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Sisson, Sarah A.
Redefining what is sacred
h [electronic resource] /
by Sarah A. Sisson.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 88 pages.
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: Within the last twenty years, Evangelical Protestants, primarily in the southeastern United States, transformed the functions of their churches from a traditional sacred gathering space to an open outreach resource for the community. Architectural form did not follow these new functions and the complexity of their modern spatial usage has never been resolved. Modern typologies, such as the mega-center or its smaller counter-part the metal building chapel, ignore their responsibility to the community as a symbolic presence. Protestant churches began community outreach programming like life wellness series and youth enrichment programs. Once viewed as secular, these programs increased accessibility of the church to the public. Also, long-established welfare programs like soup kitchens have gained visibility. Churches facilitate these programs with large, non-descript multi-use spaces.Typically the main worship hall is given prominence, though it is only occupied for formal worship. To strengthen the modernization, ecclesiastic design must pay tribute to both service types: secular and sacred. For my study, I chose the First United Methodist Church of Pensacola and considered its daily usage. Acting as a house of God, the church is vibrant center for its members and the community. Due to its historic location in downtown Pensacola, the church expanded for its community outreach programming into adjacent properties. As a result, secular daily events disengaged from the main worship hall. This thesis is a design solution for the modern church; that respects traditional liturgical elements of the denomination while allowing spatial flexibility for the use throughout the everyday life of the church. Program elements are based on the site's need for permanent locations; a soup kitchen and an activities center for an inner-city youth.The design also intertwines the journey of every person with awareness of each program's significance, and it rests on concepts of light and spatial usage in traditional sacred spaces in conjunction with an analysis of modern functions to determine emotive quality of each space. By understanding the intertwined relationship between the place of worship and the compassionate act of communal support, the architectural response will redefine what is sacred.
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Advisor: Steven Cooke, M.Arch.
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Redefining What Is Sacred by Sarah A. Sisson A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of Graduate Studies University of South Florida Major Professor: Steve Cooke, M.Arch. Stanley Russell, M.Arch. Beverly Frank, M.Arch. Date of Approval: November 21, 2008 Keywords: church, ecclesiatic, gradient, multi-use, light, scale Copyright 2008 Sarah A. Sisson
Dedication I would like to dedicate this document and the hard w ork that went into the final design product to my husband, John H. Sisson. The time a nd moments that I have missed while working long nights in studio will be repa id. I could not be the person without your belief in me. Without your support and understanding, there is no way I could have done any of this without you. Thank you.
Acknowledgements Thank you for the continuous support from my father, R onald E. Williamson, and my Mother-in-law, Brenda B. Sisson. Thank you to my f amilyespecially my brothers Nathan, Austin, Zack, and Craig. Thank you to my thesis chair, Steve Cooke. Your teachi ng style promotes selfconfindence and a self-taught awareness. To my fellow students that have been through this wi th meEpic Win! It has been an awesome journey full of endless nights and glue cov ered finger tips. You have taught me so much. Thank you. I would, also, like to acknowledge Reverend Geoffre y Lentz of the United Methodist Church, who has been my religious consultant. Thank you for your time. Spiritually, I have been inspired by First Methodist C hurch of Pensacola and the work that they do for the community.
i Table of Contents List of Figures iii Abstract: Redefining What is Sacred vi Site Selection 1 The Site Practically Defined 2 Civic Usage 2 Residential 3 Commerical 4 Churches and Main Street 4 Conclusion 5 Program Analysis 7 Demographics and Denominations 7 Literal Description of Spaces 8 Community Outreach Programming 10 Local Zoning Codes 11 Design of the Multi-use Space 1 Abstract 13 Literal Description of the Space 13 Investigation 15 Wednesday (5-14-08) Â– Â“The Last SupperÂ” Congregation Service 15 Thursday (5-15-08) Â– Boy Scouts of America Meeting 16 Friday (5-16-08) Â– Interview with Joey Herres 16 Lessons Learned 17 Conclusion 19 Vicinity Survey 21 Understanding Liturgy 26 The Liturgical Movement 26 Common Components of Christianity and Their Churches 27 Common Elements of Protestants 30 Methodists 31 African American Christianity 32 Components of the Christian, Protestant, Methodist Church 33 The Journey 33 Gathering Space 33 Sanctuary 34 Altar 35
ii Pulpit 37 Research on Evangelical Protestants in the Southeast 40 Introduction 40 Research 40 Conclusion 48 Precedent Studies 49 Final Design Solution 58 The Church Physically Defined 58 Soup Kitchen 60 Milk & Honey Project 61 Conclusion 64 References 87
iii List of Figures Figure 1 Effects of Hurricane Ivan 1 Figure 2 Solid / Void Plan 2 Figure 3 Elements Located on Site 3 Figure 4 Site Section 3 Figure 5 Residential Surrounding Site 4 Figure 6 Commercial Context of Site 4 Figure 7. Churches on Palafox Street 5 Figure 8 Usage Map Indicating Variations on Site 6 Figure 9 Conceptual Drawing Interpreting OneÂ’s Life Cycle in the Church 7 Figure 10 Altar Arrangement Depicting Spatial Requirements 9 Figure 11 Choir and Music Spaces Needed 10 Figure 12 Weekly Program Schedule 11 Figure 13 Removable Altar 13 Figure 14 Stage at Progressive Service 14 Figure 15 Plan and Section Diagram for Dinner Configuration 15 Figure 16 Plan and Section Diagram for Boy Scout Meeting 16 Figure 17 Plan and Section Diagram of Layout for Progressive Service 17 Figure 18 Mother and Daughter at Altar 18 Figure 19 Father and Son Seek Space 19 Figure 20 First Baptist Church of Pensacola 21 Figure 21 A.E. Allen Chapel 22 Figure 22 Additional Facilities Where Community Outreach Programs are Held 23 Figure 23 Immanuel Lutheran Church of Pensacola 24 Figure 24 Churches Selected for Project and Their Proximity to Site 25 Figure 25 Components of Church design after the Liturgical Movement 26
iv Figure 26 Diagrams Depicting Changes in Layouts Based on Liturgical Involvement 27 Figure 27 Diagrammatic Liturgical Layout for Catholic Church 28 Figure 28 Methodist Liturgical Layout 31 Figure 29 Acts of the Altar Table 34 Figure 30 Section of Pulpit 37 Figure 31 Light Slice at St. Paul the Apostle Cathedral 51 Figure 32 Light Effects at the Cathedral 52 Figure 33 Light Components of St. PeterÂ’s Lutheran Church 53 Figure 34 Band of Light that Runs through the Granite Tent 54 Figure 35 Removable Furnishings at St. PeterÂ’s 55 Figure 36 Alternate Furnishings 56 Figure 37 Analytical Sketches about Scale and Proportion 57 Figure 38 Conceptual Diagram Plan Depicting the Three Programming Elements and Their Relationship 58 Figure 39 Conceptual Perspective Drawing Depicting the Idea of the Journey59 Figure 40 Conceptual Section Depicting Time and Usage of the Multi-Use Space 60 Figure 41 Conceptual Painting Depicting Plight of the Homeless Person 61 Figure 42 Conceptual Painting Depicting Child Entering a Empty Home 62 Figure 43 Lighting Diagram Depicting the Combination of Light and Scale 63 Figure 44 Lighting Diagram Depicting the Combination of Light and Interaction of the Church Participants 64 Figure 45 Initial Concept Models Depicting How to Relate to Existing Context65 Figure 46 Initial Sketch Model 65 Figure 47 Sketch Model Exploring Spatial Possibilities 66 Figure 48 Last Sketch Model that Diagrammed the Final Spaces 66 Figure 49 Sketch Model with Diagrammatic Site Components 67 Figure 50 Adjacency Diagram 67 Figure 51 Approach Diagram, ChildrenÂ’s Approach Perspective, and Perspective from Interstate 68 Figure 52 Aerial Perspective and Hurricane Ivan Diagram 68 Figure 53 Rendering View from Interstate and Site Plan 69 Figure 54 Context Section and Perspective from Corner Approach 69
v Figure 55 Site Component Diagram 70 Figure 56 Soup Kitchen Flex Diagram 70 Figure 57 Program Gradient Diagram 71 Figure 58 Nave Extension Plan 71 Figure 59 Final Floor Plan at Ground Level 72 Figure 60 East Elevation 72 Figure 61 Final Floor Plan at Second Level 73 Figure 62 Building Section 73 Figure 63 Final Floor Plan at Third Level 74 Figure 64 Building Section 74 Figure 65 Perspective at Crossing on Second Level 75 Figure 66 Perspective at Crossing on Third Level 75 Figure 67 North and South Elevations 76 Figure 68 Perspective View from Pulpit to Nave 76 Figure 69 Perspective View from Dining Area at Crossing toward Altar Wall 77 Figure 70 Section Perspective 77 Figure 71 Perspective View from Nave through Baptistery Font 78 Figure 72 Perspective View of Altar Wall 79 Figure 73 Perspective View from Crossing to Nave 80 Figure 74 Section Perspective through ChildrenÂ’s Crossing 80 Figure 75 Interior Perspective View to Studio Outside 81 Figure 76 Perspective View of Dining Area from Entrance 81 Figure 77 Perspective of Entrance 82 Figure 78 Perspective View at Dining Hall up to Crossing 83 Figure 79 Perspective View through Outdoor Eating Area 84 Figure 80 Perspective of Entrance 84 Figure 81 Entrance View of Final Model 85 Figure 82 Overall of Final Model 85 Figure 83 Entry View of Final Model 86
vi Redefining What is Sacred Sarah A. Sisson ABSTRACT Within the last twenty years, Evangelical Protestants, primarily in the southeastern United States, transformed the functions of their churches from a traditional sacred gathering space to an open outreach resource for the community. Architectural form did not follow these new functions and the complexity of their modern spatial usage has never been resolved. Moder n typologies, such as the mega-center or its smaller counter-part the metal building chapel, ignore their responsibility to the community as a symbolic presence. Protestant churches began community outreach programming like life wellness series and youth enrichment programs. Once viewed as secular, these programs increased accessibility of the church to the public. Also, long-established welfare programs like soup kitchens have gained visibility. Churches facilitate these programs with large, non-descript multi-use spaces. Typically the main worship hall is given prominence, though it is only occupied for formal worship. To strengthen the modernization, ecclesiastic design must pay tribute to both service types: secular and sacred. For my study, I chose the First United Methodist Church of Pensacola and considered its daily usage. Acting as a house of God, the church is vibrant center for its members and the community. Due to its historic location in downtown Pensacola, the
vii church expanded for its community outreach programming into adjacent properties. As a result, secular daily events disengaged from the main worship hall. This thesis is a design solution for the modern church; that respects traditional liturgical elements of the denomination while allowing spatial flexibility for the use throughout the everyday life of the church Program elements are based on the siteÂ’s need for permanent locations; a soup kitchen and an activities center for an inner-city youth. The design also intertwines the journey of every person with awareness of each programÂ’s significance, and it rests on concepts of light and spatial usage in traditional sacred spaces in conjunction with an analysis of modern functions to determine emotive quality of each space. By understanding the intertwined relationship between the place of worship and the compassionate act of communal support, the architectural response will redefine what is sacred.
Site Selection The selected site is located in the Old East Hill historic district of downtown Pensacola, Florida at the intersection East Wright Street and North Alcaniz Street, on the 2000 block. The neighborhood east of 1-10 interstate boundary edge has changed in the last several years due to the aftermath of hurricane Ivan which hit Pensacola on September 16, 2004. Before the hurricane, the neighborhood was mixed with some homes well-maintained and some that were dilapidated already. The storm demolished numerous homes. In the images provided, blue-tarps can be seen that were used for roof covering in the interim of rebuilding process. Jewel Canada-Wynn, the district six city representative, explained that previous to hurricane Ivan there was a twenty percent poverty level in that area. When the homes and businesses were damaged, they were required to be renovated or rebuilt to the standards Figure 1: Effects of Hurricane Ivan1
of the Old East Hill historic district guidelines and codes. Residents that were already struggling nancially in the area were forced to abandon, sell, or relinquish their homes or businesses. Consequently, there are more vacant lots, abandoned buildings, demolished homes, or under-sold properties in the neighborhood particularly to the east of interstate 1-10. West of the interstate was not effected in the same manner because many of the historically signi cant structures, large af uent homes, and well-established businesses have remained. The neighborhood to the east of the interstate is in a transitional state. The gentri cation process is occurring with the homes that were abandoned or the vacant lots that remain. Wynn mentioned that she believed that the majority of people displaced were senior citizens without home insurance or the income to repair their homes. The Site Practically De ned The selected site is 48,244 square feet or 1.17 acres. At the southeast corner of the site, a CSX railway track crosses at a diagonal motion while interstate 1-10 merges one way above. The site slopes downward from the north end of the site to the south for an elevation of about six feet in height. In the center of the site are the archeological remains of an historic home. The red brick retaining / foundation wall remains, and further to the center of that is the brick remains of an outdoor replace, perhaps the location of an original kitchen. Figure 2: Solid / Void Plan2
Civic Usage The civic center is located diagonally across East Wright Street from the site. The location of the Civic Center to the site will be an important connection element because people who are visiting Pensacola to attend functions at the Civic Center will be able to understand the culture of the area more appropriately. While this connection is an important element to the city, it also requires a great deal of parking for events which are located across Wright Street beneath the interstate. The Pensacola Grande Hotel is across the street from the site to service the civic center. It is a single vertical element for several blocks. Within several blocks of the civic center are several hotels and restaurants. Residential Condition of the homes that remained varies. There were three homes, within three blocks of the site, which were historic homes moved from previous sites to the vacant lots. Several homes were in the process of being renovated, while a small percentage of the homes were in need of repair. Overall, about half of the historic homes were in good condition. There is also a unique element of historic homes from other locations that are being moved or have already been moved onto the vacant lots. Figure 4: Site Section Figure 3: Elements Located on Site3
Commercial The neighborhood is mixed-use with the existing historic homes, but zoned commercially. The commercial consists of small of ces in refurbished homes, a retail strip along Wright Street, and mixed businesses along Wright Street and Davis Avenue frontage. Some older homes have been converted to businesses or work/live units. There are also several businesses that remain vacant from hurricane damage or simply from the economic decline of the current recession. Churches and Main Street Along North Palafox Street, there are several churches that are symbolic to the city of Pensacola. First Baptist Church of Pensacola is over a hundred years old, and sits vertically high on the hill and looks a beacon. While the First Methodist Church and the First Episcopalian Church are also over a hundred years old, but are nestled several blocks down in the walking area of downtown. These churches congregations are made up people from all over the area, but symbolically represent Â“old moneyÂ” of the small city. They are known to be populated by the wealthiest in town. Palafox Street is the main attraction for the historic elements visited in downtown Pensacola, and also serves as a main artery for pedestrian and vehicular traf c into downtown. Palafox Street runs through the entire town, but changes names to Highway 29 in the more industrial area north of downtown. Figure 5: Residential Surrounding Site Figure 6: Commercial Context of Site4
Conclusion There are both dynamic and problematic elements to enrich the design solution of this project. The heaviest problematic element is the looming interstate 1-10Â’s. The exit swoops over the corner southeast corner of the site, and is approximately 26 feet in height. While at the same point below on the ground sits the railroad tracks. They are line for freight that runs east to west once a week, on Wednesday, according to residences of the area. Unfortunately, CSX denied the availability of the train schedule when they were contacted. Dynamic elements of the site are the physical context of its location between the prominent elements of historical and proud Palafox Street and the civic center, and the residential neighborhood mixed with the retail and business areas that keep the area always lled with people. Figure 7: Churches on Palafox Street5
Figure 8: Usage Map Indicating Variations on Site6
7 Program Analysis Demographics and Denominations Conceptually, the church is the center for the rites of passage in the presence of the divine: birth, coming of age, marriage, and the burial of the dead. Â“Worship spaces are places of commitment, where individuals commit to a faith and join a community, where couples commit to one another, and where a family and the wider family of the Figure 9: Conceptual Drawing Interpreting OneÂ’s Life Cycle in the Church
8 church commit to raising a child.Â”1 Therefore, the intent of the sacred community place is for people of all stages of their life to take part in faith. In its 2000 years of existence, Chri stianity has developed an extraordinary breadth of and variety of practice. The denominations vary in their forms of liturgy, precise interpretation of Christian doctrine, and the role of their clergy. Their churches or chapels share common elements in regards to architectural spaces: a gathering space (at entrance that signifies a journey to the chapel), a sanctuary (with an altar, lectern, and pulpit), congregational seating is in a space known as the nave, a baptistery, a music area (can range from simply a choir and piano to the more modern elaborate of a live rock band), and the ancillary supporting spaces (offices, storage, audio-visual equipment, etc.).2 With that spatial architectural understanding in mind and a collaborative viewpoint on religious sects as described by Baptist minister Reverend William Caldwell, Â“as rivals but as friendsÂ” to combine these denominations would only make a community stronger. Major considerations that will be accommodated are the denominational liturgy acts of Roman Catholic approaches to the Episcopalian and Lutheran and the Protestant approaches for the Methodist and Baptist. For the Roman Catholic Eucharistic celebrations, there must be provisions for a space for the communion table and its services. For the Protestant approach, the service itself is more theatrical based with an oversized pulpit and a baptism font that allows full immersion for the Baptists.3 Literal Description of Spaces 1 See Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.1 2 See Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.35 3 See Bennett, Vicki. Sacred Space and Structural Style: The Embodiment of Socio-Religious Ideology p.58-62
9 The gathering space is the spatial allocation where the visitor or congregant enters the church precinct. Design approaches sometimes treat this spatially as a threshold or historically it has been the indicator as the end of oneÂ’s journey or pilgrimage. Some exterior possibilities consist of a garden walk from parking area, courtyards, or a covered transitional area to an interior gathering room. Some interior functions are members congregate before service to greet each other, must say Â“all are welcomeÂ”, overall concept is that this is the space that the congregation experiences themselves a community. The size must be at least one-third the size of sanctuary. The area can be calculated by: 5 sq. ft. per worship space seat X 300 seats= 1500 sq. ft. Some other considerations are a comfortable environment, an informal seating for elders, a Â“cry roomÂ” for mothers to leave service, a notice boards and literature, and a welcome center. Some ancillary services to be considered are bathrooms, kitchenette for pastries and coff ee, storage for ushers, small bible study rooms for individual meetings or prayer, and can be used for service overflow. The sanctuary is a liturgical space for performance of the service and seating of the congregation. The seating area is 15 sq. ft. per worship space seat X 300 seats= 4500 sq. ft. The first case study of Lake Magdalene United Methodist CommunityÂ’s multiuse space that housed the Â“progressive serviceÂ” was 56Â’ wide X 72Â’ deep = 4032 sq. ft. Figure 10: Altar Arrangement Depicting Spatial Requirements (Graphic from Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.13)
10 and seats 300 to 350 people. Area is further dependent on seating arrangements and pew sizes. For comfortable participation of audience, a distance of 75Â’ is the maximum standard for view of speakers face recognition and sound of the human voice. For circulation of seating, one may not be comfortable crossing more than 5 seats over in either direction with large aisles between at least 5 feet in width. The stage and service performance area are the alter, pulpit, lectern, and the seats for priests/ pastors The communion preparation area needs to be at least 8Â’X10Â’=80 sq. ft. The sound equipment at the case study example was two side spaces at 8Â’ X 10Â’ each (providing 160 sq. ft.). The dining hall space can be a combined with other spaces. For example, the gathering space and the nave, but there must be a fully operational kitchen. Service kitchen size should be 25Â’X18Â’= 450 sq. ft.4 Community Outreach Programming 4 See Packard, Robert T. Architectural Graphic Standards: Seventh Edition, American Institute of Architects, p.16 Figure 11: Choir and Music Spaces Needed (Graphic from Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.17)
11 The two main community outreach programs that are going to be the focus of the project are the Milk & Honey project and a permanent soup kitchen facility. The Milk & Honey project is for inner city children that will be left alone after school or during the summer. The program currently has no facilit ies. There will be 4-6 classrooms offered requiring 225 sq. ft. each. They will also need a learning resource center that has computer stations and studio desk for a varied application of learning facilitation. Exterior components will be athletic courts and a playground for the children to play. The soup kitchen will require a large enough kitchen, indoor dining area and a covered outdoor eating area. Local Zoning Codes The site selected is zoned as C-1, which means neighborhood commercial. Other considerations are to the Old East Hill District historic committee. Florida Building Codes: A religious facility that holds up to 350 people falls under the building code assembly occupancy as Â‘Group A-2Â’. Group A occupancy is defined by Figure 12: Weekly Program Schedule
12 code as the use of a building or structure, or any portion thereof, for the gathering together of 50 or more persons for such purposes as civic, social or religious functions or for recreation, or for food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation. Assembly occupancies also include special amusement buildings regardless of occupant load.
13 Design of the Multi-Use Space Abstract The multi-use facilities of the modern church are not a generic gathering space. There are rules and standards used for these spaces. However, design decisions are made pastors not architects. While these professionals have good intentions and far more knowledge on how the church operates, a design professional could strengthen modernization efforts of the church by providing them with a space that functions appropriately. The investigation was made in a multi-use space at a traditional Methodist Church (Lake Magdalene: A United Methodist Community). The massive room has a separate entrance, a kitchen or service area, and a small open plaza outside. Originally built in 1981, renovation of the space was m ade two years ago for the use of progressive worship space, but since the renovation was so successful, it is also used as a public gathering space. Used to generate additional income for the church, the space is rented for public usage. As a result of its popularity in the community, the room is transformed almost daily. Literal Description of the Space The main meeting hall room size is 56Â’wide Figure 13: Removable Altar
14 X72Â’deep with a 15Â’ ceiling height. The capacity varies depending on the event in a theatre setting it holds 300 to 350 people, but for dinner service seats 250. Furniture is a key element to the transformation to the space. Simple chairs, made of a steel frame and nylon covered foam, are placed in different arrangements depending on the type of meeting that the space is accommodating. The chairs are covered with a fabric for more formal events. Simple round tables are also removed, reordered, and covered depending on the event. There are four movable altars that remain in the space, but only one is moved to prevent public access to the stage which all of the musical equipment remains for all events. These altars are simply activated during the progressive service by lighting candles and applying spotlights. There are large interchangeable art pieces that speak of the sermon changes. There is no natural light in the space, but there are false windows that were removed from an original chapel that has been removed from the site. These windows are artificially illuminated from the back for dramatic effect. There is also a full service kitchen that is used for dinners and ceremonies. The stage was the primary design driver for the renovation efforts. The performance space size is about 15Â’ deep X 40Â’ wide. The remainder of the width of the room is used for the sound system. Shape and sectional qualities are based on the ban shell design or choral shell for its acoustical quality. The shape is simply framed inward from the original mass. The walls and ceilings of the stage area are painted black for theatrical effects while a light, sheer, draped fabric decoratively hides fluorescent Figure 14: Stage at Progressive Service
15 lighting. Giant projection screens flank each side of the stage that provides an interactive source for the church service. They are strategically placed at eye level of the crowd. Three analytical spaces are generated from actions of the stage: performance space, transitional space created by steps or pulpit (used for kneeling for individual prayer and collection plates), the speakerÂ’s performance space generated by podium and table placement. Because the service is tr ue to its evangelical roots, it is about the spoken word of the pastor. The speakerÂ’s space is the most hierarchical element of the Sunday service. The podium in below the stage located at the same level as the crowd creating a relationship between the speaker and the audience. Investigation: The investigation technique used consisted of the spatial usage and programming for this multi-use space on four different days during one week. Wednesday (5-14-08) Â“The Last SupperÂ” congregation service The configuration for this event is based on density. The seating capacity is 250 for a dinner service, and the space was at full capacity. The simple chairs were used, but dressed in a fabric cover. Tables were 5Â’ diameter round tables that set about five or six, and were also covered for the event. Main circulation was around the perimeter of the room, and was also used by for food service. Circulation between the tables was Figure 15: Plan and Section Diagram for Dinner Configuration
16 narrow and sporadic. The exterior edges of the room were used for food service where fold-out tables were used for the patrons to choose their meal. The room was full, and loud with the sound of people gathering to socialize. Entrance fee was $6 per person. Thursday (5-15-08) Â– Private meeting place for the Boy Scouts of America The Boy Scouts meeting held 50-75 people. One-third of these were adults. Only half the room was used for seating which the first two rows were for the children. The central circulation space between the rows was used by parents taking photographs and making memories. The area in front of the stage was used for ceremony, the speakers, and awards reception. The empty rear of the room did have several fold-out tables with food and paper work, but the remainder of the empty space was used by unoccupied children to play and talk as they waited. Friday (5-16-08) Â– Interview with Joey Herres The meeting with Herres was at 3:00 in the afternoon, so the space was unoccupied and empty of all seating. Herres walked me through his design solutions for the space to be transformed into the new service hall. He ex plained that the majority of the money was spent on sound and lighting equipment that transformed the service into a theatrical event. Figure 16: Plan and Section Diagram for Boy Scout Meeting
17 Sunday (5-18-08) Â“Garden Caf & GenesisÂ” or the Progressive Service The Garden Caf is primarily a half hour before the service, and wrought iron bistro tables are placed in the open plaza area at the entrance of the facility. Food service is located inside the hall. The progressive service is true to its evangelical roots by primarily being the spoken word of the pastor, but combined with intermissions of contemporary Christian music played by a live band followed with video and scriptures on the projection screens. Visits consist of participation during events, talking to members, measurement of space, diagramming spatial usage, sketches of interpretation, and an interview with Joey Herres, pastor of the progressive service, musician, and designer of the space that informed me of his design decisions and a walk-through of the space is used. Lessons Learned: Several significant lessons from the case can be used to design a more appropriate design solution for a multi-use typology development. The primary conceptual concern is an issue for most modernizing churches, the absence of natural light in these sanctuary halls is acceptable to the churches that rely more on technological accessories used in their services. The massive projection screens are an integral part to the progressive service because they Figure 17: Plan and Section Diagram of Layout for Progressive Service
18 are used to display the message of the service, the words of the hymns and for the application of video and images that strengthen their spoken word sermons. Natural light competes with and acts against these tech devices and the theatre lights used for the stage. However, the connection between divinity and nature is still sought after. This progressive service has the applied stain glass windows that give the impression of the light behind, and the room is filled with flowers and candles that give the participant a slight impression of an open chapel. This attempt is still just a reminiscent memory. An interview with Joey Herres revealed how other services handle natural light with mechanically operated shading systems that control the use of natural light in the service. These systems are unfortunately out of the budget of most community sized congregations, and typically used in a mega-center application. Architecturally, we are taught to understand and acknowledge human scale. This factor is absent in the design of the massive open space. Through multiple visits, it was made apparent that if spaces are not defined for an individual, or an intimate space for two that people using the space will try to create one. A mother and child used an alter seat to be alone during the last supper act while a shy young boy and his father sought a space to connect during their boy scout meeting. Two boys ate alone at caf table in the corner to talk alone while a group of four young girls stood in circle in the rear of the room. Herres agreed that the congregation would like to rework areas now used for storage at the rear of the facilities for smaller gathering spaces, and mentioned that when members of the service wanted to pray alone must use the kneeling space that is Figure 18: Mother & daughter at Altar
19 located in the front of the entire production. How many others seek out a private prayer space, but do not have the courage to kneel before the entire congregation? The scale of the space is governed by the sectional qualities created by the 15Â’ ceiling heights and shape of the stage. Herres mentioned that he did not feel that the ceilings were high enough for a worship service, but already had problems with cooling the room during the progressive service. Architecturally, this concern can be interpreted to a definition that speaks of grandeur through the roomÂ’s height, but not just at a single plane. The absence of definition of light, scale, and sectional qualities that relate from floor to ceiling leaves the hall incomplete. Herres also mentioned that there is a problem defining public access boundaries. Currently during public meetings, the stage, where all of the music equipment is stored, is blocked only by furniture. There are space dividers or movable walls that are pocketed inside the wall, but due to their massive size and antiquated technology, they are not used. The screens were purchased for around $8,000 in 1981, but the dividers are too cumbersome for the elder women that are primarily responsible for spatial arrangement. The furniture use is simple and function-able, but if a system could be developed that utilized the transformable characteristics of the facilities, the space could be used with less labor for each event. Lack of information or awareness on the subject prevents Figure 19: Father and Son Seek Space
20 innovation to take place. If the transformability of the space depends so much on the arrangement of furniture, then shouldnÂ’t the element be integrated with the design? Conclusion There are a set of ideas or design guidelines that are used in the design of the churchÂ’s multi-use space, but there is a lack of architectural acknowledgment. For example, the interview with Joey Herres re vealed that he was responsible for the design of the space investigated because he is the expert on the development of the progressive service and what they need as a church for the service to be successful. If the space has been redesigned by an architect, attention to human scale and natural light may have been more of a priority. Unhappiness with 15Â’ ceilings, pastor wanted more, but unable to keep space cool during main service already is a sectional design problem. These professionals are developing their own typologies without even the knowledge that they are doing so, and leaving the architects out of the proverbial loop.
Vicinity Survey The most effective way to nd out what a community needs is to spend the time there and speak to the people that represent that community. During the site visit to Pensacola, a survey was completed of the historically signi cant ve churches within the vicinity of the selected site in the Old East Hill District of downtown Pensacola. Of the ve churches in the area, three in-depth interviews were made with the church representative to nd out what community programs that they offered and what they felt the area was still in need. The ve churches studied were all varied denominations which offered another variable of denominational tendencies or focus enriched the study. In chronological order the churches evaluated were: First Baptist Church of Pensacola, A.E. Allen Chapel of African Methodist Church, First United Methodist Church of Pensacola, First Presbyterian Church, and Immanuel Lutheran Church of Pensacola. First Baptist Church of Pensacola stated that the majority of their public service was in the form of missionaries abroad instead of locally oriented. However, their volunteer program Â“Samaritan HandsÂ” has worked Pensacola for hurricane aid and relief. They also focus on food and clothing orders locally. The focus on food service was mentioned by all of the churches interviewed because the homeless population is a new problem for Pensacola. Since hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans and the surrounding communities in August of 2005, many people were displaced and left homeless. Many vacated to the Pensacola area, and never left. Suddenly, the city had a serious problem that they still are not prepared to Figure 20: First Baptist Church of Pensacola21
handle. Many churches sponsored soup kitchens because they do not have the facilities themselves. The second church surveyed was A.E. Allen Chapel of African Methodist Church. This church is closest to the site, and is the only one not located on the historically signi cant Palafox Street. The church has less income than the other churches that are located on Main Street. In fact, many of the stain glass windows that were damaged in hurricane Ivan of 2004 were not repaired, and they been covered with a stucco veneer. Only the windows located in the main sanctuary were replaced. The facilities of the church simply consist of the main sanctuary hall and the basement where dinners less formal meetings occur. The community service program called the Â“Milk & Honey Outreach MinistriesÂ” is primarily run by the church. Because the churches facilities are so limited, the program must be ran through different locations to which the ministers and church staff attend. Milk and Honey Kids Club was established in 1992, as a weekly neighborhood after-school homework club to assist elementary age children in a low-income inner-city housing project. By 1996, the program was incorporated as a community-based nonpro t organization and children received daily after-school care, tutoring, mentoring, and nutritious snacks. Summer Camp programs providing an opportunity for children to continue to improve their reading skills during the summer months as well as develop physical skills such as swimming, horseback riding, skating, and appreciation of arts through eld trips to museums and various other cultural experiences. A Computer Lab opened in October 2000, in partnership with the City of Pensacola and the Department of Juvenile Justice allowing internet access and the ability to use technology to increase reading and math skills. In 2001, a pilot program was completed for Girls Embracing a Figure 21: A.E. Allen Chapel22
More Excellent Way, a program geared toward Â“at-riskÂ” African-American girls between the ages of 10-17. The next church interviewed was First United Methodist Church of Pensacola. They offer an awe-inspiring amount of community service programs, and also sponsor nancially other churches and community programs. They absorbed a separate building acquired across the street from the main chapel which was originally a tavern that provides facilities for Alcoholics Anonymous meetings that are permanently held there twice a day, and also provide a meeting place for Narcotics Anonymous twice a week. Also, at this facility is an opening made in the back that provides for feeding the homeless twice a week. The small adjacent outdoor area is managed by the youth group as an organic garden which provides food for the homeless dinners. The same building also holds a clothing donation service for their work-force program that provides job / interviewing skill promotion for women that are looking for jobs for the rst time. Some of these women are recently released from prison and some are from abusive relationships. They also sponsor other soup kitchen programs and the Â“Milk & Honey ProjectÂ”. There are other programs that were less highlighted by need based which were the older adultsÂ’ ministry, health ministries, and Stephen ministries that focuses on one and one relations with people in need. First Presbyterian Church also sponsors the Â“Milk & Honey ProjectÂ”, a soup kitchen known as Â“Loaves and FishesÂ”, and Habitat for Humanity. Other hunger relief projects that they are associated with are Two Cents a Meal and Manna Food Pantries which again point out the need for a permanent facility for a soup kitchen for the homeless. Destination Housing is a program that is also focused at the homeless providing shelter. They are involved with numerous other churches with the program with Figure 22: Additional Facilities Where Community Outreach Programs are Held 23
Hurricane Recovery Assistance. Faith in Action is a program focused on people in the community living with AIDS or HIV. They are also associated with two different ministry programs that provide outreach programs for outside the community. They also provide a program that workforce oriented that teaches people below the poverty line to work through computer based training. Lastly evaluated was the Immanuel Lutheran Church of Pensacola. Every Saturday morning they provide hot breakfast to the homeless. This ministry, begun in 1999, has served over 7,000 meals to those in need. Clothing is also offered. In conclusion, all of the churches surveyed or interviewed expressed the need to help the homeless with food, clothing, and shelter. Perhaps due to their downtown location, they feel the need of the assistance of the homeless. Secondly, the needs for inner city children programs are need of their own facilities because the programs are already in place. It will only strengthen the focus that the community has placed on this need. Perhaps, thrice is the need for job market assistance for the low income people of the community. This survey has provided a more educated response to the programming of the project for a church that is used as a community center. It has also strengthened the idea of Â“Rede ning What is SacredÂ” by the churches reaching out to help the people of the community in GodÂ’s name. Figure 23: Immanuel Lutheran Church of Pensacola 24
Figure 24: Churches Selected for Project and Their Proximity to Site 25
26 Understanding Liturgy Liturgy is simply defined as Â“prescribed form of public worshipÂ”. By understanding the physical elements needed for t he worship service and their dynamic purposes, a designer can begin to respect and respond to the act of worship. An indepth understanding of liturgy will bring a more enriched, multi-faceted level of design to worship centers. For this exercise, the first component evaluated was the history of the liturgical movement. Then the common components of Christianity, Protestant, Methodist, and African American Christianity were co mposed to understand how specifically each practice participates liturgical. Finally, the main physical elements of the church were broken down and defined both as a single unit and how these pieces work together. The Liturgical Movement The Liturgical Movement originated in the nineteenth century continental Europe. Worship became a passive experience. The inspiration for the movement lies in the belief that worship should be shared and communal act. The root idea is that Christianity should infuse a person beyond the attendance of a formal service. The Figure 25: Components of Church design after the Liturgical Movement
27 Liturgical Movement suggests that the relationship between the congregation and the focus of worship should be a shared gathering rather than a rigid assembly. Because of the natural time lag between the movement and an architectural response, there are few examples of a physical expression architecturally between the two world wars. Eventually, the desire for active participation in worship opened up the wider questions of interaction between the church and society and the whole Â“society of missionÂ”: GodÂ’s action in the world. The architectural corollary of this view led many Christians towards the Â“multi-purposeÂ’ or now the Â‘communitycenteredÂ’ church, designed not only as a sympathetic setting for worship, but also as a service to its neighborhood.1 The diagrams below show the effect of how this community involvement eventually affected the architectural form of the religious facilities. Common Components of Christianity 1 See Purdy, Martin. Churches and Chapels: Butterworth Architecture Design and Development Guides p.13-14 Figure 26: Diagrams Depicting Changes in Layouts Based on Liturgical Involvement
28 and Their Churches: The vast majority of Christians practi ce two rituals or sacraments, baptism (the entry rite) and the LordÂ’s Supper / Eucharist (the consuming of bread and wine, which represent the presence of Jesus Christ).2 Common denominators that Christian churches should contain are described by Ralph Adams Cram (a Catholic theologian who studied worship centers): 1. The church is the house of God, the place of his early habitation. 2. The church is to be a house set apart, where the mysteries of the Christian faith are to be solemnized. This means the building will be built around the altar. The sacramental nature of the church is second only to its recognition as the earthly habitation of the living God. 3. The church must create the spiritual emotion through the ministry of all possible beauty of environment. 2 See Hubbard, Benjamin J. AmericaÂ’s Religions: An EducatorÂ’s Guide to Beliefs and Practices p.32
29 4. (a specialized component to the Protestant denomination of Christianitythe first three are shared between Catholics and Protestants) Preaching must be recognized in the architecture of the building. 3 To the community, a religious buildingÂ’ s roles are as an external and visible symbol of the faith of the community. Wors hip spaces stand as landmarks; they play a central role in the life of the community. Mircea Eliade describes their image to the community as Â“breaks in the homogeneity of the profane world, where believers make contact with the divineÂ”.4 On the more individual role in a personÂ’s life, the church is involved in every category of an individualÂ’s life. This relationship is better described by the cycle defined in Places of Worship, Â“In the worship space, the most moving rites of 3 See Leach, William H. Protestant Church Building p.85 4 See Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.1 Fi g ure 27: Dia g rammatic Litur g ical La y out for Catholic Church
30 passage in human life are celebrated in the presence of the divine: birth, coming of age, marriage, and the burial of the dead. Worship spaces are places of commitment, where individuals commit to a faith and join a community, where couples commit to one another, and where a family and the wider family of the church commit to the upbringing of a child.Â”5 Some common physical elements of the Christian church are the orientation, size limitations, and ideas of the sacred place. Traditionally, a church will orient itself on the site from east to west, and faces the east. In a church, there are typically three levels: the nave, the choir, and the sanctuary. A common critical dimension that govern the spatial relationship of the worship space is the effective distance from alter to last row of seats being less than or equivalent to 75Â’.6 People can recognize facial expressions up to that distance only. As far as typical Christian church layout, the section of the church where worshipers are accommodated in pews or chairs is known as the nave. At the other endtypically the east endthe space is usually raised, is the chancel which is located between the altar and the nave. Next to the nave is the choir; at the east of the chancel is the sanctuary, is where the altar is located. The sanctuary from the choir may be raised by several steps and separated by a ra iling known as the communicantÂ’s rail. The height of the communion rail is important so that it does not block the view of the altar. Finally, at the west end of the chancel -nearest the worshipers -is the lectern (also known as the reading desk or the pulpit). 7 5 See Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.1 6 See Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.42 7 See Anson, Peter F. Churches: Their Plan and Furnishing p.96
31 Common Elements of Protestants Protestants are the most recent branch of Christianity began in Western Europe in the sixteenth century as a protest against perceived abuses in Roman Catholicism and now includes numerous subdivisions.8 In regards to Eucharist ritual, some Protestants believe that the sacraments are the sources of divine grace, while others believe them to be memorials of the redemptive work of Christ. A brief description of the denomination is that they are an orderly organization in which living is combined with emphasis on direct religious experience. They believe that all people can receive the grace of God and are eligible for sanctification or freedom from sin.9 Their weekly worship service usually includes: congregational and choral singing, prayer, Bible readings, preaching, confession of faith, sacraments, and collection of tithes and offerings. Methodists 8 See Hubbard, Benjamin J. AmericaÂ’s Religions: An EducatorÂ’s Guide to Beliefs and Practices p.58 9 See Hubbard, Benjamin J. AmericaÂ’s Religions: An EducatorÂ’s Guide to Beliefs and Practices p.58
32 Historically, when Methodist began they originally met in private homes, so as response early Methodists churches where quit simple. As the denomination developed, the method in which Methodists understood church building was closely linked to the Methodist perception of their own role in a complex interrelation of Divine favor and moral duty. Just as God gave generously of spiritual and material blessing, so was it the duty of Christians to give generously to God. Part of this Christian duty was to build a place where God could be properly honored.10 More problematic for design, is the Methodist stand between a grey area that still holds on to similar Liturgical acts of the Catholics, like the Eucharist celebration. First Methodist Church of Pensacola currently has a small alter and sacristy that is only used 10 See Bennett, Vicki. Sacred Space and Structural Style: The Embodiment of Socio-Religious Ideology p.223 Figure 28: Methodist Liturgical Layout
33 once a month, but they would like to have the Eucharist every week. Their stance on the Eucharist act is also in between the Catholic and Baptist. As mentioned before, some Protestants believe that the Eucharist is the divine grace (that the bread and wine turn into the body and the blood of Christknown as the Â“real presenceÂ”) while others believe that the Eucharist is a simply a memorial service of the event. For their baptism entry rites, Methodist Reverend Geoffrey Lentz stated Â“because our church uses the effusion technique of baptism, it is more important that the baptism font is simply an appropriately size and proportion to the worship hallÂ”, which was a response to the description of their small font which they have now. The Methodist denominations are specifically the sub-denominations of United Methodists and African Methodist Episcopal. The two denominations split in 1818. They still share a joint annual conference. African American Christianity African slaves were introduced to Christ ianity by southern clergy and by slave owners. However, Africans interpreted the faith in unique ways to them by emphasizing: 1. The Exodus experience of the Hebrew sl aves who finally gained their freedom (as black slaves hoped to), and 2. A distinctly African tradition in worship services through the use of songs, drums, and emotional intensity (particularly in sermons). Furthermore, African American Christians saw themselves as restoring the church to its original purity. 3. The Bible, however, is interpreted quite literally by most black Protestants, and the emotional aspects of worship are emphasized.
34 The celebration of Kwanzaa is a distinctively black holiday that is celebrated for seven day following Christmas. Each day focuses on a different theme which consists of: unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity, and faith.11 Components of the Christian Â– Protestant Â– Methodist Church The Journey The first experienced space of the church is a representative of the Â“journeyÂ”. The journey from the everyday world of the st reet to the initial gathering space should be carefully designed. Simply put the needs of the journey space should include a path, a canopy to provide shade and protection from rain, and in hot temperatures a water feature is common to welcome and refresh. Gathering Space The gathering space is where visitors enter the church precinct which is considered a transitional space, and sometimes used as a Â“cry roomÂ” (where mothers will sit with crying babies). Members congregate before service to greet each other, the space must say Â“all are welcomeÂ”, overall concept is that this is the space that the congregation experiences themselves a communi ty. The size of this space should equal one-third the size of the nave because people are moving through, standing and not sitting.12 Sanctuary 11 See Hubbard, Benjamin J. AmericaÂ’s Religions: An EducatorÂ’s Guide to Beliefs and Practices p.35 12 See Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.35
35 In the sanctuary, there must be an adequate amount of space for liturgical rituals like: a space provided for the congregation to join in a ritual meal of celebration, the Liturgy of the word (prayer, readings of the gospel, and a sermon), wedding ceremonies: room for bride and groom, other members of the wedding party, and funerals: casket in front of alter with room for candles and flowers. Spatially, the most important of these considerations is the Eucharist. The manner in which this sacrament is carried out varies in placement and size per service. Here are several examples: 1. At the altar, in which congregant members come up the steps of the sanctuary and may receive communion standing or kneeling. 2. At communion stations in the seating area, where congregation members receive communion while standing. 3. In the seats, in which case trays of bread and cups are passed down the rows, or may have already been placed in the seat backs before the service.13 4. Congregants take turns to approach and sit at a long table to receive communion. Space is needed to serve the meal, for the Eucharistic prayer behind the altar, and room for two ministers in full vestments to pass and distribute. 13 See Anson, Peter F. Churches: Their Plan and Furnishing p.35 Figure 29: Acts of the Altar Table (Graphic from Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.225)
36 Sometimes the sanctuary is referred to the entire worship space or specifically referred to as the part of the church which encloses the altar and extends to the communion rails. This is reserved for clergy and/or choir. Sanctuary (some designs do not distinguish between the sanctuary, nave, and choir but refer to the whole as a worship space) must be large enough to accommodate the altar, pulpit, candles, flowers, the crucifix or cross, and seating for the presiding ministers. Altar The Alter has been described as Â“a dignified table of noble proportions and of beautiful materialsÂ” or has even been referred to as Â“GodÂ’s BoardÂ”. While the act of Christian worship can be performed in open air, the Holy Sacrifice can never be offered up without an altar, no matter how simple, small, or unadorned the altar may be14. As far as accessories of Christian worship, the altar is ranked first in dignity and importance. Symbolically the altar is the table for Thanksgiving meal, but also an altar of sacrifice that refers to the Temple of Jerusalem and to JesusÂ’ sacrifice on the cross. In a liturgical church where there is no altar, there is no church and no worship.15 Quite simply, it provides a surface to place the elements of the service; the bread, the wine, and the book of service. Ideally, the alter should be made of natural stone, because it represents Jesus Christ, the living stone (1 Peter 2;4). Wood is now commonly also used. 16 The altar should be freestanding and should rise directly from the floor, allowing movements freely around alter. It should be an appropriate size in relation to the scale of 14 See Anson, Peter F. Churches: Their Plan and Furnishing p.35 15 See Leach, William H. Protestant Church Building p.97 16 See Anson, Peter F. Churches: Their Plan and Furnishing p.67
37 the building. The shape should reflect the way the congregation is arranged around it. Because contemporary Christian worship emphasizes the congregation arranged around the alter, the altar should almost be square in plan, should not appear to have a front, back, or sides, and should not appear as a counter that separated the celebrant from the congregation (p.223). Size at a parish: 6Â’X4Â’, at cathedral: 10Â’X8Â’, height = 39 to 40 inches. 17 Historically, the altarÂ’s position in the church was located at the east end of chancel for an impressive view from seat of worshipers. While used as an opposing design decision, a divided or centered altar layout will split the sanctuary in the center for a dramatic layout effect. Some accessories that may need to accompany alter are (near or in vicinity of alter for access or view): candles, flowers, cross or crucifix, table or shelf for empty pitchers or plates, bowl and towel for hand washing, and an incense and/or holder. Pulpit The pulpit is also known as the lectern or ambo. It must allow for the reader or the preacher to be seen by the congregation. The pulpit should be provided with a discrete reading light and microphone. It is located within the sanctuary. 17 See Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.225 Figure 30: Section of pulpit (Graphic from Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.225)
38 Baptistery / Font: The Baptistery font is used for the ritual of Baptism, by which Christians enter into the community of the church. The font is also used for funeral services where the casket is sprinkled with holy water. No definite position is assigned by denominations for the location of the font. It can stand in a baptistery separate from the church, in a chapel, within the church, or at the back of the church, close to the main entrance. Three types of baptism are used: submersion where candidate is completely submerged into the water (Baptist and many Evangelicals), immersion where candidate is dipped under the water three times (Roman Catholic for adults), affusion, in which the water is poured or sprinkled over the candidate (Presbyterians and Roman Catholics). 18 The design and location of the font is dependent on the type of baptism used and the role of the font in 18 See Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship p.165 Figure 31: Alternate Baptist location based on Liturgy of the denomination
39 the liturgy. There is a need for plenty of spac e for viewing of the ceremony by family members and congregation members. Ther e is also the need for bathrooms and changing areas. A screen usually conceals the individual until the ritual. 1. Baptistsfont in front of the church or near or in the sanctuary in full view of the congregation. Designed as a pool that has steps down on one side and steps up on the other side. 2. Episcopal, Presbyterian, and other Protestant churcheslocated in a separate baptistery or to one side of the nave. Sometimes it is as simple as an elevated bowl of water. 3. Roman Catholicfont at entrance, also use the holy water to bless them before entering the church. This font should be deep enough for the pouring of water over an adult body. In conclusion, both the literal definitions of each liturgical component of the church service and the visual diagramming sequence of how these components work together define the physicality of the church service. Understanding liturgy holistically will create a dynamic definition for design while also providing the users, both the congregant and the clergy, with the needed function of the facility.
40 Research on Evangelical Protestants of the Southeast Introduction This initial research document was made to educate myself about the history and results of that history of the Evangelical Protestant churches of the Southeastern United States. The primary studies were done on the Southern Baptist Convention because this denomination has been more vocal with the public about their conservative standings; therefore, they are more commonly known. I did not chose for my thesis study to continue with this denomination choice, but did learn about the progress of Protestant churches through understanding their past, and the choices that they have made for their future. Research Evangelical Protestants, primarily in the southeastern United States, transformed the function of their churches from a traditional sacred prayer space to a community gathering place of positive-influence. Unlike the cathedrals of the past, church designs have evolved incongruently to their function. After a 1970Â’s growth spurt, the Southern Baptist Convention became the second largest religious sect in the nation1. The SBC developed a disassociation to the public based on their outspoken conservative political views and condescending community presence. Southern religious fervor became a 1 See Garrett, Junior, James Leo Are Southern Baptists Â“EvangelicalsÂ”? p.87
41 cultural stereotype2. By the 1990Â’s, these factors contributed to the decline in all southern evangelical protestant church congregations, not just the SBC. In response, Baptists, Methodists, and non-denominational churches attempted a modernization process that began to reach the people of the community through wellness programs and progressive services. Although these modernization actions brought people back to the church, architectural acknowledgment is unresponsive. Definition of a new typology, based on the receptive concept of the non-denominational church, is necessary to strengthen their modernization process. During the 1970Â’s expansion phase of the SBC, they developed two main church building typologies: the Â“mega-centerÂ” and the Â“metal buildingÂ” church3. Mega-centers, which became a typology of the suburbs due to their enormous size, consisted of massive parking lots, sound-oriented auditoriums4. These churches are similar to convention halls meant to house 1,000 to 2,000 members. Modern pastors have developed a negative feeling to churches of this size and refer to the mega-centers as Â“Fort GodÂ”5. These pastors look at their congregation as their Â“flockÂ”, and believe that if the flock is too large then they cannot care for them appropriately. The other typology developed at this time was the metal building church in rural areas. This is a smaller scale church built from a rigid frame metal building package. These churches usually hold 100 to 200 people. This typology is reminiscent of the one 2 See Wilson, Charles Reagan & Silk, Mark South: In the Evangelical Mode p. 195 3 See Williams, Peter W. Houses of God: Region, Religion, and Architecture in the United States p. 122 4 See Williams, Peter W. Houses of God: Region, Religion, and Architecture in the United States p. 122 5 See Nelson, Louis P. American Sanctuary: Understanding Sacred Spaces p. 225-230
42 room, wood frame, churches which are typically in rural areas6. These metal buildings are the result of stringent fire codes and a low income congregation. While the development of this typology is easier to understand, it does not give way to the changes of modernization. Both typologies ignore their responsibility to the community as a symbolic presence and to the culture as an icon, and this is their problem architecturally speaking. However, a more problematic issue arose soci ally from the SBCÂ’s assertive involvement with conservative, republican political involvement7. SBC had always struggled with its association to racism because of its origination stemming from its views on slavery and the civil war8. When the SBC spoke out in the modern day (within the last twenty years), in opposition to homosexual civil rights and the Â“role of womenÂ” in the household, public favor for the southern church was diminished9. SBC is also known for its anti-abortion stance. For example, in the early 1990Â’s, an abortion doctor was shot through his kitchen window in Pensacola, Florida in the name of the southern Baptist religion. This terroristlike violence publicly plagued the church in national headlines. Religiously, the SBC distanced themselves from the other denominations as well. SBC denied the ecumenism, the greater religious unity or cooperation10, and became known as BaptistÂ’s rebellious step-child11. All of these factors began to build up for the state of religion in the south. By the early 1990Â’s began the decline in members for all 6 See Williams, Peter W. Houses of God: Region, Religion, and Architecture in the United States p. 125 7 See Rosenberg, Ellen M. Houses The Southern Baptists: A Subculture in Transition p. 181 8 See Copeland, E. Luther The Southern Baptist Convention and the Judgment of History p. xii 9 See Copeland, E. Luther The Southern Baptist Convention and the Judgment of History p. xiii 10 See Copeland, E. Luther The Southern Baptist Convention and the Judgment of History p. 69 11 See Rosenberg, Ellen M. Houses The Southern Baptists: A Subculture in Transition p. 190
43 evangelical churches of the south. These fa ctors contributed to their decline. Members were labeled for anti-modernity. The southern public, especially younger members of the community, wanted to distance themselves from traditional southern stereotypes of racism, sexism, and homophobia12. The political or social status was not the only problem for the church. Many churches remained with the same formal Sunday service in a new fast paced, internet-enriched, more universal society. They realized that they had to change13. As expressed by the pastor of Gonzalez United Methodist Church, a church on the historical landmark in the rural area of Gonzalez, outside Pensacola, Florida, Â“Our churches are beginning to die, and with that we will die toÂ”. This was said with such conviction because the pastor was trying to convince the elders of his committee that the church needed to change to adapt to modern times. In response, Baptists, Methodists, and non-denominational churches attempted modernization through progressive services, life wellness programs, and youth enrichment programs. In particular, non-denominational churches offer a nondiscriminative approach to community outreach that enables a diversified congregation to operate with less restrictive guidelines. This reactionary approach is a response to the negative public image of the SBC and the subsequent decline in congregations. Value is now placed on community outreach, wellness both physical and mental, and the Â“hands onÂ” involvement with childr en through youth enrichment programs which all have not been typically associated with t he church redefining what is sacred by 12 See Wolfe, Alan The Transformation of American Religion p. 2 13 See Brackney, William H. Baptists in North America p. 258
44 simply helping people of the community in the name of God14. Progressive services have been developed in this modernization process. Many non-denominational churches offer this as their primary service while Methodists and Baptists have typically offered the progressive service in conjunction with or alternately to their traditional service. The progressive service is a development aimed at youths or teenagers, young singles, and new families of the community. These services are usually later on Sunday morning, allowing people to sleep in on the weekends. Most services began at 11:00 a.m. The dress attire is casual. It is common for members to wear blue-jeans. The informal environment allow the visitors to come and go, and allows children more freedom to roam when they bore from t he service. These services are more technologically advanced using large screens to view the pastorÂ’s sermon, songÂ’s lyrics posted on the screens (similar to karaoke). It is common to have young people playing live band instruments like drums, guitars simila r to that of a rock band. The service is informal, upbeat, and entertaining. The wellness programs are focused on physical and mental health assistance. Physically, they usually consist of exercise and eating programs, but some congregations have gone further providing m edical assistance. The mental wellness classes vary dependent on need basis. Some group meetings noted are on marriage, parenting, divorce, and even on drug or alcohol addiction. Typical children programs usually consis t of daycares, day schools, or bible study classes. Through the modernization pr ocess, youth enrichment programs have 14 See Bounds, Elizabeth M. Together / Coming Apart: Religion, Community, and Modernity p. 7
45 been added that allow the children to simply have fun in a positive environment. The non-denominational church, The Rock of Mobile, began a performance art program of music, dance, and theater15. More commonly, sports facilities have been provided like soccer or dodge ball like the multi-use facility that Gonzalez United Methodist added. The facility has dodge ball games every week which are usually attended by young teens between the ages of fourteen and sixteen16. The addition of an open community facility did bring the church back to the economic level needed to function within five years of completed construction of the new facility. Lake Magdalene: A Methodist Community simply added an open field which the community uses as a soccer field. In an effort to decide which of the religious sects to follow through with development of a design typology for the moder nizing southern church, two case studies were chosen for their adaption attempts. The first is a non-denominational church in Mobile, Alabama. Ron Williamson was the architect for their church which allowed a detailed explanation to their decision making process for their design. Detailed plans and working drawings of their facilities were available. The second church chosen is in North TampaLake Magdalene: A Methodist Community They have an existing site of a campus type plan that they have adapted and added to for the modernization process. The first case study, The Rock of Mobile, is known for its integration of rock music with the church service. In addition to the rock music, it has a dance studio, a educational facility, a recording studio, and an art studio. The concept of the church was 15 See www.rockofmobile.org 16 See www.gonzalezmethodist.org
46 based on a non-denominational sect originating in Panama City, Florida17. The loose affiliation with the original sect allowed the new church to develop its faith based on a focus on performing arts as an outlet for their faith. Their congregation is 300 to 400 people, which are mostly people under 40. Architecturally, The Rock of Mobile was handled as a campus plan with the ability to add to the church as the congregation grows. Initially, when the church was young, the direction was unsure; spaces were designed and built only as large multi-use spaces. Programmatically functions were undefined, and the use of the spaces suffers through. However, the non-denominational approach proved to be successful because the congregation grew by allowing flexibility. The pastor, Aaron Smith, understood his own passion for the people of the community, but allowed their interests to guide him on the journey of the churchÂ’s growth. The second case studyLake Magdalene: A Methodist Community made their modern changes through adaptive re-use of t heir site. The site has been converted to semi-campus plan that is less rigid and allows more upon community usage. The main sanctuary is formal, and can be used as an example of a consistent problem of the modernization of the church. Many church elders refuse to let go of their traditional ideas of the service. This formal sanctuary is only used for the main Sunday service, and the participants of this service are mostly over 50 years old. This church has handled a visible compromise with the site of the church spilt by a pedestrian street that runs between the main formal sanctuary and the hall that contains a generic meeting hall which hold the progressive services. The pr ogressive service is called Genesis: a progressive approach and includes a garden caf. The service is held in a non-formal 17 See www.rockofmobile.org /main/about_history.html
47 large open space with low ceilings, foldable chairs, and a modest stage. The pedestrian street that splits the two Sunday service areas theoretically calls out to the analytical observer Â“itÂ’s us against themÂ”. Another witness to the divisions of the modern church is Ron Williamson; this architect specializes in churches primarily in northwest Florida and south Alabama. He begins his professional relationship by sitting in on the church committee meetings where he has witnessed the conflict between the committee of Â“what is sacredÂ”. He recalled an example of this situation from a committee last year. An elder on the committee expressed concern that the current sanctuary was too simple and informal. He claimed that the place could never be considered Â“sacredÂ” when children were allowed to circulate freely through the main sanctuary hall. Â“When I was a boy, you must have permission to walk through the sanctuary. It was not a place for children to enjoy. For this reason, the sanctuary had never even been blessedÂ”. This began a quarrel between the committee members. Opinions of heavily tithed members that cling to the past compromise todayÂ’s values. Although these combinations of these modernizing actions have began to bring people back to the church, architectural acknowledgment is still unresponsive. Churches build for their new programs wellness and y outh enrichment programs with large, nondescript multi-use rooms or gymnasiums which are often the same place for formal dinners and ceremonies. Many churches are simply Â“making doÂ” by adaptive re-use. Definition of a new typology, based on the receptive concept of the non-denominational church, is necessary to strengthen their modernization process. A design of a new
48 typology approach for the modernized churches of the south will consider this shift in modern values, function, and economic constraints. The southÂ’s has always been steeped in religion, perhaps because of its rural nature, but regardless the church is a part of the southÂ’s cultural identity. As described by the infamous southern writer William Faulkner, Â“I grew up with that. I assimilated that, took that in without even knowing it. ItÂ’s just there. It has nothing to do with how much I might believe or disbelieveitÂ’s just thereÂ”18. The modernization of religion is occurring. Ecclesiastic architecture must also evolve to speak the same language that reflects the changes. These changes and the design of a new typology for the modern nondenominational church must consider its social impact to the culture and its historical responsibility to the rural community. Conclusion While I did not continue my studies of the Southern Baptist Convention denomination, I did learn a lot from their history, and how it affected the future of the churches in the southeastern region. Decline in churches caused a positive response by these churches. Perhaps, the negative brought the churches back to where they belong in the communities that they are engaged. New programming has brought a modernization to these churches. 18 See Crown, Carol Coming Home! Self-Taught Artists, the Bible, and the American South p.35
49 Precedent Studies The first precedent study analyzed for the pre-design phase is St. Paul the Apostle in New York City, New York. Many influences were taken back from the massive cathedral. At the time of the visit, the cathedral was being used to display modern artwork for local artists. The infusion of the modern artwork on the decorative historic cathedral walls was quite a contrast, but successful. This proved another example of how churches are transformed for something more secular for community use. First, the scale and proportion of the cathedral was analyzed. While the cathedral is unique in many ways, this particular system was ev aluated as a typical sectional quality for a cathedral. The width of the nave in comparison to the width of the side chapels results in proportionally how high the ceilings reach up. This proportion also effects light and the amount of interaction between the light and the congregant participants. The higher the ceiling height affects how the high windows and altar wall are fenestrated. As depicted in the photo collage in the next figure, the stain glass altar wall is by human scale very large, but the light that is created is muted, not intense. Another element considered when studying the cathedral are the physical elements that belonged to it. After speaking with Geoffrey Lentz (from First United Church of Pensacola), he informed me of the different style types of service performance. One of the more intriguing styles is the emergence style. Emergence is the return of physical elements like a lit candle providing a sight of memory or the smell. This cathedral is catholic and remains traditional. The site of the traditional physical elements of t he service proved to the study the impact of
50 these elements. As previously mentioned light of the cathedrals are in low contrast, so when a slice of light is introduced. Its presence is intensified. The figure displays a slice of light that defines an altar in the side chapel that intensified by the dramatic light. The next precedent study was also in New York City. St. PeterÂ’s Lutheran Church has a traditional service type, but the fa cility is very modern architecturally. The form is referred to as the Â“granite tentÂ”. Its simple triangular form is tent-like. The heavy granite is split down the middle to reveal a band of light that moves the entirety of the form. Perhaps one the components that the church is known for is itÂ’s transformable furniture system. The church is furnished by a series of bleacher-like seating or wooden slat platforms. Each component can be removed easily to open the church up for community events or usage. Even though the fo rms of the furniture are modern, the clean lines provide an honest approach. Conclusion Both precedents studied brought new levels of interest to the project. Light, scale, proportion, and furnishings have all layered in these churches to intensifying the sacred space. By understanding these components, and how they work together, it has strengthened this thesis design.
51 Figure 31: Light Slice at St. Paul the Apostle Cathedral
52 Figure 32: Light Effects at the Cathedral
53 Figure 33: Light Components of St. PeterÂ’s Lutheran Church
54 Figure 34: Band of Light that Runs through the Granite Tent
55 Figure 35: Removable Furnishings at St. PeterÂ’s
56 Figure 36: Alternate Furnishings
57 Figure 37: Analytical Sketches about Scale and Proportion
58 Final Design Solution This thesis is a design solution for the modern church; one that respects traditional liturgical elements of the denomination while allowing spatial flexibility for the use throughout the everyday life of the church. Program elements are based on the siteÂ’s need for permanent locations; a soup kitchen and an activities center for an innercity youth. Secondary design objectives are intertwining the journey of every person with awareness of each programÂ’s significance. The third design component rests on concepts of light and spatial usage in traditional sacred spaces in conjunction with an analysis of modern functions to determine emotive quality of each space. Based on the Â“House of GodÂ” belief system, my architectural interpretation of this concept is that this house lives every day through the community service of the church. Unfortunately, many of these outreach programs are simply viewed as secular and therefore set away from the sacred life of the main sanctuary, but these sacrificial acts of the members of Figure 38: Conceptual Diagram Plan Depicting the Three Programming Elements and Their Relationship
59 the church that serve the community in the name of God make these acts equally sacred as the act of worshiping. The final design of the church proves that it lives through the service of Christ by acting as a house that lives every day for Christ. The Church: Physically Defined The main design concept of the church is that provides a sense of heart or the strength of love. This is physically portrayed in the form of the church by its overwhelming size, simple rectilinear shape, and the thick solid base if its three feet wide walls. The primary entrance to the church and the soup kitchen is located at the southeast corner of the site. Due to the corner location of the entrance, the journey is extends diagonally through to the entrance at the southwest end. This is a liturgical response to concept that one enters the church at the west end and moves towards the east. This represents oneÂ’s passage leaving death behind to the west with the setting sun while moving towards the east, or the rising sun, signifying oneÂ’s rebirth or the birth of Christ. The entry journey moves through a series of points that carries one into the church. The first segment of the entry journey moves through several planters of organic gardens that provide the homeless Figure 39: Conceptual Perspective Drawing Depicting the Idea of the Journey
60 with food. This is also a reminder to church congregants of the community outreach programming that occurs during the week. The next series of elements that the entrance journey moves through are offices of the church where a receptionists and office workers can stand guard of the happenings of people moving in and out of the church, and can direct people. The formal entrance journey ends at the entrance door that is in shadow below a cantilever of the childrenÂ’s space above. This shadow provides a solemn feeling before entering the oversized doors. The full service kitchen is beyond the entrance doors to remind congregants again of the services provided, but functionally also serve the crossing area that acts as the gatheri ng space and the dining for the soup kitchen. Through the crossing space, one has a direct view of the sanctuary through the nave. Both side chapels on the north and south anc horing ends of the nave are a system consisting of layers of glass that are an abstraction of stain glass components of ancient cathedrals. At the northeast side chapel is the baptistery font that flows from inside to the outer gardens which connects the act of entering to Christianity to the exit journey of the homeless that occurs outside. Sectional qualities are based on historical cathedral design. The church is designed for 350 occupants during the main service, but can flex open during holidays to seat up to 500 people. The gathering space is also known as the crossing has multi-purpose as a dining area, and is adjacent to the full service kitchen. West of the crossing are the utilitarian components of the church that make it Figure 40: Conceptual Section Depicting Time and Usage of the Multi-Use Space
61 run efficientlythe gears of the machine: offices, open meeting rooms, bathrooms, storage, circulation, and mechanical rooms. Soup Kitchen: The main design motive in the element of the soup kitchen is that through light and movement a sense of hope is created while the idea that oneÂ’s most honest needs are being met. Â“Those that hope in the Lord will renew their strengthÂ” Isaiah 40:31 is a influential quote from the bible that help develop this sense of place. The parti element in the overall design of the church is that the soup kitchen, or journey of the homeless, interacts physically as a void that moves through the church. This form was chosen to provide a strong embrace of the church as they move through the space and experience it as a member of the church. The soup kitchen facilities share the same main entrance of the church. As they enter, the kitchen is pulled away from the crossing to the south. When one enters the crossing, or now used as the dining hall for the soup kitchen, a halo of light above illuminates the space. The light above is a large skylight above that is tapered by a series of walkways above that programmatically belong to the childrenÂ’s program. The view from the center of the dining area is of the altar of the church beyond. This is another carefully planned moment where the journeys of the participant intertwine. The dining ar ea spills outside through a series of glass doors that can remain open which lead to outdoor eating area. From this point on, the path narrows to the exit. Along the path of the exit, one will first pass a series of foodFigure 41: Conceptual Painting Depicting Plight of the Homeless Person
62 proving organic gardens again, and then over a small bridge. The water below is extended from the baptistery font from insi de. One gets one last visual connection with the church and with the playgrounds beyond. The Milk & Honey Project The Milk & Honey Project is a program developed for inner city youth that provides them with a positive environment after school and during the summer. Most of these children come from single-parent homes or homes that are empty when they get off from school. Right now several churches are involved with the program. There is already set forth a sense of security and family that the program provides these children. With the design element for this program, the need for these motives would continue. The quote from the bible, Â“I have heard their cries. I know their sufferings, and I have come down to deliver them to bring them in to a broad land flowing with milk & honey.Â” is where the program gets its name, and portray s the importance of giving. With those ideas intact moving into the project, it also became important to formally portray a sense of energy and motion that one can sense from the exterior. The bus drop-off is located on the northwest corner of the property, located in the neighborhood. The facilities for the children are broken down into two components. Both elements are design as a gradient effect. The activities on the ground the gradient in level of secular to sacred by moving from athletic court and playground, to the open studio and gardens, to a more Figure 42: Conceptual Painting Depicting Child Entering an Empty Home
63 privatized space of gardens. The athletic courts and playground are open to the public and remain separated by a screen wall for security. In the same gradient motion the layers of activities change as the plan moves closer to and finally through the church. A child would enter to an area of a guardian, then through a supervised gaming room, and then into an open studio area for crafts. At this point, the element moves up to another level and creates a boundary between the childrenÂ’s and soup kitchen space. Upstairs is an open room for group studies and research with a full computer lab. Then, the program moves again to another level to a quieter area for individual study spaces at this point the children are inside the church. A walkway or catwalk continues to another area of music practice and performance. These two areas are separated, and the musical space cantilevers outside of the building. From the two upper levels there is a sense of connection to the dining area of the soup kitchen below. While the children may not be directly experiencing the soup kitchen due to safety concerns, it is important that they are aware of the presence. At each step where the gradient makes a change, Figure 43: Lighting Diagram D epicting the Combination of Light and Scale
64 there is a light well that is lit with color that each element of the project has inspired which will cause the child that journeys through that space to stop and take a moment before entering. In conclusion, the designÂ’s ability to work together through time usage and light, programming, and spatial integration became a sacred place. The most dramatic space is the crossing where all three programs colli de creating a more sacred moment than the intense light wall of the altar. Other more intimate places where created along the journey, when one would view the other like the exit element of the soup kitchen last view of the baptistery font and altar as they move through. These moments provide a chance for reflection for each person. Conclusion At the end of the project, a building was fictitiously created that was 29,501 square feet. The design is simple and could be built with ease. Each program was designed for the optimum lighting of the times that it met: the soup kitchen at noon, the church at nine in the morning, the childrenÂ’s program around three oÂ’clock. No artificial lights were used in the creation of the computer rendered perspectives of each space, Figure 44: Lighting Diagram Depicting the Combination of Light and Interaction of the Church Participants
65 but somehow one can see that the design of each space is created by the emotive qualities of the connections to the other programs that intertwine it. By understanding the intertwined relationship between the place of worship and the compassionate act of communal support, the architectural response will redefine what is sacred. Figure 45: Initial Concept Models Depicti ng How to Relate to Existing Context Figure 46: Initial Sketch Model
66 Figure 47: Sketch Model Exploring Spatial Possibilities Figure 48: Last Sketch Model that Diagrammed the Final Spaces
67 Figure 49: Sketch Model with Diagrammatic Site Components Figure 50: Adjacency Diagram
68 Figure 51: Approach Diagram, ChildrenÂ’s Approach Perspective, and Perspecti ve from Interstate Fi g ure 52: Aerial Pers p ective and Hurricane Ivan Dia g ram
69 Figure 53: Rendering View from Interstate and Site Plan Figure 54: Context Section and Perspective View from Street Corner Approach
70 Figure 55: Site Component Diagram Figure 56: Soup Kitchen Flex Diagram
71 Figure 57: Program Gradient Diagram Figure 58: Nave Extension Plan
72 Figure 59: Final Floor Plan at Ground Level Figure 60: East Elevation
73 Figure 61: Final Floor Plan at Second Level Figure 62: Building Section
74 Figure 63: Final Floor Plan at Third Level Figure 64: Building Section
75 Figure 65: Perspective at Crossing on Second Level Figure 66: Perspective at Crossing on Third Level
76 Figure 67: North and South Elevations Figure 68: Perspective View from Pulpit to Nave
77 Figure 69: Perspective View from Dining Area at Crossing toward Altar Wall Figure 70: Section Perspective
78 Figure 71: Perspective View from Nave through Baptistery Font
79 Figure 72: Perspective View of Altar Wall
80 Figure 73: Perspective View from Crossing to Nave Figure 74: Section Perspective through ChildrenÂ’s Crossing
81 Figure 76: Perspective View of Dining Area from Entrance Figure 75: Interior Perspect ive View to Studio Outside
82 Figure 77: Perspective of Entrance
83 Figure 78: Perspective View at Dining Hall up to Crossing
84 Figure 79: Perspective View through Outdoor Eating Area Figure 80: Perspective at Exit
85 Figure 81: Overall Final Model Figure 82: Entrance View of Final Model
86 Figure 82: Entry View of Final Model
87 References Anson, Peter F. Churches: Their Plan and Furnishing, Milwaukee,Wisconson: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1948 Bennett, Vicki. Sacred Space and Structural Style: The Embodiment of Socio-Religious Ideology, King Edward, Ottawa (Ont.), Canada: Un iversity of Ottawa Press, 1997 Bounds, Elizabeth M. Coming Together / Coming Apart: Religion, Community, and Modernity, New York, New York: Routledge, 1997. Brackney, William H. Baptists in North America: Religious life in North America, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006 Chiat, Marilyn J. AmericaÂ’s Religious Architecture: Sacred Places for Every Community, Washington, D.C.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Preservation Press, 1997. Crown, Carol. Coming Home! Self Taught Artists, The Bible, and the American South, Memphis, TN: University Press of Mississippi, 2004. Garrett Jr., James Leo. Are Southern Baptists Â“EvangelicalsÂ”? Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1983. Hubbard, Benjamin J. AmericaÂ’s Religions: An EducatorÂ’s Guide to Beliefs and Practices, Englewood Colorado: Teacher Ideas Press, 1997 Huffman, Curtis W. 2006. Gonzalez United Methodist Church and Child Enrichment Center. www.gonzalezmethodist.org (accessed on July 30, 2008). Leach, William H. Protestant Church Building, New York, New York: Abingdon Â– Cokesbury Press, 1958 Nelson, Louis P. American Sanctuary: Understanding Sacred Spaces, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006. Packard, Robert T. Architectural Graphic Standards: Seventh Edition, American Institute of Architects, U.S., 1981 Purdy, Martin. Churches and Chapels: Butterworth Architecture Design and Development Guides, London, England: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1991 Roberts, Nicholas W. Building Type Basics for Places of Worship Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004 Rosenberg, Ellen M. The Southern Baptists: A Subculture in Transition Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press, 1989
88 Smith, Robert. 2000. The Rock of Mobile www.rockofmobile.org (accessed on July 30, 2008). Williams, Peter W. Houses of God: Region, Religion, and Architecture in the United States, Chicago, IL.: University of Illinois Press, 1997. Wolfe, Alan. The Transformation of American Religion: How we actually live our faith, New York, New York: The Free Press, 2003