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Re-establishing place through knowledge

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Title:
Re-establishing place through knowledge a facility for earth construction education in Pisco, Peru
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Sebastian, Hannah Jo
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Earthen construction
Seismic architecture
Low cost housing
Peru
Adobe
Dissertations, Academic -- Architecture -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Human vulnerability can be characterized as people living with uncertain livelihood options, precariously settled in structurally unsafe buildings. A striking aspect of this vulnerability is the large number of people living in earthen structures within seismically active zones. This reality is exemplified by the earthquake which occurred this past summer around Pisco, Peru. The earthquake caused enormous damage to more than 80% of the adobe buildings. Although confined masonry is the preferred construction technique for families who can afford it, adobe is still the only economically viable alternative for most. Presently reconstruction efforts are focused on encouraging residents to build with reinforced masonry, but the reality is that once these volunteers leave, or their funding runs out, people living in these areas will not be able to afford to continue with these enhanced types of construction.The goal then, is to come up with a hybrid of earthen construction found in the area that incorporates what is known of structural reinforcement with found or recycled objects that can contribute to improved tensile strength. This hybrid will allow for the rebuilding of Pisco at an affordable, yet highly stable level. xxi This thesis will begin by visiting Pisco to conduct forensic studies of structural failures with documentation of physical observations and discussions with local institutions that have researched the crisis. Interviews with residents will also give insight into the events and building failures due to earthquakes as well as local construction methods. Readily available resources will be incorporated into the project in a way that should improve seismic resistance. Throughout this process research will be done on current seismic engineering discoveries in conjunction with indigenous approaches to earthen construction in comparable areas around the world.The possible construction approaches will be tested in collaboration with local Universities' Seismic testing facilities. Once established, this hybrid earthen construction technique will be applied to one of several different building typologies (housing, schools, churches, etc). The end result will be the creation of a building design that establishes an appropriate reconstruction method at an economic level that will reduce the inhabitants' susceptibility to future seismic disasters.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Hannah Jo Sebastian.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 187 pages.

Record Information

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002007047
oclc - 401320399
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002754
usfldc handle - e14.2754
System ID:
SFS0027071:00001


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ABSTRACT: Human vulnerability can be characterized as people living with uncertain livelihood options, precariously settled in structurally unsafe buildings. A striking aspect of this vulnerability is the large number of people living in earthen structures within seismically active zones. This reality is exemplified by the earthquake which occurred this past summer around Pisco, Peru. The earthquake caused enormous damage to more than 80% of the adobe buildings. Although confined masonry is the preferred construction technique for families who can afford it, adobe is still the only economically viable alternative for most. Presently reconstruction efforts are focused on encouraging residents to build with reinforced masonry, but the reality is that once these volunteers leave, or their funding runs out, people living in these areas will not be able to afford to continue with these enhanced types of construction.The goal then, is to come up with a hybrid of earthen construction found in the area that incorporates what is known of structural reinforcement with found or recycled objects that can contribute to improved tensile strength. This hybrid will allow for the rebuilding of Pisco at an affordable, yet highly stable level. xxi This thesis will begin by visiting Pisco to conduct forensic studies of structural failures with documentation of physical observations and discussions with local institutions that have researched the crisis. Interviews with residents will also give insight into the events and building failures due to earthquakes as well as local construction methods. Readily available resources will be incorporated into the project in a way that should improve seismic resistance. Throughout this process research will be done on current seismic engineering discoveries in conjunction with indigenous approaches to earthen construction in comparable areas around the world.The possible construction approaches will be tested in collaboration with local Universities' Seismic testing facilities. Once established, this hybrid earthen construction technique will be applied to one of several different building typologies (housing, schools, churches, etc). The end result will be the creation of a building design that establishes an appropriate reconstruction method at an economic level that will reduce the inhabitants' susceptibility to future seismic disasters.
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PAGE 1

Re-Establishing Place Through Knowledge: A Facility for Earth Construction Education in Pisco, Peru by Hannah Jo Sebastian of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of Visual and Performing Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Stanley Russell, M. Arch. Vikas Metha, Ph.D. Robert Hudson, B. Arch. Date of Approval: November 4, 2008 Keywords: Earthen Construction, Seismic Architecture, Low cost housing, Peru, Adobe Copyright 2008, Hannah Jo Sebastian

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Dedication To my Parents, who took me everywhere, taught me I can do anything, and never let me give up. To my Grandparents, who always supported me. And to Raul, for being my best friend through the hardest and greatest years of my life. Epic Win!

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i Table of Contents List of Tables iv List of Figures v Abstract xx Chapter One: Introduction 1 Similar Conditions World Wide 6 New Hybrid Construction Technique 10 Application of New Technique 11 Site Research 13 Chapter Two: Case Studies Adobe brick forms and Composition; Construction Case Study 17 Improving Durability of Earth Construction; African Case Study 28 Overcoming Structural Issues of Earth Construction; Reinforced Concrete Case Study 36 Reinforced Adobe Block construction: Studies at the Panelized Earth and Mat Housing Construction: Precedent Studies at the Universidad Nacional Agraria de La Molina 47 Chapter Three: History, Location and Analysis of Pisco 51 Macro LocationPeru 52

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ii Cultural History 54 Micro LocationPisco 56 Climate 58 Regulatory IssuesZoning 60 Site VisitAnalysis 27 General Building Code Requirements 63 Chapter Three: Programming 33 Programmed Facility Spaces 34 Overall Use Issues 35 Design ProgramProblems, Goals and Objectives 38 Chapter Four: Possible Site selection & Preliminary Programming Issues 66 Overall Use Issues 67 Site Issues 70 Unit Room Program List & Adjacency Diagrams 71 Chapter Five: Site Visit and Architectural Analysis 75 Chapter Six: Education Facility Programming 84 Overall Use Issues 87 Design ProgramProblems, Goals and Objectives 91 Chapter Seven: Initial Schematic Design 94 Addressing the Existing context 95 Preliminary Site Design 102 Chapter Eight: Phase I Adobe Block Housing Design 109 Phase I Residential Housing Construction 110 Housing construction pamphlet 120 Chapter Nine: Phase II Recycled Tire Classroom Construction 127 Phase II Classroom Construction 128

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iii Recycled Tire Construction Pamphlet 135 Chapter Ten: Phase III Bamboo Reinforced Dining Hall 137 Phase III Dining Hall Construction 138 Bamboo Reinforced Rammed Earth Construction Pamphlet 146 Chapter Eleven: Phase III Concrete Reinforced Administration Building 148 Phase III Administration Building Construction 149 Floor Construction Methods Pamphlet 157 Chapter Twelve: Phase IV Gallery Building Construction 159 Phase IV Gallery and Library Construction 160 Various Building Elements in Earthen Construction Pamphlet 167 Chapter Thirteen: Phase V Adobe Textile Block Church Reconstruction 168 Phase V Adobe textile block Church Reconstruction 169 Textile Block Construction Pamphlet 176 Chapter Fourteen: Conclusion and Final Campus Plan 179 References 185

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iv List of Tables Table 1 Programmed rooms and Square footages for Unit Type #1 71 Table 2 Programmed rooms and Square footages for Unit Type #2 71 Table 3 Programmed rooms and Square footages for Unit Type #3 72 Table 4 Building Program Square footages and uses 85 Spatial requirements of each area 104

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v List of Figures Figure 1: USGS Earthquake Damage Report of the Pisco Earthquake 1 Figure 2: Photo taken at entrance of Tambo Colorado Ruins in the Ica Province 16 Figure 3. Street in Pisco three days after the earthquake. 18 Figure 4. Typical building damages to un-reinforced adobe buildings 19 Figure 5. Page from dissemination booklet showing cane reinforcement Technique 20 Figure 6. Reinforced module after seismic test 20 Figure 7. Adobe block Loam Samples 21 Figure 8. Adobe Block Loam sedimentation tests 22 Figure 9. Adobe Block Materials 22 Figure 10. Adobe Block Making 23 Figure 11. Forming the Adobe Block 24 Figure 12. L shaped block system possibility #1 26 Figure 13. L shaped block system possibility #2 26 Figure 14. L shaped block system possibility #3 26 Figure 15. Tables showing the Average Density, Soil Erosion & Water Absorption of Stabilized bricks 30 Figure 16. Tables showing the Average Density, Soil Erosion & Water Absorption of Stabilized bricks 30

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vi Figure 20. Summary of block durability test results 33 Figure 21. Effect of Cement Content on Shrinkage 34 Figure 22. Effect of Cement Content on Water Permeability 35 Figure 23. Reinforced Concrete Construction building Framework 37 Figure 24. Simple and Complex Plan Shapes 38 Figure 25. Control space between building elements 38 Figure 26. Vertically irregular building forms 38 Figure 27. Vertically irregular building and soft stories 39 Figure 28. Soft story building behavior 39 Figure 30. Illustration of the integration of cane reinforcement into the layers of adobe blocks 44 Figure 31. Photo of construction of a home using cane reinforcement 44 Figure 32. Illustration showing mixing of the adobe loam to be used in brick forming 44 Figure 33. Photo of Camote and his son during a visit to their adobe Factory 44 Figure 34. Illustration showing drying of the formed adobe blocks 45 Figure 35. Photo of formed adobe blocks drying at Camotes Factory 45 Figure 36. Illustration showing corner attachments for wall intersections and corners 45 Figure 37. Photo of an exposed footing on the experimental modules from a visit to the seismic testing laboratory at PUCP 45 Figure 38. Illustration showing the attachment method for application of geomesh to the exterior of a new building 45

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vii Figure 39. Interior photo of window and exposed plastic ties on a module at PUCP 45 Figure 40. Illustration tieing of the geomesh to the exposed plastic ties 46 Figure 41. Photo of the exterior of one of the testing modules at PUCP showing the attached geomesh 46 Figure 42. Illustration showing the attachment of the roof structure to the wooden ring beam 46 Figure 43. Photo of construction of the ring beam and attachment of roof elements 46 Figure 44. Photo taken of an Illustration presented explaining the building components and its assembly for the Casa Tortuga 47 Figure 45. Photo of the roof construction of one of these homes at a Rural farm outside of Lima 49 Figure 46. Photo of the application o the mud plaster to the outside of the house. 49 with similar construction to Casa Tortuga 50 Figure 49: Photo taken of Tambo Colorado Ruins in the Ica Province 51 Figure 50. Illustrative Map and Section of Perus Geography 52 Figure 51. Photos and Sketches of Inca sites 54 Figure 52. Photo of Chan Chan 54 Figure 53. Photos and Sketches of Chan Chan sites 55 Figure 54. Location of Pisco within the Ica region 56 Figure 55. The 8 districts of Pisco 57 Figure 56. Average Day-lighting 58 Figure 57. 24-hour average Temperature 58

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viii Figure 58. Average annual rainfall 59 Figure 59. Peruvian seismic zoning map for design 60 Figure 61. Ground zoning map of Pisco by CISMID 61 Figure 62. Soil type shear resistance and stratum thickness 62 Figure 63. Soil Parameters by type 62 Figure 64. U-Factor requirements by building Category 64 Figure 65. Category and Structure of Buildings 65 Figure 67. Pisco Peru, overall town arial 67 Figure 68. Pisco Peru, Site possibility #1 by Plaza Mayor 68 Figure 69. Pisco Peru, Site possibility #2 Near Beach 68 Figure 70. Spatial relationship diagram of rooms in Unit Type #1 71 Figure 71. Spatial relationship diagram of rooms in Unit Type #2 71 Figure 72. Spatial relationship diagram of rooms in Unit Type #3 72 Figure 73. Spatial relationship diagram for overall cluster organization Type #1 72 Figure 74. Spatial relationship diagram for overall cluster organization Type #2 73 Figure 75. Spatial relationship diagram for overall cluster organization Type #3 73 Figure 76. Spatial relationship diagram for overall cluster organization Type #4 74 Figure 77. Photo of the Church existing on site prior to the earthquake 75 Figure 78. Site Location and surrounding conditions in Pisco 76

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ix Figure 79. Site Location and Appropriate solar orientation 77 Figure 80. FigureGround conditions surrounding site Before Earthquake 78 Figure 81. FigureGround conditions surrounding site After Earthquake 79 Figure 82. Land use diagram of area surrounding site (PreEarthquake) 80 Figure 83. Population density and common Gathering areas (PreEarthquake) 81 Figure 86. Early Diagram Showing integration of sustainable education facilities 84 Figure 87. Adjacency diagrams showing relationships between the major program components, and the adjacent street edges 86 Figure 88. Conceptual diagram showing how the Education facilities portion of the program can be used to create a threshold between the private living quarters and the public community facilities 89 Figure 89. Organization of outdoor spaces to improve Privacy gradient 90 Figure 90. Photo Facing site taken after the Earthquake 94 Figure 91. Sketch showing the pre-earthquake sectional qualities through the main plaza, the cathedral block, and the proposed site block 95 Figure 92. Sketch showing the pre-earthquake sectional qualities the plaza and commercial center one block south of the site 95 Figure 93. Sketch showing the pre-earthquake sectional qualities of a typical residential neighborhood 96 Figure 94. General Organizational Diagram of how the Program is as a gradient between the pubic street edge and the private residential spaces 96

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x Figure 95. Diagrammatic aerial showing the solid street edge created by the new buildings with 1 entrance off the existing plaza 97 Figure 96. Perspective showing the street level conditions that would be created with the massing of possibility A 97 Figure 97. Diagrammatic aerial showing the maintained street edge with additional entries mid block and at the east 98 Figure 98. Perspective showing the street level conditions that would be created with massing of possibility B 98 Figure 99. Diagrammatic aerial showing breaking down of the street edge to create more entry at a larger scale 99 Figure 100. Perspective showing the street level conditions that would be created with the massing of possibility C 99 Figure 101. Diagrammatic aerial showing how the openings along the main road can be used to draw people into the activities of the construction yard 100 Figure 102. diagrammatic aerial showing the centralization of the construction yard within the block. 100 Figure 103 Diagrammatic aerial showing how maintaining the street edge allows for private areas within the residential area. 101 Figure 104. diagrammatic aerial showing the centralization of the construction yard within the block. 101 Figure 105. diagrammatic aerial showing the privatization of the residential area 101 Figure 106. Illustration of the Functional organization on the Site 102 Figure 107. diagrammatic aerial showing the preliminary design with a centralized construction yard, main entry off the memorial plaza,

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xi and secondary entrances off the main street. 103 Figure 108. Aerial view of the completed Phase I Residential units 105 Figure 109. Aerial view of the completed Phase II preliminary education facilities 106 Figure 110. Aerial view of the completed Phase II preliminary education facilities 106 Figure 111. Aerial view of the completed Phase IV Gallery and Library 107 Figure 112. Conceptual Perspective of the Completed Phase V Church Reconstruction 107 Figure 113. Completed Scheme Phase V -Preliminary Site plan showing the varying phases and program areas within the site block 108 Figure 114. Plan showing location of Phase one within site in pink 109 Figure 115. Conceptual illustrations of the corner reinforcement strategy 110 Figure 116. Conceptual illustrations of the corner reinforcement strategy 110 Figure 117. drawings of the existing block modules common to adobe home construction in Peru, and the dimensions of the proposed block sizes for the new attachment strategies 111 Figure 118. diagram of possible implementation of the proposed block module attachment strategies 111 Figure 119. First and Second Floor House plans showing layout and overall symmetry of plan shape 112 the occupied hours of the morning 113 Figure 121. conceptual illustration of the corner reinforcing block used to tie in the posts for the roof structure above. 114 Figure 122. Rendered corner section showing construction details from

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xii and the roof attachments 115 Figure 123. Birds eye view of completed individual house showing its relationship to the street edge 116 Figure 124. East Elevation of a housing cluster within the site context 116 Figure 125. Transverse section through house 117 Figure 126. Longitudinal section through house 117 Figure 128. Photo of Final Section Model, view from interior 120 Figure 129. Photo of Final Housing Section Model, view of stairway and kitchen showing elements attached via new block typology 119 Figure 130. Illustration showing the layout of the building on the site 120 Figure 132. illustration showing components of the concrete footing mixture 121 Figure 133. llustration showing the addition of stones to the concrete footings 122 Figure 134. illustration showing the framework for the above ground portion of the footing 122 Figure 135. Illustration showing the addition of stones to the concrete footings 123 Figure 136. Plan of the foundation layout and positioning of rammed earth piles at wall corners and connections 123 Figure 137. Illustration showing the digging of the pile holes and continuous footing 124 Figure 138. Illustration showing setting of the piles and ramming the surrounding earth 124 Figure 139. Illustration showing setting of the bamboo reinforcing

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xiii into the concrete footing 125 bricks on top of the concrete footing 125 of adobe bricks 125 Figure 142. Illustration showing corner condition for the second layer of adobe bricks 126 Figure 143. Illustration showing corner condition of the second Figure 144. Plan showing location of Phase two within site in pink 127 Figure 145. Photo of the Yancey Chapel 128 Figure 146. Photo of the Shiles house construction 128 Figure 147. Localized plan of the classrooms and construction yard 129 Figure 148. Rendered corner of the classroom pods showing construction details for the varying wall systems and their relationships with each other 130 Figure 149. Detailed section of the construction of the tire wall and foundation 131 Figure 150. Section showing the relationship of the classrooms to the depressed construction yard 132 Figure 151. Rendering of the preliminary design of the classroom pods 133 Figure 152. Perspective looking at the activities in the construction yard from within a classroom. 133 Figure 153. Photo of Final Classroom Section Model, view from the construction yard 134 Figure 154. Photo of the Final Classroom Section Model, Side view into class. 134

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xiv Figure 157. Illustration showing a person checking that the wall has been laid level 135 Figure 158. Illustration showing a stacked tire wall and a possible layout 136 Figure 159. Illustration of the placing of chicken wire over tires to hold the system in place 136 Figure 161. Plan showing location of Phase three dining hall within site in pink 137 Figure 162. Section of the earthquakeresistant low cost housing prototype developed by the BRL in Guatemala 1978. 138 Figure 163. Section of the earthquakeresistant low cost housing prototype developed by the BRL in Guatemala 1978. 138 Figure 164. Photo of the Completed Xavier residence. 139 Figure 165. Photo of the Xavier residence wall panels under construction 139 Figure 166. Rendered corner showing the basic building elements of the dining hall including the buttress walls, and the Figure 167. Floor Plan of Dining Hall and Kitchen Building with outdoor covered dining patio 141 Figure 168. Rendered perspective showing the breezeway and patio between the dining hall and kitchen 142 Figure 169. Transverse Section through Dining Hall 143 Figure 170. South Elevation of Dining Hall 143 Figure 171. Photo of Final Dining Hall Section Model, aerial

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xv view showing dining space and entry to patio 144 Figure 172. Photo of Final Dining Hall Section Model, interior view showing roof structure and seating between buttress walls 144 Figure 173. Photo of Final Dining Hall Section Model, interior view through dining area and patio with exposed bamboo structure 145 Figure 174. Illustration of the construction of the rammed earth framework 146 Figure 175. Illustration of the construction of the rammed earth framework 146 Figure 176. Illustration of the ramming of earth into the wooden frames 146 Figure 177. Illustration of rammed earth frameworks and the process of moving the framework as the wall is built up 147 Figure 178. Illustration of rammed earth frameworks and the process of moving the framework as the wall is built up 147 Figure 179. Illustration of ramming the earth around the already placed vertical bamboo reinforcement 147 Figure 180. Plan showing location of Phase three administration building within site in pink 148 Figure 181. Rendering of the Structural load distribution in the Administration Building 150 Figure 184. Transverse section A through the Administration Building 153 Figure 185. Perspective of the walkway between the Administration Building and the Dining Hall 153 Figure 186. Longitudinal section B through Administration Building 154 Figure 187. South Elevation of the Administration Building 154 Figure 188. Photo of Final Administration Building Section Model, view from street 155

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xvi Figure 189 Photo of Final Administration Building Section Model, areal view from west of roof top terrace 155 Figure 190. Photo of Final Administration Building Section Model, areal view 156 the foundation 157 covering the plywood layer with earth 157 Figure 195. Illustration of the process of tamping the earth into the wood divisions for the control joints 158 Figure 197. Plan showing location of Phase four Gallery and Library building within site in pink 159 Figure 198. Perspective of the main site entry plaza looking towards the Gallery on the right 160 Figure 199. Floor Plan of Gallery and Library Building and garden 161 Figure 200. Rendering of the corner showing the intersection of the rammed earth garden wall and the diagonal adobe textile wall 162 Figure 201. Section A through Gallery building showing the garden enclosure, reception area, library stacks, and main entrance 163 Figure 202. Section B through Gallery building showing the library stacks, Gallery display area, and garden enclosure 163

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xvii Figure 203. North Elevation of Gallery and Library Building 164 Figure 204. Perspective of Gallery garden area enclosed by the rammed earth wall 165 Figure 205. Photo of Final Gallery Section Model, view from walkway by the church showing entry from gallery to garden 165 Figure 206. Photo of Final Gallery Section Model, view from inside looking out to garden 166 Figure 207. Photo of Final Gallery Section Model, view from plaza looking at rammed earth garden wall and diagonal adobe textile wall 166 Figure 208. Illustrations of wall joint conditions 167 Figure 209. Illustrations of window attachment conditions 167 Figure 210. Illustrations of roof construction; setting the bamboo in place on the roof joists 167 Figure 211. Illustrations of roof construction; fastening the bamboo to the joists with wood strips 167 Figure 212. Illustrations of roof construction; laying cane mat on top of bamboo 167 Figure 213. Illustrations of roof construction; sealing the roof with adobe plaster 167 Reconstruction within the site in pink 168 Figure 215. Photo of the Freeman House textile blocks 169 Figure 216. Section of the Freeman House textile blocks 169 Figure 217. Plan showing the design of the Freeman house textile blocks 169 Figure 218. Photo of the steel reinforcing in the channel between the blocks 169

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xviii Figure 219. Conceptual Renderings of the textile block system established by Wright 170 Figure 220. Conceptual Renderings of the textile block system proposed adobe adaptation 170 Figure 221. Sketch of the design for the Toledo House in Bilbao, Spain 171 Figure 222. Photos of the design for the Toledo House in Bilbao, Spain 171 Figure 223. Plan of the Reconstruction of the Church (phase V) 172 Figure 224. Section A through church illustrating the framework for the roof spanning the nave 173 Figure 225. Transverse section B through the nave of the church 173 Figure 226. Photo of Final Church Section Model, view through the side aisle towards the transept 174 Figure 227. Photo of Final Church Section Model, view of the diagonal block construction in the transept 175 Figure 228. Photo of Final Church Section Model, view of the roof assembly 175 Figure 229. Illustration of the formwork for the plinth of the adobe textile block walls 176 Figure 230. Illustration showing the placement of the adobe blocks into the bamboo skeleton 176 scratch coats to the exterior of the completed walls 177 Figure 232. Illustrations showing the application of the second mud scratch coats to the exterior of the completed walls 177 coat to the church exterior 177 Figure 234. Diagram showing the daily activity usage of pisco 178

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xix Figure 235. Matrix showing the comparisons of proposed construction methods by cost and technical skill 179 Figure 236. Final Campus Site plan of the Pisco Earth Construction Education Facility 180 Figure 241. Transverse campus section 182 Figure 242. Photo of Final Campus Site Model, view from residential corner 183 Figure 243. Photo of Final Campus Site Model, view from church plaza 183 Figure 244. Photo of Final Campus Site Model, view from above 184

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xx Re-establishing Place Through Knowledge; A Facility for Earth Construction Education in Pisco, Peru Hannah Jo Sebastian ABSTRACT Human vulnerability can be characterized as people living with uncertain livelihood options, precariously settled in structurally unsafe buildings. A striking aspect of this vulnerability is the large number of people living in by the earthquake which occurred this past summer around Pisco, Peru. The earthquake caused enormous damage to more than 80% of the adobe buildings. who can afford it, adobe is still the only economically viable alternative for most. Presently reconstruction efforts are focused on encouraging residents to build with reinforced masonry, but the reality is that once these volunteers leave, or their funding runs out, people living in these areas will not be able to afford to continue with these enhanced types of construction. The goal then, is to come up with a hybrid of earthen construction found in the area that incorporates what is known of structural reinforcement with found or recycled objects that can contribute to improved tensile strength. This hybrid will allow for the rebuilding of Pisco at an affordable, yet highly stable level.

PAGE 23

xxi This thesis will begin by visiting Pisco to conduct forensic studies of structural failures with documentation of physical observations and discussions with local institutions that have researched the crisis. Interviews with residents will also give insight into the events and building failures due to earthquakes as well as local construction methods. Readily available resources will be incorporated into the project in a way that should improve seismic resistance. Throughout this process research will be done on current seismic engineering discoveries in conjunction with indigenous approaches to earthen construction in comparable areas around the world. The possible construction approaches will be tested in collaboration with local Universities Seismic testing facilities. Once established, this hybrid earthen construction technique will be applied to one of several different building typologies (housing, schools, churches, etc). The end result will be the creation of a building design that establishes an appropriate reconstruction method at an economic level that will reduce the inhabitants susceptibility to future seismic disasters.

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1 Chapter One Introduction Figure 1: USGS Earthquake Damage Report of the Pisco Earthquake 1 1 Earthquake Summary Poster. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/eqarchives/poster/2007/20070815.php (accessed 11/17/2008, 2008).

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2 As Architecture students, it can be inferred that not only do we have a duty to build safe and habitable spaces, but aesthetically pleasing ones as well. This is a given when dealing with a wealthy client or organization, but what about those throughout the world who go without proper dwellings or consideration of ways to improve the quality of ones life, simply due to the fact that it is not economically feasible? In a world where globalization is bringing cultures closer together and creating greater social awareness, we as emerging architects, should not only use our wide range of knowledge to help the immediate areas less fortunate. According to UNEPs Global Resource Information Database (GRID) Europe and UNDP, 118 Million people are exposed annually to earthquakes (magnitude higher than 5.5 on Richter Scale) Of these incidences, those most vulnerable are located in developing regions such as the Middle East (Turkey, Iran), Central America, the Andes of South America (Peru, Chile), India/ Kashmir, and Central Asia/ Japan. 1 Due to the economic status of many of the regions located in seismically active areas, there is a greater proportion of mortality, and lower resiliency as far as the countries ability to recover from such disasters. When comparing earthquake risk with other natural risks it is informative to see that, while the probability is low, the earthquake risk is far above the risk from other natural hazards. 2 Mortality in these regions increases exponentially compared to other disasters often because of remoteness and lack of health facilities, communication and infrastructure, unregulated or informal construction, and most importantly, the economic capacity to build seismically resistant structures.

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3 This implies that earthquake damage increases strongly with decreasing occurrence probabilities, which in turn means that the largest ones are rare but very destructive. This indicates that at any given location one cannot rely on human lifetime memory as a basis for precautionary measures: science is needed instead. 3 Earthquake disasters are of course caused by the combination of strong ground shaking and buildings having low structural capacity, thus showing a poor performance during earthquake action and being unable to withstand the shaking without damages. Two main factors that therefore can turn an earthquake into a disaster are the vulnerability of (inadequately constructed) buildings, and unfavorable soil conditions beneath the building. The latter will amplify ground shaking effects and in some cases even contribute to liquefaction or sliding. 4 An overwhelming illustration of the impact of these two factors can be seen in the earthquake that occurred this past summer in the town of Pisco Peru. This earthquake took place at the boundary between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates which are shown to be converging at a rate of 78 mm per year. The earthquake occurred as thrust-faulting on the interface between the two plates, with the South American plate moving up and seaward over the Nazca plate. 5 Generally speaking the prevailing construction technique of the areas built environment consists of a wide range of vernacular (adobe) buildings. Being by improved with time as a response to the requirements of their social and physical radically differentiate them from other types of non-engineered constructions. In

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4 a permanent trial and error process, they are able to reach an asymptotic and changing in response to the new circumstances. The problem arises in the fact that only certain types of vernacular buildings, notably those with low mass and properly used tensile resistant materials, may prove seismically adequate for earthquake resistance To complicate the situation even more, as a result of human desire to move to more urban areas, there are many instances of vernacular solutions that had proven adequate for often rural, low-seismic environments, but when reproduced in cities and regions of higher seismicity, the result is very vulnerable constructions. A unique paradox is that in many cases, the exposure to modern technology and engineered constructions has worsened the situation. The and construction details, appropriate for modern engineering materials, but when applied to vernacular materials and construction methods it proves unsuitable. 6 The main concern that arises with these types of structures is that in spite of the tremendous incidences in terms of loss of lives, the societies at large are unable to address, much less solve the problem, due mainly to a lack of resources. Unfortunately in many cases this leaves the communities unattended in their efforts to rebuild their community after a disaster, highlighting the issue of inadequate construction practices. All too frequently, after the widespread destruction caused by a strong earthquake, the survivors rebuild their homes using materials from the rubble as well as reproduce the same technical guidance or supervision, this perpetuates a vicious cycle of death and

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5 destruction. However necessary, any engineering involvement would be doomed to failure unless it is rooted in a genuine appreciation to the wisdom of vernacular constructions as well as pays careful considerations to those processes. All of these issues bring up the role of earthquake design and the urgent task of improving the seismic safety of vernacular buildings, not only to protect the lives and possessions of the millions of people that still live in these types of construction, but to rescue, improve and disseminate successful solutions. Requirements for Shelter Before the particular construction methods are discussed, it is important to address a general framework for what will be achieved in the manifestation of a building. Although as architects it is agreed that the aesthetic quality of a building is of high importance, given the conditions that this thesis aims to attend to, more basic requirements for shelter shall be looked at. While the end result may be a more community-oriented building, it is important to start with ones most basic needs as a guide for the projects ultimate goal. According to the UN Covenant on the right to adequate housing, countries must recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. 7 The human right to adequate housing, which is thus derived from the right to an adequate standard of living, is of central importance for the enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights. When discussing the right to adequate housing, it should not be looked at as simply the shelter provided by having a roof over ones head as is seen in the current tent cities throughout Pisco which provide temporary means while

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6 adequate structures are replaced. All too often in such vulnerable situations where disasters strike, temporary solutions become permanent settlements. These conditions emphasize the importance of creating a method that can be individually implemented that leads to people living somewhere in security, peace and dignity. As both the Commission on Human Settlements and the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000 have stated: Adequate shelter means ... Adequate privacy, adequate space, adequate security, adequate lighting and ventilation, adequate basic infrastructure and adequate location with regard to work and basic facilities all at a reasonable cost. 8 While adequacy is determined in part by social, economic, cultural, climatic, ecological and other factors, there are a number of common minimums that should be applied when discussing adequate housing. In general, there should be sustainable access to natural and common resources, safe drinking water, energy for cooking, heating and lighting, sanitation and washing facilities, means of food storage, refuse disposal, site drainage and emergency services. In addition there should be consideration to the Cultural Adequacy of a dwelling, the way housing is constructed, the building materials used and the policies supporting these must appropriately enable the expression of cultural identity and diversity of housing. Activities geared towards development or modernization in the housing sphere should ensure that the cultural dimensions of housing are not 9 Similar Conditions World Wide While the focus area for this research is Peru, it is important to note that there are a number of other locations around the world that have similar climactic

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7 and cultural conditions as well as comparable seismic vulnerability. Locally a great deal can be learned from the traditions of Inca and pre-Inca cultures and their approaches to earthen construction. There is also a wealth of information available from the examination of more distant locations mentioned before. Vernacular approaches in these areas range from wattle and daub, earth bag architecture, and varying techniques for rammed earth. Of particular interest to this thesis is the historical implementation of earthen construction such as adobe mud blocks, which is of the oldest and most widely used building materials. Use of these sun-dried blocks dates back to 8000 B.C. 10 The use of adobe is very common in some of the worlds most hazard-prone regions, such as Latin America, Africa, the Indian subcontinent and other parts of Asia, the Middle East, and southern Europe. Around 30% of the worlds population live in earth-made construction, 50% of which are located in developing countries, including the majority of the rural population and at least 20% of the urban and suburban population. 11 By and large, mainly low-income rural populations use this type of construction. An extraordinary local example of earthen construction innovation can be seen on the coast of Peru around Trujillo at Chan Chan. This culture thrived more than 750 years ago, and was a monument of the building potential of adobe taking on more intricate forms than ever before seen, while at the same time, maintaining the structural integrity of the material. The walls were said to important in store rooms, while maintaining the strength of the wall system. 12 Such innovations in traditional construction techniques can provide valuable

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8 information in the exploration of an improved hybrid of earthen construction, providing further reason to explore the varying traditional construction techniques found in areas throughout the world that have conditions similar in regard to seismic vulnerability as those found in Pisco. Available Materials & Techniques Upon the discovery of possibly applicable earthen construction techniques to this thesis, more localized conditions must be determined to then further the research of a new approach to vernacular construction. A currently explored technique that may provide an impetus for this new technique is Quincha construction. Quincha technology has been used in parts of Peru for many centuries. Traditionally, a quincha house would have a round pole frame interwoven to form a matrix which is then plastered with one or more layers of earth. 13 The 1746 earthquake, which had a devastating impact upon the city of Lima, triggered much wider use of quincha due to its improved seismic resistance. The question is, can these previous advances in earthen construction now be taken a step further and integrated with present day, easily accessible materials such as recycled plastics, wire mesh, discarded cans and bottles. ways in which varying forms of mesh can be applied to the exterior of an adobe structure, exponentially increasing its seismic resistance. 14 The next step would be to integrate this application into the connections of the building instead of it remaining a surface treatment. This integration of techniques should ultimately result in a new Hybrid construction method that can become a preventative measure as opposed to a post disaster solution. Importance of Hybrid Design

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9 Along with the structural stability of buildings, given the intimate nature of vernacular construction there is a particular emphasis placed on meeting more personal needs such as a limited cost of construction, In this case there is not only a concern for achieving a new form that the occupant will be proud of, but also keeping the approach cost effective and within their capabilities to be constructed by hand. By taking the knowledge we have gained from modern technological research in seismic design there should be a way this disjunction between vernacular and technological can be resolved creating a new type of design. In coming up with this new hybrid vernacular, there is a multitude of issues that need to considered beyond the design and stability of the resulting building. Certainly the cost and methods of construction are important as well as the available technology and materials to be used in the structure. If we are to classify these elements into two basic categories; form and context, the challenge then would be to achieve a balance between the two. The context solution. 15 structural stability of the building. Not only must the building resist gravitational loads, but it also must maintain itself despite ground settlements, temperature changes, and in extreme cases, earthquakes and strong winds. The next important item of concern is service, whether its resulting a place for social interaction. In addition to the functional requirements of the

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10 inhabitants, the buildings relationship to its surroundings has an impact on its success. In many cases of structural failure of buildings in an urban environment (in Las Flores, Lima for example) are due to the addition of a building that was not well though out in terms of its affect on the existing context. New Hybrid Construction Technique In todays engineered constructions there are a number of principles that have proven desirable for the creation of an earthquake resistant building. While all of the elements are not required, the more a building employs, the better they will withstand the extreme events of ground shaking and other effects that are requirement to achieve is a proper selection of the building site. A second principle to be considered in earthquake resistant design is the lightness of the building. The reason this is important is that the speed induced inertia forces against a building during an earthquake are in direct proportion to the masses of the buildings and their contents. 16 Another reason the weight of a building is important is that the lighter a building is the lower the chances of serious injury or death in the event of the buildings collapse. When choosing construction materials, properties such as strength, toughness, ductility, lightness, viscous energy dissipation, and resistance to weather effects are not only necessary under normal conditions, but crucial in the event of an earthquake. While all are important, for seismic resistance the most important is materials with the capacity to resist tensile forces, as horizontal ground shaking is very likely to induce these stresses. 17 The most indispensable element of a buildings formal design for proper earthquake resistance is a concern for structural symmetry and regularity. This applies not only to the plan of the building but the elevation as well. The

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11 principles of symmetry and compactness come into play because one objective is avoiding the irregular distribution of forces induced by the earthquake. 18 By applying these rules derived form contemporary seismic research to more traditional construction techniques employed locally, a typological framework can be established. In conjunction with research already being done at some of the universities in Peru, many of these methods can be appropriately tested for their seismic resistance. Once the most successful technique has been determined, it can then be applied to a building within the town of Pisco that is in need of reconstruction. Application of New Technique The groundwork in the determination of this new construction technique must begin by compiling the existing seismic research that is available, in an effort to come up with some preliminary assumptions of how earthen construction can be improved. As mentioned earlier, there is a wealth of contemporary seismic research available via Engineering conference articles and the like. The more valuable research to this thesis however, will come from many of the well as many other local Peruvian Organizations that will be visited during the preliminary research phase. While this thesis will begin prior to visiting Peru, the idea is to take discoveries such as those done at PUCP about bamboo and chicken wire reinforcement, and attempt to combine them with ideas for integrating recycled objects to improve the structure. Because these assumptions will be made before going to Peru, once there, they will be able to be tested in the same

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12 manner as the previously mentioned projects were. By contacting some of the professors (Marcial Blondet at PUCP and colleagues) involved in this type of research already, the likelihood of coming back with a viable technique is greatly increased. Ideally these contacts made will not only give added validity to the thesis research, but also open up the opportunity for further collaboration as the project progresses. Another goal for this trip to Peru is to work with some of the organizations that are currently involved in the relief efforts in Pisco such as PREDESDisaster Prevention and Study Center, Burners Without Borders, and the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Because these groups are already involved in what has been happening in Pisco over the last year, they will be able to provide of Pisco. They will also be able to assist in the designation of a particular site within the city that this hybrid earthen construction can be applied to. While the local government will be contacted to direct the site selection to the most needed area, the perspective of an outsider who has been involved in the relief efforts is incredibly valuable to this research. One of the objectives for the collaboration with these entities is to see if there are ways that what they have been doing up to this point can be integrated group Burners without Borders. With the help of charitable donations, for the price of $1,000 US, they have been able to build a cornerstone for the future reconstruction of houses. The cornerstone project consists of a reinforced concrete structure that includes a shower, toilet and kitchen with a wash basin. Because of their limited resources, the organization is aware that they cannot

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13 possibly rebuild all of the homes that were destroyed in the earthquake. The goal is that no matter what the familys housing situation may be, they will have access to clean, safe sanitation. In addition, the rebar reinforced cement structure acts as a solid cornerstone from which the family can build their permanent home. It would seem that a good possible goal for this thesis would be to use the new construction technique, and teach the local residents how they can properly add on to the cornerstones that are being provided by Burners without Boarders. Site Research While a great deal of time in Peru will be spent meeting with individuals and organizations that can help to strengthen the feasibility of this project, ample time will also be allocated to site selection and subsequent research of particular importance in this research are site conditions such as soil quality, topography, and climate. While the connections and materials employed in the building is constructed on is crucial to its seismic stability. Because the resulting building is intended to educate as well as rehabilitate, the most common site conditions should be chosen so that the issues to be resolved will be similar to the typical situations that the technique will be employed in. In the selection of the particular building and site, it is important that what is chosen will not only address the greatest need (housing, school, religious construction can be successful in reaching the populace of Pisco. While theses are typically more theoretical, a particular intention for the trip to Peru is to lay

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14 the appropriate groundwork so that at some point during or after the culmination of the thesis, the resulting technique and building can be constructed. By attempting to design something that will eventually be built, the hope is that the result of this thesis will be architecturally innovative, as well as help those in need. By instructing the residents of Pisco how they can rebuild their city independent of relief organizations they can create improved and seismically stable living conditions without having to wait hopelessly for relief to come. schools, hospitals, churches, etc, a sort of Safe House can be established for the residents in the event of an earthquake. Ultimately it is the anticipation of this thesis that the discoveries made in construction innovation can be used to improve the conditions of those living in vulnerable seismic areas. By keeping the cultural traditions, values and economic situations in the forefront of the project, the resulting building and technique should be something that not only teaches improved seismic stability, but becomes a new type of vernacular. By using techniques that are already in use, and combining them with contemporary approaches, it is hoped that the new hybrid will be widely employed and become a preventative measure as well as a source of pride to an already vibrant area 1 Disaster risk reduction: 2007 global review United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reductio n http://www.preventionweb. net/english/documents/global-review-2007/Global-Review-2007.pd f Accessed May 21, 2008 2 Project 3: Seismic Hazard, Risk and Loss. ICG Assessment, Prevention and Mitigation of Geohazards. March 2008, http://www. geohazards.no/projects/project3_08/project_3_earthq.htm, Accessed April 15, 2008 3 Project 3: Seismic Hazard, Risk and Loss. Accessed April 15, 2008 4 Project 3: Seismic Hazard, Risk and Loss. 5 Accessed April 15, 2008 5 Learning from Earthquakes The Pisco, Peru, Earthquake of August 15, 2007; EERI Special Earthquake Report, EERI Earthquake Engineering Research Institute March 2008 < http://www.eeri.org/lfe/pdf/peru_pisco_eeri_preliminary_reconnaissance.pdf>, Accessed April 15, 2008 6 Jorge Gutierrez, Notes of the Seismic Adequacy of Vernacular Buildings Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2004, 7 7 The right to adequate housing Art.11. 1991, http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(symbol)/CESCR+General+comment+4.En?OpenDocument, Accessed July 25, 2008 8 The right to adequate housing, Accessed July 25, 2008 9 The right to adequate housing, Accessed July 25, 2008 10 Learning from Earthquakes The Pisco, Peru, Earthquake of August 15, 2007, Accessed April 15, 2008

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15 11 Learning from Earthquakes The Pisco, Peru, Earthquake of August 15, 2007, Accessed April 15, 2008 12 Karen Olsen Bruhns, Ancient South America (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 1994), 104 13 Quincha earthquake-resistant housing, Practical Action; Technology Challenging Poverty. February 2008, http:// practicalactionconsulting.org/?id=earthquake_resistant_housin g Accessen May 18, 2008 14 Blondet, Marcial Behavior of Earthen Buildings during the Pisco Earthquake of August 15, 2007 EERI Earthquake Engineering Research Institute March 2008, http://www.eeri.org/lfe/peru_coast.htm, Accesed May 21, 2008 15 Gutierrez, 7 16 A. W. Charleson and Taylor, Proceedings 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Towards an Earthquake Architecture, 15 17 Marco Mezzi, P. Verducci, J.J. Liu,Metropolitan Habitats and Infrastructure Innovative Systems for a Sustainable Architecture and Engineering. ( Shangai, 2004), 12 proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering ( Perruggia, Italy 2004), 24

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16 Chapter Two Case Studies Figure 2: Photo taken at entrance of Tambo Colorado Ruins in the Ica Province

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17 Adobe brick forms and Composition Construction Case Study Abstract In many developing nations around the world, Adobe or Earthen construction is the method of choice for a majority of the lower income people. Earthen constructions have many inherent advantages such as widespread strength and security of the monumental constructions, and locally available construction materials and methods. Along with these advantages, there are a number of intrinsic issues associated to the fact that many of the hot and arid temperature climates in which earthen constructions are found are also highly active seismic zones. Although a great many advances have been made in seismic design, there is a disconnect between contemporary construction methodologies, and those techniques available to the common family in a developing nation. This case study focuses on the Adobe construction methods found in Peru and particularly studies some of the building failures found in Pisco Peru after the Earthquake on August 15, 2007. After identifying two of the failure points, the strength of the individual adobe blocks, and the connections between the blocks forming the wall system, tests were conducted to see if varying the composition and the form of the blocks can help to create a stronger adobe brick wall system.

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18 Introduction The Problem The Pisco earthquake on August 15, 2007 caused enormous damage preferred construction technique, because many families cannot afford it they are forced to build with adobe construction; most houses over 50 years old are made of adobe. In Pisco, more than 80% of the adobe houses collapsed or sustained heavy damage. this was due to the perverse combination of mechanical characteristics of adobe walls: they are massive, weak and brittle. Since they are massive, they attract large inertia forces during seis mic shaking, which they are unable to resist because the masonry is weak, and brittle failure occurs without warning Furthermore, it seems that the adobe blocks and mortar in Pisco and the surrounding areas were m adhesion between mortar and adobe blocks . 1 Figure 3. Street in Pisco three days after the earthquake. The house at the far right, undamaged, 2

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19 In addition to the failures of the individual adobe bricks, a number of building failures were attributed to the failure of the joints between blocks (at the mortar) or between wythes of blocks. Many of the older buildings walls are not provided with additional reinforcement to withstand seismic forces. In addition the duration of shaking in this earthquake -about 100 secondscontributed to the many collapses. While a great deal of research has been done on vertical and horizontal reinforcement of adobe constructions, through visual observation of many of the building collapses, it can be seen that these reinforcing strategies are not integrated into the system as well as may be possible. The result is walls that have a surviving skeleton of bamboo (the typical reinforcement strategy), yet the adobe bricks that were laid on either side of the walls have still failed at the mortar joints. Figure 4 Typical building damages to un-reinforced adobe buildings 3

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20 Figure 6. Reinforced module after seismic test 5 Figure 5 Page from dissemination booklet showing cane reinforcement technique 4 Hypotheses Part 1 concentration of clay, as well as other plasticizers into the adobe bricks themselves, the elasticity, tensile strength and bonding capacity of the individual bricks can be greatly increased.

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21 Adobe Sample #1: Replicating the ideal loam composition Adobe Sample #2 Sample #1 with additional Sand Adobe Sample #3 Sample # 1 with added Hay Adobe Sample #4 Sample #2 with added Hay Adobe Sample #5 Sample # 3 with added cow dung Adobe Sample #6 Sample #4 with added cow dung Figure 7. Adobe block Loam Samples Methods Preliminary Experimentation was done by varying the clay, sand, Silt, and organic materials (straw and cow dung) the goal was to become familiar of samples were made attempting to have an ideal and higher clay content for making bricks, the second series of samples were made with a higher sand content in an attempt to properly replicate the previously mentioned higher sand content found in Pisco. Generally speaking, the higher the clay content found in the adobe, the greater the binding force within the individual bricks. The loam composition of the bricks has been determined through basic sedimentation tests which can be seen below:

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22 Additional Samples of each loam have also been set aside for laboratory tests to determine the exact composition of each. Knowing the composition of these samples will not only assure accurate reproduction, but it will also allow for comparison with adobe blocks that will be later collected in Pisco. At this point only the sedimentation tests have been completed, however after the optimal curing time has been achieved (7 days) 6 the individual bricks will be further tested, (mechanically) for their compressive strength and tensile resistance (binding capacity). Figure 8. Adobe Block Loam sedimentation tests

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23 Figure 9. Adobe Block Materials Figure 10. Adobe Block Making Conclusions During the experiments a number of process related issues were resolved. the loam to an easily workable consistency. While the higher water content was Another issue with Block #1 was that as it has been drying; cracks have already appeared due to the shrinkage of the block. The second sample which had higher sand content was also made with less water added, making the mixing of the block is drying. With the sandier composition of Block #2, it was also much easier to handle as far as forming it into the brick as well as removing the form. In loam composition #3 and #4, similar observations were made. In both the hay absorbs some of the additional moisture in the loam, it not only softens, sandier (Block #4) to the block with more clay (#3) the hay seemed to be more workable in #4. The clay content in Block #3 seemed to become too sticky and be drying at about the same pace, both without cracking.

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24 Figure 11. Forming the Adobe Block composted cow dung. In the mixing of these looms, it can be felt what a strong bonding agent the cow manure is. There seams to be a great deal of plasticity in these samples, and the addition of the dried manure further absorbed the excess moisture, making them even easier to work with, while clearly increasing the bonding within the blocks themselves. Again the sandier soil ( #6) was easier to work with, and so far blocks #5 and #6 seem to be drying with similar resultsno cracking and minimal shrinkage.

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25 Hypothesis part 2 By changing the formed shapes of the individual adobe bricks, new wall systems can be created, reducing the occurrence of continuous mortar joints, and thus improving the seismic stability of the walls with or without additional cane reinforcement. Methods consistency of horizontal or vertical mortar joints, possible new systems can be achieved. Once possible shapes have been determined via two dimensional sketches, wood blocks were created in the general proportions of 1:2, representing a full scale block proportion of 12 by 6, depending on the when laid will result in a minimum of 12 (30 cm) thick walls which is generally considered the minimum width for an adequate load bearing (exterior) wall. 7 The 1. There are no continuous horizontal or vertical grout lines 2. While the system may work for one wythe, they must also be functional for a two wythe system in order to achieve the 12 wall thickness. 3. When accomplishing this 2 wythe system, the same horizontal and vertical grout conditions should apply. 4. The pattern should be should be simple enough to allow repetition approximately every 2 (allowing for typical wall heights of 8, 10, 12, etc.)

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26 Figure 14. L shaped block system possibility #3 In each of the Block Systems above, all of the requirements were met except #4, a consistent pattern had not been achieved in a reasonable amount of repetitions. Upon further investigations and computer modeling the following System was devised using the L shaped block typology: Conclusions While a number of block forms were tested, the most applicable form found this far was an L shaped block that can be arranged in numerous patterns as can be seen below: Figure 12. L shaped block system possibility #1 Figure 13. L shaped block system possibility #2

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27 While one sample of the L shaped form was made out of loam sample #6, once further tests show the structural adequacy of the different looms, more bricks will be made out of the L form to test the system proposed with the wood block model. The new adobe blocks will again be individually tested for compressive and tensile strength (ductility) to determine that the differences in shape do not reduce the capacity of the bricks as proper construction materials when compared with the traditional adobe brick forms. Given that the new brick forms perform as well as the traditional rectangles, these shapes can begin to look at the wall construction method as an integrated system to further strengthen the buildings seismic resistance. 1 Blondet, Marcial Behavior of Earthen Buildings during the Pisco Earthquake of August 15, 2007, 2 2 Learning from Earthquakes The Pisco, Peru, Earthquake of August 15, 2007; EERI Special Earthquake Report, 5 3 Taiki Saito, Quick report of building damages in 2007 Peru Earthquake (Building Research Institute August 24, 2007), 4 3 Blondet, Marcial Behavior of Earthen Buildings during the Pisco Earthquake of August 15, 2007, 6 4 Blondet, Marcial Behavior of Earthen Buildings during the Pisco Earthquake of August 15, 2007,5 6 Gernot Minke, Building With Earth ( Basel, Birkhauser-Publishers for Architecture; 2006), 65 7 Minke, 137

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28 Improving Durability of Earth Construction: African Case Studies Abstract Earth Constructions, in their varying forms are one of the oldest building materials with Mud brick houses dating from 8000 to 6000 BC discovered in Russian Turkestan and Rammed earth foundations dating from 5000 BC in Assyria. (Minke, 11) Despite its widespread use through out history, there are a number of issues that lead to a resentment of traditional earth construction. One of the main issues is the durability of the material, which leads to more frequent maintenance, and a perception that that their traditional houses do not qualify as real houses when compared to those built with modern materials such as bricks and concrete. Aesthetically, the distinctiveness of Adobe brick construction found throughout Peru tends to make the differences between earth and masonry construction quite obvious, and leads to the perception that earth homes are inferior.

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29 Introduction The Problem While it may seem that the modern construction methods are the solution, there are a number of issues that arise in these instances; Because of the higher cost of construction, often these homes are not built as well as they should be due to the need to cut corners in order to stay within budget. Higher internal temperatures in summer, Lower internal temperatures in winter, Condensation and humidity issues, The possibility of consequent health problems. 1 Hypothesis It seams that upon examination of earth construction, there are acceptable ways that new dwellings can be constructed using traditional materials and building techniques, that will have improved performance with regard to weatherthat of conventional construction. These new buildings can be built in a way so that the earth construction methods are not only known, but highlighted, showing more reliable and construction possibilities at a comparable cost to traditional earth construction. Research One of the main causes of the reduced durability of earth construction is shrinking and cracking. Due to the evaporation of water used in the preparation of loam mixtures, shrinkage cracks often occur. There are generally acceptable shrinkage ratios that directly relate to the water content, kind and amount of clay minerals and grain size and distribution of aggregates. The common linear shrinkage ratio is usually between 3% and 12% with wet mixtures (those used for

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30 mortar and mud bricks) and between 0.4% and 2% with drier mixtures (used for rammed earth, compressed soil) . 2 There are a number of ways that shrinkage (and subsequent cracking) can be reduced, but care must be taken when making these adjustments as improvements to certain characteristics can decrease performance in other aspects (tensile/ compressive strength, etc.) Another cause of reduced durability is that Loam is not water resistant so it must be properly protected against moisture. Again there are a number of solutions that can suitably weatherproof an earth building, ranging in cost from designing adequate overhangs and plinths, sealing walls with varying types of surface coatings, and stabilizing loam mixtures with varying additives. Figure 15 & 16. Tables showing the Average Density, Soil Erosion & Water absorption of Stabilized bricks to the loam mixture. In the aforementioned case study hay was used with good and in turn reduce shrinkage. In a series of studies done by the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Botswana, a number of stabilizers were experimented with in order to develop cost-effective approaches to improving the durability of earthen construction. In their tests done with stabilization via

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31 by distributing the tension arising from the shrinkage of clay throughout the bulk of the material 3 An important concern with the addition of such natural bitumen were used to stabilize the bricks, and tested for their amounts of water absorption, loss of soil, and disintegration. Although not shown in the tables because they were rendered unsuitable for use and considered unacceptable in terms of water erosion 4 it should be noted that cow-dung and bitumen stabilization was also measured. The cow-dung stabilized bricks took a longer time to disintegrate in water than the unstabilized bricks, and the bitumen stabilized samples did not disintegrate at all, but did develop large cracks. Despite the improved performance when compared to the untreated specimens, they still failed completely when dropped from a height of 300 mm (the lime and cement stabilized bricks did not.) It should further be noted that the addition of Lime to the bricks increased the overall strength; however it increased the amount of water absorption which would eventually lead to deterioration. 5 Thinning loam mixtures by adding Sand or other larger aggregates has also shown to reduce shrinkage and cracking because it reduces the relative clay content, and the amount of water that can be initially absorbed (reducing the total evaporation). 6 The main concern with thinning the mixtures with such measures is that while larger aggregates can improve compressive strength, it tends to decrease the bonding strength of the blocks, which in turn can have negative

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32 effects on the ductility of the wall system and can lead to poor performance in seismic conditions. In situations where the loam mixture is thinned out by sand improvement in the overall permanence of the resulting construction. In an Algerian study similar to the one in Botswana, two observations are bond stresses at the interface straw-soil to develop and hence to oppose to the deformation and soil contraction 7 effects of four different water repelling coatings are measured after they are applied to the surfaces of each wall section in three layers then subjected to water showers for two hours from a distance of 0.18 m at a water pressure of about 1 bar. 8 Figure 19. Effect of Fibre length on

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33 Figure 20. Summary of block durability test results The Results of these tests are shown below, and indicate that the cement mixture with polymers was the most durable solution, while lime-cement application performed better than the lime only and soil only solutions. In a different study also performed in Algeria, the focus was on measuring the performance of compacted cementstabilized soil. In these experiments, typical soil from the region was used and Ordinary Portland Cement type CEMI 32.5 was used for chemical stabilization. 9 While these tests were focused more on improving the compressive strength (which is the topic of a later case study) there were important observations made with regards to the shrinkage ratio and the water permeability, both crucial to the durability of earth construction.

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34 In addition to the shrinkage tests, the effect of cement content on the water permeability of the loam was quite interesting. The experiments show that The -8 to 0.27 x 10 -8 m/s when cement content increases from 5% to 20%. 11 This indicates that the addition of cement to the soil mixture greatly reduces the water permeability thus increasing the overall durability. Figure 22. Effect of Cement Content on Water Permeability In the shrinkage tests, the cement stabilized soil shrinkage was reduced by nearly 20% for the 6% mixture and 44% for the 10% mixture. It can also be three specimens, showing that proper curing during this time greatly reduces the amount of drying shrinkage. 10 Figure 21. Effect of Cement Content on Shrinkage

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35 1 Maclean, Jayne T. and National Agricultural Library (U.S.). Appropriate Technology for Rural Development (1979-March 1986 ), 3 2 Minke, 13 3 Ngowi, Alfred B. Improving the Traditional Earth Construction: A Case Study of Botswana., 2 4 Ngowi, Improving the Traditional Earth Construction, 5 5 Ngowi, Improving the Traditional Earth Construction, 5 6 Minke, 39 7 Bouhicha, M., F. Aouissi, and S. Kenai. Performance of Composite Soil Reinforced with Barley Straw. Cement and Concrete Composites vol. 27, no. 5 (5, 2005), 619 8 Bouhicha, 621 9 Bahar, R., M. Benazzoug, and S. Kenai. Performance of Compacted Cement-Stabilised Soil. Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 26, no. 7 (10, 2004) 812 10 Bahar, 816 11 Bahar, 816 Conclusions : In all three of the aforementioned African case studies, it can be seen that the perception that earth construction is not as durable as masonry construction can be overcome with the addition of a number of different stabilization methods. While the construction budget largely determines the material additives, the addition of hay and small amounts of cement are clearly feasible and readily available solutions that can be applied to earth construction in Peru. In many cases, techniques used to improve the durability of earth construction such as earth bricks solving both the issues of Durability and structural strength in one varying types of constructions such as rammed earth and wet-loam procedures when used in conjunction with these improved loam mixtures to create a holistic approach to improving earth construction approaches

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36 Overcoming Structural Issues of Earth Construction: Reinforced Concrete Case Study Abstract If we are to prevent new calamities, the profession shall have to amend its practices. From the start of professional training a student must be made conscious of the need to see structure as an integral part of the project and not as some nuisance that the structural designer adds to the architectural project... they must not be viewed as mere add-ons. Christopher Arnold [1]. Reduction of building and contents damage, personal injury and loss of life in the event of earthquakes are crucial considerations that should be integrated into the design of a seismically stable building. Because there has emerged a disconnect between the role of the architect and the engineer, all too often the building is designed with little regard for the structure, then the engineer is expected to run the appropriate calculations and add the needed reinforcement in order to make the building work. By integrating a consciousness of these elements in the design of the building rather than adding reinforcement once the design is complete, not only is the result more stable, but the costs should be

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37 Introduction The Problem 1. Structural issuesEarth constructions tend to have poor binding force, and therefore decreased seismic resistance 2. Can have low compressive strength which can lead to structural failure as well as durability issues Hypothesis While the precedents for these integrative design and structures comes from contemporary seismic engineering, this thesis attempts to take the same approach and apply them to less expensive materials, and vernacular building typologies. By establishing a set of rules by which the structure can be integrated into the design, new ways of approaching seismic design can emerge, and in turn inform more creative solutions while at the same time reducing the amount of damages to the buildings and their inhabitants. When designing a seismicly stable building there are a number of fundamental considerations that lead to a buildings success. Seismic Design approaches in Concrete Construction: Using Reinforced Concrete frames as an example; the integral action of beams, columns and slabs, provides resistance to both gravity and lateral loads through bending in beams and columns. Frames built in earthquakeprone regions should possess the ability extreme loading conditions. Figure 23. Reinforced Concrete Construction building Framework

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38 One way to reduce plan irregularities is to separate the building into simple blocks separated by air gaps (also known as separation joints). This type buildings to act independently, thereby avoiding high stress concentrations at corners that often lead to damage. Vertical irregularities -overhanging balconies or setbacks can also cause structural failures during an earthquake because they cause a level of discontinuity. Figure 25. Control space between building elements Figure 26. Vertically irregular building forms Buildings with simple geometry in plan typically perform better during strong earthquakes because buildings with simple geometry offer smooth and direct load paths for the inertia forces induced foundation. Figure 24. Simple and Complex Plan Shapes

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39 Buildings on sloping ground where columns are of unequal heights along the slope often fail at the shorter columns Discontinuities at elements that are meant to transfer loads to the ground are also dangerous, one should design all columns to follow through all the way to the foundation and not hang at any intermediate stories Buildings without symmetrical plans are often susceptible to twisting during an earthquake as well as differential settling. Twisting in buildings causes the structural elements to move horizontally by different amounts Buildings with differing numbers of stories can exhibit soft or weak story the weight of the others) Figure 27. Vertically irregular building and soft stories Figure 28. Soft story building behavior

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40 Catholica de Peru Abstract Based on previous case studies it is clear that there are ample opportunities to improve the durability of traditional adobe construction methods through various additives, compaction, or surface treatments. Although it these methods reduce the deterioration of earthen structures in normal moisture and wind conditions, they do not take into consideration the effect of an earthquake on the durability of a building. The intent of this case study is to research work options available to reinforce an earthen structure to withstand an earthquake.

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41 Introduction The Problem With traditional adobe block construction great care is taken in the forming and curing of the individual adobe blocks to ensure their strength and stability, yet despite these efforts, very few of the adobe homes in Pisco were able to withstand the 2007 earthquake. Hypothesis Given the Local residents of Piscos the general knowledge of the process of reinforced concrete and concrete block construction, it seems that there can be a similar application of these strategies using readily available materials such as bamboo or the cane mat commonly found in the area. Research (PUCP) in 1972 consisted of the experimental study of several alternatives for structural reinforcement of adobe houses, made with materials available in rural regions. Eight modules were built and tested, with variations in the construction openings. Each module was tested in several phases to represent a series of seismic events of increasing intensity. The instrumentation consisted of displacement and acceleration transducers to measure the seismic excitation and the corresponding structural response. 1 In these studies it was found that simply the improvement in the construction technique (the quality of materials and labor) by itself increased the resistance and stiffness of the uncracked walls, but had

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42 An additional study was done in which an interior reinforcement made of vertical cane, combined with the placement of horizontal crushed cane every fourth row of adobe blocks was integrated with the traditional method of adobe brick laying. It was found that this method notably increased the seismic strength of the housing modules. The cane reinforcement almost doubled the maximum horizontal load capacity and, most importantly, increased almost 6 times the lateral deformation of the reinforced walls, with respect to the un-reinforced walls. The cane reinforcement thus provided strength and ductility to the adobe masonry, which is weak and fragile by nature. 2 The horizontal and vertical cane reinforcement, was subsequently combined with a solid collar beam at the top of the walls which would prevent the separation of the walls in the corners due to a severe quake and thus help to maintain the structures integrity after the resistant walls fail. 3 of newly constructed adobe homes using these methods, they do not address the reality of the large amount of pre-existing adobe homes without any form of internal reinforcement. To deal with this concern the University to collaborate with the Centro Regional de Sismologa para Amrica del Sur (CERESIS),to develop simple techniques to reinforce existing adobe dwellings. The proposed external reinforcement was developed to delay the collapse of the structure during a severe earthquake. In thee studies different reinforcement materials were tested, such as wooden boards, inch rope, chicken wire mesh, and welded mesh. 4 At the time of this study U-shaped walls were constructed with both reinforced and un-reinforced methods, and the proposed techniques proves to be far superior in their seismic durability that the un-reinforced methods.

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43 Since the time of this study, additional material possibilities have been introduced such as plastic construction mesh (geomesh) and siltation barrier fabric, as well as improved attachments of these elements if they are incorporated into the construction of new adobe dwellings. These experiments are recently completed and when I went to PUCP, I was able to speak with some of the engineers who had worked on the projects. When asked if there was any improvement in the addition of the geomesh versus the cane reinforcement they found that the two methods seemed to perform to the same standards, and could be used interchangeably depending on the availability of the materials. The second question I had was whether or not there would be an advantage to a hybrid of both the internal cane reinforcement and the geomesh exterior treatment. It was found that the two systems were redundant and there was no cane or the geomesh methods alone. Conclusions In almost thirty years of research on adobe construction done at the PUCP, a great deal has been learned about the behavior of this long-standing construction method. Reliable, simple, and cheap seismic protection techniques have been developed, based on the placement of simple reinforcements. The problem does not lie in the availability of improved construction methods, but rather in convincing the population to adopt these techniques and to use them on their own accord. Rural communities of Peru are extremely poor, and they cannot afford any increase in the cost of their dwellings. They also have very strong traditions and tend to reject suggestions from outsiders, even considering the

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44 In an effort to overcome these perceptions, the PUCP has produced two booklets to educate the Rural Peruvian population about adobe reinforced with cane, and adobe reinforced with geomesh, respectively. Through illustrations and in simple language, the booklet explained the constructive details of reinforced adobe dwellings. Excerpts from these booklets 5 and photos of some of the modules that were used in experimentations can be seen on the following pages, illustrating the extensive opportunities for the improvement of adobe construction without the need for an excessive construction budget. Figure 30. Illustration of the integration of cane reinforcement into the layers of adobe blocks 6 Figure 31. Photo of construction of a home using cane reinforcement 7 Figure 32. Illustration showing mixing of the adobe loam to be used in brick forming Figure 33. Photo of Camote and his son during a visit to their adobe Factory

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45 Figure 34. Illustration showing drying of the formed adobe blocks Figure 35. Photo of formed adobe blocks drying at Camotes Factory Figure 36. Illustration showing corner attachments for wall intersections and corners Figure 37. Photo of an exposed footing on the experimental modules from a visit to the seismic testing laboratory at PUCP Figure 38. Illustration showing the attachment method for application of geomesh to the exterior of a new building Figure 39. Interior photo of window and exposed plastic ties on a module at PUCP

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46 Figure 40. Illustration tieing of the geomesh to the exposed plastic ties Figure 41. Photo of the exterior of one of the testing modules at PUCP showing the attached geomesh Figure 43. Photo of construction of the ring beam and attachment of roof elements 8 Figure 42. Illustration showing the attachment of the roof structure to the wooden ring beam 1 Blondet, Adobe in Peru: Tradition Research and Future, 5 2 Blondet, Torrealva, and Villa Garca, Adobe in Peru: Tradition Research and Future, 3 3 Blondet, Torrealva, and Villa Garca, Adobe in Peru: Tradition Research and Future, 5 4 Blondet, Torrealva, and Villa Garca, Adobe in Peru: Tradition Research and Future, 7 5 Blondet, Torrealva, and Vargas-Neumann, Building hygienic and earthquake-resistant adobe houses using Geomesh Reinforcement Unless otherwise noted, all subsequent illustrations in this chapter come from this publication 6 Blondet, Torrealva, and Villa Garca, Adobe in Peru: Tradition Research and Future, 6 7 Still Image exported from JICA Housing video 8 Still Image exported from JICA Housing video

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47 Figure 44. Photo taken of an Illustration presented explaining the building components and its assembly for the Casa Tortuga Panelized earth and mat housing construction: Precedent Studies at the Universidad Nacional Agraria de La Molina During a recent visit to Peru, the opportunity was taken to visit the Universidad Nacional Agraria de La Molina (UNLAM) where they were in the process of studying possible adaptations to traditional construction methods to reduce the cost of housing in rural areas of Peru. In this visit, a number of buildings were visited that were built for this study, and a project was presented about a community housing group that is teaching Rural Peruvians how to build these homes.

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48 Casa Tortuga (Turtle House) basic data: Costs per square meter: $40 (U.S.)$120 per module, $720 for a house of 6 modules Materials used: bamboo, woven cane, eucalyptus wood, sand, and concrete Construction Length: six weeks for a house of 6 modules Size of each basic module: 3 meters x 3 meters, which is based on the size of the woven cane mats For the construction of each module in Casa Tortuga, frames of eucalyptus wood 3 in diameter are attached to sheets of woven sugar cane mats which come in 3 x 3 meter pieces. Later they are reinforced with additional the 3 x 3 meter frame is constructed, then a skeletal dome is created out of wood, crushed bamboo and wire. On top of this framework sits another woven roof of the house resists considerable loads without major deformations. The shape helps transmit the loads to the surrounding walls. The purpose of these houses not to create a building to withstand any seismic stresses, as they were implemented in the mountains, where the seismic risk is lower. The main point of these constructions was to show how a sound and safe building can be built at a very low cost. The design being in modules further reduces the cost, as an inhabitable shelter can be created for $120 then as the family grows or saves more money they can easily add on. The most expensive part of these homes is the concrete slab upon which the structure sits.

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49 Figure 45. Photo of the roof construction of one of these homes at a Rural farm outside of Lima Figure 46. Photo of the application o the mud plaster to the outside of the house.

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50 Below are images taken at UNLAM of a building constructed using eucalyptus posts for the main structure. The Intention of this building design was to integrate the low cost building materials used in Casa Tortuga, with the ease of panelized construction found in the triangulated design of the roof, further reducing the overall cost, and length of construction. Tortuga

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51 Chapter Three History, Location and Analysis of Pisco Figure 49: Photo taken of Tambo Colorado Ruins in the Ica Province

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52 Figure 50. Illustrative Map and Section of Perus Geography Macro LocationPeru: Somos libres, semoslo siempr e We are free, may we always be so The country of Peru covers approximately 1,285,2200 square Kilometers, of which 1.28 sq. km is land and 5,220 sq km is water. Located in Western Peru is slightly smaller than the state of Alaska. Despite its smaller size, the climate in Peru varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes and the terrain ranges from arid western coastal plains (costa), high and rugged Andes further inland (sierra), eastern tropical lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva) bordering Colombia and Brazil. 1 are found in the mountainous areas, and Perus coastal waters provide excellent

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53 With about 28 million inhabitants, Peru is the fourth most populous country in South America as of 2007 with 29.7% of the population between 0-14 years, 64.7% 15-64 years, and 5.6% over 65 years of age. Of this, 45% are Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3% Religions consist of 81% Roman Catholic 1.4% Seventh Day Adven as Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages. 3 The administration of Peru is divided into 25 regions that have their own regional president which is the highest level of authority for the area below the presidential approval. The countrys Executive branch consists of President Alan Garcia Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis Giampietri Rojas; and Second Vice President Lourdes Mendoza del Solar (since 28 July 2006); note the president is both the chief of state and head of government trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4% per year during the period 20022007, driven by higher world prices for minerals and metals. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, underemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Growth prospects depend on exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products, and by expectations for the Camisea natural gas mega Garcia announced Sierra Exportadora, a program aimed at promoting economic growth in Perus southern and central highlands. 2

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54 Peru is best known as the heart of the Inca empire, but it was home to many diverse indigenous cultures long before the Incas arrived. Although there is evidence of human habitation in Peru as long ago as the eighth millennium BC there is little evidence of organized village life until about 2500 BC. It was at about this time that climatic changes in the coastal regions prompted Perus early inhabitants to move toward the more fertile interior river valleys. For the next 1500 years, Peruvian civilization developed into a number of organized cultures, including the Chavn and the Sechn. The Chavn are best known for of various animals (the jaguar in particular) and which exercised considerable their military hegemony than for their cultural achievement. 5 Figure 51. Photos and Sketches of Inca sites Cultural History : Figure 52. Photo of Chan Chan

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55 The decline of the Chavn and Sechn cultures around the 5th century BC gave rise to a number of distinctive regional cultures. Some of these, including the Saliner and the Paracas, are celebrated for artistic and technological advances culture in particular was a Pre-Inca Culture (600 BC 200 AD) Established department of Ica. 6 Characterized by their large, underground necropolis where bodies were preserved as mummies wrapped in luxurious cloths and mantles, which were conserved under excellent conditions by the characteristics of the sands of the area.The resulting textile arts are considered as the best of all ancient cultures. Made of vicua wool or cotton, the patterns are harmonious with many colors, and anthropomorphic and geometric animal designs. by the Chavin culture, and included simple shapes with many colors and illustrations as well as drawings that are similar to the Nazca Culture. 7 Figure 53. Photos and Sketches of Chan Chan sites

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56 Micro LocationPisco The City of Pisco is the Capital of the Province of the same name and is located in the Ica Region of Peru along the south-western costal desert. The Ica Region has a remarkable geography as It is the only region of the southern coast formed by plains (also called coast plains since the Andean Cordillera is erected inside). Geological folds have determined the formation of lands moving toward the sea which form the Paracas Peninsula as well as determined the Marcona incomplete and continuous current inadequately called Rio Grande because its short waters do not even reach the sea; its waters are mainly used for agriculture lands absorb its short resources. There are extensive deserts in Ica like the Lancha Pampas before Pozo Santo and Villacuri Pampas which are extremely hot areas. Strong and persistent winds called Paracas are present and originate large clouds of sand. Figure 54. Location of Pisco within the Ica region 8

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57 Pisco is around 9 metres (28 feet) and reaches its highest point at 27 meters San Clemente on the North, Tupac Amaru Inca on the East and San Andres to the South. Pisco proper encompasses 24.92 sq km with a population of approximately 54,193 people. 9 and a density of 2,174.7 people per sq km. Originally the village of Pisco was founded in 1640, close to the indigenous emplacement of the same name and stems historically from the Chavin, then Paracas cultures. Pisco originally prospered because of its nearby vineyards and is the namesake of the Peruvian grape liquor, pisco. Today, the area is normally visited because of the concentration of marine animals and birds at the Paracas National Reserve (the Peruvian Galapagos). The economy of the area is based Nazca lines and the Paracas National Reserve 10 Figure 55. The 8 districts of Pisco

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58 Climate: The climate of the coast ranges from warm-semiarid north of 5S to coolarid south of 8S. Despite the proximity to the equator (3S-18S), the entire coastal region has a marked annual temperature cycle in response to the direct effects of the sea surface temperature. The warmest period occurs from January through to March and the coolest period from July through to September. Daynight temperature differences increase away from the sea shore. Figure 56. Average Day-lighting Figure 57. 24-hour average Temperature

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59 Figure 58. Average annual rainfall The central and southern coasts (south of 6S) enjoy a milder climate. Temperature ranges from 8 to 35C and rainfall is scarce with annual totals below 150 mm. Summer is characterized by warm, moist and sunny conditions with lows between 18 and 22C and highs between 24 and 30C. Temperatures over 30C are commonly observed less than 10 days per year except at the Ica deserts where summer highs can sometimes reach 35C. Little or no rainfall occurs during the summer. Rare rainfall events are produced by the leftovers of Andean convection and occur during the night. Summer rainfall totals are generally less than 10 mm. Winter is characterized by overcast, cool and damp conditions. Frequent low cloud cover and persistent drizzle events help to keep daytime temperatures cool. Winter highs oscillate between 15 and 23C and the lows between 8 and 15C. Several weeks of persistent overcast skies and highs below 19C are not uncommon between July and September. The socalled rainy season develops by late May and comes to an end by mid October. Precipitation occurs in the form of nocturnal-morning drizzle and seasonal totals range between 10 and 150 mm. Winter precipitation favors the development of vegetation over particular coastal mountain ranges known as Lomas. 11

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60 Figure 59. Peruvian seismic zoning map for design 13 The seismic resistant design code of Peru divides the entire country into three regions, assigning peak ground accelerations values which correspond to ground motions with a probability of exceeding 10% in 50 years The area [Pisco] severely affected by the 15 August 2007 earthquake is most dangerous zone). 12 14

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61 ground mechanic properties, the thickness of the stratum, the fundamental vibra tion period and the propagation velocity of the shear waves. and very rigid soils with shear wave propagation velocities are similar to those do not exceed 0.25 s, including the cases where there are: resistance higher or equal to 500 kPa (5 kg/cm 2 ). Dense sandy gravel Stratum of no more than 20 m of very rigid cohesive material, with a shear resistance in non-drained conditions higher than 100 kPa (1 kg/cm 2 ), over rock or other material with shear wave velocity similar to a rock. According to the National Building Code for Earthquake Resistance, Pisco has been further divided into zones according to seismic effects and associated phenomena like soil liquefactions, slides, tsunamis and others on the area. These to local conditions and other natural phenomena, as well as limitations and demands that should be considered for the design and building of structures and other projects. Figure 61: Ground zoning map of Pisco by CISMID 15

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62 Shape S4 Type: Exceptional Conditions. This type corresponds to excep tions are particularly unfavorable Table N2 Soil Parameters Type Description T p (s) S S 1 Rock or very rigid soils 0.41.0 S 2 Intermediate Soils 0.61.2 S 3 Flexible Soils or stratum with great thickness0.91.4 S 4 Exceptional conditions ** (*) The values for T p and S for this case will be established by a specialist, but in neither case they will be lower than those specified for the shape S 3 type. Cohesive Soils Typical Shear Resistance in undrained condition (kPa) Stratum Thickness(m) (*) Soft Moderately compact Compact Very compact < 25 25 50 50 100 100 200 20 25 40 60 Granular Soils Typical N values in Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) Stratum Thickness (m)(*) Loose Moderately dense Dense 4 10 10 30 Bigger than 30 40 45 100 (*) Soil with shear wave velocity lower than a rock. Stratum of no more than 20 m of dense sand with N > 30, over rock or other material with a shear wave velocity similar to a rock. intermediate characteristics between shapes S1 and S3. Shape S3 type: Flexible soils or stratum with great thickness. This type tal period, for low amplitude vibrations, is higher than 0.6s, including those cases where the ground stratum thickness exceeds the following values: Figure 62. Soil type shear resistance and stratum thickness 16 Figure 63. Soil Parameters by type 18

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63 General Building Code Requirements: According to the National Building code for Earthquake resistant struc tures, Every building and each of its components will be designed and built to sible effect of the non-structural elements should be considered in the structural behavior of the Building. Analysis, reinforcement and anchorage detailing will be done according to this consideration. For regular structures, the analysis will be done considering that the total seismic force acts independently in two orthogonal directions. For irregular structures, it will be assumed that the seismic force occurs in the direction which results most unfavorable for design of each element or component of the study. The vertical seismic force will be considered to act upon the elements simultane ously with the horizontal seismic force and on the most unfavorable direction for the analysis. It will not be necessary to consider the effects of earthquake and wind simultane ously. When only one element of the structure, wall or frame resists a force equal to 30% or more of the total horizontal force in any story, it will be designed for 125% of that force. It will be considered that the seismic behavior of the structures improves when the following conditions are observed: Symmetry, for mass distribution and stiffness as well. Minimum weight, especially for higher levels. Adequate selection and use of construction materials. Adequate resistance. Continuity in the structure, in plan and elevation. Ductility. Limited deformation.

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64 TABLE N 3 BUILDING CATEGORY CATEGORY DESCRIPTION U FACTOR A Essential Facilities Essential facilities where their function cannot be interrupted immediately after an earthquake, as hospitals, communications centers, firefighter and police headquarters, electric substations, water tanks. Educative centers and buildings that can be used as sheltering after a disaster. Also are included buildings whose collapse can represent an additional risk, as are inflammable or toxic storage containers. 1.5 B Important Facilities Facilities for meetings as theaters, stadiums, malls, penitentiaries, or for valuable patrimony as museums, libraries and special archives. Also will be considered grain depots and other important storage facilities for supply. 1.3 C Common Facilities Common facilities that their collapse causes intermediate losses as dwellings, offices, hotels, restaurants, industrial installations or deposits whose failure do not bring additional dangers as fires, pollutant leaks, etc. 1.0 D Minor Facilities Facilities whose failure cause small losses and normally the probability to cause victims is low as fence walls lower than 1.50m high, temporal depots, small temporal houses and similar constructions. (*) Figure 64. U-Factor requirements by building Category 21 Inclusion of successive resistance lines. Consideration of ground local conditions. Good constructive practice and strict structural inspection. 19 Although there are recommendations in the building code for how to address plan and sectional irregularities in the buildings scheme, as was observed in the case studies, the best approach is to avoid these irregularities all together The Site for this project is located in Micro-zone III, (see Fig. 35) and the Build ing Type falls into Category B Important Facilities and is given an importance and the zone where it is located, it should be planned observing the regularity characteristics and use the structural system indicated in table N 7. 20

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65 1 CIA the World Fact book -Peru. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pe.htm l Accessed July 25, 2008 1 CIA the World Fact book -Peru., Accessed July 25, 2008 3 CIA the World Fact book -Peru., Accessed July 25, 2008 4 CIA the World Fact book -Peru., Accessed July 25, 2008 5 Peru History & Culture., http://www.geographia.com/peru/peruhistory.ht m Accessed July 25, 2008 6 Peru History & Culture., Accessed July 25, 2008 7 Information about Peru., http://www.go2peru.com/webapp/ilatintravel/articulo.jsp?cod=199888 8 ,Accessed July 25,2008 8 ReliefWeb Mapa Referencial Sistema Apoyo Logistico Sismo del 15/08/07, http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/LPAA76CJH6?OpenDocument, Accessed June 1, 2008 10 .: PERU Instituto Nacional De Estadstica e Informtica INEI :. http://www1.inei.gob.pe/inicio.htm, Accessed August 21, 2008 11 Wikipedia contributors. Climate of Peru., Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/climate_of_ peru?oldid=222435018, Accessed July 26 2008 Diseo Sismorresistente (Per. Ministerio de Vivienda, Construccin y Saneamiento. 2003), 36 14 Nacional de Normalizacin, 9 15 Taiki, 6 16 Nacional de Normalizacin, 10 17 Nacional de Normalizacin, 10 18 Nacional de Normalizacin, 11 19 Nacional de Normalizacin, 12 20 Nacional de Normalizacin, 17 TABLE N 7 CATEGORY AND STRUCTURE OF BUILDINGS Building Category Structural Regularity Zone Structural System 3Steel Reinforced Concrete Walls Reinforced or Confined Masonry Dual System A (*) (**) Regular2 and 1 Steel Reinforced Concrete Walls Reinforced or Confined Masonry Dual System Wood B 3 and 2 Steel Reinforced Concrete Walls Reinforced or Confined Masonry Regular or Irregular Dual System Wood 1Any system. C Regular or Irregular 3, 2 and 1 Any system. Figure 65. Category and Structure of Buildings 22

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66 Chapter Four Possible Site Selection & Preliminary Programming Issues

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67 Figure 67. Pisco Peru, overall town arial 1 Overall Use Issues Due to the Lower Economic Level as well as the recent devastation of the Residents in Pisco, the budget is much lower than that of a contemporary home (in very general terms, the cost needs to be around 1/3 of the cost of an affordable home in the US). This keeps the program to a minimum and, averages 8001,200 s.f. per unit. The idea is to have each home meet the minimum necessary requirements for a typical family, and maintain the structural integrity of the dwelling units. There will be a small amount of individual outdoor program, but the clustering of the units will allow for a more open outdoor feel. Based on preliminary studies, in the town center there is a greater density, and the housing cluster could be organized around attached party walls which may

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68 lead to increased stability. Further from the center and towards the beach, the homes seem to become detached single family homes, while maintaining a fairly high density. As the site is yet to be determined, I am proposing two cluster options for each of these conditions, and to be later decided based upon their tested seismic stability. Figure 68. Pisco Peru, Site possibility #1 by Plaza Mayor 2 3

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69 Because the climate in Pisco has very little rain, in consideration for further expansion, it can be assumed that this will occur vertically, as the roofs of the surrounding blocks. Generally speaking, in area #1 (town center), there will be little to no setbacks on the front and sides, as they will be sharing party walls. In area #2 (closer to beach), there may be minimal front setbacks as well as a small separation (5-10ft) between units. Either site will remain within the existing block structure already established in the town of Pisco and will need to be appropriately connected with municipal utilities. Due to the lack of rain in Pisco, it is highly unlikely that there will be any rainwater collection, however there is a possibility for grey water re-use, and trash decomposition on site to aid in small scale landscaping/ gardening on site. The nature of adobe construction lends itself well to passive heating and cooling in the desert-like climate of Pisco, so there will be special attention paid to maintaining the thermal mass of the building. If done properly, this thermal mass can also potentially lead to the increased seismic stability of the building. Although there are assumed to be municipal utilities, in an effort to keep the operating cost of the homes as low as possible, special attention will be paid to proper day lighting of all of the internal spaces.

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70 Site Issues In area #2 there will be a greater amount in green space allocated to the individual dwelling units given the side and front yard setbacks. In both options there will be a communal outdoor gathering space to give additional area for gardening and grey water retainage, and waste decomposition. There is also a need in both situations for an outdoor laundry hanging area, which may be considered in part of the community outdoor space. In area #1, while there will not be private side yard areas for each dwelling unit, there will be separation public outdoor uses. Vehicular accommodations will be frontloading on site #2 or possibly in the form of a side/ back loading parking court for site #1. In both instances, there will only be consideration for 1 car per unit as it is rare that there is more than 1 car per family in Peru. It should also be noted that while a parking area will be provided, it will not necessarily be covered or a part of a garage as the most commonly found parking conditions in Lima are to have the car pull up within the gate of the yard. possible that there could be a common laundry area that is within the outdoor community space that is not attached to any of the dwelling units.

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71 Unit Room Program List & Adjacency Diagrams No. of Units Description Square Footage No. of occupants: 2 Bedroom 150 s.f. 1-2 1 Master Bedroom 175 s.f. 2 1 Master Closet 30 s.f. 0 3 Closet 16 s.f. 0 2 Bathroom 40 s.f. 1 1 Service Area (Bedroom) 100 s.f. 1 1 Service Area (Bathroom) 40 s.f. 1 1 Kitchen 100 s.f. 2-4 1 Living/ Dining 200 s.f. 4 1 Laundry 50 s.f. 0 No. of Units Description Square Footage No. of occupants: 2 Bedroom 150 s.f. 1-2 1 Master Bedroom 175 s.f. 2 1 Master Closet 30 s.f. 0 3 Closet 16 s.f. 0 2 Bathroom 40 s.f. 1 1 Kitchen 100 s.f. 2-4 1 Living/ Dining 200 s.f. 4 1 Laundry 50 s.f. 0 1 60 s.f. 1 Figure 70. Spatial relationship diagram of rooms in Unit Type #1 Table 1. Programmed rooms and Square footages for Unit Type #1 Figure 71. Spatial relationship diagram of rooms in Unit Type #2 Table 2. Programmed rooms and Square footages for Unit Type #2

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72 No. of Units Description Square Footage No. of occupants: 2 Bedroom 150 s.f. 1-2 1 Master Bedroom 175 s.f. 2 1 Master Closet 30 s.f. 0 3 Closet 16 s.f. 0 2 Bathroom 40 s.f. 1 1 Kitchen 100 s.f. 2-4 1 Living/ Dining 200 s.f. 4 Cluster Adjacency Diagrams Figure 72. Spatial relationship diagram of rooms in Unit Type #3 Table 3. Programmed rooms and Square footages for Unit Type #3 Figure 73. Spatial relationship diagram for overall cluster organization Type #1

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73 Figure 74. Spatial relationship diagram for overall cluster organization Type #2 Figure 75. Spatial relationship diagram for overall cluster organization Type #3

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74 1 Google Earth http://earth.google.com/ Accessed June 15, 2008 2 Google Earth http://earth.google.com/ Accessed June 15, 2008 3 Google Earth http://earth.google.com/ Accessed June 15, 2008 Figure 76. Spatial relationship diagram for overall cluster organization Type #4

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75 Chapter Five Site Visit and Architectural Analysis Figure 77. Photo of the Church existing on site prior to the earthquake

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76 Figure 78. Site Location and surrounding conditions in Pisco

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77 Figure 79. Site Location and Appropriate solar orientation

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78 Figure 80. FigureGround conditions surrounding site Before Earthquake

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79 Figure 81. FigureGround conditions surrounding site After Earthquake

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80 Figure 82. Land use diagram of area surrounding site (PreEarthquake)

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81 Figure 83. Population density and common Gathering areas (PreEarthquake)

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82

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84 Chapter Six Education Facility Programming Figure 86. Early Diagram Showing integration of sustainable education facilities

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85 Programmed Facility Spaces: Table 4. Building Program Square footages and uses F u n c t i o n S u b f u n c t i o n N u m b e r A r e a ( S F ) O c c u p a n t s N S F T o t a l Classroom(s) 8640 32 5120 Conference Room/ Pres. 4480 18 1920 C l i n i c 460 nurse station 1160 160160 Exam 1100 100100 Waiting room 1200 6200200 Bathroom (ADA) Male & Female1 ea. 50 1 ea. 100 Office/ Admin. 2120 1 ea. 240 Equip. Storage 1150 150 460 490 C a f e t e r i a 1 8 1 0 950 Dining 11000 501000 2760 Serving 1200 200 Dish Wash 1 60 60 Food Preparation 1300 300 Storage Freezer 1 75 75 Cooler 1 75 75 Dry Storage 1100 100 H o u s i n g U n i t s 15 550 8 2 5 0 Bedroom 2150 300 Living 1150 150 Bathroom 1100 100 C h u r c h R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Chapel 13000 150 3000 Bathroom (ADA) Male & Female1 ea. 50 1 ea. 100 Office/ Admin. 2120 1 ea. 240 Equip. Storage 1150 150 L i b r a r y Reading Area & Stacks 11000 1000 1300 Reception/ Checkout 1100 100 Work Room & Office 1200 200 G a l l e r y 12000 2000 M a t e r i a l s S t o r e Checkout area 1300 300 1300 Supply Display 11000 1000 E x t e r i o r S p a c e s : Memorial Plaza 16000 6000 11000 Courtyard(s) 13000 3000 Playground 1000 1000 Construction Yard 1000 1000 W a s t e W a t e r T r e a t m e n t Settling Tank 11000 1000 5000 Filtering Marsh 11000 1000 Garden 13000 3000 Total SF Required 42,600

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86 Figure 87. Adjacency diagrams showing relationships between the major program components, and the adjacent street edges

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87 Overall Use Issues Universidad Catlica de Peru, I discovered that there was a huge disconnect between the known and tested construction method, and the actual construction of the average home in the area. It seems that there is not as much of a question as to how to build with adobe to withstand earthquakes, as why people are not following the methods that have been shown to work. Although I feel there is still a bit of room for research as far as how formal qualities can improve the seismic stability of the houses, the problem in Pisco seems to be more an issue of lack of education. After the earthquake, most of the residents of the area lost their trust in the strength of adobe construction, but since they do not have ample funds (block construction costs average 3 times as much as adobe) to buy the materials necessary for masonry construction, almost a year later they are still living in the same conditions they were the week after the earthquake. Another notable educational issue is that while a majority of the buildings that were destroyed were made out of adobe, many of the masonry buildings also failed due to a lack of proper construction methods. Beyond the necessity to teach earthquake victims how to properly rebuild, I feel there is also a need to revive the earth building tradition in general, for both the economic and sustainable aspects. While the most obvious issue that needs to be addressed is the durability of earth construction, there are other issues associated with earth construction that has led to a negative stigma, and as people have more funds they tend to move away from earth construction techniques and to concrete construction. There seems to be an all or nothing mentality when it comes to used construction techniques. This issue should also

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88 be addressed with this new education facility, there should be a range of earth construction techniques demonstrated that show the many ways that it can be used, from the high end down to the affordable spectrum, showing that there are many different advantages to earth construction that should not be overlooked when the construction budget increases. Building Education center in the heart of the city which can serve as a shelter for the displaced while the town is being re-built. Upon visiting the town I have chosen a Site two blocks east of the Plaza de Armas, on a direct axis from the park between the Cathedral and main Municipal building. This site was the former home to the Iglesia de la Compaa, which was destroyed in the earthquake. In addition to the church, a former health clinic and some mixed use residential buildings formerly resided at the site. It is my intention to rebuild the church facility and in conjunction with the neighboring lots, add to it the education facility and housing areas. With these varying uses in mind, I hope to build a facility that provides temporary housing for those in need, with the future use being focused on Education of Earth building techniques. Because the climate in Pisco has very little rain, in consideration for further expansion, it can be assumed that this will occur vertically, as the roofs can be be consistent with those of the surrounding blocks. Generally speaking there will be little to no setbacks on the front and sides, and will remain within the existing block structure already established in the town of Pisco and will need to be appropriately connected with municipal utilities. Due to the lack of rain in

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89 Pisco, it is highly unlikely that there will be any rainwater collection, however there is a possibility for grey water re-use, and trash decomposition on site to aid in small scale landscaping/ gardening on site. The nature of adobe construction lends itself well to passive heating and cooling in the desert-like climate of Pisco, so there will be special attention paid to maintaining the thermal mass of the residential program areas. If done properly, this thermal mass can also potentially lead to the increased seismic stability of the building. Although there are assumed to be municipal utilities, in an effort to keep the operating cost of the facility as low as possible, special attention will be paid to proper day lighting of all of the internal spaces. In an effort to relate the Facility to the existing surroundings as much as possible, the street frontage will be respected, while allowing small setback yards in order to provide glimpses into the site and the activities held within. Figure 88. Conceptual diagram showing how the Education facilities portion of the program can be used to create a threshold between the private living quarters and the public community facilities

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90 Outdoor Spaces: Privacy Gradient Public Private Figure 89. Organization of outdoor spaces to improve Privacy gradient While the program of the education facility is clearly centered around providing adequate areas for hands on educational workshops and storage, and foremost provide the construction yard spaces, but in addition they serve spaces. These areas also supply an activated point of interest within the site that allows passers-by the opportunity to see what goes on in the Facility, and perhaps bring them back to participate. By pulling these elements off the street the activities that take place within. By programming the spaces as one would a plaza, they become educational public parks that facilitate everyone in Pisco,

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91 Design ProgramProblems, Goals and Objectives If we are to prevent new calamities, the profession shall have to amend its practices. From the start of professional training a student must be made conscious of the need to see structure as an integral part of the project and not as some nuisance that the structural designer adds to the architectural projectthey must not be viewed as mere add-ons. Christopher Arnold [1]. Problems The Disadvantages (and some misconceptions): 1. Structural issuesThey have poor binding forcedecreased seismic resistance 2. Can have low compressive strength 3. Durability issuesshrinking, cracking, rotting, erosion, etc. 4. Loam construction is not water resistant 5. There are pest problems (bugs, rodents) 6. Standardization IssuesEarth/ Loam is not a building material 7. Lengthy (although simple) construction processcuring of bricks 10. Aesthetically distinct and perceived to be inferior to contemporary construction methods

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92 The Advantages 1. Earth construction balances air humidity 2. Thermal mass of Earth construction balances indoor air temperatures throughout the day 3. Saves energy costs and reduces environmental pollution 4. lower embodied energy of material at comparable construction energy costs when compared with concrete construction 5. Always a reusable construction material 6. Lower material transportation cost (found on site) 7. Ideal for do-it-yourself constructioneasy to do 8. Loam absorbs air pollutants Goals and Objectives 1. Structural Issues By adhering to the set of rules established n the case studies, the buildings structure can be integrated into the design, and new ways the buildings design can be informed by the construction method chosen for each element. 2. Durability Issues The main causes of deterioration to an earthen building in conjunction with time have to do with shrinking, cracking, erosion, and mechanical damage due mainly to water issues. As evidenced in the previous case studies, Although the material itself is the main cause for these issues, with proper architectural detailing such as reducing wall roughness, increasing overhangs, stabilizing earth with additives, and applying surface treatments to seal the structure, the tendency for deterioration are greatly reduced.

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93 3. Standardization/ Reduction of Construction Time: While there are many possible techniques that can be applied to increase the structural stability, durability and aesthetics of earth construction, there are still formidable issues related to implementation of standardized construction practices to ensure that buildings are constructed properly and consistently to guarantee their performance. While in theory, the majority of the materials for earth construction are found on site keeping costs low, there are still concerns relative to the time expended in traditional adobe block construction. The process itself is relatively simple, however to ensure proper construction with limited shrinkage, suitable durability and the like, the curing times needed for both the brick making and the curing of the completed walls can be quite intensive. There are again many approaches to be taken with this issue from varying the type of earth construction (rammed earth, adobe bricks, fabric and wet loam) to using mechanization for the construction of bricks. Because each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages they will be used to represent the varying hierarchies in the facilities program. It is shown that generally speaking, as the amount of labor needed decreases, the cost of materials increases. With this in mind, the most basic program elements of the living facilities will be built out of the reinforced adobe construction, demonstrating the simplest and most economical improvements the average homeowner can implement in their home as they are rebuilding from the earthquake. As the functions increase in inhabitants and importance, the effective and more innovative approaches to earth construction will be explored.

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94 Chapter Seven Initial Schematic Design Figure 90. Photo Facing site taken after the Earthquake

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95 Addressing the Existing Context While the intention of the project is to create a campus that encourages community interaction by way of education, the density of the existing surroundings must be taken into consideration so as to create an unobtrusive facility. Given the surrounding housing mixed use typologies as were seen in the Figure 91. Sketch showing the pre-earthquake sectional qualities through the main plaza, the cathedral block, and the proposed site block Comm 35Plaza De Armas 35Cathedral block 20 Site Block 20 Residential 40 40 Block Figure 92. Sketch showing the pre-earthquake sectional qualities the plaza and commercial center one block south of the site Of considerable importance when discussing the surrounding conditions is the the resulting street wall clearly delineates the public street edge from the privately owned residences or businesses. In the case of a commercial building, while the facade comes up to the edge of the sidewalk, the materiality is generally transparent (windows) or open able during business hours

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96 Figure 93. Sketch showing the pre-earthquake sectional qualities of a typical residential neighborhood delineating the private space, yet retaining consistency with the rest of the towns context. In many cases there is a wall that creates a private outdoor entry space prior to the actual front door. In the situation of a residence that is also home to a bodega or small restaurant, the enclosed structure will almost always come up to the residential portion of the building will be on the back and upper stories on the home. There also exist many typologies where the entrance and built structure of a residence will sit on the sidewalk edge, and there will be a central courtyard further inside the home. Regardless of residential or commercial use, the overall lack of building setbacks in both settings is a crucial observation, as when this pattern is broken, the activity or programming of the resulting spaces command hierarchy and importance in comparison to the surroundings. Figure 94. General Organizational Diagram of how the Program is as a gradient between the pubic street edge and the private residential spaces

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97 Designing to maintain the street edge while creating a sense of refuge Massing relationship A this condition to create a main entrance giving importance to the space. Figure 95. Diagrammatic aerial showing the solid street edge created by the new buildings with 1 entrance off the existing plaza Figure 96. Perspective showing the street level conditions that would be created with the massing of possibility A with the disconnection between the community and the activities taking place within the facility

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98 Massing relationship B In option B, additional entries are created on the east side of the block as well as one mid-block. With these additional, smaller entrances, the street edge is again maintained but a more inviting condition is creates for those walking by Figure 97. Diagrammatic aerial showing the maintained street edge with additional entries mid block and at the east Figure 98. Perspective showing the street level conditions that would be created with massing of possibility B In this situation the level of transparency is greatly improved so that the community can have a better idea of the activities within the facility however a greater intervention may be needed to become more welcoming.

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99 Massing relationship C In option C, the previously proposed entrances are enlarged to create actual breaks in the building mass along the street edge, as well as shifting the building on the plaza further to the north street to make its entry into an opening as well. Figure 99. Diagrammatic aerial showing breaking down of the street edge to create more entry at a larger scale Figure 100. Perspective showing the street level conditions that would be created with the massing of possibility C pedestrians to come into the site and observe or experience part of the activities going on within the school as opposed to only providing a line of sight.

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100 Massing relationship D In option D, the internal functional activities taking place in the construction yard are intended to be brought to the street realm through alignment of the larger entries on the main street. Figure 101. Diagrammatic aerial showing how the openings along the main road can be used to draw people into the activities of the construction yard Figure 102. Diagrammatic aerial showing the centralization of the construction yard within the block. As with the enlarged entries found in option C, in this scenario the internal connection with the street is improved when the buildings are used to frame the views of the construction yard and again creates a more open, welcoming entry.

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101 Massing relationship E openings is used to create pockets of private areas consistent with the more traditional courtyard typologies. Figure 103. Diagrammatic aerial showing how maintaining the street edge allows for private areas within the residential area. Figure 104. Diagrammatic aerial showing the privatization of the residential area By using the educational facilities as a buffer to the residential facilities, the buildings can remain a part of the campus as a whole, but a more traditional

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102 Preliminary Site Design Based on the Massing relationships found in options D and E, this proposal attempts to optimize the openings on the street edge that allow for the residents of Pisco to feel welcome and invited into the education facility regardless of their enrolment in the programs offered. The importance of this scheme lies in the ability to maintain openness to the public realm while keeping the street edge relatable to the exiting context of the city. In an effort to achieve Figure 105. Illustration of the Functional organization on the Site this consistency, the residential portion of the program has been placed on the east side of the site block, corresponding to the surrounding smaller scale residences of the city. The administrative portions of the education facility have been located on the north side attempting to correspond with the heavier commercial activity on the main street. The completely public portion of the program, the church reconstruction remains in the same position of the church before it was destroyed by the earthquake. The positioning not only allows the of the school programming. While there are no closed entrances off the plaza

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103 Figure 106. Diagrammatic aerial showing the preliminary design with a centralized construction yard, main entry off the memorial plaza, and secondary entrances off the main street. maintain the effectiveness of the educational activities taking place within. Finally, the classroom portion of the campus is located on the southernmost area of the site. By doing this the classrooms are not necessarily distracted or interrupted by what is taking place in the street realm, yet it is still visible to these areas. Additionally by setting the construction yard and classrooms back, there is increased security for any equipment that may be used, as well as keeping passers-by from getting hurt by accidentally walking through these spaces.

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104

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105 As this project is proposing a campus-like set up of multiple buildings all with different construction techniques, there is a need for an organizational phasing to keep the project running as planned while at the same time serving organization has been established, beginning with the most basic construction methods and progressing into the more advanced methods as the participants earth construction school, the inception of the project is intended to address the more immediate need of disaster relief housing for the residents of Pisco. Figure 107. Aerial view of the completed Phase I Residential units (in white)

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106 Figure 108. Aerial view of the completed Phase II preliminary education facilities Figure 109. Aerial view of the completed Phase III Secondary education facilities (classrooms)

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107 Figure 110. Aerial view of the completed Phase IV Gallery and Library Figure 111. Conceptual Perspective of the Compleated Phase V Church Reconstruction

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108 Figure 112. Completed Scheme Phase V -Preliminary Site plan showing the varying phases and program areas within the site block

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109 Chapter Eight Phase I Adobe Block Housing Design Figure 113. Plan showing location of Phase one within site in pink

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110 Phase I Residential Housing Construction the previously studied bamboo reinforcement of traditional adobe construction was applied to the design of the residence halls. Using those principles, an adaptation on corner connections was established to improve the overall attachment of structural elements throughout the home. These fastening blocks can also be used within the walls to attach other built elements, further tieing common intervals for seats, stairs, counters ,etc. The resulting module is 15 x 15 x 3.75 tall. Based on these dimensions, a variety of built in furniture and structural attachments can be achieved. Common implementations may include; two blocks attach a stair, 4 creates a seat, 8 reaches a standard table height, and 9 blocks can be used as a base for a standard kitchen counter. Figure 114 & 115. Conceptual illustrations of the corner reinforcement strategy

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111 Figure 116. Drawings of the existing block modules common to adobe home construction in Peru, and the dimensions of the proposed block sizes for the new attachment strategies Figure 117. Diagram of possible implementation of the proposed block module attachment strategies

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112 As discussed in chapter XX when designing the plan of a building in an earthquake prone area, importance is placed on the overall symmetry of the buildings design. As shown, the house plan is a simple layout in order to increase the ability of the building to stabilize as an integrated unit in the event of an earthquake. In addition to the symmetry of the plan, care was taken to assure that the residential buildings were appropriately day lighted during the hours they are in use. In General, the houses are occupied in the mornings from about 6 a.m.9 a.m., and in the evenings from 4 p.m. 8 p.m., plus overnight hours. given this information, it was important to design the house to let in the most amount of light during these hours. Along with the consideration for orientation, it is important to note that because of the arid desert climates, the size and Figure 118. First and Second Floor House plans showing layout and overall symmetry of plan shape

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113 placement of openings is critical when trying to take advantage of the buildings thermal mass. Because it is quite hot during the day and can be fairly cool at night, the best design considerations for passive heating and cooling is to allow for thick walls with small openings relatively high up the walls. These fenestrations allow the hot air to rise and escape, while reducing the amount of strength in these climates, ample day-lighting can be provided with smaller, properly oriented windows. Along with these design elements, there are positive implications for warming the homes at night. Because of the mas of the houses walls, heat is stored within during the day, and this warms the house throughout the night. morning

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114 In the previously discussed adobe block module, there are also important structural connections that can be made using the same technique. By having independently while still being tied into the house structure. As can be see and beam system. The advantage to this type of construction is that in the event of an earthquake when there are both horizontal and vertical stresses affecting the building, the horizontal and vertical loads of the structure can react is on its own system, it can remain intact, reducing the risk of a total building collapse. Figure 120. Conceptual illustration of the corner reinforcing block used to tie in the posts for the roof structure above.

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115 Figure 121. Rendered corner section showing construction details from the foundation and

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116 Images of the Final House Design Figure 122. Birds eye view of completed individual house showing its relationship to the street edge Figure 123. East Elevation of a housing cluster within the site context

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117 Figure 124. Transverse section through house Figure 125. Longitudinal section through house

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118 Figure 127. Photo of Final Section Model, view from interior

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119 Figure 128. Photo of Final Housing Section Model, view of stairway and kitchen showing elements attached via new block typology

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120 Housing construction pamphlet While this project is the creation of a hands on earth construction education facility, there is a high likelihood that there will be residents of Pisco and the surrounding region that will be unable to attend the school. For these people, a manual of appropriate construction is needed so that the information and innovations discussed at the school can be available to anyone that would like to build their own building, regardless of their ability to attend classes. For these people, a graphic handbook was created that illustrates the construction methods for each phase of the education facility and the resulting buildings. The basic construction methods for the foundation preparation and housing typology can be seen below, and the instructions for the other buildings will be seen in the subsequent phasing chapters. Preparing the Site Clean and level the area where the Building will be built, then following the plan, layout the location of the walls with strings and chalk. Figure 129. Illustration showing the layout of the building on the site

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121 Dig a continuous ditch at least 15 deep, that these ditches will be used to raise and stable Foundation. Figure 131. Illustration showing components of the concrete footing mixture Fill half of the foundation trench with this concrete mixture

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122 Set the boards for the above ground plinth wall around the edges of the ditch as shown, they should be at least 15 above the ground level. then place large stones on top, creating a foundation that is composed of more another layer of concrete. Figure 133. Illustration showing the framework for the above ground portion of the footing Figure 132. Illustration showing the addition of stones to the concrete footings

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123 Figure 135. Plan of the foundation layout and positioning of rammed earth piles at wall corners and connections Fill the framework with the same stone and cement mixture used for the foundation making sure the Reinforcement (bamboo) is adequately surrounded Beginning the House Construction Figure 134. Illustration showing the addition of stones to the concrete footings

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124 set, replace the soil that was removed and compact the area by ramming. Figure 137. Illustration showing setting of the piles and ramming the surrounding earth For the House Foundation, in addition to the 15 continuous footing, Dig piles at the corners at least 30% of the depth of total wall height (6 for a 20 house). Figure 136. Illustration showing the digging of the pile holes and continuous footing

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125 Figure 138. Illustration showing setting of the bamboo reinforcing into the concrete footing consists of full single bricks (half bricks if necessary). Figure 139. Illustration showing setting of concrete footing Figure 140. Illustration showing corner The next step is to set the bamboo reinforcing members into the ditch 45 apart (3 adobe bricks) and at corners or intersections of walls.

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126 Figure 141. Illustration showing corner condition for the second layer of adobe bricks Figure 142. Illustration showing corner condition supporting post The second layer Starts with a corner composite block with exposed bamboo tie-ins, and the length of the the wall continues with standard bricks. The corners should now meet and surround the 6 x 6 reinforcing posts. Once the walls have been set, the corner bamboo ties can be attached.

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127 Chapter Nine Phase II Recycled Tire Classroom Construction Figure 143. Plan showing location of Phase two within site in pink

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128 Phase II Classroom Construction Phase two of the Earth Construction Education Facility consists of the erection of the classroom pods and construction yard. Based on the educational structure of the program, the methods used are meant to progress from the most familiar and basic techniques to the most advanced and innovative. While the construction of phase two may be considered easier, or less technical, this method is not necessarily something that is familiar to the residents of Pisco. Despite its unfamiliarity, the idea behind the design is to demonstrate how recycled elements can be incorporated into a building in order to reduce the cost of construction and expedite the owners ability to afford to rebuild their homes. project after doing a precedent study of buildings by the Rural Studio from the Auburn University in Alabama. In this study the Shiles house (2002) and Yancey Chapel (1995) were researched for their ease of construction as well as the structural and potential for appropriate shelter. In these designs, Architecture students built the recycled Figure 144 & 145. Photos of the Yancey Chapel (left) 1 and Shiles house construction (right) 2

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129 In the design of the classroom pod, the tire construction method is used in conjunction with the panelized mat and earth method previously discussed in the Casa Tortuga project done at the Universidad Nacional Argraria de La Molina. Combining these two techniques with a rammed earth knee wall, the classrooms can be rapidly constructed, while at the same time introducing new techniques into the educational program of the school. By introducing the use of rammed earth at this early stage, there is also an opportunity for the construction students to become familiar with the methods, as there are full buildings constructed with rammed earth in later phases. The plan of the classroom pods themselves are quite simple, meant to be an open air, three sided structure so that there is a direct interaction with the construction yard in the middle. Figure 146. Localized plan of the classrooms and construction yard

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130 Figure 147. Rendered corner of the classroom pods showing construction details for the varying wall systems and their relationships with each other As shown in the above rendering, the side walls of the classroom pods are made of the recycled tire method, while the back wall begins with a rammed plan and organization of the classrooms is intended to delineate the space designated to each individual class, giving them a solid wall for presentation purposes, while remaining relatively open to the rest of the construction yard. The openness not only keeps the classrooms cool and sheltered from the hot sun, but also allows the students to observe the activities of the other classes, as the educational program is set up in a progressive manner in which each class

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131 builds upon the techniques developed in the previous class, and many of the educational activities will take place in the construction yard in the center of this area. Figure 148. Detailed section of the construction of the tire wall and foundation 1 Andrea Oppenheimer Dean, and Timothy Hursley, Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an Architecture of Decency(New York : Princeton Architectural Press, 2002) 96 2 Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer and Timothy Hursley, Proceed and Be Bold: Rural Studio After Samuel Mockbee (New York : Princeton

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132 Figure 149. Section showing the relationship of the classrooms to the depressed construction yard. This arrangement allows for a separation between the two elements while preserving a clear line of site from the classrooms t the yard.

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133 Figure 150. Rendering of the preliminary design of the classroom pods Figure 151. Perspective looking at the activities in the construction yard from within a classroom.

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134 Figure 152. Photo of Final Classroom Section Model, view from the construction yard Figure 153. Photo of the Final Classroom Section Model, Side view into class.

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135 Figure 156. Illustration showing a person checking that the wall has been laid level Recycled Tire Construction Pamphlet

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136 Figure 157. Illustration showing a stacked tire wall and a possible layout Figure 158. Illustration of the placing of chicken wire over tires to hold the system in place

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137 Chapter Ten Phase III Bamboo Reinforced Dining Hall Figure 160. Plan showing location of Phase three dining hall within site in pink

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138 Phase III Dining Hall Construction the Dining Hall, will be discussed in this chapter. The construction technique for this building is based on various research done about bamboo reinforcement for rammed earth. A great deal of research was done on this topic by the Building Research Laboratory at the University of Kassel, Germany where they developed a rammed earth wall technique that used bamboo reinforcing for seismic stability. In a project conducted jointly with the Francisco Marroquin University and the Center for appropriate technology (Guatemala), 1 cm wide and one story high bamboo reinforced rammed earth elements were constructed using a Tshaped metal formwork. 2 This method is meant to be able to direct seismic deformation along the joints in the rammed earth panels which act as predesigned failure joints. Figure 161 & 162. Section (left) 3 and axonometric (right) 4 of the earthquakeresistant low cost housing prototype developed by the BRL in Guatemala 1978.

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139 A built example a similar construction system can be seen in the San Francisco Xavier Residence, in Brazil by Architect Maxim Bucaretchi. This home was built entirely of local building materials, and the majority of the stone, bamboo, timber, and earth was taken directly from the site. The Xavier residence was built using a bamboo reinforced system where the rammed earth wall elements are formed in L and Ushapes which stabilize themselves by their shapes. These wall elements are separated by what are essentially break-away adobe block walls. 5 Figure 163. Photo of the Completed Xavier residence. 6 Figure 164 photo of the Xavier residence wall panels under construction 7

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140 Based on these systems the dining hall is constructed beginning with the rammed earth buttressing walls that will eventually run perpendicular to the main wall and be the separation joints for the subsequent bamboo reinforced the construction school, the buttressing portion of the building can be made, and serve as practice to improve their rammed earth technique. During this same creating an area of refuge or gathering. Figure 165. Rendered corner showing the basic building elements of the dining hall including the

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141 Figure 166. Floor Plan of Dining Hall and Kitchen Building with outdoor covered dining patio

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142 The remainder of the dining hall design is based on the programmatic needs, however the uniqueness of the construction method allows for an outdoor dining area that is partially covered and enclosed by a skeletal form of the main building construction. Between the buttress walls, the horizontal bamboo concern in the design of all the buildings as it is assumed that there will be no air material placed on top so as to reveal the construction method as an educational example. Figure 167. Rendered perspective showing the breezeway and patio between the dining hall and kitchen

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143 Figure 168. Transverse Section through Dining Hall Figure 169. South Elevation of Dinning Hall

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144 Figure 170 Photo of Final Dining Hall Section Model, aerial view showing dining space and entry to patio Figure 171. Photo of Final Dining Hall Section Model, interior view showing roof structure and seating between buttress walls

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145 Figure 172. Photo of Final Dining Hall Section Model, interior view through dining area and patio with exposed bamboo structure 1 Minke, 141 2 Minke, 1 41 3 Minke, 142 4 Minke, 141 5 Minke, 143 6 Minke, 173 7 Minke, 173

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146 Figure 173 & 174: Illustration of the construction of the rammed earth framework Figure 175: Illustration of the ramming of earth into the wooden frames Bamboo Reinforced Rammed Earth Construction Pamphlet

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147 Figure 176 & 177. Illustration of rammed earth frameworks and the process of moving the framework as the wall is built up Figure 178. Illustration of ramming the earth around the already placed vertical bamboo reinforcement

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148 Chapter Eleven Phase III Concrete Reinforced Administration Building Figure 179. Plan showing location of Phase three administration building within site in pink

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149 Phase III Administration Building Construction The design for the construction of the administration building was mainly and the study of reinforced concrete construction as a way to overcome structural 10% concrete to the loam mixture used in both adobe block and rammed earth construction, the durability of the building is greatly improved. with this in mind, the design of this building assumes an addition of 20% concrete to the earth mixture to be used. Along with this addition, the form of the building follows the framework established second case study discussing how certain formal moves can greatly improve the stability of a building. As with all the other buildings on this campus, the most crucial design move is to assure that the form of the building is a simple shape both in plan and is able to support a second story conference area, a rooftop terrace, and open xx, the structure of this building is based on a system of buttresses that brace the walls to each other as well as the main concrete reinforced load bearing structure for the second story rooms, while the walls represented in white carry the secondary (live) load of the rooftop terrace, but not any additional built structure (dead load). The remaining walls can be though of essentially as break away walls. The design proposed here is built with rammed earth that has no added concrete, however, since these walls process to some other technique (the panelized cane mat system for example).

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150 Figure 180. Rendering of the Structural load distribution in the Administration Building

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151 designed with oversized breezeways, possible due to the fact that the interior partitions continue outward to become part of the external buttressing system. By creating this open-air environment, the Administration Building not only serves its functional needs, but also acts as a social area of refuge in the shade of its somewhat monolithic form.

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152 rooms and a open rooftop terrace. These spaces are designed with the intention for them to supplement the display of innovations taking place in the Gallery/ Library building. While the majority of the everyday educational activity will administration can serve as a supplementary area that can support symposiums or visiting architects and engineers lectures. The rooftop terrace can be used as an extension of this space as it has a direct view down to the activities taking place in the construction yard. It can also be used for more formal events to promote the achievements and growth of the Earth Construction Education Facility.

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153 Figure 183. Transverse section A through the Administration Building Figure 184. Perspective of the walkway between the Administration Building and the Dining Hall

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154 Figure 185. Longitudinal section B through Administration Building Figure 186. South Elevation of the Administration Building

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155 Figure 188. Photo of Final Administration Building Section Model, areal view from west of roof top terrace Figure 187. Photo of Final Administration Building Section Model, view from street

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156 Figure 189. Photo of Final Administration Building Section Model, areal view

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157 Floor Construction Methods Pamphlet

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158 Figure 194. Illustration of the process of tamping the earth into the wood divisions for the control joints

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159 Chapter Twelve Phase IV Gallery Building Construction Figure 196. Plan showing location of Phase four Gallery and Library building within site in pink

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160 Phase IV Gallery and Library Construction Given the intent of the Gallery to be a forum for the display of work and innovations being discovered within the Earth Construction School, and the Librarys function as a resource for students, it is only logical for the building itself phase, the more rudimentary methods of traditional adobe block construction is used in the basic massing of the building footprint. As the entry is created, the more advanced techniques of the adobe textile blocks (explained in Phase V) is used for the entry wall, and the garden enclosure is created with a spiraling rammed earth element. Each of these parts are intended to show off the varying possibilities within the realm of Earthen construction and showcase the innovations possible without the necessity for an excessive budget. Figure 197. Perspective of the main site entry plaza looking towards the Gallery on the right

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161 Figure 198. Floor Plan of Gallery and Library Building and garden

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162 Figure 199. Rendering of the corner showing the intersection of the rammed earth garden wall and the diagonal adobe textile wall

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163 Figure1200. Section A through Gallery building showing the garden enclosure, reception area, library stacks, and main entrance (left to right) Figure 201. Section B through Gallery building showing the library stacks, Gallery display area, and garden enclosure (left to right)

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164

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165 Figure 203. Perspective of Gallery garden area enclosed by the rammed earth wall Figure 204. Photo of Final Gallery Section Model, view from walkway by the church showing entry from gallery to garden

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166 Figure 205. Photo of Final Gallery Section Model, view from inside looking out to garden Figure 206. Photo of Final Gallery Section Model, view from plaza looking at rammed earth garden wall and diagonal adobe textile wall

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167 Various building elements in Earthen construction Pamphlet Figure 207 & 208. Illustrations of wall joint conditions (left) and window attachment conditions (right) Figure 209 & 210: Illustrations of roof construction; setting the bamboo in place on the roof joists (left), fastening the bamboo to the joists with wood strips (right) Figure 211 & 212: Illustrations of roof construction; laying cane mat on top of bamboo (left), sealing the roof with adobe plaster (right)

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168 Chapter Thirteen Phase V Adobe Textile Block Church Reconstruction

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169 Phase V Adobe Textile Block Church Reconstruction Given the exemplary importance of this building to not only the Earth Construction Education Facility, but to the City of Pisco as well, the design for the church reconstruction is meant to showcase the impressive possibilities of earth construction. The design of this building began with two precedent studies, one DA, particularly the Toledo house, in Bilbao, Spain. The initial structure comes from Wrights work, where some of the more formal qualities emerged after The textile block system is a unique structural system created by Frank are the Freeman House, Millard Residence, the Storer House, and the EnnisFigure 214 & 215. Photo (left) and section (right) of the Freeman House textile blocks 1 Figure 216 & 217. Plan showing the design of the Freeman house textile blocks (left), and Photo (right) of the steel reinforcing in the channel between the blocks 2

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170 Brown Houses. In these houses Frank Lloyd Wright set about developing a way of concrete blox construction in which the blocks are stacked on top of each other reinforced rods, similar to adobe construction in strength and resistance 3 The original design of these houses was based on a 16 x 16 concrete block tile, with a 1 diameter semicircular channel running along each of the four sides. 4 With this system, when the two blocks are joined side-by-side, a circular channel This Construction methodology was analyzed for its seismic stability and it was determined that this method of could be improved if the blocks were laid diagonally (creating a diamond pattern) as opposed to stacking them horizontally. By doing this the lateral loads that occur in an earthquake do not have a continuous grout line as there would be in traditional block construction. The loss of these grout lines decreases the areas that the walls can potentially fail, in theory greatly reducing the buildings vulnerability to seismic activity. Figure 218 & 219. Conceptual Renderings of the textile block system established by Wright (left) and the proposed adobe adaptation (right)

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171 The second (formal) portion of this buildings design was based upon the functions needed in a traditional Catholic Church, and the possibilities Da, a scaffold-like approach is proposed for the construction of this building. achieved producing the folding of the structure over the side chapels of the church. Once the construction has been completed, the internal reinforcing of the textile block construction system ties the entire buildings structure together and the scaffolding can be removed as at this point the building will be able to support itself. In the case of the adaptation from concrete and steel construction system, for the construction of the church, blocks with similar channels are produced in the schools construction yard, and bamboo replaces the steel cross can be seen in the end of the chapter in the construction pamphlet. 1 A.P. Vargas & G. G. Schierle, The textile block system: seismic analysis and upgrading WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Vol 95, (2007 WIT Press), 3 2 A.P. Vargas 3 3 A.P. Vargas, 2 4 A.P. Vargas, 3 October 17, 2008 Figure 220 221. Sketch (left) and photos (right) of the design for the Toledo House in Bilbao, Spain 5

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172 Figure 222: Plan of the Reconstruction of the Church (phase V)

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173 Figure 223 Section A through church illustrating the framework for the roof spanning the nave Figure 224. Transverse section B through the nave of the church

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174 Figure 225. Photo of Final Church Section Model, view through the side aisle towards the transept

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175 Figure 226. Photo of Final Church Section Model, view of the diagonal block construction in the transept Figure 227. Photo of Final Church Section Model, view of the roof assembly

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176 Figure 228. Illustration of the formwork for the plinth of the adobe textile block walls Figure 229. Illustration showing the placement of the adobe blocks into the bamboo skeleton Textile Block Construction Pamphlet

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177 to the exterior of the completed walls

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178 Chapter Fourteen Conclusion and Final Campus Plan Figure 233. Diagram showing the daily activity usage of pisco

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179 Conclusion SevenInitial Schematic Design, with minor adjustments made according to the daily use of the site and surrounding areas within the city. The buildings within the site maintained the initial programmatic requirements, while adapting to the construction methods applied to them. The Resulting Facility is intended to demonstrate that no matter the technical skill or economic resources one has, there is always a feasible method of earth construction that can be applied to the construction of a building. As ones resources increase more options become available, all of which are clearly capable of overcoming the traditionally negative stereotypes surrounding Earth Construction. The durability of a structure can be greatly improved with the addition of readily available materials, and with appropriate design considerations, there is no reason that an Earthen building can be any less structurally stable than comparable contemporary methods of construction. Figure 234. Matrix showing the comparisons of proposed construction methods by cost and technical skill

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180 Figure 235. Final Campus Site plan of the Pisco Earth Construction Education Facility

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181

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182 Figure 240. Longitudinal campus section Figure 239. Transverse campus section

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183 Figure 241. Photo of Final Campus Site Model, view from residential corner Figure 242. Photo of Final Campus Site Model, view from church plaza

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184 Figure 243. Photo of Final Campus Site Model, view from above

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185 References Arguedas, Jose Miguel, Discovering Machu Pichuthe Inca Trail and Choquequirau ( Lima, Ediciones del Hipocampo S.A.C., 2004) A.P. Vargas & G. G. Schierle, The textile block system: seismic analysis and upgrading WIT Transactions on The Built Environment Vol 95, (2007 WIT Press) Bahar, R., M. Benazzoug, and S. Kenai. Performance of Compacted CementStabilised Soil. Cement and Concrete Composites vol. 26, no. 7 (10, 2004): 811-820. Blondet, Marcial Behavior of Earthen Buildings during the Pisco Earthquake of August 15, 2007 EERI Earthquake Engineering Research Institute March 2008, http://www.eeri.org/lfe/peru_coast.html, Accessed May 21, 2008 Blondet, Marcel et. al, Seismic Reinforcement of Adobe Houses Using External Polymer Mesh, Proc. of the 1st European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (Geneva, Switzerland, 2006) Blondet, Marcial Earthquake-Resistant Construction of Adobe Buildings: A contribution to the EERI/IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, www.worldhousing.net, Accessed June 23, 2008 Blondet, Marcial D. Torrealva, G. Villa Garca Modern Earth Building 2002 international Conference and fair: Adobe in PeruTradition, Research and Future (Berlin, 2002) Bouhicha, M., F. Aouissi, and S. Kenai. Performance of Composite Soil Reinforced with Barley Straw. Cement and Concrete Composites vol. 27, no. 5 (5, 2005): 617-621. Bruhns, Karen Olsen Ancient South America ( Cambridge, Cambridge University Press1994) Charleson A. W. and Taylor M. Proceedings 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Towards an Earthquake Architecture N.p. 2000 CIA the World Factbook -Peru, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/geos/pe.htm l Accessed July 25, 2008 Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer, and Timothy Hursley, Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an Architecture of Decency (New York : Princeton Architectural Press, 2002)

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186 Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer and Timothy Hursley, Proceed and Be Bold: Rural Studio After Samuel Mockbee (New York : Princeton Architectural Press, 2005) Disaster risk reduction: 2007 global review United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR) preventionweb.net, 2007, http://www.preventionweb.net/english/documents/global-review2007/Global-Review-2007.pd f Accessed May 21, 2008 Guettala, A., A. Abibsi, and H. Houari. Durability Study of Stabilized Earth Concrete Under both Laboratory and Climatic Conditions Exposure. Construction and Building Materials vol 20, no. 3 (4, 2006): 119-127. Gutierrez, Jorge, Notes of the Seismic Adequacy of Vernacular Buildings, Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2004 Information about Peru., http://www.go2peru.com/webapp/ilatintravel/articulo. jsp?cod=199888 8 A ccessed July 25,2008 Learning from Earthquakes The Pisco, Peru, Earthquake of August 15, 2007; EERI Special Earthquake Report October 2007. EERI Earthquake Engineering Research Institute March 2008, http://www.eeri. org/lfe/pdf/peru_pisco_eeri_preliminary_reconnaissance.pdf, Accessed April 15, 2008 Minke, Gernot Building With Earth ( Basel, Birkhauser-Publishers for Architecture; 2006) Maclean, Jayne T. and National Agricultural Library (U.S.). Appropriate Technology for Rural Development 1979-March 1986 Mezzi, M., P. Verducci, J.J. Liu, IABSE Symposium Metropolitan Habitats and Infrastructure: Innovative Systems for a Sustainable Architecture and Engineering. (Shangai, 2004) Innovative A seismic Systems proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering ( Perruggia, Italy 2004) Nacional de Normalizacin, Capacitacin e Investigacin para la Industria de la Construccin. Sismorresistente, Per. Ministerio de Vivienda, Construccin y Saneamiento. 2003

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187 Ngowi, Alfred B. Improving the Traditional Earth Construction: A Case Study of Botswana. Construction and Building Materials, vol. 11, no. 1 (2, 1997): 1-7. October 17, 2008 Project 3: Seismic Hazard, Risk and Loss. ICG Assessment, Prevention and Mitigation of Geohazards March 2008, http://www.geohazards.no/ projects/project3_08/project_3_earthq.htm, Accessed April 15, 2008 Peru History & Culture. http://www.geographia.com/peru/peruhistory.ht m Accessed July 25, 2008 .: PERU Instituto Nacional De Estadstica e Informtica INEI :. http://www1.inei. gob.pe/inicio.htm, Accessed August 21, 2008 Quincha earthquake-resistant housing, Practical Action; Technology February 2008, http://practicalactionconsulting.org/ ?id=earthquake_resistant_housin g Accessed May 18, 2008 ReliefWeb Map Peru: Mapa Referencial Sistema Apoyo Logistico Sismo del 15/08/07, http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/LPAA76CJH6?OpenDocument, Accessed June 1, 2008 Saito, Taiki Building Research Institute August 24th,2007 The right to adequate housing Art.11. CESCR General Comments From the 1991, http:// www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(symbol)/CESCR+General+comment+4. En?OpenDocument, Accessed July 25, 2008 UN Habitat. An Urbanizing World (Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1996) Wikipedia contributors. Climate of Peru. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/climate_of_peru?oldid=222435018, Accessed July 26 2008 Zugman Do Coutto, Ruth and Badaoui Rouhban, APELL for Earthquake risk a community based approach for disaster reduction (Paris, UNEP Publication, 2004)