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Schools as a center for community

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Title:
Schools as a center for community establishing neighborhood identity through public space and educational facility
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Book
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English
Creator:
Goykhman, Fred
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University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Blake High School
Hillsborough River
Down Town Tampa
River Edge
Dissertations, Academic -- Architecture & Community Design -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: For my thesis I will design an education facility. That education facility will strive to meet with today's security needs and will provide a safe-feeling place for growth. In identifying the problem, I found two main causes for the described conditions in today's schools. They are improper adaptation and uniform building type. Improper adaptation has to do with surface applications, rather than integrating with the social fabric of the school's communal requirements. Unfortunate incidents have caused the solutions to heightened security around schools to be fortressing and disrupting to the human activities. Metal detectors, restricted areas and alarmed doors are some of the possibly necessary but often overlooked attributes of the school design, which in concentration create a trapping, prison-like feeling where they should suggest a place of voluntary education and inspiration for the future.I will utilize CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies, research codes, new building technologies, materials, systems, arrangements, precedent studies, and testing through simulation or experiment, in a form of installation. I can determine possible solutions and interventions using these resources. Uniform building type sets a counterproductive precedent. Today we must look at places were young people want to be, and splice the desired attributes of those places in to modern schools. In fact, uniform building type is one of the reasons for improper adaptation. Through interviewing school administrators, building officials, students, faculty, psychologists, builders and other construction professionals, I can identify the mandatory requirements.Implementing security and safety attributes as part of the concept, and knowing trends in technology can help secure educational facilities while still maintaining the qualities that are conducive to a learning environment. As stated by Holly Richmond in Contract magazine, February 2006 edition, "Students are the most crucial design element in today's schools," says Kerry Leonard, principal and senior planner at O'Donnell, Wicklund, Pigozzi and Peterson Architects in Chicago and chair of the advisory group for the AIA Committee on Architecture for Education. "Understanding how people learn and creating environments that respond to this knowledge is the best building block to start from."
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
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by Fred Goykhman.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 82 pages.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002005313
oclc - 362255039
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002703
usfldc handle - e14.2703
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SFS0027020:00001


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School as a Center for Community: Establishing Neighborhood Identity through Public Space and Educational Facility by Fred Goykhman of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of Graduate Studies University of South Florida Major Professor: Stanley Russel, M.Arch. Rick Rados M.Arch. Shannon Edge B.A. Date Of Approval: November 10, 2008 Keywords: Blake High School, Hillsborough River, Down Town Tampa, River Edge c Copyright 2008, Fred Goykhman

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i Table Of Contents List of Figures ii Abstract vii Schools vs. Prisons 1 Case study #1, Blake High School 8 Case Study #2, School Building Typology 13 Case Study #3, Schools and Community Centers 27 Case Study #4 Securit and Schools Interview 33 Site Analysis 35 Schematic Design 43 Final Design Program 50 Final Design 68 Conclusion 80 Bibliography 82

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ii List Of Figures Fig 1. ,created by fred goykhman 7 Fig.2 Google Earth image 8 Fig.3 courtesy River View 9 Fig.4 courtesy of ACA INC. 9 Fig.5 courtesy of ACA INC. 10 Fig. 6 ACA INC 11 Fig. 7 ACA INC 11 Fig.8 Google maps images 11 Fig.9 courtesy Ruslan Lisitsa 11 Fig. 10 courtesy ACA Inc. Before 12 Fig. 11 ACA Inc. After 12 Fig. 13: School as Mansion: Lower Dublin Academy, 1790 15 Fig.14: School as Dissenting Chapel: Locust Street School, 1827 16 Fig.15: School as Mill: Model School, 1818 17 Fig. 16: School as Civic Landmark: Central High School, 1837 18 Fig. 17: School as Factory: McMichael School, 1890 19 Fig. 18: School as Mill: Moyamensing School, 1832 19 Fig. 19: Elite School as Civic Landmark: Central High School, 1894 19 Fig. 20: School as Civic Landmark: Girls High School, 1932 20

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iii Fig. 21: Civic Landmark: School Administration Building, 1931 20 Fig. 22: School as Prison: William Penn High School, 1973 21 Fig. 23: School as Fortress: University City High School, 1971 22 Figures 12 Figure 25 (Journal of Planning History 2006; 5; 218 George E. Thomas, Metaphor in the School Buildings of Philadelphia From Our House to the Big House) Fig. 26 The New York Observer 25 Fig. 27 The New York Observer 25 Fig. 28 The New York Observer 25 er, A CLASS APART: PRODIGIES, PRESSURE AND PASSION INSIDE ONE OF AMERICAS BEST HIGH SCHOOLS By Alec Klein) Fig. 29 courtesy of ACA inc. 26 Fig. 30 courtesy of ACA inc. 26 Fig. 31 courtesy of ACA inc. 26 Fig. 32 community facade 27 Fig. 33 common space 27 Fig. 34 gym widows 27 Fig.35 main hall 28 Fig. 36 multiuse space 28 Fig. 37 gym widows 29 Fig.38 facility master plan 29 Fig. 39 kids around a sundial 30

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iv Fig. 40 areal plan 30 Fig. 41 school facade 30 Fig. 42 YMCA addition front facade 31 Fig. 43 community pool shared by the school 31 Fig. 44 community game room 31 Fig. 45 restored elementary school 32 Fig. 46 cafeteria 32 Fig. 47 classroom 32 ters of Community: John A. Johnson Achievement Plus Elementary School, Richard Riley Award) Fig. 48 a lot in front of Blake High image by ACA Inc. 35 Fig. 49 goggle earth image 35 Fig. 50 drawing image by Fred Goykhman 35 Fig. 51 drawing image by Fred Goykhman 35 Fig 52 weather chart 36 Fig 53 weather chart 37 Fig. 55 site photos by Fred Goykhman 38 Fig. 56 concept model of site transition by Fred Goykhman 39 Fig. 57 threshold drawing by Fred Goykhman 39

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v Fig. 58 site photos by Fred Goykhman 39 Fig. 59 threshold drawing by Fred Goykhman 40 Fig. 60 site photo taken by Fred Goykhman 40 Fig. 61 integration drawing by Fred Goykhman 40 Fig. 62 goggle maps image main st. approach 40 Fig. 63 site relationship diagrams 41 Fig. 64 BEST program support sheet 42 Fig. 65 BEST logo graphic 42 Fig. 66 county images goggle photos 42 Fig. 67 site representation made by Fred Goykhman 43 Fig. 68 Schematic diagram by Fred G. 44 Fig. 69 space transition by Fred G. 45 Fig. 70 possible views diagram by Fred G. 45 Fig. 71 passage to Tampa downtown 45 Fig. 72 site section diagrams by Fred G. 46 Fig. 73 programming diagrammatic assemblies by Fred Goykhman 47 Fig. 75 bug models by Fred Goykhman 49 Fig. 77 Final space allocation diagram 70 Fig. 79 CPTED diagram 71

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vi Fig. 80 section detail 71 Fig 80.1 CPTED chart 72 Fig.81 Transition diagram 73 Fig. 82 site model 73 Fig. 83 sections 74 Fig. 84 ground plan 75 Fig. 85 Final model by Fred Goykhman 75 Fig. 86 Final model by Fred Goykhman 76 Fig. 92 need help photo taken by Fred Goykhman 81

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vii Safety is an opportunity for people to open their minds -Jin Baek, 2008 For my thesis I will design an education facility. That education facility will strive to meet with todays security needs and will provide a safe-feeling place for growth. In identifying the problem, I found two main causes for the described conditions in todays schools. They are improper adaptation and uniform building type. Improper adaptation has to do with surface applications, rather than integrating with the social fabric of the schools communal requirements. Unfortunate incidents have caused the solutions to heightened security around schools to be fortressing and disrupting to the human activities. Metal detectors, restricted areas and alarmed doors are some of the pos sibly necessary but often overlooked attributes of the school design, which in concentra tion create a trapping, prison-like feeling where they should suggest a place of voluntary education and inspiration for the future. I will utilize CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies, research codes, new building technologies, materials, in a form of installation. I can determine possible solutions and interventions using these resources. School as Center of Community Establishing Neighborhood Identity through Public Space and Educational Facility Fred Goykhman ABSTRACT

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viii Uniform building type sets a counterproductive precedent. Today we must look at places were young people want to be, and splice the desired attributes of those places in to modern schools. In fact, uniform building type is one of the reasons for improper ad psychologists, builders and other construction professionals, I can identify the mandatory requirements. Implementing security and safety attributes as part of the concept, and know ing trends in technology can help secure educational facilities while still maintaining the qualities that are conducive to a learning environment. As stated by Holly Richmond in Contract magazine, February 2006 edition, Students are the most crucial design element in todays schools, says Kerry Leon ard, principal and senior planner at ODonnell, Wicklund, Pigozzi and Peterson Architects in Chicago and chair of the advisory group for the AIA Committee on Architecture for Education. Understanding how people learn and creating environments that respond to this knowledge is the best building block to start from.

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1 Schools Vs. Prisons a certain type of thing creates an environment. This type of relationship denotes causation. Causality postulates that there are laws by which the occurrence of one depends on the oc currence of another, or that the conditions of the space directly affect the thing. Like-wise, the thing brings its own set of conditions imposing on the space, thus altering the environ ment. In wild nature, things and space in which they dwell tend to work in symbiosis, for better or worse of the thing, or the space. Humans alter the symbiosis to secure themselves certain attributes which may provide physical comforts and security. In reality they emit fears, the less understanding will our future generations become. This confusion is a vast problem: it touches on every aspect of modern human development, from fossil fuels, cars, and pedestrian unfriendly cities, to the binge and purge mentality toward both products and food, or the neglect with which we construct our environments. In this paper, I will focus on one of the roots of this ongoing problematic develop is a big problem with making bad buildings, simply put. Codes and restrictions, although serving a very positive purpose for preserving life and safety, also have bogged a lot of architects into thinking that there is no other reason to design for. Preserving life and safety should be the obvious choices in the design decision-making. In addition, a designer must incorporate elements of sustainability and most importantly an element of humanity. If a

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2 structure does not encourage humans to act in a human way, it has failed as architecture. For my thesis I will design an education facility. That education facility will strive to meet with todays security needs and will provide a safe-feeling place for growth. Dur ing the early years in American history, a school-house was just that a house. Just a simple room with a couple of windows. Over the years, due to higher attendance, the design sim courtesy of Thomas Jefferson, or a rip off its castle-like European counterparts. During the 1950s the post WWII paranoia of a nuclear attack changed the building approach to some schools. The idea was to make schools bomb proof. As ridiculous as it sounds, schools were made lower, usually one storied, bunker-like, available to be adapted for a multi-use building in case of the big one. Some additional codes and regulations due to lawsuits and the latest few incidents of murderous and drug peddling attendants have resulted in what we right now identify as a place for the education of our future generations. Lots of American schools from the past and presently being built look more like prisons rather than places for education. How do a school structure needs to be a bomb shelter. So why is the archetype of past American schools haunting todays design? teachers, and most importantly, the students. (Richmond, H. (2000) Contract. The 21stCentury School, 48 no2 F 2006, 38-9) In identifying the problem, I found two main causes for the described conditions in todays schools. They are Improper Adaptation and Uniform Building Type. Improper Ad aptation has to do with surface applications, rather than integrating with the social fabric of the schools communal requirements. When a new threat arises, the fastest cheapest thing

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3 is applied, often without consideration of the negative attributes that solution might bring. Unfortunate incidents have caused the solutions to needing heightened security around schools to be fortressing and disrupting to the human activities. Metal detectors, restricted areas and alarmed doors are some of the possibly necessary but often overlooked attributes of the school design, which in concentration create a trapping, prison-like feeling where they should suggest a place of voluntary education and inspiration for the future. Lack of foresight in the original schematic design of schools allows for unfortunate additions to occur. I will utilize CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strate gies, research codes, new building technologies, materials, systems, arrangements, prec determine possible solutions and interventions using these resources. CPTED in an orga nization which promotes crime prevention through physical environments that positively developing a new facility, to make sure that security is a major player in the design process. for an educational facility. The principal of Natural Surveillance, referring to keeping in visibility of people, parking areas, and building entrances, pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets. pavement designs, gateway treatments, and fences. Natural Access Control is a design con cept directed primarily at decreasing crime opportunity by denying access to crime targets

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4 and creating a perception of risk. The perceived risk is gained by designing streets, side walks, building entrances, and neighborhood gateways to clearly indicate public routes, discouraging access to private areas with structural elements. Target Hardening is accom plished by features that prohibit entry or access, target hardening involves window locks, dead bolts for doors, and interior door hinges. Though some of the CPTED principals seem obvious, some designers seen to ignore a lot of them in the primary conception of their projects, utilizing principals of such organizations will help me in my research to identify some of the causes of security problems. CPTED is doing for public safety what LEED is doing for the stainability. safe feeling places to inhabit. Schools should be part of a neighborhood to which it belongs, possibly integrated in to its fabric. Tina Blythe, director of facility development at The Boston Architectural Center.She believes that the monolithic school structure built on the edge of town is the 21st-century school's anti-trend. (Richmond, H. (2000) Contract. The 21st-Century School, 48 no2 F 2006, 38-9) Uniform Building Type sets a counterproductive precedent. In my observation, I have found that the general school building shape has a lot of similarities with other build ings meant for recuperation and incarceration. Places like prisons and psychiatric hospitals have been under criticism for being shaped as places for harsh punishment, versus places for recuperation, leading further to statistics that show a large percentage of inmates com ing out of prisons worse than they went in. With that said, how can a child in adolescence not places for reformation but rather they are places for innovation and progression? What stimuli can a young person draw from the inhibiting walls of a correctional facility? Other than the deduction that they dont want to be in there, nor do they want to go back there, just like prisons, here is little to be inspired by such oppressive and entrapping surround

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5 ings. la, the look of a school building has been morphed from its institutional predecessor, and in many cases the results are shape look-alikes rather than essence or purpose of a school. look at places were young people want to be, and splice the desired attributes of those places in to modern schools. The design for a new school should be intriguing and for ward driven in its every aspect. Kerry Leonard, principal and senior planner at O'Donnell, Wicklund, Pigozzi and Peterson Architects in Chicago and chair of the advisory group for the AIA Committee on Architecture for Education, believes schools are a living laboratory of math, physics, biology, and poetry to enlighten students to the interconnected commu nity-and world-around them.(Richmond,H.(2000) Contract.The 21st-Century School, 48 no2 F 2006, 38-9). Replicating the old school prototype and blindly following the basic requirements in design makes a place that may appear safe and secure in presentation, but what it does not show is all the additions that will have to be slapped on after the building is completed. Chain link fences, metal detectors and security guards dont make pretty renderings. In fact, uniform building type is one of the reasons for improper adaptation. When designing a new school building, we must consider new materials and technologies that are available in the market. Durability is a major concern for the architect, builder, administration, and the maintenance crew. Knowing trends in technology, how to assess school safety, and the importance of planning ahead can help secure educational facilities. (Aker. J.M.(2008) Buildings. The Best Defense: Comprehensive School Security,102 no2 psychologists, builders and other construction professionals, I can identify the mandatory requirements. Implementing security and safety attributes as part of the concept, and know ing trends in technology can help secure educational facilities while still maintaining the

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6 qualities that are conducive to a learning environment. Schools are one of the most important places that we design. Its inhabitants today be a complete substitute for what is lacking in the society, even if it could be that for some. Rather, I believe it should be a place where kids become aware of the world around them As stated by Holly Richmond in Contract magazine, February 2006 edition, "Students are the most crucial design element in today's schools," says Kerry Leon ard, principal and senior planner at O'Donnell, Wicklund, Pigozzi and Peterson Architects in Chicago and chair of the advisory group for the AIA Committee on Architecture for Education. "Understanding how people learn and creating environments that respond to this knowledge is the best building block to start from."

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7 SAFETY IS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PEOPLE TO OPEN THEIR MINDS + PROVIDING A SECURE PLACE FOR HABITATION TEST BY SIMULATING OR EXPERIMENT RESEARCH OTHER SYSTEMS OF CIRCULATION AND PUBLIC GATHERING IMPROVE SUBSTITUTE OR EXCLUDE THE FACTORS AT FAULT IDENTIFYING THE X FACTORS AT FAULT INTERVIEWING PEOPLE (STUDENTS, TEACHERS, GRADUATES) LOOKING AT NEW WAYS (MATERIALS, SYSTEM, ARRANGEMENTS) IDENTIFYING THE CONSTRICTIONS INTERVIEWING BUILDERS THINKING AHEAD IN DESIGN IMPROPER ADAPTATION LOOK AT PRECEDENTS TEST CLARIFYING THE DIFFERENCE UNIFORM BUILDING TYPE CLASS AGE SEPARATION LOOK AT PRECEDENTS RESEARCH STATISTICS AND ARTICLES INTERVIEW TEACHERS PARENTS Fig.1 created by fred goykhman Progress Diagram

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8 Case study 1 Blake High School Could a school be more than a place where kids go to from 8am to 3pm? Could it be a community integrated environment? How important is the building to this? Case study #1 Abstract Blake High School is positioned on the land elbow pushing in to the Hillsborough River just north of the I275 overpass. On the west and south sides the school is pressed by mostly subsidized housing and underprivileged neighborhoods. Being a magnet school Blake draws students from the outside of the neighborhood as well as the local settlements. In its attempt to protect the students the design for Blake High has armored it self ignoring the opportunities that are presented by its strategic location on the river front, crowning a neighborhood and its close Fig.2 Google Earth image

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9 Hypothesis From over all basic observation the school building does not provide as quality of a space, as it could if: It had stronger relationship to the river and 1. the proposed river walk due to be constructed. Blake is a magnet school for the visual and the performing arts. The river walk could provide an easy access to the art district of down-town Tampa and establish relationships with the performing arts center; also visual art galleries could front the river for public It utilize CPTED(Crime Prevention Through 2. Environmental Design) to protect and enhance the student spaces simultaneously. Berm, organized gathering areas and scenic paths can create functional and appealing spaces. (Fig. 2.) High School 3. 3. It had a stronger trust with the adjacent community, strengthening the relationships and gaining better respect from students. Barriers and fences do not provide security they only give an illusion of it, but they contribute an impression of Fig.3 courtesy River View Fig.4 courtesy of ACA INC.

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10 lack of safety. In fact students sneak out daily during lunch to go to downtown for food variety. If some one can sneak out unnoticed someone can and probably Methods of Investigation From the initial approach Blake High has a very intimidating feel. At ground level the building is a Whether viewing from the West Main St. or North Boulevard the school has a stark disposition. Greeted by the parking structure coming over the bridge going south in North Boulevard and fronted design clearly is trying to disconnect from the surrounding community. The current subsidized housing community is pushing in the schools property on the south side. To which the design reacts with a wide service drive and a fence leading to the apparent service end of the building. There is one main entrance in to the school grounds leading through to the court yard facing the river created by the split a gate necessary for additional security. The inside sides of the building forming the yards are lined window view the opposing window wall rather that Fig.5 courtesy of ACA INC.

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11 the river. The cafeteria is in the south limb and spills in the court yard, again away from the river. The the south one being the theater and the north one being the gymnasium. The only interaction with the river is with the art labs at the lower and of the north limb. Again unfortunately no space is designated for gathering. Manhattan opens their doors to allow their students Analysis In my observation of Blake High I have noticed that the biggest problematic issue is the lack of gathering space with in or outside of school. Students and before and after school. Lack of gathering spaces along with the oversized and unusable outdoor area, and inclosing gated appearances. Disconnect from the river and complete brake from down town Tampa. The best course of action is to intervene in the central space all the way to the river with CPTED(Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) methods to reform the current dead zones, establishing positive Fig. 7 ACA INC. Fig.9 courtesy Ruslan Lisitsa Fig. 6 ACA INC Fig.8 Google maps images

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12 spaces for gathering, communications, and learning. Conclusion to Blake will improve the overall and individual moral of the student body, and possibly raise the schools over all performance, especially with in the non magnet students. In this demonstration I am proposing a walk way across the grassy retention area students to access to the busses an accommodation not thought of in the original design. Increasing the depth of the retention area and planting local wetland vegetation will utilize the space as nature intended and add to atmosphere. Fig. 10 courtesy ACA Inc. Before Fig. 11 ACA Inc. After

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13 Case Study #2 School Building Typology Abstract A building is representative of the needs of its inhabitants. A building shapes the percep tion of its observers and directly controls their perception of it self and the environment it creates. A school building is a representative of the attitude toward what people in the society were and should be in the future. Many civilizations have used design to reinforce particular belief systems. In this case study I will discuss the role a school building type ute to the values of the future. Hypothesis Research in architectural theory and environmental psychology reveals that architects hard chairs that quickly grow uncomfortable so that customers rapidly turn over; elevator avoid eye contact and feel less crowded; supermarkets have narrow aisles so that custom ers can not easily talk to each other and must focus on the products instead.8 With strategies like these, private architects are currently engaging in social control. Law occasionally mitments.

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14 there are still schools that are built with old fashioned typologies encouraging the future generations to think like the past Should a whole new way of construction language be devised for the incubator of our future generations. Methods of Investigation Through review of several articles i had found that there are distinct pattern between school buildings typologies and socioeconomic state of the people at that time. Philadel phia public schools have been products of the culture and values that made them. When education was embedded in the home, schools looked like houses; when education became civic, schools took on a civic character; when Philadelphia gave itself over to the forces of industry, schools were derived from industry. In the twentieth ture of reformprisons.

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15 and academies marks them as architectural as well as array of domestic building types. These range from simple, rectangular, gable-roofed cabins that evolved into the arche typical one-room schoolhouse to the more original, one-room, octagonal-plan schoolhouse such as the of Philadelphia (built 1805; demolished in 1892).4 Octagonal plans provided the largest amount of inte that from the outset, economy was the watchword for schools. A few of these eighteenth century buildings were elaborate multi room structures that provided living space for the teacher as a part of his salary. While most of these larger buildings such as the Passyunk School (1826) have been demolished, the Germantown and Lower Merion Academies still sur vive.5 In the case of these early Philadelphia schools, their name, schoolhouse, correlates with their archi tectural typology. Chase School, 1803 Fig. 13: School as Mansion: Lower Dub lin Academy, 1790

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16 In Philadelphia, another building type had domestic rootsthe Quaker place of worship, which was known as the meeting house. Like houses, the early schoolhouses usually shared with their name sake a center-hall plan with rooms on either side that corresponded to the residential hierarchy of pub lic and private spaces. In the case of the school, it typically differentiated the upper and lower grades. These early buildings provide insights into the nature of schooling and the values behind it. In eighteenthcentury Philadelphia, few individuals owned such houses, and judging from the relative rar ity and size of schools, an equally limited number of chi dren could afford the time for regular schooling. Hence, the adaptation of the elite house as school secondary role as home of the teacher allied it with parental mentoring including corporeal punishment that was part of the craft culture of the eighteenth century. Fig.14: School as Dissenting Chapel: Locust Street School, 1827

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17 Fig.15: School as Mill: Model School, 1818 When the First School District of Pennsylva nia was established in Philadelphia in 1818, the ques tion of how to design and shape public schools quick ly came to the fore. Two distinct strategies evolved. One response to the Model School Act of 1818 was constructed west of Eighth Street above Race Street in one of the citys growing mill districts. This build ing was based on the economical, three-story brick, gable-roofed mill buildings of the industrial quarters of the city. Then as now, richer districts received schools that looked like mansions and were usually architect designed, while in poorer districts, schools looked like the mills that employed the parents and older siblings. The elite were aimed toward high status and the professions, while the children of the work ing neighborhood would end up in the mill. The future direction of Philadelphias school building

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18 A third model that might seem to be an in termediary was based on the buildings of the dis senting churches of the city, where, in the era before compulsory education, Sunday schools educated many of the citys working class students on their day off from work. Dissenting churches, including the Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians, adopted the simple meeting house building type of the So ciety of Friends but turned the narrow gabled (Fig ure 15): front toward the street, thereby requiring the minimum valuable urban street frontage. In these school, while the upper level housed the sanctuary. Schools on this model followed suit, with their nar row end toward the street and with classrooms ure16). It was built by the same builder as the Model School of nine years earlier and by its cost was closer to the mill model than the mansion. Fig. 16: School as Civic Landmark: Central High School, 1837

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19 Fig. 17: School as Factory: McMichael School, 1890 Fig. 18: School as Mill: Moyamensing School, 1832 After the Civil War, all Philadelphia public schools were designed by in-house architects who, despite the over arching goal of economy, continued to distinguish between the citys working-class and middle-class neighborhoods. This was usually rep resented by the choice of materialsbrick for the industrial neighborhoods, while stone was reserved for elite neighborhoods. Philadelphians shifted their focus to manu facturing that made their city the nations center of industrial innovation. Not surprisingly, the citys school builders continued to look to the utilitarian mill buildings as the model for new buildings. Be cause they were usually built where urban land was structures were the rule. Costs again were telling. While the typical school was built for less than 10 cents per cubic foot, the Girls High School cost more than 15 cents per cubic footand the boys Central High School came in at four times the cost of the usual school. Fig. 19: Elite School as Civic Landmark: Central High School, 1894

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20 The downtown elite continued to be edu cated in high-style palaces like the handsome co lonial revival Masterman School with its limestone pilasters and pediments.20 Built in 1932 as Girls High School, it was located on another civic avenue, Spring Garden Street, near Broad Street and near the boys Central High School, creating an elite educa Fig. 20: School as Civic Landmark: Girls High School, 1932 For the century from the beginning of the Model School Act of 1818 to the Depression, Phila standardizing, and utilitarian forces of the industrial culture that shaped Philadelphias architecture and culture. School board policy continued to focus on training workers for the citys industry in buildings that served a culture that prided itself on how little was spent per pupila cost-analysis basis that rep resented the type of engineering that made for eco nomical products in a mass-industrial culture. Fig. 21: Civic Landmark: School Administration Building, 1931

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21 Fig. 22: School as Prison: William Penn High School, 1973 The similarity between the rear pods and a contemporary prison, the citys new House of Deten heimer Weitz Bellante Clauss Associated Architects, may have been better visualized from the airbut in an era when the physical and entertainment worlds were breaking boundaries, this was clearly an ar chitecture of control. Poured in place, architectural concrete was not cheapthe bean counters were no longer in charge but the psychological costs were great. To an urban under class that didnt understand and largely didnt accept the values of elite modern design, the school had no positive associationsoth er than its name for William Penn, a dead white man who had little relevance to the community in which the building was being constructed. When the school facilities crew slapped massive steel and wire-mesh grills over all the windows, presumably to reduce broken windows, the school

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22 Fig. 23: School as Fortress: University City High School, 1971 as prison image was clear. Challenged by its un forgiving mass, students set out to transform it by fare with administrators bent on preserving the pure architectural forms. H2L2s University City High of a giant square surrounding a roofed-over interior courtyard itself a telling image of an outside world that had lost its bearings. Like a Renaissance palazzo or John Havi lands Eastern State Penitentiary, it appeared to be designed to defy urban insurrection. When the edu cation House of Detention: Architecture of Order staffers added grills over the windows, the building looked even more prison-like. There was much of the urban prison in its internal demeanor of cinder-block corridors with metal doors as well.

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23 2001 Lawson-Bell on the site of an Episcopal seminary that had departed for Boston. Although halls that serve as sitting and meeting areas recalls shopping center with its shared spaces and happy col the last of the schools modeled on homes, the school system had found a positive model rooted in contem porary life. The school districts efforts at transfor mation in the 1990s took a variety of courses, with different superintendents battling city and state agen tury began, the fragmentation of contemporary life was undoing old monoliths such as the school district and opening new possibilities.

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24 der School, 2001 Charter schools placed learning in a remark able variety of public and private buildings. Among the most creative strategies are public-private partner ships such as the University of Pennsylvanias provi sion of land, design assistance, and teacher training and Locust Streets, designed in 2001 by Philadelphia architects Atkin, Olshin,

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25 Stuyvesant High School, the Ultimate Meritocracy The front entrance has a fortress feel to re semble a place of strength and authority for any one who enters. where the overall design of the building has a humble factory look or partially resembling a early 20th century housing in New York.. The industrial type bridge linking the pedes with its community otherwise isolated on a pier sticking out in the river.. this school makes a fair ef fort to connect to the community. It employs the ty pologies of the past in segmented attributes. A modern school in prestigious part of man hattan combines a tributes of past relevance to assert an image for their facility. Fig. 26 The New York Observer Fig. 27 The New York Observer Fig. 28 The New York Observer

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26 can be related to a fortress at the front entrance, with its over lay of brick barriers. It recedes from the neighborhood and prevents the visual and physical contact of the neighborhood with the river. From the other view point this high school looks like a prison or a place with relatively high se curity and impenetrability. Solid brick facades, lack of large windows and eight foot high fences make an impression of a very none welcoming place. Blake High is a magnet school for visual and performing arts yet it as a building is doing nothing to promote that to the surrounding community. the theater (to the right) lack grandeur and public space in relationship to the adjacent community Fig. 29 courtesy of ACA inc. Fig. 30 courtesy of ACA inc. Fig. 31 courtesy of ACA inc.

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27 Two faith-based organizations pull re sources to empower inner-city youth The mission statement for the new Twin Cities Cristo Rey Jesuit High School and Colin Powell Youth Center is to raise up a new generation of technically, morally and vocationally. Ryan pro vided full design and construction services for the project donated the fees for their services.A unique collaboration This project is a strategic partner ship between The Twin Cities Jesuit High School Project and Urban Ventures, a local community development agency with a proven track record of addressing social and economic struggles of urban families. Case study #3 Schools and Community Centers Cristo Rey Jesuit High School and Colin Powell Youth Leadership Center Fig. 32 community facade Fig. 33 common space Fig. 34 gym widows

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28 The Jesuit High School is paired with Urban Ventures Colin Powell Center, providing services and support to help local teenagers graduate from high school and pursue a college education. Ryan had initially been approached by each organization sepa rately. Ryans leadership saw the synergy between the two projects and introduced the idea of combin ing the facilities. The building serves 500 students and 25,000 neighborhood children and parents. Fig. 36 multiuse space Fig.35 main hall

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29 Portland, Ore. Looks to a School Designed Around Neighborhoods as a New Model. Rosa Parks School is the cornerstone of the use partnership project located in the recently rede veloped New Columbia low-income housing project, the largest revitalization project in Oregon history. needing to serve residents of North Portland, the that includes a new K-6 school (Rosa Parks), Boys & Girls Club, and Portland Parks Community Center, on land donated by the Portland Housing The new school is divided into four neighborhoods, each containing 125 students. Each neighborhood room, and support functions around a Neighbor hood Commons. At the entry to the school, families are provided their own resource room, as well as access to a library in formation center. Fig. 37 gym widows Fig.38 facility master plan

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30 Functions including art, computers, music, and food service are shared with the new Boys & Girls Club. While the need for these programs was central to the were limited. Dull Olson Weekes Architects was hired to bring together these institutions and noncutting planning costs by as much as half. The cen terpiece of the Community Campus is the new Rosa Parks School. Only the second new school designed and constructed by Portland Public Schools in 30 years, Rosa Parks is envisioned as a model for future new school design. Fig. 39 kids around a sundial Fig. 41 school facade Fig 40 areal plan

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31 East YMCA is a recreational facility designed to accommodate the needs of an urban community as well as the needs of an attached elementary school. East YMCA and John A. Johnson Achievement Plus Elementary School is notable for its resourceful ap proach in locating education and recreation programs within a single facility. The 60,000 square foot YMCA provides spac es for recreational programs and resources for every age, from infants to senior citizens. Features include ity room, a teen center, community meeting rooms, locker rooms, a gymnasium and aquatic center. The aquatic center contains a lap pool and leisure pool with water slide. East YMCA Saint Paul, MN Fig 42 YMCA addition front facade Fig 43 community pool shared by the school

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32 Achievement Plus Elementary School Saint Paul, MN The John A. Johnson Achievement Plus El ementary School and East YMCA is the result of a partnership of school, civic, private organizations with strong community input. The result turned ur project required a combination of renovation and new construction to complete the neighborhood school 80,000 square foot school building underwent demo renovation. New construction included an additional 24,000 square feet of educational space and a 60,000 square foot YMCA recreational facility. The YMCA and the school are joined through a link that allows the partners to share resources; locating educational and recreational programs within a single facility. The project became the basis of an American Archi by other communities across the country. Fig 45 restored elementary school Fig 46 cafeteria Fig 47 classroom

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33 Case study #4 Security and Schools Interview Interview with David Friedburg Director of Security Services Hillsborough County Public Schools I have met with Mr. Friedburg on the morning of September 23, Wednesday 10 am to discuss some of the security issues regarding the safety of hillsborough county public schools. in our conversation we spoke on how to eliminate the fortress feel in the school building, major reasons of why security in schools does not symbolise a feeling of safety, and how to engage CPTED (crime prevention through environmental design ).honestly if anybody ever reads this thing please understand that this thesis has been one rible writer, and wishing i dint have to do this now. Anyway getting back i mean seriously its 12:05 on a Friday fnnnn A, man. ok here it is ly schools have been trying to control the access points because of higher rates of crime penetrating in to the school. A. Have all controlled access points there is an issue with uncontrolled access points What is the degree of controlled access required to achieve3 secure school. Re cently drastic measures have been taken by schools to achieve controlled access points of entry Such techniques are metal detectors fences solid walls police on campuses A. Access control point monitored so students are coming in and accessing the school. Are ID cards in phase in Florida schools. A. Yes, most high schools including Blake. A lot of schools have metal detectors. A. Random metal detection selection with hand held detection squad, no perma nent metal detectors. What is the difference between security and safety?

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34 ing walls for barriers with out fences Goal is to build facilities that will deter unau thorized access but freedom to move about with in. These attributes can be achieved by utilizing parameters set by CPTED. What role do you play in the security of our schools ? A. Much of what i do is perception, because, perception is reality at least to those per ceiving it. You can feel unsafe and be safe Or vice versa.. A lot of what i do is balance reality and perception as well as risk and cost. There is just about nothing that i couldnt harden but at what cost. Doing risk analysis of protection versus value. What role can cameras play in the security of the school ? A. Deterring effect of cameras. Sensory cameras motion and sound detection cameras. If people are being watched they are less likely to commit a crime. We also discussed the four values of CPTED crime prevention through environ mental design. The Four Strategies of CPTED 1. Natural Surveillance A design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders eas and building entrances: doors and windows that look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets; front porches; adequate nighttime lighting. Users then develop a sense of territorial control while potential offenders, perceiving this private spaces from public spaces using landscape plantings, pavement designs, gateway treatments, and CPTED fences. 3. Natural Access Control A design concept directed primarily at decreasing crime opportunity by denying access to crime targets and creating in offenders a perception of risk. Gained by designing streets, sidewalks, building entrances and neighborhood gateways to clearly indicate public routes and discouraging access to private areas with structural elements. 4. Target Hardening Accomplished by features that prohibit entry or access: window locks, dead bolts for doors, interior door hinges. Improve the quality of life.

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35 site analysis A B A B Fig. 48 a lot in front of Blake High Fig 50 drawing Fig 51 drawing

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36 Fig 52 weather chart

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37

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38 Easy transition to and from downtown Tampa makes the site a Students and visitors can travel by foot along the river. The over pass transition is harsh at the moment The adjacent subsidized housing creates a barrier .. Fig.55 site photos by fred goykhman

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39 Fig. 56 concept model of site and transition Fig. 57 threshold drawing Fig.58 site photos by fred goykhman

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40 Main St. approach Fig. 59 threshold drawing by Fred goykhman Fig. 60 Site photos taken by ACA Fig. 61 integration drawing by Fred Goykhman Fig. 62 Goggle maps image

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41 Fig. 63 site relationship diagrams

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42 The John A. Johnson Achievement Plus Elementary School and East YMCA Location: Saint Paul, MN Rosa Parks School at New Columbia Community Campus Location: Portland, Ore. Architect: Dull Olson Powell Youth L Location: Minneapolis Architect: Ryan Companies School facilities are powerful indicators of community values and aspirations. They not only support the academic needs of the students they serve, but can also address the social, educational, recreational, and personal needs of the members of the broader community. Schools should be a resource to the community at-large. When school facilities are perceived this way, value is created for the school and for the commu nity, since families can be strengthened and communities can realize added vitality. or interagency use of school facilities and grounds. facilitate and encourage the sharing of school facilities for community use through appropriate policies, procedures, and The state has established standards for school site selection. The criteria established for school sites encourages schools to locate near public resources. A school site should be selected to pro mote joint use of parks, libraries, muse ums and other public services. Title 5, California Code of Regulations, Division 1, Chapter 13, Subchapter1 The state allows school districts to enter into agreements, as well as enter into leases, set fees, permit uncompensated Arizona Statue Title 15-364 The state has enabling legislation in their Community Schools Act (Chapter 115C-204 through 209) to encourage greater community involvement in the public schools and greater community use of public school facilities. STATE ACTIONS Fig. 64 BEST poster

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43 schematic design Fig. 67 site representation made by Fred Goykhman

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44 CLASSROOMS PUBLIC RIVER WALK AND PLAZA, BRIDGES, NEIGHBOURHOOD THEATER ATHLETIC SERVICES SPECIAL EDUCATION CLASSROOMS GARAGE MUSIC AND PERFORMING ARTS LIBRARY AND STUDENT WALK COMMUNITY CENTER CAFETERIA GALLERY AND COMMERCIAL SPACE Fig. 68 Schematic diagram by Fred G.

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45 Fig. 69 space transition by Fred G. Fig. 70 possible views diagram by Fred G. Fig. 71 passage to Tampa downtown

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46 A B A B The section cuts demonstrate spacial relationships In section A right to left : the river and the classroom building forming a visual communication between public river walk and private art and other classrooms, the classroom building and the athletic building forming an inner court yard space for students, the athletic building and the the ater spaces form the second court yard for students, the theater and the community centre line the Main st. leading to down town Tampa providing pedestrian plazas and walkway as well as vehicular passage. In section B from right to left: signifying thee relationship between the North Boulevard bridge walk. Naturalizing the river bank ben ing natural barriers the school building separates the student spaces physically with out breaking visual communication between the river and the sur rounding pedestrians. Students will be able to engage with the outdoor surroundings with out having direct contact with the passing pedestrians. Pedestrians can walk the river walk without interfering with the school ac tivities. Fig. 72 site section diagrams by Fred G.

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47 Fig. 73 programming diagrammatic assemblies by Fred G.

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48 by Fred Goykhman

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49 In these models I was developing some of the formal moves of the project Fig. 75 bug models by Fred Goykhman

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50 High School and Community Center Program Inventory Code No. of Spaces Description of Area Minimum Unit Sq. Ft. Total Sq. Ft. Student Stations Each Student Stations Total GENERAL EDUCATION LANGUAGE ARTS 003 15 Classrooms* 680 10,200 25 375 Subtotal 11,030 *locate one Classroom adjacent to the Media Center MATHEMATICS 003 15 Classrooms 680 10,200 25 375 Subtotal 10,830 SOCIAL STUDIES 003 15 Classrooms 680 10,200 25 375 Subtotal 10,830 SCIENCE 023 1 Physics Laboratory 1,440 25 022 1 Earth Science Demonstration Classroom 1,050 25

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51 023 1 Chemistry Laboratory 1,440 25 022 1 Chemistry Demonstration Classroom 1,050 25 808 1 Chemistry Storage-Preparation Room 300 023 3 Integrated Science Laboratories 1,440 4,320 25 75 022 3 Integrated Science Demonstration Classrooms 1,050 3,150 25 75 808 3 Integrated Science Storage-Preparation Room 300 900 023 2 Biology Laboratories 1,440 2,880 25 50 022 2 Biology Demonstration Classrooms 1,050 2,100 25 50 808 2 Biology Storage-Preparation Rooms 300 600 808 1 Hazardous Chemical Storage 100 Subtotal 20,260 DRIVER EDUCATION 003 2 Classrooms 680 1,360 25 50 1 Driving Range Subtotal 1,360 combine with bus loading DROP-OUT PREVENTION 003 1 Impact Classroom 900 25 003 1 Graduation Enhancement Classroom 680 25 Subtotal 1,580 HEALTH EDUCATION 003 1 Classroom 680 25 Subtotal 680 FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS 012 7 Laboratories 680 4,760 25 175

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52 Subtotal 5,290 COMPUTER SKILLS 012 1 Laboratory 760 25 Subtotal 760 READING RESOURCE 040 1 Resource Room 680 0 Subtotal 680 ART 052 2 Studios 2,000 4,000 28 56 803 1 Darkroom 300 805 1 Kiln Room 100 Subtotal 4,700 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 076 1 Classroom 2,250 50 832 1 Instrument Storage Room 250 834 1 Uniform Storage Room 180 Subtotal 2,680 VOCAL MUSIC 075 1 Classroom 1,485 26 808 1 Material Storage Room 300 Subtotal 2,035

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53 PHYSICAL EDUCATION 110 1 Multi-purpose Classroom 680 112 1 Gymnasium Floor 6,200 160 113 1 Gymnasium Seating (2,000 seats) 6,166 315 1 Male Teacher Planning Area 150 315 1 Female Teacher Planning Area 150 370 1 Lobby 500 1 Utility Field (Softball practice) [160,000] 6 Playcourts Subtotal 20,376 EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EDUCATION (E.S.E.) ALLOWANCES: 7,000 75 EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED (EMH) 062 1 Classroom 680 7 Subtotal 680 TRAINABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED (TMH)

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54 062 1 Classroom 680 7 817 1 Student Toilet Room 40 Subtotal 720 062 1 Classroom 1,000 10 Subtotal 1,070 SEVERELY EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED (SED) 062 1 Classroom 1,000 10 817 1 Student Toilet Room 40 Subtotal 1,040 AUTISTIC 062 1 Classroom 1,000 10 Subtotal 1,070 PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED 062 1 Classroom 1,000 10 817 1 Student Toilet Room 40 Subtotal 1,040 VISUALLY HANDICAPPED 062 1 Classroom 680 7 817 1 Student Toilet Room 40 Subtotal 720 EMOTIONALLY HANDICAPPED (EH) 062 1 Classroom 680 7 Subtotal 680 SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABLED (SLD) 062 1 Classroom 680 7 Subtotal 680 E.S.E. RESOURCE

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55 065 4 Resource Rooms 680 2,720 0 Subtotal 2,720 VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ALLOWANCES: 25,000 340 BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION 211 1 Laboratory 1,620 26 Subtotal 1,720 SALES MERCHANDISING 221 1 Laboratory 950 22 Subtotal 1,100 Rm, if provided, and locate so that it opens onto both Labs 310 1 SCHOOL STORE 100 Subtotal 100 DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING 221 1 Laboratory 760 18 Subtotal 860 vided, and locate so that it opens onto both Labs WORK EXPERIENCE 221 1 Laboratory 760 18 Subtotal 860

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56 FAMILY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES 700 1 Entry Vestibule 50 840 1 Related Classroom 680 842 1 Kitchen 100 816 1 Student Toilet Room 100 811 1 Outside Storage Room 50 1 Outdoor Play Area [1,500] Subtotal 2,330 234 1 Early Childhood Education Laboratory 1,100 17 700 1 Entry Vestibule 50 840 1 Related Classroom 680 842 1 Kitchen 100 816 1 Student Toilet Room 100 811 1 Outside Storage Room 50 1 Outdoor Play Area [1,500] Subtotal 2,330 231 1 Culinary Operations Laboratory 1,600 25 840 1 Multi-Purpose Classroom 680 810 1 Material Storage Room 200 Subtotal 2,480 232 1 Life Management Skills Laboratory 1,265 23 808 1 Material Storage Room 100 Subtotal 1,365 231 1 Nutrition and Wellness Laboratory 1,475 23 808 1 Material Storage Room 100 Subtotal 1,575

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57 232 1 Home and Family Management Laboratory 1,265 23 808 1 Material Storage Room 100 Subtotal 1,365 231 1 Fashion Production Laboratory 700 23 863 1 Fitting Room 75 808 1 Material Storage Room 100 843 1 Laundry Room 75 Subtotal 950 231 1 Interior Design Laboratory 1,475 23 808 1 Material Storage Room 150 Subtotal 1,625 231 2 Teen Parent Classrooms 900 18 36 Subtotal 900 TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 22 808 1 Material Storage Room 150 849 1 Project Storage Room 200 Subtotal 2,440 241 1 Principles of Drafting Technology Laboratory 1,440 22 808 1 Material Storage Room 150 849 1 Project Storage Room 150 Subtotal 1,740 242 1 Communications Technology Laboratory 2,090 22 808 1 Material Storage Room 150 849 1 Project Storage Room 200 Subtotal 2,640 242 1 Production Technology Laboratory 2,090 22

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58 808 1 Material Storage Room 200 849 1 Project Storage Room 200 Subtotal 2,490 241 1 Principles of Electronics Laboratory 1,440 22 810 1 Material Storage Room 200 Subtotal 1,640 241 1 Carpentry and Cabinetmaking Laboratory 1,170 18 810 1 Material Storage Room 500 851 1 Tool Storage Room 250 840 1 Related Classroom 680 315 1 Teacher Planning Area 100 1 Outside Covered Project Area* 1,800 *If more that one program is selected that requires an Outside Covered Project Area, calculate the square footage as follows: 1,800 sf for the 243 1 Automotive Service Technology Laboratory 3,240 24 810 1 Material Storage Room 340 851 1 Tool Storage Room 150 847 1 Flammable Storage Room 150 849 1 Project Storage Room 200 840 1 Related Classroom 680 315 1 Teacher Planning Area 100 subtotal 6,660 242 1 Ventilation, AC and Refrigeration Laboratory 2,090 22 810 1 Material Storage Room 225 851 1 Tool Storage Room 165 849 1 Project Storage Room 300 840 1 Related Classroom 680 315 1 Teacher Planning Area 100 1 Outside Covered Project Area* 1,800 *If more that one program is selected that requires

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59 an Outside Covered Project Area, calculate the square footage as follows: 1,800 sf for 242 1 Electrical Trades Laboratory 2,090 22 810 1 Material Storage Room 325 851 1 Tool Storage Room 300 840 1 Related Classroom 680 315 1 Teacher Planning Area 100 1 Outside Covered Project Area* 1,800 *If more that one program is selected that requires an Outside Covered Project Area, calculate the square footage as follows: 1,800 sf for 241 1 Introduction to Engineering Design 1,440 22 808 1 Material Storage Room 150 849 1 Project Storage Room 150 Subtotal 1,740 241 1 Principles of Engineering 1,440 22 808 1 Material Storage Room 150 849 1 Project Storage Room 150 Subtotal 1,740 241 1 Digital Electronics 1,440 22 810 1 Material Storage Room 200 Subtotal 1,640 1,170 18 810 1 Material Storage Room 350 851 1 Tool Storage Room 250 840 1 Related Classroom 680

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60 315 1 Teacher Planning Area 100 2,550 241 1 Computer System Technology (Computer Repair) 1,440 22 808 1 Material Storage Room 150 849 1 Project Storage Room 150 Subtotal 1,740 242 1 Construction Trades 1,050 22 810 1 Material Storage Room 500 851 1 Tool Storage Room 250 840 1 Related Classroom 650 315 1 Teacher Planning Area 90 1 Outside Covered Project Area* 1,000 *If more that one program is selected that requires an Outside Covered Project Area, calculate the square footage as follows: 1,800 sf for 245 1 Cosmetology Laboratory 1,620 18 840 1 Related Classroom 500 804 1 Dispensary 80 804 1 Facial Room 80 818 1 Locker Room 80 816 1 Toilet Room 40 700 1 Reception Area 50 Subtotal 2,550 PUBLIC SERVICE EDUCATION 261 1 Health Science Laboratory 1,210 22 808 1 Material Storage Room 100 Subtotal 1,310

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61 261 1 Criminal Justice Assisting Laboratory 1,000 18 808 1 Material Storage Room 100 Subtotal 1,100 262 1 Teacher Assisting Classroom 800 20 Subtotal 800 CORE SPACES LIBRARY 380 1 Reading Room 20,000 381 1 Technical Processing Room 1,000 383 1 Audio Visual (AV) Storage Room 1,000 385 1 CCTV Room (Studio and Control Booth) 875 821 1 Staff Toilet Room 40 Subtotal 22,915 ADMINISTRATION 1 Lobby 15,000 306 1 Principals Conference Room 300 306 1 Assistant Principals Conference Room 200 307 2 Clinic Rooms 200 400 308 1 Administrative Storage Room 300

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62 Subtotal 20,100 GUIDANCE 309 1 Records Room 300 313 1 Success Lab 500 306 1 Conference Room 200 Subtotal 2,450 FOOD SERVICE 340 1 Student Dining Room 8,625 341 1 Servery 1,850 349 1 Chair Storage Room 360 341 1 Kitchen 1,400 350 1 Receiving Area 80 350 1 Cooler 125 350 1 Freezer 275 342 1 Dry Storage Room 240 316 1 Faculty Dining Room 960 351 1 Outside Dining Area [1,500] Subtotal 14,145 THEATER 360 1 Auditorium Seating 8,000 363 1 Stage 2,400 smaller stage 1,000 367 1 Control Booth 75 370 1 Lobby 250 Subtotal 12,875 OTHER AREAS

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63 Subtotal 2,800 *quantity as required CUSTODIAL 330 1 Central Receiving 500 331 20 Service Closets 20 400 333 1 Flammable Storage Room 250 334 1 Equipment Storage Room 200 Subtotal 1,630 ATHLETIC COMPLEX 371 1 Concession Stand 400 371 1 Concession Stand Storage Closet 50 372 1 Ticket Booth 50 98 1 Outside Storage Room 200 702 1 Irrigation Pump House 100 Subtotal 3,030 Comply with SDHC standards Net Subtotal 205,036 Mechanical (6%) 12,302 Net total: 217,338 Circulation, Walls, Lockers, etc. (34%) 73,895 TOTAL GROSS: 291,233 S.S.: 2,507

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64 Inventory Code No. of Spaces Description of Area Minimum Unit Sq. Ft. Total Sq. Ft. Student Stations Each Student Stations Total COMMUNITY CENTRE LOBY main space 7,600 Subtotal 7,600 ACTIVITY AREAS basketball court 3,375 game room 1,500 weight room 3,000 spinning class room 400 activity rooms 2,400 climbing wall (along the courts) 0 raquet ball courts 2,400 13,075 SOCIAL AREAS event room 2,500 3,700 112 1 Multi-purpose Classroom 6,200 160 315 1 Gymnasium Seating (2,000 seats) 150 117 1 Male Teacher Planning Area 1,600 118 1 Female Teacher Planning Area 1,000 115 1 Weight Room 250

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65 6 Lobby Utility Field (Softball practice) 18,456 Playcourts Subtotal EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EDUCATION (E.S.E.) 7,000 75 ALLOWANCES: EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED (EMH) 0 Subtotal TRAINABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED (TMH) 0 Subtotal 0 Subtotal SEVERELY EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED (SED) 0 Subtotal AUTISTIC 0 Subtotal

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66 PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED 0 Subtotal VISUALLY HANDICAPPED 0 Subtotal EMOTIONALLY HANDICAPPED (EH) 0 Subtotal SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABLED (SLD) 0 Subtotal E.S.E. RESOURCE 0 Subtotal VOCATIONAL EDUCATION BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION 0 Subtotal SALES MERCHANDISING 0 Subtotal Rm, if provided, and locate so that it opens onto both Labs 0 Subtotal DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING

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67 0 Subtotal vided, and locate so that it opens onto both Labs WORK EXPERIENCE 0 Subtotal 234 1 1,100 17 700 1 FAMILY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES 50 842 1 Entry Vestibule 100 816 1 Related Classroom 100 864 1 Kitchen 50 811 1 Student Toilet Room 50 1 Outside Storage Room [1,500] Outdoor Play Area 234 1 Subtotal 1,100 17 700 1 50 840 1 Early Childhood Education Laboratory 680 842 1 Entry Vestibule 100 816 1 Related Classroom 100 864 1 Kitchen 50 811 1 Student Toilet Room 50 1 Outside Storage Room [1,500] Outdoor Play Area 231 1 Subtotal 1,600 25 840 1 680 810 1 Culinary Operations Laboratory 200 Multi-Purpose Classroom 2,480 Material Storage Room 232 1 Subtotal 1,265 23 808 1 100 Life Management Skills Laboratory 1,365 Material Storage Room

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68 Final Design

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69 1-80 scale A. Blake High School B. Blake Community Centre C. Blake Park D. south west Tampa neighborhoods E. west of Blake neighborhoods F. north Tampa neighborhoods G.. Hillsborough river H.. Performing arts center I. developing property J. toward down town Tampa K. I275 L. North boulevard M. Main st.. N. Tampa Prep. High School B C D F G H I J K N redeveloped Blake High School The school now integrated with the community center, and has a stronger relationship with the adjacent community. Providing a river front park with a connect ing river walk for public use. The school utilizes CPTED techniques to accommodate security for the children and the site. I need more words but Im not to sure what else to say about this, other than my diagrams and research should The school shares facilities with the community center. It shares the basketball courts the theater and the classrooms All of which are locate in the center wing that can be sectioned off for different events as needed. In the commu nity center the is a shared library and the pool facilities that can be shared according to a sched ule. The community center also provides space for the vocational programs that are part of high school curriculum this enables the programs like auto mechanics training to be closer to the street and service the community

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70 1-80 scale C D I full public access shared by the school and the community no public access school only access In this diagram i am showing the range of uses for the school and the community centre including the site conditions Fig. 77 Final space allocation diagram full public access shared by the school and the community no public access school only access

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71 1-80 scaleI CPTED crime prevention through environmental design strategies diagram 1-80 scale Natural Access Control: threshold condition, breaks in elevation steps Territorial Reinforcement :natural barrier, elevated river-walk, raised plinth Natural Surveillance: easily observable areas, faculty windows facing the entry areas Natural Surveillance: involving the surrounding neighborhood in the site and activities Target Hardening: locked emergency exits In this diagram I am showing different zones utilizing security elements according with CPTED guidelines. 100 ft. 0 ft. 200 ft. 300 ft. 100 ft. 0 ft. 200 ft. 300 ft. 100 ft 0 ft 200 ft 300 ft 1/32 section looking westadministration offices, teachers lounge and lockers, student atrium lounges, classrooms, naturalized river bank, raised river-walk, North blvd. 1/32 section looking south-east guidance counselors offices, dace studios music rooms, gym and locker rooms, community shared classrooms, theater, acting cla ssrooms, student lounge atriums, naturalized river bank, raised river walk, community park, Main st.., community center(vocat ional classes daycare, community pool, library), alley road, I275 highway 1/32 section looking north student cafe and store, book store, visual art classrooms, exterior mess deck, cafeteria and kitchen, student lounge atriums,f ootball field and track, community park, raised river walk naturalized river bank, Hillsborough river Fig. 79 CPTED diagram Fig. 80 section detail 1-80 scale CPTED crime prevention through en vironmental design strategies diagra m 1-80 scale Natural Ac cess C ontrol: threshold condition, breaks in elev ation steps T erritorial Rein fo rcement :natural barrie r, elev ated river-walk, raised plinth Natural Su rv eillance : easily obser va ble area s, faculty windows facing the ent ry areas Natural Su rv eillance : in volving the surrounding neighborhood in the site and ac tivities Ta rget Hardening: locked emergen cy exits

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72 1-80 scaleI CPTED crime prevention through environmental design strategies diagram 1-80 scale Natural Access Control: threshold condition, breaks in elevation steps Territorial Reinforcement :natural barrier, elevated river-walk, raised plinth Natural Surveillance: easily observable areas, faculty windows facing the entry areas Natural Surveillance: involving the surrounding neighborhood in the site and activities Target Hardening: locked emergency exits 1-80 scaleI CPTED crime prevention through environmental design strategies diagram 1-80 scale Natural Access Control: threshold condition, breaks in elevation steps Territorial Reinforcement :natural barrier, elevated river-walk, raised plinth Natural Surveillance: easily observable areas, faculty windows facing the entry areas Natural Surveillance: involving the surrounding neighborhood in the site and activities Target Hardening: locked emergency exits 1-80 scaleI CPTED crime prevention through environmental design strategies diagram 1-80 scale Natural Access Control: threshold condition, breaks in elevation steps Territorial Reinforcement :natural barrier, elevated river-walk, raised plinth Natural Surveillance: easily observable areas, faculty windows facing the entry areas Natural Surveillance: involving the surrounding neighborhood in the site and activities Target Hardening: locked emergency exits Natural cess C ontrol: threshold condition, breaks in elev ation steps Ac Natural Su eillance easily obser ble area faculty windows facing the ent areas rv ry erritorial Rein rcement :natural barrie elev ated river-walk, raised plinth T fo

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73 1-80 scale D H I N heavy traffic roads light traffic roads pedestrian passage inviting the community to the site, commercial activity vocational services, community amenities softenning the under side of the over pass ground-scape art display sufficient lighting providing islands along the river-walk for picnic fishing rest-stops public plaza water feature close destination allows for a easier transition from under the over-pass showing the pedestrian connection to downtown Tampa the river-walk is leading to Ricks On The Water Restaurant This diagram illustrates the site connection to downtown Tampa Fig.81 Transition diagram Fig. 82 site model 1-80 scale heav y traffic roads light traffic roads pedestrian passag e in viting the community to the site commercial ac tivity vocational se rv ices community amenities soft enning the under side of the over pass ground-scape ar t display sufficient lighting providing islands along the river-walk fo r picnic fishing rest-stops public plaza water f eature close destination allows showing the pedestrian connec tion to downtown Ta mpa the river-walk is leading to Rick s On The Wa ter Restaurant

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74 100 ft. 0 ft. 200 ft. 300 ft. 100 ft. 0 ft. 200 ft. 300 ft. 100 ft 0 ft 200 ft 300 ft 1/32 section looking westadministration offices, teachers lounge and lockers, student atrium lounges, classrooms, naturalized river bank, raised river-walk, North blvd. 1/32 section looking south-east guidance counselors offices, dace studios music rooms, gym and locker rooms, community shared classrooms, theater, acting cla ssrooms, student lounge atriums, naturalized river bank, raised river walk, community park, Main st.., community center(vocat ional classes daycare, community pool, library), alley road, I275 highway 1/32 section looking north student cafe and store, book store, visual art classrooms, exterior mess deck, cafeteria and kitchen, student lounge atriums,f ootball field and track, community park, raised river walk naturalized river bank, Hillsborough river Fig. 83 sections

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75 The approach yard is more public and has access by the neighborhood at all times facing the theater sports hall and the art gallery this public space is sure to turn heads. Fig. 84. ground level A A A A A B B B C E F G H I M L. K A. student lounge atriums with bathrooms and lockers B. classrooms C. gym locker-rooms D. theater green-rooms E. loby cafe F. dining hall G. mess deck H. kitchen /prep area I. stepped lounge walk J. student garden K. football field and track L. pedestrian paths M. main st. N. basketball court O. theater ground floor Fig 85 ground plan A. student lounge atriums with bathrooms and locker s B. classrooms C. gym locker-rooms D. theater green-rooms E. loby ca fe F. dining hall G. mess dec k H. ki tchen /prep area I. stepped lounge walk J. student garden K. f ootball field and track L. pedestrian paths M. main st. N. basketball cour t O. theate r ground floor

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76 The school has a welcome feel to the street the interior space face the neighbor ing for the inside views to be focused on the distance. open below open belowopen bel owA. student lounge atriums with bathrooms and lockers B. classrooms C. dance locker-rooms D. theater green-rooms H. Inhabitable green roofs A A A A A B B H H D A B C level 3 A. student lounge atriums with bathrooms and locker s B. classroom s C. gym locker-room s D. theater green-room s E. book stor e F. dining hal l G. dining dec k H. inhabitable green roof s I. stepped lounge walk level 2

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77 The court yard provides privacy for the students as well as security with out creating fenced in barriers. Fig. 89 open below open below open below open belowopen belo w open open bel ow open belo wopen open A. student lounge atriums with bathrooms and lockers B. classrooms C. gym locker-rooms D. theater green-rooms E. book store F. dining hall G. dining deck H. inhabitable green roofs I. stepped lounge walkA A A B B B A A C D F G I.level 2 A. student lounge atriums with bathrooms and lockers B. classrooms C. dance locker-room s D. theater green-room s H. Inhabitable green roof s level 3

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78 The atrium serves as main circulation space and as a meeting space. Modern schools should provide ample gathering space for kids to feel welcome and communicate with each other Fig. 90 interior atrium drawing Fig. 91.4 path to the front door

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79

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80 Conclusion the end its worth it. This thesis taught me how to integrate public space with in the secure locked up place like a school also it has taught me that a school doesnt have to be a on them selves maybe they will not dread going to school .it has taught me that we can integrate be the school building I to the site in such a way were it can seem open to the public and even parts of it really can be open to the public So the school can provide services other than baby sitting the kids It can be part of a community centre to share facilities. it can allow the community to be part of its surroundings generating natural security and a closer knit society.

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81 Fig. 92

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82 Bibliography PRODIGIES, PRESSURE AND PASSION INSIDE ONE OF AMERICAS BEST HIGH SCHOOLS By Alec Klein A. Johnson Achievement Plus Elementary School, Richard Riley Award hensive School Security By Jenna M. Aker THE TOP 10;the 21 st-century school, By Holly Richmond THE TOP 10, BUILDIlNG BETTER SCHOOLS ByMikeKennedy Journal of Planning History 2006; 5; 218 George E. Thomas, Metaphor in the School Buildings of Philadelphia From Our House to the Big House: Architectural Design as Society for American City and Regional Planning History


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ABSTRACT: For my thesis I will design an education facility. That education facility will strive to meet with today's security needs and will provide a safe-feeling place for growth. In identifying the problem, I found two main causes for the described conditions in today's schools. They are improper adaptation and uniform building type. Improper adaptation has to do with surface applications, rather than integrating with the social fabric of the school's communal requirements. Unfortunate incidents have caused the solutions to heightened security around schools to be fortressing and disrupting to the human activities. Metal detectors, restricted areas and alarmed doors are some of the possibly necessary but often overlooked attributes of the school design, which in concentration create a trapping, prison-like feeling where they should suggest a place of voluntary education and inspiration for the future.I will utilize CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies, research codes, new building technologies, materials, systems, arrangements, precedent studies, and testing through simulation or experiment, in a form of installation. I can determine possible solutions and interventions using these resources. Uniform building type sets a counterproductive precedent. Today we must look at places were young people want to be, and splice the desired attributes of those places in to modern schools. In fact, uniform building type is one of the reasons for improper adaptation. Through interviewing school administrators, building officials, students, faculty, psychologists, builders and other construction professionals, I can identify the mandatory requirements.Implementing security and safety attributes as part of the concept, and knowing trends in technology can help secure educational facilities while still maintaining the qualities that are conducive to a learning environment. As stated by Holly Richmond in Contract magazine, February 2006 edition, "Students are the most crucial design element in today's schools," says Kerry Leonard, principal and senior planner at O'Donnell, Wicklund, Pigozzi and Peterson Architects in Chicago and chair of the advisory group for the AIA Committee on Architecture for Education. "Understanding how people learn and creating environments that respond to this knowledge is the best building block to start from."
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