she will experience the world as a man and a woman. It is interesti ng to note that while Catherine is comfortable in calling David ‘Catherine’ in bed, she chooses to refer to hersel f as ‘Peter’ and not David even though she tells him they are th e same in bed, “Yes you are and you’re my girl Catherine. . No. I’m Pe ter” (17). Hemingway seems to be saying that the feminine Catherine is enough to make David a whole person, but the masculine David does not make Catherine wholeshe either needs anot her man or persona, Peter, to accomplish this

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13 or perhaps she is already whole and comfor table expressing both the female and male sides of her personality. In The Garden of Eden Hemingway has given us a por trait of a man and a woman who are not one-sided in their gender roles, but who are able to embrace and show both the masculine and feminine sides to their pe rsonalities and psyches. How different these two characters are from Catherine Barkley a nd Frederic Henry who remain separate and wholly male or female throughout the novel. De spite Spilka’s asserti on that there is an attempt by Hemingway to create an androgynou s love between Catherine and Frederic (Catherine is on top during sex and Catherine, not the soldier, Fr ederic, bravely faces death) even he concludes that “the extremel y female Catherine dies that Frederic/Ernest may regain his maleness” (219). Hemingway th e writer was not yet ready to combine his gender roles in A Farewell to Arms

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14 Chapter Two: Details, Details, Details A marked difference in the creation of th e two Catherines is Hemingway’s use of details or lack of details when desc ribing the two women. Catherine Barkley’s appearance is rarely described while the reader is constantly being told what Catherine Bourne is wearing, what her hair looks like, how tan her skin is, a nd what she is eating and drinking. What little we know of Catherine Barkley’s appear ance is told to us during Frederic’s first meeting with her. She “was blonde and had a tawny skin and gray eyes. I thought she was very beautiful” (23). In this scene Catherine is also wearing whiteher nurse’s uniforma symbol of her purity. What is most unsettling in its lack of description of Catherine Barkley is the scene where she a nd Frederic go to the hotel together before he goes back to war. Catherine insists that they stop so she can buy herself a nightgown, then the reader is never given a descript ion of the nightgown, although it seems to be expected from the importance of the nightgow n to Catherine. Had Hemingway told the reader what the nightgown looked like, he w ould have given us a more complete portrait of Catherine the woman. Instead the reader is left wondering, is sh e the type of woman who would have chosen a virginal white gown or a flaming red one? We know that clothing was important to Hemingway while he was writing this novel. He spends much time discussing Frederic’s atti re and how that attire aff ects his state of mind. At the beginning of the novel when Hemingway is desc ribing Frederic’s military gear he writes that Frederic does not like to wear a steel he lmet as it is too “theatrical” and that the English gas mask he is given is a “real mask” (32). Frederic also qui ckly realizes the gun

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15 he wears is useless as he is a poor shot and wearing the gun he feels ridiculous and slightly shameful (33). These descriptions leav e the reader with the feeling that Frederic is only a young boy playing at war. When Fred eric deserts the army and puts on civilian clothes again for the first time he says, “I felt like a masquerader” (221). Through the use of clothing, Hemingway is able to show the progression of Frederic ’s character from a young boy playing at war to a hardened soldier more comfortable in his uniform than in civilian clothing. Yet Hemingway fails to provide this same insight into Catherine. As he was such a conscientious writer and editor, the reader is left to conclude that Hemingway had not yet developed the insight into the fe minine he needed to truly create a complex characterization of Catherine Barkley, in this case through the use of clothing. A Farewell to Arms is also lacking in detail during the Switzerland scenes—the time when Catherine’s body is going through th e changing stages of pregnancy and when we would most expect Hemingway to talk about the changing of her body. Instead of Hemingway describing Catherine and Frederic separately, he uses the much repeated “we” to describe Catherine and Frederic toge ther. The only brief description we get of Catherine’s clothing during this time is the me ntion of her cloak and how with it wrapped around her, she doesn’t look so big: “Cathe rine wore hobnailed boots and a cape and carried a stick with a sharp steel point. She did not look big with the cape” (272). Much more time is given to Frederic’s appearan ce and his decisions to grow a beard at Catherine’s request although her description of his beard sou nds more like a description of Frederic’s penis:“ ‘I love your beard,’ Catherine said. ‘It’s a great success. It looks so stiff and fierce and it’s very soft and a grea t pleasure’” (274). The only major description of Catherine during this time occurs when sh e is having her hair styled: Frederic comes

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16 in at the end of her appointment and watche s the curling of her hair with excitement. While this scene foreshadows the scenes of Ca therine Bourne to come, in this novel it is used to further the reader’s understandi ng of Frederic and what makes him tick. The lack of detail about the appearance of Catherine Barkley helps to create the shallow, half-portrait of a woman that readers and critics often complain about when discussing her characterization. Since what Fr ederic is wearing and how what he wears affects who he is and how he is feeling throughout the novel, it appears Hemingway was unable or unwilling to devote this same importan ce to his main female character. This is a lack of emphasis he did not repeat with Catherine Bourne. Catherine Bourne being descri bed in greater detail than Catherine Barkley results in the reader being much more able to identify with her as a complete woman. Hemingway spends a great deal of time de scribing the fisherman shirts Catherine and David wear and how Catherine has washed hers so that it molds to her breasts: “They were stiff and built for hard wear but the washings softened them and now they were worn and softened enough so that when he looked at the girl now her breasts showed beautifully against the worn cloth” (6). He also describes her daring wearing of shorts and the effect the shorts have on the villag ers. However, Hemingway does not only focus on Catherine’s wearing of male clothing. He also describe s her cashmere sweaters, skirts, sandals, and pearls. The result of Hemingway’ s vivid descriptions of Catherine Bourne’s apparel is a portrait of a woma n who takes risks, likes to shock, but who also has a soft, feminine side that appeals to men. Heming way uses Catherine’s clothing to show her progression in the novel from the young, femini ne wife to a more complex woman who uses clothing to question the confines of he r marriage along with the defined role society

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17 dictates she accept. By the end of the nove l Catherine is no longer happy wearing her cashmere and pearls, she now wants to wear pants like a man of her era. With Catherine Bourne Hemingway also di ves much deeper into the hair motif that he began with Catherine Barkley. Cather ine Barkley’s hair is always described as long and she and Frederic use it as a prop in their lovemaking—she often takes it down during sex and covers them in it. Any suggestio n of her cutting it (she calls it a nuisance) is rejected outright by Frederic. Catherine B ourne begins her transformation of her hair early in the novel. She tells David that she ha s a surprise for him and then disappears into the city. When she returns, she has cut he r hair drastically sh orter. The second time Catherine cuts her hair is shortly after Da vid has received the favorable reviews of his latest novel while Catherine has only rece ived her inheritance money—money she did nothing to earn herself. In fact, Catherine’s inheritance has actually increased due to her marriage to David.4 Hemingway’s description of her first haircut and Catherine’s and David’s analysis of the haircut goes on for three pages. After this haircut Catherine cuts her hair two more times and each time Hemingway describes the cut in detail. It is this short hair that first attracts Marita and her girlfriend to the couple and ultimately ends the Eden Catherine and David have created. Cath erine’s hair is the conductor which draws the feminine Marita to the masculine Davi d. Writing of the first haircut, Hemingway says, “No decent girls had ever ha d their cut short like that in this part of the country and even in Paris it was rare and strange and coul d be beautiful or could be very bad” (16). While an argument could be made that the ha ircut signals the end of the Eden Catherine and David are living in, a str onger argument can be made th at the haircut is simply Catherine’s way of expressing the dissatisfaction she is feel ing with her marriage and her

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18 life. The haircutting is a clever way for He mingway to outwardly show the inner turmoil within Catherine and Da vid. By the writing of The Garden of Eden Hemingway had certainly learned the craft of using appearan ces to express the natu re of both his male and female characters. In addition to the cutting, Catherine begins to color her hair. She wants it to be as white as it can be. She is not satisfied with the bleaching her hair gets from constant sunning and swimming in the ocean, she insi sts on speeding up the process through chemicals. Catherine also takes David along on this journey of hair transformation. While Frederic Henry balked at the idea of growi ng his hair out like Catherine Barkley’s hair, David embraces the transformation and even adm its to himself he likes it: “He looked at the mirror and it was someone else he saw but it was less strange now. ‘All right you like it,’ he said. ‘Now go through with the rest of it whatever it is and don’t ever say anyone tempted you or that anyone bitched you’” (84) David’s willingness to be influenced by his wife and aroused by her transformation into a more masculine character shows Hemingway’s willingness as a writer in The Garden of Eden to embrace the masculine and feminine sides each person has instead of trying so hard to regulate them to a specific, rigid gender role. The result is a multi-dimensional characterization of Catherine Bourne and David. Interestingly enough, the lighter Catherine’ s hair becomes, the darker she wants her skin to become. She, David, and later Ma rita, all sunbathe in the nude to get the darkest skin color they can. Catherine says she wants to be “the darkest white girl in the world” (169). And here David compares her to ivory-a decidedl y exotic and African symbol that David associates with painful epis odes he experienced as a child in Africa. In

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19 Catherine, Hemingway is not only combin ing the masculine and feminine, he is combining Europe and Africa—the known and th e exotic. Catherine Bourne is the white and dark continents combined, while Catherine Barkley is always the good English girl in Europe who wanted to marry and return to America with Frederic. In Catherine Bourne Hemingway is able to express the complexiti es and dichotomies of the female and race that he was unable to expre ss with Catherine Barkley. Catherine also wants David to transform his skin color. Catherine’s ultimate goal is that she and David look like the same person. Hemingway even tells us in the beginning of the novel that people mistake them for siblings: “They were very tan and their hair was streaked and faded by the s un and sea. Most people thought they were brother and sister until they said they were married” (6).5 Catherine wants their hair, skin, and clothing to be interchangeable. So wh at point is Hemingway trying to make by having his male and female characters in The Garden of Eden become twins? This is certainly quite different from the distinct boundaries he makes between the persons of Frederic and Catherine in A Farewell to Arms Catherine is the nurse who becomes pregnant and therefore unable to resemble Frederic who has been busy walking and boxing to keep his male shape. Catherine Bark ley also has long golden hair that she has curled and styled. Frederic ha s brown hair and a virile bear d. And while at one point in the novel Catherine Barkley does suggest she an d Frederic both cut their hair the same, which Frederic quickly rejects, there is no blurring of the male/female appearance as we find in The Garden of Eden The answer to the twining que stion seems to be that by his writing of The Garden of Eden Hemingway the writer had obta ined the insight into the

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20 duality of human nature that he was e ither lacking or unable to portray in A Farewell to Arms

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21 Chapter 3: Hemingway’s Use of Dial ogue in Character Development: The Similar Voices of Catherine Barkley and Catherine Bourne In what I believe to be another calcul ated move on Hemingway’s part to draw attention to the similarities and dis-simila rities between Catherine Barkley and Catherine Bourne, Hemingway uses much of the same or similar dialogue with the two women. Throughout both novels the women are constantly reassuring their men that they are good girls and normal. Catherine Barkley wants to be the good wife and Frederic’s other half. When Catherine and Frederic are reunited in the hospital where Frederic is sent after being wounded, she asks him, “Aren’t I good? Y ou don’t want any other girls, do you? . I’m good. I do what you want’ (100). When Frederic brings up the idea of them marrying she tells him, “I’m married to you. Don’t I make you a good wife?” (108). She also tells him towards the end of the novel in Chapter Thirty-Eight, “I want you so much I want to be you too” (270). During the same conversation she also tells him that she is “not crazy now,” rather she is “just ver y, very, very happy” (271). Catherine Bourne echoes this conversation, telling David early in The Garden of Eden “I’m your good girl come back again” (21). And later in th e novel after Marita has come into their relationship and Catherine has begun to exhi bit signs of madness she says, “If you take me back is all I want. I’ll be your really true girl and truly be. Would you like that?” (135). Catherine Bourne also tells David th at they are one person. However, a marked difference between the two Catherines is th at Catherine Bourne finds only being a good wife unfulfilling. Never will we hear her sa y she only exists when David is around. She

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22 wants and needs more and so she brings Marita into the relationship to provide for David the feminine, wifely things she doe s not want to or cannot provide. Soon after Marita joins the couple she tells Catherine a bout David, “I’m trying to study his needs” (122). Marita then begins to worry over Da vid, trying to see to his food and sexual needs and helping him to be able to write. In the last few pages of the novel Marita also tells David, “I’m your girl . Your girl. No matter what I’m always your girl. Your good girl who l oves you” (245). Having Marita take over the subservient dialogue Catherine Barkley uses throughout A Farewell to Arms serves to show the reader that Hemingway has moved forward in his characterization and is able to now show a more independent woman with Cather ine Bourne, a woman who cannot simply be happy being the caretaker of an artist—a wo man who must create a nd express herself and her thoughts in order to feel fulfilled.6 Or as Amy Lovell Strong writes in her article, “Awakening of Catherine’s Feminism,” “Cathe rine sets up a kind of puppet regime in her marriage, importing the girl named Marita to fulfill the obligations of ‘good wife’ while she gains the space to breathe freely and act out her own de sires without feeling selfconscious about her lack of enthusiasm for the wifely ideal” (197). Catherine Barkley and Marita also similarly tell Freder ic and David that they want them to have male friends to do male things with: “Wouldn’t you like to go somewhere by yourself darling, and be with men and ski?” (AFTA 268), and “I want you to have men friends and friends from the war and to shoot with and to play cards at the club” (Eden 245). Catherine Bourne is the type of woman who would be able to do those male things with David. She can ride bicycles, wear pants and shorts cut her hair short, and take on the male role in bed. The dependence in the relationship between Cath erine and David is more on David’s side

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23 while Marita and Catherine Barkley define th emselves in relation to David and Frederic and find themselves lacking—there must be other males to keep Frederic and David company. However, Catherine Barkley and Ma rita see no need for female friends—they have their men. One of the most profound things Hemingway ever wrote occurs in A Farewell to Arms when Catherine has made the decision to le ave with Frederic and they are together at night in the hotel. Hemingway writes using Frederic’s voice: If people bring so much courage to this world the world has to kill them to break them, so of course it kills them. The world breaks every one and afterward many are strong at the broken places. But those that will not break it kills. It kills the very good a nd the very gentle and the very brave impartially. If you are none of these you can be sure it will kill you too but there will be no special hurry (226). What makes this statement so profound and at odds with the rest of the characterization of Catherine is that it is Catherine who is broken at the end of the novel—she is the brave one. Here Hemingway hints at creating a str ong female character with Catherine, but ultimately he is unwilling to fully commit to th e idea. She tells Frederic while in the grips of a strong contraction, “I’m not brave anym ore, darling. I’m all broken. They’ve broken me. I know it now” (289). Frederic, by Hemingway’s logic, is not particularly good, gentle, or brave and therefore gets to live. This leads me to believe that Hemingway did intend for Catherine to be a strong, complex char acter and that his lack of life experience and writing skills instead created a less develope d characterization of her that lead to the immediate and continued criticism of her. The dying of Catherine and her son does break Frederic, but he is able to overcome the brokenness and become a strong writer. This same theme of Catherine being broken occurs with Catherine Bourne. Catherine tells David after he kisses Marita for the first time “You just broke her all up” (104). Later in

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24 the novel after Catherine and Marita have be gun to argue over David, Catherine says of trying to please David, “I did tr y and I broke myself in pieces in Madrid to be a girl and all it did was break me in pieces” (192). While the breaking of Catherine Barkley kills her and makes Frederic a better man and write r, Catherine Bourne’s breaking only makes her stronger and allows her the courage to le ave David at the end of the novel. This is part of Hemingway’s triumph as a writer; he is able to allow Catherine to be the brave one made stronger by being broken and he doesn’t have to kill her at the end of the novel. Hemingway has learned to allow the female ch aracter to survive a nd continue without a defined relationship to the male character in th e novel. Catherine will go on to have a life of her own without David.7 The dialogue of Catherine Barkley and Cath erine Bourne helps to illuminate the growth in Hemingway’s writing skills. Catherin e Barkley is rarely given things to say, while Catherine Bourne uses her voice to he lp create the world sh e cannot create through writing. In fact, Catherine Bourne tells Davi d, “I can’t write thi ngs, David. You know that. But I can tell it to you anytime you want ” (222). And Catherine is not afraid to tell things the way she sees them.

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25 Chapter Four: The Kept Man: Hemingway’s Use of Occupation in A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden Again putting aside the very obvious aut obiographical aspect s of Hemingway’s works, I believe that the occupations he c hooses for his characters in the two novels augments his growth as a writer. Frederic has the masculine role of soldier turned writer who has an income from his family back home. While Frederic asks Catherine if she has any money shortly before they flee to Sw itzerland, it is Frederic who throughout the novel accepts the traditional male role of provider for his family. He pays for their lodgings, entertainment, and food and arranges for them to leave Italy. It seems unlikely that Frederic would allow Ca therine to provide monetarily for him and without her nursing job she does not have the means to do so either. As mentioned prior, Catherine’s job as a nurse is decidedly feminine and allows her to mother Frederic when he is injured in the hospital. She tells him, “You have su ch a lovely temperature and you sleep like a little boy” (98). Her concerns ar e always with him and his hea lth, right up to the end of the novel when she is hemorrhaging and dying. Frederic has taken her hand to hold and she asks him not to touch her and then realiz ing she has hurt his feelings she says, “Poor darling. You touch me all you want” (295) Hemingway is comfortable with his characters maintaining their traditional gender specific roles of male provider and female nurturer in A Farewell to Arms In The Garden of Eden Hemingway has evolved as a writer beyond the traditional gender roles of A Farewell to Arms and switched the role of monetary provider over to

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26 Catherine Bourne. The reader learns early in the novel that while David’s writing is providing some income which should continue to grow with the su ccess of his latest novel, it is Catherine with the means to ba nk role their trip thr oughout Europe and their later planned trip to Africa. Catherine’s need to provide monetarily for David is so strong that she even makes sure her replacement wi fe, Marita, has the means to support him. She tells Marita, “I’ve never read a story of David’s. I never inte rfere. I’ve only tried to make it economically possible for him to do the best work of which he is capable” (156). Catherine makes sure Marita understands her role as replacement provider for David and calls her the “Heiress.” She later tells David in Chapter Nineteen that she “wanted to get [him] taken care of” (162) and after she burns his African stories, she tells him she will have her Paris lawyers appraise what they would have been worth and she will pay him for them so he doesn’t have to worry about money. Catherine has not only been providing to David the feminine role of wife but also the traditionally masculine role of provider. Again Hemingway has combined the masculine and feminine into one complex character, Catherine Bourne. The idea of David as a ‘kept man’ or as a trophy husband for Catherine and Marita is at odds with the tr aditional masculine role of the myth of Hemingway that prevails in popular culture. Ye t at no time does David reject the idea that Catherine or Marita should support him so he can write. He does get angry at Cath erine after she burns his writings and offers to pay for them and he tells her, “I’m qu ite all right on money,” but he never protests when Catherine remi nds him Marita has money (226). It seems unlikely that the early Hemingw ay writer would have allowed the main male character to

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27 be supported by his woman, but the later wr iter not only allows it but seemingly condones it.8 David’s occupation as a writer is not ge nder specific, but he too was in World War I as a pilot. However, this role is onl y briefly mentioned and not ingrained into his characterization as Frederic’s role as a soldie r is ingrained in his. David also takes on a second role in the novel as Catherine’s heal th provider or caretaker. As her madness increases, so do David’s concerns for her. He makes sure she is ge tting enough to eat and tries to limit her alcohol intake. He also enc ourages her to rest and sleep. When Catherine burns his African stories he only briefly loses his temper with her and then tells her he understands why she had to burn them. This nurturing side of David is quite different from the stoic Frederic who only briefly bot hers to comment on hi s girlfriend’s health during her pregnancy and who is so able to eat and describe hi s hearty meals while Catherine is back at the hospital dying in labor.

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28 Chapter 5: The Use of Night as a Character and Theme in A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden The night plays a crucial role in many of Hemingway’s novels and short stories and often becomes a character of its own. In the short story, “Now I Lay Me,” the main character is afraid his soul will leav e his body at night and in the short story, “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place,” the older waiter and old man customer both understand the loneliness of the night and the need for companionship to ward off the loneliness. The night themes in A Farewell to Arms and The Garden of Eden are no less important. Many of the crucial scenes and ch aracter development occur in the night in both novels. The language Hemingway uses in regards to the night is also similar or the same in the two novels, although the portray al of the night in The Garden of Eden is more sophisticated than in A Farewell to Arms In A Farewell to Arms it is often raining during the night and Catherine tells Frederic she is afraid of the rain: “I’ve alwa ys been afraid of the rain” (117) and that she sometimes sees herself and Frederic dead in the rain, foreshadowing the scene at the end of the novel after Catherine dies, when Freder ic walks out of the hospital into the night and rain. Indeed throughout th e novel the night a nd rain come to sy mbolizes both birth and death for the couple. Catherine Barkley and Frederic fall in love and make love when they are alone together at night in the hospita l. There they have given birth to their own private world to live in without interference from anyone else They have created an Eden for themselves free of the reality of the real world and free from the scrutiny of the rest of

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29 the world. This night time Eden does not last long however, as Frederic must return to the war. The time set for Frederic’s departure is befittingly midnight. Catherine and Frederic decide to go to a hotel for thei r last night together and so l eave the confines of their Eden. On their trip to the hotel it begins to rain and once they are there Catherine says she feels like a whore for the first time (this is the same scene where she insists she stop and buy a nightgown). Catherine is now j udging herself and her relations hip with Frederic through the eyes of the outside world and realizes the weight of what they have done and the ramifications which are to follow. Catherine is aware that once her pregnancy is discovered, she will be sent home in disgrace and Frederic will be left fighting in Italy. There is no room for love and babies in this war world or seemingly, in the light of day. Back at the front, Frederic quickly b ecomes disillusioned with the war and decides to return to Catherine. When Freder ic first flees the army and he is questioned about it by a barman he says, “Maybe ther e wasn’t any war. There was no war here” (223). Frederic has left reality behind and is escaping to Catherine to try and recreate the Eden they have lost. The first night they ar e reunited, Frederic thinks, “I know the night is not the same as the day: th at all things are different, that the things of the night cannot be explained in the day, because they do not then exist, and the night can be a dreadful time for lonely people once th eir loneliness has started. But with Catherine there was almost no difference in the night except that it was an even better time” (226). Frederic still believes he and Catherine can recapture their Eden. Catherine however, is more practical. As soon as she awaken s after their first night toge ther she questions Frederic about how he fled the army, what will happen to him if he is caught, and how they will

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30 escape. Frederic gives a vague response about Switzerland and then says, “Let’s not think about anything” (228). Catherine’s and Frederic’s escape into Swit zerland also occurs at night in a boat, in the pouring rain, after they are warned th at Frederic is to be arrested in the morning. Again the night is their safe haven while realit y is set to occur during the day. In order to get to Switzerland, Fred eric must row the two of them a ll through the night. He is unable to see anything because of the darkness and ra in and they are unaware of where they are until dawn breaks and they realize they are in Switzerland and have successfully escaped. The long journey in a vesse l afloat the dark waters with an unknown outcome foreshadows the birth of their child yet to co me. Catherine and Freder ic are able to once again be birthed into an idealized Eden, ev en if for only a short time. Catherine and Frederic are happy in their solidarity in Switz erland and Frederic tells her they are the same person to which Catherine replies, “I know it. At night we are” (270). As Hemingway keeps the masculine and feminine se parate in the novel, so it seems must he keep the Eden-like quality of Catherine and Fr ederic’s relationship regulated only to the night. While the night theme is not as prevalent in The Garden of Eden it is at night that the first gender switching in the bedroom occurs between Catherine and David. Catherine has just had her hair cut for the first time a nd she asks David to change into Catherine and then she apparently sodomizes him. David’s re sponse to this is to tell Catherine goodbye in his head—he does not speak the words ou t loud. However, later that same night Catherine awakens David again to switch role s in bed and he says “to her but not aloud, ‘I’m with you. No matter what else you have in your head I’m with you and I love you’”

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31 (20). They have the same solidarity and companionship in bed that Catherine and Frederic share. The next night in bed Catherine tells David they, “don’t always have to do the devil things” and that he shouldn’t “eve r be lonely” (29). Here is Hemingway again reminding his readers that “the night can be a dreadful time for lonely people once their loneliness has started” (AFTA 226) At the end of Chapter Six Catherine tells David, “I’ll only be a boy at night and w on’t embarrass you,” echoing Fred eric’s assertion that the things of the night don’t exis t in the day (56). However it is not long before the night devil things begin to occur in the day too—Catherine is not merely happy playing the male in the dark. Rose Marie Burwell writ es, “Catherine pursues some wholeness in striving for connection with what the male principle signifies for her – no matter how destructive or trivial her attempts to do so are made to seem by th e male narrating voice” (116). Catherine decides she wants to view the whole world as a boy and goes to the Prado to “see all the pictures as a boy” (56) Here one of David’s friends, Colonel Boyle, who also knew Catherine’s parents, sees her and comments that Catherine was looking at the art as if she “were the young chief of a wa rrior tribe.” (62). On ce the night things between Catherine and David have occurred in the day, there is no bringing them back into the night. They have become reality and affect the Eden Catherine and David are living in. However, once he allowed the thi ngs of the night to exist in the day, Hemingway no longer felt a need to neatly wr ap up his novel with th e death of Catherine Bourne as he did with Catherine Barkley. He was instead ready as a writer to acknowledge that the duality of Catherine made her whole and that she did not need to exist as a character in relation to David. She was an independent woman with her own money who could make her own decisions abou t her life. As Amy Lovell Strong writes in

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32 her article, “Awakening of Catherine’s Feminism,” “Hemingway, wittingly or unwittingly, has created a feminist character in Catherine” (193). I believe he did it wittingly to show his growth as a writer. As a more sophisticated, mature writer, Hemingway was also able to incorporate the night theme into The Garden of Eden through the use of li ghtness and darkness in relation to Catherine’s and David’s outward appearances and their personalities. This more sophisticated Hemingway is not limited to the literal representation of dark and light in relation to time of day as he was in A Farewell to Arms As discussed earlier, to Hemingway and David, Catherine Bourne repr esents both Europe and Africa, the Dark Continent. Catherine wants to be David’s Af rican bride as well as his European bride. She also uses the darkening of her and Davi d’s skin and lightening of their hair to represent the light/dark and male/female asp ects of their make-ups. They do not limit themselves to one or the other. In her article, “Rewriting the Self Against the National Text: Ernest Hemingway’s The Garden of Eden ,” Blythe Tellefsen sees Catherine as “David Bourne’s dark double, and her de sperate struggle for self-definition and empowerment serves not only as an explorati on of the peculiar pr oblems facing a certain class of woman, but also as a catalyst for a nd a counterpoint to Davi d’s our struggle for mastery of self. As its title s uggests, the novel retells the Biblical story of the Fall: a man and a woman seek knowledge and, as a re sult, lose innocence and Paradise” (61). Catherine and David have eaten of the forbi dden fruit, in this case an acknowledgement of Catherine’s unwillingness to be the all feminine supportive wife without ambitions of her own and David’s acknowledgement that he is not able to set aside his own ambitions in order to write the text which will please his wife—a text that will require him to take

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33 risks and acknowledge his dark side. The know ledge that comes with eating the fruit is outwardly reflected in their appearances throug h use of their light colored hair and dark skin. Once the lightness and darkness with in both Catherine and David have been acknowledged, their Eden is destroyed. However, neither of the characters is destroyed. Hemingway was able to embrace the dichotomy of his characte rs and their reunion at the end of the unedited manuscript shows Hemingway ’s growth as a writer able to allow his strong male and female protagonists to coexist even more than as is the case with Jenks’s alternative ending which has Cather ine leaving David to Marita.

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34 Conclusion: An Appreciati on of the Man as a Writer While critics’ reactions to the two Cather ines have been varied, those reactions are always strong. Carl Eby feel s, “Both Catherines represent on some level the split-off crazy feminine half of Hemingway’s ego” (192) and if one examines the autobiographical aspects of his writing, one would have to ag ree. The conclusion drawn by comparing the portrayal of the two Catherines as discussed in this paper woul d then have to be that the older, more mature Hemingway was willing to acknowledge and accept that there were layers to his characters’ persona lities (as there were in his own personality) and that they were not wholly either masculine or feminine. The young Hemingway who wrote A Farewell to Arms was not ready yet to admit the feminine side of himself and the result is a less developed portrayal of Catherine Bark ley. Nancy Comely writes of the Catherine Bourne, “here at long last was another in teresting woman, one who signaled a more complex and interesting Hemingway in this la te phase of his career” (215). Indeed the multi-layered Catherine Bourne stands head and shoulders above the subservient acting Catherine Barkley who must be sacrificed at the end of A Farewell to Arms so that Frederic Henry may become a better man and writer. Kenneth Lynn echoes Comely’s sentiment, writing of Catherine Bourne, “Her creator had invested in her the bulk of his imaginative capital” (544). It is not David B ourne who is the central or most important figure in the novel, it is Catherine. The Garden of Eden stands alone among Hemingway’s novels as the onl y novel decidedly focused on the female protagonist for her own merits.

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35 However, as strong as the positive reactions to the Catherines are, so too are the negative reactions. Spilka writes of Cather ine Bourne, she “has been desperately competing with David, trying to assert some comparable form of creativity and selfimportance” (307) and he feels, “ The Garden of Eden is chiefly a novel about haircuts” (284). But Spilka also sees The Garden of Eden as: A novel about a writer’s brav ery—about Hemingway’s braver y as he saw it in the daily struggle to transcend his own terribl e dependencies and passivities. This is Hemingway’s testament to the writer’s trad e as he practiced it, using his own hurts and weaknesses, his being five times bitched from the star t, and then four times and more times bitched again, by his own need to compete with women on honeymoon grounds, and to redefine himsel f therefrom by resistant actions and resistant writings, whether of f ound or invented fictions (300). Spilka seems to downplay the bravery of He mingway the writer creating not another machismo male writer who perpetuates the my th of Hemingway the man, but rather the bravery of Hemingway the man creating a nove l chiefly about a strong female character who is able to embrace her own masculine and feminine sides. The haircuts in the novel are not the focus of the work, but rather a clever outward manifestation of the turmoil within Hemingway’s characters. Spilka also seems to forget the portion of the novel where David says that no one “bitched” hi m into doing anything. The experimentation of David’s appearance and gender were entered into willingly. There is no bitch figure to kill off or leave. Hemingway the writer has grown beyond his early need to neatly do away with the female characters in his works. Whatever the reactions to the two Cath erines may be, there is no denying their literary significance in Hemingway’s catalog of work and in the cannon of American literature. And while literary scholars will continue to debate the validity of the posthumous works (especially in light of the f act that only a very few people have gained

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36 access to the unedited manuscripts), I still a ssert that a comparison of the posthumous works to the early Hemingway novels is a testament to the growth of Hemingway the writer. Of course if we now allow a glimpse into the autobiographical aspects of his writing, we can also assert that the Hemingway who committed suicide and left a bulk of unpublished material was a vastly differen t man then the young Hemingway who began his literary career at the Kansas City Star The Hemingway driven to suicide by mental illness and alcoholism lived through three majo r wars, had four wives, three sons, and countless lovers. He also had numerous relations hips with other writer s and artists of his generation and lived all over the world. Su rely the life experience that Hemingway gained coupled with the constant honing of his writing skills created the improved Catherine Bourne. Whether this improved characterization is a positive or negative portrayal of a woman, the point is that Catherine Bourne is the central figure of the novel.

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37 Notes 1 Whether or not this answering of critics was consci ous or intuitive cannot be ascertained for certain. 2 Debra Moddelmog tells us that in the unedited manuscript Marita has never been sexually fulfilled by either a man or a woman until she sleeps with David and he fully converts her to heterosexuality. 3 In the unedited manuscript, David and Catherine are reunited and together make a suicide pact to kill themselves if Catherine’s ‘madness’ returns. 4 Catherine’s increased inheritance due to her marriag e reads as a reward for her willingness to assume a traditionally female role and would infuriate any good feminist. 5 This twining and implied incest reminds the reader of the short story, “The Last Good Country” which is about the incestuous relationship between Nick Adams and his little sister, Littless. 6 Despite this forward movement in his characteriza tion, Hemingway was still unwilling to let go of the idea of the perfect woman and so had to bring Marita in to the novel. This is perhaps his psyche still trying to nurse the wounded boy, Ernest Hemingway, who felt rejected by his mother. 7 Again, in the unedited manuscript Hemingway has Catherine return to David and the two of them make a suicide pact to end their lives if Catherine becomes mentally ill again. However, my point remains the same: Catherine is able to leave David and return to him on her own termsafter Marita has left the relationship with David. 8 Pauline Pfeiffer, Hemingway’s second wife, was qu ite wealthy and she and her family often showered Hemingway with gifts—money, cars, and rent.

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38 References Burwell, Rose Marie. Hemingway: The Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. Comely, Nancy. The Light from Hemi ngways Garden: Regendering Papa. Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice Eds. Lawrence Broer and Gloria Holland. Tuscaloos a: U of Alabama P, 2002. 204-217. Eby, Carl P. Hemingways Fetishism: Psychoanalysis and the Mirror of Manhood Albany: State U of New York P, 1999. Fleming, Robert. The Face in the Mirror: Hemingways Writers Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1994. Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms 1929. New York: Scribners, 1957. -. The Garden of Eden New York: Scribners, 1986. Lynn, Kenneth. Hemingway Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987. Moddelmog, Debra. Reading Desire: In Pursuit of Ernest Hemingway Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1999. Spilka, Mark. Hemingways Quarrel with Androgyny Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1990. Lovell Strong, Amy. Go to Sleep Devil: Th e Awakening of Catherines Feminism in The Garden of Eden . Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice. Eds. Lawrence Broer and Gloria Holl and. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2002. 190-203 Tellefsen, Blythe. Rewriting the Self Agains t the National Text: Ernest Hemingways The Garden of Eden . Papers on Language and Literature 36.1 (Winter 2000): 58-92. Whipple Spanier, Sandra. Hemingways U nknown Soldier: Catherine Barkley, the Critics, and the Great War. New Essays on A Farewell to Arms Ed. Scott Donaldson. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 75-108.

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39 Bibliography Broer, Lawrence R., and Gloria Holland, ed s. Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2002. Burwell, Rose Marie. Hemingway: The Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. Comley, Nancy R. and Robert Scholes. Triba l Things: Hemingways Erotics of Truth. Novel Spring (1992): 268-285. -. The Light from Hemingways Garden: Regendering Papa. Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice Eds. Lawerence Broer and Gloria Holland. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2002. 204-217. Donaldson, Scott, ed. The Cambridg e Companion to Ernest Hemingway Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996 Eby, Carl P. Hemingways Fetishism: Psychoanalysis and the Mirror of Manhood Albany: State U of New York P, 1999. Fleming, Robert. The Face in the Mirror: Hemingways Writers Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1994. Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms 1929. New York: Scribners, 1957. -. The Garden of Eden New York: Scribners, 1986. Hemingway, Valerie. The Garden of Eden Revisited: With Hemingway in Provence in the Summer of . The Hemingway Review 18.2 (Spring 1999): 103-113. Lynn, Kenneth. Hemingway Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987. Moddelmog, Debra. Reading Desire: In Pursuit of Ernest Hemingway Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1999. Spilka, Mark. Hemingways Quarrel with Androgyny Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1990. Lovell Strong, Amy. Go to Sleep Devil: Th e Awakening of Catherines Feminism in The Garden of Eden . Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice. Eds. Lawerence Broer and Glorida Ho lland. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2002. 190-203

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40 Strychacz, Thomas. Hemingways Theaters of Masculinity Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2003. Tellefsen, Blythe. Rewriting the Self Agains t the National Text: Ernest Hemingways The Garden of Eden . Papers on Language and Literature 36.1 (Winter 2000): 58-92. Traber, Daniel S. Performing th e Feminine in A Farewell to Arms . The Hemingway Review 24.2 (Spring 2005): 28-40. Whipple Spanier, Sandra. Hemingways U nknown Soldier: Catherine Barkley, the Critics, and the Great War. New Essays on A Farewell to Arms Ed. Scott Donaldson. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 75-108.