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Sharing the power of words and changing lives through college-level instruction in grammar and mechanics

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Title:
Sharing the power of words and changing lives through college-level instruction in grammar and mechanics
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Tillema, Carol Ann
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Editing
Teaching
Rhetoric
Computers
Writing centers
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Intrigued by the English language and its far-reaching applications worldwide as a standard means of communication, I begin my disquisition with a focus on the meaning and derivation of grammar and its place in the trivium of ancient and modern study. I stress the need to reemphasize college-level instruction in grammar and mechanics as a complement to rhetoric and logic by studying and teaching editing, which involves semantics, syntax, phonology, morphology, conventions, mechanics (spelling, punctuation and format), in writing centers and classrooms. Noting growing nationwide illiteracy, I research the pedagogies and writing of experts in the field of rhetoric and composition to develop and share a balanced philosophy of learning and teaching the art, science, and mathematics of writing with a focusing on conscientiously creating sentences with an Isocratean sense of perfection.Continually learning methods to reintroduce grammar in a novel way, I present antidotal information, statistics, and expert opinions and interpretations of pedagogists and rhetoricians of both sides of the Grammar Debate, a polemic over the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of teaching grammar. From my experience as a composition teacher at the University of South Florida and Hillsborough Community College in Florida, I present suggestions from students, who through their questions and overwhelming documented requests for grammar help and attention to sentence-level concerns, helped me rediscover myself through the reflective and recursive aspects of writing. Teaching students Standard English for academic discourse and for writing with computers across the curriculum, I share the power of words and explain the negative effects of errors and how to eliminate the serious ones.Graphs and tables of data collected from conference information forms and questionnaires filled out by students in writing centers or classrooms reveal the objectives and viewpoints of students, those whom institutions and teachers serve. Having developed a "polypedagogy," I share the knowledge I have gathered from others with innovative and creative ideas for teaching the historically boring or abstract subject of grammar.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Carol Ann Tillema.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 152 pages.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002007023
oclc - 401305363
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002746
usfldc handle - e14.2746
System ID:
SFS0027063:00001


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ABSTRACT: Intrigued by the English language and its far-reaching applications worldwide as a standard means of communication, I begin my disquisition with a focus on the meaning and derivation of grammar and its place in the trivium of ancient and modern study. I stress the need to reemphasize college-level instruction in grammar and mechanics as a complement to rhetoric and logic by studying and teaching editing, which involves semantics, syntax, phonology, morphology, conventions, mechanics (spelling, punctuation and format), in writing centers and classrooms. Noting growing nationwide illiteracy, I research the pedagogies and writing of experts in the field of rhetoric and composition to develop and share a balanced philosophy of learning and teaching the art, science, and mathematics of writing with a focusing on conscientiously creating sentences with an Isocratean sense of perfection.Continually learning methods to reintroduce grammar in a novel way, I present antidotal information, statistics, and expert opinions and interpretations of pedagogists and rhetoricians of both sides of the Grammar Debate, a polemic over the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of teaching grammar. From my experience as a composition teacher at the University of South Florida and Hillsborough Community College in Florida, I present suggestions from students, who through their questions and overwhelming documented requests for grammar help and attention to sentence-level concerns, helped me rediscover myself through the reflective and recursive aspects of writing. Teaching students Standard English for academic discourse and for writing with computers across the curriculum, I share the power of words and explain the negative effects of errors and how to eliminate the serious ones.Graphs and tables of data collected from conference information forms and questionnaires filled out by students in writing centers or classrooms reveal the objectives and viewpoints of students, those whom institutions and teachers serve. Having developed a "polypedagogy," I share the knowledge I have gathered from others with innovative and creative ideas for teaching the historically boring or abstract subject of grammar.
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Sharing the Power of Words and Changing Li ves Through College-Level Instruction in Grammar and Mechanics by Carol Ann Tillema A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of English College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Phillip J. Sipiora, Ph.D. Laura Runge-Gordon, Ph.D Sheila Diecidue, Ph.D Date of Approval: December 12, 2008 Keywords: editing, teaching, rhetoric, comput ers, writing centers, classrooms, literacy Copyright 2008, Carol Ann Tillema

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Acknowledgements Though I am fond of the many able instru ctors who have taught me the art of speaking and writing at the Univer sity of South Florida in Tampa, Florida, I especially acknowledge my thesis committee. Dr. Phillip J. Sipiora, author, editor, international lecturer, and beloved profe ssor, has directed me to study profound theories I never studied before and to seek greater rhetorical precision in my writing and in my life. It was he who offered me my first teach ing position, changing my life forever. His counseling and his patience with me as a student writer who struggles in the process of producing a product is deeply appreciated. I am indebted to Dr. Laura Runge-Gordon for giving me hope about completing my master’s degree in rhetoric and composition and for agreeing to assist me, a distraught student who ha d worked years on one project I could not perfect, a student who had long needed help and could not find it, a student who had failed in the endeavor a number of times before. I appreciate her educational and philosophical viewpoints, particularly rega rding working across the disciplines in collaborative efforts in the university with the Department of Education. Her sensitivity and compassion as a person distinguish her from many. I recognize Dr. Sheila Diecidue, who has always been approachable and pleas ant, greeting me with a smile, guiding me through the program, and encouraging me to b ecome a master in spite of hindrances and problems with timeliness. Special teachers from the university whose works and liv es I have also studied and who have greatly influenced me include Professors John Hatcher, Alma Bryant, Nancy Tyson, Maryhelen Harmon, William Ross Donald Kaufman, Gary Olson, Jack

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Moore, Debra Jacobs, William Heim, Rick W ilber, Joseph Moxley, Robert Figg III, Rita Ciresi, Joseph Moxley, Nick Samaras, a nd Larry Cullison. I am thankful to Lee A. Davidson and Leslie Fisher for kindly dire cting me and answering my many questions while I was a student; their patience and love have been unforgettable. The guidance, grace, consideration, and friendship of John Ja nzen, Jude Edminster, Merry Perry, Kerry Burner, Joe Bockus, Anita Wyman, and Steve Wall, fellow graduate students who always took moments from their busy schedules and lives to exchange words with me, meant much. From my other college of interest, Hillsborough Community College, I am thankful for the trust, love, and esteem I received from Mr. Carmen and Mrs. Joan Perillo, Ann Stevens, Dr. Maribeth Moble y, and Dr. Sandra Wilson, the first woman to earn a doctorate at USF. I remember with warm regard my first and second grade teachers in Weisebaden, Germany, and my third and fourth grade teacher s in Victorville, California. I applaud my fifth and sixth grade teachers at Barron Elem entary; my junior high school teachers at Benjamin Syms, the first free public school in the United States, and my high school teachers at Pembroke in Hampton, Virginia, where I earned my high school diploma in 1971. I am thankful for my teachers at Br evard Community College in Melbourne, Florida, where I took my first college courses, Creative Writing and Speech, in 1993, and at the Florida Institute of T echnology in Melbourne, especially Dr. Robert Shearer of the Humanities Department and the inst ructors who taught me how to fly. I am beholden to a special native of Tampa Bay, my favor ite place, Dr. Hume Eslick Spear II, who has kept me alive the la st years. I acknowledge my mother Mary Jane Flynn Tillema, a great teacher herself, w ho gave me my first tutees, my brothers

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Lt. Col Robert E. Tillema and Col. Michael John Tillema (both United States Air Force pilots) and my sisters Terese Elaine Givens and Mary Margaret Pr entis, all wonderful successes and loving people. I am especially proud and grateful for my children Michael Robert Tillema and Sarah Evah Tillema Seymour. My beloved daughter, formerly a captain in the United States Air Force, challe nged me to complete my thesis and is paying for its completion. Furthermore, I recognize the pedagogists and theorists worldwide whose work I read and studied, productive individuals who took the time to write about writing and teaching and share their expertise, including Linda Adler-Kassner, J. H. Barham, David Bartholomae, James Berlin, Anne E. Berthoff, Homi Bhabha, Patricia Bizzell, David Blakesley, Lynn Bloom, John Boe, Irene Brosnahan, Lady Falls Brown, Richard Braddock, Kenneth Bruffee, Judith Butler, Nick Carbone, Noam Chomsky, Robert Connors, DeBoer, Sara(h) D’Eloia, Kevin Da vis, William DeGener o, Mary P. Deming, Jacques Derrida, Marcia Dickson, Sidney Dobrin Paul E. Doniger, W. E. B. Dubois, Pam Dykstra, Lisa Ede, Peter Elbow, Warwick B. Elley, Lester Faigley, Thomas Farrell, Stanley Fish, Linda Flower, Tom Fox, Alan France, Paolo Freire, Irene Gale, Howard Gardner, Clifford Geertz, Paula Gillespie, Laura Gray-Rosendale, Karen L. Greenburg, Jeanne Gunner, Diana Hacker, Susanmarie Harrington, Muriel Harris, Patrick Hartwell, Richard Haswell, Brock Haussaman, John Haye s, George Hillocks, Bruce Horner, Irving Howe, Glynda Hull, Fred Kemp, H. Lamb, N eal Lerner, Richard Lloyd-Jones, Min-Zhan Lu, Andrea Lunsford, Elisabeth McPherson, Henry C. Meckel, Dean Memering, Max Morenberg, Donald Murray, Deborah Mutnick, Jasper Neel, Janice Ne uleib, George Ott, Sondra Perl, Anthony Petrosky, Walter Petty, Mary Louise Pratt, Rebecca Rickly, Mike

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Rose, Peter Rosenbaum, Mariolina Salvator i, Dave Sawyer, Lowell Schoer Mina Shaughnessy, Ira Shor, William Strong, Todd Taylor, Lionel Trilling, John Trimbur, Lynn Quitman Troyka, Barbara von Bracht Dronsky, Rebecca Wheeler, Edward White, Joseph M. Williams, and Kathleen Blake Yancey, Janet Ziegler, and many more.

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i Table of Contents Abstract ...................................................................................................................... ........ iii Chapter One Introduction ....................................................................................................1 Chapter Two “Polypedagogy” .............................................................................................7 Chapter Three Learning Standard English .........................................................................11 Chapter Four Ethos and Errors ..........................................................................................17 Chapter Five Grammar in Writing Centers ........................................................................22 Chapter Six The Grammar Debate .....................................................................................27 Chapter Seven Liberatin g through Literacy .......................................................................33 References .................................................................................................................... ......40 Bibliography .................................................................................................................. ....45 Appendices .................................................................................................................... .....62 Appendix A: Univers ity of South Florida Wr iting Center Results .......................64 Appendix B: Conference Information Form .........................................................64 Appendix C: HCC Student Questionnaire ............................................................65 Appendix D: HCC Prescriptions List ...................................................................67 Appendix E: Parts of Speech ................................................................................68 Appendix F: Pronouns 1 .......................................................................................70 Appendix G: Pronouns 2 .......................................................................................72 Appendix H: Pronouns 3 .......................................................................................75 Appendix I: Subject-Verb Agreement ..................................................................77 Appendix J: Adjectives and Adverbs ....................................................................80 Appendix K: Compara tive and Superlative Adjectives and Adverbs ...................82 Appendix L: Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers .................................................84 Appendix M: Verbs—Active and Passive ............................................................87 Appendix N: Verbs—Present and Past .................................................................89 Appendix O: Verbs—Perfect and Progressive .....................................................91 Appendix P: Verbs--Progression and Mood 1 ......................................................93 Appendix Q: Verbs--Progression and Mood 2 .....................................................95 Appendix R: Verbs—Mood ..................................................................................98

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ii Appendix S: Hom onyms and Commonly C onfused Words 1 .............................100 Appendix T: Ho monyms and Commonly Confused Words 2102 Appendi x U: Spelling and Homonyms ................................................................104 Appendix V: Clauses and Modifiers ....................................................................106 Appendix W: Fragments ......................................................................................109 Appendix X: Frag ments, Comma Splices, and Run-ons 1 ..................................112 Appendix Y: Frag ments, Comma Splices, and Run-ons 2 ..................................115 Appendix Z: Frag ments, Comma Splices, and Run-ons 3 ...................................116 Appendix AA: Comma Splices and Run-ons ......................................................120 Appendix BB: Sentence Structure .......................................................................122 Appendix CC: Commas 1 ....................................................................................125 Appendix DD: Commas 2 ....................................................................................127 Appendix EE: Commas 3.....................................................................................129 Appendix FF: Commas 4 .....................................................................................130 Appendix GG: Commas 5 ....................................................................................133 Appendix HH: Commas 6 ....................................................................................135 Appendix II: Apostrophes 1 .................................................................................137 Appendix JJ: Apostrophes 2 ................................................................................139 Appendix KK: Semicolons, Colons, Hyphens, Parentheses, and Dashes 1 ........141 Appendix LL: Semicolons, Colons, Hyphens, Parentheses, and Dashes 2 .........143 Appendix MM: End Punctuation .........................................................................146 Appendix NN: Mechanics 1 .................................................................................148 Appendix OO: Mechanics 2 .................................................................................150

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iii Sharing the Power of Words and Changing Li ves Through College-Level Instruction in Grammar and Mechanics Carol Ann Tillema ABSTRACT Intrigued by the English language and its far-reaching applications worldwide as a standard means of communication, I begin my disquisition with a focus on the meaning and derivation of grammar and its place in th e trivium of ancient and modern study. I stress the need to reemphasi ze college-level instruction in grammar and mechanics as a complement to rhetoric and logic by studying and teaching editing, which involves semantics, syntax, phonology, morphology, conventions, mechanics (spelling, punctuation and format), in writing center s and classrooms. Noting growing nationwide illiteracy, I research the pedagogi es and writing of experts in the field of rhetoric and composition to develop and share a balanced philosophy of learning and teaching the art, science, and mathematics of writing with a focusing on conscientiously creating sentences with an Isocratean sense of perfection. Continually learning methods to reintroduce grammar in a novel wa y, I present antidotal inform ation, statistics, and expert opinions and interpretations of pedagogists and rhetoricians of both sides of the Grammar Debate, a polemic over the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of teaching grammar. From my experience as a composition teacher at the University of South Florida and Hillsborough Community College in Florida, I present suggestions from students, who

PAGE 9

iv through their questions and overwhelming doc umented requests for grammar help and attention to sentence-level concerns, helped me rediscover myself through the reflective and recursive aspects of writing. Teaching students Standard English for academic discourse and for writing with computers across the curriculum, I share the power of words and explain the negative effects of errors and how to eliminate the serious ones. Graphs and tables of data collected from conference information forms and questionnaires filled out by students in writing ce nters or classrooms reveal the objectives and viewpoints of students, those whom institutions and teachers serve. Having developed a “polypedagogy,” I share the knowle dge I have gathered from others with innovative and creative ideas for teaching the hi storically boring or abstract subject of grammar.

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1 Chapter One Introduction I began as a tutor, helping my four younger brothers and sisters with their homework; as students, we all excelled. Wh ile in junior high, I was asked to tutor Johnny, a neighbor who could not read or write very well. Within weeks, his grade in English went from a D to a B. As a young tu tor with a philanthropi c heart, I focused on details, cultivating a method of direct teaching. I loved reading nonfiction, such as dictionaries, thesari, encycl opedias, biographies, and script ures. I later tutored my own children, who excelled in school. My son Michael Robert Till ema won an award for best language arts student in his j unior high school and later earned a bachelor’s degree in mass communications. With a degree in interna tional relations, my daughter Sarah Evah Tillema Seymour became an officer in the Air Force. I raised three children (one adopted) primarily on my own and had no money or position at the age of forty, so I tried colle ge, hoping that earning a degree would make me a success. I started at Brevard Community College, where my first two courses were Speech, because I needed help speaking befo re others, and Creative Writing, because I have always loved writing. Afterwards, I f ound employment as a gr ill cook at a private college, Florida Institute of Technology (FIT) in Melbourne, Florida; there I cooked for and served students and faculty for four year s, earning two free courses a semester. An added benefit of my humble job was free education for two of my children. While I studied flight and aviation management in the School of Aeronautics, I won the

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2 Sophomore of the Year Academic Excellence Award in 1997 even though I was twice as old as my classmates. I also won the Susan Galos Eason Memorial Aviation Management Scholarship in 1995 and a scholarship to learn how to fly, a lifelong ambition. For my love of writing, I began to study English in 1998 when I transferred all credits to the University of South Florida (USF) toward degr ees in creative writing and business. In the fall of 1999, I began the gr aduate program in rhetoric and composition. My only distinction wa s scoring the only A on a grammar test given to new graduate students. Dr. Phillip J. Sipiora, renowned prof essor and writer, offere d me a position as a graduate teaching assistant of college-level composition, a far cry from the waitress and grill cook I was. While teaching composition in a classroom setting, I was also given the opportunity to work as a tutor or consultant at the writing center at the USF Department of English, where I worked from the spring of 2000 to the spring of 2002. As a writing consultant, I tutored and advi sed undergraduate and graduate students with employment, college, and scholarship applications; anal yzed personal, academic, business, and technical writing, such as letters, essays, re ports, proposals, rsums, research papers, theses, and dissertations; and suggested revisionary and editorial methods for improvement in focus, organization, devel opment, style, grammar, and mechanics. During the first year, I happily fulfilled the role of a tutor, giving advice and particularized, remedial instruction with a focus on answering students’ requests and questions and concentrating largely on gram matical and mechanical issues presented. When I started teaching as an adjunct preparatory writing instructor at the Dale Mabry campus of Hillsborough Community College (HCC), I began my last year at USF’s writing center, but a new director a nd pedagogy prevailed in the writing center.

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3 First and last, grammar was de-emphasized like a major cutback: teaching too much grammar, even in context, wa s not advisable. Sentence-level issues or editing or lowerorder concerns (LOCs) were deemed far le ss important than revising or higher-order concerns (HOCs). In spite of the fact that overwhelming numbers requested help with grammar and one-third who filled out writing center visit confirmation forms could not even spell the word grammar, I incorporated more global strategies of writing based on precepts from The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring by Paula Gillespie and Neal Lerner. Feeling the restraints of policies and au courant methods, I sidestepped and backtracked to follow a systematized method; I had a hard time not talking about what I loved the most and not responding to what th e students and their t eachers were largely requesting, help with grammar. According to my new director’s directives, I would spend five minutes covering each of five major essay elements stress ed in the composition program: focus, organization, development, style, and grammar and mechanics. Following a devised, time-regulated agendum fo r a session that lasted a half hour was difficult, especially with the ex temporaneous act of tutoring. When my graduate teaching certification ended, I aimed toward careers that did not mind my close attention to grammar and be gan editing scientific research proposals at H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute and teaching basic reading and writing with computers at HCC. Continuing to work on my thesis about grammar, I researched the writing and lives of hundreds of writers and found I was guilty of the lack of preparation of which Braddock, Lloyd-Jone s, and Schoer accuse many researchers. I knew little; I was uninformed. I began to exam ine myself more t horoughly, to “inquire into new problems and reexamine old interp retations” (Hillocks 211). I realized that

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4 grammar is a far more complex subject than I had presumed. Semesters passed without my completing my research while I delved further into matters of epistemology, composition, rhetoric, literature, education, a nd literacy, all the while reflecting upon the ideologies that shaped my life, the isms th at structured my existence. On tangents, I studied culture, politics, science, ps ychology, philosophy, anthropology, linguistics, postcolonialism, post-structuralism, and feminism. As a composition researcher, I developed a multidisciplinary view and built on the works and investigative methods of other teachers and disciplines, daily making ad justments to my practice and philosophy in order to practically apply newfound knowledge Then I dropped the ball (clich) when my daughter Sarah, who was commissioned th rough USF’s Air Force ROTC in 2001, the same year her brother Michael graduated, was immediately sent to the Middle East where she served three tours of duty, two in Baghda d. I gradually lost heart and ran out of money for my education. Meanwhile, I worked as an adjunct instruct or at HCC in Ybor and supervised the Reading and Writing Lab at night. On my own time, I upgraded and generated writing tests and exercises for the preparatory wr iting program that were less confusing and error-filled; I analyzed software prog rams and textbooks, amending sentences and creating interesting and educational tests that covered twelve subject areas in Preparatory Writing I and fourteen in Preparatory Writing II, each with three test forms. I then tutored at HCC in Brandon for two years while teaching as an adjunct at the Plant City and Dale Mabry campuses; during that time, I edite d nearly one hundred writing handouts and exercises on my own time. I also contributed my skills to Without Walls International Church by emending over three hundred congr egational songs, inserting punctuation,

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5 correcting spelling, and organizi ng the format for consistenc y, a task I performed with hopes of procuring an editing position in the church I was relieved when my daughter safely re turned to the United States. When she began working on her thesis, she challenged me to complete mine and offered to pay for the cost of completion, so I visited Dr. Laura Runge-Gordon, Dir ector of Graduate Studies at USF’s Department of English, who shared the good news that I had not lost all of the work and money I had alread y invested in seeking the degree. I was once a simple poet and short-st ory teller who found composing college essays painstaking. Though I had been a part s-to-whole learner, I am a whole-to-parts composer in the writing process. First, I pour out words, collect more, and then organize. I start with too much data and have to wh ittle down the words. With great difficulty, I break the mass into parts. Extremely error-, si n-, and self-conscious, I am very slow in the process, weaving and knitting words toge ther and spending much time on details. I agonize over my work as did Michelangelo over his Piet. My writing process is backward, too; I do not create an outline until the end. Complicating matters, my writing is a combination of lofty, philosophical thought and graduate terminology and then down-to-earth, dialectical, informal Englis h. Constantly editing and seeking greater rhetorical precision is a neverending task. Finally, I am not as prolific as many of my peers and have not answered the call to “P ublish, publish, publish.” My only publication is due to the work of my belove d professor Dr. Hatcher: “Escape.” A Collection of Poetry. Tampa: Hatcher, 1998. Immersed in reading and writing for year s in a comprehensive task of selfevaluation, a research into myself, into my own persona—I—as a person, scholar,

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6 teacher, and learner—a human composition, have finally emerged from a chrysalis of serious scholarship into a ne w world or a new evaluation th ereof. My contribution to academia is sharing knowledge about the art of speaking and writing and the power words have to change lives. Devotee and mentee of many, I have learned from exemplars, the most acknowledged, influentia l, and productive of the field and beyond. In my quest for wisdom and knowledge, ha ppiness and success, I have found studying rhetoric and composition at the USF a life-ch anging experience and continue to find the department programs challenging.

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7 Chapter Two “Polypedagogy” With so many names to know and voices to heed, I looked for focus and guidance through reading extensive writ ing about writing and thr ough interviewing and studying the works of fellow graduate students, professo rs, directors, professi onals, and leaders in the field of rhetoric and composition to di scover the most expeditious methods for contextualizing grammar into a balanced ph ilosophy of the art and science of teaching writing and reading. Though I am not a gram mar-grinder, grammariour, grammatist, or grammaticaster, I am a grammarian or “g rammaphile” (a pers onal neologism), who would like to see a renaissance of the Eng lish language through gram mar instruction in classrooms and writing centers. Caught up in the Grammar Debate and surrounded by antiand pro-grammar forces, I developed a “polypedagogy” (another word I coin), a mixture of methodologies from my lifetime of personal studies and from my experiences at the University of South Florida and H illsborough Community College. Choosing from a wide selection of disciplines within depa rtments, across the curr iculum, and around the nation and world, I borrowed methods and stan dards for scholarly investigations and practices that addressed the numerous concepts of writing to “bring together the various theories involved” (Hillocks xviii): “A t eacher should not have to choose from among these pedagogies, for each addresses but one part of the problem” (Shaughnessy 73). Blending theories of neo-Aristo telians (classicists), neoclassi cists, positivis ts (currenttraditionalists), neo-Platonists (expressionists), cognitivists, developmentalists, social constructivists, current traditionalists, stru cturalists, poststructuralists, postmodernists,

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8 and process and post-process theorists, I cr eated a bricolage of knowledge by integrating different ideologies. In my research, I garnered wisdom, knowledge, and experience in social, political, psychological philosophical, anthropological, critical, literary, linguistic, pedagogical, postcolonial, post-structural, ethnic, feminist, liberatory, and traditional arenas, an amalgam of novel thoughts and practices, methods of teaching historical concepts of grammar and writing by “reapplying essential material in an innovative and effective manner” (Claywell 51) “in the same exciting and engaging way that literature is” (Brosnahan). Based on the supposition that “writing is at the heart of education” (Hillocks, Teaching xvii) and that “‘rhetoric’ is at the center of all knowledge making” (Olson, “Death” 34), I combined theories for “generative power [to] promote the growth of the theories themselves” (Hillocks, Teaching 39). In practice, I stress the importance of the individual voice and work one-on-one whenever possible, multitasking with my student s. On a grander scale, I have a part in educating and improving global society thr ough teaching the Englis h language. With a view of tutoring and teaching aimed at “val uing and cultivating cr itical and creative thought” (Weaver, Understanding 262) and decreasing illite racy and class oppression, I prepare students of diverse social, cultural, political, historical, a nd ideological makeups to become productive citizens and viable professionals who effect changes in a competitive world: “active and critical agents in shaping the economic, social, political, and cultural conditions of thei r historical moment” (Berlin 223). As a teacher, I increase students’ social awareness, encourage r eexamination of accepted norms, build selfconfidence, and change their lives. I introdu ce and interpret academic terminology, define scholarly discourse, present social discourse theories, and stimulate critical thinking in

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9 order that students can respond to or argue a point. I empower students by combining rhetoric, dialectic (logic), a nd grammar into a “coherent st rategy” for teaching writing by “reinserting grammar instruction into th e rhetorical trivium” (Claywell 44). As a teacher who uses progressive teachi ng strategies and contemporary concepts that include peer groups, colla borative research, and portfo lio management, I also teach with computers, sharing resources, web sites, grade books, visuals, photographs, and online or downloadable dictionaries, thesauruses, and encyclopedias. Teaching in computer labs and electronic classrooms a llows me to share costly online tutoring services provided free to students and teach with the most advanced methods. Many college students do not know how to write th e alphabet in cursive writing because they print or use the computer, so I begin with the elementary ABCs, the components of language, and focus on precision in writing letter s, words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, essays, and research papers. I teach basic grammar terminology, like the building blocks of sentences—nouns, pronouns, ve rbs, adjectives, a dverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections, which makes possible the discussion of sentence-level issues, such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, punctuation, fragments, comma splices, and run-ons (Shaughnessy 77). I develop exercises to help my students improve their grammar and mechanics usage; they imitate model sentences; expand, rearrange, and combine sentences; and embe d phrases and clauses. By searching for answers to their questions, I, too, have the opportunity to shar e in the process of heuristic discovery; my students become discoverers th rough interactive, emotive, and intellective discourse as we explore, di scover, problem-solve, learn, and experiment through trial-

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10 and-error and self-educating t echniques of investigation a nd invention (“Heuristic,” MW). With so many individuals and groups fo cused on teaching and learning writing, I feel rich to know the English language a nd to share privileged information with my students, whose lives have been changed thr ough education. I look fo rward to seeing and hearing of their accomplishments as I have already witnessed th e achievements of my most successful students, my own children Michael Robert Tillema and Sarah Evah Tillema Seymour. I am ever grateful to all of those who have shared knowledge with me, especially those who have done so with patience and love.

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11 Chapter Three Learning Standard English Standard English, also known as America n, proper, formal, or traditional English, is the grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary, and spelling of the formal speech and writing of the educated. The official language of al most forty countries and the primary foreign language spoken in most other countries, Englis h has an unparalleled place in history, for it is the international language of communica tion, invaluable in co mmercial interchanges and worldwide development of economics, scie nce, technology, aviation, navigation, and military (Greenbaum 1). Those who speak a nd write English are more viable in an increasingly competitive global market. The asse t I share is a rich resource of language that I ever strive to master as I share what I do know. La nguage, a primary characteristic of civilized society, includes grammar, a word derived from Middle English gramere Old French gramaire Middle French gramaire Latin grammatica and Greek grammatikE or grammatikos which means “letters” or “writing.” In the past, grammar, the knowledge or study of Latin peculiar to th e elite, was synonymous with learning in general and included linguistics (the study of human speech), orthography (letters and spelling), etymology (word development and history), syntax (word arrangement), prosody (rhythm and intonation), and someti mes, orthoepy (pronunciation); presently, grammar includes phonology (sound), mor phology (word formation), accidence (inflexion), semantics (meaning), and synt ax (all subjects I researched on lengthy tangents of study) (“Grammar,” Britannica ). I learned that writing, like its component

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12 grammar, is an art and a science, so while I stress creativity and craftsmanship, I also explain rules about the arra ngements, functions, formal patterns, and structural relationships of words in sentences (Blake sley 195; Hartwell 2, 109-10; Olson, Jon 31). Because grammar is polysemous, I draw from the perspectives of different methods, using prescriptive (providing rules for corr ect usage), descriptive (describing how a language is used), or generati ve (providing instructions for the production of an infinite number of sentences in a la nguage). I discovered that there are countless types of grammar, so I studied traditional, speculativ e, functional, relational, representational, general, philosophical, universal, historical comparative, prescr iptive, descriptive, transformational, generative, transformational-generative, structural, post-structural, autolexical, lexical, cognitive, neurocognitiv e (formerly stratificational), construction, categorical, head-driven phrase structure, systemic, systemic functional, lexical functional, autolexical, word, link, tagmemic tree-adjoining, and daughter-dependency grammars (“Grammar,” Merriam-Webster; Britannica ). Through particularized instruction in grammar and writing, my students become more conscientious about their written and s poken words and learn that sentences can be constructed, deconstructed, and reconstructed to reveal multilevel meanings: “Every well-formed utterance has both a deep structur e and a surface structure. Deep structure is an abstract concept referring to a unit of meaning or form of thought that is transformed into surface structure, which is the concre te manifestation of the deep structure” (Blakesley 197). Linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky posits that “all languages have . a creative aspect, a set of rules . for producing an infinite range of wellformed sentences” (qtd. in Blakesley 196). My students understand that there are many

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13 ways to revise a sentence, and even when a sentence appears finished, it can generally be improved, revised, or edited. In my teaching, I attempt to speak correctly before my students, having already warned them, though, th at I lapse into dialects and slang. Mina Shaughnessy, a basic writing expert who devel oped procedures to repair any “major syntactic derailment” and “ untangling any sentence that goes wrong,” describes the simple sentence as “the basic, subterranean form out of which surface complexity arises” (Shaughnessy 46, 78). I appreciate her methods motivation, and compassion for basic writers. I follow the paradigms of both classi cal rhetoricians and m odern authorities by concentrating on both the mechanical and the artistic virtues of the sentence: As the smallest unit of meaningful disc ourse, the sentence would seem to merit our attention. And during various times si nce Isocrates, the sentence has been the standard linguistic cynosure—whenever im itation exercises have been used to strengthen, develop, and inte nsify sentence design. Yet today, . teachers and students alike tend to ignore the sentence in terms of artistry, meaning, style, and context. Instead, they continually concentr ate on isolated, acontextual issues of correctness within sentence boundaries, surface-error issues of punctuation, capitalization, agreement, and tense. And instead of learning from or building on the successful and systematized, senten ce-level grammatical studies of the ancients, we have somehow forgotten, never discovered, or purposefully neglected what they perfected. (Glenn 14) Learning grammar and learning how to write sentences is a necessary step in the learning process and mistakes are made in the process (Weaver, Teaching 153). Learning, the act of acquiring knowledge or skill by instruction or study, involves cognitive

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14 development to master isolated facts, memo rize rules, and construct concepts, which both students and teachers experience. Writing cen ter specialists Neal Lerner and Paula Gillespie emphasize meta-cognition, the proc ess of thinking about thinking and regulating one’s own learning through self-dis covery (108); they describe writing as “a process of discovery or of making meaning or quite simply, of learning” (Gillespie 11). Learning involves self-discovery through “independent critical reflection” (Bartholomae, Facts 100). I realize that learni ng is affected by many factor s, including race, gender, personality, motivation, socioeconomic a nd educational background, family literacy, parental involvement, peers, culture, media, ideologies, and physical, emotional, and psychological health: “Learning is by no means ordered or linear, even though the teaching may have been. Rather, learni ng—that which endures—is idiosyncratic, nonlinear, even chaotic” (Weaver, Teaching 154). Keeping that in mind, I respect and value the individuality of each of my student s as I prepare them to fill positions in society. They learn to read, speak, and write in order to communicate more effectively in a process of socialization. George Hillocks Jr. analyzes the meta-processes that are involved as a “reflective pract itioner” assesses the needs of students (37) during the “transaction” of teaching writing when stude nts reflect, reason, hypothesize, and draw tentative conclusions (Weaver, Understanding 14). The recursive aspects of writing bring about a change of self-image through wh at Kathleen Yancey calls “constructive reflection” and Donald Schon calls “reflectiv e transfer,” which o ccur during tutoring or teaching, a time of “practice th eorized” (qtd. in Yancey 193). The processes of learning and writing and learning to write and teaching writing require reflection, recursion, and repetition. Reading and writing teachers hold keys to

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15 success and share the power of language that opens doors, changes lives, and transforms society. In a summary of Patrick Hartwell’ s definitions of “Grammar, Grammars, and Grammars,” Jon Olson underlines the significa nt role teachers play in sharing knowledge about grammar and writing: “. . [W]e ca nnot really empower students by opening the tower of language if we keep the key a nd remain the gatekeepers” (Olson, Jon 31). Writing is “the gateway to sacred knowledge as well as secular” (Weaver, Teaching 3). Being a successful college student requires being able to read and write: “[C]omposition functions paradoxically as both the gateway to academic success and as the gatekeeper, reducing access to academic work and opport unity for those with limited facility in English” (Olson, Gary, Interviews ). The National Education Association believes that “reading is the gateway to learning in all co ntent areas and essential for achieving high standards” (National). In “Reading and Writing: Making the Connection for Basic Writers,” Mary P. Deming connects writing and reading in the stages of planning, drafting, revising, and editing, steps in the pr ocess of successful composing. I suggest students read their written works aloud while proofreading in order to hear errors or repetition. I ask them to read their textbooks wi th deliberation, using the dictionary as an aid; I supply them with helpful handouts to read that summarize our studies. They understand that insufficient reading cause s deficient writing, the subjects being “inextricably linked” (Gillespie 107). Pre -reading, reading, reread ing, and post-reading— and prewriting, writing, rewriting, revising, a nd editing—involve processes of analyzing, synthesizing, reflecting, comparing, contra sting, inferring, summari zing, validating, and refuting. I help writers become active readers of their texts and stress the importance of reading in order that they become better acqua inted with Standard English and reflect that

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16 knowledge in their papers. When I ask my stude nts whether they want me to mark (with a green pen for growth) their e rrors or simply put a grade on their written work, they overwhelmingly and often loudly re quest that I show them the e rrors of their writing, and I gladly do because I realize that th ey may be judged by their writing.

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17 Chapter Four Ethos and Errors Through the act of writing, the ethos (intentions, sense, character, and morality of an individual) can be dis cerned to a great degree. Handwriting analysis, or graphology, a study involved in developing personality profiles of writers by analyzing the characteristics of their handwriting, is a practice of many corporations which involves determining mental and emotional traits of prospective employees. Business administrators who were surveyed consider poor writing an indi cation of laziness, indifference, inattention to details, and insufficient knowledge or as a sign of “ine ducability” (Shaughnessy 8). Errors in writing are “unprofitable intrusions upon the consci ousness of the reader” and “idiosyncratic” “violations of language conventions” that “o ften exhibit a pattern and possess a logic” (32). Errors interfere with comprehension a nd negatively affect readers’ opinions about writers, “shifting their attention from the m eaning to the form of things and, beyond that, to question about the writer’s broader co mpetencies” (Shaughnessy 122): “A writer’s thoughtfulness might be valued as much, but prob ably not more than his ability to control error” (Bartholomae, “Study” 253). Because errors are often judged as faults or weaknesses in character, it is important that writers be conscientious about analyzing and correcting what they write: “adapt and blend as needed different theo ries and strategies” (Carbone). Maxine Hairston’s research on errors c onsidered most critical by business or professional people concludes that lack of cl arity and conciseness and “status-marking”

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18 errors are warning signs (Weaver, Teaching 105; Noguchi 24). Teachers should not ignore grammar instruction in order to prev ent students who seek academic and business positions from having to experience disrespect or ridicule: “I have heard admissions officers and business people say that communica tions from applicants that are littered with grammatical errors send up red flags that cause the writer s to lose opportunities they might have otherwise had. So, let’s admit that grammar is important . (Harris, “Re: Contextualizing”). Teachers “cannot afford” to let students believe surface errors are not important and should make students aware of the judgment their errors will receive outside academia: Although it may be easy for teachers to dismiss these features as merely “superficial,” the surface apparently has considerable importance to those who often hold the power to affect other pe ople’s lives. . [We] may unnecessarily make our students’ writing vulnerable to disparagement—and, sometimes, severe ridicule—by people whom upwardly mobile students presumably seek most to impress. In particular, we disproportiona tely put at risk students who speak a nonstandard variety of English since they are the ones most likely to reproduce in their writing the “status marking” and “very serious” errors so roundly condemned by the professionals. (Noguchi 29). I make my students aware that the correct usage of proper English distinguishes “the language of privilege and prestige” fr om that of the uneducated (Weaver, Teaching 143) and often measures social and cultural status I encourage students to learn the formal English of academic discourse in orde r to access more freedom and power and accomplish goals that require education. I help them assimilate tenets of different

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19 learning communities and “invent the university by assembling and mimicking its language” in order to accom plish their goals (Bartholomae, “Inventing” 624). Increasing numbers of students starting co llege are required to take non-credit writing courses before they can take Compositio n; these basic, developmental, remedial, or preparatory writing course s are for students who can read and write but fail to reach academic standards of colleges or universities (Stotsky, Losing 149). Often, basic writers are those whose first language is not English, those who ar e not Native English Speaking (NES) but use English as a Foreign Langua ge (EFL), English as a Second Language (ESL), or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL); they are often designated as Non-Native Speakers (NNS) or Non-Native English Speakers (NNES) (Gillespie 119; Gallagher 51). Basic writers use a combina tion of “mixed linguistic and discursive resources” (Bizzell 9) and generally print rather than write, use simple punctuation (commas and periods), and sentences “awkwardl y and . self-consciously constructed to honor correctness above all other vi rtues, including sense” (Weaver, Teaching 23). Culture, ethnicity, gender, and class are often evidenced in their writing, which simulates their speaking. I warn them that minority di alects or non-privileged forms of writing or speaking are looked upon critically by academia and the business world; for example, the use of E-mail jargon and Ebonics, also calle d African American Vernacular English (AAVE) or Black English Vernacular (BEV), is unacceptable in college or professional writing. Though there are contentions that the programs for basic writers, the “BW enterprise,” have failed in sp ite of many alternative methods and extensive research, I see the potential value of grammar in struction and find new ways to teach the subject rather than disregard it (Troyka, “How” 114).

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20 In “Frequency of Formal Errors in Curre nt College Writing, or Ma and Pa Kettle Do Research,” Robert J. Connors and Andr ea A. Lunsford evaluated three thousand essays written by college students and ranke d the most common errors in grammar and mechanics (other than spelling): missing or unnecessary commas, vague pronouns, wrong words, wrong tense or verb forms, wrong or missing prepositions, comma splices, runons (fused “sentences”), fragments, tense and person shifts, subject-verb disagreement, pronoun disagreement, and misplaced and dangl ing modifiers (Lunsford, “EasyWriter,” par. 6). Misspellings, which occur three times more frequently than any other errors, are the most common of college students. The public critically scrutinize s orthographic errors (par. 2): Of all the encoding skills, spelling tends to be viewed by teachers and students alike as the most arbitrary, the most resist ant to instruction, and the least related to intelligence [. .] Outside the academy, however, the response to misspelling is less obliging. Indeed, the ability to spell is viewed by many as one of the marks of the educated person, and the failure of a college graduate to meet that minimal standard of advanced literacy is cause to question the quality of his education or even his intelligence. (Shaughnessy 161-62) As a teacher, I explain how others view e rrors and show students how to eliminate serious errors from their more formal wr iting by teaching them about the most common (Noguchi 120): “[W]e do better service to our students by di sclosing the rhetorical and social consequences of such features, and, ju st as important, showi ng them ways to avoid these features in formal writing” (Weaver, Teaching 29). Though the “error hunt” can be a challenge, students learn through their errors a natural step in the process of writing

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21 (75): “[T]he Error Beast is to be welcomed and tamed, not slain” (101). Especially in the writing center, “the obsessive focus on e rror hunting” (Noguchi 14) is unacceptable methodology, but to ignore errors in order to pr event offense to writers or to presume that the errors will go away as students progress is “giving error more power than it is due” (Shaughnessy 127). I put the power in the ha nds of the students; they accept my recommendations and express gratitude as I watch them change.

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22 Chapter Five Grammar in Writing Centers In the writing center community is an elec tronic discussion site, WCenter, a place in cyberspace where debates over grammar’s place become highly energetic. There, writing center instructors and program dir ectors in charge of training and career advancement, curricula development, and student assessment share their experiences, research, ideas, and information about signi ficant events in the field of composition. Nevertheless, the composition community has been accused of conveying the wrong message about teaching grammar, one that de-emphasizes grammar instruction based on misinterpreted or exaggerated research results: “If . the ‘commun ity,’ be it the people on WCenter or the culture as a whole, determ ines that something is not important, then you can be sure the message will be heard. I fe ar we are sending a message that grammar and correctness in prose is of little importan ce. And I think this is a mistake” (Kuhne). Writing centers, excellent sources of grammar instruction, are academic or business meeting places where tutors share the “tool for empowerment,” the “grammar of discovery” (Glover 132). During the four year s I worked as a writing consultant in writing centers, I tutored and advised unde rgraduate and graduate students with employment, college, and scholarship app lications; analyzed personal, academic, business, and technical writing, such as letters, essays, re ports, proposals, rsums, research papers, theses, and dissertations ; and suggested revisionary and editorial methods for improvement in focus, organi zation, development, style, grammar, and

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23 mechanics: “And what better place to do that than a writing center, where all your writing needs can be addressed, no matter how bi g, no matter how small (Carbone). Writing centers are where students or c lients who need any type of help with their writing can experience special one-on-one tutoring sessions called tutorials, which provide casual but effective learning that precludes the stress of worrying about grades. Tutorials are studies of individual compositions, not only of written works but also of the writers themselves, who are unique persons with histories and dist inct idiolects, combinations of cognates and dialects, their language co mposites of regional, cultural and social phraseologies distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. During each extemporaneous act of tutoring, two togeth er learn while experiencing the liberating power of dynamic, social inte rchange that changes lives: Tutoring is improvising. We’ve always got the basic chord structure--Cmaj7, Dm, G7, C--and the basic rhythm—4/4 with a back beat. But on top of that each artist develops his or he r own style . . Tutoring is revolutionary work for soci al justice. . We analyze hegemony and realize that one of the most effective ways to “go against the grain” is to make liberation for marginalized peopl e the guiding light of tutoring. Tutoring is teaching. (Bell, “Re: Naming”) Talking informally is a key element of progressive writing center pedagogy and one I also use in classrooms (Stotsky, Losing 38). The foundation of writing center pedagogy is dialogue; communica tion is of utmost importance—“talk is everything” (North, “Idea” 76-78). Through informal dialec tic, I help students translate academic language, formulate ideas, re think and better communicate, and write for scholarly and

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24 business purposes: “If we conceive of writi ng as a relatively rhythmic and repeatable kind of behavior, . we find th at the best breaker of old rhyt hms, the best creator of new ones, is our style of live in tervention, our talk in all it s forms” (North, “Idea” 75). I employ concepts of tutoring in and out of the writing center to enrich my students’ learning experiences with a focus on the writer, not the writing. In “The Idea of a Writing Center,” Stephen North summarizes the majo r objective of writing ce nter pedagogy in his well-known pronouncement about transforming student writers: “. . [T]he object is to make sure that writers, and not necessari ly their texts, are what get changed by instruction. . [O]ur job is to produce bett er writers, not better writing” (69; qtd. in Gillespie 30). In “Training Tutors,” North elaborates again on his landmark statement: “At the end of a tuto rial session, it is the writer who should be changed, who has a new way of seeing what has been written, or of th inking about audience, or of feeling about the hard work of writing” (North, “Training” 439). Change is a key element of my instruction; the students and I strive to perfect our language make mistakes, but become changed by the experience. We all have a new way of seeing and hearing. During the transformative experience of tu toring, two collaborate in an effort to improve writing. Some question the benefits of tutors in the role of peers rather than teachers and suggest that direct methods might be more beneficial to the ones seeking help: “The decision to remain consistently mo re peer than tutor and avoid what may seem a teacherly sharing of information may not be the best way to empower a student” (Cogie 40). Still others claim nondire ctive tutoring can b ecome tutorrather than studentcentered; such a relationship is considered a mere “rhetoric of equality” because the tutor, guided by writing center pedagogy and client sc heduling, determines the sequence of the

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25 session (qtd. in Cogie 40). I found the best approach requir es “an admixture of creative and concrete” methods: “Tutoring is more art th an science. . but what’s more important than all of those is judgment, patience, dis cerning the writing, and th e ability to adapt and blend as needed different theori es and strategies” (Carbone). Many writing centers have cl ear no-editing policies: gram mar issues are eschewed or covered only superficially, two or three error types per session (Gillespie 35). Pointing out too many errors in one session may be overwhelming, and generally there is insufficient time during an appointment to cover many anyway (Bartholomae, “Study” 200-01). Because editing is not a service, tuto rs do not make corrections on papers and often do not even write on the students’ papers at all: “. . [T]utors don’t fix texts; we teach writers how to fix texts” (Gillespie 22). Editing, which involves the interrelated subjects of grammar (semantics, s yntax, phonology, and morphology) and usage (conventions and mechanics [spelling, punctuati on, and format]), is classified as a local; sentenceor surface-level; or second-, later-, or lower-ord er concern (LOC) (Gillespie 25). Revising, which involves language awar eness, cognitive development, critical thinking, and syntactic knowledge, is considered a global, first-order, or higher-order concern (HOC). Research indicates that teach ers and consultants share similar goals that focus on HOCs in writing instruction, yet a large number of teachers refer students to writing centers for help with LOCs (Hayward 10). Furthermore, research shows that writing center tutors emphasize HOCs though most students are concerned with LOCs, a conclusion I, too, drew after two years of tallying confirmation form data (Bell, “Research Question”). Sometimes tension a nd conflicts arise am ong students, tutors, teachers, and administrators because of diffe rent goals or foci. Though grammar is not a

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26 major issue for many teachers, many students, especially those whose native language is not English, express concern abou t their grammar usage: “As a tutor . I also know that sometimes grammar is the main issue that needs to be addressed in the student’s writing (such as with ESL students)” (Rothfuss). Ma ny tutors and teachers feel they should prepare students to be more competitive by honing the finer skills of writing, like proficiency in grammar and mechanics, cons idered a “sub-skill” (Beason 33). Because many students cannot consider editing a secondary concern, teaching sentence construction can be as important as teaching essay construction. In spite of the Grammar Debate and the escalating literacy crisis tutors and teachers cannot disregard the expressed concerns of their students.

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27 Chapter Six The Grammar Debate Dissonance that sometimes seems irresolvab le over two equally valid theories is common in the field of rhetoric and com position; there are antinomic debates about theory versus practice, reflec tive versus active, objective ve rsus subjective, etic versus emic, outer-directed versus inner-direct ed, head-based versus heart-based, behavioral/transmission versus cognitive/tran saction, prescriptive ve rsus descriptive, skills versus content, product versus process, and phonocentric versus logocentric. In the field of reading instruction, arguments ar ise over the whole-la nguage, context-based guesswork, or holistic approach to instruction versus the pa rt-to-whole or systematic phonics approach: “In an attempt to pinpoint the source of our st udents’ low knowledge base and poor reading ability—the skill on wh ich achievement in writing, history, and almost all other subjects depends—public attention has focused largely on the acrimonious debate between the advocates of whole language and the supporters of systematic phonics instruction” (Stotsky, Losing 6). In the field of rhetoric and composition, the Grammar Debate is a polemic over the validity of grammar instruction, a controversy that heightened during the sh ift from emphasizing pr oduct to prioritizing process in the early 1970s, which resulted in less grammar instruction. Important concepts of writing were almost wholly abandoned, which left many teachers questioning. Explanations for the de-emphasi s of grammar instruc tion during the process movement include misinterpreted or insuffi cient research, the ope n-door policy (anyone

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28 with a high school diploma or GED could a pply for admission), and the actions of “liberal descriptivists” (Clayw ell 49-50), who were blamed for the overthrow of language structure itself by making no value judgment s or recommendations about language usage (Wallace, par. 23-24). The Grammar Debate, which has greater import than many imagine, is described as dissension between “forces of egalitarianism and traditionalism in English” often with arguments and accusations full of “ideological strife and controversy and intrigue and nastiness and fervor”: “Each side in the debate tends to rega rd the other as mentally ill or/and blinded by political ideology” (54). Like grammaticastor and grammatist the word grammarian has been know to have “pejorative a ssociations in linguistic circles”; to some anti-grammar proponents, stressing gram mar “tends to collocate with traditional and to suggest obsolescence” (Greenbaum 40). Anti-grammar proponents call for a “formal policy against teaching grammar” and describe pro-grammar proponents as “incompetent” “little English teachers” (qtd. in Vavra). Researchers allege that certain ways of teaching writing have a negative impact, but such research does not necessarily indica te that teaching grammar is unadvisable. In Teaching Writing as Reflective Practice a 1980s meta-analysis of research on teaching writing, Hillocks alleges that teaching through the skill-and-drill process is the single worst focus of instruction, one that has cumu lative negative effects. His contention that grammar instruction does not re sult in improved writing has b een the basis for many antigrammar arguments: The study of traditional school grammar . has no effect on raising the quality of student writing. . Taught in certain ways, grammar and mechanics instruction

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29 has a deleterious effect on student wr iting. In some studies a heavy emphasis on mechanics and usage (e.g., marking every e rror) resulted in significant losses in overall quality. School boards, administ rators, and teachers who impose the systematic study of traditional school grammar on their students over lengthy periods of time in the name of teaching writing do them a gross disservice which should not be tolerated by anyone concer ned with the effective teaching of good writing. We need to learn how to teach st andard usage and mech anics after careful task analysis and with minimal grammar. (Hillocks, Teaching 248-49; qtd. in Noguchi 3; qtd. in Weaver, Teaching 14). It is commonly agreed in educated circles th at isolated formal grammar instruction does little to improve language skills (Hartwell 106): “It is difficu lt to escape the conclusion that English grammar, whether traditional or transformationa l, has virtually no influence on the language growth of typi cal [secondary school] students” (Elley 18; qtd. in Weaver, Teaching 21). Compelling arguments against grammar instruction also come from important groups like the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), an organization blamed for removing grammar from grammar school. Greatly outnumbered, pro-grammar propone nts fear the “conspiratorial and nefarious doings of anti-grammar forces” a nd dispute the validity of well-known research that purports grammar inst ruction is ineffective and possibly harmful (Noguchi 120). Those supporting grammar study question whether teachers and researchers have actually read the research themselves. In “Closing the Books on Alchemy” and Rhetorical Grammar Martha Kolln contends that gramma r instruction alone does not improve writing but that learning grammar is not detr imental to writing development. Former

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30 president of the Assembly for the Teach ing of English Grammar (ATEG), Kolln criticizes the research of Braddock, Lloyd-Jones, and Schoer, who themselves admitted to weaknesses in their own research (Braddock 37; Glenn 10; Weaver, Teaching 15): “They do not conclude that it should not be taught at all. . Unfortunately, the result of the research has been to drive grammar instruc tion out of the composition classroom, rather than into it, where it belongs” (Kolln vi; qtd. in Glenn 10; qtd. in Weaver; Teaching 16). Constance Weaver questions the reason why “hints of flawed research studies did not inspire more skepticism about their conclusions” (Weaver, Teaching 15) and spur more valid research, which is applicable, reliable, objective, systematic, replicable, and refereed. After information collectio n, examination, inspection, interrogation, experimentation, interpretation, revision, and practical application, previous theories should be reestablished or di scredited. Research, which invol ves learning, discerning, and being open to change, must be evaluated ca refully: “Research can be used to prove almost anything. Therefore, we must read th e research thoughtfully, looking for what it does not tell us as well as what it does” (Weaver, Teaching 182). The sensibility of narrowly basing a field’s tenets on one or tw o investigations aimed at an audience of fellow researchers is questionable. While studyi ng both sides of the debates, I reexamined personal methodologies and researched othe rs’ hypotheses to fi nd proven methods of grammar instruction: “We s hould ponder, consider or re consider the experimental research evidence, and rethink the what, why, and how of our teaching of grammar” (Weaver, Teaching 28). Teachers have a responsibility to teach grammar in spite of arguments against grammar instruction and nega tive research results: “Avoi ding grammar because it is

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31 boring or because past studies s uggest its inefficacy in certai n situations seems biased; if a particular student or a sect ion of a class needs instructi on, it is irresponsible not to provide it” (Claywell 52). St udents often find grammar unint eresting and complicated, so many do not learn the basics (Weaver, Teaching 103): “If grammar is the proverbial worst subject of students, it comes as no surp rise, given the complexity and abstractness of the subject and, unfortuna tely, the tediousness with which it has been taught” (Noguchi 36). Because of the decline of national literacy, though, I find teaching grammar has become necessary: “It is no longe r merely a question of whether or not to incorporate some kind of grammatical instru ction, but what kind to incorporate in an already dense curriculum” (Buell 7). Encourag ement to teachers who “nurture a love for grammar, for writing, for expression, for the power of words” (Brosnahan 212) to remain resolute about teaching grammar in spite of criticism comes from pro-grammar components like grammarian Sidney Greenba um, author, coauthor, or editor of A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language A College Grammar of Engli sh, A Student’s Grammar of the English Language The Oxford English Grammar Good English and the Grammarian The Oxford Reference Grammar and many more grammar books: Grammarians have a responsibility . to address students and the general public on such matters of linguistic etiquette. Venturing into this minefield of controversies is a delicate task that calls for strong nerves. Grammarians expose themselves to strictures from various directions . .But they should be courageous, prescribing without ridiculing. (Greenbaum 35-36)

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32 To teach or not to teach formal English, or gr ammar, is an issue that affects students as well as teachers: “At no point in the Englis h curriculum is the que stion of power more blatantly posed than in the issue of formal grammar instruction” (Hartwell 127; Glover 131). Both sides of the Grammar Debate pres ent persuasive arguments and refutations about grammar’s place in writing instruc tion but are sometimes extreme in their criticisms and evaluations of applied met hods: “I believe the hard-line anti-grammar teachers with their reluctance to address such errors in a systematic way are just as misguided and self-defeating as the hard-l ine pro-grammar teachers who address them with overexuberance. What seems lost in th ese internecine battles is the middle ground” (Noguchi 14). In spite of the disagreements, like mo st teachers, I am a lover of words (philologists) and of wisdom (philosophers): “We all went into E nglish studies because we had a deep and abiding love of langua ge—of its cadences, its power, its beauty. Whether we happen to be theorists or writer-t eachers or teacher-writers each of us has a love of good writing . .” (Olson, “Death” 36). I champion disciplinary syncretism in the field of rhetoric and com position and seek “collegial a nd congenial” relations, for comitatus— a coalescence of divergent thoughts fr om the “hegemonic struggle” (39). I envision a multivocal, nonhierarchical, synerget ic union of learned scholars who are open to all aspects of theory, art, and prac tice; who build on the scholarly works and investigative methods generated in other di sciplines (a concept like Mikhail Bakhtin’s heteroglossia ); and who cooperate to make the nation more literate by combining theories of pedagody, rhetoric, and composition with ethics and politics.

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33 Chapter Seven Liberating through Literacy I model my teaching after Is ocrates, an ancient Atheni an rhetorician and orator, who combined rhetoric with ethics and politics in order to deal with business, social, and political issues. An exponent of rational articulation based on virtue, soundness of mind, and high ideals, he educated foreign nobilit y, future political leaders, historians, and orators in more than oratory; he taught his students principles of practical life in a civic context. He prepared his stude nts for public service and instilled in them a sense of devoir to educate themselves while advancing a more orderly state. The philosopher Plato, considered the first Greek grammarian, a writer or teacher of grammar, one versed in the knowledge of language, philology, and linguistics (Glenn 12), viewed li teracy, the ability to read and write, as a “lib erator and weapon” (Gee 30) th at powerfully transforms economic, political, social, and cultural structur es and correlates with power and wealth. I emphasize grammar or Standard English in wr iting instruction as a “force for liberation— not oppression,” for de-emphasizing proper English “diminishes an opportunity for liberatory education” (qtd. in Glover 132) Knowledge about grammar and writing is significantly tied to social and political rhetoric and every asp ect of life: “. . questions about our national consensus on grammar and usage are actually bound up with every last social issue that millennial America’s about —class, race, gender, morality, tolerance, pluralism, cohesion, equality, fairness, money: You name it” (Wallace, par. 66). It is my civic responsibility to become more literate and to teach others to do the same: “To those

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34 who have power or aspire to power, it is not enough that language should be intelligible: it must also be correct. . Correct performa nce marks the user as a responsible member of society; incorrect performan ce is viewed as contributing to the decay of the language” (Greenbaum 33). Literacy impacts individual an d society in every dimension of life: “The capacity to read and write is causally a ssociated with earning a living, achieving expanded horizons of personal enlightenment and enjoyment, maintaining a stable and democratic society, and, historically, with th e rise of civilization itself” (Szwed 303). While literacy is a focus of many educa tional programs and organizations, college writing programs are accused of focusing on rh etoric and dialectic and ignoring grammar, an act that has serious consequences, especi ally the decline of national literacy: “The third art, grammar, is a subj ect no longer considered by many theorists or practitioners to be an ‘art’ that should be ta ught at the university level. . [W]hy grammar has been all but discarded in composition/rhetoric courses— as well as what the ramifications of such actions are—needs to be questione d” (Claywell 43). In a 1983 report A Nation at Risk the United States Department of Educa tion’s National Commission on Excellence in Education (NCEE) likens the poor quality of education that caused increased national illiteracy to an act of sabotage or aggr ession: “If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of wa r. As it stands, we have allowed this to happen to ourselves. . We have in fact, been committing an act of unthinking, unilateral educational disarmament” (“ A Nation at Risk” 5). Outside academia, businesspeople and politicians warn that ri sing national illiteracy threatens economic competitiveness, political scientists worry th at poor schooling is undermining democratic

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35 foundations, and teachers continue to e ducate the diversified masses for little compensation. Parents, teachers, researchers, administrators, politicians, legislators, communities, and students themselves, all stakeholders concerned with statistics, expenses, and inadequate writing programs, blame the educational system for rising illiteracy and demand improved methods and better trai ned teachers. In The Social Mind James Gee criticizes the national educational sy stem for failing to raise the social class of minorities: “[S]chools have historically fa iled with non-elite populations and have thereby replicated the social hierarchy. This has ensured that large numbers of people from lower socioeconomic and minority groups engage in the lowest-level and least satisfying jobs in the society, while being in a position to make few serious political or economic demands on the elites” (Gee 25). Furthermore, educational programs are criticized for shifting the focus of educati on from Isocratean ideals of civic-mindedness and political responsibility to capitalistic ideologies of pe rsonal success and financial gain in systems where students are trained to fill preplanned roles in society: “factories, which manufacture student products to th e specifications of the business world” (Gallagher 51). Widespread illiteracy and presentiments of national failure are cited as stemming from lowered standards, particularly open admissions, a poor education system, and an increased and more diversified, foreign-bor n population: “. . [T]his more recent diversification stokes fear . that the United States will not be able to keep up with its foreign competitors or measure up to its ‘p rogressive’ national promise” (46). In the 1980s, the largest influx of immigrants in centur ies heightened the lite racy crisis; in 2000, 28.4 million (10.4% of the United States popula tion) foreign-born people resided in the

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36 United States (Lollock 1). The NCTE mission statement includes explicit concerns about increasing national illiteracy and suggests a countermeasure against the threat, a radical change involving composition being taught “as literate action” (Flower 249): “American education will never realize its potential as an engine of opportunity and economic growth until a writing revolution puts langua ge and communication in their proper place in the classroom” (Lewin 3). In “A Writi ng Challenge to the Nation,” former Senator Robert Kerrey, connects writing proficiency to spirituality, prosperit y, and sociability and summons citizens to become more literate: “Our spiritual lives, our economic success and our social networks are all di rectly affected by our willingness to do the work necessary to acquire the skill of writing.” The impact of educating others to become more literate is far reaching on both personal and national levels. Many professional and governmental groups focus on raising national literacy rates; all have resourceful Web sites to which I refer. The government has formed organizations that educate its citizens and research improve d methods of learning: the United States Department of Education (U SDE); Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI); Office of Vocationa l and Adult Education (OVAE); National Center for Education Statistics (NCES); National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Tes ting (CRESST); National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL); National Institute for Literacy (NIFL); National Institute for Postsecondary Education, Li braries, and Lifelong Learning (NIPELLL); National Writing Commission (NWC); and Nati onal Writing Project (NWP). The United Nations Organization for E ducation, Science and Culture (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, International Survey of Adults (I SA), National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS),

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37 National Assessments of Adult Literacy ( NAAL), National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and National Study of Amer ica’s Adults (NSAA) focus on research, surveys, assessments, and statistics in th e fields of education, science, technology, culture, and communication. Academic and na tional organizations help me and other teachers remain aware of current trends in the field. Professional educational organizations that I follow include the Allia nce for Excellent Education (AEE), American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Federal Educat ion Association (FEA), Florida Education Association (FEA), Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar (ATEG), Conference on College Composition and Co mmunication (CCCC), Council of Writing Program Administrators (WPA), Internat ional Writing Centers Association (IWCA), National Council of Teachers of English (N CTE), and National Education Association (NEA). I also have an interest in collabor ative programs that espouse other academic and theoretical persuasions, such as Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC), Writing Across the Disciplines (WAD), and Writing In the Disciplines (WID). During my teaching experience at Hillsborough Community College, I learned the values of standardized, timed, or norm-referenced te sts, established by th e national education system to determine the aptitude of student s; the critical examinations, observations, exercises, or evaluations measure the progress, skill, knowledge, inte lligence, capacities, or aptitudes of an individual or group based on ageor grade-level expectations. Administered and assessed from the start of the educational process to determine placement and promotion, the standardized tests are not always true indications of each student’s unique capacity (Weaver, Understanding 72). Built on “a model of literacy that focuses on discrete skills and bits of info rmation” (56), the te sts are criticized for

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38 requiring rote rather than true learning (153). Although standardized tests may be “inherently discriminatory” and may “perpe tuate class differences and educational inequality” (185), they do indicate troubling trends. Statistics deri ved from these tests forecast a bleak future: “To testing apologists, low test scores do more than identify deficiencies and measure skills: they confir m the existence of a crisis” (Gallagher 45). The NAEP, also called “the Nation’s Report Card,” has assessed fourth, eighth, and twelfth graders nationally, and fourth and eight h graders statewide, since the early 1970s, classifying students as basic, proficient, or advanced in reading, mathematics, and science, adding writing in the 1980s; in 2000, NAEP graded students as 2% advanced, 25% proficient, 43% basic, and 30% below ba sic, with the percentages dropping to 1%, 23%, 47%, and 29% one year later ( Nation’s Report 2; Stotsky Losing 239). When the mean verbal scores on the SAT’s dropped 42 points between 1967 and 1993, scores were “recentered” (Mulroy, par. 15). For example, the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, which I administered, is a multiple-choice vocabulary a nd comprehension test that has been given for over forty years in many colleges to indicate ability in three academic areas: vocabulary development, reading comprehens ion, and reading rate. Revised many times, the test has become increasingly easier with fewer questions and more time given to take the test (Dyer, par. 2). Cha nges in statewide and national programs and assessments with a stronger focus on comprehension, more than one right answer, strategy use, and assessment of prior knowledge are replac ing outdated methods, but arguments over theory and practice persist. Meanwhile, I prepare students for the Florida Exit Examination and for a more fulfilling and productive life by teaching with methods in place and by enhancing with

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39 elements of style extracted from every voice I have heard and every word I have read. I share the power of words with my student s and change lives through college-level instruction in grammar and m echanics and rediscover myself through the reflective and recursive aspects of writing, ever mindful of and grateful to those who have shared knowledge with me.

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40 References Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” Cross-Talk in Comp Theory: A Reader 2nd ed. Ed. Victor Villanueva. Urbana: NCTE, 2003. 623-653. Bartholomae, David. “The Study of Error.” CCC 3 (1980): 253-269. Bartholomae, David, and Anthony Petrosky. Facts, Artifacts, and Counterfacts: Theory and Method for a Reading and Writing Course Upper Montclair, NJ: Heinemann-/Cook, 1986. Beason, Larry W. “Ethos and Error: How Business People React to Error” CCC 53 (2001): 33-62. Bell, Jim. “Re: Naming the Tutoring Proce ss.” E-mail to WCenter Mailing List. 22 Jan. 2003. ---. “Research Question.” E-mail to WCenter Mailing List. 3 May 2002. Berlin, James. Rhetorics, Poetics, and Cultures: Refiguring College English Studies Eds. Patricia Sullivan and Catherine H obbs. W. Lafayette: Parlor, 2003. Bizzell, Patricia. “Basic Writing and the Issu e of Correctness, Or, What to Do With ‘Mixed’ Forms of Academic Discourse.” Journal of Basic Writing 19.1 (2000): 412. Blakesley, David. “Reconcepturalizing Grammar as an Aspect of Rhetorical Invention.” The Place of Grammar in Writing In struction: Past, Present, Future Ed. Susan Hunter and Ray Wallace. Portsmout h, N.H.: Heinemann-Boynton/Cook, 1995. Braddock, Richard Reed, Richard Llo yd-Jones, and Lowell A. Schoer. Research in Written Composition Champaign, IL: NCTE, 1963. Brosnahan, Irene, and Janice Neuleib. “Teachi ng Grammar Affectively: Learning to Like

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41 Grammar.” The Place of Grammar in Writing Instruction: Past, Present, Future Ed. Susan Hunter and Ray Wallace. Portsmouth, N.H.: HeinemannBoynton/Cook, 1995. Carbone, Nick. “Editing Help. E-mail to WCenter Mailing List. 21 June 2002. 17 Apr. 2002 Claywell, Gina S. “Reasserting Grammar’s Position in the Trivium in American Composition.” The Place of Grammar in Writin g Instruction: Past, Present, Future Ed. Susan Hunter and Ray Wallace. Portsmouth, NH: HeinemannBoynton/Cook, 1995. Elley, W. B., Barham, I.H., Lamb, H., and M. Wyllie. “The Role of Grammar in a Secondary English Curriculum.” New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies (10 May 1975): 26-42. Gallagher, Chris W. Radical Departures: Composition and Progressive Pedagogy Urbana, IL: NCTE, 2002. Gee, James Paul. Social Linguistics and Literacies : Ideology in Discourses 2nd ed. London; Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis, 1996. Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2000. Glenn, Cheryl. “When Grammar Was a Language Art.” The Place of Grammar in Writing Instruction: Past, Present, Future Ed. Susan Hunter and Ray Wallace. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann-Boynton/Cook, 1995. Glover, Carl, and Byron Stay. “Grammar in the Writing Center: Opposition for Discover

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42 and Change.” The Place of Grammar in Writi ng Instruction: Past, Present, Future Ed. Susan Hunter and Ray Wallace. Portsmouth, NH: HeinemannBoynton/Cook, 1995. “Grammar.” Britannica.com. Vers. 2001. Encyclopaedia Britannica . “Grammar.” Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 10th ed. 2001. Greenbaum, Sidney. Good English and the Grammarian New York; London: Longman, 1988. Harris, Muriel. “Re: Contextualizing Gra mmar.” E-mail to WCenter Mailing List. 19 June 2002. Hartwell, Patrick. “Grammar, Gramma rs, and the Teaching of Grammar.” CE 47.2 (1985): 106-127. Hayward, Malcolm. “Assessing Attitudes Towards the Writing Center.” WCJ 3.2 (1983): 1-10. Hillocks Jr., George. Teaching Writing as Reflective Practice New York: Teachers College P, 1995. Kolln, Martha. Rhetorical Grammar: Grammatical Choices, Rhetorical Effects 4th ed.New York: Longman, 2002. Kuhne, David. “Grammar.” E-mail to WCenter Mailing List. 4 May 1998.) Lewin, Tamar. “The Neglected ‘R’: The Need for a Writing Re volution.” National Education Association. 7 Nov. 2008 . Lunsford, Andrea. EasyWriter 7 Sept. 2002 .

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43 Noguchi, Rei R. Grammar and the Teaching of Writ ing: Limits and Possibilities Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1991. North, Stephen M. “The Idea of a Writing Center.” CE 46.5, 1984: 433-46. ---. “Training Tutors to Talk abut Writing.” CCC 33.4 (Dec.) 1982: 434-41. Olson, Gary A. “The Death of Compos ition as an Intellectual Discipline.” Composition Studies 28.2 (22000): 33-41. Olson, Gary A., and Irene Gale, eds. Interviews: Cross-Discip linary Perspectives on Rhetoric and Literacy Carbondale: S Illinois UP, 1991. Olson, Jon. “A Question of Power: W hy Frederick Douglass Stole Grammar.” The Place of Grammar in Writing Instru ction: Past, Present, Future Ed. Susan Hunter and Ray Wallace. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann-Boynton/Cook, 1995. Rothfuss, Pat. “Re: Firing—Grammar & Edi ting—Minimal Marking? E-mail to WCenter Mailing List. 24 April 2002. Shaughnessy, Mina P. Errors and Expectations: A Guide for the Teacher of Basic Writing New York: Oxford UP, 1977. Stotsky, Sandra. Losing Our Language: How Multicultura l Classroom Instruction Is Undermining Our Children’s Ability to Read, Write, and Reason New York: Free Press, 1999. Troyka, Lynn Quitman. “How We Have Fa iled the Basic Writing Enterprise.” Journal of Basic Writing 19.1 (2000): 113-23. Vavra, Edward. “Was NCTE Biased Against the Teaching of Grammar?” Ed Vavra. Homepage. 21 May 2002 .

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44 Wallace, David Foster. “Tense Present: Demo cracy, English, and the Wars over Usage.” Harper’s Magazine 302 (2001): 149 pars. Online. 7 Sept. 2002 . Weaver, Constance. Teaching Grammar in Context. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-/Cook, 1996. ---. Understanding Whole Language: From Principles to Practice Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1990. Yancey, Kathleen Blake. “Outcomes Assessm ent and Basic Writing: What, Why, and How?” BWe: Basic Writing e-Journal 1.1 (1999). 20 July 2001 .

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45 Bibliography Abrams, M.H. The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Cr itical Tradition New York: Oxford UP, 1953. The Allyn and Bacon Sourcebook for Writing Program Administrators Compilers Irene Ward and William J. Carpenter. New York: Longman, 2002. Atroche, Diana J. “Helping the Underachiever in Reading. ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English and Communication Bloomington, IN: 1999. Barnett, Robert W., and Jacob S. Blumner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Writing Center Theory and Practice Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001. Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write: Studies in Writer’s Block and Other Composing-Process Problems Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford, 1985. 134-65. ---. “Released into Language: Errors, Expectations, and the Legacy of Mina Shaughnessy.” The Territory of Language Ed. Donald A. McQuade. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1986. 65-88. Bartholomae, David, and Peter Elbow. “Inter changes: Responses to Bartholomae and Elbow.” CCC 46.1 (1995): 84-92. Bartlett, Thomas. The Chronicle of Higher Education 49.17:A39. 7 Apr. 2003 . Bean, John C. Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking and Active Learning in the Classroom San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996. Beason, Larry W. “Perceptions of Error in the Business Community.” CCC

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46 Bedford Bibliography for Te achers of Basic Writing 23 Jan. 2003 . Belanoff, Pat, et al, eds. Writing with Elbow Logan, UT: Utah State UP, 2002. Belanoff, P., Rorschach, B., and Oberlink, M. The Right Handbook: Grammar and Usage in Context 2nd Ed. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-/Cook, 1993. Bell, Jim. “When Hard Questions Are Asked: Evaluating Writing Centers.” WCJ 21.1 (2000): 7-28. Berk, Lynn M English Syntax: From Word to Discourse New York: Oxford UP, 1999. Berliner, David C., and Bruce J. Biddle. The Manufactured Crisis : Myths, Fraud, and the Attack on America’s Public Schools Reading, MA: Adison-Wesley, 1995. Bizzell, Patricia. “Cognition, Convention, and Cert ainty: What We Need to Know About Writing.” Pre/Text 3 (1982): 213-43. Bizzell, Patricia, a nd Bruce Herzberg. The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present Boston, MA: Bedford B ooks, St. Martin’s, 1990. Bloom, Lynn Z., Donald A. Daiker, and Edward M. White, eds. Composition in the Twenty-first Century: Crisis and Change Carbondale: S. Illinois UP, 1997. Boczkowski, Derek. “The HOCs, LOCs, FOCs, SOCs Pardox.” E-mail to WCenter Mailing List. 26 June 2002. Cameron, Deborah. Verbal Hygiene London: Routledge, 1995. Carbone, Nick. “Re: Contextualizing Gramma r.” E-mail to WCenter Mailing List. 20 June 2002.

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47 Carino, Pete, and Doug Enders. “Does Frequency of Visits to the Writing Center Increase Student Satisfaction: A Statis tical Correlation Study—or Story.” WCJ 22.1: 83103. Cauthen, Cramer. “Re: Teaching Grammar.” Email to WCenter Mailing List. 18 June 2002. Celce-Murcia, M. “Formal Grammar Inst ruction: An Educator Comments.” TESOL Quarterly 26.2 (1992): 406-09. ---. “Grammar Pedagogy in Second and Foreign Language Teaching.” TESOL Quarterly 5.3 (1991: 459-477. Celce-Murcia, Marianne, and Sharon Hilles. Techniques and Resources in Teaching Grammar New York: Oxford UP, 1988. Connors, Robert J. “Grammar in American College Composition: An Histoical Overview.” The Territory of Language: Linguistic s, Stylistics, and the Teaching of Composition Ed. Donald A. McQuade. Carbondale, IL: S. Illinois UP, 1986. Connors, Robert J., and Andrea A. Lunsford. “Frequency of Formal Errors in Current College Writing, or Ma and Pa Kettle Do Research.” CCC 39.4 (1988): 395-409. Cooperman, Paul. The Literacy Hoax: The Decline of Reading, Writing and Learning in the Public Schools and What We Can Do about It New York: Morrow, 1978. Corder, S. P. “The Significance of Learners’ Errors.” International Review of Applied Linguistics 5 (1967): 161-70. Crowley, Sharon. “Response to Edward M. Wh ite’s ‘The Importance of Placement and Basic Studies.’” Journal of Basic Writing 15 (1996): 88-91. Daiker, Donald A., Andrew Kerek, and Max Morenberg, eds. “Sentence Combining at

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48 the College Level: An Experimental Study.” Research in the Teaching of English 12 (1978): 245-256. ---. Sentence Combining: A Rhetorical Perspective Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1985. 7 Jan. 2003 action=summary&v=1&bookid=21171>. ---. The Writer’s Options: Combining to Composing 4th ed. New York: Harper and Row, 1990. Daiker, Donald A., and Max Morenberg. The Writing Teacher As Researcher: Essays in the Theory and Practice of Class-Based Research Carbondale: S. Illinois UP, 1996. DeGeorge, James, Gary A. Olson, and Richard Ray. Style and Redability in Technical Writing: A Sentence-Combining Approach 1st ed. New York: Random, 1984. Deming, Mary P. “Reading and Writing: Maki ng the Connection for Basic Writers.” BWe: Basic Writing e-Journal 2.2 (2000). 29 July 2001. 38 pars. 18 Dec. 2002 . Dyer, Beth-Sophia. Augusta Life and History (18 March 1997). Online. 3 Jan. 2003 . Edelsky, Carole. With Literacy and Justice for All: Rethinking the Social in Language and Education 2nd ed. London; Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis, 1996. Ediger, Marlow. “Which Word Recognition Techniques Should Be Taught?” Reading Improvement 35.2 (1998): 73-79. Ellsworth, Nancy J., Carolyn N. Hedley, and Anthony N. Baratta. Literacy: A

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49 Redefinition Hillsdale, NJ; Hove, UK: Erlbaum, 1994. Ervin, Christopher. “Re: Research Questions.” E-mail to WCenter Mailing List. 29 Apr. 2002. Faigley, Lester. “Names in Search of a C oncept: Maturity, Fluency, Complexity, and Growth in Written Syntax.” CCC 31.3 (1980): 291-295. Faigley, Lester, and Bob Peterson. Visual Rhetoric: Literacy by Design Minneapolis: U of Minnesota, 1998. Farbman, Evelyn. Sentence Sense: A Writer’s Guide Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989. Online. 27 Oct. 2002 . Finegan, Edward. Attitudes Toward English Usage: The History of a War of Words New York: Teachers’ College P, 1980. Fischer, Max W. “Voice of Experience.” DB Education World 2003. Online. 10 Oct. 2002 . Fish, Stanley Eugene. Professional Correctness: Litera ry Studies and Political Change Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. ---. “Say It Ain’t So.” The Chronicle of Higher Educ ation: Career Network. 17 pars. Online. 6 June 2001 . ---. The Stanley Fish Reader Malden, MA; Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1999. Flesch, Rudolf Franz. The Art of Readable Writing 1949. Rev. ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. ---. Why Johnny Can’t Read—and What You Can Do about It New York: Harper, 1955. ---. Why Johnny Still Can’t Read: A New Look at the Scandal of our Schools 1st ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.

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50 Fraser, Ian S., and Lynda M. Hodson. “Twe nty-one Kicks at th e Grammar Horse” English Journal 67.91 (1978): 49-54. Freire, Paolo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed Tran. Myra Bergman Ramos. New York: Herder and Herder, 1970. Fulkerson, Richard. “Four Philosophies of Composition.” CCC 30.4 (1979): 343-48. Gardner, Susan, and Toby Fulwiler. The Journal Book for Teachers of At-Risk College Writers U Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-/Cook, 1998. Garner, M. Grammar: Warts and All 2nd ed. Melbourne: River Seine, 1989. Gaspar, Richard F. Developing Successful Readers: Strategies and Instruction for the College Classroom Conf. Orlando, 12 Nov. 2002. ---. “Read, Write, Remember.” Florida Reading Quarterly (1998). Gilbaldi, Joseph, ed. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 5th ed. New York: MLA, 1999. Gillespie, Paula, Alice Gillam, Lady Falls Brown, Byron Stay, eds. Writing Center Research: Extending the Conversation Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2002. Glazier, T. F. The Least You Should Know about English Writing Skills 5th ed. Fort Wroth: Harcourt, 1994. Gonzlez, Roseann Dueas, and Ildik Melis. Language Ideologies: Cri tical Perspectives on the Official English Movement Urbana, IL:NCTE; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2000-2001. Good, C. Edward. A Grammar Book for You and I . .Oops, Me! Sterling, Virginia: Capital, 2002. Gordon, Helen H. “Controlled Composition: Putting Grammar in Context.” WLN 11

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51 (1986): 12-14. Gray-Rosendale, Laura. Rethinking Basic Writing: Expl oring Identity, Politics, and Community in Interaction Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1999. Greenbaum, Sidney, ed Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. Greenbaum, Sidney, and John Taylor. “The Rec ognition of Usage Errors by Instructors of Freshman Composition.” CCC 32 (1981): 169-74. Greenbaum, Sidney, and Quirk, Randolph. A Student’s Grammar of the English Language London: Longman, 1990. Grimm, Nancy Maloney. Good Intentions: Writing Center Work for Postmodern Times Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-/Cook, 1999. Gunner, Jeanne. “Iconic Discourse: The Tr oubling Legacy of Mina Shaughnessy.” Journal of Basic Writing 19.2 (1998): 25-42. Hacker, Diane The Bedford Handbook for Writers 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press, 1991. Hairston, Maxine. “Not All Errors Are Crea ted Equal: Nonacademic Readers in the Professions Respond to Lapses in Usage.” CE 43 (1981): 792-806 ---. “The Winds of Change: Thomas Kuhn and the Revolution in the Teaching of Writing.” CCC 33: 76-88. Halstead, Isabella. “Putting Error in Its Place.” Journal of Basic Writing 1.1 (1975): 7286. Harris, Joseph. What Every Parent Needs to Know about Standardized Tests: How to Understand the Tests and Help Your Kids Score High! New York: McGraw-Hill,

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52 2002. 3 Mar. 2003 . Harris, Muriel. “Composing Behaviors of Oneand Multi-Draft Writers.” CE 51.2 (1989): 174-91. ---. “Contradictory Perceptions of the Rules of Writing.” CCC 30 (1979): 218-20. ---. “A Grab-Bag of Diagnostic Techniques.” Teaching English in the Two-Year College 9.2 (1983): 111-16. ---. “Mending the Fragmented Free Modifier.” CCC 32.2 (1981): 174-82. ---. “Modeling: A Process Method of Teaching.” CE 45.1 (1983): 74-84. ---. Prentice Hall Reference Guide to Grammar and Usage 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994. ---. “Re: Stanley Fish on Grammar.” Email to WCenter Mailing List. 21 June 2002. ---. “Strategies, Options, Flexibility, and the Composing Process.” English Quarterly 15.3 (1982): 51-61. Harris, Muriel, and Katherine E. Rowa n. “Explaining Grammatical Concepts.” Journal of Basic Writing 8.2 (1989): 21-41. Haswell, Richard H. “Minimal Marking.” CE 45.6 (1983): 166-70. Haussamen, Brock. Revising the Rules: Traditional Grammar and Modern Linguistics 2nd ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1997. Hawthorne, Joan. “Re: Editing—Again.” Email to WCenter Mailing List. 23 May 2002. Hillocks Jr., George. Research on Written Composition: New Directions for Teaching Urbana, IL: ERIC, 1986. Hillocks Jr., George, and Michael Smith. “Grammar and Usage.” Handbook of Research

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53 on Teaching the English Language Arts Ed. James Flood. New York: MacMillan, 1991. 1-10. Hillocks Jr., George, and N. Mavrogenes. “Sentence Combining.” Research on Written Composition: New Directions for Teaching Urbana, IL: ERIC, 1986. 142-46. Hobson, Eric. “Taking Computer-Assisted Gr ammar Instruction to New Frontiers.” The Place of Grammar in Writing Instruction Eds. Susan Hunter and Ray Wallace. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-Boynton/Cook, 1995. 212-24. Inman, James A., and Donna N. Sewell. Taking Flight with OWLs: Examining Technology Use in Writing Centers Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2000. Inman, James A., Hayden Porter, Bill Roge rs, and Dan Sloughter. “New Information Technologies and Liberal Education.” Journal of Electronic Publishing 6.1 (September 2000). Jacobs, Debra. “Voice in Writing.” Encyclopedia of English Studies and Language Arts Ed. Alan C. Purves. New York: NCTE, 1994. Kantz, Margaret, and Robert Yates. “Whose Judgments? A Survey of Faculty Responses to Common and Highly Irritating Writing Erro rs.” Fifth Annual Conference of the NCTE Assembly for the Teaching of E nglish Grammar. Normal, IL. 12 Aug. 1994. 7 Sept. 2002 . Kingen, Eugene R., Barry M. Kroll, and Mike Rose, eds. Perspectives on Literacy Carbondale: S. Illinois UP: 1988. Kinneavy, James. L. “The Basic Aims of Discourse.” CCC 20 (1969): 297-304. ---. A Theory of Discourse Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971. New York: Norton, 1980.

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54 Klinger, Geroge C. “A Campus View of College Writing.” CCC 28 (1977): 343-347. Kolln, Martha. “Closing the Books on Alchemy.” CCC 32 1981): 139-51. Kolln, Martha, and Robert Funk. Understanding English Grammar 6th ed. New York: Longman, 2001. Krashen, Stephen D. “Formal Grammar Instru ction: Another Educator Comments.” TESOL Quarterly 26.2 (1992): 409-11. Kroll, Barry M., and John C. Schafer. “Error Analysis and the Teaching of Composition.” CCC 40 (1978): 242-48. Kucer, Stephen B. Dimensions of Literacy: A Concep tual Base for Teaching Reading and Writing in School Settings Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2001. Lauer, Janice. “Rhetoric and Compos ition Studies: A Multimodal Discipline.” Defining the New Rhetorics Eds. Theresa Enos and Stuart C. Brown. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993. 44-54. Lerner, Neal. “Confessions of a Firs t-Time Writing Center Director.” WCJ 21.1 (2000): 29-48. ---. “Counting Beans and Making Beans Count.” WLN 22.1 (1997): 1-4. ---. “The Institutionalization of Required English.” Composition Studies/Freshman English News 24.1-2 (1996): 44-60. ---. “Re: Contextualizing Grammar.” E-ma il to WCenter Mailing List. 21 June 2002. Linden, Myra J., and Art Whimbey. Why Johnny Can’t Write: How to Improve Writing Skills Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1990.

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55 Lunsford, Andrea A. “Cognitive Development and the Basic Writer.” CE 41.1 (1979): 38-46. ---. “Politics and Practic es in Basic Writing.” A Sourcebook for Basic Writing Teachers Ed. Theresa Enos. New York: Random Hourse, 1987. 246-58. Lunsford, Andrea, and Connors, Robert. The St. Martin’s Handbook 3rd. ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1995. McAndrew, Donald A., and Thomas J. Registad. Tutoring Writing: A Practical Guide for Conferences. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-/Cook, 2001. McCleary, William J. “The Grammar Debate.” E-mail to Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar. 29 Nov. 2000. 17 Aug. 2002 . ---. “Grammar Making a Comeback in Composition Teaching.” Composition Chronicle 8.6 (1995): 14. McNally, Carol, and Sharon Moerman. “To Gra mmar or Not to Grammar: That Is Not the Question?” Voices from the Middle 8.3 (2001): 17-33. Melnick, Jane F. “The Politics of Writing Conferences: Describing Authority Through the Speech Act Theory.” WCJ 4.2 (1984): 9-21. Mick, Connie Snyder. “Little Teachers, Big St udents: Graduate Stude nts as Tutors and the Future of Writing Center Theory.” WCJ 29.1 (1999):33-45. Mulroy, David. “The War Against Grammar.” Wisconsin Interest (Fall/Winter, 1999): 27 pars. Online. 23 Apr. 2002 . Nash, Walter, ed. The Writing Scholar: Studies in Academic Discourse Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1990.

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56 NCTE. Standards for the English Language Arts Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1996. Nelson, Jane, and Kathy Evertz. The Politics of Writing Centers Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-/Cook, 2001. New London Group. “A Pedagogy of Multilitera cies: Designing Social Futures.” Harvard Educational Review 66.1 (1996): 60-92. Newmann, Stephen. “Demonstrating Effectiveness.” WLN 23.8 (1999). ---. “Revisiting ‘The Idea of a Writing Center.’” WCJ 15.1, 1994: 7-19. O’Hare, Frank. Sentence Combining: Improving Student Writing Wi thout Formal Grammar Instruction Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1973. Olson, D. “From Utterance to Text: The Bi as of Language in Speech and Writing.” Harvard Educational Review 47 (1977): 257-81. Olson, Gary A., ed. Writing Centers: Theory and Administration Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1984. Olson, Gary, and Evelyn Ashton-Jones. “Wr iting Center Directors: The Search for Professional Status.” WPA 12(1/2), 1988: 19-28. Otte, Geroge, and Terence Collins. “Basic Writing and New Technologies.” Bee: Basic Writing e-Journal 1.1 (1999). 20 July 2001 . ---. “Grammar Redeux, Redeux, Redeux.” Writing Center Ethics 7 July 2002 . Patterson, Nancy G. “Grammar in the Labyrinth : Resources on the World Wide Web.” Voices from the Middle 8.3 (2001) 63-67.

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57 ---. “Just the Facts: Research and Th eory About Grammar Instruction.” Voices from the Middle 8.3 (2001): 50-55. Pemberton, Michael A., ed. The Ethics of Writing Instruc tion: Issues in Theory and Practice (Perspectives on Writing) Stanford, CT: Ablex, 2000. Pemberton, Michael A. “Grammar Redux, Redux, Redux.” Writing Center Ethics 20.1 (1995): 5-6. Quirk, Randolph, and Sidney Greenbaum. A University Grammar of English Essex, England: Longman, 1993. Ribble, Marcia. “Redefining Basic Writing: An Image Shift from Error to Rhizome.” BWe: Basic Writing 3-Journal 3.1 (2001). 20 July 2001 . Rose, Mike. “The Language of Exclusion: Writing Instruction at the University.” CEI 47.4 (1985): 341-59. Rosen, Lois Matz. “Developing Correctness in St udent Writing: Alternatives to the ErrorHut.” English Journal 76.3 (1987): 62-69. Rothstein, Richard. The Way We Were?: The Myths and Re alities of America’s Student Achievement New York: Century Foundation, 1998. Schuster, Edgar H. “Reforming English Language Arts: Let’s Trash the Tradition.” Phi Delta Kappa Mar. 1999: 518-24. Shaughnessy, Mina P. “Diving In: An Introduction to Basic Writing.” CCC 27.3 (1976): 234-39. Shor, Ira. “Errors and Economics: In equality Breeds Remediation.” Mainstreaming Basic

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58 Writers. Ed. Gerri McNenny. Mahwah: Erlbaum, 2001. 29-54. ---. “Our Apartheid: Writing Instruction and Inequality.” Journal of Basic Writing 16.1 (1997): 91-104. Smith, Frank. The Book of Learning and Forgetting New York: Teachers College P, 1998. Sternglass, Marilyn S. “The Changing Percepti on of the Role of Writing: From Basic Writing to Discipline Courses.” BWe: Basic Writing e-Journal 2.2 (2000). 20 July 2001. 18 Dec. 2002 . Stotsky, Sandra. “State English Standards.” Fordham Report 1.1 (1997): 94 pars. 17 June 2002 . Research” 209?). Strong, W. Crafting Cumulative Sentences New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984. ---. Creative Approaches to Sentence Combining Urbana, IL: ERIC/RCS and NCTE, 1986. ---. Sentence Combining: A Composing Book 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. ---. Sentence Combining and Paragraph Building New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981. ---. Writing Incisively: Do It Yourself Prose Surgery. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991. Strunk, William, and E. B. White. Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York: Allyn and Bacon, 1995. Stuckey, Elspeth. The Violence of Literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-/Cook, 1991. Sweigart, William. “Assessing Achievement in a Developmental Writing Sequence.” Research and Teaching in Developmental Education 12 (1996): 5-15.

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59 Thompson, Geoff. Introducing Functional Grammar. New York ; London : Arnold, 1996. Troyka, Lynn Quitman. “Defining Basic Writing in Context.” A Sourcebook for Basic Writing Teachers. Ed. Theresa Enos. New York: Random House, 1987. 2-15. ---. Quick Access: Reference for Writers New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. Troyka, Lynn Quitman, A. B. Dobie, and E. R. Gordon. Simon and Schuster Handbook for Writers. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992. Troyka, Lynn Quitman, and Jerrold Nudelman. Steps in Composition. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice, 1999. Turner, Joan. “Academic Writing Developmen t in Higher Education: Changing the Discourse.” Writing Development in Higher Education Conference (WDHE) (1998): 25 pars. Online. 23 Aug. 2002 . Vavra, Edward. “The Crime: Our Failure to Teach Teachers How to Teach Grammar.” Ed. Vavra. Homepage. 21 May 2002. . ---. “Why the Anti-Grammarians Are Wrong: The Problems with Previous Research on Grammar.” Ed Vavra. Homepage. 21 May 2002. . Von Bracht Donsky, Barbara. “Trends in Elementary Writing Instruction, 1900-1959.” LA (Dec. 1984: 795-803. Voss, Ralph F., and Michael L. Keene. “Notes Toward a Hierarchy of Errors.” Online. 5 Sept. 1999 .

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60 Vygotsky, L. S. Thought and Language 1962. Trans. A. Kozulin. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1986. Wall, Susan V. and Glynda A. Hull. “The Semantics of Error: What Do Teachers Know?” Writing and Response: Theory Practice, and Research. Ed. Chris M. Anson. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1989. 261-92. Walsh, Bill. Lapsing into a Comma. New York: Contemporary, 2000. Weaver, Constance. Grammar for Teachers: Perspectives and Definitions Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1979. ---. Reading Process and Practice: From Soc io-psycholinguistic s to Whole Language. 2nd ed. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994. ---. “Welcoming Errors as Signs of Growth.” Language Arts 59 (1982): 438-44. Weaver, Constance, ed. Lessons to Share on Teaching Grammar in Context. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-/Cook, 1998. Weedon, Chris. Feminist Practice and Po ststructuralist Theory 2nd ed. Oxford; Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1997. Weiss, John, and Edward Vavra. “State Sta ndards and Grammar in the Curriculum: The Meaninglessness of Most States’ St andards.” 1998. Online. 18 July 2002 . White, Edward M. “Process vs. Pro duct: Assessing Skills in Writing.” The Bulletin (October 1988): 10-13. Williams, Joseph M. “The Phenomenology of Error.” CCC 32 (1981): 152-68. ---. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace. 3rd ed.

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61 Wilson, Kenneth G. The Columbia Guide to Standard American Usage New York: MJF, 1993. Worsham, Lynn. “Coming to Terms: Theory, Writing, Politics.” Rhetoric and Composition As Intellectual Work Ed. Gary A. Olson. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 2002. 101-14. Young, Morris. “Narratives of Identity: Theorizing the Writer and the Nation.” Journal of Basic Writing 15.2 (1996): 50-75.

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62 Appendices

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63 Appendix A: University of South Florida Writing Center Results Grammar was the topic designated three ti mes more often than any other writing topic by students across the curriculum who visited the University of South Florida’s Writing Center. I drew data from conference information forms (an example follows) that were filled out during each visit, focusing on responses to questions regarding areas of writing students would like to improve a nd areas where they feel confident. The information was collected and recorded on Excel documents, condensed, and then presented in tables and on gr aphs to indicate class levels, statuses as native or nonnative speaking (NNS), writing strengths, and areas of writing needing improvement. The numbers of tutoring sessions were as follows: Fall 2000, 569; Spring 2001, 567; Fall 2001, 472; and Spring 2002, 358. The following are remarks from college-level students who are not quoted to ridicule sentence-level inabilities but to reveal at once ingenu ity as well as the grave need for incorporating more contextual grammar inst ruction. Interesting to note is the fact that approximately a third of the overwhelmi ng number of students who designated “grammar” as a weak subject area misspelled the word.

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64 Appendix B: Confirmation Information Form Conference Information Form Date _______ Student __________________________________ Instructor ___________________________ Instructor’s Department ____________________ Course _____________________________ Walk-in? (circle one) Yes No Level: (circle one) Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Grad. Student Is English your 2nd language? (circle one) Yes No Your writing strengths: _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ______ Areas in which you’d like to improve: _____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _____ "Y" indicates English is a second language. "N" indicates English is not a second language. Numbers "1" through "4" indi cate undergraduate level. "G" indicates graduate level.

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65 Appendix C: HCC Student Questionnaire Questionnaires given to students at H illsborough Community College uncovered whether they found the writing course they were taking beneficial. The overwhelming results add to my argument for more gramma r instruction. The quest ionnaire and results follow: Do you feel that being able to write well is important for your coll ege and professional careers? 46 Yes 1 Yes and no 0 No Because of your intensive study of grammar this semester, do you feel your writing and communication skills have improved? 44 Yes 3 No 1 Don’t know Outside of the classroom, do you seek a dvice about your writing? If you do, what source(s) have you found helpful? 21 Yes (Books, newspapers, computers, mentors, tutors, teachers, parents, friends, fellow students, fellow employees, God) 26 No Do you use a dictionary or thes aurus when you wr ite or read? 36 Yes 11 No Overall, are teachers’ comments or correc tions on your assignments understandable or helpful to you? 41 Yes 0 No 6 Somewhat

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66 Would you rather teachers simply apply a grad e to your work, or would you prefer they make suggestions or corrections? 1 Grade only 34 Suggestions and corrections 12 Both Do you find yourself noticing or correcting grammatical errors written or spoken by yourself and others? 43 Yes 4 No

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67 Appendix D: HCC Prescriptions List The following is a list of tests or prescriptions I compiled gratis for the preparatory writing programs at the Ybor campus at Hill sborough Community College. From software programs a nd textbooks, particularly Focus: Writing Sentences and Paragraphs and Discovery: An Introduction to Writing I gleaned and edited sentences for prescriptions given in the basic writi ng courses and recreat ed interesting and educational tests that were more understandab le and error-free. The tests covered twelve subject areas for ENC 0010 and fourteen for ENC 0020, each with three test forms. Topics covered in ENC 0010 were Parts of Speech, Pronouns, Subject-Verb Agreement, Adjectives and Adverbs, Verbs--Present and Past, Verbs--Perf ect and Progressive, Commas, End Punctuation, Other Punctuation, Sentence Structure, Word Choice, Major Sentence Errors, Clauses and Modifiers, a nd Paragraphs; topics covered in ENC 0020 were Pronouns Case and Agreement; Verb s—Active and Passive; Verbs—Progression and Mood; Spelling and Ho monyms; Commas; Apostrophes; Other Punctuation; Mechanics; Clich, Jargon, and Slang; Sent ence Problems; Clau ses and Modifiers; Paragraphs; Editing for Clarity; and Editing for Concision. Re vising the tests further, I created the exercises that I presently give students to increase their grammar skills and that I present with my thesis In addition, I have revised a nd edited in my own time nearly one hundred handouts and exercises available to students for learning and practice at the Dale Mabry campus of Hillsborough Community College; these have not been submitted with my thesis.

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68 Appendix E: Parts of Speech DIRECTIONS: Choose the part(s) of speech indicated below. 1. Find two nouns: The photographs she took of th e mountains were exceptional. A. are / mountains B. photographs / mountains C. mountains / exceptional 2. Find two pronouns: The woman with whom I spoke is Greek. A. I / spoke B. woman / Greek C. I / whom 3. Find two verbs: Although Thomas Jefferson opposed pol itical parties, he established the party system. A. opposed / established B. political / parties C. Jefferson / opposed 4. Find two adverbs: The children suffered terribly wh en their parents died suddenly. A. parents / died B. terribly / suddenly C. children / suffered 5. Find a preposition: Shenandoah National Park is in Virginia. A. is B. Shenandoah C. in 6. Find a conjunction: Because she loved her brother, she knew he could do no wrong. A. could B. knew C. because 7. Find a noun: Don’t you see that lo ve is all around you? A. you B. love C. see 8. Find a verb: The Roman Republic emerged in the sixth century B.C. A. century B. Roman C. emerged

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69 9. Find two adjectives: The jade plant grew quickly and soon dominated the tiny room. A. quickly / dominated B. plant / grew C. jade / tiny 10. Find a conjunction: In 1953, James D. Watson and Franci s H. C. Crick identified the double helix as the basi c structure of DNA. A. in B. the C. and 11. Find a pronoun: The textbook contains 576 pages, and the teacher makes his class read and summarize every chapter. A. the B. his C. to 12. Find an adverb: The mahogany desk was extremely cluttered. A. extremely B. desk C. cluttered 13. Find an adjective: English is my favorite subject. A. English B. favorite C. subject 14. Find a preposition: Everyone went to church on Easter Sunday. A. to B. Everyone C. Easter 15. Find a pronoun: “Which coat is yours?” the attendant asked. A. Which B. asked C. is

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70 Appendix F: Pronouns 1 DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer th at uses the correct pronoun(s). 1. Somebody left _____ expensive la ptop computer in the classroom. A. their B. his or her 2. Everyone in the class is supposed to br ing in _____ favorite poem and musical selection. A. their B. his or her 3. The clothes were strewn all over the floor, so I threw _____ under the bed. A. they B. them 4. Each dancer in the international ballet company has _____ own dressing room. A. their B. his or her 5. The committee presented _____ report on the success of the new product. A. their B. it’s C. its’ D. its 6. One of the hardest courses I took this semester is statis tics; _____ deals with concepts, not hard ideas. A. they B. them C. one D. it 7. Not one of the new waitresses was wearing _____ new uniform. A. their B. his or her 8. My daughter is mu ch taller than _____. A. I B. me 9. Our supervisor asked Jenna and _____ to help with the sales inventory. A. I B. me 10. Jeremy and _____ bought a new stereo system with a stolen credit card, but they did not get to enjoy the music for long. A. he B. him 11. My dog lost _____ collar after di gging under the neighbor’s fence. A. its B. it’s 12. The fault for the roof collapse was all _____. A. theirs B. theirs’

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71 13. _____ predicted that the hurricane season would be bad this year, but _____ not always accurate. A. They/they’re B. The weather experts/they’re C. The weather experts/their D. They/ the weather expert DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the answer that uses pronouns correctly. 14. A. Do we know who will be coming to the party? B. Do we know whom will be coming to the party? 15. A. Aunt Serina gave my sister and I matching sweaters for Christmas. B. Aunt Serina gave my sister a nd me matching sweaters for Christmas. 16. A. Jacob and me went to the stor e for ice cream after we ate dinner. B. Jacob and I went to the store for ice cream after we ate dinner. 17. A. Leonardo daVinci’s Mona Lisa is a portrait of a beautiful woman which has a mysterious smile. B. Leonardo daVinci’s Mona Lisa is a portrait of a beautiful woman who has a mysterious smile. C. Leonardo daVinci’s Mona Lisa is a portrait of a beautif ul woman that has a mysterious smile. 18. A. Just between you and me, aren’t they’re being silly? B. Just between you and I, aren’t they being silly? C. Just between you and me, aren’t they being silly? 19. A. Anyone that wants to check out a book must leave the reference area. B. Anyone who wants to check out a book must leave the reference area. C. Anyone whom wants to check out a book must leave the reference area. 20. A. Him mowing the lawn for hi s sick neighbor was a kind act. B. He mowing the lawn for his sick neighbor was a kind act. C. His mowing the lawn for his sick neighbor was a kind act.

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72 Appendix G: Pronouns 2 DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter that best completes each sentence. 1. John asked his teacher if _______ coul d explain the answer again. A. he B. his teacher 2. My brother looks young, but he is older than _______. A. I B. me 3. It was _______ who sent flowers and gifts to the teacher. A. her B. she 4. Although he hates to cook, Andr _______ sauted the mushrooms. A. hisself B. himself 5. Let’s keep this secret about the surprise party between you and _______. A. me B. I 6. Everyone in the priesthood must vow that _______ will never marry. A. he B. they 7. The committee has just published _______ recommendations for building improvements. A. their B. its 8. Mr. Prentiss is a counselor with _______ you can talk whenever you have a problem. A. who B. whom 9. Each of the boys packs _______ own l unch on Thursdays and Fridays. A. his B. their 10. Mrs. Williams was the woman _______ gave us the gift certificate for a free meal. A. whom B. who DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter that us es pronouns correctly. 11. A. Carrying gifts for my brother and me, my grandparents held out there arms and demanded a hug. B. Carrying gifts for my brother and I, my grandparents held out their arms and demanded a hug. C. Carrying gifts for my brother and me, my grandparents held out their arms and demanded a hug.

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73 12. A. Poor in spirit are them who do not trust others. B. Poor in spirit are they who do not trust others. C. Poor in spirit are them people who do not trust others. 13. A. The professor expects as much from herself as from you, him, and I. B. The professor expects as much from herself as from you, he, and me. C. The professor expects as much fr om herself as from you, him, and me. 14. A. I had met the student who lived next door only once. B. I had met the student that lived next door only once. C. I had met the student whom lived next door only once. 15. A. They are the parents whose son just won a scholarship to Oxford. B. They are the parents who’s son just won a scholarship to Oxford. C. They are the parents who’se son ju st won a scholarship to Oxford. 16. A. The ancient Maya built a glorious civiliz ation, yet strangely, their descendants, whose homes are simple that ch-roof huts, now live in remote jungle villages. B. The ancient Maya built a glor ious civilization, yet strange ly, they’re descendants, whose homes are simple thatch-roof huts, now live in remote jungle villages. C. The ancient Maya built a glor ious civilization, yet stra ngely, their descendants, who’s homes are simple thatch-roof huts, now live in remote jungle villages. 17. A. He had few ethical principles, and he worked for whomever offered the highest fee. B. He had few ethical principl es, and he worked for whose ever offered the highest fee. C. He had few ethical principles, and he work ed for whoever offered the highest fee. 18. A. A member of the student government asked Marla and me to sign a petition demanding that more parkin g spots should be reserved for us students. B. A member of the student government as ked Marla and me to sign a petition demanding that more parking spots should be reserved for we students. C. A member of the student government asked Marla and I to sign a petition demanding that more parking spots s hould be reserved for us students. 19. A. The theater company chose Courtney and me as stand-ins, but Tamika and her got starring roles. B. The theater company chose Courtney and me as stand-ins, but Tamika and she got starring roles. C. The theater company chose Courtney and I as stand-ins, but Tamika and she got starring roles.

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74 20. A. We were sick of his claiming that the world would soon end. B. We were sick of him claiming that the world would soon end. C. We were sick of he claiming that the world would soon end.

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75 Appendix H: Pronouns 3 DIRECTIONS: Choose the best response for each of the following sentences. 1. Young adults often face a difficult tran sition period when _____ leave home for the first time. A. they B. he or she 2. Anyone trying to reduce _____ salt intake should avoid canned and processed foods. A. their B. his or her 3. The referee watched the basketball game closely to make sure _____ did not commit any fouls. A. they B. the basketball players 4. Neither of those girls appreciat es _____ parents’ sacrifices. A. their B. her 5. When we returned home from fishing a nd crabbing, our grandmother told David and _____ to leave our muddy shoes outside on the porch. A. me B. I 6. All in the choir must buy _____ robes and sashes. A. his or her B. their 7. _____ walking to work each day has improved his physical well-being. A. His B. Him 8. The professor read from a stack of yellowe d notes that seemed nearly as old as _____. A. him B. he 9. Your natural talent will bring you succe ss, but only if you study and practice to improve _____ abilities. A. your B. them

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76 10. Psychologists _______ claim that personal qualities like self -confidence and optimism may have as much to do with our mental abilities as IQ does. A. theirselves B. themselves 11. Your grades prove that you worked harder than _____. A. them B. they 12. Early in each session, the teacher asked her students to write about an unpleasant experience _____ had undergone in school. A. they B. he or she 13. In spite of her background of unemploym ent, chemical dependency, and abusive relationships, Nicole decided to make education a prior ity in _____ life. A. her B. one’s 14. The committee has just published _____ recommendations. A. their B. its 15. Let’s keep this secret between you and _____. A. me B. I 16. The person _____ knows the most about the business is Ms. Jones. A. who B. which 17. As I grow older, I find that my pare nts and _____ have many values in common. A. me B. I 18. Each of the girls has to return _____ cheerl eader’s uniform at the end of the year. A. her B. their 19. Have the police found _____ was re sponsible for the theft? A. who B. whom Appendix I: Subject-Verb Agreement

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77 DIRECTIONS: Sometimes verbs appear before the subjects. In the following sentences, indicate which verb agre es with the subject(s). 1. In the distance _____ a billow of smoke and the sound of sirens. A. was B. were 2. Where _____ my concert ticket? A. is B. are 3. Here _____ the low-calorie cola and the double-chocolate cake you ordered. A. is B. are 4. There ____ many paths which you can follow. A. is B. are DIRECTIONS: Words that come between the su bject and verb, like adverbs and prepositional phrases, should not interfere with subject-verb agreement. In the following sentences, indicate which verb agrees with the subject(s). 5. The crinkly lines around Joan’s mouth _____ her a friendly look. A. give B. gives 6. The waitress wearing the maroon apron alwa ys _____ her customers in a friendly manner. A. serve B. serves 7. Our grandmother, who is 94 years old, still _____ to her favorite songs. A. dance B. dances 8. Some members of the parent’s associa tion _____ to ban certain religious books from the school libra ry and curriculum. A. want B. wants

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78 DIRECTIONS: When compound subjects are joined by “and,” the subjects may be replaced with the plural pronoun “they” to determine agreement with verbs. When compound subjects are joined by “or” or “nor,” the verb must agree with the subject that is closer. In the following sentences, indi cate which verb agrees with the subjects. 9. Why _____ Samantha and her mother arguing? A. is B. are 10. Neither the principal nor the teachers ____ how to deal with the problematic student. A. know B. knows 11. Theodore, James, and Linus _____ planning to help Madeline move her furniture to her new home in the country. A. is B. are 12. When Patricia and Ellen ____ to the store, they always spend too much money on useless items. A. go B. goes DIRECTIONS: Most indefinite pronouns are singular and take singular verbs. In each of the following sentences, indicate whic h verb agrees with the subject(s). 13. Neither of her children _____ like her. A. look B. looks 14. Because you read to your children when they were young, every one of them _____ in school. A. excel B. excels 15. Each of the actresses _____ she will win the award. A. hope B. hopes 16. One of my roommates _____ always leavi ng dirty clothes and wet towels on the bathroom floor. A. is B. are

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79 DIRECTIONS: In each of the following sentences, in dicate which verb agrees with the subject(s). 17. A newcomer often _____ awkward when becoming familiar with new people and surroundings. A. feel B. feels 18. The books in my library _____ collecting dust. A. is B. are 19. My mother _____ hard as a nurse to pr ovide me a home, food, and clothing. A. work B. works 20. “Time and money _____ all I need,” said the desperate businessman. A. is B. are

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80 Appendix J: Adjectives and Adverbs DIRECTIONS: Adjectives describe nouns or pronouns and generally tell which, what kind of, or how many. Identif y the adjective in each of the following sentences. 1. My father asked, “Did you know that the family moving next door has thirteen children?” A. family B. asked C. thirteen 2. The landlord promised repeatedly to repair the leaking shower, but he still has not come to my apartment to do the work. A. repeatedly B. leaking C. still 3. When the young missionary arrived on the island, men, women, and children greeted him with wreaths of fl owers and platters of food. A. young B. arrived C. platters 4. A layer of dark smog settled on the city. A. layer B. dark C. settled DIRECTIONS: Select the correct adj ective in each sentence. 5. We felt _____ about missing the party. A. bad B. badly 6. Be _____ when you cross a busy street. A. careful B. carefully DIRECTIONS: Adverbs describe verbs, adverbs, a nd adjectives and generally tell how, when, or where. Select the adverb appr opriate for each of the following sentences. 7. Just because brothers and sisters fight when they are young does not mean they will not get along _____ as adults. A. well B. good 8. Sally, our most valuable baseball player, runs, fields, and hits _____. A. well B. good 9. Because she studied for months, she did _____ on her exit examination. A. well B. good

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81 10. After hearing the news of the accident, she put the phone down _____ and ran to help. A. quick B. quickly 11. She was so _____ frightened by the dream that she had trouble sleeping. A. horrible B. horribly 12. The sheriff talks _____ but draws his gun fast. A. slow B. slowly 13. Unfortunately, Joanne performed _____ at the recital; aside from forgetting her chords, her piano was terribly out of tune. A. bad B. badly 14. Johnny wondered why he was doing _____ in his science courses, for he had always been a successful student. A. poor B. poorly 15. Larry may be slow to get out of bed, but he moves _____ when there is food on the table. A. quick B. quickly 16. The teachers had trouble persuading th e students to take their work _____. A. serious B. seriously 17. I love to walk _____ in the woods and study the trees and flowers. A. slow B. slowly 18. The students frequent complain that the instructor speaks too _____ when asking them questions. A. abrupt B. abruptly 19. If treated _____, victims of cholera, an extremely inf ectious disease, can be saved. A. quick B. quickly 20. With a gun pointed at him, the bank tell er opened the cash drawer very _____. A. slow B. slowly

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82 Appendix K: Comparative and Supe rlative Adjectives and Adverbs DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the correct comp arative or superlative adjective and/or adverb in each sentence. 1. The _____ you arrive at the station, the bett er the possibility of getting a ticket. A. more early B. earlier 2. The white kitten chasing the chameleon up the tree is the _____ of all of the kittens. A. playfullest B. most playful 3. This chocolate fudge cake is _____ than the last one you baked. A. moister B. more moist 4. The _____ job I ever had was babysitting for spoiled, four-y ear-old twins. A. worst B. worse 5. Cumulous clouds are the fluffy, cott on-ball type that we see on _____ days. A. more sunny B. sunnier 6. Of the four children, she was the _____ generous. more B. most 7. I am feeling much _____ than I was feeling yesterday. A. worse B. worst 8. They were making the _____ amount of m oney they could make and still survive. A. less B. least 9. This is the _____ sweater I could find. A. least costly B. least costliest 10. The _____ person I ever met is my husband. more kind B. most kind C. kindest 11. Michael was chosen for the basketball team because he is a _____ jumper than anyone trying out. A. better B. more better C. best 12. Even though I have had plenty of medici ne and rest, I feel _____ today than I did yesterday. A. worse B. worser C. more worse

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83 13. The new computer Jeff bought works _____ than the one he had before. A. more fast B. faster C. most fast 14. Of all the contestants in the beauty contest, I think Jocelyn is the _____. A. more beautiful B. most b eautiful C. beautifullest 15. Because of this cold weather, I am feeling much _____ than I was feeling yesterday. A. ill B. worse C. worst 16. The homemade cake my mom bakes is _____ than the one I make. A. good B. better C. best 17. If you want to earn the _____ points, you will have to work very hard. A. much B. more C. most DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the sentence in each group that correctly uses the comparative or superlative adjectives and adverbs. 18. A. The market sells fresher meat than the grocery store, but the fr eshest meat is found at Mr. Talbot's shop. B. The market sells freshest meat than th e grocery store, but th e fresher meat is found at Mr. Talbot's shop. C. The market sells fresher meat than the gr ocery store, but the fresher meat is found at Mr. Talbot's shop. 19. A. Soccer looks like a more livelier game than baseball. B. Soccer looks like a more liv eliest game than baseball. C. Soccer looks like a livelier game than baseball. 20. A. Stephanie is a more good speller than Bernice. B. Stephanie is a more be tter speller than Bernice. C. Stephanie is a bette r speller than Bernice.

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84 Appendix L: Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers DIRECTIONS: In each of the following groups, two sentences have misplaced modifiers and one is correct. Indicate the correct option. 1. A. Mike stood next to the phone booth wearing a gray suit a ll day waiting for the phone to ring. B. Wearing a gray suit, Mike stood next to the phone booth all day waiting for the phone to ring. C. Waiting for the phone to ring, Mike stood next to the phone booth wearing a gray suit all day. 2. A. We saw quite a few fast-food rest aurants driving down the highway looking for a place to stay. B. Looking for a place to spend the ni ght, we saw quite a few fast-food restaurants driving down the highway. C. Driving down the highway looking for a pl ace to stay, we saw quite a few fast-food restaurants. 3. A. Brian cooked the salmon steaks, marina ted in lemon and pepper, on the grill in his backyard. B. Marinated in lemon and pepper, Brian cooked the salmon steak s on the grill in his backyard. C. The salmon steaks were cooked by Bria n on the grill in the backyard marinated in lemon and pepper. DIRECTIONS: In each of the following groups, two se ntences are correct and one has a dangling modifier. Indicate the option that is incorrect 4. A. Swinging from tree to tree, coconuts fell on the monkeys. B. Coconuts fell on the monkeys while they swung from tree to tree. C. While the monkeys swung from tree to tree, coconuts fell on them. 5. A. His palms began to sweat when the police questioned him. B. Questioned by the police, his palms began to sweat. C. When the police questioned hi m, his palms began to sweat. 6. A. Overcome by the excessive heat, the game ended early. B. The game was ended early because the players were overcome by the excessive heat. C. Because the players were overcome by the excessive heat, the game ended early.

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85 7. A. Walking across the street, Greg tripped over his shoelaces. B. Greg tripped over his shoelace s while walking across the street. C. Walking across the street, Greg’s shoelaces tripped him. DIRECTIONS: Choose the sentence in each group that is correctly written, which does not have a misplaced or dangling modifier. 8. A. Turning the page of the book, there wa s a picture of a suns et on the Indian River. B. There was a picture of a sunset on the Indian River turning the page of a book. C. Turning the page of the book, I saw a pi cture of a sunset on the Indian River. 9. A. Opening the can, the food inside was spoiled. B. The food inside was spoiled, opening the can. C. Opening the can, I found the food inside spoiled. 10. A. Needing to be fed, I handed the scrawny dog to the attendant. B. I handed the attendant the scrawny dog that needed to be fed. C. I handed the scrawny dog to the attendant that needed to be fed. 11. A. Speaking from experience, I know that a newborn baby needs a lot of care. B. Speaking from experience, a newborn baby needs a lot of care. C. From experience, a newborn baby needs a lot of care. 12. A. Walking across the ceiling, I noticed a large spider. B. I noticed a large spider walking across the ceiling. C. I noticed, walking acro ss the ceiling, a large spider. DIRECTIONS: In each of the following groups select the sentence that does not have a misplaced or dangling modifier. 13. A. Soaring over the treetops in a hot air balloon, the view was spectacular. B. Soaring over the treetops in a hot air balloon, we enjoyed the spectacular view. 14. A. After graduating from college, a good job is very important to find. B. After graduating from college students need to find a good job. 15. A. Robert Frost was honored by Pres ident John F. Kennedy for his poetic achievements in the White House. B. Robert Frost was honored fo r his poetic achievements by Presiden t John F. Kennedy in the White House.

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86 16. A. While delivering newspa pers, storm clouds appeared. B. Storm clouds appeared while I was delivering newspapers.

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87 Appendix M: Verbs—Active and Passive DIRECTIONS: In the following sentences, i ndicate whether the verbs are active with an A and passive with a B 1. Outside of the courtroom, the lawyers discussed the verdict. 2. The verdict was discussed by the la wyers outside of the courtroom. 3. Ann was elected to the Monroe city council by the citizens. 4. The citizens of Monroe elected Ann to the city council. 5. Doors and windows were left open; books, cl othing, and small item s of furniture were scattered across the room; and curt ains, sheets, and blankets were torn to shreds. 6. Someone left the doors and windows open; scattered books, clothing, and small items of furniture across the room; a nd tore the curtains, sheets, and blankets to shreds. 7. The team that was favored won the football game, which went into overtime. 8. The football game, which went into overt ime, was won by the team that was favored. 9. The charity organization donated food and clothing to homeless shelters. 10. Food and clothing were donated to homele ss shelters by the charity organization. 11. The small audience applauded the violinist. 12. The violinist was applauded by the small audience. 13. The funds for a new superhighway we re approved by Governor Santiago. 14. Governor Santiago approved f unds for a new superhighway. DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the sentence th at uses verbs mo re effectively. 15. A. Sitting at his desk, he read several old love letters. B. Sitting at his desk, several old love letters were read by him. 16. A. Felicia wrote letters a bout the leaking faucet to th e building’s superintendent. B. Letters about the leaking faucet were written by Felicia to the building’s superintendent.

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88 17. A. Someone has al ready set the table. B. The table has already been set. 18. A. For centuries, the Nile Delta was farmed by Egyptians, who built one of the world’s great civilizations there. B. For centuries, Egyptians farmed the Nile Delta and built one of the world’s great civilizations there. 19. A. The children were drawing pictures in front of the school. B. The pictures were being drawn in front of the school by the children. 20. A. The first moving pictures were made by Thomas Edison in a small studio in Orange, New Jersey. B. Thomas Edison made the first moving pictur es in a small studio in Orange, New Jersey.

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89 Appendix N: Verbs—Present and Past DIRECTIONS: Choose the correct verb in e ach of the sentences below. 1. I _____ my coffee before I left for the office. A. have B. has C. had 2. Mr. Brown grew weary from his journey and _____ overnight in a nearby motel. A. stayed B. staid C. stay 3. To show our support, we _____ packages to the soldiers overseas last week. A. send B. sent C. sended 4. Every one of the graduates _____ to attend the class reunion. A. plan B. plans 5. It _____ a pleasure working with the investigative team last summer. A. is B. was C. were 6. Until his sister left for college this week, Juan _____ the first college student in his family. A. is B. was C. were 7. The runners _____ exhilarated about their victory in Wednesday’s marathon race. A. was B. were C. is 8. The members of the country-western band _____ and played together for years in little honky-tonks and cafs until they were offered a record deal. A. sing B. sang C. sung

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90 9. Jonathan, who _____ in the next office, has good typing skills. A. work B. works 10. David writes poems that _____ not rhyme. A. do B. does 11. The flight _____ off an hour late. A. took B. take C. taken 12. The huge manatee _____ gracefully in the warm green waters of the Gulf of Mexico. A. swim B. swam C. swum 13. This morning, I _____ in bed until I heard my mother calling me to breakfast. A. lay B. laid 14. I just ____ the book down on the counter and now I don’t know where it is. A. lay B. laid 15. Last month, I _____ from New York City to San Francisco. A. flew B. flyed C. flown

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91 Appendix O: Verbs—Perfect and Progressive DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the sentence in which the verb tense is past perfect 1. A. Reagan and Gorbachev had spoken on several occasions. B. Reagan and Gorbachev spoke on several occasions. C. Reagan and Gorbachev have spoken on several occasions. 2. A. The firemen prevented the house from burning down. B. The firemen were preventing the house from burning down. C. The firemen had prevented the house from burning down. 3. A. Before I moved to Colorado, I had learned to climb mountains. B. Before I moved to Colorado, I learned to climb mountains. C. Before I moved to Colorado, I ha ve learned to climb mountains. DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the sentence in which the verb tense is present perfect 4. A. Often, I have dreamt of being a successful doctor. B. Often, I dreamt of bei ng a successful doctor. C. Often, I dream of being a successful doctor. 5. A. The cold wind stings the r unner’s face and burns her lungs. B. The cold wind has stung the runne r’s face and burned her lungs. C. The cold wind is stinging the r unner’s face and burning her lungs. 6. A. My parents discussed m oving into a larger home. B. My parents have discussed moving into a larger home. C. My parents are discussing m oving into a larger home. DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the sentence in which the verb tense is future perfect 7. A. By the end of the semester, I will have learned all that I need to know to become a nurse. B. By the end of the semester, I will learn al l that I need to know to become a nurse. C. By the end of the semester, I learned all that I need to know to become a nurse. 8. A. When the trial is over, the lawy er proved the innocence of his client. B. When the trial is over, the lawyer w ill prove the innocence of his client. C. When the trial is over, the lawyer will have proven the innocence of his client.

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92 DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the sentence in which the verb tense is past progressive 9. A. Rebecca had been feeding her baby when the doorbell rang. B. Rebecca is feeding her baby when the doorbell rang. C. Rebecca was feeding her baby when the doorbell rang. 10. A. Susan was running in a race to raise money for diabetes research. B. Susan is running in a race to raise money for diabetes research. C. Susan ran in a race to raise money for diabetes research. DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the sentence in which the verb tense is present progressive 11. A. Antonio is going to order bacon and eggs for breakfast. B. Antonio was going to order bacon and eggs for breakfast. C. Antonio had been going to order bacon and eggs for breakfast. 12. A. The candy man will be spinni ng cotton candy at the fair. B. The candy man was spinning co tton candy at the fair. C. The candy man is spinning cotton candy at the fair. DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the sentence in which the verb tense is future progressive 13. A. The successful businessman will construct new offices across the state. B. The successful businessman will be constr ucting new offices across the state. C. The successful businessman will have constructed new offices across the state. 14. A. Who will be playing th e piano at the recital? B. Who is playing the pian o at the recital? C. Who will play the piano at the recital? 15. A. Belinda will create graphic designs for the advertising company. B. Belinda has been creating graphi c designs for the advertising company. C. Belinda will be creating graphic designs for the advertising company.

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93 Appendix P: Verbs--Progression and Mood 1 DIRECTIONS: Select the correct verb form. 1. When I was young, my mother demanded that her family _____ three servings of vegetables a day. A. eat B. eats 2. The video store manager said that if I bought two tapes, I _____ get a third one free. A. will B. would 3. If I were more diligent, I _____ be more successful in college. A. will B. would 4. My math professor gives too much home work; I wish he _____ more sympathetic toward his students. A. was B. were 5. It’s a good thing we took a map along with us; otherwise, we _____ have to ask someone for directions. A. could B. would 6. I believe that if I had gone to college when I was young, I _____ be more financially stable now. A. would B. will 7. I wish he _____ my husband, for he is kind, affectionate, intelligent, goodlooking—and rich. A. was B. were 8. If the plant _____ closed, three hundred workers would lose their jobs. A. was B. were 9. Pools of mud or water near the geysers and boiling hot springs __________ madly in the heat. A. are bubbling B. are bubbled 10. Visitors have often extolled the marv els of Yellowstone, and their friends sometimes suspect that the visitors __________. A. are exaggerated B. are exaggerating. 11. After thirty minutes of aerobic exer cises, the overwei ght club members— exhausted, sweaty, and thirsty— __________ discouraged. A. were becoming B. was becoming

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94 12. Shoppers today are more selective; they demand that the grocery store _____ a wide variety of fresh vegetables and fruits. A. offers B. offer 13. “If I _____ you,” the doctor said, “I would try to lose some of that extra weight.” A. was B. were 14. When my mother _____ a child, her diet in cluded generous helpings of meat and potatoes. A. was B. were DIRECTIONS: Identify the verb tenses used in the following sentences. 15. Certain government entitlement programs will be gaining strong support, but they may be eliminated by Congress. A. present progressive B. past progressive C. future progressive 16. A police official has the right to stop motorists whose cars are not showing a valid safety inspection sticker. A. present progressive B. past progressive C. future progressive 17. The Sunday school teacher was planning her lessons when the doorbell rang. A. present progressive B. past progressive C. future progressive 18. What advice wil l you be giving students who have just arrived in the United States? A. present progressive B. past progressive C. future progressive 19. An active force in political reformation, Miriam is running for city councilperson. A. present progressive B. past progressive C. future progressive 20. With his eyes glued to the tele vision set, Albert was sitting on the edge of his seat while watching a rerun of Hitchcock’s film classic Psycho, but during the famous shower scene, he turned white as ash and fell back in his chair. A. present progressive B. past progressive C. future progressive

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95 Appendix Q: Verbs--Progression and Mood 2 DIRECTIONS: Select the sentences in which the present progressive tense is used. 1. A. Karen’s chances of being promoted are increasing, for she is making several beneficial changes in the program. B. Karen’s chances of being promoted were increasing, for she was making several beneficial changes in the program. C. Karen’s chances of being promoted increase, for she made several beneficial changes in the program. 2. A. The prosecutors claimed that he was hiding the evidence. B. The prosecutors are claiming that he is hiding the evidence. C. The prosecutors were claiming that he hid the evidence. 3. A. Today, the Congress meets in a joint session to discuss the budget. B. Today, the Congress is meeting in a joint session to discuss the budget. C. Today, the Congress has met in a jo int session to discuss the budget. DIRECTIONS: Select the sentences in which the past progressive tense is used. 4. A. Tom was swimming in a river near the park. B. Tom is swimming in a river near the park. C. Tom swims in a river near the park. 5. A. Frightened by the hunter’s gunshots, the wild turkeys were running across the field. B. Frightened by the hunter’s gunshots, th e wild turkeys ran across the field. C. Frightened by the hunter’s gunshots, th e wild turkeys run across the field. DIRECTIONS: Select the sentences in which the future progressive tense is used. 6. A. The politician will be kissing babies and shaking hands. B. The politician was kissing babies and shaking hands. C. The politician is kissing ba bies and shaking hands. 7. A. Desiring to learn Hungarian, Eva will move to Budapest in the fall. B. Desiring to learn Hungarian, Eva is moving to Budapest in the fall. C. Desiring to learn Hungarian, Eva will be moving to Budapest in the fall.

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96 DIRECTIONS: Select the sentence in each group th at correctly uses the indicative, imperative, conditional, or subjunctive mood. Be attentive to end punctuation and verb usage. Indicative (used to make a statement or ask a question) 8. A. The teacher asked why the student wa s late to class three times last week? B. The teacher asked why the student was la te to class three times last week. C. The teacher asked why the student was la te to class three times last week! 9. A. When you do not know the meaning or spelling of a word, do you use a dictionary? B. When you do not know the meaning or spelling of a word, do you use a dictionary! C. When you do not know the meaning or spelling of a word, do you use a dictionary. Imperative (used to give commands, make requests, or give directions) 10. A. After you revise your paragraphs, take the time to analyze each sentence for correctness! B. After you revise your paragraphs, take th e time to analyze each sentence for correctness? C. After you revise your paragraphs, take th e time to analyze each sentence for correctness. 11. A. Run to the store and buy a quart of milk and a loaf of bread. B. Runs to the store and buys a quart of milk and a loaf of bread. C. Runs to the store and buy a quart of milk and a loaf of bread. Subjunctive (used to express a wish or desire; make a statement that is contrary to fact; or explain a demand, request, or suggestion) 12. A. If I were a doctor, I would have more patients. B. If I were a doctor, I would had more patients. C. If I was a doctor, I would have more patients. 13. A. Jonathan wishes he were a rich man so he could share with others. B. Jonathan wishes he was a rich man so he could share with others. C. Jonathan wishes he was a rich man so he might share with others.

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97 Conditional (used to answer questions such as What would happen if? or What happens when? ) 14. A. If I have written to my aunt to thank her for her generous gi ft, she would not be angry with me now. B. If I had written to my aunt to thank he r for her generous gift, she would not be angry with me now. C. If I had wrote to my aunt to thank her for her generous gift, she would not be angry with me now. 15. A. If Evelyn has changed the oil in her ca r regularly, she would not have had a big repair bill. B. If Evelyn changed the oil in her car regular ly, she would not have had a big repair bill. C. If Evelyn had changed the oil in her car regularly, she would not have had a big repair bill.

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98 Appendix R: Verbs—Mood DIRECTIONS: Select the correct verb form. 1. When I was young, my mother demanded th at her family _____ three servings of vegetables a day. A. eat B. eats 2. The video store manager said that if I bought two tapes, I _____ get a third one free. A. will B. would 3. If I were more diligent, I _____ be more successful in college. A. will B. would 4. My math professor gives too much home work; I wish he _____ more sympathetic toward his students. A. was B. were 5. It is a good thing we took a map along w ith us; otherwise, we _____ have to ask someone for directions. A. could B. would 6. I believe that if I had gone to college when I was young, I _____ be more financially stable now. A. would B. will 7. I wish he _____ my husband, for he is kind, affectionate, intelligent, goodlooking—and rich. A. was B. were 8. If the plant _____ close d, three hundred workers would lose their jobs. A. was B. were 9. Shoppers today are more selective; th ey demand that the grocery store _____ a wide variety of fresh vegetables and fruits. A. offers B. offer 10. “If I _____ you,” the doctor said, “I would try to lose some of that extra weight.” A. was B. were

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99 DIRECTIONS: Select the sentence in each group th at correctly uses the indicative, imperative, conditional, or subjunctive mood. Be attentive to end punctuation and verb usage. 11. A. The teacher asked why the student wa s late to class three times last week? D. The teacher asked why the student was la te to class three times last week. E. The teacher asked why the student was la te to class three times last week! 12. A. If I were a doctor, I would have more patients. D. If I were a doctor, I would had more patients. E. If I was a doctor, I would have more patients. 13. A. If Evelyn has changed the oil in her car regularly, she would not have had a big repair bill. D. If Evelyn changed the oil in her car re gularly, she would not have had a big repair bill. E. If Evelyn had changed the oil in her ca r regularly, she would not have had a big repair bill. 14. A. If I have written to my aunt to th ank her for her generous gift, she would not be angry with me now. D. If I had written to my aunt to thank he r for her generous gift, she would not be angry with me now. E. If I had wrote to my aunt to thank her for her generous gift, she would not be angry with me now. 15. A. After you revise the paragraph, as k yourself whether each sentence is grammatically correct. B. After you revise the paragraph, ask your self whether each sentence is grammatically correct? C. After you revise the paragraph, ask yourself whether each sentence is grammatically correct!

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100 Appendix S: Homonyms and Commonly Confused Words 1 DIRECTIONS: Choose the answer that best applies to the sentence. 1. Careful proofreading had a positive _____ on the grades Carl received for his compositions. A. effect B. affect 2. Registering for classes sometime s requires _____ time and patience. A. you’re B. your 3. The yellow Mustang convertible _____ us on a curve at a high rate of speed. A. past B. passed 4. I would really like a large _____ of land to build a house on one day. A. piece B. peace 5. Peter enjoyed his vi sit to the _____ of th e Battle of Gettysburg. A. sight B. site 6. _____ going to pay for the repairs to my new car? A. Who’s B. Whose 7. The following day, the _____ department warned all of the employees that there was some danger of th e corporation being sold A. personal B. personnel 8. A mirage is an optical _____ caused by atmospheric conditions. A. allusion B. illusion 9. The sleek brown seals did not know what had ruined _____ breeding grounds when the oil washed onto the beaches. A. there B. their C. they’re 10. My brother is _____ short to consid er playing basketball professionally. A. to B. too C. two DIRECTIONS: Choose the answer that best applies to the sentence. 11. Be careful not to _____ your way on those back roads. A. loose B. lose 12. The cottage by the lake is a _____ and beautiful place to study. A. quiet B. quite

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101 13. The money we have _____ will help build a family shelter. A. risen B. raised 14. The tired farmer ___ down and fell asl eep in the rocking chair on the porch. A. set B. sat 15. Al is _____ to meet us afte r class to share his notes. A. suppose B. supposed

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102 Appendix T: Homonyms and Commonly Confused Words 2 DIRECTIONS: Choose the answer that uses co mmonly confused words correctly. 1. A. I should of checked the paperwork before I started the project, but I was to busy. B. I should have checked the paperwork be fore I started the project, but I was too busy. C. I should have checked the paperwork before I started the project, but I was to busy. 2. A. It takes too to tango, as the saying goes. B. It takes two to tango, as the saying goes. C. It takes to to tango, as the saying goes. 3. A. The bare watched closely over it’s cubs. B. The bear watched closely over its cubs. C. The bear watched closely over it’s cubs. 4. A. Geneticists spend much of their time studying jeans. B. Geneticists spend much of there time studying genes. C. Geneticists spend much of their time studying genes. 5. A. After dinner, we ordered ice cream for dessert. B. After diner, we ordered ice cream for dessert. C. After dinner, we ordered ice cream for desert. DIRECTIONS: Select the sentence that uses the clearest and most formal language. 6. A. The realtor swore the house was a diamond in the rough. B. The house looked as if it were about to collapse, but the re altor assured me it was sound. C. The realtor swore on a stack of Bibles that the house was sound. 7. A. Let’s put our heads together and see if we can solve this problem on our own. B. With all of us working together, we should be able to solve this problem. C. If two heads are better than one, then together we s hould be able to find the solution to this problem. 8. A. I am not going out on a limb for someone wh o does not appreciate what I am doing. B. I am not willing to take the risk just to help someone who does not appreciate the effort. C. I am not killing myself any longe r for someone who could not care less.

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103 9. A. Larry applied to three different college s because he did not want to put all of his eggs in one basket. B. Trying to cover all his bases, Larr y applied to three different colleges. C. Larry applied to three diffe rent colleges to ensure th at he would be accepted somewhere. 10. A. Unless I get a raise soon, I’m going to have to tighten my belt a few notches. B. Without a raise, I’m going to be living from hand to mouth pretty soon. C. If I don’t get a raise soon, I’m not going to have enough money to cover even the basic expenses. DIRECTIONS: Choose the answer that best applies to the sentence. 11. I don’t know _____ scarf this is. A. who’s B. whose 12. You were not _____ to eat th e cake until after dinner! A. suppose B. supposed 13. On Sunday, the pastor gave his sermon from the _____. A. altar B. alter 14. Tallahassee is the _____ of Florida. A. capitol B. capital 15. The army had to monitor the _____ warfare overseas. A. gorilla B. guerilla 16. Amelia keeps her favorite _____ on th e left side of her closet. A. clothes B. cloths 17. How do you feel when _____ in a crowd? A. you’re B. your 18. Do you _____ yourself in the noise and excitement of a football game or a concert? A. loose B. lose 19. Does your energy level _____? A. rise B. raise 20. Are you more assertive when you are in a crowd or when you are _____ yourself? A. by B. buy

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104 Appendix U: Spelling and Homonyms DIRECTIONS: In the following section, some of the sentences contain misspellings. Indicate the misspelled word or mark “no correction necessary.” 1. The nation of Germany was once a large collection of seperate countries. A. collection B. seperate C. no correction necessary 2. My parents always payed for their automobiles with cash. A. automobiles B. payed C. no correction necessary 3. We mailed them a complimentary certif icate, but they never recieved it. A. complimentary B. recieved C. no correction necessary 4. The entire party dinned at the most e xpensive restaurant in Philadelphia. A. dinned B. restaurant C. no correction necessary 5. Ian Fleming created James Bond, the suave British secret agent with a “lisense to kill.” A. suave B. lisense C. no correction necessary 6. Rudyard Kipling was the most fameous writer of his era. A. fameous B. writer C. no correction necessary 7. There was an entire wall of shelfs built behind my desk. A. shelfs B. built C. no correction necessary 8. Michelangelo’s most beautiful work has to be the cieling of the Sistine Chapel. A. beautiful B. cieling C. no correction necessary

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105 9. Hopping for a better life than the one they left behind, many foreigners immigrate to America. A. Hopping B. foreigners C. no change necessary 10. Before the summer began, workers painted a ll the bench’s in the park bright green. A. bright B. bench’s C. no correction necessary DIRECTIONS: Choose the answer that best applies to the sentence. 11. The money we have _____ will help build a family shelter. A. risen B. raised 12. The tired farmer ___ down and fell asl eep in the rocking chair on the porch. A. set B. sat 13. Al is _____ to meet us afte r class to share his notes. A. suppose B. supposed 14. Be careful not to _____ your way on those back roads. A. loose B. lose 15. The cottage by the lake is a _____ and beautiful place to study. A. quiet B. quite

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106 Appendix V: Clauses and Modifiers DIRECTIONS: Identify the italicized portions of the sentences below. 1. Although they originated as social organizations European trade guilds eventually regulated prices, wages, and production standards. A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 2. The lost child, crying loudly for her mother was hungry and frightened. A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 3. Margaret Atwood who is a Canadian poet and novelist, has written several bestsellers A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 4. Along the dirt road we saw two small panthers in the palmettos. A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 5. When I left home and moved to the city I had no money or prospects for a job. A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 6. One of Rome’s greatest emperors Marcus Aurelius was a stoic philosopher and writer as well as a military general. A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 7. After studying Roman law, Benedict of Nursia abandoned the secular world and entered a monastery A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause

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107 8. Invented in the fifteenth-century watches depend upon a spring mechanism for power. A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 9. Emperor Frederick I of Germany who united the many small states into a nation, had a red beard and was known as “Barbarosa .” A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 10. Buddha, who was born in India was the founder of one of the world’s major religions. A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause DIRECTIONS: Choose the best revision for each italicized portion of the sentences below. 11. The plumbers replaced the waterlines w ith plastic pipe that were leaking A. No revision is necessary. B. The plumbers replaced the waterlines (w ith plastic pipe) that were leaking. C. The plumbers replaced the leaking waterlines with plastic pipe. D. With plastic pipe the waterlines that we re leaking were replaced by the plumbers. 12. Looking at the character development in the story, the novelist reveals to us surprising psychological insight A. No revision is necessary. B. we discover the novelist’s su rprising psychological insight. C. surprising psychological insi ght is revealed to us. D. the novelist surprisingly reveal s psychological insight to us. 13. Covering your driveway with a new coating of asphalt, small potholes will be eliminated A. No revision is necessary. B. asphalt will eliminate small potholes. C. asphalt. This will eliminate small potholes D. asphalt, will eliminate small potholes.

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108 14. Be sure to carefully proofread all of your written work A. No revision is necessary. B. Be sure carefully to proofr ead all of your written work. C. Be sure, to proofread all of your written work carefully. D. Be sure to proofread all of your written work carefully. DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the correc t modifier for each sentence. 15. Unfortunately, Joanne performed _____ at the recital; aside from forgetting her chords, her piano was te rribly out of tune. A. bad B. badly 16. Because she studied for months, she did _____ on her exit examination. A. well B. good 17. The _____ you arrive at the station, the better the possibility of getting a ticket. A. more early B. earlier 18. Verna sings well, Diane sings very well, but June sings _____. A. the best B. better 19. The white kitten chasing the chameleon up th e tree is the _____ of all of the kittens. A. playfullest B. most playful 20. This chocolate fudge cake is _____ than the last one you baked. A. moister B. more moist

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109 Appendix W: Fragments DIRECTIONS: In each of the groups below, there are two fragments and one sentence. Select the option that is a complete sentence. 1. A. Turning left at the light. B. When I turned left at the light. C. Turn left at the light. 2. A. Because our car would not start. B. With no other way of getting there. C. We were stranded at home a nd had leftovers for dinner. 3. A. The instructor spoke about computers. B. The instructor who spoke about comput ers and other electroni c learning tools. C. Having spoken about co mputers and other electr onic learning tools. 4. A. Learning computer skills is important. B. If you want to find a good job. C. For computers are us ed widely in industry, education, and government. 5. A. George Santayana was born in Spain. B. Santayana, an important American philosopher and poet. C. Who wrote: “Those who cannot rememb er the past are condemned to repeat it.” 6. A. Located along the path of the sun, moon, and major planets. B. Are the twelve constellations of the Zodiac. C. A constellation is a group of stars. 7. A. From the day that she lear ned that she had been adopted. B. She took on a new attitude the day she learned that she had been adopted. C. Having learned that she had been adopted. 8. A. Not having completed the assignment. B. When he reali zed he could not complete the assignment. C. He could not complete the assignment. 9. A. The beautiful Irish lace that we bought in Dublin and brought back with us. B. Because the Irish lace was so beautiful. C. Irish lace is beautiful. 10. A. My back aching for days. B. My back, which has been aching for days. C. Aching for days, my back had been injured in an accident.

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110 11. A. Nashville is the cap ital of country music. B. The capital of country music. C. Nashville, Tennessee, which is the capital of country music. 12. A. Because of his debilitating illn ess, Jeremy sometimes misses work. B. Because he suffers from a debilitating illness and sometimes misses work. C. Suffering from a debilitating illness and sometimes missing work. DIRECTIONS: In each group of sentences, select the two options that are fragments. 13. (A) Isaac Newton was born in Britain in 1642. (B) One of the greatest physicists and mathematicians ever. (C) Newton is best remembered for formulating the universal law of gravitation. (D) As well as laws of motion. (E) He also advanced our knowledge of light and optics. 14. (A) The Etruscans were an ancient civilizat ion that controlled central Italy before the emergence of Rome. (B) A primary influence on Rome. (C) The Etruscans created a sophisticated cultu re during the sixth and seventh centuries B.C. (D) Establishing both a strong army and a fairly large navy. (E) The Etruscans conquered much of Italy before their decline. 15. (A) Between 1846 and 1850, more than a millio n people in Ireland died as a result of a fungus that destroyed the potato cr op in those years. (B) Accidentally transported from America. (C) The fungus first appeared in 1845. (D) Before the blight had run its course. (E) The popul ation of Ireland had fallen twenty-five percent. 16. (A) Born to a family of Irish immigran ts in Pennsylvania. (B) Robert Fulton, a friend of Benjamin Franklin, was a tale nted painter and designer. (C) Painting miniatures as well as large panoramas. (D) He also worked on the design and development of such things as marble saws, spinning devices, submarines, canal boats, and torpedoes. (E) He is best re membered for producing the first steamboat to operate successfully on the Hudson River in 1809. 17. (A) An Italian physicist and astronomer. (B) Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy, in the sixteenth century. (C) Ofte n credited with the invention of the telescope. (D) Galileo actually only impr oved on something already invented in Holland. (E) With his improved telescope, Galileo discovered four of Jupiter’s moons, explored the surface of the moon, discovered sunspots and the phases of Venus, and mapped the Milky Way.

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111 18. (A) The longest river in Italy. (B) The Po River flows from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea, a distance of 405 miles. (C) Its complex delta opens into the sea in at least 14 different channels. (D) Depositing vast quantities of silt. (E) The city of Ravenna, once on its shores, is now more than six miles from the river. 19. (A) Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were just two of the women who met in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. (B) To demand equal rights for women. (C) Influential to generations of women seeking equality with men. (D) The Seneca Falls Conference insisted that women were the equals of men, and it demanded an equal place in society for women. 20. (A) The smoothest and most efficient hi ghways of the early nineteenth century. (B) Canals are artificial wate r routes used to transpor t people and cargo. (C) Canal barges were powered by teams of mules, which would tow them from shore. (D) Later, with the invention of the stea m engine. (E) Railroads quickly replaced canals as the fastest and cheapest means of transportation.

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112 Appendix X: Fragments, Comma Splices, and Run-ons 1 DIRECTIONS: In each group of sentences below, sel ect the option that correctly joins the two independent clauses. 1. A. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb and must express a complete thought; a word group that lacks a subject or a verb and does not express a complete thought is a fragment. B. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb and must express a complete thought a word group that lacks a subject or a verb and does not express a complete thought is a fragment. C. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb and must express a complete thought, a word group that lacks a subject or a verb and does not express a complete thought is a fragment. 2. A. Fused sentences can be difficult to rea d, they are really two sentences joined together with no punctuation. B. Fused sentences can be difficult to read they are really two sentences joined together with no punctuation. C. Fused sentences can be diffi cult to read; they are rea lly two sentences joined together with no punctuation. 3. A. In a comma splice, a comma is used to connect two complete thoughts however, a comma alone is not enough to connect two complete thoughts. B. In a comma splice, a comma is used to connect two complete thoughts; however, a comma alone is not enough to connect two complete thoughts. C. In a comma splice, a comma is used to connect two complete thoughts, however, a comma alone is not enough to connect two complete thoughts. 4. A. A semicolon can connect two indepe ndent clauses, so it should not be overused. B. A semicolon can connect two independe nt clauses, it should not be overused. C. A semicolon can connect two independent clauses; however, it should not be overused. 5. A. The Hubble Telescope allows us to obs erve distant planets scientists report discovering water in one of them. B. The Hubble Telescope allows us to obs erve distant planets, scie ntists report discovering water in one of them. C. The Hubble Telescope allows us to observe di stant planets; scientis ts report discovering water in one of them.

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113 6. A. The vase on the shelf toppled over the roses fell to the floor. B. The vase on the shelf toppl ed over, and the roses fell to the floor. D. The vase on the shelf toppled over, the roses fell to the floor. 7. A. Patience is not one of Kim’s virtues, sh e always gets angry when she has to repeat herself. B. Patience is not one of Kim’s virtue s she always gets angry when she has to repeat herself. C. Patience is not one of Kim’s virtues; she al ways gets angry when she has to repeat herself. 8. A. Tom doesn’t usually like to cook, ne vertheless, he enjoyed preparing a Hawaiian feast for his girlfriend’s surpri se birthday party. B. Tom doesn’t usually like to cook, nevertheless he en joyed preparing a Hawaiian feast for his girlfriend’s surpri se birthday party. C. Tom doesn’t usually like to cook; neve rtheless, he enjoyed preparing a Hawaiian feast for his gi rlfriend’s surprise birthday party. 9. A. Philip bounded up the stairs two at a time he was exhausted when he reached the landing. B. Philip bounded up the stairs two at a time; he was exhausted when he reached the landing. C. Philip bounded up the stairs two at a time he was exhausted when he reached the landing. 10. A. Finding the average of seven numbers is easy, simply add them up and divide the sum by seven. B. Finding the average of se ven numbers is easy simply add them up and divide the sum by seven. C. Finding the average of seven numbers is easy ; simply add them up and divide the sum by seven. 11. A. When the baseball flew over the cente r fielder’s head, the game’s outcome was no longer in doubt. B. The baseball flew over the center fi elder’s head, the game’s outcome was no longer in doubt. C. The baseball flew over the center fi elder’s head the game’s outcome was no longer in doubt. 12. A. The horses ran wild all over the island tourists threatened to destroy their fragile habitat. B. The horses ran wild all over the island, tourists thre atened to destroy their fragile habitat. C. The horses ran wild all over the island; howev er, tourists threat ened to destroy their fragile habitat.

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114 13. A. Jasmine wants to pursue a career Yolanda wants to raise a family. B. Jasmine wants to pursue a career Yolanda wa nts to raise a family. C. Jasmine wants to pursue a career, bu t Yolanda wants to raise a family. 14. A. Wilma says she wants to learn to sp eak French, she never attends her French class. B. Wilma says she wants to learn to speak French, yet she never attends her French class. C. Although Wilma says she wants to learn to speak French; she never attends her French class. 15. A. Ronaldo has enough money for a down payment for a new car he does not have enough money for the insurance. B. Ronaldo has enough mone y for a down payment for a new car, Ronaldo does not have enough money for the insurance. C. Although Ronaldo has enough money for a down payment for a new car, he does not have enough money for the insurance.

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115 Appendix Y: Fragments, Co mma Splices, and Run-ons 2 DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following are correct with an A and incorrect with a B 1. I always listen to music while I do my homework; my sister insists on silence while she studies. 2. Kirk decided to major in psychology because human behavior had always fascinated him. 3. Mr. Costa is a chemistry teacher. Who never runs out of creative ideas. 4. Stepping hard on the accelerator. Stan tried to beat the truck to the intersection. 5. Mario told everyone in the room to be quiet, his favorite show was on. 6. Luis got a can of soda from the refrigerat or; then, he walked outside to sit on the porch steps. 7. Many couples today live together before they marry; however, research shows that living together rarely leads to a happy marriage. 8. Will Kellogg was an unlikely candidate for fame and fortune, he became one of America’s great successes. 9. The sinking of the Titanic in 1912 has inspired fifteen motion pictures over the year. All of them requiring special effects. 10. Adventurers now might climb Mount Ever est or take a canoe trip down the Amazon; soon they will be paying large sums for the adventure of a lifetime— traveling in space. 11. Recent years have seen a revival of the big bands and the swing dancing of the 1920s and ‘30s; dances which require partners to fli p, slide, and dip. 12. A 1993 Harley Davidson stole the show it was a replica of Dennis Hopper’s Easy Rider cycle. 13. I angrily punched a hole in the wall with my fist, and later I covered the hole with a picture. 14. Jim wanted a new car, for he did not have enough money. 15. My sister wants to exercise more and use her car less so, she walks to school.

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116 Appendix Z: Fragments, Co mma Splices, and Run-ons 3 DIRECTIONS: In each group of sentences, select the two options that are fragments. 1. (A) Isaac Newton was born in Britain in 1642. (B) One of the greate st physicists and mathematicians ever. (C) Newton is best re membered for formulating the universal law of gravitation. (D) As well as laws of motion. (E) He also advanced our knowledge of light and optics. 2. (A) The Etruscans were an an cient civilization that controll ed central Italy before the emergence of Rome. (B) A primary influe nce on Rome. (C) The Etruscans created a sophisticated culture during the sixth and seve nth centuries B.C. (D ) Establishing both a strong army and a fairly large navy. (E) The Etruscans conquered much of Italy before their decline. 3. (A) Between 1846 and 1850, more than a milli on people in Ireland died as a result of a fungus that destroyed the potato crop in those years. (B) Ac cidentally transported from America. (C) The fungus first appeared in 1845. (D) Before the blight had run its course. (E) The population of Ireland ha d fallen twenty-five percent. 4. (A) Born to a family of Irish immigrants in Pennsylvania. (B) Robert Fulton, a friend of Benjamin Franklin, was a talented painte r and designer. (C) Pa inting miniatures as well as large panoramas. (D) He also work ed on the design and development of such things as marble saws, spinning devices, subm arines, canal boats, and torpedoes. (E) He is best remembered for producing the firs t steamboat to operate successfully on the Hudson River in 1809. 5. (A) An Italian physicist and astronomer. (B) Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy, in the sixteenth century. (C) Often credited with the invention of the telescope. (D) Galileo actually only improved on something already in vented in Holland. (E) With his improved telescope, Galileo discovered four of Jupite r’s moons, explored the surface of the moon, discovered sunspots and the phases of Venus, and mapped the Milky Way. 6. (A) The longest river in Ital y. (B) The Po River flows from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea, a distance of 405 miles. (C) Its comple x delta opens into th e sea in at least 14 different channels. (D) Depositing vast quantit ies of silt. (E) The city of Ravenna, once on its shores, is now more than six miles from the river. 7. (A) Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were just two of the women who met in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. (B) To demand equal rights for women. (C) Influential to generations of women seek ing equality with men. (D) The Seneca Falls Conference insisted that women were the e quals of men, and it demanded an equal place in society for women.

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117 8. (A) The smoothest and most efficient hi ghways of the early ni neteenth century. (B) Canals are artificial water routes used to transport peop le and cargo. (C) Canal barges were powered by teams of mules, which would tow them from shore. (D) Later, with the invention of the steam engine. (E) Railroads quickly replaced canals as the fastest and cheapest means of transportation. 9. (A) A well-ordered unit of pike-bearing infantrymen. (B) The Greek hoplite phalanx was the backbone of Alexander the Great’s ar my. (C) The soldiers wore heavy armor, carried large shields, and wiel ded swords and pikes. (D) Stoo d closely and protected each other by overlapping their shields in front of th em. (E) Entering battle the soldiers would first attack with the sharp pikes and then finish the battle with their swords. 10. (A) During his lifetime, Socrates wrote nothing down. (B) Teaching on the streets and in the open markets of Athens. (C) Socrates be lieved that true knowledge could be gained only through the process of di scussion; his method was to ask questions. (D) Insisting on the ignorance of most people, including himself, Socrates provoked the wrath of many important citizens. (E) Tried, convicted, and executed on charges of atheism and corrupting the young. DIRECTIONS: In each group of sentences below, ther e is an error in sentence structure that needs to be corrected. Indica te the type of error, if any. 11. The entire house is filled with stacks of books and newspapers. It’s impossible to find anything the place is a real mess. A. Fragment B. Run-on C. Comma splice D. No correction necessary 12. An important writer from the Age of Enlightenment, Denis Di derot published a 35-volume encyclopedia on the eve of th e French Revolution. He wanted to summarize all knowledge, he also wanted to dispel superstition. A. Fragment B. Run-on C. Comma splice D. No correction necessary

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118 13. Born into slavery, Frederick Douglass escaped at the age of twenty. By the time he was twenty-four, he was an important spokesperson for the abolition movement he published his famous biography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass when he was only twenty-seven. A. Fragment B. Run-on C. Comma splice D. No correction necessary 14. Arguing that all laws are in stituted to promote happiness for the greatest number of people, Cesare Beccaria was an eighteenth-century legal reformer in Italy. He wanted to end capital punishment and torture, he also wanted to rehabilitate prisoners. A. Fragment B. Run-on C. Comma splice D. No correction necessary 15. The term “realism” was first used in 1850 to describe a painting by Courbet, the painting was realistic. Realism emerged in the mid-nineteenth cen tury as a response to romanticism. It, too, was an ar tistic and literary movement, but unlike romanticism, which idealized the worl d, realism tried to show the world as it was. A. Fragment B. Run-on C. Comma splice D. No correction necessary 16. The first electronic, digital computer built in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania. Weighing 30 tons and filling a thirty-byfifty foot room, this computer needed 18,000 vacuum tubes; it used enough electric ity to run three 150-kilowatt radio stations. A. Fragment B. Run-on C. Comma splice D. No correction necessary 17. Fans of the Twilight Zone will remember Rod Serling’s distinct voice and manner. Serling appeared as host at the star t of each show, and his voice brought the curtain down on each episode. Serling did much more than introduce the story he was the creator of the series, a nd he also wrote many of the shows. A. Fragment B. Run-on C. Comma splice D. No correction necessary

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119 18. Romanticism was a nineteenth-century artis tic and literary movement that valued emotion over reason intuition was more important to the Romantics than formal, disciplined, intellect ual thought. Romantics believed in the spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions and feelings. In re trospect, Romanticism c ould be viewed as a reaction to the Age of Reason, which preceded it. A. Fragment B. Run-on C. Comma splice D. No correction necessary 19. Napoleon’s Continental System is a classi c example of economic warfare. Napoleon attempted to destroy Britain economica lly by blocking all of its trade with Europe. The system was a complete failure. Britain developed new ma rkets and expanded the trade around the world France was isolat ed, and its economy suff ered due to the loss of English trade. A. Fragment B. Run-on C. Comma splice D. No correction necessary 20. After the invention of the transistor, vacuum tubes were no longer ne eded in electrical devices like radios, televisions, and computers. Hand-he ld transistor radios quickly replaced the large desktop or sta nd-alone models. In addition, portable televisions entered the market, computers went from room-size to palm-size. A. Fragment B. Run-on C. Comma splice D. No correction necessary

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120Appendix AA: Comma Splices and Run-ons DIRECTIONS: Choose the option that correc tly joins main clauses. 1. We were not prepared for the number of inquiries about the position _____ we interviewed each applicant. A. ; although B. but C. ; nevertheless, 2. He had come to work late _____ his daughter was sick. A. ; therefore B. consequently C. because 3. My parents have been waiting fo r _____ they’re in the living room. A. you, B. you; C. no change 4. Before the player whished the basketball cleanly through the ba sket, the crowd was hushed _____ no one could say a word. A. ; B. C. however 5. Your application has been approved _____ you will receive a scholarship to attend the university. A. ; therefore, B. ; nevertheless, C. yet DIRECTIONS: Identify the errors in the following sentences. 6. Imagine the expression on Danny’s and Catalin a’s faces when they came back to her apartment and saw the snake wrapping itself around Joaquim! A. comma splice B. run-on C. correct 7. Danny needed a long stick so Catalina ran to her closet, pulled out a broom, and handed it to Danny. A. comma splice B. run-on C. correct

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121 8. Knowing that the slightest move would spo il the rescue, Danny carefully put the long, wooden broom handle under one section of the snake and pulled it off without disturbing Joaquim. A. comma splice B. run-on C. correct 9. They awakened Joaquim he had missed the whole incident. A. comma splice B. run-on C. correct 10. Danny brought his boa constrictor to Catalin a’s apartment, she ran out the door so fast that it seemed she disappeared. A. comma splice B. run-on C. correct 11. At first, Danny laughed, then, he r ealized she was really frightened. A. comma splice B. run-on C. correct 12. He put the snake into its cloth bag and we nt to find Catalina to relieve her fear. A. comma splice B. run-on C. correct 13. Joaquim arrived at Catalina’s apartment to find no one home, so he sat on the sofa, turned on the televi sion, and fell asleep. A. comma splice B. run-on C. correct 14. Joaquim did not know that the snake was actua lly right beside him on the sofa the snake was getting restless. A. comma splice B. run-on C. correct 15. Joaquim was soon snoring away on the sofa, the snake was gradually sliding out of the bag. A. comma splice B. run-on C. correct

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122 Appendix BB: Sentence Structure DIRECTIONS: Select the complete sentence from each group. 1. A. Because our car would not start. B. With no other way of getting there. C. We were stranded at home and had leftovers for dinner. 2. A. Turning left at the light. B. When I turned left at the light. C. Turn left at the light. DIRECTIONS: Identify the italicized portions of the following sentences. 3. Perched amid the branches, a bird called to its mate A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 4. Hannibal crossed the Italian Alps with several hundred elephants A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 5. Mythology is a collection of stories that reflect a culture’s beliefs A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 6. Perhaps he’ll disappear after the circus leaves town A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 7. After the Abbassid Revolution in A.D. 749, the capital of the Muslim world, which had been in Damascus was moved to Baghdad. A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 8. Washington’s small army camped at Valley Forge A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause

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123 9. Beguines, which first appeared in Europe in the twelfth century were communities of women devoted to charitable works. A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 10. In World War II, Germany, Japan, and Italy were the Axis powers A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 11. Hoping to reach the lake by noon, we left early A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main/independent clause 12. Although they originated as social organizations European trade guilds eventually regulated prices, wages, and production standards. A. phrase B. subordinate/dependent clause C. main /independent clause DIRECTIONS: Select the option that best combines clauses. 13. A. When the baseball flew over the cente r fielder’s head, the game’s outcome was no longer in doubt. B. The baseball flew over the cent er fielder’s head, the game’s outcome was no longer in doubt. C. The baseball flew over the cente r fielder’s head the game’s outcome was no longer in doubt. 14. A. The horses ran wild all over the island tourists threatened to destroy their fragile habitat. B. The horses ran wild all over th e island, tourists threaten ed to destroy their fragile habitat. C. The horses ran wild all over the island; howev er, tourists threat ened to destroy their fragile habitat. 15. A. Wilma says she wants to learn to sp eak French, she never attends her French class. B. Wilma says she wants to lear n to speak French, yet she never attends her French class.

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124 C. Although Wilma says she wants to learn to speak French; she never attends her French class. 16. A. Jason’s father fought in the war becau se Jason’s mother worked as a nurse during the war. B. While Jason’s father fought in the wa r, Jason’s mother worked as a nurse. C. Jason’s father fought in the war, his mother worked as a nurse during the war. DIRECTIONS: Indicate whether the following statements are true with an A and false with a B 17. A clause, a group of words with a subject and a verb, can be either independent or dependent. 18. An independent (main) clause expresses a complete idea; a dependent (subordinate) clause does not. 19. Words in a pair or a series s hould be parallel in structure. 20. Verb tense or point of view s hould not be shifted unnecessarily.

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125 Appendix CC: Commas 1 DIRECTIONS: Choose the sentence that uses commas correctly 1. A. “The most attractive sentences” accord ing to Thoreau “are not perhaps the wisest, but the surest and soundest.” B. “The most attractive sentences,” accordi ng to Thoreau, “are not perhaps the wisest, but the surest and soundest.” C. “The most attractive sentences,” accordi ng to Thoreau “are not perhaps the wisest, but the surest and soundest.” 2. A. Nanjing which is in central China is a large city. B. Nanjing, which is in central China, is a large city. C. Nanjing which is in central China is, a large city. 3. A. If the weather is nice, you may want to put on shorts, and a T-shirt or you can wear your favorite casual clothes. B. If the weather is nice, you may want to put on shorts and a T-shirt, or you can wear your favorite casual clothes. C. If the weather is nice, you may want to put on shorts and a T-shirt or, you can wear your favorite casual clothes. 4. A. Though I am dieting, I cannot resist a piece of sweet, fresh chocolate. B. Though I am dieting, I cannot resist a piece of sweet, fresh chocolate. C. Though I am dieting, I cannot resist a piece of sweet, fresh, chocolate. 5. A. It was a Mediterranean honeymoon; they fi rst traveled to Sicil y, then sailed to Greece took a flight to Cyprus and ended up in Malta. B. It was a Mediterranean honeymoon; they fi rst traveled to Sicil y, then sailed to Greece, took a flight to Cypr us, and ended up in Malta. C. It was a Mediterranean honeymoon; they fi rst traveled to Sicily then sailed to Greece took a flight to Cyprus and ended up in Malta. 6. A. The car costs $23,456, but I have only $16777. B. The car costs $23456, but I have only $16777. C. The car costs $23,456, but I have only $16,777. 7. A. The Old and New Testaments belie ved the Mennonites contained the only theological, social, and moral principl es necessary to leading a good life. B. The Old and New Testaments, believe d the Mennonites, c ontained the only theological, social, and moral principl es necessary to leading a good life. C. The Old and New Testaments, believed the Mennonites, contained the only theological social, and moral principl es necessary to leading a good life.

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126 8. A. Like some religious thinkers who preceded him, Karl Marx believed in communal property; however, according to this founder of Communism, religion was “the opiate of the people.” B. Like some religious thinkers who preceded him Karl Marx believed in communal property; however, according to this founder of Communism, religion was “the opiate of the people.” C. Like some religious thinkers who preceded him, Karl Marx believed in communal property; however according to this f ounder of Communism, religion was “the opiate of the people.” 9. A. Martin Luther was born in Eisleben Germany, on November 10, 1483. B. Martin Luther was born in Ei sleben, Germany, on November 10, 1483. C. Martin Luther was born in Eisleben, Germany, on November 10 1483. 10. A. During the era that Martin Luther bega n preaching Christian doctrine was nearly totally determined by Rome because that is where the hierarchy of the Catholic Church resided. B. During the era that Martin Luther be gan preaching, Christian doctrine was nearly totally determined by Rome, because that is where the hierarchy of the Catholic Church resided. C. During the era that Martin Luther be gan preaching, Christian doctrine was nearly totally determined by Rome because that is where the hierarchy of the Catholic Church resided. DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences are correct with an A and incorrect with a B 11. Hulk Hogan, the popular wrestler and actor a dvises his fans to drink milk and say their prayers. 12. I moved from 1015 Fox Hill Drive, Hampton, Virginia, to 7305 Melbourne Circle, Hollywood, California, on June 17, 2001. 13. The defendant, ladies and gentlemen, of the jury does not even own a red plaid jacket. 14. To earn a decent wage, buy a comfortable ho me and educate my children—those are my hopes. 15. Close to the top of Mount Everest, the clim bers paused to survey their progress and set up camp.

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127 Appendix DD: Commas 2 DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences are correct with an A and incorrect with a B 1. Students hurried to the campus store to buy their fall textbooks but several of the books were already out of stock. 2. The mechanic started the engine, fiddled with the fan belt, and announced that the problem was solved. 3. Felipe groaned when he learned that hi s exams in biology, economics, and sociology were scheduled for the same day. 4. Walking bicycling and swimming are all good aerobi c exercises. 5. Although the county issues a large number of jury-duty notices, many people find reasons not to serve. 6. Pushing and laughing the second gr aders spilled onto the playground. 7. In the middle of the thunderstorm, the lights on our street went out. 8. When the power went back on all the digita l clocks in the house began to blink. 9. Disappointed by his performance the former ice-skating champion tried to slink past the television camera. 10. My brother, who is very neat, complains that I am too messy. 11. Frozen yogurt, which is relatively low in cal ories, is as delicious to many people as ice cream. 12. Some dieters on the other hand would rather give up desserts completely. 13. The owner of the blue Ford, grumbling angrily, came out to move his car. 14. The new office building forty stories high provides a fine view of the parkway. 15. They were five strangers stuck in an elevator, so they told each other jokes to ease the tension. 16. “To learn more about lions,” the zookeeper told the visiting children “you should read the book Born Free .”

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128 17. On February 2, 1996, the groundhog saw his shad ow and predicted six more weeks of winter. 18. When bank robber Willie Sutton was asked why he robbed banks, he replied, “Because that’s where the money is.” 19. Tampa, Florida, and Birmingham, Alabama, are two of the South’s fastest growing cities. 20. Every morning he drives to school, a nd to the district office building.

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129 Appendix EE: Commas 3 DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences are correct with an A and incorrect with a B 1. On the following pages you will find an inte resting article on Florida’s wildlife. 2. I would like to go on the crui se to Jamaica but I do not have the time or money. 3. It is, in my opinion, an intriguing novel about jazz musicians who perform in the French Quarter of New Orleans. 4. John walked home quickly and finished his overdue assignment. 5. Because the teacher forgot the test the students left class early. 6. However the test was rescheduled for next Monday. 7. Mr. James who owns the old train yard s, plans to build a shopping center. 8. A nurse has to be prepared to work at night on weekends and on holidays 9. His theory, however, was wrong. 10. John have you finished mowing the lawn yet? 11. The team had to fly back home, after the game was over. 12. I should leave for the store now, but I’m too tired to walk to the door. 13. Mr. Madison, our manager, decided to take the day off and go to the beach. 14. The vicious barking dogs were take n away to the animal shelter. 15. If we do not leave soon we will be late for the movie. 16. We returned from camping in the Rocky Mountains on April 1, 2002. 17. The savory stew contains potatoe s, carrots onions and peppers. 18. Because they enjoyed the Broadway play, the audience applauded loudly. 19. We went to the mall and bought new clothes and accessories for the wedding. 20. On March 1 1995, he will move hi s operation to Tampa, Florida.

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130 Appendix FF: Commas 4 DIRECTIONS: Choose the sentence that uses commas correctly 1. A. Dr. Gordon drives a Mercedes-Benz, for he is very wealthy. B. Dr. Gordon drives a Mercedes-Benz, for, he is very wealthy. C. Dr. Gordon drives a Mercedes-Benz for, he is very wealthy. 2. A. Lois, and Jimmy are Tampa Bay Buccaneer fans and they go to every home game. B. Lois and Jimmy are Tampa Bay Buccaneer fans, and they go to every home game. C. Lois and Jimmy are Tampa Bay Buccaneer fans and, they go to every home game. 3. A. It’s hard to imagine I know but I drove all the way to Californi a in that old car. B. It’s hard to imagine, I know, but I drove all the way to California in that old car. C. It’s hard to imagine I know, but I drove all the way to California in that old car. 4. A. Castor and Pollux were the brothers of the lovely ill-fated Helen of Troy. B. Castor and Pollux were the brothers of the lovely, ill-fated Helen of Troy. C. Castor and Pollux were the brothers of the lovely ill-fated, Helen of Troy. 5. A. With the radio playing, George couldn’t hear the phone ringing. B. With the radio playing George couldn’t hear the phone ringing. C. With the radio playing George couldn’t hear the phone ringing. 6. A. Kryptonite, a greenish glowing mineral is the only substance that can hurt Superman. B. Kryptonite, a greenish, glowing mineral, is the only substance that can hurt Superman. C. Kryptonite, a greenish glowi ng, mineral, is the only substance that can hurt Superman. 7. A. In Northern Ireland, parents are anxious, so ldiers are alert, children are fearful, and the elderly are pessimistic. B. In Northern Ireland, parents are anxious soldie rs are alert, children are fearful, and the elderly are pessimistic. C. In Northern Ireland, parents are anxious sold iers are alert childre n are fearful and the elderly are pessimistic. 8. A. Considered the goddess of wisdom, by an cient Greeks Athena was the namesake of the city of Athens. B. Considered the goddess of wisdom by anci ent Greeks Athena, wa s the namesake of the city of Athens. C. Considered the goddess of wisdom by anci ent Greeks, Athena was the namesake of the city of Athens.

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131 9. A. Humphrey Bogart, who won an Oscar for his role in The African Queen is best remembered for his tough-guy films of the 1930s and 1940s. B. Humphrey Bogart, who won an Oscar for his role in The African Queen is best remembered for his tough-guy films of the 1930s and 1940s. C. Humphrey Bogart who won an Oscar for his role in The African Queen is best remembered for his tough-guy films of the 1930s and 1940s. 10. A. The freshman class trip was designed to allow students some freedom of choice, to satiate their thirst for knowledge to develop their independence, and to strengthen their coping skills. B. The freshman class trip was designed to allow students some freedom of choice to satiate their thirst for know ledge to develop their indepe ndence and to strengthen their coping skills. C. The freshman class trip was designed to allow students some freedom of choice, to satiate their thirst for knowledge, to develop their independence, and to strengthen their coping skills. DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences are correct with an A and incorrect with a B 11. The U.S. National Guard is a volunteer militia, made up of army units and air units. 12. Sitting on the deck, puttering in the garden, and making pottery, Ann delighted in summer vacation. 13. The financial difficulties of the educational system in the state stemmed from the voters’ approval of a radical reduction in their property tax rate s, the foundation for school funding. 14. Ms. Haywood’s explanations are clear well-organized and easy to understand. 15. At the turn of the century, Fre ud’s now well-known book was published. 16. “Speak louder,” a man in the back row said to the guest speaker. “I paid five dollars to hear you talk, not whisper.” 17. After her tragic death in Paris, France more than two billion people worldwide watched the televised funeral of Prin ces Diana of England on September 6, 1997. 18. Oscar took a time-exposure photo of the busy highways so the cars’ taillights appeared in the developed print as winding red ribbons. 19. A line of dancing numerals on Sesame Street kicked across the screen like a chorus line.

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132 20. Our neighborhood crime patrol escorts elderl y people to the local bank, and installs free dead-bolt locks on their apartment doors.

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133 Appendix GG: Commas 5 DIRECTIONS: Choose the sentence that uses commas correctly 1. A. When I write my first book, I will dedicate it to my beloved friends Bob, Michelle, and Karen. B. When I write my first book I will dedicate it to my friends Bob Michelle and Karen. C. When I write my first book I will dedicate it to my friends Bob, Michelle, and Karen. 2. A. Warren told his daughter to use a towel, but the four-year-old wiped her hands on her pants. B. Warren told his daughter to use a towe l but, the four-year-old wiped her hands on her pants. C. Warren told his daughter to use a towe l but the four-year-old wiped her hands, on her pants. 3. A. The guide explained the founding of the city, described recent changes in it, guided us through the narrow streets and then left us on our own. B. The guide explained the founding of the city, described recent changes in it, guided us through the narrow streets, and then left us on our own. C. The guide explained the founding of the cit y, described recent changes in it guided us through the narrow streets a nd then left us on our own. 4. A. After all those years of studying meteorol ogy at the university, Melvin still can’t explain why the sky is blue. B. After all those years of studying meteorol ogy, at the university Melvin still can’t explain why the sky is blue. C. After all those years of studying meteor ology at the university, Melvin can’t explain why, the sky is blue. 5. A. New York City which was originally called New Amsterdam was first settled by the Dutch. B. New York City, which was originally called New Amsterdam was first settled by the Dutch. C. New York City, which was originally ca lled New Amsterdam, was first settled by the Dutch. 6. A. The Atlantic Ocean can be breathtaki ng unruly hypnotizing and murderous all at once. B. The Atlantic Ocean can be breathtaki ng, unruly, hypnotizing, and murderous all at once. C. The Atlantic Ocean can be breathtaki ng unruly, hypnotizing, and murderous all at once.

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134 7. A. Someone once said, and I believe it was Ov id, that “love is a kind of warfare.” B. Someone once said, and I believe it was Ov id that “love is a kind of warfare.” C. Someone once said and I believe it was Ovid that “love is a kind of warfare.” 8. A. The matador, who was dressed in traditional garb, doffed his hat offered a beautiful seorita a rose, and bowed to the audience. B. The matador, who was dressed in traditional garb, doffed his hat, offered a beautiful seorita a rose, and bowed to the audience. C. The matador who was dressed in traditiona l garb doffed his hat offered a beautiful seorita a rose and bowed to the audience. 9. A. Canada is one of, many bilingual countri es for both French and English are spoken there. B. Canada is one of many b ilingual countries for, both Fr ench and English are spoken there. C. Canada is one of many bilingual countries, for both Fr ench and English are spoken there. 10. A. Sociologists theorize that crime remain s rampant because there is too much violence on TV too little supe rvision of children a lack of personal responsibility and easy availability of guns. B. Sociologists theorize that crime remain s rampant because there is too much violence on TV, too little supe rvision of children, a lack of personal responsibility, and easy availability of guns. C. Sociologists theorize that crime remain s rampant, because there is too much violence on TV, too little supervision of children, a lack of personal responsibility, and easy availability of guns. DIRECTIONS : Indicate if the following se ntences are correct with an A and incorrect with a B 11. We all agree Mike that you are the best bass guitarist around. 12. Countless buildings, statues, and monuments have been c onstructed, yet they have fallen into ruin while the magnificent pyramids remain. 13. During the power blackout people tried to help one another. 14. Everyone in class had to pres ent an oral report, write a te rm paper, and take a final. 15. At the banquet, Ed served a salad of juic y red tomatoes crunchy green lettuce, and stringless snap beans.

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135 Appendix HH: Commas 6 DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences are correct with an A and incorrect with a B 1. The waiter who works the late shift alwa ys has dark circles under his eyes. 2. It seems impossible to get tickets for Laughing on the Inside which is one of the biggest hits in years. 3. Charles will always remember June 10, 1985, as the day he became office manager bought a house and became a father. 4. Tomorrow morning, I plan to get up at 7 A. M. start my homework at 9 A.M. and be finished by noon. 5. The company’s latest model, a combination felt-tipped pen and lead pencil, sells for under $5. 6. Alex put lettuce, onions, walnuts, olives, and cheese in the salad. 7. The coach a cigar-chewing bully pus hed his team to first place. 8. My sister, who owns the largest jewelr y store in town, is well known for her generosity. 9. Samuel, a dedicated maintenance man, won an award for outstanding service to his company. 10. A letter postmarked New Orleans, Louisiana, came for you today. 11. Pineapples that are tart and stringy burn my mouth. 12. According to a portrait, Nathaniel Hawthorne the American author, was an extremely handsome young man. 13. Yes Harold, your photography is defi nitely on a professional level. 14. He was born in Fowler, California in the same home where his grandfather was born on July 16, 1907. 15. Inside the baby stopped wh impering and fell asleep. 16. She helped Tillie a loyal supporter of Mayor DeLuca get a job at the mayor’s office.

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136 17. The horseshoe crab, for exampl e, moves by flexing its tail. 18. The citizens of Xenia Ohio took cover wh en the tornado ripped through the city. 19. I know nothing about rap music, the st ock market, or stamp collecting. 20. Women who exercise regular ly during pregnancy usually have healthy babies.

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137 Appendix II: Apostrophes 1 DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the sentence that properly uses apostrophes. 1. A. The press has been banned from the play ers’ locker room until the dispute can be settled. B. The press has been banned from the player ’s locker room until the dispute can be settled. C. The press has been banned from the players locker room until the dispute can be settled. 2. A. The buildings water fountains have been turned off in order to save resources. B. The building’s water fountains have been turned off in order to save resources. C. The buildings water fountain’s have been turned off in order to save resources. 3. A. Macys’ Thanksgiving Day Parade has b een a tradition for more than fifty years. B. Macys Thanksgiving Day Parade has been a tradition for more than fifty years. C. Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade has b een a tradition for more than fifty years. 4. A. President Kennedy’s and President Reag an’s speaking abilities accounted for much of their popularity with voters. B. President Kennedy and President Reagan’s speaking abilities acc ounted for much of their popularity with voters. C. President Kennedys and President Reagan s speaking abilities accounted for much of their popularity with voters. 5. A. The firms headquarters is lo cated in Hartford, Connecticut. B. The firm’s headquarters is located in Hartford, Connecticut. C. The firms’ headquarters is located in Hartford, Connecticut. 6. A. The police hadn’t seen the suspec ts car at the scene of the crime. B. The police hadn’t seen the suspect’s car at the scene of the crime. C. The police had’nt seen the suspects car at the scene of the crime. 7. A. The maid of honor’s dress was two sizes too small. B. The maid of honors’ dress was two sizes too small. C. The maid of honors dress was two sizes too small. 8. A. Phils first glimpse of the Empire St ate Building’s tremendous height took his breath away. B. Phil’s first glimpse of the Empire State Buildings tremendous height took his breath away. C. Phil’s first glimpse of the Empire State Building’s tremendous height took his breath away.

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138 DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences are correct with an A and incorrect with a B 9. Somebody’s silver-framed glasses were found in Tom’s attic. 10. You can’t imagine what its like to live in St. Thomas! 11. A mechanics’ tools are his or her most important possession. 12. The sun’s rays beat down until the streets’ s blacktopped surface softened with the heat. 13. The rivers swirling floodwaters lapp ed against the Henderson’s porch. 14. Well send this applicant’s rsum to the accounting department. 15. On Thursday’s, the Childrens Museum opens at noon. 16. It’s eight o’clock and time for my favorite TV show. 17. If theres’ a logical e xplanation, he’ll find it. 18. His mother-in-law’s property is right next to the state park. 19. Lets’ meet at the coffee s hop and talk over old times. 20. The five editor’s offices overlooked the Rhine River.

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139 Appendix JJ: Apostrophes 2 DIRECTIONS: Choose the letter of the option th at properly uses apostrophes. 1. During the eighteenth century, _____ dre sses were heavy and uncomfortable. A. ladies B. ladies’ C. ladies’s 2. Mr. _____ fried chicken and rice di sh was crispy and delicious. A. Jones B. Jones’s C. Jone’s 3. The _____ locker room is on the right side of the gymnasium. A. mens B. mens’ C. men’s 4. Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, who cr eated Superman, hoped their character’s strength and morality would boost _____ spirits during the Great Depression. A. peoples B. peoples’ C. people’s 5. He found his ticket, but she cannot find _____. A. hers B. hers’ C. her’s 6. Neighbors have respect for each _____ privacy and property. A. others B. others’ C. other’s 7. Staring up at the _____ impressive skyscr apers, the young man was filled with excitement and hope about his new job opportunity. A. cities B. citys’ C. city’s 8. These ex-convicts, who have no intention of being rehabilitate d, are aware of all of the precinct’s _____ movements. A. officers B. officers’ C. officer’s 9. With _____ inflation, it’s a wonder that pa rents can find the funds to give their children a college education. A. todays B. todays’ C. today’s 10. Due to my _____ financial status, I was for ced at the age of fourteen to get a job to support my family and myself. A. families B. familys’ C. family’s

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140 DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences use apostrophes correctly with an A and incorrectly with a B 11. The editor-in-chiefs’ opinion is not necessarily correct. 12. When women’s rights are protected, men’s rights should not be violated. 13. The Beatles recorded “A Hard Day’s Night” in the sixties. 14. People’s tolerance and preferences for s ound vary; for example, some people like to play their stereos at fu ll blast while others like their music in the background. 15. Shakespeare’s plays are usually listed in three categories: the history plays’, the comedies’, and the tragedies’. 16. My three friends cars were dama ged by the tornadoes strong winds. 17. The tornado’s damaging effects were more extensive than what wed experienced during the floods in April. 18. The strenuous exercise doesn’t seem to a ffect the boy’s activity levels during the day. 19. I haven’t seen you since last summer when we met at Jim’s house. 20. Mary’s and Helen’s bedrooms are both filled with memorabilia.

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141 Appendix KK: Semicolons, Colons, H yphens, Parentheses, and Dashes 1 DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences use semicolons correctly with an A and incorrectly with a B 1. Many criminals still walk the streets; although thousands spe nd their lives trying to rid our cities of dangerous people. 2. The long-term effects of exposure to excessi ve noise may be total loss of hearing; therefore, a person is wi se to protect the ears. 3. Word processing benefits the faculty, w ho can use it to produce lecture notes and tests; likewise, it benefits the students, who can record their term papers on floppy disks and simplify their rewrites. 4. Al is attending a two-year college in the fall; he will be focusing on core courses while he determines what major to pursue. 5. Shakespeare’s plays are usually listed in three categories; the history plays, the comedies and the tragedies. DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences use colons correctly with an A and incorrectly with a B 6. Finally, they reached a compromise: they w ould stay in a chateau near the Loire, which would be cheaper than a fancy Paris hotel. 7. The elements of fiction are: plot character, dialogue, and theme. 8. He concluded with a summarizing statem ent: “According to statistics, students who pay for all or part of their own co llege education take their studies more seriously.” 9. They cannot pay their rent because: he lo st his job, she is unable to work, and their savings have run out. 10. Mr. Hirsch argued that an upper-bra cket hotel would provide better accommodations: a shining marble bath, plush dining room, and elegant meals.

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142 DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences use hyphens correctly with an A and incorrectly with a B 11. You need to exercise more self-control so you do not find yourself in such difficult circumstances. 12. Trying situations can be turned aroun d to produce life-changing results. 13. As a young man, Browning led a sheltered life ; he lived with his parents until the age of thirty-four. 14. Over two thirds of the game wa s played in a pouring-rainstorm. DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences use parentheses correctly with an A and incorrectly with a B 15. His shyness it was only a mild case disa ppeared (soon after) the lovely Lydia smiled warmly. 16. Death Valley (it can reach temperatures of 120 degrees Fahrenheit) is home to specially adapted insects and lizards. 17. Of the three great Greek (philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle), only Socrates refused to write down his ideas. DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences use dashes correctly with an A and incorrectly with a B 18. Sugar, flour, butter, nuts these are—th e ingredients of Grandma’s Christmas cookies. 19. Agatha can be very generous—when she feels like it. 20. He promised me—but he didn’t mean it—th at he would give me his tickets for Sunday’s football game.

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143 Appendix LL: Semicolons, Colons, H yphens, Parentheses, and Dashes 2 DIRECTIONS: Indicate whether the following sent ences use semicolons, colons, parentheses, hyphens, and dashes correctly with an A and incorrectly with a B 1. The new surgical procedure—is highly effective—especially among victims of heart attacks. 2. These industries declined dramatically during the Revolutionary War: whaling, fishing, and trading. 3. Mark Twain advised young people: “Alw ays do right. This will gratify some people and astonish the rest.” 4. The internal management of the Cent ral Intelligence Agency CIA is being reorganized to address past abuses of power. 5. You must buy that house today tomorrow will be too late. 6. The narrative voice communicates the ideas of the writer to the mind of the reader; moreover, that narrative vo ice has to be singular and steady. 7. Of the three great violin concerto s (Tchaikovsky’s, Mendelssohn’s, and Beethoven’s), two were considered t oo difficult to play by contemporary violinists. 8. Bastille Day (a French national holiday cel ebrated on July 14) is the equivalent of Independence Day in the United States. 9. A revised and updated chapter—Chapter—21 provides a highly practical guide to the library and the Internet. 10. Writing is seldom an easy, one-step journe y in which a finished paper comes out in a first draft. 11. In one corner was a cardboard box filled with twoand three-inch pieces of string. 12. Kierkegaard was a nineteenth-century Danish philosopher; his writings have influenced modern Christian theology.

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144 DIRECTIONS: Select the options that use dashes correctly. 13. A. Despite medical advances, major new diseases—even epidemics—continue to unleash suffering and death. B. Despite medical advances, major new di seases-even epidemics-continue to unleash suffering and death. C. Despite medical advances, major new diseases even epidemics continue to unleash suffering and death. 14. A. Don’t forget these ingredients—in the wedding cake—one cup of patience, a spoonful of considera tion, and a dash of forgiveness. B. Don’t forget these ingred ients in the wedding cake —one cup of patience, a spoonful of consideration, a nd a dash of forgiveness. C. Don’t forget—these ingredients in th e wedding cake—one cup of patience, a spoonful of consideration, a nd a dash of forgiveness. DIRECTIONS: Select the options that use colons correctly. 15. A. Among Benjamin Franklin’s many contri butions to the growth of Philadelphia were: his plan to pave and light the city’s streets, his work to establish the first hospital in North America, and his foundi ng of an academy that grew into the University of Pennsylvania. B. Benjamin Franklin made many contributi ons to the growth of Philadelphia, among which were: his plan to pave and lig ht the city’s streets, his work to establish the first hospital in North America, and his founding of an academy that grew into the University of Pennsylvania. C. Benjamin Franklin’s many contributions to the growth of Philadelphia include the following: his plan to pave and light th e city’s streets, his work to establish the first hospital in Nort h America, and his founding of an academy that grew into the University of Pennsylvania. 16. A. The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution gua rantees women the right to vote “The right of a citizen of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex.” B. The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees women the right to vote: “The right of a citizen of the Unite d States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex.” C. The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees women the right to vote, “The right of a citizen of the Unite d States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex.”

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145 DIRECTIONS: Select the options that use semicolons correctly. 17. A. Communicable diseases can be passed from one sick person to another however, they can also be transmitt ed by an infected host who shows no symptoms of the illness. B. Communicable diseases can be passed from one sick person to another, however, they can also be transmitt ed by an infected host who shows no symptoms of the illness. C. Communicable diseases can be passed from one sick person to another; however, they can also be transmitt ed by an infected host who shows no symptoms of the illness. 18. A. On Broadway, they saw the plays Death and the Maiden starring Glenn Close and Gene Hackman, A Streetcar Named Desire starring Jessica Lange and Lost in Yonkers starring Lucie Arnaz and Anne Jackson. B. On Broadway, they saw the plays Death and the Maiden starring Glenn Close and Gene Hackman; A Streetcar Named Desire starring Jess ica Lange; and Lost in Yonkers starring Lucie Arnaz and Anne Jackson. C. On Broadway, they saw the plays Death and the Maiden starring Glenn Close and Gene Hackman, A Streetcar Named Desire starring Jessica Lange and Lost in Yonkers starring Lucie Arnaz and Anne Jackson. DIRECTIONS: Select the options that use parentheses correctly. 19. A. Cosimo de’ Medici (he was the first me mber) of his family to rule Florence made his fortune in banking. B. Cosimo de’ Medici (he was the first memb er of his family to rule Florence) made his fortune in banking. C. Cosimo de’ Medici he was the first memb er of his family to rule Florence (made his fortune in banking). 20. A. The English Romantics several poets and artists (who believed in art as an overflow of powerful emotions) included the poets William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Percy Shelley. B. The English Romantics (several poets a nd artists who believed in art as an overflow of powerful emotions) incl uded the poets William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Percy Shelley. C. The English Romantics several poets a nd artist who believed in art (as an overflow of powerful emotions) incl uded the poets William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Percy Shelley.

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146 Appendix MM: End Punctuation DIRECTIONS: In this section, match the correct end punctuation with the sentence. A. period B. exclamation point c. question mark 1. According to Booker T. Washington, “No race can prosper until it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem” 2. Seventy-five miles from anywhere, Frank’ s old Buick sputtered and stalled on the edge of Route 61 3. Why do leaves change color in the fall 4. The Hermitage in Saint Petersburg, Russia, one of the world’s foremost art museums, contains the art of many civilizations and artists 5. The victim cried, “Help me--I’ve been shot” 6. The chef added two-thirds of a cup of flour and one-fourth of a teaspoon of vanilla to the recipe 7. He asked me if I had ever been to Burma 8. I have many questions about philosophy and religion 9. Do you know that New York City was originally a Dutch colony called New Amsterdam 10. The angry wife yelled, “I want to know where you have been all night” DIRECTIONS: Indicate if the following sentences are correct with an A and incorrect with a B 11. It is hard to imagine a celebrity who is not self-centered. 12. When Reginald saw the advertisement in the paper, he immediately called to ask about the position? 13. Wow, what a close call—I almost hit that car. 14. Have you ever wondered why you are here? 15. I wonder what is taking her so long to finish her telephone conversation.

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147 16. Neil wanted to know whether Lenin or Stalin was the founder of Bolshevism? 17. Jeanine shouted, “I can’t stand you any more, Ralph!” 18. She picked up her son, stroked his hair, kissed him, and ge ntly rocked him to sleep. 19. Worried about her teenaged son, Samantha pho ned all of his friends to find out where he was. 20. Mrs. Wilson asked me if I could pick up her mail while she was away on vacation!

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148 Appendix NN: Mechanics 1 DIRECTIONS: Indicate whether the following senten ces are mechanically correct with an A and incorrect with a B 1. The panoramic view of the entrance of th e Pacific Ocean to Puget Sound gave her great pleasure. 2. Bob Berger, Ph.D., holds a degree in pharmacology and biology. 3. The store is located on federal highway, not far from Spanish River Boulevard. 4. Dr. Alfred Moore is so know ledgeable that he is in demand as a speaker in many cities across the United States, such as Los Angeles, New York City, and Washington, D.C. 5. When Margaret telephoned the post offi ce to apply for a job delivering mail during the holidays, she was informed of a regulation requiring that applications be submitted in written form to the personnel office. 6. Judith worked at two jobs during the Summer; she bagged groceries and wrote about local events for the daily paper. 7. Her opportunities to garden year round, as well as the pace of her job as a Professor of English, make her life happy. 8. 55 years old, the ironworker, exhausted by years of hard work, bought a sailboat and headed South to Florida. DIRECTIONS: Each of the following sentences c ontains an error in capitalization. Choose the answer that corrects the error. 9. Clem Rogers was part cher okee indian on both sides. A. Cherokee Indian B. Ch erokee indian C. cherokee Indian 10. When Clem was sixteen, his mother ga ve him enough cattle and horses to get started as a rancher; Clem settled in Cooweescoowee county, 30 miles south of the Kansas border. A. Cooweescoowee County B. South C. Kansas Border 11. When the Civil War broke out, Clem Roge rs joined the Cherokee Mounted Rifles, a Confederate regiment commanded by chie f Stand Waite, one of the signers of the treaty in which the Cherokee had agreed to leave Georgia. A. civil war B. Chief Stand Waite C. cherokee

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149 12. Clem took part in a series of raids an d engagements along the Kansas border and emerged from the war a Captain. A. Raids and Engagements B. Kansas Border C. captain 13. When he returned from the War, he found his home in ruins, so he began anew, first as a laborer, then transporting frei ght by wagon from Missouri to Texas; with the profits, he bought cattle and began ra nching again, hiring cowboys to work the cattle. A. war B. missouri to texas C. Cowboys 14. Clem Rogers continued to do well with his cattle and horses, but in 1889, the Missouri pacific railroad laid track direc tly across land Rogers had been using for grazing and cut him off from the natural feed he needed; at the same time, the federal government opened a large section of the territory to homesteaders who poured in by the thousands. A. Missouri Pacific Railroad B. Missouri Pacific railroad C. Federal Government 15. In 1895, he sold out, moved to Claremore, Oklahoma, and became vice-president of a bank; later, he got involved in politics and became a delegate to the convention that drafted the state’s Cons titution when Oklahoma was admitted to the Union. A. Vice-President B. State’s C. constitution

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150 Appendix OO: Mechanics 2 DIRECTIONS: Choose the letters of the sent ences in which the mechanics (capitalization, italics, a nd numbers) are correct. 1. A. The Caribbean club invited Prof essor Miranda, author of the book A History of the caribbean as guest speaker at its Spring Meeting. B. The Caribbean Club invited professor Miranda, author of the book A History of the Caribbean, as guest speaker at its spring meeting. C. The Caribbean Club invited Profe ssor Miranda, author of the book A History of the Caribbean as guest speaker at its spring meeting. 2. A. No, my brother does not wo rk in the men’s department at Kmart; he works as a lease administrator for th e world’s largest real estate corporation. B. No, my brother does not work in the men’s department at kmart; he works as a lease administrator for the wo rld’s largest Real Estate Corporation. C. No, my brother does not work in the Men’s de partment at Kmart; he works as a lease administrator for the world’s largest real estate corporation. 3. A. The President of Harper Pontiac Cor poration decided to move his office to Washington, d.c. after Labor day. B. The president of Harper Pontiac Corporati on decided to move his of fice to Washington, D.C., after Labor day. C. The president of Harper Pontiac Corporati on decided to move his office to Washington, D.C., after Labor Day. 4. A. When Randolph begins College next Fa ll, he will study at Louisiana State university and work at the superdome in New or leans, Louisiana. B. When Randolph begins college next fa ll, he will study at Louisiana State University and work at the Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana. C. When Randolph begins college next Fall, he will study at Louisiana state university and work at the Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana. 5. A. I am supposed to meet Lisa and Mike at the twa terminal at Dulles Airport. B. I am supposed to meet Lisa and Mike at the TWA terminal at Dulles Airport. C. I am supposed to meet Lisa and Mike at the TWA terminal at Dulles airport. 6. A. There are 250 envelopes that need letters placed in them. B. There are two hundred fifty envelope s that need letters placed in them. C. 250 envelopes need letters placed in them. 7. A. My Mother plans to he lp me attend medical school. B. My mother plans to help me attend medical school. C. My mother plans to help me attend Medical School.

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151 8. A. Melanie Collins, m.d., will lecture on self-help programs for women at the Women in sobriety conference in Baltimore, Maryland. B. Melanie Collins, M.D., will lecture on self-help programs for women at the Women in Sobriety conference in Baltimore, Maryland. C. Melanie Collins, M.D., will lecture on self-help programs for women at the women in sobriety conference in Baltimore, Maryland. 9. A. Awarded the Nobel Prize in literature in nineteen forty-nine, William Faulkner wrote about human suffering in the South after the Civil War. B. Awarded the Nobel Prize in litera ture in 1949, William Faulkner wrote about human suffering in the South after the Civil War. C. Awarded the Nobel Prize in literature in nine teen forty-nine, William Faulkner wrote about human suffering in the south after the Civil War. 10. A. The Chicago Tribune closely followed the explo its of Sammy Sosa, who hit 66 home runs in 1998. B. The “Chicago Tribune” closely followed the exploits of Sammy Sosa, who hit sixty-six home runs in 1998. C. The Chicago Tribune closely followed the exploits of Sammy Sosa, who hit 66 home runs in 1998. 11. A. There was a shark scare at the beach this Summer, particularly in August. B. There was a shark scare at the beach this summer, particularly in august. C. There was a shark scare at the beach this summer, particularly in August. 12. A. Mary grew tired of the new england winters and moved to southern Florida. B. Mary grew tired of the New England Winters and moved to Southern Florida. C. Mary grew tired of the New England winters and moved to southern Florida. 13. A. There were 9 large theater s in this town in the 1950s. B. There were nine large thea ters in this town in the 1950s. C. There were 9 large theaters in th is town in the nineteen fifties. 14. A. Manhattan was supposedly purchased from the Lenape Indians for twentyfour dollars in beads. B. Manhattan was supposedly purchased from the Lenape indians for $24 in beads. C. Manhattan was supposedly purchased from the Lenape Indians for $24 in beads.

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152 15. A. The children waited impatiently for thei r uncle Mike to arrive at their home in the Blue Ridge M ountains of West Virginia. B. The children waited impatiently for thei r uncle Mike to arrive at their home in the blue ridge mountains of West Virginia. C. The children waited impatiently for their uncle Mike to arrive at their home in the Blue Ridge M ountains of west Virginia.