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Title:
Socializing housing phased early response to impromptu migrant encampments in Lima, Peru
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Mayta, Raul E
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Migrant encampments
Low income
Mountainous architecture
Peru
Social housing
Dissertations, Academic -- Architecture -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Every year hundreds of people migrate from the highlands of Peru to the coastal capital of Lima searching for economic and social stability. These groups of people have similar characteristics that keep them together they come from the same city, are members of the same family, have the same religion, have similar goals, and so on. Once in Lima they take possession of the only free areas left in the city: the mountains. Due to a lack of economic resources, poor urban planning and unsuitable site conditions the settlements grow for years in a disorderly, unsafe and unsanitary way, creating dangerous conditions for themselves and for the neighboring communities. The Private Bank of Materials and the government's overdue efforts to fix these neighborhoods by reinforcing the retaining walls, building roads, planting trees, or connecting utility services do not address at a neighborhood reorganization strategy but rather a "face lift" of the existing housing units.This thesis aims to come up with an early response to the housing problem focusing on the design of a self-sustaining neighborhood organization where the housing structure complements the social public spaces. By organizing the urban fabric in a way that the neighborhood accommodates the density needed to keep the cost low, as well as provide the necessary gathering spaces, a richer social environment can be developed. This reorganization considers the residents' socio-cultural characteristics, public spaces, dwelling, flexible program, urban integration, and the site's topography. During the research, I lived with the community for two weeks, analyzing the existing public realm and its surrounding neighborhoods focusing on their gathering spaces. These studies included visual information and interviews documented through a journal, photographs, and videos all focused on residents' social behavior.I visited and analyzed similar housing projects emphasizing the flexibility of their programs. I also looked at affordable construction methods in order to select the most appropriate to implement on site. The engineer Jose Pelaez (Florida department of Transportation) guided my project in its geographical aspect so that it became feasible. These studies lead to the development of an organizational system that creates a community focused on social interaction.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Raul E. Mayta.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 168 pages.

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University of South Florida
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Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002006006
oclc - 370725173
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002710
usfldc handle - e14.2710
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SFS0027027:00001


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ABSTRACT: Every year hundreds of people migrate from the highlands of Peru to the coastal capital of Lima searching for economic and social stability. These groups of people have similar characteristics that keep them together they come from the same city, are members of the same family, have the same religion, have similar goals, and so on. Once in Lima they take possession of the only free areas left in the city: the mountains. Due to a lack of economic resources, poor urban planning and unsuitable site conditions the settlements grow for years in a disorderly, unsafe and unsanitary way, creating dangerous conditions for themselves and for the neighboring communities. The Private Bank of Materials and the government's overdue efforts to fix these neighborhoods by reinforcing the retaining walls, building roads, planting trees, or connecting utility services do not address at a neighborhood reorganization strategy but rather a "face lift" of the existing housing units.This thesis aims to come up with an early response to the housing problem focusing on the design of a self-sustaining neighborhood organization where the housing structure complements the social public spaces. By organizing the urban fabric in a way that the neighborhood accommodates the density needed to keep the cost low, as well as provide the necessary gathering spaces, a richer social environment can be developed. This reorganization considers the residents' socio-cultural characteristics, public spaces, dwelling, flexible program, urban integration, and the site's topography. During the research, I lived with the community for two weeks, analyzing the existing public realm and its surrounding neighborhoods focusing on their gathering spaces. These studies included visual information and interviews documented through a journal, photographs, and videos all focused on residents' social behavior.I visited and analyzed similar housing projects emphasizing the flexibility of their programs. I also looked at affordable construction methods in order to select the most appropriate to implement on site. The engineer Jose Pelaez (Florida department of Transportation) guided my project in its geographical aspect so that it became feasible. These studies lead to the development of an organizational system that creates a community focused on social interaction.
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Social housing
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Socializing Housing Phased Early Response to Impromptu Migrant Encampments In Lima, Peru by Raul E. Mayta of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and community Design College of Graduate Studies University of South Florida Major Professor: Vikas Mehta, Ph.D. Trent Green M. Arch. Franklin Sebastian M. Arch. Date of Approval: November 3, 2008 Keywords: Migrant Encampments, Low Income, Mountainous Architecture, Peru, Social Housing Copyright 2008, Raul Mayta

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Dedication To my parents who show me the meaning of hard work, to my high school meaning of true friendship.

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Table of Contents List of Tables iv List of Figures v Abstract xiv Chapter One Socializing Housing Introduction to Projects Concepts 1 Conclusion 8 Abstract 9 Hypothesis 10 Research 11 Conclusions 17 Chapter Three Case study: Soccer Fields as Social Spaces Abstract 21 Hypothesis 21 Research 22 Conclusion 38 Chapter Four Case Study: Elemental Project Abstract 39 Hypothesis 39 Research 40 Conclusion 54 i

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Chapter Five Site Selection Why did I choose a site in Lima, Peru? 57 Why did I select Cristo Rey 59 Chapter Six Survey to Residents of Cristo Rey Introduction 61 Discussion about Elemental projects 63 Discussion about issues in the existing master plan 65 Survey 66 Chapter Seven Site Analysis Macro location: Peru 70 Lima 71 San Juan de Lurigancho 72 Cristo Rey: General facts 77 Weather 78 Topography 80 Site diagrams 82 Views from the site 88 Landscape 90 Retaining walls 90 Existing house structures 91 Utilities 92 Chapter Eight Goals and Objectives Introduction 93 Goals for the project 94 Chapter Nine Programing of the Human Settlement Cristo Rey Problem statement 95 Purpose 95 General use requirements 96 Times of use 99 Program phasing 103 ii

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Chapter Ten Design Development of Construction Phase 2 Stabilization of the site 105 Sites master plan 107 Site perspectives 112 Public Spaces 115 Water use 125 Housing 133 Chapter Eleven Conclusion 165 References 167 iii

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List of Tables Table 2 Survey results for second question 14 Table 3 Survey results for third question 15 Table 4 Survey results for fourth question 15 Table 6 Survey results for seventh question 16 Table 8 Response to question A 36 Table 9 Neighbors response to question B 36 Table 10 Neighbors response to question C 36 Table 11 Neighbors response to question D 36 Table 12 Temperature by season 79 Table 13 Average precipitation per month 80 iv

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List of Figures Figure 1. Aerial view of Broadmoor 10 Figure 2. Commercial areas 10 Figure 3. Parking and Areas where the study is focussed 11 Figure 4. Views from the car to the apartment on area A 11 Figure 5. First views of the path to walk from the car to the apartment in Area-A 12 Figure 6. Views of the path to walk from the car to the apartment in Area-A 12 Figure 7. Views from car to apartment on Area-B 13 Figure 8. Neighbors grilling and drinking beer during memorial day 13 Figure 9. Area used by the children as playground 13 Figure 10. Parking spot in Area-A 17 Figure 11. Walking sidewalk from area A 17 Broadmoor Figure 15. Outside areas of the buildings in use by the neighbors-1 19 Figure 16. Outside areas of the buildings in use by the neighbors-2 19 Figure 17. Landscape features: seating area and shading trees 20 Figure 18. Typical street vendor 23 Figure 19. Two social classes merging in the mountains .24 Figure 20. Two social classes merging in the mountains. 26 Figure 21. Activities engage men and women 27 Figure 22 Activities engage men 27 Figure 23. Activities engage women 28 Figure 24. Frequency of engagement in public activities 28 Figure 25. Problems found in public spaces 29 Figure 26. Attractive elements in Public spaces 29 v

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green Boulevards 31 Figure 29. Girl playing soccer 31 green Boulevards 31 Figure 29. Girl playing soccer 31 Figure 35. Diagram showing interventions of the 35 Youth Boulevard project Figure 36. Interventions as part of the nueba 2 project: 36 Plaza de la amistad Figure 37. Intervention as part of the nueba 2 project 36 Figure 38. Terraces used as benches 37 Figure 39. Stairs connected to public spaces 37 Figure 40. Machupicchu terraces 37 Figure 41. Aerial view of Iquiques coast 40 Figure 42 Typical street 40 Figure 43. Neighborhood conditions before intervention 41 Figure 44. Architect meeting with the neighbors 41 Figure 45. Development of the housing typology 42 Figure 46. Thought process for the housing design 43 Figure 47. Elemental Projects site plan 43 Figure 48. Cristo Reys existing site plan 44 Figure 49. Current proposal for Cristo Rey 44 Figure 50. Before and after organizational diagrams from the iquique housing 45 Figure 51. Main gate to the courtyard 45 Figure 52 Windows facing the courtyard 45 Figure 53. Exterior and interior electric panels 46 vi

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Figure 54. House using room next to the street as a grocery store 46 Figure 55. Store in Iquique 47 Figure 56. Store in Cristo Rey 47 Figure 57. Ladies living in house addition 48 Figure 58. Housing construction process 49 Figure 60. Front facade 50 Figure 61. Longitudinal section 50 Figure 62. House development 1971,1978,1988,2005 51 Figure 63. Housing unit before and after owners addition 52 Figure 64. Bench around courtyard 53 Figure 65. Courtyard used as parking 53 Figure 66. Courtyard almost empty 53 Figure 68. Typical settlement on development stage 1 56 Figure 69. Typical settlement on development stage 2 56 Figure 70. Typical settlement on stage 3 57 Figure 71. Evolution of Lima through the XX century 58 Figure 72. Article taken from the municipalitys website 58 Figure 73 Aerial view of Cristo Rey 59 Figure 74. Neighbors discussing events during their weekly meeting 60 Figure 75. Introduction to the neighbors 61 Figure 76. Future east stairs 61 Figure 77. Prohibited/allowed paths 62 Figure 78. Access to street after buying one lot 62 Figure 79. Describing advantages 62 Figure 80. Explaining the plans 62 Figure 81. Elemental Iquique 63 Figure 82. Temporary shelters located in lower area of the site 64 Figure 83 Project in Antofagasta-Chile 65 Figure 84. Proposed vehicular road 66 Figure 85. Latrine 67 Figure 86. Pet area 67 Figure 87. Laundry 67 Figure 88. Drying area 67 vii

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Figure 89. Peruvian natural regions 70 Figure 90. Business center at night 71 Figure 91. Limas main plaza 71 Figure 92. Government palace 71 Figure 93. Palace of justice 71 Figure 94. Limas main avenues 71 Figure 95. District limits 72 Figure 96 Ceramic Temple 73 Figure 97. Aerial view of the temple 73 Figure 98. Current temple conditions 73 Figure 99. Historical ruins on the district 74 Figure 100. First settlers in the district 74 Figure 101. Aerial view of district during day 75 Figure 102. Aerial view of district at night 75 Figure 103. Typical house 75 Figure 114. Typical public school. 76 Figure 106. Typical residential street 76 Figure 107 Aerial view of the site taken from the top of the mountain 77 Figure 108. Sun path diagram for Lima, Peru 78 Figure 109. Weather in Lima 79 Figure 110 Topographic map of Cristo Rey 80 Figure 111 Site section 81 Figure 112. Districts limit 81 Figure 113. Master plan proposed by the neighbors 82 Figure 114. Section diagram though the site and mountain across the street 82 Figure 115 Section diagram trough the site 83 Figure 116. Diagram showing the existing organization of Cristo Rey 83 Figure 117. Figure ground of site three years ago 84 Figure 118. Figure ground of site in current conditions 84 Figure 119. Public spaces in the area 85 Figure 120. Pedestrian and vehicular access to the site 85 Figure 121. Main road 86 Figure 122. View from site to main road 86 viii

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Figure 125. Future location for the main road 87 Figure 123. Access paths to the housing project 86 Figure 124. Framework for typical stairs 87 Figure 126. Site functional diagram 87 Figure 127. Typical shelter 88 Figure 128. Typical neighborhoods store 88 Figure 129. Cristo Reys only 88 Figure 130. Sites Childcare 88 Figure 131. View facing west 88 Figure 132 View facing east 88 Figure 133. View facing north 89 Figure 134. View facing south 89 Figure 135. Children playing on top of the mountain 89 Figure 136. Child playing on the main road 89 Figure 137. Plants found on site 90 Figure 138. Existing retaining walls 90 Figure 139. Rocky area of the mountain 90 Figure 140. Typical retaining wall on site 90 Figure 141. Exploded axonometric of existing shelter 91 Figure 142. Section of existing shelter 91 Figure 143. Existing water connections 92 Figure 144. Existing electric connections 92 Figure 145. High class and low class uses of the street 93 Figure 146. Population migrating to Lima 96 Figure 147. Typical immigrant girl 96 Figure 148. Garbage cycle observed in Chile 98 Figure 149. Meter located at entrance of project. 98 Figure 150. Meters located at entrance of house 98 Figure 152. Courtyard in Chilean Project was also used as parking 99 Figure 153. Cristo rey existing housing conditions 100 Figure 154: Adjacency diagram 102 Figure 155: Adjacency diagram 102 Figure 156. House organization 103 Figure 157. Topographic map of Cristo Rey 105 ix

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Figure 158. Site section 105 Figure 159. Retaining wall location 105 Figure 160. Added dirt using conventional terraced system 106 Figure 161. Order of development for Cristo Rey 106 Figure 162. Order of construction 107 Figure 163. Diagram of functions following the terrain 107 Figure 164. Diagram of houses surrounding a public space 107 Figure 165. Diagrammatic site plan 108 Figure 166. Site plan for the east side of the project 108 Figure 167. Aerial 1 109 Figure 168. Aerial 2 109 Figure 169. Longitudinal section of the site though the public spaces 109 Figure170. Section model of proposed development 110 Figure 171. Section modelFirs street area 110 Figure 173. Area between 4th street and the water tower 111 Figure 174. Section modelArea between second and third street 111 Figure 175. Area between third and fourth street 111 Figure176. Water tower area 111 Figure 177. Approach to the site from the main street 112 Figure 178. View to the project from the main street 112 Figure 180. Perspective of 1st street 113 Figure 182. Perspective view of the front yard area 114 Figure 183. Location of community center 115 Figure 184. Site section showing community center and other public space locations 115 Figure 185. Community center with their initial program areas. 116 Figure 186. Typical public dining space 116 Figure 188. Women working with materials collected from the community terraces 117 Figure 189. Men working in the workshops/ classrooms 117 x

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Figure 191. Section perspective of Community Center 118 Figure 192. Aerial view of Community Center 119 Figure 193. Potential commercial areas 119 Figure 194. Perspective of commercial area 120 Figure 195. People using the commercial area 120 Figure 196. Visibility along the stairs 121 Figure 197. Neighbors front yard location 121 Figure 198. Site section showing community center and other public space locations 122 Figure 199. Perspective of the yard space left as a garden. 123 Figure 200. Perspective of yard space designed as a productive terrace garden 123 Figure 202. Elevation of yard space as recreation and garden terrace-model picture 124 Figure 203. Perspective of yard space designed for recreation and garden area 125 Figure 204. Consumption of water per week 126 Figure 205. Water tower area 126 Figure 206. Aerial view of water tower area 126 Figure 207. View down the mountain from the top of the tower 127 Figure 208. Water cycle on Cristo Rey 128 Figure 209. Water cycle from the house to the public 129 Figure 210. System use to irrigate public spaces 129 Figure 211. Irrigated public space 130 Figure 217. Separation of house in levels 133 Figure 218. House seating on piles 134 Figure 219. Main areas in existing shelter 135 Figure 221. First functions located in the house 136 Figure 222. House shaped by 2 main design moves 136 xi

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Figure 223. Prototype 001 aerial perspective 137 Figure 229. Post and Beam system used for Typology 001 140 Figure 230. Concrete columns create leveled space for the house 140 Figure 231. Concrete structure complemented with wood framing 141 Figure 233. Typology 001Cross Section 1 142 Figure 234. Typology 001Longitudinal section 142 Figure 235. Typology 001Cross Section perspective 143 Figure 236. Housing 001 surrounding the main public space 144 Figure 237. Housing seating on the mountain 144 Figure 238. Materials used in current shelters 145 Figure 239. Bamboo used as a structure 146 Figure 240. Exploded axonometric 146 Figure 241. Possible uses for front spaces 147 Figure 242. Possible use os the back space as playground 147 Figure 243. Possible back garden additionmodel picture 148 Figure 244. Possible front storage and garden additions 148 Figure 245. Area of the courtyard left natural 149 Figure 246. Terraced area of the courtyard used as siting area 149 Figure 247. House using the extra room as store. 150 Figure 248. Aerial view of house with additions 151 Figure 249. Street view of house and additions 151 Figure 250. Water separation system 152 Figure 251. Water re-distribution 152 Figure 252. Water re-distribution 153 Figure 255. Possible addition layout 155 Figure 256. Diagram of typology 002 on site 156 Figure 257. Concrete columns built on site 156 xii

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Figure 258. Concrete and wood structure used 157 Figure 259. Location for possible future additions 157 Figure 260. Section through kitchen, bathroom and living room 158 Figure 261. Section through living room and kitchen 159 Figure 262. Section through bedroom and kitchen 159 Figure 263. Exploded axonometric of possible materials for typology 002 160 Figure 264. Example of partition walls built using bamboo 161 Figure 265. Chinese garden 161 Figure 268. Street condition-model picture 162 Figure 269. Additions 1 street view 163 Figure 270. Additions 2 street view 163 Figure 271. Water re-distribution 164 Figure 272. Conceptual model 166 xiii

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Socializing Housing Phased Early Response to Impromptu Migrant Encampments In Lima, Peru Raul E. Mayta ABSTRACT Every year hundreds of people migrate from the highlands of Peru to the coastal capital of Lima searching for economic and social stability. These groups of people have similar characteristics that keep them together they come from the same city, are members of the same family, have the same religion, have similar goals, and so on. Once in Lima they take possession of the only free areas left in the city: the mountains. Due to a lack of economic resources, poor urban planning and unsuitable site conditions the settlements grow for years in a disorderly, unsafe and unsanitary way, creating dangerous conditions for them selves and for the neighboring communities. these neighborhoods by reinforcing the retaining walls, building roads, planting trees, or connecting utility services do not address at a neighborhood reorganiza tion strategy but rather a face lift of the existing housing units. This thesis aims to come up with an early response to the housing prob lem focusing on the design of a self-sustaining neighborhood organization where the housing structure complements the social public spaces. By organizing the urban fabric in a way that the neighborhood accommodates the density needed to keep the cost low, as well as provide the necessary gathering spaces, a richer social environment can be developed. This reorganization considers the urban integration, and the sites topography. xiv

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During the research, I lived with the community for two weeks, analyzing the existing public realm and its surrounding neighborhoods focusing on their gathering spaces. These studies included visual information and interviews documented through a journal, photographs, and videos all focused on residents social behavior. I visited and analyzed similar housing projects empha I also looked at affordable construction methods in order to select the most appropriate to implement on site. The engineer Jose Pelaez (Florida department feasible. These studies lead to the development of an organizational system that creates a community focused on social interaction. xv

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1 CHAPTER ONE SOCIALIZING HOUSING Introduction to the Projects Concepts: According to Spiro Kostof; cities grow constantly creating new areas formal or informal. The formal sector is planned and enjoys advantages such as utility services (water, sewer, and electricity), social networks, and good transpor tation infrastructure. On the other hand the informal areas grow from the spon taneous, undirected, untrained efforts of the squatters, and usually do not have any basic services, street networks, or a built environment suitable for living. In Latin America the informal sector constitutes at least 34% of the total population; in Lima Peru alone, the numbers go up to 3 million. According to the 2003 na tional Census, 87% of the population living in informal districts has migrated from the rural areas to Lima. These immigrant groups have formed new neighbor hoods called acentamientos humanos (human settlements); a type of housing development located between the limits of the city and outskirts of the moun tains. These human settlements started taking possession of federal property illegally, building temporary housing units such as tents and cardboard shelters. The illegal character of the settlement is an impediment to obtaining help from the government or other institutions; therefore their development depends only upon the neighbors resources. These areas struggle for years to survive without basic services that can provide a standard quality of life to the growing number of neighbors. Many years later (from 5 to 12 years) the original tents are replaced with brick structures and eventually the neighborhood presents stable living units. result the settlement has been disconnected from the city network, has no public spaces, contains numerous dangerous environments and has no utilities or de

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2 The governments overdue efforts to improve the neighborhood are focus trees. The housing areas that started to develop in a clear organic way ends up creating environments similar to the subsidized housing projects around North America and the world; similarities such as: segregation, crime, lack of green spaces and dangerous areas. The subsidized housing and the Acentamien tos Humanos show lack of planning for areas of social development. According to Mr.Steven Rothenberg Psy. D., Using public spaces will increase our social relationships, these relationships are fundamental for the development of a social character. We are dependent upon our relationships to provide us with a sense of well being and to support us in our times of need. When these relationships fail cation we need, then we are without an important lifeline necessary for emotional survival... In order to avoid the unfortunate consequences mentioned in Las Flores its necessary to propose and early organizational plan based on the way resi dents will interact in their neighborhood and build social relations. The proposed population, second: public spaces, housing infrastructure of both the unit and the the site. A. Characteristic of the Immigrant population: Besides understanding the general characteristics of race, income, cultural background of the immigrant population, it is also important to understand their way of life. Only then can the study propose effective and suitable alternatives for the future neighbors. During the investigation stage of the project; interviews spaces, both public and private. Included in the research were site visits to neigh boring settlements (with different development stages) as well as observation research was focused on understanding who the targeted population is, what their customs are and what their main social expectations towards their new neighborhood are:

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3 1. Who are the immigrants in Lima? According to the INE (National Institute of Statistics and Economy), most of the 24% under 14 years old) originally from the highlands of Peru. These people have migrated to Lima mainly to obtain a better education, as education is con sidered the main way to improve their economic and social status.of these immi grants, 90% of the school age population (in acentamientos humanos) attend some school or college in Lima. All the members of the family work to contribute to the household income-the starting working age is 6 years old, where children work after school mainly selling groceries in the street Most of the immigrants above school age have some knowledge of agriculture and farming which is not they are forced to work in street commerce (50%) or other activities such as construction, security staff, textiles, or housekeeping. 2. What are the immigrants customs? a. Carnivals: During the month of February people from the highlands celebrate the carnivals with two purposescelebrating the days before Lent and giving thanks to mother earth for the products obtained in the past year. During these festivities the community exhibits their cultural arts through music, dancing, sculpture and painting. Neighborhoods often form parades and march from block to block inviting everyone to the party. This once a year celebration is the only time people stop working to be part of a social group. b. Weekend markets: Every Sunday after church, each neighborhoods plaza becomes an informal commercial fair where people sell (sometimes exchange) homemade products. The distribution of space is informal; each neighbor takes an area along the sidewalk where they display their products. These products mainly include handicrafts, and food. During these markets there is usually some musical expression happening in the middle of the market. The Sunday markets are also places for neighbors to discuss the current community issues.

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4 c. Productive Backyards: Coming from an agricultural background, the immigrant families in Lima give particular importance to their houses backyard and create mini farms. People grow fruits or medicinal herbs in their back and front yards. In these instances, plants are appreciated for their use more than for their ornamental appearance. Because green areas are limited due to lack of water, few green areas are used for non-production purposes. 3. What is the immigrants main social expectations? According to the PDPUs (Program for the Urban Property) survey the second main reason for people to migrate is the search for social security. The thesis research didnt analyze all the issues concerning social safety; however it will locate the dangerous environments where the major percentage of delinquency is observed in order to avoid/improved them through the design proposal. From the studies in Las Flores we can identify at least three of the main inse cure sectors of the neighborhood: a. The Stairs: Even though they are the most transited spaces (only vertical circulation elements), they are dangerous because of their narrow dimensions and numerous intersections. These intersections are places where delinquents can hide through a 24 hour period. b. Pedestrian Streets: end up being only for pedestrian access. The standard streets observed were about 800 feet long (minimum) by only 8 to 10 feet wide. The streets become especially dangerous at nights. Barely used during weekdays, they become very visited at nights by drug rival gang groups. B. Public Spaces: public spaces suitable to the social needs of the neighborhood. The studies will

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5 be based on visits and documentation (video, pictures and journal) of existing public spaces. The selection of precedents was done according to their multifunctionality and frequency of use; this selection didnt limited to spaces existing in low income sectors. Some of the spaces to analyzed were: 1. Parks (green areas): As mentioned before, the green areas will have a functional character (not only ornamental) due to the lack of water. Some water less facilities such as skate parks were considered due to the growing popularity The studies on green functional landscape by Kongjian Yu (Turenscape) was considered an important precedent due to the similar conditions with the site (low budget, functionality and search for social identity). Mr. Yu centers his designs on representations of citys history as a way to develop unity and identity among the community; satisfying the neighbors social needs. Yus use of native elements is another approach to explore during the studies. authorities and neighbors; they are also used for weekend events and informal commerce on weekdays. They are also characterized by the presence of a very small amphitheater which serves as a stage for street performers; its use is lim ited to daylight because at night it becomes a gang meeting spot. Kongkian Yus approach to plazas will also be a precedent. On his Dujiangyan plaza; historical events are expressed using pavements textures and landscape features. The square design to serve not only as recreation but as the main tran sition between two neighborhoods, the project also includes an innovative use of water; where irrigation channels create a stream thanks to the use of the steep natural slope of the site. Dujiangyan Square provides spaces with different scale of privacy on a 24 hour schedule; having small spaces for couples and elders to play cards (used during day), and at the same time bigger spaces for groups and tourist (used at night) 3. Stores and Markets outside area: Mainly a daylight activity, it concentrates some of the informal street commerce, becoming a dirty and highly transited area. The intensity wears off at night when it becomes a normal street.

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6 The research also considered the informal public places (spaces that were not meant to be social but that are regularly used by groups of people). These spac es were located after the visit of the site: 1. Street Corners: Most of the street corners are accompanied by an extra element such as news stand, grocery store, bus stop. Either accompanied by an extra element or by itself the corner is place for casual meetings. 2. Stairs: Due to the hierarchical presence of the stairs on site, the investiga more public place. C. Housing Infrastructure: The project is centered around an adequate social transition from the public spaces to the housing units (public to private relationship). For this pur group. 1. Housing unit: Due to the limited budget and to the changing family needs character. a. Flexibility: The research looked at projects like the Elemental-Iquique by Iquique project changed the perspective for social housing, creating units that will gain value. To satisfy the required density with the limited budget, the initial units program was restricted to the minimum basic dwelling spaces. The decision was taken understanding that the % of spaces that could expand within its initial structure. b. Social Character: The social areas present in the standard house will be studied based on their frequency of use. These social spaces included: living room,

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7 balconies, and a special focus in garden typologies. The social importance of the garden is commented by Phillip Bay in his book Tropical Sustainable Architecture: The survey shows that residents with more plants in there fore courts tend to know more neighbors, and have a higher sense of community, belonging and security. According to Bay there is an interrelationship triangle where people, cli mate and gardening in semi-open spaces are connected. In this triangle the neighbors play the key role keeping in touch with nature and enjoying the out door living spaces. At the same time the micro environment created by the green space facilitates ample gardening activities, then casual encounter with neigh bors increases too. cused on housing organization typologies such as: housing towers, clusters, and individual units. The organization must create new spaces and functional areas that complement the existing public/private realm. The selection of precedents was based on similar conditions such as topography, budget and culture. One of the chosen projects was the Elemental housing in Iquique by the arquitect Ale jandro Aravena (Chile), selected for their innovative proposal for public spaces with sports functionality. D. Urban Network: The Human settlements are currently located between the mountains and the limit of the city. Its location has been one of the reasons for these neigh borhoods disconnection from the city, therefore the Project mentioned some strategies to re-connected it to the neighborhood back to the city fabric. With this goal in mind, we explored the use of roads with vehicular and pedestrian purpos es. 1. Vehicular Roads: The main goal will be to connect and limit the car ac cess into the site. Because of the site inclination, it will be necessary to study the road requirements (maximum slope, etc.). The Japanese public housing (Daichi) road system achieves a balance between cars and people, this example will also be observed during the thesis research.

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8 Our housing complex is relatively safe from vehicles, which allows our children to grow more independently outside, and to be able to build good social relationships with other children. (Daichi owner) 2. Pedestrian Streets: 3. Topography: Due to the peculiar geographical conditions, the studies con cal requirement for building in the mountain is Retaining walls, for its design well look into vernacular ways of building it. (for being affordable and an expression of Peruvian history) Conclusion As described before the research stage included the selection and analy sis of housing precedents, analysis of the chosen acentamiento humano and similar sites (with different development stages). The observations were docu mented through pictures, videos and journals. On site interviews with the resi dents were done in order to get an inside perspective of living in the human settlement. The thesiss purpose was to create a housing prototype that promotes so cial interaction for people living in extreme conditions. The investigation explored different areas but not all of them were studied with the same intensity. Look a building; they can create a future community!

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9 CHAPTER TWO CASE STUDY : INFLUENCE OF PARKING IN HOUSING COMMUNITIES Our housing complex is relatively safe from vehicles, which allows our children to grow more independently outside, and to be able to build good social relationships with other children. Japanese Daichi (public housing) Abstract Housing and commercial design has always brought with it the challenge when we talk about high density housing in a low income area (where land is project; in the case of housing, affecting the way people interact in the neighbor later the use of public transportation, this ideal isolates people and neglects our social needs. nitely not one of their main priorities, however considering the development as a evolutionary process we have to identify a path of growth that provides a house unit that offers enough parking spaces. In housing buildings; the parking space not only provides an extra commodity but raises the value of the property, and gaining value is one of the challenges to achieve with our future prototype com munity once it developed into stage 3. The transition between the automobile and home is also an opportunity for the owner to meet his neighbors and engage in group activities, therefore this transition space should provide comfortable informal/formal gathering spaces that parking needs and provides social spaces, its necessary to understand the ele ments that affect the mentioned transition car/home.

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10 The housing project that was selected for this investigation is called Broadmoor and presents some similarities with settlements in stage 3 from San Juan de Lurigancho; some of these similarities are: 1. Cultural diversity: Broadmoor offers housing for low income people; the community is formed in its majority by people of Latin and African American de scent. 2. Population density: The amount of people per building living in Broadmoor is close to the amount of people living in each cluster of the housing projects build in Chile (project used as case study). 3. Similar urban setting: Both sites (elemental and Broadmoor) are partially disconnected from the city; they are both surrounded by commercial and housing developments Limits of the study Because the future location of the thesis project is in Peru and not in North the two countries. Broad is part of the car-baed type of culture, in the other hand people from San Juan de Lurigancho mainly use public transportation. The study recognizes the existing cultural gap between the projects, however after looking parking takes a large percentage of land. Hypothesis Increasing the distance between the residents car and his dwelling unit will also increase the residents potential for social encounters and an engage ment in to group activities. Figure 1 Aerial view of Broadmoor apartments 1 Figure 2 Commercial areas

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11 Figure 3. Parking and Areas where the study is focussed The observations at Broadmoor will be focus in 2 areas (area A and area B). the areas have been chosen because of their different parking conditions. 1. Area A: It presents transitions larger than 150 which is not common at Broadmoor or other housing complexes. Figure 4. Views from the car to the apartment on area A Parking Area-B Area-A Methods pen between the transition spaces from the car to the house. Using Broadmoor apartments as object of the research the goal is to identify the main relationships between social behavior and the architectural features of the transition.

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12 scale and narrowness of the corridor. The area is comfortable during sunny sea son because the 45 tall buildings provide enough shading for the area, however at night the poor illumination and scale of the buildings convert the space into an unsafe area. Figure 5. First views of the path to walk from the car to the apartment in Area-A Views 4,5,6 show the second section of the transition towards home, this second area has a different scale; its open, has landscape features, it also has Figure 6. Views of the path to walk from the car to the apartment in Area-A

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13 2. Area B: with short transitions spaces (aprox. 20) this area presents more porch for grilling and drinking beer. Figure 7 views from car to apartment on AreaB Figure 8. Neighbors grilling and drinking beer during memorial day Figure 9. Area used by the children as playground Interviews A survey was done without selection; people who were occupying the tran sition space in the moment of the observation was subject of the questionnaire. The interrogated population had a different background (ethnicity, age). neighbors. The questions focused on the social behavior of people on the transi tion from their cars to home.

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14 1. Besides going to pay rent, How many days a week do you use the club house? Comments: People expressed their desire to use the club house more often, of recreation open 24 hours a day. 2. How frequent do you use your porch? areas. People expressed their discomfort for the narrow dimensions of the sec that the porch was used as an extension of their living room thanks to the sliding doors. Table 2. Survey results for second question

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15 3. How much time do you spend in your porch? Comments: People said they would spend more time if there were better views to enjoy and a cooler weather. 4. How far from your apartment would you like to park your car? Comments: Everyone expressed their willingness to have a longer distance from car to home, however the neighbors expected this transition to present improve ments (landscape, shading, etc). The main reason why they didnt like parking far is security; they want to be able to see their cars from their living rooms. Some women said that a longer distance meant carrying bags for a longer distance and that was too much of a hassle. Table 3. Survey results for third question Table 4. Survey results for fourth question

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16 5. How many neighbors do you see walking from your car to your apartment? Comments: Some people mentioned that they try avoid sharing sidewalks and paths with people at night. 6. How many neighbors from your own building do you see everyday? Comments: half of the interviewed people said they usually see their neighbors but they dont talk or share activities. Table 6. Survey results for seventh question

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17 Conclusions From the survey we see that people need social spaces with proper dimensions and proper availability. Neighbors are willing to walk more (park their cars further away) if the conditions are better, however there is a limit given by the security of their cars. The importance of the transition between car and home is not only due to the distance but due to a series of supplemental elements that make this path a space comfortable for interaction; some of the observed elements are: a. Distance: As the study shows, people are only willing to walk a strictly necessary distance. Certain distances create discomfort in the residents especially when combined with adverse weather conditions. On the other hand a longer distance gives the potential to create social encounters where people meet and share experiences. Figure 10. Parking spot in Area-A Figure 11 Walking sidewalk from area A a. Scale of path: The dimension of the paths how many people can use it at the same space designed under restrained limita tions doesnt invite/keep people in the areas as long as we may expect.

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18 c. Scale of building next to the pedestrian paths: Besides having a path with comfortable dimensions, the surrounding buildings need to be of an adequate scale to complement the environment. Tall buildings can overwhelm pedestrians. Some of the desired effects provided by surrounding buildings are; shading and visibility. d. Scale of Social Spaces: As was mentioned before, the dimensions cant be the same for a second Area A area B

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19 e. Contact Between Social Spaces: Once obtained a comfortable transition path, it needs to have contact with other social spaces. The contact creates a social network that provides security and potential social interaction between neighbors. Figure 15. Outside areas of the buildings in use by the neighbors f. Cultural environment: Walking a hundred feet in a dangerous neighborhood is not the same as walking the same distance in a safe neighborhood. Also we must mention that people that use public transportation are more likely to walk longer distances without feeling discomfort. Figure 16. Outside areas of the buildings in use by the neighbors-2

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20 g. Time/Weather: Walking on an deserted mountain and walking during the rain at night change the feeling of the place. People always look for comfortable microenvironments, these can be created with the use of shading elements and water features. Figure 17. Photos of Landscape features: seating area and shading trees 1 Broadmoor aerial view, Google Earth, www.earth.google.com, Accessed May 15, 2008

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21 CHAPTER THREE CASE STUDY : SOCCER FIELDS AS SOCIAL SPACES Abstract Public spaces are without doubt the point where societies meet and escape...somehow like a valve that controls the social pressure of the country Vega Centeno, Pablo When we think about public spaces, we think about people meeting, neighbors sharing an event, children playing, and many other different types of activities that involve people reacting to people. In the last decades with the formation of spontaneous cities the public space became the space left with out built structure within a neighborhood. Most of the time the local government promoting social interaction?. Are they really needed to the point that they are built before green areas, sidewalks, paved roads and public illumination?. During this study the researcher will analyze the positive and negative effects of Rey site. Hypothesis spontaneous neighborhood Methodology Analyze popular activities involving men, women and children that occur in varying public spaces.

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22 -Review the projects developed by Cenca which proposes non athletic public spaces Compare the impact these different public spaces have on the activities that can take place within them by the surrounding neighbors Use this information to determine what type of space is most appropriate for Cristo Rey. What is a Public Space? such. Is the citys piece of property accessible to everyone, and to be transited freely. They can be open such as plazas and parks, or closed like Libraries and markets. What are the dimension of a Public Space? (Desco) public spaces have the following dimensions: scenario it offers, and that is the basis of social interaction. It frees people from justifying their origins and social conditions and considers everyone as equal. A Physical Dimensions: The public space occupies a visible/accessible piece of land that is easily recognized by a group of people that give it a function. It needs to be conceived with a capacity of adaptation, so its able to hold different activi cation, depends on its infrastructure and from its capacity of adaptation. The land is the support that all the other dimensions (political, social, economic, cultural) used to relate in an organic manner. ferent to the way my sisters remember it (if they do remember it). For me it was a playground, for my sisters a place where girls didnt have access. Although being vals, etc), the local regulations established that it could only be used for sports meaning just for soccer.

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23 Political Dimensions:Public space expresses a dialogue between the public au thorities and the neighbors. However the quality of the space depends of the us ers (neighbors) and not from the planners (authorities). The dialogue is between the male neighbors and the authorities, it doesnt include everyone. our past and the past of the city, it expresses our identities and common origins. the feelings are completely different for my sisters. The place didnt expressed a historic act (like plazas do) but generates memories and maybe a personal story (not history). Economic Dimension: The public space is sometimes used as space for work (shoe shiners, ice cream vendors, etc). The park, the plaza, the avenue are now traditional places of work in Peru. This mix of functions, recreation and work, cre Figure 18. Typical street vendor

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24 Water access: Lima sits in a desert terrain, however the presence of green ele not sustainable approach (from the government side) in order to create a cheaper way of planting green areas. Many people demand the presence of plants and tress for its shading qualities and the environment that it creates, however there are lower class districts that want green areas, because the high class neighborhood have doesnt satisfy the green need of the neighbors. Figure 19. Two social classes merging in the mountains. 1 Physical requirements for successful public spaces: Location : Considers the problems with topography, quality of the land (steep slopes in a mountain) and problems with connectivity between the site and the I asked him: so, who is going to go get the ball when somebody kicks it out of the

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25 Common Problems in Public spaces: Lack of administrative and technical support: thought the more we build the more social the neighborhood is. Lack of dialogue between authorities and public during the design process: in order to customize (it would increase the budget) or make the space belong to the people living around it. the typical public space is that commercial activity is generated around it The space is not properly connected to the City: disconnected when people decide to fence it, then they stay isolated with limited access Lack of use and depreciation of the equipment provided: The local government doesnt provide maintenance of the equipment and the pay for the maintenance (paint, cleaning) in order to keep a good environment in their neighborhood. This intervention creates a sense of ownership from the Lack of multi-functionality: Local government has created spaces mostly for male population. Lack of regulation for the uses: The space is used for only one function and local rules prohibit other

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26 across the street. These regulations end up reducing the publics use of the spaces Figure 20. Neighbors participation on public spaces maintenance Public Space Uses Enjoyed by Men Women and Children: The use and control of the space in the city reveals the type of existing relations in one society..the popular city is the contemporary product of the evolu tion of the neighborhoods generated by construction built by the owners (Present, but Invisible: Women and the public space) The role of women has been limited to the administration of public dining places or as house keeper taking care of the house specially during the initial stage of occupation of illegal settlements. Being in the public space implies a process of learning, socializing, and acceptance for different people. The semi public space: It is usually the space between the entrance door of the house and the street; it allows two conditions: publicity( shows to people what we are doing) and chances of meeting somebody (different meeting from the ones occurring inside the house). The Semi public space has a special role solving women problem facing the public, it is their protection space. This place is also highly use by the elderly who like to observe activity without getting involved in it.

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27 Common activities in public spaces: Passive enjoyment: -Chats between couples and groups. Walk: implies presence but in movement. Resting: usually in benches or under trees reading the news. Recreation and sports: Playground: used by children under somebodys supervision. Play soccer : male activity Play volleyball: female and male activity Other activities: Drinking: male activity Drugs selling and use. Figure 21. Activities engaging men and women 2 Figure 22. Activities engaging men 3

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28 Figure 24. Frequency of engagement in public activities 5 Figure 23. Activities engaging women 4 Transit: This activity implies the movement of people around the neighborhood. Its duration is short and usually done Monday through Friday. It is associated with going to the grocery store. Women who go shopping usually go with empty bags and come back carrying full bags of food, when they stop to take little breaks is when an inevitable social encounter happens. These type of casual encounters require special attention since they are one of the few opportunities for women to engage in social activities. Mens presence in public spaces is strong from childhood to their teen age years (until they start to work or going to the university) then their presence drops to just being on the weekends when they play football and have drinks. Among women the behavior is completely different, the change of use is also decreased with age but this change is more gradual.

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29 Problems found in Public spaces: The lack of security issue is the main concern and is solved many times by putting a fence around the public areas, creating discomfort by the users. Many neighbors express that insecurity rises when the public space is too attractive and brings people that dont belong to the neighborhood. Attractive elements found in Public Spaces: People need to complement their recreation with other services. Little grocery stores (bodegas) usually open around the parks and pubic spaces. FIGURE 25. PROBLEMS F OUND IN P UBLIC S P ACES 6 Figure 26. Attractive elements in Public spaces 7

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30 Maintenance of public spaces: Many times the local government assumes that once they build the space, the neighbors will take care of it. In the same sense, neighbors often think that once the area is built; the local government will take care of it. This creates a spaces. In order to create a public space that will not present a maintenance problem in the future, the following must be considered: materials for the paths and sidewalks where is the water coming from for the plants the investment for and frequency of cleaning services neighbors role in preserving the area existence of delinquents in the area that can damage the space presence and allowance of animals Physical changes of the public space: acteristics of the public space: The design of the space follows the topographic contours. The public space allows visibility for the residences from all angles. The design of the residences in the areas around/next to the public space create a visual control point. There are no blind corners or places when people could hide. There are some commercial areas around the pubic space that revitalize and bring some dynamism for the users of the space. Pedestrian paths have a landscape design allowing the enjoyment in movement and during stops. These paths are properly connected to the major circulation paths (sidewalks, roads) of the neighborhood. Vehicular circulation is restricted from the public spaces and limited around it. Inside the public space there are no permanent structures for the commercial activities. Any sport related facility should allow diverse sports, and activities for everyone, regardless of gender or age. There should be space for sitting next to the playgrounds in order to provide comfort for people taking care of the children.

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31 8 on the list of local government interventions, most of the time is the only one. The selection of the function comes from a predominantly male society. If in fact practicing sports is vital to keep the neighborhoods alive, it must be considered that they also produce a series of unwanted activities related to the place, putting neighborhood. 9 Figure 29. Girl playing soccer 10

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32 Who uses the space? Soccer is not popular among the female public so the male population of all ages are the only ones that really use the spaces. Being a public space, the blocks would play against each other and where intense soccer championships were organized once a year. These championships brought different teams from around the area and brought families together around a safe fun environment of competition. While there are clearly many positive aspects to having a soccer illegal activities. People would play too late or too early; at time when the neighbors across the street wanted to sleep. People would drink or used drugs at night. pedestrian movement around residential areas which want a safe environment. mechanism of control tries to achieve security, however usually only creates es around a public space is considered privatizing a public space, and it seams to become the property of the neighbors who paid for the fence and now feel they

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33 How many are too many?: Figures 32 and 33 show us two different context that use the same public are used as playgrounds. On the other hand San Juan de Lurigancho, a middle public space for the community. 12 11

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34 1. Positive consequences: -Promotes sports -Brings families together -Doesnt require much investment 2. Negative consequences: -Needs maintenance. -Becomes a dangerous place at night. -Sometimes brings too many unwanted people to the neighborhood -Hard to control unless fenced. -Promotes only one sport only among males. -Only used by the entire neighborhood once a year or on rare occasions. -Doesnt provide much for people who dont play soccer. Examples of alternative Public Space projects developed by Cenca: 1. Alameda de la juventud (youth boulevard.) The main objectives of the project were: Create a water treatment plan that would provide gray water (cleaning 3 liters per second) for the irrigation of the park and the surrounding green areas. The plants location (higher area of the avenue) would allow for gravity-fed distribu tion to all the surrounding green spaces in the main avenues. This would set a precedent to mimic around the city. Create an environmental committee in the area in order to get the public involved in administration of the space. Organized the commercial areas (they would be located surrounding this boulevard). Create a recreation area that can be used by everyone regardless of age, social condition, or gender. The boulevard included spaces such as: childrens playground, library, monuments, water treatment plant, amphitheater, and checkers tables. This project was built from 1999 to 2001, occupies 6 city blocks and cost a little over US$110,000 to construct.

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35 The main problems were: Local government didnt maintain the space after change of authorities and the equipment ended up either stolen or damaged Illegal commerce took some areas of the parks. Even though this project is of a large scale in size and budget, it presents an alternative to imitate: reuse of water to irrigate green recreational areas (food production cant be possible because of sanitation). As was discussed before, the access to green spaces not only improves the environment but generates spaces of casual (everyday) interaction for everyone. Figure 35. Diagram showing interventions of the Youth Boulevard project 13

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36 2. Project Nueba2 The project Nueba 2 consisted of a series of interventions that created public spaces of different scales around a neighborhood with similar characteris tics to Cristo Rey. The objectives of the projects were: Promote residents participation in the improvements of their area. Create links between authorities and residents of spontaneous neighborhoods; typically segregated people without property titles. -Generate different social dynamics between residents according to the design of the spaces. Create areas that can be used by everyone, for example, Plaza de la amistad small enough so that the activity is controlled by the scale of the place. -Create circulation systems: Many stairs were built by the neighbors. These stairs were designed to create casual social encounters; having rests of good size where people can stop and talk or just turn around and enjoy the view. This project differs from the youth blvd. because it used residents partici pation as the main force, not only in the construction but in the design and main tenance of the areas as well. The residents worked in coordination with the local government using Desco as a moderator between them (people dont trust the local authorities). The spaces were maintained by the residents without need for a districts budget. People identify with the space not only because they use it but because they helped build it as well. Figure 36. Interventions as part of the nueba 2 project: Plaza de la amistad 14 Figure 37. Intervention as part of the nueba 2 project 15

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37 The Nueba 2 project also incorporated sustainable qualities as the youth Boulevard did. This project used the rocks from the area for construction, water. Nueva 2 shows an example that relates more to Cristo Rey and that differs ers different scales and intensities of social interaction; from a plazas to enjoy on the weekends, to stops along the stairs to gossip everyday. Example of places built on sloped sites: Figure 40. Machupicchu terraces Figure 38. Terraces used as benches 16 Figure 39. Stairs connected to public spaces 17

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38 Conclusion the physics of the site (topography) but also goes against the feeling of the kind of neighborhood desired. The feeling that brings everyone to participate in public activities; male, female, children, and elderly. The feeling that allows their survival the easy way out of the problem. about individuality, forgets about peoples real needs and possibilities. Cristo Reys possibilities stem the most from the casual social spaces, the ones that happen everyday because residents depend on each other constantly (at least in their current situation). The existence of formal public spaces are also neces sary, however they are necessary as long as they can be multi-functional and can adjust to the residents needs. For all those reasons and after looking at some Rey. 1 aerial of San Juan de Lurigancho, Google Earth, www.google earth.com, accessed June 14, 2008 2 Cabrera Teresa and Villaseca Miguel, Estudios UrbanosPresentes pero Inviibles:mujeres y espacio publico en Lima Sur, (Lima:Desco,2007), 39. 3 Cabrera Teresa and Villaseca Miguel, 39 4 Cabrera Teresa and Villaseca Miguel, 39 5 Cabrera Teresa and Villaseca Miguel, 39 6 Cabrera Teresa and Villaseca Miguel, 46 7 Cabrera Teresa and Villaseca Miguel, 67 8 Alameda de la juventud. Google images, www.google.com/imghp, accessed June 15, 2008 10 Soccer girl, Google images, accessed June 15, 2008 11 San Juan de Lurigancho aerial view, Google Earth, Accessed June 16, 2008 12 La Molina aerial view, Google Earth, Accessed June 16, 2008 13 Cabrera Teresa and Villaseca Miguel, 49 14 Cabrera Teresa and Villaseca Miguel, 50 15 Cabrera Teresa and Villaseca Miguel, 51 16 Bench in the mountains, Google Images, Accessed June 16, 2008 17 Stairs in the mountains, Google Images, Accessed June 17, 2008

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39 CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDY: ELEMENTAL PROJECT IQUIQUE CHILE Abstract Many times successful projects become prototypes that people try to apply to different contexts. This strategy has happened many times in housing develop ments where the same house style is copied without consideration of the future owners. The Elemental Project in Iquique, Chile changed the way the Chilean gov ernment approached social housing; it proposed a housing typology that under stood peoples needs and way of building. Although the social context where this project was built is really similar to the one in Cristo Rey (Lima, Peru), we should There are other factors (besides the social ones) that must be considered before such a rushed decision is taken, there are other factors that determine what ele ments from one project can be used in other location and what elements need to Hypothesis The Elemental Project located in Iquique Chile can be applied to the site Methodology Conduct an in depth analysis of the Iquique projects characteristics to determine which element could possibly apply to Crsito Reys site.The analysis must consider results from the survey made in Cristo Rey in order to see if peo ple approve of if the ideas or they are too different from what they really need. In the end, some of the elements (if not the whole typology) of the project will be mentioned as part of the ideas that can be implemented in design of Cristo Rey

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40 1 Elemental project Iquique, Chile City Information: Location: The city of Iquique is located in the desert north of Chile Weather: Iquiques annual climate is mild, ranging from an average winter low of 12.5 C to an average summer high of 24.4 C. City activities: Iquique has re-invented itself as a commercial center and a tourist es and archaeological tours. In the city, the small historic center is surrounded by modern growth, including new housing sectors, development of the beaches and hotels. The city of Iquique is one of the countrys most visited areas. The attractions are a mild climate, commerce and the Atacama desert. Project Information: Number of units: 93 families=93 units / 5.205 m2 (714 hab/h) Location: Av. Pedro Prado Iquique Chile Budget: $1,085,000 ($11,550 fam subsidy + $350/fam saving) Cost per house=$7,500 House area: 70 m (36 m initial + 34 m enlargement) Apartment area: 72 m (25 m initial l + 45 m enlargement) Figure 41 Aerial view of Iquiques coast 1 Figure 42 Typical street

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41 Project process year. Because the project was built on the same site where the residents lived before, a relocation system was established. The residents had to moved for one year to a nearby hospital where they paid rent every month. Although the residents were involved in the design process, they werent called for the construction stages. Figure 43 Neighborhood conditions before intervention 2 Figure 44 Architect meeting with the neighbors 3

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42 row houses, but even reducing the width of the lot to make it coincident with the width of the house, and furthermore, with the width of a room, they were able to host just 66 families. Aravena conclude on his website: The problem with this type is that whenever a family wants to add a new room, it blocks access to light and ventilation of previous rooms. Moreover it compromises privacy because circulation has to be done through other rooms. What we get then, instead of it would block expansions (they intended that every house could at least double the initial built space). Project organization able to host just 30 families in the site. The architect says on his website: The That is why social housing tends to look for land that costs as little as possible. That land, is normally far away from the opportunities of work, education, trans portation and health that cities offer... This way of operating has tended to localize social housing in an impoverished urban sprawl, creating belts of Figure 45. Development of the housing typology 4

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43 Instead a designing a small house (in 30 m2 everything is small), they provided a middle-income house, out of which they were given just a small part of to start with. This meant a change in the standard: kitchens, bathrooms, stairs, shape, where the houses were organized around a public courtyard. The original land was divided in four sectors (four U courtyards), there are about 23 units was in the middle of the city, dividing the project in sectors allowed for the cre ation of controlled access points that allowed free circulation for all the residents in and out of the block. This organization didnt change the block shape, keeping its connections to the urban fabric. Figure 46. Thought process for the housing design 5 Figure 47. Elemental Projects site plan 6

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44 The conditions of the settlements in Peru are quite different: 1. They are not located within the city limits, they usually are at least 2 miles away from the urban fabric, therefore these settlements have no city grid or lay out to follow. Due to its remote location, they need to create links for circulation in order to guarantee services and access. 2. The geographical characteristics of these areas are different, these ter rains are full of mountains. Usually the organization of the houses follow the contour of the terrain, unless a major intervention was done and the topography was drastically changed which means a major investment. 3. The main circulation is vertical instead of horizontal, this gives a strong hierarchy to the stairs which are the only access points for people to get to the houses. ments is to build one unit per lot, this layout continues the sprawl which creates overcrowding and saturation. Figure 48 Cristo Reys existing site plan Figure 49. Current proposal for Cristo Rey

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45 What did the Chilean project gain from the u organization? 1. One gate: The reduction of access points provided increased security; before many thieves would run into the neighborhood and hide or easily escape thanks to multiple corridors that penetrate the lot. Reducing the access and cre ating the courtyard produced a dead end corridor where thieves (in case they get in) cant escape. The gate wasnt provided by the government but it was easily paid for by the 23 neighbors of the each sector (costs are split between users). 2. Many eyes: The reduction of entrances provide security but the location of the houses play a complementary role in that aspect. All the houses face the courtyard, therefore whatever happens in that area is probably seen by at least 1 of the 23 families surrounding the area. Figure 50. Before and after organizational diagrams from the iquique housing Figure 51. Main gate to the courtyard Figure 52. Windows facing the courtyard

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46 4. Commercial expansions: The design allows for the spontaneous formation of commercial areas among the units located next to the main avenues. These local stores not only provide income for the residents, but create street activity; inviting people to use the street, during the day. As was mentioned before the layout was only possible due to the stability of the terrain, however all the aspects mentioned above are goals for the future decisions in our project. 3. Double check points: Having an organized layout allowed (forced some) people to obtained legal connections. There were two checkpoints for each utility, one by the door, and one by the gate, every month the municipality checks both and in case they wouldnt match, the resident get a penalty for stealing service or modifying the readings. Figure 53. Exterior and interior electric panels Figure 54. House using room next to the street as a grocery store

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47 5. Spontaneous uses: A. Commercial areas: The units from the Elemental Project that were that now provides some income to this family. The grocery store is located Its important to say that this one wasnt the only store in the area, many neighbors would sell products even inside the courtyard area; they just keep their doors open to present their products, the environment is safe with the main gate. The customers for the last type of store are the neighbors from each courtyard sector The same characteristics were observed in Cristo Rey where the front of the houses facing the main avenue were designated for commercial uses. Figure 55. Store in Iquique Figure 56. Store in Cristo Rey

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48 B. Extra Living Space: The framework created by the initial structures in their will. In the residence visited, the owner created an extra level; he built three levels where there were only supposed to be 2 (he reduce the height of each level). Doing that he was able to rent the rooms to some ladies that couldnt afford to rent a whole apartment. The space left by the architect in this case allowed functions that let the owner earn additional income Due to lack of budget the only solution in Cristo Rey is to also create a by the owners and his future needs. 6. Building stages: The building given to each family was ready provided a big room, kitchen and bathroom. the rest of the spaces (50% of total built area) had to be built by the residents of the house. During the researchers visit to the project, 3 years after project comple with their new rooms. Figure 57. Ladies living in house addition

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49 added area added area added area unit provided by government Figure 58. Housing construction process 7 8

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50 According to the architect Aravena, when the given money is enough for just half of the house, the key question is, which half do we do. We choose to make the half that a family individually will never be able to achieve on its own, no matter how much money, energy or time they spend. Figure 60. Front facade 9 Figure 61. Longitudinal section 10 The building process is different in Peru mainly because of the illegal sta tus of the residents who cant build anything without having a property title (pro cess takes years). Another reason is that the government doesnt these sector of society as much, there is not an organized program for reacting to the immigrant settlements.

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51 Then the construction process takes about 25 years per family, this struc subsidy (16, 000 soles= $5,640) may or may not produce enough areas to create a basic structure. In order to lower the costs, the Peruvian government has labor programs, where the future owners are hired to build their units in exchange for a minimum salary. This program creates a job opportunity and guarantees the best quality for each house (since the owner is building it, he really cares about it). In conclusion the goal of reducing the construction time to 1 year provid ing a safe shelter is something Peru needs, however the question is if the units provided can provide what people in Cristo Rey need in the future. Looking at the Figure 62. House development 1971,1978,1988,2005 11

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52 Materials The materials used in the elemental Iquique Project were concrete blocks, concrete and wood. The materials were chosen for their price and their resis tance to the weather. The concrete volumes that create the void for the future addition are made out of concrete so they protect the future wood structure from any loss or gain temperature. During the visit the I noticed the bad conditions of the outside stairs which used wood as the main material. Some people also complained about how the windows didnt open horizontally (hinge system), this system doesnt let people stick their heads out the window. The temporary dividing lateral wall is made out of wood and its reused once the family builds the addition in the void space. The idea of providing the materials that are going to be used in the future guarantee some quality in the construction. In the case of Cristo Rey the materials have to be chosen based on price, resistance to the weather and structural stability (earthquake resistant). The standard in Peru is to build out of brick and apply stucco to the walls for concrete is limited because of the expensive prices. Figure 63. Housing unit before and after owners addition 12

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53 Public spaces During the visit it was observed that the courtyard served as playground and parking; according to the neighbors there is a schedule so the cars cant park inside till after 11pm. This schedule allow the children and neighbors to use the space for social activities. Some of the courtyards have been paved with the residents money, and some have added details like concrete benches or soccer goals. The neighbors also expressed their discomfort about the dimensions of their immediate outside space, they said it was not enough to put any plants because the proximity from the cars. Scheduling the uses for the social spaces helped to establish an order where everyone can make use of the space and helped maintain it. The social space in Cristo Rey needs similar characteristics however the different functions. Figure 64 Bench around courtyard Figure 66. Courtyard almost empty Figure 65. courtyard used as parking

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54 Conclusion The Chilean project has great elements that can be applied in the design of the neighborhood in Cristo Rey; however the main concern is the topographic differences which dont allow a direct application of the typology. From the results obtained in the survey we observe that the needs are different between the Chilean and the Peruvian groups, these needs are based on the people and the location of the site. While in Chile the site is connected to the city, in Cristo Rey the site is outside the city, so it needs to reconnect but also grow as an independent element. Despite geographic differences, peoples backgrounds are similar; in Chile the neighbors knew each other; in Peru the residents are really close, they work together, many are members of the same family, some come from the same city, in few words they form a stronger group that wants to work and live together. Among the ideas that can be implemented from Chile to Peru the main ones are: Shared public spaces: neighbors share also the maintenance of the space. Stages of construction: create framework and live space for future growth. Utility system (Double checking to avoid illegal connections) Use of materials: provide some of the future materials to be used as part of the basic structure. 1 Aerial view of Iquique, Google Images, www.google.com/imgp, Accessed May23, 2008 2 Elemental ProjectsChile. http://www.elementalchile.cl/?lang_pref=en, Accessed May 23, 2008. 3 Elemental ProjectsChile, Accessed May 23, 2008. 4 Elemental ProjectsChile, Accessed May 23, 2008. 5 Elemental ProjectsChile, Accessed May 23, 2008. 6 Elemental ProjectsChile, Accessed May 23, 2008. 7 Elemental ProjectsChile, Accessed May 23, 2008. 8 Elemental ProjectsChile, Accessed May 23, 2008. 9 Elemental ProjectsChile, Accessed May 23, 2008. 10 Elemental ProjectsChile, Accessed May 23, 2008. 11 Zolezzi,Mario and Tokeshi Juan, (Lima: Centro de Extudios y Promocion del Desarrollo, 2005),88 12 Elemental ProjectsChile

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55 CHAPTER FIVE SITE SELECTION According to Cofopri (Organization for the Formalization of the Informal of urbanization characterized by the way the construction happens; through the organized invasion of private or federal territory. These invasions happen using and authorized relocation ordered by the government. These settlement pass through development stages, according to Cofopri consolidated and no consolidation. The addition of points established the four types of urban consolidation: Type 1: Highly consolidated( 4-5 points) Type 2: Consolidated (3 points) Type 3: Medium consolidation (2-0 points) Type 4: No consolidation ( 0 or less points) to the individual development of some neighbors, that can afford the services faster than others. This uneven development is common among neighborhoods where each lot is owned by a different owner and where the construction pro cess can take up to 25 years. For that reason the researcher has come up with growth of the housing units.

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56 Stage 1:Considers the neighborhood since the day the land was occupied until the day they start building their temporary shelters. These temporary shelter are usually built with plywood, recycled sheets of steel, woven canes, etc. The name temporary shelters is relative because as these structures are usually used for 5 to 10 years. During this stage some shelters are placed on temporary founda tions made out of stones. Stage 2:Considers the neighborhood from the moment they obtained their legal property titles. This legal status allow them to start replacing their temporary shelters and build a solid housing unit; and solid structure using permanent materials such as: brick, concrete and adobe. During this stage the neighborhood works together to obtain their utility connections, connections that as observed in Las Flores may never happened due to structural problems. I consider that the end of stage 2 is the moment a basic-permanent housing unit has been built and the residents start living in it. Figure 68, Typical settlement on development stage 1 1 Figure 69. Typical settlement on development stage 2 2

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57 Stage 3: Considers the neighborhood from the moment they inhabited their basic units up to when they have added enough rooms/elements to the house that they can live comfortably. Stage 1 and 2 can be consider about equal in time duration for all the neighbors of the settlement, however stage 3 depends totally on each familys budgets and therefore it has no limit in time. From the studies done in San Juan de Lurigancho by Cesal (private organization), the standard housing Figure 70. Typical settlement on stage 3 Why did I choose a site in Lima, Peru? The site selected for the project is located in Lima, Peru; Lima was select ed because it is the most affected city by the migration process, a process that has produced settlements like Cristo Rey for the last 40 years. During the 1950s Lima saw an exponential increase of the city inhabit ants, most of them Andean immigrants and their descendants, who settled in the northern and southern outskirts. The political and economic instability in Peru during the latter half of the twentieth century created unprecedented poverty and violence in the towns of the countryside or Andean highlands, forcing hundreds of thousands of peasants of Amerindian descent to migrate to Lima, thus greatly augmenting Limas population.

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58 Among the districts affected by migrant settlements there is one that stood aside from the rest, and thats because of the way it developed over the years: San Juan de Lurigancho. With a current population that might have exceeded a million people, it is the nations most populated district. It was founded in 1967 and because of its peculiar topography, constitutes a challenge for formal and informal residential settlements. Figure 71. Evolution of Lima through the XX century 3 The article below is from the Luriganchos municipality (June 21, 2008) and shows that the illegal settlements keep growing in the district, and is a con stant problem for the older residents of the area. The article also shows that there hasnt been an effective strategy to slow down the migration process 58 years after it started. Figure 72. Article taken from the municipalitys website 4

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59 Why did I select Cristo Rey? During my conversations with -professor Jose Canciani (Catholic Univer sity) we agreed that in order to be able to improve the acentamiento humano situation, the intervention had to happen on the early stages of the development Mr. Canciani contact me with the architects from Cenca, a private organi zation that provides technical advice to the settlements in the district chosen. Knowing that Cenca has already done projects in the San Juan de Lurig ancho district; I asked architects in Cenca for a site which would comply with the stage one characteristics. Architect Carlos Escalante mentioned the settle ment called Cristo Rey (Lord Christ); a 3 year old settlement in stage 1 that needed some ideas in order to move ahead into their planing stages. After visit typical characteristics of a stage 1 and presented even more challenges (top be described on site analysis). Cristo Rey was selected for being one of the sites that thanks to its location allowed, the exploration of the main design challenges presented in residential housing. Some of the challenges are: 1. Topography: The slope is steep sometimes reaching 1:1. This condition controls the strategies that the designer can take in order to achieve a stable structure. area occupied by Cristo Rey Figure 73. Aerial view of Cristo Rey

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60 2. Budget: People inhabiting the site have limited or zero budget, therefore the structure will be created using the subsidies from the government and other private organizations. Adding up the sources they will still not exceed the amount of eight thousand dollars. 3. Location/Services: Due to its remote location the site currently has no ac cess to water or electricity, in the future the lack of roads will be another problem to transport the materials for construction. For that reason, the settlement needs to be self sustained, creating alternatives for re-use of water, control electric use (or generate their own) and exploit the use of materials available in the area. If we mention the limitations of the site we also have to mention its poten tials; one of the main characteristics observed among people living in the site was the interaction between neighbors. They understand that the success of a single neighbor is impossible without the collaboration of everyone as group. This quality is the one that made the researcher appreciate the site even more and to later select it for the thesis project. Many other asentamientos humanos were visited, and many had the same intense problems however they did not have the human factor that allows a possible/different solution. Figure 74. Neighbors discussing events during their weekly meeting 1 Typical settlement in stage 1, Google images, www.google.com/imghp, Accessed July 28, 2008 2 Typical settlement in stage 2, Google images, Accessed July 28, 2008 3 Zolezzi,Mario and Tokeshi Juan, (Lima: Centro de Extudios y Promocion del Desarrollo, 2005),21 4 San Juan de Lurigancho,Municipal website, www.sanjuandelurigancho.com, Accessed July 28, 2008 5 Aerial from site, Google Earth, www.googleearth.com, Accessed July 13, 2008

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61 CHAPTER SIX SURVEY TO RESIDENTS AT CRISTO REY (SAN JUAN DE LURIGANCHO) On Friday 06/20/08 at 10am during the last visit to the site, a I organized a short workshop with the help of the community representatives of the neighbor hood: Damian, Fernando Gallozo and Gabriel. As part of the workshop the following activities were done: Introduction I introduced myself to all the neighbors (about 29 of a total of 40 families) and thanked them for participating in the workshop. The neighbors welcomed us as friends, and thanks us for collaborating with new ideas for the future development of their neighborhood. Figure 75. Introduction to the neighbors Figure 76 Future east stairs An argument occurred between the neighbors of the East side and the resi dents of Cristo Rey. The east neighborhood decided to break relations with people in Cristo Rey and block one of the points of access to the project where future

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62 Figure 77. Prohibited/allowed paths Figure 78. Acces to street after buying one lot After the argument people on the east side decided to start the construc tion of their stairs, prohibiting its use to people in Cristo Rey. I asked the neighbors about some possible agreement but people in Cristo Rey expressed their discom fort with the east side people, saying that the problems came from years ago and that they were planning to develop each neighborhood separately as independent entities. A possible solution to the lack of access was proposed by a neighbor who taining that lot would provide direct pedestrian access from the main avenue to the center of our site the lot purchase would cost 2500 dollars. Figure 79. Describing advantages Figure 80. Explaining the plans

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63 main avenue, I started sharing the ideas founded during visit to the Elemental about the project from Antofagasta. Figure 81. Elemental Iquique Discussion about project in Iquique The ideas were focused on different aspects of the housing design: Organization: the Chilean project is shaped around a courtyard. Security: The entrances to the project were limited and gated. and the residents. Sharing of spaces: it was explained that neighborhoods were organized in order to share the payment of community elements such as gates and paved courtyards. Utilities: The transition from the informal to the formal/paid utilities was also explained. basic unit provided by the government, to the addition built by the residents. Construction process: it was explained that residents were moved away for a year and then moved back to their basic units.

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64 Figure 82. Temporary shelters located in lower area of the site The idea of moving out for a year produced certain discomfort among neighbors. For that reason the future program proposal will consider temporary shelters located on site; people whose houses are being built will live in the shel ters until the units are ready to be inhabited. The on-site relocation idea was approved by the neighbors; they propose to use the community center space as the location of the shelters, so once all the houses are built, the space can use as classrooms. After the reasons for the design of the Iquique project were explained, I decided to ask peoples opinions about the ideas presented. Some of the reactions arouse were: -We like the courtyard space, we could have a market there! -How is the U-shaped organization going to work with our topography? We like the idea of adding in the future according to our needs I dont like the idea of moving somewhere else for a years! We like the security -We like the facts that some elements of common use are paid by the community the organization helps the neighbors to be in touch and keep us united! After the Iquique typology was presented, people started to get wonder about how many elements from the project can be implemented into their master plan.

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65 I explained to the neighbors that the purpose of looking at other projects wasnt to literally apply it on our site, but to learn from their good decisions and to see which ones can be integrated on the design of their community. Discussion about the project in AntofagastaChile: In order to get more feedback, I proceed to present the Elemental project in Antofagasta, which has more topographical similarities with Cristo Reys site. Once the project was explained; the expressions were: - Doesnt seem to have enough space for children to play -It looks more like what we had in mind -Where do we park? People felt more comfortable with the second project, not only because matches what they expect of a house. Figure 83. Project in Antofagasta-Chile 1 3. Discussion about the issues in the plans generated by the engineer The fact that people were more comfortable with an standard distribution (linear housing) pushed me to challenge their reasoning. I laid the plans (exist ing engineers plans) on the ground and started mentioning different problems that the linear organization could present in the future such as narrow streets and long blocks. After that I proceed to call out some mistakes in the plans, as a test to see how much people were informed of the plans and how many agreed with a. Lack of pedestrian character on the main road because of its dimensions

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66 Figure 84. Proposed vehicular road b. There is no space for sidewalks c. There were no rest spaces whenever the stairs touched the road d. There was no distance between the road and the houses in the east. The residents responded to these questions saying that they could always ex pand the road to one side. Their answer showed me that: They are able to change their mind in order to obtain more comfort and a safer place. They dont have a clear understanding of the dimensions in the plan, and what they can build in the space they are claiming. They dont have a strong respect to the mountain; they dont mind changing the topography to their will as long as they can build their houses. Lack of respect for the neighbors in the lower area of the development, since expanding the road would reduce the green space and create a bigger retaining wall in the neighbors backyard. 4. Survey about programing and conformity with plans questions were related to space planning and possible uses. For the surveying, a piece of paper was given to all the neighbors and the questions were explained orally.

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67 Table 8. Response to question a a) What spaces do you currently have in your house? Comment: It must be understood that most of the time functions mentioned hap pen in 1 room. Usually the kitchen, living room, bedroom and dining room are inside the house. Some of the functions happening outside the house are: Figure 85. Latrine Figure 86. Pet area Figure 87. Laundry Figure 88. Drying area The questions were:

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68 Comment: Question b was asked to observe the relationship between neigh bors and to establish different uses to the public spaces. These spaces will have to hold one or more of the desired neighbors activities. Table 9 Neighbors response to question b Comment: Question c was asked to understand the program needed by the neighbors. Table 10 Neighbors response to question c b) What activities would you like to develope within your community? c) If you have available budget, What areas would you add to your house?

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69 Comment: The answer demonstrates the need for workshops, it is interesting to Table 11 Neighbors response to question d d) What areas would you propose for your community? 1 Elemental housing in Antofagasta, Elemental ProjectsChile. http://www.elementalchile.cl/?lang_pref=en, Accessed May 23, 2008.

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70 CHAPTER SEVEN SITE ANALYSIS Macro Location: Peru According to Wikipedia, Peru covers 1,285,220 km (496,193 sq mi), making it approximately two-thirds the size of Mexico. It neighbors Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the imports and external debt payments. The country is divided in 3 geographical areas: coast (0-500 meters above sea level), mountains or highlands (500-4800 meters above sea level and the jungle (0-1000 meters above sea level). Figure 89. Peruvian natural regions

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71 Macro Location: Lima The capital of Peru has many attractions, some of these are: Figure 90. Business center at night Figure 91. Limas main plaza Figure 93. Palace of justice Figure 92. Government palace Figure 94 Limas main avenues

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72 San Juan de Lurigancho The project is located in The Region of Lima, Province of Lima; The capital is formed by 49 districts. Cristo Rey is located in the mountains of the San Juan de Lurigancho Figure 95 shows the proximity between the middle/high class (lower half) top of the mountain. Its important to notice the lack of water expressed in the absence of vegetation in the top area. Each area started differently, while the bot tom area was developed under a urban plan, the top areas were generated due to spontaneous immigrant settlements on empty land. Figure 95. District limits With a current population that might have exceeded a million people, it is the nations most populated district. San Juan de Lurigancho is bordered by Comas, Independencia and R mac on the west; and Lurigancho on the east. The Rmac River marks the dis tricts border with downtown Lima and El Agustino on the south. According to Wikipedia, the elevation of San Juan de Lurgancho is of 722 ft. but it reaches more than 2000 ft. in the border areas. History of San Juan de Lurigancho lem of human settlement in the dunes of San Juan de Lurigancho.

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73 During these years adobe leveled pyramids were built they were accompanied by the ceremonial plazas. During the initial stage the U-Temple was built about 1000 B.C. this set tlement was formed by the pyramid and other rooms surrounding the main plaza, and the newest invention a water channel that brought water from close rivers and that served to irrigate the land for food production. These temples were built in honor to the mountains, that were considered supreme beings, close to Gods. Figures 97 and 98 show the ruins left by the civilizations that settle in 600 A.D. who were dedicated to agriculture. These civilizations were later forced to join the most powerful empire of America: The Empire of the Incas. Figure 96. Ceramic Temple Figure 97. Aerial view of U-the temple Figure 98. Current temple conditions

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74 According to the Districts website, during the XVII century some ranches started to develop. By the middle of the XVIIIcentury they developed into big ranches occupying current districts, and subdivided in farms, the ones that were worked by slaves from the highlands. In 1780 the properties of San Juan de Lurigancho are counted, being and average of 23 ranches. These ranches were characterized by the unproductive expenses of their owners. The district was well known for the beauty and productivity of its lands, In the district the farms would produce: sweet potatoes, maiz, grapes, water melons, cotton. Besides agriculture the district produced cows and other farm animals. During the military government though the Agriculture-Reform the gov ernment takes possession of the farms to gives it to the workers, who couldnt keep the productivity mainly because lack of technical support. The ranch proper ties were slowly taken by old farmers and immigrants coming to Lima for jobs in belonging to these age was replaced by some grocery stores Currently the district is among the most populated of south America these is consequence mainly of the centralist policy of the government. Figure 99. Historical ruins on the district Figure 100. First settlers in the district Districts standards The following images show typical streets, houses and neighborhoods that can be found in the district of San Juan de Lurigancho. Figure 101 shows the growth of the city next to the mountain. The new developments didnt respect the old mountain god invading its surrounding areas and many times the mountain itself. Figure 102 shows the district at night. We can observe that the buildings are unusually low; in general they are 3 story height maximum.

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75 Residents in the neighborhood accept the standard from other districts where each family owns a lot and build vertically. This lot system favored the horizontal growth of the city and the replacement of ranches by houses, living the district without space left to habitat. Figure 103 shows the standard 1 family three story height residence, after looking at the Chilean case study the ques tions remains: is this much space really needed for each family? Figure 101. Aerial view of district during day Figure 102. Aerial view of district at night Figure 103. Typical house

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76 Figure 104. Typical public school. Figures 106. Typical residential street.

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77 Approach to the site As we mentioned before the site is located after the city fabric ends. It is surrounded by mountains of up to 700 height. The Settlement of Cristo Rey is just one of the hundred of new settlements built on this side of San Juan de Lurigancho. The pictures show the drastic change of the topography in the area which centralistic way of growth. Figure 107. Aerial views of the mountains around the site site location Cristo ReyGeneral Facts The Housing Association Cristo Rey was formed in 2005 after the 40 residents of Cristo Rey can not build permanent structures because they do not own the land (they just occupy it), however they are following all the legal proce dures in order to obtain their property titles in the next years. The property will be theirs once they reach an agreement with the government or the private owner; the agreement can be a purchasing the land (shortest way) or established by a court after a trial (takes many years). The area occupied by Cristo Rey is about 9,570.09 m2 and is located on the side of the mountains called devils mouth (for the shape the surrounding mountains formed together) in the district of San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima-Peru. The neighborhood is surrounded by three other communities (north, east and west side) and the top of the mountain in the south side.

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78 Figure 108. Sun path diagram for Lima, Peru Weather According to the Inei (National Institute of Estatistics), the relative humid ity is very high, and produces brief morning fog from June to December and persistent low clouds from May to November. Sunny, less moist and warm sum mers follow from December to April and are followed by cloudy, damp and cool winters (June to October). Rainfall is almost unknown. The yearly average of 0.7 cm (0.3in) reported at the airport is the lowest of any large metropolitan area in the world. Inland locations receive 1 to 6 cm of rainfall, which accumulates mainly during the winter months. The peak of the rainy season, which really does not apply, occurs during winter when late-night/morning drizzle events (locally called gara,llovizna or camanchacas) become frequent. One thing to consider is that because of the coast, hills and valleys, there is no single climate for all of Lima. For example, in winter the Surco area of Lima, which is closer to the coast, will be cool and damp. In contrast, the more elevated next district, La Molina, will be warmer and drier.

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79 Limas climate is quite mild, despite being located in the Tropics. Lima has a subtropical and desert climate, yet the micro climate also makes it very humid. The temperatures vary from mild to warm (neither very cold or hot). The average temperature is 18 C to 19 C (60 F). The lowest temperatures vary from 12 C (50 F) to around 20 C (68 F) and the high average is around 25 C (78 F), with 30 C (86 F) in the warmest of days. Many people compare Limas weather with Californias standard weather. SPRINGSUMMERAUTUMNWINTER MAX 75848166 MIN 61706359 SUMMER JANUARY MARCH T E M P E R A T U R E MAX MIN SUMMER JANUARY MARCH AUTUMNAPRILJUNE WINTERJULYSEPTEMBER SPRINGOCTOBERDECEMBER 75 84 81 66 61 70 63 59JANFEBMARAPRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDEC Number of 3211359107431 SPRINGSUMMERAUTUMNWINTER 8 9 10P R E C I P I T A T I O N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 JANFEBMARAPRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDEC Number of days with precipitation Table 12. Temperature by season Figure 109. Weather in Lima

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80 Figure 110 Topographic map of Cristo Rey Cristo Reys Topography SPRINGSUMMERAUTUMNWINTER MAX 75848166 MIN 61706359 SUMMER JANUARY MARCH T E M P E R A T U R EMAX MIN SUMMER JANUARY MARCH AUTUMNAPRILJUNE WINTERJULYSEPTEMBER SPRINGOCTOBERDECEMBER75 84 81 66 61 70 63 59JANFEBMARAPRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDEC Number of 3211359107431SPRINGSUMMERAUTUMNWINTER 8 9 10P R E C I P I T A T I O N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 JANFEBMARAPRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDEC Number of days with precipitation Table 13. Average precipitations per month (average rain= 0.02 per month) Table 13 shows the number of rain days per month, they actually look nor mal however we must mention that the standard of rain is only 0.02 inches of rain per rain day.

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81 Figure 111 Site section The topography of the area is really extreme with slopes of 20% The mountains that shaped the area are formed by rocks and brown rocky soils with low presence of clay. Figure 112. Districts limit

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82 Plan proposed by the neighbors In order to speed up the legalization process (get their property title) the residents of Cristo Rey develop (with the help of a local engineer) a master plan, which would reorganize the housing structures based on a main street and 3 stair access. The plan was presented to the municipality for reference however, ticular goals. Sectional diagrams The goal of the following sections (to be used as diagrams) is to show the extreme conditions of the mountain, as well as some of the context in the area. Figure 113. Master plan proposed by the neighbors Figure 114. Section diagram though the site and mountain across the street

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83 Section B-B shows the area of Cristo Rey from the future main road (of pedestrian and vehicular access) to the top of the mountain. It is good to mention that the site currently has no safe vertical circulation; all the areas and elements shown on the plan are proposed for future construction. Real Organization The neighborhood had to relocate according to the proposed plan (1 year ago), however the real conditions of the house structure is a little different that the ones show in the proposed plans. While the plans show future lots the pres ent houses occupy only a 10x10 space somewhere in the area of their future lot. Figure 115 Section diagram trough the site Figure 116. Diagram showing the existing organization of Cristo Rey

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84 Figure Ground Diagrams The following diagrams show the growth of the area during the last 3 years; its important to say that the 60% of the houses shown in the diagrams are temporary shelters just like the ones from Cristo Rey, they are still in the process of obtaining their property title. The 70% of properties shown belong to immigrants coming from outside of Lima, the rest belong to poor people that couldnt afford to live somewhere else. Figure 117. Figure ground of site three years ago Figure 118. Figure ground of site in current conditions (orange squares are new structures)

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85 Formal Social Spaces The spaces shown are spaces that are meant to be of public use, however people meet informally everywhere, especially along the main street because of the little grocery stores and the childcare. Figure 119. Public spaces in the area child care Access to the Site The following diagram shows the main access roads (red) used for cars and the pedestrian access (yellow). The pedestrian access are mainly stairs that allow people to move vertically in the mountain. Figure 120. Pedestrian and vehicular access to the site main road

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86 It is important to mention that the main road (red) ends where it is shown in the diagram and the residential area also ends at that point. The slope of the slope of that area. Then the main road becomes a dead end ; it has no connection with other parts of the city, it is only meant to serve residents of the area providing access to their houses. The main road hasnt been paved yet, and the vertical circulation (stairs) allows residents to invade the future sidewalks with their houses creating a chaotic streets cape in the future. Figure 121. Main road Figure 122. View from site to main road Circulation paths in Cristo Rey Cristo Rey is currently accessible by foot and through 2 paths connected to the main road, one of them will become the vehicular road in the future, the other one will be shared with the neighboring community. Figure 123. Access paths to the housing project current streets

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87 The following pictures show the current conditions of the stairs and the future main road. They both represent a hazard for the children and elderly residents of the area due to the instability of the land. Figure 124. Framework for typical stairs Figure 125. Future location for the main road Functional Diagram The following diagram shows the residential impact in the site and the lack of Figure 126. Site functional diagram

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88 Buildings from the area Figure 127. Typical shelter Figure 128. Typical neighborhoods store Figure 129. Cristo Reys only store Figure 130. Sites Childcare Views from the site All the pictures were taken from the top of the mountain facing different directions. Figure 131. View facing west Figure 132 View facing east

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89 Figure 133. View facing north Figure 134. View facing south People As we mentioned before the majority of people are immigrants. The majority of people are under 40 years old; there were only two elders residents who live with their families. One main characteristic observed during the site visits is the presence of children in the neighborhood. There is a large amount of children that play on the streets because there are no playgrounds in the area. Figure 135. Children playing on top of the mountain Figure 136. Child playing on the main road

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90 Landscape Due to the lack of water in the area, the only green landscape present is formed by different types of cacti. The rest of the landscape is formed by the retaining walls built by the neighbors. Figure 137. Plants found on site Figure 138. Existing retaining walls Retaining walls The retaining walls are the main structural requirement in order to build a house on this kind of site; the ones existing in the area are made out of rocks and some mortar, they are built by the owner of the house and require a constant maintenance (add more concrete every time it settles). In order to obtain utility connections these walls need to be built from permanent materials and around all the neighborhood Figure 139. Rocky area of the mountain Figure 140. Typical retaining wall on site

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91 Figure 142. Section of existing shelter House structures The current housing structures are improvised by the neighbors and built out of materials they either found or bought for very cheap prices. The materials commonly used are recycled steel sheets, woven sugar cane sheets and plywood. The structures are basically a 10x10 room that contains a bedroom and kitchen, the other activities happen outside of the main structure. The front and back of the house are used as laundry areas. Figure 141. Exploded axonometric of existing shelter

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92 Utilities There are no legal connections to utilities. The residents obtain electric ity from neighbor from the lower area who charges them every month.The only water access is through a series of pipes that run along the main stairs and that release water every two days; 20 minutes per family. The water is store in big plastic containers that the residents keep outside the house. The water comes a water truck every week. Figure 143. Existing water connections Figure 144. Existing electric connections 1 Regiones naturales del Peru, Google Images, www.google.com/imghp, Accessed August 5, 2008 2 San Isidro, Google Images, Accessed August 5, 2008 3 Plaza de Armas, Google Images, Accessed August 5, 2008 4 Palacio de Govierno, Google Images, Accessed August 5, 2008 5 Palacio de Justicia, Google Images, Accessed August 5, 2008 6 Avenida Benavides, Google Images, Accessed August 5, 2008 7 San Juan de Lurigancho, Google Earth, www.google.earth.com, Accessed August 5, 2008 8 Templo de Ceramica, Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, www. sanjuandelurigancho.com, Accessed June 25, 2008. 9 Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, Accessed June 25, 2008. 10 Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, Accessed June 25, 2008. 11 Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, Accessed June 25, 2008. 12 Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, Accessed June 25, 2008. 13 Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, Accessed June 25, 2008. 14 Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, Accessed June 25, 2008. 15 Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, Accessed June 25, 2008. 16 Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, Accessed June 25, 2008. 17 Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, Accessed June 25, 2008. 18 Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, Accessed June 25, 2008. 19 Aerial view of Cristo Rey, Google Earth, Accessed August 5, 2008 20 Daylight Chart, Gaisma.com, Accessed, August 11, 2008 21 Peru Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica INEI http://ww1.inei.gob.pe /inicio.htm, Accessed August 11, 2008

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93 CHAPTER EIGHT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES a building in which people live; residence for human beings 2. to give shelter to; harbor; lodge Dictionary.com Introduction The purpose of every housing project is to provide shelter; a safe structure for people to live in. Even though houses are the basic elements of a neighborhood, safe structural houses dont necessarily create safe neighborhoods or safe environments for the neighbors to enjoy. Figure 145. High class and low class uses of the street. 1 When we look at acentamientos humanos one observes the lack of safety in both spaces; the house and the neighborhood. Observing the way these shelter, living, and at the end, the need for an organized neighborhood. lowing problems: 1. Unsafe/unsanitary shelters: The original units are made of recycled ma terials, many times rusted metals or dirty cardboard boxes. The units that use plywood have no stable foundations.

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94 2. Lack of services: The neighborhood has no access to sewer, water or electric connections. 3. Lack of infrastructure: The neighborhood has no roads, streets, side walks, or stairs for circulation. 4. Lack of social spaces: The social spaces are usually not considered in their planning, or if they are considered they are not adequate for human use. 5. There is no consideration for land impact (sprawl development): besides being far from the city, the settlement spreads on site instead of densifying the space for a better use. 6. Lack of support spaces: Because of the spreading units; the land has no space for areas that can help the overall quality of the site, areas such as: water treatment, productive landscapes,. Goals and objectives: a. Provide Safe Shelter: Replace the existing temporary shelters with safe permanent structures:The permanent structures will contain the basic housing areas that can allow a people to live with all the services needed. Provide infrastructure (utilities, stairs, roads, etc.): The roads will allow the reconnect ion of the site to the city, and the stairs will allow circulation within the neighborhood. b. Create feasible framework: Establishing a framework using basic units as it allows for future organized growth: The basic housing will leave spaces for future expansion. The spaces will Use subsides and neighbors savings as the budgeting limits for the housing area (frame) c. Keep and promote their positive social relationships: Organize the housing units according to the public spaces. Create multifunctional public spaces that can be used according to the neighbors changing needs. d. Sustainable use of land: Group neighboring communities in order to densify their built areas. Create support spaces (productive landscape, green spaces, workshop areas) for public use. 1 Street conditions, Google images, www.google.com/imghp, Accessed June 11, 2008

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95 CHAPTER NINE PROGRAMING OF THE HUMAN SETTLEMENT CRISTO REY Problem Statement One of the main characteristics/potentials of the members of acentamientos humanos is that people there have chosen who they will live with. From the beginning the immigrants form organizations that are composed of people with similar past goals and culture. This condition is hard to obtain when a regular person buys a house within an existing neighborhood. The main goal of this project is to create a housing organization that keeps and develops the social relations that from the beginning helped the formation of these neighborhoods. In order to achieve this goal the design program will include different types of social conditions for the neighbors to use on special occasion in addition to their everyday life. These spaces will be shaped through the organization of necessary elements such as the housing units, retaining walls, roads and utilities. Purpose by the character of the people who will inhabit the neighborhood. Before describing the size and name of the spaces that are going to be part of the future the space. Only then we can understand the presence of certain spaces in the program such as farms and productive landscapes. Immigrants The unequal development in Peru has increased the differences between the coast and the other regions; between the urban and rural areas. Under this situation, Lima has become the political, economical, administrative, educational center of Peru.

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96 Figure 146. Population migrating to Lima 1 Figure 147. Typical immigrant girl 2 From the 1970s, Lima became the destination for people from other provinces, who come to the capital searching for better living conditions; education, jobs, and health services. These groups of immigrants who have similar cultural background, formed temporary settlements at the limits of the city. Years later these settlements became permanent and Lima grew to its current size; now it holds 30% of the total population of Peru. Thirty years later the immigrant phenomenon hasnt stopped, these migration keeps shaping the capital and using the few spaces left. If in the past the immigrants moved to the deserts, now they have to occupy the arid mountains. Statistics describe the immigrant population as people mostly between 15-34 years oldeducation: elementary sometimes high schoolwork: agriculture. General use requirements Existing master plan issues: As it was mentioned before the immigrants occupy the land illegally, they moved there because it is the only free space in the city. Eventually they get organized and formalize their situation by either buying the land or working on the transference from the owner (government or private) to them (longest process). Due to the initial-illegal nature of the occupation, these settlements lack of any formal master plan. The restrictions are only given by the extremely hard topographic conditions of the territory.

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97 Existence within districts master plan The new housing prototype will be located on the same site where the neighbors currently live. The land occupied is not part of the formal district master plan (these settlements appear suddenly in unexpected locations), for that reason one of the main goals is to create links that reconnect this area in order to integrate it back to the districts urban fabric. During the construction process there will not be any relocation, instead a major formalization process will be planned. Keeping the original location will create a sense of improvement as well as limit the impact on other areas as well as improving the surrounding one. Joint community uses The public spaces will be the elements that bring the neighbors and community together, for that reason the areas must be designed according to peoples current and future activities (meaning immigrants activities). In order to hold these activities in the same space, a schedule establishing times and functions will be created. As an example, a schedule for the main plaza in a neighborhood at stage 3 of development could be: Weekdays (8am-10pm) courtyard open for public + children to play Weekdays (10pm8am) parking or closed area for security. Weekend days (6am10pm) market/workshops/community meetings, The scheduling is applied to the largest (main) social space, not to all the spaces. During the design stage, different types of social spaces will be developed; most of them will be accessible 24hours a day. The advantage of a community-based development compared to individual development are: 1. Economy: as mentioned in the Elemental Projects the neighbors collected money for each of the enhancements such as paving and security fences. 2. Time: it will be faster for 20 people to pay for one fence than for each neighbor to pay for their own fence.

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98 Solid Waste Because of its distance from the rest of the city; the garbage is picked up by trucks once a week. A weekly cycle was observed among the units visited; during this garbage cycle the waste is moved from the back patio to the front and later to the main entrance or corner where its picked up by the truck. This cycle informs the need for a space in the housing unit (1, 2) and another in the street, designated for garbage disposal and collection. The spaces main purpose is to maintain sanitation and keep up a good appearance for the neighborhood. Figure 148. Garbage cycle observed in Chile Utilities The double check system, one of the positive characteristics observed in the Elemental project was the setting of two meters to measure the electric and water utilities. One of the meters is located next to the units door and the other one is located next to main gate inside a locked steel box. These meters measure each houses consumption and are compared every month. In the event the readings dont match, the neighborhood receives a penalty for stealing water or electricity. These checking systems will be applied on site in order to promote the legal use of services among immigrant communities (and diminish the illegal use). Figure 150. Meters located at entrance of house Figure 149. Meter located at entrance of project.

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99 Times of use Residents will have 24 hour access to all public areas, and different design elements will be incorporated in order to provide security to the aforementioned places (for example houses windows facing the public space). The dwelling units will be complemented with social spaces within its program, in order to engage residents everyday activities into social encounters of varying types. In the elemental project, the courtyard only served as parking after 11pm. (winter) and midnight (summer) it is normally used by children as playground and for the neighbors to engage in social activities such as markets or dance events. playground parking market playground parking market Figure 151. Courtyard in Chilean Project Figure 152. Courtyard in Chilean Project was also used as parking Special regulatory issues During the investigations in Chile I noticed that there are people who bring/ decide the character of the spaces; sometimes even modifying the spaces func tions according to their needs. Two of the examples where peoples characteris 1. Age: During my conversations with the residents of the Elemental project in Iquique they commented about the distribution of levels according to age. The government gave the lower apartments to older couples and the units on distribution was also used in the acentamiento Cristo Rey in Lima, Peru; there the higher lots were given to younger families and the lower ones were taken by people with disabilities or the elderly. The relation age/verticality avoids the extra stress for older people to circulate around the neighborhood and to their houses. Peoples age not only

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100 informed the organization, it will also dictate the areas needed; for example if 80% of people have children then we need to plan for a child care center or a playground area. 2. Profession/skills: Peoples skills/customs will dictate the character of the spaces as well as inform the program about potential uses: When asked about their skills, women from Cristo Rey responded that 80% of them knew how to make clothes and the rest expressed the desired to learn that skill. The resulting idea was to create a multifunctional space that could be used as a market as well as house other activities such as recreation and parking. The skills/professions observed in Cristo Rey are described in the Housing existing conditions Housing units observed on Cristo Rey: (all units are 3 years old) neighbor A: 10x10 wooden house neighbor B: 10x15 woven cane mat neighbor C: 10x10 plywood house neighbor D: 12x18 recycled steel and plywood in the design of the houses. The owner builds according to his possibilities instead of a planned ideal. The spontaneous design/growth is the consequence for lacking economic resources and technical support. The program changes often according to the owners needs and possibilities. different development stages among houses that started construction at the same time. neighbor-A neighbor-B neighbor-C neighbor-D old villa monroy relocation basic units basic+addition units Figure 153. Cristo rey existing housing conditions

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101 On these kind of neighborhoods a Neighbor A will add a second room or replace the wooden roof whenever he gets enough extra money to build it, to change from steel to brick, while all the other ones are still living in the same conditions. This informal phasing is unique to the lower classes in Peru; the middle and high class have constructions that are built according to a plan prepared either by and engineer or a architect. In the upper classes the Site use issues The settlement where the project will be located; Cristo Rey is currently composed of 40 families: one housing unit per family, it was chosen for the following reasons: 1. Sites location/characteristics: Located in the district of San Juan de Lurigancho (the most populated district in Lima Peru). The housing program will be designed to host low income people of the area who currently live in temporary shelters. Its location on the skirts of the mountain represents one of the most common conditions/challenges for the acentamientos humanos today. The topographical characteristics of the site demand special considerations in stage of the development in order to provide a safe and sanitary setting for the houses to be built during stages 2 and 3. 2. Size: After analyzing similar projects in Chile (Elemental) and visiting similar sub-divisions in Peru it was observe that the settlements are usually formed by no more than 50 families. 3. Development Stage: The settlement is currently in the development stage-1; the inhabitants live in temporary wood shelters, do not have utilities or retaining walls. People have been living on the site for about 3 years. 4. Community feeling: The residents have known each other for more than 3 years; many belong to the same family and town. Adjacency diagrams Without getting into the detailed design of the spaces; the following adjacency diagrams show the spatial relationships between varying functions.

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102 -Diagram 1 shows the importance of the stairs as the only element of vertical circulation and as one of the connectors for the courtyards (main public spaces). The overlapping of commercial and green areas are caused by the degree of activity on these spaces (recreation and commercial). Figure 154: Adjacency diagram 1 Diagram 2 shows the different layers of functions people have to cross in order to get to their housing units. The intersection between the stairs and each of the layers (functions) should be a different opportunity to engage in social activities. Figure 155: Adjacency diagram 2

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103 Figure 156. House organization Diagram 3 shows the transition from the public social space (courtyard) to the Proposed Program The new site program will have the same areas proposed by the neighbors on their early master plan (discussed on survey chapter), the areas proposed were: 40 housing units, green areas, one community center, stairs and dimension of the spaces, this changes are based in conclusion achieved during the research previously done. Proposed Phasing support from the Peruvian government. In order to get subsidies from the government a comprehensive development plan has to be presented to the Ministry of Housing, if the project is approved, the authorities will assign a budget for the construction of the projects infrastructure including housing and services. For this thesis project it is assumed that the master plan has already been approved by the government and the subsidies have been disbursed for the construction to begin.

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104 The construction of the project will be completed in three phases: according to the new master plan. From the research done in similar communities this relocation can take up to a year to be completed. Phase2: Will consist in the beginning of the construction of the new structures, in order to start building in the mountain the terrain has to reinforced neighbors labor to reduce costs. Phase 3: Includes the process of modifying the basic unit according to the own ers individual needs, as well as the formalization of the supporting areas. (public spaces, recreation and education). 1 Mapa del Peru, Google Images, www.google.com/imghp, Accessed July 14, 2008 2 Nina imigrante, Google Images, Accessed July 10, 2008

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105 Figure 157. Topographic map of Cristo Rey Figure 158. Site section CHAPTER TEN DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PHASE 2 Phase 2 of ConstructionStaging government supervision. Engineers hired by the government will have the role of calculating the need (quantity and materiality) for retaining walls in order to make the site ready to support the buildings structures. According to the master plan proposal the lower area of the mountain (steepest area of site where community center is located) will require taller and a greater number of retaining walls. The engineer Jose Pelaez (FDOT) asked me to use the retaining walls employed by the Incas in Machu Picchu (Peru) as an example of how to deal with the site. The Incas built their terraces using stone walls 5 tall (maximum). According to Mr. Pelaez, a taller retaining wall would need extra reinforcement in order to resist the load of the mountain on a seismic site. Figure 159. Retaining wall location

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106 The 5 tall walls were used as reference to design the terraces existing on the site, the housing for example has a 5 to 15 relationship, where the 15long community can coordinate with the municipality to install the utilities (water and electricity). The water system will be explained in detail later and consist of a small variation on the standard water connections. Stage 2: Construction of the buildings: The second stage consists of building constructed with the use of concrete piles which will reduce the amount of dirt temporary shelter for the neighbors whose homes are under construction. The order of development for the housing starts from the lower areas and ends at the peak of the mountain. Figure 160. Added dirt using conventional terraced system Figure 161. Order of development for Cristo Rey

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107 Figure 162. Order of construction second last Sites master plan site; they run along the contours of the mountain but separate from each other in the areas where housing front yard is located. The programing site functions presented required by the neighbors during the survey was kept in the new proposed master plan, these areas were relocated in order to achieve the goals of the project. Figure 164. Diagram of houses surrounding a public space Figure 163. Diagram of functions following the terrain The site is divided in half by the main stairs. Figure 165 shows a diagram

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108 Figure 165. Diagrammatic site plan area to be developed in detail Figure 166 shows the projects site plan at the beginning of the phase 3; where all the planned structures are built and the water systems are irrigating the site creating some vegetation in the area. c

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109 Figure 167. Aerial 1 Figure 168. Aerial 2 Figure 169. Longitudinal section of the site though the public spaces The section above shows how the houses seat on the site and how they will only cut into the topography in order to build the water tower.

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110 Figure170. Section model of proposed development Figure 171. Section modelFirs street area

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111 Figure 174. Section modelArea between second and third street Figure 175. Area between third and fourth street Figure 173. Area between 4th street and the water tower Figure176. Water tower area

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112 Figure 177. Approach to the site from the main street Site perspectives The following perspectives show the end results of the development at stage 3. Figure 174. Section modelArea between second and third street Figure176. Water tower area Figure 178. View to the project from the main street

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113 Figure 179. Aerial view of project (using housing typology 001) Figure 180. Perspective of 1st street

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114 Figure 182. Perspective view of the front yard area

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115 Public SpacesCommunity Center The community center is the main enclosed public space and plays an important role in the site development, the centers program varies according to the time of development of the project: Location The Center is located in front of the site (lowest area). It functions as a gate to the project but also as a shared space with people of other housing projects. Its location also helps to control the maintenance of the community terraces located at both sides of the center. Figure 183. Location of community center Figure 184. Site section showing community center and other public space locations

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116 Program At the beginning of phase 2 the community center is built by the neighbors and has two main areas: dining and housing. The kitchen/dining area is used by the mothers of the community to prepare meals for their children and the workers of the site, these meals are also part of the subsidy by the government. The housing area serves as shelter for people whose houses are under construction. dinning area housing area Figure 185. Community center with their initial program areas. Figure 186. Typical public dining space 1

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117 At the end of phase 2 all the neighbors will be living in the housing units, therefore the temporary shelter area from the community center can be transformed into classrooms or workshops where the neighbors can learn new trades. During this time the neighbors can also start preparing the community gardens. These terraced gardens will provide bamboo and other alternative materials to be use in the house additions. The gardens will be irrigated using the reclaimed water from the houses. Once the classrooms and the terraces are built people can add a meeting space to the buildings program. As it was mentioned on the site analysis the community has weekly meetings to discuss current activities of the neighborhood. meeting room classrooms Figure 188. Women working with materials collected from the community terraces 2 Figure 189. Men working in the workshops/ classrooms 3

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118 Materiality The retaining walls where the center sits are made out of stones and concrete (method known by neighbors), the buildings will use concrete and wood as their main materials. Figure 191. Section perspective of Community Center

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119 Figure 192. Aerial view of Community Center Public spacesCommercial Areas Location The site is located in an area where there are no zoning restrictions, however if we consider the main circulation and the design of the house we can expect to have commercial activities happening along the main stairs. Grocery stores (bodegas) and small sandwich shops are popular around the site and dont need a major investment. Figure 193. Potential commercial areas

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120 Figure 194. Perspective of commercial area The location of the store in a small place between the streets will avoid big groups hanging out in the area where they would interrupt the circulation of the sidewalk and stairs. From the studies on social spaces we know that avoiding groups of men in the street motivates women and children to walk in the street specially at night. Group reunions should happen in the front yards where the activities can be observed and controlled by the neighbors. Figure 195. People using the commercial area

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121 Figure 196. Visibility along the stairs Public spacesthe stairs The stairs are the main circulation element on the site. The separation of the house by using the living machine tanks avoids blind intersections in the corners astypically happens in mountain housing projects. Public spacesNeighbors front yard Location The space is located between the street sidewalk and the back of the house from the lower levels. Its location between the houses allow the use from all the neighbors surrounding the space. The location will determine the slope of the area and therefore its possible functions. Figure 197. Neighbors front yard location

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122 Figure 198. Site section showing community center and other public space locations Program The space belongs to the neighbors that surrounds that area (people living on the same street) therefore they will be the ones in charge of maintaining it and designing it according to their selected functions. The size of the front yard is approximately 1200 s.f. and its shape changes according to the topography of the mountain. Although it was left without program it was designed as an extension of the houses patio area. The yard is visible from all the rooms of the house so children can play safely under the supervision of their parents. From the water use diagram we know that the space is going to be irrigated with the reclaimed water from the houses, therefore if the neighbors dont want to invest in building a structure in the area, the space can be left naturally as a garden.

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123 Figure 199. Perspective of the yard space left as a garden. As mentioned before thanks to the re use of water the space can be left as a garden however people can use the irrigation system to design some It could also happen that some neighbors try to maximize their space and Figure 200. Perspective of yard space designed as a productive terrace garden

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124 Figure 202. Elevation of yard space as recreation and garden terrace-model picture

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125 Figure 203. Perspective of yard space designed for recreation and garden area Water use In order to calculate the dimension of the water tank that will supply the site, we need to calculate the amount of water used by the neighborhood. Figure 204. Consumption of water per week 4

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126 According to the calculations the neighborhood will need a total of 123,013 cubic feet of water per week. The water tower proposed will have a total volume of 15,625 cubic feet and not only serves as water storage but as look out point for the neighbors. this kind of neighborhoods and that was requested by the residents during the initial community survey. Figure 205. Water tower area Figure 206. Aerial view of water tower area

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127 Figure 207. View down the mountain from the top of the tower

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128 Water cycle proposal In order to reduce the waste of water on the site the conventional water The water will be supplied using a gravity fed system from the tower located on top of the mountain to the houses in the lower areas. Inside the house the water is treated, separating the disposed water in to two pipes; waste water and gray water. The waste water will run along each the street (under the sidewalk) into the living machines located at both sides of the main stairs, this system helps The gray water will be drained into the public space located in front of the houses. From this point it will drain down to the stair area where it will then be Figure 208. Water cycle on Cristo Rey

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129 Figure 210. System use to irrigate public spaces 5 Figure 209. Water cycle from the house to the public the use of a stone made drainage canal located between the low area of the courtyard and the back of the house, this system was model after the Incas

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130 Figure 211. Irrigated public space Living Machines This system consist of a combination of indigenous plants and mulch enclosed in collecting tanks that can be built out of stone. The site will have construction will be done by the neighbors from Cristo Rey. 6

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131

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132 such as sugar cane and bamboo, materials to be use in the assemblage of panels for the walls of their house additions.

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133 Housing In order to build on such a sloped mountain we need to understand how of the house that can be built without problems (yellow region) however there is another area that penetrates the mountain (pink area). The pink area of the house can be built removing that same volume of dirt from the mountain however that implies a large amount or dirt movement and the need for many retaining walls that translate into a expensive investment. walls to retain it. Figure 217. Separation of house in levels retaining walls dirt needed to create a

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134 A third system using concrete piles that go deep into the mountain (30% of the building height) doesnt need any dirt movement or acquisition and leaves The pile system was recommended to me by the engineer Jose Pelaez from the Florida Department of Transportation, Mr. Pelaez is originally from Colombia and is familiar with the site conditions. According to the Mr. Pelaez the piling system is the most stable in seismic regions The pile system creates a foundation where the columns of the house can 31 feet, in order to achieve this we need to raise the slab 5.3 from the ground level. This height has been calculated according to the average slope angle taken from the sections of the site (average slope is 23.37). Figure 218. House seating on piles concrete piles The program for the houses proposed is based on the functions observed during the site analysis, the size of the areas in the house are based on an average between size of the existing spaces and the size of a middle class house in the city. The program will be arrange in order to obtained a good transition between public, semi-public and private spaces. Keeping in mind that the project aims to improve the social relationships of the neighbors, there will be a priority given to the spaces that engage social encounters such as the living room, outside patio and kitchen.

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135 Figure 219. Main areas in existing shelter according to the location where the main functions will occur. These locations depend on the illumination needs and privacy issues. Figure 220 Initial house shape

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136 Figure 222. House shaped by 2 main design moves The areas that need more illumination are the laundry and the patio. Inside the house the kitchen and the living room will be the main areas to be provided with natural illumination. Figure 221. First functions located in the house The areas that need less illumination are the latrine and the pet space, however these are the areas that need more ventilation. The mentioned areas will also shape the volume of the house creating a void on the south east side of the house.

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137 Typology 001 Figure 223. Prototype 001 aerial perspective community: It was designed for the young couple that just moved from the mountains to the city and want to save some money for their future, now this couple can open a little store or rent an extra room. It was designed for the mom who stays all day at home taking care of the children and wants to check on them while they play in the outside spaces (she can see them from the kitchen or other areas). It is designed for the elderly who cant climb the main stairs but likes sitting in the semi-public space of the house while reading the newspaper and watching people in the streets. It is designed for the people who want to keep growing animals (chickens, guinea pigs, etc.) and now can do it in the back space. The building methods include the participation of the owners so they can develop a strong sense of ownership and accomplishment. The house was thought of as a simple structure that can suit the residents various needs and provide them with multiple opportunities. The house provides spaces so people from Cristo Rey dont loose sight oft their cultural background.

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138 House program store (level will be called store level). The house also has a kitchen, a bathroom and a living room. On the front of the house a space is provided for seating, this space is visually connected with the street and public spaces. On the back an empty space is meant to host the structure for the future additions but until that time; the space can be used as a back yard.

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139 owner. It is recommended to leave the stairs from the store area to the new addition without a roof; this will allow all the rooms to have natural illumination and ventilation. Figure 227 shows the mentioned ventilation idea however the

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140 Jose Pelaez from the DOT department, who explained the structural need for a house with such a program as the one developed in chapter 5. According to the engineer, the post and beam system should be preferred over the popular increase the budget) and provides more seismic resistance. Figure 230. Concrete columns create leveled space for the house Figure 229. Post and Beam system used for Typology 001 The provided structure will serve as base-support for the future additions that the owner may build, therefore it is required that the initial building provides a structure strong enough to support these potential loads. This part of the structure can be built by the neighbors under the supervision of an engineer. Figure 228. Typical retaining wall creating a

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141 Figure 231. Concrete structure complemented with wood framing Once the concrete structure has been erected, the wood framing can be installed. The second framing will support the Eternit panels; these government. This stage of construction can also be done by the future owners under the supervision of an engineer hired by local authorities. Finally the panels are attached to the wood framing. These panels can be replaced in the future by stronger materials such as brick or wood; the main concrete structure is designed to hold the weight of those materials.

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142 Figure 233. Typology 001Cross Section 1 Figure 234. Typology 001Longitudinal section boundary between the house and the street; this boundary provides security and the street cant see inside the house however people inside the house have good visibility to the outside from all the rooms.

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143 Figure 235. Typology 001Cross Section perspective Figure 235 shows the advantage of having the main stairs between the rooms; it allows independent access in case the owner wants to rent the second room.

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144 public space (kitchen and living room areas always have visible access to public area). Figure 236. Housing 001 surrounding the main public space Figure 237. Housing seating on the mountain

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145 Figure 238. Materials used in current shelters Materiality As mentioned before, the structural materials will be wood and concrete. These materials were selected in order to guarantee the safety of the house. Once the structure has been built the wall will be covered with the corrugated eternit ; this panels are usually donated by the government to the immigrant settlements. The addition that is going to be built by the owners can use cheaper and more accessible materials. As mentioned before in the Community Center located next to the community Center. Producing their own materials will not only reduce the cost of the additions but can integrate the typically segregated members of the neighborhood, such as women. Since men leave to the city everyday, women can be in charge of building these new panels for their future reinvigorate the role of women as a productive member of the community. The alternative materials proposed are the ones neighbors currently use on their shelters: b) Recycled wood: collected from close by factories c) Recycled steel: collected from close by factories

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146 Figure 240. Exploded axonometric Figure 239. Bamboo used as a structure 7 Figure 240 shows an exploded axonometric of the house where the eternit panels are combined with panels made of alternative materials. Using different materials in the initial unit will teach their potential to the owners and promote their use for the additions.

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147 Other additions The owners of the houses lack economic resources so it could be many years until they can afford to build an addition to their houses, meanwhile new functions can be incorporated to the house using little investment. The front spaces left open by the concrete structure can be used as storage for the garbage, and the front patio can also develop into a small garden. The back space can be used as garden and if it is leveled it can also be used as playground for the children of the house. Figure 242. Possible use os the back space as playground Figure 241. Possible uses for front spaces

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148 Figure 242. Possible use os the back space as playground Figure 243. Possible back garden additionmodel picture Figure 244. Possible front storage and garden additions

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149 Figure 245. Area of the courtyard left natural Figure 246. Terraced area of the courtyard used as siting area

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150 Commercial Expansion The transition room of this typology allows the owner to connect the house to the main circulation; this connection happens in case the owner would like to open a space with commercial functions such as a grocery stores which are popular in the area of Cristo Rey. window. Figure 247. House using the extra room as store.

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151 Figure 248. Aerial view of house with additions Potential additions Once the house typology is built, the owner can change its structure adding new rooms according to his needs. Being that owner is the person who will be designing the addition, I decided to invite my friend Eric Holtgard (who was familiar with the project) to design the additions assuming it was his house. Before giving him the project I explained to him the economic, social, and cultural context of the project. house, but to observe the design path the owner follows once he has an existing structure. It was also my interest to see if the semi-public spaces of the house were going to be left open and if the materials provided were going to be used or replaced by other materials. some money to keep building. The location of the stairs helped me achieve alternative materials during the construction of the typology 001 I continue using them throughout the whole house. Figure 249. Street view of house and additions

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152 Water cycles in the house The cost to bring water from the city into the site is very high, therefore a system that re-use the water is incorporated into the house. This system consist of using different pipes to separate the gray water (water from sinks and shower) from the waste water (water from the toilet). The gray water will be drained into the front yard and later into the public areas, while living machine areas located along the main stairs. front garden waste water Figure 250. Water separation system gray water Figure 251. Water re-distribution

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153 T ypology 002 The main intention with the design of house 002 is to take advantage of the governments subsidy and built as many structural elements as we may need now and in future expansions. The housing typology 002 was designed in order to establish stronger restrictions to the additions that may be built by the owner. In this typology the provided, we are also providing the structural framework for the living areas in The housing design consists of one master bedroom, a kitchen, dining consists of a open space that can be used as a garden or seating area, before the additions are not built yet. Figure 252. Water re-distribution

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154

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155 Figure 255. Possible addition layout the street, this was a requirement expressed by the mothers in Cristo Rey; they wanted to be able to observe their children playing in the street from inside the house. The front outside space presented in typology 001 was also integrated into this new design, the outside space located next to the living room can be use as seating area for older people, or as an extension of the living room. The electric and water services will also be easier to install in the lower level since the equipment (pipes and valves) has been already supplied for the

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156 Figure 257. Concrete columns built on site Figure 256. Diagram of typology 002 on site The model 002 doesnt need any foundation for a store level, therefore the concrete piles that support the house go from the terrain up to the second These members should be built out of concrete by the neighbors under the supervision of an engineer hired by the local authorities. Once the concrete frame is in place the framing for the interior partitions can be installed, this framing will hold the panels which will be either donated by the government or produced by the community using alternative materials.

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157 Figure 258. Concrete and wood structure used Figure 259. Location for possible future additions

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158 least until additions are built). This space can be enjoyed by women who seat and do their laundry everyday while their children play in the open spaces in front of the houses. The space can also develop into a workshop or a store that is closer to the main street instead of being connected to the main stairs as proposed in house 001. level on the front of the house, however the back of the house matches the level of the rear open space, so if the owner desires, there could be another access point from that area. Figure 260. Section through kitchen, bathroom and living room rear acces

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159 Figure 262. Section through bedroom and kitchen Figure 261. Section through living room and kitchen

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160 Figure 263. Exploded axonometric of possible materials for typology 002 Materiality This typology will require more concrete than the house 001 due to the be built using wood beams since the roof wont support any future additions. For the interior and exterior walls the house uses a combination of panels made out of alternative materials or eternit panels donated by the local authorities.

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161 Figure 264. Example of partition walls built using bamboo 8 Figure 264 shows a form of using the bamboo as material for the partition walls (interior and exterior). Potential Additions the house can be used as a garden/ seating This feature requires an erosion control system that can be built using where a terraced garden was created inside the house in the mountains of Japan. The private garden can be irrigated into the public spaces that can grow edible plants for the community. Figure 265. Japanese garden 9

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162 patio-model picture Figure 268. Street condition-model picture

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163 Figure 269. Additions 1 street view Potential additions The addition assignment was applied to the second typology as well, architecture student that lives in Peru. Alex developed two additions using the typology 002 as a framework: living spaces to be rented by the owner., Some stairs were also added to create an independent access to the new living spaces order to create a new concrete framework for the extra living space. Figure 270. Additions 2 street view

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164 Figure 271. Water re-distribution Water redistribution Prototype 2 also uses a separate plumbing system for the waste and gray be later drained into the public spaces. Figure 271 shows a possible location for a septic tank that can be located holding the solid waste from the toilets. septic tank 1 Comedores Populares, Google Images, www.google.com/imhp, Accessed August 15, 2008 2 Tejiendo Bamboo, Google Images, August 15, 2008 3 Bamboo workshop, Google Images, August 15, 2008 4 Peru Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica INEI http://ww1.inei.gob.pe /inicio.htm, Accessed August 16, 2008 5 Wright R. Keneth, (Virginia: American Society of Civil engineers, 2006), p66 6 Architecture for Humanity, (New York, D.A.P. Art Publishers, 2006),44 7 Bamboo structures, Google Images, August 18, 2008 8 Freeman, Michael, Space-Japanese Design Solutions for Compact Living, (New York: Universe Publishing, 2004), 184 9 Freeman, 126

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165 CHAPTER ELEVEN CONCLUSION Project Accomplishments Community of Cristo Rey, this master plan explained the construction phasing to be followed in order to achieve the public spaces desired. The master plan also proposed two housing typologies that can be set on the site in order to create an organized neighborhood. Although this system was designed for the Cristo Rey site it is my intention that the organizational structure can become a typology for low income mountainous housing that promotes the use of public spaces and social relations between neighbors. The project also describes systems to be use during the construction of the houses, community center and retaining walls. Methods were also design to incorporate the re use of waste and gray water to irrigate the site. Main challenges Through out the process of this thesis some of the designed buildings, (house and water tower) and elements on the site (retaining walls and roads) were not able to be explained in more detail because of a general lack of construction experience. During the design some assumptions about construction methods were taken from a general knowledge obtained by looking at precedent studies. It should be noted, however that this thesis was more oriented towards the design and use of various spaces through out the neighborhood and not limited to the methods of construction. An additional issue that manifested in this almost everything. In addition to the design challenges having clients of a lower assumed that the client has little to no money to contribute, they are depending

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166 Figure 272. Conceptual model Project limitations Perhaps because the majority of the design focus was on the master planing the project did not address a deeper exploration of materiality. The building strategies proposed use standard construction materials and methods that are familiar to the neighbors such as concrete, wood and eternit panels. the cost of the project and involve the neighbors during the construction process. Future suggestions For the preliminary analysis and design a great advantage was that Im originally from Peru and Im familiar with the local way of life, this is an important facto when designing a project abroad, as the architect has to become very familiar with all the elements that affect the site and the people living in it. Without appropriate knowledge of local customs and needs the proposal will not be relatable to the end user. future residents, it is very important to maintain constant contact with both the client and local authorities familiar with the project and its challenges.

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167 References Architecture for Humanity, (New York, D.A.P. Art Publishers, 2006) Abbot, Derek and Pollit Kimball, Hill HousingA Guide to Design and Construction. ( New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1981) Cabrera, Teresa and Villaseca Miguel, (Lima: Desco-Centro de Extudios y Promocion del Desarrollo, 2007) Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer, and Timothy Hursley, (New York : Princeton Architectural Press, 2002) Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer and Timothy Hursley, (New York : Princeton Architectural Press, 2005) Elemental ProjectsChile. http://www.elementalchile.cl/?lang_pref=en Accessed May 23, 2008. Freeman, Michael, Space-Japanese Design Solutions for Compact Living (New York: Universe Publishing, 2004) Information about Peru., http://www.go2peru.com/webapp/ilatintravel/articulo. jsp?cod=199888 8 A ccessed June 12,2008 Jodidio, Philip, (Australia: The Images Publishing Group, 2008) Kostof, Spiro,

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168 Palleroni, Sergio and Eichbaum, Christina, (Seattle: University of Wahington Press, 2004). Municipality of San Juan de Lurigancho, www. sanjuandelurigancho.com Accessed June 25, 2008. Peru Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica INEI http://ww1.inei.gob.pe /inicio.htm, Accessed August 11, 2008 Peru History & Culture. http://www.geographia.com/peru/peruhistory.ht m Accessed June 23, 2008 Ramirez, Corzo and Riofrio, Gustavo, (Lima: Desco-Centro de Estudios y Promocion del Desarrollo, 2006). Steen, Bill and Komatzu, Yoshio, (Utah: Gibbs smith Publisher, 2003) Takano Guillermo and Tokeshi, Juan, (Lima: Desco-Centro de Extudios y Promocion del Desarrollo, 2007) Wikipedia contributors. Climate of Peru. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lima#Climate, Accessed May, 2008 Wright R. Keneth, l (Virginia: American Society of Civi Engineers, 2000) Wright R. Keneth, (Virginia: American Society of Civil engineers, 2006) Yu, Kongjian and Padua, Maria, (Australia: The Images Publishing Group Pty Ltd, 2006) Zolezzi,Mario and Tokeshi Juan, (Lima: Centro de Extudios y Promocion del Desarrollo, 2005)