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Landscape as urbanism

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Title:
Landscape as urbanism
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English
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Abraham, Ryan Nicholas
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University of South Florida
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Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Environment
Infrastructure
Site
Form
Functional
Dissertations, Academic -- Architecture -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Summary:
ABSTRACT: Scholars have suggested that landscape become the main ordering device in the development of the built environment. Traditional methods of urban planning have categorized landscape as a cosmetic application, the purpose of which is to beautify the urban environment after the planning and development phases. The problems associated with globalization and rapid urbanization at present includes the commoditization of urban form. As a result of this trend, many cities are becoming less and less distinguishable from one another, as urban form is generated without considering the particularities of site and context. The lack of a more specific understanding of a site in its environmental, social and cultural dimensions, has led to the phenomenon of "universal" urban form. Landscape has new found relevance in contemporary urbanism becoming the medium that defines urban form; inserting the built environment within the context of complex natural, social and cultural environments.Landscape has the potential to design relationships between dynamic environmental processes and urban form, and become more of a functional system. In the island of Trinidad there exists the opportunity to explore the potential of landscape as a driver of urban form. The island is currently experiencing rapid urbanization and dynamic growth due to a boost in the economy, and an unprecedented government agenda to take the island to a developed nation status by the year 2020. Due to this emerging urbanity, there is the need to implement urban development approaches that protect the environmental integrity of the island, and preserve the social and cultural influences that give identity to the island. The investigation led to the development of a landscape infrastructure that is implemented in an effort to achieve sustainable urban development and preserve the natural integrity of the site.Through an in-depth analysis of the landscape, identifying the natural, social and cultural processes occurring, a plan of intervention is developed that is integrated with the dynamics of the site, and serves as an example of the potential of landscape in urbanism.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2008.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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by Ryan Nicholas Abraham.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 64 pages.

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oclc - 401725991
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002789
usfldc handle - e14.2789
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Landscape as Urbanism by Ryan Nicholas Abraham A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of Graduate Studies University of South Florida Major Professor: Shannon Bassett, M.AUD. Trent Green, M.AUD. Robert Brinkmann, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 4, 2008 Keywords: Environment, infrastructure, site, form, functional Copyright, Ryan Abraham, 2008

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Dedication This thesis is dedicated to my family in Trinidad who always believed in me and supported me throughout this journey. Special dedication goes out to my father Richard David Abraham who passed away on August 11, 2008. R.I.P dad.

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Acknowledgements I would like to extend my deepest gratitude to the following people for their guidance, encouragement and support. Professor Dan Powers, Associate Dean, Professor Shannon Bassett, Faculty Chair, Professor Trent Green, Faculty Committee Member, Dr. Robert Brinkmann, Faculty Committee Member, Carol Trent and Mary Hayward. I would also like to express my gratitude to all my friends in the School of Architecture and Community Design with special thanks to Dr. Jin Baek for his inspiration, and Jen for her support. This journey would not have been possible without all of you. Thank you

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i Table of Contents i List of Figures iii Abstract viii Chapter 1 – Introduction 1 Chapter 2 Case Studies 8 City of Culture of Galicia 9 Fresh Kills Park Project 11 Rebstockpark Master Plan 13 Tanghe River Park 15 Chapter 3 – Trinidad and Tobago 18 History 19 Culture 22 Landscape 25

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ii Chapter 4 – Project Site 27 Site Selection 27 Site Analysis 30 Chapter 5 – Programming 39 Chapter 6 – Schematic Design 42 Chapter 7 – Conclusion 62 Chapter 8 – References 64

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iii List of Figures Fig.1 Archbishops House, Trinidad 1 Fig.2 House of Parliament, Trinidad 1 Fig.3 Movie Town, Trinidad 2 Fig.4 Deep Ground, Longgang City, China 3 Fig.5 Relational Model 2 4 Fig.6 Trinidad Landscape 5 Fig.7 Bamboo House 6 Fig.8 Site Model, City of Culture of Galicia 9 Fig.9 Competition Model, City of Culture of Galicia 9 Fig.10 Volumetric Analysis, City of Culture of Galicia 9 Fig.11 Site Plan, City of Culture of Galicia 10 Fig.12 Roof of Hemeroteca, City of Culture of Galicia 10 Fig.13 Aerial View of Hemeroteca and Bibliotheca 10 Fig. 14 Site Plan, Fresh Kills Park Project 11 Fig.15 Aerial View, Fresh Kills Park Project 11 Fig.16 Rendering of Park, Fresh Kills Park Project 12

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iv Fig.17 Proposed Signa ge, Fresh Kills Park Project 12 Fig.18 Rendering of Activities, Fresh Kills Park Project 12 Fig.19 Rendering, Rebstockpark 13 Fig.20 Master Plan, Rebstockpark 13 Fig.21 Perspective 1, Rebstockpark 14 Fig.22 Perspective 2, Rebstockpark 14 Fig.23 Site Plan, Tanghe River Park 15 Fig.24 Aerial Rendering, Tanghe River Park 16 Fig.25 Photo 1 of Tanghe River Park 16 Fig.26 Photo 2 of Tanghe River Park 17 Fig.27 Photo 3 of Tanghe River Park 17 Fig.28 Map of Caribbean 18 Fig.29 Map of Trinidad and Tobago 18 Fig.30 Spanish Flag 19 Fig.31 Map of Port of Spain 19 Fig.32 British Flag 20 Fig.33 Sugarcane Plantation, Trinidad 20 Fig.34 Flag of Trinidad and Tobago 21 Fig.35 Trinidad and Tobago Coat of Arms 21 Fig.36 Carnival in Trinidad 22

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v Fig.37 Parang Band 23 Fig.38 Chutney Dancers 23 Fig.39 People of Trinidad 24 Fig.40 Northern Range, Trinidad 25 Fig.41 Central Range, Trinidad 25 Fig.42 Central Plains, Trinidad 25 Fig.43 Scarlet Ibis 26 Fig.44 Aerial of Port of Spain, Trinidad 27 Fig.45 Map of Trinidad 28 Fig.46 Aerial of Diego Martin 28 Fig.47 Aerial of Site Location 29 Fig.48 Aerial of Site 29 Fig.49 Figure/Ground Diagram 30 Fig.50 Road/Street Network 30 Fig.51 Historic Condition of Site 31 Fig.52 Development of Road Network 31 Fig.53 Current Landuse Diagram 32 Fig.54 Introverted Developments 32 Fig.55 Open Space Diagram 33 Fig.56 Site as Connector 33 Fig.57 Abiotic Analysis 34 Fig.58 Biotic Analysis 34 Fig.59 Access Points 35

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vi Fig.60 Anthropic Suitability 35 Fig.61 Site Photo 1 36 Fig.62 Site Photo 2 36 Fig.63 Site Photo 3 36 Fig.64 Site Photo 4 36 Fig.65 Site Photo 5 37 Fig.66 Site Photo 6 37 Fig.67 Site Photo 7 37 Fig.68 Site Photo 8 37 Fig.69 Site Photo 9 38 Fig.70 Site Photo 10 38 Fig.71 Site Photo 11 38 Fig.72 Existing Programs 39 Fig.73 Proposed Program Relationship Diagram 39 Fig.74 Landscape Concept 1 42 Fig.75 Landscape Concept 2 42 Fig.76 Landscape Infrastructure at Macro Scale 43 Fig.77 Site Plan 44 Fig.78 Site Concept 1 46 Fig.79 Site Concept 2 46 Fig.80 View of Overall Scheme from SW 47

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vii Fig.81 Rendered Site Plan 48 Fig.82 Site Sections 1 49 Fig.83 Site Sections 2 50 Fig.84 Final Model 51 Fig.85 View of Overall Scheme from SE 52 Fig.86 View of Main Civic Space 53 Fig.87 View down Retail Strip 54 Fig.88 View between Office Buildings 55 Fig.89 View of Caf and Taxi Stand 56 Fig.90 View of Retail Area 57 Fig.91 Final Model 1 58 Fig.92 Final Model 2 59 Fig.93 Final Model 3 60 Fig.94 Final Model 4 61

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viii Landscape as Urbanism Ryan Nicholas Abraham ABSTRACT Scholars have suggested that landscape become the main ordering device in the development of the built environment. Traditional methods of urban planni ng have categorized landscape as a cosmetic application, the purpose of which is to beautify the urban environment after the planning and development phases. The problems associated with globalization and rapid urbanization at present includes the commoditization of urban form. As a result of this trend, many cities are becoming less and less distinguishable from one another, as urban form is generated without considering the particularities of site and context. The lack of a more specific understanding of a site in its environmental, social and cultural dimensio ns, has led to the phenomenon of “univers al” urban form. Landscape has new found relevanc e in contemporary urbanism becoming the medium that defines urban form; inserting the built environment within the context of complex natural, social and cultural environments. Landscape has the potential to design relationships between dynamic environmental processes and urban form, and

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ix become more of a functional system. In the island of Trinidad there exists the opportunity to explore the potential of landscape as a driver of urban form. The island is currently experiencing rapid urbanization and dynamic growth due to a boost in the economy, and an unprecedented government agenda to take the island to a developed nation status by the year 2020. Due to this emerging urbanity, there is the need to implement urban development approaches that protect the environmental integrity of the island, and preserve the social and cultural influences that give identity to the island. The investigation led to the development of a landscape infrastructure that is implemented in an effort to achieve sustainable urban development and preserve the natural integrity of the site. Through an in-depth analysis of the landscape, identifying the natural, social and cultural processes occurring, a plan of intervention is developed that is integrated with the dynamics of the site, and serves as an example of the potential of landscape in urbanism.

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Fig.1 Arc h Pho t Fig.2 Hou s Pho t bishops House, Tr i t o taken by Ryan A s e of Parliament, T t o taken by Ryan A i nidad A braham T rinidad A braham 1 C h w a ur gi v dr in v id e b u d o se of isl st a co B r b u h a fo r b e ir o tr o h apter 1 Int r The inte n a ys of integra t ban planning v e order to th iver of urban v estigation is e ntity of the p u ilding and la n o minates the i The islan eking an ide n its colonial p a and has play e a te of its buil t lonial archite c r itish that col o u ildings that li t a ve left a stro n r ced to adopt e en merely pr e o nically the e n o pical vegeta t r oduction n t of this thes i t ing landscap e and develop m e built enviro form. An obj e to combine t h p lace through n dscape, the l a sland. d of Trinidad n tity as it ove r a st. The colo n e d a significa n t environmen t c ture and urb a o nized the isla t ter the lands n g impressio n a foreign ide n e scribed as d e n tire island w a t ion. There w a i s is to investi e design stra t m ent, in an ef f nment and b e e ctive of the h e culture an d the integrati o a tter of whic h is a developi n r comes the in f n ial history of n t role in the c t The influen c a n planning b nd is evident cape. These b n that the isla n n tity. Landsc a e coration, wh e a s dominated a s no physical gate t egies in f ort to e come the d physical o n of h n g nation f luences the c urrent c e of y the in the b uildings n d was a pe had e n by lush

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Fig.3 Mov i Pho t i e Town, Trinidad t o taken by Ryan A A braham 2 e x e n vi s p o th o e m n e h a tr a th e e x ra d ur d e re s id e a p p e tr e fa b ar c In x perience of t h n vironment, it s ual experien c As the n a o st colonial mi o se influence s m erged and is e w identity to a s embarked o a nsform the c e year 2020. x periencing d y d ical wave of banity is sinf u e velopment tr e s ulting in a b u e ntity of its l o p proaches cre a e ople and thei e nd has creat e b ric of Trinid a c hitectural th e order for urb h e landscape w had only bee c e. a tion is begin n nd-frame an d s a new gen e attempting t o the island na t o n an unprec e ountry into a Due to this a g y namic growt h development u lly influence d e nds and arc h u ilt environm e o cale. These t y a te a disconn e r surrounding e d ‘unidentifi a a d; places tha t e mes. an developm e w ithin the bui n preserved f n ing to overc o d steer away f e ration of lead o bring chang t ion. The gov e e dented agen d developed na g enda, the na h and as a re s This emergi n d by global h itectural mot e nt that carri e y pes of devel o e ction betwe e s. In many c a a ble places’ in t have adopt e e nt to truly i m lt f or a o me its f rom ers has e and a e rnment d a to tion by tion is s ult, a n g ifs e s no o pment e n the a ses this the e d foreign m pact

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Fig.4 Dee p http p Ground, Longga n ://www.groundlab n g City, China org/ 3 T r n a e m Th a p T r Th pl a a n T r pr th e to n e th e d e e n a c A r “ A ur th inidad in a po a tural environ m m bedded in th h is project ho p p proach for su inidad; envir o h e project will a nning and d e n d explore th e inidad. Urban imary focus o e catalyst for solve urban d e w identity fo r Scholars e main orderi e coration in t h n vironment. I t c hieving susta r chitect and U A rchitecture is ban order; in c in horizontal v sitive way, it m ent, and ho w e lives and c u p es to be an e stainable urb a o nmentally, s o attempt to i n e sign strategi e e ir marriage w design is not f this thesis. H the explorati o d esign shortc o r the built en v have sugges t ng device rat h h e developme n t is seen as a inable growt h rban Designe r no longer th e c reasingly ur b v egetal plane ; must conside w this native u lture of the p e xample of a n a n developm e o cially and cul n tegrate lands e s with urban w ith the cultur e t intended to b H owever, it s e o n of using la n o mings and c r v ironment of T t ed that lands c h er than just n t of the built critical eleme h of towns an d r Rem Koolha a e primary ele m b an order is g i ; r the context is p eople. n ew e nt in turally. cape design, e of b e the e rves as n dscape r eate a T rinidad. c ape be nt in d cities. a s states: m ent of i ven by a

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Fig.5 Rela tional Model 2. htt p://www.groundla b.org/ 4 in c ur co pl e a d w o la n p o u s Th th e th e a p th e pl a m e ca “T fe a fa b a c c reasingly lan ban order.” The use o nnect detach e e asant public d dressed in se o rld. Howeve r n dscape mer e o tential of lan d s e of landscap h e potential o f e landscape c e culture and p eople can b e e ir environm e a ce leaves an e mory of the rry an identit y he character o a tures”. Reinterp r b ric of Trinid a c hieve sustain a dscape is the o f landscape a e d areas of a spaces has b e veral built ex a r these two e x e ly scratch th e d scape; they b e as a conne c f landscape is c an play a de e identity of a p e realized in t h e nt. The natu r unconscious human spirit, y with it. Ken n o f a place res r eting the rol e a d, is crucial i n a ble growth, w primary ele m a s a medium t city and also e en successf u a mples aroun x amples of th e surface of t h b arely go be y c tor and as d e far greater t h e per role in su p lace, as the c h e way that t h r al environme impression in and this me m n eth Frampto ides in its na t e of landscap e n determining w ithout the t o m ent of t o to create u lly d the e use of h e y ond the e coration. h an that; staining c ulture of h ey shape nt of a the m ory can n States: t ural e in the ways to o tal

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Fig.6 Trini dad Landscape. P h h oto taken by Rya n n Abraham 5 d e li k v e at t in m a d e st a m o b e su su m a a c w e s p u n g a cu is s cr i to g e struction of t h k e Trinidad th a e getation, it is t ention to the any urban d e a de claims fo r e sign, as arch i a ted: “Increa s o del for urba n e en defined a s rfaces…. By p rface conditi o a teriality and c tivate space a e ighty appara t The inte n p ecific to the c n derstand lan d a in an unders t lture and cul t s ue of culture i tical to this i n g ether with t h h e natural en v a t is dominat e only approp r landscape a s e sign project. r the potentia i tect and edu c s ingly, landsc a n ism. Landsca s the art of or g p aying close a t o ns, not only c performance a nd produce e t us of traditio n t of this inve s c ase in Trinid a d scape in urb a t anding of lan d t ural influenc e of how it can n vestigation. T h e natural lan v ironment. In e d by lush tro p r iate to pay cl o s a hierarchal Many author s l of landscap e c ator Stan All e a pe is emergi a pe has traditi g anizing hori z t tention to th e c onfiguration, designers ca e ffects withou t nal space ma s tigation is to a d, and not o n a n design iss u d scape influe n e s on landsca p influence de s T he culture o f dscape of tha a place p ical o se element s have e in urban e n ng as a onally z ontal e se but also n t the king. ” be n ly u es but n ces on p e. The s ign is f a place, t place

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Fig7. Ba m ww w m boo House, Kengo w .tropolism.com/g r Kuma r eatbamboo.jpg 6 ca ar c T r d e th a se b e R e u n di f a r gl o re g ci v th e to th e la n th e w h n a th e n form a resi s c hitecture an d inidad at pre s e sign are resu a t is insensiti v cond aspect o e the basis fo r e gionalism. K e n derstanding o f ferent local a r esistance to t o balization. ” The fund a g ionalism is t o v ilization with e peculiaritie s gain an iden t e site and bri n n dscape is im e landscape t h h ich is covere d a tural landsca p e lives of the s tance to the d urban form. s ent where gl o lting in archit e v e to its local e o f the theoret i r this thesis in e nneth Framp o f the particul nd regional l a t he homogen i a mental aspe c o mediate th e elements de r s of a particul a t ity through d e n ging out the portant. One h ere is the ir r d with lush tr o p e has had a people of Tri n commoditiza t This is the c a o bal influence s e cture and ur e This leads t i cal framewor vestigation; C ton stated; “ T arity and dist a ndscapes ca n i zing effects o c t of critical e impact of u n r ived indirectl y a r place. For T esign, unders best qualitie s of the main f e r egular topog r o pical vegeta t tremendous i m n idad in that t t ion of a se in s of ban form t o the k that will C ritical T he inction of n provide o f n iversal y from T rinidad tanding s of the e atures of r aphy t ion. The m pact on t hey

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7 identify with the sloped terrain and the society has evolved around this natural landscape. A critical regionalist a pproach is necessary to prevent the influence of globalization on the island in which the landscape is being transformed dramatically to accommodate buildings whereas it should be the other way around where the building accommodates the existing landscape. Kenneth Frampton states: “The bulldozing of an irregular topography into a flat site is clearly a te chnocratic gesture which aspires to a condition of absolute placelessness; whereas the terracing of the same site to receive the stepped form of a building is an engagement in the art of ‘cultivating the site”.

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8 Chapter 2 Case Studies Case studies were carried out on selected landscape and urban design projects that met specific criteria in relation to the scope of this thesis investigation. Projects were selected based on the following criteria; (1) Integration of building and landscape. (2) Balanc e between preservation and intervention. (3) Blending of natural landscape and designed landscape. (4) Sustainable and innovative approaches to urban design. (5) Projects that address culture and identity through design. Each case study had some influence on the design project.

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Fig.8 Site Fig.9 Co m Fig.10 Vol Model. Photo cour t m petition Model. Ph o umetric Analysis. I t esy Eisenman Arc o to courtesy Eisen m I mage courtesy Ei s hitects m an Architects s enman Architects 9 Ci t fo r d e su st r o v si t th e Th di s di m su m o o n of wi co t y of Culture o Santiago Eisenma n The City r the Provinc e e sign of the c e perimpositio n r eet grid of t h v erlaid over t h t e. Then a mo e se medieval h en the archit e s tort the two d m ensional for perimpositio n o dern conditi o n e with the la n place. The p r th a separate nceived as th o f Galicia de Compost e n Architects of Culture is a e of Galicia, in e nter is the re n of three set s h e medieval ci h e topographi c dern Cartesia routes to cre a e ct used com p d imensional g m. The urban n of the site’s o ns. The cult u n dscape and c r oject consist s program. Ho w ree pairs of b e la, Spain a new Cultura northern Sp a sult of a s of informati o ty center of G c map of the h n grid is laid o a te a combin e p uter softwar e g rid into a thr e form is a res natural, histo u ral center be c c reates a stro n s of six buildi n w ever, they w uildings and l Center a in. The o n. The G alicia is h illside o ver e d grid. e to e e ult of the ric and c omes n g sense n gs, each w ere

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Fig11. Sit e Fig.12 Ro o Fig.13 Ae r Ph o e Plan. Image cou r o f of Hemeroteca. r ial of Hemeroteca o to courtesy Eisen m r tesy Eisenman Ar c Photo courtesy Eis e and Bibliotheca. m an Architects c hitects e nman Architects 10 th e re fo r b e pl a b e Th se co pl a b u st e h y m a s p e x u s e experience lationship of t r m is broken u e tween the bu a zas. Some o f e come habita b h e structure o f parate syste m mprises of th e a ce concrete, u ilding envelo p e el structure w y brid structur a a nipulation o f p atial quality a x emplifies an i s ing the lands c of each buildi t he adjacent b u p by pedest r ildings and o p f the rooftops b le spaces in w f the building s m s. The inner e floor slabs i and the oute r p e and roof is w ith glass cu r a l system allo w f form withou t a nd functional nnovative ap p c ape and as a ng is affected b uilding. The o r ian streets th p en up onto p of the buildi n w hich visitors s is made up o structure whi s made of po u r structure w h a carefully d e r tain walls. Th w s for the t sacrificing t h ity. The proje p roach to urb a a driver of for m by the o verall at wind ublic n gs can walk. o f two ch u red in h ich is the e signed is type of h e interior ct a n design m

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Fig.14 Sit e Fig.15 Ae r e Plan. Image cou r r ial view of park. I m r tesy Field Operati o m age courtesy Fiel o ns. d Operations 11 Fr e 2, 2 pr tr a p a th th e e c pr a n p a s y Ci r wi p h co (2 la n e sh Kills Lan d Staten I s Field Op e The Fres h 2 00 acres is o ojects in the w a nsforming th a rk and is pla n irty years unt e project is t o c ologically div e ogram includ e n d recreationa a rk is a frame w y stems; new h r culation syst e The proj e thin each sys t h ases. (1) Se e mmunities a n )Infrastructu r n dscape infra s d fill Park Proj e s land, New Yo r e rations h Kills park p r o ne of the lar g w orld. The pr o e Fresh Kills L n ned in four p il completion. o transform t h e rse and cult u e s various for l activities. T h w ork that con h abitat, new a e ms. e ct is compos e t em that will e e ding the in t n d rejuvenati o r e – the devel s tructure and e c t rk r oject which c o g est public pa o ject is focus e L andfill into a hases that wi The major f o h e landfill into u rally active p ms of social, c h e Master Pla n sists of three ctivities, and e d of a series e volve overti m t roduction of n o n of natural h opment of th e the impleme n o vers rk e d on public ll take o cus of an ark. The c ultural n for the distinct of layers m e in four n ew plant h abitat. e natural n tation of

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Fig.16 Re n Fig.17 Pr o Fig.18 Re n n dering of Park. I m o posed Signage. I m n dering of activitie s m age courtesy Fiel d m age courtesy Fiel d s Image courtesy d Operations d Operations Field Operations 12 ot fu n th e re c h o e v (4 m o su th a lo c la n m a p h su ai m a n her man mad n ctionally effi c e developme n c reational act o rseback ridin g v ents, outdoo r ) Adaptation – o dification of rfaces, ecosy s The Fres h a t involves m c al governme n n dscape archi a ny others th a h ases. This pr o stainable lan d m ed at healin n d restoring a e infrastructu c ient landsca p n t of various c ivities includi n g mountain b r dining, spor t – The continu the various r o s tems and pr o h Kills Park P r any different n t, local resid tects and urb a a t will be inv o o ject serves a d scape and u r g and reinve n balance bet w re to ensure a p e. (3) Progr a c ultural and n g nature trai b iking, comm u t s fields and c ed maintena n o ads, pathwa y o grams overti r oject is an ini groups of pe o ents, ecologi s a n planners, a o lved in the di a s an exampl e r ban planning n ting brown fi e w een man and a a mming ls, u nity anoeing. n ce and y s, me. tiative o ple; the s ts, a s well as fferent e of that is e ld sites nature.

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Fig.19 Re n Fig.20 Ma s n dering. Image co u s ter Plan. Image c o u rtesy Eisenman A r o urtesy Eisenman A r chitects A rchitects 13 R e in ar c ur s p in t b e su w h s p la n e n pr of pr Th of a n e bstockpark M Frankfur t Eisenma n The Reb s 1991 by arc h c hitect Laurie ban landscap e p ace and a lar g t ention was t o e tween the ‘ci t stainable rel a h ile at the sa m p aces. Much of t n d and explo r n gagement wi t ocess. Instea d traditional u r opose a new c h is dialogue is the urban el e n d parking, wi M aster Plan t German y n Architects s tockpark Ma s h itect Peter Ei s Olin. The pr o e of housing, g e urban par k o explore pot e t y and nature a tionships wit h m e time creat i t he designers ’ r ing the poten t h city planni n d of the figur e r ban planning c oncept of a c expressed th e ments of sho th the eleme n s ter Plan was p s enman and l a o ject is concei v offices, com m k T he design e e ntial relation s ’ in an effort t h the environ m i ng viable so c ’ interest was tial of “site” a n g through th e e /ground rela t the designe r c ity/nature di a rough an int e ps, offices, h o n ts drawn fro m p roposed a ndscape v ed as an m ercial e rs’ s hips t o build m ent c ial in the a nd its e design t ionship r s a logue. e rweaving o using m the

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Fig.21 Re n Fig.22. R e n dered Perspectiv e e ndered Perspectiv e e 1. Image courtes y e 2. Image courte s y Eisenman Archit e s y Eisenman Archi t 14 e cts t ects su w o el e wi ty p re n a w e to si m re th ur rrounding ag r o odlands, irri g The resu l e ments and n thin the city t p e of conditio lationships b e a tural environ m e ave as devel o pological eve n m ultaneously This proj e lationship bet rough the ex p ban form. r icultural land g ation ditches l t of this inter w ature is the c r t hat has char a n explores th e e tween peopl e m ent. Eisenm o ping a surfa c n t and as a st disappears a n e ct is a great ween landsca p loration of si t scape of mea and canals. w eaving of u r r eation of a p a cteristics of b e potential of e ’s daily life a n m an refers to t c e that doubl e ructure that n d resurfaces example of t h pe and urban t e conditions a dows, r ban lace b oth. This new n d the he site e s as a h e ism, a nd

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Fig.23 Site Plan. Image c c ourtesy Turensca p p e. 15 T a pr at pr a d e d fl o wi in a s K o st r pl a n u b e e n in t a nghe River P a Qinhuan g Kongjian The Tan g otecting the e the same ti m oblem of floo d d dressed by r e d ge, which all o o ws. These w e ldlife. This ap the heart of t s ustainable a p The wor k o ngjian Yu ca n r ategies that c a nning. The e u merous proj e e en successful n vironment, t a t ervention an d a r k g dao City, He b Yu g he River Par k e cological inte m e allowing ac d and storm w e covering wet o ws for the s e e tlands also c r proach re-cr e t he city which p proach to ur b k of Chinese l a n serve as an c an be integr a ducator and d e cts in his nat i ly integrated a king a minim d allowing th e b ei Province, C k project was a grity of the si cess to the p a w ater manage lands at the r e asonal rise in r eate new ha b e ates a natura serves as an b an design. a ndscape arc h example of l a a ted into urb a d esigner has e i ve country t h with the natu m alistic approa e natural proc e C hina a imed at te while a rk. The ment was iver’s tidal b itat for l setting example h itect a ndscape a n e xecuted h at have ral ch to site e sses to

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Fig.2 4 Fig.2 5 4 Aerial Rendering 5 Tanghe Park. Ph o Image courtesy T o to courtesy Ture n T urenscape. n scape. 16 co in t re t s p e d K o pr a s sh e n is s w a n a al s th e is d u e v a n pl a la n ca th e ntinue uninte t eraction bet w t rieve a sens e p aces. Profess o d ucating the p o ngjian Yu sta oblem is that s sociated with ould be takin g n vironmental i s ues that he a a ter manage m a tive China. H e s o has a role i e identity of a a major issu e u e to rapid gl o v aluate the ve n d lead the w a a nning and d e n dscape and e n be created e connecting rrupted. His p w een the peo p e of place and o r Yu speaks ublic about “ g tes in his wri t landscape ar c the tradition g a more imp o ssues. Some a ddresses are m ent which ar e e states that i n sustaining c a people. The e facing some o balization. “ T rnacular of th a y in urban d e e signing an in f e cology, thro u and preserve d link between t p rojects prom o p le and their l a create lively of his work a s g reen” solutio t ings that the c hitecture is t of gardening o rtant role in of the enviro n flood control e pressing iss Landscape ar c c ultural herit a loss of cultur a developing c o T he profession e land and th e velopment b y frastructure o u gh which lan d d as a mediu m t he land, the o te a nd; they public s a way of ns. first oo and it n mental and ues in his c hitecture a ge and a l identity o untries must ree people, y o f both d scape m and as people

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Fig. 2 Fig. 2 2 6 Tanghe Park 2. 2 7 Tanghe Park 3. Photo courtesy Tu Photo courtesy Tu renscape. renscape. 17 a n co la n re j re t sa le a a n cr i th e la n th e ar c k e gl o d e pr a n b e re j la n in t n d the spirits. ” nsciousness a n dscape and i j uvenate a la n t urn the iden t ys that lands c a d the way in n d designing a i tical in safeg u e cultural tra d n dscape infra s e developme n c hitecture m u e y role in buil d o bal, and inte This proj e e sign approac h ecedent for e c n d urban plan n e tween enviro j uvenation in n dscape plan n t ervention, m o ” (Yu, 11). Hi s a bout the bea ts diverse ve g n d that sustai t ity of the pe o c ape architec t urban devel o a landscape in u arding the e c d itions that gi v s tructure sho u n t plan evolve u st take the o p d ing a new so c rconnected p e e ct and the o v h of Kongjian c ologically su s n ing. His wor k nmental prot e his many urb n ing is that le s o re rejuvenat s aim is to cr e uty of the na t g etation. He a ns humanity a o ple and their t s and planne r o pment by ide frastructure, w c ological proc e v e us our ide n u ld be create d s. “Landscap e p portunity to c iety of urba n e ople.” (Yu, 1 v erall philoso p Yu is a great s tainable lan d k strikes a bal e ction and so c an parks. His s s is more; le s ion. e ate a t ural a ims to a nd place. He r s should ntifying w hich is e sses and n tity. This d before e play a n ized, 1). p hy and d scape ance c ial theory to s s

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Fig.28 M Fig.29 Ma ap of the Caribbea p of Trinidad and T n. www.student.b r T obago.www.stude r itannica.com nt.brittanica.com 18 C h si t n o th e in v la r co T r 9 4 a n in h T r h apter 3 – T ri n Trinidad a t uated in the s o rth of the eq u e northeaster v estigation w a r ger of the tw ver approxim inidad, the la r 4 % of the tot a n d Tobago is a h abitants, wit inidad. n idad and To b a nd Tobago i s s outhern Cari b u ator and ap p n coast of Ve n a s focused m a in islands. Th ately 1,979 s q r ger of the tw a l area. The p o a pproximatel y h 95% of the b ago s a twin islan d b bean Sea, 1 0 p roximately 7 n ezuela. T he t a inly in Trinid a h e two island s q uare miles, w o comprising o pulation of T y 1.3 million population li v d nation 0 degrees miles off t hesis a d, the s together w ith about T rinidad v ing in

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Fig.30 S Fig.31 Po r S panish Flag. ww w r t of Spain. www.c a w .mapsoftheworld. c a ribbean-on-line.c o c om o m 19 Hi s T r C h n e ce in h w e C o T r isl so to d u s S p of th e st r S p M a lo c T r s tor y inidad and To h ristopher Col e w world. The ntury later wi h abitants. Th e e re the Arawa o lumbus nam e inity, which w and and its t h uthern range d ay. The Spa n s ed it as a ba s p anish was to gold. Howev e e Spanish ca n r eets and tow p ain, the nati o a rtin, the tow n c ated. For two c inidad, the isl bago was dis c umbus on his Spanish settl ping out mos t e original inh a k and Carib I n e d the island T w as due to his h ree large mo ideally name d n ish colonize d s e; for the ma eventually re e r, the coloni z n be seen mo s ns today; for o n’s capital sti n in which th e c enturies afte r and passed b c overed in 14 third voyage ed in the isla n t of the origi n a bitants of th e n dians. It is s T rinidad after first sighting untains in th e d the Trinity H d the island a n in intent of t h ach El Dorad o z ation of the i s s tly by the na m example, Po r i ll today, and e project site i r the Spanish ack and forth 98 by to the n d a n al e islands aid that the Holy of the e H ills n d mainly h e o the city s lands by m es of r t of Diego i s settled in between

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Fig.32 Bri t Fig.33 Su g t ish Flag. www.ma g arcane Plantation psoftheworld.com in Trinidad. www. w w ebshots.com 20 th e to in B r A b b e th pl a b e ot o n to st e B r pr a B 2 8 Fr e S p A m th e se e Spanish, th e gain control o 1797, the Sp r itish who we r b ercromby. T h e gan to devel o roughout the a ins of the ce n e came a majo her agricultu r n going slave t r work these s e adily increas r itish slave o w osperous sug a B ritish conse n 8 ,000 inhabit a e nch while th e p anish and En m erindian po p e majority of ttlements. e French and o f the twin isl a anish surren d r e under the r u h e British sett o p numerous s entire land, m n tral part of t r port of exp o r al products s u r ade provide d ugar plantati o ed as more a n w ners came to a rcane indust n sus estimate d a nts. Half of t h e other half w glish speaker s p ulation conti n these natives the British w h a nd nation. E v d ered the isla n u le of Sir Ral p led in the isla s ugarcane pl a m ainly in the l he island. Tri n o rt for sugarc a u ch as cocoa. d thousands o f o ns and the n u n d more Fren c Trinidad for t ry. By the ye a d the populat i h at number s p w as divided b e s The native n ued to declin scattered in h o fought v entually n d to the p h nd and a ntations ow lying n idad a ne and The f slaves u mber c h and t he a r 1803, i on to be p oke e tween e with rural

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Fig 34. Fl a Fig.35 Tri n a g of Trinidad and T n idad and Tobago C T obago. www.ma p C oat of Arms. ww w p softheworld.com w .nalis.gov.tt 21 tr a p e in d pl a hi s in c m a 1 8 E a P o L e a d ce in d el s C r isl d e 1 9 fr o of A decad e a de in 1834, t e rmission to p d entured lab o a ntations. Ov e s tory of Trini d c reased, but t a inly indentu r 8 71, about 25 a st Indians. D u o rtuguese, Ch i e banese also i m d vantage of t h ntury brough t d ustry as sug a s ewhere. The Briti s r own Colony u ands with th e e velop strateg 9 62, Trinidad a o m the British Trinidad and e after the ab o t he British Go v lantation own o rers from Ind e r the next fe d ad, the popu l t his increase o r ed Indian lab % o f the pop u u ring this tim e i nese and oth m migrated to h e agricultural t with it a de c a r was being s h ruled Trini d u p until the y e e assistance o f ies for self g o a nd Tobago g and officiall y Tobago. o lition of the s v ernment ga v ers to import ia to work on w decades in l ation steadil y o f immigrants orers. By the u lation was m e small num b er groups inc l the island to trade. The t u c line in the su g produced che d ad and Toba g e ar 1956 whe n f the British b o vernance. In ained its inde y became the R s lave v e their the y were year ade up of b ers of l uding take u rn of the g ar aper g o as a n the egan to the year pendence R epublic

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Fig.36 Ca r Fig.37 St e r nival in Trinidad. P e el Pan. www.vista p P hoto courtesy Jas o p an.net o n Lennox 22 C u Th hi s A m In i m wi C o B r g o pl a th e T r b y ce th e o p w a so pl a w h u lture h e culture of T s tory of the i s m erindian, Sp a dian, Chinese m migrants tha t th them to th o lony was left r itish mainly; t o vernment an d a yed in the is l e most influe n inidad is that y the French s ntury. Trinid a e mselves enj o p portunity. Th a s also broug h The musi ca and calyp s a ying and list e h ich were ori g T rinidad and T s lands and th e a nish, French Portuguese, t brought thei e islands. Tri n with a stron g t he English la d the two mo s l ands, footbal n tial aspects o of Carnival t h ettlers in the a dians or ‘Trin o y partying a n e local word f h t there by th c of Trinidad a s o and a huge e ning to ‘stee g inally invent e T obago reflect s e influence of British, Afri c Venezuelan a r respective c n idad being a g influence of t nguage, the s s t popular sp o l and cricket. o f the culture h at was broug late eighteen t is’ as they re f n ytime there i f or party is ‘fe e French. and Tobago i s part of the c u l pan’ or steel e d in Trinidad. s the c an, a nd other c ultures British t he s ystem of o rts One of of ht there t h f er to i s the te’ which s mainly u lture is drums

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Fig.37 Pa r Fig.38 Ch u r ang Band. www.tr u tney Dancers. w w iniview.com w w.tntcultureclub.c o o m 23 H o th e e n ‘p a n e h a of in S p tr a isl E a In in d cu w h es In a n P h d a T r o wever, durin g e re is a speci a n joyed throug h a rang’. Paran g e ighboring So u a s been modif the people in some parts o p anish speake a dition of par a A very te and is the tra a st Indian po p dians came t o d entured lab o lture and tra d h ose descend a sentially stri p dians celebra t n nually in Trin h agwah. The E a nce to their m inidad can be g the Christm a l type of mu s h out the enti r g was brough t u th American ied to suit th e Trinidad ove r f the country rs who contin a ng. lling aspect o ditions still p r p ulation. Histo o Trinidad on t o rers and ther e d itions unlike t a nts were bro p ped of their c t e many of th idad includin g E ast Indians a m usic called C described as as season in T s ic that is pla y r e island, and t to the islan d country Ven e e culture and l r the years. H there still exi n ue the origin a f the history o r acticed by th e rically, the E a t heir own fre e e fore they ke p t he Afrotrinid a ught as slave c ulture. The E a eir religious t r g Divali, Hosa y lso play, sing hutney. The c a blend o f T rinidad y ed and that is d by the e zuela and l anguage H owever, st a l o f the e large a st e will as p t their a dians s, a st r aditions y and and c uisine in

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Fig.39 Pe o o ple of Trinidad. w w w w.webshots.com 24 A m In th e in v a so th a ca o n in f p o a n e v in m erindian, Eu r dian and Leb a e varied origi n However the island na t a rious ethnicit mewhat blen d a t they are p r nnot be desc r n ly be describ e f luences that o t” island of T r n d diverse cul t v ery part of th the culture o f r opean, Afric a a nese. The c u n s of its peop over the ma t ion, the man ies and back g d ed with eac h r oud “trinis”. T r ibed by secul e d as a rich b l have come to r inidad to cre a t ure. There is e history of t h f Trinidad. a n, Creole, C h u isine is indic a le. ny years of c o y different p e g rounds have h other and th T he culture o f ar aspects bu lend of ethnic gether in the a te one very d certainly a li t h e island pre s h inese, a tive of o existing e oples of ey all say f Trinidad t can ities and “melting d ynamic t tle bit of s ent today

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Fig.40 No r Fig.41 Ce n Fig.42 Ce n r thern Range, Trin i n tral Range, Trinid a n tral Plains, Trinid a i dad. Photo taken b a d. Photo taken b y a d. Photo taken by b y Ryan Abraham y Ryan Abraham Ryan Abraham 25 L a ch a n so lo c m a m o C a of st r isl e n fl o T r th e p a ra th e s w D u la n a ndscape The land s aracterized b y n d plains. Trin utherly of th e c ated just off a inland. The i o st productiv e a ribbean. Th e tropical rainf o r eams, fertile and of Trinid a n vironment, a n o ra and fauna inidad featur e e northern ra n a rt of the isla n nge is the sm e southern ra w amps separa t u e to the vibr a n dscape in Tr i s cape of Trini d y steep moun idad and Tob a e Caribbean c h the coast of t sland is com p e and diverse e landscape o f o rests, abund flood plains a a d is blessed w n d shares mo with the Sou t e s three distin n ge extends a n d from east t allest of the t nge. Undulati t e these rang a nt ecosyste m i nidad, the isl a d ad and Toba g tains, undula t a go is the mo h ain of island s he South Am e p rised of som e ecosystems i n f the island is ant rivers an d a nd swamps. T w ith a very ri c st of its varia t t h American m ct mountain r a cross the en t o west. The c hree and the n ng lands, plai es from each m s in the natu a nd is host to g o can be t ing hills st s and is e rican e of the n the made up d T he c h natural t ions of m ainland. r anges; t ire north entral n there is ns and other. ral

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Fig.43 Sc a Fig.44 Riv a rlet Ibis. www.nal er in Northern Ra n is.gov.tt n ge. Photo taken b y y Ryan Abraham 26 h u a m cl o T r ra t fl o isl la n p e ri c u n e n ur u ndreds of sp e m phibians an d o se proximity inidad and To t io. The islan d o wering plant s and, includin g n dscape domi e ople of Trinid c h and divers e The thesi n cover ways o n vironment in ban planning e cies of mam m d invertebrate s to the South bago has a h i d s have over 2 s 110 of whic g numerous t y nates most o f ad have ada p e landscape. s investigatio f integrating t a more susta and develop m m als, birds, r e s Resulting f r American ma i gh species to 2 ,200 species h are endemi c y pes of palms f the island a n p ted to life in s n will attemp t t his natural inable mann e m ent. e ptiles, r om its inland, area of c to the The n d the s uch a t to e r with

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Fig.44 Ae r r ial of Port of Spai n n www.trinidadan d d tobagonews.com 27 C h Si t m a di v e c th e m a P o th a h a p a pl a d e re s n a st r sl o a n ju n ce of se b u si t a n o p m u h apter 4 – Pr o t e Selection Through o a ny areas tha v erse ecosyst e c ological destr e re is a huge a inly in areas o rt of Spain a n a t are within a a ve already b e a rks and open a nning done b e mand for lan d s ulting in a t o a tural landsca p r uctures. Th e o wly disappe a n d transformi n n gles”. The s rtain criteria i the thesis in v lection are: ( 1 u t it has to be t e must provi d n d interventio n p en space, no t u st be at suc h o ject Site o ut the island t are virtuall y e ms thrive a n uction is non e demand for l a in and aroun d n d its environ s a 20 mile rad i e en develope d spaces that w b y the British. d in and arou n o tal destructio p e in replace e natural land s a ring in areas n g parts of th e s election of th e i n an effort to v estigation. T h 1 ) The site ca within an ur b d e challenges n (3) T he sit e t under devel o h a scale so a s of Trinidad t h y untouched, w n d the threat o e xistent. How e a nd by devel o d the capital c s Most of th e i us of Port of d except for a w ere a part o f Unfortunatel y n d these envi r n of any rem a for concrete a s cape of Trini d of high huma e island into “ e site is base d o align it with t h e criteria for nnot be a rur a b an context. ( both for pre s e must be an o pment. (4) T s for the proj e h ere are w here o f e ver, o pers c ity of e se areas Spain few f the city y the r ons is a ining a nd steel d ad is n density concrete d on t he intent site a l site, 2) The s ervation existing T he site e ct to

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Fig.45 Ma Fig.46 Ae r p of Trinidad show r ial of Diego Marti n ing site location. n showing Site loca tion (macro) 28 h a ar e cr i in v th a e x a n m i se th e Th v a a n S p pr si t ar e A n sh is n o ar e m o e v di r a ve a substan t e as. The sele c i teria is cruci a v estigation to a t integrating x isting landsc a n d culturally s u After con i le radius of P lected that m e northweste r h e site is loca t a lley. The Die g n d more dens e p ain. This regi ime areas for t e is one of o n e susceptible n aerial view o own in fig.46 densely popu o t inhabited a r e inaccessibl e o untainous te v ident in the i m r ectly in the m t ial impact on c tion of a site a l in order for be successfu urban devel o a pe can result u stainable en v sidering num e ort of Spain, a et the criteri a r n peninsula o t ed at the mo u g o Martin vall e e ly populated on is quickly b developmen t n ly a few und e to developm e o f the site at t As shown in lated and the r e the areas o e or too steep rrain of the n o m age. The sit e m iddle of the v the surroun d that meets t h the thesis l, and potenti o pment with t t in naturally, v ironments. e rous sites wi a final site w a a The site is l o o f the island. ( u th of the Die e y is one of t h areas west o f becoming on e t in the island e veloped site s e nt in the nea t he macro sca the image, t h only areas t h o n the mount a to build on. T orthern rang e e sits somew h v alley. d ing h ese ally prove he socially thin a 20 a s o cated in ( See Fig. 45) go Martin h e larger f Port of e of the and the s left that r future. le is h is valley h at are a ins that T he e is h at

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Fig.47 Ae r Fig.48 Ae r r ial of Diego Marti n r ial of Diego Marti n n showing Site loca n showing Site loca tion (intermediate ) tion (micro) 29 ) Th in t at u n Th Di th a b e d e d e of h e image to t h t ermediate sc varying scal e n derstanding o h e image sho w ego Martin Ri v a t the ridge t o e ing cut away e velopment. T e struction of t h rapid urbani z h e left (fig.47 ) ale. It is imp o e s in order to g o f its location w s the adjace n v er. The ima g o the right of in order to a c T his is a prim e h e natural en v z ation in Trini d ) shows the si o rtant to view g et a full and setting. n cy of the sit e g e also shows the sight is c u c commodate s e example of t v ironment in t d ad. te at an the site e to the the way u rrently s ome he t he face

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Fig.49 Fig Fig.50 Ro a ure/Ground Diagr a a d/Street Network a m 30 Si t in f la y si t a n of (F wi se w a d e Th fi g n e th e t e Analysis A series o f ormation an d y ers in order f t e to be gaine n in depth site intervention t ig.49) shows th the main a condary road a y in which th e velopment c o h e site sits at a g ure/ground o e twork. This g e same time c o f diagrams b d breakdown t f or a thoroug h d. The thesis analysis in o r t o be made. T the figure/gr o rterial road n e network in y e e topography o uld occur an d a critical plac e f buildings a n ives the site a c reates a lot o egin to filter t t he site into it h understandi investigation r der for a sui t T he image to t o und of the si t e twork in red e llow. One ca n y dictated wh e d where it cou e in the middl n d the road/st a lot of poten t o f challenges. t he site s many ng of the requires t able plan t he left t e area and the n see the e re ld not. e of this reet t ial but at

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Fig.51 His Fig.52 De v toric Condition of S v elopment of Road S ite /Street Network 31 Hi s w h e d p a th e fo o th e In m o m a in ar e so a b fa r n e s torically, thi s h ere the site i d ge of mangr o a rt of the coa s e Diego Marti o thills of the n e mangrove t the 1950’s w o re and land b a ngrove was d and reclaime d e a being on t h il well suited f b out the mid 1 r mland and t h e ver any inter n s area at the m s located tod a o ve swamp w h s tline. The sit e n River on th e n orthern rang o the south s i w hen Diego M a b egan to bec o d estroyed an d d as land for d h e flood plain f or farming. I 1 970’s the sit e h at is the rea s n al circulatio n m outh of the v a y was once a h ich dominat e e was surroun e west side, t h e on the east i de. a rtin began to o me a comm o d the swamp w d evelopment. had rich, wel n the 1950’s o e was occupie s on why ther e n network laid v alley a t the e d this ded by h e side and develop o dity, the w as filled This l irrigated o n until d as e was down.

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Fig.53 Cu r Fig.54 Int r rent Land Use Dia r overted Develop m gram m ents 32 Th u p of re t a c m e co so in t th e o c Th in t d e tu ti m fu n u n Th a c Th t w th e h e surroundin g p of mainly re s the site ther e t ail which act c tivity hub co u e an that the a nsiderable a m uth eastern e t ersection wh e e form of ped c curs. h e diagram to t roverted nat u e velopments. T rn their back s m e they were n ctioning as f a n occupied and h is provides a n c onnector of t h e location of t w o major arte r e opportunity g context aro u s idential dev e e is a regional as an activit y u pled with the a round the sit m ount of vehi c dge of the sit e re a lot of pi c estrians usin g the left (Fig. 5 u re of the sur r T hese reside n s to the site p a planned and a rmland. Ho w the situation n opportunity t hese introve r t he site at th e r ies in the reg to become a u nd the site i s e lopment. To t mall and so m y hub in this a residential d e e there is a c ular traffic. T e is a major c k up and dr o g public trans p 5 4) shows th e r ounding resi d n tial neighbor h a rtly because built; the site w ever, today t remains the for the site t o r ted neighbor h e intersection ion, also give landmark. s made t he south m e other a rea. This e nsity T o the o p off in p ort e d ential h oods of the was he site is same. o become h oods. of the the site

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Fig.55 Op e Fig.56 Sit e e n Space Diagram e as Connector 33 Th re g hi g re g e v lo o If in t d e b e th e i m Fr o o p su pl a h e site exits a s g ion and this g h demand f o g ion of the isl v entually bec o o king like on e this happens, t erconnected n e velopments a e en lost. The s e thesis inve s m plemented. o m an urban p portunity for rrounding co m a ce within thi s s the last ope is a very imp o o r land for de v and means t h o me develope d e of the surro u there will ne v n ess within th e a nd a great o p s ite proves to s tigation to b e planning poin this site to b e m munities an d s region. n green spac e o rtant featur e v elopment in t h at this site w d and may en u nding neighb v er be any e se separate p portunity wo u be a great lo c e carried out a t of view, the e the connect o d recreate a s e in the e The t his ill d up orhoods. u ld have c ation for a nd re lies an o r of the s ense of

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Fig.57 Abi Fig.58 Bio otic Analysis tic Analysis 34 Th a p th d e b e b o sl o di r th a to to Th o n e x p o pr h e Abiotic ana p ortion of the is must be ta k e veloping a pl a e cause of the o rders the sit e o ping topogra r ectly into th e a t these edg e receive this r prevent floo d h e biotic anal y n site and det e x isting ecosys t o tential green eserved. lysis of the si t site sits in t h k en into consi a n of interve n impervious r o e to the east a phy, all stor m e site. This is i e s of the site r r unoff and de a d ing. y sis looked at e rmined wher t ems. This an a corridors tha t t e revealed fi r h e flood plain a deration whe n n tion. Secondl o ad surfaces t h a nd south, an d m water runof f mportant to c r emain porou s a l with it appr the existing v e there may b a lysis examin t could exist a r stly that a nd so n y, h at d the f flows c onsider s in order opriately v egetation b e ed a nd be

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Fig.59 Ac c Fig.60 An t c ess Points t hropic Suitability 35 A s e a R o v e th e lo c a n li m Th e x b e so sh th e M a all th Al l ca fo r ar o w a w e a n o u N u so pl a s mentioned e a st and south o ad and the W e hicular traffic e refore that p c ation of acce n alyzing these m it the numb e h e first being a x isting traffic s e tween this ro uth into the r opping mall. T e east side of a in Road clos e owing enoug h is road from t l the layers o f refully analyz r a deep und e o und the site a s created, m a e re best suite d n alysis was co u t through an u merous phot o me of the m o a ced on the f o arlier, the sit e sides by the D W estern Main R on these roa p uts constrain t ss points into conditions, t h e r of access p o a long the We s s ignal that co o ad and Colu m esidential nei g T he other ac c the site alon g e r to the nort h h room for ve h t he Western M f information o ed separatel y e rstanding of t to be gained. a pping the ar e d for specific p mplete, furth e overseas site o graphs were o re informativ e o llowing page s e is bordered D iego Martin M R oad respecti v ds is fairly qu t s on the nu m the site. Aft e h e only soluti o o ints to two p s tern Main Ro a o rdinates traf f m bus drive wh g hborhood a n c ess point wo u g the Diego M h ern site bou n h icles mergin g M ain Road. o f the site we y and togethe r t he forces in a A suitability e as of the sit e p rogram. Aft e e r analysis w a visit to Trini d taken on thi s e ones have b s on the M ain v ely. The ick and m ber and e r o n was to oints. a d at the f ic ich goes n d to the u ld be on artin n dary, g onto re r in order a nd diagram e that e r this a s carried d ad. s visit and b een

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Fig.61 Sit e Fig.62 Sit e e Photo 1, view of e Photo 2, local sq u river on western s i u atter currently oc i te boundary. cupying site. 36 Fig Fig .63 Site Photo 3, v .64 Site Photo 4, v v iew of site looking v iew looking west a northeast. a long Western Mai n n Road.

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Fig.65 Sit e Fig.66 Sit e e Photo 5, view of e Photo 6, view of site looking north w development to th w est. e east of site. 37 Fi g Fig g .67 Site Photo 7, .68 Site Photo 8, v view of Diego Mar t v iew of Diego Mart t in Main Road look i in Main Road look i i ng south. i ng north.

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Fig.69 Sit e Fig.70 Sit e e Photo 9, view of e Photo 10, view o f eastern site boun d f opposite river ba n d ary looking south. n k looking north. 38 Fig Af t th e a n h e pr m a th e fr o Th in pr m i co th e .71 Site Photo 11, t er visiting th e existing co n n alysis before e lped to reinf o esented and t a in issues tha e fact that th e o m the surro u h is helped to j the next pha s ogramming a s i x of function s nditions and c e scope of th e view of Diego Mare site, a dee p n ditions was g the site visit a o rce the oppo r t he challenge s t was reinfor c e site existed u nding contex t ustify the de c s e of develop m s pect of the p s would relat e c ontext, as w e e thesis inves t tin River looking n o p er understan d ained. The si t a nd after the r tunities that t s as well. On e c ed by the vis in isolation, c t by the majo c isions that w e m ent which w p roject; decidi e best with th e e ll as be align t igation. o rth. d ing of t e visit t he site e of the it was c ut off r roads. e re made w as the ng what e existing ed with

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Fig.72 Exi Fig.73 Pr o sting programs o posed program re l l ationship diagram 39 C h Th n a e x la r a n co n e Th d e th e h u st o si t co (S re s a n pr di f d e th e co fu n fo r d e h apter 5 – Pr o The inte n h e first objecti a tural landsca p x isting ecosys t r ge part of th e n ecopark. T h mplement th e e w programs i h e existing co n e velopment w i e site along t h u b consists of o re and two f a t e there are s o ntain some p r ee Fig.72) In s idential, red n d blue repre s oject progra m f ferent functi o The proj e e velopment. F e new progra m ntext. The m o n ctions are di r ces around t h e velopment is o gramming n t of the proj e ve is to pres e p e as possibl e t ems by creat e site will be d h e second ob j e existing con nto the conte n text is prima i th a retail hu h e Western M a regional m a a st food outle o me institutio r ivate offices this diagram represents r e s ents instituti o m will consist o o ns. e ct will be a m ig. 73 illustra t m will relate t o st suitable p l rectly influen c h e site. Any n best suited t o e ct program i s e rve as much e and rejuve n t ing new habi t d edicated to c j ective is to text and to in xt that are n e rily residenti a b to the sout h ain Road. Thi s a ll, a large gr o ts. To the so u nal buildings and a private yellow repre s e tail or comm e o nal. The pro p o f a mixture o m ixed use t es conceptu a t o the surrou n l acement of t h c ed by the pr o n ew residentia o the norther n s twofold. of the n ate t at. A c reating troduce e eded. a l h east of s retail o cery u th of the that school. s ents e rcial, p osed o f a lly how n ding h e new o gram l n part of

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40 the site adjacent to the residential neighborhood. New commercial activities are best suited to the southeast part of the site adjacent to the retail hub that exists across the main road. Creating a physical pedestrian connection to the adjacent mall is a possibility. Placing a mixed use development on this site is very appropriate for a number of reasons. (1) The site sits in the mi ddle of three residential developments, and that means that it has the opportunity to become a towncenter type of urban model, that provides essential amenities to these residents as well as create new activities and attractions. (2) The site exists somewhat as a landmark as it sits at the intersection of the two main arteries in this part of the island. Every single person that lives north and west of this intersection has to pass the site every day. (3) The shopping mall that sits just south of the site across the western main road is a high activity area meaning that a new mixed use development will only complement this and create more of a vibrant regional destination. Another observation that was made while visiting the site was that this intersection was an informal transit hub. There were always people waiting for public transport on the side of the road to go north into Diego Martin, east into Port of Spain, or west into Carenage. That influenced the decision to incorporate a form al transit station into

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41 the program. As stated previously in the chapter, the site exists as the last open green space in this entire part of the island, and preserving this green space became one of the main goals while at the same time introducing the new program. The challenge of the design scheme will be to create a balance between open park space and enclosed program space. A decision was made to incorporate a range of civic buildings into the new program in an effort to make the development become more of a large civic space rather than just a town center. This decision was justified by a lack of civic buildings in the island especially in this region. The civic importance lies in the attention to rejuvenating the landscape while at the same time implementing new program. This balance between man and nature has to become the role of civic spaces throughout the island, as a way of creating a new identity for this developing nation. This is what this project will attempt to exemplify. The conceptual program is as follows: Large Urban Park and Ecological Corridor National Museum of Culture Diego Martin Regional Library/Bookstore Diego Martin Administrative Headquarters Cafe Transit Station Retail outlets Residential Apartments Community Center

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Fig.74 La n Fig.75 La n n dscape Concept. G n dscape Concept. G G reen Corridor 1 G reen Corridor 2 42 C h L a o b re j e c gr o p co co d e in cr i th a C r es so h apter 6 – Sc h a ndscape Infr a As state d b jective of the j uvenate the c o-park. Since een space in t p portunity to c nnected to th rridors that p e stroyed as m this valley. R i tical for the s a t call these m r eating acces s sential to rej u urce of life. h ematic Desi g a structure at t d in the previ o proposed int e landscape to c the site exis t t his valley, it c reate an ecol e two mount a reviously exi s ore and more e-establishin g s urvival of ma m ountain ran g s to the river a u venating wil d g n t he Macro Sc a o us chapter, t h e rvention is t o c reate a larg e t ed as the las t also was the l ogical corrid o a in ranges. W s ted have bee developmen t g a wildlife co r ny species of g es their hom a s a source o f d life; water is a le h e first o e urban t open l ast o r that ildlife n t occurred r ridor is animals e. f water is the

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Fig.76 Landscape Infrast ructure at macro s cale 43

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Fig.7 7 7 Site plan showin g g green corridor 44

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Fig.7 7 Th e buil 7 View of overall s c e Concept wa s dings will ha v c heme from south e s to raise the v e green roof s e ast green carpet s thus preser v 45 of the site an v ing the persp d place the n e ective of the s e w programs s ite today; a n below. All en c n open green s c losed s pace.

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Fig.78 Sit e Fig.79 sit e e Concept, Landsc a e Concept, landsca p a pe Swale p e Swale 2 46 L a si t d o a s w a pr pr wi fo r h a st o to w su la n m i in f th ar e a ndscape Infr a The Con c t e function as o wn toward th s a swale wou l a ter to flow a w eventing any ogrammed s p nds through t r all storm w a a bitat that pr o o rm water on w ard this cha rrounding ar e n dscape infra s i nimizes the c f rastructure. T is developme n e as as well. a structure at t c ept for the si t a large swal e e center. Ma k l d allow all su w ay from the flooding of th p ace. An artifi c t he site serve s a ter, as well a s o motes ecolog and off the s i nnel thus pre v e as. This syst e s tructure that c ost of traditi o T his infrastru c n t but it serv e t he Micro Sca l t e was to ma k e where the s k ing the site f u rface runoff a buildings thu s e streets and c ial water ch a s as a catchm s it creates n a ical rejuvena t i te can be dir e v enting floodi e m serves as is functional o nal storm wa t c ture not only e s the surrou n l e k e the ite sloped u nction nd storm s interior a nnel that ent area a tural t ion. All e cted ng of the a natural and t er serves n ding

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Fig.8 The by t 0 View of overall s c landscape is t he landscape c heme from south w allowed to fl o w est. o w continuous 47 ly throughou t t the entire sc heme. T he u r r ban form is d riven

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Fig. 8 Th 8 1 Rendered Site P e site plan sh o P lan. o ws layout of the site and t 48 t he relationsh ips of the pr o o grammed sp a a ces to each o o ther.

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Fig. 8 Th e fro m 8 2 Site Sections e top section c m north to so c uts through t uth t he site from w 49 w est to east. The bottom s ection cuts th h rough the sit e e

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Fig. Th e cu t 83 Site Section 2 e top section c s through th e c uts through t e Taxi Stand, t t he Retail Stri t he Retail Stri 50 p and Office B p and the Lib r B uilding (east r ary/ Booksto to west). Th e re (south to n e bottom sect i n orth). i on

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Fi T h si c o g.84 Final Model h e final mode te and into th o nnections an l shows the c o e areas nort h d make a ver y o ntinuity in u r h and south o f y strong urba 51 r ban form an d f the site. The n gesture. d the green fi n se green fing e n gers that ex t e rs serve as p t end through t p edestrian t he

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Fi g.85 View of over a a ll scheme from S E E 52

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Fig.86 View of Ma in Civic Space 53

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Fig.87 View dow n n Retail Strip 54

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Fig.88 View betw een Office Buildin g g s 55

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F F ig.89 View of Caf and Taxi Stand 56

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Fig.90 View of Ret a a il Area 57

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Fig.91 Final Mod el 1 58

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Fig.92 Final Mo d d el 2 59

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Fig.93 Final Mod el 3 60

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Fig.94 Final M M odel 4 61

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62 Conclusion The thesis investigation was a long and difficult journey over the last year. It began with my interest in integrating the different practices of Landscape Architecture, Architecture and Urban Design. I have always felt that Architecture should always be in harmony with the landscape, it is the ground in which we build upon. I believe that this notion should go way beyond a technical standpoint and into the realm of poetic expression. For every landscape has its own character and quality. We as Architects and Urban Planners have the responsibility of initiating that engagement through design. As I learned more and more about the benefits of this type of engagement from an environmental sustainability standpoint, I realized to myself how important of a role this can play in promoting social and cultural awareness to the environment. The most intriguing aspect of the investigation to me is the fact that these types of projects need the participation of not only architects and urban designers, but also landscape architects, ecologists, geologists, engineers and the people. When all of these parties come together to work towards one specific goal, no doubt it will be difficult, but the end result will benefit not only the human society but the environment and that is the true victor. Sustainability is a key issue in all fields of study and practice and it is time for us architects

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63 to lead by example and initiate these types of projects. This thesis investigation culminated with the design scheme put forth. The scheme attempted to develop a landscape infrastructure that functioned at different scales. The ov erall architectural form was not necessarily the result of the landscape infrastructure, but more of a conceptual idea about the site and how the intervention should respond. However, the two work hand in hand as landscape infrastructure and urban form should always have a symbiotic relationship. I hope to explore these types of projects throughout my career, especially in my home country of Trinidad. I believe that this is a way creating an identity for the island by the way we engage our landscape through design. I am very grateful to be a designer and be able to explore these relationships through design. The journey over the last few years was a difficult one but in the end I am happy with what I have accomplished and what I have learned. As I bring this project to an end, I reflect on the beginning and what led me in this direction, and I realize that it is my love for nature and the environment, and therefore……. the investigation will continue.

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64 References Jencks, Charles. Kropf, Karl. Theories and Manifestoes of Contemporary Architecture. England: WileyAcademy, 2006. Lefaive, Liane. Tzonis, Alexander. Critical Regionalism : Architecture and Design in the Globalized World New York: Prestel, 2003. Lefaive, Liane. Tzonis, Alexander. Tropical Architecture : Critical Regionalism in the age of Globalization Great Britain: WileyAcademy, 2001. Makhzoumi, Jala. Pungetti, Gloria. Ecological landscape Design and Planning London: E&FN Spon, 1999. Waldheim, Charles. The Landscape Urbanism Reader New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. Gindroz, Ray. Levine, Karen. The Urban Design Handbook : Techniques and Working Methods London: W.W Norton and Company,2003. France, Robert.L. Handbook of Water Sensitive Planning and Design : Integrative Studies in Water Management and Land Development New York: Lewis Publishers, 2002.


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ABSTRACT: Scholars have suggested that landscape become the main ordering device in the development of the built environment. Traditional methods of urban planning have categorized landscape as a cosmetic application, the purpose of which is to beautify the urban environment after the planning and development phases. The problems associated with globalization and rapid urbanization at present includes the commoditization of urban form. As a result of this trend, many cities are becoming less and less distinguishable from one another, as urban form is generated without considering the particularities of site and context. The lack of a more specific understanding of a site in its environmental, social and cultural dimensions, has led to the phenomenon of "universal" urban form. Landscape has new found relevance in contemporary urbanism becoming the medium that defines urban form; inserting the built environment within the context of complex natural, social and cultural environments.Landscape has the potential to design relationships between dynamic environmental processes and urban form, and become more of a functional system. In the island of Trinidad there exists the opportunity to explore the potential of landscape as a driver of urban form. The island is currently experiencing rapid urbanization and dynamic growth due to a boost in the economy, and an unprecedented government agenda to take the island to a developed nation status by the year 2020. Due to this emerging urbanity, there is the need to implement urban development approaches that protect the environmental integrity of the island, and preserve the social and cultural influences that give identity to the island. The investigation led to the development of a landscape infrastructure that is implemented in an effort to achieve sustainable urban development and preserve the natural integrity of the site.Through an in-depth analysis of the landscape, identifying the natural, social and cultural processes occurring, a plan of intervention is developed that is integrated with the dynamics of the site, and serves as an example of the potential of landscape in urbanism.
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