USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Sedimentological characteristics and 3-D internal architecture of washover deposits from Hurricanes Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Sedimentological characteristics and 3-D internal architecture of washover deposits from Hurricanes Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Horwitz, Mark H
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Overwash
Storm deposits
Storm induced morphological change
Sedimentary architecture
Ground penetrating radar (GPR)
Dissertations, Academic -- Geology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Extensive overwash occurred along Florida's Atlantic and northern Gulf facing barrier islands during the passages of Hurricanes Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne in 2004. These high-energy storm events provided a unique opportunity to study the spatial depositional patterns and internal sedimentary architecture of fresh washover deposits resulting from inundation to collision regime overwash events. Sedimentological characteristics and 3-D internal architecture of the washover deposits were studied through coring, trenching, sediment analysis, ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys, and pre- and post-storm aerial photography and LiDAR topographic survey data. The cross-shore extent of washover deposition is controlled by sediment supply, accommodation space, and the extent of cross-shore penetration of overwash flow. Antecedent morphology of the beach or barrier island is the primary factor governing sediment supply and accommodation space.Antecedent morphology coupled with spatio-temporal factors including storm position, intensity, and duration govern the extent of landward excursion of overwash flow. Washover deposition ranges from thin deposits, limited in cross-shore extent to the beach berm, to extensive sheet-like sediment bodies extending across an entire barrier island profile. Four sedimentary facies are recognized, which can be related to antecedent morphology. Berm facies, dominates the beach and seaward side of the foredune, and is characterized by a basal erosional surface and seaward dipping planar stratification. Back-berm facies extends landward from the dune crest down the backside of the foredune, exhibits little evidence of erosion along the basal contact, and is dominated by landward inclined stratification.Platform facies, largely confined to the interior platform, exhibits little evidence of erosion along the pre-storm surface, and horizontal to gently landward dipping parallel stratification, which merges landward with, and commonly overlies steeply landward dipping foreset stratification. Antecedent hummocky dunes may be preserved within platform facies. The landward most facies, backbay facies is dominated by subaqueous deposition within the back bay, and is characterized by steeply landward dipping tabular foreset and sigmoidal stratification. In the longshore direction, backbay facies exhibit trough and mound GPR reflective patterns, representing washover sediment ridges and troughs oriented parallel to the primary flow direction, and illustrate the highly 3-dimesional nature of the washover deposits.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Mark H. Horwitz.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 116 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002006009
oclc - 370727362
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002713
usfldc handle - e14.2713
System ID:
SFS0027030:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

nrnrrrrn r rrrrr "r#$%& rrnnnn "r r(n! nnr )!nr "r*+,+r+$$ rr-+$$ +.$/r+$$ rrn, 0 12334 -!%,%r nrnrr! rrrr5(+67r rnn! 8!2334"r#$%&

PAGE 2

9r n : r 1 +6r ; !r 1; rrr9 2 rr 2 rr 2; rr 2< "n! 1 6n == (rn+ == rrr => +# => ?n.r =@ .rn!+r# =< (rr ;= :n:r# ;> rnr !(+r 6rr;< @3 n @> 6 @< 44 AB: 44

PAGE 3

: 1rrr%nr %!!rr nrnrr!nrr $ 2rnrr%rn! rrn r!rr%n %rn !$ 4 !rrnrr%nr rr %r !$ 1> =rn!%rrr 0. !=133<$1@ ;233=rrnr::r.( !$14 >rn!%rrr 0. !=23<$1< @9!rn rr& nr r nr$ 21 4r%rrnn r r$ 2= <"r% rr nnn rr$ 2> 13r%rrnn r r$ 2@ 11rnrrrrr %r 1;233=$ 2@ 12"r% r %rr#rr %rr$ 24 1r%rrnn r r$ 3

PAGE 4

1="r% rr nnn rr$ 3 1;+r%nr(+ 6!$; 1>?Arnrrnnr n.+ !$ 4 1@+rrrnr +!rr% nr(+6rr$< 14+rrnr?(!r r%nr /(+6rrr$ =3 1<+rrrnr .+!rr% nr(+6rrr $=1 23+rrrnr ::!rr% nr(+6r$ =2 21+rrrnr .(!rr% nr(+6rr$= 22+r rr nr!rr$ =; 2?(?(r?(. n$=4 2=+rArrr?( $=< 2;.+.+r.+. n$;1 2>+rArrrn r r .+$ ; 2@+rr.+$; 24.(.(.(r.( n$;> 2<+rrnnr n::$;4 3+rr(+ 6nnn r?($ >3

PAGE 5

1:rn(+6n921nnr ?($>1 2:rn(+6n9;nnr ::$> (+6nnnr:: !rr$>= =:rn%(+6n +!rr$>> ;9r%(+6n +!rr$>@ >(+6n.+!r r$><

PAGE 6

:9r n 9r n1rr!$29r n2nrrr n$2 9r nrrnr&rrrr rr nr!rr$ =; 9r n=r#rnrrr ?(!rr r:6r rr$=4 9r n;r#rnrrr .+!rr r:6r rr$;3

PAGE 7

nrnrrrrn rrrr rr "r#$%& .969 ?A%rrnnrCnr r(n r rnrrr rrrrr 233=$9!r '!! rrnrnrrrn r!r%r nrnn %r$ nrnrrrrnr %r % rrn! rrr5(+67!rr rrnr!r :6r!rr$ 9A%r nn !n! rrrrA r%rn%$ n! r rnr r!r n!rrrr$ n!n%r rnrn !rrA nr%rA%rn%$r r nA r An# Arr rnrn$

PAGE 8

r!rr&%r nrr n!$.rr rr r%rr rr& !r rrnrnrrr% rnrrrr$ .r# rAnr%r % r# A nnrn rrnrrr nr%rnrr$+nrr nrn!nr A nnrn rr&rnn! nr%rrrnnnrr% nr%r%rn! nn!nr%rr r$#! r! %nrr$9nr%r r r# r!r r r'% r# r!rrr& !n! nr%rr nrrrnr r$n r# r!rA r(+6n r%r rrrnnn r!n%rnnr n!rnr%r $

PAGE 9

1 096/)9/0 0%rnrrn nr !%%r rr!rrr rr rr rnrn$/%r %%rnn nrr r r n% r $9nr%r nnr!rnn! r% $9!n rnr%nn r rnrnr r%r 5%r&1<@;7$)A%r rA%nn r# r!nnr%r rr rnrnn56 r+nr1<4;D.!r(1<4@7$+rnrrr 5%r7r rnn!nrrn5 759r n17%r& !rrrrnn nr r %rrn$9rn% r rrnn!nr! r nrrrr%%#%nr!r rn Anr%rrr $ nrn rnn523337nr rrnnrr nrrrnr%r nn5rr7

PAGE 10

2 r517$.r nr %n rr5rA Enr7rn%5nr r# rE r7rnErr65 rAnr r7r6n%5 nrr7rnn5 23337 rr&r%r nrA %rA$9rnnnr ,517%r 56Fn%7%nr%rA%rn n% r E 527nn5n%F6F7%rrr#r57 %r56G7rnr%rA%rr r5=7r56n%G7!nrn rn rr r# r!%r$ 9r n1$rrrn$ nr nrr !"#$#$%&%" "!!'#'!%$&%"'$ !$&# #"'"&%! %!& &#&" &#"""%#% $ (&"()&#(%($

PAGE 11

1$r%nr % nr%rnn rr rrn!5r rnn23337$ 9r n!rrnrAr r%r nrrn !rrrn r r$(nrnn rrr#nr%rrn &nrrnrn%r rrr r!r rrr &r'r! nrrnrn!rnn%n! r nr%rrnn! nr n%rr$n rnn!

PAGE 12

= rnrn!!rrn rr5$$ nr%rr rr nrnr7r n!rn!rr nrrrn rnrrrn r5#233>Dn! 233@7$nr n%rrnrn!n r1rn rnnrnr.?5:r r-r233;7 %%rr @3Hr 5#rn$233@7$ 9!Arr%r nrrn nr(nrnrr%%% rrnrnr rnrr r$9 nrnr r!'n r rrn!*%rr r!rrrn r!rr :65nr r7r!rr %rn rnr%r $9rrrAr% Anr !!rrr%r $9n%n nn nr%nnrrrrn rrrr rrrrnr r r$

PAGE 13

; +6?I/)6??6 9Arnn %rr %rr rn!r rrnnrr n$.51<@>7 %51<@37 n n!rrnnr rr%rn% nrr'r%rnrr r!rr r nr$n% 5$$r 7 %r rr /r+n #5.r%rr! 1<4;7$.rnnrn51<>@7 r rn n%n%r 9Arr%%r r n nr-!rr rr1<>3$ r! rr#51<@<7nr%rnr r r%r+nr' r%rrr nr$ 6nrn!!%rrn9Ar (nrr r r 1=rr1@33!.+5 %1<>@7$ ?rn!r%rn %r J%rnrKrn9Arr5 1<1<7r J%rK%r r# r rnr 5: #1<<7$nArn!rrn 9Ar(nr+ 51<=@7 n n rrnnnr!nr!

PAGE 14

> *%%r%r rrn9Ar(nr$ 0rrnrn!nrn!'r nrrn%%r rn9Arrr nr5+1<;4D.rr 1<;=7$ 6rr%rr%r rnrnr 1<>3C%r!rr &nrnr nrnrr%r $" rnnr %%r r rnn%!r rrn r$'n! rn!nrnAr r%rr! rn%n! rnrrn rnnrr5r!1<>@D %r&1<@;D:rrrn$1<@@D"1< @47r9Ar5r!r 1<>=Dr!1<>@Drn$1<>@D%1<>@ D%1<@3D"1<@47 :rr56r+nr1<44 rnr (nr5rr-1<4;D rrn$1<4<7r%nnrrnrn rrr+'n:r# ?5%r&1<427$nrrn rr!r n!rr rnrr rnrr%rn% n%r%r A r r!5%r&1<427$ rn$51<>@7%nr rr.nr51<>@7rn9 Arr nn r+rnrr nrn!537% rn r%rrrr& rn&rnrrnnnnrr$ r53$>3$47!n%n %rrrn9Ar

PAGE 15

@ (nr%51<@37rr&%r r nn r3$34B3$=#rnn!r& rnn!nrrr &%rr!r,517 r!rnrr rrnn% rrnrn%Ar %rrr527 r!rrr %rn !rnr2 r r!rnrnr% rrnr%r rn$?Ar%rr JrK% rn/.r#0rnr%r&51< @;7 %! rr,517&rnn! rrnnn rrnnnrrr527nr rr&rr& rnrrArn 5rn#7rnrrr rrn$ r% r%rrn +rnrr:r#? rn%r&51<427Ar nn% %n%r rnrn %nnrnrr n#n!$ .rrn!%r&51<427 &%r rnr!nr r!r r527n,517r rrn%5r7 r&rnn!nr%r rrnnn rrnnn rr527rr %r5$$%rn rnr r# r!7n!nr% r5rn7 nrrrr57% %rrn rr%r!nn r r%rrr

PAGE 16

4 n% n%n % 5$$ r!nnrrrn7$ "51<@47r%r&51<427 rnnrrrnnrn rr!% %r$ 2$rrr%%r n!rrnr! rr%n% rn!5%r&1<427$

PAGE 17

< %rrnrn!n rn %rrrr A%r %r %rnr nrrnn!rnnrnn! rrrn% r rnrrAr '$rrr rrnr %rn,517r r rnrr rr#r r!n! r5 %1<@3D%r&1<@;7527 rnrnrrn r5rn$1<>@D %1<@3D%#rr233D%&r r233@757 nrnrA r5%r&1<42Dr r%&233@75=7rr n5#! 7%%r 5%1<@37r5;7r 5% 1<@3%r&1<@;D1<427 .rrn rrnrrr nArn rrnrr $"51<@47 rr%rn%rr .nrrr9Ar nrnrrnnrnr$ n%r r,517r rr r#nr rr527 rnr !r*%rrn% n%rnnr nr%rrr%rrrr% rAnn rnrrrnn57rnrn% % rnrrrnnn%rrn !rr rrrnnnnr 5=7n%r r#

PAGE 18

13 nrrnrr*%rrn$ r r rrn%r nr rnrn rnn%%rn! rnn%$% r&51<427rr nrr! n%r5nr r7rrr%r!5$$ !rr7$"r! rn!r &rnrr %%rnr n%r%r5r7r rn% n%rnr nr JnrKrr n%n%5rn$1<>@ D%1<@3D"1<@4D %r&1<427$)rr n!An !r %rn%r!! r rrnn$ :rr51<@>1<@@7%# rrnr "r!nrrn%JrK rnr r!!r %rn%$ rrn!rnr r%r nr%rrnr rArrn 1$>Errr$4 % n%rr3$1;$ rr==3 121%r 5 7$?n!nrnr ':rr51<@@7 rrrrrnrr 1<@=rn$ "rn%r r rrA%r

PAGE 19

11 n2$;Er3$r r1$"r1<@; rnr%rn:rr51<@ @7rn rn!r"r".! rnnr rrrn%rr rrrn$n%n! r%r%rr rn!n rrnr3$>2$=E %rrrrn! 1$<;E5:rr1<@@7$n%r r3$341$2n! rnn !rD %r12313 %r5:rr1<@@7$ rnnr 6!n %nrrn n! nn%% r3$>1$15:rr 1<@@7$r:rr 51<@@7nA r6r51<>17r nrr rn%'rn %3$r3$4r r !nrn!%r#n%r rr% rnn% n%n%$n rn r :rr51<@@7nr& rnn!rrrn Arn%rrr rrnr %rA%r r$6r A%rrrn rr nn% rr%r rn rr5rr%&233@7$" n r %r!!rr !"rr rn$5233@7.rrnr nr+rn% n%nr3$<

PAGE 20

12 r;$@E%'nn! %2$;$3En% rrr !: rr51<@>1<@@7$ nnnr r!rn! rrr n!r %rr% rrr rnr r $ %rrr 5? rn$233@7$9r!rnrn r %rr r%rn%rrr rn$r nr r!rnn! nr%r rrnr n !nn%r rrn rrnrn %r$0%!nnn %#rrn n5+rrn$23317 r rnnn% 5nArrn$23317rnrrnr rrn%5. r.1<<21<<@7rr r n%%r5LrL233>7$ nr*!n r r!n rr r%r!rn rn! rArr nr!rnn !nrr#nrrnA$ rnn rr*%nrr nn5$$rnnrr 7$%% Arnrr!n%r r%r rnrrnr% %rr%r

PAGE 21

1 rrrrA #nr 5rrn$233>7$ rrnrrr r rnnrn %rr% %rr %rr rrr& rr rnr rrrnrn$ rr51<<<7Arr12#n rnrrn %nr+rrnrr& rnr !r rrnn5% rnrnr rr7rr rnrn5!r7$" 523327rrrn! rnrnr rrrr rr nrr(nr!nrr%# rnnnrr nrn rr r nr$rr%&5233@7 Arrnrrnrr rnrn%r rr%nnrr nrr233=$9 nrrnrr nAr % nrr% rrnn nnr%r r%r$ nn%rr%r r rn!rnrrr !!rr n rrrnrrnr! 5rnn23337$ 9nrnrrrr r :65nrr r7!5:nn!rn$1<<>D&r rn$2333D&nnrn$233D

PAGE 22

1= nn!rrnn233@7rn& %r!n r'r$0%nn nrrnrr5 7 n!r nn rn!5(+7r rrr5(+67 !'rrn!Ar rrnrnrrnn$9 rr*%rn!rrnr n %n#rr n rrn&nrn rnrrrr%r! nrrn!rnn% *nr%r r%r5rn$1<< >Dnn!rn$233;D:rrn$ 233;Dnn!rrnn233@7$ 9An!r233=nrrr rAnn !Arnrnrr %r rrnrnrrrrr rrrrr r'rn!r !rn$r !r#rrr rrrr rr n!n% rnr rn%rrr r%rrn r !rnr$

PAGE 23

1; 9)L6? 233= rrnrrnnrn nrC(nrnrrr5 7$/ ;rr rr!25rrn7rnr rnn nrrnrr rnrrnn rCrrnr$/ 1>rrrr!rnr rnnrnrnr rr n!rnr+r rn rr rnr$ 9r!nr 2>rrrr!rnrrn n nrrrnn! rnrrrr %#rn$nn r!nn%rr %rr'! !%r rnr5rnn 23337$ "nn rnr!%nr n (nrnr r$!rr%n r,517 A!527r r!rr57nr rr rnr n!rrr r5=7 nnrr !r 5rnn23337$9 +rrnn+# 5+7?n.r5?(7r .rn!+r#5.+7rnn%rnr rr6rnr57$9

PAGE 24

1> $nrr%nrr r6rnr!5+M +#D?(M?nD.+M.rn!+r# 7rnr! 5::M:n:r#D.(M. (rr+r#7$/ %r !5 r7rr5nr7r% +rn.$A rnrrnnr >$nrrn:n:r#5::7r (rr+r#5.(7 %rnrnr57$ 9rrnnrrrnr rrArn!=3N 5%r7$nrr;# n rnrrrn rrnnrrn57$9n rr%3$22$3# r !$+nr r:n$9 rrnr3$4$+r#rrr51<44 23317n!%r

PAGE 25

1@ =$+r#rrrn!%r rr0. =133<1<442331$.! nr%$ r !0.50rrnrr.!7 r=133%nr r!'n!r%r <$ nrn#nrCnr rAn!n$ /%rrr%233=rr rrr nr%rr#nrn%n! $9!rrrnr rnn rrr & !;=3% r r%%nr %rn!r rrr5;7$:: rr% r!A

PAGE 26

14 r# r!Errrn%r%r!rrnnn rnr%r r 5;7$+ r n rrr:: =r.(rrnnnrnr rn!A;$ nr rnrn! r r/r %nr'r&$n 43rn!nrrrr/ r>;H%rrAr <;H$ ;$rnr::5nrn7r .(5rn7%r% rnnrA rEr% rr&n nr$0rnnnr# rn!nr%r rEr:: $ 9nrrn! rnr+rrnr n%!%rrrr !r rr% r nr$9nrr !n rnr r& r!rr%$9 rn%rrn rnr3$;5"r1<<27$9% +rrn rnrr n!r%rrrr;33 %rn!A% 1#$rnrr r%r

PAGE 27

1< rrnnnr rrnr!nr n!+nr5" r+233=7$/%rrn n !+n rnrr+rrn rnr% rrrn#n$9 %r rr nr' r rrnrn! r rnr%% r$/rnn n r % rn!A13$>r&r#rrrn!% r51<<; 23317r0.r=23 %$n r0.r=23<233# r! rrnrn%r%r r $ >$+r#rrrn!%r rr0. =23<1<<;2331$.! nr%$

PAGE 28

23 rnnr+rrn r nr!%nn rrnn!$/<4H 'r&r% @;Hr3$23$=5 rr1<<>7$rn r rrrn!A2H$" rr#r!rn rn!%3$1;3$3r &rr rnrr%%r $r#r! rnrr!%% r%%nrrr # nr!'r&r$ nn+rrn!rnr rnnrn! rr6rnr% nr+rrn r nrr$rr6rnr4;#nr % !+rnr +r%nr+rnr.r!rr !?r+r%nr r%r.r!$rr% r rAr rrr&nr! rr6rnr! rrr& !rr 5@7%n r!(n,517rr n%! r527n%n! rrrn%nr57 rnr nrr#! nr5=7r !nr% r!r%r%r% r # r$ 9+#5+7nr% rr6rnr rArn!@3#rrCnrrnn $+r%nrr +%r23rn!nn% rr rAnr50I7rrn rn!rrnr

PAGE 29

21 @$+rrrnr?(nn rr!rnnr rnrnr $ n, rr5.E7nrr #!n5+7 rrrn%nr5"E:7r nr r5"I7r r# r!5..7$ rArn!11$;50I7nr%n rn#! r2$;50 I7$ 9?n.r5?(7nrAr n!113#rrC nrrnnrnr;;3@33% rr6rnr$+r n!!rn%+r rn rnrr% @$+nr r;4 %nrnrr2$; rn#! 3$13%rn%nr rr$%nn nrr nrr 130Inr r# r$ 9.+nrrrr6r nr13#rrC nrrnnrnr=;3;33% nr$+rn! rr& !r r r# r%rAnr110Ir rnrr

PAGE 30

22 A r!n $+nr nrr3$;rn% nrrr2rn #!% nr$ rrrrrrn rnrnrn rrnnrrrnr5r rn$233>7$rr%r nnrA133# nrrnn%n r rE%rrrr r33#r$ 9rr6rnr!nnr rnr%r rnnrrr% +%rr nnrr.+$

PAGE 31

2 )660?I?09?/09/0 rr nrrn%rr r21233= rrrn%r. rrr =rr r!r rrr n57rr !14;B231 #E%$r%n!r% r#r rrnrr%r%r 4<$>#Er#nrrnn nr ;rrr!2r57 %rr%1>@#EA;> #!$ r#rrnr+ nrr r# (n"Ar+6!nrr# rnnrrnn >r $"r#6nrrrrn$ rrrrn %rr%r 0rrnrr.!50.7r=133
PAGE 32

2= # & $ #"# #&####&# #"# *r+, !"#! #%# #% %# % &%# &% #"# #&####&# #"# *r-. $%&' #%## #%# %## %# &%## &%# #"# #&####&# #"# *r-. 4$+nrA%r5rA7rr0. !=133
PAGE 33

2; rrrnrrr nrrnn%rnrr:r# nr>3#nrrnn %rrAnn 1$>5"::7%rrnrrn n5<7$0r '%rrrnrnnrCrr rrr r$"nr%r !nrr)! .rrrrn65.67r 2"n r %rrrrnrr: n$9.6n r%rr#nn !?"5233=7r9+ nnrrr%<$ n r?"5233=7 %rr#rrnrn! r%rr# nrr n $9rr!n r !%r !nr$.r rn rrrn$5233>7r %rr%rr;3H rnnr%rnn rr$.rrrr# rn$5233@7r%r 5%rr7r@2Hrnn r%rnnrC nrrnn$ rr / 2rn 233=rr rnr$/ A2= 9rnr$nn%r%n! rr r!;r5rrn7$/ 1nn%r Lrrrnr rr% r#(n"A %r#nn!r!=rrnn!r #nrrnn 1>rr

PAGE 34

2> <$"r% rrnrA nnrr%r r%nr:: r.(!5r r"rrr233;7$ r!rr(nnr rr rnrnr rr 57$9r%A% %rr$r rn%A=@;# %r r%rrr1@3#r%r !$?An!%r% rr0.%r !57 $?n nrrnn r%r571>%rr%r=2 3=3 %rrn!A%rrr#% r13 r nrrnn5137$r=23

PAGE 35

2@ /012"&#"# # # "# #&####&# #"# r+ /012"&# # # "# #&####&# #"# r+ /012"&# # # "# #&####&# #"# r+ 3 # & "# #&####&# #"# r -. /3 # & "# #&####&# #"# r -. # & "# #&####&# #"# r -. 13$r%r57rnn5nr"::7 rrrr$9rn %%rrrrn% rn%rnnr !rr%$ OrArnr rnn$ 11$rnrrr 1;233=5 rn7rr06:%rr5 n n7r0. !=23=35n7$:%rnrn %rnn %06:rr 1;$9n rn%rA1; 5 rrn$233;7$

PAGE 36

24 >$=%r13 nrrnn5 137$r0. %r !0rrn6r:r r!506:7 n!r%r r*0. !=23=35117 %rr>3 <3$/ 1;rrr06:rAnn23 2;%5rrn$233;75117$ /rnn%rrrnn !%rn! nrrnn$ 9An! %rnrrnn$rrr%rr rnrrr$+rnr rr%r2$1r "::rnn!A rr!r5137$Prnr 5%rn%r#nr nr7rnrnrr6r nr%rnr $;=5?"233=7$+rr r!.r r%r2$3r "::rn! =!rnrnr$ nnA1$;5"::7 135137$9 rnr r %rr#nn rn! !?"5?"233;7r %12$ 12$nr %5 nr"::7 r %rr#r nn !?"rn rrnn$

PAGE 37

2< rr nrrn%rr r @233= rr%9rn rrn%n! :%rnr 1=$r#rn%nrr!nn rr%n!r#r .rrrnr 2;$r%r1@$@#Err nrrnnrrr! r57 nr 2>r rnn!rnr%rr rrnrrnn%# rn$r%1<#EA @#! 5:r%rn$233;7$90rrnrr.!50.7r=1333#nrrnn %rrAnn 1$>5"::7%r% nr rnn517$%r rnr%r !nrr)! .rrrrn65.67r 2"n r %rrrrnrr: n$9.6n r9+nnrrr% 1=$

PAGE 38

3 1$+nnn5nr"::7 rrr rr9+5nrn7r :r#5rn7r$ OrAnr rnn$ 1=$"r% rrn rAnnrr %rr %nr::r.(!5 rr"rrr233;7$

PAGE 39

1 "?9//:/(L 9!rnrn!rn rnrnrr r$ nrrnn%rrnr 233=r"r 233;$rrrr r6rnrnr nn% 233=r%rr rrn r%rn %nr%rrnr r%r%nrn! $9nrr nnnnrnr !rnrrr r%rn% rn rr&$rrr rnr!rr :65n rrr7r!rr% An!rr& rnrnr$ nrnrr%r rn rnr $rn24%nn rrnr r'$9%n n !rrr@$> rrn rn rn%r$/nn! rrrnA r nrrr r rnrn%r$9rr *%n % nnrr n! 59r n27$rrnr A+rrn

PAGE 40

2 9r n2$6n rrrr n$n! !rn!rr%$ rrnn5&rn7 nrr%nnrrnnrrn nrr%rrr 5%rrrr!7r nr n(+5n rn !7$9rn(+!n&rn %rr 1Brn$%nr nrrnnr nr r!%!% rnn%rrnn! nrrn5nnnrn A7$rn%r 43.r 3 5 33r3 /6 7 &%## &&%""5 '%## /6 / &%'# %!#5 %&# /6 &!%## &&%&5 %#! /6 8 %## &%'!5 '"%$ /6 9 &$%## &%5 $&%' /6 : !%# &%#'5 '%' /6 6 #'%## &#% #5 %## /6 + %"# &$%'5 %' /6 ; #%$# &%'#5 !%## /6 < '"%# &% !5 $&%# /6 = #%'# & %&'5 !%'# /7&'%##"%$'5"$%## //&!%## %#5"'%## /!%##&%# 5 %## /+"'%## %'5'%## 96 7 #%## % 5 &&%## 96 / %## "%5 #'%## 96 #$%# %& 5 &$%## 96 8 !%## %&5 $%## 96 9 '%## "%&5 &%## 96 : '$%## %$5 %## 96 6 &%## %!5 "%## :7 "%##&%5"%## :/#%# %5!"%## :"%## %'5'$%## :8&$%## %5"$%## :9 %## %#!5!'%## :: #%## % 5#%##

PAGE 41

!rnB= nn!r r n% r!$r% #nr!% rn%nnr1323 rnrnn$ (r&rrn!%r !r#r@3< 3rrnrrr# r%rnr3$2;rn $(r&rr% 111rn 5r+* 1<47$!nr5n7%rn !233rrn 'r!rnr r$r nrrn!%r Arnr $/r!rn rr%rnn! r!rr 5(!r1<4@7$9r!&rr nrnn %Arr%r Arrnr r%r rrnr$9 A% nr!%rr n% %r$r r%rn, 517nrr Ar527rr rn!nr! rnrr r57 rr r% !nn% %rrEA r5=7r nrr rrnrnr5;7 rnrnnr!rn r$9%r#r rnn$ nrrrnr n rn nrnrrnr nrr

PAGE 42

= nnrnrrn r$Arrrn rrrr5(+67!% r!$ (+6%n!*%rn r rn!Arrrnr!nr rnrn r!rrrnr! rrnrrnr! rrr nn rrnn$(+6r r!rn'%n& '!nr5rr7 %rrrn rrrn$ r nnr!5$ $Ar!7 n! n r# r% rrr$(+6r rnr n!nrrn %A%rr'rrn n%r'rrnr rrr!rrnn% rr!5nrn$1<<>23327$ 0rnrn$52337n!(+6Arr nrr!% r !nrrnn!An & %rnr!$rn rrn(+6 r rnrn$51<447rrr r51<4<7$0rrn rnr(+6 nrnrrrnr n nr5$$nrn$1<<>D0rnr6 2331D.%rn233Dnr .%233D%rrn$233D"Qnnr !233D0rnrn$233DIr rrn$233D0rn233=D.%r+nn 233>7$ 9(+6nnr !%r !nr.%52337$(+6 !%r

PAGE 43

; !n;$>n#n(+6n rr$9rr%nnr r%r0rr'% r2;3"&rrr133I r$9rrrr%nn %rr rrAr3$r3$3;& $(+6r%! nrn#rr!%rrnn r nrrnn!r rr*%r n(+$9r %rr*rrnr 5 1;7$9(+6rr%r %r?--/I%%r 1;$+r%!rn Arrr ?(rnn(+6rrr*r %rnn$ rrr%n %%rrnr rrnn233$rrn rnrnnn'rnn!r rrn%rn nr rnr!$9r!%r rn!nr Ar:6rrr$r rrr%r

PAGE 44

> nr!rnrrn r$rnrnn3$12E rrrr3$3>E rr%! n 5r %r233>7rr%nn%n!r n nr5rrr1<4<7$rr% n!rnrrr rrrr!50rnrn$ 2337$6rrrn &n%rr rrrr#rn rnn!rrrrr rr'rnr rrr&rnrr r$ rrnn!2rnr rnrr r%r n ?6(rICnr%r nrn!$ rr6rnrr5n"r!2 33=7rnnrn 'r'rrn5/PP7r% r nrr ?rn+:r.r!r !5:.07$+ rrnr!nn :r.r!! 9rn?A5:.9R7r rn!0 233=n % r+r.+rr6r nrr ?6(%r$rrr'r rrn nrnrn r rrrrnD% rrnn!rn r rnr%r %r rr!r$0233= rr%rrnr n ?($nr rr5 r!1<<<7r

PAGE 45

@ r5 233=7rnn/PPr% r:.0$9% rnrr rrrr6r nr!rrr% 1>1@r14rnr !rr11 %r%nr#rrn rn.+5 1>7$9rr%r rrnnr n5?"7!rr$Arnr rr?"r %1>$n r: 6rr! n%r n !rrr nn *$9%rrn&rn rr6rnr% rr!rr r%rr!rrn#n! n%rr$%r: 6nr% r nrrrr $

PAGE 46

4 1>$?Arn?"n233=5rn7 r0 233= 5 7.+!$0>1% rr n233=rr$

PAGE 47

< 1@$+5n233=7rr50 233=7rrnr +!%(+6rr nr$Ar %%rr6rnr rnr+! %r $

PAGE 48

=3 14$+r5n233=7rrnr ?(!%(+6r rnr$Ar%rr 6rnrrnr?(! % n%$

PAGE 49

=1 1<$+5n233=7rr50 233=7rrnr .+!%(+6rr nr$A "r%rrr6rnr rnr.+! % r$

PAGE 50

=2 23$+5 r!1<<<7r 5 233=7rrnr nr::!% (+6rnr$A r%nr! % n%rn$

PAGE 51

= 21$+5 r!1<<<7r 5 233=7rrnr nr.(!% (+6rr nr$Ar% nr!% r$

PAGE 52

== 6?):9 9r! *!%rAr r!r %rrr nrn!rnr nrnrr r$n!rnr rrrrnr rnrrnnrr r nn# r n % (+6nrrr!r !r$ 6rr nnrJK (+6rr%rr n !nrn! rnr%r rr$r!r %%rnr%n n%(+6nr$ (rn+ 9r!rn5r& A7%r rrr6rnr567! rrnn! rnr57! $r6 %nnrrn! 'r&r522D9r n7$ n136rn!nr/r3$2;$> %rrr2$=$"r r#r!rn5"7 nnrn#!r&r n5r1<@7r 'r r%1$@;2$@;53$ 1;B3$37r&r$9 "r13 !%% r!nr!nrrr

PAGE 53

=; 22$+r523Ar r7!rnrr6rnr %r5nrn7r nr5rn7$ 0r!rr! r#r!rnr rr6rnr$ "r(r&571$;1 "r(r&57 3$; rrr3$;3 #%3$4= ->$@< rr/2$;H H(rn3$11 Hr<<$4@ Hn3$31; Hnr!3 "r(r&573$; "r(r&573$>< rrr1$2 #%3$@> -$= rr/ >@$=4H H(rn1=$3; Hr4;$4= Hn3$13 Hnr!3 9r n$rrnr&rrr rrr6rnr%r 5nrn7rnr 5rn7$

PAGE 54

=> rrr%#% r n!r "nr!rnrr$r6%r%r n! !r%r r rnrn&59r n7$ 9rn! # r nrnrn! %#+n'n n rrrr %An!rnnrCrn nrr5+r#r# 1<==7$n=@%rrn! nr/r 21<;%rrr>4r /$r'r& rr#rn% rrr#n rn"$+ rrr nrn!rr rr& r nr$/r rn rrn!r2B2=H %%rrr11 rrrn !Arn$ rrr +#5+7 9+%rrrr r$rr $;0I%nn!$%r% nrr 1$;0I rr!$9 nr%rnnr nrr 10Ir r# r!n r %;3r123 nr%r$A%nnr5 1@7$+ +? rn!r %3$1; rrnn nr n%r

PAGE 55

=@ nrrArn!10I$+%r nr>3nr%r r!n$+r r1$;# %r A rr$ ?n.r5?(7 "r%rr#5?"233=7r nrr rr$;0(Ir ?(%nr r$9r nnr r # rrnrn! rnn%D% A nrrnrrn$(rnn! % nrA;$9%r rn6r nrrnn!An# rr%rr$ %nnr?(5147$?( ?(.?(r?((% nn%nr !nrnr %r%nr rn%nr rrr$% 9r n=%r#r3$>1$2 ?(?(.?(r ?(($9r %r?(r?( ?rnnn rArn n%rnr rArn!1$42$20I$93$4%r ?( rnnnr r :6r!r r%rnnrrrn %%rnr2$3 0I$92$40Inr ?(nr%nn% #%r$

PAGE 56

=4 9r n=$?(rn r%r#r nrnA$? rnrnr$ 0rrnr n% rnr%n rnrn#n!rr%:6 rnr nrr n(+n! n%#$ 2$?(5nrn7r?(.5 rn7%r& n$% rr %r$ .9.3 n13 ;rr 967%'%'&#%"'#%'#%" 96/#%$'%!#%!#%'#% 96%"% #%!#%!#%# 968&% "&%$#%'##%' 969%$$%$ #%###%# 96:&%#&%$#%$#%$# 966%&$&%&'#%$%&#%&&

PAGE 57

=< rn%r?( ?(.%rr rnr rnnrr n!%%r %rnr!%rr5 27$?(r?( %rrr %nn rnrrn %rr& $?((rn r3$=#n %rnr!n!r3$4rnn rr$/rnn nnrnrn5nr%r7r %rA n rr%nnn rn%rA nnrr$ 2=$9Arr r?($0n rrrn rrrn r %r$rnnr?( %rArrr rn5nr%r7r%r 5147$9Ar 1$1#%r rr& nrrr

PAGE 58

;3 rrrrrrn1>S$n rrA %rn!5 2=7rr r r%rrrrnr# %r$ .rn!+r#5.+7 r+r?(%%r rnrn! rr.+%rnn% r %%nr13 $'n! n!%rr .+r#rn n#r r r%r rn!rr&+r?( $r %r!=; nn! rnrn!nr% rn&n%r$?"5233=7 rr%rr#rrr nrrnr6 %22$;51<7$ nrnrr.+ rnn!n n%20Ir% r !rnnnr%r nnn#n!rn%n! .+%n%nr! rBr rrn$9r n;$.+rn r%r#r rnA$? rnrnr$ 0rrnr n% rnr%n rnrn#n!rr%:6 rnr nrr n(+n! n%#$ . 9. 3 n1 3 ;rr /7&%# &%'#% #%"&#%& //%!$&%"#%!#%$#% /%%"#% #%##% /+#%'%!%#%##%#"

PAGE 59

;1 2;$.+5nrn7r.+.5 rn7%r& n$% rr%r$ 9rnr!r3$4.+ nr% %rr n$%nnr.+ 51<7$.+r .+.%nr%r %%nr $r #%rnr3$=23$ ;459r n;7%%r A &rn &rnnr rrrr "nr!rnrr52;7$9%r rn! .+r.+.%r!%A rr" %r%r %r rrn%rn#n! rrr/rn1<<;$

PAGE 60

;2 :6Arnr*% rrrnn %rn&& n% rnrrr3$ n$nr%rr.+. %rr n% nrr$ .+r.+%nn nrrrrnr %rn $r #%r3$;35.+ 71$3;5.+7$r r%r%rr# !rr r rr r r%r $r!% %rrnrnrn % r !# %n &rnn!n"nr!rn rr$9%r r#r n!r$%Arrr.+$9% Arr r rnr3$233$#%r 5r %r7rr& !&rnn!r %rnrrrr r !"nr!rnrr5 2>7$r%r r%r%rr# !rr r%r %r!rn!nn% % r$ Arr r# rr rrnr n rnrrrr% 52>7$9 %2@%rArr %rrrrn r.+%rn $9A r3$=B#r%rnr! rr& !nr%rrrnnn # r nrrrrr nr"$ r nrn

PAGE 61

; 2>$.%rA Arr r r .+$+nrnr% r$9%r rrn rr# !r r% nnrrrrn!nn% % r5r%7$9 rn%rArr r# rr r %rnr nrn r n5r%7$ 9rr r%r$9rn$ 2@$9Arrr.+r rrnr %rn $9rn rrn r $

PAGE 62

;= nr%rr!rA%r r r%r $9%r% 2@rrr rrnn #!$ (rr5.(7 /%Arr% rrn !JK:6 rrr!%r nrn!nr nrr& rrnrr rr$%:6nrrr %r rrrrrrr n rrnr$ r nrr=0 Ir?"5233=7 %rr#r1$>5r7r2$2 0I5r7! .(%rrrr%r n#n!nn%rn %rr%r $(r%r rrArn!133nr%r rr.( n#n!r%rrr r.( r$9%rr .(A %rr n#nrr %%rn%$9 rn#%nAn nr%r r rn!Ar;3 r$ ?n%nnr.( 5217$/% rrrrn rnrrr%r $% r!% r

PAGE 63

;; r& r nr rrr%r5247$ 9 r#!nn% % #! %rr rrnrrrnr nr $/r %r&r2 2; rn rrn!$9n% n!r!nn% %n!nr!!rnr!$9n! rrr%r % rnr%rr r!r # rnnnrrnrr' r&r#r!$ 9%rA rnr rA5247$ 6rArrr %r rEnrrr%nrnrAr r r%rrrn$9A rnrrr! r nrrrnrr rrr %r nr 5247rE nn% r%r rn %!rr$rr%r #r# 3$=1$2r%rrn# nr%r%nr%r #%rr3$23$; 4r%r rrrrr r$9# r%rr! Anr !n n!rrr r %%Ar !%rr%r rrr r%#rn$

PAGE 64

;> 24$nrr&rrn! .(5nrn7r.( 5rn7%rnrA5.( 7rr5.(7$ r! nr#nr % r57rr5n%7 %r$9rn%.($0 r r %3$> r3$<;r % r5r#r7 % 3$;@r1$;$nr% 21$ :nnr#5::7 +n!::r% 23%rrr& rr% r r# !rr rrrnnnr$ n r# r%rnrn!r $ nn%rrr rrrnrnr r 3 rr:6 r?"::$r rrrrnn! nnnrr%rn r%nrrnr 3$30I$ '%r rrrrnn!

PAGE 65

;@ rn r %rn 52<7$9 rr%rn n % 3$<;r1$30I rr#rArn!1$.% rrn n#n$n %rr ::D% rn r r% rrr.($ rnr !(+r 6rr (rrr5(+67!% r6 r::$9rr.(!n rrnrrn#n! rnn% r#%rn(+6rr nn$6 rnrrr2r1r: :$(rnrnn 3$121rrrr3$3>1rrrrr nr'r%rn51<@@ 7nnrr3$12 r %rr nr3$3> n%$/rnnr r'rn!%rrn %rrrnrnr !%%r $9(+6nrrrn rrr r!$r!r rnrn!r6%rn rn!A# %rr! %%r%n! n$% rnr rr! !! nr%rnn%Ar nrnr$ r n ;$>n#n(+6n

PAGE 66

;4 2<$+r?"C:: $9nrn% n!$9r nrrnr% nnr$9 rnr?"r nr%nnnr !r rr%r$9 rn!nn%r nn%n% rn$0%rn n$nnrnr rrnArrnA>$ nnrnr n nnrrrn %%r$ ((+6rr%rrn nr r!r r nr%(+6 r$3%r?(r r$9%rArr

PAGE 67

;< rnr%rrnr%r 5147$ rr%rArr 1%rnrr rr& !n%rn51>S7rr 5nr%r7 rnrr$ 1n(+6n r r%r !r&rn &rnn r!nr nn! % 3$@;r1$rnnrr r& rrnnn nr%rnrnrrnnn rrnn!%nrn% r!$9nnr%nn% r!rr rnrn! rrnnr %rrrn rnr%r$nr nr% rn r921517%(+6r !r?(5 147$95nr%r7921nn r rrnnn nr%rnr%nr n% r!$9 nrnrr%r&rn n!nr%rrrnnn rrnnnn$rn rnn5;B13%7A nrrnn% r!r nr%rnnr rnr$9rnn rrn#n! #! n%%r$ Ar%r 921nnrrr rnn%r $+r!rnn nr%nn%n% r!Arnr%r% rrr %r$9nrn rnr

PAGE 68

>3 3$9rr?($ )rn% r%(+6n$+rn.rn r%$9 nr# A rn.%% rn$

PAGE 69

>1 .r#.r! (n 1$(+6r921nnr?( $9rn%r%(+6nrr rn%rn% nrnr !5n7r r %r rrnr 5 n7$9rnnAn rrn r5r%7nr%#! r! +#!

PAGE 70

>2 nrnr%r nr!rrrrn r%rnn%r n!nr rn r$9&rn &rn nr &rnn!rnr!n#n! n%rr % rrnr$9r!r%r %r r' %rArrr+% ;3133 r# r!n rrrn%r rr$ nn#n!rr rnrnnrr ::rrrrr %r% nrr::rnr! Ar r' %r$9n%2 r23nnrn5 7rrr%r r::$9r nnnr&rn &rnnr%r nrnr%r n&rn rrnn%r r% rrnr$ 9&rnnrnrnr%r n!n! rnn nr nr $rnrr n%3 0Ir::n% r!nn n $%r(+6 nr::%rn $ nnrnnnnr &rnnrrnrnrnr%r rnnrnnn r rn#

PAGE 71

> rr& !r rnnn rrnnn&rn rrrnrAn $.rn nrrnn#rr r%rr n$ 2$6r%rrrnr% (+6r9;r23n nrnrnnr::6 nn%rn nr nn%r r n5rnrBrn rnnrnr0I7$ :r

PAGE 72

>= $rrnrnrr (+6nnnr:: $9rn%r%nrrr n%rnn n5rnrBrnrn nrnr0I7$% rnrnr/rr r# r!$ r%r :r

PAGE 73

>; +nrn57(+6 r!rrn!133 %r r' r%nnr r# r! n$:rnrrnn rrr& nr%rrnn n r nrrnrrr nr%rrr5=7$ 9n!nrnrr%r &rn &rn nr%rn &rnrrnnnnr!$ rr5rrnnn7(+6 nnnr rr rrn! rrrr r#r% r%r rrnr! n$9r rAr%r r# r!nrr rArn!123 $9r#rr rr& !rn Anrrnr nrrnn! n'rr rnnrnn! %r#r$(+6nr rnr rrnr%nr n'nA r*rr#r$9! n rr r nrrrnn %rnrrEnr r !nr%n A$ 9n!%rr.+ nrrnr 6n n#%!51<7nr ::%rn $.r !.+%rn rr n%

PAGE 74

>> 13 13=$(+6r+ %nrnr$) rnr%(+6nrrrn%rnn n$6n rnr!r !nn%n r$9%n#r%(n "Arr r# r!n$ + r# r!n

PAGE 75

>@ ;$(+6r+ %rr$)rnr%(+6 nrrrn%rn nn$6n rnr!r nn r$0 r%rnr $9%n#%r(n "A$

PAGE 76

>4 rr %%nr$9r9 @5nr%rr7r94 5r%rr7A r %51<7rn! r rrnr%rn%5 >7$6nr rr&%r.+(+6n 9@r94rrn! rrnnn rrnnn94r rrnnn n'rrnnn9@$6nr 9@nr%rr rrn%$.r r!r rrn rnn rnn9@$% rr rrnr 94$9 rrn rr94rA% nn n%r rrnrrArn!1$0I rArn!3$< n% nrr$0%r nr%rr9@ %nrrrr& nrr nrrr&rnn!nr%r rn %rn %nr%r nrrn %rn $n .+r9;%rn! rArr %nrnrr%rrr rr%rrn%r r%rrrrr n! n%r rr%rr94% n%r rrnnnrr%r $9nrr %r%rrr Arr r r.+52>7$

PAGE 77

>< >$.+(+6r9@r94 5r7r9;5nrn7$ 9rn%r%(+6nrn %rn% n%nrn r nn rrn r!$ (n"A 94 9@ 9;

PAGE 78

@3 )/0 9r!r!r % %r nnrnArr n %rr%r $nn!r rn!nr! %rn nrr% rrnr %r%n r #! r%rrr$9 %rnr rrrrnrnn!% !rr! n!$9 r rrr nr nr%r $n rrr! r rrn! n r r*! rn r%rrr%r$ n!rn %rnrn& rrnr rnn% %rnnrnnr! !r rrrr n!nn%r$ rnr! rrrnn!r5$$ r r7 %nr*rrrrr r

PAGE 79

@1 nn$9 n rrnr%r rnr$ rr%nn !n r % rnr5@7 nrn!nr!rrn %rr$9%nnnnrr +%r r$9n!+ %rrr& !rnrn! nrn%rnr%nrr 1B20I (nr !n%250I7 $9rnn nrrnnrrr Anr%!nn %r r r n%rn Ann! r# r! r$r r# r! !n%r#rr2 # rr! !$nrr nr rn r+%nrrnr rArn!10Ir rA!%rnn5. r# r23317r# nnr+r$;r !?" 5233=7$9r %%rnn % %1r$; 0Irr!r r r rr rrr%#r %r %rrr$9n! rrr! rrnrn!nr!&rnn !r%rn! n!nrr$9 rnrn

PAGE 80

@2 rr&rnrr rrnrr r$ 9n!%r r !rrr rn r.+r:: nrrnn!A%rr !r.(?(r+$/ nn rr nr%rn%$ rn% rn! %nrn! r%r $.+r n%%nnr r n%$%nn(+6 n!rrrnr !rrn&rn r$n%nrr ::%rn rr rnr rrnr n *%rr$9 nr#r!r r.(r!Anrr n !%rrnr$ 9A%r%rrn!nn !!r% %rAnr%r nr%rr %rn$ .rrnr!r%r r nr rn % !r5@7$9 nrn !nr!nn%r $r rr r%r r r%r rrr& !rr nrr rrnrnrrn!r%r nrrrr$.

PAGE 81

@ r%rAnr%rr %r rr%rnr%rnr r$:r%r rnrnr!r! rnrrr r$ rnnr%r r r# r%rr%r rn% nr%r%nrn 115:rr1<@@D"rr rn$233@7$.r# rrr& !nr%rnrrrr %r!% %r nrnrrr rr$nnrrrA rn r# n%rrnn! rrr!%nn '#n!nn!n&n rrnr !nr%r nrrrr$ nr%rnr nr rrrrrr%r nr nrrnrrnr$r nr nrrn% rr,517nr%rn rrnrn!r rrrnnnr rn%5$$rn%nr 7r527 &rnn!nnr%rnrrr r%n!n rnrrnrn! rr%nnr !nnrr r#$ nrnrr#! r! %

PAGE 82

@= nrr517$9n% r! nrr%rr# !rr r%r n! r rr!rr!rnr r$r nrnrr r# rnr rrnr rr %rr$ r r# r! rA %rD% r r# r!rnn!n n#n rr!A nr%r r!n $ r# r! rrr rnr% rnr$r+ rrr r r rrA !$ rn+%rr%%r% 23rnrn!nrn#n! %rrrr r6$ 'n!nn rnr# rrr%nA%r r# r! !n%r#rr2$ nrr%n# %rA r# r! r r' r# r!r !rn!n nnnn!rr n#n r !n $ nnn#n! r#nnrn rn rnrrn# %rnr5;7$ r' % r# r! r# r! rrr& !n!nr%r rrr

PAGE 83

@; r! nr !&rnnrrrr n#n!n%# rrn r#$9%r r::rnrrn nnrr!rr % r# r!rnr r'rnr$

PAGE 84

@> /0:)/0 ?A%rrnnrCnr r(nrr rrr 233=$rrr r!r5rrn7 rnrrnn 1> rnr rrnr $rnnr r%rr r nrrArn nrr r rrr2@3#$ nnrrr rrrrnrrnnrn nr ;r2>n!$9%r!n%r nrrn AAn!3# %nn %rrnnr $ 9nrnrrr rnrnr %r% rnn' nr*% rrr5(+67 !$9rr%n%r rrnrr r :6r!rr% n rrr%%rr r%r$(+6 rnrn!r rnr!% %rrn(n!r rrnrn

PAGE 85

@@ nrr%rnn% r#%r nrrn rr$ 9 rrrn% rnr! r%rrnnr rnnnArnr %r$%rr% %r nr rn! rnrr%n nrr$. r%r r rr%r $.rrr & !rrnrr rrnrn rrn!r%rnrrr r$:nrn rnr%r r$.r# rrn nr%rrrr & !nr%rnrr rrrr!% nr $nr%r r# r%nrr% rr& !nr%rn rrr&rn & rn5nn!nr%rn7nrr rr$9nr%r%r % r# r! r$ .r# r!%rrrr& !n! nr%r rrrr! nr !nrr& rnrrn %# rrnr# $ 9nnn nrn nnrr r%nn rrrnrr%% rnrnr

PAGE 86

@4 rrnn% rrrr rrnrr r$

PAGE 87

@< 6??6?0? nAr$.$$n6$$r: nr$$523317.r rrr! rn%rn% rrr $ n =411;2$ %+$.$51<@37rrr r%rr$nr rn9Arr$ r .r?(n! )!9Arr$ $-$51<<@7"n6 r:%?!"9rn.r n+rr,0rr6 rnrnr$ r(r!rn!:rr r)!.r 6:r@3431>>$ .r%$$rr!"$/$51<4;7 rr%rr$ $r!+n!;;,><3@<1>$ .$r.$51<<279n!r !rn%rn %rrnr r rnrrnrr$ n <@@@;2$ .$r.$51<<@7+rnr rnrrrn% n %rrrrnr ,rArn rr%!$ n ==2;2>2$$

PAGE 88

43 .r($$.%$$0r+$nn($ r$$6 $"$nr# .$"$-r"$$rr+$52337? rr (+6n"rrnrrrnnr r$, r 5?$$.%$$r$"$/n7$ nn n!n 2112<=>$ .%$r+nn-$5233>7Pr!r rrnrr n(+6r/:,nn n(.r!r rnr$ n ;@><@44$ .%$$rn$"$5?$752337 r $ (nrn!$:rn nr 211$ .%$+$r(rnn9$51<<>7 rnnr r rrr$ n =<<;133$ r#$$r6$$2331 "n .nr#%nn$ 2@=$ .!$I$&rn$"$rIr 5233=7r! n r'"r )$ n 213 1;1=4$ n:$.$+!-$"r!$r $523317n! rr!rnrrnrn rrn!: 0nrr#$ n =42@$ rn$$($$r$$51<447 rrr$ ## $ 1;2@423$

PAGE 89

41 r$:$rr$+$51<4<7(r rrn rnr#rr!$ n$ @;1;;1$ r6$$$-.$$r(!$$$ 51<4;7(n!n-!r !$ n%n&' ('n )n&r*+,*'%n&)n 1<4;==;$ r6$$$r"$r( r$ $51<4<7rrn rrnnr%rr%rn nrr)$$$ n >;4@<=$ n$6$r69$?$51<<;7.r 9!nr:rrr !r%$ +n'nr rn0$212;=2>=$ nn!$5233@7"nr !%r ,r nrrnr $ +n'nr ;3;23;2>$ nn!$-r0$$r:r"$5233>7 r#%nr rnrrn%r$ +n'nr 22<>;<<2$ nn!$rrnn$$$5233@7r rrrn %rr$ $'n.//*'# 23>123@$ !$$D&rn$"$r.!$ I$5233=7? rrn!rrrn0# r "rr)$ n 213121=$ $$:rr$+$r+!$$51< @=7/%r rrnr$ $01n''n # ?11<=1212$

PAGE 90

42 (!"$6$r-$$51<4@7 A r&rr! n'Br'n!rn 23n+nn 3,1@23$ r!"$/$51<>@7rrnrnr 9Arr$ *$nn%nn ;1<@<=2$ %&"$$rr+$5233>7nr nrrrrn r%%rrr rrr '* ;;=2;2$ %&"$$rr+$233@$nr nrrrnrn %rr !rr $'n.//*'# 13=@13>3$ n$"$r.%$$52337(+6 ,rrrnn r rrrr $, r 5?$$.%$$r$"$/n7$ nn n!n 211<24$ n$"$$($r"!6$$51<<>7 rnrrr5(+67, rr!!rnn !rrn r 5Arnnr(nr+rr )$$$ +n'n r 12<>3<>4$ $$r+*$$51<47 n n!0%L#;=<$ :rr$+$51<@@7/%r!rnr r$ $ 'n4 ?1;1=4$

PAGE 91

4 :rr$+$nnr$9$r$$ 51<@@7/%rr rr%rnrrnr$ n 2=13<121$ :rr$+$rnnr$9$51<@@7:rr nArnr%r $ #$ 2=1$ :rr$+$rnnr$9$51<47I rnrr r nr%rr$ #$ 41=11;3$ :rr$+$rOr r6$?$51<4@7/% rnrr)$$ rr r$ n ;21423>$ "rr$Inr*$r/$r" .$5233@7r r%r$ $'n.//*'# 23=<23>3$ "Qnn$r!$52337(+6! r!%r rrrn rrnr0 rr$, r 5?$$.%$$r$"$/n7$ nn n!n 211;;>@$ "r$51<<27nrr!rn r?r+rnr$ +n'nr 14=4>;31$ "6$$51<@47:rrn rr! rr%r%r$ n 2;1423=$ "6$$523327rnnr rrn rr rB nr! rrrnr$ +n'nr 14 =4>;31$ "6$$rrnn$$$52337" nrnrA r! rr r$ +n'nr 1<;>3;@=$

PAGE 92

4= 0rn$5233=7(rrrr n!,n nr$ #2 >>2>13$ 0rn$6r$r+!-$52337 n!rnr r ?Ar?nr$ n 1>21>@1<4$ 0rn$r6 $:$523317rn r n% rrrrn$ n =4@<1413$ 0-$$51<<27 #% ?nn22;$ 0-$$r6r$9$5?$751<<>7 #5#n #,*n n!0%L#=4>$ +r$Inr#"$+$nn"$.$r "r$523317:r r! rnr rnr& rnnnr!r n% n =4>=;>;<$ +r#($($r#$$51<==7:r& n!nr %r%r$ )nnn%nn $2@11<$ rnn$$523337rrn r nr$ +n'n r 1>4<34<;$ %r&6$-$51<@;70rr %r$ '#r' "n0 $)$$!?><$ %r&6$-$51<427.rrr rrrnn rn%rr $ n 2<4;4=<$ %#+$?$rr6$$$52337r r!%rnr, nrrr $ n 2331=4$

PAGE 93

4; r%r$52337?--/I%?rr ?--/I%nA$) (r%r/r 6$?$51<@@7:rn nrnrn r n$,+r!$?$5?$7 rr!Tnr !r ?Anr$ **$ 1>1=$ r$$51<@7r!rnr r!ErE& 'n rrrrrnr rnrnrnr$ +n$n =,2<>=3@$ #$rnn$nr6$r: $2332$?rn rrr rnr rr$ +n'n r 1457;32;1 #$$9"$rnn$ $5233@7rrn rrrn!r rnr $ $'n.// *'# <@><4;$ ($$rr$$51<<>7r rn 0r(n"Ar, +n'nr 1257@4>@<2$ ($$:.$+$$rr+$523 3=79rArrn rrn!nn rnrrn (n"A)$ n 213>@4$ ($$rn#0$$$$.r $: .$-$9r$ "nn$r: 6$5233;7rrC rrn0(n "A$ #6" r(!rn)4>=<@;34$

PAGE 94

4> Irr6$:$Ir.?$$rr"$($. #r:$$rnr$ 523376rrnr! r&$, r 5?$$.%$$r$"$/n7$ nn n!n 2112;@2@$ r$$"nn$$9r$$r&? $rn "$$5233;7 ?A%rrr$ 3<5;@>74<>$ r+$r%&"$$5233@7?rnr rnrr rnrn%rr !nn r$n! ;=,;=;;>=$ r+$!$$r $$%&"$$ -+$/$r-#$6$5233>7 "nrnrnrnr rrrr r!rn%nr rnrr$ +n 'nr 225>71421=32$ r6$r"rrr"$5233;7rr rrr rnr$ %r' $!n *)n7r 1=$ r6$r"rrr"$5233;7rr rrr rnr$ %r' $!n *)n7r 1=$ r6$r"rrr"$5233;7rrr rr rnr$ %r' $!n *)n7r 1;$

PAGE 95

4@ %r$%+$$.$:$r # ($$r$$ 523379rrnr(+6r!n rn, nrnr$, r 5?$$ .%$$r$"$/n7$ nn n!n 211 12@1=2$ LO$$rL.$5233>7 rr n%%r%r$ n ;114111<3$

PAGE 96

44 ++?0R,?"?09/6?:/(

PAGE 97

4<

PAGE 98

<3

PAGE 99

<1

PAGE 100

<2

PAGE 101

<

PAGE 102

<=

PAGE 103

<;

PAGE 104

<>

PAGE 105

<@

PAGE 106

<4

PAGE 107

<<

PAGE 108

133

PAGE 109

131

PAGE 110

132

PAGE 111

13

PAGE 112

13=

PAGE 113

13;

PAGE 114

13>

PAGE 115

13@

PAGE 116

134

PAGE 117

13<

PAGE 118

113

PAGE 119

111

PAGE 120

112

PAGE 121

11

PAGE 122

11=

PAGE 123

11;

PAGE 124

11>


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam Ka
controlfield tag 001 002006009
003 fts
005 20090605090306.0
006 m||||e|||d||||||||
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 090605s2008 flu s 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0002713
035
(OCoLC)370727362
040
FHM
c FHM
049
FHMM
090
QE26.2 (Online)
1 100
Horwitz, Mark H.
0 245
Sedimentological characteristics and 3-D internal architecture of washover deposits from Hurricanes Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne
h [electronic resource] /
by Mark H. Horwitz.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2008.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 116 pages.
502
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
520
ABSTRACT: Extensive overwash occurred along Florida's Atlantic and northern Gulf facing barrier islands during the passages of Hurricanes Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne in 2004. These high-energy storm events provided a unique opportunity to study the spatial depositional patterns and internal sedimentary architecture of fresh washover deposits resulting from inundation to collision regime overwash events. Sedimentological characteristics and 3-D internal architecture of the washover deposits were studied through coring, trenching, sediment analysis, ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys, and pre- and post-storm aerial photography and LiDAR topographic survey data. The cross-shore extent of washover deposition is controlled by sediment supply, accommodation space, and the extent of cross-shore penetration of overwash flow. Antecedent morphology of the beach or barrier island is the primary factor governing sediment supply and accommodation space.Antecedent morphology coupled with spatio-temporal factors including storm position, intensity, and duration govern the extent of landward excursion of overwash flow. Washover deposition ranges from thin deposits, limited in cross-shore extent to the beach berm, to extensive sheet-like sediment bodies extending across an entire barrier island profile. Four sedimentary facies are recognized, which can be related to antecedent morphology. Berm facies, dominates the beach and seaward side of the foredune, and is characterized by a basal erosional surface and seaward dipping planar stratification. Back-berm facies extends landward from the dune crest down the backside of the foredune, exhibits little evidence of erosion along the basal contact, and is dominated by landward inclined stratification.Platform facies, largely confined to the interior platform, exhibits little evidence of erosion along the pre-storm surface, and horizontal to gently landward dipping parallel stratification, which merges landward with, and commonly overlies steeply landward dipping foreset stratification. Antecedent hummocky dunes may be preserved within platform facies. The landward most facies, backbay facies is dominated by subaqueous deposition within the back bay, and is characterized by steeply landward dipping tabular foreset and sigmoidal stratification. In the longshore direction, backbay facies exhibit trough and mound GPR reflective patterns, representing washover sediment ridges and troughs oriented parallel to the primary flow direction, and illustrate the highly 3-dimesional nature of the washover deposits.
538
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
590
Advisor: Ping Wang, Ph.D.
653
Overwash
Storm deposits
Storm induced morphological change
Sedimentary architecture
Ground penetrating radar (GPR)
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Geology
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.2713