USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Paleoclimatic reconstruction and evaluation of sub-centennial climate variability in the late Holocene using records fro...

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Paleoclimatic reconstruction and evaluation of sub-centennial climate variability in the late Holocene using records from massive corals (New Caledonia), tree-rings (New Mexico) and speleothems (China)
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
DeLong, Kristine Lee
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Coral Sr/Ca
Tropical climate variability
Climate proxies
Time series analysis
Dissertations, Academic -- Marine Science -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: This study focuses on how the construction of a paleoclimate time series influences the interpretation in the frequency domain. Three time series are examined: a New Caledonian coral (Amedee Island), a Chinese speleothem (Dongge Cave), and New Mexican trees (El Malpais). This study presents a monthly resolved coral Sr/Ca time series from New Caledonia that reconstructs sea surface temperature (SST; 1648-1999). The chronology is based on density-band counting, cross-correlating Sr/Ca, and ²³⁰Th dating. The intracolony coral Sr/Ca variations are coherent on interannual to centennial time scales and are reproducible for >300 years. The SST reconstruction reveals estimated cooling trend (~0.4°C) from 1741-1815, a colder nineteenth century (~0.6°C), and a warming trend (~0.6°C) in the twentieth century.Spectral and wavelet analysis reveals significant inter-decadal periodicities (~14-21 years/cycle) that modulate with time, and nearly persistent multi-decadal periodicities (~25-33 years/cycle) that do not exhibit coherence with the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation. The multi-decadal periodicities may be a harmonic of the inter-decadal periodicities or may represent an independent mode not previously recognized. The Dongge Cave time series is based on uneven time intervals between data points (Δ) requiring interpolation to a constant Δt interval for analysis with traditional spectral methods. A comparison of the even and uneven Δt intervals spectra using the Lomb-Scargle transform reveals the interpolated spectrum contains suppressed periodicities (<20 years/cycle), in contrast to the uninterpolated spectrum, resulting in a steeper slope in the red noise model thus influencing significance testing.The El Malpais time series is an average of tree-ring width series. Spectral analysis of the entire time series identified significant periodicities. However, significance varies between three temporal subsets, in which the number of series varies; therefore, these periodicities may be a function of the number of series or may represent a real temporal variability. Cross-spectral analysis of the El Malpais and Dongge Cave time series reveals significant coherence; however, cross-wavelet analysis, which examines localized frequencies in the time domain, reveals a lack of correlation; therefore, coherence in the frequency domain does not indicate correlation in the time domain.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kristine Lee DeLong.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 149 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002046422
oclc - 496022016
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002726
usfldc handle - e14.2726
System ID:
SFS0027043:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

Paleoclimatic Reconstruction and Evaluation of Sub-Centennial Climate Variability in the Late Holocene Using Records from Massive Corals (New Caledonia), Tree-Rings (New Mexico) and Speleothems (China) by Kristine Lee DeLong A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy College of Marine Science University of South Florida Co-Major Professor: Terrence M. Quinn, Ph.D. Co-Major Professor: Gary T. Mitchum, Ph.D. Benjamin P. Flower, Ph.D. David J. Hollander, Ph.D. Richard Z. Poore, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 5, 2008 Keywords: coral Sr/Ca, tropical climate variability, climate proxies, time series analysis Copyright 2008, Kristine L. DeLong

PAGE 2

D e d i c at i on T o m y m om w h o i s a l w a ys be e n m y c he e r l e a de r a nd s our c e of e nc our a ge m e nt S he t a ught m e t o a s k que s t i ons t o e xpl or e t he w or l d, a nd ne ve r a c c e pt t he s t a t us quo. T o m y s i s t e r K i m t ha nks f or e ve r yt hi ng I c oul d n ot ha ve f i ni s he d w i t hout your s uppor t

PAGE 3

i i A c k n ow l e d gm e n t s T he a ut hor gr a t e f ul l y a c know l e dge s c ol l a bor a t or s f or t he i r c ont r i but i ons t o t hi s r e s e a r c h i nc l udi ng: C hr i s t y S t e pha ns f o r c or a l da t a ; T hi e r r y C or r ge T i m ot h e O ur ba k a nd I R D E C O P f o r S S T da t a ; E t ha n G odda r d f or a na l yt i c a l a s s i s t a n c e ; B r a d L i ns l e y, E va C a l vo, a nd E r i c a H e ndy f or c o r a l da t a ; H e nr i G r i s s i no M a ye r f or pr ovi di ng E l M a l pa i s da t a ; Y ongj i n W a ng a nd c oa ut ho r s f or pr ovi di ng D ongge C a ve da t a ; R i ve r S he n a nd K e L i n f o r 2 3 0 T h da t e s ; a nd T ony G r e c o, H a l i K i l bour ne a nd N or e e n B us t e r f or a s s i s t a nc e w i t h S E M i m a ge s t hi n s e c t i ons a nd X r a di og r a ph s r e s pe c t i ve l y. A s pe c i a l t ha nks t o m y c om m i t t e e m e m be r s T e r r e nc e Q ui nn, G a r y M i t c hum D i c k P oor e B e nj a m i n F l ow e r a nd D a vi d H ol l a nd e r f o r t he i r gui da nc e a nd s uppor t A ddi t i ona l t ha nks t o t he pa s t a nd pr e s e nt m e m be r s of t he P a l e o l a b f or t he i r c a m a r a de r i e a nd s uppor t w i t h a s pe c i a l t ha nks t o t he c or a l pa l e o s t ude nt s H a l i K i l bour ne J e nni f e r S m i t h, C hr i s t y S t e pha ns K r i s S t a i r C hr i s M a upi n, a nd K r i s t e n M i t c he l l T he da t a a na l ys i s i n t hi s r e s e a r c h w oul d no t be pos s i bl e w i t hout s of t w a r e a nd da t a ki ndl y pr ovi de d t o t he s c i e nt i f i c c om m uni t y i nc l ud i ng M i c ha e l G hi l f o r M T M s of t w a r e C hr i s t ophe r T or r e nc e a nd G i l be r t C om po f o r w a ve l e t M a t l a b c ode A s l a k G r i ns t e d f or c r os s w a ve l e t M a t l a b c ode C hr i s F ol l a nd f o r I P O da t a a nd N a t e M a nt ua f o r P D O da t a L a s t l y I g r a t e f u l l y t ha nk t ho s e w ho ha v e m on e t a r i l y s u p p o r t e d m e du r i n g m y s t udi e s i n c l ud i n g t he G ul f O c e a no g r a phi c C h a r i t a bl e T r u s t a nd t he C a r l R i g g s E ndow e d F e l l ow s hi p s of t he C o l l e g e o f M a r i n e S c i e n c e t he U S G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y a nd t he N a t i ona l S c i e n c e F ounda t i on.

PAGE 4

N ot e t o R e ad e r T he or i gi na l of t hi s doc um e nt c ont a i ns c ol or t ha t i s ne c e s s a r y f or unde r s t a ndi ng t he da t a T he o r i gi na l d i s s e r t a t i on i s on f i l e w i t h t h e U S F l i b r a r y i n T a m pa F l o r i da

PAGE 5

i T ab l e of C on t e n t s L i s t of T a bl e s i i i L i s t of F i gur e s i v A bs t r a c t v 1 O ve r vi e w 1 2 S e a S ur f a c e T e m pe r a t ur e V a r i a bi l i t y i n t he S ou t h w e s t T r opi c a l P a c i f i c S i nc e A D 1648 D e r i ve d f r o m C or a l S ke l e t a l S r / C a 5 2. 1 A bs t r a c t 5 2. 2 I nt r oduc t i on 7 2. 3 M e t hods 11 2. 4 R e s ul t s 14 2. 5 D i s c us s i on 22 2. 5. 1 S a m pl i ng a nd R e pr oduc i bi l i t y 22 2. 5. 2 S S T R e c ons t r uc t i on f r om C o r a l S r / C a 27 2. 5. 3 C e nt e nni a l S c a l e S S T V a r i a bi l i t y 33 2. 5. 4 I nt e r a nnua l t o M ul t i D e c a da l S c a l e S S T V a r i a bi l i t y 38 2. 6 C onc l us i ons 53 3 M ul t i D e c a da l S c a l e C l i m a t e V a r i a bi l i t y i n H i ghl y R e s ol ve d P r oxy R e c or ds : E va l ua t i ng P a l e oc l i m a t e R e c or ds i n t he F r e que nc y D om a i n 56 3. 1 A bs t r a c t 56 3. 2 I nt r oduc t i on 58

PAGE 6

i i 3. 3 M e t hods 60 3. 4 D ongge C a ve 1 8 O S pe l e ot he m R e c or d 61 3. 5 E l M a l pa i s T r e e R i ng R e c or d 66 3. 6 A na l ys i s of C om m on P e r i odi c i t i e s 73 3. 7 C onc l us i ons 76 4 C onc l udi ng S um m a r y 79 5 R e f e r e nc e s 82 A ppe ndi c e s 98 A ppe ndi x A C or a l X r a di ogr a ph I m a ge s w i t h S a m pl i ng P a t hs 99 A ppe ndi x B U r a ni um a nd T hor i um I s ot opi c C om pos i t i ons a nd 2 3 0 T h A ge s f or C or a l s by I C P M S 102 A ppe ndi x C C or a l S r / C a R e pr oduc i bi l i t y a nd S ubopt i m a l S a m p l i ng 103 A ppe ndi x D E xa m pl e s of C or a l l i t e A ngl e t o S a m pl i ng P a t h 105 A ppe ndi x E C or a l 1 8 O V a r i a t i ons 106 A pp e ndi x F L oc a l W a ve l e t P ow e r S pe c t r a of a S i n gl e E ve nt 108 A ppe ndi x G C r os s s pe c t r a l A na l ys i s of t he E l M a l pa i s T r e e R i n g I nde x a nd t he D ongge C a ve 1 8 O S pe l e ot he m T i m e S e r i e s 109 A ppe ndi x H A n E xa m pl e o f T i m e F r e que nc y A na l ys i s 110 A ppe ndi x I C r os s W a ve l e t A na l ys i s of t he S ou t he r n O s c i l l a t i o n I nde x ( S O I ) a nd N i o 3 4 I nde x 111 A ppe ndi x J M ont hl y C or a l S r / C a f r om T w o I nt r a C ol ony C or e s 113 A ppe ndi x K C or a l S r / C a D a t a 114 A bout t he A ut hor E nd P a ge

PAGE 7

i i i L i s t of T ab l e s T a bl e 2. 1 M ont hl y C or a l S r / C a D e t e r m i na t i ons f or 1648 t o 1 999 17 T a bl e 2. 2 C or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n C or a l S r / C a V a r i a t i ons 17

PAGE 8

i v L i s t of F i gu r e s F i gur e 2. 1 C or r e l a t i on M a p of M ont hl y S S T A nom a l i e s f o r A m d e I s l a nd, N e w C a l e doni a 12 F i gur e 2. 2 I nt r a c ol ony C or a l S r / C a R e pr oduc i bi l i t y 16 F i gur e 2 3 C r os s D a t e d C or a l S r / C a a nd D e ns i t y B a nd A ge V e r s us 2 3 0 T h A g e 19 F i gur e 2. 4 S S T R e c ons t r uc t i on f r om C o r a l S r / C a D e t e r m i na t i ons 21 F i gur e 2. 5 S S T A nom a l i e s f r om C or a l S r / C a R e c or ds i n t he S out h P a c i f i c 31 F i gur e 2. 6 C or a l S e a P e nt a nnua l l y R e s ol ve d C or a l S r / C a S S T R e c ons t r uc t i ons 32 F i gur e 2. 7 S pe c t r a l A na l ys e s of M ont hl y R e c ons t r uc t e d S S T A nom a l i e s 39 F i gur e 2. 8 D e c a da l V a r i a bi l i t y i n S S T R e c ons t r uc t i ons f r om t he S out h P a c i f i c 42 F i gur e 2. 9 C or r e l a t i on M a ps of M ont hl y S S T A nom a l i e s f or C or a l S r / C a R e c on s t r uc t i on s i t e s i n t he S out h P a c i f i c 49 F i gur e 3. 1 D ongge C a ve 1 8 O S pe l e ot he m T i m e S e r i e s [ W an g e t al 2005] 62 F i gur e 3. 2 E l M a l pa i s T r e e R i ng I nde x [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] 69 F i gur e 3. 3 M T M S pe c t r a of S ubs e t s f r om t he E l M a l pa i s T r e e R i ng I nde x 70 F i gur e 3. 4 C r os s W a ve l e t A na l ys i s 75

PAGE 9

v P al e oc l i m at i c R e c on s t r u c t i on an d E val u at i on o f S u b C e n t e n n i al C l i m at e V ar i ab i l i t y i n t h e L at e H ol oc e n e U s i n g R e c or d s f r om M as s i ve C or al s ( N e w C al e d on i a) T r e e R i n gs ( N e w M e xi c o) an d S p e l e o t h e m s ( C h i n a) K r i s t i ne L e e D e L ong A B S T R A C T T hi s s t udy f oc us e s on how t he c ons t r uc t i on of a pa l e oc l i m a t e t i m e s e r i e s i nf l ue nc e s t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n. T hr e e t i m e s e r i e s a r e e xa m i ne d: a N e w C a l e doni a n c or a l ( A m d e I s l a nd) a C hi ne s e s pe l e ot he m ( D ongge C a ve ) a nd N e w M e xi c a n t r e e s ( E l M a l pa i s ) T hi s s t udy pr e s e nt s a m ont hl y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a t i m e s e r i e s f r om N e w C a l e doni a t ha t r e c ons t r uc t s s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e ( S S T ; 1648 1999 ) T he c hr onol ogy i s ba s e d on a nnua l de ns i t y ba nd c ount i ng c r os s c or r e l a t i ng c or a l S r / C a a nd 2 3 0 T h da t i ng T he i nt r a c ol ony c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons a r e c ohe r e nt on i nt e r a nnua l t o c e nt e nni a l t i m e s c a l e s a nd a r e r e pr oduc i bl e f or > 300 ye a r s T he S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on r e ve a l s a c ool i ng t r e nd ( ~ 0 4 C ) f r om 1741 t o 1815 a c ol de r ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y ( ~ 0. 6 C ) a nd a w a r m i ng t r e nd ( ~ 0 6 C ) i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y S pe c t r a l a nd w a ve l e t a na l ys i s r e ve a l s s i gni f i c a nt i nt e r de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( ~ 1 4 21 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t h a t m odul a t e w i t h t i m e a nd ne a r l y pe r s i s t e nt m ul t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( ~ 25 33 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t ha t do not e xhi bi t c ohe r e nc e w i t h t he I n t e r de c a da l P a c i f i c O s c i l l a t i on. T he m u l t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s m a y be a ha r m oni c of t he i nt e r de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s or m a y r e pr e s e nt a n i nde pe nde nt m ode not pr e vi ous l y r e c ogni z e d.

PAGE 10

vi T he D ongge C a ve t i m e s e r i e s i s ba s e d on une ve n t i m e i nt e r va l s be t w e e n da t a poi nt s ( t ) r e qui r i ng i nt e r pol a t i on t o a c ons t a nt t f or a na l ys i s w i t h t r a di t i ona l s pe c t r a l m e t hods A c om pa r i s on of t he e ve n a nd une ve n t s pe c t r a us i ng t he L om b S c a r gl e t r a ns f or m r e ve a l s t he i nt e r pol a t e d s pe c t r um c ont a i ns s uppr e s s e d pe r i odi c i t i e s ( < 20 ye a r s / c yc l e ) i n c ont r a s t t o t he un i nt e r pol a t e d s pe c t r um r e s ul t i ng i n a s t e e pe r s l ope i n t he r e d no i s e m ode l t hus i n f l ue nc i ng s i gni f i c a nc e t e s t i ng T he E l M a l pa i s t i m e s e r i e s i s a n a ve r a ge o f t r e e r i n g w i dt h s e r i e s i n w hi c h t he num be r of s e r i e s va r i e s w i t h t i m e S pe c t r a l a na l ys i s of t he e nt i r e t i m e s e r i e s i de nt i f i e d s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s H ow e ve r s i gni f i c a nc e va r i e s be t w e e n t hr e e t e m por a l s ubs e t s i n w hi c h t he num be r of s e r i e s va r i e s ; t he r e f or e t he s e pe r i odi c i t i e s m a y be a f unc t i on o f t he num be r of s e r i e s or m a y r e pr e s e nt a r e a l t e m por a l va r i a bi l i t y. C r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s of t he E l M a l pa i s a nd D ongge C a ve t i m e s e r i e s r e ve a l s s i gni f i c a nt c ohe r e nc e ; how e ve r c r os s w a ve l e t a na l ys i s w hi c h e xa m i ne s l oc a l i z e d f r e que nc i e s i n t he t i m e do m a i n, r e ve a l s a l a c k of c o r r e l a t i on; t he r e f or e c ohe r e nc e i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n doe s not i ndi c a t e c or r e l a t i on i n t he t i m e dom a i n.

PAGE 11

1 1 O ve r vi e w K now l e dge of c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y, na t ur a l a nd a nt h r opoge ni c a l l y i nduc e d, i s c r i t i c a l t o ou r unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he gl oba l c l i m a t e s ys t e m i n t he pa s t pr e s e nt a nd f ut ur e I nt e r a nnua l t o de c a da l s c a l e c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y i m pa c t s s oc i e t y on a t i m e s c a l e s t ha t c oi nc i de w i t h hum a n l i f e t i m e s [ e g. M ant ua e t al 1997; G ol de nbe r g e t al 2001; M c C abe e t al 2004 ] a nd c e nt e nni a l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y ha s i nf l ue nc e d t he de ve l opm e nt a nd de c l i ne o f di f f e r e nt c ul t u r e s [ e g H ode l l e t al 20 01; W ang e t al 2005] C l i m a t ol og i s t s ha ve de f i ne d a n a l pha be t s oup of di f f e r e nt m ode s of i nt e r a nnua l t o s ub c e nt e nni a l s c a l e c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y, s uc h a s E N S O ( E l N i o S out he r n O s c i l l a t i on) P D O ( P a c i f i c i n t e r D e c a da l O s c i l l a t i on) A M O ( A t l a nt i c M ul t i de c a da l O s c i l l a t i on) a nd N A O ( N o r t h A t l a nt i c O s c i l l a t i on) H ow e ve r t he us e of t he t e r m os c i l l a t i on f or s om e of t he s e c l i m a t e m ode s i s a m i s nom e r a s t he l e ngt h o f t h e i ns t r um e nt a l r e c or d i s i ns uf f i c i e nt t o r e s ol ve m or e t ha n one or t w o os c i l l a t i ons F ur t he r m or e t he na t ur a l c l i m a t e s t a t e ha s be e n pe r t ur be d by a nt hr opoge ni c di s t ur ba nc e s t ha t c onf ounde d our unde r s t a ndi ng of t he na t ur a l c l i m a t e s ys t e m a s t he i ns t r um e nt a l r e c or ds c ont a i n t he a nt hr opoge ni c s i gna l F or e xa m pl e t he A t l a nt i c M ul t i de c a da l O s c i l l a t i on ( A M O ) w hi c h va r i e s ~ 70 ye a r s / c yc l e [ Sc hl e s i nge r and R am ank ut t y 1994 ] ha s be e n l i nk e d t o t he r e c e nt i nc r e a s e i n hur r i c a ne s [ G r ay e t al 1997; L ands e a e t al 1 999; G ol de nbe r g e t al 2001] w hi l e ot he r s l i nk a nt hr opoge ni c w a r m i ng t o t he i nc r e a s e i n hur r i c a ne s [ E m anue l 2005; W e bs t e r e t al 2005; M ann 2006] T he l e ngt h o f t he i ns t r um e nt a l r e c or d ( ~ 130 ye a r s ) i s i ns uf f i c i e nt t o e va l ua t e w he t he r or not t he A M O i s a pe r s i s t e nt f e a t ur e of t he c l i m a t e s ys t e m H i gh

PAGE 12

2 r e s ol ut i on c l i m a t e pr oxy r e c or ds t ha t s pa n m a ny c e nt ur i e s c a n pr ovi de i ns i ght on s ub c e nt e nni a l va r i a bi l i t y i n t he p r e i ns t r um e nt a l pe r i o d. I ns t r um e nt a l r e c or ds us e m ode r n de vi c e s t o r e c or d di f f e r e nt c l i m a t e va r i a bl e s i n w hi c h t he pr e c i s i on a nd a c c ur a c y o f t he i ns t r um e nt i s c a l i br a t e d, t e s t e d, a nd m a i nt a i ne d on a r e gul a r ba s i s S i m i l a r t r e a t m e nt s of c l i m a t e r e c ons t r uc t i ons a r e ne e de d t o e ns ur e t he a c c ur a c y a nd pr e c i s i on of t he r e c or d G r e a t c a r e i s t a ke n i n t he c ons t r uc t i on of a pa l e oc l i m a t e r e c or d t o e ns ur e t he pr oxy c a pt ur e s t h e de s i r e d c l i m a t e s i gna l T he s i gna l s t r e ngt h de pe nds on s e l e c t i ng s i t e s s e ns i t i ve t o t he de s i r e d c l i m a t e va r i a t i on a nd s e l e c t i ng pr oxi e s r e c or de r s t ha t r e s ol ve t he de s i r e d c l i m a t e v a r i a t i on f r o m t he ba c kgr ound noi s e C a l i br a t i on s t udi e s pr ovi de a n a s s e s s m e nt of t he pr e c i s i on a nd a c c ur a c y of t he r e c ons t r uc t i on. C l i m a t e r e c ons t r uc t i ons ha ve t he a ddi t i ona l r e qui r e m e nt of unde r s t a ndi ng how t he pa s s a ge of t i m e i s e m be dde d i n t he r e c or d C or a l s t r e e s va r ve s e di m e nt s a nd s om e i c e c or e s ha ve a nnua l ba nds f or i nc r e m e nt a l t i m e c ont r ol w he r e a s ot he r t ype s of pr oxi e s s uc h a s s om e c a ve de pos i t s a nd s e di m e nt s w i t hout va r ve s us e r a di om e t r i c da t i n g a nd c r os s c or r e l a t i on t o e s t a bl i s h a n a ge m ode l T he c om bi na t i on of e r r o r i n bot h t he r e c ons t r uc t e d s i gna l a nd i n t he a ge m ode l s houl d b e c ons i de r e d w he n a s s e s s i ng c l i m a t e r e c ons t r uc t i ons [ J ans e n e t al 2007 ] w hi c h a r e t y pi c a l l y pe r f or m e d i n t he t i m e do m a i n [ e g. J one s e t al 1998; J ans e n e t al 2007 ] S pe c t r a l a na l ys i s m e t hods a r e us e d t o di s c e r n pe r i o di c s i gna l s i n a t i m e s e r i e s by t r a ns f or m i ng t he t i m e s e r i e s t o t he f r e que nc y dom a i n. S i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s i de nt i f i e d i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n m a y i ndi c a t e t he p r e s e nc e of a n os c i l l a t i on i n t he c l i m a t e s ys t e m H ow e ve r e a c h s pe c t r a l m e t hod m a ke s c e r t a i n a s s um pt i ons a bout t he c ha r a c t e r of a t i m e s e r i e s i n or de r t o pe r f o r m t he a na l ys i s F or e xa m pl e m e t hods t ha t us e d t he f a s t

PAGE 13

3 F our i e r t r a ns f or m a s s um e t he t i m e s e r i e s i s a s t a t i o na r y pr oc e s s a nd t he t i m e i nt e r va l i s c ons t a nt a nd w i t hout e r r o r F or a pa r t i c ul a r pa l e oc l i m a t e t i m e s e r i e s t he s e a s s um pt i ons m a y not be m e t ; t he r e f o r e m a t he m a t i c a l t r e a t m e nt s a r e a ppl i e d t o t he t i m e s e r i e s i n or de r t o pe r f or m t he s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s A ny m a ni pul a t i o n of t he da t a ha s t he pot e nt i a l of a l t e r i ng t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f t he t i m e s e r i e s i n t he f r e que nc y or t i m e dom a i n. T he us e of m ul t i pl e s pe c t r a l m e t hods w hi c h ha ve di f f e r e nt a s s um pt i ons c a n be us e d t o a s s e s s t he r obus t ne s s of a ny de t e c t e d s i gni f i c a nt s i gna l s I n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, t he a ut hor e xpl or e s a nd i nve s t i ga t e s how t he c ons t r uc t i on of a pa l e oc l i m a t e t i m e s e r i e s i nf l ue nc e s t he i nt e r p r e t a t i on of t ha t r e c or d i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n. T he m a i n body o f t hi s doc um e nt i s c om p os e d of t w o c ha pt e r s T he f i r s t c ha pt e r de t a i l s t he c ons t r uc t i on of a m ont hl y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a r e c or d t ha t i s r e pr oduc e d us i ng t w o i nt r a c ol ony c o r a l c or e s S e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e va r i a bi l i t y i s r e c ons t r uc t e d f r om t he f i na l c or a l S r / C a t i m e s e r i e s a nd i s e va l ua t e d f o r l i m i t s of i nt e r pr e t a t i on i n t he t i m e a nd f r e que nc y dom a i ns T he f i na l s e c t i on o f t he f i r s t c ha pt e r de t a i l s t he c l i m a t e i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he c or a l ba s e d r e c ons t r uc t i on f o r s ub c e nt e nni a l c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y. T he s e c ond c ha pt e r e xpl or e s t w o pr e vi ous l y publ i s he d pa l e oc l i m a t e r e c ons t r uc t i ons ( D ongge C a ve 1 8 O s pe l e ot he m r e c or d [ W ang e t al 2005 ] a nd t h e E l M a l pa i s t r e e r i ng i nde x [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] ) i n t he f r e que nc y do m a i n a nd i nve s t i ga t e s how t he c ons t r uc t i on of t hos e t i m e s e r i e s i nf l ue nc e s t he i r r e s pe c t i ve s pe c t r a T he f i na l s e c t i on c ont a i ns a c onc l udi ng s um m a r y of t he w or k p r e s e nt e d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on E a c h c ha pt e r i s t r e a t e d a s a n i nde pe nde nt s c i e nt i f i c c ont r i but i on c ont a i ni ng i t s r e s pe c t i ve f i gur e s a nd t a bl e s A l l r e f e r e nc e s a r e gr oupe d a t t he e nd o f t he di s s e r t a t i on. A ddi t i ona l f i gur e s a nd t a bl e s a r e pr ovi de d a s a ppe ndi c e s f or c om pl e t e ne s s D a t a f r o m t he N e w C a l e doni a S S T

PAGE 14

4 r e c ons t r uc t i on w i l l be a r c hi ve d a t t he N O A A W or l d D a t a C e nt e r f o r P a l e oc l i m a t ol ogy a f t e r publ i c a t i on i n pe e r r e vi e w e d s c i e nt i f i c j our na l s O t he r da t a s e t s a nd s of t w a r e us e d f or a na l ys e s i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on a r e a va i l a bl e vi a W or l d W i de W e b; r e s pe c t i ve r e f e r e nc e s i nc l ude a c c e s s i nf or m a t i on.

PAGE 15

5 2 S e a S u r f ac e T e m p e r at u r e V ar i ab i l i t y i n t h e S ou t h w e s t T r op i c al P ac i f i c S i n c e A D 1648 D e r i ve d f r om C or al S k e l e t a l S r / C a 2. 1 A B S T R A C T T he s out hw e s t t r opi c a l P a c i f i c i s a r e gi on w i t h t e m por a l l y a nd s pa t i a l l y s pa r s e s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e ( S S T ) r e c or ds t ha t l i m i t i nve s t i ga t i ons of c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y on i nt e r a nnua l t o c e nt e nni a l t i m e s c a l e s T hi s s t udy p r e s e nt s a m ont hl y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a t i m e s e r i e s f r om A m d e I s l a nd, N e w C a l e doni a ( 22 28. 5 S 166 28. 0 E ) t ha t r e c ons t r uc t s S S T va r i a bi l i t y f r om 1648 t o 1999 ( a l l da t e s a r e A D ) T he c or a l S r / C a r e c or d w a s a s s e m bl e d f r om t w o 3 4 m l ong c oe va l c or e s f r om t he s a m e m a s s i ve P or i t e s l ut e a c or a l c ol ony. T he c hr ono l ogy i s ba s e d on a nnua l de ns i t y ba nd c ount i ng, c r os s c or r e l a t i ng c or a l S r / C a a nd 2 3 0 T h da t i ng T he i n t r a c ol ony c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons a r e c ohe r e nt on i nt e r a nnua l t o c e nt e nni a l t i m e s c a l e s a nd a r e r e pr o duc i bl e f or m or e t ha n t hr e e c e nt ur i e s ( a ve r a ge m ont hl y m i s f i t e r r or 0. 015 m m ol / m ol ; ~ 0. 28 C ) w he n t he c or a l i s opt i m a l l y s a m pl e d. T he S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on r e ve a l s a c ool i n g t r e nd ( ~ 0. 4 C ) f r om 1741 t o 1815, a c ol de r ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y ( ~ 0. 6 C ) f ol l ow e d by a w a r m i ng t r e nd ( ~ 0. 6 C ) i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y. S pe c t r a l a nd w a ve l e t a na l ys i s r e ve a l s s i gni f i c a nt i nt e r de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( ~ 14 21 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t ha t m odul a t e w i t h t i m e a nd ne a r l y pe r s i s t e nt m ul t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( ~ 25 33 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t ha t do not e xhi bi t c ohe r e nc e w i t h t he P a c i f i c D e c a da l O s c i l l a t i on ( P D O ) or t he I nt e r de c a da l P a c i f i c O s c i l l a t i on ( I P O ) T he m ul t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s m a y be a ha r m oni c of t h e m o dul a t i ng i nt e r de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s or

PAGE 16

6 m a y r e pr e s e nt a n i nde pe nde nt m ode of c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y not p r e vi ous l y r e c ogni z e d. M a ny of t he c ol d e ve nt s i n t he c o r a l S r / C a r e c or d c oi nc i de w i t h l a r ge vol c a ni c e r upt i ons ( e g. T a m bor a 1815 a nd K r a ka t a u 1883 ) W a ve l e t a na l ys i s r e ve a l s t ha t s om e c onc e nt r a t i ons of i nt e r de c a da l va r i a nc e c oi nc i de w i t h l a r ge vol c a ni c e r upt i ons

PAGE 17

7 2. 2 I n t r od u c t i on V a r i a t i ons i n t he e ne r gy budge t o f t he c l i m a t e s ys t e m a r e pr e dom i na nt l y r e ve a l e d i n oc e a n t e m pe r a t ur e s [ L e v i t us e t al 2005 ] T he w e s t e r n t r opi c a l P a c i f i c s e r ve s a s a w a r m pool t ha t c onc e nt r a t e s t he r m a l e ne r gy a nd r e di s t r i but e s he a t t o t he a t m os phe r e a nd t he r e s t of t he oc e a n. T he s pa t i a l e xt e nt of w e s t e r n P a c i f i c w a r m pool ( W P W P ) i s s e ns i t i ve t o i nt e r a nnua l os c i l l a t i ons a s s oc i a t e d w i t h E l N i o S out he r n O s c i l l a t i on ( E N S O ) a p r i m a r y s our c e of c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y [ D onguy 1987] I n pa s t t w o de c a de s i nt e r de c a da l a nd m ul t i de c a da l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y ha s e m e r ge d a s a not he r i m por t a nt s our c e of c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y, w hi c h ha s be e n l i nke d t o c ha nge s i n s a l m on s t oc k [ M ant ua e t al 1997] hu r r i c a ne f r e que nc y [ G ol de nbe r g e t al 200 1] a nd dr ought i n t he s out hw e s t U ni t e d S t a t e s [ M c C abe e t a l 2004] T he s oc i e t a l i m pa c t s of c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y a r e s i gni f i c a nt a nd a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of de c a da l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y i s ne e de d. U nf or t una t e l y, t he obs e r va t i ona l r e c or d i s t e m po r a l l y l i m i t e d t o t he l a s t c e nt ur y a nd s pa t i a l l y l i m i t e d i n r e m ot e r e gi ons s uc h a s t he S out h P a c i f i c T he a dve nt o f i nf r a r e d s e n s i ng s a t e l l i t e s i n 1972 ( a l l da t e s a r e A nno D om i ni ( A D ) a nd w i l l be us e d t hr oughout t hi s doc um e nt ) i m p r ove d c ove r a ge f o r r e m ot e a r e a s of t he e a r t h ye t t he s hor t l e ngt h o f t he r e m ot e s e ns i ng r e c or d l i m i t s a na l ys i s t o de c a da l t r e nds P a c i f i c de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y ( P D V ) r e s e a r c h ha s be e n f oc us e d m a i nl y on t he N or t h P a c i f i c due t o gr e a t e r i ns t r u m e nt a l c ove r a ge c om p a r e d t o t he S out h P a c i f i c O ne m ode of P D V i s t he P a c i f i c i nt e r D e c a da l O s c i l l a t i on ( P D O ) [ M ant ua e t al 1997 ] de f i ne d a s t he l e a di ng E m pi r i c a l O r t hogona l F unc t i on ( E O F ) of m ont hl y s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e ( S S T ) a nom a l i e s nor t h of 20 N T he s pa t i a l pa t t e r n of t h e P D O r e s e m bl e s t ha t of E N S O w i t h hi ghe r m a gni t ude s i n t he m i d l a t i t ude s t ha n t r op i c s T he P D O w a r m pha s e r e s e m bl e s a

PAGE 18

8 l ong l i ve d E l N i o l i ke e ve nt t ha t pe r s i s t s f or 20 t o 30 ye a r s [ M ant ua e t al 1997 ] E O F a na l ys i s of S S T a nom a l i e s i n t he N or t h a nd S out h P a c i f i c ha ve de t e c t e d a ba s i n w i de m ode of de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y s i m i l a r t o t he P D O t he I nt e r de c a da l P a c i f i c O s c i l l a t i on ( I P O ) [ P ow e r e t al 1999 ] T he S out h P a c i f i c ha s a n uni que a t m os phe r i c f e a t ur e t he S out h P a c i f i c C onve r ge nc e Z one ( S P C Z ) t ha t va r i e s i n l oc a t i on ba s e d on t he s t a t e of E N S O a nd I P O [ F ol l and e t al 2002] I n r e gi ons w i t h s pa r s e i ns t r um e nt a l c ove r a ge pr ox y r e c or ds of c l i m a t e va r i a t i ons a r e c a n be us e d t o e xt e nd t he i ns t r um e nt a l r e c or d t e m por a l l y a nd s pa t i a l l y. P r e vi ous c or a l ba s e d S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons ( S r / C a a nd 1 8 O ) i n t he t r op i c a l S out h P a c i f i c ha ve pr ovi de d w i ndow s of pa s t c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y t ha t r e ve a l e d s i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons of de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y. C or a l S r / C a a nd 1 8 O r e c ons t r uc t i ons f r om R a r ot onga a nd F i j i ( s e e F i gur e 2. 1 f o r l oc a t i ons ) [ L i ns l e y e t a l 2000; 2004 ] ha ve r e ve a l e d s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i on w i t h t he P D O a nd I P O i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y L i ns l e y e t al [ 2000; 2004 ] doc um e nt s hi f t s i n t he S P C Z f or t he pa s t 400 ye a r s t ha t c oi nc i de w i t h s hi f t s i n t he I P O a nd c onc l ude d t he I P O a nd P D O a r e t he s a m e ba s i n w i de m ode of c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y. Q ui nn e t al [ 1998] not e d a s i gni f i c a nt i nt e r de c a da l pe a k ( ~ 15 ye a r s ) i n t he c or a l 1 8 O r e c or d f r om N e w C a l e doni a ; how e ve r t hi s i nt e r de c a da l v a r i a bi l i t y i s not c ohe r e nt w i t h t he P D O t he I P O or t he c or a l S r / C a r e c or d f r om R a r ot onga [ L i ns l e y e t al 200 0] T he l a c k o f c ohe r e nc e be t w e e n t he I P O a nd t he N e w C a l e doni a n c or a l 1 8 O r e c or d i s no t une xpe c t e d a s t he s pa t i a l pa t t e r n f r om E O F a na l ys i s i de nt i f i e d a w e a k i nve r s e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he I P O a nd N e w C a l e doni a [ s e e F i gur e 1 i n F ol l a nd e t al 2002] F ur t he r m o r e c or r e l a t i on a nd c r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys e s be t w e e n t he P D O a nd I P O i ndi c e s a nd S S T e xt r a c t e d f or a 1 gr i d c e nt e r e d ove r A m d e I s l a nd, N e w C a l e doni a f r om t he H a dI S S T

PAGE 19

9 da t a ba s e [ R ay ne r e t al 2003 ] r e f e r r e d t o a s H a dI S S T _A I f or t he pu r pos e s of t hi s pa pe r di d not r e ve a l s i gni f i c a nt s ha r e d c ohe r e nc e I t i s n ot e d he r e t ha t t he E O F a na l ys i s t ha t de f i ne d t he P D O a nd I P O i ndi c e s a r e ba s e d on i n t e r pol a t e d S S T da t a s e t s s uc h a s t he H a dI S S T [ R ay ne r e t al 2003] T he H a dI S S T i s a da t a pr oduc t t ha t r e c ons t r uc t s S S T f r om i n s i t u m e a s ur e m e nt s a nd s a t e l l i t e de r i ve d e s t i m a t e s us i ng a r e duc e d s pa c e opt i m a l i nt e r pol a t i on pr oc e dur e on a 1 gr i d t ha t i nt e r po l a t e s S S T s pa t i a l l y f r om s ur r oundi ng gr i ds w he n no obs e r va t i ons a r e a va i l a bl e [ R ay ne r e t al 2003 ] D e L ong e t al [ 2007 ] not e d t ha t t he a c t ua l num be r o f obs e r va t i ons i n t he H a dI S S T _A I 1 g r i d box c e nt e r e d ove r A m d e I s l a nd a r e f e w ( < 10) t o none f o r t he pe r i od 19 00 t o 1960 e xc e pt f or ( 1942 1946) S i m i l a r r e s ul t s w e r e f ound t o m os t g r i d bo xe s i n t he S out h P a c i f i c ( w i t h t he e xc e pt i on of W or l d W a r I I ) T he m ont hl y i n s i t u S S T r e c or d f r om A m d e I s l a nd ( c ol l e c t e d by I ns t i t ut de R e c he r c he pour l e D ve l o ppe m e nt E t ud e s C l i m a t i que s de l O c a n P a c i f i que t r op i c a l ( I R D E C O P ) f r om 1967 t o 2004; r e f e r r e d t o a s I R D _S S T ) i s t oo s hor t t o e xt r a c t i nt e r de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y a nd pe r f or m c r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s w i t h t he P D O a nd I P O T he r e f or e t he l a c k o f c ohe r e nc e be t w e e n N e w C a l e doni a a nd t he P D O a nd I P O m a y be t he r e s ul t of a l a c k o f obs e r va t i on s i n t he S S T da t a s e t s P a l e oc l i m a t e pr oxy r e c or ds c a n be e xa m i ne d i n l i e u of i ns t r um e nt a l r e c or ds i n or de r t o di s c e r n de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y i n t he S out h P a c i f i c C or a l 1 8 O i s not a s t r a i ght f o r w a r d S S T pr oxy V a r i a t i ons i n c or a l 1 8 O a r e dr i ve n by c ha nge s i n S S T a nd 1 8 O of s e a w a t e r w hi c h r e l a t e s t o s e a s ur f a c e s a l i ni t y ( S S S ) T he r e f or e t he l a c k o f c ohe r e nc e be t w e e n t he Q ui nn e t al [ 1998] c or a l 1 8 O t i m e s e r i e s a nd t he P D O a nd I P O m a y be t he r e s ul t of t h e c om bi ne d i nf l ue nc e s i n t he pr oxy r e c or d i n w hi c h c ha nge s i n S S S t hr ough t i m e m a y a l t e r t he f i de l i t y o f t he c o r a l 1 8 O

PAGE 20

10 t he r m om e t e r T he m a gni t ude o f t hi s a l t e r a t i on i s d i f f i c ul t t o a s s e s s be c a u s e S S S t i m e s e r i e s i n t he t r opi c a l oc e a ns a r e e xc e e di ngl y r a r e M or e ove r S S S va r i a t i ons a r e unl i ke l y t o be c ons t a nt on m u l t i de c a da l t o m ul t i c e nt e nni a l t i m e s c a l e s t hus t he c o r a l 1 8 O pa l e ot he r m om e t e r m a y be l e s s r e l i a bl e on t he s e t i m e s c a l e s [ C r ow l e y e t al 1999; J ui l l e t L e c l e r c and Sc hm i dt 2001] A p r e vi ous A m d e I s l a nd s t udy by C r ow l e y e t al [ 1999] r e ve a l e d t ha t S S T r e c ons t r uc t e d f r om c or a l 1 8 O yi e l de d c ol de r t e m pe r a t ur e s t ha n a gr i dde d S S T r e c or d i n t he e a r l y t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y ( 1900 1910) a l t hough t he c or a l 1 8 O a gr e e d w i t h S S T i n t he l a t t e r t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y. T hi s r e s ul t s ugge s t s t he S S S c om pone nt of c or a l 1 8 O m a y va r y w i t h t i m e C or a l S r / C a ho l ds pr om i s e t o r e c t i f y t he s i t ua t i on [ J one s and M ann 2004] T he S r / C a i n c or a l s ke l e t a l m a t e r i a l va r i e s i nve r s e l y w i t h S S T a s s um i ng S r / C a i n s e a w a t e r i s i nva r i a nt on t he c e nt e nni a l t o m ont hl y t i m e s c a l e s [ W e be r 1973; Sm i t h e t al 1979; B e c k e t al 1992 ] P r e vi o us s t udi e s of N e w C a l e doni a c or a l r e c or ds ha ve de m ons t r a t e d t he f i de l i t y o f t he c o r a l S r / C a a s a S S T p r oxy t hr o ughout t he i ns t r um e nt a l pe r i od [ Q ui nn and Sam ps on 2002; St e phans e t al 2004; D e L ong e t a l 2007] T hi s s t udy r e c ons t r uc t s S S T f r om c o r a l S r / C a f or t he pa s t 35 1 ye a r s a nd p r ovi de s a pa l e oc l i m a t e r e c or d c a pa bl e of r e s ol vi ng c e nt e nn i a l t o i nt e r a nnua l S S T va r i a bi l i t y i n t he s out hw e s t t r opi c a l P a c i f i c S S T i s r e c ons t r uc t e d f r om t he m ont hl y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons f r om t w o c or e s ( 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2 ) f r om t h e s a m e m a s s i ve c or a l c ol ony f or t he pe r i od 1648 t o 1999. T he c or e 92 P A A 1 h a s be e n e xt e ns i ve l y de s c r i be d i n pr e vi ous s t udi e s [ Q ui nn e t al 1996; C r ow l e y e t al 1997; Q ui nn e t al 1998; C r ow l e y e t al 1999; C or r ge e t al 2000; C or r ge e t al 200 1; Q ui nn and Sam ps on 2002; St e phans e t al 2004; D e L ong e t al 2007] a nd ha s s a m pl e d w i t h m ont hl y r e s ol ut i on f or

PAGE 21

11 t hi s s t udy. T he c or e 92 P A A 2 w a s s a m pl e d w i t h m ont hl y r e s ol ut i on a nd t he r e s ul t s a r e pr e s e nt e d he r e f o r t he f i r s t t i m e I n t hi s s t udy, t he c or a l S r / C a r e c ons t r uc t i on of S S T w i l l be a s s e s s e d f or r e pr oduc i bi l i t y i n t he t i m e a nd f r e q ue nc y dom a i n, e xa m i ne d f or s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s c om pa r e d t o ot he r c or a l S r / C a ba s e d S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons i n t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c a nd a s s e s s e d f or c ohe r e nc e w i t h t he P D O a nd I P O i ndi c e s 2. 3 M e t h od s T he P or i t e s l ut e a c ol ony s a m pl e d i n t h i s s t udy ( P A A ) i s l oc a t e d i n < 3 m of w a t e r w i t hi n t he B oul a r i P a s s w hi c h i s a dj a c e nt t o A m d e I s l a nd, N e w C a l e doni a ( 22 48 S 166. 47 E ; F i gu r e 2 1) [ Q ui nn e t al 1996 ] T he c o r e s ( 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2) w e r e r e c ove r e d i n J ul y 1992 f r o m t he s a m e m a s s i ve c or a l c ol ony ( P A A ) T he c or a l S r / C a t i m e s e r i e s f r om t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y s e c t i on o f t he s e c or e s w a s pr e vi ous l y r e por t e d by D e L ong e t al [ 2007 ] a nd t hi s s t udy f ol l ow e d t he s a m e m i c r o s a m pl i ng p r oc e dur e s T hi s s t udy s a m pl e d t he c or e 92 P A A 1 pa r a l l e l t o t he pa t h us e d i n pr e vi ou s s t udi e s [ Q ui nn e t al 1996] a nd a ddi t i ona l pa t hs w e r e s a m pl e d a s ne e de d ( A ppe ndi x A ) S a m pl e pow de r s w e r e c ol l e c t e d e ve r y 0. 70 m m ( 92 P A A 1) a nd 0. 8 3 m m ( 92 P A A 2) f or a ppr oxi m a t e l y m ont hl y r e s ol ut i on ( ~ 15 s a m pl e s / ye a r a nd ~ 12 s a m pl e s / ye a r r e s pe c t i ve l y) ; t he a ve r a ge l i ne a r e xt e ns i on f or bot h c o r e s i s 1. 0 c m pe r ye a r E l e m e nt a l r a t i o ( S r / C a ) w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng a P e r ki nE l m e r O pt i m a 4300 D ua l V i e w I nduc t i ve l y C oupl e d P l a s m a O pt i c a l E m i s s i on S pe c t r om e t e r ( I C P O E S ) a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da us i ng t he dr i f t c or r e c t i on m e t hod de s c r i be d by Sc hr ag [ 1999] C or a l pow de r s a m pl e s ( 90 236 g) w e r e di l ut e d i n a vol um e of 2% t r a c e m e t a l gr a de H N O 3 t o obt a i n a t a r ge t s a m pl e s ol ut i on ha v i ng ~ 20 ppm c a l c i um T he ove r a l l

PAGE 22

12 F i gu r e 2. 1 C or r e l a t i on M a p of M ont hl y S S T A no m a l i e s f or A m d e I s l a nd, N e w C a l e doni a N e w C a l e doni a i s l oc a t e d i n t he s out hw e s t t r opi c a l P a c i f i c O c e a n i n t he C or a l S e a a nd s out h of t he W e s t e r n P a c i f i c W a r m P ool ( W P W P ) C or r e l a t i on c om put e d be t w e e n m ont hl y S S T a nom a l i e s f r om a 1 gr i d c e nt e r e d N e w C a l e doni a ( 22. 5 S 166. 5 E ) a nd 1 gr i dde d S S T a nom a l i e s f o r t he r e s t of t he oc e a n us i ng t he O pt i m um I nt e r po l a t i on S e a S ur f a c e T e m pe r a t u r e A na l ys i s ( O I S S T ) da t a pr odu c t [ R e y nol ds e t a l 2002] f o r t he pe r i od 1981 t o 2008. T he O I S S T i nc l ude s s a t e l l i t e da t a t ha t p r ovi de s s pa t i a l c ove r a ge f or t he e nt i r e oc e a n, t hus a l l ow i ng a c or r e l a t i on a na l ys i s ba s e d on a c t ua l m e a s ur e m e nt s C or r e l a t i ons > 0. 2 o r < 0. 2 a r e s i gni f i c a nt a t t he 95 % c onf i de nc e l e ve l ( he a vy bl a c k l i ne ) ; de gr e e s of f r e e dom a dj us t e d f or a ut oc or r e l a t i on B l a c k dot s m a r k l oc a t i on of o t he r c or a l S r / C a ba s e d S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons i n t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c : G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f ( G B R ; 18. 5 S 146 5 E ) F l i nde r s R e e f ( 17 5 S 148 3 E ) F i j i ( 16 5 S 179. 5 E ) a nd R a r ot onga ( 21. 0 S 159. 5 W ) T he gr a y l i ne m a r ks t he a xi s o f m a xi m a s um m e r pr e c i pi t a t i on ( N ove m be r t o A p r i l ) a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he S P C Z ; da t a f r om N O A A C l i m a t e P r e di c t i on C e nt e r M e r ge d A na l ys i s of P r e c i pi t a t i on ( C M A P ) [ X i e and A r k i n 1997] f or t he pe r i od f r om 1981 t o 2006 T he l oc a t i ons of s t udy s i t e s di s c us s e d i n s e c t i on 3 a r e m a r ke d w i t h bl a c k dot s : D on gge C a ve ( 25. 3 N 108. 1 E ) a nd E l M a l pa i s ( 108 W 35 N )

PAGE 23

13 a na l yt i c a l pr e c i s i on of t he l a bor a t or y i nt e r na l gr a vi m e t r i c s t a nda r d ( I G S ) us e d f or t he dr i f t c or r e c t i o n w a s 0. 010 m m o l / m ol ( 1 # ; n = 2545 ) b a s e d on de t e r m i na t i ons be f or e a nd a f t e r e a c h s a m pl e A n a ddi t i ona l e s t i m a t e of pr e c i s i on w a s de t e r m i ne d us i ng a hom oge ni z e d pow de r f r om a P or i t e s l ut e a ( P L ) c or a l t ha t w a s a na l yz e d e ve r y f i f t h s a m pl e ( 0. 018 m m ol / m ol 1 # n = 3343) T he a bs ol ut e va l ue o f t he S r / C a f o r t he I G S ( 8. 741 m m ol / m o l ) a nd P L c o r a l s t a nda r d ( 8. 923 m m ol / m ol ) ha s be e n c onf i r m e d by t he r m a l i on i z a t i on m a s s s pe c t r om e t r y a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of M i nne s ot a I s ot ope L a bor a t or y T he m a s t e r c hr onol ogy f o r P A A w a s e s t a bl i s he d by c r os s da t i ng t he c or e s f ol l ow i ng t he m e t hod us e d by D e L ong e t al [ 2007 ] w hi c h a r e s um m a r i z e d he r e T he s ub a nnua l os c i l l a t i ons i n m ont hl y c o r a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons c or r e s pond t o t he a nnua l de ns i t y ba nds vi s i bl e i n X r a di ogr a phs ( A ppe ndi x A ) t hus r e pr e s e nt a nnua l S S T va r i a t i ons [ Sc hne i de r and Sm i t h 1982; D e L ong e t al 2007] T he c onve r s i on f r om de pt h dom a i n ( c m f r om c or e t op ) t o t i m e dom a i n w a s a c hi e ve d by m a t c hi ng c or a l S r / C a m a xi m a ( m i ni m a ) t o S S T m i ni m a ( m a xi m a ) us i ng A na l yS e r i e s s of t w a r e [ P ai l l ar d e t al 1996] ; t he S r / C a a ge m ode l w a s a ppl i e d t o t he i s ot opi c r e c or ds T he c onve r s i on t o t i m e dom a i n us e d a m ont hl y S S T t i m e s e r i e s c om pos e d of i n s i t u S S T f r om I R D E C O P ( r e f e r r e d t o I R D _S S T ) f o r 1967 t o 1999 g r i dde d S S T f r om H a d I S S T _A I f o r t he i ns t r um e nt a l pe r i od ( 1870 1967) a nd a t i m e s e r i e s of t he m ont hl y S S T c l i m a t ol ogy f or t he pr e i ns t r um e nt a l pe r i od ( 1648 1869) I n o r de r t o m a xi m i z e a l i gnm e nt be t w e e n t he c or a l S r / C a a nd S S T r e c or ds a ddi t i ona l t i e poi nt s w e r e ut i l i z e d t o f or m i d s pr i ng a nd m i d a ut um n. E a c h c or e s e c t i on w a s c onve r t e d t o t he t i m e dom a i n s e pa r a t e l y us i ng t he a ge de t e r m i ne d by a nnua l de ns i t y ba nd c ount i ng a s t he i ni t i a l t i m e m a r ke r T he i ni t i a l c onve r s i on of t he c o r a l S r / C a a nd i s ot opi c r e c or ds t o t he t i m e dom a i n r e s ul t e d i n une ve n

PAGE 24

14 t i m e s t e ps ; t he r e f or e e a c h c or e s e c t i on w a s l i ne a r l y i nt e r pol a t e d t o e ve n m ont hl y t i m e i nt e r va l s T he a ge m ode l f r om de pt h t o t i m e w a s u s e d t o e s t i m a t e a nnua l l i ne a r e xt e ns i on. T he c hr onol ogy f or e a c h i ndi vi dua l c o r e w a s f i r s t e s t a bl i s he d by c ount i ng t he a nnua l c yc l e s i n t he c or a l S r / C a r e c or ds A f t e r t he i ndi vi dua l c hr onol ogi e s w e r e e s t a bl i s he d, t he c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons w e r e c r os s c or r e l a t e d be t w e e n t he c or e s w i t h a dj us t m e nt s f or c or e b r e a ks a nd di s c ont i nui t i e s t o m a xi m i z e c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he c or e s [ D e L ong e t al 2007] T he c r os s c or r e l a t e d c or a l S r / C a c hr ono l ogi e s w e r e c r os s c he c ke d a ga i n s t t he a nnua l de ns i t y ba nds i n t he X r a di ogr a phs T he a ge f o r 11 s a m pl e s e xt r a c t e d f r om a s i ngl e a nnua l de ns i t y ba nd ( A ppe ndi x A ) w a s de t e r m i ne d by hi gh pr e c i s i on 2 3 0 T h da t i ng pe r f or m e d i n t he H i gh pr e c i s i on M a s s S pe c t r om e t r y a nd E nvi r onm e nt C ha nge L a bor a t or y ( H I S P E C ) of t he D e pa r t m e nt of G e os c i e nc e s N a t i ona l T a i w a n U ni ve r s i t y ( N T U ) us i ng t he m e t hods f r om She n e t al [ 2008 ] A ge c or r e c t i ons w e r e de t e r m i ne d us i ng a n e s t i m a t e d 2 3 0 T h/ 2 3 2 T h a t om i c r a t i o ( 6. 50 x 10 6 1. 0 x 10 6 ; A ppe ndi x B ) 2. 4 R e s u l t s A r e pl i c a t i on s t udy o f c or a l S r / C a w a s c onduc t e d b e t w e e n t w o 3. 4 m l ong c or e s ( 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2) f r o m t he s a m e m a s s i ve c or a l c ol ony ( P A A ) f or t he pe r i od 1648 t o 1992; a n a ddi t i ona l c or e ( 99 P A A ) w a s us e d t o e xt e nd t he r e c or d t o 1999 [ St e phans e t al 2004; D e L ong e t al 2007] T he f i de l i t y o f t he c or a l r e c or ds f r om N e w C a l e doni a w a s c onf i r m e d by e xa m i ni ng t he c or a l s a m pl e s f or e vi de nc e of a l t e r a t i on e s t i m a t i ng a nnua l e xt e ns i on r a t e s a nd c r os s da t i ng t he c or a l r e c or ds E xa m i na t i on of s c a nni ng e l e c t r on m i c r os c ope i m a ge s ( S E M ) a nd pe t r ogr a ph i c t hi n s e c t i ons of 92 P A A 1 a nd 92

PAGE 25

15 P A A 2 f ound no e vi de nc e of s e c onda r y m i ne r a l s ( A ppe ndi x A ) T he e s t i m a t e d a nnua l l i ne a r e xt e ns i on a ve r a ge d 1. 0 c m / ye a r i n bot h c o r e s w i t h a m i ni m u m of 0. 49 c m / ye a r T he r e s ul t s pr e s e nt e d i nc l ude 1) t he r e pr oduc i bi l i t y of c o r a l S r / C a r e c or ds f o r t h r e e c e nt ur i e s 2) t he m a s t e r P A A a ge m ode l a nd 3) t he c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on f o r t he s out hw e s t t r opi c a l P a c i f i c T hi s s t udy e xpa n ds on t he p r e vi ous t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y r e pl i c a t i on s t udy [ D e L ong e t al 2007] by e xa m i ni ng t he r e pl i c a t i on of c or a l S r / C a f or m or e t ha n t hr e e c e nt ur i e s T he m e a n a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i on of t he m ont h l y i n t r a c ol ony c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons a r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt ( 9. 200 0. 10 3 m m ol / m ol 92 P A A 1; 9 201 0 101 m m o l / m ol 92 P A A 2; T a bl e 2. 1 a nd F i gu r e 2. 2 ) T he c or a l S r / C a m ont hl y va r i a t i ons m ont hl y a nom a l i e s a nnua l a ve r a ge s a nd 24 m ont h l ow pa s s f i l t e r e d m ont h l y a nom a l i e s a r e s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d ( r = 0. 94 0 52, 0. 6 7, a nd 0 68, r e s pe c t i ve l y, p < 0. 05 T a bl e 2 2; F i gur e 2. 2 ) T he a ve r a ge o f t he a bs ol ut e d i f f e r e nc e s ( a vg a b s ) be t w e e n c o r a l S r / C a de t e r m i na t i ons ( 0. 029 0. 022 m m ol / m o l 1 # m on t hl y; 0. 019 0. 013 m m ol / m ol 1 # a nnua l a ve r a ge ) i s < 2 # o f t he m a gni t ude of a na l yt i c a l pr e c i s i on ( 0. 019 m m ol / m ol 2 # o r m a gni t ude of 0 038 m m ol / m ol ) s i m i l a r t o t he a vg a b s obs e r ve d i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y r e pl i c a t i on s t udy [ D e L ong e t al 2007] T he a ve r a ge of t he a bs ol ut e m i s f i t e r r or s be t w e e n t he 24 m ont h f i l t e r e d r e c or ds 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2 f or e a c h m ont h ( 0. 015 m m ol / m ol 1 # ) i s w i t hi n 2 # of t he a na l yt i c a l pr e c i s i on of t he c or a l S r / C a de t e r m i na t i ons ( 0. 019 m m ol / m ol ) w hi c h e qua t e s t o ~ 0. 28 C ( F i gur e 2. 2d ) T he m i s f i t e r r o r c a n not be de t e r m i ne d f or s e c t i ons w i t h onl y one r e c or d; t he r e f or e t he s e s e c t i ons s houl d not be c ons i de r e d e r r or f r e e

PAGE 26

16

PAGE 27

17 F i gu r e 2. 2 I n t r a c ol ony C or a l S r / C a R e pr oduc i bi l i t y. ( a ) N um be r of pa t hs s a m pl e d f or e a c h c or e ( b ) M ont hl y i nt r a c ol ony c or a l S r / C a a nom a l i e s de t e r m i ne w i t h r e s pe c t t o 1967 t o 1992 c l i m a t ol ogy ( ve r t i c a l gr a y box ) T he m a s t e r P A A r e c or d i s t he a ve r a ge o f t he i nt r a c ol on y r e c or ds ( 99 P A A 92 P A A 1, a nd 92 P A A 2) R e c or ds s m oot he d w i t h a 24 m ont h l ow p a s s f i ni t e i m pul s e r e s pons e ( F I R ) f i l t e r ( 90% pa s s a t 40 m ont hs ) s how n w i t h he a vy l i ne s C or r e l a t i on be t w e e n c or e s i s s i gni f i c a nt ( r = 0 52, 0. 68 f or m ont hl y a nd f i l t e r e d a no m a l i e s r e s pe c t i ve l y, p < 0. 05 n = 3554) ( c ) S a m e a s ( b) bu t onl y t he f i l t e r e d c or a l S r / C a a nom a l i e s E r r o r ba r de not e s a na l yt i c a l pr e c i s i on ( 2 ) ( d) T he a bs ol ut e m i s f i t e r r or be t w e e n t he 24 m on t h f i l t e r e d r e c or ds ( m i s f i t e r r or ( m m ol / m ol ) = | di f f e r e nc e | / 2 1 / 2 ) T he gr a y da s he d l i ne i s t he a ve r a ge of t he m on t hl y a bs ol ut e m i s f i t e r r o r s ( 0. 0 15 m m ol / m ol 1 ) T he m i s f i t e r r o r c a nnot be de t e r m i ne d f or pe r i ods w i t h onl y one r e c or d. Y e l l ow boxe s i ndi c a t e 2 3 0 T h da t e s w i t h e r r or ba r s ( A ppe ndi x B ) T ab l e 2. 1 M ont hl y C or a l S r / C a D e t e r m i na t i ons f o r 1648 t o 1999 a 99 P A A 92 P A A 1 92 P A A 2 M a s t e r P A A b C or a l S r / C a S S T d A ve r a ge 9. 166 9. 200 9. 201 9. 199 23. 19 M e di a n 9. 163 9. 202 9. 201 9. 201 23. 16 S t a nda r d de vi a t i on 0. 098 0. 103 0. 101 0. 100 1. 86 M a xi m um 9. 365 9. 442 9. 464 9. 453 28. 53 M i ni m um 8. 911 8. 930 8. 900 8. 911 18. 48 n c 414 3753 3938 4223 4223 a C or a l S r / C a va l ue s a r e gi ve n i n m m ol / m ol b M a s t e r P A A i s t he a ve r a ge 99 P A A 92 P A A 1, a nd 92 P A A 2. c N um be r of obs e r va t i ons f or e a c h s e r i e s ; e a c h s e r i e s s pa ns a di f f e r e nt pe r i od: 1965 1999 f or 99 P A A ; 1666 1992 f or 92 P A A 1; a nd 1648 1992 f or 92 P A A 2 d C or a l S r / C a t o S S T t r a ns f e r f unc t i on f r o m D e L on g e t al [ 2007 ] T ab l e 2. 2 C or r e l a t i ons be t w e e n C or a l S r / C a V a r i a t i ons 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2 92 P A A 1 a nd M a s t e r P A A b 92 P A A 2 a nd M a s t e r P A A M ont hl y 0. 94 0. 99 0. 98 M ont hl y a nom a l i e s c 0. 52 0. 87 0. 88 M e a n a nnua l d 0. 67 0. 90 0. 92 24 m ont h f i l t e r e d e 0. 68 0. 91 0. 92 a C or r e l a t i on de t e r m i ne d f or t he c om m on pe r i od 1 666 1992; a l l c or r e l a t i ons a r e s i gni f i c a nt ( p < 0. 05 n = 3913) b M a s t e r P A A i s t he a ve r a ge 99 P A A 92 P A A 1, a nd 92 P A A 2. c M ont hl y a nom a l i e s a r e c a l c ul a t e d w i t h r e s pe c t t o c l i m a t ol ogy f or 1967 1992. d M e a n a nnua l a ve r a ge s de t e r m i ne d f o r c l i m a t ol og i c a l ye a r ( A pr i l M a r c h; n = 285) e M ont hl y a nom a l i e s f i l t e r e d w i t h a 24 m ont h l ow pa s s f i ni t e i m pul s e r e s pons e ( F I R ) f i l t e r ( 90% pa s s a t 40 m ont hs ; n = 3895)

PAGE 28

18 C r os s da t i ng of t he t w o l ong P A A c or e s i s one of t he obj e c t i ve s of t hi s r e pl i c a t i on s t udy. T he or i g i na l c hr onol ogy w a s e s t a bl i s he d w i t h a s i ngl e c or e ( 92 P A A 1 ) by Q ui nn e t al [ 1998] A s e c ond c or e ( 92 P A A 2) w a s s a m pl e d t o a ddr e s s t he pos s i bi l i t y o f m i s s i ng ye a r s i n c or e br e a ks a nd ve r i f y t he c or a l g e oc he m i c a l r e c or d i n t he f i r s t c or e T he hi gh a g r e e m e nt be t w e e n t he c or e s a t t e s t s t o f i de l i t y of t he c r os s da t i ng ( F i gur e 2. 2) N o m i s s i ng ye a r s w e r e f ound f or c or e s e c t i ons w h e r e t he s l a bs f i t t oge t he r ( e g. 92 P A A 1 F 1 a nd 92 P A A 1 F 2; A ppe ndi x A ) C or e s e c t i ons w i t hout a t i ght f i t a ve r a ge d ~ 2 m ont hs m i s s i ng; a ddi t i ona l pa t hs w e r e s a m pl e d t o f i l l i n ga ps w he r e pos s i bl e ( e g 92 P A A 2 C a nd 92 P A A 2 D ) C or e br e a ks w i t h e vi d e nc e of gr i ndi ng be t w e e n c or e s e c t i ons a ve r a g e d ~ 18 m ont hs m i s s i ng f or 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2 w he n no a ddi t i ona l pa t hs c oul d be s a m pl e d t o f i l l i n t he ga p ( e g 92 P A A 1 O a nd 92 P A A 2 L ) L a r ge r ga ps ( 3 9 ye a r s ) oc c ur i n s e c t i ons w i t h di s or ga ni z e d c or a l l i t e s w i t h out vi s i bl e a nnua l de ns i t y ba nds ( e g. 92 P A A 2 L ) T he ne w c hr onol ogy r e s ul t e d i n a ne w bot t om da t e f or t he c or e 92 P A A 1 of 1666, a 9 ye a r di f f e r e nc e c om pa r e d t o t he Q ui n n e t al [ 1998 ] c hr ono l ogy; t he m a j or a dj us t m e nt oc c ur r e d i n t he s e c t i on f r om 1720 t o 17 55 w hi c h ha d bi oe r os i on i nc ur s i on s T he bot t om da t e f o r t he c o r e 92 P A A 2 i s 1648 ( F i gur e 2. 2 ) T he t w o c or e c ove r a ge i s c ons i s t e nt ba c k t o 1728; pr i o r t o 1728, ga ps of 3 t o 9 ye a r s oc c ur be t w e e n t he c or e s r e s ul t i ng i n a s t a gge r i ng of t he c or e s 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2 ( F i gur e 2. 2a ) H i gh pr e c i s i on 2 3 0 T h da t e s f o r e l e ve n s a m pl e s f r om t he c or e 92 P A A 1 a gr e e w i t hi n a na l yt i c a l e r r or t o t he c r os s da t e d c or a l S r / C a c hr onol ogy ( F i gur e 2. 3; A ppe ndi x B )

PAGE 29

19 F i gu r e 2. 3 C r os s D a t e d C or a l S r / C a a nd D e ns i t y B a nd A ge V e r s us 2 3 0 T h A ge C r os s da t i ng of t he t w o i nt r a c ol ony c or e s ( 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2 ) w a s c om pl e t e d by m a t c hi ng c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons a nd ve r i f i e d a ga i n s t a nnua l de ns i t y ba nds i n X r a di ogr a phs T he 2 3 0 T h c or a l s a m pl e s w e r e c ut f r o m a ppr oxi m a t e l y one a nnua l de ns i t y ba nd a l ong t he c or e e dge ( A ppe ndi x A ) C or a l S r / C a a nd a nnua l de ns i t y ba nd e r r o r w a s e s t i m a t e d f or e a c h s a m pl e by e xa m i ni ng X r a di ogr a phs a nd e s t i m a t i ng t he i nc l us i ve ye a r s i n t he s a m pl e ( i e s a m pl e c ont a i ns ~ 1 0. 5 ye a r ) 2 3 0 T h va l ue s s how n w i t h a na l yt i c a l e r r o r ba r s ( 2 ; A ppe ndi x B )

PAGE 30

20 T he c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons w e r e c onve r t e d t o S S T w i t h t he t r a ns f e r e qua t i on pr e vi ous l y de t e r m i ne d f o r A m d e I s l a nd f r om i n s i t u S S T ( I R D _S S T ) a nd c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons w hi c h i nc l ude s bot h c or e s ( 92 P A A 1 a n d 92 P A A 2) us e d i n t hi s s t udy [ D e L ong e t al 2007] ( F i gu r e 2 4) S S T ( C ) = 193. 59( 1. 70 2 ) S r / C a ( 18. 524( 0. 1 85, 2 ) ) ( 1) T he c or a l S r / C a S S T va r i a t i ons s ha r e c ohe r e nc e w i t h H a dI S S T _A I ba c k t o 1870; how e ve r t he c or a l r e c or d e xhi bi t s s t r onge r de c a da l s c a l e va r i a t i ons a nd s t r onge r c ool i ng a f t e r t he K r a ka t a u e r upt i on i n 1883 ( F i gu r e 2 4) T he m ont hl y c or a l S r / C a S S T ha s a m e a n of 23 19 C w i t h a s t a nda r d de vi a t i on of 1. 8 6 C w hi c h i s w i t hi n t he obs e r ve d i ns t r um e nt a l va r i a t i on ( 1. 81 C ) T he r e c ons t r uc t e d m ont hl y c o r a l S r / C a S S T r a nge ( 18. 5 C 28 5 C ) i s w i t hi n t he t he r m a l r a nge of c or a l s [ V e r on 2000 ] T he c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on r e ve a l s c e nt e nni a l s c a l e va r i a t i ons w i t h a w a r m i ng t r e nd i nt o t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y a f t e r ~ 1885. T he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y i s t he c ol de s t c e nt ur y i n t he r e c or d ( ~ 0. 6 C w i t h r e s pe c t t o 1967 1992) T he e i ght e e n t h c e nt ur y i s s l i ght l y w a r m e r t ha n t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y. T he s e ve nt e e nt h c e nt ur y ha s p e r i ods a s w a r m a s t he l a t e t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y; how e ve r t he s e ve nt e e nt h c e nt ur y ha s a l o w e r num be r o f r e c or ds t hus l ow e r c onf i de nc e ( F i gur e 2. 4) T he r e c or d ha s s e ve r a l a nom a l ous e ve nt s ( e g. 1775 1785 1805 1810, 1855 a nd e a r l y 1880 s ) t ha t w e r e t e s t e d by s a m pl i ng a ddi t i ona l pa t hs ( F i gu r e 2. 2) T he w a r m e ve nt f r om 1805 t o 1810 w a s r e pr oduc e d i n t w o opt i m a l pa t hs on 92 P A A 1; how e ve r n o s ui t a bl e pa t h w a s f ound on 92 P A A 2 t o t e s t t he w a r m e ve nt ( F i gur e 2. 2) f r om 1805 t o 1810.

PAGE 31

21

PAGE 32

22 F i gu r e 2. 4 S S T R e c ons t r uc t i on f r om C or a l S r / C a D e t e r m i na t i ons M ont hl y S S T f r om c or a l S r / C a s how n a s a nom a l i e s w i t h r e s pe c t t o 1967 1992 c l i m a t ol ogy ( ve r t i c a l gr a y box ) M ont hl y c or a l S S T de t e r m i ne d f or t he m a s t e r P A A c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons us i ng t he t r a ns f e r f unc t i on ba s e d on t he f i ve c or e c a l i br a t i on f or N e w C a l e doni a [ D e L ong e t al 2007] w hi c h c a l i b r a t e d c or a l S r / C a w i t h I R D _S S T a nd ve r i f i e d a ga i ns t H a dI S S T _A I R e c or ds s m oot he d w i t h a 48 m on t h l ow pa s s F I R f i l t e r ( 90% pa s s a t 81 m ont hs ) R e d t r i a ngl e s a l ong t he t i m e a xi s i ndi c a t e l a r ge vol c a ni c e r upt i ons ( T a m bo r a 1815, K r a ka t a u 1883 S a nt a M a r i a 1902, A gung 1963 a nd P i na t ubo 1991) w i t h V o l c a ni c E xpl os i vi t y I nde x ( V E I ) [ S i m k i n and Si e be r t 1994 ] 2. 5 D i s c u s s i on T hi s s t udy ge ne r a t e d a c or a l S r / C a r e c or d f r om t w o i nt r a c ol ony c o r e s f or t he pe r i od 1648 t o 1999 t ha t r e c ons t r uc t s S S T va r i a bi l i t y i n t he w a t e r s s ur r oundi ng N e w C a l e d oni a T he c or a l S r / C a r e c or d i s di s c us s e d f ur t he r r e ga r di ng ( s e c t i on 2. 5 1) s a m pl i ng m e t hods ne e de d f or r e pr oduc i ng c or a l S r / C a ( s e c t i on 2. 5 2) t he f i de l i t y of t he S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on f r om c or a l S r / C a ( s e c t i on 2. 5 3) c e nt e nni a l s c a l e S S T va r i a bi l i t y, a nd ( s e c t i on 2. 5. 4 ) i nt e r a nnua l t o m u l t i de c a da l s c a l e S S T va r i a bi l i t y. 2. 5. 1 S am p l i n g an d R e p r od u c i b i l i t y C or a l ba s e d c l i m a t e r e c ons t r uc t i ons a r e t ypi c a l l y b a s e d on t he ge oc he m i c a l va r i a t i ons f r om a s i ngl e c or e l a r ge l y be c a us e of c o nc e r ns r e ga r di ng c or a l c o ns e r va t i on, a na l yt i c a l e xpe ns e a nd t i m e c ons t r a i nt s [ D e L ong e t al 2007 ] T he c o r a l S r / C a s t udi e s t ha t i nc l ude s om e r e pl i c a t i on ha ve pr i m a r i l y f oc us e d on c l i m a t e s i gna l ve r i f i c a t i on i n t he i ns t r um e nt a l pe r i od w i t h s ub a nnua l r e s ol ut i on [ e g A l i be r t and M c C ul l oc h 1997; F e l i s e t al 2003; St e phans e t al 2004; D e L ong e t al 2 007] or on l onge r t i m e s c a l e s w i t h pe nt a nnua l t o a nnua l r e s ol ut i on [ e g H e ndy e t al 2002; L i ns l e y e t al 2006

PAGE 33

23 r e s pe c t i ve l y] T hi s s t udy bui l ds upon t he p r e vi ous s t udy f or t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y a nd pr oduc e s t he f i r s t m ont hl y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a r e c or d t ha t s pa ns 351 ye a r s i n w hi c h t he i nt r a c ol ony c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons a r e r e pr oduc i bl e w i t hi n a na l yt i c a l p r e c i s i on. T he s uc c e s s of r e pl i c a t i on de pe nds on us i ng a c ons i s t e nt s a m pl i ng m e t hod t ha t f ol l ow s t he c e nt r a l a xi s o f t he e xt e ndi ng c or a l l i t e l obe w he r e t he c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on i s pa r a l l e l t o t he s a m pl i ng pa t h [ A l i be r t and M c C ul l o c h 1997; D e L ong e t al 2007] I n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y r e pl i c a t i on s t udy [ D e L ong e t al 2007] a s e c t i on f r om 1960 t o 1966 f or 92 P A A 1 ha d l ow e r c or a l S r / C a va l ue s t ha n c oe va l i nt r a c ol ony a nd i nt e r c ol ony c o r a l S r / C a r e c or ds I ns pe c t i on o f t he c or a l s l a b r e ve a l e d s ubopt i m a l c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on, w he r e c or a l l i t e s t r a ns e c t t he s a m pl i ng pl a ne a l t ho ugh de ns i t y ba nds w e r e di s c e r ni bl e on t he X r a di ogr a phs ( A ppe ndi c e s A C a nd D ) A p a t h on t he oppos i ng s i de of t he c or a l s l a b ( 92 P A A 1 B ) ha d opt i m a l c or a l l i t e o r i e nt a t i on T he c or a l S r / C a va l ue s f or s a m pl e s e xt r a c t e d f r om t hi s pa t h w e r e w i t hi n a na l yt i c a l pr e c i s i on of t he c oe va l c o r a l S r / C a de t e r m i na t i ons f r om t he i nt e r c ol ony a nd i n t r a c ol on y c or e s r e s ul t i ng i n t he r e pl a c e m e nt o f t he or i gi na l s a m pl i ng pa t h [ D e L ong e t al 2007] F ol l ow i ng t he f i ndi ngs of t he p r e vi ous s t udy, t he s a m pl i ng pa t hs on 92 P A A 2 w e r e s e l e c t e d by 1) e xa m i ni ng X r a di ogr a phs f o r a c e nt r a l a xi s of t he e xt e ndi ng c o r a l l i t e l o be a nd 2 ) e xa m i ni ng t he c or a l s ur f a c e unde r m a gni f i c a t i on t o ve r i f y c or a l l i t e o r i e nt a t i on pa r a l l e l t o t he c or a l s ur f a c e P a t hs w e r e a ba ndone d a nd s hi f t e d t o ne i ghbo r i ng l obe s w he n c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on be c a m e s ubopt i m a l D e L ong e t al [ 2007] de m ons t r a t e d t h a t ge oc he m i c a l va l ue s de t e r m i ne d f r om s a m pl e s e xt r a c t e d f r om pa r a l l e l pa t hs w i t h op t i m a l c or a l l i t e o r i e nt a t i on w e r e w i t hi n a na l yt i c a l pr e c i s i on; pa t hs w e r e ove r l a ppe d by 2 t o 3 ye a r s w he n pos s i bl e t o f or t i f y t hi s c onc l us i o n.

PAGE 34

24 T hi s c or a l S r / C a s t udy w a s or i gi na l l y i nt e nde d t o c om pl e m e nt t he Q ui nn e t al [ 1998] s t a bl e i s ot opi c r e c or d f o r 92 P A A 1 by s a m pl i ng a pa t h pa r a l l e l t o t ha t us e d f o r s t a bl e i s ot opi c s a m pl i ng ( A ppe ndi x A ) A c om pa r i s on of t he i nt r a c ol ony c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons r e ve a l e d di s a gr e e m e nt s be t w e e n s om e s e c t i ons of t he c or e s ( A ppe ndi x C ) w he r e i n f ur t he r e xa m i na t i on f ound s ubopt i m a l c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he s a m pl i ng pa t h ( e g 1723 1731 a nd 1742 1749 f o r 92 P A A 1 ) T he c or a l s l a bs w e r e e xa m i ne d f or a l t e r na t e s a m pl i ng pa t hs w i t h opt i m a l c or a l l i t e o r i e nt a t i on ( A ppe ndi x A ) t he n ne w s a m pl e s w e r e a na l yz e d a nd c om pa r e d t o c oe va l c or a l S r / C a ; t he de t e r m i na t i ons a gr e e d w i t hi n a na l yt i c a l p r e c i s i on ( F i gu r e 2. 2 ) P o r t i ons of t he c or e s w he r e no opt i m a l pa t hs c oul d be i de nt i f i e d w e r e e xc l ude d f r om t he f i na l c or a l S r / C a r e c or d ( f o r 92 P A A 1: 1665 1666, 1723 1728 a nd 1870 1872 ; f o r 92 P A A 2: 1804 1807; c f F i gur e 2. 2 a nd A ppe ndi x C ) ; t he s e pe r i ods r e p r e s e nt ga ps i n t he r e s pe c t i ve i ndi vi dua l c or a l S r / C a r e c or d s T he s ubopt i m a l s e c t i ons f a l l i nt o t w o c a t e gor i e s t h os e w i t h 1) di s or ga ni z e d c or a l l i t e s a nd 2) c o r a l l i t e s t ha t t r a ns e c t t he s a m pl i ng pa t h i n t he de pt h d i r e c t i on ( A ppe ndi c e s C a nd D ) C or e s e c t i ons w i t h d i s or ga ni z e d c or a l l i t e s t e nd t o ha ve hi ghe r c or a l S r / C a va l ue s ( i e c ol de r ) t ha n opt i m a l c oe va l pa t hs unc l e a r or i nd i s t i nc t de ns i t y ba ndi ng, a nd s hor t e r l e ngt h a l ong s a m pl i ng pa t h f o r a n a ppa r e nt a nnua l c yc l e ( e g. 1722 1728 f or 92 P A A 1; A ppe ndi c e s A a nd C ) C or e s e c t i ons w i t h di s or ga ni z e d c or a l l i t e s t e nd t o oc c ur ne a r bi oe r os i on i nc ur s i ons ( e g 92 P A A 1 F 1, 92 P A A 1 J 92 P A A 1 I a nd 92 P A A 1 H ) i n t r oughs or m e r gi ng c or a l l i t e l obe s ( e g 1772 1778 f or 92 P A A 2 H ) w he r e c or a l l i t e l obe s t e r m i na t e ( e g 1685 1689 f o r 92 P A A 2 L ) o r w he r e c or a l l i t e e x t e ns i on di r e c t i on i s unc l e a r ( e g. 1773 1777 f o r 92 P A A 1 L a nd 92 P A A 1 I )

PAGE 35

25 S e c t i ons w i t h c or a l l i t e s t ha t t r a ns e c t t he s a m pl i ng pa t h i n t he de pt h di r e c t i on ( i e z pl a ne ; A ppe ndi c e s C a nd D ) t e nd t o ha ve l ow e r c o r a l S r / C a va l ue s ( i e w a r m e r ) t ha n c oe va l opt i m a l pa t hs ( e g 1800 1807 on 92 P A A 2 G ; A ppe ndi x C ) T he X r a di og r a phs m a y di s pl a y l a r ge a nnua l de ns i t y ba nds ( e g. b ot t o m of 92 P A A 1 O a nd 92 P A A 2 H ) o r c or a l l i t e s i n pl a n vi e w ( e g 1907 1910 on 92 P A A 1 D a nd bot t om of 92 P A A 1 K ) w he n t he c or a l l i t e s t r a ns e c t t he s a m pl i ng pl a ne [ L o ugh and B ar ne s 1990 ] T he s hi f t t o l ow e r c or a l S r / C a ( i e w a r m e r ) va l ue s oc c ur s a s t he a ngl e i nc r e a s e s t o pe r pe ndi c ul a r t o t he s a m pl i ng pa t h i n t he de pt h di r e c t i on ( e g 1907 1910 on 92 P A A 1 D a nd bo t t om o f 92 P A A 1 K ) T hi s s hi f t c a n be e xpl a i ne d by f a i l i n g t o c a pt ur e w i nt e r de pos i t i on ( l ow e xt e ns i on r a t e ) w hi l e s t i l l c a pt ur i ng s um m e r de pos i t i on ( f a s t e xt e ns i on r a t e ) a l ong t he c or a l l i t e l obe ( A ppe ndi x D ) T he de s c r i pt i on of c or a l gr ow t h f or P or i t e s s pp by D ar k e and B ar ne s [ 1993] s uppor t s t he s e obs e r va t i ons P o r i t e s c or a l pol yps gr ow i n a f a n s ha pe i n m a s s i ve c ol oni e s w i t h ne w c or a l l i t e s s t a r t i ng on t he t op of t he f a n a nd g r ow i ng upw a r d a nd out w a r d i nt o va l l e ys ( A ppe ndi x D ) V a l l e ys b e t w e e n c or a l l i t e f a ns a r e t he r e s ul t o f c or a l l i t e gr ow t h be c om i ng oc c l ude d a nd c e a s i n g [ D ar k e and B ar ne s 1993] ; t hus a hi ghe r c or a l S r / C a ( i e w i nt e r de pos i t i on) a nd no s um m e r gr ow t h oc c ur s i n t he va l l e ys T he ki ne t i c vi t a l e f f e c t i n c or a l ge oc he m i s t r y i s de s c r i be d a s a n of f s e t f r om e qui l i br i um f or f a s t gr ow i ng c or a l s [ M c C onnaughe y 1989] L ow e r e xt e ns i on r a t e s m a y r e s ul t i n hi ghe r c or a l S r / C a va l ue s ( i e c ol de r t e m pe r a t ur e s ) [ de V i l l i e r s e t al 1994; 1995] w he r e a s f a s t e r gr ow t h r a t e s t e nd t o r e s ul t i n a c ons t a nt of f s e t T he l e ngt h f or e a c h a nnua l c or a l S r / C a c yc l e de t e r m i ne d f r om s a m pl i n g de pt h a ppr oxi m a t e s t he l i ne a r e xt e ns i on r a t e i f t he c or a l l i t e s a r e or i e nt e d pa r a l l e l t o t he s a m pl i ng pl a ne ; de vi a t i ons m a y pr oduc e e r r one ous e xt e ns i on r a t e s T he l e ngt h o f t he c or a l S r / C a ye a r a ve r a ge d 1 0 c m

PAGE 36

26 w i t h a m i ni m u m of 0. 49 c m f or bo t h opt i m a l l y s a m pl e d c or a l S r / C a r e c or ds A n e xa m i na t i on of opt i m a l l y s a m pl e d s e c t i ons w i t h o ne pa t h or bot h pa t hs e xhi bi t i ng l ow e r e s t i m a t e d a nnua l e xt e ns i on ( 0. 49 0 70 c m ) t ha n t h e c oe va l pa t hs f ound i ns i gni f i c a nt of f s e t s be t w e e n c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons ; t hus no i ndi c a t i on of a vi t a l e f f e c t on c o r a l S r / C a i n r e s pons e t o s l ow e r e xt e ns i on r a t e T he l e ngt h f o r e a c h a nnua l c or a l S r / C a c yc l e c a n be m oni t or e d f o r i ndi c a t i ons o f a p r obl e m a t i c c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on; how e ve r t he l e ngt h f or e a c h a nnua l c yc l e s houl d not be i n t e r pr e t e d a s l ow e xt e ns i on r a t e unl e s s t he c or a l l i t e s a r e or i e nt e d pa r a l l e l t o t he s a m pl i ng pl a ne ( A ppe ndi x C ) W he n t he c or a l l i t e a l i gnm e nt i s not pa r a l l e l t o t he X r a di og r a ph pl a ne l i ne a r e xt e ns i on r a t e c a nnot be de t e r m i ne d r e l i a bl y f r om m e a s ur i ng t he w i dt h of t he a nnua l de ns i t y ba nds i n a X r a di ogr a ph, e s pe c i a l l y f or P or i t e s s pp. w hi c h ha ve a s m a l l c or a l l i t e di a m e t e r [ L ough and B ar ne s 1990] R e por t s c i t i ng vi t a l e f f e c t s r e l a t e d t o l i ne a r e xt e ns i on r a t e s s houl d not e how t he e xt e ns i on w a s de t e r m i ne d a nd c onf i r m pa r a l l e l c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i o n t o t he s a m pl i ng pa t h; s a m pl i ng c or a l l i t e s w i t h s ubopt i m a l o r i e nt a t i on t o t he s a m pl i ng pa t h w i l l pr oduc e e r r one ous r e s ul t s T he e xi s t e nc e of a g r ow t h r e l a t e d vi t a l e f f e c t on c or a l ge oc he m i s t r y i s not di s c ount e d by t he s e f i ndi ngs ; m e r e l y, t he e xi s t e nc e c a nnot be de t e r m i ne d f r o m t he r e c or d be c a us e t he l ow l e ngt h of a n a nnua l c o r a l S r / C a c yc l e c a n be a t t r i but e d t o s ubopt i m a l c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on t ha t doe s not a ppr oxi m a t e l i ne a r a nnua l e xt e ns i on. D e L ong e t al [ 2007 ] c onc l ude d t ha t c or a l 1 8 O 1 3 C a nd M g/ C a w e r e not i nf l ue nc e d by s ubopt i m a l c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on f o r t he pe r i od 1960 t o 1966 ( s e e F i gur e 5 D e L ong e t al [ 2007 ] ) P r e l i m i na r y r e s ul t s t ha t c om pa r e of c oe va l c o r a l 1 8 O de t e r m i na t i ons f r om ot he r s ubopt i m a l s e c t i ons i de nt i f i e d i n t hi s s t udy r e ve a l t hi s m a y not be t r ue f o r a l l s ubopt i m a l s e c t i ons ( e g 1732 174 3; A ppe ndi x E ) A na l ys e s a r e i n

PAGE 37

27 pr ogr e s s t o t e s t a nd/ or r e pl a c e c or a l 1 8 O i n s ubopt i m a l s e c t i ons de t e r m i ne d i n t he c or a l S r / C a r e c or d. 2. 5. 2 S S T R e c on s t r u c t i on f r om C or al S r / C a T he f i de l i t y of t he c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d pr i or t o t he i ns t r um e nt a l pe r i od c a n be a s s e s s e d by e xa m i na t i on of t he a bs ol ut e va l ue a nd s e a s ona l r a nge of r e c ons t r uc t e d S S T va r i a t i ons a nd of t he goodne s s of f i t be t w e e n c oe v a l t i m e s e r i e s T he m i ni m um a nd m a xi m um m ont hl y c or a l S r / C a S S T va r i a t i ons ( 18 48 28. 53 C ; T a bl e 2 1) a r e w i t h i n t he t he r m a l r a nge f or s c l e r a c t i ni a n c o r a l s ( 18 30 C ) [ V e r on 2000] f or t hr e e c e nt ur i e s i n t w o c oe va l c or a l r e c or ds T he m a gni t ude o f t he s e a s on a l c or a l S r / C a S S T c yc l e ( 2. 66 C f or 1648 1999) w he n c or a l l i t e s a r e opt i m a l l y s a m pl e d, i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he s e a s ona l c yc l e obs e r ve d i n I R D _S S T ( 2. 37 C f o r 1965 1999 ) T he t w o m on t hl y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a t i m e s e r i e s a r e s i gni f i c a nt l y c o r r e l a t e d on s e ve r a l t i m e s c a l e s ( m ont hl y, r = 0. 94; m e a n a nnua l r = 0 67; a nom a l y s pa c e r = 0. 52 ; p < 0. 05 ) T he s e t w o t i m e s e r i e s a r e c ohe r e nt i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n on c e nt e nni a l ( ~ 100 ye a r s ) m u l t i de c a da l ( ~ 12 30 ye a r s ) a nd i nt e r a nnua l ( ~ 5 10 ye a r s ) pe r i odi c i t i e s T he s t r on g a gr e e m e nt of c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons w i t h S S T i n t he i ns t r um e nt a l pe r i od [ Q ui nn and Sa m ps on 2002; St e phans e t al 2004; D e L ong e t al 2007 ] a nd t he r e p r oduc i bi l i t y o f m o nt hl y c or a l S r / C a t i m e s e r i e s f or m or e t ha n t hr e e c e nt ur i e s pr ov i de s e vi de nc e t ha t t he c or a l S r / C a pa l e ot he r m om e t e r f o r N e w C a l e doni a i s r obus t on m ul t i p l e t i m e s c a l e s ( F i gur e 2. 4) T he c or a l p r oxy r e c or d c ons t r uc t e d i n t hi s s t udy r e pr e s e nt s m ont hl y S S T va r i a bi l i t y f o r a s i ngl e l oc a t i on. T he ut i l i t y of t hi s r e c ons t r uc t i on i nc r e a s e s w he n t he r e gi ona l s i gni f i c a nc e c a n be de m ons t r a t e d f or a l a r ge r r e gi on s uc h a s t he P a c i f i c ba s i n.

PAGE 38

28 C or r e l a t i on m a ps c a n be us e d t o e xa m i ne r e gi ona l s i gni f i c a nc e i n w hi c h a m a p of m ont hl y S S T a nom a l i e s f o r a s i ngl e l oc a t i on i s c or r e l a t e d w i t h m ont hl y S S T a nom a l i e s ove r a l a r ge r r e gi on F or t hi s s t udy, a c or r e l a t i on m a p of m ont hl y S S T a nom a l i e s w a s c ons t r uc t e d f or a 1 gr i d box c e nt e r e d on A m d e I s l a nd c or r e l a t e d w i t h a gl oba l gr i d of S S T f r om t he O pt i m um I nt e r pol a t i on S e a S ur f a c e T e m pe r a t ur e A na l ys i s ( O I S S T ) [ R e y nol ds e t al 2002 ] ( F i gu r e 2. 1 ) T he O I S S T w a s s e l e c t e d be c a u s e t hi s da t a s e t i nc l ude s s a t e l l i t e e s t i m a t e s of S S T t ha t i nc r e a s e t he c ove r a ge i n t he obs e r va t i on s pa r s e S out h P a c i f i c t hus a l l ow i ng a n a s s e s s m e nt of r e gi o na l s i gni f i c a nc e T he c or r e l a t i on m a p f or A m d e I s l a nd r e ve a l s a s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i on f or t he C or a l S e a a nd t he s out hw e s t t r opi c a l P a c i f i c s out he a s t of t he S P C Z r e gi on ( F i gu r e 2. 1 ) L ow e r but s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i ons a r e f ound w i t h t he W P W P a nd nor t hw e s t t r opi c a l P a c i f i c S i gni f i c a nt a nt i c or r e l a t i on i s e vi de nt w i t h t he c e nt r a l e qua t or i a l P a c i f i c e xpa ndi ng nor t he a s t w a r d t o B a j a C a l i f or ni a a nd e xpa ndi ng s out he a s t w a r d t ow a r ds C hi l e T he c or r e l a t i on pa t t e r n s ha r e s s om e r e s e m bl a nc e t o t he E N S O a nd P D O r e s pons e pa t t e r n i n t he P a c i f i c e xc e pt f o r t he l a c k of c or r e l a t i on w i t h t he e a s t e r n e qua t or i a l P a c i f i c S e ve r a l not a bl e c ol d e ve nt s oc c ur i n t he c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on f or N e w C a l e doni a ( F i gur e 2 4) t ha t m a y be r e l a t e d t o vol c a ni c e r upt i ons a s pr e vi ous l y di s c us s e d by C r ow l e y e t al [ 1997] f or A m d e I s l a nd c or a l 1 8 O T w o of t he c ol de s t e ve nt s i n t he r e c ons t r uc t i on c oi nc i de w i t h l a r ge e xpl os i ve vol c a ni c e r upt i ons a s s oc i a t e d w i t h gl oba l c ool i ng ( vol c a ni c e xpl os i ve i nde x ( V E I ) > 6) [ Si m k i n and Si e be r t 1994 ] : T a m bor a I ndone s i a ( 1815) a nd K r a ka t a u, I ndone s i a ( 1883) O t he r c ol d e ve nt s t ha t c oi nc i de w i t h r e c or de d vol c a ni c e ve nt s i nc l ude P i na t ubo P h i l i pp i ne s ( 1991) ; A gung I ndone s i a ( 1963) ; a nd S a nt a M a r i a G ua t e m a l a ( 1902) [ Si m k i n and Si e be r t 1994] T he l a r ge c ool i ng e ve nt s

PAGE 39

29 f r om 1679 t o 1683 a nd 1700 t o 1704 a r e f i ve ye a r s a he a d of gl oba l l y s i gni f i c a nt vo l c a ni c e ve nt s r e c or de d i n i c e c or e s a s vol c a ni c a e r os ol s ( V A I ) [ C r ow l e y 2000] T he s e of f s e t s m a y be r e a l o r t he r e s ul t of c hr onol ogy e r r o r s i n e i t he r t he c or a l or i c e c or e s r e c or ds ; t h i s e a r l y s e c t i on of t he c or a l r e c or d i s not f ul l y c ove r e d by bot h c or e s us e d i n t he r e c ons t r uc t i on. T he c ol d e ve nt t ha t s pa ns 1852 t o 1857 ( F i gu r e 2. 4 ) w hi c h i s t he c ol de s t i n t he r e c ons t r uc t i on ( ~ 2 C ) doe s not c or r e s pond t o a ny know n e xpl os i ve vol c a ni c e r upt i ons ( V E I > 4 ) T hi s c ol d e ve nt i s pr e s e nt i n bot h c or e s a nd c onf i r m e d by t hr e e opt i m a l l y s a m pl e d pa t hs ( F i gu r e 2 2a ) ; t hus i t a pp e a r s t o be r obus t A s i m i l a r c ol d e ve nt w i t h l e s s m a gni t ude a ppe a r s i n t he s e a s ona l c or a l 1 8 O r e c or d [ Q ui nn e t al 1998] ( A ppe ndi x E ) T he r e a r e t hr e e vol c a ni c e ve nt s t ha t m a y be r e l a t e d t o t he 1852 t o 1857 c ool i ng e ve nt : S hi ve l uc h, R us s i a ( 1854; V E I = 5? ) [ Si m k i n and Si e be r t 1994 ] C ot opa xi E c ua dor ( 1855 1856; dus t ve i l i nde x ( D V I ) = 700) [ L am b 1970; Sat o e t al 1993 ] a nd T a r a na ki ( a l s o know n a s E gm ont ) N e w Z e a l a nd ( 1854 ? V E I = ? ) C ont e m por a r y c ool i ng e ve nt s w i t h l e s s m a gni t ude a r e p r e s e nt i n c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons f r om F i j i [ L i ns l e y e t al 2 004] a nd F l i nde r s R e e f i n t he C or a l S e a [ C al v o e t al 2007 ] ( F i gur e 2. 5 a nd 2 6) a nd i n a W P W P r e c ons t r uc t i on [ D A r r i go e t al 2006] H ow e ve r a c ool i ng e ve nt doe s not a ppe a r i n t he c or a l S r / C a r e c or d f r o m R a r ot onga [ L i ns l e y e t al 2000 ] ( F i gur e 2 5) I f t he S hi ve l uc h or C ot opa xi e r upt i o ns w e r e gl oba l l y s i gni f i c a nt t he y s houl d a ppe a r i n t he ne i ghbor i ng c o r a l r e c ons t r uc t i ons w i t h a s i m i l a r m a gni t ude T r e e r i ng r e c or ds f r om N e w Z e a l a nd a nd T a s m a ni a [ C o ok e t al 2000; X i ong and P al m e r 2000] c ont a i n a c ool i ng e ve nt f r om 1852 t o 1858, w hi c h c oi nc i de s w i t h t he obs e r ve d c ool i ng e ve nt i n t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d, t hus s uppor t s t he T a r a na ki e r upt i on a s t he s our c e o f a r e gi ona l c ool i ng e ve nt i n 1852 t o 1858. A n E l N i o e ve nt i s

PAGE 40

30 a n a l t e r na t i ve e xpl a na t i on f o r t he 1852 t o 1857 c ol d a nom a l y gi ve n t ha t N e w C a l e doni a e xpe r i e nc e s c ol de r t e m pe r a t ur e s a nd dr ought c ondi t i ons dur i ng E l N i o e ve nt s [ M or l i e r e and R e be r t 1986 ] T he E N S O S S T s i gna l i n N e w C a l e doni a i s r e l a t i ve l y w e a k ( 20 30% of t he s e a s ona l s i gna l ( 2. 37 C ) ) [ D e l c r oi x and L e nor m and 19 97] a nd onl y a m ode r a t e E l N i o oc c ur s i n 1854 a nd 1857 t o 1858 [ Q ui nn a nd N e al 1992] T he 1854 t o 1857 c ool i ng e ve nt s t a r t s pr i o r t o t he 1854 E l N i o e ve n t a nd a w a r m i ng t r e nd oc c ur s f r om 1857 t o 1858 dur i ng a m ode r a t e E l N i o. T he e vi d e nc e doe s not s uppor t e i t he r a gl oba l l y s i gni f i c a nt vol c a ni c e ve nt or E l N i o e ve nt a s t he f or c i ng f unc t i on f or t he 1854 t o 1857 c ol d e ve nt r e c or de d i n t he c o r a l S r / C a r e c or d; t he r e f or e t h i s e ve nt m a y be t he r e s ul t o f a l oc a l or r e gi ona l f l uc t ua t i on A s i gni f i c a nt w a r m i ng e ve nt ( ~ 0 8 C ) oc c ur s f r o m 1803 t o 1808 punc t ua t e s a c ool i ng t r e nd ( ~ 1. 3 C ) f r om 1771 t o 1817 ( F i gur e 2. 4) T hi s e ve nt w a s not r e pr oduc e d i n 92 P A A 2 due t o t he c onvol ut e d c or a l l i t e s t r uc t u r e i n t hi s s e c t i on; ne ve r t he l e s s t hr e e pa t hs w e r e s a m pl e d on 92 P A A 1 t w o w i t h opt i m a l c or a l l i t e a l i gn m e nt t o ve r i f y t he w a r m a nom a l y ( A ppe ndi x A ) T hi s w a r m e ve nt i s e vi de nt i n t he m e a n a nnua l r e c ons t r uc t i on f r om F i j i ( ~ 0 9 C ) [ L i ns l e y e t al 20 04] a nd t he pe nt a nnua l l y r e s ol ve d r e c ons t r uc t i on f r om G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f ( ~ 0. 4 C ) [ H e ndy e t al 2002] ( F i gur e s 2. 5 a nd 2. 6) T hi s e ve nt i s j udge d t o be r obus t ba s e d on pa t h r e pl i c a t i on w i t h i n a s i ngl e c o r e a nd a gr e e m e nt w i t h ot he r r e gi ona l c o r a l S r / C a r e c or ds

PAGE 41

31 F i gu r e 2. 5 S S T A nom a l i e s f r om C or a l S r / C a R e c or ds i n t he S out h P a c i f i c ( a ) M e a n a nnua l ( J a nua r y t o D e c e m be r ) c o r a l S r / C a S S T s how n a s de pa r t ur e s f r o m t he 1961 t o 1990 m e a n ( ve r t i c a l gr a y box) T he r e c or ds i nc l ude ( b) R a r ot onga [ L i ns l e y e t al 2000] ( c ) F i j i [ L i ns l e y e t al 2004] a nd ( d) N e w C a l e doni a R e c or ds s m oot he d w i t h a 10 ye a r l ow pa s s F I R f i l t e r ( 90% pa s s a t 12 ye a r s ) A l l t hr e e m ont hl y c o r a l S r / C a S S T r e c or ds w e r e c a l i br a t e d us i ng m e t hod d e s c r i be d by D e L ong e t al [ 2007] T he c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n m e a n a nnua l c or a l S r / C a f or N e w C a l e doni a a nd F i j i i s s i gni f i c a nt ( r = 0 53, p < 0 05 n = 216) F i j i a nd N e w C a l e doni a a r e c ool e r i n t he e i ght e e nt h a nd ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y, w he r e a s R a r ot o nga i s w a r m e r T he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y w a r m i ng t r e nd ( ~ 0. 6 C ) i s e vi de nt i n a l l t h r e e r e c or ds

PAGE 42

32

PAGE 43

33 F i gu r e 2. 6 C or a l S e a P e nt a nnua l l y R e s ol ve d C or a l S r / C a S S T R e c ons t r uc t i ons ( a ) P e nt a nnua l l y r e s ol ve d r e c or ds f r om G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f ( G B R ) [ H e ndy e t al 2002] F l i nde r s R e e f [ C al v o e t al 2007 ] a nd N e w C a l e doni a ( t hi s s t udy; s e e F i gu r e 2. 1 f o r l oc a t i ons ) s how n a s de pa r t ur e s f r om t he 1961 t o 1 990 m e a n ( ve r t i c a l gr a y box ) T he m ont hl y c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on f o r N e w C a l e doni a w a s s i m i l a r l y a ve r a ge d t o m a t c h t he 5 ye a r bul k s a m pl i ng us e d i n t he s t udi e s f or G B R a nd F l i nde r s R e e f T he c or r e l a t i on c oe f f i c i e nt be t w e e n G B R a nd t he ot he r C or a l S e a r e c or ds i s i ns i gni f i c a nt w he r e a s t he c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n F l i nde r s R e e f a nd N e w C a l e doni a i s s i gni f i c a nt ( r = 0. 37, p < 0 05, n = 57) ( b) R unni ng c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n pe nt a nnua l l y c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons ( n = 15 ) w he r e r > 0. 48 a r e s i gni f i c a nt a t 95% l e ve l ( s ha de d a r e a s i ns i gni f i c a nt ) T he m ul t i de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y i n t he F l i nde r s R e e f i s no t c ohe r e nt w i t h t he N e w C a l e doni a a nd G B R r e c or ds w he r e a s t he G B R a nd N e w C a l e doni a a r e c ohe r e nt f r om 1775 t o 1880 a nd t he l a t e t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y. T he F l i nde r s R e e f a nd N e w C a l e doni a r e c or ds s ha r e t he s a m e l ow f r e que nc y va r i a bi l i t y i n c ool e r ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y a nd w a r m e r e i ght e e nt h c e nt ur y w he r e a s t he G B R r e c or d i s w a r m dur i ng t hi s pe r i od T he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y w a r m i ng t r e nd i s e vi de nt i n a l l t hr e e r e c or ds 2. 5. 3 C e n t e n n i al S c al e S S T V ar i ab i l i t y V a r i a t i ons i n t r e e r i ng w i dt h a r e w i de l y us e d a s a p a l e oc l i m a t e pr oxy; ye t gr ow t h r e l a t e d e f f e c t s on r i ng w i dt h l i m i t t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on of f r e que nc i e s c l os e t o t he t r e e s a ge s uc h a s c e nt e nni a l va r i a bi l i t y S uc h a n ont oge ne t i c gr ow t h r e l a t e d e f f e c t ha s not be e n de m ons t r a t e d f o r m a s s i ve c or a l s ; t he r e f o r e l ong l i ve c or a l c ol oni e s s houl d be c a pa bl e of r e c ove r i ng c e nt e nni a l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y. S om e a ut hor s ha ve pr opos e d t ha t t he c or a l 1 8 O t he r m om e t e r m a y not be s t a t i ona r y t hr o ugh t i m e w hi c h, i f t r ue m i ght c a l l i nt o que s t i on c or a l 1 8 O r e c ons t r uc t i ons of c e nt e nni a l t o i nt e r a nnua l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y [ e g J one s and M ann 2004] T hi s s t udy de m ons t r a t e s t ha t t he c or a l S r / C a S S T t he r m om e t e r a ppe a r s t o be s t a t i ona r y w i t h r e s pe c t t o S S T T he r e f or e t he m ont hl y r e s ol ve d, r e pl i c a t e d, a nd c r os s da t e d r e c or d of c or a l S r / C a pr ov i de s a r e c ons t r uc t i on of S S T va r i a bi l i t y t ha t pr e s e r ve s c e nt e nni a l t o i nt e r a nnua l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y e s pe c i a l l y i n t he w e l l r e pr oduc e d por t i on of t he r e c or d ( 1728 1999)

PAGE 44

34 T he a s s e s s m e nt of t he gl oba l e xt e nt o f t he L i t t l e I c e A ge i s l i m i t e d by t he s c a nt y num be r of r e c ons t r uc t i ons i n t he t r opi c s a nd S out he r n H e m i s phe r e ye t t he r e i s e vi de nc e f or s e ve r a l w a r m pe r i ods i n t he l a s t m i l l e nni a [ J one s e t al 1998; J ans e n e t al 2007] T he c e nt e nni a l s c a l e c or a l S r / C a S S T va r i a bi l i t y r e c ons t r uc t e d f o r A m d e I s l a nd r e ve a l s a c ol d pe r i od ( ~ 1 3 1. 0 C ) i n t he e a r l y ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y w i t h a w a r m i ng t r e nd i nt o t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt u r y a f t e r 1885 ( ~ 0. 9 C ; F i gur e 2. 4) T he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y i s t he c ol de s t c e nt ur y i n t he r e c or d ( ~ 0 58 C c ol de r ; c e nt e nni a l a ve r a ge s r e por t e d w i t h r e s pe c t t o 1967 1992) s i m i l a r t o L i t t l e I c e A ge c ool i ng ( ~ 0 3 0. 6 C ) obs e r ve d i n t he N or t he r n H e m i s phe r e [ J one s e t a l 1998; M ann an d J one s 2003] H ow e ve r t he e i ght e e nt h c e nt ur y ( 0 31 C ) i s s l i ght l y w a r m e r t ha n t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y a nd t he s e ve nt e e nt h c e nt ur y ( 0. 03 C ) ha s pe r i ods a s w a r m a s t he l a t e t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y: t hi s c e nt e nni a l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y s ha r e s l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y t o t he c ol de r N or t he r n H e m i s phe r e dur i ng t he s e c e nt ur i e s T he s e ve nt e e nt h c e nt ur y p or t i on of t he m a s t e r c or a l S r / C a r e c or d ha s l ow e r c onf i de nc e i n c ont r a s t t o t he r e s t of t he r e c or d t ha t c a n be a t t r i but e d t o a l ow e r num be r of r e c or ds us e d i n t he r e c ons t r uc t i on. T he c ool e r e a r l y 1800s c or r e s ponds t o a n i nc r e a s e vol c a ni c a c t i vi t y a nd t he D a l t on M i ni m u m ; how e ve r t he r e c or d doe s not c ont a i n e qui va l e nt c ool i ng dur i ng t he M a unde r M i ni m um ( 1645 1750) S pe c t r a l a na l ys i s r e ve a l s i ns i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e i n t he ~ 11 ye a r ba nd, t he s a m e pe r i odi c i t y a s t he s uns pot c yc l e ( F i gur e 2 7) a nd c r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d no s i gni f i c a nt c ohe r e nc e be t w e e n t he c or a l S S T a nd t he t ot a l s ol a r i r r a di a nc e [ L e an 2000] T he r e f o r e t he c ol de r e a r l y 1800s c oul d be a r e s pons e t o i nc r e a s e d vol c a ni s m or ot he r f a c t or s T he r e s ul t s f r o m t hi s A m d e I s l a nd c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on c onf l i c t s w i t h t he 1 4 C c ool e r L i t t l e I c e A ge c onc l us i on by C or r g e e t al [ 2001] a p r e vi ous s t udy

PAGE 45

35 of t he s a m e c or a l c or e ( 92 P A A 1) C or r ge e t al [ 2001] a na l yz e d m ont hl y c or a l S r / C a a nd U / C a f or 1701 t o 1761; t he c ol de s t pe r i od i n t h e s e a s ona l c or a l 1 8 O r e c or d [ Q ui nn e t al 1998] A por t i on of t he c ol d pe r i od ( 1732 174 3) of t he s e a s ona l c or a l 1 8 O [ Q ui nn e t al 1998] w a s c om pa r e d t o t he c oe va l m ont hl y c or a l 1 8 O f r om 92 P A A 2. T he c oe va l c or a l 1 8 O va r i a t i ons i ndi c a t e d w a r m e r c ondi t i ons ; t he s e r e s ul t s l e a d us t o f ur t he r i nve s t i ga t e t he di s c r e pa nc y ( A ppe ndi x E ) T he t w o c or e r e pl i c a t i on of t he m ont hl y c or a l S r / C a f ound p r obl e m a t i c s e c t i ons w i t h s ubopt i m a l c or a l l i t e a l i gnm e nt a l ong t he s a m pl i ng pa t h ut i l i z e d i n t he pr e vi ous s t udi e s ( A ppe ndi c e s A C a nd D ) T hi s s t udy s a m pl e d ne w pa t hs w i t h opt i m a l c o r a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on ( 92 P A A 1 J ) a nd r e pl a c e d s e c t i ons w i t h s ubopt i m a l pa t hs ( 92 P A A 1 I a nd 92 P A A 1 H ; A p pe ndi x A ) F u r t he r m or e t h i s s t udy a dj us t e d t he c hr onol ogy a s t he r e s ul t of c r os s da t i ng of t he t w o c or e s ( 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2) ; t he a dj us t m e nt f ound t w o ove r l a ppi ng c or e s e c t i ons t ha t r e s ul t e d i n a l os s of ni ne ye a r s t o t he or i gi na l c hr onol ogy f o r 92 P A A 1 ( A p pe ndi x A ) T he ne w c or a l S r / C a r e c or d ha s a n a ve r a ge S S T of 0 25 C f or 1701 t o 1761; h ow e ve r t he r e i s a de c a de l ong c ol d e ve nt f r om 1733 t o 1745 w i t h t e m pe r a t ur e a nom a l i e s ~ 1 C c ol de r t ha n t he l a t e t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y ( F i gu r e 2. 4 ) T he c oe va l c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons f r om 92 P A A 2 do not c onf i r m t he c ol de r L i t t l e I c e A ge r e por t e d by C or r ge e t al [ 2001] ( F i gu r e 2 2) a nd t he s e r e s ul t s f i nd t ha t t he c ool i ng no t e d i n t he pr e vi ous r e por t w a s a n a r t i f a c t of s ubopt i m a l s a m pl i ng ( s e e pa r t 2. 5 1) R e s ol vi ng t he a ppa r e nt L i t t l e I c e A ge c ool i ng f o r N e w C a l e doni a pr ovi de s s om e c l a r i t y t o t he s t a t us of t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c dur i ng t hi s pe r i od C or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons f r om G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f [ H e ndy e t al 2002] a nd F l i nde r s R e e f [ C al v o e t al 2007] ( F i gu r e 2. 1 ) i n t he w e s t e r n C or a l S e a r e p or t a n e i ght e e nt h a nd s e ve nt e e nt h

PAGE 46

36 c e nt ur y a s w a r m or w a r m e r t ha n t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y ( 0. 10 C a nd 0. 03 C r e s pe c t i ve l y; r e c or ds nor m a l i z e d w i t h r e s pe c t t o 1860 1985 ) s i m i l a r t o t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on ( 0 05 C ; F i gur e 2. 6) E xa m i na t i on of t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y a ve r a ge t e m pe r a t ur e s r e ve a l s a c onf l i c t be t w e e n t h e C or a l S e a S r / C a S S T r e c or ds T he F l i nde r s R e e f a nd N e w C a l e doni a r e c or ds a r e c ool e r ( 0 25 C a nd 0 33 C r e s pe c t i ve l y) w he r e a s t he G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f r e c or d i s a s w a r m a s t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y ( 0. 11 C ; F i gu r e 2. 6) E xa m i na t i on o f t he c or r e l a t i on m a p f o r e a c h l oc a t i on ( F i gur e 2. 1 a nd 2 8) r e ve a l s t he G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f l oc a t i on i s m or e o f a c oa s t a l r e c or d, w he r e a s t he F l i nde r s R e e f s ha r e s va r i a nc e w i t h N e w C a l e doni a a nd t he C or a l S e a r e gi on; t he s e r e c or ds m a y r e f l e c t a m or e ope n oc e a n s i gna l T he l oc a t i on o f t he s e r e c or d s m a y e xpl a i n t he c e nt e nni a l s c a l e di f f e r e nc e s obs e r ve d a m ong c or a l S r / C a r e c or ds f r om t he C or a l S e a A l t e r na t i ve l y, t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n C or a l S e a c o r a l S r / C a r e c or ds m a y l i e w i t h t he 5 ye a r bul k s a m pl i ng m e t hod T he H e ndy e t al [ 2002 ] a nd C al v o e t al [ 2007] c o r a l S r / C a s t udi e s us e d 5 ye a r bul k s a m pl i ng t ha t r e c ons t r uc t s a 5 ye a r m e a n; t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a r e c or d w a s s i m i l a r l y t r e a t e d f or t he c om pa r i s on ( F i gur e 2 6) C or a l gr ow t h m a y not be c ons t a nt t hr oughout t he y e a r de pe ndi ng on s pe c i e s a nd l oc a t i on [ C har uc hi nda and C hans ang 1985; B ar ne s and L ough 1996; L e de r e t al 1996; H ar r i ot t 199 9] t hus s houl d be a c c ount e d f or w he n c a l c ul a t i ng a ve r a ge s ( e g m e a n a nnua l a nd 5 ye a r m e a n) [ B ar ne s e t al 1995; B ar ne s and L ough 1996] I n t h i s m ont hl y r e s ol ve d s t udy, t he non l i ne a r i t y i f i t e xi s t s i s a dj us t e d i n t he c onve r s i on f r om de pt h dom a i n t o t i m e dom a i n by f i t t i ng a n a pp r oxi m a t e l y s i nus oi da l c or a l S r / C a a nnua l c yc l e t o a s i nus oi da l S S T a nnua l c yc l e ( r = 0 996, p < 0. 5 n = 392) A c om pa r i s on o f t he m e a n a nd m e di a n va l ue s be t w e e n de pt h dom a i n a nd t i m e dom a i n r e ve a l s t he b i a s c or r e c t i on.

PAGE 47

37 T he r e f or e i f t he m e a n a nnua l or 5 ye a r a ve r a ge i s de t e r m i ne d i n t he t i m e dom a i n a f t e r c onve r t i ng f r o m t he de pt h dom a i n, t he s ub a nnua l l y r e s ol ve d c or a l ge oc he m i c a l r e c or d i s not bi a s e d t ow a r ds m ont hs w he n c or a l l i t e e xt e ns i on i s gr e a t e s t I f t he G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f c or a l s e xt e nd m or e i n t he s um m e r c om pa r e d t o t he w i nt e r t he c or a l s ke l e t a l ge oc he m i c a l r e c or d w oul d be bi a s e d w a r m : t hi s c oul d e xpl a i n t he obs e r ve d di f f e r e nc e s I n c ont r a s t t he F l i nde r s R e e f s t udy e m pl oy e d t he s a m e bul k s a m pl i ng m e t hod a s H e ndy e t al [ 2002 ] T he F l i nde r s R e e f c or a l S r / C a r e c or d doe s not a pp e a r t o ha ve a w a r m bi a s w hi c h m i ght s ugge s t t ha t t he c or a l gr e w a t a n a pp r oxi m a t e l y c o ns t a nt r a t e E xa m i na t i on of t he X r a di ogr a ph i n t he w or k of C al v o e t al [ 2007] r e ve a l s a n a ppr oxi m a t e l y e ve n w i dt h be t w e e n t he l ow a nd hi gh de ns i t y ba nds w hi c h w oul d i ndi c a t e ne a r l i ne a r gr ow t h [ B ar ne s e t al 1995 ] a s s um i ng t he c or a l l i t e s a r e o pt i m a l l y or i e nt e d T he s e a s s um pt i ons ha ve not be e n t e s t e d e m pi r i c a l l y a nd t he e f f e c t of n on l i ne a r gr ow t h i n c or a l s ne e ds t o be e va l ua t e d. U nde r s t a ndi ng of t he i nf l ue nc e of s e a s ona l gr ow t h va r i a bi l i t y on t he c or a l ge oc he m i c a l r e c or d i s ne c e s s a r y f or de t e r m i ni ng s a m pl i ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd f or i nt e r pr e t a t i on o f c or a l ge oc he m i c a l r e c or ds T he c l i m a t e s t a t e of t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c dur i ng t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y i s e xa m i ne d by c om pa r i ng m ont hl y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons f r om t he r e gi on: na m e l y N e w C a l e doni a F i j i [ L i ns l e y e t al 2004] a nd R a r ot onga [ L i ns l e y e t al 2000] ( F i gur e 2 1 a nd 2. 5) T he N e w C a l e doni a a nd F i j i c or a l S r / C a r e c or ds [ L i ns l e y e t al 2004] a r e c ool e r i n t he ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y, w he r e a s R a r ot onga [ L i ns l e y e t al 2000] i s a s w a r m a s t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y ( 0 64 C 0. 73 C 0. 18 C r e s pe c t i ve l y; va l ue s r e por t e d w i t h r e s pe c t t o 1961 1990; F i gu r e 2. 5 ) E xa m i na t i on of t he c or r e l a t i on m a p f or e a c h l oc a t i on r e ve a l s N e w C a l e doni a a nd F i j i s ha r e va r i a nc e ( F i gur e 2 1 a nd 2. 8) R a r ot onga

PAGE 48

38 i s c l os e r t o t he r e gi on w he r e t he S S T r e s pons e t o a n E N S O w a r m pha s e s w i t c he s f r om pos i t i ve t o ne g a t i ve T h i s l oc a t i on m a y a l s o be i nf l ue nc e d by s hi f t s i n t he r e s pons e pa t t e r n t o E N S O i f t he s e s hi f t s oc c ur on c e nt e nni a l t i m e s c a l e s [ C obb e t al 2003] T he r e f or e l oc a t i on o f t he r e c ons t r uc t i ons i s one e x pl a na t i on f or c e nt e nni a l s c a l e di f f e r e nc e s obs e r ve d be t w e e n s out hw e s t P a c i f i c c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or ds I n s um m a r y, a pr o l onge d L i t t l e I c e A ge pe r i od w i t h c ool e r S S T i s not e vi de nt i n t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on or i n s i m i l a r c or a l S r / C a S S T f r o m t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c S i m i l a r r e s ul t s a r e r e por t e d f or t r e e r i ng r e c ons t r uc t i ons i n T a s m a ni a [ C ook e t al 2000] a nd N e w Z e a l a nd [ X i ong and P a l m e r 2000] a nd s out he r n he m i s phe r e r e c ons t r uc t i ons [ J one s e t al 1998 ] T he s e r e c or ds do not c ove r t he e nt i r e L i t t l e I c e A ge pe r i od a nd e xt e ndi ng t he r e c or ds ba c k i n t i m e w i l l p r ovi de i ns i ght i nt o s out hw e s t t r opi c a l P a c i f i c on c e nt e nni a l t i m e s c a l e s T he r e i s e vi de nc e f o r a c ool e r ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y f o r i s l a nd o r ope n r e e f l oc a t i ons s out h of t he S P C Z ; t hi s c ool i ng m a y be r e s ul t of e nha nc e d vol c a ni c a c t i vi t y i n t hi s c e nt ur y or ot he r f a c t or s 2. 5. 4 I n t e r an n u al t o M u l t i D e c ad al S c al e S S T V ar i ab i l i t y T he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d w a s a na l yz e d us i ng va r i ous t i m e s e r i e s m e t hods t o i nve s t i ga t e t he s i gni f i c a nt pe r i od i c os c i l l a t i ons i n t he r e c or d. E a c h t i m e s e r i e s m e t hod ha s s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kne s s e s ; t he r e f or e r obus t ne s s i nc r e a s e s w he n s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s a r e i de nt i f i e d i n m or e t ha n one s pe c t r a l m e t hod. T he r e s ul t s f r om t he m ul t i t a pe r m e t hod ( M T M ) [ T hom s on 1982; G hi l e t al 2002] a nd w a ve l e t a na l ys i s [ T or r e nc e and C om po 1998; G r i ns t e d e t al 2004 ] a r e i l l us t r a t e d i n F i gur e 2. 7 S pe c t r a l a na l ys e s of t he c or a l S r / C a t i m e s e r i e s i de nt i f i e d s i gni f i c a nt ( 95 % ) pe r i odi c i t i e s i n t he

PAGE 49

39

PAGE 50

40 bi e nni a l ba nd ( ~ 2 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t he i nt e r a nnua l ba n d ( ~ 5. 7 a nd 8 5 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t he de c a da l ba nd ( ~ 19, ~ 15, a nd ~ 14 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t he bi de c a da l ba nd ( ~ 26 32 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t he m ul t i de c a da l ba nd ( ~ 37 46 ye a r s / c yc l e ) a nd s ub c e nt e nni a l ba nd ( ~ 57 76 ye a r s / c yc l e ; F i gur e 2. 7a ) T he de c a da l t o m ul t i de c a da l ba nds c ont a i n t he l a r ge s t pe r c e nt a ge of va r i a nc e ( 6 % f or de c a da l ; 7 5% f o r b i de c a da l ; 3% f or m ul t i de c a da l ) f ol l ow by t he i nt e r a nnua l ba nds ( 3% f or 5. 7 ye a r s / c yc l e 1. 4% f or 8. 5 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t he s ub c e nt e nni a l ba nd ( 2. 4 % ) a nd l a s t l y t he bi e nni a l ba nd ( 1 9% ; F i gur e 2. 7a ) S pe c t r a l a na l ys i s r e ve a l s a n a t t e nua t i on of va r i a nc e i n t he ~ 11 t o 12 ye a r ba nd, t he s a m e pe r i odi c i t y a s t he s uns pot c yc l e ( A ppe ndi x H ) C o r r e l a t i on a nd c r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s w i t h a s uns pot c yc l e t i m e s e r i e s [ L e an 2000 ] f oun d no s i gni f i c a nt c ohe r e nc e T he c oupl e d m e t hods of w a ve l e t s a nd M T M a l l ow t he e xpl or a t i on of a t i m e s e r i e s i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n t o ga i n f ur t he r i ns i ght i nt o t he pe r i odi c va r i a bi l i t y c ont a i ne d i n t he t i m e s e r i e s S e ve r a l bi e nni a l ba nd pe a ks oc c ur i n t he M T M pl ot ( F i gur e 2 7a ) t ha t m a y be r e l a t e d t o t he a t m os phe r i c qua s i bi e nni a l o s c i l l a t i on ( Q B O ; ~ 2. 3 ye a r s / c yc l e ) F i gu r e 2. 7 S pe c t r a l A na l ys e s of M ont hl y R e c ons t r uc t e d S S T A nom a l i e s ( a ) M ul t i t a pe r m e t hod ( M T M ) s pe c t r um ( t a pe r s = 3, r e s ol ut i on = 2 ) [ T hom s on 1982; G hi l e t al 2002] of c o r a l S r / C a S S T C onf i de nc e i nt e r va l s e s t i m a t e d a s s um i ng a r e d noi s e ba c kgr ound [ M ann and L e e s 1996] S i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s ( 95% c onf i de nc e l e ve l ) a r e i de nt i f i e d i n t he m ul t i de c a da l ba nds ( ~ 4 2 57 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t he b i de c a da l ba nds ( ~ 24 32 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t he de c a da l ba nds ( ~ 1 4 19 ye a r s / c yc l e ) a nd i n t e r a nnua l ba nds ( ~ 8, 5 7, ~ 2 ye a r s / c yc l e ; gr a y boxe s ) P e r c e nt a ge s a r e % va r i a nc e f or s i gni f i c a nt ba nds ( b ) T he m ont hl y c or a l S r / C a S S T a nom a l y w i t h 4 8 m ont h l ow pa s s F I R f i l t e r ( 90% pa s s a t 81 m ont hs ; r e d l i ne ) ( c ) T he l oc a l w a ve l e t pow e r s pe c t r um us i ng t he M or l e t m ot he r w a ve l e t a nd nor m a l i z e d by 1/ 2 [ T o r r e nc e and C om po 1998; G r i ns t e d e t al 2004] T he he a vy b l a c k l i ne i s t h e c one of i nf l ue nc e a nd t he a r e a unde r c one s houl d be i nt e r pr e t e d w i t h c a ut i on due t o e dge e f f e c t s t ha t r e s ul t f r om z e r o pa ddi ng. T he t hi n bl a c k c ont our l i ne s e nc l os e t i m e f r e que nc y r e gi ons of g r e a t e r t ha n 95% c on f i de nc e i nt e r va l e s t i m a t e d a s s um i ng a r e d noi s e ba c kgr oun d m ode l a s a f i r s t o r de r a ut or e g r e s s i ve m ode l ( A R ( 1) ) T he l ow f r e que nc y t r e nd i n t he r e c ons t r uc t e d S S T w a s r e m ove d by a s e c ond or de r pol ynom i a l f i t pr i or t o M T M a nd w a ve l e t a na l ys i s T he s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s i de nt i f i e d i n t he M T M s pe c t r um ha ve s i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e i n t he l oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r um

PAGE 51

41 [ N auj ok at 1986] T he l oc a l w a ve l e t pow e r s pe c t r um i de nt i f i e d s por a di c c onc e nt r a t i ons of bi e nni a l va r i a nc e i n t he r e c or d ( 1877 a nd 1950 2000, F i gu r e 2 7c ) T he l a r ge s t c onc e nt r a t i on of bi e nni a l va r i a nc e oc c ur s i n 1995 t o 1999, a pe r i od a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he 1998 E l N i o e ve nt ( F i gur e 2. 7c ) T he r e f or e w a v e l e t a na l ys i s doe s not s uppor t a s us t a i ne d c ohe r e nc e be t w e e n t he c or a l S r / C a S S T a nd t he Q B O a nd c r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s f ound no s ha r e d c ohe r e nc e be t w e e n t he s e t i m e s e r i e s T he ~ 8 5 ye a r pe r i odi c i t y i s not nor m a l l y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h E N S O a nd t hi s pe a k i s not p r e s e n t i n t he s pe c t r a o f l oc a l i ns t r um e nt a l S S T r e c or ds ( H a dI S S T _A I a nd I R D S S T ) T he l oc a l w a ve l e t pow e r s pe c t r um r e ve a l s t ha t t he ~ 8 5 ye a r pe r i odi c i t y a ppe a r s t o be r e l a t e d t o 1855 c ol d a nom a l y ( c f F i gu r e 2. 7b a nd c ) w hi c h doe s not c o i nc i de w i t h a know n E l N i o ( s e e pa r t 2. 5. 3) T he ~ 5. 7 ye a r pe r i odi c i t y i s c onc e nt r a t e d i n t he pe r i od f r o m 1910 t o 1925 i n t he l oc a l w a ve l e t pow e r s pe c t r um ( F i gur e 2. 7c ) T he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T t i m e s e r i e s e xhi bi t s s i gni f i c a nt bi de c a da l a nd i nt e r de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y ( F i gur e 2. 7 ) ; how e ve r c or r e l a t i on a nd c r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys e s f ound t ha t t he i nt e r de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y i s not c ohe r e nt w i t h t he P D O or I P O i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e n t ur y ( F i gur e 2 8) S i m i l a r l y, t he H a dI S S T _A I t i m e s e r i e s doe s not s ha r e i nt e r de c a da l c ohe r e nc e w i t h t he P D O or I P O T he s e m i c e nt e nni a l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( ~ 49 80 ye a r s ) a r e c onc e nt r a t e d i n t he pe r i od f r om 1820 t o 1955 i n t he l oc a l w a ve l e t pow e r s pe c t r um how e ve r a por t i on of t hi s c onc e nt r a t i on of s pe c t r a l pow e r oc c ur s out s i de t he c one of i nf l ue nc e ; t h e r e f or e s houl d be i nt e r pr e t e d w i t h c a ut i on ( F i gur e 2 7c ) M i nobe [ 19 97] not e d a 50 t o 70 ye a r pe r i odi c i t y a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he P D O r e gi m e s hi f t s i n N or t h P a c i f i c s e a l e ve l pr e s s ur e a nd i n a N or t h A m e r i c a n t r e e r i ng r e c ons t r uc t i on [ F r i t t s 1991] A n e vol ut i ve M T M [ s e e M i nobe 1997 F i gur e 4c ] e xhi bi t s t he s a m e t e m por a l c onc e nt r a t i o n of s e m i c e nt e nni a l va r i a nc e i n t he

PAGE 52

42 F i gu r e 2. 8 D e c a da l V a r i a bi l i t y i n S S T R e c ons t r uc t i ons f r om t he S out h P a c i f i c ( a ) T he m ont hl y c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons w hi c h a r e l oc a t e d a l ong a n a ppr oxi m a t e l y e a s t t o w e s t t r a ns e c t ( S e e F i gur e 2. 1 f or l oc a t i ons ) i nc l ude ( b ) R a r ot onga [ L i ns l e y e t al 200 0] ( c ) F i j i [ L i ns l e y e t al 2004 ] a nd ( d ) A m d e I s l a nd, N e w C a l e doni a T he P D O i nde x [ M ant ua e t al 1997] a nd I P O i nde x [ F ol l and e t al 2002 ] a r e c om pa r e d t o t he r e s pe c t i ve c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons T he t hr e e c o r a l S r / C a r e c or ds w e r e c a l i br a t e d t o l oc a l S S T us i ng m e t hod de s c r i be d by D e L ong e t al [ 2007] S S T a nom a l i e s c a l c ul a t e d w i t h r e s pe c t t o 1950 t o 1979 s i m i l a r t o P D O T he l ow f r e que nc y t r e nd w a s r e m ove d f r o m e a c h c or a l r e c o r d by s e c ond or de r pol ynom i a l f i t a nd f i l t e r e d ( 10 ye a r l ow pa s s F I R f i l t e r ; 90 % pa s s > 12 ye a r s ) t o e xa m i ne f r e que nc i e s out s i de t he i nt e r a nnua l ba nd.

PAGE 53

43 ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y a s t he N e w C a l e doni a l oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r um ( F i gu r e 2. 7b ) H ow e ve r t he N e w C a l e doni a r e c or d doe s not s ha r e i nt e r de c a da l c ohe r e nc e w i t h t he P D O T hi s s e m i c e nt e nni a l c onc e nt r a t i on of va r i a nc e i s s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t y i n t he M T M s pe c t r um but t he s e pe r i odi c i t i e s a r e c l os e t o t he l i m i t s of i nt e r p r e t a t i on f o r t hi s r e c or d. T he l oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r um r e ve a l s s e ve r a l s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s t ha t c oi nc i de w i t h l a r ge vol c a ni c e ve nt s r e c or de d i n t he c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d ( F i gu r e 2 4) A s i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i on of va r i a nc e ( ~ 16 ye a r s / c yc l e ) oc c ur s i n 1883 w hi c h c oi nc i de s w i t h t he K r a ka t a u e r upt i on ( F i gur e 2. 7b a nd c ) a s e vi de nt by a l a r ge c ool i ng e ve nt ( ~ 1 C ) i n t he c or a l t i m e s e r i e s F u r t he r e xa m i na t i on r e ve a l s a c onc e nt r a t i on of va r i a nc e ( ~ 20 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t ha t c oi nc i de s w i t h t he T a m bor a e r upt i on i n 1815 T he s e c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e m a y j us t c oi nc i de w i t h l a r ge vol c a ni c e ve nt s or a l a r ge s i ngl e e ve nt i n a t i m e s e r i e s m a y ha ve a s i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i on o f va r i a nc e i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n. T o t e s t t hi s hypot he s i s a l oc a l w a ve l e t pow e r s pe c t r um w a s c om put e d f or a t i m e s e r i e s t ha t c ont a i ns j us t l a r ge s pi ke e ve nt s t he V ol c a ni c E x pl os i vi t y I nde x ( V E I ) [ C r ow l e y 2000] ( A ppe ndi x F ) T he l a r ge s pi ke e ve nt s pr oduc e c on c e nt r a t i ons of s i gni f i c a nt va r i a nc e i n t he l oc a l w a ve l e t pow e r s pe c t r um i n t he i nt e r a nnua l a nd i nt e r de c a da l pe r i od i c i t i e s a nd t he M T M s pe c t r um c ont a i ns s i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e i n t he i nt e r a nnua l ba nds ( A ppe ndi x F ) T hi s de m ons t r a t i on doe s not p r ove t ha t t he c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e obs e r ve d i n t he c or a l S r / C a S S T t i m e s e r i e s a r e du e t o vol c a ni c e ve nt s H ow e ve r a l a r ge s i ngl e e ve nt c a n pr oduc e s i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e i n a s pe c t r um t ha t a r e not r e l a t e d t o os c i l l a t i ons S pe c t r a l m e t hods us e t r a ns f or m s f r om t he t i m e dom a i n t o f r e que nc y dom a i n t ha t f i t s i nus oi da l c ur ve s t o t he t i m e s e r i e s I f t he f i t i s good f o r a

PAGE 54

44 s i ngl e e ve nt w i t h a l a r ge pe r c e nt o f t he va r i a nc e t h e t r a ns f or m o f t he e ve nt i nt o f r e que nc y s pa c e m a y pr oduc e s i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e T he c oupl i ng o f s pe c t r a l a nd w a ve l e t a na l ys i s c a n he l p r e f i ne t he i n t e r pr e t a t i on of s i gni f i c a nt s pe c t r a l pe a ks by de t e r m i ni ng t hos e pe a ks a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a s i ngl e e ve nt a nd not r e l a t e d t o pe r s i s t e nt os c i l l a t i ons or m odul a t i ng pe r i odi c i t i e s i n a t i m e s e r i e s E N S O i s t he pr i m a r y s our c e of i nt e r a nnua l c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y i n N e w C a l e doni a e ve n t hough N e w C a l e doni a i s not l oc a t e d a t a c e nt e r of a c t i on f or E N S O S S T a nom a l i e s dur i ng E N S O w a r m pha s e a r e ~ 11% ( 0. 5 C ) o f t he s e a s ona l va r i a bi l i t y w he r e a s S S S c a n va r y by ~ 50% a nd pe r s i s t f or n i n e t o t w e l ve m ont hs [ D e l c r oi x and L e nor m and 1997] C r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s r e ve a l s s i gni f i c a nt c ohe r e nc e ( ~ 5 ye a r s ) be t w e e n t he S O I a nd t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y W a ve l e t a na l ys i s r e ve a l s t he a m pl i t ude of t he E N S O ba nd pe r i odi c i t i e s ( 4 8 y e a r s ) m odul a t e s t hr ough t i m e w i t h s i gni f i c a nt a m pl i t ude s i n t he e a r l y 1850s a nd 1905 t o 1925 ( F i gur e 2 7b a nd c ) S i m i l a r c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e f or t he e a r l y t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y a r e pr e s e nt i n t he c or a l a nd t r e e r i ng ba s e d E N S O r e c o ns t r uc t i ons [ St ahl e e t a l 1998; C obb e t al 2003; D A r r i go e t a l 2005] T he s e r e s ul t s d o not ne c e s s a r i l y i ndi c a t e t ha t E N S O di d not ha ve a n i nf l ue nc e on N e w C a l e doni a i n t he ot he r t i m e pe r i ods ; m e r e l y t he s e ns i t i vi t y of t he m ont h l y c or a l S r / C a t he r m om e t e r m a y not r e s ol ve a n E N S O S S T s i gna l w i t h r e duc e d a m pl i t ude T he r e i s e vi de nc e f or i nt e r de c a da l m odul a t i on of E N S O va r i a bi l i t y i n A us t r a l i a a nd N e w Z e a l a nd [ P ow e r e t al 1999; Sal i nge r e t a l 2001] ; a s i m i l a r m odul a t i on o f E N S O m a y oc c ur i n N e w C a l e doni a C or a l 1 8 O i s a be t t e r p r oxy f or E N S O va r i a bi l i t y i n t he N e w C a l e doni a r e gi on be c a us e i nt e r a nnua l va r i a bi l i t y i n

PAGE 55

45 s a l i ni t y e xc e e ds t ha t of S S T [ Q ui nn e t al 1998 ] ; h e nc e c or a l 1 8 O s houl d ha ve a s t r onge r E N S O r e l a t e d s pe c t r a l c ha r a c t e r T he de c a da l a nd bi de c a da l ba nds ( 14 32 ye a r s / c yc l e ) c ont a i n t he hi ghe s t pe r c e nt a ge of va r i a nc e i n t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d w i t h a c onc e nt r a t i on of va r i a nc e i n t he 1800s a nd l a t e 166 0s ( F i gur e 2 7a a nd c ) T he pe r i od f r om 1660 t o 1725 ha s s i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons o f pow e r ( ~ 16 32 ye a r s / c yc l e ; F i gu r e 2. 7c ) a s t he r e s ul t of t he l a r ge s hi f t s t ha t oc c ur i n t hi s i nt e r va l ( F i gur e 2 4) T he pe r i od f r om 1648 t o 1728 ha s l e s s c onf i de nc e due t o l ow e r c or e c ove r a ge ( F i gur e 2. 2a ) ; t he r e f or e t hi s c onc e nt r a t i on o f w a ve l e t pow e r i s i n t e r pr e t e d w i t h c a ut i on T he M T M s pe c t r um of t he c or a l S r / C a r e c or d r e ve a l s a s e pa r a t i on of t he de c a da l ( ~ 14 19 ye a r s / c yc l e ) a nd bi de c a da l ba nds ( ~ 26 32 ye a r s / c yc l e ; F i gur e 2 7a ) T he l oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r um r e ve a l s t he s pe c t r a l pow e r o f t he i nt e r de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( ~ 14 19 ye a r s / c yc l e ) m odul a t e s w i t h t i m e a nd t he m ul t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( ~ 25 33 ye a r s / c yc l e ) t e nd t o pe r s i s t w i t h t i m e ( F i gur e 2. 7c ) T he m u l t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s m a y r e pr e s e nt a n i nde pe nde nt m ode of c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y or a ha r m oni c of t he m odul a t i ng i nt e r de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s C onc e nt r a t i ons o f va r i a nc e i n t he i n t e r a nnua l ba nds c oi nc i de w i t h a l a c k of va r i a nc e i n t he i nt e r de c a da l ba nds ( 1850s a nd 191 0s ) a nd m a y i ndi c a t e a pos s i bl e m odul a t i on of E N S O va r i a bi l i t y on i nt e r de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y ( F i gur e 2. 7) H ow e ve r t he c or a l S r / C a S S T pr oxy ha s l ow s e ns i t i vi t y t o E N S O va r i a bi l i t y a nd t he 1855 e ve nt i s not r e l a t e d t o a know n E l N i o e ve nt ; t h e r e f o r e t he po s s i bl e m odul a t i on of E N S O s houl d b e t e s t e d w i t h ot he r p r oxi e s s uc h a s c or a l 1 8 O T he s pe c t r a l c ha r a c t e r o f t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a t i m e s e r i e s c a n be c ha r a c t e r i z e d a s e i t he r r e s pons e t o vol c a ni c f o r c i n g or a s a n i nt e r de c a da l a nd bi de c a da l

PAGE 56

46 s ys t e m w i t h m ode s of va r i a bi l i t y not pr e vi o us l y r e c ogni z e d or a c om bi na t i on of bot h. T he c onc e nt r a t i ons of i nt e r de c a da l va r i a nc e c oi nc i de w i t h l a r ge vol c a ni c e ve nt s V ol c a ni c c ool i ng ha s pr e vi ous l y be e n r e po r t e d f o r a c or a l 1 8 O r e c or d f r om N i nga l oo R e e f i n w e s t e r n A us t r a l i a [ G agan 1995 ] C oupl e d oc e a n a t m os phe r e m ode l e xpe r i m e nt s t ha t i nc l ude t i m e va r yi ng e xt e r na l f o r c i ng ( e g c ha nge s i n gr e e nhous e ga s e s s ol a r i r r a di a nc e a nd vol c a ni c a e r os ol s ) r e ve a l e vi de nc e f or vo l c a ni c i nduc e d c ool i ng of t he gl oba l oc e a n s ur f a c e a nd de e pe r l a y e r s t ha t c a n pe r s i s t f o r de c a de s [ G l e c k l e r e t al 2006a ; G l e c k l e r e t al 2006b] A ddi t i ona l l y, t he f i t be t w e e n c l i m a t e m ode l out put a nd obs e r va t i ons of oc e a n he a t c ont e nt a nd s e a l e ve l c ha nge i m pr ove w he n f or c e d w i t h vo l c a ni c c ool i ng [ C hur c h e t al 2005; D om i ngue s e t al 2008] N e w C a l e doni a i s l oc a t e d i n a r e gi on w i t h a s m a l l e r S S T r e s pons e t o E N S O f o r c i ng ( 11% ) c om pa r e d t o s e a s ona l S S T va r i a bi l i t y; t he r e f or e N e w C a l e doni a m a y be m or e s e ns i t i ve t o e xt e r na l f o r c i ng s uc h a s vol c a ni c c ool i ng H ow e ve r t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y ha s ve r y l i t t l e vol c a ni c f o r c i ng, ye t t he c or a l S r / C a r e c or d e xhi bi t s de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y f or t hi s pe r i od ( F i gu r e 2 7c ) F u r t he r m o r e t he j oi nt oc c ur r e nc e of vol c a ni c e ve nt s a nd i nt e r de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y c oul d be t he r e s ul t of c ha nc e A c om pl i c a t i on t o r e s ol vi ng i nt e r de c a da l t o m ul t i de c a da l S S T va r i a bi l i t y i n t he S out h P a c i f i c i s t he l a c k o f obs e r va t i ons T he I P O a nd P D O a r e de f i ne d us i ng i nt e r pol a t e d gr i dde d S S T da t a pr od uc t s t ha t i nc l ud e s hi p of oppo r t uni t y m e a s ur e m e nt s a nd na va l r e c or ds a s a s our c e of obs e r va t i ons [ Sl ut z e t al 1985] I n t he S ou t h P a c i f i c m os t of t he obs e r va t i ons oc c ur a l ong s hi ppi ng l a ne s w i t h a c onc e n t r a t i on a l ong t he c oa s t s of A us t r a l i a a nd N e w Z e a l a nd. P r i or t o W or l d W a r I t he s hi ppi ng l a ne s i n t he S out h P a c i f i c w e r e a ppr oxi m a t e l y a l ong t he 50 S pa r a l l e l A f t e r t he P a na m a C a na l ope ne d

PAGE 57

47 ( 1914) t he s hi ppi ng l a ne s s hi f t e d t o a di a gona l t r a ns e c t f r om P a na m a t o t he E a s t A us t r a l i a N e w Z e a l a nd a r e a ; t he s e c ha nge s i n s hi p pi ng l a ne s m a y ha ve i nt r oduc e d a bi a s t o t he gr i dde d S S T r e c or d. F u r t he r m or e t he E a s t A us t r a l i a N e w Z e a l a nd a r e a a nd t he 50 S s hi ppi ng l a ne a r e r e gi ons dom i na t e d by hi gh l y va r i a bl e oc e a n c ur r e nt s ; t he w e s t e r n bounda r y c ur r e nt E a s t A us t r a l i a C ur r e nt ( E A C ) a nd t he A nt a r c t i c C i r c um pol a r C ur r e nt A s a r e s ul t t he s pa t i a l a nd t e m por a l c ove r a ge of S S T f o r t he S out h P a c i f i c i s s pa r s e c om pa r e d t o t he N o r t h P a c i f i c T he S S T da t a p r od uc t s e m pl o y va r i ous bi a s c or r e c t i ons de pe ndi ng on t he m ode of t e m pe r a t ur e m e a s ur e m e nt [ e g R ay ne r e t al 2003] R e c e nt l y, T hom s on e t al [ 2008 ] f ound a b i a s t ha t ha d not be e n c or r e c t e d t ha t m a y i nt r oduc e c ha nge s t o t he s ubs e que nt S S T da t a p r od uc t s T he unc ove r e d bi a s i s m a ni f e s t e d a s a n a br upt c ol d e ve nt i n 1945 T he c or r e s pondi ng gr i d box f r om H a d I S S T [ R ay ne r e t al 2003] f or A m d e I s l a nd e xhi bi t s t h i s c ol d e ve nt ; how e ve r t he c or a l S r / C a r e c or d i s w a r m i ng a t t hi s t i m e S i m i l a r w a r m i ng o c c ur s i n t he F i j i a nd R a r ot onga c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or ds ( F i gur e 2 5) [ L i ns l e y e t a l 200 0; L i ns l e y e t al 2004] w he r e a s t he i r c or r e s pondi ng H a dI S S T gr i d boxe s a r e c ool i ng T hi s pa r t i c ul a r bi a s i s p r obl e m a t i c ; 1945 i s i de nt i f i e d a s a n I P O / P D O r e gi m e s hi f t T he a ut hor s of t he S S T da t a p r oduc t s ut i l i z e i nt e r pol a t i on m e t hods t o c om pl e t e a gl oba l gr i d of S S T [ e g R ay ne r e t al 2003; Sm i t h and R e y nol ds 2004 ] t ha t m a y not c a pt ur e a l l va r i a bi l i t y i n da t a s pa r s e r e gi ons A t r e m e ndous a m ount of w or k goe s i nt o c r e a t i ng t he s e S S T da t a ba s e s a nd t he y a r e i nva l ua bl e ye t t he y a r e s ubj e c t t o a m e ndm e nt s T h e l a c k of l o ng S S T r e c or ds f r o m t he S out h P a c i f i c hi nde r s our unde r s t a ndi ng of de c a da l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y i n t hi s r e gi on C or a l ba s e d S r / C a r e c ons t r uc t i ons of S S T f r om R a r ot ong a [ L i ns l e y e t al 2000] F i j i [ L i ns l e y e t al 2004] F l i nde r s R e e f [ C al v o e t al 2007 ] t he G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f [ H e ndy e t al 2002]

PAGE 58

48 a nd N e w C a l e do ni a pr ovi de l ong r e c or ds of S S T v a r i a bi l i t y i n t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c E a c h of t he s e l oc a t i ons ha s r e gi ona l s c ope i l l us t r a t e d by c or r e l a t i ons m a ps o f t he r e s pe c t i ve 1 gr i d O I S S T a nom a l i e s ( F i gur e 2 9) T he G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f l oc a t i on ha s s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i ons w i t h c oa s t a l E a s t A us t r a l i a a nd t he C or a l S e a ; w he r e a s t he F l i nde r s R e e f l oc a t i on, w hi c h i s ope n oc e a n, ha s a w i de r c or r e l a t i on r e gi on. O f t he f i ve l oc a t i ons F i j i ha s t he l a r ge s t c or r e l a t i on a r e a a nd a s pa t i a l pa t t e r n t ha t r e s e m bl e s t he E N S O a n d I P O s pa t i a l pa t t e r n f r om E O F a na l ys i s R a r ot onga i s c l os e s t t o t he s ubt r op i c a l gyr e a nd S P C Z a nd c or r e l a t e s s i gni f i c a nt l y w i t h F i j i T he F i j i a nd R a r ot onga l oc a t i ons a r e m or e s e ns i t i ve t o va r i a t i ons i n t he i n t he S P C Z w he r e a s t he t hr e e C or a l S e a l oc a t i ons r e f l e c t va r i a t i ons i n t he he a t c ont e nt of t he C or a l S e a S i m i l a r c om pa r i s ons c a n be m a de f or t he f i ve s out hw e s t P a c i f i c c or a l S r / C a r e c or ds T he N e w C a l e doni a a nd F i j i [ L i ns l e y e t al 2004] c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons a r e s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d, w he r e a s t he R a r ot onga [ L i ns l e y e t al 2004] a nd N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T a r e not s i g ni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d. N e w C a l e doni a a nd F i j i a r e l oc a t e d s out hw e s t of t he S P C Z s ha r e a c om m on c l i m a t ol ogi c a l z one ( F i gu r e 2. 1 ) T he t w o pe nt a nnua l l y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or ds f r o m t he C or a l S e a r e gi on [ H e nd y e t a l 2002; C al v o e t al 2007 ] a r e not s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d w he r e a s t he s i m i l a r l y r e s a m pl e d N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d s ha r e s s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i on w i t h t he F l i nd e r s R e e f r e c or d ( r = 0. 37 p < 0 05, n = 57) but no t t he G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f r e c ons t r uc t i on; t hi s c ont r a s t s w i t h t he e xpe c t a t i on of c or r e l a t i on f o r r e c or ds i n r e l a t i ve l y c l os e pr oxi m i t y ( F i gu r e 2. 1 ) F l i nde r s R e e f [ C al v o e t al 2007] a nd N e w C a l e doni a s ha r e c e nt e nni a l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y w he r e a s t he G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f [ H e ndy e t al 2002] a nd N e w C a l e doni a a r e c ohe r e nt out s i de t he c e nt e nni a l s c a l e a s s how n by a 75 ye a r m ovi ng c o r r e l a t i on

PAGE 59

49 F i gu r e 2. 9 C or r e l a t i on M a ps of M ont hl y S S T A no m a l i e s f or C or a l S r / C a R e c ons t r uc t i on s i t e s i n t he S out h P a c i f i c C or r e l a t i on m a ps s a m e a s F i gur e 2 1 f or ( a ) G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f ( b) F l i nde r s R e e f ( c ) F i j i a nd ( d ) R a r ot onga

PAGE 60

50 w i ndow ( F i gur e 2. 6b ) T he di s c r e pa nc i e s m a y be r e s ul t of di f f e r e nt m e t hods us e d t o r e c ons t r uc t S S T f r o m c or a l S r / C a S a m p l i ng a c on t i nuous pa t h f or f i ve ye a r s w i l l bi a s t he r e c or d t ow a r ds s um m e r m ont hs due t o t he non l i ne a r gr ow t h of c o r a l ; t hi s w oul d e xpl a i n t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n N e w C a l e doni a a nd t he G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f on c e nt e nni a l s c a l e s ( s e e pa r t 2. 5. 3) T he G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f [ H e ndy e t al 2002 ] a nd N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a r e c or ds w e r e c om pos e d f r o m m ul t i pl e c or e s w he r e a s t he F l i nde r s R e e f r e c or d [ C al v o e t al 2007 ] i s a s i ngl e c or e C hr on ol ogy e r r or s i nt r oduc e d by l oc a l l y a bs e nt ye a r s a nd c or e br e a ks m a y r e s ul t i n t e m po r a l of f s e t s be t w e e n t he 5 ye a r s a m pl i ng i nt e r va l s r e s ul t i ng i n t he l a c k o f c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he C or a l S e a r e c or ds T he F l i nde r s R e e f r e c or d [ C al v o e t al 2007 ] i s t he onl y s out hw e s t P a c i f i c c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d w i t hout a T a m bor a r e l a t e d c ol d e ve nt ( 1815) ; F l i n de r s R e e f i s w a r m i ng f r om 1810 t o 1820 w i t h c ol de r pe r i ods be f o r e a nd a f t e r ( 1806 1 810 a nd 1821 1835; F i gur e 2 6) T he f i ve m ul t i c e nt ur y c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons i n t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c ( G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f [ H e ndy e t al 2002 ] F l i nde r s R e e f [ C al v o e t al 2007] N e w C a l e doni a F i j i [ L i ns l e y e t al 2004] a nd R a r ot onga [ L i ns l e y e t al 2000] ) s ha r e a c om m on w a r m i ng t r e nd i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y ( F i gur e 2. 5 a nd 2 6) T he w a r m i ng t r e nd c oi nc i de s w i t h a n a br upt f r e s he ni ng i n t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c t ha t c om m e nc e d i n t he m i d 1800s a nd i s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a n e xpa ns i on of t he S P C Z [ L i ns l e y e t al 2006 ] S pe c t r a l a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t he t hr e e m ont hl y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a r e c or ds N e w C a l e doni a F i j i [ L i ns l e y e t al 200 4] a nd R a r ot onga [ L i ns l e y e t al 2000] ha ve di f f e r e nt s i gni f i c a nt i nt e r de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s ; how e ve r t he bi de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( ~ 25 22 ye a r s ) a r e pr e s e nt a l l t hr e e r e c or ds T he c o r a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d f r om R a r ot onga [ L i ns l e y e t al 2000] i s s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h I P O i nde x [ F ol l and e t al 2002] T he c o r r e l a t i on

PAGE 61

51 w i t h t he I P O de c r e a s e s pr ogr e s s i ng w e s t w a r d f or c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or ds f r om F i j i [ L i ns l e y e t al 200 4] a nd t he N e w C a l e doni a ( F i g ur e 2. 8 ) ; t he c or r e l a t i on i s i ns i gni f i c a nt be t w e e n t he I P O a nd N e w C a l e doni a T he 1976 1 977 c l i m a t e r e gi m e s hi f t i s p r e s e nt i n t he N e w C a l e doni a F i j i a nd R a r o t onga c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or ds ( F i gu r e 2. 8 ) ; how e ve r t he s hi f t i n t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l r e c or d i s not s us t a i ne d ( F i gur e 2 8) T he t h r e e C or a l S e a r e c or ds e xhi bi t c ont i nue d w a r m i ng ( F i gu r e 2. 6 ) w he r e a s F i j i a nd R a r ot onga a r e c ool i ng. T he r e a r e c l e a r di s c r e pa nc i e s be t w e e n t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or ds a nd t he i r r e s pe c t i ve i nt e r de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y. E a c h of t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons e xhi bi t i nt e r de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y but not a l l a r e c ohe r e nt w i t h t he I P O / P D O ; t he s e di f f e r e nc e s m a y be r e a l a nd a not he r m ode o f i nt e r de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y m a ybe pr e s e nt i n t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c A r e c e nt a na l ys i s of P D V w hi c h a c c ount e d f or t he va r yi ng e f f e c t s of E N S O i n e a c h S S T g r i d box f ound va r yi ng i nt e r de c a da l os c i l l a t i ons be t w e e n t h e N or t h P a c i f i c a nd S out h P a c i f i c [ C he n e t al 2008] A ddi t i ona l m od e s of de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d i n t he N or t h P a c i f i c s uc h a s t he N or t h P a c i f i c m ode [ N ak am ur a e t al 1997] I n t he S ou t he r n he m i s phe r e t he S ou t he r n A nnul a r M ode ( S A M ) s i m i l a r t o t he A r t i c O s c i l l a t i on ( A O ) ha s be e n l i nke d t o t he s t r e ngt h o f t he t r a de w i nds [ T hom ps on e t al 2000] I n t he w i nt e r s e a s on i n t he N e w C a l e doni a r e gi on, t he s ubt r opi c a l a nt i c yc l oni c be l t i s not c ont i nuous a nd be t w e e n a nt i c yc l one s s t or m s of po l a r o r i gi n t a ke pl a c e i nduc i ng w e s t w i nd bur s t s a nd s t r ong r a i nf a l l [ M or l i e r e and R e be r t 1986 ] T he i r r e gul a r i t y i n t he oc c ur r e nc e of w i nt e r s t or m s a nd c yc l one s i s m a i nl y r e s pons i bl e f or t he s t r ong i nt e r a nnua l va r i a bi l i t y [ M or l i e r e and R e be r t 1986] D e c a da l t r e nds a r e p r e s e nt i n t he S A M [ T hom ps on e t al 2000; M ar s hal l 2003 ] a nd pos i t i ve S A M i nde x i s a s s oc i a t e d

PAGE 62

52 w i t h a n i nc r e a s e i n w i nd s t r e s s c ur l t ha t r e s ul t s i n a s pi n up o f t he s ubt r op i c a l gyr e [ R oe m m i c h e t al 2007] a n i nc r e a s e i n t he E A C a nd a n i nc r e a s e i n S S T i n t he C or a l S e a r e gi on [ C ai e t al 2005 ] O c e a n c i r c ul a t i on m ode l e xpe r i m e nt s r e ve a l t he f l ow o f t he S out h P a c i f i c s ubt r opi c a l gyr e va r i e s on de c a da l t i m e s c a l e s [ C hang e t al 2001 ] a nd s om e s ugge s t t he t r opi c a l S out h P a c i f i c a s t he s our c e of t he 1976 c l i m a t e r e gi m e s hi f t [ G i e s e e t al 2002] T he S A M [ M ar s hal l 2003] a nd N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on c o va r y f or a 10 ye a r s pa n, how e ve r t he l i nk i s not c ons i s t e nt T he S A M m a y be t he s our c e o f i nt e r de c a da l m odu l a t i on obs e r ve d i n t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d; f ur t he r s t udi e s a r e ne e de d. T he F our t h I nt e r gove r nm e nt a l P a ne l on C l i m a t e C ha nge ( I P C C ) r e por t [ T r e nbe r t h e t al 2007] s ugge s t s i t i s pos s i bl e t ha t t he r e i s no w e l l de f i ne d c oupl e d oc e a n a t m os phe r e m ode o f va r i a bi l i t y i n t he P a c i f i c on de c a da l t o i nt e r de c a da l t i m e s c a l e s s i nc e i ns t r um e nt a l r e c or ds a r e t oo s hor t t o pr ovi de a r obus t a s s e s s m e nt F ur t he r m or e t r e e r i ng ba s e d r e c ons t r uc t i ons of t he P D O c onf l i c t r e ga r di ng t i m e s c a l e s [ e g. B i ondi e t al 2001; G adal of and M ant au 2002] R e f i ne m e nt s t o t he m e t hods us e d t o ge ne r a t e pr oxy c l i m a t e r e c or ds m a y r e s ol ve t he c onf l i c t s T he a ddi t i on of t hi s w e l l c ons t r a i ne d c or a l S r / C a r e c or d, w hi c h de m ons t r a t e s i m pr ove m e nt s i n c or a l S r / C a pr oxy t he r m om e t e r by r e s ol vi ng r e pr oduc i b i l i t y i s s ue s a nd pr ovi di ng a c r os s da t e d c hr onol ogy, pr ovi de s a l ong r e c or d o f c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y i n a r e gi on w i t h s pa r s e S S T obs e r va t i ons W hi l e t hi s r e c or d doe s not c onf i r m pr e vi ous l y de f i ne d m ode s of P a c i f i c de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y, i t doe s i de nt i f y s i gni f i c a nt i nt e r t o m u l t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s t ha t s houl d be e xa m i ne d f ur t he r

PAGE 63

53 2. 6 C on c l u s i on s T he m ont hl y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a de t e r m i na t i ons of m ul t i pl e c or e s f r o m t he s a m e c ol ony a r e w i t hi n a na l yt i c a l pr e c i s i on w he n t he c or a l i s s a m pl e d a l ong t he c e nt r a l gr ow t h a xi s a nd t he or i e nt a t i on of t he e xt e ndi ng c or a l l i t e i s a ppr oxi m a t e l y pa r a l l e l t o t he s a m pl i ng pa t h. D i s c r e pa nc i e s c a n be e xpl a i ne d by e xa m i ni ng t he c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on a nd s a m pl i ng pa t h. W he n c or a l l i t e s t r a ns v e r s e t he s a m pl i ng pa t h i n t he de pt h di m e ns i on, t he c or a l S r / C a va l ue s t e nd t o be l ow e r ( i e w a r m e r ) due t o a s a m pl i ng pa t h t ha t doe s not c a pt ur e w i nt e r de pos i t i on. W he n c or a l l i t e s a r e di s or ga ni z e d w i t h no di s c e r na bl e s t r uc t ur e on t he c or a l s a m pl i ng s ur f a c e t he c or a l S r / C a va l u e s t e nd t o be hi ghe r ( i e c ol de r ) pos s i bl y due t o l a c k of gr ow t h i n s um m e r m ont hs E xa m i na t i on of t he a nnua l de ns i t y ba nds i n a n X r a di ogr a ph i s not e nough t o de t e r m i ne t he opt i m a l s a m pl i ng pa t h; t he c or a l l i t e s t r uc t ur e ne e ds t o be e xa m i ne d. T he A m d e I s l a nd c or a l c hr onol ogy p r e vi ous l y r e por t e d by Q ui nn e t al [ 1998] w a s i m pr ove d by a ddi ng t he s e c ond c or e t ha t a l l o w e d t he a s s e s s m e nt of l oc a l l y m i s s i ng ye a r s i n c or e br e a ks bi oe r os i ona l i nc ur s i ons a nd i nt e r r upt i ons i n a nnua l d e ns i t y ba nd pa t t e r n. T he up da t e d c hr onol ogy a gr e e s w i t h hi gh pr e c i s i on 2 3 0 T h a ge de t e r m i na t i ons T he m ont hl y r e s ol ve d c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons be t w e e n t w o i nt r a c ol ony c or e s a r e r e pr oduc i bl e f o r m o r e t ha n t h r e e c e nt ur i e s a nd t he va r i a t i ons a r e c ohe r e nt a t pe r i odi c i t i e s f r om i n t e r a nnua l t o c e nt e nni a l M a s s i ve P or i t e s c or a l s a r e unl i ke t r e e r i ng ba s e d r e c ons t r uc t i ons t ha t r e qui r e a c or r e c t i on f or gr ow t h r e l a t e d e f f e c t s t hus m a s s i ve c or a l c or e s w he n s a m pl e d pr ope r l y s houl d be a bl e t o r e s ol ve c e nt e nni a l s c a l e c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y.

PAGE 64

54 T he c e nt e nni a l s c a l e c or a l S r / C a S S T va r i a bi l i t y r e c ons t r uc t e d f or A m d e I s l a nd r e ve a l s a c ool i ng t r e nd ( ~ 0. 4 C ) f r om 1741 t o 181 5, a c ol de r ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y ( ~ 0 6 C ) f ol l ow e d by a w a r m i ng t r e nd ( ~ 0. 6 C ) i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y. N e i t he r t he c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on f o r N e w C a l e doni a nor s i m i l a r c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons f r om t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c e xhi bi t p r ol ong pe r i ods of c o ol e r S S T dur i ng t he L i t t l e I c e A ge T he s e r e c or ds do not c ove r t he e nt i r e L i t t l e I c e A g e a nd e xt e ndi ng t he r e c or ds ba c k i n t i m e m a y pr ov i de i ns i ght i nt o t he s out hw e s t t r op i c a l P a c i f i c on c e nt e nni a l t i m e s c a l e s T he r e i s e vi de nc e f o r a c ool e r ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y f or i s l a nd or ope n r e e f l oc a t i ons s out h of t he S P C Z ; t hi s c ool i ng m a y be r e s ul t o f e nha nc e d vol c a ni c a c t i vi t y i n t he 1800s T w o of t he c ol de s t e ve nt s ( ~ 1 3 C w i t h r e s pe c t t o 1967 1992) i n t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d c oi nc i de w i t h l a r ge e xpl os i ve vol c a ni c e r upt i ons T a m bor a i n 1815 a nd K r a ka t a u i n 1883 C r ow l e y e t al [ 1997] s ugge s t e d ut i l i z i ng l a r ge vol c a ni c e r upt i ons a s s t r a t i gr a phi c m a r ke r s t o r e f i n e c or a l ba s e d c hr onol ogi e s T he c ol d e ve nt s i nduc e d by t he T a m bo r a a nd K r a ka t a u e r upt i ons a r e r e c or de d s i m ul t a ne ous l y i n f our o f f i ve c or a l S r / C a r e c or ds a c r os s t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c ; t hus s uppor t i ng t he va l i di t y of t hi s t e c hni que f or t he s e e r upt i ons C ol d e ve nt s of s i m i l a r m a gni t ude oc c ur i n t he c o r a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on t ha t do not c oi nc i de w i t h know n vol c a ni c e r upt i ons T he r e c ons t r uc t e d c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d ha s s i gni f i c a nt m ul t i de c a da l t o i nt e r de c a da l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y. T he l a r ge s t pe r c e nt a ge o f va r i a nc e out s i de t he a nnua l c yc l e i s c ont a i ne d i n t he m ul t i de c a da l ba nds L oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r um r e ve a l s t he bi e nni a l a nd t he 8. 5 ye a r ba nds a r e r e l a t e d t o s i ngl e e ve nt s i n t h e r e c or d w he r e a s t he m u l t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t y i s pr e s e nt f or m os t of t he c or a l S r / C a S S T t i m e s e r i e s a nd a m pl i t ude o f i nt e r de c a d a l pe r i odi c i t i e s a ppe a r s t o m odul a t e t hr o ugh t i m e S pe c t r a l a na l ys i s r e ve a l s

PAGE 65

55 i ns i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e i n t he ~ 11 ye a r ba nd, t he s a m e pe r i odi c i t y a s t he s uns pot c yc l e T he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c or d r e ve a l s s i gni f i c a nt m ul t i de c a d a l va r i a bi l i t y; how e ve r t hi s va r i a bi l i t y i s not c ohe r e n t w i t h P D O or I P O i nde x i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y. N e w C a l e doni a i s l oc a t e d s out h w e s t of t he S P C Z a nd a c c or di ng t o t he E O F s pa t i a l pa t t e r n f or t he I P O a nd P D O N e w C a l e doni a s houl d ge t c ol de r dur i ng t he I P O P D O w a r m pha s e T he c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t h e I P O a nd s out hw e s t P a c i f i c c or a l S r / C a S S T r e c ons t r uc t i ons de c r e a s e s f r om e a s t t o w e s t T he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n I P O P D O i nde x a nd t hi s c or a l S S T r e c ons t r uc t i on m a y be r e a l a nd a not he r m ode o f i nt e r de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y i s p r e s e nt i n t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c ; r e s ol vi ng t he s e di f f e r e nc e s i s di f f i c ul t due t o t he l a c k of S S T obs e r va t i ons

PAGE 66

56 3 M u l t i D e c ad al S c al e C l i m at e V ar i ab i l i t y i n H i gh l y R e s ol ve d P r oxy R e c or d s : E val u at i n g P al e oc l i m at e R e c or d s i n t h e F r e q u e n c y D om ai n 3. 1 A B S T R A C T M ul t i de c a da l c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y ha s be e n de t e c t e d i n bot h i ns t r um e nt a l a nd pr oxy c l i m a t e t i m e s e r i e s a nd t hi s va r i a bi l i t y ha s b e e n l i nke d t o i n t e r na l i nt e r a c t i ons i n c l i m a t e s ys t e m e xt e r na l f o r c i ng s uc h a s s ol a r i r r a d i a nc e a nd e pi s ode s of e xpl os i ve vol c a ni s m T h i s s t udy i nve s t i ga t e s m ul t i de c a da l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y i n hi ghl y r e s ol ve d pr oxy t i m e s e r i e s ( e g. s pe l e ot he m s a nd t r e e r i ngs ) t ha t s pa n t he l a s t 2000 ye a r s T h i s s t udy f oc us e s on how t he m e t hods us e d f o r t he c ons t r uc t i on of a pa l e oc l i m a t e t i m e s e r i e s i nf l ue nc e t he i nt e r p r e t a t i on of t ha t r e c or d i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n. T w o pr oxy r e c or ds w e r e s e l e c t e d: a s pe l e ot he m t i m e s e r i e s f r om t he D ongge C a ve i n s out he r n C hi na [ W ang e t al 2005] a nd a t r e e r i ng t i m e s e r i e s f r om E l M a l pa i s N a t i ona l M onum e nt i n N e w M e xi c o [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] T he c hr onol ogy of t he D ongge C a ve t i m e s e r i e s c ont a i ns une ve n t i m e i nt e r va l s be t w e e n da t a poi n t s ( t ) r e qui r i ng i nt e r pol a t i on t o a c ons t a nt t f or a na l ys i s w i t h t r a di t i ona l s pe c t r a l m e t hods T he L o m b S c a r gl e F our i e r t r a ns f or m e va l ua t e s t he s pe c t r um of t i m e s e r i e s a t t he a c t ua l m e a s ur e m e nt t i m e s a nd doe s not a s s um e a c ons t a nt t A c om pa r i s on of t he e ve n a nd une ve n t s pe c t r a us i ng t he L om b S c a r gl e t r a ns f or m r e ve a l s t he i nt e r pol a t e d s pe c t r um c ont a i ns s uppr e s s e d pe r i odi c i t i e s ( < 20 ye a r s / c yc l e ) i n c ont r a s t t o t he uni n t e r pol a t e d s pe c t r um r e s ul t i ng i n a s t e e pe r s l ope i n t he r e d no i s e m ode l

PAGE 67

57 t hus i nf l u e nc i ng s i gni f i c a nc e t e s t i ng. S pe c t r a l a na l ys i s of t he D ongge t i m e s e r i e s i de nt i f i e d s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s c e nt e r e d on ~ 11 25, a nd 69 ye a r s / c yc l e w hi c h a r e br oa dl y s i m i l a r t o pe r i odi c i t i e s obs e r ve d i n t he s uns pot c yc l e P a c i f i c D e c a da l O s c i l l a t i on ( P D O ) a nd G l e i s s be r g s uns pot c yc l e r e s pe c t i ve l y. T he E l M a l pa i s t i m e s e r i e s i s a n a ve r a ge o f m a ny t r e e r i ng w i dt h s e r i e s i n w hi c h t he num be r s e r i e s va r i e s w i t h t i m e S pe c t r a l a na l y s i s of t he e nt i r e t i m e s e r i e s i de nt i f i e d s i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e c e nt e r e d on ~ 25, 35, 60, a nd 84 ye a r s / c yc l e F ur t he r e xa m i na t i on of t he t hr e e t e m por a l s ubs e t s f ound t he s e pe r i odi c i t i e s va r i e d be t w e e n s ubs e t s T he ~ 25 ye a r s / c yc l e i s pr e s e nt i n t he younge s t a nd ol de s t s ubs e t s t he s ubs e t s w i t h t he l e a s t a nd m os t n um be r o f s e r i e s T he ~ 34 ye a r s / c yc l e i s pr e s e nt i n t he m i ddl e s ubs e t T he ~ 60 a nd ~ 84 ye a r s / c yc l e a r e p r e s e nt i n t he t w o younge s t a nd m os t r e pl i c a t e d s ubs e t s T he s e pe r i odi c i t i e s m a y be a f u nc t i on of t he num be r of s e r i e s or m a y r e pr e s e nt a r e a l t e m po r a l va r i a bi l i t y. C r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s of t he E l M a l pa i s a nd D on gge C a ve t i m e s e r i e s r e ve a l s i gni f i c a nt c ohe r e nc e i n t he i nt e r a nd m ul t i de c a da l ba nds ; how e ve r c r os s w a ve l e t a na l ys i s w hi c h e xa m i ne s l oc a l i z e d f r e que nc i e s i n t he t i m e dom a i n r e ve a l s a l a c k of c or r e l a t i on; t he r e f or e c ohe r e nc e i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n doe s not i ndi c a t e c or r e l a t i on i n t he t i m e dom a i n

PAGE 68

58 3. 2 I n t r od u c t i on S ub c e nt e nni a l c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y i s poo r l y unde r s t ood i n t he c ont e xt of a nt hr opoge ni c c l i m a t e a l t e r a t i on due t o s pa t i a l l y a nd t e m por a l l y l i m i t e d i ns t r u m e nt a l r e c or ds I n l i e u of i ns t r um e nt a l r e c or ds pr oxy r e c or de r s of c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y a r e us e d t o r e c ons t r uc t pa s t c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y M ul t i de c a da l c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y ha s be e n de t e c t e d i n bot h i ns t r um e nt a l a nd p r oxy c l i m a t e r e c or ds a n d t hi s va r i a bi l i t y ha s be e n l i nke d t o i nt e r na l i nt e r a c t i ons i n c l i m a t e s ys t e m e xt e r na l f or c i ng s uc h a s s ol a r i r r a di a nc e a nd e pi s ode s of e xpl os i ve vol c a ni s m T i m e s e r i e s a na l ys i s of s ol a r va r i a t i ons a nd t ot a l i r r a di a nc e r e c or ds ha s de m ons t r a t e d s ol a r va r i a bi l i t y c ont a i ns pe r i odi c va r i a bi l i t y on or bi t a l t o de c a da l s c a l e s T he 11 ye a r s uns pot c yc l e ha s be e n r e c or de d f o r m a ny c e nt ur i e s a nd f or t i f i e d by m ode r n s a t e l l i t e s m e a s ur e m e nt s L onge r r e c or ds ha ve i de n t i f i e d ot he r s ol a r pe r i odi c i t i e s s uc h a s t he G l e i s s be r g c yc l e ( ~ 88 ye a r s / c yc l e ) O r bi t a l s c a l e va r i a t i ons i n i s ol a t i on ha ve be e n s how n t o va r y t he s t r e ngt h of m ons oon r a i n f a l l [ K ut z bac h 1981] a s s ol a r r a di a t i on i nc r e a s e s t he s t r e ngt h of m ons oon c i r c ul a t i on i nc r e a s e s I f s ol a r va r i a t i ons ha ve i nf l ue nc e d t he e a r t h s c l i m a t e t he n pa l e oc l i m a t e r e c or ds f r om r e gi ons s e ns i t i ve t o s ol a r va r i a bi l i t y s houl d r e c or d pe r i odi c i t i e s r e l a t e d t o s ol a r va r i a t i ons ; s uc h a s m ons oon r e gi ons P a l e oc l i m a t e r e c ons t r uc t i ons c a n be e va l ua t e d i n t he t i m e a nd f r e que nc y dom a i n t o de t e r m i ne i f t he pe r i odi c i t i e s r e l a t e d t o s ol a r va r i a t i ons a r e pr e s e nt I n s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s t he l e ngt h of t he t i m e s e r i e s l i m i t s t he l o w e s t f r e que nc i e s t ha t a r e de t e c t a bl e t he s a m pl i ng r e s ol ut i on l i m i t s t he hi gh f r e que nc i e s t ha t a r e de t e c t a bl e ( i e g r e a t e r t ha n t he N yqui s t f r e que nc y) a nd t he qua l i t y of t he t i m e s e r i e s l i m i t s t he s c ope of t he a na l ys i s ( i e

PAGE 69

59 a ge m ode l pr e c i s i on, s i gna l t o noi s e r a t i o a nd m i n i m a l da t a t r e a t m e nt ) F o r a s ub c e nt e nni a l va r i a bi l i t y, t he t i m e s e r i e s s houl d be a n nua l l y t o pe nt a nnua l l y r e s ol ve d, a t l e a s t 1000 ye a r s l ong, ha ve a w e l l c ons t r a i ne d a ge m od e l a nd de m ons t r a t e h i gh c ohe r e nc e w i t h a c l i m a t i c va r i a bl e i n t he i ns t r um e nt a l pe r i od. A c om m on pe r i odi c i t y de t e c t e d i n t w o t i m e s e r i e s doe s not i nd i c a t e c or r e l a t i on i n t he t i m e dom a i n no r c ohe r e nc e w i t h a s ol a r c yc l e or a ny ot he r c yc l e S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s s uc h a s c or r e l a t i on a na l ys i s i n t he t i m e dom a i n a nd c r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n a r e ne e de d t o t e s t w he t he r t he t i m e s e r i e s c o va r y i n a ny s i gni f i c a nt w a y. C r o s s w a ve l e t a na l ys i s c a n t e s t l oc a l i z e d c or r e l a t i on a nd c ohe r e nc e i n t he t i m e a nd f r e que nc y dom a i n [ T or r e nc e and C om po 1998; G r i ns t e d e t al 2004] T hi s s t udy i nve s t i ga t e s t he s ub c e nt e nni a l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y i n hi ghl y r e s ol ve d pr oxy r e c or ds t ha t s pa n t he l a s t 2000 ye a r s a nd f oc us e s o n how t he c ons t r uc t i on of t he pa l e oc l i m a t e t i m e s e r i e s i m pa c t s t he f r e que nc y do m a i n i nt e r pr e t a t i on T w o pr oxy r e c or ds w e r e s e l e c t e d: a s pe l e ot he m t i m e s e r i e s f r om t he D ongge C a ve i n s out he r n C hi na [ W ang e t al 2005] a nd a t r e e r i ng t i m e s e r i e s f r om E l M a l pa i s N a t i ona l M onum e nt i n N e w M e xi c o [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] T he s e pa l e oc l i m a t e r e c or ds r e c ons t r uc t va r i a t i ons i n pr e c i pi t a t i on f o r r e gi ons t ha t a r e i nf l ue nc e by s t r on g s e a s ona l m ons oon r a i nf a l l ; t hus s houl d be s e ns i t i ve t o va r i a t i ons i n s ol a r r a di a t i on

PAGE 70

60 3. 3 M e t h od s T i m e s e r i e s a na l ys i s m e t hods ut i l i z e d i nc l ude s F a s t F our i e r t r a ns f or m ( F F T ) M ul t i T a pe r M e t hod ( M T M ) [ T hom s on 1982; G hi l e t a l 2002 ] w a ve l e t a na l ys i s [ T or r e nc e and C om po 1998; G r i ns t e d e t al 2004] a nd L om b S c a r gl e ( L S ) F our i e r t r a ns f or m [ L om b 1976; Sc ar gl e 1982, 1989; P r e s s e t al 1992] E a c h m e t hod ha s c e r t a i n a s s um pt i ons a nd a dva nt a ge s ove r t he ot he r m e t hods W i ndow e d F o ur i e r a na l ys i s i s ba s e d on t he f a s t F our i e r t r a ns f or m s a nd a t t e m pt s t o l i m i t pow e r l e a ka ge by us i ng da t a w i ndow s a t t he e xpe ns e of r e s ol ut i on. T he M T M m e t hod us e s a s e t of t a pe r s i ns t e a d of w i ndow s t o m i ni m i z e s pe c t r a l l e a ka ge pr ovi di ng be t t e r f r e que n c y r e s ol ut i on; t he r e f o r e i s a dva nt a ge ous f or s hor t t i m e s e r i e s [ G hi l e t al 200 2] W a ve l e t a na l ys i s i s s i m i l a r t o ba nd pa s s f i l t e r i ng w i t h i nc r e a s i ng f r e que nc i e s t o de c om pos e t he t i m e s e r i e s i nt o t he t i m e f r e q ue nc y dom a i n T he do m i na nt m ode s of v a r i a bi l i t y a nd how t hos e m ode s va r y i n t i m e c a n be de t e r m i ne d T he s e t hr e e m e t hods a s s u m e t he t i m e s e r i e s ha s a c ons t a nt t i m e i nt e r va l ( t ) a nd t he t r a ns f or m a t i on t o f r e que nc y d om a i n i s ba s e d on t hi s a s s um pt i on. T he L om b S c a r gl e F our i e r t r a ns f or m e va l ua t e s t he t i m e s e r i e s a t e a c h t i m e m e a s ur e m e nt r e ga r dl e s s of t i m e i n t e r va l R e c or ds w i t h une ve n t i m e s t e ps i n w hi c h t he t i m e s t e ps a r e a pp r oxi m a t e l y t he s a m e a nd do not c ont a i n l a r ge t i m e ga ps c a n be t r a ns f or m e d t o f r e que nc y dom a i n us i ng t he L S F our i e r t r a ns f or m Sc ar gl e [ 1982] de m ons t r a t e d t he L S pe r i odogr a m de t e r m i ne d f or a t i m e s e r i e s w i t h a c o ns t a nt t pr oduc e s s i m i l a r r e s ul t s t o F F T pe r i odogr a m w hi c h r e qui r e s a c ons t a nt t F or a l l t he s e f r e que nc y a na l ys i s m e t hods s i m i l a r s m oot hi ng w a s a ppl i e d f or c om pa r i s ons a nd s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l s w e r e de t e r m i ne d us i ng a r e d noi s e m ode l ( e g. f i r s t o r de r a ut or e gr e s s i ve m ode l A R ( 1) )

PAGE 71

61 3. 4 D on gge C ave 1 8 O S p e l e ot h e m R e c or d T he D ongge C a ve r e c or d f r om s out he r n C hi na ( 25. 28 N 108 08 E ; s e e f i gur e 2 1 f or l oc a t i on ) doc um e nt s A s i a n m ons oon va r i a bi l i t y f or t he pa s t 9000 ye a r s a s r e c or de d i n t he 1 8 O va r i a t i ons i n a s i ngl e c ont i nuous l y de pos i t e d s t a l a gm i t e w i t h a ne a r l y c ons t a nt gr ow t h r a t e [ W ang e t al 2005] T hi s s ubt r opi c a l 1 8 O r e c or d va r i e s i nve r s e l y w i t h t he a m ount of p r e c i pi t a t i on a s t he oxyge n i s ot ope r a t i o of p r e c i pi t a t i on de c r e a s e s w i t h i nc r e a s i ng pr e c i pi t a t i on a nd i nc r e a s i ng m ons oon i n t e ns i t y; i e t he a m ount e f f e c t [ W ang e t al 2005] T he c hr onol ogy w a s de t e r m i ne d by 2 3 0 T h da t i ng t ha t w a s us e d t o de f i ne d t w o t i m e s c a l e s : a l i ne a r i nt e r pol a t i on be t w e e n 2 3 0 T h da t e s a nd t he s e c ond by f i ne t uni ng w i t hi n da t i ng e r r or t o I N T C A L 98; a 1 4 C r e c or d f r o m t r e e r i ngs [ St ui v e r e t a l 1998; W ang e t al 2005] T h i s s t udy e xa m i ne d bot h ve r s i ons ; how e ve r t he t une d ve r s i on i s s how n i n F i gur e 3. 1 T he c onve r s i on f r om de pt h d om a i n t o t i m e dom a i n r e s ul t s i n une ve n # t be t w e e n t he 1 8 O s a m pl e s ; t he a ve r a ge t i m e i nt e r va l i s f our ye a r s f or t he l a s t 2000 ye a r s M a ny f r e qu e nc y a na l ys i s m e t hods ( e g. F F T a nd M T M ) r e qui r e a c ons t a nt # t be t w e e n s a m pl e s ; t he r e f or e t he t i m e s e r i e s w a s i nt e r pol a t e d t o ha ve a t of 4 ye a r s ( F i gur e 3 1a ) S e ve r a l i nt e r pol a t i on m e t hods w e r e e xa m i ne d ( l i ne a r c ubi c s pl i ne ne a r e s t ne i ghbor ) T he i nt e r pol a t i on t o a c ons t a nt t pr e s e r ve s t he m e a n a nd s l i ght l y de c r e a s e s t he va r i a nc e ( 7 29 0 19, 1 $ une ve n t ; 7. 28 0. 17 1 $ e ve n t ; F i gur e 3 1a ) T he i nt e r pol a t i on pr oc e s s doe s not a ppe a r t o i m pa c t t he t i m e s e r i e s i n t he t i m e dom a i n ( F i gur e 3 1a ) H ow e ve r t he i nf l ue nc e o f i nt e r po l a t i on i n t he f r e que nc y do m a i n i s unknow n he nc e t he e f f e c t s of i n t e r pol a t i on a r e i nv e s t i ga t e d f ur t he r A n a ddi t i ona l r e qui r e m e nt f o r F ou r i e r ba s e d a nd M T M f r e que nc y a na l ys e s i s t ha t t he t i m e s e r i e s be i ng a na l yz e d r e f l e c t s a s t a t i ona r y pr oc e s s ( i e c ons t a nt m e a n a nd

PAGE 72

62 F i gu r e 3. 1 D ongge C a ve 1 8 O S pe l e ot he m T i m e S e r i e s [ W ang e t a l 2005 ] ( a ) T he l a t e H ol oc e ne s e c t i on of t he t i m e s e r i e s ( A D 100 1759) ; t he l a s t 250 ye a r s e xc l ude d due t o a s hi f t t o l i ght e r i s ot opi c va l ue s T he c hr onol ogy ha s une ve n # t t ha t w a s l i ne a r l y i nt e r pol a t e d t o a n e ve n # t of 4 ye a r s R e d t r i a ngl e s i ndi c a t e 2 3 0 T h da t e s w i t h r e s pe c t i ve a na l yt i c a l e r r or ( b) M T M s pe c t r um ( t a pe r s = 5, r e s ol ut i on = 3 ) [ T hom s on 1982; G hi l e t al 2002 ] C onf i de nc e i nt e r va l s e s t i m a t e d a s s um i ng a r e d noi s e ba c kgr ound [ A R ( 1) M ann and L e e s 1996] S i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s ( 95 % ) a r e c e nt e r e d on 27, 23, 20, 17, a nd 12 ye a r s ( gr a y boxe s ) ( c ) L S s pe c t r a [ L om b 1976; Sc ar gl e 1982 1989; P r e s s e t al 1992] f o r 1 8 O t i m e s e r i e s w i t h une ve n # t a nd i nt e r pol a t e d e ve n # t ( l i ne a r a nd c ubi c s pl i ne i nt e r pol a t i on s how n) t o a s s e s s t he i nf l ue nc e of i nt e r pol a t i on on s p e c t r a l a na l ys i s S pe c t r a s m oot he d ove r 7 ba nds s i m i l a r t o ( b) T he e ve n a nd une ve n # t t i m e s e r i e s w e r e nor m a l i z e d by t he i r r e s pe c t i ve s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons f or M T M a nd L S s pe c t r a I nt e r pol a t i on p r oduc e s s uppr e s s i on of pe r i odi c i t i e s < 20 ye a r s i n t he e ve n L S s pe c t r um c om pa r e d t o t he une ve n L S s pe c t r um r e s ul t i ng i n a n a l t e r e d t he r e d noi s e c ha r a c t e r

PAGE 73

63 va r i a nc e ) A t r e nd e nc om pa s s i ng a f i ni t e t i m e s e r i e s r e s ul t s i n a non s t a t i ona r y s e r i e s t ha t c a n be m a de s t a t i ona r y by r e m ovi ng t he t r e nd F r e que nc y a na l ys i s of a t i m e s e r i e s w i t h a t r e nd r e s ul t s i n a pow e r l e a ka ge i n t he l ow e r f r e que nc i e s T he s e c t i on f r om A D 100 t o 1759 ( a l l da t e s a r e A nno D om i ni ( A D ) a nd w i l l be us e d t hr oughout t hi s doc um e nt ) i n t he D ongge C a ve t i m e s e r i e s l a c ks a s i gni f i c a nt t r e nd ( s l ope = 1. 99x10 5 ye a r 1 ) T hi s s e c t i on w a s s e l e c t e d f or f r e que nc y a na l ys i s t o a l l o w f or t he a s s e s s m e nt of i nt e r pol a t i on on f r e que nc y a na l ys i s w i t hout t he a ddi t i ona l m a t he m a t i c a l t r e a t m e nt of de t r e ndi ng S i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s a r e i de nt i f i e d f r om t he ba c kgr ound noi s e by s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s R e d noi s e i s a c om m on noi s e a s s um pt i on i n pa l e oc l i m a t e r e c or ds a nd ge ophys i c a l pr oc e s s e s t ha t c a n be e s t i m a t e d us i ng a n A R ( 1 ) m o de l [ M ann and L e e s 1996] T he M T M s pe c t r um ( F i gur e 3. 1b ) r e ve a l s s i gni f i c a nt ( 9 0% s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l ) pe r i odi c i t i e s i n t he ba nds c e nt e r e d on ~ 69, 27 23 20 17 a nd 12 ye a r s / c yc l e A n a l t e r na t i ve t o t he m e t hods t ha t r e qui r e a c ons t a nt t ( e g F F T a nd M T M ) i s t he L o m b S c a r gl e nor m a l i z e d s pe c t r um [ L om b 1976; Sc ar gl e 1982, 1989; P r e s s e t al 1992] T he L S F our i e r t r a ns f or m e va l ua t e s t he s e r i e s a t t he a c t ua l m e a s ur e m e nt t i m e s i ns t e a d of c ons t a nt t i m e i nt e r va l s t hus e l i m i na t i ng t he ne e d f or i nt e r pol a t i o n. T he i n f l ue nc e of i nt e r pol a t i on on f r e que nc y a na l ys i s i s a s s e s s e d by c om pa r i ng t he L S s pe c t r um s of t he t i m e s e r i e s w i t h e ve n a nd une ve n t ( F i gu r e 3. 1c ) T he r e d noi s e c ha r a c t e r of t he i nt e r pol a t e d e ve n L S s pe c t r um e xhi bi t s a s t e e pe r s l ope i n t he hi gh f r e qu e nc i e s c om pa r e d t o t he une ve n L S s pe c t r um ; t he s pe c t r um s c onve r ge a t ~ 20 ye a r s / c yc l e ( F i gur e 3. 1c ) D i f f e r e nt i nt e r pol a t i on m e t hods pr oduc e s l i ght l y di f f e r e nt r e s ul t s ; f or t hi s t i m e s e r i e s c ubi c s pl i ne pr oduc e d l e s s s uppr e s s i on of t he hi gh f r e que nc i e s ( F i gur e 3. 1c ) F o r t hi s t i m e s e r i e s t he s uppr e s s i on of t he hi ghe r f r e que nc i e s va r i e s w i t h t he i nt e r pol a t e d # t ; ove r s a m pl i ng ( # t

PAGE 74

64 < 4) p r oduc e s a s t e e pe r s l ope w he r e a s unde r s a m p l i ng ( # t > 4) pr oduc e s a f l a t t e r s l ope Sc hul z and St at t e gge r [ 1997] f ound s i m i l a r r e s ul t s f or i nt e r pol a t i on w i t h s ynt he t i c da t a B ot h D ongge c a ve 1 8 O c hr onol ogi e s p r oduc e d a s i m i l a r r e dde ni ng of t he s pe c t r um ; t he r e f or e t he l i ne a r i nt e r pol a t i on us e d t o c onve r t f r om de pt h do m a i n t o t i m e dom a i n i s not t he s our c e of t he obs e r ve d r e dde ni ng. T he s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l s i n s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s t ypi c a l l y a s s um e a r e d noi s e ba c kgr ound, a nd a ny da t a m a ni pul a t i on t ha t a l t e r s t he r e d noi s e c ha r a c t e r s houl d be t a ke n i nt o a c c ou nt w he n de t e r m i ni ng s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s w i t hi n a t i m e s e r i e s T he i nt e r pol a t i on t o a c ons t a nt # t p r oduc e s a s t e e pe r s l ope i n t he s pe c t r um a nd r e d noi s e m ode l t hus i n f l ue nc i ng t he s i gni f i c a nc e t e s t s F o r e xa m pl e t he ~ 12 ye a r s / c yc l e pe a k i s a bove t he 95% c on f i de nc e l e ve l i n t he M T M ( F i gu r e 3. 1b ) but t he pe r c e nt of t ot a l va r i a nc e i s l ow ( 1 4% ) ; t he r e f o r e t hi s pe a k m a y be t he r e s ul t o f c ha nc e ( s t oc ha s t i c ) a s t he s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l s a s s um e s 5% of t he va r i a nc e w i l l oc c ur a bove t he s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l b y r a ndom c ha nc e I n t he une ve n L S s pe c t r um ( F i gur e 3. 1c ) t he ba nd c e nt e r e d on ~ 11 ye a r s / c yc l e c ont a i ns a hi ghe r pe r c e nt a ge of t he va r i a nc e ( 21. 7% ) t hus gr e a t e r t ha n t he 5% s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l T he L S a na l ys i s w oul d s ug ge s t t ha t t he ba nd c e nt e r e d on ~ 11 ye a r s / c yc l e i s hi ghl y s i gni f i c a nt w he r e a s t he M T M or F F T a na l ys i s of t he i nt e r pol a t e d s e r i e s m a y ove r l ook t hi s de c a da l pe r i odi c i t y a nd f o c us on t he m ul t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s F r e que nc y a na l ys i s s houl d c ons i de r t he pr e t r e a t m e nt of t he da t a a nd t he t ype of f r e que nc y a na l ys i s m e t hod us e d i n de t e r m i n i ng s i g ni f i c a nt s i gna l s i n a pa r t i c ul a r t i m e s e r i e s ; i n t hi s c a s e i nt e r pol a t i on of t he t i m e s e r i e s r e s ul t i ng i n a s uppr e s s i on of t he hi ghe r f r e que nc i e s

PAGE 75

65 T he L om b S c a r gl e no r m a l i z e d s pe c t r um i de nt i f i e d a ba nd c e nt e r e d on ~ 11 ye a r s / c yc l e i n t he D ongge C a ve 1 8 O s pe l e ot he m t i m e s e r i e s H ow e ve r t he L om b S c a r gl e m e t hod a s s um e s t he m e a s ur e m e nt s t i m e s a r e know n; t he r e f or e c hr onol ogy e r r or m us t be c ons i de r e d. W ang e t al [ 2005 ] p r e s e nt e d a 1 8 O r e c or d w i t h t w o a ge m ode l s T he s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s f or e a c h m ode l pr oduc e s s pe c t r um s w i t h l i t t l e a gr e e m e nt i n t he s ub c e nt e nni a l pe r i odi c i t i e s r e ga r dl e s s of da t a t r e a t m e n t or s pe c t r a l m e t hod. W ang e t al [ 2005] r e c ogni z e d t he unc e r t a i nt i e s i n t he s ub c e nt e nni a l pe r i odi c i t i e s a s a r e s ul t o f f i n e t uni ng t he c hr onol ogy a nd f oc us e d on t he m ul t i c e nt e nni a l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y. H ow e ve r c r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s r e ve a l s s i gni f i c a nt i n pha s e c ohe r e nc e i n t he ba nd c e nt e r e d on ~ 10 ye a r s / c yc l e be t w e e n t he t w o D ongge C a ve a ge m o de l s ; t hi s c ohe r e nc e m a y be r e a l or t he r e s ul t of i nt e r pol a t i on. T he i nt e r va l f r om 100 t o 1 759 ( n = 421) i s c ons t r a i ne d by 11 2 3 0 T h da t e s w i t h a na l yt i c a l e r r or r a ngi ng f r o m 26 t o 83 ye a r s T he e xc l us i on o f s ub c e nt e nni a l pe r i odi c i t i e s s e e m s r e a s ona bl e gi ve n t he s e a na l yt i c a l unc e r t a i nt i e s O nl y 2. 6 % of t he 1 8 O s a m pl e s w e r e da t e d a nd i f t he c ons t a nt de pos i t i on a s s um pt i on i s c or r e c t t he n t he c hr onol ogy e r r or of t he unda t e d s a m pl e s i s l e s s t ha n t he a na l yt i c a l e r r or a nd s om e s ki l l m a y be c ont a i ne d i n t he s ub c e nt e nni a l pe r i od i c i t i e s T he i nf l ue nc e o f c hr ono l ogy e r r or on s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s m a y pr ovi de s om e i nt e r e s t i ng i ns i ght s e s pe c i a l l y f or r e c or ds t ha t a r e t une d t o ot he r r e c or ds ; t he r e f or e i nve s t i ga t i ng c hr onol ogy e r r or i s a n i n t e r e s t i ng s ubj e c t f or f u t ur e r e s e a r c h. T he s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s of D ongge C a ve t i m e s e r i e s i de nt i f i e d m ul t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s w hi c h a r e s i gni f i c a nt de pe ndi ng on t he a na l ys i s us e d. S pe c t r a l a na l ys i s of t he D ongge t i m e s e r i e s i de nt i f i e d s i gni f i c a nt pe r i o di c i t i e s c e nt e r e d on ~ 11, 25, a nd 69 ye a r s / c yc l e w hi c h a r e br oa dl y s i m i l a r t o pe r i odi c i t i e s obs e r ve d i n t he s uns pot c yc l e

PAGE 76

66 P a c i f i c D e c a da l O s c i l l a t i on ( P D O ) a nd G l e i s s be r g s uns pot c yc l e r e s pe c t i ve l y. T he unc e r t a i nt y i n t he c hr onol ogy m a ke s a s s i gni ng t he pe r i odi c i t i e s t o a pa r t i c ul a r ba nd di f f i c ul t a s c ha nge s t o t he c hr onol ogy s hi f t s t he pe r i odi c i t i e s 3. 5 E l M al p a i s T r e e R i n g R e c or d T he E l M a l pa i s r e c or d [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] i s a w e l l r e pl i c a t e d a nd a nnua l l y r e s ol ve d t r e e r i ng w i dt h i nde x t ha t r e c ons t r uc t s pr e c i pi t a t i on i n no r t hw e s t N e w M e xi c o f or t he l a s t t w o m i l l e nni a T he pr i m a r y c l i m a t e s i g na l i n t hi s t r e e r i ng i nde x i s a nnua l pr e c i pi t a t i on ( p r e vi ous J ul y t o c ur r e nt J ul y; 58% o f t he va r i a nc e ) [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] T he t r e e s s a m pl e d i n t hi s s t udy s ur vi ve i n a n a r e a i s ol a t e d by r ugge d l a va f i e l ds i n E l M a l pa i s N a t i ona l M onum e nt i n N e w M e xi c o ( 35 N 108 W ; s e e f i gur e 2. 1 f or l oc a t i on) a l oc a t i on w he r e na t ur a l a nd a nt hr opoge ni c i m pa c t s a r e m i ni m a l t hus e nha nc i ng t r e e l onge vi t y a nd pr e s e r vi ng de a d w ood [ G r i s s i no M a y e r 1996; G r i s s i no M ay e r e t al 1997] T he 2129 ye a r l ong E l M a l pa i s t i m e s e r i e s c ont a i ns 248 t r e e r i ng w i dt h s e r i e s f r om l ong l i ve d t r e e s c ol l e c t e d f r om l i ve t r e e s a nd s ub f os s i l w ood [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] T he a ve r a ge s e r i e s l e ngt h i s 391 ye a r s a nd 76 s e r i e s a r e ove r 500 ye a r s i n l e ngt h; t he r e f or e t hi s t i m e s e r i e s c a n e xa m i ne m ul t i de c a d a l c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] T he a ge c ont r ol i s i nc r e m e nt a l c ount i ng of a nnua l r i ngs i n e a c h s a m pl e t ha t a r e c r os s da t e d be t w e e n s a m pl e s us i ng de ndr oc hr onol ogy m e t hods t o e ns ur e a n a c c ur a t e c hr onol ogy. T he E l M a l pa i s t r e e r i ng i nde x ha s a hi gh i nt e r s e r i e s c or r e l a t i on ( 0 86) c om pa r e d t o ot he r S out hw e s t e r n U S t r e e r i ng c hr o nol ogi e s t hus r e f l e c t i ng a c om m on s i gna l be t w e e n t he s e r i e s [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] T he E l M a l pa i s t r e e r i ng i nde x ha s

PAGE 77

67 hi gh qua l i t y c hr onol ogy a nd t he i nde x w a s c ons t r u c t e d t o pr e s e r ve l ow f r e que nc y c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y; t he r e f or e a n e xc e l l e nt e xa m pl e o f a t r e e r i ng ba s e d c l i m a t e r e c ons t r uc t i on. A t r e e r i ng i nde x i s no t c om pos e d of i ndi vi dua l m e a s ur e m e nt s but a n a ve r a ge of m a ny t r e e r i ng w i dt h m e a s ur e m e nt s f or a pa r t i c ul a r ye a r i n w hi c h t he num be r of m e a s ur e m e nt s va r i e s w i t h t i m e ( F i gur e 3 2) T he num be r of t r e e s ne e de d t o r e c ons t r uc t a c l i m a t e s i gna l de pe nds on t he s e ns i t i vi t y of t he t r e e s t o c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y F or e xa m pl e t r e e s f r om a r i d e nvi r o nm e nt s s uc h a s E l M a l pa i s t e nd t o be hi ghl y s e ns i t i v e t o va r i a t i ons i n pr e c i pi t a t i on; t he r e f or e t he num be r o f t r e e s ( % 4) ne e de d i s l e s s t ha n non a r i d r e gi ons [ B r i f f a and J one s 1990] P r i o r t o A D 103 onl y o ne t r e e w a s s a m pl e d a nd t he s e da t a w e r e e xc l ude d f r om t hi s a na l ys i s M os t t r e e r i ng r e c or ds ha ve a l a r ge num be r of s e r i e s i n t he younge r s e c t i on of t he r e c or d be c a us e l i ve t r e e s a r e r e a di l y a va i l a bl e O l de r s ubf os s i l a nd r e m na nt w ood i s t ypi c a l l y s c a r c e ; t he r e f o r e l e s s s e r i e s a r e i nc l ude d i n t he ol de r por t i ons of t he r e c or d ( F i gu r e 3 2a ) T he r e f or e t h e num be r of s e r i e s a ve r a ge d i nt o t he t r e e r i ng w i d t h i nde x de c r e a s e s w i t h t i m e T he i nf l ue nc e of t he d e c r e a s i ng num be r of s e r i e s i s i nve s t i ga t e d f ur t he r ( F i gur e s 3 2 a nd 3 3) B e f or e t he i ndi vi dua l s e r i e s a r e a ve r a ge d i nt o t he i nde x, a ddi t i ona l m a t he m a t i c a l t r e a t m e nt s a r e a ppl i e d. E a c h s e r i e s of r a w t r e e r i n g w i dt h m e a s ur e m e nt s c ont a i ns a bi ol ogi c a l s i gna l r e l a t e d t o a t r e e s gr ow t h t ha t i s r e m ove d i n or de r t o r e c ove r a c l i m a t e s i gna l D e ndr oc l i m a t ol ogi s t s us e di f f e r e nt m e t hods de pe ndi ng on t he t ype o f r e c ons t r uc t i on, t o r e m ove t he gr ow t h s i gna l I n or de r t o p r e s e r ve c e nt e nni a l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y i n t he E l M a l pa i s r e c ons t r uc t i on, t he gr ow t h t r e nd w a s r e m ove d pe r s e r i e s by e i t he r l i ne a r t r e nd o r ne ga t i ve e xpone nt i a l a nd s t a nda r di z e d t o a m e a n of one [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] T he no r m a l i z a t i on e ns ur e s t he i nde x ha s a s t a bl e m e a n a nd va r i a nc e i n t he

PAGE 78

68 t i m e dom a i n r e ga r dl e s s of t he num be r of s e r i e s pe r ye a r T he m e t hods us e d t o c ons t r uc t t he t r e e r i ng i nde x m a y ha ve a m a ni f e s t a t i on i n f r e que nc y dom a i n a nd t hi s i s i nve s t i ga t e d f ur t he r I n c ont r a s t t o t he D ongge C a ve r e c or d, t he t r e e r i n g r e c or ds a r e da t e d t o t he c a l e nda r ye a r w i t h a c ons t a nt one ye a r # t ; t he r e f o r e i nt e r pol a t i on i s not ne e de d pr i or t o s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s M T M a na l ys i s of t he E l M a l pa i s t r e e r i ng t i m e s e r i e s r e ve a l s s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s ( 95 % c onf i de nc e l e ve l ) c e nt e r e d on ~ 410 186 90 66 35 25 20 a nd 16 ye a r s / c yc l e ( F i gu r e 3. 2c ) I n t he hi ghe r f r e que nc i e s ( > 0. 2 c yc l e s / ye a r ) t he M T M s pe c t r um r e s e m bl e s w hi t e noi s e ( F i gur e 3. 2c ) w hi c h m a y be r e l a t e d t o e nvi r on m e nt a l a nd bi ol ogi c a l noi s e c ont a i ne d i n t he t r e e r i ng w i dt h i nde x. T he w hi t e noi s e f l oor i s pa r t of t he ba c kgr ound noi s e ; t he r e f o r e i t i s i nc l ude d i n t he r e d noi s e m ode l us e d t o t e s t f or s i gni f i c a nc e ( F i gur e 3 2c ) R e s t r i c t i ng t he M T M c a l c ul a t i on t o j us t t he r e d noi s e po r t i on of t he s pe c t r um ( > 5 ye a r s / c yc l e ) r e s ul t s i n a c ha ng e t o t he s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l s P e r i odi c i t i e s c e nt e r e d on ~ 186 66 35 25 a nd 20 ye a r s / c yc l e a r e not s i gni f i c a nt ( 95% c onf i de nc e l e v e l ) w he r e a s t he 7 a nd 6 ye a r s / c yc l e a r e s i gni f i c a nt ( F i gur e 3 2d) A n a l t e r na t i ve m e t hod f o r r e m ovi ng t he w hi t e noi s e f l oor i s s m oot hi ng w i t h a m ov i ng a ve r a ge ( e g. 3 or 4 ye a r m ovi ng a ve r a ge ) T he m ovi ng a ve r a ge a l t e r s t he r e d noi s e s l ope f or t hi s t i m e s e r i e s t hus a l t e r i ng t he s i gni f i c a nc e l e ve l s T he 4 ye a r m ovi ng a ve r a ge ha s onl y t w o s i gni f i c a nt ( 95% ) pe r i od i c i t i e s c e nt e r e d on ~ 125 a nd 6 ye a r s / c yc l e S ol ut i ons t ha t a l t e r t he ba c kgr ound noi s e c ha r a c t e r of t he s pe c t r um m a y no t be de s i r a bl e a s t he y m ove t he f r e que nc y a na l ys i s f ur t he r a w a y f r om t he t r ue noi s e c ha r a c t e r of t he t i m e s e r i e s

PAGE 79

69 F i gu r e 3. 2 E l M a l pa i s T r e e R i ng I nde x [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] ( a ) N um be r of s e r i e s O nl y one t r e e w a s s a m pl e d pr i or t o A D 103 a nd t hi s da t a w a s e xc l ude d. ( b) T r e e r i ng i nde x [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1996] T he i nde x i s t he m e a n of de t r e nde d t i m e s e r i e s of t r e e r i ng w i dt hs de ndr oc hr onol ogi c a l l y da t e d f r om 248 s a m pl e s T r e e r i ng i nde x w a s s m oot he d w i t h a 30 ye a r f i ni t e i m pul s e r e s pons e ( F I R ) f i l t e r ( 90% pa s s a t 50 ye a r s ; bl a c k l i ne ) T he t i m e s e r i e s w a s s pl i t i nt o t h r e e s ubs e t s of 630 ye a r s ( s e e F i gur e 3 3) ; a ve r a ge num be r s e r i e s i n ( a ) ( c ) M T M s pe c t r um ( t a pe r s = 5 r e s ol ut i on = 3) [ T hom s on 1982; G h i l e t al 2002] of t he t r e e r i ng i nde x. C onf i de nc e i nt e r va l s e s t i m a t e d a s s um i ng a r e d noi s e ba c kgr ound [ M ann and L e e s 1996] L i ne a r t r e nd w a s r e m ove d f r om t he t r e e r i ng i nde x. P e r i odi c i t i e s < 5 ye a r s / c yc l e r e s e m bl e w hi t e noi s e T he w hi t e noi s e f l oor i s i nc l ude d i n t he ba c kgr ound noi s e t hus i nf l ue nc i n g t he r e d noi s e m ode l us e d f o r t e s t i ng c onf i de nc e l e ve l s ( d) S a m e a s ( c ) but r e c a l c ul a t e d w i t hout pe r i odi c i t i e s < 5 ye a r s / c yc l e T he c onf i de nc e i nt e r va l s ( 95% ) ha ve s hi f t e d a nd s om e of t he pe r i o di c i t i e s t ha t w e r e s i gni f i c a nt w i t h t he w hi t e noi s e f l oo r a r e not s i gni f i c a nt a f t e r e xc l udi ng t he w hi t e no i s e f l oor ( ~ 186 ~ 66, ~ 35, 25, a nd 20 ye a r s / c yc l e ) w he r e a s i nt e r a n nua l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( 7 a nd 6 ye a r s / c yc l e ) a r e s i gni f i c a nt

PAGE 80

70 F i gu r e 3. 3 M T M S pe c t r a of S ubs e t s f r om t he E l M a l pa i s T r e e R i ng I nde x. T he t r e e r i ng i nde x ( F i gu r e 3 2b) w a s s pl i t i nt o t h r e e s ubs e t s of 630 ye a r s t o e xa m i ne t he i nf l ue nc e of t he num be r of s e r i e s on t he M T M s pe c t r um ( F i gur e 3 2c ) T he l i ne a r t r e nd w a s r e m ove d f r om e a c h s ubs e t ( a ) T he w hi t e noi s e f l oor i n t he i nt e r a nnua l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( < 5 ye a r s / c yc l e ) i s m os t l i ke l y t he r e s ul t of bi ol og i c a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l no i s e i n t he t r e e r i ng r e c or d. A di ve r ge nc e oc c ur s i n t he c e nt e nni a l pe r i odi c i t i e s ( > 150 ye a r s / c yc l e ) be t w e e n t he s ubs e t s ( b) E xpa nde d vi e w of ( a ) f or 5 t o 150 ye a r s / c yc l e T he p r om i ne nt pe r i odi c i t i e s a r e not p r e s e nt i n a l l t he s ubs e t s a nd m a y be a f unc t i on of t he num be r of s e r i e s or t he pe r i odi c i t i e s m a y va r y i n t i m e due t o s om e m ode of m odul a t i on.

PAGE 81

71 T he i m pa c t o f t he num be r o f s e r i e s i nc l ude d i n t he i nde x w a s i nve s t i ga t e d by s pl i t t i ng t he i nde x i nt o t h r e e s ubs e t s of 630 ye a r s i n w hi c h t he a ve r a ge num be r of s e r i e s de c r e a s e s f r om 102 t o 11 s e r i e s ( F i gu r e 3. 2a a nd b ) T he w hi t e noi s e f l oo r i s pr e s e nt i n e a c h s ubs e t ( F i gur e 3. 3a ) w i t h t he ol de s t l e s s r e pl i c a t e d s ubs e t ( 103 732) ha vi ng a m or e w hi t e noi s e c ha r a c t e r t ha n t he younge r s ubs e t s ( 73 3 1362 a nd 1363 1992) w hi c h c ont a i n m or e s e r i e s A ve r a gi ng m o r e s e r i e s t e nds t o r e duc e t he e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd bi ol ogi c a l noi s e c ont a i ne d i n t he t r e e r i ng s e r i e s A di ve r ge nc e oc c ur s i n t he c e nt e nni a l s c a l e pe r i odi c i t i e s ( > 150 ye a r s / c yc l e ; F i gur e 3 3a ) w i t h a c onc e nt r a t i on o f s pe c t r a l pow e r i n t he ol de s t s ubs e t ( 103 732) T he s i gni f i c a nt c e n t e nni a l pe r i odi c i t i e s i n F i gur e 3 2 a r e c om bi na t i ons of t he c e nt e nni a l pow e r i n t he t h r e e s ubs e t s ( F i gur e 3. 3a ) t hus do not r e pr e s e nt s us t a i ne d pe r i odi c i t i e s t ha t pe r s i s t t hr oug hout t he r e c or d T he s e l i m i t a t i ons ha ve be e n not e d f or ot he r t r e e r i ng ba s e d r e c ons t r u c t i ons B r i f f a e t al [ 1996] not e t ha t t he s pe c t r a a r e ba nd l i m i t e d i n t he l ow f r e que nc i e s t o t he de gr e e t ha t de pe nds on t he num be r of s e r i e s s e r i e s l e ngt h, a nd s t a nda r di z a t i on m ode l s us e d t o r e m ove t he gr ow t h t r e nd. A l t hough t he E l M a l pa i s t i m e s e r i e s c ont a i n s s e r i e s f r om m a ny l ong l i ve d t r e e s a s t he num be r o f s e r i e s de c r e a s e s w i t h t i m e t hus t he a bi l i t y t o r e c ove r c e nt e nni a l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y de c l i ne s T he r e f or e t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on f or t hi s t i m e s e r i e s i s l i m i t e d t o t he pe r i odi c i t i e s be t w e e n 5 t o 150 ye a r s / c yc l e ( F i gu r e 3. 3b) F ur t he r e xa m i na t i on of t he t hr e e t e m por a l s ubs e t s f ound t he s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s i n t he e nt i r e t i m e s e r i e s ( F i gur e 3. 2 ) v a r i e s be t w e e n s ubs e t s ( F i gur e 3. 3b) T he pe r i odi c i t i e s ba nds c e nt e r e d on ~ 84 a nd 60 ye a r s / c yc l e a r e pr e s e nt i n t he t w o younge s t a nd m os t r e pl i c a t e d s ubs e t s T he ba nd c e nt e r e d on 25 ye a r s / c yc l e i s pr e s e nt i n t he younge s t a nd ol de s t s ubs e t s w he r e a s t he ba nd c e nt e r e d on 34 ye a r s / c yc l e i s pr e s e nt i n

PAGE 82

72 t he m i ddl e s ubs e t T he ba nd c e nt e r e d on 16 ye a r s / c yc l e i s pr e s e nt i n ol de s t s ubs e t a nd l e s s r e pl i c a t e d s ubs e t T he ba nds c e nt e r e d on ~ 84 ye a r s / c yc l e a nd ~ 25 ye a r s / c yc l e a r e br oa dl y s i m i l a r t o t he G l e i s s be r g c yc l e a nd t he P a c i f i c D e c a da l O s c i l l a t i on ( P D O ) T he l a c k of a c om m on pe r i odi c i t y i n a l l s ubs e t s m a y be a f unc t i on of t he num be r of s e r i e s or t he pe r i odi c i t i e s m a y va r y i n t i m e T he E l M a l pa i s i s a n e xc e l l e nt pr e c i pi t a t i on r e c ons t r uc t i on; how e ve r unde r s t a ndi ng t he l i m i t a t i ons o f t he t i m e s e r i e s i s n e e de d f or f r e que nc y dom a i n i nt e r pr e t a t i on. T he c hr onol ogy e r r o r i s m i ni m a l a s t e s t e d by de ndr oc hr onol ogi c a l m e t hods ye t t he c h r onol ogy e r r or w i l l i nc r e a s e a s t he num be r o f s e r i e s de c r e a s e s F or t hi s r e a s on, t he e a r l i e s t 240 ye a r s of t he t i m e s e r i e s a r e e xc l ude d f r om t he f r e que nc y a na l ys i s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he t r e e r i ng i nde x i s a n a v e r a ge a nd t he e r r or o f a n a ve r a ge i nc r e a s e s a s t he num be r of s e r i e s i n t he a ve r a ge de c r e a s e s T he r e f or e t he i nde x e r r or i n t he t r e e r i ng r e c or d i s not s t a bl e but i nc r e a s e s w i t h t i m e I nc r e a s i ng t he nu m be r o f t r e e s i n t he ol de r por t i ons o f t he r e c or d c a n i m pr ove t he qua l i t y i f ol de r s a m pl e s a r e a va i l a bl e O t he r m e t hods f or r e m ovi ng t he bi o l ogi c a l gr ow t h s i gna l s uc h a s t he R e gi ona l C ur ve S t a nda r di z a t i on [ B r i f f a e t al 1992] a nd A ge B a nd D e c om pos i t i on [ B r i f f a e t al 2001] m a y i m pr ove t he r e c ons t r uc t i on i n t he c e nt e nni a l b a nds A ppl yi ng t he s e m e t hods t o t he E l M a l pa i s t r e e r i ng w i dt h s e r i e s a s w e l l a s i nc r e a s i ng s a m pl e num be r s i n t he o l de r por t i ons of t he r e c or d w oul d be a n i nt e r e s t i ng a ve nue f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h a nd m a y pr ovi de be t t e r s pe c t r a l r e s pons e i n t he c e nt e nni a l p e r i odi c i t i e s

PAGE 83

73 3. 6 A n al ys i s of C om m o n P e r i od i c i t i e s P e r i odi c i t i e s i n a t i m e s e r i e s m a y not e xi s t a s pur e os c i l l a t i ons L oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r um s pr ovi de i ns i ght i nt o unde r s t a ndi ng how pe r i odi c i t i e s va r y w i t h t i m e A s a n e xa m pl e of va r i ous m a ni f e s t a t i ons of pe r i odi c i t i e s i n l oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r um s t he T ot a l S ol a r I r r a di a nc e ( T S I ) t i m e s e r i e s [ L e an 2000] i s e xa m i ne d ( A ppe ndi x H ) T he T S I c ont a i ns t he 11 ye a r s uns pot c yc l e t ha t i s i de nt i f i e d a s a s i gni f i c a nt pe r i od i c i t y i n t he M T M s pe c t r um ( A ppe ndi x H ) T he 11 ye a r pe r i o di c i t y i s a br oa d pe a k s pa nni ng 9. 4 t o 12. 7 ye a r s / c yc l e i n t he M T M s pe c t r um ; t he r e s ul t of t he t r a de of f be t w e e n s pe c t r a l r e s ol ut i on a nd l e a ka ge c ont r ol T he l oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r um ( A ppe ndi x H ) r e ve a l s how t he s uns pot c yc l e va r i e s w i t h t i m e F r om 1830 t o 2000, t he w a ve l e t s pe c t r a l pow e r i s s i gni f i c a nt on t he pe r i ods c e nt e r e d on ~ 11 ye a r s / c yc l e a nd t he s pe c t r a l pow e r i n c r e a s e s a s t he va r i a nc e i nc r e a s e s i n t he s uns pot c yc l e i nt o t he l a t e t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y ( A ppe ndi x H ) ; t hi s i s a n e xa m pl e of pe r s i s t e nt pe r i odi c i t y I n t he pe r i od f r o m 1795 t o 1825 t he va r i a nc e i n t he t i m e s e r i e s i s r e duc e d t hus t he s pe c t r a l pow e r i s not s i gni f i c a nt a l t hough t he 11 ye a r c yc l e i s s t i l l e vi de nt i n t he t i m e s e r i e s ( A ppe n di x H ) ; t hi s i s a n e xa m pl e o f a pe r i odi c i t y m odul a t i ng w i t h t i m e T he pe r i od f r o m 1645 t o 1714 ha s m i ni m a l s uns pot c yc l e s a nd t he l oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r um l a c k s pe c t r a l pow e r i n t hi s i nt e r va l ( A ppe ndi x H ) A ddi t i ona l l y, s i ngl e e ve nt s i n a t i m e s e r i e s t ha t c on t a i n a l a r ge a m ount va r i a nc e c a n pr oduc e c onc e nt r a t i ons of pow e r i n t he r e s pe c t i ve l oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r a ( A ppe ndi x F ) T he s e e xa m pl e s de m ons t r a t e t ha t pe r i odi c i t i e s m a y be pe r s i s t e nt m odul a t e i n a m pl i t ude t hr ough t i m e or t he r e s ul t of a s i ngl e l a r ge e ve nt A n a ddi t i ona l e xa m pl e of w a ve l e t a nd c r os s w a ve l e t a na l ys i s be t w e e n S out he r n O s c i l l a t i on I nde x a nd t he N i o 3 4 S S T i nde x i s pr ovi de d i n A ppe ndi x I

PAGE 84

74 W a ve l e t a na l ys i s s uppor t s t he obs e r va t i ons m a de f or s ubs e t s of t he E l M a l pa i s t i m e s e r i e s ( c f F i gur e 3. 3 a nd F i gu r e 3 4c ) T he p e r i odi c i t y c e nt e r e d on ~ 84 ye a r s / c yc l e ha s c onc e nt r a t i ons of s pe c t r a l pow e r i n pe r i od f r o m 1500 t o 1700; t he younge s t s ubs e t T he pe r i odi c i t y c e nt e r e d on ~ 60 ye a r s / c yc l e ha s c onc e nt r a t i ons of s pe c t r a l pow e r i n t he 1300s a nd 1550 t o 1700; t he t w o younge s t s ubs e t s T he pe r i odi c i t y c e nt e r e d on ~ 34 ye a r s / c yc l e ha s c onc e nt r a t i ons of s pe c t r a l pow e r i n 750 a nd 1100 t o 1300 ; t he m i ddl e s ubs e t T he pe r i odi c i t y c e nt e r e d on ~ 25 ye a r s / c yc l e ha s c onc e nt r a t i ons of s pe c t r a l pow e r i n t he younge s t a nd ol de s t s ubs e t s a nd t he i nt e r de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s i n t he younge s t s ubs e t s S i m i l a r l y, t he l oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r um f o r t he D ongge C a ve t i m e s e r i e s ( F i gu r e 3. 4c ) r e v e a l s t he pe r i odi c i t y c e nt e r e d on ~ 69 ye a r s / c yc l e ha s s i gni f i c a nt pow e r c onc e nt r a t e d i n t he pe r i od f r om 1400 t o 1620s A ddi t i ona l l y, i n ~ 1578, a r a nge of pe r i odi c i t i e s ( ~ 20 70 ye a r s / c yc l e ) ha ve s i gni f i c a nt s pe c t r a l pow e r a nd m a ybe r e l a t e d t o a s i ngl e dr oug ht e ve nt ( F i gur e 3. 4a ) T he i nt e r de c a da l a nd m ul t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s i n t he D ongge c a ve t i m e s e r i e s a ppe a r t o m odul a t e i n a m pl i t ude w i t h t i m e ( F i gur e 3 4c ) S pe c t r a l a na l ys i s of t he D ongge C a ve a nd E l M a l pa i s t i m e s e r i e s r e ve a l e d t ha t m ul t i de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s c oul d be r e c ove r e d f r o m e a c h t i m e s e r i e s w i t h s om e c a ve a t s T he c hr onol ogy of t he D ongge C a ve t i m e s e r i e s ha s e r r or a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he 2 3 0 T h de t e r m i na t i ons w hi c h r e s ul t s i n t he s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s s hi f t i ng i n f r e que nc y dom a i n C onve r s e l y, t he t r e e r i ng t i m e s e r i e s ha s e r r or t ha t i nc r e a s e s w i t h t i m e w hi c h ba nd l i m i t s t he s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s N one t he l e s s bot h t i m e s e r i e s ha ve br oa dl y s i m i l a r pe r i odi c i t i e s na m e l y t he 69 t o 84 ye a r s / c yc l e ba nds a nd t he ba n d c e nt e r e d on ~ 25 ye a r s / c yc l e A s t he s e t i m e s e r i e s ha ve t he s a m e s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s t he y do no t ne c e s s a r i l y s ha r e c ohe r e nc e i n e i t he r t he t i m e o r t he f r e que nc y dom a i n.

PAGE 85

75 F i gu r e 3. 4 C r os s W a ve l e t A na l ys e s ( a ) T he E l M a l pa i s t i m e s e r i e s [ G r i s s i no M ay e r 1 996] w a s a ve r a ge d e ve r y f our ye a r s t o m a t c h t he 4 ye a r l i ne a r l y i nt e r pol a t e d D ongge C a v e t i m e s e r i e s [ W ang e t al 2005] T he l i ne a r t r e nd w a s r e m ove d f r om e a c h s e r i e s t he n no r m a l i z e d by r e s pe c t i ve s t a nda r d de vi a t i on. T he l oc a l w a ve l e t pow e r s pe c t r a us i ng t he M or l e t m ot he r w a ve l e t a nd nor m a l i z e d by 1/ $ 2 [ T or r e nc e and C om po 1998] f or E l M a l pa i s ( b) a nd D ongge C a ve ( c ) ( d ) C r os s w a ve l e t t r a ns f or m ( X W T ) a nd ( e ) s qua r e d w a ve l e t c ohe r e nc e ( W T C ) [ T or r e nc e and C om po 1998; G r i ns t e d e t al 2004 ] f o r pe r i od c om m on t o bot h t i m e s e r i e s ( 100 t o 1759 ) T he r e l a t i ve pha s e i s s how n a s i n pha s e a r r ow poi nt i ng t o t he r i ght T he X W T f i nds r e gi ons i n t he t i m e f r e que nc y dom a i n w he r e t he s e r i e s s ha r e c o m m on pow e r T he W T C f i nds r e gi ons i n t i m e f r e que nc y dom a i n w he r e t he t i m e s e r i e s c o va r y but do not ne c e s s a r i l y s ha r e s i gni f i c a nt s pe c t r a l po w e r T he he a vy b l a c k l i ne i s t he c one of i nf l ue nc e a nd t he a r e a unde r c one s houl d be i nt e r pr e t e d w i t h c a ut i on due t o e dge e f f e c t s T he t hi n bl a c k c ont our l i ne s e nc l os e t i m e f r e que nc y r e gi ons of gr e a t e r t ha n 90% c onf i de nc e l e ve l e s t i m a t e d a s s um i ng a r e d noi s e ba c kgr ound A R ( 1)

PAGE 86

76 I n or de r t o pe r f or m c r os s s pe c t r a l a nd c r os s w a ve l e t a na l ys e s bot h s e r i e s m us t ha ve a c om m on t i m e s c a l e ( 102 t o 1758) a nd # t ( 4 ye a r s ) T he s pe l e ot he m t i m e s e r i e s w a s i nt e r pol a t e d t o 4 ye a r # t a nd t he t r e e r i ng t i m e s e r i e s w a s a ve r a ge d e ve r y f our ye a r s C r os s s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s di d not i de nt i f y s i gni f i c a nc e c ohe r e nc e f or t he s e pe r i odi c i t i e s ( ~ 80 a nd 25 ye a r s / c yc l e ) f or t he pe r i od c om m on t o bot h r e c or ds ( A ppe ndi x G ) O t he r s i gni f i c a nt c ohe r e nt pe r i odi c i t i e s ( 95% l e ve l ) w e r e i de nt i f i e d a t ~ 33, ~ 22, a nd ~ 10 ye a r s / c yc l e ; ~ 22 a nd ~ 10 ye a r s / c yc l e a r e i n pha s e be t w e e n t he r e c or ds ( A ppe ndi x G ) T he c r os s w a ve l e t t r a ns f or m s pe c t r um ( F i gu r e 3 4 d) r e ve a l s s ha r e d s pe c t r a l pow e r be t w e e n t he t w o t i m e s e r i e s i n t he l a t e 1500s w hi c h c oi nc i de w i t h a l a r ge d r ought e ve nt i n bot h t he D ongge a nd E l M a l pa i s t i m e s e r i e s ( F i g ur e 3. 4a ) O t he r w i s e t he r e i s ve r y l i t t l e s i gni f i c a nt c ohe r e nc e be t w e e n t he t i m e s e r i e s T h i s i s not s ur p r i s i ng s i nc e bot h t i m e s e r i e s a r e l oc a t e d on oppos i t e s i de s of t he gl obe a n d s ha r e l i t t l e i n t he w a y of i nt e r na l c l i m a t e f or c i ng. T he s e r e s ul t s a r e not c onc l us i ve ; i n or de r t o c onduc t t he c r os s s pe c t r a l a nd c r os s w a ve l e t a na l ys e s bot h t i m e s e r i e s w e r e t r a ns f or m e d t o t he s a m e t i m e s c a l e a nd t he s e t r a ns f or m a t i ons a l t e r t he s pe c t r a l c ha r a c t e r of t he t i m e s e r i e s t hus m a y a l t e r t he r e s ul t s 3. 7 C on c l u s i on s T i m e s e r i e s a na l ys i s of pa l e oc l i m a t e t i m e s e r i e s s hou l d c ons i de r how m a t he m a t i c a l t r e a t m e nt s of t he t i m e s e r i e s a l t e r t he f r e que nc y dom a i n s pe c t r um of t he r e c or d, t hus a l t e r i ng t he r e s ul t s of t hos e a na l ys e s F ur t he r m or e t he m e c ha ni c s of how a t i m e s e r i e s i s c ons t r uc t e d m a y a l s o i nf l ue nc e t he s pe c t r a l c ha r a c t e r of t ha t r e c or d; t he r e f or e m us t be c ons i de r e d f or t he i r i nf l ue nc e on f r e que nc y a na l ys i s T he

PAGE 87

77 i m pl e m e nt a t i on of m ul t i pl e s pe c t r a l m e t hods w hi c h ut i l i z e di f f e r e nt t r e a t m e nt s of t he da t a c a n pr ovi de i ns i ght i nt o t he t r ue f r e que nc y do m a i n c ha r a c t e r of t he t i m e s e r i e s F or e xa m pl e F F T a nd M T M bo t h r e qui r e e ve n t t o e va l ua t e t he s pe c t r um w he r e a s L om b S c a r gl e s pe c t r um c a n e va l ua t e a s e r i e s w i t h une ve n t F F T a nd M T M a s s um e t he s e r i e s i s s t a t i ona r y, a s t a bl e m e a n v i a r e m ovi ng t he t r e nd, w he r e a s w a ve l e t a na l ys i s doe s not T he i de nt i f i e d s i gni f i c a nt pe r i od i c i t i e s m a y be pe r s i s t e nt m odul a t e t h r ough t i m e o r m a y be t he r e s ul t o f a s i ngl e l a r ge e ve nt T he us e of t i m e f r e que nc y ba s e d a na l ys e s c a n pr ovi de i ns i ght i nt o t he na t u r e of t he s ha r e d pe r i od i c i t i e s be t w e e n t i m e s e r i e s F i na l l y, i de nt i f i c a t i on of c om m on pe r i odi c i t i e s be t w e e n t i m e s e r i e s i s not e nough t o de t e r m i ne c ohe r e nc e i n bot h t i m e a nd f r e que nc y dom a i n. C o r r e l a t i on a na l ys i s i n t he t i m e dom a i n w i t h c r os s s pe c t r a l a nd c r os s w a ve l e t a na l ys i s c a n i n ve s t i ga t e i f t he c om m on pe r i odi c i t i e s a r e t r ul y c ohe r e nt i n bot h t he t i m e a nd f r e que nc y d om a i n. T he m ot i va t i on f or t hi s r e s e a r c h w a s t o s e e i f i t w a s pos s i bl e t o de t e c t a c om m on s i gna l i n pa l e oc l i m a t e r e c or ds t ha t m a y be r e l a t e d t o s ol a r va r i a bi l i t y T h e t w o r e c or ds i nve s t i ga t e d di d not p r ovi de c onc l us i ve e vi de nc e f or a c om m on pe r i odi c i t y T hi s doe s not i ndi c a t e a l a c k o f s ol a r f or c i ng m e r e l y t he m e t hods us e d t o c ons t r uc t t he pa l e oc l i m a t e r e c or ds a nd t he m e t hods us e d t o de t e c t c om m on s i gna l s m a y not ha ve t he s ki l l r e qui r e d t o de t e c t t he s e s i gna l s T he D ongge C a ve t i m e s e r i e s i s a hi ghl y r e s ol ve d s pe l e ot he m r e c or d, ye t t he unc e r t a i nt y i n t he c hr onol ogy hi nde r s de t e c t i on of s ub c e nt e nni a l va r i a bi l i t y. T he E l M a l pa i s r e c or d i s a w e l l r e pl i c a t e d t r e e r i ng r e c or ds f r om l ong l i ve d t r e e s but bi ol ogi c a l noi s e i n t he ol de r por t i ons of t h e r e c or ds r e duc e t he s ki l l i n t he de t e c t i ng c e nt e nni a l a nd i nt e r de c a da l pe r i odi c i t i e s F u r t he r r e s e a r c h, s uc h a s de ve l opi ng a c r os s w a ve l e t t ype a na l ys i s f or t i m e s e r i e s w i t h u ne ve n t i m e i nt e r va l s w oul d p r ovi de a n

PAGE 88

78 a na l ys i s w i t hout t r a ns f or m i ng t he t i m e s e r i e s t o t he s a m e t i m e s c a l e ; t hus m i ni m i z i ng t he i m pa c t of m a t he m a t i c a l t r e a t m e nt s t o t he t i m e s e r i e s

PAGE 89

79 4 C on c l u d i n g S u m m ar y E a c h t ype of pa l e oc l i m a t e pr oxy r e c or d e xa m i ne d i n t hi s s t udy ha d di f f e r e nt l i m i t s on how t ha t t i m e s e r i e s c a n be i nt e r pr e t e d. F o r c or a l s t r e e r i ng a nd s pe l e ot he m t i m e s e r i e s t he m e t hods us e d t o c a pt ur e t he s i gna l i n t h e pr oxy r e c or d m a y i nf l ue nc e d t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on. C or a l s a r e s e ns i t i ve t o m i c r o s a m pl i ng m e t hods t ha t c a n a l t e r bot h t he c l i m a t e s i gna l a nd c hr onol ogy I nt e r p r e t a t i on of t r e e r i ng i ndi c e s s houl d c ons i de r how t he num be r o f s e r i e s va r i e s w i t h t i m e a s w e l l a s ho w t he gr ow t h r e l a t e d s i gna l w a s r e m ove d. S pe l e ot he m r e c or ds c a n be hi ghl y r e s ol ve d; how e ve r c hr ono l ogy c ont r o l i s not pe r s a m pl e a nd i nt e r pol a t i on m e t hods us e d t o c onve r t f r o m t he de pt h dom a i n t o t he t i m e dom a i n m a y a l t e r t he c ha r a c t e r o f t he t i m e s e r i e s i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n. F or t he r e c or ds e xa m i ne d i n t hi s s t udy, t he c or a l r e c or d f r om N e w C a l e doni a a nd t he s pe l e ot he m r e c or d f r om C hi na a r e c a pa bl e of r e c or di ng c e nt e nni a l s c a l e va r i a bi l i t y, w he r e a s t he E l M a l pa i s t r e e r i ng r e c or d e xhi bi t s a di ve r ge nc e i n t he c e nt e nni a l t i m e s c a l e s t ha t m a y be a f unc t i on of g r ow t h r e l a t e d e f f e c t s or va r i a t i ons i n t he num be r of s e r i e s w i t h t i m e O n de c a da l t i m e s c a l e s a l l t hr e e r e c or ds r e ve a l e d s i gni f i c a nt m ul t i de c a da l s i gna l s ; how e ve r t he D ongge C a ve r e c or d pr oduc e d di f f e r e nt s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s de pe ndi ng on a ge m ode l B ot h t he N e w C a l e doni a a nd E l M a l pa i s t i m e s e r i e s a r e a nnua l l y r e s ol ve d; how e ve r a nnua l r e s ol ut i on doe s not ne c e s s a r i l y gua r a nt e e c a pt ur i ng a n i nt e r a nnua l s i gna l T he s pe c t r um of t he t r e e r i ng t i m e s e r i e s ha d a w hi t e noi s e c ha r a c t e r i n i nt e r a nnua l ba nds r e l a t e d t o bi ol o gi c a l noi s e T he m e t hods us e d t o c ons t r uc t t he E l M a l pa i s r e c or d w e r e op t i m i z e d f o r c a pt ur i ng l ow f r e que nc y va r i a bi l i t y,

PAGE 90

80 not i nt e r a nnua l va r i a bi l i t y. T he w a ve l e t s pe c t r um of t he N e w C a l e doni a c or a l t i m e s e r i e s r e ve a l e d s i gni f i c a nt c onc e nt r a t i ons of i nt e r a nnua l va r i a nc e i n t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y. T hi s c onc e nt r a t i on m a y be r e a l o r t he s e ns i t i vi t y of t he c or a l ha s va r i e d on t he i nt e r a nnua l t i m e s c a l e s I ns t r um e nt a l r e c or ds r e ve a l a n i nc r e a s e i n E N S O va r i a bi l i t y f o r t he pa s t 160 ye a r s ; t hus t he c onc e nt r a t i on of i nt e r a nnua l va r i a b i l i t y i n t he N e w C a l e doni a t i m e s e r i e s m a y be r e a l T he s pe c t r a l a na l ys e s pe r f or m e d i n t hi s s t udy f oun d t he de t e r m i na t i on of s i gni f i c a nc e va r i e s w i t h da t a t r e a t m e nt s T he c onv e r s i on f r om de pt h dom a i n t o t i m e dom a i n i n t he D ongge t i m e s e r i e s a l t e r e d t he r e d n oi s e s pe c t r um t hus t he c onf i de nc e l e ve l s T he w hi t e noi s e i n t he i nt e r a nnua l pe r i odi c i t i e s of t he E l M a l pa i s r e c or d a l t e r e d t he noi s e c ha r a c t e r of t he s pe c t r um r e s ul t i ng i n d i f f e r e nt s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s w he n t he i nt e r a nnua l pe r i odi c i t i e s w e r e e xc l ude d. S i m i l a r t e s t s f or de pt h t o t i m e c onve r s i on a nd e xc l udi ng hi gh f r e que nc i e s i n t he N e w C a l e doni a s pe c t r um di d not pr oduc e c ha nge s i n t he s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s T hi s s t udy us e d a c om bi na t i on of s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s m e t hods t o i nve s t i ga t e t i m e s e r i e s i n t he f r e que nc y dom a i n T he us e of l oc a l w a ve l e t s pe c t r a t o r e ve a l c onc e nt r a t i ons of va r i a nc e a s a f unc t i on of t i m e pr ovi de d a ddi t i on a l i ns i ght S i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s i de nt i f i e d i n t he M T M or F F T s pe c t r um s w e r e p r e s e nt i n t he w a ve l e t s pe c t r um s ; how e ve r w a ve l e t a na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t ha t t he s e s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s w e r e no t ne c e s s a r i l y os c i l l a t i ons T he s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s w e r e ne a r l y pe r s i s t e nt m odul a t i ng w i t h t i m e or r e l a t e d t o a s i ngl e l a r ge e ve nt T he n on pe r s i s t e nt s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s c onf ounde d t he c r os s s pe c t r a l a nd c r os s w a ve l e t a na l ys i s F or e xa m pl e : t he D ongge C a ve a nd E l M a l pa i s t i m e s e r i e s s ha r e d c om m on s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s i n t he c r os s

PAGE 91

81 s pe c t r a ; how e ve r t he s i gni f i c a nt pe r i odi c i t i e s i n e a c h r e c or d m odul a t e w i t h t i m e a nd do not c or r e l a t e i n t he t i m e dom a i n e xc e pt f or s m a l l c onc e nt r a t i ons of s ha r e d va r i a nc e t ha t m a y be r e l a t e d t o a s i ngl e e ve nt or s t oc ha s t i c pr oc e s s e s

PAGE 92

82 5 R e f e r e n c e s A l i be r t C a nd M T M c C ul l oc h ( 1997) S t r ont i u m / c a l c i um r a t i os i n m ode r n P or i t e s c or a l s f r om t he G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f a s a pr oxy f or s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e : C a l i br a t i on of t he t he r m om e t e r a nd m oni t or i ng of E N S O P al e oc e anogr aphy 12 ( 3) 345 363 B a r ne s D J R B T a yl or a nd J M L ough ( 1995 ) O n t he i nc l us i on o f t r a c e m a t e r i a l s i nt o m a s s i ve c or a l s ke l e t ons P a r t I I : di s t or t i ons i n s ke l e t a l r e c or ds of a nnua l c l i m a t e c yc l e s due t o gr ow t h pr oc e s s e s J E x p M a r B i ol E c ol 194 251 275. B a r ne s D J a nd J M L ough ( 1996) C or a l s ke l e t ons : s t or a ge a nd r e c ove r y o f e nvi r onm e nt a l i nf o r m a t i on, G l obal C hange B i ol 2 ( 6) 569 582 doi : 10. 1111/ j 1365 2486. 1996 t b00068. x B e c k, J W R L E dw a r ds E I t o F W T a yl or J R c y, F R ouge r i e P J oa nnot a nd C H ni n ( 1992) S e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e s f r o m c or a l s ke l e t a l s t r ont i um / c a l c i um r a t i os Sc i e nc e 257 ( 5070) 644 647 B i ondi F A G e r s hunov, a nd D R C a ya n ( 2001 ) N or t h P a c i f i c D e c a da l C l i m a t e V a r i a bi l i t y s i nc e 1661, J C l i m at e 14 ( 1) 5 10 B r i f f a K a nd P D J one s ( 1990 ) B a s i c C hr onol og y S t a t i s t i c s a nd A s s e s s m e nt i n M e t hods of D e ndr oc hr onol ogy : A ppl i c at i ons i n t he E nv i r onm e nt al Sc i e nc e s e di t e d by E R C ook a nd L A K a i r i uks t i s pp 13 7 152, K l uw e r A c a de m i c P ubl i s he r s D or dr e c ht N e t he r l a nds

PAGE 93

83 B r i f f a K R P D J one s T S B a r t hol i n D E c ks t e i n, F H S c hw e i ngr ube r W K a r l e n P Z e t t e r be r g a nd M E r one n ( 1992 ) F e nnos c a ndi a n s um m e r s f r om A D 500: t e m pe r a t ur e s c ha nge s on s hor t a nd l ong t i m e s c a l e s *, C l i m D y n. 7 ( 3 ) 111 119 B r i f f a K R P D J one s F H S c hw e i ngr ube r W K a r l n, a nd S S hi ya t ov ( 1996) T r e e r i ng va r i a bl e s a s pr oxy c l i m a t e i ndi c a t or s : P r obl e m s w i t h l ow f r e que nc y s i gna l s i n C l i m at i c v ar i at i ons and f or c i ng m e c hani s m s of t he l as t 2000 y e ar s e di t e d by P D J one s R S B r a dl e y a nd J J ouz e l pp 9 41 S pr i nge r B e r l i n B r i f f a K R T J O s bor n, F H S c hw e i ngr ube r I C H a r r i s P D J one s S G S hi ya t ov, a nd E A V a ga nov ( 2001) L ow f r e que nc y t e m pe r a t ur e va r i a t i ons f r om a nor t he r n t r e e r i ng de ns i t y ne t w or k, J G e ophy s R e s 106 2 929 2942. C a i W G S hi T C ow a n, D B i a nd J R i bbe ( 20 05) T he r e s pons e of t he S out he r n A nnul a r M ode t he E a s t A us t r a l i a n C ur r e nt a nd t h e s out he r n m i d l a t i t ude oc e a n c i r c ul a t i on t o gl oba l w a r m i ng G e ophy s R e s L e t t 32 L 23706, doi : 10. 1029/ 2005G L 024701 C a l vo, E J F M a r s ha l l C P e l e j e r o M T M c C ul l oc h, M K G a ga n, a nd J M L ough ( 2007) I nt e r de c a da l c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y i n t he C or a l S e a s i nc e 1708 A D P al ae oge ogr P al ae oc l i m at ol P al ae oe c ol 248 ( 1 2) 190 201. C ha ng, P B S G i e s e L J i H F S e i de l a nd F W a ng ( 2001) D e c a da l c ha nge i n t he s out h t r opi c a l P a c i f i c i n a gl oba l a s s i m i l a t i on a na l y s i s G e ophy s R e s L e t t 28 ( 18) 3461 3464. C ha r uc hi nda M a nd H C ha ns a ng ( 1985) S ke l e t on e xt e ns i on a nd ba ndi ng f or m a t i on of P or i t e s l ut e a of f r i ngi ng r e e f s a l ong t he s out h a nd w e s t c oa s t s of P huke t I s l a nd ( T ha i l a nd) pa pe r pr e s e nt e d a t I nt e r na t i ona l C or a l R e e f C ongr e s s T a hi t i

PAGE 94

84 C he n, J A D D e l G e ni o, B E C a r l s on, a nd M G B os i l ovi c h ( 2008) T he s pa t i ot e m por a l s t r uc t ur e of t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y c l i m a t e va r i a t i ons i n obs e r va t i ons a nd r e a na l ys e s P a r t I I : P a c i f i c pa n de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y, J C l i m at e 21 ( 11 ) 2634 2650. C he ng, H R L E dw a r ds J H of f C D G a l l up, D A R i c ha r ds a nd Y A s m e r om ( 2000) T he ha l f l i ve s o f ur a ni um 234 a nd t hor i um 230, C he m G e ol 169 ( 1 2) 17 33, doi : 10. 1016/ S 0009 2541( 99 ) 00157 6 C hur c h, J A N J W hi t e a nd J M A r bl a s t e r ( 20 05) S i gni f i c a nt de c a da l s c a l e i m pa c t of vol c a ni c e r upt i ons on s e a l e ve l a nd oc e a n he a t c ont e nt N at ur e 438 ( 7064) 74 77. C obb, K M C D C ha r l e s H C h e ng, a nd R L a w e r e nc e E dw a r ds ( 2003) E l N i o/ S out he r n O s c i l l a t i on a nd t r opi c a l P a c i f i c c l i m a t e dur i ng t he l a s t m i l l e nni um N at ur e 424 271 276, doi : 10. 1038/ na t u r e 01779. C ook, E B M B uc kl e y, R D D 'A r r i go a nd M J P e t e r s on ( 2000) W a r m s e a s on t e m pe r a t ur e s s i nc e 1600 B C r e c ons t r uc t e d f r om T a s m a ni a n t r e e r i ngs a nd t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o l a r ge s c a l e s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e a nom a l i e s C l i m D y n. 16 79 91. C or r ge T T D e l c r o i x, J R c y, W B e c k, G C a b i oc h, a nd F L e C or ne c ( 2000) E vi de nc e f or s t r o nge r E l N i o S out he r n O s c i l l a t i on ( E N S O ) e ve nt s i n a m i d H ol oc e ne m a s s i ve c or a l P al e oc e anogr aphy 15 ( 4 ) 465 470 C or r ge T T Q ui nn T D e l c r oi x F L e C or ne c J R c y, a nd G C a bi oc h ( 2001) L i t t l e I c e A ge s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e va r i a bi l i t y i n t he s out hw e s t t r opi c a l P a c i f i c G e ophy s R e s L e t t 28 ( 18) 3477 3480.

PAGE 95

85 C r ow l e y, T J T M Q ui nn F W T a yl or C H e ni n, a nd P J oa nnot ( 1997) E vi de nc e f or a vol c a ni c c ool i ng s i gna l i n 335 ye a r c or a l r e c or d f r om N e w C a l e doni a P al e oc e anogr aphy 12 ( 5) 633 639 C r ow l e y, T J T M Q ui nn a nd W T H yde ( 199 9) V a l i da t i on of c or a l t e m pe r a t u r e c a l i br a t i ons P al e oc e anogr aphy 14 ( 5) 605 615 C r ow l e y, T J ( 2000 ) C a us e s of c l i m a t e c ha nge o ve r t he pa s t 1000 ye a r s Sc i e nc e 289 ( 5477) 270 277 D 'A r r i go, R E R C ook, R J W i l s on, R A l l a n, a nd M E M a nn ( 2005) O n t he va r i a bi l i t y of E N S O ove r t he pa s t s i x c e nt ur i e s G e ophy s R e s L e t t 32 L 03711 doi : 10. 1029/ 2004G L 022055 D 'A r r i go, R R W i l s on J P a l m e r P K r us i c A C ur t i s J S a kul i c h, S B i j a ks a na S Z ul a i ka h, L O N gkoi m a ni a nd A T udhope ( 2006 ) T he r e c ons t r uc t e d I ndone s i a n w a r m pool s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t u r e s f r o m t r e e r i ngs a nd c or a l s : L i nka ge s t o A s i a n m ons oon dr ought a nd E l N i o S out he r n O s c i l l a t i on, P al e oc e anogr aphy 21 P A 3005, doi : 10. 1029/ 2005 P A 001256. D a r ke W M a nd D J B a r ne s ( 1993) G r ow t h t r a j e c t or i e s of c or a l l i t e s a nd a ge s of pol yps i n m a s s i ve c ol oni e s of r e e f bui l di ng c o r a l s of t he ge nus M ar B i o 117 ( 2) 321 326. de V i l l i e r s S G T S he n, a nd B K N e l s on ( 1994 ) T he S r / C a t e m pe r a t ur e r e l a t i ons hi p i n c or a l l i ne a r a goni t e : I n f l ue nc e of va r i a bi l i t y i n ( S r / C a ) s e a w a t e r a nd s ke l e t a l gr ow t h pa r a m e t e r s G e oc hi m C os m oc hi m A c t a 5 8 ( 1) 197.

PAGE 96

86 de V i l l i e r s S B K N e l s on, a nd A R C hi va s ( 19 95) B i ol ogi c a l c ont r ol s on c or a l S r / C a a nd 1 8 O r e c ons t r uc t i ons of s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e s Sc i e nc e 269 ( 5228) 1247 1249. D e l c r oi x, T a nd O L e nor m a nd ( 1997) E N S O s i g na l s i n t he vi c i ni t y of N e w C a l e doni a s out h w e s t e r n P a c i f i c O c e anol A c t a 20 ( 3) 481 4 91. D e L ong, K L T M Q ui nn a nd F T a yl or W ( 2 007) R e c ons t r uc t i ng t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e va r i a bi l i t y i n t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c : A r e pl i c a t i on s t udy us i ng m ul t i pl e c or a l S r / C a r e c or ds f r om N e w C a l e doni a P a l e oc e anogr aphy 22 P A 4212, doi : 10 1029/ 2007P A 001444 D om i ngue s C M J A C hur c h, N J W hi t e P J G l e c kl e r S E W i j f f e l s P M B a r ke r a nd J R D unn ( 2008 ) I m pr ove d e s t i m a t e s of upp e r oc e a n w a r m i ng a nd m ul t i de c a da l s e a l e ve l r i s e N at ur e 453 ( 7198) 1090 10 93. D onguy, J R ( 1987 ) R e c e nt a dva nc e s i n t he kno w l e dge of t he c l i m a t i c va r i a t i ons i n t he t r opi c a l P a c i f i c O c e a n, P r og. O c e anogr 19 ( 1) 49 85. E m a nue l K A ( 2005) I nc r e a s i ng de s t r uc t i ve ne s s of t r opi c a l c yc l one s ove r t he pa s t 30 ye a r s N at ur e 436 686 688 F e l i s T J P t z ol d a nd Y L oya ( 20 03) M e a n ox yge n i s ot ope s i gna t ur e s i n P or i t e s s pp c or a l s : i nt e r c ol ony va r i a bi l i t y a nd c or r e c t i on f or e xt e ns i on r a t e e f f e c t s C or al R e e f s 22 ( 4) 328 336, doi : 10 1007/ s 00338 003 03 24 3. F ol l a nd, C K J A R e nw i c k, M J S a l i nge r a nd A B M ul l a n ( 200 2) R e l a t i ve i nf l ue nc e s of t he I nt e r de c a da l P a c i f i c O s c i l l a t i on a nd E N S O on t he S out h P a c i f i c C onve r ge nc e Z one G e ophy s R e s L e t t 29 ( 13) 1 643.

PAGE 97

87 F r i t t s H C ( 1991 ) R e c ons t r uc t i ng l ar ge s c al e c l i m at i c pat t e r ns f r om t r e e r i ng dat a T he U ni ve r s i t y of A r i z ona P r e s s T uc s on. G a da l of Z e a nd N J M a nt a u ( 2002) A m ul t i c e nt ur y pe r s pe c t i ve of va r i a bi l i t y i n t he P a c i f i c D e c a da l O s c i l l a t i on: ne w i ns i ght s f r om t r e e r i ngs a nd c o r a l G e ophy s R e s L e t t 29 ( 24) 2204 do i : 10. 1029/ 2002G L 015824, 2 002. G a ga n, M K a nd A R C hi va s ( 1995 ) O xyge n i s ot ope s i n w e s t e r n A us t r a l i a n c or a l r e ve a l P i na t ubo a e r os ol i nduc e d c ool i ng i n t he W e s t e r n P a c i f i c W a r m P ool G e ophy s R e s L e t t 22 ( 9) 1069 1072. G hi l M R M A l l e n, M D D e t t i nge r K I de D K ondr a s hov, M E M a nn, A R obe r t s on, A S a unde r s Y T i a n, F V a r a di a nd P Y i ou ( 2002 ) A dva nc e d s pe c t r a l m e t hods f or c l i m a t i c t i m e s e r i e s R e v G e ophy s 40 ( 1 ) 1 41. G i e s e B S S C U r i z a r a nd N S F u & ka r ( 2002 ) S out he r n he m i s phe r e or i gi ns o f t he 1976 c l i m a t e s hi f t G e ophy s R e s L e t t 29 ( 2) 101 4, doi : 10 1029/ 2001G L 013268 G l e c kl e r P J K A c hut a R a o, J M G r e gor y, B D S a nt e r K E T a yl or a nd T M L W i gl e y ( 2006a ) K r a ka t oa l i ve s : T he e f f e c t of vol c a ni c e r upt i ons on oc e a n he a t c ont e nt a nd t he r m a l e xpa ns i on, G e ophy s R e s L e t t 33 L 17702 doi : 10. 1029/ 2006G L 026771 G l e c kl e r P J T M L W i gl e y, B D S a nt e r J M G r e gor y K A c hut a R a o, a nd K E T a yl or ( 2006b) V ol c a noe s a nd c l i m a t e : K r a ka t oa 's s i gna t ur e pe r s i s t s i n t he oc e a n, N at ur e 439 ( 7077) 675. G ol de nbe r g, S B C W L a nds e a A M M e s t a s N une z a nd W M G r a y ( 2001 ) T he r e c e nt i nc r e a s e i n A t l a nt i c hu r r i c a ne a c t i vi t y: c a us e s a nd i m pl i c a t i o ns Sc i e nc e 293 ( 5529) 474 479 doi : 10 1126/ s c i e nc e 1060040.

PAGE 98

88 G r a y, W M J S he a f f e r a nd C L a nds e a ( 1997) C l i m a t e t r e nds a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ul t i de c a da l va r i a bi l i t y o f A t l a nt i c hur r i c a ne a c t i v i t y, i n H ur r i c ane s : c l i m at e and s oc i oe c onom i c i m pac t s e di t e d by H D i a z a nd D P ul w a r t hy, p p. 15 53, S pr i nge r B e r l i n. G r i ns t e d, A J C M oor e a nd S J e vr e j e va ( 2004) A ppl i c a t i on of t he c r os s w a ve l e t t r a ns f or m a nd w a ve l e t c ohe r e nc e t o ge ophys i c a l t i m e s e r i e s N onl i n. P r oc e s s e s G e ophy s 11 561 566. G r i s s i no M a y e r H D ( 1996) A 2129 ye a r a nnua l r e c ons t r uc t i on of pr e c i pi t a t i on f or nor t hw e s t e r n N e w M e xi c o, U S A i n T r e e R i ngs E nv i r onm e nt and H um ani t y R adi oc ar bon e di t e d by J S D e a n, D M M e ko a n d T W S w e t na m pp. 191 204 D e pa r t m e nt of G e os c i e nc e s T he U ni ve r s i t y of A r i z ona T uc s on. G r i s s i no M a ye r H D T W S w e t na m a nd R K A da m s ( 1997) T he r a r e ol d a ge d c oni f e r s of E l M a l pa i s T he i r r ol e i n unde r s t a ndi ng c l i m a t i c c ha nge i n t he A m e r i c a n S out hw e s t T he N at ur al H i s t or y of E l M al pai s N at i onal M onum e nt 156 155 161 H a r r i ot t V J ( 1999) C or a l g r ow t h i n s ubt r opi c a l e a s t e r n A us t r a l i a C or al R e e f s 18 ( 3) 281 291. H e ndy, E J M K G a ga n, C A A l i be r t M T M c C ul l oc h, J M L ough a nd P J I s da l e ( 2002) A br upt de c r e a s e i n t r opi c a l P a c i f i c s e a s ur f a c e s a l i ni t y a t e nd of L i t t l e I c e A ge Sc i e nc e 295 ( 5559 ) 1511 1514 doi : 10 1126/ s c i e nc e 1067693. H ode l l D A M B r e nne r J H C ur t i s a nd T G ui l de r s on ( 2001) S ol a r F o r c i ng of D r ought F r e que nc y i n t he M a ya L ow l a nds Sc i e nc e 292 ( 5520 ) 1367 1370.

PAGE 99

89 J a n s e n, E J O ve r pe c k, K R B r i f f a J C D upl e s s y, F J oos V M a s s on D e l m ot t e D O l a go, B O t t o B l i e s ne r W R P e l t i e r S R a hm s t or f R R a m e s h, D R a yna ud, D R i nd, O S ol om i na R V i l l a l ba a nd D Z ha ng ( 200 7) P a l a e oc l i m a t e i n C l i m at e C hange 2007: T he P hy s i c al Sc i e nc e B as i s C ont r i b ut i on of W or k i ng G r oup I t o t he F our t h A s s e s s m e nt R e por t of t he I nt e r gov e r nm e nt al P ane l on C l i m at e C hange e di t e d by S S ol om on, D Q i n, M M a nni n g, Z C he n, M M a r qui s K B A ve r yt M T i gno r a nd H L M i l l e r pp. 433 4 97 C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge U ni t e d K i ngdom a nd N e w Y o r k, N Y U S A J one s P D K R B r i f f a T P B a r ne t t a nd S F B T e t t ( 1998) H i gh r e s ol ut i on pa l a e oc l i m a t i c r e c or ds f or t he l a s t m i l l e nni um : i nt e r pr e t a t i on, i nt e gr a t i on a nd c om pa r i s on w i t h G e ne r a l C i r c ul a t i on M ode l c ont r ol r un t e m pe r a t ur e s T he H ol oc e ne 8 455 J one s P D a nd M E M a nn ( 2004) C l i m a t e ove r pa s t m i l l e nni a R e v G e ophy s 42 ( 2) J ui l l e t L e c l e r c A a nd G S c hm i dt ( 2001 ) A c a l i b r a t i on of t he oxyge n i s ot ope pa l e ot he r m om e t e r of c or a l a r a goni t e f r o m P or i t e s G e ophy s R e s L e t t 28 ( 21) 4135 4138. K a pl a n, A M A C a ne Y K us hni r A C C l e m e n t M B B l um e nt ha l a nd B R a j a gopa l a n ( 1998 ) A na l ys e s of gl oba l s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e 1856 1991 J G e ophy s R e s 103 ( C 9 ) 18, 567 518, 589 K ut z ba c h, J E ( 1981) M ons oon c l i m a t e o f t he e a r l y H ol oc e ne : C l i m a t e e xpe r i m e nt w i t h t he e a r t h's or bi t a l pa r a m e t e r s f or 9000 ye a r s a go S c i e nc e 214 ( 4516) 59 61 doi : 10. 1126/ s c i e nc e 214. 4516. 59

PAGE 100

90 L a m b, H H ( 1970) V ol c a ni c dus t i n t h e a t m os ph e r e ; w i t h a c hr onol ogy a nd a s s e s s m e nt of i t s m e t e or ol og i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e P hi l os T r ans R Soc L ondon A M at h P hy s Sc i 266 ( 1178) 425 533. L a nds e a C W R A P i e l ke A M M e s t a s N ue z a nd J A K na f f ( 1999) A t l a nt i c ba s i n hur r i c a ne s : i n di c e s of c l i m a t i c c ha nge C l i m a t i c C hange 42 ( 1 ) 89 129 L e a n, J ( 2000) E vol ut i on of t he s un s s pe c t r a l i r r a di a nc e s i nc e t he M a unde r M i ni m um G e ophy s R e s L e t t 27 ( 16) 2425 2428. L e de r J J P K S w a r t A M S z m a nt a nd R E D odge ( 1996) T he or i gi n of va r i a t i ons i n t he i s ot opi c r e c or d of s c l e r a c t i ni a n c or a l s : I O x yge n, G e oc hi m C os m oc hi m A c t a 60 ( 15) 2857 2870 L e vi t us S J A nt onov a nd T B oye r ( 2005) W a r m i ng of t he w or l d oc e a n, 1955 2003 G e ophy s R e s L e t t 32 L 02604 L i ns l e y, B K G M W e l l i ngt on, a nd D P S c hr a g ( 2000) D e c a da l s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e va r i a bi l i t y i n t he s ubt r opi c a l S ou t h P a c i f i c f r om 1726 t o 1997 A D Sc i e nc e 290 ( 5494) 1145 1148 L i ns l e y, B K G M W e l l i ngt on, D P S c hr a g, L R e n, M J S a l i nge r a nd A W T udhope ( 2004 ) G e oc he m i c a l e vi de nc e f r om c o r a l s f or c ha nge s i n t he a m pl i t ude a nd s pa t i a l pa t t e r n of S out h P a c i f i c i n t e r de c a da l c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y ove r t he l a s t 300 ye a r s C l i m D y n. 22 ( 1 ) 1 11 L i ns l e y, B K A K a pl a n, Y G our i ou, J S a l i nge r P B de M e noc a l G M W e l l i ngt on, a nd S S H ow e ( 2006 ) T r a c ki ng t he e xt e nt o f t he S out h P a c i f i c c onve r ge nc e z one s i nc e t he e a r l y 1600s G e oc he m G e ophy s G e os y s t 7 Q 05003, doi : 10. 1029/ 2005G C 001115.

PAGE 101

91 L om b, N R ( 1976) L e a s t s qua r e s f r e que nc y a na l ys i s of un e qua l l y s pa c e d da t a A s t r ophy s Spac e Sc i 39 ( 2) 447 462. L ough, J M a nd D J B a r ne s ( 1990) I nt r a a nnua l t i m i ng of de ns i t y ba nd f o r m a t i on of P or i t e s c or a l f r om t he c e nt r a l G r e a t B a r r i e r R e e f J E x p M ar B i ol E c ol 135 ( 1 ) 35. M a nn, M E a nd J L e e s ( 1996 ) R obus t e s t i m a t i on of ba c kgr ound noi s e a nd s i gna l de t e c t i on i n c l i m a t i c t i m e s e r i e s C l i m at e C hange 33 409 445 M a nn, M E a nd P D J one s ( 2003) G l oba l s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e s ove r t he pa s t t w o m i l l e nni a G e ophy s R e s L e t t 30 ( 15) 1820 d oi : 1 0. 1029/ 2003G L 017814 M a nn, M E ( 2006) A t l a nt i c hur r i c a ne t r e nds l i nk e d t o c l i m a t e c ha nge E os T r ans A G U 87 ( 24) M a nt ua N J S R H a r e Y Z ha ng J M W a l l a c e a nd R C F r a nc i s ( 1997 ) A P a c i f i c i nt e r de c a da l c l i m a t e os c i l l a t i on w i t h i m pa c t s on s a l m on pr oduc t i on B ul l A m e r M e t e or Soc 78 1069 1079 M a r s ha l l G J ( 2003) T r e nds i n t he s out he r n a nnul a r m ode f r om obs e r va t i ons a nd r e a na l ys e s J C l i m at e 4134 4143. M c C a be G J M A P a l e c ki a nd J L B e t a nc our t ( 2004) P a c i f i c a nd A t l a n t i c O c e a n i nf l ue nc e s on m ul t i de c a da l dr ought f r e que nc y i n t h e U ni t e d S t a t e s P r oc N at l A c ad. Sc i U S A 101 ( 12) 4136 4141, doi : 10. 107 3/ pna s 0306738101 M c C onna ughe y, T ( 198 9) 1 3 C a nd 1 8 O i s ot opi c di s e qui l i br i um i n b i ol ogi c a l c a r bona t e s : I P a t t e r ns G e oc hi m C os m oc hi m A c t a 53 ( 1) 151 162. M i nobe S ( 1997) A 50 70 ye a r c l i m a t i c os c i l l a t i on ove r t he N or t h P a c i f i c a nd N o r t h A m e r i c a G e ophy s R e s L e t t 24 ( 6) 683 686

PAGE 102

92 M or l i e r e A a nd J P R e be r t ( 1986 ) R a i nf a l l s hor t a ge a nd E l N i o S out he r n O s c i l l a t i on i n N e w C a l e doni a S out hw e s t e r n P a c i f i c M on. W e at he r R e v 114 ( 6) 1131 1137. N a ka m ur a H G L i n, a nd T Y a m a ga t a ( 1997) D e c a da l c l i m a t e va r i a bi l i t y i n t he N o r t h P a c i f i c dur i ng t he r e c e nt de c a de s B ul l A m e r M e t e or Soc 78 ( 10) 2215 2225. N a uj oka t B ( 1986) A n upda t e of t he obs e r ve d qu a s i bi e nni a l os c i l l a t i on of t he s t r a t os phe r i c w i nds ove r t he t r opi c s J A t m os Sc i 43 1873 1877. P a i l l a r d, D L L a be yr i e a nd P Y i ou ( 1996 ) M a c i nt os h pr ogr a m pe r f or m s t i m e s e r i e s a na l ys i s E os T r ans A G U 77 379 P ow e r S T C a s e y, C F ol l a nd A C ol m a n, a nd V M e ht a ( 1999 ) I nt e r de c a da l m odul a t i on of t he i m pa c t of E N S O on A us t r a l i a C l i m D y n. 15 ( 5) 319 P r e s s W H S A T e ukol s ky, W T V e t t e r l i ng a nd B P F l a nna r y ( 1992) N um e r i c al R e c i pe s i n C T he A r t of Sc i e nt i f i c C om put i ng 2n d e d. C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge Q ui nn, T M F W T a yl or T J C r ow l e y a nd S M L i nk ( 1996) E va l ua t i on o f s a m pl i ng r e s ol ut i on i n c o r a l s t a bl e i s ot ope r e c or ds : A c a s e s t udy us i ng r e c or ds f r om N e w C a l e doni a a nd T a r a w a P al e oc e anogr aphy 11 ( 5 ) 529 542. Q ui nn, T M T J C r ow l e y, F W T a yl or C H ni n, P J oa nnot a nd Y J oi n ( 1998 ) A m ul t i c e nt ur y s t a bl e i s ot ope r e c or d f r om a N e w C a l e doni a c or a l : I nt e r a nnua l a nd de c a da l s e a s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e va r i a bi l i t y i n t he s out hw e s t P a c i f i c s i nc e 1657 A D P al e oc e anogr aphy 13 ( 4) 412 426 Q ui nn, T M a nd D E S a m ps on ( 2002) A m ul t i p r oxy a ppr oa c h t o r e c ons t r uc t i ng s e a s ur f a c e c ondi t i ons us i ng c or a l s ke l e t on ge oc he m i s t r y, P al e oc e anogr aphy 17 ( 4) 1062 doi : 10 1029/ 2000P A 000528

PAGE 103

93 Q ui nn, W H a nd V T N e a l ( 1992 ) T he hi s t or i c a l r e c or d o f E l N i o e ve nt s i n C l i m at e s i nc e A D 1500 e di t e d by R S B r a dl e y a nd P D J one s pp. 623 648, R out l e dge L ondon. R a yne r N A D E P a r ke r E B H or t on C K F o l l a nd, L V A l e xa nde r D P R ow e l l E C K e nt a nd A K a pl a n ( 2003) G l oba l a na l ys e s of S S T s e a i c e a nd ni ght m a r i ne a i r t e m pe r a t ur e s i nc e t he l a t e ni ne t e e nt h c e nt ur y, J G e ophy s R e s 108 ( D 14) 4407, doi : 10. 1029 / 2002J D 002670. R e ynol ds R W N A R a yne r T M S m i t h D C S t oke s a nd W W a ng ( 2002 ) A n i m pr ove d i n s i t u a nd s a t e l l i t e S S T a na l ys i s f or c l i m a t e J C l i m at e 15 ( 13) 1609 1625. R oe m m i c h, D J G i l s on, R D a vi s P S ut t on, S W i j f f e l s a nd S R i s e r ( 2007) D e c a da l s pi nup of t he S out h P a c i f i c s ubt r opi c a l gy r e J P h y s O c e anogr 162 173 S a l i nge r M J J A R e nw i c k, a nd A B M ul l a n ( 2001) I nt e r de c a da l P a c i f i c O s c i l l a t i on a nd S out h P a c i f i c c l i m a t e I nt J C l i m at ol 21 ( 14) 1705 1721. S a t o, M J E H a ns e n, M P M c C or m i c k, a nd J B P ol l a c k ( 1993) S t r a t os phe r i c a e r os ol opt i c a l de pt hs 1850 1990, J G e ophy s R e s 98 ( D 12) 22 987 922, 994 S c a r gl e J D ( 1982) S t udi e s i n a s t r onom i c a l t i m e s e r i e s a na l ys i s 2. S t a t i s t i c a l a s pe c t s of s pe c t r a l a na l ys i s of une ve nl y s pa c e d da t a A s t r ophy s J 263 ( 2) 835 853. S c a r gl e J D ( 1989) S t udi e s i n a s t r onom i c a l t i m e s e r i e s a na l ys i s 3. F our i e r t r a ns f or m s a ut o c or r e l a t i on f unc t i ons a nd c r os s c or r e l a t i on f u nc t i ons of une ve nl y s pa c e d da t a A s t r ophy s J 343 ( 2 ) 874 887 S c hl e s i nge r M E a nd N R a m a nkut t y ( 1994) A n os c i l l a t i on i n t he gl oba l c l i m a t e s ys t e m of pe r i od 65 70 ye a r s N at ur e 367 ( 6465 ) 723 726.

PAGE 104

94 S c hne i de r R C a nd S V S m i t h ( 1982) S ke l e t a l S r c ont e nt a nd de ns i t y i n P or i t e s s pp. i n r e l a t i on t o e nvi r onm e nt a l f a c t or s M ar B i o 66 ( 2) 121 S c hr a g, D P ( 1999) R a pi d a na l ys i s of hi gh pr e c i s i on S r / C a r a t i os i n c or a l s a nd ot he r m a r i ne c a r bona t e s P a l e oc e anogr aphy 14 ( 2) 97 1 02. S c hul z M a nd K S t a t t e gge r ( 1997 ) S pe c t r um : S pe c t r a l a na l ys i s of une ve nl y s pa c e d pa l e oc l i m a t i c t i m e s e r i e s C om put e r s & G e os c i e nc e s 23 ( 9) 929 945 S he n, C C K S L i K S i e h D N a t a w i dj a j a H C he ng, X W a ng R L E dw a r ds D D L a m Y T H s i e h, T Y F a n A J M e l t z ne r F W T a yl or T M Q ui nn H W C hi a ng, a nd K H K i l bour ne ( 2008) V a r i a t i on of i ni t i a l 230T h/ 232 T h a nd l i m i t s of hi gh p r e c i s i on U T h da t i ng o f s ha l l ow w a t e r c or a l s G e oc hi m C os m oc hi m A c t a 72 ( 17) 4201 4223 doi : 10. 1016/ j gc a 2008 0 6. 011. S i m ki n, L a nd T S i e be r t ( 1994) V ol c anoe s of t he W or l d: A r e gi onal d i r e c t or y gaz e t t e e r and c hr onol ogy of v ol c ani s m dur i ng t he l as t 10, 000 y e ar s 2nd e d. G e os c i e nc e P r e s s i n a s s o c i a t i on w i t h t he S m i t hs oni a n I ns t i t ut i on, T uc s on, A Z S l ut z R J S J L ubke r J D H i s c ox, S D W ood r uf f R L J e nne P M S t e ur e r a nd J D E l m s ( 1985 ) C om pr e he ns i ve O c e a n A t m os phe r e D a t a S e t ; R e l e a s e 1, R E P N T I S P B 86 105723, N O A A E nvi r onm e nt a l R e s e a r c h L a bor a t o r y, C l i m a t e R e s e a r c h P r ogr a m B oul de r C ol or a do S m i t h, S V R W B udde m e i e r R C R e da l j e a n d J E H ouc k ( 1979) S t r ont i um c a l c i um t he r m om e t r y i n c or a l s ke l e t ons Sc i e nc e 2 04 ( 27) 404 406 S m i t h, T M a nd R W R e ynol ds ( 2004) I m pr ov e d e xt e nde d r e c ons t r uc t i on of S S T ( 1854 1997) J C l i m at e 17 2466 2477, doi : 10. 11 75/ 1520 0442( 2004) 017< 2466: I E R O S > 2 0. C O ; 2.

PAGE 105

95 S t a hl e D W M K C l e a ve l a nd, M D T he r r e l l D A G a y, R D D 'A r r i go, P J K r us i c E R C ook, R J A l l a n, J E C ol e R B D unba r M D M oor e M A S t oke s B T B ur ns J V i l l a nue va D i a z a nd L G T ho m ps on ( 1998) E xpe r i m e nt a l de ndr oc l i m a t i c r e c ons t r uc t i on o f t he S out he r n O s c i l l a t i on, B ul l A m e r M e t e or Soc 79 ( 10) 2137 2152 S t e pha ns C L T M Q ui nn F W T a yl or a nd T C or r ge ( 2004 ) A s s e s s i ng t he r e pr oduc i bi l i t y o f c or a l ba s e d c l i m a t e r e c or ds G e ophy s R e s L e t t 31 L 18210 doi : 10. 1029/ 2004G L 020343 S t ui ve r M P J R e i m e r E B a r d, J W B e c k, G S B ur r K A H ughe n B K r om e r G M c C or m a c d. P J va n, a nd M S pur k ( 1998) I N T C A L 98 r a di oc a r bon a ge c a l i br a t i on, 24 000 0 c a l B P R adi oc ar bon 40 ( 3) 1041 1083. T hom ps on, D W J J M W a l l a c e a nd G C H e g e r l ( 2000) A nnu l a r m ode s i n t he e xt r a t r opi c a l c i r c ul a t i on P a r t I I : t r e nds J C l i m at e 1018 1036. T hom ps on, D W J J J K e nne dy, J M W a l l a c e a nd P D J one s ( 2008) A l a r ge di s c ont i nui t y i n t he m i d t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y i n obs e r ve d gl oba l m e a n s ur f a c e t e m pe r a t ur e N at ur e 453 ( 7195) 646 649. T hom s on, D J ( 1982) S pe c t r um e s t i m a t i on a nd h a r m oni c a na l ys i s P r oc I E E E 70 ( 9) 1055 1096. T or r e nc e C a nd G P C om po ( 1998) A pr a c t i c a l gui de t o w a ve l e t a na l ys i s B ul l A m e r M e t e or Soc 79 ( 1 ) 61 7 8 T r e nbe r t h, K E ( 1984) S i gna l ve r s us noi s e i n t he s out he r n os c i l l a t i on, M on W e at he r R e v 112 ( 2) 326 332.

PAGE 106

96 T r e nbe r t h, K E ( 1997) T he de f i ni t i on of E l N i o, B ul l A m e r M e t e or Soc 78 ( 12 ) 2771 2777, doi : 10 1175/ 1520 0477 T r e nbe r t h, K E P D J one s P A m be nj e R B oj a r i u, D E a s t e r l i ng, A K T a nk, D P a r ke r F R a hi m z a de h, J A R e nw i c k, M R us t i c uc c i B S ode n, a nd P Z ha i ( 2007) O bs e r va t i ons : S ur f a c e a nd A t m os phe r i c C l i m a t e C ha nge i n C l i m at e C hange 2007: T he P hy s i c al Sc i e nc e B as i s C ont r i b ut i on of W or k i ng G r oup I t o t he F our t h A s s e s s m e nt R e por t of t he I nt e r gov e r nm e nt al P ane l on C l i m at e C hange e di t e d by S S ol om on, D Q i n, M M a nni n g, Z C he n, M M a r qui s K B A ve r yt M T i gno r a nd H L M i l l e r C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s C a m br i dge U ni t e d K i ngdom a nd N e w Y or k, U S A V e r on, J ( 2000) C or al s of t he w or l d A us t r a l i a n I ns t i t ut e of M a r i ne S c i e nc e a nd C R R Q l d P t y L t d. T ow ns vi l l e A U S W a ng, Y H C he ng, R L E dw a r ds Y H e X K o ng, Z A n J W u, M J K e l l y, C A D ykos ki a nd X L i ( 2005 ) T he H ol oc e ne A s i a n m ons oon: L i nks t o s ol a r c ha nge s a nd N or t h A t l a nt i c c l i m a t e Sc i e nc e 308 ( 5723 ) 85 4 857, doi : 10. 1126/ s c i e nc e 1106296. W e be r J N ( 1973) I nc or p or a t i on o f s t r ont i u m i nt o r e e f c or a l s ke l e t a l c a r bona t e G e oc hi m C os m oc hi m A c t a 37 ( 9 ) 2173 2190. W e bs t e r P J G J H ol l a nd J A C ur r y, a nd H R C ha ng ( 2005 ) C ha nge s i n t r opi c a l c yc l one num be r du r a t i on, a nd i nt e ns i t y i n a w a r m i ng e nvi r onm e nt Sc i e nc e 309 ( 5742) 1844 1846 doi : 10 1126/ s c i e nc e 1116448.

PAGE 107

97 X i e P P a nd P A A r k i n ( 1 997 ) G l oba l p r e c i pi t a t i on: A 17 ye a r m ont hl y a na l ys i s ba s e d on ga uge obs e r va t i ons s a t e l l i t e e s t i m a t e s a nd num e r i c a l m ode l out put s B ul l A m e r M e t e or Soc 78 ( 11) 2539 2558 X i ong, L a nd J G P a l m e r ( 2000) R e c ons t r uc t i on of N e w Z e a l a nd t e m pe r a t ur e s ba c k t o A D 1720 us i ng L i boc e dr us bi dw i l l i i t r e e r i ngs C l i m at i c C hange 45 ( 2 ) 339 359

PAGE 108

98 A p p e n d i c e s

PAGE 109

99 A p p e n d i x A C or a l X r a di ogr a ph I m a ge s w i t h S a m pl i ng P a t hs

PAGE 110

100 A p p e n d i x A ( C ont i nue d) C or a l X r a di ogr a ph I m a ge s w i t h S a m pl i ng P a t hs

PAGE 111

101 A p p e n d i x A ( C ont i nue d) C or a l X r a di ogr a ph I m a ge s w i t h S a m pl i ng P a t hs ( a ) P os i t i ve X r a di ogr a ph i m a ge s of P or i t e s l ut e a c or a l s l a bs f r om t hr e e c or e s ( 99 P A A 92 P A A 1, a nd 92 P A A 2) 92 P A A 2 a ppe a r s on s e c ond pa ge C or e i de nt i f i e r s a ppe a r a c r os s t he t op a nd s i de s Y e a r s w e r e de t e r m i ne d b y c r os s da t i ng a nd c ount i ng a nnua l de ns i t y ba nds S a m pl i ng pa t hs a r e a ppr ox i m a t e l y pa r a l l e l t o t he c or a l s m a xi m um gr ow t h a xi s S a m pl i ng pa t hs us e d i n t hi s s t udy a nd pr e vi ous s t udi e s a r e i ndi c a t e d by s ol i d l i ne s ( s e e l e ge nd) ( b ) T hi n s e c t i on phot om i c r ogr a phs vi e w e d unde r ( l e f t t op) c r os s pol a r i z e d l i ght pl a ne a nd ( r i ght t op ) t r a ns m i t t e d l i g ht ( f i e l d of vi e w e qua l s 2. 6 m m ) S c a nni ng e l e c t r on m i c r os c ope ( S E M ) i m a ge s m a gni f i e d by 45 ( l e f t bot t om ) a nd 200 ( r i ght bo t t om ) T hi n s e c t i ons a nd S E M i m a ge s w e r e e xa m i ne d f o r t he p r e s e nc e of s e c onda r y m i ne r a l s ; none w e r e obs e r ve d.

PAGE 112

102 A p p e n d i x B U r a ni um a nd T hor i um I s ot opi c C om pos i t i ons a nd 2 3 0 T h a ge s f o r C or a l s by I C P M S 2 3 8 U 2 3 2 T h 2 3 4 U [ 2 3 0 T h / 2 3 8 U ] [ 2 3 0 T h / 2 3 2 T h ] A g e A g e 2 3 4 U i n i ti a l S r / C a A D B I D p p b p p t m e a s u r e d a a c t i v i t y c p p m d u n c o r r e c t e d c o r r e c t e d c, e, f c o r r e c t e d A g e g 9 2 P A A 1 A 3 0 2 8 1 1 3 1 8 7 1 4 1 4 5 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 7 1 1 2 2 2 6 0 7 1 8 6 1 1 1 4 5 3 2 1 1 8 0 5 9 2 P A A 1 B 2 7 7 2 8 4 2 6 8 1 6 1 4 6 3 1 9 0 0 0 0 4 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 9 0 1 0 4 3 5 0 9 3 7 8 1 5 1 4 6 3 1 9 3 7 0 5 9 2 P A A 1 C 2 7 9 5 8 3 4 1 4 1 2 1 4 5 9 1 7 0 0 0 0 7 8 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 5 7 1 2 7 4 6 0 8 7 0 0 1 2 1 4 5 9 1 7 6 8 0 5 9 2 P A A 1 F 1 2 9 0 6 1 1 6 2 0 3 2 1 7 9 1 4 6 5 2 0 0 0 0 2 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 8 7 0 3 2 3 0 6 4 1 1 5 0 5 1 6 5 1 4 6 5 2 0 1 5 3 0 5 9 2 P A A 1 F 2 2 8 7 0 1 2 5 8 9 1 1 9 1 4 4 0 2 3 0 0 0 1 9 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 5 4 2 1 5 1 8 3 1 1 9 1 7 5 4 2 4 1 4 4 1 2 3 1 7 4 0 5 9 2 P A A 1 G 2 8 8 7 9 2 7 1 4 0 9 1 4 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 3 8 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 1 7 6 3 1 2 2 6 9 1 7 2 2 3 3 1 9 1 4 5 3 2 0 2 2 1 1 0 9 2 P A A 1 H 2 8 5 9 1 5 3 5 7 5 4 1 2 4 1 4 8 0 2 7 0 0 0 3 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 5 5 0 6 3 2 8 1 4 8 2 8 1 2 1 0 5 1 4 8 1 2 7 2 9 5 1 0 9 2 P A A 1 K 2 9 1 4 1 2 7 3 6 7 1 8 1 4 6 4 2 3 0 0 0 2 6 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 7 2 9 1 2 2 5 2 5 2 0 2 4 3 0 2 7 1 4 6 5 2 3 2 4 4 1 0 9 2 P A A 1 M 2 8 7 0 1 2 7 6 2 2 1 7 1 4 4 9 2 2 0 0 0 3 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 9 6 1 4 3 2 2 0 2 6 3 1 2 0 3 3 1 4 5 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 0 9 2 P A A 1 O 2 9 3 3 1 1 1 3 7 1 9 4 2 1 4 5 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 2 7 5 1 0 3 4 4 9 2 8 3 2 7 4 4 5 1 4 5 1 2 0 3 3 8 2 0 9 2 P A A 1 A 2 9 3 1 1 1 1 8 9 0 6 1 4 8 5 2 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 2 3 3 1 8 6 1 1 1 8 4 1 1 1 4 8 5 2 3 1 8 0 5 9 2 P A A 1 B 2 8 1 5 9 5 3 4 1 0 1 4 5 5 2 7 0 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 7 2 1 5 4 0 8 1 5 4 0 1 1 5 1 4 5 5 2 7 3 7 0 5 9 2 P A A 1 C 2 7 3 1 1 1 2 0 3 0 8 1 4 5 8 2 9 0 0 0 0 7 4 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 6 3 2 7 5 7 0 2 1 7 6 9 9 1 7 1 4 5 8 2 9 6 8 0 5 9 2 P A A 1 E 3 0 2 3 1 4 3 9 3 0 6 1 4 5 1 2 9 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 4 0 5 3 6 1 0 5 5 2 1 1 0 5 0 2 1 1 4 5 2 2 9 1 0 1 0 7 5 9 2 P A A 1 F 1 2 9 1 3 1 2 1 9 8 0 7 1 4 4 9 2 8 0 0 0 1 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 9 1 4 1 5 6 1 5 3 7 3 1 1 5 3 4 3 1 1 4 4 9 2 8 1 5 3 0 5 9 2 P A A 1 M 2 7 7 5 9 1 4 7 1 1 1 4 4 6 2 4 0 0 0 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 3 5 7 7 5 7 3 1 6 8 4 7 3 1 6 6 4 7 1 4 4 7 2 4 3 1 1 1 0 9 2 P A A 1 O 2 9 1 2 1 0 2 3 9 1 0 1 4 2 7 2 4 0 0 0 3 4 8 0 0 0 0 1 0 7 0 0 9 3 4 9 3 3 2 9 1 0 0 3 3 2 6 1 0 0 1 4 2 9 2 4 3 3 8 2 0 A na l yt i c a l e r r or s a r e 2 o f t he m e a n. a 2 3 4 U = ( [ 2 3 4 U / 2 3 8 U ] a c t i v i t y 1) x 1000. b 2 3 4 U i n i t i a l c or r e c t e d w a s c a l c ul a t e d ba s e d on 2 3 0 T h a ge ( T ) i e 2 3 4 U i n i t i a l = 2 3 4 U m e a s u re d X e # 2 3 4 T a n d T i s c or r e c t e d a ge c [ 2 3 0 T h/ 2 3 8 U ] a c t i v i t y = 1 e # 2 3 0 T + ( 2 3 4 U m e a s u re d / 1000 ) [ # 2 3 0 / ( # 2 3 0 # 2 3 4 ) ] ( 1 e ( # 2 3 0 # 2 3 4 ) T ) w he r e T i s t he a ge D e c a y c ons t a nt s a r e 9. 1577 x 10 6 yr 1 f o r 2 3 0 T h, 2. 8263 x 10 6 yr 1 f o r 2 3 4 U a nd 1 55125 x 10 1 0 y r 1 f or 2 3 8 U [ C he ng e t al 2000] d T he de gr e e of de t r i t a l 2 3 0 T h c ont a m i na t i on i s i nd i c a t e d by t he [ 2 3 0 T h/ 2 3 2 T h ] a t om i c r a t i o i ns t e a d of t he a c t i vi t y r a t i o e A ge c or r e c t i ons w e r e c a l c ul a t e d us i ng a n e s t i m a t e d 2 3 0 T h/ 2 3 2 T h a t om i c r a t i o ( 6. 50 x 10 6 1. x 10 6 ) f C he m i s t r y w a s done on J ul y 13 2005; c a l c ul a t e b a ndi ng a ge w i t h 2005 54. T hos e a r e t he va l ue s f o r a m a t e r i a l a t s e c ul a r e qui l i br i um w i t h t he c r us t a l 2 3 2 T h/ 2 3 8 U va l ue of 3. 8 T h e e r r or s a r e a r bi t r a r i l y a s s um e d t o be 50% g T he c or a l S r / C a a nd a nnua l de ns i t y ba nd a ge de t e r m i ne d by c r os s da t i ng t he t w o i nt r a c ol ony c or e s ( 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2) E r r or i s t he e s t i m a t e d s pr e a d f or e a c h s a m pl e de t e r m i ne d by e xa m i ni ng t he c or a l a nd X r a di ogr a phs ( i e s a m pl e c ont a i ns ~ 1 0. 5 ye a r

PAGE 113

103 A p p e n d i x C C or a l S r / C a R e pr oduc i bi l i t y a nd S ub opt i m a l S a m pl i ng

PAGE 114

104 A p p e n d i x C ( C ont i nue d) C or a l S r / C a R e pr oduc i bi l i t y a nd S ubopt i m a l S a m pl i ng S e c t i ons ( a ) a nd ( b) a r e t he s a m e a s F i gur e 2 2 e xc e pt f or s e l e c t s e c t i ons ( gr a y boxe s ) w hi c h di d not r e pr oduc e be t w e e n t he c or e s w i t h s a m pl i ng i s s ue s t ha t w e r e r e s ol ve d i n t he f i na l r e c or d i n F i gur e 2. 2 ( c ) T he a nnua l s a m pl e d l e ngt h i s t he di s t a nc e be t w e e n w i nt e r m a xi m um c or a l S r / C a va l ue s de t e r m i ne d f r om t he t i m e a dj us t e d de pt h r e c or d s how n a s de pa r t ur e s f r om t he m e a n ( 1 c m / ye a r ) T he s a m pl i ng l e ngt h r e s ol ut i on i s l i m i t e d by t he s a m pl i ng i nt e r va l ( 0 70, 0. 83 m m f o r 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2, r e s pe c t i ve l y) T he s a m pl i ng l e ngt h f o r e a c h a nnua l c yc l e a ppr oxi m a t e s a nnua l l i ne a r e xt e ns i on w he n t he s a m pl i ng pa t h i s pa r a l l e l t o t he c or a l l i t e w a l l s a nd a l ong t he c e nt r a l gr ow t h a xi s of t he c or a l l i t e f a n; de vi a t i ons w i l l r e s ul t i n e r r one ous e xt e ns i on r a t e s I n t he hi ghl i ght e d s e c t i ons e xa m i na t i on of t he c o r a l f oun d t he c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on r e l a t i ve t o t he s a m pl i ng pa t h w e r e e i t he r di s or ga ni z e d o r t r a ns ve r s e t he s a m pl i ng pa t h ( c f i ns e t pi c t ur e s ) S a m pl i ng l e ngt h w a s m oni t or e d f or i ndi c a t i ons of s a m pl i ng pr obl e m s S e c t i ons w i t h r e duc e d s a m pl i ng l e ngt h ( < 0. 5 c m / y e a r ; gr a y da s h l i ne ) m a y be t he r e s ul t of s a m pl i ng of f t he m a xi m um g r ow t h a xi s o r di s or ga ni z e d c or a l l i t e s N e w pa t hs w e r e s a m pl e d w i t h opt i m a l c or a l l i t e a l i g nm e nt a nd a gr e e m e nt i m pr ove d be t w e e n c or e s I f no opt i m a l pa t h w a s a va i l a bl e t ha t s e c t i on w a s r e m ov e d f r om t he f i na l r e c or d

PAGE 115

105 A p p e n d i x D E xa m pl e s of C or a l l i t e A ngl e t o S a m p l i ng P a t h. A p p e n d i x D E xa m pl e s of C or a l l i t e A ngl e t o S a m p l i ng P a t h. ( a ) C or a l s l a b a nd s a m pl i ng pa t h w i t h di r e c t i on c o nve nt i ons us e d. ( b ) A n i de a l i z e d P or i t e s e xt e ndi ng c or a l l i t e f a n a s de s c r i be d by D ar k e and B ar ne s [ 1993] T hi s s t udy f ound t he m on t hl y c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons be t w e e n c oe va l pa t hs a r e w i t hi n a na l yt i c a l pr e c i s i on w he n t he c or a l i s s a m pl e d a l ong t he c e nt r a l gr ow t h a xi s a nd t he o r i e nt a t i on o f t he s a m pl i ng pa t h i s a ppr ox i m a t e l y pa r a l l e l t o t he di r e c t i on of e xt e ndi ng c or a l l i t e s ( opt i m a l s a m pl i ng pa t h ) D i s c r e pa nc i e s be t w e e n c oe va l c or a l S r / C a de t e r m i na t i ons c a n be e xpl a i ne d by e xa m i ni ng t he c or a l l i t e or i e nt a t i on a l ong s a m pl i ng pa t h ( a ) C or a l l i t e s t ha t t r a ns e c t t he s a m pl i ng pa t h i n t he de pt h di m e ns i on ( z ) t e nd t o ha ve l ow e r ( i e w a r m e r ) c or a l S r / C a va l ue s ( b) T he c e nt r a l a xi s o f t he e xt e ndi ng c or a l l i t e f a n c ont a i ns t he w i nt e r s i gna l w he n gr ow t h de c r e a s e s w he r e a s t he s pr e a di ng c or a l l i t e f a n c ont a i ns t he s um m e r s i gna l w he n c or a l gr ow t h i nc r e a s e s [ D ar k e and B ar ne s 1993 ] A s a m pl i ng pa t h a l ong t he out w a r d r a di a t i on o f t he f a n r e s ul t s i n f a i l ur e t o c a pt ur e w i nt e r de pos i t i on.

PAGE 116

106 A p p e n d i x E C or a l 1 8 O V a r i a t i ons

PAGE 117

107 A p p e n d i x E ( C ont i nue d) C or a l 1 8 O V a r i a t i ons ( a ) T he m ont hl y i nt r a c ol ony 1 8 O a nom a l i e s i nc l ud e : 92 P A A 1 ( 1668 1 679, 1866 1879, 1898 1910, a nd 1921 1992 ) 92 P A A 2 ( 1732 174 2, 1877 1881 ) a nd 99 P A A ( 1965 1999) S e a s ona l 1 8 O a r e f r om 92 P A A 1 [ Q ui nn e t al 1998 ] us i ng t he upda t e d c hr onol ogy f r o m t hi s s t udy w hi c h w a s c r os s da t e d be t w e e n i nt r a c ol ony c or a l S r / C a va r i a t i ons T he m ont hl y a nd s e a s ona l c or a l 1 8 O a nom a l i e s w e r e de t e r m i ne d w i t h r e s pe c t t o 1967 1992 c l i m a t ol ogy ( ve r t i c a l gr a y box) T h e r e c or ds w e r e s m oot he d w i t h a 24 m ont h l ow pa s s F I R f i l t e r ( 90% pa s s a t 40 m ont hs ) ( b) T he a nnua l s a m pl i ng l e ngt h f or 92 P A A 1, s a m e a s A ppe ndi x C T he m on t hl y a nd s e a s ona l c or a l 1 8 O be t w e e n 92 P A A 1 a nd 92 P A A 2 f r om 1732 t o 1742 do not a gr e e ( i ns e t gr a ph) ; t hi s s e c t i on di d not r e pl i c a t e i n t he i nt r a c ol ony c or a l S r / C a r e c or d ( A ppe ndi x C ) a nd t he S r / C a de t e r m i na t i ons w e r e r e pl a c e d w i t h s a m pl e s f r om ne w opt i m a l s a m pl i ng pa t hs I s ot opi c a na l ys e s a r e i n pr ogr e s s f or t he s e c t i ons t ha t w e r e r e pl a c e d i n t he f i na l c or a l S r / C a r e c or d t o a s s e s s t he i nf l ue nc e of s ubopt i m a l c or a l l i t e a l i gn m e nt on c o r a l 1 8 O

PAGE 118

108 Appendix F Local Wavelet Power of a S ingle Event. (a) Coral Sr/Ca SST monthly anomalies and (b) local wavelet power spectrum, same as Figure 7. (c) The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) [ Crowley 2000] and (d) local wavelet power spectrum. (e) MTM spectrum of VEI (tapers =2, resolution =3). The large volcanic events represented by spikes produce interannual and decadal concentrations of variance in the local wavelet spectrum (d) and significant interannual periodicities in the MTM spectrum (e). This is an example of how a single large event can manifest significant concentrations of variance in a spectrum.

PAGE 119

109 Appendix G Cross spectral Analysis of the El Malpais Tree Ring Index and the Dongge Cave 18 O Speleothem Time Series. (a) FFT spectra smoothed over 7 bands. Red lines represent 95% confidence interval. (b) Cross spectrum with 95% confidence intervals. (c) Coherence squared between El Malpais and Dongge Cave spectra (d) Cross spectral phase of significantly coherent frequencies identified in (c). The El Malpais record was averaged every four years to match the 4 year linearly interpolated Dongge Cave record. The linear trend was removed from both series and normalized by their respective standard deviations

PAGE 120

110 Appendix H An Example of Time Frequency Analysis. (a) The normalized annual total solar irradiance (TSI; W/m 2 ) without background component [ Lean 2000] (b) The local wavelet power spectrum using the Morlet mother wavelet and normalized by 1/" 2 [ Torrence and Compo 1998] The heavy black line is the cone of influence and the area under cone should be interpreted with caution due to edge effects that result from zero padding. The thin black contour lines enclose time frequency regions of greater than 95% confidence interval estimated assuming a red noise background AR(1) (c) MTM spectrum (tapers = 3, resolution = 5) [ Thomson 1982; Ghil et al. 2002] The MTM reveals significant (99%) spectral power in the band centered on ~11 years/cycle (spans 9.4 12.7 years/cycle). The TSI contains the modulating 11 year sunspot cycle (b). The twentieth century has the highest concentration of variance. T he period from AD 1645 to 1714 has no sunspots cycles and no wavelet power. Similarly, the period from AD 1795 to 1825 has a reduced variance and the wavelet graph reveals a reduced concentration of variance.

PAGE 121

111 Appendix I Cross Wavelet Analysis of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and Nio 3.4 Index (a) SOI is computed using standardized monthly mean sea level pressure anomalies (mb) at Tahiti, French Polynesia and Darwin, Australia [ Trenberth 1984] The SOI values prior to 1935 should be used with caution; there are questions regarding the consistency and quality of the Tahiti pressure values prior to 1935 [ Trenberth 1997] The Nio 3.4 is the monthly SST anoma lies (C) for the region 5N 5S, 120 170W [ Kaplan et al. 1998 ] Both series were normalized by their respective standard deviations. (b) The local wavelet power spectrum using the Morlet mother wavelet and normalized by 1/" 2 [ Torrence and Compo 1998] for SOI (b) and Nio 3.4 (c) for the common period 1866 to 2005. (d) Cross wavelet transform (XWT) and (e) squared wavelet coherence (WTC) [ Torrence and Compo 1998; Grinsted et al. 2004] The relative phase is shown as in

PAGE 122

112 phase arrow pointing to the right. The XWT finds regions in the time frequency domain where the time series share common power. The WTC finds regions in time frequency domain where the time series co vary but do not necessarily share significant power. The heavy black line is the cone of influence and the area under cone should be interpreted with caution due to edge effects that result from zero padding The thin black contour lines enclose time frequency regions of greater than 95% confidence interval estimated assuming a red noise background AR(1). SOI data from http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/cas/catalog/climind/SOI.signal.ascii and Nio 3.4 from http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.Indices/.nino/.EXTENDED/.NINO34/

PAGE 123

113 A p p e n d i x J M ont hl y C or a l S r / C a f r om T w o I nt r a C ol ony C or e s

PAGE 124

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 114 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 99P A A 1999. 79 9. 207 1999. 71 9. 253 1999. 63 9. 322 1999. 54 9. 234 1999. 46 9. 163 1999. 38 9. 105 1999. 29 9. 041 1999. 21 8. 991 1999. 13 9. 035 1999. 04 9. 033 1998. 96 9. 075 1998. 88 9. 118 1998. 79 9. 161 1998. 71 9. 197 1998. 63 9. 215 1998. 54 9. 173 1998. 46 9. 130 1998. 38 9. 089 1998. 29 9. 055 1998. 21 9. 050 1998. 13 9. 042 1998. 04 9. 064 1997. 96 9. 123 1997. 88 9. 186 1997. 79 9. 226 1997. 71 9. 263 1997. 63 9. 296 1997. 54 9. 275 1997. 46 9. 285 1997. 38 9. 284 1997. 29 9. 263 1997. 21 9. 225 1997. 13 9. 185 1997. 04 9. 191 1996. 96 9. 200 1996. 88 9. 213 1996. 79 9. 240 1996. 71 9. 266 1996. 63 9. 288 1996. 54 9. 281 1996. 46 9. 238 1996. 38 9. 145 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 99P A A 1996. 29 9. 075 1996. 21 8 959 1996. 13 8. 911 1996. 04 8. 947 1995. 96 9. 014 1995. 88 9. 104 1995. 79 9. 177 1995. 71 9. 254 1995. 63 9. 285 1995. 54 9. 255 1995. 46 9. 201 1995. 38 9. 167 1995. 29 9. 137 1995. 21 9. 097 1995. 13 9. 088 1995. 04 9. 148 1994. 96 9. 186 1994. 88 9. 238 1994. 79 9. 287 1994. 71 9. 314 1994. 63 9. 316 1994. 54 9. 270 1994. 46 9. 228 1994. 38 9. 182 1994. 29 9. 188 1994. 21 9. 130 1994. 13 9. 067 1994. 04 9. 079 1993. 96 9. 130 1993. 88 9. 172 1993. 79 9. 214 1993. 71 9. 2 92 1993. 63 9. 303 1993. 54 9. 277 1993. 46 9. 240 1993. 38 9. 205 1993. 29 9. 158 1993. 21 9. 112 1993. 13 9. 097 1993. 04 9. 125 1992. 96 9. 165 1992. 88 9. 215

PAGE 125

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 115 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 99P A A 1992. 79 9. 256 1992. 71 9. 276 1992. 63 9. 230 9. 256 9. 279 1992. 54 9. 216 9. 204 9 264 1992. 46 9. 164 9. 170 9. 200 1992. 38 9. 161 9. 149 9. 140 1992. 29 9. 140 9. 098 9. 118 1992. 21 9. 041 9. 051 9. 096 1992. 13 9. 006 9. 051 9. 079 1992. 04 9. 059 9. 056 9. 111 1991. 96 9. 113 9. 140 9. 149 1991. 88 9. 169 9. 219 9. 191 1991. 79 9. 243 9. 244 9. 243 1991. 71 9. 268 9. 273 9. 253 1991. 63 9. 280 9. 301 9. 274 1991. 54 9. 268 9. 258 9. 245 1991. 46 9. 265 9. 227 9. 249 1991. 38 9. 213 9. 224 9. 199 1991. 29 9. 130 9. 172 9. 143 1991. 21 9. 059 9. 061 9. 100 1991. 13 9. 042 8. 997 9. 073 1991. 04 9. 083 9. 059 9. 105 1990. 96 9. 126 9. 133 9. 133 1990. 88 9. 173 9. 198 9. 168 1990. 79 9. 241 9. 255 9. 220 1990. 71 9. 241 9. 311 9. 266 1990. 63 9. 239 9. 265 9. 232 1990. 54 9. 228 9. 265 9. 213 1990. 46 9. 181 9. 239 9. 190 1990. 38 9. 112 9. 143 9. 122 1990. 29 9. 066 9. 053 9. 059 1990. 21 9. 010 8. 987 9. 030 1990. 1 3 8. 984 8. 967 8. 995 1990. 04 9. 034 9. 002 9. 001 1989. 96 9. 089 9. 067 9. 074 1989. 88 9. 133 9. 151 9. 138 1989. 79 9. 169 9. 205 9. 219 1989. 71 9. 201 9. 236 9. 256 1989. 63 9. 229 9. 247 9. 288 1989. 54 9. 225 9. 241 9. 271 1989. 46 9. 200 9. 218 9. 218 1989. 38 9. 174 9. 191 9. 195 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 99P A A 1989. 29 9. 135 9. 161 9. 130 1989. 21 9. 081 9. 098 9. 080 1989. 13 9. 079 9. 041 9. 041 1989. 04 9. 028 9. 051 8. 998 1988. 96 9. 048 9. 057 9. 067 1988. 88 9. 106 9. 133 9. 108 1988. 79 9. 172 9. 209 9. 163 1988. 71 9. 200 9. 251 9. 204 1988. 63 9. 229 9. 285 9. 233 1988. 54 9. 212 9. 255 9. 257 1988. 46 9. 192 9. 186 9. 204 1988. 38 9. 168 9. 116 9. 144 1988. 29 9. 141 9. 095 9. 095 1988. 21 9. 137 9. 017 9. 093 1988. 13 9. 131 9. 034 9. 072 1988. 04 9. 144 9. 053 9. 059 1987. 96 9. 153 9. 115 9. 102 1987. 88 9. 178 9. 177 9. 148 1987. 79 9. 234 9. 22 6 9. 195 1987. 71 9. 285 9. 274 9. 232 1987. 63 9. 326 9. 316 9. 267 1987. 54 9. 293 9. 254 9. 276 1987. 46 9. 245 9. 237 9. 222 1987. 38 9. 185 9. 181 9. 195 1987. 29 9. 125 9. 117 9. 092 1987. 21 9. 072 9. 081 9. 009 1987. 13 9. 102 9. 093 9. 017 1987. 04 9. 119 9. 128 9. 087 1986 96 9. 135 9. 182 9. 133 1986. 88 9. 163 9. 196 9. 183 1986. 79 9. 259 9. 259 9. 234 1986. 71 9. 308 9. 332 9. 336 1986. 63 9. 305 9. 307 9. 312 1986. 54 9. 239 9. 281 9. 287 1986. 46 9. 196 9. 222 9. 209 1986. 38 9. 144 9. 193 9. 152 1986. 29 9. 129 9. 150 9. 124 1986. 21 9. 016 9. 0 08 9. 018 1986. 13 8. 956 8. 935 8. 916 1986. 04 8. 964 8. 900 8. 915 1985. 96 9. 069 9. 086 9. 043 1985. 88 9. 130 9. 188 9. 171

PAGE 126

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 116 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 99P A A 1985. 79 9. 228 9. 254 9. 254 1985. 71 9. 277 9. 295 9. 337 1985. 63 9. 314 9. 324 9. 292 1985. 54 9. 301 9. 286 9. 319 1985. 46 9. 217 9. 230 9. 198 198 5. 38 9. 146 9. 095 9. 087 1985. 29 9. 051 9. 072 9. 034 1985. 21 9. 008 8. 982 8. 954 1985. 13 8. 955 8. 987 8. 952 1985. 04 8. 996 8. 955 8. 957 1984. 96 9. 052 9. 054 9. 050 1984. 88 9. 146 9. 191 9. 133 1984. 79 9. 231 9. 220 9. 226 1984. 71 9. 285 9. 322 9. 289 1984. 63 9. 303 9. 353 9. 314 1984. 54 9. 287 9. 313 9. 299 1984. 46 9. 241 9. 263 9. 252 1984. 38 9. 205 9. 196 9. 201 1984. 29 9. 123 9. 126 9. 156 1984. 21 9. 101 9. 082 9. 121 1984. 13 9. 115 9. 106 9. 124 1984. 04 9. 114 9. 103 9. 143 1983. 96 9. 105 9. 156 9. 145 1983. 88 9. 138 9. 160 9. 163 19 83. 79 9. 172 9. 205 9. 247 1983. 71 9. 267 9. 284 9. 286 1983. 63 9. 339 9. 355 9. 292 1983. 54 9. 264 9. 282 9. 255 1983. 46 9. 217 9. 212 9. 194 1983. 38 9. 102 9. 078 9. 097 1983. 29 9. 049 9. 035 9. 045 1983. 21 9. 044 9. 043 9. 079 1983. 13 9. 018 9. 042 9. 049 1983. 04 9. 003 9 026 9. 025 1982. 96 9. 050 9. 079 9. 071 1982. 88 9. 139 9. 165 9. 130 1982. 79 9. 267 9. 285 9. 204 1982. 71 9. 327 9. 329 9. 280 1982. 63 9. 385 9. 369 9. 350 1982. 54 9. 340 9. 337 9. 285 1982. 46 9. 290 9. 262 9. 241 1982. 38 9. 179 9. 191 9. 162 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 99P A A 1982. 29 9. 127 9. 128 9. 087 1 982. 21 9. 080 9. 076 9. 038 1982. 13 9. 076 9. 035 9. 042 1982. 04 9. 062 9. 000 9. 033 1981. 96 9. 127 9. 053 9. 081 1981. 88 9. 226 9. 107 9. 142 1981. 79 9. 264 9. 194 9. 216 1981. 71 9. 299 9. 280 9. 261 1981. 63 9. 326 9. 304 9. 295 1981. 54 9. 352 9. 323 9. 315 1981. 46 9. 240 9. 250 9. 232 1981. 38 9. 167 9. 163 9. 157 1981. 29 9. 102 9. 108 9. 095 1981. 21 9. 059 9. 036 9. 041 1981. 13 9. 013 8. 948 9. 007 1981. 04 9. 102 9. 065 9. 019 1980. 96 9. 158 9. 130 9. 058 1980. 88 9. 246 9. 166 9. 126 1980. 79 9. 253 9. 263 9. 190 1980. 71 9. 326 9. 322 9. 263 1980. 63 9. 343 9. 338 9. 322 1980. 54 9. 276 9. 250 9. 241 1980. 46 9. 268 9. 186 9. 168 1980. 38 9. 208 9. 134 9. 102 1980. 29 9. 089 9. 081 9. 037 1980. 21 9. 019 9. 028 8. 973 1980. 13 9. 009 8. 982 8. 962 1980. 04 9. 057 9. 040 8. 993 1979. 96 9. 136 9. 096 9. 081 1979. 88 9. 206 9. 137 9. 172 1979. 79 9. 280 9. 254 9. 262 1979. 71 9. 330 9. 337 9. 252 1979. 63 9. 359 9. 346 9. 346 1979. 54 9. 314 9. 308 9. 303 1979. 46 9. 243 9. 228 9. 215 1979. 38 9. 216 9. 227 9. 180 1979. 29 9. 137 9. 158 9. 062 1979. 21 9. 084 9. 090 9. 008 1979. 13 9. 058 9. 029 9. 121 1979. 04 9. 149 9. 101 9. 119 1978. 96 9. 138 9. 157 9. 133 1978. 88 9. 232 9. 211 9. 245

PAGE 127

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 117 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 99P A A 1978. 79 9. 293 9. 298 9. 276 1978. 71 9. 309 9. 371 9. 298 1978. 63 9. 356 9. 397 9. 317 1978. 54 9. 309 9. 291 9. 266 1978. 46 9. 250 9. 221 9. 179 1978. 38 9. 193 9. 156 9. 152 1978. 29 9. 14 3 9. 112 9. 122 1978. 21 9. 124 9. 098 9. 090 1978. 13 9. 103 9. 081 9. 053 1978. 04 9. 115 9. 142 9. 082 1977. 96 9. 153 9. 204 9. 127 1977. 88 9. 209 9. 253 9. 175 1977. 79 9. 277 9. 302 9. 242 1977. 71 9. 328 9. 353 9. 314 1977. 63 9. 349 9. 384 9. 345 1977. 54 9. 283 9. 342 9. 296 1977. 46 9. 260 9. 227 9. 186 1977. 38 9. 201 9. 179 9. 160 1977. 29 9. 149 9. 136 9. 130 1977. 21 9. 144 9. 097 9. 101 1977. 13 9. 105 9. 088 9. 087 1977. 04 9. 081 9. 065 9. 018 1976. 96 9. 115 9. 098 9. 064 1976. 88 9. 147 9. 131 9. 110 1976. 79 9. 214 9. 212 9. 234 1976. 71 9. 3 01 9. 294 9. 306 1976. 63 9. 334 9. 359 9. 304 1976. 54 9. 356 9. 424 9. 304 1976. 46 9. 230 9. 200 9. 228 1976. 38 9. 142 9. 078 9. 140 1976. 29 9. 063 9. 035 9. 083 1976. 21 9. 018 9. 003 8. 997 1976. 13 9. 052 9. 068 9. 013 1976. 04 9. 048 9. 080 9. 025 1975. 96 9. 071 9. 107 9. 01 4 1975. 88 9. 142 9. 140 9. 072 1975. 79 9. 184 9. 165 9. 126 1975. 71 9. 296 9. 214 9. 232 1975. 63 9. 314 9. 334 9. 342 1975. 54 9. 280 9. 324 9. 275 1975. 46 9. 224 9. 258 9. 200 1975. 38 9. 163 9. 180 9. 168 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 99P A A 1975. 29 9. 151 9. 164 9. 127 1975. 21 9. 125 9. 093 9. 134 1975. 13 9. 135 9. 136 9. 101 1975. 04 9. 094 9. 068 9. 064 1974. 96 9. 110 9. 127 9. 117 1974. 88 9. 208 9. 181 9. 157 1974. 79 9. 265 9. 269 9. 239 1974. 71 9. 304 9. 358 9. 294 1974. 63 9. 322 9. 362 9. 302 1974. 54 9. 270 9. 282 9. 222 1974. 46 9. 241 9. 290 9. 189 1974. 38 9. 140 9. 140 9. 0 96 1974. 29 9. 117 9. 097 9. 038 1974. 21 9. 067 9. 083 9. 028 1974. 13 9. 028 9. 068 9. 026 1974. 04 9. 088 9. 085 9. 035 1973. 96 9. 142 9. 101 9. 020 1973. 88 9. 179 9. 123 9. 126 1973. 79 9. 201 9. 215 9. 162 1973. 71 9. 290 9. 340 9. 224 1973. 63 9. 319 9. 370 9. 304 1973. 54 9 282 9. 294 9. 247 1973. 46 9. 216 9. 199 9. 174 1973. 38 9. 205 9. 150 9. 121 1973. 29 9. 164 9. 118 9. 107 1973. 21 9. 092 9. 114 9. 076 1973. 13 9. 058 9. 046 9. 050 1973. 04 9. 059 9. 116 9. 102 1972. 96 9. 155 9. 185 9. 153 1972. 88 9. 197 9. 198 9. 178 1972. 79 9. 288 9. 238 9. 241 1972. 71 9. 340 9. 387 9. 341 1972. 63 9. 315 9. 326 9. 333 1972. 54 9. 304 9. 363 9. 288 1972. 46 9. 272 9. 294 9. 227 1972. 38 9. 201 9. 185 9. 139 1972. 29 9. 117 9. 125 9. 075 1972. 21 9. 085 9. 122 9. 075 1972. 13 9. 152 9. 181 9. 114 1972. 04 9. 130 9. 120 9. 166 1971. 96 9. 136 9. 133 9. 166 1971. 88 9. 148 9. 155 9. 129

PAGE 128

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 118 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 99P A A 1971. 79 9. 186 9. 226 9. 130 1971. 71 9. 244 9. 229 9. 193 1971. 63 9. 287 9. 354 9. 264 1971. 54 9. 354 9. 417 9. 322 1971. 46 9. 285 9. 255 9. 232 1971. 38 9. 223 9. 196 9. 162 1971. 29 9. 142 9. 137 9. 115 1971. 21 9. 087 9. 071 9 031 1971. 13 9. 050 9. 014 9. 032 1971. 04 9. 110 9. 091 9. 059 1970. 96 9. 150 9. 132 9. 111 1970. 88 9. 202 9. 213 9. 159 1970. 79 9. 270 9. 291 9. 247 1970. 71 9. 315 9. 348 9. 306 1970. 63 9. 337 9. 393 9. 342 1970. 54 9. 319 9. 361 9. 310 1970. 46 9. 256 9. 274 9. 176 1970. 38 9. 184 9. 162 9. 157 1970. 29 9. 179 9. 145 9. 133 1970. 21 9. 150 9. 048 9. 062 1970. 13 9. 117 9. 089 9. 090 1970. 04 9. 049 9. 000 9. 090 1969. 96 9. 116 9. 072 9. 071 1969. 88 9. 228 9. 156 9. 132 1969. 79 9. 305 9. 245 9. 217 1969. 71 9. 345 9. 337 9. 281 1969. 63 9. 370 9. 400 9. 316 1969. 54 9. 324 9. 337 9. 257 1969. 46 9. 265 9. 254 9. 220 1969. 38 9. 220 9. 214 9. 193 1969. 29 9. 215 9. 200 9. 176 1969. 21 9. 202 9. 207 9. 156 1969. 13 9. 181 9. 195 9. 117 1969. 04 9. 151 9. 164 9. 127 1968. 96 9. 186 9. 230 9. 139 1968. 88 9. 282 9. 287 9. 211 1968. 7 9 9. 352 9. 361 9. 264 1968. 71 9. 395 9. 404 9. 329 1968. 63 9. 354 9. 396 9. 323 1968. 54 9. 287 9. 276 9. 345 1968. 46 9. 234 9. 231 9. 188 1968. 38 9. 175 9. 178 9. 117 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 99P A A 1968. 29 9. 142 9. 158 9. 095 1968. 21 9. 098 9. 157 9. 031 1968. 13 9. 049 9. 124 9. 034 1968. 04 9. 089 9. 168 9. 044 1967. 96 9. 120 9. 212 9. 064 1967. 88 9. 165 9. 198 9. 132 1967. 79 9. 242 9. 268 9. 162 1967. 71 9. 254 9. 322 9. 217 1967. 63 9. 264 9. 355 9. 273 1967. 54 9. 234 9. 277 9. 232 1967. 46 9. 209 9. 243 9. 207 1967. 38 9. 172 9. 172 9. 163 1967. 29 9. 087 9. 100 9. 116 1967. 21 9. 034 9. 042 9. 042 1967. 13 9. 088 9. 059 9. 063 1967. 04 9. 105 9. 091 9. 093 1966. 96 9. 189 9. 124 9. 138 1966. 88 9. 245 9. 221 9. 205 1966. 79 9. 309 9. 271 9. 287 1966. 71 9. 348 9. 357 9. 326 1966. 63 9. 362 9. 396 9. 365 1966. 54 9. 312 9. 360 9. 311 1966. 46 9. 246 9. 32 2 9. 219 1966. 38 9. 186 9. 214 9. 219 1966. 29 9. 146 9. 175 9. 137 1966. 21 9. 061 9. 117 9. 068 1966. 13 9. 048 9. 119 9. 037 1966. 04 9. 095 9. 120 9. 071 1965. 96 9. 165 9. 194 9. 100 1965. 88 9. 200 9. 252 9. 143 1965. 79 9. 249 9. 238 9. 231 1965. 71 9. 361 9. 326 9. 309 1965 63 9. 381 9. 420 9. 342 1965. 54 9. 319 9. 377 9. 321 1965. 46 9. 273 9. 283 9. 249 1965. 38 9. 176 9. 213 9. 178 1965. 29 9. 138 9. 173 1965. 21 9. 101 9. 141 1965. 13 9. 116 9. 135 1965. 04 9. 125 9. 144 1964. 96 9. 139 9. 194 1964. 88 9. 220 9. 195

PAGE 129

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 119 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1964. 79 9. 273 9. 259 1964. 71 9. 314 9. 278 1964. 63 9. 375 9. 266 1964. 54 9. 257 9. 250 1964. 46 9. 200 9. 180 1964. 38 9. 147 9. 194 1964. 29 9. 088 9. 121 1964. 21 9. 101 9. 054 1964. 13 9. 024 9. 048 1964. 04 9. 094 9. 101 1963. 96 9. 188 9. 154 1963. 88 9. 247 9. 242 196 3. 79 9. 305 9. 318 1963. 71 9. 356 9. 339 1963. 63 9. 353 9. 363 1963. 54 9. 300 9. 282 1963. 46 9. 240 9. 201 1963. 38 9. 187 9. 191 1963. 29 9. 119 9. 070 1963. 21 9. 089 9. 069 1963. 13 9. 062 9. 054 1963. 04 9. 102 9. 060 1962. 96 9. 130 9. 192 1962. 88 9. 231 9. 224 1962. 79 9. 245 9. 272 1962. 71 9. 322 9. 382 1962. 63 9. 275 9. 328 1962. 54 9. 226 9. 273 1962. 46 9. 181 9. 196 1962. 38 9. 138 9. 134 1962. 29 9. 122 9. 116 1962. 21 9. 045 9. 038 1962. 13 8. 961 8. 943 1962. 04 9. 042 9. 005 1961. 96 9. 138 9. 096 1961. 88 9. 198 9. 181 1961. 79 9. 2 60 9. 265 1961. 71 9. 319 9. 301 1961. 63 9. 334 9. 326 1961. 54 9. 302 9. 288 1961. 46 9. 258 9. 226 1961. 38 9. 192 9. 150 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1961. 29 9. 156 9. 103 1961. 21 9. 148 9. 124 1961. 13 9. 142 9. 065 1961. 04 9. 173 9. 108 1960. 96 9. 187 9. 145 1960. 88 9. 219 9. 182 1960. 79 9. 247 9 252 1960. 71 9. 287 9. 271 1960. 63 9. 312 9. 285 1960. 54 9. 266 9. 247 1960. 46 9. 225 9. 215 1960. 38 9. 194 9. 182 1960. 29 9. 128 9. 097 1960. 21 9. 034 9. 025 1960. 13 8. 987 8. 979 1960. 04 9. 077 9. 036 1959. 96 9. 081 9. 048 1959. 88 9. 174 9. 144 1959. 79 9. 254 9. 226 1959. 71 9. 296 9. 324 1959. 63 9. 327 9. 363 1959. 54 9. 307 9. 308 1959. 46 9. 257 9. 252 1959. 38 9. 177 9. 134 1959. 29 9. 166 9. 108 1959. 21 9. 135 9. 074 1959. 13 9. 091 9. 037 1959. 04 9. 111 9. 076 1958. 96 9. 119 9. 131 1958. 88 9. 188 9. 174 1958. 79 9. 239 9. 216 19 58. 71 9. 272 9. 273 1958. 63 9. 283 9. 284 1958. 54 9. 232 9. 243 1958. 46 9. 209 9. 200 1958. 38 9. 132 9. 109 1958. 29 9. 091 9. 051 1958. 21 9. 034 8. 998 1958. 13 9. 002 8. 946 1958. 04 9. 046 9. 021 1957. 96 9. 102 9. 094 1957. 88 9. 166 9. 202 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1957. 79 9. 212 9. 234 1957. 7 1 9. 327 9. 308 1957. 63 9. 346 9. 384 1957. 54 9. 285 9. 338 1957. 46 9. 227 9. 186 1957. 38 9. 156 9. 105 1957. 29 9. 085 9. 076 1957. 21 9. 062 9. 046 1957. 13 9. 029 9. 069 1957. 04 9. 035 8. 999 1956. 96 9. 125 9. 111 1956. 88 9. 209 9. 191 1956. 79 9. 249 9. 227 1956. 71 9. 296 9. 269 1956. 63 9. 318 9. 300 1956. 54 9. 270 9. 242 1956. 46 9. 256 9. 173 1956. 38 9. 178 9. 121 1956. 29 9. 057 9. 048 1956. 21 8. 987 8. 954 1956. 13 9. 052 9. 097 1956. 04 8. 989 9. 046 1955. 96 9. 047 9. 096 1955. 88 9. 170 9. 153 1955. 79 9. 182 9. 208 1955. 71 9. 287 9. 282 1955. 63 9. 318 9. 357 1955. 54 9. 269 9. 313 1955. 46 9. 233 9. 207 1955. 38 9. 128 9. 141 1955. 29 9. 100 9. 104 1955. 21 9. 054 9. 075 1955. 13 9. 000 9. 051 1955. 04 9. 051 9. 092 1954. 96 9. 120 9. 132 1954. 88 9. 171 9. 206 1954. 79 9. 266 9. 273 1954. 71 9. 334 9. 32 5 1954. 63 9. 327 9. 359 1954. 54 9. 299 9. 313 1954. 46 9. 253 9. 264 1954. 38 9. 199 9. 183

PAGE 130

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d) 120 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1954. 29 9. 155 9. 089 1954. 21 9. 034 9. 055 1954. 13 8. 969 9. 073 1954. 04 9. 036 9. 063 1953. 96 9. 085 9. 141 1953. 88 9. 179 9. 209 1953. 79 9. 266 9. 248 1 953. 71 9. 317 9. 302 1953. 63 9. 326 9. 363 1953. 54 9. 282 9. 339 1953. 46 9. 244 9. 247 1953. 38 9. 166 9. 224 1953. 29 9. 170 9. 204 1953. 21 9. 157 9. 198 1953. 13 9. 105 9. 170 1953. 04 9. 132 9. 190 1952. 96 9. 160 9. 211 1952. 88 9. 193 9. 233 1952. 79 9. 227 9. 246 1952. 71 9. 249 9. 281 1952. 63 9. 281 9. 323 1952. 54 9. 255 9. 272 1952. 46 9. 228 9. 208 1952. 38 9. 151 9. 179 1952. 29 9. 117 9. 102 1952. 21 9. 129 9. 119 1952. 13 9. 083 9. 094 1952. 04 9. 142 9. 082 1951. 96 9. 100 9. 123 1951. 88 9. 208 9. 194 1951. 79 9. 282 9. 277 1951. 71 9 333 9. 385 1951. 63 9. 294 9. 366 1951. 54 9. 262 9. 308 1951. 46 9. 250 9. 221 1951. 38 9. 198 9. 175 1951. 29 9. 107 9. 128 1951. 21 9. 118 9. 138 1951. 13 9. 034 9. 119 1951. 04 9. 010 9. 085 1950. 96 9. 121 9. 140 1950. 88 9. 185 9. 189 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1950. 79 9. 262 9. 272 1950. 71 9. 304 9. 346 1950. 63 9. 301 9. 341 1950. 54 9. 243 9. 226 1950. 46 9. 186 9. 196 1950. 38 9. 150 9. 126 1950. 29 9. 121 9. 070 1950. 21 9. 089 9. 035 1950. 13 9. 042 9. 007 1950. 04 9. 085 9. 068 1949. 96 9. 140 9. 127 1949. 88 9. 200 9. 184 1949. 79 9. 245 9. 218 1949. 71 9. 279 9. 3 22 1949. 63 9. 301 9. 337 1949. 54 9. 292 9. 322 1949. 46 9. 221 9. 245 1949. 38 9. 180 9. 150 1949. 29 9. 110 9. 072 1949. 21 9. 024 9. 036 1949. 13 9. 076 9. 059 1949. 04 9. 086 9. 069 1948. 96 9. 143 9. 134 1948. 88 9. 181 9. 210 1948. 79 9. 222 9. 238 1948. 71 9. 264 9. 333 1948. 63 9. 269 9. 321 1948. 54 9. 242 9. 284 1948. 46 9. 202 9. 225 1948. 38 9. 129 9. 166 1948. 29 9. 095 9. 112 1948. 21 9. 036 9. 089 1948. 13 9. 063 9. 113 1948. 04 9. 031 9. 061 1947. 96 9. 118 9. 111 1947. 88 9. 200 9. 235 1947. 79 9. 256 9. 291 1947. 71 9. 275 9. 317 1947 63 9. 267 9. 350 1947. 54 9. 263 9. 257 1947. 46 9. 227 9. 196 1947. 38 9. 070 9. 066 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1947. 29 9. 065 9. 075 1947. 21 9. 062 9. 084 1947. 13 9. 118 9. 080 1947. 04 9. 082 9. 153 1946. 96 9. 165 9. 180 1946. 88 9. 191 9. 210 1946. 79 9. 258 9. 279 1946. 71 9. 299 9. 331 1946. 63 9. 294 9. 365 1946. 54 9. 262 9. 303 1946. 46 9. 217 9. 229 1946. 38 9. 190 9. 153 1946. 29 9. 071 9. 102 1946. 21 9. 017 9. 093 1946. 13 8. 945 9. 014 1946. 04 9. 036 9. 075 1945. 96 9. 125 9. 159 1945. 88 9. 170 9. 218 1945. 79 9. 214 9. 293 1945. 71 9. 292 9. 321 1945. 63 9. 34 0 9. 366 1945. 54 9. 278 9. 318 1945. 46 9. 237 9. 256 1945. 38 9. 184 9. 182 1945. 29 9. 130 9. 129 1945. 21 9. 087 9. 117 1945. 13 9. 040 9. 048 1945. 04 9. 070 9. 098 1944. 96 9. 139 9. 143 1944. 88 9. 229 9. 232 1944. 79 9. 293 9. 323 1944. 71 9. 300 9. 353 1944. 63 9. 280 9. 360 1944. 54 9. 260 9. 324 1944. 46 9. 230 9. 242 1944. 38 9. 196 9. 175 1944. 29 9. 180 9. 141 1944. 21 8. 986 9. 111 1944. 13 8. 993 9. 061 1944. 04 8. 999 9. 089 1943. 96 9. 084 9. 153 1943. 88 9. 168 9. 207

PAGE 131

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 121 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1943. 79 9. 213 9. 255 1943. 71 9. 269 9. 282 1943. 63 9. 319 9. 313 1943. 54 9. 283 9. 265 1943. 46 9. 211 9. 232 1943. 38 9. 145 9. 201 1943. 29 9. 088 9. 170 1943. 21 9. 068 9. 141 1943. 13 9. 044 9. 092 1943. 04 9. 070 9. 140 1942. 96 9. 123 9. 163 1942. 88 9. 226 9. 232 1942. 79 9. 240 9. 304 1942. 71 9. 299 9. 345 194 2. 63 9. 302 9. 357 1942. 54 9. 282 9. 312 1942. 46 9. 216 9. 245 1942. 38 9. 136 9. 193 1942. 29 9. 119 9. 129 1942. 21 9. 046 9. 112 1942. 13 9. 015 9. 099 1942. 04 9. 079 9. 129 1941. 96 9. 119 9. 179 1941. 88 9. 187 9. 212 1941. 79 9. 244 9. 293 1941. 71 9. 300 9. 377 1941. 63 9. 355 9. 408 1941. 54 9. 309 9. 345 1941. 46 9. 244 9. 282 1941. 38 9. 149 9. 222 1941. 29 9. 107 9. 164 1941. 21 9. 087 9. 119 1941. 13 9. 105 9. 114 1941. 04 9. 081 9. 137 1940. 96 9. 142 9. 184 1940. 88 9. 204 9. 234 1940. 79 9. 199 9. 308 1940. 71 9. 313 9. 366 1940. 63 9. 3 34 9. 383 1940. 54 9. 324 9. 303 1940. 46 9. 270 9. 250 1940. 38 9. 164 9. 217 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1940. 29 9. 167 9. 136 1940. 21 9. 047 9. 052 1940. 13 9. 057 9. 084 1940. 04 9. 099 9. 116 1939. 96 9. 136 9. 157 1939. 88 9. 176 9. 203 1939. 79 9. 289 9. 302 1939. 71 9. 287 9. 323 1939. 63 9. 330 9 365 1939. 54 9. 272 9. 313 1939. 46 9. 232 9. 262 1939. 38 9. 162 9. 195 1939. 29 9. 119 9. 166 1939. 21 9. 115 9. 116 1939. 13 9. 063 9. 106 1939. 04 9. 131 9. 142 1938. 96 9. 136 9. 183 1938. 88 9. 194 9. 212 1938. 79 9. 292 9. 291 1938. 71 9. 342 9. 366 1938. 63 9. 327 9. 315 1938. 54 9. 355 9. 287 1938. 46 9. 253 9. 241 1938. 38 9. 169 9. 122 1938. 29 9. 056 9. 064 1938. 21 9. 052 9. 032 1938. 13 8. 955 8. 984 1938. 04 8. 987 9. 015 1937. 96 9. 053 9. 115 1937. 88 9. 163 9. 213 1937. 79 9. 237 9. 272 1937. 71 9. 315 9. 318 1937. 63 9. 318 9. 351 19 37. 54 9. 291 9. 326 1937. 46 9. 263 9. 298 1937. 38 9. 229 9. 205 1937. 29 9. 196 9. 123 1937. 21 9. 166 9. 127 1937. 13 9. 168 9. 154 1937. 04 9. 135 9. 140 1936. 96 9. 197 9. 171 1936. 88 9. 220 9. 214 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1936. 79 9. 239 9. 239 1936. 71 9. 310 9. 309 1936. 63 9. 336 9. 370 1936. 5 4 9. 320 9. 342 1936. 46 9. 225 9. 289 1936. 38 9. 178 9. 188 1936. 29 9. 128 9. 160 1936. 21 9. 150 9. 113 1936. 13 9. 072 9. 104 1936. 04 9. 106 9. 129 1935. 96 9. 180 9. 168 1935. 88 9. 210 9. 241 1935. 79 9. 203 9. 287 1935. 71 9. 277 9. 344 1935. 63 9. 339 9. 362 1935. 54 9. 275 9. 293 1935. 46 9. 181 9. 226 1935. 38 9. 123 9. 162 1935. 29 9. 115 9. 132 1935. 21 9. 058 9. 069 1935. 13 8. 976 9. 013 1935. 04 9. 007 9. 060 1934. 96 9. 042 9. 121 1934. 88 9. 164 9. 249 1934. 79 9. 275 9. 331 1934. 71 9. 344 9. 353 1934. 63 9. 326 9. 352 1934. 54 9. 282 9. 304 1934. 46 9. 202 9. 244 1934. 38 9. 172 9. 163 1934. 29 9. 113 9. 147 1934. 21 9. 132 9. 135 1934. 13 8. 969 9. 065 1934. 04 9. 027 9. 097 1933. 96 9. 085 9. 171 1933. 88 9. 177 9. 230 1933. 79 9. 269 9. 271 1933. 71 9. 322 9. 306 1933. 63 9. 339 9. 337 1933. 54 9. 291 9. 31 3 1933. 46 9. 265 9. 290 1933. 38 9. 169 9. 218

PAGE 132

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d) 122 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1933. 29 9. 068 9. 082 1933. 21 8. 990 9. 034 1933. 13 8. 986 9. 035 1933. 04 9. 051 9. 065 1932. 96 9. 148 9. 160 1932. 88 9. 187 9. 213 1932. 79 9. 210 9. 284 1932. 71 9. 282 9. 289 1932. 63 9. 354 9. 349 1 932. 54 9. 322 9. 312 1932. 46 9. 301 9. 274 1932. 38 9. 187 9. 193 1932. 29 9. 102 9. 113 1932. 21 9. 093 9. 103 1932. 13 9. 131 9. 107 1932. 04 9. 154 9. 176 1931. 96 9. 110 9. 103 1931. 88 9. 198 9. 209 1931. 79 9. 276 9. 307 1931. 71 9. 318 9. 350 1931. 63 9. 349 9. 359 1931. 54 9. 235 9. 305 1931. 46 9. 186 9. 251 1931. 38 9. 150 9. 161 1931. 29 9. 147 9. 189 1931. 21 9. 142 9. 149 1931. 13 9. 087 9. 083 1931. 04 9. 059 9. 055 1930. 96 9. 150 9. 148 1930. 88 9. 197 9. 244 1930. 79 9. 259 9. 299 1930. 71 9. 347 9. 368 1930. 63 9. 342 9. 359 1930. 54 9 339 9. 322 1930. 46 9. 266 9. 289 1930. 38 9. 125 9. 185 1930. 29 9. 148 9. 139 1930. 21 9. 110 9. 094 1930. 13 9. 052 9. 056 1930. 04 9. 063 9. 100 1929. 96 9. 116 9. 145 1929. 88 9. 176 9. 191 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1929. 79 9. 239 9. 257 1929. 71 9. 347 9. 324 1929. 63 9. 384 9. 371 1929. 54 9. 310 9. 325 1929. 46 9. 227 9. 267 1929. 38 9. 116 9. 211 1929. 29 9. 078 9. 104 1929. 21 9. 057 9. 084 1929. 13 9. 032 9. 020 1929. 04 9. 042 9. 064 1928. 96 9. 157 9. 116 1928. 88 9. 200 9. 172 1928. 79 9. 254 9. 175 1928. 71 9. 297 9. 207 1928. 63 9. 302 9. 255 1928. 54 9. 268 9. 2 32 1928. 46 9. 266 9. 199 1928. 38 9. 182 9. 138 1928. 29 9. 110 9. 119 1928. 21 9. 097 9. 097 1928. 13 9. 076 9. 076 1928. 04 9. 106 9. 097 1927. 96 9. 140 9. 137 1927. 88 9. 131 9. 188 1927. 79 9. 230 9. 254 1927. 71 9. 329 9. 300 1927. 63 9. 354 9. 315 1927. 54 9. 284 9. 278 1927. 46 9. 231 9. 228 1927. 38 9. 152 9. 182 1927. 29 9. 111 9. 101 1927. 21 9. 032 9. 015 1927. 13 8. 997 9. 012 1927. 04 9. 056 9. 056 1926. 96 9. 092 9. 163 1926. 88 9. 181 9. 232 1926. 79 9. 238 9. 278 1926. 71 9. 268 9. 302 1926. 63 9. 327 9. 302 1926. 54 9. 292 9. 295 1926 46 9. 234 9. 237 1926. 38 9. 156 9. 123 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1926. 29 9. 073 9. 070 1926. 21 9. 060 9. 062 1926. 13 9. 038 9. 128 1926. 04 9. 072 9. 073 1925. 96 9. 124 9. 201 1925. 88 9. 196 9. 257 1925. 79 9. 281 9. 314 1925. 71 9. 351 9. 356 1925. 63 9. 383 9. 357 1925. 54 9. 347 9. 334 1925. 46 9. 256 9. 268 1925. 38 9. 167 9. 180 1925. 29 9. 155 9. 151 1925. 21 9. 137 9. 074 1925. 13 9. 047 9. 092 1925. 04 9. 092 9. 058 1924. 96 9. 113 9. 155 1924. 88 9. 179 9. 210 1924. 79 9. 284 9. 265 1924. 71 9. 345 9. 312 1924. 63 9. 382 9. 356 1924. 54 9. 321 9. 334 1924. 46 9. 21 8 9. 253 1924. 38 9. 138 9. 182 1924. 29 9. 015 9. 093 1924. 21 8. 964 9. 056 1924. 13 8. 962 8. 955 1924. 04 9. 023 9. 006 1923. 96 9. 100 9. 100 1923. 88 9. 188 9. 207 1923. 79 9. 226 9. 259 1923. 71 9. 276 9. 297 1923. 63 9. 293 9. 312 1923. 54 9. 263 9. 270 1923. 46 9. 210 9. 197 1923. 38 9. 136 9. 151 1923. 29 9. 105 9. 120 1923. 21 9. 061 9. 103 1923. 13 9. 017 9. 036 1923. 04 9. 025 9. 058 1922. 96 9. 124 9. 125 1922. 88 9. 170 9. 226

PAGE 133

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 123 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1922. 79 9. 281 9. 287 1922. 71 9. 329 9. 332 1922. 63 9. 352 9. 356 1922. 54 9. 265 9. 273 1922. 46 9. 218 9. 230 1922. 38 9. 169 9. 198 1922. 29 9. 147 9. 140 1922. 21 9. 061 9. 034 1922. 13 9. 013 9. 024 1922. 04 9. 042 9. 080 1921. 96 9. 078 9. 136 1921. 88 9. 164 9. 190 1921. 79 9. 242 9. 249 1921. 71 9. 316 9. 313 1921. 63 9. 323 9. 318 1921. 54 9. 286 9. 287 1921. 46 9. 241 9. 247 192 1. 38 9. 197 9. 221 1921. 29 9. 165 9. 151 1921. 21 9. 133 9. 124 1921. 13 9. 111 9. 101 1921. 04 9. 142 9. 134 1920. 96 9. 190 9. 166 1920. 88 9. 217 9. 200 1920. 79 9. 246 9. 262 1920. 71 9. 296 9. 300 1920. 63 9. 348 9. 342 1920. 54 9. 273 9. 306 1920. 46 9. 211 9. 236 1920. 38 9. 170 9. 250 1920. 29 9. 145 9. 184 1920. 21 9. 069 9. 095 1920. 13 9. 060 9. 068 1920. 04 9. 117 9. 127 1919. 96 9. 183 9. 190 1919. 88 9. 225 9. 255 1919. 79 9. 260 9. 294 1919. 71 9. 298 9. 307 1919. 63 9. 325 9. 301 1919. 54 9. 293 9. 313 1919. 46 9. 231 9. 283 1919. 38 9. 1 96 9. 225 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1919. 29 9. 153 9. 170 1919. 21 9. 098 9. 134 1919. 13 9. 125 9. 103 1919. 04 9. 116 9. 142 1918. 96 9. 173 9. 160 1918. 88 9. 211 9. 271 1918. 79 9. 227 9. 289 1918. 71 9. 308 9. 319 1918. 63 9. 397 9. 357 1918. 54 9. 305 9. 334 1918. 46 9. 256 9. 298 1918. 38 9. 171 9 227 1918. 29 9. 107 9. 128 1918. 21 9. 024 9. 082 1918. 13 9. 042 9. 094 1918. 04 9. 051 9. 085 1917. 96 9. 139 9. 116 1917. 88 9. 219 9. 263 1917. 79 9. 252 9. 299 1917. 71 9. 302 9. 335 1917. 63 9. 331 9. 364 1917. 54 9. 281 9. 275 1917. 46 9. 224 9. 252 1917. 38 9. 173 9. 161 1917. 29 9. 090 9. 085 1917. 21 9. 046 9. 030 1917. 13 9. 000 9. 059 1917. 04 9. 044 9. 020 1916. 96 9. 091 9. 088 1916. 88 9. 179 9. 205 1916. 79 9. 236 9. 247 1916. 71 9. 281 9. 299 1916. 63 9. 312 9. 348 1916. 54 9. 286 9. 267 1916. 46 9. 231 9. 259 1916. 38 9. 185 9. 186 19 16. 29 9. 097 9. 122 1916. 21 9. 017 9. 034 1916. 13 9. 000 9. 021 1916. 04 9. 034 9. 077 1915. 96 9. 115 9. 156 1915. 88 9. 191 9. 217 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1915. 79 9. 254 9. 267 1915. 71 9. 272 9. 302 1915. 63 9. 263 9. 308 1915. 54 9. 282 9. 303 1915. 46 9. 245 9. 254 1915. 38 9. 184 9. 184 1915. 2 9 9. 126 9. 102 1915. 21 9. 020 9. 032 1915. 13 9. 007 8. 999 1915. 04 9. 092 9. 027 1914. 96 9. 184 9. 164 1914. 88 9. 271 9. 277 1914. 79 9. 346 9. 344 1914. 71 9. 360 9. 376 1914. 63 9. 371 9. 385 1914. 54 9. 305 9. 310 1914. 46 9. 223 9. 261 1914. 38 9. 189 9. 218 1914. 29 9. 153 9. 195 1914. 21 9. 098 9. 141 1914. 13 9. 059 9. 090 1914. 04 9. 117 9. 124 1913. 96 9. 091 9. 212 1913. 88 9. 238 9. 237 1913. 79 9. 305 9. 294 1913. 71 9. 358 9. 366 1913. 63 9. 374 9. 350 1913. 54 9. 342 9. 345 1913. 46 9. 301 9. 261 1913. 38 9. 188 9. 219 1913. 29 9. 152 9. 143 1913. 21 9. 114 9. 097 1913. 13 9. 097 9. 080 1913. 04 9. 129 9. 117 1912. 96 9. 136 9. 158 1912. 88 9. 198 9. 209 1912. 79 9. 248 9. 281 1912. 71 9. 334 9. 317 1912. 63 9. 377 9. 332 1912. 54 9. 368 9. 290 1912. 46 9. 312 9. 246 1912. 38 9. 190 9. 187

PAGE 134

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 124 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1912. 29 9. 086 9. 12 8 1912. 21 9. 096 9. 092 1912. 13 9. 056 9. 062 1912. 04 9. 093 9. 110 1911. 96 9. 158 9. 162 1911. 88 9. 240 9. 220 1911. 79 9. 316 9. 334 1911. 71 9. 353 9. 383 1911. 63 9. 386 9. 392 1911. 54 9. 334 9. 319 1911. 46 9. 270 9. 240 1911. 38 9. 203 9. 158 1911. 29 9. 093 9. 105 1 911. 21 9. 084 9. 138 1911. 13 9. 049 9. 173 1911. 04 9. 109 9. 107 1910. 96 9. 166 9. 148 1910. 88 9. 219 9. 248 1910. 79 9. 278 9. 305 1910. 71 9. 322 9. 333 1910. 63 9. 345 9. 337 1910. 54 9. 294 9. 314 1910. 46 9. 239 9. 283 1910. 38 9. 170 9. 191 1910. 29 9. 121 9. 078 1910. 21 9. 034 9. 041 1910. 13 8. 991 8. 966 1910. 04 9. 058 9. 065 1909. 96 9. 144 9. 154 1909. 88 9. 203 9. 212 1909. 79 9. 244 9. 283 1909. 71 9. 292 9. 296 1909. 63 9. 296 9. 288 1909. 54 9. 297 9. 298 1909. 46 9. 248 9. 259 1909. 38 9. 187 9. 207 1909. 29 9. 130 9. 147 1909. 21 9 044 9. 092 1909. 13 9. 028 9. 055 1909. 04 9. 044 9. 082 1908. 96 9. 110 9. 137 1908. 88 9. 225 9. 214 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1908. 79 9. 301 9. 288 1908. 71 9. 316 9. 327 1908. 63 9. 350 9. 360 1908. 54 9. 304 9. 347 1908. 46 9. 266 9. 261 1908. 38 9. 202 9. 176 1908. 29 9. 126 9. 131 1908. 21 9. 081 9. 100 1908. 13 9. 055 9. 085 1908. 04 9. 110 9. 103 1907. 96 9. 131 9. 136 1907. 88 9. 213 9. 221 1907. 79 9. 242 9. 282 1907. 71 9. 304 9. 337 1907. 63 9. 387 9. 344 1907. 54 9. 354 9. 283 1907. 46 9. 256 9. 269 1907. 38 9. 202 9. 196 1907. 29 9. 099 9. 131 1907. 21 9. 027 9. 0 70 1907. 13 9. 010 9. 050 1907. 04 9. 078 9. 085 1906. 96 9. 182 9. 167 1906. 88 9. 233 9. 247 1906. 79 9. 290 9. 281 1906. 71 9. 331 9. 322 1906. 63 9. 361 9. 363 1906. 54 9. 332 9. 325 1906. 46 9. 284 9. 249 1906. 38 9. 228 9. 223 1906. 29 9. 164 9. 179 1906. 21 9. 115 9. 125 1906. 13 9. 070 9. 123 1906. 04 9. 119 9. 115 1905. 96 9. 172 9. 197 1905. 88 9. 241 9. 280 1905. 79 9. 316 9. 335 1905. 71 9. 367 9. 342 1905. 63 9. 362 9. 306 1905. 54 9. 350 9. 274 1905. 46 9. 276 9. 245 1905. 38 9. 240 9. 231 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1905. 29 9. 189 9. 197 1905. 21 9. 170 9. 106 1905 13 9. 160 9. 083 1905. 04 9. 171 9. 141 1904. 96 9. 199 9. 206 1904. 88 9. 259 9. 278 1904. 79 9. 317 9. 341 1904. 71 9. 352 9. 373 1904. 63 9. 383 9. 389 1904. 54 9. 338 9. 337 1904. 46 9. 309 9. 295 1904. 38 9. 256 9. 226 1904. 29 9. 153 9. 165 1904. 21 9. 103 9. 104 1904. 13 9. 086 9. 098 1904. 04 9. 124 9. 130 1903. 96 9. 187 9. 196 1903. 88 9. 244 9. 244 1903. 79 9. 288 9. 291 1903. 71 9. 309 9. 301 1903. 63 9. 324 9. 341 1903. 54 9. 291 9. 305 1903. 46 9. 277 9. 267 1903. 38 9. 198 9. 174 1903. 29 9. 122 9. 151 1903. 21 9. 086 9. 105 1903. 13 9. 06 5 9. 099 1903. 04 9. 109 9. 106 1902. 96 9. 180 9. 145 1902. 88 9. 236 9. 238 1902. 79 9. 308 9. 339 1902. 71 9. 377 9. 406 1902. 63 9. 430 9. 435 1902. 54 9. 394 9. 403 1902. 46 9. 293 9. 312 1902. 38 9. 258 9. 240 1902. 29 9. 207 9. 185 1902. 21 9. 151 9. 128 1902. 13 9. 066 9. 036 1902. 04 9. 084 9. 075 1901. 96 9. 173 9. 182 1901. 88 9. 265 9. 245

PAGE 135

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 125 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1901. 79 9. 298 9. 278 1901. 71 9. 320 9. 352 1901. 63 9. 334 9. 380 1901. 54 9. 320 9. 319 1901. 46 9. 274 9. 251 1901. 38 9. 244 9. 251 1901. 29 9. 194 9. 178 1901. 21 9. 088 9. 108 1901. 13 9. 072 9. 128 1901. 04 9. 072 9. 135 1900. 96 9. 166 9. 204 1900. 88 9. 238 9. 212 1900. 79 9. 270 9. 273 1900. 71 9. 287 9. 339 1900. 63 9. 308 9. 344 1900. 54 9. 295 9. 314 1900. 46 9. 253 9. 270 1900. 38 9. 216 9. 187 1900. 29 9. 153 9. 163 1900. 21 9. 105 9. 131 1900. 13 9. 082 9. 098 190 0. 04 9. 124 9. 144 1899. 96 9. 155 9. 149 1899. 88 9. 236 9. 279 1899. 79 9. 300 9. 349 1899. 71 9. 346 9. 382 1899. 63 9. 370 9. 378 1899. 54 9. 312 9. 274 1899. 46 9. 245 9. 242 1899. 38 9. 216 9. 191 1899. 29 9. 153 9. 147 1899. 21 9. 123 9. 008 1899. 13 8. 971 8. 962 1899. 04 9. 010 9. 050 1898. 96 9. 158 9. 139 1898. 88 9. 229 9. 229 1898. 79 9. 297 9. 331 1898. 71 9. 331 9. 399 1898. 63 9. 361 9. 433 1898. 54 9. 324 9. 343 1898. 46 9. 282 9. 266 1898. 38 9. 201 9. 238 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1898. 29 9. 102 9. 138 1898. 21 9. 068 9. 096 1898. 13 9. 031 9. 086 1898. 04 9. 0 60 9. 084 1897. 96 9. 155 9. 166 1897. 88 9. 228 9. 276 1897. 79 9. 281 9. 337 1897. 71 9. 323 9. 353 1897. 63 9. 338 9. 355 1897. 54 9. 297 9. 341 1897. 46 9. 252 9. 269 1897. 38 9. 209 9. 219 1897. 29 9. 167 9. 192 1897. 21 9. 101 9. 067 1897. 13 9. 030 9. 075 1897. 04 9. 073 9 057 1896. 96 9. 194 9. 147 1896. 88 9. 249 9. 198 1896. 79 9. 308 9. 315 1896. 71 9. 355 9. 368 1896. 63 9. 375 9. 392 1896. 54 9. 306 9. 364 1896. 46 9. 252 9. 291 1896. 38 9. 248 9. 251 1896. 29 9. 144 9. 187 1896. 21 9. 107 9. 095 1896. 13 9. 094 9. 079 1896. 04 9. 151 9. 103 1895. 96 9. 174 9. 162 1895. 88 9. 223 9. 206 1895. 79 9. 324 9. 309 1895. 71 9. 398 9. 364 1895. 63 9. 440 9. 435 1895. 54 9. 363 9. 427 1895. 46 9. 329 9. 364 1895. 38 9. 237 9. 258 1895. 29 9. 164 9. 125 1895. 21 9. 109 9. 085 1895. 13 8. 985 9. 070 1895. 04 9. 023 9. 151 18 94. 96 9. 149 9. 146 1894. 88 9. 245 9. 233 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1894. 79 9. 251 9. 286 1894. 71 9. 327 9. 328 1894. 63 9. 374 9. 356 1894. 54 9. 344 9. 332 1894. 46 9. 314 9. 287 1894. 38 9. 233 9. 209 1894. 29 9. 167 9. 115 1894. 21 9. 044 9. 006 1894. 13 9. 001 9. 005 1894. 04 9. 105 9. 008 1893. 9 6 9. 140 9. 110 1893. 88 9. 231 9. 153 1893. 79 9. 244 9. 252 1893. 71 9. 312 9. 311 1893. 63 9. 273 9. 276 1893. 54 9. 226 9. 269 1893. 46 9. 140 9. 221 1893. 38 9. 133 9. 183 1893. 29 9. 141 9. 176 1893. 21 9. 060 9. 087 1893. 13 9. 023 9. 068 1893. 04 9. 070 9. 127 1892. 96 9. 151 9. 170 1892. 88 9. 204 9. 227 1892. 79 9. 262 9. 271 1892. 71 9. 319 9. 301 1892. 63 9. 343 9. 326 1892. 54 9. 329 9. 307 1892. 46 9. 274 9. 269 1892. 38 9. 233 9. 210 1892. 29 9. 167 9. 147 1892. 21 9. 104 9. 096 1892. 13 9. 054 9. 076 1892. 04 9. 111 9. 128 1891. 96 9. 175 9. 164 1891. 88 9. 246 9. 244 1891. 79 9. 252 9. 291 1891. 71 9. 311 9. 329 1891. 63 9. 348 9. 363 1891. 54 9. 314 9. 315 1891. 46 9. 256 9. 259 1891. 38 9. 190 9. 215

PAGE 136

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 126 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1891. 29 9. 134 9. 168 1891. 21 9. 043 9. 102 1891. 13 9. 009 9. 067 1891. 04 9. 118 9. 107 1890. 96 9. 228 9. 16 7 1890. 88 9. 253 9. 227 1890. 79 9. 305 9. 290 1890. 71 9. 348 9. 336 1890. 63 9. 351 9. 359 1890. 54 9. 302 9. 306 1890. 46 9. 276 9. 264 1890. 38 9. 242 9. 223 1890. 29 9. 127 9. 165 1890. 21 9. 137 9. 136 1890. 13 9. 032 9. 042 1890. 04 9. 069 9. 134 1889. 96 9. 202 9. 199 1 889. 88 9. 277 9. 250 1889. 79 9. 302 9. 310 1889. 71 9. 343 9. 334 1889. 63 9. 373 9. 361 1889. 54 9. 340 9. 327 1889. 46 9. 253 9. 284 1889. 38 9. 219 9. 244 1889. 29 9. 161 9. 242 1889. 21 9. 139 9. 165 1889. 13 9. 101 9. 106 1889. 04 9. 145 9. 135 1888. 96 9. 215 9. 210 1888. 88 9. 269 9. 267 1888. 79 9. 322 9. 335 1888. 71 9. 375 9. 396 1888. 63 9. 421 9. 451 1888. 54 9. 352 9. 395 1888. 46 9. 323 9. 325 1888. 38 9. 261 9. 240 1888. 29 9. 162 9. 160 1888. 21 9. 097 9. 134 1888. 13 9. 065 9. 124 1888. 04 9. 119 9. 136 1887. 96 9. 176 9. 191 1887. 88 9 240 9. 274 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1887. 79 9. 320 9. 334 1887. 71 9. 388 9. 401 1887. 63 9. 442 9. 464 1887. 54 9. 424 9. 388 1887. 46 9. 364 9. 319 1887. 38 9. 254 9. 229 1887. 29 9. 161 9. 160 1887. 21 9. 091 9. 140 1887. 13 9. 047 9. 059 1887. 04 9. 099 9. 104 1886. 96 9. 150 9. 143 1886. 88 9. 200 9. 222 1886. 79 9. 244 9. 298 1886. 71 9. 284 9. 342 1886. 63 9. 327 9. 381 1886. 54 9. 290 9. 353 1886. 46 9. 252 9. 280 1886. 38 9. 202 9. 207 1886. 29 9. 140 9. 182 1886. 21 9. 088 9. 126 1886. 13 9. 047 9. 092 1886. 04 9. 118 9. 123 1885. 96 9. 170 9. 210 1885. 88 9. 226 9. 2 75 1885. 79 9. 280 9. 355 1885. 71 9. 329 9. 406 1885. 63 9. 366 9. 443 1885. 54 9. 345 9. 389 1885. 46 9. 292 9. 356 1885. 38 9. 241 9. 306 1885. 29 9. 176 9. 239 1885. 21 9. 153 9. 218 1885. 13 9. 111 9. 166 1885. 04 9. 152 9. 197 1884. 96 9. 197 9. 237 1884. 88 9. 248 9. 290 1884. 79 9. 303 9. 321 1884. 71 9. 332 9. 360 1884. 63 9. 343 9. 400 1884. 54 9. 301 9. 354 1884. 46 9. 267 9. 310 1884. 38 9. 239 9. 243 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1884. 29 9. 246 9. 222 1884. 21 9. 141 9. 170 1884. 13 9. 119 9. 141 1884. 04 9. 160 9. 193 1883. 96 9. 206 9. 219 1883. 88 9. 251 9. 279 1883 79 9. 286 9. 346 1883. 71 9. 342 9. 384 1883. 63 9. 378 9. 404 1883. 54 9. 332 9. 327 1883. 46 9. 225 9. 270 1883. 38 9. 188 9. 225 1883. 29 9. 109 9. 173 1883. 21 9. 034 9. 090 1883. 13 9. 019 9. 037 1883. 04 9. 076 9. 090 1882. 96 9. 175 9. 184 1882. 88 9. 246 9. 256 1882. 79 9. 264 9. 315 1882. 71 9. 305 9. 345 1882. 63 9. 336 9. 382 1882. 54 9. 307 9. 340 1882. 46 9. 234 9. 267 1882. 38 9. 175 9. 224 1882. 29 9. 104 9. 140 1882. 21 9. 021 9. 077 1882. 13 8. 991 9. 021 1882. 04 9. 058 9. 145 1881. 96 9. 117 9. 169 1881. 88 9. 204 9. 202 1881. 79 9. 27 5 9. 277 1881. 71 9. 320 9. 353 1881. 63 9. 346 9. 419 1881. 54 9. 287 9. 340 1881. 46 9. 250 9. 263 1881. 38 9. 181 9. 190 1881. 29 9. 152 9. 149 1881. 21 9. 089 9. 082 1881. 13 9. 023 9. 023 1881. 04 9. 076 9. 090 1880. 96 9. 117 9. 112 1880. 88 9. 208 9. 271

PAGE 137

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 127 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1880. 79 9. 287 9. 301 1880. 71 9. 329 9. 331 1880. 63 9. 336 9. 358 1880. 54 9. 277 9. 318 1880. 46 9. 226 9. 251 1880. 38 9. 184 9. 219 1880. 29 9. 136 9. 165 1880. 21 9. 037 9. 138 1880. 13 8. 979 9. 010 1880. 04 9. 055 9. 085 1879. 96 9. 131 9. 157 1879. 88 9. 222 9. 218 1879. 79 9. 261 9. 283 1879. 71 9. 316 9. 340 1879. 63 9. 329 9. 339 1879. 54 9. 276 9. 305 1879. 46 9. 219 9. 250 1879. 38 9. 156 9. 229 1879. 29 9. 119 9. 146 1879. 21 9. 048 9. 074 1879. 13 9. 003 9. 032 1879. 04 9. 051 9. 076 1878. 96 9. 136 9. 084 1878. 88 9. 200 9. 206 1878. 79 9. 259 9. 259 187 8. 71 9. 284 9. 267 1878. 63 9. 317 9. 322 1878. 54 9. 279 9. 275 1878. 46 9. 215 9. 260 1878. 38 9. 159 9. 155 1878. 29 9. 131 9. 095 1878. 21 9. 042 9. 004 1878. 13 9. 021 8. 951 1878. 04 9. 034 9. 025 1877. 96 9. 102 9. 156 1877. 88 9. 186 9. 252 1877. 79 9. 307 9. 325 1877. 71 9. 364 9. 374 1877. 63 9. 408 9. 396 1877. 54 9. 346 9. 345 1877. 46 9. 291 9. 293 1877. 38 9. 208 9. 226 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1877. 29 9. 131 9. 160 1877. 21 9. 093 9. 128 1877. 13 9. 071 9. 094 1877. 04 9. 114 9. 109 1876. 96 9. 157 9. 172 1876. 88 9. 199 9. 219 1876. 79 9. 227 9. 252 1876. 71 9. 2 55 9. 285 1876. 63 9. 279 9. 315 1876. 54 9. 253 9. 290 1876. 46 9. 237 9. 263 1876. 38 9. 198 9. 237 1876. 29 9. 123 9. 101 1876. 21 9. 059 9. 039 1876. 13 9. 025 8. 983 1876. 04 9. 051 9. 033 1875. 96 9. 123 9. 085 1875. 88 9. 188 9. 173 1875. 79 9. 275 9. 226 1875. 71 9. 300 9 273 1875. 63 9. 330 9. 350 1875. 54 9. 296 9. 316 1875. 46 9. 261 9. 285 1875. 38 9. 213 9. 168 1875. 29 9. 160 9. 120 1875. 21 9. 103 9. 049 1875. 13 9. 049 8. 990 1875. 04 9. 113 9. 109 1874. 96 9. 145 9. 161 1874. 88 9. 222 9. 246 1874. 79 9. 284 9. 262 1874. 71 9. 299 9. 302 1874. 63 9. 306 9. 304 1874. 54 9. 274 9. 270 1874. 46 9. 235 9. 210 1874. 38 9. 183 9. 169 1874. 29 9. 111 9. 087 1874. 21 9. 051 9. 011 1874. 13 9. 021 8. 982 1874. 04 9. 033 9. 022 1873. 96 9. 111 9. 156 1873. 88 9. 238 9. 211 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1873. 79 9. 302 9. 277 1873. 71 9. 356 9. 322 18 73. 63 9. 403 9. 345 1873. 54 9. 343 9. 299 1873. 46 9. 285 9. 260 1873. 38 9. 229 9. 189 1873. 29 9. 166 9. 118 1873. 21 9. 114 9. 090 1873. 13 9. 111 9. 060 1873. 04 9. 095 9. 089 1872. 96 9. 148 9. 132 1872. 88 9. 224 9. 181 1872. 79 9. 294 9. 244 1872. 71 9. 335 9. 283 1872. 6 3 9. 346 9. 311 1872. 54 9. 317 9. 291 1872. 46 9. 260 9. 239 1872. 38 9. 181 9. 232 1872. 29 9. 101 9. 157 1872. 21 9. 062 9. 085 1872. 13 9. 069 9. 067 1872. 04 9. 106 1871. 96 9. 148 1871. 88 9. 193 1871. 79 9. 259 1871. 71 9. 290 1871. 63 9. 319 1871. 54 9. 281 187 1. 46 9. 234 1871. 38 9. 171 1871. 29 9. 147 1871. 21 9. 020 1871. 13 9. 014 1871. 04 9. 096 1870. 96 9. 163 1870. 88 9. 210 9. 185 1870. 79 9. 281 9. 302 1870. 71 9. 327 9. 315 1870. 63 9. 350 9. 317 1870. 54 9. 318 9. 291 1870. 46 9. 282 9. 233 1870. 38 9. 189 9. 192

PAGE 138

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 128 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1870. 29 9. 131 9. 116 1870. 21 9. 106 9. 068 1870. 13 9. 003 9. 020 1870. 04 9. 056 9. 070 1869. 96 9. 111 9. 084 1869. 88 9. 166 9. 207 1869. 79 9. 194 9. 243 1869. 71 9. 242 9. 280 1869. 63 9. 364 9. 311 1869. 54 9. 331 9. 268 1869. 46 9. 250 9. 222 1869. 38 9. 186 9. 185 1869 29 9. 178 9. 152 1869. 21 9. 142 9. 097 1869. 13 9. 090 9. 076 1869. 04 9. 136 9. 083 1868. 96 9. 183 9. 143 1868. 88 9. 238 9. 203 1868. 79 9. 302 9. 252 1868. 71 9. 351 9. 298 1868. 63 9. 393 9. 341 1868. 54 9. 346 9. 306 1868. 46 9. 295 9. 290 1868. 38 9. 214 9. 171 1868. 29 9. 131 9. 089 1868. 21 9. 088 9. 094 1868. 13 9. 027 9. 026 1868. 04 9. 076 9. 056 1867. 96 9. 129 9. 090 1867. 88 9. 216 9. 168 1867. 79 9. 276 9. 261 1867. 71 9. 311 9. 267 1867. 63 9. 343 9. 306 1867. 54 9. 318 9. 280 1867. 46 9. 238 9. 258 1867. 38 9. 153 9. 191 1867. 29 9. 12 4 9. 125 1867. 21 9. 055 9. 086 1867. 13 9. 001 8. 985 1867. 04 9. 057 9. 022 1866. 96 9. 108 9. 074 1866. 88 9. 151 9. 186 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1866. 79 9. 241 9. 261 1866. 71 9. 321 9. 312 1866. 63 9. 323 9. 345 1866. 54 9. 296 9. 321 1866. 46 9. 264 9. 268 1866. 38 9. 202 9. 195 1866. 29 9. 144 9. 136 1866. 21 9. 097 9. 085 1866. 13 9. 060 9. 041 1866. 04 9. 089 9. 091 1865. 96 9. 113 9. 085 1865. 88 9. 222 9. 182 1865. 79 9. 264 9. 264 1865. 71 9. 303 9. 312 1865. 63 9. 339 9. 334 1865. 54 9. 319 9. 286 1865. 46 9. 254 9. 264 1865. 38 9. 163 9. 202 1865. 29 9. 092 9. 121 1865. 21 9. 061 9. 052 1865. 13 9. 027 8. 945 1865. 04 9. 083 8. 994 1864. 96 9. 138 9. 092 1864. 88 9. 194 9. 165 1864. 79 9. 254 9. 197 1864. 71 9. 302 9. 285 1864. 63 9. 325 9. 288 1864. 54 9. 287 9. 270 1864. 46 9. 238 9. 239 1864. 38 9. 173 9. 198 1864. 29 9. 152 9. 156 186 4. 21 9. 115 9. 115 1864. 13 9. 083 9. 098 1864. 04 9. 106 9. 111 1863. 96 9. 143 9. 164 1863. 88 9. 168 9. 237 1863. 79 9. 238 9. 326 1863. 71 9. 278 9. 350 1863. 63 9. 301 9. 354 1863. 54 9. 263 9. 337 1863. 46 9. 213 9. 284 1863. 38 9. 205 9. 212 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1863. 29 9. 190 9. 174 1863. 21 9. 074 9. 071 1863. 13 8. 997 8. 998 1863. 04 9. 053 9. 059 1862. 96 9. 135 9. 128 1862. 88 9. 229 9. 206 1862. 79 9. 288 9. 287 1862. 71 9. 324 9. 322 1862. 63 9. 368 9. 349 1862. 54 9. 316 9. 311 1862. 46 9. 275 9. 261 1862. 38 9. 209 9. 209 1862. 29 9. 127 9. 150 1862. 21 9. 0 99 9. 091 1862. 13 9. 023 9. 056 1862. 04 9. 064 9. 127 1861. 96 9. 100 9. 169 1861. 88 9. 178 9. 224 1861. 79 9. 241 9. 276 1861. 71 9. 308 9. 322 1861. 63 9. 379 9. 372 1861. 54 9. 349 9. 324 1861. 46 9. 287 9. 281 1861. 38 9. 258 9. 240 1861. 29 9. 126 9. 171 1861. 21 9. 105 9 128 1861. 13 9. 077 9. 107 1861. 04 9. 104 9. 130 1860. 96 9. 131 9. 159 1860. 88 9. 205 9. 219 1860. 79 9. 279 9. 293 1860. 71 9. 322 9. 337 1860. 63 9. 364 9. 362 1860. 54 9. 352 9. 317 1860. 46 9. 258 9. 286 1860. 38 9. 192 9. 226 1860. 29 9. 139 9. 157 1860. 21 9. 124 9. 092 1860. 13 9. 071 9. 048 1860. 04 9. 062 9. 100 1859. 96 9. 130 9. 161 1859. 88 9. 197 9. 220

PAGE 139

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 129 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1859. 79 9. 264 9. 300 1859. 71 9. 336 9. 388 1859. 63 9. 385 9. 405 1859. 54 9. 301 9. 343 1859. 46 9. 243 9. 250 1859. 38 9. 214 9. 216 1859. 29 9. 184 9. 144 1859. 21 9. 085 9. 084 18 59. 13 9. 023 9. 050 1859. 04 9. 073 9. 071 1858. 96 9. 127 9. 142 1858. 88 9. 184 9. 211 1858. 79 9. 240 9. 293 1858. 71 9. 311 9. 376 1858. 63 9. 344 9. 400 1858. 54 9. 320 9. 339 1858. 46 9. 246 9. 277 1858. 38 9. 212 9. 230 1858. 29 9. 175 9. 178 1858. 21 9. 136 9. 127 1858. 1 3 9. 027 9. 083 1858. 04 9. 056 9. 131 1857. 96 9. 113 9. 180 1857. 88 9. 197 9. 251 1857. 79 9. 229 9. 301 1857. 71 9. 298 9. 348 1857. 63 9. 321 9. 399 1857. 54 9. 308 9. 347 1857. 46 9. 261 9. 302 1857. 38 9. 229 9. 235 1857. 29 9. 223 9. 177 1857. 21 9. 104 9. 146 1857. 13 9. 076 9. 118 1857. 04 9. 099 9. 162 1856. 96 9. 156 9. 199 1856. 88 9. 227 9. 230 1856. 79 9. 267 9. 308 1856. 71 9. 316 9. 352 1856. 63 9. 375 9. 363 1856. 54 9. 358 9. 332 1856. 46 9. 303 9. 302 1856. 38 9. 212 9. 267 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1856. 29 9. 197 9. 230 1856. 21 9. 151 9. 183 1856. 13 9. 104 9. 180 1856. 04 9. 157 9. 166 1855. 96 9. 210 9. 207 1855. 88 9. 267 9. 267 1855. 79 9. 324 9. 320 1855. 71 9. 371 9. 358 1855. 63 9. 417 9. 380 1855. 54 9. 394 9. 361 1855. 46 9. 353 9. 331 1855. 38 9. 297 9. 279 1855. 29 9. 254 9. 234 1855. 21 9. 164 9. 205 1855. 13 9. 120 9. 19 2 1855. 04 9. 152 9. 218 1854. 96 9. 192 9. 235 1854. 88 9. 297 9. 294 1854. 79 9. 337 9. 338 1854. 71 9. 369 9. 378 1854. 63 9. 394 9. 409 1854. 54 9. 346 9. 364 1854. 46 9. 298 9. 294 1854. 38 9. 251 9. 237 1854. 29 9. 196 9. 195 1854. 21 9. 117 9. 153 1854. 13 9. 020 9. 118 1 854. 04 9. 147 9. 159 1853. 96 9. 144 9. 191 1853. 88 9. 197 9. 250 1853. 79 9. 292 9. 306 1853. 71 9. 351 9. 355 1853. 63 9. 398 9. 391 1853. 54 9. 381 9. 363 1853. 46 9. 337 9. 301 1853. 38 9. 266 9. 227 1853. 29 9. 163 9. 173 1853. 21 9. 091 9. 122 1853. 13 9. 041 9. 083 1853. 04 9. 089 9. 125 1852. 96 9. 142 9. 159 1852. 88 9. 201 9. 219 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1852. 79 9. 307 9. 301 1852. 71 9. 345 9. 350 1852. 63 9. 365 9. 367 1852. 54 9. 320 9. 311 1852. 46 9. 273 9. 256 1852. 38 9. 204 9. 224 1852. 29 9. 159 9. 172 1852. 21 9. 118 9. 133 1852. 13 9. 038 9. 093 1852. 04 9 077 9. 134 1851. 96 9. 127 9. 135 1851. 88 9. 218 9. 199 1851. 79 9. 302 9. 304 1851. 71 9. 335 9. 346 1851. 63 9. 363 9. 382 1851. 54 9. 303 9. 320 1851. 46 9. 205 9. 270 1851. 38 9. 170 9. 224 1851. 29 9. 141 9. 161 1851. 21 9. 018 9. 074 1851. 13 8. 961 9. 034 1851. 04 9. 027 9. 084 1850. 96 9. 103 9. 112 1850. 88 9. 196 9. 186 1850. 79 9. 301 9. 264 1850. 71 9. 335 9. 311 1850. 63 9. 359 9. 355 1850. 54 9. 304 9. 342 1850. 46 9. 272 9. 272 1850. 38 9. 223 9. 220 1850. 29 9. 139 9. 147 1850. 21 9. 093 9. 106 1850. 13 9. 083 9. 091 1850. 04 9. 110 9. 1 03 1849. 96 9. 134 9. 140 1849. 88 9. 182 9. 205 1849. 79 9. 234 9. 275 1849. 71 9. 292 9. 336 1849. 63 9. 349 9. 393 1849. 54 9. 339 9. 368 1849. 46 9. 299 9. 291 1849. 38 9. 220 9. 201

PAGE 140

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 130 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1849. 29 9. 135 9. 172 1849. 21 9. 130 9. 160 1849. 13 9. 074 9. 133 1849. 04 9. 117 9. 159 1848. 96 9. 160 9. 185 1848. 88 9. 208 9. 204 1848. 79 9. 274 9. 290 1848. 71 9. 326 9. 346 1848. 63 9. 359 9. 360 1848. 54 9. 319 9. 308 1848. 46 9. 256 9. 260 1848. 38 9. 195 9. 248 1848. 29 9. 202 9. 203 1848. 21 9. 159 9. 165 1848. 13 9. 077 9. 147 1848. 04 9. 119 9. 171 1847 96 9. 173 9. 195 1847. 88 9. 239 9. 223 1847. 79 9. 296 9. 312 1847. 71 9. 352 9. 379 1847. 63 9. 380 9. 422 1847. 54 9. 343 9. 368 1847. 46 9. 260 9. 297 1847. 38 9. 207 9. 250 1847. 29 9. 148 9. 150 1847. 21 9. 068 9. 123 1847. 13 8. 983 9. 105 1847. 04 9. 051 9. 126 1846. 96 9. 136 9. 156 1846. 88 9. 188 9. 205 1846. 79 9. 265 9. 258 1846. 71 9. 330 9. 330 1846. 63 9. 368 9. 393 1846. 54 9. 345 9. 347 1846. 46 9. 295 9. 272 1846. 38 9. 191 9. 236 1846. 29 9. 136 9. 120 1846. 21 9. 076 9. 072 1846. 13 9. 009 9. 067 1846. 04 9. 032 9. 099 1845. 96 9. 13 4 9. 150 1845. 88 9. 214 9. 198 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1845. 79 9. 281 9. 279 1845. 71 9. 363 9. 335 1845. 63 9. 375 9. 387 1845. 54 9. 337 9. 364 1845. 46 9. 275 9. 318 1845. 38 9. 213 9. 247 1845. 29 9. 140 9. 192 1845. 21 9. 130 9. 175 1845. 13 9. 105 9. 171 1845. 04 9. 148 9. 190 1844. 96 9. 185 9. 221 1844. 88 9. 222 9. 269 1844. 79 9. 282 9. 316 1844. 71 9. 330 9. 327 1844. 63 9. 372 9. 362 1844. 54 9. 311 9. 341 1844. 46 9. 246 9. 318 1844. 38 9. 207 9. 233 1844. 29 9. 136 9. 167 1844. 21 9. 111 9. 166 1844. 13 9. 048 9. 136 1844. 04 9. 083 9. 148 1843. 96 9. 135 9. 215 1843. 88 9. 213 9. 251 1843. 79 9. 277 9. 311 1843. 71 9. 332 9. 329 1843. 63 9. 364 9. 359 1843. 54 9. 325 9. 332 1843. 46 9. 285 9. 293 1843. 38 9. 192 9. 231 1843. 29 9. 131 9. 188 1843. 21 9. 106 9. 140 1843. 13 9. 069 9. 107 1843. 04 9. 054 9. 143 1842. 96 9. 157 9. 170 184 2. 88 9. 206 9. 192 1842. 79 9. 242 9. 255 1842. 71 9. 278 9. 302 1842. 63 9. 310 9. 332 1842. 54 9. 282 9. 304 1842. 46 9. 238 9. 258 1842. 38 9. 181 9. 190 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1842. 29 9. 107 9. 127 1842. 21 9. 127 9. 121 1842. 13 9. 086 9. 090 1842. 04 9. 092 9. 110 1841. 96 9. 136 9. 147 1841. 88 9. 250 9. 214 1841. 79 9. 323 9. 285 1841. 71 9. 372 9. 341 1841. 63 9. 412 9. 384 1841. 54 9. 325 9. 343 1841. 46 9. 286 9. 251 1841. 38 9. 226 9. 218 1841. 29 9. 101 9. 140 1841. 21 9. 039 9. 095 1841. 13 9. 028 9. 061 1841. 04 9. 067 9. 070 1840. 96 9. 120 9. 118 1840. 88 9. 1 88 9. 234 1840. 79 9. 257 9. 294 1840. 71 9. 365 9. 350 1840. 63 9. 416 9. 384 1840. 54 9. 379 9. 330 1840. 46 9. 240 9. 266 1840. 38 9. 232 9. 216 1840. 29 9. 167 9. 090 1840. 21 9. 038 9. 048 1840. 13 8. 985 9. 043 1840. 04 9. 059 9. 086 1839. 96 9. 132 9. 130 1839. 88 9. 207 9 196 1839. 79 9. 285 9. 264 1839. 71 9. 324 9. 298 1839. 63 9. 331 9. 328 1839. 54 9. 287 9. 304 1839. 46 9. 243 9. 275 1839. 38 9. 198 9. 234 1839. 29 9. 123 9. 182 1839. 21 9. 107 9. 154 1839. 13 9. 079 9. 129 1839. 04 9. 098 9. 155 1838. 96 9. 141 9. 180 1838. 88 9. 195 9. 206

PAGE 141

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 131 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1838. 79 9. 303 9. 271 1838. 71 9. 378 9. 336 1838. 63 9. 408 9. 396 1838. 54 9. 338 9. 358 1838. 46 9. 267 9. 285 1838. 38 9. 184 9. 216 1838. 29 9. 115 9. 172 1838. 21 9. 072 9. 143 1838. 13 9. 034 9. 129 1838. 04 9. 093 9. 151 1837. 96 9. 125 9. 172 1837. 88 9. 185 9. 197 18 37. 79 9. 258 9. 290 1837. 71 9. 331 9. 372 1837. 63 9. 399 9. 382 1837. 54 9. 335 9. 330 1837. 46 9. 277 9. 304 1837. 38 9. 228 9. 222 1837. 29 9. 150 9. 142 1837. 21 9. 103 9. 101 1837. 13 9. 089 9. 094 1837. 04 9. 157 9. 117 1836. 96 9. 179 9. 145 1836. 88 9. 217 9. 194 1836. 7 9 9. 259 9. 250 1836. 71 9. 315 9. 297 1836. 63 9. 395 9. 316 1836. 54 9. 344 9. 257 1836. 46 9. 285 9. 239 1836. 38 9. 227 9. 185 1836. 29 9. 142 9. 144 1836. 21 9. 075 9. 092 1836. 13 9. 054 9. 058 1836. 04 9. 085 9. 100 1835. 96 9. 100 9. 141 1835. 88 9. 233 9. 191 1835. 79 9. 287 9. 268 1835. 71 9. 341 9. 380 1835. 63 9. 391 9. 383 1835. 54 9. 370 9. 346 1835. 46 9. 314 9. 264 1835. 38 9. 204 9. 165 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1835. 29 9. 094 9. 117 1835. 21 9. 038 9. 120 1835. 13 9. 045 9. 092 1835. 04 9. 042 9. 113 1834. 96 9. 080 9. 147 1834. 88 9. 205 9. 197 1834. 79 9. 291 9. 281 1834. 71 9. 332 9. 355 1834. 63 9. 335 9. 384 1834. 54 9. 302 9. 352 1834. 46 9. 269 9. 298 1834. 38 9. 240 9. 239 1834. 29 9. 227 9. 214 1834. 21 9. 136 9. 189 1834. 13 9. 124 9. 166 1834. 04 9. 144 9. 174 1833. 96 9. 178 9. 199 1833. 88 9. 300 9. 238 1833. 79 9. 358 9. 28 7 1833. 71 9. 394 9. 329 1833. 63 9. 411 9. 364 1833. 54 9. 386 9. 354 1833. 46 9. 342 9. 296 1833. 38 9. 253 9. 206 1833. 29 9. 190 9. 152 1833. 21 9. 214 9. 112 1833. 13 9. 142 9. 098 1833. 04 9. 146 9. 114 1832. 96 9. 193 9. 138 1832. 88 9. 242 9. 186 1832. 79 9. 312 9. 273 1 832. 71 9. 357 9. 290 1832. 63 9. 362 9. 342 1832. 54 9. 334 9. 306 1832. 46 9. 280 9. 266 1832. 38 9. 251 9. 197 1832. 29 9. 146 9. 117 1832. 21 9. 145 9. 072 1832. 13 9. 066 9. 019 1832. 04 9. 093 9. 088 1831. 96 9. 145 9. 152 1831. 88 9. 228 9. 211 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1831. 79 9. 312 9. 238 1831. 71 9. 360 9. 290 1831. 63 9. 370 9. 355 1831. 54 9. 313 9. 320 1831. 46 9. 248 9. 258 1831. 38 9. 215 9. 189 1831. 29 9. 139 9. 153 1831. 21 9. 099 1831. 13 9. 064 1831. 04 9. 092 1830. 96 9. 105 1830. 88 9. 179 1830. 79 9. 255 1830. 71 9. 294 1830. 63 9. 337 1830. 54 9. 278 1830. 46 9. 254 1830. 38 9. 223 1830. 29 9. 148 1830. 21 9. 079 1830. 13 9. 007 1830. 04 9. 060 9. 042 1829. 96 9. 147 9. 079 1829. 88 9. 215 9. 234 1829. 79 9. 294 9. 290 1829. 71 9. 336 9. 326 1829. 63 9. 349 9. 348 1829. 54 9. 325 9. 280 1829. 46 9. 253 9. 269 1829. 38 9. 238 9. 227 1829. 29 9. 130 9. 147 1829. 21 9. 072 9. 079 1829. 13 9. 040 9. 046 1829. 04 9. 077 9. 061 1828. 96 9. 141 9. 121 1828. 88 9. 215 9. 195 1828. 79 9. 263 9. 260 1828. 71 9. 303 9. 294 1828. 63 9. 337 9. 307 1828. 54 9. 313 9. 292 1828. 46 9. 270 9. 244 182 8. 38 9. 210 9. 167

PAGE 142

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 132 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1828. 29 9. 139 9. 132 1828. 21 9. 105 9. 127 1828. 13 9. 077 9. 108 1828. 04 9. 123 9. 134 1827. 96 9. 172 9. 166 1827. 88 9. 202 9. 222 1827. 79 9. 283 9. 303 1827. 71 9. 316 9. 376 1827. 63 9. 364 9. 379 1827. 54 9. 320 9. 345 1827. 46 9. 263 9. 276 1827. 38 9. 217 9. 252 1827. 29 9. 154 9. 141 1827. 21 9. 123 9. 094 1827. 13 9. 057 9. 020 1827. 04 9. 097 9. 069 1826. 96 9. 166 9. 145 1826. 88 9. 227 9. 239 1826. 79 9. 284 9. 283 1826. 71 9. 332 9. 315 1826. 63 9. 339 9. 333 1826. 54 9. 309 9. 316 1826. 46 9. 287 9. 276 1826. 38 9. 1 98 9. 217 1826. 29 9. 150 9. 166 1826. 21 9. 143 9. 106 1826. 13 9. 033 9. 026 1826. 04 9. 069 9. 107 1825. 96 9. 134 9. 158 1825. 88 9. 180 9. 206 1825. 79 9. 241 9. 253 1825. 71 9. 292 9. 287 1825. 63 9. 350 9. 317 1825. 54 9. 302 9. 295 1825. 46 9. 250 9. 250 1825. 38 9. 228 9 190 1825. 29 9. 177 9. 153 1825. 21 9. 094 9. 124 1825. 13 9. 101 9. 116 1825. 04 9. 125 9. 124 1824. 96 9. 171 9. 137 1824. 88 9. 208 9. 212 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1824. 79 9. 267 9. 285 1824. 71 9. 349 9. 324 1824. 63 9. 384 9. 358 1824. 54 9. 314 9. 321 1824. 46 9. 314 9. 269 1824. 38 9. 258 9. 221 1824. 29 9. 213 9. 182 1824. 21 9. 172 9. 143 1824. 13 9. 144 9. 141 1824. 04 9. 164 9. 158 1823. 96 9. 185 9. 208 1823. 88 9. 225 9. 234 1823. 79 9. 285 9. 278 1823. 71 9. 328 9. 323 1823. 63 9. 351 9. 362 1823. 54 9. 311 9. 316 1823. 46 9. 260 9. 267 1823. 38 9. 227 9. 218 18 23. 29 9. 209 9. 197 1823. 21 9. 172 9. 143 1823. 13 9. 116 9. 118 1823. 04 9. 175 9. 144 1822. 96 9. 192 9. 170 1822. 88 9. 255 9. 208 1822. 79 9. 275 9. 246 1822. 71 9. 349 9. 290 1822. 63 9. 402 9. 329 1822. 54 9. 354 9. 293 1822. 46 9. 302 9. 233 1822. 38 9. 223 9. 216 1822. 2 9 9. 176 9. 149 1822. 21 9. 158 9. 136 1822. 13 9. 144 9. 117 1822. 04 9. 159 9. 166 1821. 96 9. 172 9. 214 1821. 88 9. 248 9. 250 1821. 79 9. 307 9. 285 1821. 71 9. 356 9. 319 1821. 63 9. 383 9. 348 1821. 54 9. 310 9. 306 1821. 46 9. 272 9. 269 1821. 38 9. 251 9. 190 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1821. 29 9. 185 9. 206 1821. 21 9. 101 9. 135 1821. 13 9. 068 9. 032 1821. 04 9. 095 9. 065 1820. 96 9. 149 9. 150 1820. 88 9. 244 9. 269 1820. 79 9. 308 9. 303 1820. 71 9. 362 9. 337 1820. 63 9. 398 9. 367 1820. 54 9. 304 9. 333 1820. 46 9. 254 9. 287 1820. 38 9. 205 9. 230 1820. 29 9. 151 9. 150 1820. 21 9. 119 9. 132 1820. 13 9. 114 9. 086 1820. 04 9. 162 9. 158 1819. 96 9. 210 9. 187 1819. 88 9. 257 9. 232 1819. 79 9. 298 9. 268 1819. 71 9. 338 9. 285 1819. 63 9. 392 9. 310 1819. 54 9. 366 9. 282 1819. 46 9. 313 9. 257 1819. 38 9. 237 9. 228 1819. 29 9. 183 9. 17 3 1819. 21 9. 125 9. 075 1819. 13 9. 085 9. 023 1819. 04 9. 096 9. 073 1818. 96 9. 160 9. 151 1818. 88 9. 223 9. 235 1818. 79 9. 303 9. 288 1818. 71 9. 374 9. 325 1818. 63 9. 411 9. 339 1818. 54 9. 354 9. 317 1818. 46 9. 285 9. 259 1818. 38 9. 247 9. 249 1818. 29 9. 207 9. 178 1 818. 21 9. 163 9. 126 1818. 13 9. 154 9. 121 1818. 04 9. 175 9. 171 1817. 96 9. 199 9. 205 1817. 88 9. 267 9. 230

PAGE 143

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 133 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1817. 79 9. 339 9. 295 1817. 71 9. 389 9. 361 1817. 63 9. 433 9. 422 1817. 54 9. 382 9. 416 1817. 46 9. 319 9. 314 1817. 38 9. 248 9. 263 1817. 29 9. 184 9. 196 1817. 21 9. 144 9. 152 1817. 13 9. 117 9. 129 1817. 04 9. 148 9. 158 1816. 96 9. 184 9. 208 1816. 88 9. 236 9. 273 1816. 79 9. 286 9. 320 1816. 71 9. 314 9. 364 1816. 63 9. 382 9. 402 1816. 54 9. 336 9. 352 1816. 46 9. 301 9. 290 1816. 38 9. 273 9. 228 1816. 29 9. 222 9. 184 1816. 21 9 167 9. 144 1816. 13 9. 114 9. 105 1816. 04 9. 142 9. 137 1815. 96 9. 171 9. 163 1815. 88 9. 230 9. 220 1815. 79 9. 287 9. 277 1815. 71 9. 320 9. 318 1815. 63 9. 350 9. 354 1815. 54 9. 336 9. 319 1815. 46 9. 300 9. 274 1815. 38 9. 276 9. 260 1815. 29 9. 214 9. 183 1815. 21 9. 145 9. 136 1815. 13 9. 119 9. 116 1815. 04 9. 138 9. 147 1814. 96 9. 181 9. 180 1814. 88 9. 231 9. 245 1814. 79 9. 279 9. 308 1814. 71 9. 320 9. 326 1814. 63 9. 352 9. 340 1814. 54 9. 315 9. 307 1814. 46 9. 298 9. 274 1814. 38 9. 248 9. 239 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1814. 29 9. 162 9. 179 1814. 21 9. 084 9. 1 37 1814. 13 9. 065 9. 102 1814. 04 9. 105 9. 145 1813. 96 9. 158 9. 188 1813. 88 9. 217 9. 237 1813. 79 9. 287 9. 289 1813. 71 9. 322 9. 342 1813. 63 9. 327 9. 390 1813. 54 9. 314 9. 366 1813. 46 9. 263 9. 323 1813. 38 9. 211 9. 262 1813. 29 9. 149 9. 149 1813. 21 9. 085 9. 130 1813. 13 9. 043 9. 070 1813. 04 9. 063 9. 126 1812. 96 9. 127 9. 177 1812. 88 9. 205 9. 224 1812. 79 9. 282 9. 278 1812. 71 9. 329 9. 320 1812. 63 9. 347 9. 350 1812. 54 9. 336 9. 334 1812. 46 9. 299 9. 313 1812. 38 9. 244 9. 268 1812. 29 9. 189 9. 198 1812. 21 9. 134 9. 071 1812 13 9. 083 9. 070 1812. 04 9. 111 9. 116 1811. 96 9. 162 9. 162 1811. 88 9. 236 9. 233 1811. 79 9. 306 9. 321 1811. 71 9. 358 9. 403 1811. 63 9. 392 9. 416 1811. 54 9. 356 9. 390 1811. 46 9. 310 9. 321 1811. 38 9. 256 9. 251 1811. 29 9. 154 9. 189 1811. 21 9. 105 9. 135 1811. 13 9. 081 9. 100 1811. 04 9. 108 9. 160 1810. 96 9. 156 9. 218 1810. 88 9. 218 9. 258 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1810. 79 9. 288 9. 298 1810. 71 9. 323 9. 345 1810. 63 9. 329 9. 383 1810. 54 9. 295 9. 290 1810. 46 9. 242 9. 276 1810. 38 9. 214 9. 224 1810. 29 9. 176 9. 182 1810. 21 9. 109 9. 136 1810. 13 9. 08 8 9. 100 1810. 04 9. 107 9. 122 1809. 96 9. 141 9. 154 1809. 88 9. 194 9. 213 1809. 79 9. 254 9. 286 1809. 71 9. 303 9. 371 1809. 63 9. 329 9. 398 1809. 54 9. 308 9. 334 1809. 46 9. 239 9. 298 1809. 38 9. 195 9. 256 1809. 29 9. 121 9. 184 1809. 21 9. 072 9. 127 1809. 13 9. 030 9. 118 1809. 04 9. 054 9. 139 1808. 96 9. 111 9. 187 1808. 88 9. 185 9. 254 1808. 79 9. 246 9. 291 1808. 71 9. 284 9. 327 1808. 63 9. 316 9. 359 1808. 54 9. 296 9. 324 1808. 46 9. 260 9. 275 1808. 38 9. 177 9. 204 1808. 29 9. 115 9. 127 1808. 21 9. 034 9. 072 1808. 13 9. 031 9. 063 1808. 04 9. 029 9. 079 1807. 96 9. 098 9. 100 1807. 88 9. 202 9. 154 1807. 79 9. 246 9. 207 1807. 71 9. 256 9. 253 1807. 63 9. 306 9. 297 1807. 54 9. 269 1807. 46 9. 223 1807. 38 9. 182

PAGE 144

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 134 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1807. 29 9. 116 1807. 21 9. 045 1807. 13 8. 999 1807. 04 9. 048 1806. 96 9. 106 1 806. 88 9. 207 1806. 79 9. 246 1806. 71 9. 286 1806. 63 9. 323 1806. 54 9. 283 1806. 46 9. 237 1806. 38 9. 196 1806. 29 9. 146 1806. 21 9. 073 1806. 13 9. 035 1806. 04 9. 081 1805. 96 9. 140 1805. 88 9. 193 1805. 79 9. 255 1805. 71 9. 297 1805. 63 9. 317 1 805. 54 9. 306 1805. 46 9. 221 1805. 38 9. 137 1805. 29 9. 065 1805. 21 8. 994 1805. 13 8. 971 1805. 04 9. 030 1804. 96 9. 119 1804. 88 9. 178 1804. 79 9. 243 1804. 71 9. 303 1804. 63 9. 354 1804. 54 9. 322 1804. 46 9. 252 1804. 38 9. 227 1804. 29 9. 176 1 804. 21 9. 130 1804. 13 9. 094 1804. 04 9. 128 9. 151 1803. 96 9. 153 9. 168 1803. 88 9. 201 9. 206 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1803. 79 9. 236 9. 279 1803. 71 9. 273 9. 344 1803. 63 9. 304 9. 398 1803. 54 9. 270 9. 370 1803. 46 9. 263 9. 292 1803. 38 9. 232 9. 206 1803. 29 9. 172 9. 143 1803. 21 9. 112 9 103 1803. 13 9. 072 9. 067 1803. 04 9. 086 9. 105 1802. 96 9. 134 9. 146 1802. 88 9. 224 9. 228 1802. 79 9. 295 9. 308 1802. 71 9. 338 9. 358 1802. 63 9. 343 9. 400 1802. 54 9. 315 9. 343 1802. 46 9. 278 9. 276 1802. 38 9. 218 9. 203 1802. 29 9. 180 9. 149 1802. 21 9. 111 9. 089 1802. 13 9. 035 9. 038 1802. 04 9. 064 9. 107 1801. 96 9. 137 9. 172 1801. 88 9. 196 9. 238 1801. 79 9. 303 9. 302 1801. 71 9. 348 9. 365 1801. 63 9. 365 9. 414 1801. 54 9. 304 9. 299 1801. 46 9. 316 9. 271 1801. 38 9. 233 9. 202 1801. 29 9. 155 9. 134 1801. 21 9. 089 9. 099 18 01. 13 9. 066 9. 079 1801. 04 9. 085 9. 108 1800. 96 9. 166 9. 136 1800. 88 9. 222 9. 191 1800. 79 9. 276 9. 268 1800. 71 9. 332 9. 344 1800. 63 9. 382 9. 387 1800. 54 9. 359 9. 301 1800. 46 9. 290 9. 241 1800. 38 9. 214 9. 200 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1800. 29 9. 152 9. 136 1800. 21 9. 111 9. 108 1800. 1 3 9. 097 9. 109 1800. 04 9. 127 9. 104 1799. 96 9. 169 9. 150 1799. 88 9. 216 9. 217 1799. 79 9. 264 9. 300 1799. 71 9. 309 9. 370 1799. 63 9. 350 9. 383 1799. 54 9. 343 9. 331 1799. 46 9. 271 9. 274 1799. 38 9. 193 9. 208 1799. 29 9. 112 9. 159 1799. 21 9. 096 9. 118 1799. 13 9. 051 9. 072 1799. 04 9. 075 9. 126 1798. 96 9. 138 9. 181 1798. 88 9. 219 9. 235 1798. 79 9. 316 9. 296 1798. 71 9. 340 9. 356 1798. 63 9. 398 9. 409 1798. 54 9. 365 9. 360 1798. 46 9. 307 9. 289 1798. 38 9. 223 9. 224 1798. 29 9. 142 9. 154 1798. 21 9. 126 9. 106 1798. 13 9. 072 9. 098 1798. 04 9. 129 9. 123 1797. 96 9. 179 9. 152 1797. 88 9. 225 9. 219 1797. 79 9. 272 9. 284 1797. 71 9. 318 9. 334 1797. 63 9. 362 9. 377 1797. 54 9. 345 9. 316 1797. 46 9. 276 9. 266 1797. 38 9. 190 9. 223 1797. 29 9. 116 9. 170 1797. 21 9. 098 9. 137 1797. 13 9. 008 9. 12 6 1797. 04 9. 042 9. 145 1796. 96 9. 144 9. 175 1796. 88 9. 217 9. 235

PAGE 145

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 135 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1796. 79 9. 291 9. 295 1796. 71 9. 364 9. 355 1796. 63 9. 381 9. 409 1796. 54 9. 328 9. 374 1796. 46 9. 273 9. 304 1796. 38 9. 215 9. 229 1796. 29 9. 142 9. 183 1796. 21 9. 095 9. 142 1796. 13 9. 043 9. 106 1 796. 04 9. 100 9. 152 1795. 96 9. 170 9. 196 1795. 88 9. 201 9. 208 1795. 79 9. 281 9. 278 1795. 71 9. 339 9. 364 1795. 63 9. 392 9. 410 1795. 54 9. 359 9. 384 1795. 46 9. 289 9. 308 1795. 38 9. 249 9. 233 1795. 29 9. 191 9. 162 1795. 21 9. 125 9. 123 1795. 13 9. 057 9. 111 1795. 04 9. 072 9. 121 1794. 96 9. 130 9. 145 1794. 88 9. 204 9. 214 1794. 79 9. 298 9. 282 1794. 71 9. 363 9. 324 1794. 63 9. 364 9. 360 1794. 54 9. 303 9. 317 1794. 46 9. 239 9. 253 1794. 38 9. 205 9. 192 1794. 29 9. 115 9. 131 1794. 21 9. 049 9. 070 1794. 13 8. 996 8. 978 1794. 04 9 059 9. 037 1793. 96 9. 153 9. 142 1793. 88 9. 220 9. 222 1793. 79 9. 302 9. 276 1793. 71 9. 329 9. 303 1793. 63 9. 357 9. 307 1793. 54 9. 337 9. 280 1793. 46 9. 252 9. 251 1793. 38 9. 221 9. 187 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1793. 29 9. 183 9. 166 1793. 21 9. 118 9. 145 1793. 13 9. 093 9. 127 1793. 04 9. 117 9. 143 1792. 96 9. 132 9. 160 1792. 88 9. 233 9. 175 1792. 79 9. 299 1792. 71 9. 335 1792. 63 9. 365 1792. 54 9. 300 1792. 46 9. 251 1792. 38 9. 192 1792. 29 9. 181 1792. 21 9. 132 1792. 13 9. 095 9. 079 1792. 04 9. 139 9. 103 1791. 96 9. 178 9. 156 1791. 88 9. 211 9 204 1791. 79 9. 246 9. 257 1791. 71 9. 302 9. 322 1791. 63 9. 393 9. 379 1791. 54 9. 316 9. 322 1791. 46 9. 287 9. 266 1791. 38 9. 216 9. 245 1791. 29 9. 166 9. 173 1791. 21 9. 115 9. 124 1791. 13 9. 074 9. 095 1791. 04 9. 097 9. 103 1790. 96 9. 168 9. 116 1790. 88 9. 239 9. 202 1790. 79 9. 305 9. 285 1790. 71 9. 342 9. 345 1790. 63 9. 375 9. 395 1790. 54 9. 362 9. 297 1790. 46 9. 275 9. 247 1790. 38 9. 217 9. 209 1790. 29 9. 139 9. 127 1790. 21 9. 090 9. 084 1790. 13 9. 049 9. 063 1790. 04 9. 089 9. 072 1789. 96 9. 157 9. 145 1789. 88 9. 211 9. 197 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 17 89. 79 9. 266 9. 265 1789. 71 9. 334 9. 347 1789. 63 9. 392 9. 360 1789. 54 9. 325 9. 316 1789. 46 9. 304 9. 261 1789. 38 9. 277 9. 187 1789. 29 9. 172 9. 125 1789. 21 9. 144 9. 100 1789. 13 9. 010 8. 988 1789. 04 9. 097 9. 071 1788. 96 9. 151 9. 114 1788. 88 9. 215 9. 178 1788. 7 9 9. 290 9. 231 1788. 71 9. 369 9. 285 1788. 63 9. 405 9. 336 1788. 54 9. 361 9. 311 1788. 46 9. 277 9. 240 1788. 38 9. 254 9. 215 1788. 29 9. 127 9. 139 1788. 21 9. 105 9. 101 1788. 13 9. 070 9. 062 1788. 04 9. 075 9. 108 1787. 96 9. 163 9. 155 1787. 88 9. 231 9. 190 1787. 79 9. 313 9. 228 1787. 71 9. 349 9. 290 1787. 63 9. 369 9. 349 1787. 54 9. 314 9. 289 1787. 46 9. 276 9. 269 1787. 38 9. 218 9. 202 1787. 29 9. 153 9. 156 1787. 21 9. 107 9. 131 1787. 13 9. 143 9. 107 1787. 04 9. 118 9. 141 1786. 96 9. 157 9. 165 1786. 88 9. 199 9. 204 1786. 79 9. 280 9. 265 1786. 71 9. 350 9. 327 1786. 63 9. 364 9. 388 1786. 54 9. 282 9. 319 1786. 46 9. 251 9. 265 1786. 38 9. 187 9. 222

PAGE 146

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 136 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1786. 29 9. 129 9. 124 1786. 21 9. 126 9. 124 1786. 13 9. 048 8. 988 1786. 04 9. 090 9. 057 1785. 96 9. 137 9. 126 1785. 88 9. 191 9. 190 1785. 79 9. 280 9. 25 4 1785. 71 9. 365 9. 367 1785. 63 9. 376 9. 369 1785. 54 9. 322 9. 314 1785. 46 9. 295 9. 257 1785. 38 9. 181 9. 172 1785. 29 9. 161 9. 144 1785. 21 9. 087 9. 093 1785. 13 9. 063 9. 071 1785. 04 9. 105 9. 073 1784. 96 9. 145 9. 137 1784. 88 9. 212 9. 201 1784. 79 9. 299 9. 275 1 784. 71 9. 374 9. 355 1784. 63 9. 413 9. 404 1784. 54 9. 330 9. 338 1784. 46 9. 267 9. 254 1784. 38 9. 192 9. 186 1784. 29 9. 154 9. 160 1784. 21 9. 116 9. 109 1784. 13 9. 050 9. 049 1784. 04 9. 116 9. 077 1783. 96 9. 178 9. 119 1783. 88 9. 241 9. 174 1783. 79 9. 302 9. 269 1783. 71 9. 359 9. 335 1783. 63 9. 410 9. 372 1783. 54 9. 344 9. 316 1783. 46 9. 243 9. 260 1783. 38 9. 193 9. 191 1783. 29 9. 124 9. 098 1783. 21 9. 123 9. 062 1783. 13 9. 048 9. 018 1783. 04 9. 091 9. 035 1782. 96 9. 135 9. 119 1782. 88 9. 212 9. 203 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1782. 79 9. 292 9. 285 1782. 71 9 373 9. 334 1782. 63 9. 381 9. 364 1782. 54 9. 339 9. 315 1782. 46 9. 280 9. 229 1782. 38 9. 202 9. 214 1782. 29 9. 156 9. 137 1782. 21 9. 128 9. 098 1782. 13 9. 071 9. 049 1782. 04 9. 108 9. 084 1781. 96 9. 146 9. 127 1781. 88 9. 201 9. 181 1781. 79 9. 258 9. 285 1781. 71 9. 304 9. 326 1781. 63 9. 329 9. 329 1781. 54 9. 294 9. 269 1781. 46 9. 247 9. 240 1781. 38 9. 218 9. 161 1781. 29 9. 159 9. 127 1781. 21 9. 070 9. 051 1781. 13 9. 007 8. 951 1781. 04 9. 054 8. 985 1780. 96 9. 111 9. 050 1780. 88 9. 193 9. 164 1780. 79 9. 251 9. 224 1780. 71 9. 277 9. 2 58 1780. 63 9. 299 9. 270 1780. 54 9. 284 9. 269 1780. 46 9. 252 9. 229 1780. 38 9. 203 9. 162 1780. 29 9. 150 9. 146 1780. 21 9. 116 9. 070 1780. 13 9. 062 9. 007 1780. 04 9. 086 9. 061 1779. 96 9. 145 9. 128 1779. 88 9. 229 9. 195 1779. 79 9. 301 9. 262 1779. 71 9. 357 9. 328 1779. 63 9. 384 9. 387 1779. 54 9. 337 9. 319 1779. 46 9. 310 9. 264 1779. 38 9. 220 9. 181 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1779. 29 9. 156 9. 142 1779. 21 9. 130 9. 077 1779. 13 9. 076 8. 999 1779. 04 9. 109 9. 025 1778. 96 9. 170 9. 103 1778. 88 9. 227 9. 175 1778. 79 9. 283 9. 231 1778. 71 9. 352 9. 284 1778 63 9. 396 9. 330 1778. 54 9. 365 9. 301 1778. 46 9. 287 9. 248 1778. 38 9. 203 9. 192 1778. 29 9. 146 9. 110 1778. 21 9. 101 9. 042 1778. 13 9. 075 9. 009 1778. 04 9. 096 9. 069 1777. 96 9. 154 9. 146 1777. 88 9. 225 9. 223 1777. 79 9. 293 9. 277 1777. 71 9. 357 9. 312 1777. 63 9. 385 9. 342 1777. 54 9. 338 9. 298 1777. 46 9. 271 9. 250 1777. 38 9. 260 9. 197 1777. 29 9. 201 9. 143 1777. 21 9. 124 9. 099 1777. 13 9. 095 9. 066 1777. 04 9. 115 9. 079 1776. 96 9. 140 9. 123 1776. 88 9. 207 9. 228 1776. 79 9. 268 9. 274 1776. 71 9. 314 9. 320 1776. 63 9. 33 7 9. 361 1776. 54 9. 321 9. 331 1776. 46 9. 253 9. 286 1776. 38 9. 194 9. 214 1776. 29 9. 136 9. 113 1776. 21 9. 085 9. 041 1776. 13 9. 046 8. 970 1776. 04 9. 097 9. 070 1775. 96 9. 122 9. 128 1775. 88 9. 198 9. 177

PAGE 147

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 137 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1775. 79 9. 289 9. 237 1775. 71 9. 369 9. 298 1775. 63 9. 440 9. 356 1775. 54 9. 368 9. 312 1775. 46 9. 284 9. 247 1775. 38 9. 204 9. 167 1775. 29 9. 133 9. 084 1775. 21 9. 057 9. 035 1775. 13 9. 019 9. 008 1775. 04 9. 064 9. 050 1774. 96 9. 137 9. 126 1774. 88 9. 218 9. 200 1774. 79 9. 278 9. 269 1774. 71 9. 324 9. 311 1774. 63 9. 353 9. 341 1774. 54 9. 319 9. 297 1774. 46 9. 268 9. 261 1774. 38 9. 204 9. 168 1774. 29 9. 104 9. 073 1774. 21 9. 056 9. 007 1774. 13 9. 006 8. 982 1774. 04 9. 057 9. 019 1773. 96 9. 152 9. 137 1773. 88 9. 213 9. 202 1773. 79 9. 287 9. 265 1773. 71 9. 333 9. 314 1773. 63 9. 356 9. 361 177 3. 54 9. 287 9. 325 1773. 46 9. 242 9. 252 1773. 38 9. 221 9. 178 1773. 29 9. 170 9. 097 1773. 21 9. 091 9. 047 1773. 13 9. 025 9. 011 1773. 04 9. 061 9. 031 1772. 96 9. 161 9. 090 1772. 88 9. 248 9. 163 1772. 79 9. 310 9. 247 1772. 71 9. 350 9. 310 1772. 63 9. 385 9. 363 1772. 54 9. 360 9. 324 1772. 46 9. 273 9. 236 1772. 38 9. 186 9. 147 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1772. 29 9. 109 9. 085 1772. 21 9. 025 9. 009 1772. 13 9. 009 8. 971 1772. 04 9. 029 9. 026 1771. 96 9. 100 9. 081 1771. 88 9. 181 9. 146 1771. 79 9. 234 9. 211 1771. 71 9. 284 9. 281 1771. 63 9. 315 9. 326 1771. 54 9. 2 76 9. 293 1771. 46 9. 249 9. 261 1771. 38 9. 187 9. 222 1771. 29 9. 150 9. 182 1771. 21 9. 101 9. 096 1771. 13 8. 977 9. 008 1771. 04 9. 053 9. 065 1770. 96 9. 128 9. 110 1770. 88 9. 208 9. 180 1770. 79 9. 288 9. 252 1770. 71 9. 334 9. 323 1770. 63 9. 377 9. 343 1770. 54 9. 343 9 294 1770. 46 9. 257 9. 244 1770. 38 9. 214 9. 210 1770. 29 9. 112 9. 138 1770. 21 9. 072 9. 103 1770. 13 8. 991 9. 016 1770. 04 9. 057 9. 044 1769. 96 9. 103 9. 108 1769. 88 9. 201 9. 208 1769. 79 9. 298 9. 257 1769. 71 9. 341 9. 306 1769. 63 9. 378 9. 349 1769. 54 9. 306 9. 306 1769. 46 9. 256 9. 272 1769. 38 9. 243 9. 162 1769. 29 9. 172 9. 163 1769. 21 9. 086 9. 104 1769. 13 9. 045 9. 062 1769. 04 9. 098 9. 105 1768. 96 9. 150 9. 139 1768. 88 9. 207 9. 192 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1768. 79 9. 263 9. 262 1768. 71 9. 367 9. 328 1768. 63 9. 371 9. 374 1768. 54 9. 364 9. 350 17 68. 46 9. 293 9. 270 1768. 38 9. 201 9. 192 1768. 29 9. 149 9. 135 1768. 21 9. 123 9. 106 1768. 13 9. 066 9. 059 1768. 04 9. 108 9. 098 1767. 96 9. 123 9. 135 1767. 88 9. 247 9. 197 1767. 79 9. 282 9. 249 1767. 71 9. 318 9. 293 1767. 63 9. 351 9. 335 1767. 54 9. 340 9. 316 1767. 4 6 9. 277 9. 265 1767. 38 9. 215 9. 187 1767. 29 9. 130 9. 094 1767. 21 8. 996 8. 994 1767. 13 8. 949 8. 986 1767. 04 9. 014 9. 001 1766. 96 9. 099 9. 098 1766. 88 9. 183 9. 186 1766. 79 9. 241 9. 255 1766. 71 9. 302 9. 323 1766. 63 9. 359 9. 348 1766. 54 9. 327 9. 289 1766. 46 9. 285 9. 229 1766. 38 9. 234 9. 181 1766. 29 9. 168 9. 133 1766. 21 9. 152 9. 112 1766. 13 9. 086 9. 066 1766. 04 9. 133 9. 090 1765. 96 9. 180 9. 130 1765. 88 9. 228 9. 202 1765. 79 9. 286 9. 266 1765. 71 9. 346 9. 320 1765. 63 9. 417 9. 366 1765. 54 9. 301 9. 289 1765. 46 9. 238 9. 225 1765. 38 9. 219 9. 190

PAGE 148

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 138 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1765. 29 9. 130 9. 137 1765. 21 9. 082 9. 085 1765. 13 9. 033 9. 062 1765. 04 9. 087 9. 103 1764. 96 9. 140 9. 140 1764. 88 9. 217 9. 188 1764. 79 9. 287 9. 245 1764. 71 9. 327 9. 287 1764. 63 9. 342 9. 323 1764. 54 9. 311 9. 279 1764. 46 9. 258 9. 25 1 1764. 38 9. 217 9. 194 1764. 29 9. 155 9. 138 1764. 21 9. 028 9. 066 1764. 13 8. 969 9. 036 1764. 04 8. 994 9. 049 1763. 96 9. 068 9. 085 1763. 88 9. 166 9. 125 1763. 79 9. 274 9. 187 1763. 71 9. 336 9. 256 1763. 63 9. 357 9. 320 1763. 54 9. 299 9. 294 1763. 46 9. 244 9. 206 1 763. 38 9. 191 9. 155 1763. 29 9. 139 9. 147 1763. 21 9. 078 9. 116 1763. 13 9. 033 9. 079 1763. 04 9. 091 9. 121 1762. 96 9. 148 9. 167 1762. 88 9. 206 9. 212 1762. 79 9. 263 9. 255 1762. 71 9. 322 9. 297 1762. 63 9. 391 9. 316 1762. 54 9. 330 9. 286 1762. 46 9. 287 9. 260 1762. 38 9. 231 9. 208 1762. 29 9. 191 9. 168 1762. 21 9. 130 9. 131 1762. 13 9. 110 9. 112 1762. 04 9. 123 9. 139 1761. 96 9. 152 9. 171 1761. 88 9. 205 9. 217 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1761. 79 9. 279 9. 275 1761. 71 9. 347 9. 328 1761. 63 9. 400 9. 346 1761. 54 9. 337 9. 307 1761. 46 9. 282 9. 235 1761. 38 9 196 9. 191 1761. 29 9. 147 9. 129 1761. 21 9. 164 9. 081 1761. 13 9. 009 9. 048 1761. 04 9. 089 9. 092 1760. 96 9. 132 9. 155 1760. 88 9. 209 9. 215 1760. 79 9. 263 9. 298 1760. 71 9. 312 9. 318 1760. 63 9. 332 9. 332 1760. 54 9. 294 9. 305 1760. 46 9. 250 9. 238 1760. 38 9. 203 9. 192 1760. 29 9. 148 9. 150 1760. 21 9. 107 9. 116 1760. 13 9. 070 9. 114 1760. 04 9. 098 9. 132 1759. 96 9. 142 9. 170 1759. 88 9. 198 9. 226 1759. 79 9. 251 9. 274 1759. 71 9. 334 9. 328 1759. 63 9. 379 9. 383 1759. 54 9. 343 9. 334 1759. 46 9. 288 9. 279 1759. 38 9. 235 9. 1 93 1759. 29 9. 183 9. 156 1759. 21 9. 122 9. 140 1759. 13 9. 092 9. 133 1759. 04 9. 138 9. 167 1758. 96 9. 157 9. 184 1758. 88 9. 255 9. 215 1758. 79 9. 295 9. 278 1758. 71 9. 335 9. 340 1758. 63 9. 372 9. 391 1758. 54 9. 320 9. 354 1758. 46 9. 251 9. 267 1758. 38 9. 216 9. 200 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1758. 29 9. 152 9. 157 1758. 21 9. 086 9. 046 1758. 13 8. 990 9. 014 1758. 04 9. 070 9. 057 1757. 96 9. 157 9. 139 1757. 88 9. 191 9. 221 1757. 79 9. 260 9. 283 1757. 71 9. 324 9. 326 1757. 63 9. 351 9. 343 1757. 54 9. 296 9. 294 1757. 46 9. 261 9. 257 1757. 38 9. 215 9. 219 1757 29 9. 152 9. 185 1757. 21 9. 121 9. 120 1757. 13 9. 049 9. 091 1757. 04 9. 077 9. 140 1756. 96 9. 140 9. 172 1756. 88 9. 212 9. 212 1756. 79 9. 266 9. 266 1756. 71 9. 319 9. 315 1756. 63 9. 359 9. 326 1756. 54 9. 332 9. 287 1756. 46 9. 233 9. 264 1756. 38 9. 231 9. 174 1756. 29 9. 124 9. 131 1756. 21 9. 121 9. 094 1756. 13 9. 073 9. 067 1756. 04 9. 137 9. 079 1755. 96 9. 175 9. 132 1755. 88 9. 266 9. 212 1755. 79 9. 296 9. 290 1755. 71 9. 315 1755. 63 9. 339 1755. 54 9. 314 1755. 46 9. 253 1755. 38 9. 226 1755. 29 9. 168 1755. 21 9. 110 1755. 13 9. 048 1755. 04 9. 100 1754. 96 9. 153 1754. 88 9. 228

PAGE 149

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 139 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1754. 79 9. 294 1754. 71 9. 344 1754. 63 9. 372 1754. 54 9. 301 9. 331 1754. 46 9. 270 9. 273 1754. 38 9. 211 9. 205 1754. 29 9. 113 9. 191 1754. 21 9. 063 9. 061 1754. 13 9. 010 9. 074 1754. 04 9. 032 9. 111 17 53. 96 9. 108 9. 162 1753. 88 9. 217 9. 222 1753. 79 9. 270 9. 276 1753. 71 9. 289 9. 317 1753. 63 9. 291 9. 348 1753. 54 9. 279 9. 299 1753. 46 9. 238 9. 245 1753. 38 9. 175 9. 192 1753. 29 9. 115 9. 121 1753. 21 9. 041 9. 062 1753. 13 9. 029 9. 005 1753. 04 9. 049 9. 039 1752. 9 6 9. 103 9. 100 1752. 88 9. 168 9. 179 1752. 79 9. 243 9. 246 1752. 71 9. 299 9. 294 1752. 63 9. 336 9. 351 1752. 54 9. 280 9. 309 1752. 46 9. 240 9. 253 1752. 38 9. 187 9. 205 1752. 29 9. 159 9. 152 1752. 21 9. 132 9. 137 1752. 13 9. 084 9. 089 1752. 04 9. 094 9. 114 1751. 96 9. 121 9. 158 1751. 88 9. 222 9. 208 1751. 79 9. 277 9. 258 1751. 71 9. 317 9. 309 1751. 63 9. 352 9. 353 1751. 54 9. 299 9. 304 1751. 46 9. 248 9. 271 1751. 38 9. 185 9. 211 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1751. 29 9. 085 9. 162 1751. 21 9. 044 9. 132 1751. 13 9. 024 9. 089 1751. 04 9. 065 9. 141 1750. 96 9. 112 9. 187 1750. 88 9. 176 9. 224 1750. 79 9. 237 9. 257 1750. 71 9. 295 9. 291 1750. 63 9. 348 9. 316 1750. 54 9. 315 9. 294 1750. 46 9. 270 9. 263 1750. 38 9. 205 9. 206 1750. 29 9. 147 9. 160 1750. 21 9. 109 9. 129 1750. 13 9. 058 9. 114 1750. 04 9. 083 9. 122 1749. 96 9. 114 9. 16 0 1749. 88 9. 171 9. 200 1749. 79 9. 255 9. 236 1749. 71 9. 319 9. 270 1749. 63 9. 374 9. 300 1749. 54 9. 289 9. 269 1749. 46 9. 222 9. 237 1749. 38 9. 181 9. 204 1749. 29 9. 166 9. 173 1749. 21 9. 102 9. 142 1749. 13 9. 074 9. 128 1749. 04 9. 111 9. 143 1748. 96 9. 147 9. 164 1 748. 88 9. 184 9. 188 1748. 79 9. 233 9. 220 1748. 71 9. 283 9. 251 1748. 63 9. 328 9. 279 1748. 54 9. 316 9. 258 1748. 46 9. 282 9. 216 1748. 38 9. 233 9. 197 1748. 29 9. 191 9. 152 1748. 21 9. 142 9. 114 1748. 13 9. 091 9. 091 1748. 04 9. 105 9. 101 1747. 96 9. 138 9. 144 1747. 88 9. 200 9. 187 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1747. 79 9. 263 9. 258 1747. 71 9. 316 9. 335 1747. 63 9. 345 9. 348 1747. 54 9. 284 9. 321 1747. 46 9. 223 9. 207 1747. 38 9. 165 9. 170 1747. 29 9. 112 9. 102 1747. 21 9. 007 9. 029 1747. 13 9. 005 8. 982 1747. 04 9. 034 9. 015 1746. 96 9. 065 9. 075 1746. 88 9 129 9. 158 1746. 79 9. 192 9. 231 1746. 71 9. 241 9. 271 1746. 63 9. 285 9. 307 1746. 54 9. 244 9. 267 1746. 46 9. 207 9. 227 1746. 38 9. 172 9. 179 1746. 29 9. 141 9. 127 1746. 21 9. 110 9. 086 1746. 13 9. 088 9. 076 1746. 04 9. 113 9. 102 1745. 96 9. 148 9. 141 1745. 88 9. 193 9. 198 1745. 79 9. 252 9. 268 1745. 71 9. 317 9. 297 1745. 63 9. 350 9. 317 1745. 54 9. 279 9. 261 1745. 46 9. 238 9. 201 1745. 38 9. 188 9. 162 1745. 29 9. 148 9. 072 1745. 21 9. 105 9. 018 1745. 13 9. 063 9. 003 1745. 04 9. 090 9. 046 1744. 96 9. 122 9. 113 1744. 88 9. 170 9. 1 81 1744. 79 9. 235 9. 249 1744. 71 9. 306 9. 293 1744. 63 9. 345 9. 333 1744. 54 9. 304 9. 292 1744. 46 9. 263 9. 236 1744. 38 9. 235 9. 183

PAGE 150

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 140 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1744. 29 9. 133 9. 131 1744. 21 9. 072 9. 056 1744. 13 9. 065 9. 004 1744. 04 9. 105 9. 058 1743. 96 9. 144 9. 115 1743. 88 9. 180 9. 190 1743. 79 9. 227 9. 256 1743. 71 9. 303 9. 307 1743. 63 9. 304 9. 330 1743. 54 9. 275 9. 281 1743. 46 9. 229 9. 219 1743. 38 9. 184 9. 168 1743. 29 9. 179 9. 108 1743. 21 9. 141 9. 031 1743. 13 9. 138 9. 033 1743. 04 9. 130 9. 047 1742. 96 9. 183 9. 118 1742. 88 9. 240 9. 193 1742 79 9. 297 9. 260 1742. 71 9. 353 9. 311 1742. 63 9. 376 9. 329 1742. 54 9. 348 9. 291 1742. 46 9. 258 9. 226 1742. 38 9. 203 9. 208 1742. 29 9. 151 9. 154 1742. 21 9. 077 9. 073 1742. 13 9. 014 8. 990 1742. 04 9. 040 9. 038 1741. 96 9. 103 9. 131 1741. 88 9. 191 9. 206 1741. 79 9. 243 9. 279 1741. 71 9. 284 9. 308 1741. 63 9. 327 9. 335 1741. 54 9. 278 9. 307 1741. 46 9. 242 9. 237 1741. 38 9. 204 9. 176 1741. 29 9. 167 9. 144 1741. 21 9. 134 9. 112 1741. 13 9. 116 9. 085 1741. 04 9. 143 9. 139 1740. 96 9. 175 9. 144 1740. 88 9. 231 9. 206 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1740. 79 9. 29 2 9. 267 1740. 71 9. 357 9. 308 1740. 63 9. 369 9. 343 1740. 54 9. 339 9. 286 1740. 46 9. 296 9. 229 1740. 38 9. 222 9. 176 1740. 29 9. 179 9. 144 1740. 21 9. 144 9. 144 1740. 13 9. 098 9. 098 1740. 04 9. 132 9. 117 1739. 96 9. 167 9. 170 1739. 88 9. 223 9. 225 1739. 79 9. 276 9. 290 1739. 71 9. 329 9. 355 1739. 63 9. 363 9. 399 1739. 54 9. 344 9. 336 1739. 46 9. 287 9. 247 1739. 38 9. 253 9. 176 1739. 29 9. 201 9. 150 1739. 21 9. 123 9. 095 1739. 13 9. 080 9. 046 1739. 04 9. 111 9. 074 1738. 96 9. 168 9. 123 1738. 88 9. 228 9. 175 1738. 79 9. 298 9. 256 1738. 71 9. 346 9. 336 1738. 63 9. 361 9. 379 1738. 54 9. 320 9. 294 1738. 46 9. 288 9. 305 1738. 38 9. 219 9. 237 1738. 29 9. 163 9. 176 1738. 21 9. 151 9. 116 1738. 13 9. 117 9. 108 1738. 04 9. 138 9. 149 1737. 96 9. 164 9. 167 1737. 88 9. 215 9. 223 1737. 79 9. 307 9. 267 173 7. 71 9. 345 9. 311 1737. 63 9. 362 9. 349 1737. 54 9. 328 9. 304 1737. 46 9. 282 9. 260 1737. 38 9. 218 9. 216 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1737. 29 9. 125 9. 169 1737. 21 9. 103 9. 121 1737. 13 9. 077 9. 078 1737. 04 9. 092 9. 130 1736. 96 9. 173 9. 143 1736. 88 9. 237 9. 184 1736. 79 9. 285 9. 226 1736. 71 9. 352 9. 267 1736. 63 9. 372 9. 306 1736. 54 9. 347 9. 299 1736. 46 9. 283 9. 264 1736. 38 9. 198 9. 230 1736. 29 9. 171 9. 151 1736. 21 9. 149 9. 040 1736. 13 9. 101 9. 014 1736. 04 9. 116 9. 058 1735. 96 9. 170 9. 147 1735. 88 9. 233 9. 225 1735. 79 9. 308 9. 278 1735. 71 9. 3 72 9. 322 1735. 63 9. 409 9. 355 1735. 54 9. 320 9. 306 1735. 46 9. 245 9. 266 1735. 38 9. 184 9. 191 1735. 29 9. 146 9. 117 1735. 21 9. 118 9. 095 1735. 13 9. 108 9. 032 1735. 04 9. 114 9. 062 1734. 96 9. 156 9. 118 1734. 88 9. 182 9. 178 1734. 79 9. 250 9. 238 1734. 71 9. 315 9 263 1734. 63 9. 313 9. 264 1734. 54 9. 304 9. 258 1734. 46 9. 252 9. 222 1734. 38 9. 190 9. 185 1734. 29 9. 118 9. 134 1734. 21 9. 026 9. 056 1734. 13 8. 944 9. 033 1734. 04 9. 091 9. 063 1733. 96 9. 088 9. 120 1733. 88 9. 161 9. 196

PAGE 151

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 141 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1733. 79 9. 236 9. 239 1733. 71 9. 292 9. 282 1733. 63 9. 343 9. 321 1733. 54 9. 311 9. 298 1733. 46 9. 240 9. 254 1733. 38 9. 215 9. 195 1733. 29 9. 147 9. 127 1733. 21 9. 110 9. 065 1733. 13 9. 062 9. 017 1733. 04 9. 095 9. 051 1732. 96 9. 158 9. 085 1732. 88 9. 190 9. 130 1732. 79 9. 230 9. 185 1732. 71 9. 257 9. 239 17 32. 63 9. 276 9. 282 1732. 54 9. 243 9. 241 1732. 46 9. 209 9. 201 1732. 38 9. 209 9. 162 1732. 29 9. 170 9. 111 1732. 21 9. 101 9. 056 1732. 13 9. 089 9. 020 1732. 04 9. 107 9. 052 1731. 96 9. 167 9. 127 1731. 88 9. 232 9. 199 1731. 79 9. 295 9. 240 1731. 71 9. 337 9. 280 1731. 6 3 9. 362 9. 316 1731. 54 9. 341 9. 282 1731. 46 9. 282 9. 238 1731. 38 9. 247 9. 171 1731. 29 9. 153 9. 137 1731. 21 9. 069 9. 109 1731. 13 9. 032 9. 066 1731. 04 9. 067 9. 090 1730. 96 9. 117 9. 132 1730. 88 9. 176 9. 188 1730. 79 9. 232 9. 253 1730. 71 9. 265 9. 302 1730. 63 9. 278 9. 334 1730. 54 9. 257 9. 296 1730. 46 9. 231 9. 270 1730. 38 9. 198 9. 230 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1730. 29 9. 140 9. 153 1730. 21 9. 092 9. 123 1730. 13 9. 062 9. 037 1730. 04 9. 099 9. 078 1729. 96 9. 136 9. 159 1729. 88 9. 179 9. 206 1729. 79 9. 242 9. 291 1729. 71 9. 301 9. 324 1729. 63 9. 301 9. 315 1729. 54 9. 284 9. 316 1729. 46 9. 256 9. 265 1729. 38 9. 220 9. 203 1729. 29 9. 118 9. 162 1729. 21 9. 084 9. 093 1729. 13 9. 078 9. 034 1729. 04 9. 090 9. 077 1728. 96 9. 159 9. 131 1728. 88 9. 197 9. 207 1728. 79 9. 282 9. 267 1728. 71 9. 330 9. 326 1728. 63 9. 353 9. 37 4 1728. 54 9. 317 9. 347 1728. 46 9. 280 9. 291 1728. 38 9. 189 1728. 29 9. 111 1728. 21 9. 044 1728. 13 8. 972 1728. 04 9. 055 1727. 96 9. 131 1727. 88 9. 194 1727. 79 9. 239 1727. 71 9. 285 1727. 63 9. 325 1727. 54 9. 274 1727. 46 9. 250 1727. 38 9. 191 172 7. 29 9. 105 1727. 21 9. 114 1727. 13 9. 011 1727. 04 9. 045 1726. 96 9. 123 1726. 88 9. 188 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1726. 79 9. 252 1726. 71 9. 280 1726. 63 9. 304 1726. 54 9. 274 1726. 46 9. 243 1726. 38 9. 178 1726. 29 9. 114 1726. 21 9. 057 1726. 13 9. 032 1726. 04 9. 076 172 5. 96 9. 159 1725. 88 9. 190 1725. 79 9. 221 1725. 71 9. 250 1725. 63 9. 268 1725. 54 9. 250 1725. 46 9. 229 1725. 38 9. 176 1725. 29 9. 109 1725. 21 9. 073 1725. 13 9. 061 1725. 04 9. 086 1724. 96 9. 135 1724. 88 9. 162 1724. 79 9. 199 1724. 71 9. 236 172 4. 63 9. 270 1724. 54 9. 261 1724. 46 9. 239 1724. 38 9. 203 1724. 29 9. 172 1724. 21 9. 151 1724. 13 9. 122 1724. 04 9. 158 1723. 96 9. 194 1723. 88 9. 230 1723. 79 9. 266 1723. 71 9. 299 1723. 63 9. 328 1723. 54 9. 297 1723. 46 9. 229 1723. 38 9. 196

PAGE 152

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 142 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 172 3. 29 9. 120 1723. 21 9. 095 1723. 13 9. 052 1723. 04 9. 092 1722. 96 9. 131 9. 140 1722. 88 9. 222 9. 194 1722. 79 9. 261 9. 251 1722. 71 9. 298 9. 301 1722. 63 9. 332 1722. 54 9. 302 1722. 46 9. 248 1722. 38 9. 175 1722. 29 9. 121 1722. 21 9. 077 1722. 13 9. 045 1722. 04 9. 072 1721. 96 9. 124 1721. 88 9. 175 1721. 79 9. 245 1721. 71 9. 304 1721. 63 9. 303 1721. 54 9. 298 1721. 46 9. 243 1721. 38 9. 196 1721. 29 9. 139 1721. 21 9. 096 1721. 13 9. 009 1721. 04 9. 054 1720. 96 9. 113 1720. 88 9. 188 1720. 79 9. 254 1720. 71 9. 285 1720. 63 9. 305 1720. 54 9. 260 1720. 46 9. 234 1720. 38 9. 176 1720. 29 9. 135 1720. 21 9. 085 1720. 13 9. 053 1720. 04 9. 075 1719. 96 9. 140 9. 138 1719. 88 9. 202 9. 197 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1719. 79 9. 272 9. 256 1719. 71 9. 330 9. 302 1719. 63 9. 339 9. 345 1719. 5 4 9. 325 9. 316 1719. 46 9. 261 9. 238 1719. 38 9. 197 9. 193 1719. 29 9. 122 9. 108 1719. 21 9. 083 9. 076 1719. 13 9. 010 9. 040 1719. 04 9. 087 9. 103 1718. 96 9. 153 9. 154 1718. 88 9. 205 9. 196 1718. 79 9. 254 9. 268 1718. 71 9. 304 9. 324 1718. 63 9. 351 9. 363 1718. 54 9. 310 9. 327 1718. 46 9. 287 9. 290 1718. 38 9. 204 9. 202 1718. 29 9. 117 9. 155 1718. 21 9. 033 9. 141 1718. 13 9. 014 9. 083 1718. 04 9. 062 9. 102 1717. 96 9. 116 9. 125 1717. 88 9. 211 9. 212 1717. 79 9. 286 9. 296 1717. 71 9. 307 9. 330 1717. 63 9. 310 9. 360 1717. 54 9. 225 9. 323 1717. 46 9. 213 9. 265 1717. 38 9. 159 9. 206 1717. 29 9. 093 9. 125 1717. 21 9. 029 9. 042 1717. 13 8. 987 9. 026 1717. 04 9. 049 9. 050 1716. 96 9. 078 9. 078 1716. 88 9. 179 9. 170 1716. 79 9. 270 9. 259 1716. 71 9. 321 9. 299 1716. 63 9. 325 9. 336 1716. 54 9. 313 9. 31 1 1716. 46 9. 259 9. 279 1716. 38 9. 175 9. 227 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1716. 29 9. 090 9. 144 1716. 21 9. 019 9. 080 1716. 13 9. 009 8. 952 1716. 04 9. 033 8. 985 1715. 96 9. 109 9. 081 1715. 88 9. 167 9. 158 1715. 79 9. 239 9. 235 1715. 71 9. 290 9. 285 1715. 63 9. 300 9. 331 1715. 54 9. 255 9. 314 1 715. 46 9. 210 9. 259 1715. 38 9. 138 9. 187 1715. 29 9. 049 9. 118 1715. 21 8. 989 9. 059 1715. 13 8. 962 9. 034 1715. 04 9. 045 9. 059 1714. 96 9. 064 9. 143 1714. 88 9. 153 9. 208 1714. 79 9. 230 9. 258 1714. 71 9. 293 9. 301 1714. 63 9. 339 9. 319 1714. 54 9. 286 9. 291 1714. 46 9. 259 9. 234 1714. 38 9. 213 9. 157 1714. 29 9. 149 9. 111 1714. 21 9. 009 9. 076 1714. 13 8. 970 9. 055 1714. 04 9. 027 9. 105 1713. 96 9. 139 9. 132 1713. 88 9. 182 9. 212 1713. 79 9. 240 9. 287 1713. 71 9. 296 9. 355 1713. 63 9. 344 9. 383 1713. 54 9. 272 9. 319 1713. 46 9 221 9. 283 1713. 38 9. 187 9. 242 1713. 29 9. 146 9. 135 1713. 21 9. 054 9. 086 1713. 13 9. 004 9. 003 1713. 04 9. 043 9. 057 1712. 96 9. 120 9. 153 1712. 88 9. 194 9. 171

PAGE 153

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 143 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1712. 79 9. 272 9. 265 1712. 71 9. 326 9. 358 1712. 63 9. 334 9. 420 1712. 54 9. 274 9. 347 1712. 46 9. 229 9. 252 1712. 38 9. 162 9. 216 1712. 29 9. 109 9. 167 1712. 21 9. 050 9. 069 1712. 13 9. 064 8. 987 1712. 04 9. 065 9. 044 1711. 96 9. 113 9. 111 1711. 88 9. 194 9. 210 1711. 79 9. 264 9. 296 1711. 71 9. 315 9. 367 1711. 63 9. 363 9. 375 1711. 54 9. 316 9. 319 1711. 46 9. 218 9. 2 96 1711. 38 9. 164 9. 223 1711. 29 9. 102 9. 175 1711. 21 9. 019 9. 092 1711. 13 9. 005 9. 078 1711. 04 9. 056 9. 110 1710. 96 9. 140 9. 157 1710. 88 9. 216 9. 225 1710. 79 9. 268 9. 292 1710. 71 9. 312 9. 334 1710. 63 9. 351 9. 360 1710. 54 9. 296 9. 304 1710. 46 9. 238 9. 231 1710. 38 9. 178 9. 201 1710. 29 9. 140 9. 161 1710. 21 9. 056 9. 073 1710. 13 9. 009 9. 041 1710. 04 9. 085 9. 065 1709. 96 9. 151 9. 120 1709. 88 9. 208 9. 175 1709. 79 9. 266 9. 228 1709. 71 9. 323 9. 276 1709. 63 9. 321 9. 319 1709. 54 9. 290 9. 277 1709. 46 9. 264 9. 242 1709 38 9. 230 9. 197 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1709. 29 9. 190 9. 143 1709. 21 9. 142 9. 109 1709. 13 9. 115 9. 069 1709. 04 9. 160 9. 094 1708. 96 9. 197 9. 143 1708. 88 9. 240 9. 201 1708. 79 9. 282 9. 300 1708. 71 9. 325 9. 325 1708. 63 9. 389 9. 329 1708. 54 9. 324 9. 294 1708. 46 9. 264 9. 241 1708. 38 9. 173 9. 192 1708. 29 9. 131 1708. 21 9. 074 1708. 13 9. 004 1708. 04 9. 053 1707. 96 9. 096 1707. 88 9. 216 1707. 79 9. 270 1707. 71 9. 297 1707. 63 9. 301 1707. 54 9. 287 1707. 46 9. 243 1707. 38 9. 207 1707. 29 9. 180 1707. 21 9. 098 1707. 13 9. 066 170 7. 04 9. 094 1706. 96 9. 159 1706. 88 9. 237 1706. 79 9. 286 1706. 71 9. 334 1706. 63 9. 365 1706. 54 9. 324 1706. 46 9. 225 1706. 38 9. 212 1706. 29 9. 141 1706. 21 9. 078 1706. 13 9. 025 1706. 04 9. 089 1705. 96 9. 175 1705. 88 9. 193 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1705. 79 9. 239 170 5. 71 9. 276 1705. 63 9. 304 1705. 54 9. 298 1705. 46 9. 266 1705. 38 9. 226 1705. 29 9. 160 1705. 21 9. 146 1705. 13 9. 133 1705. 04 9. 175 1704. 96 9. 196 1704. 88 9. 230 1704. 79 9. 264 1704. 71 9. 297 1704. 63 9. 343 1704. 54 9. 319 1704. 46 9. 266 170 4. 38 9. 212 1704. 29 9. 175 1704. 21 9. 131 1704. 13 9. 087 1704. 04 9. 114 1703. 96 9. 163 1703. 88 9. 220 1703. 79 9. 286 1703. 71 9. 342 1703. 63 9. 384 1703. 54 9. 326 1703. 46 9. 265 1703. 38 9. 203 1703. 29 9. 152 1703. 21 9. 119 1703. 13 9. 101 170 3. 04 9. 126 1702. 96 9. 153 1702. 88 9. 216 1702. 79 9. 278 1702. 71 9. 325 1702. 63 9. 367 1702. 54 9. 328 1702. 46 9. 278 1702. 38 9. 221

PAGE 154

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 144 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1702. 29 9. 140 1702. 21 9. 078 1702. 13 9. 073 1702. 04 9. 107 1701. 96 9. 159 1701. 88 9. 224 1701. 79 9. 292 170 1. 71 9. 328 1701. 63 9. 337 1701. 54 9. 302 1701. 46 9. 265 1701. 38 9. 228 1701. 29 9. 140 1701. 21 9. 117 1701. 13 9. 073 1701. 04 9. 108 1700. 96 9. 147 1700. 88 9. 221 1700. 79 9. 293 1700. 71 9. 342 1700. 63 9. 385 1700. 54 9. 350 1700. 46 9. 283 170 0. 38 9. 222 1700. 29 9. 154 1700. 21 9. 137 1700. 13 9. 090 1700. 04 9. 108 1699. 96 9. 144 1699. 88 9. 230 1699. 79 9. 303 1699. 71 9. 360 1699. 63 9. 369 1699. 54 9. 281 1699. 46 9. 240 1699. 38 9. 212 1699. 29 9. 105 1699. 21 9. 093 1699. 13 8. 952 169 9. 04 9. 001 1698. 96 9. 081 1698. 88 9. 184 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1698. 79 9. 275 1698. 71 9. 331 1698. 63 9. 356 1698. 54 9. 307 9. 318 1698. 46 9. 258 9. 278 1698. 38 9. 195 9. 183 1698. 29 9. 161 9. 104 1698. 21 9. 094 9. 061 1698. 13 9. 017 9. 027 1698. 04 9. 034 9. 049 1697. 96 9. 151 9. 075 1697. 88 9. 222 9. 147 1697. 79 9. 266 9. 217 1697. 71 9. 298 9. 256 1697. 63 9. 319 9. 294 1697. 54 9. 288 9. 291 1697. 46 9. 245 9. 246 1697. 38 9. 188 9. 172 1697. 29 9. 170 9. 143 1697. 21 9. 104 9. 116 1697. 13 9. 070 9. 092 1697. 04 9. 112 9. 106 1696. 96 9. 114 9. 120 1696. 88 9. 183 9. 161 1696. 79 9. 254 9. 202 1696. 71 9. 326 9. 270 1696. 63 9. 327 9. 330 1696. 54 9. 286 9. 281 1696. 46 9. 240 9. 224 1696. 38 9. 204 9. 166 1696. 29 9. 155 9. 108 1696. 21 9. 110 9. 065 1696. 13 9. 072 9. 028 1696. 04 9. 090 9. 061 1695. 96 9. 125 9. 100 169 5. 88 9. 194 9. 160 1695. 79 9. 289 9. 221 1695. 71 9. 322 9. 281 1695. 63 9. 323 9. 288 1695. 54 9. 262 9. 252 1695. 46 9. 210 9. 197 1695. 38 9. 170 9. 128 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1695. 29 9. 087 9. 075 1695. 21 9. 034 9. 036 1695. 13 9. 057 9. 011 1695. 04 9. 050 9. 047 1694. 96 9. 076 9. 094 1694. 88 9. 215 9. 151 1694. 79 9. 273 9. 215 1694. 71 9. 317 9. 279 1694. 63 9. 335 9. 339 1694. 54 9. 271 9. 325 1694. 46 9. 232 9. 233 1694. 38 9. 171 9. 162 1694. 29 9. 084 9. 116 1694. 21 9. 087 9. 104 1694. 13 9. 026 9. 041 1694. 04 9. 047 9. 057 1693. 96 9. 111 9. 089 1693. 88 9. 2 02 9. 132 1693. 79 9. 205 9. 182 1693. 71 9. 258 9. 232 1693. 63 9. 307 9. 278 1693. 54 9. 271 9. 254 1693. 46 9. 235 9. 214 1693. 38 9. 226 9. 167 1693. 29 9. 118 9. 068 1693. 21 9. 031 9. 053 1693. 13 9. 023 8. 994 1693. 04 9. 025 9. 031 1692. 96 9. 105 9. 103 1692. 88 9. 181 9 154 1692. 79 9. 249 9. 204 1692. 71 9. 301 9. 254 1692. 63 9. 328 9. 301 1692. 54 9. 295 9. 290 1692. 46 9. 224 9. 203 1692. 38 9. 167 9. 145 1692. 29 9. 108 9. 095 1692. 21 9. 041 9. 056 1692. 13 8. 970 9. 013 1692. 04 9. 015 9. 059 1691. 96 9. 108 9. 106 1691. 88 9. 168 9. 153

PAGE 155

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 145 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1691. 79 9. 240 9. 199 1691. 71 9. 288 9. 260 1691. 63 9. 315 9. 316 1691. 54 9. 267 9. 288 1691. 46 9. 196 9. 211 1691. 38 9. 181 9. 154 1691. 29 9. 112 9. 043 1691. 21 9. 043 9. 039 1691. 13 8. 954 8. 932 1691. 04 9. 003 8. 967 1690. 96 9. 068 9. 045 1690. 88 9. 135 9. 124 16 90. 79 9. 228 9. 202 1690. 71 9. 305 9. 278 1690. 63 9. 334 9. 302 1690. 54 9. 300 9. 265 1690. 46 9. 231 9. 196 1690. 38 9. 173 9. 144 1690. 29 9. 135 9. 083 1690. 21 9. 059 9. 030 1690. 13 8. 988 8. 982 1690. 04 9. 019 9. 031 1689. 96 9. 084 9. 082 1689. 88 9. 174 9. 144 1689. 7 9 9. 243 9. 204 1689. 71 9. 310 9. 231 1689. 63 9. 355 9. 255 1689. 54 9. 303 9. 231 1689. 46 9. 251 9. 207 1689. 38 9. 183 9. 152 1689. 29 9. 108 9. 097 1689. 21 9. 080 9. 113 1689. 13 9. 043 9. 064 1689. 04 9. 052 9. 074 1688. 96 9. 132 9. 108 1688. 88 9. 202 9. 146 1688. 79 9. 264 9. 210 1688. 71 9. 321 9. 267 1688. 63 9. 358 9. 312 1688. 54 9. 288 9. 251 1688. 46 9. 257 9. 190 1688. 38 9. 205 9. 139 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1688. 29 9. 149 9. 133 1688. 21 9. 079 9. 105 1688. 13 9. 005 9. 081 1688. 04 9. 048 9. 101 1687. 96 9. 110 9. 134 1687. 88 9. 185 9. 183 1687. 79 9. 273 9. 241 1687. 71 9. 324 9. 298 1687. 63 9. 371 9. 329 1687. 54 9. 349 9. 266 1687. 46 9. 280 9. 213 1687. 38 9. 205 9. 166 1687. 29 9. 119 9. 122 1687. 21 9. 058 9. 041 1687. 13 9. 028 9. 023 1687. 04 9. 075 9. 084 1686. 96 9. 124 9. 077 1686. 88 9. 175 9. 150 1686. 79 9. 262 9. 22 4 1686. 71 9. 315 9. 280 1686. 63 9. 340 9. 329 1686. 54 9. 329 9. 265 1686. 46 9. 253 9. 181 1686. 38 9. 175 9. 155 1686. 29 9. 151 9. 105 1686. 21 9. 071 9. 049 1686. 13 9. 008 8. 990 1686. 04 9. 088 9. 023 1685. 96 9. 120 9. 067 1685. 88 9. 184 9. 145 1685. 79 9. 266 9. 197 1 685. 71 9. 303 9. 242 1685. 63 9. 313 9. 296 1685. 54 9. 270 9. 251 1685. 46 9. 245 9. 210 1685. 38 9. 188 9. 186 1685. 29 9. 116 9. 111 1685. 21 9. 008 9. 100 1685. 13 8. 971 9. 064 1685. 04 8. 995 9. 069 1684. 96 9. 075 9. 163 1684. 88 9. 177 9. 220 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1684. 79 9. 255 9. 277 1684. 71 9. 302 9. 333 1684. 63 9. 298 9. 377 1684. 54 9. 291 9. 348 1684. 46 9. 239 9. 252 1684. 38 9. 201 9. 223 1684. 29 9. 104 9. 173 1684. 21 9. 087 9. 107 1684. 13 9. 062 9. 077 1684. 04 9. 131 1683. 96 9. 191 1683. 88 9. 261 1683. 79 9. 324 1683. 71 9. 385 1683. 63 9. 41 5 1683. 54 9. 313 1683. 46 9. 273 1683. 38 9. 267 1683. 29 9. 145 1683. 21 9. 121 1683. 13 9. 052 1683. 04 9. 068 1682. 96 9. 162 1682. 88 9. 254 1682. 79 9. 295 1682. 71 9. 334 1682. 63 9. 366 1682. 54 9. 305 1682. 46 9. 253 1682. 38 9. 201 1682. 29 9. 17 5 1682. 21 9. 115 1682. 13 9. 058 1682. 04 9. 065 1681. 96 9. 123 1681. 88 9. 192 1681. 79 9. 260 1681. 71 9. 328 1681. 63 9. 367 1681. 54 9. 326 1681. 46 9. 281 1681. 38 9. 277

PAGE 156

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 146 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1681. 29 9. 173 1681. 21 9. 096 1681. 13 9. 075 1681. 04 9. 101 1680. 96 9. 12 8 1680. 88 9. 194 1680. 79 9. 260 1680. 71 9. 326 1680. 63 9. 364 1680. 54 9. 336 1680. 46 9. 301 1680. 38 9. 248 1680. 29 9. 169 1680. 21 9. 149 1680. 13 9. 110 1680. 04 9. 117 1679. 96 9. 151 1679. 88 9. 206 1679. 79 9. 264 1679. 71 9. 319 1679. 63 9. 357 9. 368 1679. 54 9. 325 9. 328 1679. 46 9. 295 9. 266 1679. 38 9. 220 9. 190 1679. 29 9. 211 9. 157 1679. 21 9. 128 9. 118 1679. 13 9. 106 9. 045 1679. 04 9. 153 9. 074 1678. 96 9. 159 9. 142 1678. 88 9. 216 9. 207 1678. 79 9. 288 9. 268 1678. 71 9. 333 9. 325 1678. 63 9. 353 9. 3 60 1678. 54 9. 292 9. 325 1678. 46 9. 232 9. 254 1678. 38 9. 172 9. 199 1678. 29 9. 124 9. 153 1678. 21 9. 076 9. 078 1678. 13 9. 035 9. 048 1678. 04 9. 100 9. 097 1677. 96 9. 145 9. 147 1677. 88 9. 173 9. 197 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1677. 79 9. 231 9. 261 1677. 71 9. 284 9. 306 1677. 63 9. 285 9. 332 1677. 54 9. 273 9. 316 1677. 46 9. 236 9. 286 1677. 38 9. 182 9. 217 1677. 29 9. 150 9. 156 1677. 21 9. 085 9. 123 1677. 13 9. 050 9. 054 1677. 04 9. 076 9. 099 1676. 96 9. 134 9. 157 1676. 88 9. 192 9. 209 1676. 79 9. 231 9. 244 1676. 71 9. 284 9. 266 1676. 63 9. 334 9. 282 1676 54 9. 311 9. 263 1676. 46 9. 255 9. 245 1676. 38 9. 167 9. 190 1676. 29 9. 102 9. 135 1676. 21 9. 079 9. 120 1676. 13 9. 051 9. 056 1676. 04 9. 082 9. 098 1675. 96 9. 131 9. 158 1675. 88 9. 192 9. 207 1675. 79 9. 252 9. 239 1675. 71 9. 294 9. 265 1675. 63 9. 330 9. 286 1675. 54 9. 264 9. 248 1675. 46 9. 214 9. 207 1675. 38 9. 155 9. 166 1675. 29 9. 106 9. 139 1675. 21 9. 062 9. 073 1675. 13 8. 986 9. 026 1675. 04 9. 022 9. 061 1674. 96 9. 091 9. 132 1674. 88 9. 175 9. 178 1674. 79 9. 250 9. 224 1674. 71 9. 289 9. 270 1674. 63 9. 299 9. 273 1674. 54 9. 27 7 9. 229 1674. 46 9. 202 9. 188 1674. 38 9. 153 9. 118 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1674. 29 9. 065 9. 073 1674. 21 8. 992 9. 060 1674. 13 8. 930 9. 014 1674. 04 8. 966 9. 070 1673. 96 9. 059 9. 127 1673. 88 9. 150 9. 170 1673. 79 9. 237 9. 212 1673. 71 9. 269 9. 243 1673. 63 9. 284 9. 271 1673. 54 9. 282 9. 264 1673. 46 9. 245 9. 226 1673. 38 9. 162 9. 178 1673. 29 9. 100 9. 139 1673. 21 9. 037 9. 075 1673. 13 8. 984 9. 052 1673. 04 9. 041 9. 071 1672. 96 9. 116 9. 136 1672. 88 9. 193 9. 210 1672. 79 9. 251 9. 237 1672. 71 9. 281 9. 297 1672. 63 9. 302 9. 316 1672. 54 9. 292 9. 284 1672. 46 9. 236 9. 239 1672. 38 9. 152 9. 183 1672. 29 9. 118 9. 143 1672. 21 9. 049 9. 061 1672. 13 8. 978 8. 981 1672. 04 9. 003 9. 028 1671. 96 9. 076 9. 115 1671. 88 9. 160 9. 183 1671. 79 9. 244 9. 244 1671. 71 9. 316 9. 285 1671. 63 9. 349 9. 307 1671. 54 9. 260 9. 284 167 1. 46 9. 216 9. 244 1671. 38 9. 173 9. 180 1671. 29 9. 130 9. 092 1671. 21 9. 102 9. 049 1671. 13 9. 093 9. 020 1671. 04 9. 108 9. 086 1670. 96 9. 149 9. 131 1670. 88 9. 190 9. 216

PAGE 157

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 147 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1670. 79 9. 231 9. 255 1670. 71 9. 269 9. 276 1670. 63 9. 330 9. 294 1670. 54 9. 286 9. 255 1670. 46 9. 208 9. 216 1670. 38 9. 163 9. 189 1670. 29 9. 095 9. 167 1670. 21 9. 074 9. 103 1670. 13 9. 009 9. 074 1670. 04 9. 024 9. 121 1669. 96 9. 087 9. 174 1669. 88 9. 150 9. 232 1669. 79 9. 213 9. 281 1669. 71 9. 296 9. 321 1669. 63 9. 341 9. 354 1669. 54 9. 286 9. 320 1669. 46 9. 2 27 9. 229 1669. 38 9. 181 9. 161 1669. 29 9. 109 9. 131 1669. 21 9. 057 9. 090 1669. 13 9. 050 9. 061 1669. 04 9. 053 9. 070 1668. 96 9. 109 9. 116 1668. 88 9. 187 9. 168 1668. 79 9. 226 9. 222 1668. 71 9. 273 9. 276 1668. 63 9. 320 9. 327 1668. 54 9. 260 9. 311 1668. 46 9. 230 9 202 1668. 38 9. 173 9. 157 1668. 29 9. 121 9. 136 1668. 21 9. 069 9. 038 1668. 13 9. 032 9. 012 1668. 04 9. 050 9. 035 1667. 96 9. 093 9. 103 1667. 88 9. 153 9. 172 1667. 79 9. 196 9. 229 1667. 71 9. 328 9. 274 1667. 63 9. 353 9. 315 1667. 54 9. 295 9. 292 1667. 46 9. 231 9. 254 1667. 38 9. 178 9. 203 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1667. 29 9. 119 9. 137 1667. 21 9. 069 9. 105 1667. 13 9. 038 9. 103 1667. 04 9. 077 9. 129 1666. 96 9. 115 9. 156 1666. 88 9. 170 9. 184 1666. 79 9. 259 9. 232 1666. 71 9. 329 9. 281 1666. 63 9. 381 9. 323 1666. 54 9. 279 1666. 46 9. 229 1666. 38 9. 2 00 1666. 29 9. 123 1666. 21 9. 068 1666. 13 9. 023 1666. 04 9. 097 1665. 96 9. 104 1665. 88 9. 166 1665. 79 9. 228 1665. 71 9. 290 1665. 63 9. 347 1665. 54 9. 324 1665. 46 9. 247 1665. 38 9. 181 1665. 29 9. 130 1665. 21 9. 092 1665. 13 9. 074 1665. 04 9. 0 86 1664. 96 9. 131 1664. 88 9. 190 1664. 79 9. 254 1664. 71 9. 317 1664. 63 9. 375 1664. 54 9. 342 1664. 46 9. 244 1664. 38 9. 176 1664. 29 9. 087 1664. 21 9. 021 1664. 13 9. 014 1664. 04 9. 081 1663. 96 9. 122 1663. 88 9. 209 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1663. 79 9. 248 1663. 71 9. 2 86 1663. 63 9. 320 1663. 54 9. 279 1663. 46 9. 234 1663. 38 9. 136 1663. 29 9. 111 1663. 21 9. 073 1663. 13 9. 044 1663. 04 9. 073 1662. 96 9. 121 1662. 88 9. 170 1662. 79 9. 201 1662. 71 9. 246 1662. 63 9. 286 1662. 54 9. 248 1662. 46 9. 201 1662. 38 9. 1 44 1662. 29 9. 065 1662. 21 9. 075 1662. 13 8. 987 1662. 04 9. 046 1661. 96 9. 104 1661. 88 9. 159 1661. 79 9. 214 1661. 71 9. 269 1661. 63 9. 317 1661. 54 9. 286 1661. 46 9. 243 1661. 38 9. 200 1661. 29 9. 157 1661. 21 9. 106 1661. 13 9. 087 1661. 04 9. 1 25 1660. 96 9. 162 1660. 88 9. 200 1660. 79 9. 243 1660. 71 9. 287 1660. 63 9. 326 1660. 54 9. 297 1660. 46 9. 231 1660. 38 9. 187

PAGE 158

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d ) 148 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1660. 29 9. 129 1660. 21 9. 083 1660. 13 9. 071 1660. 04 9. 083 1659. 96 9. 100 1659. 88 9. 181 1659. 79 9. 261 1659. 71 9. 3 21 1659. 63 9. 374 1659. 54 9. 322 1659. 46 9. 270 1659. 38 9. 201 1659. 29 9. 131 1659. 21 9. 047 1659. 13 9. 000 1659. 04 9. 035 1658. 96 9. 088 1658. 88 9. 168 1658. 79 9. 227 1658. 71 9. 265 1658. 63 9. 299 1658. 54 9. 284 1658. 46 9. 243 1658. 38 9. 1 92 1658. 29 9. 131 1658. 21 9. 065 1658. 13 9. 060 1658. 04 9. 089 1657. 96 9. 139 1657. 88 9. 189 1657. 79 9. 232 1657. 71 9. 270 1657. 63 9. 306 1657. 54 9. 287 1657. 46 9. 243 1657. 38 9. 160 1657. 29 9. 115 1657. 21 9. 053 1657. 13 9. 019 1657. 04 9. 0 65 1656. 96 9. 112 1656. 88 9. 155 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1656. 79 9. 197 1656. 71 9. 239 1656. 63 9. 277 1656. 54 9. 247 1656. 46 9. 218 1656. 38 9. 204 1656. 29 9. 149 1656. 21 9. 082 1656. 13 9. 029 1656. 04 9. 060 1655. 96 9. 097 1655. 88 9. 167 1655. 79 9. 237 1655. 71 9. 3 05 1655. 63 9. 340 1655. 54 9. 309 1655. 46 9. 256 1655. 38 9. 185 1655. 29 9. 125 1655. 21 9. 091 1655. 13 9. 079 1655. 04 9. 100 1654. 96 9. 135 1654. 88 9. 183 1654. 79 9. 271 1654. 71 9. 326 1654. 63 9. 352 1654. 54 9. 313 1654. 46 9. 274 1654. 38 9. 2 30 1654. 29 9. 134 1654. 21 9. 056 1654. 13 9. 028 1654. 04 9. 079 1653. 96 9. 134 1653. 88 9. 191 1653. 79 9. 249 1653. 71 9. 299 1653. 63 9. 313 1653. 54 9. 305 1653. 46 9. 267 1653. 38 9. 206 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1653. 29 9. 152 1653. 21 9. 091 1653. 13 9. 027 1653. 04 9. 0 76 1652. 96 9. 124 1652. 88 9. 177 1652. 79 9. 231 1652. 71 9. 284 1652. 63 9. 329 1652. 54 9. 275 1652. 46 9. 220 1652. 38 9. 166 1652. 29 9. 111 1652. 21 9. 075 1652. 13 9. 003 1652. 04 9. 062 1651. 96 9. 122 1651. 88 9. 208 1651. 79 9. 290 1651. 71 9. 3 20 1651. 63 9. 345 1651. 54 9. 286 1651. 46 9. 227 1651. 38 9. 167 1651. 29 9. 137 1651. 21 9. 094 1651. 13 9. 056 1651. 04 9. 087 1650. 96 9. 112 1650. 88 9. 172 1650. 79 9. 255 1650. 71 9. 268 1650. 63 9. 278 1650. 54 9. 259 1650. 46 9. 245 1650. 38 9. 1 79 1650. 29 9. 150 1650. 21 9. 095 1650. 13 9. 067 1650. 04 9. 073 1649. 96 9. 125 1649. 88 9. 183

PAGE 159

A p p e n d i x K ( C ont i nue d) 149 Y e ar 92P A A 1 92P A A 2 1649. 79 9. 268 1649. 71 9. 316 1649. 63 9. 381 1649. 54 9. 343 1649. 46 9. 277 1649. 38 9. 194 1649. 29 9. 107 1649. 21 9. 031 1649. 13 8. 963 1649. 04 8. 976 1648. 96 9. 031 1648. 88 9. 168 1648. 79 9. 274 1648. 71 9. 333 1648. 63 9. 350 1648. 54 9. 322 1648. 46 9. 240 1648. 38 9. 179 1648. 29 9. 149 1648. 21 9. 073 1648. 13 9. 018 1648. 04 9. 068 1647. 96 9. 078

PAGE 160

A b ou t t h e au t h or K r i s t i ne L e e D e L ong w a s bor n i n D unc a n, O kl a ho m a a nd r a i s e d i n a m i l i t a r y f a m i l y. S he a t t e nde d H i l l s bor ough H i gh S c hool i n T a m pa F l or i da a nd gr a dua t e d w i t h honor s a nd U ni ve r s i t y o f T a m pa a s a n H onor s s t ud e nt a nd F l or i da S c hol a r I n o r de r t o pur s ue a n e ngi ne e r i ng de gr e e K r i s t i ne t r a ns f e r t o t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da a nd e a r ne d a B a c he l or of S c i e nc e i n M e c ha ni c a l E ngi n e e r i ng. K r i s t i ne s e ngi ne e r i ng c a r e e r i nc l ude d w or ki ng a s a l i ght ni ng e ngi ne e r f or B ugs B unny W or l d T ou r s a s a s ys t e m s e ngi ne e r f or I K O N C or po r a t i on, a nd a s a di gi t a l s a l e s m a na ge r f or R i c oh C or por a t i on I n 2003, s he l e f t R i c oh a nd be ga n he r gr a dua t e s t udi e s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S out h F l o r i da w i t h T e r r e nc e M Q ui nn e a r ni ng he r M a s t e r s D e gr e e i n 2006 a nd a P h D i n D e c e m be r 2008 i n G e ol ogi c a l O c e a nogr a phy. K r i s t i ne w i l l c ont i nue w or ki ng f or t he U S G S a s a pos t doc t or i a l r e s e a r c he r unde r D i c k P oo r e a s a m e m be r of t he C or a l R e e f P r oj e c t


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam 2200409Ka 4500
controlfield tag 001 002046422
005 20100106155722.0
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 100106s2008 flu s 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0002726
035
(OCoLC)496022016
040
FHM
c FHM
049
FHMM
090
GC11.2 (Online)
1 100
DeLong, Kristine Lee.
0 245
Paleoclimatic reconstruction and evaluation of sub-centennial climate variability in the late Holocene using records from massive corals (New Caledonia), tree-rings (New Mexico) and speleothems (China)
h [electronic resource] /
by Kristine Lee DeLong.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2008.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 149 pages.
Includes vita.
502
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
538
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
590
Co-advisor: Terrence M. Quinn, Ph.D.
Co-advisor: Gary T. Mitchum, Ph.D.
520
ABSTRACT: This study focuses on how the construction of a paleoclimate time series influences the interpretation in the frequency domain. Three time series are examined: a New Caledonian coral (Amedee Island), a Chinese speleothem (Dongge Cave), and New Mexican trees (El Malpais). This study presents a monthly resolved coral Sr/Ca time series from New Caledonia that reconstructs sea surface temperature (SST; 1648-1999). The chronology is based on density-band counting, cross-correlating Sr/Ca, and Th dating. The intracolony coral Sr/Ca variations are coherent on interannual to centennial time scales and are reproducible for >300 years. The SST reconstruction reveals estimated cooling trend (~0.4C) from 1741-1815, a colder nineteenth century (~0.6C), and a warming trend (~0.6C) in the twentieth century.Spectral and wavelet analysis reveals significant inter-decadal periodicities (~14-21 years/cycle) that modulate with time, and nearly persistent multi-decadal periodicities (~25-33 years/cycle) that do not exhibit coherence with the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation. The multi-decadal periodicities may be a harmonic of the inter-decadal periodicities or may represent an independent mode not previously recognized. The Dongge Cave time series is based on uneven time intervals between data points () requiring interpolation to a constant t interval for analysis with traditional spectral methods. A comparison of the even and uneven t intervals spectra using the Lomb-Scargle transform reveals the interpolated spectrum contains suppressed periodicities (<20 years/cycle), in contrast to the uninterpolated spectrum, resulting in a steeper slope in the red noise model thus influencing significance testing.The El Malpais time series is an average of tree-ring width series. Spectral analysis of the entire time series identified significant periodicities. However, significance varies between three temporal subsets, in which the number of series varies; therefore, these periodicities may be a function of the number of series or may represent a real temporal variability. Cross-spectral analysis of the El Malpais and Dongge Cave time series reveals significant coherence; however, cross-wavelet analysis, which examines localized frequencies in the time domain, reveals a lack of correlation; therefore, coherence in the frequency domain does not indicate correlation in the time domain.
653
Coral Sr/Ca
Tropical climate variability
Climate proxies
Time series analysis
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Marine Science
Doctoral.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.2726