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Hughes, Jeremy Michael.
Reestablishing the neighborhood :
b exploring new relationships & strategies in inner city single family home development
h [electronic resource] /
by Jeremy Michael Hughes.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 98 pages.
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: Since the end of World War II, American cities have been stuck in the development trend of urban sprawl. The suburban ideal and proliferation of the automobile have fostered this trend, as well as several other negative issues in our society including inefficient land use and isolation of lower social and economic groups. After fifty years as the model by which American cities grow, it has proven itself to be both inefficient in land use and ineffective in bridging the social gaps that have existed since its inception. A new model for city growth is necessary, one that encourages steady and denser development, and the evolution of such a model should begin in a place in which the core of many American cities are built upon: the neighborhood.This thesis will research the ideas present in many traditional American neighborhoods, ideas that have allowed many of these neighborhoods to exist as integrated urban microcosms within cities even into the modern era in which we now live. The goal is not to simply mimic these ideas and the situations which encouraged them, but to reestablish them with consideration to modern issues, lifestyles, and cultures that exist today. Research will be conducted into the nature of neighborhoods as social phenomena as a way to understand, and therefore respond to, how we interact with one another in the places in which we live. Research will also be conducted specific to the city of Tampa, Florida; exploring the structure of existing neighborhoods in Tampa as well as housing types commonly found in the city. The case study of Radburn, New Jersey will be examined as well as New Urbanism ideas to understand how others have approached the idea of neighborhood.Neighborhoods were once the dominant method of development in the United States prior to the Great Depression and World War II. Urban sprawl and suburbia abandoned the idea of neighborhood in favor of a different ideal for living; an ideal which, whether intentional or not, encouraged private living and design decisions which centered around the automobile rather than people and social situations. While design investigations will include macro and micro strategies, a specific goal will be to explore how the design and planning of single family homes can be rethought to provide more frequent opportunities for social interactions with ones neighbor as well as improved relationships with the street. The conclusions of this thesis will aim to prove that reestablishing this phenomenon in urban planning can provide positive growth, encourage social interaction, as well as allow our basic nature as humans to take root.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Advisor: Steven A. Cooke, M.Arch.
Hybrid street grids
Single family homes
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Reestablishing the Neighborhood: Exploring New Relationships & Strategies in Inner City Single Family Home Development by Jeremy Michael Hughes of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of Visual & Performing Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Steve Cooke, M. Arch. Vikas Mehta, Ph. D. Theodore Trent Green, M. Arch. Date of Approval: November 3, 2008 Keywords: Neighborhood, Social Interaction, Hybrid Street Grids, Land Use, Single Family Homes Copyright 2008, Jeremy Michael Hughes
Dedication To my family and loved ones who supported me through this journey and my friends who enriched the experience
Note to Reader: The original graphics of this document contain color that is with the USF library in Tampa, Florida.
i Table of Contents List of Figures iii Abstract ix Chapter One Introduction 1 Chapter Two Quantifying the Neighborhood 8 Case Study: Old Hyde Park, Tampa, FL Program Analysis & Possibilities A Study of House Types in the Tampa Area Chapter Five A Different Type of Neighborhood 34 Case Study: Radburn, NJ Chapter Six Situating the Neighborhood 42 Site Selection & Analysis
ii Chapter Seven Goals, Objectives, & Concepts 53 Goals & Objectives 56 Chapter Eight Design Solutions 65 The Neighborhood, The Street, & The House The Property/ House Typology 69 The House 82 Chapter Nine Conclusions 92 References 96
iii List of Figures Figure 1.1 Urban Sprawl in Tampa 2 Figure 2.1 Old Hyde Park Neighborhood Boundaries 9 Figure 2.2 Old Hyde Park Land Usage by Roads 11 Figure 2.3 Old Hyde Park Land Usage by Public Right-of-Ways 13 Figure 2.4 Old Hyde Park Dwelling Units/ Acre 14 Figure 2.5 Rock Hammock Dwelling Units/ Acre 16 Figure 3.1 Examples of Neighborhood Components 18 Figure 3.2 Old Hyde Park Village in Tampa 19 Figure 3.3 The Structure of Lower Manhattan 21 Figure 3.4 Semi-Lattice Structure 23 Figure 3.5 Tree Structure 24 Figure 4.1 Typical Inner City Neighborhood Property Parti 28
iv Figure 4.2 Typical Suburban Property Parti 29 Figure 4.3 Typical Suburban Cookie Cutter Floor Plan 31 Figure 4.4 Cookie Cutter 3D Analysis 31 Figure 4.5 Typical Bungalow Floor Plan 32 Figure 4.6 Bungalow 3D Analysis 32 Figure 5.1 Radburn, NJ Aerial 35 Figure 5.3 Radburn Open Public Green Space 38 Figure 5.4 Radburn Paved Access Streets 38 Figure 5.5 Zoning in Radburn 39 Figure 6.1 Potential Sites 46 Figure 6.3 Macro Scale Site Location 48 Figure 6.4 Site Boundaries & Area 49 Figure 6.6 Surrounding Uses & Space 51
vi Figure 8.1 Site Plan of Final Scheme 65 Figure 8.4 Circulation Networks Around and within Site 68 Figure 8.5 Typical RS-50 Property 69
vii Figure 8.19 Circulation Diagram Through Woonerf 80 Figure 8.20 Spaces Created Along Woonerf 80 Figure 8.21 Potential Plaza Condition Along Woonerf 81 Figure 8.22 Interactive Street Furniture 81 Figure 8.23 Four House Cluster Plan Ground Floor 83 Figure 8.24 Connectable Side Yards 84 Figure 8.25 Indoor/ Outdoor Space Relationships 84 Figure 8.26 Final Models of Two Typology Variations 85 Figure 8.28 Degrees of Yard Privacy 86 Figure 8.29 Section Through Shared Threshold 86 Figure 8.31 Four House Cluster Plan Second Floor 88 Figure 8.32 Visual Screen Examples 89
viii Figure 8.33 Strategic Use of Trees 90 Figure 8.34 Possible Integration of Screened Enclosures 90
ix Reestablishing the Neighborhood: Exploring New Relationships & Strategies in Inner City Single Family Home DevelopmentJeremy Michael Hughes ABSTRACT Since the end of World War II, American cities have been stuck in the development trend of urban sprawl. The suburban ideal and proliferation of the automobile have fostered this trend, as have existed since its inception. A new model for city growth is necessary, one that encourages steady and denser development, and the evolution of such a model should begin in a place in which the core of many American cities are built upon: the neighborhood This thesis will research the ideas present in many traditional American neighborhoods, ideas that have allowed many of these neighborhoods to exist as integrated urban microcosms within cities even into the modern era in which we now live. The goal is not to simply mimic these ideas and the situations which encouraged them, but to reestablish them with consideration to modern issues, lifestyles, and cultures that exist today. Research will be conducted into the nature of neighborhoods as social phenomena as a way to understand, and therefore respond to, how we the city of Tampa, Florida; exploring the structure of existing neighborhoods in Tampa as well as
x housing types commonly found in the city. The case study of Radburn, New Jersey will be examined as well as New Urbanism ideas to understand how others have approached the idea of neighborhood. Neighborhoods were once the dominant method of development in the United States prior to the Great Depression and World War II. Urban sprawl and suburbia abandoned the idea of neighborhood in favor of a different ideal for living; an ideal which, whether intentional or not, encouraged private living and design decisions which centered around the automobile rather than people and social situations. While design investigations will include macro and micro strategies, a to provide more frequent opportunities for social interactions with ones neighbor as well as improved relationships with the street. The conclusions of this thesis will aim to prove that reestablishing this phenomenon in urban planning can provide positive growth, encourage social interaction, as well as allow our basic nature as humans to take root.
1 Chapter One Introduction What comes to mind when one hears the word neighborhood? Imagery of an older part of a city may come to mind, with buildings full of tradition and history; or maybe an area rich with people of a particular ethnicity or culture. It could be used to describe a quiet residential part of town, or a bustling hot spot with entertainment venues and businesses. In relation to Tampa, areas like Old Hyde Park, Old Seminole Heights, Old West Tampa (notice the use of the world old), as well as Ybor City are known for some or all of the qualities listed above. They are commonly referred to as neighborhoods in the traditional sense, areas made up of a little bit of everything: single family homes, parks, mom and pop businesses, as well as some leisurely entertainment venues. These areas are distinct and unique, not only because of their cultural and architectural heritage, but also because of their large yet small nature. They are very interconnected parts of Tampa, areas that on a map are actually fairly large but because of their cohesiveness and walk-ability feel smaller, more compact, more connected. When talking about or describing the suburbs, the word neighborhood is rarely used in reference to these areas. Perhaps the most used word in association with the suburbs is development. The word community is often used for pocket developments in the suburbs associated with community. The reason for this becomes quite clear when looking at a map; these areas listed above have no sense of cohesion. Uses are heavily segregated, with businesses localized off large highways and giant parking lots between them and the street they face. Behind these are the residential areas with their twisting roads which snake and curve in every direction, not only causing a person to lose any sense of orientation, but also creating longer and larger paths of travel. Properties in these areas of a city are typically larger and most of the property is taken up by a combination of a house and pool, leaving little outdoor space for activities. Walking may be
2 Figure 1.1 Urban Sprawl in Tampa (Courtesy Google Earth)
3 physically comfortable, but it is by no means the convenient way of travel. It some cases, it can one author puts it: To unlock the rigid geographic segregation, an individual needs to obtain a keypoint B in the suburbs, so therefore all parts of these areas are designed to accommodate the car. Cars, as we know, are large and require large areas of land to move and park. Combine this with having to use a car to travel even the smallest of distances, it makes the area seem larger and less connected. The cause and effect cycle of detrimental issues seems almost never ending. known as the suburban ideal) that developed after the end of World War II. Before WWII, suburbs were smaller and quite experimental in nature. The majority of residents were high on the economic ladder, and they were meant as a way to escape from the busy, hectic lifestyle in large metropolis primarily to provide homes for returning soldiers. Middle class families began leaving their urban residences and moving to the suburbs. This gave rise to, arguably, the single most crucial issue suburbs provided the opportunity for the middle class to segregate itself from the lower economic classes in urban neighborhoods; something the suburbs still foster today. It also caused near away from urban neighborhoods, lower social classes took their place, which led to speedy declines in the older neighborhoods of many cities in the United States. This made urban living even less attractive for the middle class. One area of Tampa which suffered from this effect was Sulphur and bustling resort area with public springs and parks. It has now become one of the more lower class areas of Tampa in part because of suburban migration. There are several more issues that could be dived into, but the point it quite clear: the suburbs have become a social danger for almost all parts of society. The current suburban model social damage it has caused, it is close to being an unethical means of growth. Upon investigation,
4 lifestyle imposed by the contemporary suburban development (Duany, Plater-Zyberk, and Speck 2000, 115). What can be done to stop this downward spiral of a trend? It is becoming quite clear that a new model for the growth and development of cities is necessary, a model that allows for sustainable methods of planning. It would seem that a forgotten means of living and planning could hold the key to the evolution of such a model: the neighborhood. The intent of this masters thesis is to explore such an avenue, the reestablishment of the social phenomena of the neighborhood in city and urban planning. Neighborhoods are a good thing; they make important contributions to urban life, and in their absence the city becomes dehumanized.given the nature of human nature, we would have no fear for the continuation of the neighborhood (Greeley 1977, xv). The idea of neighborhood is to be viewed as a philosophical driver, the conceptual approach to a new type of developmental strategy (or strategies) that creates opportunities for interaction with people of varying social, cultural, and economic status as well the stimulation of positive social environments. By using strategies that prohibit the domination of imposing boundaries or lifestyles, it is possible that such a development could serve as an impetus for social change, something suburbs have squelched since their inception. The goal is not to duplicate the planning strategies used in traditional neighborhoods such as Hyde Park and Seminole Heights, but to examine these neighborhoods and neighborhoods like them for their ability to foster such positive social trends. Positive aspects of suburban areas will be examined also in an attempt to create situations that will attract suburban residents. In developing such a model, it is also necessary to be critical of the neighborhood. The traditional neighborhoods in Tampa and around the country that many are familiar with have negative aspects as well, and many were in deplorable planning strategies that encourage sustainable use of land to allow for more green space within neighborhoods. This thesis will focus on both the macro and micro scale fabric of a new type of neighborhood oriented residential development. While much of the focus will primarily be on micro scale issues of residential neighborhoods, it will also focus on the larger relationship to the city as a whole.
5 patterns exist: the semi-lattice and the tree. The semi-lattice describes patterns of overlapping connectivity, new areas overlap into existing areas creating a sense of connectivity and unity. describes a pattern of segregation; the only connection between two elements is their belonging to a greater whole. This is not a pattern we are unfamiliar with for it almost perfectly describes the state Businesses are separated from houses which are separated from retail and, as mentioned earlier, the only means of access is the motor vehicle, something that seems to only increase the divide There are many micro scale issues which are important to consider, some of which appeal to our own nature as human beings. Creating situations that allow for people of various proximities to interact (whether planned or spontaneous), allowing for the expression (rather than suppression) of different cultural and ethnic groups, and integrating different uses for a more connected and useful (to all age groups) urban context are some of the more important issues urban issues to be addressed that, in some way shape or form, allow humans to be humans. Humans are social creatures, no matter if we are introverted or extroverted, ones who enjoy our privacy or live our lives on the sleeve of our shirts; we thrive and look forward to daily interaction with other humans. To quote Greeley again: Local community is natural and human beings seek it because they like connections within and between social networks increases morale and therefore productivity. While to society, there is some merit in this idea and it shares a goal with this thesis: to allow individual idea of social capital could serve as a useful and informative strategy in addressing many of the micro scale issues rooted in this thesis.
6 The preliminary research to be undertaken before beginning the investigations is threefold. First, analytical studies will be conducted on housing types typically found in inner city FL. The Florida Bungalow is a popular housing type found throughout most of Tampas inner city neighborhoods in some form. It is has a very simple arrangement of spaces and takes general consideration to climate issues of Florida, for example, being raised off the ground to allow (and across the country) follow a very stream-lined design in both exterior appearance as well as the arrangement of spaces. For this reason they have earned the nickname cookie cutters because they all seem to be cut from the same mold or in other words designed by the same formula regardless of context or site conditions. In more upscale suburbs with larger properties the addition of commodity spaces make for larger houses. Houses in these areas have earned the pre-designed by large development companies (again with no regard for site or context) and come with only a handful of aesthetic options to make one house look different from the house next to it. The main purpose of this research study will be to determine and illustrate (through diagrams and analytical models) how the design of a house can affect the structure of the neighborhood as a whole and the relationships which are emphasized (or not emphasized). be examined: Old Hyde Park in Tampa and Radburn, New Jersey. Old Hyde Park will be examined communities in the United States that was designed with consideration for the automobile. Being that the automobile was a fairly new commodity, however, there were still many pedestrian areas affected to respond to these two overlapping circulation networks. Radburn, therefore, is a case in which the overall design of the neighborhood impacted the design and orientation of the homes and properties, something this thesis is seeking to explore. New Urbanism on the other hand, an urban movement which began in the 1980s, opposes this view. New Urbanists look to the old to develop the new, in other words, they believe the design and planning strategies of early 20th century
7 neighborhoods and urban schemes work and function better than the urban sprawl which exists New Urbanism, so the case study of Prospect New Town is more about the ideas of New Urbanism heavy criticism New Urbanists have had towards Radburn, therefore, these two case studies will be compared for their similarities and differences as regards neighborhood planning. and what it has taken away from the area in which we as humans live and dwell: Disconnection or fragmentation undermines the social ties that give individuals pleasure and invigorate community (Langdon 1994, 14). Urban sprawl has widened the already massive social gaps in our society today as well as striping the suburbs of their sense of community. It has also fostered many practices demands and greater environmental awareness. Why has this negative trend been allowed to point is becoming clear that it is time to develop a new model not only for urban growth, but for residential land development overall. Some movements exist today that are attempting to respond to urban sprawl. One such movement, as mentioned in the previous paragraph, is New Urbanism. to be counter-productive to the movements goals of effectively responding to urban sprawl, and being so well interconnected they have almost become islands which are isolated from the areas point for this thesis at the urban level, but the starting point for addressing the many social issues created by urban sprawl and proliferation of the suburbs will be the neighborhood. It is the goal and hope of this masters project that the reestablishment of this seemingly forgotten way of living and urban planning can serve as the impetus for social change as well as address many of the recently developing issues regarding sustainablility and environmental awareness that have begun to affect
8 Chapter Two Quantifying the NeighborhoodCase Study: Old Hyde Park, Tampa, FL One of the major topics to be researched by this thesis is that of land usage, not only of the suburbs but also of traditional inner city neighborhoods. To formulate a more progressive model for urban sprawl so it is most likely that the site for this thesis will be an already developed or underdeveloped area of Tampa. To provide a control standard for understanding what the land use goals of this thesis should be, a critical land usage analysis was conducted on the traditional neighborhood mainly because of their integration of other uses besides single family homes, those uses primarily being multi-family housing and the mixed use commercial core of Old Hyde Park Village. personal living was different than it is today. The typical lot size by todays zoning standards of and therefore houses, are much larger and consume much more space. The lesson to be derived roads and public right-of-ways. Once these numbers are ascertained, they will be analyzed to see if they really need to consume as much land as they do and to see if there are ways for them to
9 A community within the suburb of Tampa Palms, Rock Hammock, will also be analyzed for this purpose. makes it a perfect choice for studying the planning rationale of Tampa in the early 20th century. planned using the traditional grid structure found in early Tampa neighborhoods (and even some plots has an alley running down the center separating the rear yards of each plot. and was still a luxury, these alleys served a two-fold purpose: a disconnected path from the public street for trash pick-up and later down the line as easements for certain utilities. This thesis will seek to improve upon all aspects of neighborhood land usage, from the land usage by single family homes to land dedicated to public circulation and public utilities. traditional inner city Tampa neighborhood compare to a suburban development? The hypothesis is that the inner city
10 dedicated to paved roads, land dedicated to public right-of-way usage, and the amount of dwelling units per acre. The organizational strategies of the two may play a large role in the resulting numbers of this analysis. Also to be analyzed will be how segregated land usage is as far as zoning. The typical suburban development is strictly regimented and uses are very separated, making the suburbs completely automobile dependent while neighborhoods closer to the city core tend to have more commercial aspects integrated within walking distance. It becomes evident that the comparison to the intended results of this thesis. The primary method of investigation and gathering of data was tabulation of single family regarding zoning, right-of-way widths, property sizes, and the original number of planned properties. The number of properties and their combined areas will be compared against the number of houses calculated from the aerial to determine the density of homes per acre. The total area of land dedicated to public right-of-ways and paved roads will also be calculated using the City of are laid out. Although paved roads will fall within the public right-of-way, it is necessary to calculate displaying the data related to these issues. gathered, three for Old Hyde Park and one for Rock Hammock in the suburb of Tampa Palms. The acres. This number is necessary to provide land usage percentages for an understandable basis
11 The amount of area used by primary roads is
12 shaded in grey represent privately owned, developable properties; the areas shaded in blue represent the public right-of-way. The right-of-way width is 60 feet in most cases for local streets, with a few cross streets being 50 feet. The right-of-way for the alleys varies from 10 feet to 15 feet. the total area of study. primary issue of analysis being the number of single family homes. There are two numbers to be concerned with, gross density and net density. The gross density is the density of single family net density is the density of single family homes as compared only to the area of land dedicated to single family homes. The net density was extrapolated based on a typical block of Old Hyde Park the original intent of the plan rather than the actual density mainly because some property owners have purchased more than one property and have had them rezoned into a single property in order to build a larger house. It is also more accurate as it is based only on buildable area; it does not include the areas dedicated to right-of-ways. A typical block in Hyde Park consists of fourteen, eighteen, and twenty-six properties with some others which are larger and some smaller. A ratio was calculated for each typical block, with the homes per acre falling somewhere between 5.5 and 6.1 for each type. As mentioned earlier, a similar study and analysis was done on a community in the suburb numbers were similar in nature, for example, the area dedicated to paved roads was calculated are based on automobile sizes and are fairly standardized by both city and county planning
13 The amount of area allocated for public right-of-ways (including
14 Commercial study. The gross density is approximately 2 houses per acre. The net density by block ranges between 5.5-6.1 houses per acre.
15 standards, however, based on the hypothesis the difference in these numbers was expected to be issues with paved roads as many dead-end into cul-de-sacs, making the path of travel much longer than it need be. The number which proved to be in line with the hypothesis was that of density, to the 2.0 houses per acre in Old Hyde Park. The stark difference is the net density, 1.7 houses per acre in Rock Hammock compared to the 5.5-6.1 houses per acre in Old Hyde Park. Moreover, within the area analyzed there are no other uses or zoning other than residential. The closest commercial comfortable walking or riding a bike. typical suburb, issues which carry more weight than just numbers on paper. The position of this detracts from the sense of neighborhood in the suburbs. The suburbs also fall on the low end of the density spectrum and that has become one of the more challenging issues to progress from. Houses are segregated which eliminates the chance encounter with a neighbor, furthering the disconnect. will be studied and proposed for use in the design portion of this thesis.
16 There are 155 single family homes in the area of study. The gross density is approximately 0.85 houses per acre. The net density by block is approximately 1.7 houses per acre.
17 Chapter Three Defining the NeighborhoodProgram Analysis & Possibilities The case study of Old Hyde Park in Tampa, Florida had a two fold purpose; its primary To address the issue of what components are essential to the success and creation of a The Poetics of Cities.
18 the most crucial of which is that it keeps people in the is also the fact that commercial uses attract people who are
19 mind, they can act as micro destinations carries with it an important aspect that to another author for this crucial social A Better Place to Live: Reshaping the American Suburb communities in ways that allow interaction
20 environment that only caters to the middle and upper social classes is to create an environment
21 structure for the street and the other for eventually the infrastructure of the city adapted to weave and connect these different areas into the
22 a tree structure, it means that within this structure no piece of any unit is ever connected to other
23 Single Family HomesAdjacency DiagramSemi-Lattice Pattern of Overlapping Commercial/ Mixed Use Core Public Space Civic Uses Multi-Family/ Apartments
24 Adjacency DiagramTree Pattern: Segregated Uses Multi-Family/ Apartments Civic Uses Commercial Single Family Homes Public Space
25 lined with commercial activity which face the street, are instead lined with commercial strip malls at
27 Chapter Four The House as Base UnitA Study of House Types in the Tampa Area The program for any type of single family home based development should obviously have as its most essential component a single family home typology. This is found to be the case in most planned suburban developments. From my own personal experience in the design and construction industry most developers buy a large area of land, break it up into as many evenly sized properties as possible, and then come to a design professional with pre-designed spec homes. These spec homes are commonly referred to as cookie cutters due to the fact that in plan they all not only have the same programmatic elements but also the same arrangement of that program. The only difference from house to house is usually the faade, which has become the identifying feature of suburban homes today. On the opposite side of the spectrum the most typical house found in inner city neighborhoods is the bungalow style, a smaller typology with a single large living space and bedrooms off to the side of the living space. development that will be undertaken in this thesis. The house, however, is not the only important aspect. The property itself is something that will also be explored, something commonly overlooked prototypical neighborhood scheme should lend itself to a prototypical house/ property relationship, of initial analysis: the inner city neighborhood and the suburban community. There are remarkable differences between the two and simple three dimensional parti studies easily reveal these differences.
28 The parti studies were broken down almost like a kit of parts, showing the major components found in each type. The color components of each parti study are illustrated in the key below as neighborhoods like Old Hyde Park, Tampa Heights, and Seminole Heights. The relationship of the elements depicts a generally balanced view between the public and the private realm. The backyard is larger and is usually fenced off for more privacy. Within the backyard is the detached garage be discussed in detail later on. The front yard is modest in size and acts as the divide between the private realm of the house and the public realm of the street. The element that mediates this divide porch is indeed an interstitial zone by which the home owner relates to the neighborhood and, conversely, by which the neighborhood relates to the owner.Figure 4.1 Typical Inner City Neighborhood Property Parti vehicular circulation pedestrian circulation yard space house garage front porch
29 it is missing: a front porch. Replacing the front porch is, not surprisingly, the garage. What is of the street faade of the house. The other elements of the suburban parti seem to be affected or to not only a lack of front porch but also to a lack of pedestrian connection. The driveway to the street. The path to the entry is usually accessible only from the driveway rather than a direct path from the street or sidewalk, and combined with a lack of front porch gives an immense sense of disconnect from the neighborhood. What typically happens to the backyard is just as discouraging, it becomes smaller to the point that almost the entire area is taken up by a swimming pool and pavement. Combined with a screened enclosure, it gives the impression of attempting to become part of the private realm of the house. These characteristics are representative of one of the major Figure 4.2 Typical Suburban Property Parti vehicular circulation pedestrian circulation yard space house garage front porch
30 problems with suburbia: ...no other society approaches the Unites States in terms of the number of the private realm is beginning to spill over into the connecting pieces of the property, affecting the make-up of the neighborhood as a whole. It has indeed become as the authors above describe as isolation en masse. space dedicated to the private realm. In fact there are three distinct layers of privacy that can be distinguished: spaces to entertain guests, spaces for the family, and spaces for the individual. True to the suburban ideal of separation of uses, the suburban house is also intensely separated based on use. The living room and dining room are reserved for the entertainment of guests only and are rarely used by the family. This has given rise to spaces like the breakfast nook and family room, informal places for the family that are separated from areas for entertaining guests. The second different layers of privacy is not so much an issue as the amount of layers that exist. Diagrammatic Hyde Park, the size of the property constricts the size of the house. Rooms that suburban houses Rooms in bungalow typologies also typically serve the dual purpose of both entertaining guests and casual entertaining also takes place in the backyard. The main living space, often called a great room, is the point of entry from the front porch. This space is usually sectioned off into a living room and a dining room. The kitchen is typically at the rear of the house and the bedrooms usually enough to be a layer itself, a semi-private layer between the home and the public realm. Figures 4.5 and 4.6 illustrate the analysis conducted on the bungalow typology. In reviewing and analyzing these partis, the inner city neighborhood parti is found to be much more amiable towards the neighborhood as a whole as well as towards a home owners ability to
31 Private (F amil y) Private (Individual) Semi-Priva te Private/ Formal Kitchen Ve hicula r Circula tion Cookie Cutter Floor Plan
32 Figure 4.5 Typical Bungalow Floor Plan Private (F amil y) Private (Individual) Semi-Priva te Private/ Formal Kitchen Ve hicula r Circula tion
33 well as its proximity to and relationship with the public realm. However, there is still room for programmatic elements of a house to enhance the aspects of neighborhood as a whole. Issues of with other spaces will diminish. Within the house there will be two layers of privacy: spaces for the individual and spaces for the family. Spaces which fall under the layer for individual privacy would primarily be the bedrooms and spaces which fall under the layer of family privacy would be the dining room, the living room, and the kitchen. In multi-story typologies, there will also be the incorporation of at least one private outdoor space. The third layer which will exist will be an aspects of neighborhood. One of the conceptual goals for this space is to tie it into the enclosed be opened up into one space or closed off from each other. Other basic programmatic elements variety of bedrooms and bathrooms as needed based on the size of the family; the basic typological are considered to be the most necessary and essential elements for a house and will be included in typological studies.
34 Chapter Five A Different Type of NeighborhoodCase Study: Radburn, NJ
38 Because everybody walks in Radburn, Ive met so many people in a way that I never have in other places Ive lived. The paths bring people together in a way that no ordinary suburban community does.
39 -There is almost no crime in Radburn. I think its because the houses are close together and the people know each other. That helps a lot. -The parks and paths allow little and big kids to meet their friends, play ball, go swimming, and go to school with great freedom. -The design of Radburn has created a tight-knit community. -Because the homes and the layout of them do not provide a lot of privacy, Radburn attracts very sociable people. -Even now, many new communities are striving environment that we enjoy.
42 Chapter Six Situating the NeighborhoodSite Selection Criteria & Analysis One of the primary aspects of creating situations which can be encouraging to the ideas of community and neighborhood has to do with location. Urban sprawl, as the term indicates, likes to spread out far without consideration to making connections to any type of built context. Again referencing Christopher Alexander, the tree pattern by which urban sprawl tends to follow is the simplest development pattern, and simple usually means cheap as well. The tree pattern does not stress interconnection between all parts and this has resulted in the typical suburban community being a pocketed development amongst a sea of nature. They are disconnected and isolated from other parts of the built environment. The successes that can be associated with the neighborhood, on the other hand, are not only about inward connections but outwards connections as well. Earlier in this document, Philip Langdon was quoted as saying: Disconnections or fragmentation undermines the social ties that give individuals pleasure and invigorate community life (Langdon 1994, 14). In this quote he is referring not to the connections within the neighborhood, but connections outside of ones neighborhood. Later on the same page as the quote above, Langdon gives an account of an economist in southern California who says that people do not tend to create social connections with the people whom they work with because after work they have to get started on the long trek back to their remote, suburban homes. In a city like Tampa this can be the case, after work (and before that take people to their suburban homes. One may also live in a suburb completely in the opposite direction of those with whom they work, leaving even less opportunity for interaction outside of the workplace. This is not only the case with the people whom a person works with but with ones
43 neighbors as well. Everyone in a given suburban development has their own separate commute and by the time they get home there is no energy left to interact with ones neighbors. Combine this with the overall lack of opportunity to interact, it is easy to see how the remote location of the suburbs can easily cause one to be stuck in this pattern of social disconnection. Even in some inner city neighborhoods this can unfortunately be the case. The aim of this thesis is to counter urban sprawl because of situations like the one cited above. That is only one example of how the suburbs can directly effect a single person, it does not get into the many more indirect social issues spawned by urban sprawl. New patterns of growth should be encouraged that promote connections between a neighborhood and the other parts of a city. It seems logical then that a development that wishes to accomplish this is best suited for placement projects, projects built on previously undeveloped land usually outside of the city limits; they like to start with a clean slate so to say. They dont have to worry about issues of connectivity with nearby developments that were designed by someone else. Being that the site for this project will be within connections with older, well established neighborhoods while at the same time creating a sense of neighborhood unique to the project. Given the overall suburban nature of Tampa, the model could established neighborhoods in the area, however, care must be taken not to infringe on the identity of that particular neighborhood. In analyzing a map of neighborhoods in Tampa, there are actually quite a few developed residential areas that are not associated with any neighborhood at all. These areas typically do have a regional name associated with them but because there is no existing neighborhood association in place they tend to lack a certain sense of identity that areas with neighborhood associations have, neighborhoods like Old Hyde Park and Seminole Heights. It would seem appropriate then to examine these areas as potential sites for this project. This would allow the project to grow into and have its own identity to distinguish it as a neighborhood of its own. Along with this issue is the quality of the surrounding context. It is desirable for the site to be
44 adjacent to at least one existing established neighborhood to explore how to make connections without infringing on that neighborhoods identity. The structure of the surrounding context is also important, too strong a context may force the site to adhere to it and too weak a context may cause any new developments to seem isolated from its surroundings. Another issue is connectivity to public transit. The current public transportation scene is Tampa is dismal; the only aspect that covers a large range of the city is the bus system. The bus Ybor City and the Channelside district are connected by a recently redeveloped trolley system which is very convenient, however, it is limited to a small area and has not yet been integrated into any other parts of the city. It may be necessary then to choose a site based on future plans for development of more large scale public transit rather than limiting site selection to the existing scene in Tampa. Recently, Hillsborough County organized a transportation task force to analyze Tampa and the county as a whole for the viability and integration of a county wide (and beyond) light rail system entitled Transit Concept for 2050. The task force outlined some major routes that will remain an important aspect as it allows for more convenient, less expensive, and less stressful travel from ones home to ones workplace. If closely linked to an existing or future public transit hub, the neighborhood is taking a step towards fostering connections with the city as a whole. Proximity to destinations is also another important site selection issue. Within a suburban development, even the closest of destinations can only conveniently be reached with a car. This is primarily due to the clustered planning and heavy segregation of uses that occurs in the suburbs. This thesis will seek not only to create links (by public transportation and proximity) to important existing destinations within Tampa, but also to create closer, walkable destinations within the fabric of the neighborhood. One of the regional goals of the New Urbanism movement has always been access from to center roughly within a quarter mile distance (Duaney, Plater-Zyberk, Speck 2000, 246). While this thesis tends to disagree with the end product of popular New Urbanism developments, it shares many aspects of the philosophy and structure of neighborhoods with the movement. Choosing a site, then, that is not too will be an important factor in creating walkable
45 both proximity and public transit. Despite wanting to decrease dependency on the automobile, it will still be necessary to choose a site that is easily accessible for the automobile. While proximity to a highway is not necessarily important, having primary avenues along the edges or even running through the eventual site should be an important condition to have. This will not only allow for destinations to the city as a whole. Moving forward from these criteria, an analysis of a diagrammatic map of Tampas neighborhoods was conducted with maps from the Hillsborough County Community Atlas online. This map color codes the different neighborhoods and communities within the entire county a neighborhood association. The neighborhood association is typically a group of residents who care about preserving the identity of the neighborhood and keeping it unique. The boundaries set, neighborhood association. For this reason it will be used as an analytical starting point for determining areas of Tampa that lack organization or representation. Starting with this map, eleven criteria listed in this section the area that was eventually chosen for further analysis was an area just north of Old West Tampa, a portion of area three on the map on the following page. The area bounded by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. to the north, Columbus Ave. to the south, Himes Ave. to the west, and the Hillsborough River to the east will be the initial area of focus for the site. An even smaller portion will be selected from this area to keep investigations at a scale that is practical for the goals of the thesis. The area as a whole, however, was analyzed to help decide which portion will be chosen for development. Some of the primary issues of analysis will be: boundaries (mentioned above), macro and well situated within the urban context of Tampa. It has easy access to the interstate, and if Tampa sees its light-rail system realized, there will be several hubs along the interstate which will be in
46 Potential SitesDeveloped Areas with no formalized neighborhood identity (within city limits)1 2 3 4 6 7 5 8 Figure 6.1 Potential Sites (Original aerial courtesy Google Earth)
47 close proximity to the area. It is also bounded by several well established neighborhoods: Old West Tampa and MacFarlane Park to the south and Tampa Heights across the river to the east. Downtown Tampa can be easily reached by bus or car. There are also several other nearby destinations that are fairly easy to reach by car or bus: International Plaza, Raymond James Stadium and Legends Field, Al Lopez Park, and MacFarlane Park. Other surrounding uses include a HART-Line bus transfer station on Himes Avenue, St. Josephs Hospital district along Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard, and several public and private schools including one in the potential site zone. with the adjoining neighborhoods. For this reason the existing grid structure at the edges of the to be maintained so that the area remains connected to the rest of the city; these will also remain through the site zone and will not be disrupted. Habana Avenue and Tampa Bay Boulevard are also important streets and will be maintained, possibly as datum lines for the design of the project. The as there are no parks currently along the river in this area. The following pages will show the redevelopment within the goals and idea of the thesis. Figure 6.2 Typical Existing Street Condition in Site Area (Original aerial courtesy Google Earth)
48 Macro ScaleSites Place within TampaDowntown Tampa Airport West Tampa South Tampa Tampa Heights Seminole Heights Hyde Park Westshore East Tampa Ybor City Drew Park Assumed Future Light-Rail Track City Limits Temple Terrace City Limits Figure 6.3 Macro Scale Site Location (Original aerial courtesy Google Earth)
49 Site Boundaries & AreaColumbus Avenue Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.Himes AvenueHillsborough River Figure 6.4 Site Boundaries & Area (Original aerial courtesy Google Earth)
50 Influential FormsColumbus Avenue Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.Himes AvenueHillsborough RiverMacDill Avenue Armenia Avenue Habana AvenueTampa Bay Blvd. (Original aerial courtesy Google Earth)
51 Surrounding Uses & SpaceInternational Plaza Assumed Future Light Rail Hub Macfarlane Park West Tampa Elementary Blake High School Stewart Middle School Tampa Bay Blvd. Elementary Raymond James Stadium Legends Field Al Lopez Park St. Josephs Hospital St. Josephs Womens Hospital HART Line Transfer Station Jesuit High School Mendenhall Elementary Tampa Catholic High School Macfarlane Elementary Figure 6.6 Surrounding Uses & Space (Original aerial courtesy Google Earth)
52 Sound SourcesColumbus Avenue Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.Himes AvenueHillsborough RiverMacDill Avenue Armenia Avenue Habana AvenueTampa Bay Blvd.Low Natural Low Vehicular Moderate Vehicular High Vehicular Figure 6.7 Sound Sources (Original aerial courtesy Google Earth)
53 Chapter Seven Goals, Objectives, & Concepts The early research and goals of this thesis were very broad in nature and were formulated development over time has fostered many negative social trends that has resulted in further divides
54 no spaces for the pedestrian to circulate or congregate it is no House arrangement and design is another contributing yards become wider to distance the front of the house from
55 when cars were smaller they are not as wide as neighbors do however share the immense gaps that designed to respond to each other in some way the ideas and behaviors associated with community
56 Goals & Objectives which not only have strong pedestrian circulation but destinations and amenities to attract the
57 the to Concepts diagrammed to pull out or reinterpret the ideas which could be contributing factors to a sense of
58 yard typically serves both a private and public function as it porch typically serves as an outdoor space for the house but have some interesting features that could be reinterpreted the porches to face each other as well as pulling a portion of of the house also provides the opportunity for the house to system of secret gardens that has become a popular feature and typically appear between dwelling units and townhomes
60 perhaps serve as more of a shared entry space than a shared also share some of the core ideas that this thesis wanted to possibly used to approach these ideas from practical and legal
61 development of this scheme these yards were envisioned to act as the entry into
63 the street and belonging to each house with the ability to be opened to each but it is now at the front of the house and separated from the yard spaces by
65 Chapter Eight Design Solutions The Neighborhood, The Street, & The HouseFigure 8.1 Site Plan of Final Scheme
66 The very nature of the thesis problem suggests that different scales of design solutions need to be addressed. While the root of the problem lies in the disconnect between single family houses, it is necessary to expand from this scale to address the block and street as well. Learning logical evolution of the grid street system. Cynthia Girling and Ronald Kellett, co-authors of the book Skinny Streets & Green Neighborhoods talk about the next wave of experimentation in street network design being based on a hybrid of vehicular streets and paths for pedestrians and bicycles only. A possible option in this experimentation could be simply to replace cross streets in a typical street grid with pedestrian only paths in both directions. A diagrammatic example of this system is taken was to select streets which would be converted into paths only for pedestrians and bicyclists. In the model on the following page, every other street inbetween Columbus Avenue and Martin also be converted as a north-south pedestrian axis. After some analysis, the pattern was eventually changed to every third street being converted. Once this system was established, the design became focused in detail on only three streets: Cordelia Street and Ivy Street between Habana Avenue and Armenia Avenue, and the portion of Tampania Avenue that intersects these two streets. ideas geared towards activating the streets with social activity. Cordelia Street, which forms the north border of existing Capaz park, will be the street to be converted to a non-vehicular lane which caters only to pedestrians and bicycles. Tampania Avenue will also be converted to a pedestrian only lane, but has a slightly different nature as houses do not typically face this street. Ivy Street will remain a vehicular street, however, the nature of this street will also be experimented with and will be discussed later in this section. To stimulate the ideas associated with neighborhood, people must be brought out from their homes to engage with their fellow neighbors. To highlight how the design decisions made will aid in this goal, three different conditions will be focused on: the pedestrian only street condition of Cordelia Street, the vehicular street condition of Ivy Street, and the house typologies which will be on both streets. The new structure of each of the conditions above was highly dependant, however, on the structure of a fourth element: the property.
67 Figure 8.2 Hybrid Street Grid (Girling and Kellet 2005, 81) Figure 8.3 Macro Scale Implementation Within Site Area
68 existing primary vehicular converted primary pedestrian vehicular/ utility alleyFigure 8.4 Circulation Networks Around and Within Site
69 The Property/ House Typology It seemed necessary to address not only house design for a new type of neighborhood structure but also the structure of the properties. If houses are to be viewed as the base and most essential element of any single-family house neighborhood then the property is equally essential house. In this respect, the house and property were approached as a single design element. The nature of the typical RS-50 property in Tampa has inherent disadvantages when it comes to creating a relationship with the street and creating relationships with the neighboring house/ property. The source of these issues comes not from the size of the property (typically 50 feet by 100 feet) but from the zoning setbacks enforced on the property. areas can be built upon and which areas cannot be built upon. Each side of a property has a setback that when applied outlines this area. The typical setbacks as set by the city are: 25 feet front, 7.5 feet sides (sometimes 5 feet), and 20 feet rear. These setbacks centralize the house, not allowing it to engage with the property and leaving little opportunity to create relationships along the edges of the property. The front setback distances the front of the house from the street and sidewalk, and the side setbacks (typically accompanied by a fence along the property line, create narrow spaces that Figure 8.5 Typical RS-50 Property
70 Figure 8.6 Diagram of Shared Entry Path into Side Yards (far left) Figure 8.7 Diagram of Degrees of Privacy (left) Figure 8.8 Diagram of Staggered Side Yards (bottom)usually go unused. Setbacks, then, become an important issue to address when approaching the property/ house relationship. It was immediately apparent that in order to successfully design houses to respond to each other a typology which only dealt with a single, repeatable unit would not be the best solution. Instead, the typology studies all focused on at least two units being designed together, resulting in a paired typology. Many ideas were experimented with and diagrammed for the property/ house relationship. Three potential typologies were initially theme or focus. One was eventually chosen and became the typology implemented into the neighborhood scheme. It focused on the idea of staggered side yards on adjacent sides of two properties. The primary idea was to focus on the development of a common space between two properties. It also focused, however, on the relationship
71 Figure 8.9 New Paired Property Typology
72 between the property and street, the approach and entry from the street to the property, and maintaining degrees of privacy an issue of great importance with respect to single family house design. The aspect of privacy will be returned to later when discussing the house itself in more detail. In implementing this typology into the structure of the neighborhood, the typical RS-50 property served at the starting point. As mentioned earlier, the size of the property was not so much an issue as the setbacks, so the size of the property will remain at 50 feet by 100 feet. To allow for the creation and preservation of the side yards, however, required the setbacks to be the typology shows how the setbacks will form the side yards as well as form the house itself. The setbacks are smaller, reduced from 7.5 feet to 4 feet, so as not to compromise the total buildable area for the house. The front setback has also been drastically reduced, from 25 feet to 10 feet, to allow spaces at the front of the house to better engage with the street and sidewalk. The front of the property has also been altered to create a shared space along the street. This shared space serves as both a shared entry between any two adjacent properties as well as a means for street activity to be pulled closer to the house. Legally it would be part of the public right-of-way, and therefore is a space belonging to the public, but it is expected that portions of it may be partially claimed by each resident through the planting of vegetation as well as general maintenance. These spaces became a focal point in design decisions made for the structure of the two street types. The Pedestrian-Only Lane connectivity usually take a back seat. One of the goals for the neighborhood scheme was to take a more balanced approach, making spaces for the pedestrian and a pedestrian circulation network just as important as vehicular networks. A bold step in doing this was to completely convert select streets into pedestrian only lanes. In the scope for the design portion of this thesis, only two streets were detailed in this degree: Cordelia Street between Habana Avenue and Armenia Avenue, and Tampania Avenue between Abdella Street and Aileen Street. It is important to note that because of this move, vehicular access to the front of the houses along Cordelia Street will not be allowed
73 Figure 8.10 Nodes Along Pedestrian Lane(except by emergency vehicles). For this reason, alleys have been reestablished at the rears of the properties, not just for Cordelia Street but for Ivy Street as well, to allow vehicular access by the home owner. This will also prevent homes from having garages along the street, a dominant feature of newer suburbs. For the visitor, communal paring lots have been placed on select properties, with access from the alley. This also helps to engage the pedestrian path as visitors will park at the communal lot and then walk to their intended destination. The diagram above highlights the destinations and neighborhood spaces that have been designed, as well as the circulation paths. Orange represents pedestrian circulation, blue represents the vehicular circulation of the alleys. While the properties along both the lane and vehicular street are primarily single family houses, some properties would be intended to have other possible uses. Some of these other uses could be: small restaurants or shops, community gardens, pavilions for larger community gatherings, or simply nicely landscaped pocket parks for a more quiet and serene setting. This is unique because on a typical residential street like this, known as a local street in there is nothing to activate the street, except for the occasional pedestrian walking their dog or resident tending to their front lawn. Conditions like that are what lead to residential streets no longer having sidewalks and the automobile becoming the dominant element designed for. What this design introduces for both pedestrian and vehicular street conditions are uses more commonly found on a collector street, a slightly larger scale street than a local street that can have houses as
74 well as other uses. Collector streets usually connect one neighbor to another is why they are larger in scale. As long which in the case of the pedestrian lane is not an issue at all, there should be no reason not to introduce other uses which can activate the street and neighborhood throughout the day. Along the circulation path, there are several nodes created at the intersection of the path with the shared circulation entries. At the center of these nodes there is something to divert the path of the traveler to the edges, a small landscaped area with benches perhaps, in order to push the circulation towards the front edge of the houses. These repetitive nodes could service a multitude of neighborhood gathering, from a house party which could spill out into it to a local cultural event. They serve as the miscellaneous neighborhood spaces, the spaces function but with the ability to host a variety of functions. Figure 8.11 -Circulation Diagram Through Pedestrian Nodes Figure 8.12 Spaces Created for Neighborhood Activities
75 Another change seemed necessary in order to help facilitate a relationship between these spaces along the public circulation and the houses. The typical public right-of-way for a street in this area is 60 feet. To bring the houses closes to the public spaces along the lane, the right-of-way was shortened to 50 feet. This is not an uncommon size for a right-of-way, and with the removal paved roads for automobiles 60 feet seemed too large. This change, however, was also done on the vehicular street condition, which will be discussed more in the next section. This move also allowed more space to be apportioned to the properties. The pedestrian-only lane presents a new type of dynamic to neighborhood planning. Rather than focusing social neighborhood spaces in certain areas the social space is brought to the home as the circulation space. In this sense, it is similar to Radburn in that it becomes a backbone to the structure of the neighborhood as a whole. As this pattern is further integrated into the surrounding context, a green and pedestrian friendly network begins to take hold in the community. The pedestrian is no longer an afterthought but a primary focus of the design. This, however, does not mean that the automobile is diminished in focus. Cars are an integral part of society today, and can not be turned a blind eye to simply because designers today make the car the most important element to design for. This is the primary reason design investigations also focused on creating a new type of vehicular street condition on Ivy Street, which is directly north of the pedestrian lane condition created on Cordelia Street. This street, however, will not be dominated by the vehicle, it will still be designed with the pedestrian in mind. It will simply allow the automobile to be a contributor to the activity of the street life rather than a detractor from street life.Figure 8.13 Section Through Pedestrian Lane
76 Figure 8.14 Overhead Perspective View of Typical Circulation Node The node can be centralized on the path or shifted to created a variety of spaces along the public right-of-way. Trees should be strategically placed to allow for portions of the node to be shaded. Figure 8.15 Ground Level Perspective View of Typical Circulation Node A garden with benches can be placed at the center of the node to push circulation to the edges as well as create opportunities for social encounters with ones neighbors. The shared entry paths also connect to these nodes, adding more activity to the neighborhood.
77 The Woonerf design of the vehicular street condition in this scheme was a European condition appeared in the Netherlands around 1960, although the idea itself came from to living yard and was named so by chose the name because he wanted drivers to feel like they were driving through a public garden full of vegetation, life, and pedestrian activity. This would, in turn, force drivers to take into account the pedestrians on the street and therefore drive at a slow and safe pace. As the idea progressed and developed in regulations were eventually written into are restricted to a speed limit of walking pace, and in Germany to a speed of 7 km/hr. Laws like these have given pedestrians and bicyclists legal priority over motorists. Many other countries, including Israel and Japan, have to create woonerf like street conditions.Figure 8.16 Typical Woonerf Diagram (Courtesy U.S. Department of Transportation)
78 A woonerf has a unique set of characteristics which allow it to function as both an outdoor pedestrian space and a vehicular street. One of the more important characteristics is that there are no curbs on a woonerf, the street and pedestrian are put at the same level and are typically differentiated by a change in surface treatment. The rationale behind this is that motorists will drive more cautiously and avoid speeding without the presence of a continuous curb. Curves are also implemented into the street to block sight lines of drivers, again a tool to discourage speeding. A woonerf should also have elements along it that help for residents to play, relax, or have a small gathering. Planters and bollards are two of the most used elements create spaces for residents. Combined with other elements like benches, street furniture, and trees some very nice and multi-functional neighborhood spaces can be create to activate the street. As a street, however, there are still allowances for parking. Spots are usually clearly designated with signage so that drivers know where they can and cant park, and parking spots should be spread out so as not to turn the street into one continuous parking lot. Its important to remember than with a woonerf condition the pedestrian has access and dominion over the entire street, the car is merely allowed to pass through or contribute and the elements in place are to let drivers know what they can and cannot do. Residents and children are encouraged to use the streets, and cars are required to yield to them. Figure 8.17 Examples of Woonerfs in Europe (Hand 2008)
79 The woonerf was chosen as a model, again, to experiment with some new ideas in the urban context of the United States. Ivy Street, directly north of Cordelia Avenue, was the street converted into a woonerf in the neighborhood scheme. Adding some strategic curves to the street was the the woonerf and combining these elements with the dynamic nature of the street helped allow the neighborhood node spaces to take form. Unlike the pedestrian lane condition, however, these nodes are pushed more to the edges rather than being centralized. The addition of planters, bollards, of supporting uses and communal parking lots as there was with the pedestrian lane condition. The diagram below highlights the spaces along Ivy Street, orange circles represent neighborhood spaces accessible to the pedestrian while purple circles represent parking spaces. These parking spaces, when not being used, are open for use to the residents as play areas for children or other miscellaneous uses. The alleys will also be reestablished here so as to keep a convenient amount of vehicular accessibility to homes since the amount of street parking is reduced and more controlled as compared to the existing conditions. The width of the street is also a factor that needs to be considered with any woonerf. The as well to allow cars to park along the curb or edge of pavement. In the scheme for this woonerf the street width undulates to allow cars to pass both ways, but not necessarily at the same time. This was a move made to not only reinforce awareness for the pedestrian, but also to encourage Figure 8.18 Nodes Along Woonerf
80 Figure 8.19 -Circulation Diagram Through Woonerf Figure 8.20 Spaces Created Along Woonerf motorists to respect each other as well. There are many options for the car on this street, but not when it comes to driving at a fast pace. High speeds and liberal driving are for highways and major roads, but for a neighborhood drivers should know as soon as they turn onto the street that fast driving is not only unsafe for the pedestrians, but for the driver as well. The path for the pedestrian is also made interesting. The upper diagram to the left shows how the pedestrian and vehicular circulation are laid out, and how in some places they will overlap. Pedestrians are exposed to a variety of conditions along the street that are capable of adding to the social climate of the neighborhood. Street furniture is perhaps the most interactive element as it can be used by anyone passing by or by a nearby resident. In the lower diagram to the left there is a modest sized plaza space which opens up the street as well as providing a break in the and attached to a small commercial structure, which allows the function of any businesses to respond to the plaza.
81 Figure 8.21 Potential Plaza Condition along Woonerf Figure 8.22 Interactive Street Furniture The woonerf is another example of a new type of dynamic that could be introduced into American neighborhood planning. While experimental in the United States, the woonerf is a system that has proven to work in other automobile oriented countries like the Netherlands and Germany. The woonerf is a proven, viable, and exciting solution to some of the problems caused by the automobile in residential neighborhoods. (Hand 1) Many designers and planners assume that because cars are large and are capable of high speeds that they pose an immediate danger to pedestrians and should be as segregated as possible from suburb. The woonerf has shown that more regulated control over automobiles in pedestrian being safe from harm. It has not only proven itself in Europe, but countries around the world, and
82 although it may be cultural attitudes in these countries that have allowed the woonerf to be so successful, it may be able to slowly introduce a new type of social climate that can serve as an impetus for social change in our neighborhood in America. It may not happen overnight, but the groundwork will at least have been laid out so that people can approach these issues on their own terms. The next section will return to the property/ house typology and address the house itself in more detail to show how this most essential element of American neighborhoods plays its part in contributing to a new social climate. The House In an earlier section of this chapter, the house was talked about as far as its developmental relationship with the property. This section will talk more about the house itself, its spacial shared space which is the conceptual center of the typology. In actuality, it should not be called a shared space, but more of a shared threshold that can be opened to connect the two yards or remain closed off to keep them separate. This is the key issue that could lead to the failure of will either be too much closure between houses, which is the problem this thesis is attempting to own privacy. The one aspect that this project is taking hold of that typically does not happen in When a new house development is built in the suburbs no fences or walls are built between some cases homes are so far apart that fences are not necessary, or vegetation is used rather than of the design objectives in order to ensure that there was a balance of yard space with different degrees of privacy. the typology. Remember that the typology consists of two properties and two houses which are different in form, but respond to each other. Therefore, the houses in the typology will be referred
83 Figure 8.23 Four House Cluster Plan Ground Floor
84 to as house type A and house type the typology three units were designed for each type, one-, two-, and threestories. The base unit for each type would be the one-story. The basic space layout starting from the front facade and moving towards the back of the house would be a front porch connected to a living room or great room, a dining room towards the center of the house, and a kitchen towards the rear with a covered carport being the space at the very rear of the house. With the reestablishment of the alleys, the garage can easily and conveniently be accessed from the rear of the house and need interfere with the activity on the street. The porch is considered an essential element to the design, without it there is no connection to the street. The layout of the other spaces, however, was also considered important as far as their relationship to the central outdoor space. It was desirable to create connections with the neighboring spaces of the house types through the shared threshold, if the neighbors chose to open it up. This connection happens between the kitchens, they are directly connected to the yards adjacent to the threshold. The living great room kitchen dining kitchen b.r. kitchen Figure 8.25 Indoor/ Outdoor Space Relationships Figure 8.24 Connectable Side Yards
85 Figure 8.26 Final Models of Two Typology Variations (Scale: 1/4 = 1-0) Figure 8.27 Final Models of Four Typology Variations (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)
86 kitchen is an important space because parents need to be able to keep an eye on things while they use it, especially if they have children. In the bottom diagram on the previous page the kitchen has views in both directions, to the more private side yard as well as to the main side yard. The section of the following page highlights this relationship. The living room also has views, but its primary connection is with the front porch and street. The dining room is closely associated with either the kitchen (type A) or the living room was another important objective. The nature of the connectable side yards doesnt really make them a completely private space. There is the option to keep them closed off from each other, but residents may desire to have a part of their property that is completely their own, unconnectable. extend into the connectable yard but because of its proximity from the threshold has some more private rear yards Figure 8.28 Degrees of Yard Privacy Figure 8.29 Section Through Shared Threshold
87 private qualities. There are also the inclusion of small private garden spaces. Notice that there are connectable yards shown on both sides of the house. This was done so as not to give one house this unique opportunity with both neighbors. A resident may very well have a better relationship with their neighbor to the left rather than their neighbor to the right. If this is the case these yards are connectable as well, however, because of their smaller size these yards are capable of having a stronger degree of privacy if desired by the resident. The treatment of certain walls became important as well as neighboring houses help of the neighboring house play an important psychological role in letting a resident know that their yard is indeed private if they want it to be. Different options were implemented in different types. Screen systems were as examples. Simple blank walls were also options, or blank walls with high windows. Clerestory windows become a useful element also as they allow light in but not views out. There are plenty of other materials out there that make schemes like this more feasible than in the past. In contemporary house design, especially in the suburbs, the most common way of achieving both light and views are Figure 8.30 Examples of Wall Treatments for Privacy
88 Figure 8.31 Four House Cluster Plan Second Floor
89 punched openings in the wall. In this scheme, punched openings would not psychologically make a person feel their yard is private. consider in helping to preserve a sense of privacy, are certain angles were views from one house to the other could encroach on privacy. Two ideas were developed to deal with this: privacy screens and the use of strategically placed trees. The idea of privacy screens was an early idea that, although option at the residents discretion. The screen developed from the conceptual idea of shared elements between houses. The screen would block views across the threshold as well as partial views into the neighboring side yard but not hinder views into ones own yard. Vegetation could also be allowed to grow on the screen, allowing it to further block views and add a natural element. This intent of this shared element is to add to the idea neighborhood, as neighbors may have to come together to deal with maintenance of the screen since it would straddle the property line. As a shared element, residents of both houses should feel inclined to keep it maintained as it effects both of their homes and properties. Strategically placed trees is another strategy that could be used in place of the screen systems. Figure 8.32 Visual Screen Examples
90 Trees could be placed to block the views through the threshold at the upper levels without blocking the threshold at the ground level. This would maintain the privacy in the upper levels of each home while leaving the opportunities presented by the threshold intact. Trees also give the additional advantage of providing shade for the yards. Home owners need to feel that they can do whatever they please with the land that belongs to them. To help illustrate how this scheme still allows this freedom, one of the units was shown with a swimming pool in the yard. This gave the opportunity to address an aspect commonly found in the suburbs, but also prevalent in inner city neighbors: the screened enclosure. Screened enclosures typically have nothing to do with the design rationale of the house and usually constructed after the house has already been built. This was a minor issue, but addressing it could help attract home owners from the suburbs back into the city. Instead of a detached screen, the structural elements of the house could be pulled out to cover the pooled area and have wood trulleses for shading. Areas could then be screened at the owners discretion without giving the impression of an enclosure that is merely attached to the house rather than part of the design rationale. Figure 8.33 Strategic Use of Trees Figure 8.34 Possible Integration of Screened Enclosures
91 The design decisions made were not made under the assumption that the result will be an redevelopments. Radburn was once considered a radical idea for its time, the town for the motor age, and although the principles surrounding its design went ignored for sometime it has now become a viable model for neighborhood planning. The woonerf too is a proven idea and it could prove to be a useful precedent for designing streets in America, both residential and commercial. The idea of houses having shared spaces is not a new idea either. In Savannah, GA townhomes and detached living units alike often have a garden space that serves as a shared entry for the residents as well as a semi-private space from the street. All of the precedents for this thesis project have been proven ideas which address practical issues. The integration of these ideas could prove to be not only a practical new approach to neighborhood planning but also a means to address the social and economic issues which have burdened this country in recent years.
92 Chapter Nine Conclusions This thesis project covered a wide range of issues at different scales, and because of this it wasnt able to focus too long on any one particular aspect. Despite this, however, the project was still able to achieve a groundwork which could serve as a starting point for a viable development width of streets also allows more space to be allocated to lawns or green space within the right-ofway. The use of only pervious surfaces rather than impervious pavement helps make the scheme more sustainable and makes allocating land to water retention less of an issue. The project was also able to achieve a wide range of spaces for miscellaneous neighborhood activities and social interaction. Many of these spaces were based on real situations that exist and work in Tampa, for example, the street friendly situations along South Howard Avenue. Making these spaces easily accessible to pedestrians as well as creating the opportunity for other uses and amenities help lower the dependence on the automobile that our society has today. This also helps to attract people from outside the neighborhood, which allows the neighborhood to connect with the city as a whole. The nodes scattered throughout the scheme provide ample opportunity for both planned and spontaneous social interactions. The scheme does not discriminate to people who cannot use cars like children, the elderly, or lower social classes which provides the opportunity of bringing people together who are different from one another.
93 these in reality would involve changes to these laws, or at a minimum variances to these laws, if the within a deed restriction. Deed restrictions have a long and controversial history, many early suburbs employed deed restrictions for segregational purposes which has led to many residents taking homeowners associations to court arguing their deed restrictions are unconstitutional. They can range from what color you can paint your home, how high your grass is allowed to be, and if property values and eliminate eye sores such dilapidated cars or unkempt landscaping. Despite their reputations good or bad, if properly and ethically regulated, deed restrictions could be the best and easiest way to allow this scheme to take form. Deed restrictions do not typically involve setbacks approved, but it is by no means a long shot to make a reality. It is, however, not a simple matter of just buying a handful of properties and developing them as is common for testing many experimental house types in Tampa. There were also some criticisms about the appropriateness of the housing model having Americans place a high value on privacy, more so than other countries. This value on privacy has for years been the focal point of the suburbs and one of the reasons it has endured for so many years. Privacy in America equates to distance, the farther a person is from their neighbor the more privacy they will have. With the larger properties in the suburbs, this is further compounded. Could it perhaps be this attitude towards privacy in America that has helped foster some of the negative trends prevalent with the suburbs? Whatever the answer may be, it has been clearly evident that a new model for living in American needs to at least be explored. It may challenge long existing paradigms, but social change never has come easily in this country. The emergence and survival of sprawl is not just about poor design decisions, it actually has a ordinances which are in place and many times the problem can lie in the municipalities that pass
94 Delving further into the realms of policy and management would only serve to strengthen the thesis in the end, and getting a rough outline of guidelines and principles could be the next step in solidifying the ideas of the project. This should also involve guidelines for phased implementation as it is highly unlikely an entire street or handful of street will be able to be wiped clean and developed at once. How many houses are necessary to start? How would the properties be acquired and by who? Would initial developments need to bring both sides of a street up concurrently? These are examples of questions that would need to be addressed with regards to getting development off the ground. It is also important that any process of writing policy, guidelines for management, or guidelines for phased implementation absolutely involve the community in which development would occur. Further design explorations could also have been done on the areas allocated for other uses. At the current state of the scheme only the houses were designed and buildings intended functions being assigned. The functions would have an obvious effect on the spaces they are connected which would allow relationships associated with them to be more clearly articulated. This could have also been a topic explored in the research. The research primarily focused on house typologies and could have looked at small commercial typologies also. In line with this, a typology could have been developed for these functions similar to the house typology which was developed. The eventual success or failure of these ideas may not be evident right away. Social change takes time and new ideas need time for people to acclimate to them. What has been achieved is opportunity, and that is really all architects and designers can do. Creating opportunities, however, has never been the problem, preserving them has been. That is why urban policy reform is necessary, and progress is being made across many different disciplines. Smarth-growth and sustainability are terms being used more and explored by designers, planners, as well as economists and federal agencies. Transit-oriented developments are becoming popular and focus on creating
95 better look at land use codes that have allowed urban sprawl to sustain itself. Cities like Portland, denser development. Even developers, once considered part of the problem, are becoming more interested in neighborhood oriented developments and creating real communities. To truly make a difference though, the members of communities and neighborhoods must get involved and stay involved. Bringing neighborhood residents together in a forum to discuss these ideas can help to start bridging the divides that exist between different groups, and building community support may be the best way to ensure schemes like the one developed in this thesis become a reality. If all a person does is surround themself with people who are of their same economic class, social group, or race it can serve to foster fear fear of people who are different from what a person is used to. This is the social climate prevalent in the suburbs, there are no opportunities for people of different backgrounds to be brought together. Bringing different people together in social situations can help people to overcome these fears and break the barriers that have existed so long in this society. Community is indeed the source of human nature, living and interacting with other people and growing from those experiences. Yes, reestablishing the neighborhood could indeed prove to be the impetus needed to achieve the long needed social reform in America.
96 References Theories and Manifestoes of Contemporary Architecture, Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. Fair Lawn News Fall 2004 Edition. Thoughts on Radburn. Greeley, Andrew M. 1977. Neighborhood. The Poetics of Cities: Designing Neighborhoods that Work. Better Place to Live: Reshaping the American Suburb.
97 Bibliography Theories and Manifestoes of Contemporary Architecture, Good Neighborhoods: A Study of In-town & Suburban Residential Environments. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. Skinny Streets and Green Neighborhoods: Design for Environment and Community. Fair Lawn News Fall 2004 Edition. Thoughts on Radburn. Greeley, Andrew M. 1977. Neighborhood. The Poetics of Cities: Designing Neighborhoods that Work.
98 Neighborhood Space. Revitalizing urban neighborhoods. Better Place to Live: Reshaping the American Suburb. Confronting Suburban Decline: Strategic Planning for Metropolitan Renewal. Landscape Journal 20: 2-01. Journal of Undergraduate Research Volume 6, Issue 9 The Old Neighborhood: What We Lost In the Great Suburban Migration