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Considerations of multicultural science and curriculum reform

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Title:
Considerations of multicultural science and curriculum reform a content analysis of state-adopted biology textbooks in Florida
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Delgato, Margaret H
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Border crossing
Eurocentric knowledge
Indigenous knowledge
Multicultural education
Science-technology-society
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychological and Social Foundations -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which multicultural science education, including indigenous knowledge representations, had been infused within the content of high school biology textbooks. The study evaluated the textbook as an instructional tool and framework for multicultural science education instruction by comparing the mainstream content to indigenous knowledge perspectives portrayed in the student and teacher editions of 34 textbooks adopted in Florida within the last four adoption cycles occurring from 1990 to 2006. The investigation involved a content analysis framed from a mixed methods approach. Emphasis was placed, in consideration of the research questions and practicality of interpreting text with the potential for multiple meanings, within qualitative methods.The investigation incorporated five strategies to assess the extent of multicultural content: 1) calculation of frequency of indigenous representations through the use of a tally; 2) assessment of content in the teacher editions by coding the degree of incorporation of multicultural content; 3) development of an archaeology of statements to determine the ways in which indigenous representations were incorporated into the content; 4) use of the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) to determine extent of multicultural terminologies within content; and 5) analysis of visuals and illustrations to gauge percentages of depictions of minority groups. Results indicated no solid trend in an increase of inclusion of multicultural content over the last four adoption cycles. Efforts at most reduced the inclusion of indigenous representations and other multicultural content to the level of the teacher edition distributed among the teacher-interleafed pages or as annotations in the margins.Degree of support of multicultural content to the specific goals and objectives remained limited across all four of the adoption cycles represented in the study. Emphasis on standardized testing appeared in the six textbooks representing the most recent adoption cycle. Recommendations included increased efforts to identify quality of content by including input from scholars in the field of multicultural education as well as indigenous peoples in the creation of textbook content. Recommendations also included further clarification of the definition of science within multicultural science education frameworks, indigenous knowledge as compared to Western science and pseudoscience, and scientific literacy as a central focus to a multicultural science education meant to address the needs of an increasingly diverse student population and prime-age workforce.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Margaret H. Delgato.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 338 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002028698
oclc - 436300884
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002806
usfldc handle - e14.2806
System ID:
SFS0027123:00001


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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which multicultural science education, including indigenous knowledge representations, had been infused within the content of high school biology textbooks. The study evaluated the textbook as an instructional tool and framework for multicultural science education instruction by comparing the mainstream content to indigenous knowledge perspectives portrayed in the student and teacher editions of 34 textbooks adopted in Florida within the last four adoption cycles occurring from 1990 to 2006. The investigation involved a content analysis framed from a mixed methods approach. Emphasis was placed, in consideration of the research questions and practicality of interpreting text with the potential for multiple meanings, within qualitative methods.The investigation incorporated five strategies to assess the extent of multicultural content: 1) calculation of frequency of indigenous representations through the use of a tally; 2) assessment of content in the teacher editions by coding the degree of incorporation of multicultural content; 3) development of an archaeology of statements to determine the ways in which indigenous representations were incorporated into the content; 4) use of the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) to determine extent of multicultural terminologies within content; and 5) analysis of visuals and illustrations to gauge percentages of depictions of minority groups. Results indicated no solid trend in an increase of inclusion of multicultural content over the last four adoption cycles. Efforts at most reduced the inclusion of indigenous representations and other multicultural content to the level of the teacher edition distributed among the teacher-interleafed pages or as annotations in the margins.Degree of support of multicultural content to the specific goals and objectives remained limited across all four of the adoption cycles represented in the study. Emphasis on standardized testing appeared in the six textbooks representing the most recent adoption cycle. Recommendations included increased efforts to identify quality of content by including input from scholars in the field of multicultural education as well as indigenous peoples in the creation of textbook content. Recommendations also included further clarification of the definition of science within multicultural science education frameworks, indigenous knowledge as compared to Western science and pseudoscience, and scientific literacy as a central focus to a multicultural science education meant to address the needs of an increasingly diverse student population and prime-age workforce.
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Considerations of Multicultural Science and Curriculum Reform: A Content Analysis of State-A dopted Biology Textbooks in Florida by Margaret H. Delgato A dissertation submitted in partical fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Psychological and Social Foundations College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Erwin V. Johanningmeier, Ph.D. Dale E. Johnson, Ph.D. Jeffrey D. Kromrey, Ph.D. Barbara J. Shircliffe, Ph.D. Date of Approval: December 3, 2008 Keywords: border crossing, Eurocentric knowledge, indigenous knowledge, multicultural education, sc ience-technology-society 2009, Margaret H. Delgato

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Dedication To my husband, Marcus Delgato, who gave me the love and support as well as the freedom and space necessary to finish this race. To my mother, Marjean Davis Hughes, who no longer walks on this Earth but remains forever responsible for shaping my love of learning.

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Acknowledgements Dr. Johanningmeier stopped me after class one night and asked what I wanted to do with my life. From that point on, he took an interest in me that shaped my doctoral experience in more ways than I expect he will ever know for this, I remain most grateful. In addition, I wish to express my a ppreciation to the ot her members of my doctoral committee for their a dvice and guidance through the dissertation process. Your willingness to support this investigation pe rmitted a personal and professional growth unlike any other I have known. Thank you for your time and effort to ensure success in achieving my goals. My coders Alexis Novak, Anne and Amber Ruckdeschel were an important part in the successful completion of this study. I thank you for your assistance and extend my sincerest gratitude for the time you t ook out of your busy schedules to help a colleague and friend.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables iv Abstract viii Chapter One Introduction 1 Background of Study 1 Statement of the Problem 6 Conceptual Framework 11 Multicultural Science Education 11 Science-Technology-Society (STS) 13 Border Crossing 13 Constructivism 14 Post-Colonial Theory 16 Pseudoscience 17 Research Questions 19 Operational Definition of Terms 20 Limitations 22 Chapter Two Review of Literature 24 Research Procedures 24 Content Analysis of Textbooks 24 Multicultural Science Education 35 Border Crossing and STS 38 Tradition Ecological Knowledge 40 Constructivism 41 Chapter Three Methodology 43 Research Design 43 Content Analysis 44 Sample 47 Instruments/Measures 48 Indigenous Knowledge Tally 48 Teacher Editions 53 Archeology of Statements 54 Evaluation of Coefficient Analysis (ECO) 55 Visuals and Illustrations 56 Data Analysis 56 Reliability 57

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ii Chapter Four Results 60 Indigenous Knowledge Tally 70 Textbooks in Set 1 70 Textbooks in Set 2 76 Textbooks in Set 3 78 Textbooks in Set 4 86 Kinds of Indigenous Representations 88 Representations in Set 1 89 Representations in Set 2 90 Representations in Set 3 92 Representations in Set 4 96 Teacher Editions 99 General Format Set 1 99 General Format Set 2 103 General Format Set 3 107 General Format Set 4 112 Multicultural Components of the Teacher Editions 115 Set 1 and Set 2 117 Set 3 and Set 4 123 Archaeology of Statements 128 Archaeology for Set 1 128 Archaeology for Set 2 132 Archaeology for Set 3 134 Archaeology for Set 4 137 Evaluation of Coefficient Analysis 139 Nature of Science 139 Ecology 144 Indigenous Representations 144 Visuals and Illustrations 145 Set 1 150 Set 2 155 Set 3 159 Set 4 163 Chapter Five Discussion of Findings, Conc lusions, and Recommendations 167 Overview 167 Limitations of the Study 170 Discussion of the Findings 173 Indigenous Knowledge Tally 173 Teacher Editions 178 Archeology of Statements 181 Evaluation of Coefficient Analysis 183 Visuals and Illustrations 187 Additional Findings 188

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iii Conclusions 189 Implications 194 Recommendations to Publishers 197 Recommendations to Research ers 199 References 203 Appendices 212 Appendix A: List of Textbooks 213 Appendix B: Indigenous Knowledge Tally Worksheet 223 Appendix C: List of Terms to Identify Indigenous Knowledge 224 Appendix D: Teachers Edition Worksheet General Format 230 Appendix E: Teachers Edition Worksheet Multicultural Content 231 Appendix F: Directions for Coding Mu lticultural Components 232 Appendix G: Archeology of Statements Worksheet 235 Appendix H: List of Eurocentric Terms 325 Appendix I: List of Multicultural Terms 330 Appendix J: Evaluation Coeffici ent Worksheet 336 Appendix K: Visuals/Illustrations Worksheet 337 About the Author End Page

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iv List of Tables Table 1 Textbook Sample by Level (1990 1994 Cycle) 49 Table 2 Textbook Sample by Level (1994 1998 Cycle) 50 Table 3 Textbook Sample by Level (1998 2004 Cycle) 51 Table 4 Textbook Sample by Level (2005 2006 Cycle) 52 Table 5 List of Book Codes by Textbook Set and First Author Sets 1 and 2 62 Table 6 List of Book Codes by Textbook Set and First Author Sets 3 and 4 63 Table 7 Number of Chapters Per Unit Set 1 66 Table 8 Number of Chapters Per Unit Set 2 67 Table 9 Number of Chapters Per Unit Set 3 68 Table 10 Number of Chapters Per Unit Set 4 69 Table 11 Average Number of Indi genous Knowledge Representations per Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 1 Student Editions 72 Table 12 Frequency of Indigenous Knowledge Representations per Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 1 Teacher Editions 73 Table 13 Average Number of Indi genous Knowledge Representations per Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 2 Student Editions 74 Table 14 Average Number of Indi genous Knowledge Representations per Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 2 Teacher Editions 75 Table 15 Average Number of Indi genous Knowledge Representations per Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 3 Student Editions 79

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v Table 16 Average Number of Indi genous Knowledge Representations per Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 3 Teacher Editions 80 Table 17 Average Number of Indi genous Knowledge Representations per Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 4 Student Editions 84 Table 18 Average Number of Indi genous Knowledge Representations per Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 4 Teacher Editions 85 Table 19 General Format of Teacher Editions Set 1 100 Table 20 General Format of Teacher Editions Set 2 104 Table 21 General Format of Teacher Editions Set 3 108 Table 22 General Format of Teacher Editions Set 4 113 Table 23 List of Multicultural De scriptors 116 Table 24 Summary of Multicultural Descri ptors by Teacher Edition 118 Sets 1 and 2 Table 25 Summary of Multicultural Descri ptors by Teacher Edition Sets 3 and 4 119 Table 26 Number of Multicultural Components by Relationship to Science Objectives by Set 120 Table 27 Average Number of Multicultural Components per Chapter by Unit Teacher Editions Sets 1 and 2 121 Table 28 Number of Multicultur al Components by Relationship to Science Objectives per Book Sets 1 and 2 122 Table 29 Average Number of Multicultural Components per Chapter by Unit Teacher Editions Set 3 124 Table 30 Number of Multicultur al Components by Relationship to Science Objectives per Book Sets 3 and 4 125 Table 31 Average Number of Multicultural Components per Chapter by Unit Teacher Editions Sets 4 127 Table 32 Evaluation Coefficient Anal ysis Student and Teacher Editions Set 1 140

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vi Table 33 Evaluation Coefficient Anal ysis Student and Teacher Editions Set 2 141 Table 34 Evaluation Coefficient Anal ysis Student and Teacher Editions Set 3 142 Table 35 Evaluation Coefficient Anal ysis Student and Teacher Editions Set 4 143 Table 36 Number and Percen t of Visuals/Illustrations Introduction to Biology and Ecology Units Set 1 146 Table 37 Number and Percen t of Visuals/Illustrations Introduction to Biology and Ecology Units Set 2 147 Table 38 Number and Percen t of Visuals/Illustrations Introduction to Biology and Ecology Units Set 3 148 Table 39 Number and Percen t of Visuals/Illustrations Introduction to Biology and Ecology Units Set 4 149 Table 40 Percentages by Categor ies for Visuals/Illustrations Sets 1 and 2 151 Table 41 Percentages by Categor ies for Visuals/Illustrations Sets 3 and 4 152 Table 42 Percent of Images of Children/Youth by Gender and Race for Introduction and Ecology Units Set 1 153 Table 43 Percent of Images of Adults by Gender and Race for Introduction and Ecology Units Set 1 154 Table 44 Percent of Images of Children/Youth by Gender and Race for Introduction and Ecology Units Set 2 157 Table 45 Percent of Images of Adults by Gender and Race for Introduction and Ecology Units Set 2 158 Table 46 Percent of Images of Children/Youth by Gender and Race for Introduction and Ecology Units Set 3 160 Table 47 Percent of Images of Adults by Gender and Race for Introduction and Ecology Units Set 3 161

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vii Table 48 Percent of Images of Children/Youth by Gender and Race for Introduction and Ecology Units Set 4 164 Table 49 Percent of Images of Adults by Gender and Race for Introduction and Ecology Units Set 4 165

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viii Considerations of Multicultural Science and Curriculum Reform: A Content Analysis of State-A dopted Biology Textbooks In Florida Margaret H. Delgato ABSTRACT The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which multicultural science education, including indigenous knowledge representations, had been infused within the content of high sc hool biology textbooks. The study evaluated the textbook as an instructional tool and fram ework for multicultural science education instruction by comparing the mainstream c ontent to indigenous knowledge perspectives portrayed in the student and teacher editions of 34 textbooks adopted in Florida within the last four adoption cycles occurring from 1990 to 2006. The investigation involved a content analysis framed from a mixed methods approach. Emphasis was placed, in consideration of the research questions and practicality of interpreting text with the potential for multiple meanings, within qualitative methods. The investigation incorporated five strategies to assess the ex tent of multicultural content: 1) calculation of frequency of indigenous representations th rough the use of a tally ; 2) assessment of content in the teacher editions by coding th e degree of incorporat ion of multicultural content; 3) development of an archaeology of statements to determine the ways in which indigenous representations were incorporated into the conten t; 4) use of the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) to determine extent of multicultural terminologies within content; and 5) analysis of visuals and illustra tions to gauge percentages of depictions of

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ix minority groups. Results indicated no solid trend in an increas e of inclusion of multicultural content over the last four a doption cycles. Efforts at most reduced the inclusion of indigenous representations and ot her multicultural content to the level of the teacher edition distributed among the teacher-int erleafed pages or as annotations in the margins. Degree of support of multicultural co ntent to the specific goals and objectives remained limited across all four of the adop tion cycles represented in the study. Emphasis on standardized testing appear ed in the six textbooks re presenting the most recent adoption cycle. Recommendations included in creased efforts to identify quality of content by including input from scholars in the field of multicultural education as well as indigenous peoples in the creation of text book content. Recommendati ons also included further clarification of the definition of science within multicultural science education frameworks, indigenous knowledge as compared to Western science and pseudoscience and scientific literacy as a central focus to a multicu ltural science education meant to address the needs of an increasingly diverse student population and prime-age workforce.

PAGE 13

1 Chapter 1 Introduction Background of the Study Topics, strategies and practices of multi cultural education and cultural diversity find themselves at the forefront of meaning and discussion concerni ng curricular reform within todays schools. Issues associated w ith multiculturalism include content debates that center on representation and identity a nd encompass larger aspects of inclusion and exclusion, that is, the considerations of dominant versus non-dominant cultural viewpoints and perspectives as well as their appropriate roles as major content drivers within K 12 curricula and related instru ctional materials. More importantly, the curricular subjects considered among the multicu ltural debates remain primarily linked to the social sciences and humanities, demonstrated, as example, by the plethora of content analyses regarding the multicultural nature of history and literature textbooks. The natural sciences, thought of in te rms of more traditional school subjects including biology, chemistry and physics and broadly considered within the scope of science education, warrant a significant place within the multicultu ralism and cultural diversity debate (Eide and Heikkinen, 1998; Hines, 2003; Hodson, 1993; McCarthy, 1990; 1994). In the later years of the 1960s, the co ntent debates regarding multiculturalism, fueled by challenges to the Eurocentric f oundations of the American school curriculum (McCarthy, 1990, p. 118), found roots not only among the marginalized groups that demanded education reform in the area of race relations but also among the educators that

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2 attempted to provide solutions to racial in equalities plaguing the school systems. Equality of educational opportunity partnered with as pects of cultural pluralism would form the basis of the soon to follow multicultural ed ucation movement. What has been termed multicultural science education the educational reform mo vement with the goal of providing equitable opport unities in science education fo r culturally diverse student populations, has experienced considerable lag time behind the first conversations regarding multicultural education. Twenty-five years a go, any considerations of the cultural context of science e ducation remained little ac knowledged (Krugly-Smolska, 2007, p. 1) by scholars, and multicultural science education maintained a limited field of study with its frameworks and theories bo rrowed from either the general literature regarding multicultural educati on or from research in other disciplines. By the early 1990s, science education literature responded by moving to the forefront consideration of curriculum and instructional practices in the sc iences that enabled schools and teachers to address issues related to cu ltural diversity. Krug ly-Smolska (2007) noted that Canadas Ministry of Education in 1989 responded to the call for cultural di versity by regulating that multiculturalism should permeate the schools curriculum, policies, teaching methods and materials, courses of study and assessment and testing procedures, as well as the attitudes of and expectations of its st aff and all their interactions with students, parents, and the community (p. 1). Science was certainly included in this call with ensuing school policies and procedures to allow curricular permeation of cultural diversity, yet appropriate inst ructional materials as well as direction and support for teachers, as remains the case today, fell shor t of the intended goal (Eide and Heikkinen, 1998; Krugly-Smolska, 2007; McCa rthy, 1990; Ninnes, 2000).

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3 In July of 2000, the Board of Directors of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) adopted a set of declarations to update its position statement on multicultural science education. These declaratio ns frame the democratic ideas behind the multicultural education moveme nt of equality of educational opportunity as well as cultural pluralism within curri culum and instruction in scie nce classrooms: 1) schools are to provide science education programs that nurture all children academically, physically, and in development of a positive se lf-concept; 2) children from all cultures are to have equitable access to quality scienc e education experiences that enhance success and provide the knowledge and opportunities re quired for them to become successful participants in our democratic society; 3) curricular content must incorporate the contributions of many cultures to our knowledge of science; 4) science teachers are knowledgeable about and use culturally-relat ed ways of learning and instructional practices; 5) science teacher s have the responsibility to involve culturally-diverse children in science, technology and engi neering career opport unities; and 6) instructional strategies sele cted for use with all childre n must recognize and respect differences students bring based on their cultu res (NSTA, 2007). If science education curricula and the teacher s who support instruction in scien ce are to meet the requirements of equality of educational opportunity and cu ltural pluralism as exemplified by position statements endorsed by the NSTA, then instru ctional materials provi ded in the form of textbooks and auxiliary aides such as the teacher manuals and student workbooks must enhance the exposure to the cont ributions of others by cont aining material relevant to all who are represented in todays science cl assrooms. This curricula r quandary involves content and instructional materials that support a Western view, which dominates and

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4 excludes other perspectives grounded in non-Western thought. Exclusion of other perspectives marginalizes th e viewpoints of those who represent the minority voice in the culturally diverse student populations apparent in present-day classrooms. Traditional science textbooks, often perceived as the aut hority for scientific knowledge, may provide teacher and student limited support in the gene ration of as well as exposure to culturally relevant content (Lee, 2003; McCarthy, 1994; Pomeroy, 1994; Snively and Corsiglia, 2001). The idea of multiculturalism as a component of science education prompts a controversy that stems from a variety of sources: What constitutes multicultural science education? ; What is its purpose? ; Whom will the content serve? According to Hodson (1999), multicultural science education has take n on three variations of meaning: 1) it represents a set of instructiona l strategies to help teachers ad dress issues with diversity in the classroom; 2) it stands as curriculum that targets ethnic minorities in an effort to raise self-esteem and to reduce feelings of a lienation or exclusion from opportunities in science; 3) it provides an approach for raising awareness of forms of discrimination within science and science education. The fi rst two variations of multicultural science education express frameworks that align with assimilation and cultural pluralism, respectively. Although assimilati on approaches perpetuate cultural norms of the dominant group with the expectation that the minority group conform, cultural pluralism promotes diversity by having members of the dominant group learn to value other cultural norms while the minority groups, in the effort to promote self-confiden ce, retain their own cultural identities. Hodson (1999) also suggests cultural pluralism as the dominant

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5 interpretation of multiculturalism in Europe, North America, and Australia[and] it is the official government policy in Canada (p. 776). The idea of multicultural science edu cation as an approach to raise awareness of discrimination within science and science education promotes the notion of anti-racist science teaching. Although it is not appropr iate to designate multicultural science education, in the general sens e of the term, as the equiva lent to anti-racist science education, Hodsons (1999) third definition move s to consideration an idea of anti-racist science, and education in the subject of biology, as example, holds a major role in establishing a context of inquiry that can serve to challenge racist images and practices not least because these may be based on id eas which appear to have scientific justification, and permeate biology texts (Vance, 1987, p. 107). Biology content covers topics of genetics and race, hum an variation, and intelligence that represent areas linked to scientific justification and often appear unchallenged in te rms of origins of scientific knowledge. A context of inquiry allows stude nts to challenge racism evident in the content of textbooks and works to break the cycle of stereotype reproduction (Gill and Levidow, 1987; Krugly-Smolska, 2007; Pomeroy, 1994). As the nations classrooms have continued to evolve in terms of increased representations of cultural di versity, the last two decades have witnessed a growth in interest regarding th e connection between science and culture. How should science curricula respond to the presence of thos e students who represen t the non-Western, Indigenous, and minority group learners (H ines, 2003, p. 167)? Such a question creates additional potential problems for multicultu ral science education; those who argue the universalism of science challenge the curricu lar incorporation of unique ways of knowing

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6 the natural world indicative of worldviews outside of what is known as Western Modern Science (WMS). However, many researchers su pport the idea that scientific worldviews considered non-Western, such as those ex emplified by indigenous or traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), hold value in th e curricular content in cluded in science education. For those who support multicultura l science education, the disregard of worldviews of others remains a marginaliz ation of certain voices and discounts their significance as components of th e system of knowledge and experiences unique to those who do not hold membership in the domi nant culture (Aikenhead, 1997; Gil and Levidow, 1987; Hines, 2003; Hodson, 1999; Snively and Corsilgia, 2003). Statement of the Problem Issues with multicultural science education frame, in one sense, an imbalance of what is valued within science as a discipline. In other words, an asymmetry exists (Svennbeck, 2000) within ways of knowing science: Whose ways of knowing hold privileged positions in the science curriculum ? Western Modern Science (WMS), also referred to as white male science (Snively & Corsiglia, 2001), mainta ins this privileged position, and, therefore, evolves as the gateke eper for science edu cation content (Cobern & Loving, 1998). As such, WMS holds more value as the dominant way of thinking about science. However, othe r perspectives, often referred to as tr aditional, indigenous, ethnic or local science, provide diverse knowledge about scien ce with particular relevance to the problems and social issues, co uched within life sciences, that pertain to areas including natural re sources, population growth, genetic engineering, and conservation (Siegel, 2002). What needs impr ovement within science education involves the creation of curricula and in structional materials that refl ect a balanced consideration

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7 of other perspectives, which capitalize on the knowledge, skills and procedures, habits of mind, and organizing principl es that Western Modern Science and indigenous knowledge, as example, share (Stephens, 2003) Without the presence of alternative viewpoints to ways of knowing, science educ ation curricula essent ially neglect an area that holds important implica tions for understanding modern science. The aim remains not to determine one form of science as significan t over the other. Rather, considerations of differing world perspectives su ch as traditional or indige nous understandings support the study of science in the cont ext of the real world for all students and encourage a significant goal for science education, that is, to provide instruction applicable to sciencerelated problems in todays world (Bar ber & Tomera, 1985; Hodson, 1993; Snively & Corsiglia, 2001). The problem necessitated, then, furthe r investigation into the mounting recognition that dominant ways of knowing science, that is, what perspective aligns with the most valued, determine the content of curricula a nd instructional materials used in science classrooms across the United States (A ikenhead, 1997, 2001; Hodson, 1993; Ninnes, 2000). When one perspective supersedes anot her as the dominant voice, other voices loiter in the background with no real place or importance in the discussion. An ensuing battle of inclusion and exclus ion of viewpoints plays out in front of teachers and students in a tangible form: the scien ce textbook. Ninety percent of the science teachers in the United States use a textbook for 95% of th e instructional time with novice teachers, including those assign ed as out-of-field teachers, re lying heavily on the textbook for instruction. Although the textbook ideally repr esents just one facet of a students experience in school, researchers suggest th e textbook not only serves but also will

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8 remain as a central instructional resource in the nations classrooms (Chiappetta, Fillman, and Sethna, 1991a; Eide and Heikkinen, 1998; Ingersoll, 1999; King and Domin, 2007; Lloyd, 1990; Ninnes, 2000; Wang, 1998; Whitman, 2004). If this remains the case, that is, th e textbook and its continue d role as the primary instructional resource, then an important cav eat to the problem enters the equation with directives provided within No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and two critical areas surface: 1) the demand for highly qualified and educated human capital and 2) the need for highly qualified teachers to prepare members of this future workforce to participate in the scientific enterprise (Joh anningmeier and Richardson, 2008) As the current prime-age workforce not only declines in number but al so increases in dive rsity, reduction of the achievement gap between white and minority students conveys an import signifying societys desire for a populace who can do sc ience. The question remains as to whether contemporary high school science, most co mmonly conceptualized by means of the textbook, can not only support preparation of a workforce facing an increase in minority membership but also hold interest so that students traditionally disenfranchised from science experiences do indeed learn to do science. Part of the NCLB solution to minding the gap remains placing highly qualified teachers in classrooms; however, counter to this fix looms the nationwide shortage of teachers, especially in critical need areas such as mathematics and science (NEA). To address the shortage, a distri ct and its administration may place a teacher in an out-offield content area, and Florida is no exception to this practice. In high school science for the 2006 07 and 2007 08 school years, 9.46% and 9.92% of the total science courses, respectively, were staffed by teachers classified as out-of-field (FLDOE). At the national

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9 level, Ingersoll (1999) found th at in the American high schoo l, about 20% of all science teachers did not possess at least a minor in one of the sciences or science education (p. 27). Formalizing the consequences of out -of-field assignments, such as impacts on student learning, may bring challenges to rese archers, but the poten tial for a teachers over-reliance on the textbook remains a reality as the teacher and the textbook establish an affiliation that becomes critical to c ontent delivery. The textbook and its auxiliary guides and resources emerge as the key naviga tional system for the teacher as he or she charts the unknown content waters of out-of-fiel d teaching assignments (Ingersoll, 1999). Yet the ability of science textbooks to be all things to a ll teachers to not only enhance multicultural science education but also support instruction for all teachers including those serving with out-of-field certific ations remains questionable, especially in consideration of Western Modern Science as the valued way of knowing science. Add to the mix political and social influences as well as the need for profit, and textbook publishers find themselves forced to produce pr oducts that attempt to satisfy a host of stakeholders including textbook adoption committees, educators, parents and policymakers (Kirk, Matthews, & Kurtts, 2001 ). The process becomes the quantity imperative (Whitman, 2004, p. 33) with its a ssociated economic rewards for those who meet the content mark. In the process of pl easing many constituents, publishers fall short of building quality instructi onal resources that include re presentation of not only the benefits and limitations of Western science but also the important differing knowledge bases illustrated by indigenous scien ce (Cobern and Loving, 1998; Hodson, 1993; Pomeroy, 1994; Ninnes, 2000, 2001; Sniv ely & Corsiglia, 2001).

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10 Consequently, limited attempts ex ist within the investiga tion of science textbooks and their ability to support instruction that address these types of multicultural issues within science education. As the shift in emphasis moves toward a focus on real world issues and the promotion of science in a socio-cultural context, multicultural science education emerges as a framework for the ed ucation of diverse popul ations of students through culturally relevant learning as we ll as preparation for participation in a multicultural society, both locally an d globally (Aikenhead, 1994: Hodson, 1993). Support of this framework, however, depends on continued research efforts that address the incorporation, including th e strengths and limitations, of differing views of science housed within alternative wo rldviews and ways of knowing such as those held by members of non-Western cultures (Atwater and Riley, 1993; Aikenhead, 1997). Since science curricula and content often excl usively portray West ern perspectives, examinations of educational resources such as textbooks and other instructional materials remain a significant component of resear ch endeavors within multicultural science education. The literature supported a limited nu mber of content analyses that reflected investigations of textbooks as appropriat e means for content delivery (Chiappetta, Fillman, and Sethna, 1991a). A gap existed in the critical examination of not only the existence of multicultural science content but also the inclusion of other perspectives indicative of indigenous knowledge. As the inte rest in multicultural science education has emerged since the early 1990s, a content analys is which investigated the inclusion of multicultural content supported research in an area of science education that remains under debate and consideration by scholars as well as practitioners, and the content

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11 analysis planned for this i nvestigation represented a cont ribution to the literature regarding multicultural science instructional materials. The purpose of th is investigation was to determine the extent to which multicul tural science education, as determined in part by inclusion of indigenous representa tions including non-Western ways of knowing, had been infused within the content of high school biology textbooks. The study evaluated the textbook as instructional tool s and frameworks for multicultural science education instruction by comparing mainst ream content to in digenous knowledge perspectives portrayed in the text content. Conceptual Framework Multicultural Science Education Modern day science e ducation curriculum reforms conjur e notions of science for all (Kemp, 1999. p. 3) where every child can and ou ght to have the opportunity to participate in science. The idea of science for all transl ates, in part, to a component of scientific literacy that places importance on basic science knowledge and its application to societal problems and issues (Chiappetta, Fillman, and Sethna, 1991a; Lloyd, 1990). Organizations devoted to improving teaching an d learning in science education, including the National Research Council, continue the struggle to determine not only what constitutes science for all but also how educators can assist a ll students in learning science (Hodson, 1993; Kemp, 1999). Over the la st twenty-five years, the how piece of the puzzle has evolved into a variety of st rategies, models, and practices including the placement of science education within the br oader initiative of multicultural education. The idea of cultural approaches to science e ducation, surfacing within the existing scope of multicultural science educat ion, incorporates philosophical and sociological views of

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12 science (Hodson, 1993) including aspects of differing world perspectives as opposing ways of knowing science. The cultural appro ach to science education holds significant implication for the development of curricula r content and the crea tion of instructional materials, including science textboo ks, which support such approaches. Multiculturalism and its proper place w ithin science education maintain a controversy within the science education literature (Siegel, 2002). Positioned at th e root of the debate lay the differing views of world perspectiv es or acknowledgement of other ways of knowing that play out between two philo sophies: multiculturalism and universalism (Cobern and Loving, 1998; Siegel, 2002; Sn ively and Corsiglia, 2001). Scholars who align with either of the two philosophies st and divided on a variety of issues within science education, but the centr al issue of the debate focuses on the nature of science (Irzik, 2001). Universalists allow that science, through the process of inquiry, strives to remain an objective means, characterized by predictive and testable theories, to produce knowledge (Siegel, 2002). As such, Wester n Modern Science (WMS) represents the paradigm of science, serv ing as the superior way of knowing when compared to indigenous forms of science. Multiculturalists find this aspect of superiority a measure that ignores, under the guise of exclusive pol itics, alternative wa ys of knowing (Irzik, 2001; Ninnes 2001), and reject Western scien ce as the only scie nce (Aikenhead, 2001; Hodson, 1993). While much of the dialogue focuses on the appropriate philosophy for science education, a consensus of a defin ition of science appears missing from the literature base, and the struggle continues fo r understanding the significance as well as the necessity of cultural approaches to science.

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13 Science-Technology-Society (STS) Although the research findings were cons istent in terms of ph ilosophies of science, that is, the debate between multiculturalists and universalists placed considerations of Western science at odds with tr aditional science, the literatu re pointed to other ancillary issues within multicultural science education that represented significant statements for the need for this study. As the multicu ltural science education debate opened consideration for the inclusion of culture, recognition of science as a subculture of Western culture and approaches to the lear ning of science as culture transmission and acquisition (Aikenhead, 1997) appe ared within the li terature. In essence, Western science becomes the subculture of science, and school science represents a mode of enculturation or assimilation to this subc ulture (Aikenhead, 1997; Hodson, 1993). Enculturation occurs if the subculture of science supports the stude nts own culture; assimilation occurs if the subculture of science disrupts the students views and beliefs that exist within his own culture. A problem arises when students, w ho represent groups not of the mainstream culture, enter the science classroom with valu es and beliefs that do not align with the subculture of science (Aikenhead, 1997). A ny attempt to assimilate Western science forces students of non-Western membership to remain at odds with their own ways of knowing as they attempt to move between thei r own culture and the s ubculture of science (Cobern 1996; Hodson, 1993). Border Crossing The movement between cultures and subcultures, known as border crossing in the literature, allows students to negotiate the need for academic achievement within the confines of formal education while retain ing membership within their own cultural

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14 identity. The ability to cross borders require s development and implementation of science curricula that explicitly establish border cr ossings for students, f acilitates these border crossings, validates students cultural constructions of ways of knowing, and illustrates Western science in a social political and economic context (Aikenhead, 1997). Sciencetechnology-society (STS), a science curri culum known internationally, dedicates its initiatives within a student-centered and environmental problem-solving approach to science and has the ab ility to support border crossing with in science classrooms (KruglySmolska, 1995). However, an imperative in th is ability for teacher s to facilitate any border crossing, particularly within the esta blished context of sc ience-technology-society, remains the development of science textbooks that illustrate th e contributions and perspectives of ways of knowing in science exemp lified by non-Western cultures (Ninnes, 2001). Constructivism Constructivist views cons titute one of the most public th eories of education, including those appropriate for science education, en countered today (Gross, 2000). Several forms of constructivism appeared in the literature ba se, and the term assumed related or distinct concepts (Ishii, 2003). Developmental-educ ational psychology and the sociology of science, two initial areas of constructivism drive current thought within educational theory (Gross, 2000). Jean Piaget is know n for his work within the developmental psychology aspect, and his premise of lear ning includes that knowledge cannot be transmitted simply and directly by an active knower to a passive learner (Gross, 2000, p. 13). The other aspect of constructivism in cluded a more recent consideration of the sociology of science framed within the science-technology-society (STS) paradigm.

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15 Here, previous knowledge of the student has already been socially determined. Considered within the scope of multicultural science education, multiculturalists assert no one knowledge but rather knowledges in the plural sense, and science ultimately represents just one way of knowing (Gross, 2000; Hodson, 1993). If one considers constructivism within the claims made by F ox (2001), then learning as an active rather than passive process w ithin a knowledge that is not only socially constructed but also personally and individually developed held much relevance as a component of the conceptual framework unde r which the larger scope of multicultural science education operates. Moreover, cons ideration of constructivism allowed the introduction of relativist vi ews, as opposed to those held by the uni versalist camp mentioned previously, which solidified the idea that no universal truth exists in regard to science. As such, constructivist views, as exemplified by proponents of established curricula such as science-te chnology-society (STS), support the philosophical beliefs that drive multiculturalists in their quest for equity in the science classroom or, as previously noted, a science for all that grants powe r to the other voices often left out of consideration in the ways of knowing scienc e. A constructivist approach to science education appears promising as an agent for change, a means to permit the teacher to facilitate learning that remain s sensitive to the worldviews of all cultures as opposed to endorsing just one view as th e right and only view (Fox, 2001). However, as an important caveat, incorporating constructivist views in the rationale for multicultural science education comes with its own set of challenges. It is im portant to note that science education informed constructivism does not necessarily prob lematize the cultural construction of scientific knowledge; rather it attempts to use knowledge of learners

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16 personal constructs to generate more effectiv e strategies for persua ding students to adopt Western scientists social constructions (Ninnes, 2000, p. 604). What should accompany any attempt to promote cultural appr oaches to science education represents a thorough examination of the instructional mate rials, including the content of science textbooks, which will serve to s upport teachers in this quest. Post-colonial Theory The colonial discourse (Aikenh ead and Ogawa, 2007, p. 540) found abundantly in the broader literature base within science e ducation perpetuates a dichotomy that places indigenous knowledge on one end of the sp ectrum and science on the other. Such approach collapses knowledge systems into tw o broad groups, which serves to not only contradict the great diversity found within each but also mask the similarities that each shares with the other. Moreover, the impli cation of winners and losers in the knowledge systems game creates a cultural divide a nd remains key to privileging one way of knowing over the other (Aikenhead and Ogawa, 2007; Ninnes, 2003). Post-colonial theory involves a conceptu al reorientation toward s the perspectives of knowledges, as well as need s, developed outside the west (Young, 2003, p. 6), and scholars such as Krugly-Smolska (2007) find its theoretical framework more appropriate to building on the existing realities of multic ultural education, especially those that pertain to curriculum and policy development. Post-colonial theory, placed within the larger conceptual framework of a content analysis, framed considerations for this investigation in multicultural science content, as determined by inclusion of non-Western ways of knowing, as it functioned as a set of pe rspectives designed to foster inclusion of alternative knowledges into the broader c ontext of power struggles. As a set of

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17 perspectives, postcolonial theo ry seeks not only to alter th e way in which individuals think and behave about other i ndividuals in this global societ y but also to ensure a sense of social justice and equity among citizen s of all nations (Ninnes, 2000; Young, 2003). Thus, to use post-colonial thought moves points of concern away from winners and losers and reframes the perception so that indige nous ways of knowing, now coupled or bridged to Eurocentric knowledge, beco me part of the collective kno wledge systems (Aikenhead and Ogawa, 2007; International Council for Science, 2002). Pseudoscience Although pseudoscience was not a formal part of the conceptual framework, a brief address of this concept serves to clarify some of the challenges with not only defining but also working with what has been deemed indigenous knowledge content. The notion of spirituality, a cornerstone of i ndigenous knowledge, initiates de liberation of a key issue in secondary science education: the ongoing crea tion-evolution controve rsy (Antolin and Herbers, 2001, p. 2379). While the scope of th is investigation did not include knowledge or content with regard to evolution, the controversy prompted by efforts to position creation science or intelligent design in science curricula led to the following questions: Where do concepts of spirituality from the J udeo-Christian perspective, more concretely played out as creation science or intelligen t design, enter the discussion of indigenous knowledge? Is creation science an indigenous way of knowing nature? A report prepared by the International Council for Science (ICSU) and the United Nations Educational, Scient ific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) provides a good place to start for answers to these questions. In Science, Traditional Knowledge and Sustainable Development (2002), the delineation of pse udoscience from science unfolds

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18 between two approaches: one as sociological and the other as epistemological. From the sociological lens, a pseudoscience generally exists in competition with its science counterpart and is promoted by individuals not versed in science. As example, those who support creation science are typi cally not biologists or any other type of professional scientist. Epistemologically, th e dynamics of science, charact erized as more systematic than everyday knowledge (Inte rnational Council for Science, 2002, p. 11) work to add to this systematic nature through such activities as repeated experimentation, statistical analyses, and development of co mprehensive theories that co ntribute to a larger body of knowledge. Pseudoscience, on the contrary, is st atic and incorporates anecdotal evidence rather than statistical test ing and other analyses to s upport its claims. Pseudoscience remains an enterprise that is always in comp etition with science; it poses as science by mimicking itand if moving forward at all, it is only enhancing its protective belt against criticism from the scientific tradition it tries to displace ( International Council for Science 2002, p. 12). The idea of competition plays an important role in demarcating pseudoscience from the concepts of science a nd indigenous knowledge used for this study. If indigenous knowledge exists as the various interpretations of how the world works from a particular cultural perspectiv e (Snively and Corsiglia, 2001), then, as a body of knowledge, it originates from peoples with ex tended histories with the na tural environment, and, most importantly, has developed independently of Western culture (Intern ational Council for Science, 2002, p. 12). As such, indigenous knowle dge serves to inform rather than to exist in competition with science. If a ny competition between indigenous knowledge and science does occur, then the initiative genera lly originates from individuals who want

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19 science to replace or privilege itself in relation to alternat ive ways of knowing (International Council for Science, 2000). Ps eudoscience, however, does not serve to inform science nor does it function independe ntly of science, a nd the promotion of competition between the two only underscores pseudosciences reliance on the very existence of science in order to establish it self as systematic a pproach to knowledge acquisition equal in nature to the scientific tradition (Intern ational Council for Science, 2002). Framing pseudoscience, then, from these perspectives removes it from consideration of the scope of th is study as it exists neither as a science in the Eurocentric sense nor as an indigenous knowledge. Research Questions This study investigated the followi ng research question: To what extent had multicultural science content, as determined by inclusion of indigenous representations including non-Western ways of knowing, been infused within the content of high school biology textbooks? More specifically, to addre ss concerns of the ability of textbooks to support effective multicultural science educa tion, the following questions were offered for consideration: 1. To what extent did the biology text books adopted in the 2005 2006 cycle include content coverage that supported perspectives of indigenous knowledge compared to biology textbooks adopted in Floridas last three adoption cycles occurring within 1990 1994, 1994 1998, and 1998 2004?

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20 2. To what extent had multicultural perspectives and diversity been incorporated in the goals and objectives of the 2005 2006 adoption textbooks compared to the goals and objectives found in the te xtbooks of the earlier adoption cycles occurring within 1990 1994, 1994 1998, and 1998 2004? 3. To what extent did the nature of representations of indigenous knowledge included in high school bi ology textbooks adopted in 2005 2006 compare to the representations of indigenous knowledge in the textbooks adopted in the cycles occurring within 1990 1994, 1994 1998, and 1998 2004? 4. To what extent had representations of indigenous knowledge, including people, events and related vocabulary, been incor porated into the content of high school biology textbooks adopted in 2005 2006 compar ed to the earlier adoption cycles occurring within 1990 1994, 1994 1998, and 1998 2004? 5. To what extent did the illustrations, phot ographs and other graphics of examples of non-Western science relate in quantity and quality of visuals of Western science in the 20052006 textbooks compared to the earlier adoption cycles of 1990 1994, 1994 1998, and 1998 2004? Operational Definition of Terms For the purposes of this study, the following terms and definitions were used: Multiculturalism Educational theory that encourages interests in many cultures within a society rather than interest in only a mainstream culture. Universalism A philosophy that embraces knowledge that is characterized in the form of theories which are testable, predictive, reve aling of underlying unobs ervable entities and the relations of causal mechanisms in wh ich they are involv ed (Siegel, 2001).

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21 Constructivism A theory of learning where student s build their own understanding of the world, and in turn, their own knowledge (Ishii, 2003, p. 1). Multicultural education An idea, an educational reform movement, and a process whose major goal is the change of the structure of educationa l institutions so that male and females students, exceptional education st udents, and students who are members of diverse ethnic and cultural groups will have an equal chance to achieve academically in school (Atwater and Riley, 1993, p. 663). Multicultural science education. A construct, a process, and an educational reform movement with the goal of providing e quitable opportunities for culturally diverse student populations to learn quality scienc e in schools, colleges, and universities (Atwater and Riley, 1993, p. 664). Culture An ordered system of meaning and symbols in terms of which social interactions take pl ace (Aikenhead, 1997, p. 219). Science A rational perceiving of reality where perceiving means both the action of constructing reality and the construct of r eality (Snively and Corsiglia, 2001, p. 9) Science-technology-society (STS) A movement in science edu cation, originally inspired by environmentalism and the sociology of science, that emphasizes the teaching of scientific and technolog ical developments in their cultura l, economic, social and political contexts (Aikenhead, 2005). Western Modern Science. Officially sanctioned knowledge which can be considered within the realm of inquiry and investiga tion that Western Europe and North America governments and courts are prepared to s upport, recognize and u tilize (Snively and Corsiglia, 2001); generically referred to as Western scie nce or Eurocentric science.

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22 Indigenous/Traditional knowledge. A cumulative body of knowledge, know-how, practices and representations maintained and developed by peoples with extended histories of interaction with the natural environment. Th ese sophisticated sets of understandings are part and parcel of a cultural complex that encompasses language, naming and classification systems, resource use practices, ritual, spirituality and worldview (International C ouncil for Science, 2002, p. 9); also known as indigenous science; generically referred to as non-Western science. As these terms are often interchanged in th e literature and traditional can also refer to the culturally accepted practices of a society, the researcher has selected the use of the term indigenous to maintain a sense of consiste ncy in this investigation. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) The science of long-resident oral peoples and a biological label for the expanding literature base which explor es that knowledge (Snively and Corsiglia, 2001, p. 8). Limitations As the sample for this study includ ed high school biology textbooks adopted by the state of Florida, generalizations of findings were limited to those texts included in the study and used by teachers in the state of Florid a. However, as Florida holds a state-wide textbook adoption process and its adoption pol icies often influen ce the textbook activity of other states, the findings may hold true for any other state or local educational agency which chooses to adopt the selected texts for use in the respective high school biology curricula (Whitman, 2004). Threats to reliability included the ex ecution of inadequate communication of coding instructions as well as insufficient practice of coding to establish a desirable initial

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23 reliability. The possibility of coder fatigue did exist as the amount of text to be examined was quite large. Coding schedules took into c onsideration the length of units to be coded. Reliability was increased with the use of meas ures of interrater as well as intrarater agreement. In terms of internal validity, r ecordings made and measured within the instrumentation, that is, the teacher editi on coding form for degree of relation of multicultural content as well as the Evalua tion Coefficient Analysis (ECO) worksheet where favorable and unfavorable meanings were indicated, were subj ect to experimenter effect where an unintentional bias or behavior influence resulted. Researcher bias was also considered to play a role in the threat to the legitimateness of the qualitative piece of the study as well as coder fatigue with regard to the large amounts of text included in the sample.

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24 Chapter 2 Review of the Literature Research Procedures The initial literature review procedures began with a search of preliminary sources, including use of an electroni c version of ERIC (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts), as recommended by library support personnel, using the following descriptors: multicultural education multicultural science education content analysis science textbooks sciencetechnology-society secondary science indigenous science traditional ecological knowledge constructivism border crossing and universalism These searches led to the primary sources included in th e literature review, which serv ed to frame and support this study. Taken collectively, th e literature for this review refl ected articles and texts dated in 1987 and proceeded through 2001 with regard to the initial efforts of various content analyses of high school science textbooks, continued with consideration of the research in the early 1990s when mu lticultural science education initiall y appeared in the literature as an area of much controversy, and ended with current perspectives on indigenous knowledge representations, border crossi ng, science-technology-society (STS) and constructivism as aspects of learning within cultural appro aches to science education. Content Analysis of Textbooks The literature within the realm of conten t analyses of science textbooks covered a wide range of texts appropriate for grade levels beginning with elementary and extending

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25 through college. For the purpose of this study, the literature review limited the scope of examination to investigations which include d high school level textbooks with emphasis on those studies that utilized science texts in the sample. The exception to this criterion included two studies focused on elementary or middle school science texts (Eide and Heikkinen, 1997; Mulkey, 1987); these two studies provided important background on evaluation instruments used to examine multicu ltural content. In addition, the focus of this portion of the literature re view centered on content analys es directly related to the study, that is, any research findings associated with scientific l iteracy, STS, cultural perspectives and the subject areas of biology or ecology. Content analyses, which examined text readability, vocabulary, gender bias and correctness of content, were excluded from the literature review. As part of the research investigation for this study examined multicultural content within ecology units, an impor tant consideration was the degree to which ecological principles and concepts were addressed in textbooks. Barber and Tomera (1985) surveyed 156 science teachers, with a teaching experi ence range from one to 33 years, from a randomly selected sample of biology teachers in secondary settings in the state of Illinois. The teachers volunteered for the study. The su rvey included information on the selection of textbooks, degree of use of textbooks, teach er perception of the importance of ecology, ecological concepts and principles that were taught, and types of environmental problems that were discussed in class. No reliabili ty measures were reported for the survey instrument. Two of the biology books used by the majority of teachers represented texts that devoted the greatest (32%) amount of c overage to the subject of ecology; however, most teachers found it necessary to supplem ent the textbook with additional resources

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26 that examined ecological principles. The Il linois teachers ranked ecology as one of the top five most critical compone nts of biology content for high school science, yet many did not apply ecological principles to envir onmental-societal problems as illustrated by the use of science-technol ogy-society (STS) methods. McComas (2003) revisited the issue with ecology content in biology textbooks. The goal of his investigation incl uded a determination of which elements of ecology should be incorporated into a traditional high school biology course. His sample included 13 high school level biology te xtbooks. McComas (2003) used a grounded strategy approach to create a list of ecology content from whic h evolved a general checklist used to review the textbooks. The grounded strategy approach pr oved of interest as a possible technique for incorporation in the proposed study. Th e study concluded that the biology texts devoted an average of 9.7% of the total pages to topics of ecology. No interrater agreement was reported for the content checklists. A paucity of ecological content, considered one of the best possible areas for presenting issues of environmental concerns directly linked with curricular support such as STS, in the texts presented a challenge for teachers striving to increase capacity for scientific literacy in their students. Although Mulkey (1987) investigated el ementary and middle school science texts, her study introduced a new perspective in conten t analysis with the development of an instrument to assess social influences in science. Her study (1 987) addressed social aspects of science, and her work represente d consideration of cont ent as socially and culturally influenced, an impor tant consideration in the development and support of the conceptual framework for the proposed study. She also demonstrated the assignment of independent and dependent variables to a cont ent analysis, which presented an additional

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27 design consideration for the proposed st udy. Mulkeys (1987) sample included 187 science textbooks used in seven school dist ricts in the public schools in New York. The selected textbooks included grades 2, 4, a nd 8, and neither the sample of textbooks nor the school districts were randomly selected. I ndependent variables in cluded social class with four levels and grad e with two levels. Textbook c ontent was divided into six dependent measures. A two-way analysis of variance was used to examine the relationship between social class and textbook content. So cial class proved significant with regard to the prior exposure that stude nts received concerning scientific content. Lloyd (1990) investigated science te xtbooks for elaboration of ideas linked to scientific literacy as a means to impact reading comprehension. Her sample included three biology textbooks appropriate for non-college-bound students, average ability students, and students at all a cademic levels. Photosynthesis was selected as the science topic for investigation. A concept analysis permitted the identifi cation of the ideas associated with photosynthesis; the most general ideas served as points of reference for elaborations of concepts. Her study showed th at the textbook created for the lowest level learner had the fewest amount of elabor ations, which represented an important consideration in determining a ppropriate content for texts. One of the strengths of the study recognized incorrect information in texts as an important variable. Since part of the proposed study included ecology content in bi ology textbooks, some aspect of correct and incorrect findings and info rmation must be considered. Chiappetta, Fillman, and Sethna (1991a; 1991b), Eltinge and Roberts (1993), and Lumpe and Beck (1996) investigated the ex tent of curricular emphasis in science textbooks. Although these groups of researcher s offered a synthesis of textbook content

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28 in terms of scientific literacy, the most si gnificant contri bution to the proposed study came from the investigations by Chiappetta, Fillman, and Sethna (1991a; 1991b). In their first investigation (1991a), the researchers cr eated a method and developed an instrument to analyze textbooks; in the second investig ation (1991b), they applied the method and instrument to seven high school chemistry textbooks. As textbooks often served as the primary instructional resource in science classrooms, these instructional tools impacted not only how teachers presented content but also how students interpreted scientific meanings. Chiappetta (1991a) and his coll eagues developed an instrument to quantitatively evaluate content emphasis in an effort to determine how much of the information in the texts related to vocabul ary and terminology, often regarded as the primary content that students learn in science classes. Four areas of scientific literacy were identified ( knowledge of science ; nature of science ; science as a way of thinking ; science-tech nology-society ) and used to create a coding scheme applied these to the textbooks. Science-technology-sc ience (STS) as a component of Chiappettas instrument solidified for the researcher the descriptors commonly used to identify STS and related content. In addition, STS remains an importa nt curricular link to incorporating cultural diversity into the classroom. Interrater agreements among the researchers ranged from 0.80 to 0.97; kappas ranged from 0.71 to 0.79. The chal lenge with this study included the use of themes rather than sc ience terminologies, and reliab ility was improved by clearly defining and differentiating the themes with de finitions of descriptors for the four areas of scientific literacy. For app lication of the method to th e chemistry textbooks (1991b), interrater agreements ra nged from 0.82 to 0.92; kappas ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Knowledge of science was found in both studies to repres ent the primary textbook theme.

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29 Eltinge and Roberts (1993) specifically i nvestigated aspects of sc ience inquiry as part of scientific literacy and analyzed scien ce biology textbooks for linguistic content to classify phrases as representati ve of science inquiry or not. Kappas for the study ranged from 0.69 to 1.00. Lumpe and Beck (1996) applied Chiappettas (1991a) method to a selection of seven popular biology textbooks. Interrater agreements ranged from 0.81 to 0.93; kappas ranged from 0.74 to 0.91. These investigators also determined knowledge of science as the primary textbook theme. Chiang-Soong and Yager (1993) introdu ced the idea of a cont ent analysis that investigated science-technologysociety (STS), which repres ented yet another important link to the study in support of cultural approaches to scien ce education. These researchers examined 11 popular science textbooks in the United States to determine existence of science-technology-society (S TS) content. Interrater agreement was 0.98. Biology textbooks in the study had the most number of pages devoted to STS topics compared to chemistry and physics books with the excepti on of one physical science book used in junior high grade levels; STS content appeared to lessen as the textbooks progressed for use in the higher grade levels. An important limitation of the study remained an issue of quantity versus quality. Chiang-Soong and Yager (1993) did not assess the quality of the STS content including relevance or appropria teness of the material as well as any instructions or strategies provided to the teachers. Not every possible scenario for a societal issue can be covered by any one science textbook, and this represented an important limitation with regard to the na ture of the textbook. Such limitation held importance for this study in that indigenous knowledge representations and any direct

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30 application within an STS scenario may app ear limited or be left out entirely of the textbook content for the same reasons iden tified by Chiang-Soong and Yager (1993). Eide and Heikkinen (1996) examined the teacher editions fo r middle school science courses to determine the extent of the multicultural content and its degree of relationship to the science content. The researchers create d a list of descriptor s used to locate what they termed multicultural items in the text and then coded, using a Likert-type scale, the relationship of the identified item to the scie nce content. The techniques used by Eide and Heikkinen (1996) served as the model for the teacher editions segment of the content analysis used in this study. Interrater and intrarater reliabilitie s were between 0.79 and 0.99 with an established alpha of 0.80. Eide and Heikkinen ( 1996) found that in most of the textbooks, the multicultural content occurred in limited amounts and the purpose for the multicultural content was rarely expressed or explained to the teacher. Two other studies that examined visual content in textbooks served as the basis for the analysis of the visuals and illustrations segment used in this study. King and Domin (2007) examined the photographs found in 11 general chemistry books to determine the extent of representation of minorities. A mi nority was defined as anyone who could not pass for having predominantly European an cestryand included pers ons of African or Asian ancestry, non-white Hispanics, and Na tive Americans ( Ki ng and Domin, 2007. p. 343). The researchers identified instructi onal bias as invisibility, stereotyping, fragmentation, and cosmetic. Fragmentation wa s defined as minorityonly photographs or photographs boxed in a section separated from th e main text. Cosmetic bias occurred if the photograph was on the cover of the text or on a full-page but the total representation of minorities for the textbook was below 36% (King and Domin, 2007).

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31 Powell and Garcia (1987) examined th e quantity and quality of the depictions of females and minorities in elementary textbooks, and their methods served as the basis for the visuals and illustrations component in this study. Photographs and visuals were evaluated with regard to gender, race, child or adult, and ac tive or passive. Although most groups were depicted in active roles, fema le children and youth were represented more often than other children and youth and female and minority adults were represented less often than white males. Powell and Garcia (198 7) also suggested that the depictions in the textbook limit career opportunities for minor ities in science by limiting the number of photographs that depict minorities doing science. Two recent studies have come out of the original work of Chiappetta, Sethna, and Fillman (1991a) and hold much interest for the proposed study. Lee (2007) used the original framework with modifications to examine the presentation of the nature of science in the introductory ch apters of high school biology textbooks. Since the literature base and related understandings regarding the na ture of science has expanded to support more topics including multicultural aspects, th ere existed a need to revise the original four themes of the framework by adding more de scriptions of the nature of science that reflect, as example, directives in nationallevel documents and othe r important research. Lee (2007) modified the origin al framework and added thre e noteworthy criteria with regard to the themes of science as a way of thinking and science-technology-society (STS): 1) various ways of understandi ng the natural world; 2) contribution of diversity; 3) societal or cultural in fluences (Lee, 2007, 169). Lee (2007) found that most of the biology books, with regard to bala nce of the four themes presented a limited amount of STS content.

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32 Brooks (2008) also undert ook a content analysis that incor porated the original work of Chiappetta (1991a). She investigated the curr icular balance in physics textbooks in the areas of the nature of science and ethn icity, and part of her study included the development of a method for coding photogr aphs and other visuals to support the diversity component of her research. Brooks (2008) found science as a body of knowledge and science as a way of knowing to represent the most common themes in the sample. In addition, she found an imbalance in the diversity depicted in the visuals with ratios of ethnicity not in line with the United States census. Additional content analyses represen tative of dissertation work by two graduate students at the University of S outh Florida held particular in terest to the researcher and played an important role in the proposed design for this study: A Content Analysis of Cultural Diversity in Florida Stat e Adopted World History Textbooks (Wartenberg, 1997) and Multiculturalism, Public Policy, and the High School United States and American Literature Canon: A Content Analysis of Text books Adopted in the State of Florida in 1991 and 2003 (Hansen, 2005). Although both of these investigations analyzed textbooks in content areas other than the sciences, the proposed pr oblems related closely to the issues at hand in the multicultural science education debates, and the question regarding the influence of debates, po licy changes, and research in the broader context of multiculturalism resonated with an investigatio n established to determine the extent of inclusion of multicultural content in high school science textbooks. Although both studies indicated efforts by the textbook authors to in clude multicultural content in the textbooks, both studies also showed no clear trend in the increase of inclusion of multicultural content with implications that curriculum materials, most notable the textbook, remained

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33 largely unaffected by changes in policies regarding multicultural education (Hansen, 2005; Wartenberg, 1997). The proposed investigation grew out of the work of Ninnes (2000; 2001a; 2001b), who analyzed the occurrence of non-Wester n perspectives in high school science textbooks in Australia and Canada. Ninnes (2000) looked for various approaches to including indigenous knowledge and discovered that each of the texts in the sample, which included two serial textbooks, por trayed high frequencies of indigenous knowledge. The portrayal of indigenous knowledge, however, did not necessarily indicate meaningful examples of contributi ons of indigenous groups. If these examples remained token representations without si ncere discussion of the contributions of indigenous members of a culture, then the effo rts of inclusion serv ed to produce racist stereotypes, that is, messages that those who endorse Western science appeared as superior to any other individua l with differing perspectives. In additional content analyses of junior high science textbooks, Ninnes (2001a) considered science content from the perspe ctive of the messages regarding ways of knowing, also referred to as the nature of know ledge, as well as the presence or absence of alternative interpretations or explanati ons of natural phenomena. In most cases, the texts presented alternative ways of knowing as trivial, inferior, and outdated and left the reader with the impression that we as th e correct and authoritative members of the scientific community have moved on from these past inferior ways (Ninnes, 2001a, p. 91). Ninnes (2001a) also noted the lack of opportunity for students not only to investigate other ways of knowing indicative of indigenous knowledge representations but also to critically examine current scientific inform ation and question the assumptions about the

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34 superiority of scientific knowledge presen ted in the texts ( p. 91). Although Ninnes (2001a) addressed questions of indigenous cont ent with regard to types of indigenous knowledge and in what form they appeared in the texts, he acknowledged an important caveat, framed from the who what how and why that posed a noteworthy implication for this study as well as well as subsequent rese arch in the broader context of indigenous knowledge: Who ultimately provides the s ource of indigenous content? What role do indigenous peoples play in generating this content? Why do publishers publish textbooks in the first place, that is, the purpose for their books? How important is it, from the publishers perspective, to in clude indigenous content? Ninnes (2001b) continued his text analyses with a survey of authors of three science textbooks that contained high frequencies of representati ons of indigenous knowledge. From the survey responses, Ninnes (2001b) dete rmined six main reasons for inclusion of multicultural content in science textbooks. Part of the reason for inclusion included the need to meet mandates on cultural and gende r issues as well as considerations of relevance and the nature of science that multicultural content promoted. Ninnes (2001b) cited that inclusion of multicultural content co uld be limited by the nature of the topic or idea, that is, some areas of science did not seem to support non-Western examples. The realization of limited topics posed an importa nt consideration for the proposed study, and the assumption was made that certain chapter or units, such as thos e with botanical or ecological content, remained more appr opriate to support in digenous knowledge representations.

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35 Multicultural Science Education One of the more controversial debates which appeared in the la st decade of science education literature included the discussion of multiculturalism and its appropriate role as a theoretical framework within multicultural science education. If multiculturalism did indeed have a place in science education, then the science curriculum and accompanying instructional materials such as the textbook f aced potential for a major overhaul in terms of their ability to sustain cu ltural approaches to science. Hodson (1993) sparked initial discourse in support of multicultural science education by providing a rationale based on science as a cultural phenom enon (p. 686). His theoretical basis for recommendations within science education set the stage for understanding learni ng as a personal experience framed within a socio-cultural context. The idea of a socio-cultural context within science education remained important as this necessi tated consideration of not only curriculum design but also instructional ma terials and their ability to enhance cultural approaches to learning science. Although Hodson (1993) presented a thorough framework for incorporating multiculturalism into science cu rriculum, he did not address the issues of universalism, one of the important arguments against multicultural science, or nor did he provide a definition of science from which he constructed his framework. Atwater and Riley (1993) attempted to further the discussion by providing viewpoints, definitions, and research themes within multicultural science education. Although these researchers offered a solid definition of multicultural science education within the broader scope of multicultural education, the y, too, failed to solidify a working definition of science from which to embed cultural approaches to science education. The researchers also presented substantial barriers to research in multicultural education as

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36 well as a solid research agenda for future endeavors in multicultural science education including the need to address, in both curriculum content and instructional materials, beliefs held by diverse populations of stude nts and views of science from Western and non-Western perspectives. Pomeroy (1994) addressed many of the cu rrent issues facing science education in the United States today and cited sp ecifically 1) the racial divi de in demographics in the nation as a whole as well as within the scie ntific establishment and 2) the failure of educational systems to produce scientifically literate students. These two broad issues frame concerns with regard to culturally re levant science curricula and whether such curricula should intend to deve lop appreciation of other cultu res or go deeper to explore issues that result from privilege and power For Pomeroy (1994), the choice was between a system that perpetuated the tokenism and hegemony characterized in the institution of Western science ora model in which domin ance and marginalism are replaced by the mutual respect and understanding necessary fo r teachers and students alike ultimately to become cultural border crossers (Pomeroy, 1994, p. 50). The term cultural border crossers was significant as scie nce-technology-society (STS) content may serve as the curricular bridge to support border crossings for students tr aditionally marginalized and underrepresented in science cl assrooms. Pomeroy (1994) also presented some important agenda items in relation to building a scie nce education capable of supporting cultural diversity. One of the agenda items included id entification of the contributions of those individuals traditionally left out of science textbook conten t, with the acknowledgement of the significant contributions of minority gr oups, including Native American tribes. The method proposed to address this concern re mained the overhaul of textbooks; texts

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37 should be rewritten or changed to include an emphasis on the contributions of individuals other than White Western males (Pomer oy, 1994, p. 56). An important caveat remained the quality of any multicultural content that might be added as several researchers had found evidence of poor scholarship (p. 56) in line with pseudosci entific claims and other misinformation regarding the knowledge ba se and contributions of certain groups. Pomeroy (1994) also recognized that when content indicative of cultural perspectives was included, it most often occurred in textboxes or short segmen ts of text. Pomeroy (1994) identified one last important agenda item of interest to this re searcher: the study of science in folk knowledge or native technologies (p. 62) as a connection to indigenous content. Pomeroys (1994) final call to devel op instructional materials and other resources within the context of indigenous practices a nd technologies resonated with the need for the content analysis proposed by this invest igator, and her focus on quality and relevance remained significant. She conc luded her article with an important consideration in the broader scope of multicultural education: s ecuring a clear definition, which continues to appear as a challenge to current researchers and practitioners in the field of multicultural science education. Williams (1994) and Good (1995) supplied initial considerations of universalism as a contrast to multiculturalism. Although Williams (1994) did not provi de a definition of science in terms of science education, he adamantly opposed Hodsons (1993) cultural approach by framing an understanding of scienc e within a means to se ek the explanations that govern the natural world at all times in all places (p. 516). Williams (1994) challenged Hodsons (1993) framework as pr omoting reverse discrimination against

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38 Western scientists and viewed changes in te xtbooks as a form of censorship. Good (1995) reiterated a universal position of science, but his main issue with multicultural science stemmed from the notion of this approach as neglected science as well as the choice of examples of science from other cultures. Th ese examples, which included agriculture and native plant medicine, appeared overused as support for other worldviews in science. These points represented important consider ations in the proposed study as the purpose was to consider the extent to which te xtbooks supported cultur al diversity with appropriate content that illustrated the streng ths and limitations of differing perspectives of science. The desired end result remained a balance of representa tions rather than one form of science as more significant than another. Border Crossing and STS An important pedagogical considerat ion introduced by Aikenhead (1997) and Hodson (1999) included the idea of border crossing, that is, students from non-Western cultures must move between their own worldviews and those imparted in science classrooms in order to find success in mainstream educat ion. Aikenhead (1997) sp ecifically applied a cultural perspective to science education that viewed Western scien ce as a subculture of Euro-American culture (p. 218). Teachers facili tated this border crossing and needed curriculum and instructional ma terials to support their effo rts. Hodson (1999) called for action research as a means to help teachers address issues with science curriculum. Both researchers viewed the science-technology-so ciety (STS) method to science education as one proven to encourage border crossing. Aiken (1994) described STS science teachi ng as a fundamental sh ift in approaches to learning within the traditional science curric ulum. A more student-centered approach to

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39 science, STS created opportunities for learne rs to make sense out of their everyday experiencesin a manner that embeds sc ience in the technol ogical and social environments of the studentwhile [supporting] students natural te ndency to integrate their personal understandings of their social, technological and natural environments (Aikenhead, 1994, pp. 48 49). Aikenhead (1994) also summarized the goals of STS education with included an increas e in interest in science in an effort to reverse trends in enrollment and achievement in science. Achievement in science for this study, framed from the subtext of the achievement gap, re lated to the broader issues posed by the makeup of the current prime-age workfor ce. STS curricula may advantage a higher minority subgroup of the populace by meeting their need for access to science curricula that prepares them for work and life in the 21st century. STS may also be expected meet a need, absent in the traditiona l science curriculum, for developing the socially responsible citizen of the 21st century. Aikenhead (1994) also provided a spect rum of categories related to the sequence of incorporation of science-technology-society (STS) content; this sequence, outlined in eight levels, served to articulate the rela tive importance of STS content in a science course. Levels one through three followed the traditional path of science learning where students organized science through theories or the expertise of the scientist. Levels four through eight allowed the stude nts to view the natural world through their own personal lenses allowing incorporation of science content as need ed. Levels one through three included a motivation or casual approach to purposeful infusion of STS content framed from the traditional school science. Levels four through eight moved away from the pure science approach so that STS became the or ganizer of the science content and, by level

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40 eight, moved to the investiga tion of a major technological or social issue in society (Aikenhead, 1994). Science-technology-society (STS) as a way of teaching has faced many of the same criticisms of multicultural science education th at pit it against what has been considered valid science or the traditi onal science curriculum. STS as a way of teaching, just as indigenous knowledge represents a way of knowing, provided a connection to the relevant issues within the broa der aspects of scientific lite racy and the specific societal problems inherent in the study of the life sciences. More importantly, STS offered a means to creation of the curriculum bridge necessary to support the concept of border crossing for those students tr aditionally underrepresented in science opportunities while maintaining the level of rigor and challenge expected of traditi onal science curricula (Aikenhead, 1994). Traditional Ecological Knowledge The most recent discussions of multi cultural science education, stemming from the science-technology-society method and aspect s of constructivist thought, moved to expand understandings of non-Western scien ce within a broader scope of indigenous knowledge (Aikenhead, 2001; Cobern, 1996; Sniv ely and Corsiglia, 2001). A branch of indigenous science known as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) provided the structure for defining science outside of the realm of universalist vi ews, and Snively and Corsiglia (2001) worked to provide thorough de finitions of science from its broadest sense to specific contexts within modern and traditional science. Aikenhead (2001) as well as Snively and Corsiglia (2001) rec ognized the strengths and limitations of incorporating traditional forms of science into curricula and called for an integration of

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41 Western and non-Western viewpoi nts. What warranted furthe r investigation included an examination of the instructional materials n ecessary to facilitate this integration with effective cultural approaches to learning which include ex amples of non-Western science as alternative ways of knowing. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) c ontinued to appear in the literature as an alternative approach to West ern science and provided an important way to connect indigenous knowledge to science content found in high school biology textbooks. As such, TEK ultimately provided the subject matter, specifically ecology and botany, relevant for an examination within textbooks of worldviews outside of the realm of Western science. As example, Huntington ( 2000) and Pierotti and Wildcat (2000) framed TEK perspectives from the management of natural resources. Huntington (2000) provided methods for utilizing TEK in resear ch, and what appeared was a qualitative effort at understanding the natural world through interviews, questionnaires, and fieldwork with groups of indi genous peoples. Pierotti and W ildcat (2000) contrasted the concepts of TEK with those grounded in We stern thought and called for the placement of TEK within the scope of modern science. Ho wever, these two researchers recognized that indigenous science constantly evolves as a way of knowing the natural world. This observation help important implications for a study which investigated science textbooks that, once examined and appropriate reco mmendations made, may require updates and changes to support an evolving body of knowledge such as TEK. Constructivism Constructivist thought was in cluded at this point in the li terature review as it provided a support for cultural approaches such as border crossing and scie nce-technology-society

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42 (STS) within the larger conceptual fram ework of multicultural science education. Constructivism often found its concepts lin ked to issues of culture (Fox, 2001) and readily supported a model of learning and a view of knowledge that is authentically sensitive to both culture a nd science (Cobern, 1996, p. 307) Cobern (1996) supported the expectation that non-Western students would not necessarily understand science the same way that students of Western orient ation would; non-Westerners would construct their knowledge of science from their respective cultures view of the natural world. Such consideration held significance for an examin ation of not only cont ent inclusion within science curricula and textbooks but also cu ltural values and beliefs of non-Western cultures represented in todays classrooms.

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43 Chapter 3 Methodology Research Design The investigation involved a content analysis of high school biology textbooks framed from a mixed methods approach. Emphasis was placed, in consideration of the research questions and practicality of interpreting text with the potential for multiple meanings, within qualitative methods. Therefore, the study represented a desi gn where qualitative and quantitative methods are used sequentially with an inductive theoretical thrust (Morse, 2003, p. 202). The quantitative piece included the conceptual analysis of the frequency of discrete sections of text of the sample of biology textbooks. The qualitative piece included a relational analysis where infere nces as well as implications with regard to the meanings, relationships and messages in the text was made by the researcher. Other quantitative techniques include d tallies for existence and fr equency of content including visuals and photographs as well as a m easure for bias known as the Evaluation Coefficient (ECO). As content analyses are subject to human interpretations and, therefore, exhibit increased ch ance for error, explicit procedures for the analyses were followed. Intrarater and interrater reliabil ities were calculated for the coding of multicultural content in the teacher editions the coding of favorable and unfavorable terminologies in the Evaluation Coefficient (ECO), and the coding of the visuals and illustrations within the sample.

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44 Content Analysis The term content analysis has been in existence for over 60 years, first appearing in the English language in 1941. The term wa s later included in the 1961 edition of Websters Dictionary of the English Language as the analysis of the manifest and latent content of a body of communicated material (as a book or film) through classification, tabulation, and evaluation of its key symbols and themes in order to ascertain its meaning and probable effect (Krippendorff, 2004, p. xvii). Although its intellectual origins remain linked to the history of man with considerations of th e first uses of voice, signs, symbols and more formalized forms of writing, content analysis as a recognized systematic investigation of text first app eared among the Church-imposed inquisitions of the 17th century. As representative of a more mo dern research met hod, content analysis has evolved, at the start of the 20th century, from a quantitative strategy used primarily to analyze newsprint to a method of research in corporated by a wide range of disciplines including the social sciences As example, the field of anthropology integrates content analysis techniques as a means to investig ate myths and folktales; ethnographers use content analysis to interpret field notes and ca se studies of their subj ects. Content analysis suits the critical examination of historic al documents, and soci al scientists have recognized the value of content analysis appl ied to educational materials as textbooks and such often serve as a reflection of the values, attitudes and politics of society (Krippendorff, 2004). Content analysis offers an approach to data analysis that centers largely on the researchers conception of the object of analysis, that is, th e content. How the content is conceived remains an important considerati on in developing a framework, including the

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45 purpose and processes, for the analysis. Among the scholarly literature regarding content analysis, three types of definitions surfaced, a nd each type of definition led to a specific conceptualization of not only th e data to be analyzed but al so the particular manner in which the analysis may proceed. Krippendorff (2004) has located definitions of content analysis among those that take content 1) to be inherent in a text (p. 19); 2) to be a property of the source of a text (p. 19); 3) to emerge in the process of a researcher analyzing a text relative to a partic ular context (p. 19). The first definition, that is, taking content to be inhe rent in a text, aligned with Berelsons (1952) characterization of content analysis as a research technique for the objective, systematic and quantitative de scription of the manifest content of communication (p. 18). Berelson used the terms objective and systematic under the requirements of replicability a nd validity which underpin rese arch investigations, yet his incorporation of a quantitative requirement neglected to consider the act of reading as a fundamentally qualitative process, even when it results in numerical counts (Krippendorff, 2004, p. 20). Kri ppendorff (2004) found Berelsons manifest attribute limiting; it appeared to imply that if resear chers interpreted the same data differently, then the description of content remained lim ited to what was deemed common or to what everyone involved in the analyses agreed. Ultimately, Berelson and his definition of content analysis led to the familiar containe r metaphor, which reinforced the belief that messages remained containers of meaning with one meaning for each message and ultimately served as justification for regard ing any conventional analysis as a content analysis, whether it revolved around word count s or provided opportuni ty for meaningful interpretations (Krippendorff, 2004).

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46 Krippendorff (2004) indicat ed that definitions of the s econd type, that is, to take content as a property of the source of a text, should be also be regarded as limiting. Holsti attempted to elaborate the idea by committing content analysis to an encoding/decoding paradigm in which message sources are causa lly linked to recipien ts through encoding processes, channels, messages, and dec oding processes (Krippendorff, 2004, p. 21). His focus on the what the how and to whom neither accounted for inferences that sometimes must be made nor considered the cont ent analysts and his or her individual conceptualization not only to what represented appropriate reading but also to how the reading remained relevant to a partic ular research ques tion (Krippendorff, 2004). Krippendorff (2004) defined content an alysis as a researc h technique for making replicable and valid inferences from texts (o r other meaningful matter) to the contexts of their use (p. 18). It is this definition that a ligned with the third t ype relating to content analysis; content is taken to emerge in the process of a researcher analyzing a text relative to a particular contex t (p. 19). The idea of contex t remained key to the proposed content analysis of this study as the texts an alyzed include a sample of biology textbooks used in secondary science classrooms. The c ontent analysis for this study required that the analyst consider how the teacher and stude nts used the textbooks as well as how these textbooks fostered and encourag ed different reader conceptio ns or actions. In addition, the messages in the textbooks do not speak for themselves; they inform the reader. As such, the nature of the textbooks warranted th e need for specific inferences to be made within the chosen context from print to wh at printed matter means to particular uses, from how analysts regard a body of texts to how selected audiences are affected by those texts, from available data to unobserve d phenomena (Krippendorff, 2004, p. 24).

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47 Sample Biology textbooks, representative of inst ructional materials in the high school courses found among the life sciences, we re selected for the study as biology content, specifically botany and ecology, lent itself to incorporation of indigenous knowledge representations. The study included 34 biology textbooks for public school use and adopted for grades 9 12 from four adoption cycles in cluding 1990 1994, 1994 1998, 1998 2004, and 2005 2006. Twenty-two textbooks aligned with secondary science course descriptions and learning objectives for Biology I and twelve textbooks al igned with secondary science course descriptions and learning objectives for Biology I Honors courses available as part of the Flor ida Department of Education Course Descriptions of Basic Education, Grades 9 12 and Adult (FLDOE). The sample for the study was inclusive and not randomly selected; all 34 textbooks id entified by the state as available for use with Biology I and Biology I Honors courses were analyzed as part of the investigation. Textbooks for Biology II and the Advanced Placement Biology courses were not considered as these texts supported advanced co ncepts and principles in the life sciences not planned for evaluation as part of this study. Florida statutes did not mandate a six-year adoption cycle until 1999. Prior to the decision to incorporate a six-year cycle, te xtbooks for use in the sciences were adopted by specific content area physics, chemistry, or biology rather than by an all-inclusive adoption for sciences at the elementary, middl e or secondary-level science. The adoption cycles selected for this study aligned with the period of intense research initiated by scholars addressing topics in the burgeoning field of multicultural science education and permitted the review of the extent of infusion of multicultural content into science

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48 textbooks at the high school le vel. Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 contain the textbooks by adoption cycle and academic level as designated by honors. Appendix A provides a complete bibliography of the student and te acher editions used in this study. Instruments/Measures Indigenous Knowledge Tally To determine the amount of coverage gi ven to non-Western considerations of science, frequencies of the representations of i ndigenous knowledge were calculated by counting the discrete sections of the textbooks that included reference to some aspect of indigenous knowledge. For the study, a section of text was defined as a word phrase, complete sentence, paragraph, box of text or co mplete page dedicated to the discussion of indigenous knowledge; a section included the te xt discussing an as pect of indigenous knowledge separated from other representati ons of indigenous knowle dge by text related to non-indigenous topics. Each page of each chapter of the textbooks in the sample was examined for discrete sections of text, and c ontent within the student and teacher editions of the texts were tallied fo r comparison (Ninnes, 2000). The questions at the end of the section, chapter or unit as we ll as the laboratory exercises were excluded from the tally. Indigenous knowledge representations were recorded on a worksheet included as Appendix B. Indigenous knowledge was defined as an interpretation of how the world works from a particular cultural perspective. For a discrete sect ion of text to be characterized as representative of indigenous knowledge, the section had to meet two criteria. These criteria were adapted from Ninnes (2000) to id entify content consider ed representative of indigenous knowledge and to facil itate categorization of the re presentations in the texts.

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49 Table 1. Textbook Sample by Level (1990 1994 Cycle) Book Title/Year/Publisher Biology I Living Systems 6th edition, 1989 Glencoe Biology 1989 Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich Heath Biology 1989 Heath Modern Biology 1989 Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Biology: The Living World 2nd edition, 1989 Prentice-Hall Biology I Honors BSCS Blue Version, Biological Science, A Molecular Approach 1990 Heath BSCS Biological Science, An Ecological Approach 6th edition Kendall/Hunt Biology: The Study of Life 3rd edition, 1990 Prentice-Hall

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50 Table 2. Textbook Sample by Level (1994 1998 Cycle) Book Title/Year/Publisher Biology I Addison-Wesley, Biology, 1st edition 1994 Addition-Wesley Publishing Company Merrill Biology: An Everyday Experience, 4th edition 1992 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Holt Biology: Visualizing Life 1994 Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Biology, 2nd edition, 1993 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Biology I Honors Merrill Biology: Living Systems 7th edition, 1994 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Modern Biology 1993 Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Biological Science: An Ecological Approach 7th edition, 1992 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company Biology Today, 1st edition 1993 Mosby-Year Book, Inc. Biology: The Study of Life, 5th edition 1993 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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51 Table 3. Textbook Sample by Level (1998 2004 Cycle) Book Title/Year/Publisher Biology I Biology: Dynamics of Life, 3rd edition 1998 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Biology: Principles and Explorations 1998 Holt, Rinehart and Winston Essentials of Biology, 1st edition 1998 Holt, Rinehart, and Winston Holt Biology: Visualizing Life, 1st edition 1998 Holt, Rinehart and Winston BSCS Biology, An Ecological Approach, 8th edition 1997 Kendall Hunt BSCS, A Human Approach, 1st edition 1997 Kendall Hunt Biology: The Living Science, 1st edition 1998 Prentice Hall Biology: The Web of Life, 1st edition 1998 Scott Foresman/Addison Wesley Biology: A Community Context, 1st edition 1998 South-Western Biology I Honors Biology: Living Systems, 8th edition 1998 Glencoe/McGraw Hill Biology, 4th edition 1998 Prentice Hall

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52 Table 4. Textbook Sample by Level (2005-2006) Book Title/Year/Publisher Biology I Biology: Cycles of Life 2006 AGS Publishing The Dynamics of Life 7th edition, 2006 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Florida Holt Biology 2006 Holt, Rinehart and Winston Prentice Hall Biology, Florida Edition 1st edition, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc as Pearson Prentice Hall Biology I Honors Modern Biology 2006 Holt, Rinehart and Winston Biology: Exploring Life, Florida Edition 1st edition, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. as Pearson Prentice Hall

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53 A discrete section of text was considered re presentative of indige nous knowledge if the text: 1) referenced a specific indigenous group, society or people or used a generic word or phrase that referred to indigenous populatio ns as determined by the appropriate search terms from The Contemporary Thesaurus of Soc ial Science Terms and Synonyms: A Guide for Natural Language Computer Searching (1993) and The Contemporary Thesaurus of Search Terms and Synonyms: A Guide for Natural Language Computer Searching (2000) and 2) stated a spec ific activity, aspect or id ea relating to one of four areas characterized as a) tec hnologies, b) cultural practices /social life, c) knowledge of the natural world or d) legends and myths. As the indigenous knowledge representations were tallied, each discrete section of text was categorized into one of the four types identified in the second criteria. The complete list of words, phrases or terms used to facilitate identification of indi genous knowledge was included for review as Appendix C. Teacher Editions Using the teacher editions, the gene ral format of the text was reviewed to gauge the incorporation of cultural diversity c ontent into program go als and objectives, philosophies and themes. The use of a teacher edition worksheet, included as Appendix D, allowed the researcher to record specific information regarding the presence or absence of 1) content reviewers expertise within multicultural and diversity issues; 2) emphasis on reading and writing; 3) inclusion of a pacing guide; 4) specific content support for multicultural or diversity; 5) fo cus on students needs; 6) and sciencetechnology-society (STS) content. In addition to general format, the teacher editions were reviewed to determine the relationship of the multicultural content to the specific science content as exemplified by

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54 the chapter or section objectives. The degree to which the multicultural content supported the science content was recorded as a one (1), two (2) or three (3) with one (1) equating highly related (the multicultural content dir ectly supported the goals and objectives; two (2) equating somewhat related (the multicultural content so mewhat supported the stated goals and objectives; and (3) equating not related (no connection between the multicultural content and the stated goals and objectives). This information was recorded on a worksheet included as Appendix E; dire ctions for coding multicultural content are included as Appendix F. Archaeology of Statements To determine the extent of the nature of indigenous representations, an archaeology was created by reading and anal yzing each page of each chapter of the sample textbooks. An archaeology in this sense referred to a co llection of statements regarding a particular idea or set of ideas, that is, those statements that related to appropria te representations of indigenous knowledge (Ninnes, 2000). The arch aeology, created in conjunction with the indigenous knowledge tally, is included in pa rt and as allowable for publication with copyright as Appendix G. The statements were analyzed usi ng a variety of technique s prescribed by Ninnes (2000; 2003) as a means to examine the nature of indigenous repres entations within the broader frames of ideological and textual f eatures. The ideological features included the notion of essentialism as evidenced by 1) th e masking of diversity through the use of homogenous or generic terms, m odifiers or binaries related to indigenous peoples, events and vocabulary and 2) notions of traditionality as prescribed authenticity to specific indigenous groups. Textual features of the statements included 1) examination of

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55 temporal location versus contemporary por trayals of indigenou s knowledges and 2) spatial arrangement including the physical layou t on a page which separated text within a box or shaded area or the use of a round-off, a technique that offered the indigenous explanation then followed by the correct or scientific explanation (Ninnes, 2003, p. 178). Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) Pratt (1972) developed an Evalua tion Coefficient Analysis (ECO) designed to measure bias in textbooks. The measure used a score sheet that allowed the researcher to record the page number, the word or phrase, and the direction, that is, (+) for favorable and (-) for unfavorable. Pratt recorded interra ter reliability for the ECO at 0.947 and testretest reliability at 0.755. Two vocabulary lists were developed. The first Eurocentric sc ience vocabulary list reflected terms divided among three subsets: nature of science ecology and indigenous representations The second list reflected multicultural terms related to the same three subsets as the Eurocentric list. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (2002) provided the list of terms used as the basis for the Eurocentric list. The multicultural list included words and phrases found among The Graywolf Annual Five: Multicultural Literacy the Dictionary of Multicultural Education the Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors and The Contemporary Thesaurus of Social Science Terms and Synonyms as well as current research in indigenous knowledge. Vocabulary lists for the Eurocentric and multicultural terms are included as Appendix H and Appendi x I, respectively. The worksheet for the ECO is included as Appendix J.

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56 Visuals and Illustrations To determine the quality and quantity as well as the extent of the illustrations, photographs and other visuals to represen t examples of non-Western science, the illustrations and photographs were first tallie d and categorized as containing either nonhuman or human content. A visual was in cluded in the study if the depiction was enclosed in a clearly defined boundary on the page, that is, the photograph, illustration or picture had to possess a discerna ble boarder. Maps, graphs, or charts were not considered as visuals for this portion of the study. Based on a classification system developed by Powell and Garcia (1985), visuals with human content were further categorized into one of four areas: children or youth, adults, aerial, and appendage. Visuals coded as aerial depicted individuals massed together in a specific geographic location (Powell and Garcia, 1985, p. 524). Visuals coded as appendage depicted only an appendage of the human body, e.g., hand, arm, leg, foot (Powell and Garcia, p. 524). Child or youth and adult images were also considered in term s of percentages of gender and racial groups represented in the visual or photograph. In addition, the visuals or photographs with humans were tallied as passive or active in consideration of the activity depicted in the visual. The tally sheet for visu als is included as Appendix K. Data Analysis The data analysis incl uded tallies for existence and fr equency of indigenous content, calculated as number of occurrences per chap ter by unit. Units remained one of the ten created as needed for the study: 1) introduction to biology; 2) nature of cells; 3) genetics; 4) evolution; 5) microbial worl d; 6) plants; 7) invertebrate s; 8) vertebrates; 9) human biology; 10) ecology. The rationale for the 10unit system is explained in chapter four.

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57 The Evaluation Coefficient (ECO) was added as a measure of the re lationship between indigenous and Western forms of science. Indigenous knowledge was rated with a plus sign (+) and considered favorable within the context of this study, and Western forms of science were rated with a negative sign (-) and considered unfavorable. The following formula was used: 100 F F + U where F = favorable terms and U = unfavorab le terms. The coefficient range was 0.00 (completely unfavorable) to 100.00 (completel y favorable) with a coefficient of 50.0 representing a neutral stance. Reliability Content analysis as a research met hod uses subjective classification schemes by the assigned coders, and, therefore, holds potenti al limitations due to unreliable measures (Krippendorf, 2004). To solve this problem in the investigation, intr arater and interrater reliabilities were cal culated. According to Neuendorf (2002), Cohens kappa represented the most widely used reliability coefficien t (p. 150) in content analyses. As such, Cohens kappa ( k ) was used to measure rater agreements; the formula for kappa is: k = PA 0 PA E 1 PAE where PA0 stands for proportion ag reement, observed and PAE stands for proportion agreement, expected by chance (Neuendorf, 2002, p. 151). Although common standards on acceptable levels for reliability for the social sciences varied in the literature with regard to cont ent analysis, Cohens kappa for this study was set at 0.75.

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58 One researcher was responsible for th e data collection in this study. Two additional coders were used to calculate interrater relia bilities, and trial analyses, using the coding form and directions, were carried out on text books prior to the data collection to check for rater agreements until k = 0.75 was reached. The coding directions were modified during the trials to allow the coders to prope rly differentiate between somewhat related and highly related in the coding of the mu lticultural components and their relationship to the objectives for each section of text; th eses two categories for coding presented the most difficulty for coders. Intr arater reliabilities were calcu lated for the teacher edition segment of the study by having the researcher code and then recode one teacher edition per each set, once at the beginning of the da ta collection period and a second time two weeks later, using the coding form and direc tions, as previously mentioned and found in Appendix F. The mean intrarater re liability for the researcher was k = 0.81. Interrater reliabilities were calculated for the teacher edit ion segment of the study by having an additional coder, trained on the coding sche me, code a randomly selected teachers edition textbook; intrarater reliabilities for the additional coder were calculated by having the coder code the selected teacher edition a second time after a wait period of two weeks. The intrarater reliabil ity for the additional coder was k = 0.77; interrater reliability was k = 0.77. The same process was carried out for the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO); the additional rater was trained on the data collection process outlined in Pratts How to Find and Measure Bias in Textbooks (1972), and the vocabul ary lists and scoring sheets previously mentioned and included as Appendix H and Appendix I, respectively, were used for the ECO analysis. The mean in trarater reliability for the researcher was k =

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59 0.93. Intrarater reliability for the additional coder was k = 0.94. The interrater reliability was k = 0.95. Determining reliability for the visual s and illustrations segment of the study created difficulty because of the limited numbers of photographs in the sample that depicted human subjects. The average number of visual s depicting human subjects per textbook in the sample was nineteen. Although mean intrarat er reliabilities were calculated at k = 0.97 and k = 0.99 for the researcher and code r, respectively, the reliability may be affected by the limited number of photographs that were to be anal yzed. This fact was also noted in the limitations of the study as the selection of visuals was restricted to two of the ten units in each text book; therefore, the total visuals and illustrations were not inclusive of each unit found in the textbooks in the sample.

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60 Chapter 4 Results Chapter 4 provides the re sults of the content analysis of the 34 textbooks used in this study. The analysis represented an a ttempt to determine the extent to which multicultural science education content, including incorporation of indigenous knowledge, had been infused within the c ontent of high school biology textbooks. The study evaluated the textbook as the primary in structional tool and auxiliary framework for multicultural science education instructi on by comparing mainstream science content to indigenous knowledge perspectives portrayed in the text content. Specifically, the study addressed: 1) the extent to which biology textbooks ad opted in the most recent adoption cycle for science (2005 2006) included conten t coverage that supported perspectives of indigenous knowledge co mpared to biology textbooks adopted in Floridas last three adoption cycles; 2) the ex tent to which multicultural content had been incorporated in the goals and objectives of the 2005 2006 adoption textbooks compared to the goals and objectives f ound in the textbooks adopted in Floridas last three adoption cycles; 3) the extent of the nature of representations of indigenous knowledge included in high school biology textbooks adopted in 2005 2006 compared to biology textbooks adopted in Floridas last three adoption cycles; 4) the extent that indigenous representations as people, even ts, and related voca bulary had been incorporated into the content of high school biology textbooks from 2005 2006 compared to textbooks

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61 adopted in Floridas last three adoption cycles; and 5) the extent to which the illustrations, photographs and other graphics of examples of non-Western science related in quantity and quality to vi suals of Western science in high school biology textbooks adopted in 2005 2006 compared to those adopted in Floridas last three adoption cycles. Tables have been used to organi ze data collected from the segments of the study related to the indigenous knowledge tally, mu lticultural content of the teacher editions, Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO), and visuals and illustrations. In addition, the 34 high school biology textbooks used in the analysis have been organized to reflect four (4) sets of texts based on the year of the a doption cycle. Set 1 co ntained the eight (8) textbooks selected for Biology I and Biology I Honors found in the 1990 1994 adoption cycle. Set 2 contained the nine (9) Biology I and Biology I Honors textbooks found in the 1994 1998 adoption cycle. Set 3 contained the eleven (11) Biology I and Biology I Honors textbooks found in the 1998 2004 adoption cycle. Set 4 contains the six (6) Biology I and Biology I Honors textbooks found in the 2005 2006 adoption cycle. None of the textbooks appeared on a ll four of the adoption lists. As some textbooks shared common title s, a coding system was adapted from the work of Eide and Heikkinen (1991) and their cont ent analysis of teacher resource manuals. Tables 5 and 6 provide the te xtbook codes used for this study. Each text was referred to by the last name of the first author follo wed by a numerical code The numerical code provided the set numeral (1, 2, 3, or 4) followed by the book numeral in the set. As example, the first textbook in Set 1 was Biology Living Systems (Glencoe, 1989) by Oram. Reference to this textbook app eared in the analysis as Oram 1-1.

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62 Table 5. List of Book Codes by Textbook Se t and First Author Sets 1 and 2 Book Code First Author Title and Publisher Year Set 1 1-1 Oram Biology Living Systems (Glencoe) 1989 1-2 Goodman Biology (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich) 1989 1-3 McLaren Biology (Heath) 1989 1-4 Towle Modern Biology (Holt, Rinehart, Winston) 1989 1-5 Alexander Biology (Prentice Hall) 1989 1-6 Milani BSCS A Molecular Approach (Heath) 1990 1-7 Milani BSCS An Ecological Approach (Kendall Hunt) 1987 1-8 Schraer Biology The Study of Life (Prentice Hall) 1991 Set 2 2-1 Essenfeld Biology (Addison-Wesley) 1994 2-2 Kaskel Biology An Everyday Experience (Glencoe) 1992 2-3 Johnson Biology: Visualizing Life (Holt, Rinehart, Winston) 1994 2-4 Miller Biology (Prentice Hall) 1993 2-5 Oram Biology Living Systems (Glencoe) 1994 2-6 Towle Modern Biology (Holt, Rinehart, Winston) 1993 2-7 Milani BSCS An Ecological Approach (Kendall Hunt) 1992 2-8* Gottfried Biology Today (Mosby) 1993 2-9 Schraer Biology The Study of Life (Prentice Hall) 1993 *Teacher Edition entitled Teaching Biology Today (Mosby, 1993) by Ann S. Lumsden

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63 Table 6. List of Book Codes by Textbook Se t and First Author Sets 3 and 4 Book Code First Author Title and Publisher Year Set 3 3-1 Biggs Biology The Dynamics of Life (Glencoe) 1998 3-2 Johnson Biology Principles & Explorations (H,B,J) 1998 3-3 Pignatiello Essentials of Biology (Heath) 1998 3-4 Johnson Biology Visualizing Life (Holt, Rinehart, Winston) 1998 3-5 Cairney BSCS An Ecological Approach (Kendall Hunt) 1998 3-6* Bybee BSCS A Human Approach (Kendall Hunt) 1997 3-7 Miller Biology The Living Science (Prentice Hall) 1998 3-8 Strauss Biology The Web of Life (Scott Foresman) 1998 3-9* Leonard Biology A Community Context (Addison-Wesley) 1998 3-10 Oram Biology Living Systems (Glencoe) 1998 3-11 Miller Biology (Prentice Hall) 1998 Set 4 4-1 Parke Biology Cycles of Life (Addison-Wesley) 2006 4-2 Biggs Biology The Dynamics of Life (Glencoe) 2006 4-3 Johnson Holt Biology (Holt, Rinehart, Winston) 2006 4-4 Miller Biology (Prentice Hall) 2006 4-5 Postlethwait Modern Biology (Holt, Rinehart, Winston) 2006 4-6 Campbell Biology Exploring Life (Prentice Hall) 2006 *Teacher Edition exists as separate manual by same author and same title as student edition

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64 A general review of the sample revealed that textbook content in 32 of the texts was organized into a system of units rangi ng from a 5-unit to an 11-unit design; the remaining 2 textbooks in the sample listed chapters with no unit designations or other identifiable system of conten t organization. The average numb er of units per textbook in the sample was 8.35 with an 8-unit design repr esenting the modal syst em of organization. The general layout for the 8-uni t plan incorporated conten t dedicated to the following broad topics: 1) nature of cells (introduction) ; 2) genetics and evolution ; 3) ecology ; 4) microbial word ( bacteria, fungi, protists ); 5) plants ; 6) invertebrates ; 7) vertebrates ; and 8) human biology For this study, the chapters and units of the textbooks in sample were reorganized as needed to reflect a 10-unit design for ea ch textbook with the following broad topic designation for each unit: 1) introduction to biology ; 2) cells ; 3) genetics ; 4) evolution ; 5) microbial world ; 6) plants ; 7) invertebrates ; 8) vertebrates ; 9) human biology ; and 10) ecology In order to achieve this 10unit design, most of the textbooks required a realignment of chapters to reflect the unit de signations listed in th e above paragraph. As example, when the nature of cells unit appeared in a textbook with no separate unit for the introduction to biology the appropriate chapters were separated from the nature of cells and assigned as introduction to biology A distinct unit for evolution as well as a distinct unit for genetics was created for any textbook that had originally placed these two topics together under one un it. If a textbook included invertebrates and vertebrates within one distinct unit labeled animals then chapters in that pa rticular unit were divided appropriately and reassigned to reflect a unit for invertebrates and another one for vertebrates. If one chapter included content appropr iate for two distinct units, then the

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65 chapter was counted twice, once for each cont ent area included within the chapter. This occurred most often when aut hors included fungi and plants w ithin the same chapter. In this case, the chapter wa s counted within the unit microbial world as well as the unit plants The 10-unit division served not only to create uniformity of te xtbook content but also to facilitate the analysis of frequencie s for each unit topic designated in the 10-unit layout. Tables 7, 8, 9, and 10 depict the number of chapters per the 10-unit system used in this study. The average number of chapters per textbook in the sample was 37.0. The average number of chapters per unit in the 10unit system for the sample was as follows: introduction to biology (2.5 chapters); cells (3.4 chapters); genetics (3.9 chapters); evolution (3.0 chapters); microbial world (3.0 chapters); plants (3.7 chapters); invertebrates (3.7 chapters); vertebrates (4.1 chapters); human biology (7.2 chapters); and ecology (3.9 chapters). For 31 of the 34 textbooks in the sample, the teacher edition represented an annotated version of the student edition with notes in the margins and additional resource or instructional pages included as an auxiliary guide for teachers; these additional pages were most often referred to as teacher interl eafs. For three of the textbooks in the sample, a separate manual served as the teacher edition: Lumsden 2-8, Bybee 3-6, and Leonard 39. The teacher edition which accompanied the student edition, Gottfried 2-8, Biology Today was of a different title, Teaching Biology Today and was written by a different author, Ann S. Lumsden, hence the designa tion Lumsden 2-8. Lumsden 2-8 represented a collection of chapter objectives and overviews, lecture outline s, answers to the end-ofchapter Thought Questions found in the student edition as well as reproducible exams.

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66 Table 7. Number of Chapters Per Unit Set 1 Book Code Total Number ch units Intro Cells Gen Evol Micro Plants Inverts Verts Human Ecol Oram 1-1 35 8 3 2 4 3 2 3 6 6 8 3 Goodman 1-2 54 11 5 4 5 4 5 6 5 5 11 4 McLaren 1-3 50 8 4 4 4 5 3 6 4 6 9 5 Towle 1-4 53 10 4 5 4 5 5 5 7 6 7 5 Alexander 1-5 39 8 3 3 2 3 4 5 4 4 7 4 Milani 1-6 26 6 2 5 3 2 2 2 2 4 5 2 Milani 1-7 25 5 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 4 6 Schraer 1-8 39 8 4 2 5 2 2 4 2 4 10 3 ch = total number of chapters units = total number of original units

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67 Table 8. Number of Chapters Per Unit Set 2 Book Code Total Number ch units Intro Cells Gen Evol Micro Plants Inverts Verts Human Ecol Essenfeld 2-1 48 9 4 3 5 4 4 5 5 6 8 4 Kaskel 2-2 32 8 1 1 4 2 2 4 2 5 10 3 Johnson 2-3 34 6 2 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 8 3 Miller 2-4 49 10 4 4 4 3 4 6 5 6 10 3 Oram 2-5 30 7 2 4 5 2 2 3 5 5 9 4 Towle 2-6 53 10 4 5 4 5 5 5 7 6 7 5 Milani 2-7 24 5 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 4 5 Gottfried 2-8 40 8 2 5 4 3 2 2 1 3 13 5 Schraer 2-9 39 8 4 2 5 2 2 4 2 4 10 3 ch = total number of chapters units = total number of original units

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68 Table 9. Number of Chapters Per Unit Set 3 Book Code Total Number ch units Intro Cells Gen Evol Micro Plants Inverts Verts Human Ecol Biggs 3 -1 43 10 2 5 5 3 4 4 5 4 6 5 Johnson 3-2 42 9 1 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 4 Pignatiello 3-3 35 n/a 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 6 7 3 Johnson 3-4 35 6 2 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 7 3 Milani 3-5 24 5 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 4 5 Bybee 3-6 16 6 4 4 3 3 0 0 0 0 6 2 Miller 3-7 40 8 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 5 7 4 Strauss 3-8 38 9 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 6 4 Leonard 3-9 n/a 8 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 4 Oram 3-10 30 7 2 4 5 2 2 3 5 5 9 4 Miller 3-11 49 10 4 4 4 3 4 6 5 6 10 3 ch = total number of chapters units = total number of original units

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69 Table 10. Number of Chapters Per Unit Set 4 Book Code Total Number ch units Intro Cells Gen Evol Micro Plants Inverts Verts Human Ecol Parke 4 -1 19 n/a 3 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 Biggs 4-2 39 10 1 4 4 4 3 4 5 4 6 4 Johnson 4-3 43 9 2 4 5 3 4 4 5 5 7 4 Miller 4-4 40 10 2 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 6 4 Postlethwait 4-5 51 10 3 5 5 4 4 5 7 6 7 5 Campbell 4-6 36 9 3 5 5 2 3 4 2 2 7 3 ch = total number of chapters units = total number of original units

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70 The teacher edition for Bybee 3-6 repres ented a comprehensive resource manual for teachers which included guidelines for im plementation, assessment and evaluation, cooperative learning, correlation of the nationa l science standards, masters for overheads and handouts, optional activities, and edu cational technology including use of the videodiscs. The teacher edition for Leonard 3-9 provided an introduc tion to instructional strategies, assessments, nati onal science education standa rds, background and suggested resources for each unit, and unit exams with assessment rubrics. Indigenous Knowledge Tally Frequency of Representation The frequency of indigenous knowledge representations was tallied for the student and teacher editions of the sample and record ed as the average number of indigenous knowledge representations per chapter by unit or topic area. More indigenous knowledge representations occurred in th e teacher editions compared to the student editions, and the indigenous content identified in the teacher edition was typically incorporated as textboxes found in the margins and labeled mu lticultural (or cultural) perspectives (or strategies). In addition, the highest averages for indigenous knowledge representations were recorded for the textbooks in the sample in two units: plants and ecology For the sample, plants had a range of 0.0 to 2.0 average number of indigenous knowledge representations per chapter by unit or topic area with a mean of 0.38 for the student editions and a range of 0.0 to 3.33 av erage number of indigenous knowledge representations per chapter by unit or topic area with a mean of 0.63 for the teacher editions. For the sample, ecology had a range of 0.0 to 0.75 average number of indigenous knowledge representati ons per chapter by unit or t opic area with a mean of

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71 0.19 for the student editions and a range of 0.0 to 1.25 average number of indigenous knowledge representations per chapter by unit or topic area with a mean of 0.38 for the teacher editions. Textbooks in Set 1 Tables 11 and 12 depict the averages of indigenous knowledge content found in Set 1 for the student and teacher ed itions, respectively. Limited am ounts of content related to indigenous knowledge appeared within the set; no averages were record ed in the units of introduction to biology cells genetics invertebrates and vertebrates for any of the texts in the set. No difference occurred in averag es recorded for the student edition and the teacher edition with the exception of th e teacher edition for Milani 1-7 in ecology For this text, the teacher edition had a slightly higher average compared to the student counterpart. The exception was Milani 1-7 teacher edition and the unit ecology which included a one-sentence annotation with rega rd to indigenous content located in the margin. Indigenous knowledge representations were most common among the units designated as ecology microbial world plats and human biology Averages of indigenous knowledge content in the unit plants were recorded for four of these six textbooks. Milani 1-7 provided the highest average of representa tions related specifically to the unit topics of ecology microbial world and plants with microbial world representing the highest average. Oram 1-1 provided the least total amount of coverage of indigenous knowledge with indigenous content recorded for one unit: human biology

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72 Table 11. Average Number of Indigenous Knowledge Representations pe r Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 1 Student Editions Unit/ Oram Goodman McLauren Towle Alexander Milani Milani Schraer Topic 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 Introduction 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Cells 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Genetics 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Evolution 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 Microbial World 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.50 0.00 Plants 0.00 0.33 0.17 0.40 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 Invertebrates 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Vertebrates 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Human Biology 0.25 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Ecology 0.00 0.25 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00

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73 Table 12. Average Number of Indigenous Knowledge Representations per Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 1 Teacher Editions Unit/ Oram Goodman McLauren Towle Alexander Milani Milani S chraer Topic 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 Introduction 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Cells 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Genetics 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Evolution 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 Microbial World 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.50 0.00 Plants 0.00 0.33 0.17 0.40 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 Invertebrates 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Vertebrates 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Human Biology 0.25 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Ecology 0.00 0.50 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.67 0.00

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74 Table 13. Average Number of Indigenous Knowledge Representations pe r Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 2 Student Editions Unit/ Essenfeld Kaskel Johnson Miller Oram Towle Milani Gottfried Schraer Topic 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 Introduction 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Cells 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Genetics 0.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Evolution 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Microbial World 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 Plants 1.00 0.25 2.00 0.16 0.67 0.20 0.33 0.50 0.00 Invertebrates 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Vertebrates 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.40 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 Human Biology 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Ecology 0.25 0.00 0.33 0.33 0.75 0.00 0.20 0.60 0.00

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75 Table 14. Average Number of Indigenous Knowledge Representations pe r Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 2 Teacher Editions Unit/ Essenfeld Kaskel Johnson Miller Oram Towle Mil ani Lumsden Schraer Topic 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 Introduction 0.25 0.00 1.50 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Cells 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Genetics 0.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Evolution 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Microbial World 0.25 0.00 0.50 0.25 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 Plants 1.40 0.25 3.33 0.16 1.33 0.20 0.33 0.00 0.00 Invertebrates 0.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Vertebrates 0.67 0.00 0.50 0.16 0.60 0.17 1.00 0.00 0.00 Human Biology 0.50 0.00 0.38 0.00 0.44 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Ecology 0.50 0.00 1.00 0.33 2.00 0.00 0.40 0.00 0.00

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76 Textbooks in Set 2 Tables 13 and 14 depict the averages of indigenous knowledge content identified in Set 2 for the student and teacher editions, respectively. Eight of the nine student editions were identified to include indigenous knowledge content. Among these eight texts, all 10 units were identified to include indigenous knowledge content. Seven of the nine teacher editions were identified to include indigenous knowledge. Among these seven texts, all 10 units were identified to include indigenous content. Averages of indigenous knowledge content were recorded in the unit plants for each of the student and teacher editions of the textbooks noted to include some form of indigenous knowledge. Lumsden 2-8, as previously noted, represented a separa te manual for teacher use and, as such, did not include content in the scope required for a tally of indigenous knowledge. Among the student editions, Oram 2-5 and Essenfeld 2-1 had the most indigenous knowledge representation across the 10 unit to pics. Oram 2-5 had indigenous content within seven of the 10 units; Essenfeld 2-1 ha d indigenous content wi thin six of the 10 units. For Oram 2-5, indigenous knowledge repr esentations were most frequent in the unit evolution three-fourths as frequent in the unit ecology two-thirds as frequent in plants half as frequent in microbial world two-fifths as frequent in the unit vertebrates one-third as frequent in human biology and one-fourth as frequent in cells For Essenfeld 2-1, indigenous knowledge representations were most frequent in the unit plants threefifths as frequent in the unit genetics and one fourth to one fift h as frequent in the units of human biology ecology invertebrates or vertebrates Towle 2-6 had the lowest average of indigenous content recorded in the student editions for one unit: plants

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77 For the teacher editio ns, Essenfeld 2-1 and Oram 2-5 also had the most indigenous knowledge representations across the 10 unit to pics; both of these editions included indigenous content in eight of the 10 units In Essenfeld 2-1, indigenous knowledge content was most frequent in the unit plants three-fifths as freque nt in the units of genetics, invertebrates and vertebrates almost one-third as frequent in the units of human biology and ecology and almost four-fifths as frequent for the units of introduction and microbial world The average of representation in the Essenfeld 2-1 teacher edition compared to the student edition increased in all of the units with the exception of genetics which remained the same for student and teacher edition. Introduction and microbial world went from no representation in the st udent edition to 0.2 5 in the teacher edition. Human biology and ecology doubled in its average in the teacher edition; invertebrates tripled in its average. An averag e increase of two-fifths for the unit plants and four times for the unit vertebrates occurred in the teacher edition compared to averages for the student ed ition for Essenfeld 2-1. For Oram 2-5 teacher edition, indi genous knowledge representations were most frequent in evolution and ecology two-thirds as frequent in the unit plants a little more than two-thirds as frequent in the unit cells a little less than one-third as frequent in the unit vertebrates one-fourth as frequent in microbial world one-fifth as frequent in human biology and one-tenth as frequent in genetics The average of representation in the Oram 2-5 teacher edition increased in all of the units compared to the student edition with the exception of the unit microbial world which remained the same for student and teacher edition. Genetics went from no representation in the student edition to 0.20 in the teacher edition. The average of cells tripled; the average of evolution and plants doubled.

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78 The average increased one-fifth for vertebrates and one-tenth for human biology compared to the student edition. Towle 2-6 had the lowest average of indigenous knowledge among the teacher editions in one unit: vertebrates Kaskel 2-2 had the least amount of total indigenous content among the teacher ed itions. A noted previously for the student edition, this representation was recorded within one unit: plants Kaskel 2-2 was also the only text in set 1 with no difference in average of re presentations of indigenous knowledge in the student edition compared to the teache r edition. The least common occurrence of indigenous representation among the 10 units fo r student and teacher editions collectively occurred in plants and the unit vertebrates in Miller 2-4 student and teacher editions. Textbooks in Set 3 Tables 15 and 16 depict the averag es of indigenous knowle dge content identified in Set 3 for the student and teacher editions, respectively. Ten of the 11 student editions included indigenous knowledge content. Am ong these ten texts, all 10 units were identified to include indigenous content. Eight of the eleven teacher editions included indigenous knowledge content. Am ong these eight texts, all 10 units were identified to include indigenous content. Averages within plants and ecology occurred for each one of the teacher editions noted to include indi genous knowledge content. Averages occurred for the unit plants in six of the student editions no ted to contain indigenous content; averages for ecology were found in five of the student editions noted to contain indigenous content. Bybee 3-6 and Leonard 3-9, as previously noted, represented separate texts for the teacher resource and, as such, did not include content that could be tallied for indigenous knowledge within the scope of this portion of the study.

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79 Table 15. Average Number of Indigenous Knowledge Representations pe r Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 3 Student Editions Unit/ Biggs Johnson Pignatiello Johnson Cairney Bybee Miller Strauss Leonard Oram Miller Topic 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 Introduction 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 Cells 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.00 Genetics 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.25 0.25 1.00 0.00 0.00 Evolution 0.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 Microbial World 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 Plants 0.25 1.00 0.00 1.33 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.67 0.00 Invertebrates 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 Vertebrates 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 0.17 Human Biology 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 Ecology 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.75 0.00

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80 Table 16. Average Number of Indigenous Knowledge Representations pe r Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 3 Teacher Editions Unit/ Biggs Johnson Pignatiello Johnson Cairney Bybee* Miller Strauss Leonard* Oram Miller Topic 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 Introduction 0.00 2.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 Cells 0.20 0.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.75 0.25 Genetics 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.75 0.00 0.20 0.00 Evolution 0.67 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.25 0.00 2.00 0.00 Microbial World 0.00 0.75 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.75 Plants 1.00 2.00 0.00 2.00 0.33 0.00 0.25 1.25 0.00 1.33 0.33 Invertebrates 0.20 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 Vertebrates 0.25 0.50 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.75 0.00 0.60 0.50 Human Biology 0.33 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.44 0.10 Ecology 0.20 0.25 0.00 0.33 0.60 0.00 1.00 1.25 0.00 2.00 0.33 *exists as a separate edition and, th erefore, does not represent an a nnotated version of student edition

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81 Among the student editions, Oram 3-10 ha d the highest average of indigenous knowledge representation across the 10 unit topics; this student edition included indigenous content within seven of the 10 unit. Strauss 3-9 had indige nous content in four of the 10 units with the hi ghest frequency in the unit plants and one-fourth the frequency in genetics invertebrates and ecology The single unit with the highest average among the student editions was found in human biology in Bybee 3-6; the second highest average for a single unit occurred in plants in Johnson 3-4. The single unit with the lowest average of representation among the student editions occurred in vertebrates in Miller 3-11. Frequency of indigenous represen tations increased noticeably for the teacher editions compared to the student editions in Set 3. For the teacher editions, Johnson 3-2 included indigenous content in each of the 10 units; Strauss 3-8 and Oram 3-10 included indigenous content in eight of the 10 un its; Biggs 3-1 and Miller 3-11 included indigenous content in seven of the 10 units; Miller 3-7 included indi genous content in six of the 10 units. For Johnson 3-2 teacher edition, indige nous knowledge content was most frequent in introduction and plants slightly more than one-third as frequent in microbial world slightly less than one-third in cells one-fourth as frequent in evolution invertebrates and vertebrates one-eighth as frequent in genetics and ecology and one-fifteenth as frequent in human biology The average for plants doubled in the teacher edition compared to the student edition. For the remaining nine un its, the student edition had no average of indigenous content compared to the teacher edition; the average for these nine units in the teacher edition ranged from 0.13 to 2.00.

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82 In Strauss 3-8 teacher edition, indigenous knowledge was most frequent in plants and ecology four-fifths as frequent in introduction half as frequent in genetics and vertebrates, two-fifths as frequent in invertebrates slightly more than one-fourth as frequent in cells and one-fifth ad frequent in evolution Compared to its student edition counterpart, Strauss 3-8 teacher edition in creased in average among all of the units. Averages in introduction cells evolution and vertebrates went from no representation in the student edition to 1.00, 0.33, 0.25, and 0.75 re spectively, in the teacher edition. The average for ecology increased five times in the teacher edition compared to the student edition. Averages for genetics tripled and doubled for invertebrates ; the average for plants increased by two-fifths in the teacher edition. For Oram 3-10 teacher edition, the hi ghest average of indigenous representations occurred in evolution and ecology The average of represen tations in the Oram 3-10 teacher edition increased in all of the units compared to the student edition with the exception of the unit microbial world which remained the same for student and teacher edition. Genetics went from no representation in the st udent edition to 0.2 0 in the teacher edition. The average of cells tripled in the teacher edition. Ecology increased more than two and a half times in average and evolution and plants doubled in average in the teacher edition compared to the student edition for Oram 3-10. The average for vertebrates increased one-fifth and one-tenth for human biology compare to the student edition. For Biggs 3-1, indigenous knowledge was most frequent in plants two-thirds as frequent in evolution, one-third as frequent human biology one-fourth as frequent in vertebrates and one-fifth as frequent cells invertebrates and ecology Compared to its

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83 student edition counterpart, Bi ggs 3-1 teacher edition increased in average among all of the units that contained indigenous content with the exception of evolution and vertebrates which remained the same for student and teacher edition. Averages in cells invertebrates human biology and ecology went from no represen tation in the student edition to 0.20, 0.20, 0.33 and 0.20, respectively, in the teacher edition. Biggs 3-1 teacher edition had four times the frequency of content in plants compared to its student counterpart. For Miller 3-11 teacher editi on, indigenous knowledge was most frequent microbial world two-thirds as frequent in introduction and vertebrates a little more than one-third as frequent in plants and ecology one-third as frequent in cells and a little more than one-tenth as frequent in human biology Compared to its student edition counterpart, Miller 3-11 teacher edition increa sed in average among all of the units that contained indigenous conten t with the exception of introduction which remained the same for student and teacher editions. Averages in cells microbial world plants human biology and ecology went from no representation in the student edition to 0.25, 0.75, 0.33, 0.10 and 0.33 respectively, in the teacher edition. The average for vertebrates increased a little more than three times in the teacher edition compared to the student edition. Averages for genetics tripled and doubled for invertebrates ; the average for plants increased by two-fifths in the teacher edition. Miller 3-11 also had the lowest frequency of indigenous knowledge among the teacher editions in one unit: human biology Cairney 3-5 had the least amount of to tal indigenous content among the teacher editions.

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84 Table 17. Average Number of Indigenous Knowledge Representations pe r Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 4 Student Editions Unit/ Parke Biggs Johnson Miller Postlethwait Campbell Topic 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 Introduction 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.0 0 0.00 Cells 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Genetics 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Evolution 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Microbial World 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Plants 0.00 0.50 1.25 0.75 0.00 0.00 Invertebrates 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Vertebrates 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Human Biology 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Ecology 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.75 0.20 0.00

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85 Table 18. Average Number of Indigenous Knowledge Representations per Chapter by Unit/Topic Area for Set 4 Teacher Editions Unit/ Parke Biggs Johnson Miller Postlethwait Campbell Topic 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 Introduction 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.3 3 0.00 Cells 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.60 0.00 Genetics 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 Evolution 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 Microbial World 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 Plants 0.00 1.50 2.00 0.75 0.40 0.00 Invertebrates 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.00 0.14 0.00 Vertebrates 0.00 0.50 1.60 0.00 0.83 0.00 Human Biology 0.00 0.50 0.29 0.00 0.14 0.00 Ecology 0.00 0.25 0.25 0.75 0.40 0.00

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86 Textbooks in Set 4 Tables 17 and 18 depict the averages of indigenous knowle dge found in Set 4 for the student and teacher editions, re spectively. Four of the six student editions included some form of indigenous knowledge content. Among these four texts, introduction to biology cells plants vertebrates human biology and ecology were identified to include indigenous content. Five of th e six teacher editions includ ed indigenous content. Among these five texts, all 10 units were identified to include indigenous content. Averages for ecology were found in four of the five student editions found to have indigenous content; averages occurred for the unit plants in three of the five student editions found to include indigenous content. Averages for ecology were found all five of the teacher editions found to have indigenous content; frequencies occurred for the unit plants in four of the five teacher editions found to include indigenous content. Among the student editions, Biggs 4-2 and Miller 4-4 had the most frequent indigenous knowledge representation across the 10 unit topics; both of these student editions included indigenous content within three of the 10 units. For Biggs 4-2, indigenous knowledge was most common in the unit plants and vertebrates and a little more than one-third as frequent in the unit human biology For Miller 4-4, indigenous content was most frequent in plants and ecology and two-thirds as frequent in introduction to biology Biggs 4-2 also had the single uni t with the lowest average of representation among the st udent editions within human biology The highest average per unit for student editions occurr ed in Johnson 4-3 in the unit plants Average of indigenous representation s increased noticeably for the teacher editions compared to the student editions in Set 4. Postlethwait 4-5 included indigenous

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87 representations in ei ght of the 10 units. Indigenous knowledge was most frequent in vertebrates two-thirds as frequent in cells slightly more than half as frequent in evolution half as frequent in plants and ecology slightly more than one-third as frequent in introduction and slight less than one -fifth as frequent in invertebrates and human biology Compared to its student edition counte rpart, Postlethwait 4-5 teacher edition increased in average among all of the units with indigenous content. Averages in introduction cells evolution plants invertebrates vertebrates and human biology went from no representation in the student edition to 0.33, 0.60, 0.50, 0.40, 0.14, 0.83, and 0.14 respectively, in the teacher edition. The average for ecology doubled for the teacher edition. Johnson 4-3 included indigenous repres entations in seven of the 10 units. Indigenous knowledge was most frequent in plants slightly more than three-fourths as frequent in vertebrates one-fifth as frequent in invertebrates slightly less than one-sixth as frequent in human biology one-eighth as frequent in cells and ecology and one-tenth as frequent in genetics Compared to its student edition counterpart, Johnson 4-3 teacher edition increased in average among all of th e units with indigenous content with the exception of ecology which remained the same for th e student and teacher editions. Averages in cells genetics, invertebrates vertebrates and human biology went from no representation in the student editi on to 0.25, 0.20, 0.40, 1.60, and 0.29, respectively, in the teacher edition. The average for plants increased by three-fifths for the teacher edition. Biggs 4-2 included indigenous representati ons in six of the 10 units topics. Indigenous knowledge was most frequent in plants one-third as frequent in vertebrates

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88 and human biology slightly less than one-f ifth as frequent in microbial world one-sixth as frequent in ecology and slightly more than on e-eighth as frequent in invertebrates Compared to its student edit ion counterpart, Biggs 4-2 teacher edition increased in average among all of the units with indigenous cont ent with the exception of vertebrates which remained the same for student and teacher editions. Averages in microbial world vertebrates and ecology went from no representation in the student edition to 0.33, 0.20, 0.25, respectively, in the teach er edition. The average for plants tripled for the teacher edition and increased slightly more than three times for human biology Campbell 4-6 had the least amount of indigenous content among all the teacher editions for Set 4; the single unit with the lowest average of indige nous content, however, occurred within invertebrates and human biology in Postlethwait 4-5. Kinds of Indigenous Representations As the averages for indigenous knowledge representati ons were higher for the teacher editions, the content located in the teacher editions was used to examine the kinds of representations. The content was grouped into one of the following four categories: 1) technologies; 2) cultural pract ices/social life; 3) knowledge/v iews of the natural world; and 4) legends/myths. The only exception to th is case fell within three of the books in the sample: Lumsden 2-8, Bybee 3-6 and Leonard 39. As these three textbooks had separate manuals for the teacher resources, the conten t from the student edition counterpart was used for the purpose of classifying indigenous content into one of the four types. Although Ninnes (2000) acknowledged that these categories were not mutually exclusive, that is, an i ndigenous technology may have been included in a cultural practice, the investigator determined one kind of representation for each indigenous

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89 knowledge accounted for in the tally. The pr imary idea dictated the placement in a category of indigenous knowledge. The kinds of representations serv ed to demonstrate the scope of indigenous knowle dge included in the sample. Representations in Set 1 Indigenous Technologies Set 1 The textbooks included in Set 1 illustrated a range of indigenous knowledge between two categories: technologies and cu ltural practices/socia l life. Indigenous technologies included examples of the cultivation of plants (Goodman 1-2: 434; Towle 14: 356), domestication of dogs (Milani 1-7: 896), plants and animals for food and clothing (McLaren 1-3: 355), lichens as an e nvironmentally contaminated food source for Eskimos (Milani 1-7: 432), and pine nuts as a useful product of trees (McLaren 1-3: 355). Indigenous Cultural Practic es and Social life Set 1 Cultural and social life included th e practices and rituals of a Navaho medicine man (Milani 1-7: 371), activities of the hunter -gatherers (Milani 1-7: 896), the common grounds of Indian farmers (Milani 1-7: 896), the effects of life at high altitudes for the Quechua Indians of the Andes (Goodman 1-2: 680), the frequency of blood allele A for Blackfoot Indians of North America (Alexande r 1-5: 186) and the life of Lillie Rosa Parks, a Mohawk who became a physician and later worked on the Oneida Indian Reservation in Wisconsin (Oram 1-1: 523). Indigenous Knowledge of the Natural World Set 1 Knowledge of the natural world included one reference to medicinal plants (Goodman, 1-2: 436); no examples that could be categorized as legends or myths were found in Set 1.

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90 Representations in Set 2 Indigenous Technologies Set 2 The textbooks included in Set 2 illustra ted a wide range of indigenous knowledge between two categories: technologies and cultural practices/soc ial life. Indigenous technologies included the use of buffalo hides for food, shelter and other products (Essenfeld 2-1: 6, 829), the use of vegetation in the Plains to build thatch shelter (Essenfeld 2-1: 6), selective breeding of plants and animals (Essenfeld 2-1: 127, 189; Johnson 2-3: 430), cultivation of corn and pot atoes (Essenfeld 2-1: 368, 405; Oram 2-5: 314), advanced system of agriculture (Essenf eld 2-1: 365; Johnson 2-3: 315), soaking of corn in solutions to create hominy (Oram 2-5: 60), use of latex to make rubber balls and waterproof shoes (Essenfeld 2-1: 365, Johnson 2-3: 440), maple syrup production (Essenfeld 2-1: 411), addition of sponge spicules to pottery to strengthen the clay (Essenfeld 2-1: 479), use of shells for money (E ssenfeld 2-1: 479), use of toxins in frog glands for poison arrow darts (Essenfeld 2-1: 578, Miller 2-4: 201; Milani 2-7: 360), extraction of quinine to treat malaria (Kaske l 2-2: 425), control of biological pests with the neem tree and other methods (Johnson 23: 259; Oram 2-5: 441), derivations of medicines from plants ( Johnson 2-3: 409) use of Kola nuts for chewing gum and medications (Johnson 2-3: 417), use of May apple to kill parasitic worms (Johnson 2-3: 438), use of peyote as an appetite suppressant (Johnson 2-3: 703), use of moss to treat burns and bruises (Miller 2-4: 461), preser vation of fish through freeze-drying (Oram 25: 98), extraction of red dye from cactus (O ram 2-5: 796), use of reindeer for coats, shoes, food and other products (Oram 2-5: 807, 825; Milani 2-7: 327), and use of the scouring rush or horsetail plant as a pot scrubber (Towle 2-6: 373, Milani 2-7: 345).

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91 Indigenous Cultural Practic es and Social Life Set 2 Components of indigenous cu ltural activities and social life included the concept of a world view, that is, the interdependence and role of all life forms including humans (Essenfeld 2-1: 375, 875; Johnson 2-3: 9, Oram 2-5: 460), peyote as a part of religious ceremonies (Essenfeld 2-1: 407; Johnson 2-3: 703), role of snakes in religious ceremonies (Essenfeld 2-1: 598), use of mesca line in rites of passage (Essenfeld 2-1: 803), impact of smallpox and other diseas es on native peoples after settlement by Europeans (Essenfeld 2-1: 786), use of bird feathers in rituals (Johnson 2-3: 586; Towle 2-6: 570), use of tobacco and alcohol in cer emonies for peace, war, harvest or rain (Johnson 2-3: 699, 706), stories from Ayers Rock that connect the tr ibe and the animals key to everyday life (Miller 2-4: 5), corn as a sacred plant and part of rituals (Oram 2-5: 438), use of amaranth and the red dye extracted from its flowers in religious ceremonies (Oram 205: 440; Gottfried 2-8: 537), art and cr afts that include bird symbols on pottery (Oram 2-5: 470); tradition of naming practices for infants (Oram 2-5: 502), rituals related to rite of passage of young girls into woma nhood (Oram 2-5: 530), re ligious rituals to protect trees from commercial harvesting (Oram 2-5: 867), eff ects of life at high altitudes (Oram 2-5: 621), the life of Lillie Rosa Pa rks, a Mohawk who became a physician and later worked on the Oneida I ndian Reservation in Wisconsin (Oram 2-5:568), salt as a part of prayer practices (Oram 2-5: 5 60), whale hunting as a community practice (Essenfeld 2-1, 628). In addition, students were given the oppor tunity to research Native American poetry and investigate indigenous gr oups on different continents and contrast and compare their cultures (Oram 2-5: 829).

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92 Indigenous Knowledge of the Natural World Set 2 Knowledge of the natural world includ ed experience of plant properties for medicinal purposes including the practice of chewing on willow bark to relieve pain (Essenfeld 2-1: 365, 377; Johnson 2-3: 11), use of the pulp of a poisonous plant to attract insect food sources (Essenfeld 2-1: 529), development of a calendar based on movement of celestial bodies (Johnson, 23: 438), system of classifyi ng birds (Johnson 2-3: 325). In addition, Johnson 2-3 (438) showed a pictur e of a native doctor teaching a Western doctor about the medicinal propert ies of rainforest plants. Legends and Myths Set 2 Legends and myths had the least amount of representations. Those included in this category related the legend of the Pitjenda ra tribe that told of Liru and Kunia, two snakes that fought a battle that created th e face of Ayers Rock. Other legends included how the owl got his large eyes and short neck (Oram 2-5: 210, 460), the Samoan legend of the creation of their isla nd by an egg that broke in th e water (Oram 2-5: 308), the Maori belief that a bird dropped an egg that contained all of the people and animals of New Zealand (Oram 2-5: 308), the Sioux lege nd of how the crow became black (Oram 25: 350), and the Papago myth of how butte rflies were created (Oram 2-5: 460). Representations in Set 3 Indigenous Technologies Set 3 Although indigenous content in Set 3 occurred in all 4 categories of representations, the widest range of indigenous knowledge existed between two categories: technologies and cultural practices/social life. The indigenous technologies included innovations such as animal domestic ation and agricultural pr actices (Biggs 3-1:

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93 43; Strauss 3-8: 908; Miller 3-7: 197), use of snow and ice to build housing (Biggs 2-1: 43), use of drying, freeze-drying or salt to re sist decay (Biggs 2-1: 226; Oram 3-10: 98), cultivation of corn and creation of corn pr oducts (Biggs 2-1: 6 31; Johnson 3-2: 590, 594, Johnson 3-4: 414), use of bean for food sources including the mixing of beans to create succotash (Biggs 2-1: 632), domestication of cacao seeds to make chocolate (Biggs 2-1: 671; Strauss 3-8: 488), application of frog toxi ns to make poison arrow darts (Biggs 2-1: 30; Strauss 3-8: 613; Miller 3-11: 701), solu tion for soaking willow bark to treat aches and pains (Johnson 3-2: 601), use of latex to make rubber balls and to waterproof shoes (John 3-2: 603; Johnson 3-4: 419), use of she lls to make wampum currency (Johnson 3-2: 666; Johnson 3-4: 488), products and medicines from the n eed tree (Johnson 3-4: 1998), Kola nuts chewed as gum and used to ma ke coal and medicines (Johnson 3-4: 404), hunting and gathering as an alternative to agriculture (Johnson 3-4: 235), experts on behavior of animals and environmental proc esses (Johnson 3-4: 235), use of reindeer for coats, shoes, food and other products (Cairney 3-5: 303; Oram 3-10: 746), use of the scouring rush or horsetail plant as a pot scr ubber (Oram 3-5: 322), use of the roots of the yucca plant for soap and shampoo and the fibers for baskets, shoes, and mats (Bybee 3-6: E129), selective breeding of horses and other animals (Miller 3-7: 197; Strauss 3-8: 132), use of wood for shelter and hides for tepees (Strauss 3-8: 17), selective breeding and cultivation of potato (Strauss 3-8: 235: Oram 3-10: 314), use of pine nuts for trading and bartering (Strauss 3-8: 484), a ddition of sponge spicules to po ttery to add strength to the clay (Strauss 3-8: 517), aquatic mammals as source of food and clothing (Strauss 3-8: 657; Oram 3-10: 210), practice of recycling broken pottery and grinding stones (Strauss 3-8: 922), use of the prickly p ear cactus and the red dye extr acted from the bodies of an

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94 insect that lived on the plant (Oram 3-10: 796) In addition, students were asked to think of ways that Native Americans use rocks as tools (Johnson 3-2: 303) and to investigate the uses of fern and fern fronds in medicine and construction of she lter (Miller 3-7: 565). Indigenous Cultural Practices and Social Life Set 3 Aspects of cultural practices and social life included the role of corn in the culture of some tribes (Biggs 2-1: 631; Oram 3-10: 438; Miller 3-11: 527), role and importance of animals (Biggs 2-1: 695), religious rite in the transition from childhood to adulthood and other rites of passage (Biggs 2-1: 1054; Bybee 3-6: E153; Oram 3-10: 530), community sweat lodge for steam baths as part of spiritual cleansing (Johnson 3-2: 58), genetic defects such as albinism as special gifts of insight and c onnection with nature (Johnson 3-2: 123, 154), proverbs and world view relating to mans relationship with Earth (Johnson, 3-2: 226; Johnson 3-4: 9), use of feathers in ceremonies and rituals (Johnson 3-2: 796), ceremonial use of tob acco (Johnson 3-2: 955), mention of a Cree Indian, Dr. Haines, and his work in ethnobotany (Johnson 3-2: 419), impact of hantavirus, smallpox and other diseases on isolated populations (Johnson 3-2: 457, 470; Johnson 3-4: 349; Miller 3-7: 502), intellect ual property rights (J ohnson 3-2: 578), bones and claws for jewelry (Johnson 3-4: 565), complex language pattern s (Bybee 3-6: 255), resistance to assimilation (Miller 3-7: 197), ad aptations to biotic a nd abiotic factors of various biomes (Miller 3-7: 341; Strauss 3-8: 863), diets with fatty meats but no heart disease (Strauss 3-8: 601), fr equency of blood alleles in na tive populations (Strauss 3-8: 150), use of amaranth and the red dye extracted from its flowers in religious ceremonies (Oram 3-10: 440), arts and crafts that include bird symbols on pottery (Oram 3-10: 470); tradition of naming practices for infants (Oram 25: 502), rituals related to rite of passage

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95 of young girls into womanhood (Oram 2-5: 530), re ligious ritual to protect trees from commercial harvesting (Oram 2-5: 867), effects of life at hi gh altitudes (Oram 3-10: 621), the life of Lillie Rosa Parks, a Mohawk who became a physician and later worked on the Oneida Indian Reservation in Wisconsin (Oram 2-5:568), salt as a part of prayer practices (Oram 2-5: 560), and stories from Ayers Rock that connect the tribe and the animals key to everyday life (Miller 3-11: 5). Indigenous Knowledge of the Natural World Set 3 Knowledge of the natural world for Se t 3 included indigenous understanding of the medicinal value of plants as ethn obotany (Johnson 3-2: 16; Johnson 3-4: 419), classification system of bi rds (Johnson 3-2: 338; Johnson 3-4: 319), use of roots and other plants to relieve pain (Strauss 3-8: 407; Miller 3-11: 988), development of a calendar based on movement of celestial bodies (Oram 3-10: 33), In addition, Johnson 3-4 (418) showed a picture of a native doctor teaching a Western doctor about the medicinal properties of rainforest plants. St udents were asked to investigate the process researchers used to meet with native peoples regarding the medicina l value of plants in the rainforests (Biggs 2-1: 589). Legends and Myths Set 3 Examples of legends and myths for Set 3 a ppeared as the Hopi legend that told of the mockingbirds role in determining the di fferent Indian tribes (Johnson 2-3: 594), the Cochiti legend of the beetles carelessness in dropping the stars in the sky and causing the formation of the Milky Way (Johnson 3-2: 627), the legend of bear medicine where natives tell of stories of how bears have taught people how to use roots and herbs for medicines (Johnson 3-4: 13), traits of animal s as an important part of folklore and

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96 legends such as how the owl got his big eyes and short neck (Oram 310: 40; Miller 3-11: 794), the Samoan legend of the creation of th eir island by an egg that broke in the water (Oram 3-10: 308), the Maori belief that a bird dropped an egg that contained all of the people and animals of New Zealand (Oram 310: 308), the Sioux legend of how the crow became black (Oram 3-10: 350), and the Papa go myth of how butterflies were created (Oram 3-10: 460), the legend of the Pitjendara tribe that told of Liru and Kunia, two snakes that fought a battle that created the face of Ayers Rock (Miller 3-11: 5), the Sioux legend that attempted to explain the origin of land (Miller 3-11: 342), a Native American myth that told of how the firs t people climbed into a tree (Miller 3-11: 494), a story of Little Deer that related Native American re spect for animals (Miller 3-11: 749), and the Muskogee or Creek story of the spider who took the sun so that all th ings could live in the light (Miller 3-11: 1022). Representations in Set 4 Indigenous Technologies Set 4 Although indigenous content in Set 4 occurred in all 4 categories of representations, the widest range of indigenous knowledge existed between two categories: technologies and cultural practices/social life. Examples of indigenous technologies included the use of snow and i ce to build housing (Biggs 4-2: 47), use of May apple as a laxative and topical treatment for warts (Biggs 4-2: 572), agroforestry as an advanced agricultural practi ce (Biggs 4-2: 600), cultivation of corn (Biggs 4-2: 610; Johnson 4-3: 499, 518), practice of baking rhizomes for a starch source (Biggs 4-2: 572; Johnson 4-3: 510), domestication of cocao seeds to make chocolate (Biggs 4-2: 657), use of frog toxins to create poison arrow dart s (Biggs 4-2: 812), use of the woody vine,

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97 curare, to secure poisons for darts (Johnson 43: 83), collection of latex from rubber trees (Johnson 4-3: 520), practice of spinning cotton into thread to be woven into cloth (Johnson 4-3: 522), use of wild parsnip as an insect repellent (Johnson 4-3: 558), practice of carving shells into wampum beads for money, (Johnson 4-3: 646), extraction of dyes from mollusks (Johnson 4-3: 646), practice of cut ting oyster shells into thin layers for use as window panes (Johnson 4-3: 646), hunting and gathering as an alternative to agriculture (Johnson 4-3: 825; Miller 44: 140,141, 624; Postlethwait 5-4: 391, 889), experts on behavior of animals and e nvironmental processes (Johnson 4-3: 825; Postlethwait 4-5: 359, 889), use of bows and spears for hunting (Miller 4-4: 140), domestication of wild plants to meet need s for food, shelter and me dicine (Miller 4-4: 622), creation of herbal products (Miller 4-4: 647), use of wood and bark for clothing, floor mats, blankets, dishes, rope, canoes, to tem poles, and structural beams (Postlethwait 4-5: 89), selective breeding of plants and animals (Postlethwa it 4-5: 309), use of stone to make tools and weapons (Postlethwait 4-5: 878 ), extraction from bark of cinchona tree to treat malaria (Campbell 4-6: 384). In addition, students were asked to describe examples where available materials are used to meet needs, such as sh elter and food, created by life in a particular biome. Indigenous Cultural Practic es and Social Life Set 4 Aspects of cultural and social life for Set 4 included use of hallucinogenic mushrooms in religious ceremonies (Biggs 42: 962), impact of life at high altitudes (Biggs 4-2: 976), rites of passage from childhood into adultho od (Biggs 4-2: 1014), symbolic place of corn within the culture of certain tribes (Biggs 4-2: 610; Johnson 3-4: 499), genetic defects such as albinism as sp ecial gifts of insight and connection with

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98 nature (Johnson 4-3: 174, 154; Postlethwait 45: 287), practice of digging for camas roots as an importance tribal activity (Johnson 4-3: 558), totem poles as symbols for family, clan or tribe (Johnson 4-3: 598; Postlethwait 4-5: 659), use of snake in cultural or religious settings (Johnson 4-3: 775; Postlethwait 4-5: 827), use of fe athers in rituals and ceremonies (Johnson 4-3: 786; Postlethwait 4-5: 848), rituals and cerem onies required in a whale hunt (Johnson 4-3: 808), value of wate r in cultural traditions (Postlethwait 4-5: 40), Seminole relationship to the Everglades (Postlethwait 4-5: 125) proverbs and world view relating to mans relationship with Eart h (Postlethwait 4-5: 287); use of peyote in ritual and religious rites (P ostlethwait 4-5: 575), and use of frog and toad toxins as hallucinogenic drugs for religious rituals (Postlethwait 4-5: 806). Indigenous Knowledge of the Natural World Set 4 The categories for knowledge of the natura l world and legends and myths had the least amount of indigenous representations Knowledge of the natural world included examples of the practice of ethnobotany in terms of how native cultures use plants including the use of natura l herbal products (Biggs 42: 567, 836; Johnson 4-3: 517; Miller 4-4: 647), folk remedies made from bones, eyes and other parts of the tiger (Johnson 4-3: 813), practice by hunter-gatherers of learning plant cy cles and medicinal value of plants (Miller 4-4: 141). Legends and Myths Set 4 Legends and myths included North Ameri can native cultures belief that the world was an island resting on the back of a great turtle (Johnson 4-3: 782), and the theme that Earth gave rise to life as a co mponent of the legends of many native cultures (Postlethwait 4-5: 287).

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99 Teacher Editions General Format Set 1 A separate annotated version of the teacher edition existed for all eight texts included in Set 1. A general review of the format, indi cated in Table 19, revealed that none of the texts in Set 1 incorporated multicultural or diversity content into the overall program objectives or goals, and none of the authors or content reviews ha d expertise, schooling or background in multicultural or diversity issues. A review of the program objectives, philosophies and themes for each text revealed a variety of approaches and rationales for teaching and learning biology. Oram 1-1, McLa ren 1-3, Alexander 1-5 and Schraer 1-8 emphasized mastery of critical biological concepts, principles and associated skills. Oram 1-1 gave a tangential addre ss of diversity within its People in Biology segment by including the statement that there are many contributors equally as important as those considered to be the classic examples (p. 5T). Goodman 1-2 also emphasized mastery of concepts but framed the approach to lear ning from the realization of the impact of technology and other advances in science on the field of biology (p. T10). Towle 1-4 represented a complete curricular redesign from prior editions to provide teachers with the most authoritative science content with a fresh and inviting voice (p. T8) and addressed diversity from the following view: The diversity of high school biology clas srooms makes it almost impossible to meet the needs of all teachers with a single textbook. Teachers vary widely in backgrounds, interests, and philosophie s. In addition, local and state requirements often oblige teachers to follow a curriculum with which they are unfamiliar. (p. T30)

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100 Table 19. General Format of Teacher Editions Set 1 Reviewers Reading Pacing or Multicultural Student STS Textbook Background and/or Planning Content in Needs Content Code in Diversity Writing Guide Program Goals Oram 1-1 No Yes Yes No No No Goodman 1-2 No Yes Yes No Yes Yes McLaren 1-3 No Yes No No Yes No Towle 1-4 No No Yes No Yes Yes Alexander 1-5 No Yes Yes No No Yes Milani 1-6 No No Yes No No Yes Milani 1-7 No Yes No No No No Schraer 1-8 No No Yes No Yes Yes

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101 Milani 1-6 and Milani 1-7 represented the Bl ue and Green version, respectively, of texts developed as a part of the BSCS series. Milani 1-6 emphasized a molecular approach based on biotechnology and included aspects of the New Biology a science of recombinant DNA, monoclonal antibodies, the hu man genome, bioenergetics, restriction enzymes, and other topics far removed from the biology courses of 20 years ago (p. T3). Milani 1-7 took the opposite a pproach with a focus on the role of humans as a part of nature rather than separated from it. Four of the texts in Set 1 (Goodm an 1-2, McLaren 1-3, Towle 1-4, Schraer 1-8) focused on meeting student needs. G oodman 1-2, McLaren 1-3, and Towle 1-4 considered ability level of students along the lines of basic, average or standard, and advanced learners and provided ways to stru cture the curriculum to support these levels of learning. In addition, Towle 1-4 and Sc hraer 1-8 included b ackground research and strategies associated with students who have special needs or physical, visual, hearing, speech, or other impairments to learning. Science-technology-societ y (STS) content appeared in so me format among five of the eight texts in Set 1. Goodman 1-2 placed STS content in the broader social context and used this premise as the means to organize the biology content of the text. As example, Goodman 1-2 chapter two framed the scientific method through the st udy of acid rain as an environmental issue; chapters 14, 29, and 40 utilized the conten t of genetics, plant biology and medical technology within the cont ext of technology a pplications to the study of these three areas (p. T29). In addition, Goodman 1-2 included 11 Biotech topics to facilitate discussion of t echnological and societal issues in science. These topics included biostereometrics, the cell, gene ther apy, ancient climates, AIDS, algal blooms,

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102 growing plants in space, thermal vents, enda ngered species, artificial body parts, and rain forests (p. xiii). Towle 1-4 did not use the tradi tional categorization of science-technology-society content as STS. Rather, STS content appeared as topics included as 10, two-page inserts characterized as Intra-Science where students considered a sc ientific question or process from a variety of perspectives. Topics include d Alaskan wildlife, desa lination, killer bees, extra-terrestrial life, aquacu lture, world hunger, agricultural pests, endangered species, the human heart, and air pollution (p. xi). Al exander 1-5 incorporat ed textboxes entitled Discoveries as a means to present STS content. Discoveries included 12 entries among the following topics : sharkskin and yach t racing, cell techni ques, mass extinction, archaebacteria, plant carcinogens discovery of Phylum Loricifer, fireflies, dinosaurs, bone grafts, laser surgery, influenza, and Alzh eimers disease. Milani 1-6 incorporated STS content with direct application to pers onal issues and societal problems in the broader context of biological content related to genetic engineering and population growth (p. T7). Schraer 1-8 included STS feat ures as textboxes which addressed topics under two categories: issues and technology Issues included 11 topics related to scanning tunnel microscopes, monoclonal antibodies, ar tificial joints, magnetic resonance imaging, nitrogen-fixing corn, endangered species, DNA fingerprinting, plant evolution, gene therapy, bioremediation, and biodegradable plastics. Technology included 11 topics related to acid rain, food i rradiation, passive smoking, noise pollution, vanishing habitats, surrogate mothers, genetic screening, e ndangered species, animal experimentation, greenhouse effect, and nucle ar wastes (p. xv).

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103 General Format Set 2 Eight of the nine teacher editions include d in Set 2 existed as a nnotated versions of the student editions. As previously noted, th e teacher manual Lumsden 2-8 represented a separate manual which included a collection of chapter objectives a nd overviews, lecture outlines, answers to the end-of-chapter Thought Questions found in the student edition, reproducible chapter exams with answer keys, and transparen cies for lectures and class handouts. As such, Lumsden 2-8 included no comprehensive program goals or other content organized in such a manner appropria te for the scope of the teachers edition section of the study. A general review of the format of th e texts, indicated in Table 20, revealed that Essenfeld 2-1, Johnson 2-3, Oram 2-5 incorporat ed multicultural or diversity content into the overall program objectives or goals, and at least one of the content reviewers for these three texts had expertise, schooling or backgr ound outside of science or science education including but not limited to multicultural or diversity issues. Essenfeld 2-1 listed the integration of multicultural perspectives and contributions to sciences (p. T5) as one of its program goa ls and framework for organizing content. Johnson 2-3 dedicated a section of the teacher interleafs to support the cultural diversity found in science. This section included b ackground for the teacher regarding links to cultural content via teacher annotations relate d to cultural perspectives, special features referred to as Discoveries in Science that showcase role models in science, Science in Action as a means to profile individuals w ho have overcome cultu ral challenges, and optional multicultural lessons plans to encourag e study of diversity in science (p. 31T).

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104 Table 20. General Format of Teacher Editions Set 2 Reviewers Reading Pacing or Multicultural Student STS Textbook Background and/or Planning Content in Needs Content Code in Diversity Writing Guide Program Goals Essenfeld 2-1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Kaskel 2-2 No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Johnson 2-3 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Miller 2-4 No Yes No No Yes Yes Oram 2-5 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Towle 2-6 No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Milani 2-7 No Yes Yes No No No Schraer 2-9 No No Yes No Yes Yes

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105 Oram 2-5 included a teacher interleaf on multic ultural awareness which highlighted goals of multicultural education including the stren gth and value of cultural diversity as well as social justice a nd equal opportunity for all people (p. 24T). The program goals for Kaskel 22 included emphasis on the presentation of introductory level content in a format that wa s easy for the student to read; multicultural or diversity content was not in corporated into the program goals and objectives. Miller 24 focused on the significance of developments in science today and in the future as the overarching program goals and included the importance of critical thinking and concept development framed from the evolutionary re lationships among organisms (p. T6). Towle 2-6 framed the program objectives with emphasis on thorough coverage to teach thematicallythorough coverage for developi ng scientific literacythorough coverage for developing process and inquiry skills (pp. T16 T 20). The thorough coverage did not include incorporation of program goals related to multicultural or diversity content. Milani 2-7 presented biological concepts and principles through the notion of experimentation with the intent of acknowle dging the practical nature of biology as a topic of study and its releva nce in everyday life. Schraer 2-9 emphasized the mastery of biological concepts and principles as the key program goal. Neither Milani 2-7 nor Schraer 2-9 incorporated multicultural content into program goals or objectives. Science-technology-society (STS) content appeared in so me format among all eight of the texts in Set 1. Essenfeld 2-1 incorporat ed STS content via one-page inserts that appeared 11 times in the text and addressed the interdependence of scientific progress and the needs of society (p. T8). Topics included artificial polymers, nature versus nurture, gel electrophoresis, prot eins, Cro-Magnon culture, medici ne versus malaria, seed

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106 banks, plant fibers, breeding fish, artificial intelligence, and sp ecies of the Nile (p. xiii). Kaskel 2-2 included STS content as an introduc tion to controversial issues in science; each unit contained a one-page insert with topics which covered the benefits of technology, ancient forests, animal experiment ation, steroids, farms of the future, sperm banks, organ transplants, and genetic engineering. Johnson 2-3 included six, two-page sections of text dedicated STS topics include d as legal issues with tissue testing, genetic screening, deforestation, test ing for HIV, endangered specie s, and transplant technology (p. 13T). Miller 2-4 include d 13, one-page inserts with emphasis on STS content in the following areas: yellow fever, tissue testi ng, diversity issues, taxonomy, classification systems, plants and animals, agricultural pests, dinosaurs, women in society, anabolic steroids, world hunger, drug use, and endange red species (p. xvi). Oram 2-5 included STS content as biology-technol ogy-society (BTS) divided into 21 topics categorized as Issues and 19 topics included as Biotechnology Topics within Issues encompassed rare animals as pets, skin cancer, inbreeding, ge netic profiling, dying w ith dignity, genetic engineering, biodiversity, inte rbreeding, man versus nature, de forestation, animal testing, in vitro fertilization, liquid diets, asbestos, organ transp lants, steroids, Alzheimers disease, persons with disabilities, old versus young, agriculture, and forest fires (p. xix). Biotechnology included the brain at work, cold st orage, artificial skin, product testing, aging, transgenic organisms, DNA fingerprin ting, in utero treatments for genetic disorders, fossil dating, tools for classification, plants as energy trappers, cloning humans, image technology, treatment for respiratory di stress, insulin use, noise pollution, fetal surgery, antigens, and bionics (p. xxiv).

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107 Towle 2-6 did not use the traditiona l categorization of sc ience-technology-society content as STS. Rather, STS content appeared as topics included as 10, one-page inserts characterized as Intra-Science where students considered the collaborative efforts scientists used to solve a specific problem. Topics included vanishing forests, forms of medicines, human genome, extra-terrestrial li fe, agricultural pests, curing AIDS, world hunger, endangered species, organ transplants, and global warming (p. T15). Milani 2-7 included STS content as the context for presen ting biological concepts and principles, so no separate textboxes or insert s were included to address ST S. Schraer 2-9 included STS features as textboxes addresse d topics under two categories: issues and technology Issues included 11 topics related to scanning tunnel microscopes, monoclonal antibodies, artificial joints, magnetic resonance imaging, nitrogen-fixing corn, endangered species, DNA fingerprinting, plant evolu tion, gene therapy, biorem ediation, and biodegradable plastics. Technology included 11 topics related to acid rain, food irradiation, smoking, noise pollution, vanishing habitats, surrogate mothers, genetic screening, endangered species, animal experimentation, greenhous e effect, and nuclear wastes (p. xv). General Format Set 3 Nine of the 11 teacher editions included in Set 3 existed as annotated versions of the students edition. As previously noted, B ybee 3-6 and Leonard 39 had separate texts for the teacher resource and, as such, the te acher manuals did not include program goals or other content organized in such a manner a ppropriate for the scope for this section of the study. As depicted in Table 21, a review of the format of the nine texts revealed that Biggs 3-1, Pignatiello 3-3, Miller 3-7, St rauss 3-8, and Oram 3-10 incorporated multicultural or diversity content into the overall program objectives or goals.

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108 Table 21. General Format of Teacher Editions Set 3 Textbook Reviewers Reading Pacing or Multicultural Student STS Code Background Writing Planning Support Needs Content in Diversity Guide General Format Biggs 3-1 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Johnson 3-2 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Pignatiello 3-3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Johnson 3-4 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Cairney 3-5 No Yes Yes No No Yes Miller 3-7 No Yes No Yes No Yes Strauss 3-8 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Oram 3-10 Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Miller 3-11 No No No No Yes Yes

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109 Of the five, Pignatiello 3-3 and Oram 3-10 were the only texts to have at least one content reviewer with expertise, schooling or backgr ound outside of science or science education including but not limited to areas of study or work that involved multicultural or diversity issues. Although Johnson 3-2 and 3-4 did not include multicultural content as a component of the overarching program goals, th ese two texts did have content reviewers with expertise or experience in diversity and multicultural issues. As part of the texts program objec tives, Biggs 3-1 contained a one-page interleaf devoted to cultural diversity with emphasi s on cultural heritage and ethnicity found among society today. Specifically related to the content of the text, any multicultural content was incorporated in to program goals through bi ographical sketches, which featured successful scientists from a va riety of ethnic backgrounds and the use of interdisciplinary curricular connections in art and literature (p. 28T ). The program goals for Pignatiello 3-3 served to build biol ogical literacy among students from varied cultural and linguistic backgrounds with the additional note that these students are often otherwise isolated in the biology clas sroom because the textbook and materials used in their classrooms are inaccessible to them (p. T3). Miller 3-7 included instructional pathways as part of its program objectives to assist teachers in m eeting diverse needs of students, and multicultural content, although not a central feature, remained one of the six core areas for these goals. Strauss 3-8 listed the support of heterogeneous student populations and diverse teaching styles (p. T11) as one of the program goals. Oram 3-11 included a teacher interleaf on cultural divers ity, which highlighted goals of multicultural education incorporated in the text including the strength and value of cultural diversity as well as social justice and equal opportunity for all people (p. 24T).

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110 Johnson 3-2 incorporated the focus on re volutions in cell biology as the primary focus for the program goals with the incorpor ation of technology to support interactive explorations via the use of a CD-ROM p ackage (p. 19T). Johnson 3-4 emphasized depth rather than breadth of coverage with a fo cus on essential fundamental science concepts (p. T20). Concerned more with science as a search rather than as dogma, the primary program objective of Cairney 3-5 intended to l ead each student to conceive of biology as science, and of the process[es] of science as reliable method[s] of gaining objective knowledge (p. T3). Miller 3-11 focused on the significance of developments in science today and in the future as the overarching program goals and included the importance of critical thinking and concept development fr amed from the evolutionary relationships among organisms (p. T6). All of the texts in Set 3 included in the analysis contai ned some form of STS content with the exception of Pignatiello 3-3. Bi ggs 3-1 incorporated eight topics under Biology & Society to support STS content; these topics in cluded saving the Everglades, impact of extinctions, bioengineered foods, forest fi res, over population of species, impact of zoological parks, aesthetic values of sp ecies, and megavitamins. Johnson 3-2 included five STS articles covering topics in bi ological diversity, human genome, biological weapons, biotechnology, and breas t cancer (p. 15T). Johnson 34 included six articles, which explored conflicts between t echnology and society with emphasis on DNA profiling, genetic engineering, oz one layer, new drug development, diversity of species, and the financial impact of aging (p. T17) Cairney 3-5 included STS content as the context for presenting biological concepts a nd principles, so no separate textboxes, inserts or articles were incl uded to address STS topics.

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111 Miller 3-7 incorporated STS conten t among topics designed to feature important issues in biology as well as new discoveries in the fiel d. Nine, one-page inserts found under the heading of Biology and You addressed topics in pa tents, wetlands, viral evolution, famine, aquaculture, birds, wildlif e, iodine deficiency, and AIDS (p. xxiv). Strauss 3-8 included STS content in the teach er annotations. STS c ontent was identified in three main areas of Environmental Awareness Issues in Biology and Frontiers in Biology Fourteen environmental to pics covered the food web, acid rain, seed banks, the English pepper moth, classification systems, agriculture, greenhouse gases, computer technology, agricultural pests, mo llusks, coral reefs, amphibians, alternative fuel cars, and biodiversity. Issues in Biology included 12 topics, which stemmed from considerations of science a nd society, genetics of behavior, human genome, ethics, mass extinctions, fossil records, cl assification systems, effect s of smoking, steroids, fetal alcohol syndrome, wetlands, and biodiversity. Frontiers in Biology included 19 topics in the areas of eyesight, artificial chloropl asts, cell division, genetic counseling, healthy eating, genetic engineering, bene ficial bacteria, malaria, fungi, sponges and jellyfish, alternatives to pesticides, poi sons, mammals, insects, artificial skin, dialysis, immune systems, prenatal care, and technology ( p. xix). Oram 3-11 included STS content as biology-technology-society (BTS) divided into 21 topics categorized as Issues and 19 topics included as Biotechnology Topics within Issues encompassed rare animals as pets, skin cancer, inbreeding, gene tic profiling, dying with di gnity, genetic engineering, biodiversity, interbr eeding, man versus nature, deforest ation, animal testing, in vitro fertilization, liquid diets, as bestos, organ transplants, st eroids, Alzheimers disease, persons with disabilities, old versus y oung, agriculture, and forest fires (p. xix).

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112 Biotechnology included the brain at work, cold st orage, artificial skin, product testing, aging, transgenic organisms, DNA fingerprin ting, in utero treatments for genetic disorders, fossil dating, tools for classification, plants as energy trappers, cloning humans, image technology, treatment for respiratory di stress, insulin use, noise pollution, fetal surgery, antigens, and bionics and artificial limbs (p. xxiv). Miller 3-11 included 21, onepage inserts with emphasis on STS content in the following areas: new breed of cat, chromosome numbers, DNA, Carbon-14 dati ng, copper mining, algae, agriculture, microorganisms, flowers, cloning plants, le eches, cephalopods, paleontologists, imaging technology, carbon monoxide, organ transplant, spread of di sease, penicillin, Lyme disease, gypsy moths, and ecosystems. General Format Set 4 A separate annotated version of the teach ers edition existed for all six texts included in Set 4. A general review of the fo rmat, indicated in Table 22, revealed that none of the texts in Set 4 incorporated multicul tural or diversity content into the overall program objectives or goals, and none of the texts included author s or content reviews with expertise, schooling or background in multicultural or diversity issues. A review of the program objectives, philosophies and them es for each text revealed a variety of approaches and rationales for teaching a nd learning biology with a heavy emphasis on standardized testing, specifi cally the Florida Comprehensiv e Achievement Test (FCAT). All of the texts in Set 4 included pa cing guides and supported STS content.

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113 Table 22. General Format of Teacher Editions Set 4 Textbook Background in Standardized Reading Pacing or Multicultural Student STS Code Other Fields Testing/ and/or Planning Support Needs Con tent FCAT Writing Guide Parke 4-1 No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Biggs 4-2 No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Johnson 4-3 No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Miller 4-4 No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Postlethwait 4-5 No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Campbell 4-6 No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes

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114 Program objectives for Parke 4-1 targeted st udents who performed below grade level and stressed practical concepts and skills in biology. A major com ponent of the program goals for Biggs 4-2, Johnson 4-3, and Campbe ll 4-6 included features to help teachers prepare students for the science FCAT admini stration with correlation to Sunshine State Standards (SSS). Miller 4-4 em phasized the development of 21st century skills along with the integration of the Sunshine State Standard s (SSS) into the course content. Although Postlethwait 4-5 included a de tailed correlation to the SSS, the focus remained on student preparation of standardized tes ting in general. Program goals for the text targeted student comprehension of biological concepts a nd terminologies supported by current and accurate textual content (p. T2). Parke 4-1 incorporated STS content as a means to help students make connections among issues in science and technology. These Technology and Society segments appeared as textboxes included 20 times and o ccurred at least once in each chapter with topics that covered gene tic disorders, radon, hydrogenation of food, saline usage, microscopes, high-tech medications, enzymes, hormones, gene chips, hemophilia, human genome, LASIK, skin cancer, DNA, organism s in seawater, classification systems, communication technologies, gene tic engineering, aquaculture, and surgical robots. Biggs 4-2 focused on the impact of biology on society with STS content labeled as Biology & Society and Biotechnology Topics in Biology & Society covered 14 areas: organic foods, Everglades, origin of life, superbugs that defy drugs, ecosystem balance, coral reef destruction, gypsy moths, illegal wildlife trade, modern zool ogical parks, weight loss, transplant donors, and the debate over smallpox. Biotechnology content covered 10 topics in good and bad cholesterol, scanning probe microscopes, new vaccines, molecular

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115 clocks, diversity of diatoms, hybrid plants, m ouse cells, sea turtles, imaging technologies, and human growth hormone. Johnson 4-3 in corporated STS content within textbox segments known as BioWatch BioWatch appeared as 13 segments with topics on foods as fuel, muscle fatigue, prenatal testing, ma king of an egg, malaria vaccine, leeches, amniotic egg, obesity and health, asthma, spin al cord injury, anabol ic steroids, hormones and body fat, and ultrasound imaging. M iller 4-4 included STS content as Technology & Society with seven, one-page insert s dedicated to topics in ecological exploration from space, stem cell research, species diversity, technological designs, sunscreen and skin cancer, remote sensing, and arti ficial skin. Postlethwait 4-5 added 12, one-page articles on STS topics that included topics on the information age, preventing diabetes, mitochondria, stem cell research, DNA re pair, genetic engi neering, ecosystem restoration, marine viruses, le eches, migration patterns, co mputer imaging, and puberty in girls. Campbell 4-6 embedded STS content as textboxes, which covered 20 topics in scientific collaborati on, fluoridation, aerobic performan ce, greenhouse gases, genetically modified foods, environmental effects on phenot ypes, dinosaur evolution, kelp forests, giant fungi, rainforest conservation, biorem ediation, genetic engin eering, coral reefs, pesticides, animal behavior, organ donors, thermoregulation, fetal surgery, Alaskan wilderness, and genetically modified salmon. Multicultural Components of the Teacher Editions Twenty-six multicultural descriptors, liste d in Table 23, were identified from the social science terms and othe r search words available in The Contemporary Thesaurus of Social Science Terms and Synonyms (1993) and The Contemporary Thesaurus of Search Terms and Synonyms: A Guide for Natu ral Language Computer Searching (2000).

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116 Table 23. List of Multicultural Descriptors Descriptor Bilingual Cross-cultural Cultural Cultural activities Cultural awareness Cultural differences Cultural education Cultural enrichment Cultural heritage Cultural pluralism Culturally relevant education Culture Diverse needs Diversity English (Second Language) Ethnic groups Ethnicity Global education Interdisciplinary Limited English Speaking Minority Minority groups Multicultural Multiculturalism Multicultural education Social studies

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117 As previously stated, the descriptors were used to identify multicultural components within the teacher ed itions. Of the 26 descriptors, 12 were found within the collective sample of teacher editions. Fourteen of th e 34 teacher editions contained none of the descriptors used in the study: Oram 1-1, To wle 1-4, Alexander 1-5, Milani 1-6, Milani 17, Schraer 1-8, Milani 2-7, Lumsden 2-8, Schraer 2-9, Pignatiello 3-3, Cairney 3-5, Bybee 3-6, Leonard 3-9, and Campbell 4-6. Of the remaining 20 texts, 1,448 descriptors were identified with as few as one descriptor identified per text to as many as 141 per text. Multicultural remained the most commonly used descriptor; English Second Language was the second most commonly used descriptor. Tables 24 and 25 depict a summary of the descriptors by set for the complete sample. The degree of relationship of the multicultural content to the stated scienc e objectives was also determined. Table 26 shows number of multicultural components and their relationship to science content by set. Set1 and Set 2 Limited multicultural content was found among the teachers editions included in Set 1; only two texts contained multicultural co mponents as defined within this study. The highest average of multicultu ral content, depicted in Table 27, occurred in human biology for Goodman 1-2; the only average for multicultural content for McLaren 1-3 occurred in ecology In addition, the relationship of the multic ultural content recorded for Set 1 and depicted in Table 28 indicated that of the ei ght descriptors used to locate multicultural content, half were categorized as somewhat related to the stated science objects and the other half were not related to the stated science objectives.

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118 Table 24. Summary of Multicultural Descriptors by Teacher Edition Sets 1 and 2 Book Number of Number per Code Components Descriptor Descriptor Set 1 Goodman 1-2 7 Social Studies 7 McLaren 1-3 1 Cultural 1 Set 2 Essenfeld 2-1 119 Culture 1 English Second Language 38 Multicultural 60 Multiculturalism 8 Social Studies 12 Kaskel 2-2 4 Social Studies 4 Johnson 2-3 109 Cultural 46 Limited English Speaking 31 Multicultural 9 Social Studies 23 Miller 2-4 2 Social Studies 2 Oram 2-5 141 Global Education 11 Limited English Speaking 75 Multicultural 54 Social Studies 1 Towle 2-6 133 Interdisciplinary 58 Limited English Speaking 61 Social Studies 14

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119 Table 25. Summary of Multicultural Descriptors by Teacher Edition Sets 3 and 4 Book Number of Number per Code Components Descriptor Descriptor Set 3 Biggs 3-1 72 Cross-cultural 2 Cultural 43 English Second Language 27 Johnson 3-2 43 Multicultural 43 Johnson 3-4 29 Multicultural 29 Miller 3-7 71 Diversity 69 Social Studies 2 Strauss 3-8 123 Diverse Needs 61 Multicultural 62 Oram 3-10 141 Global Education 11 Limited English Speaking 75 Cultural 54 Social Studies 1 Miller 3-11 121 English Second Language 61 Multicultural 59 Social Studies 1 Set 4 Parke 4-1 100 Culture 1 English Second Language 89 Global Education 9 Social Studies 1 Biggs 4-2 58 Cultural 38 English Second Language 20 Johnson 4-3 47 Cultural 43 English Second Language 1 Social Studies 3 Miller 4-4 75 English Second Language 75 Postlethwait 4-5 52 Cultural 45 Social Studies 7

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120 Table 26. Number of Multicultural Components by Re lationship to Science Objectives by Set Category Code Relationship to Obj ectives Number Percent Set 1 1 Highly related 0 0.0 2 Somewhat related 4 50.0 3 Not related 4 50.0 Set 2 1 Highly related 51 10.0 2 Somewhat related 265 52.2 3 Not related 192 37.8 Set 3 1 Highly related 32 5.3 2 Somewhat related 285 47.4 3 Not related 283 47.3 Set 4 1 Highly related 75 22.6 2 Somewhat related 134 40.4 3 Not related 123 37.0 Total 1,448

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121 Table 27. Average Number of Multicultural Components per C hapter by Unit Teacher Editions Sets 1 and 2 Intro Cells Gen Evol Micro Plants Inverts Verts H uman Ecol Set 1 Goodman 1-2 0.00 0.25 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.00 McLaren 1-3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 Set 2 Essenfeld 2-1 2.75 2.00 2.60 1.50 2.75 3.00 2.40 1.83 2.88 2.75 Kaskel 2-2 1.00 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Johnson 2-3 3.50 1.00 1.33 2.67 3.25 5.00 4.00 2.00 4.63 3.33 Miller 2-4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.33 Oram 2-5 4.00 5.50 4.40 7.00 4.00 1.63 1.20 2.60 2.67 2.75 Towle 2-6 3.00 2.40 2.25 2.00 2.20 3.20 2.00 2.17 3.29 2.60

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122 Table 28. Number of Multicultural Components by Relations hip to Science Objectives Sets 1 and 2 Book Relationship to Science Objectives Code Highly Somewhat Not Related Set 1 Goodman 1-2 0 3 4 McLaren 1-3 0 1 0 Total 0 4 4 Set 2 Essenfeld 1-2 3 69 47 Kaskel 2-2 0 4 0 Johnson 2-3 14 41 54 Miller 2-4 0 1 1 Oram 2-5 16 77 48 Towle 2-6 18 73 42 Total 51 265 192

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123 None of the multicultural content for the texts in Set 1 was found to be highly related to the stated science objectives. Set 2 showed a marked increase compared to Set 1 in the average of multicultural content found within th e texts. As shown in Table 27, si x of the eight teacher editions contained some average of multicultural content. Kaskel 2-2 and Miller 2-4 had the lowest average of content among the units of introduction to biology genetics and evolution for Kaskel 2-2 and vertebrates and ecology for Miller 2-4. Oram 2-5 had the highest averages for the mo st number of units with evolution and cells at the highest total averages compared to the other texts. Table 28 indicated that of the total descriptors used to locate multicultural cont ent, a little more than half were categorized as somewhat related to the stated science objects and a little more than one-third were not related to the stated science objectives. Set 3 and Set 4 As depicted in Table 29, seven of the 11 teachers editions in Set 3 were found to include multicultural content in all 10 of the units represen ted in each text. Oram 3-10 had the highest averages for th e most number of units with evolution and cells at the highest total averages compared to the ot her texts. As depicted in Table 30, the relationship of the multicultural content recorded for Set 3 indicated that about half of the content was somewhat related to supporting the science objectives or intent for the chapter or section of text. The other half wa s divided not related to the science objectives or intent for the chapte r of section of text.

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124 Table 29. Average Number of Multicultural Components pe r Chapter by Unit Teacher Editions Set 3 Intro Cells Gen Evol Micro Pl ants Inverts Verts Human Ecol Set 3 Biggs 3-1 2.00 1.20 1.20 1.67 2.00 3.00 1.00 1.25 1.83 2.00 Johnson 3-2 1.00 1.00 0.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 0.88 1.00 Johnson 3-4 0.50 0.33 0.25 0.33 1.50 1.00 0.50 1.00 0.86 0.67 Miller 3-7 2.00 0.67 3.75 2.33 1.33 2.00 0.75 1.60 1.29 2.75 Strauss 3-8 2.50 3.00 1.00 3.00 5.00 3.25 3.50 3.25 3.00 3.25 Oram 3-10 4.00 5.50 4.40 7.00 4.00 1.63 1.20 2.60 2.67 2.75 Miller 3-11 3.00 2.50 2.75 3.33 2.50 2.50 1.80 2.33 2.33 2.33

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125 Table 30. Number of Multicultural Components by Relations hip to Science Objectives Sets 3 and 4 Book Relationship to Science Objectives Code Highly Somewhat Not Related Set 3 Biggs 3-1 0 35 37 Johnson 3-2 0 5 38 Johnson 3-4 0 4 25 Miller 3-7 2 42 27 Strauss 3-8 10 57 56 Oram 3-10 16 77 48 Miller 3-11 4 65 52 Total 32 285 283 Set 4 Parke 4-1 35 45 20 Biggs 4-2 8 27 23 Johnson 4-3 0 8 39 Miller 4-4 32 43 0 Postlethwait 4-5 0 11 41 Total 75 134 123

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126 As depicted in Table 31, five of the si x teachers editions in Set 4 were found to include some type of multicultu ral content. Johnson 4-3 repres ented the only text in the set to not have content within each un it; no multicultural content was present in introduction to biology Parke 4-1 had the highest averages for the most units compared to the other four texts in the set. As previously depicted in Table 30, the relationship of the multicultural content recorded for Set 4 indicated that 23% of the content was directly related to supporting the scienc e objectives or intent for the chapter or section. The remaining content was divided almost equally between somewhat or not related to the science objectives or intent for the chapter of section of text.

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127 Table 31. Average Number of Multicultural Co mponents per Chapter by Unit Set 4 Book Code Intro Cells Gen E vol Micro Plants Inverts Verts Human Ecol Parke 4-1 6.00 5.20 5.00 5.00 1.50 0.50 0.50 4.00 8.00 3.33 Biggs 4-2 2.00 1.75 1.25 1.00 1.67 2.25 1.20 1.50 1.83 0.75 Johnson 4-3 0.00 1.00 0.80 0.33 1.50 2.00 1.40 1.40 0.86 1.00 Miller 4-4 2.50 1.75 2.00 1.50 1.67 2.50 2.50 1.60 1.67 1.50 Postlethwait 4-5 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.00 1.67 1.00 1.20

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128 Archaeology of Statements The archaeology of statements, created in conjunction with the indigenous knowledge tally, represented an archive of the di screte sections of text determined by the representations of indigenous knowledge a nd collected as part of the indigenous knowledge tally. As the teacher editions, co mpared to the student editions, were determined to include higher frequencies of indigenous knowledge content in the sample, the archaeology was created from the indige nous knowledge represen tations tallied from content found in teacher editions. Indigenous knowledge content was incorporated from the student editions when no annotated teacher edition was available. Gottfried 2-8 student edition was used for the archaeol ogy in Set 2, and Bybee 3-6 and Leonard 3-9 student editions were used fo r the archaeology in Set 3. The archaeology of statements allowed the examination, framed from the prior work of Ninnes (2000, 2003), of the nature of representations from ideological and textual perspectives. Ideologically, examinations of the archived statements permitted detection of features that supported notions of traditionality a nd generalizations or homogenizing terminologies. Textually, examina tions of the archived statements allowed identification of techniques such as spatial placement of text, use of verb tense, and incorporation of unive rsalizing language that served to privilege one way of knowing over other ways of knowing. Archaeology for Set 1 Six teacher editions for Set 1 contai ned a total of 20 statements, which provided a limited range of content for an in-depth ex amination of the ideological and textual features designed for this segm ent of the study. The examination of essentialist identities

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129 in these texts produced mixed results. The no tion of traditionality, exemplified by such phrases as traditional lifestyle or traditional setting or the use of the word traditional as an adjective to describe a particular indigenous group (Ninnes, 2003, p. 173) did not appear in any of the texts incl uded in Set 1. Reference to ge neric groups or what might be considered homogenization occurred 14 tim es among the archived statements. There remained generic reference to early hunters, early humans, a nd early peoples (Towle 1-4: 356; Milani 1-7: 371; 896) as well as four references to th e collective Native Americans and American Indians (Towle 1-4: 372; Milani 17: 456). Reference to Indian farmers and Indian groups also occurred (Milan 1-7: 896; Oram 1-1: 680). Re ference to specific indigenous groups, either by name or in c onnection with a geogra phical region, occurred 11 times in Set 1. Authors made reference to sp ecific groups such as Dr. Monika-Hill as a Mohawk who worked on the Oneida Indian Reservation (Oram 1-1: 523), the Quechua Indians of the Andes (Goodman 1-2: 680), the Amazon Indians (Goodman 1-2: 827), the Incas of Peru (Goodman 1-2: 830), the Indian s of the Southwest (McLaren 1-3: 355), a Navajo medicine man (Milani 7-1: 372), the Eskimos (Milani 7-1: 432), and the Blackfoot Indians (Alexander 1-5: 186). Examination of textual features incl uded various aspects of temporal contexts and spatial organizations. Two of the statements, each set within a textbox, represented techniques of spatial organization. The first statement (Oram 1-1: 523) contained a text box as an abbreviated biography of Dr. Monika-Hill, a Mohawk Indian who worked as a physician on the Oneida Indian Reservation in Wisconsin. Her biography related that she ran a kitchen clinic stoc ked with herbals (plants used for medical treatment) and medicines provided by the doctors in Green Bay for the people of the reservation (Oram

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130 1-1: 523). The statement that associated kitc hen clinic with herbals and medicines with doctors in the Green Bay area represents a r ound-off, a technique that ends a thought with the scientific knowledge or correct view (Ninnes, 2003). The primitive farm on the Oneida Reservation (Oram 1-1: 523) represen ts use of vocabulary that suggests one way as better than another. The second statement (Goodman 1-2: 680) included a text box entitled Thinking About Biology: Effects of High Altitude The text related the impact of life at higher altitudes and the physiological differences of these in dividuals, named specifically as Quechua Indians of the Andes. Text separated from the narrative suggest ed that the content remained as a side issue to the main purpose of the text. Two additional examples incorporated a round-off technique in the text where an indigenous explanation was followed by the s cientific explanati on. Towle 1-4 included the depiction of cultivation pr actices of early peoples and their successes in higher crop yields. However, the author stated that th is practice unfortunatelyled to decreased genetic variation (p. 356) which resulted in the loss of potentially beneficial traits; he concluded the section with the suggestion that scientists remained the key to rediscovering the wild vari eties. A second example occurred when Milani 1-7: 371 stated: Primitive people thought that disease came fr om an evil spirit that entered the body. The cure for the illnesses was to fri ghten or coax the spirit out of the body. That became the function of a medicine man, or shaman, who may have used masks, rattles, and charms. Even early humans, however, did not entirely rely on magic. If a patient had a toothach e, the medicine man mighthave applied

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131 coca leaves to ease the pain.Today, your dentist might say your toothache was caused by a buildup in the popula tion of tooth-decaying bacteria. Here, the author suggested that in modern ti mes, that is, today, the dentist as the science expert provided scientific so lution and explanation of the problem. About half of the examples of indige nous knowledge in the archaeology of statement for Set 1 existed as historical examples of the past. As example, Towle 1-4 included the use of horsetails as pot scrubbers by Nativ e Americans and early settlers. About onefourth of the statements in Set 1 incl uded the past compared to contemporary perspectives. Goodman 1-2 related the past pr actice, prior to modern medicine, of using plants to treat illnesses. The author followed with the idea that some medicinal plants are still in use and proceeded to list the plants that produced the extract for modern drugs such as morphine, codeine, and quinine. Goodm an 2-1 also stated that at one time, humans depended completely on wild plants and animals for food and clothing (p. 825). He followed with the thought that wild plan ts and animals still provided an important resource for people. Milani 1-7 asked the reader to compare the so-called primitive way of getting food with the so-called modern way. There are only a few hunting-gathering tribes left in the world today. Those people hunt and fish and gath er berries, nuts, leaves, roots and insect larvae (Milani 1-7: 54). Milani 1-7 did not privilege one way over the other by referring to both the primitive and modern concepts as so-called, and suggested that the hunter-gatherer tribes still practice certain techniques today.

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132 Archaeology for Set 2 The archaeology for Set 2 incorporated 87 st atements archived from seven teacher editions and one student edit ion, Gottfried 2-8. The archaeology of statements for Set 2 provided a reasonable amount of content to support examina tion of the ideological and textual features designed for this segment of the study. The archived statements came primarily from the indigenous content found in Essenfeld 2-1, Johnson 2-3, and Oram 25, which also included the highest freque ncies of indigenous representations as determined from the tally. Notions of Essentialism Although the notion of traditionality, exemp lified by such phrases as traditional lifestyle or traditional setting or the use of the word traditiona l as an adjective to describe a particular indigenous group (Ni nnes, 2003, p. 173), did not appear in the texts in Set 2, there remained generic reference within Essenfeld 2-1, Kaskel 2-2, Johnson 2-3, and Miller 2-4 to natives, native people(s), indigenous people, and native tribes. The phrase Native American was used most often to refer to an indigenous group, appearing 52 times in the archived statements. Ten of these occurrences included the modifier some many various or other which suggested diversity w ithin the group by limiting the indigenous identity, practice or belief to a particular group. The generic phrase American Indian appeared 3 times with no modifier or link to a specific geographic region to indicate diversity within the identity. Occasionally, the textbooks in Set 2 refe renced specific groups by name. As example, Essenfeld 2-1 mentioned the Tainos and the Inuit, and Johnson 2-3 mentioned the Arfak, Cherokee, Papagos, Pimas, and Apache. Oram 2-5 mentioned 17 groups by

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133 name: Eskimos, Samoans, Maoris, Sioux, H opi, Zuni, Iroquois, Pagago, Nez Perce, Naskapi, Navajos, Lapps (or Sami), Masai, Mohawk, Oneida, Aymara, and Quechua. Miller 2-4 and Towle 2-6 mentioned only one group by name: the Pitjendara and the Eskimos, respectively. At times, the textbooks in Set 2 incorporated various geographic regions to specify a particul ar indigenous group. As example, Essenfeld 2-1 referenced Native Americans in the plains regions as well as the southwestern parts of the United States, Native Americans of the Great Lakes region, and Native Americans of the Pacific coast of North America; Johnson 2-3 menti oned Native Americans of Central and South America and natives of the Caribbean; Or am 2-5 mentioned Native Americans of both North and South America, Native American s in northeastern North America, and Northeastern Native Americans; and Milani 2-7 mentioned natives of Central and South America. Textual Features of Indigenous Representations The archived statements were examined for grammatical devices such as verb tense as a means to consider the repres entations of indige nous knowledge within temporal contexts and contemporary perspec tives. For the statements where tense was discernable and the indigenous representation c ould realistically characterize an extant technology or practice, the use of present tense occurred three times as often as the use of past tense. Almost half of the statements represented a historical depiction of the indigenous representation with no conn ection to contemporary perspective or counterparts. One-fourth of the statements placed the indigenous knowledge in the past and balanced the statement with the inclusi on of the contemporary perspective of the indigenous technology or practice. As example, Essenfeld 2-1 discu ssed the centuries-old

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134 tribal customs of rainforest regions in many South Americ an countries and included how the use of frog toxin remained a contemporar y practice (p. 578). Johnson 2-3 related the use of the May apple by the Cherokees to ki ll parasitic worms and partnered this with current information regarding extracts from sweet potatoes used for making steroid hormones for cortisone and bi rth control pills (p. 438). One instance of the use of universalizi ng language occurred in Miller 2-4 with the use of first person plural as we creating a boundary between th e two ways of knowing: The stories of the rock also detail the c onnections between the tribe and animals important in their everyday livesThe stor ies even explain the origins of dreams. We might say that the rock provides th e Pitjendara with answers that other societies seek through a proce ss known as science (p. 5) Archaeology for Set 3 The archaeology for Set 3 incorporated 123 statements archived from eight teacher editions and two student editions, Bybee 3-6 and Leonard 3-9. The archaeology of statements for Set 3 provided a reasonabl e amount of content to support examination of the ideological and textua l features designed for this segment of the study. The archived statements came primarily from the indigenous content found in Johnson 3-2, Strauss 3-8 and Oram 3-10, which also includ ed the highest frequencies of indigenous representations as determin ed from the tally. Notions of Essentialism The notion of traditionality, exemplified by such phrases as traditional lifestyle or traditional setting or the use of the word traditiona l as an adjective to describe a particular indigenous group (Ninnes, 2003, p. 173), appeared twice in Set 3. Johnson 3-2

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135 included the onslaught of scientific interest in traditional medicine has both positive and negative consequence (p. 16). Bybee 3-6 stated that traditional societies are societies that have not been influenced by the m odern or Western cultures around them.most traditional cultures have had contact with mode rn cultures, but the timing and the extent of this contact have varied (p. E227). Ther e remained generic reference within Biggs 31, Johnson 3-2, Johnson 3-4, Milani 3-7, Strauss 3-8, and Miller 3-11 to early agricultural societies, native people(s), indigenous people(s), native farmers, rural and primitive cultures, primitive people, ancient peoples, or native tribes. The phrase Native American(s) was used most often to refer to an indigenous group, appearing 60 times in the archived statements. Twelve of these occurrences included the modifier some many, or other which suggested diversity within th e group by limiting the indigenous identity, practice or belief to a particular group. The generic phrase American Indian appeared five times with no modifier or link to a specific ge ographic region to indi cate diversity within the identity. Aztec(s) appeared 14 times and Hopi appeared 10 times within Set 3. Frequently, the textbooks in Set 3 refe renced specific groups by name. As example, Johnson 3-2 mentioned the Kwakiutl, Haida Indians of the American Northwest coast, Hopi, Arfak, Navajo, Havasupai, Si oux, Ute, Aztecs, Mayans, Cochiti, Filipinos, Winnebago, Cree, and the Yanomamo tribe of Brazil and Venezela. Milani 3-7 mentioned the Palouse, Nez Perce, Pueblo Indians, Hopi, Zuni, Anasazi, Navajo, Eskimos, Aztec(s), Pontiac people, and Incas Miller 3-11 referenced the Pitjendara tribe of central Australia, Aztecs, Mayans, Incas Eskimos, Samoans, Maoris, Sioux, Tewa Tribe of New Mexico, Hopi, Zuni, Iroquois, Papago, Naskapi, Apache, Lapps (or Sami), and Masai herders. With limited occurrence, the textbooks in Set 3 incorporated various

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136 geographic regions to specify a particular indigenous group. As example, Biggs 2-1 referenced Native Americans of both North a nd South America. Johnson 3-2 referenced Native American communities in Arizona a nd New Mexico, Native Americans of Central and South America, native farmers in Me xico, native North Americans. Johnson 3-4 referenced American Indians of South Ameri ca and indigenous peopl e in Brazil. Milani 3-7 referenced Native American cultures of the northwestern United States and Canada. Strauss 3-8 referenced native people of Peru, Indians of South America and Native Americans living in the Amazon region. Textual Features of Indigenous Representations The archived statements were examined for grammatical devices such as verb tense as a means to consider the repres entations of indige nous knowledge within temporal contexts and contemporary perspec tives. For the statements where tense was discernable and the indigenous representation c ould realistically characterize an extant technology or practice, the use of present tense occurr ed slight more often times than the use of past tense. One-third of the statemen ts represented a historical depiction of the indigenous representation with no conn ection to contemporary perspective or counterparts. One-third of the statements placed the indigenous knowledge in the past and balanced the statement with the inclusi on of the contemporary perspective of the indigenous technology or practice, and the in digenous content in these instances most often related to an indigenous technology. As example, Strauss 3-8 included: Wood has been used for the construction of shelter fo r many years. However, wood is not the only living thing from which shelters are madeN ative Americans living in the southwestern part of the United States use thatch for the roofs of their shelter (p. 17). Miller 3-11

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137 included: Native tribes in the tropics of ten poison their arrow tips by rubbing them in these [tropical tree] frogs (p. 701). One instance of the use of universaliz ing language occurred in Miller 3-11 with the use of first person plural as we creating a boundary between the two ways of knowing: The stories of the rock also detail the c onnections between the tribe and animals important in their everyday livesThe stor ies even explain the origins of dreams. We might say that the rock provides th e Pitjendara with answers that other societies seek through a proce ss known as science (p. 5) Archaeology for Set 4 The archaeology for Set 4 incorporated 61 statements archived from six teacher editions. The archived statem ents came primarily from th e indigenous content found in Biggs 4-2, Johnson 4-3, and Postlethwait 4-5, wh ich also included the highest frequencies of indigenous representations as determined from the tally. Notions of Essentialism The notion of traditionality, exemplified by such phrases as traditional lifestyle or traditional setting or the use of the word traditiona l as an adjective to describe a particular indigenous group (Ninnes, 2003, p. 173), appeared once in Biggs 4-2: Many traditional remedies manufactured in certain countries are made with body parts from threatened species (p. 836). There remained ge neric reference within all of the texts in Set 4 that included indigenous content to phras es such as native cultures, native people, and hunter-gatherers. The phrase Native American was used most often to refer to an indigenous group, appearing 17 times in the archived statements. Three of these

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138 occurrences included the modifier many, which suggested diversity within the group by limiting the indigenous identity, practice or belief to a particular group. Occasionally, the textbooks in Set 4 re ferenced specific groups by name. As example, Biggs 4-2 mentioned the Inuit gr oups in North America, Mayas, Aztecs, Aymara, and Quechua Indians of South Am erica. Johnson 4-3 mentioned the Hopi, Aztecs, Maya, Inca, Winnebago, Makah, and A borigines. Postlethwait 4-5 mentioned the Masai of Kenya, Seminoles of Florida, H opi, Kalahari Bushmen, Andaman natives of Myanmar, African Pygmies, Aztecs, and A borigines. It appeared common for the textbooks in Set 4 to incorporate various ge ographic regions to specify a particular indigenous group. As example, Biggs 4-2 refe renced groups living in southwester United States, certain groups of Native North Amer icans, and North Americans of both North and South America. Johnson 4-3 referenced Native American communities in Arizona and New Mexico, Native Americans of the P acific Northwest, northwest Indians, and northwest tribes. Postlethwait 4-5 referen ced the Masai of Kenya, Pacific Northwest Native Americans, and many tribes of South and Central America. Textual Features of Indigenous Representations The archived statements were examined for grammatical devices such as verb tense as a means to consider the repres entations of indige nous knowledge within temporal contexts and contemporary perspec tives. For the statements where tense was discernable and the indigenous representation c ould realistically characterize an extant technology or practice, the use of past tense occurred twice as often as present tense. Almost one-third of the statements represen ted a historical depict ion of the indigenous representation with no connec tion to contemporary perspec tive or counterparts. One-

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139 fourth of the statements placed the indigenous knowledge in the past and balanced the statement with the inclusi on of the contemporary pers pective of the indigenous technology or practice. Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) The results for the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO), depicted in Tables 32, 33, 34, and 35, varied greatly among the four sets. To facilitate the reporting of the results, consideration of the subsets of nature of science ecology and indigenous representations within the Eurocentric and multicultu ral vocabulary lists were used to organize the findings for this segment of the study. Nature of Science The findings of the ECO revealed that the nature of science remained the area least likely to incorporate any terminology regarded as multicultural. Twenty of the student editions in the sample reflected a 0.00 coefficient and 16 of the teachers editions reflected a 0.00 coefficient for nature of science; 16 of the 34 textbooks reflected a 0.00 coefficient for both the student and teacher edition for nature of science. Nature of science coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 30.00 with 0.00 as the modal score. Cairney 3-5 had the highest coefficient for nature of science at 30.00 fo r both the student and teacher edition; Biggs 4-2 had the second highest coefficient at 16.00 for both the student and teacher edition. Student edition coefficients compared to teac her edition coefficients reflected no major difference between scores.

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140 Table 32. Evaluation Coefficient Analysis St udent and Teacher Editions Set 1 Textbook Nature of Science Ecology Indigenous Representations Code SE TE SE TE SE TE Oram 1-1 0.00 1.82 38.07 36.72 77.78 77.78 Goodman 1-2 0.00 0.00 36.77 36.67 62.50 50.00 McLaren 1-3 0.00 0.00 22.42 21.79 100.00 100.00 Towle 1-4 0.00 0.00 29.07 28.90 50.00 50.00 Alexander 1-5 0.00 0.00 18.95 19.59 100.00 100.00 Milani 1-6 5.97 5.48 14.06 13.64 0.00 0.00 Milani 1-7 0.00 0.00 15.08 15.91 27.78 25.00 Schraer 1-8 0.00 0.00 27.23 28.77 0.00 0.00 Mean 25.21 25.25 52.26 50.35

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141 Table 33. Evaluation Coefficient Analysis St udent and Teacher Editions Set 2 Textbook Nature of Science Ecology Indigenous Representations Code SE TE SE TE SE TE Essenfeld 2-1 2.56 3.03 24.13 23.40 9.68 18.75 Kaskel 2-2 0.00 0.00 18.78 19.83 100.00 100.00 Johnson 2-3 0.00 0.00 19.77 22.12 5.00 32.69 Miller 2-4 0.00 0.00 18.01 17.80 88.89 91.18 Oram 2-5 4.65 4.00 30.79 33.85 50.46 48.15 Towle 2-6 0.00 0.00 29.14 26.85 57.14 57.14 Milani 2-7 10.00 15.38 36.56 36.36 27.78 25.00 Gottfried 2-8 4.11 0.00 24.93 0.00 20.00 0.00 Schraer 2-9 0.00 0.00 27.23 28.77 0.00 0.00 Mean 24.48 26.12 39.88 46.61

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142 Table 34. Evaluation Coefficient Analysis Stude nt and Teacher Editions Set 3 Textbook Nature of Science Ecology Indigenous Representations Code SE TE SE TE SE TE Biggs 3-1 1.15 1.55 27.54 28.90 50.00 47.06 Johnson 3-2 0.00 2.56 14.85 16.86 28.57 60.00 Pignatiello 3-3 0.00 0.00 18.95 20.00 0.00 0.00 Johnson 3-4 0.00 0.00 25.29 26.42 0.00 35.29 Cairney 3-5 30.00 30.00 31.78 32.42 0.00 14.29 Bybee 3-6 0.00 0.00 9.21 0.00 75.00 0.00 Miller 3-7 2.13 1.39 22.41 25.46 56.52 54.24 Strauss 3-8 3.38 3.17 20.11 20.18 43.33 43.33 Leonard 3-9 0.00 0.00 28.40 0.00 28.57 0.00 Oram 3-10 4.65 4.00 30.79 33.85 50.46 48.15 Miller 3-11 0.00 0.00 33.15 32.57 100.00 72.22 Mean 23.86 26.30 39.31 41.62

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143 Table 35. Evaluation Coefficient Analysis St udent and Teacher Editions Set 4 Textbook Nature of Science Ecology Indigenous Representations Code SE TE SE TE SE TE Parke 4-1 1.96 1.89 17.71 28.63 0.00 0.00 Biggs 4-2 16.00 16.00 34.48 36.07 81.82 68.00 Johnson 4-3 0.00 0.00 23.40 27.89 57.14 56.86 Miller 4-4 9.59 7.61 20.49 21.97 30.76 30.76 Postlethwait 4-5 0.00 0.00 22.41 25.78 38.24 41.18 Campbell 4-6 1.67 1.48 18.80 16.37 0.00 0.00 Mean 22.88 26.12 34.66 32.80

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144 Ecology Mean scores were calculated for the coefficients recorded under ecology for the student and teacher editions per each se t. Lumsden 2-8, Bybee 3-6 and Leonard 3-9 teacher editions were excluded from the mean scores for the ecology coefficients as each of these teacher editions did not contain th e type of content a ppropriate for the ECO calculations planned for this portion of the study. The mean coefficients for the student and teacher editions averaged mid-to-low twentie s for each of the four sets of texts with a range of coefficients from14.06 to 38.07 for the inclusive sample of student editions and 13.64 to 36.72 for the inclusive sample of teacher editions. The mean coefficients for each student edition compared to each teacher ed ition varied slightly for each set, and the collective mean coefficients did not indicate high levels of multicultural or favorable content. Across all four sets, the mean scores for ecology for the student editions showed a slight decrease, and the teachers editions s howed a slight increase from Set 1 to Set 3, and then a slight decease from Set 3 to Set 4. Indigenous Representations Mean scores were calculated for the coefficients recorded for indigenous representations for the student and teacher edi tions in each set. As for the ecology segment, Lumsden 2-8, Bybee 3-6 and Leonard 3-9 teacher editions were excluded from the mean scores for the indigenous representations coefficients as each of these teacher editions did not contain the t ype of content appropriate fo r the ECO portion of the study. The mean coefficients for student and t eacher editions ranged from 32.80 to 52.26 among the four sets of texts with a range of co efficients from 0.00 to 100.00 for the inclusive sample of student editions and 0.00 to 100.00 for the inclusive sample of teacher editions.

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145 Although the mean coefficients for each student edition compared to each teacher edition varied slightly for each set, within the sets coefficients varied greatly from student to teacher edition. As example, in Set 1, Good man 1-2 teacher edition coefficient decreased by 20% compared to the student edition. In Set 2, Essenfeld 2-1 teacher edition coefficient doubled compared to the stude nt edition, and for Johnson 2-3, the teacher edition increased more than six times compar ed to the student edition. In Set 3, Johnson 3-2 teacher edition coefficient almost doubled compared to the stude nt edition, and Miller 3-11 teacher edition coefficient decreased by more than 25% compared to the student edition counterpart. In add ition, two of the student editi ons, Johnson 3-4 and Cairney 3-5, had coefficients of 0.00 for indigenous representation but their teacher edition counterparts had coefficients to 35.29 and 14.29, respectively. Across all four sets, the mean scores for indigenous representations for both the student and teacher editions showed a decrease from Set 1 to Set 4. Visuals and Illustrations A total of 4,994 visuals and illustrati ons were identified within two units considered to reflect multicultural content in the form of non-Western or indigenous knowledge: introduction to biology and ecology Of the total number of visuals, 663 (13%) were classified as human. Tables 36, 37, 38 and 39 depict the number and percent of visuals or illustrations by unit per set. Visu als tallied as human were further classified as one of the following: child/youth, adult, ae rial, or appendage. For aerial depictions, the image had to include sizeable groups of individuals performing similar activities (Powell and Garcia, 1985, p. 524) with gende r and race not clearly discernable.

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146 Table 36. Number and Percent of Visuals/Illustrations In troduction to Biology and Ecology Units Set 1 Textbook Oram Goodman McLaren Towle Alexander Milani Milani Scharer Code 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 Total Number 170 140 123 128 164 102 296 128 of Visuals Total Number 20 19 12 12 18 12 34 22 with Humans Percent with 11.8 13.6 9.8 9.4 11.0 11.8 11.5 17.2 Humans

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147 Table 37. Number and Percent of Visuals/Illustrations Intr oduction to Biology and Ecology Units Set 2 Textbook Essenfeld Kaskel Johnson Miller Oram Towle Milani Gottfried Schraer Code 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 Total Number 168 107 165 188 175 129 144 208 124 of Visuals Total Number 23 10 34 21 20 13 9 18 19 with Humans Percent with 13.7 9.3 20.6 11.2 11.4 10.1 6.3 8.7 15.3 Humans

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148 Table 38. Number and Percent of Visuals/Illustrations In troduction to Biology and Ecology Units Set 3 Textbook Biggs Johnson Pignatiello Johnson Milani Bybee Miller St rauss Leonard Oram Miller Code 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 Total Number 221 120 49 139 147 32 159 255 77 175 185 of Visuals Total Number 29 13 12 29 9 7 27 22 27 20 20 with Humans Percent with 13.1 10.8 24.5 20.9 6.1 21.9 17.0 8.6 35.1 11.4 10.8 Humans

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149 Table 39. Number and Percent of Visuals/Illustrations In troduction to Biology and Ecology Units Set 4 Textbook Parke Biggs Johnson Miller Postlethwait Campbell Code 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 Total Number 39 160 127 181 125 144 of Visuals Total Number 12 12 30 34 22 22 with Humans Percent with 30.8 7.5 23.6 18.8 17.6 15.3 Humans

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150 An appendage visual included a diagram that displays only an appendage of the human body, e.g., hand, arm, leg, foot; extensions of an appendage, e.g., fingers toes,; or closeup photography of parts of the body, e.g., nose ea r, or mouth, and presented in manner that hinders the identificati on of the individual by gender (Powell and Garcia, 1985, p. 524). Tables 40 and 41 depict percentages by categories for visuals and illustration by Sets 1 and 2 and Sets 3 and 4, respectively. Set 1 Table 40 depicts that, on the average, 10% of the human representations in the images were children or youth, 79% were a dults, 4.0% were aerial shots, and 7% appeared as appendages. Images of appenda ges included hands or fingers manipulating laboratory apparatus such as a microscope or test tube; on the average, 82% of the appendages were white, 9% minority, and 9% unidentifiable. Appendage images recorded as unidentifiable re presented hands or fingers in side of gloves manipulating laboratory apparatus. Tables 42 and 43 depict percent of imag es of children or youth and adults by gender and race for the units introduction to biology and ecology respectively. Towle 1-4 and Alexander 1-5 had no images of children. On average for the set, a little more than half of the images of children or youth were unidentifiable with regard to gender; 14% were classified as male and 35% were female On average for the set, 25% of the images of children and youth were unidentifiable w ith regard to race, 33% of the images represented minorities and 42% represented im ages of whites. When children were depicted, they appeared in a limited range of activities; children and youth were pictured twice as often as active compared to passive.

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151 Table 40. Percentages by Categories for Visuals/Illustrations Categories Sets 1 and 2 Book Code Child Adult Aerial Appendage Set 1 Oram 1-1 9.1 81.8 0.0 9.1 Goodman 1-2 10.0 70.0 10.0 10.0 McLaren 1-3 16.7 83.3 0.0 0.0 Towle 1-4 0.0 91.7 0.0 8.3 Alexander 1-5 0.0 82.4 5.9 11.8 Milani 1-6 16.7 75.0 8.3 0.0 Milani 1-7 10.8 75.7 8.1 5.4 Schraer 1-8 17.4 74.0 0.0 8.7 Mean 10.1 79.2 4.0 6.7 Set 2 Essenfeld 2-1 8.0 80.0 4.0 8.0 Kaskel 2-2 27.3 63.6 9.1 0.0 Johnson 2-3 45.7 51.4 0.0 2.9 Miller 2-4 17.4 69.6 4.3 8.7 Oram 2-5 13.6 72.7 9.1 4.5 Towle 2-6 7.1 78.7 7.1 7.1 Milani 2-7 10.0 90.0 0.0 0.0 Gottfried 2-8 10.5 73.7 5.3 10.5 Schraer 2-9 15.8 84.2 0.0 0.0 Mean 17.3 73.8 4.3 4.6

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152 Table 41. Percentages by Categories for Visuals/Illustrations Categories Sets 3 and 4 Book Code Child Adult Aerial Appendage Set 3 Biggs 3-1 35.7 57.1 3.6 3.6 Johnson 3-2 33.3 53.3 6.7 6.7 Pignatiello 3-3 23.1 69.2 0.0 7.7 Johnson 3-4 44.9 51.7 3.4 0.0 Milani 3-5 10.0 90.0 0.0 0.0 Bybee 3-6 57.1 28.6 14.3 0.0 Miller 3-7 14.8 70.4 14.8 0.0 Strauss 3-8 27.3 54.6 13.6 4.5 Leonard 3-9 31.4 54.3 11.4 2.9 Oram 3-10 9.5 71.4 14.3 4.8 Miller 3-11 14.3 66.7 4.8 14.3 Mean 27.4 60.7 7.9 4.0 Set 4 Parke 4-1 21.4 50.0 21.4 7.2 Biggs 4-2 30.8 69.2 0.0 0.0 Johnson 4-3 35.7 46.4 3.6 14.3 Miller 4-4 8.1 86.5 0.0 5.4 Postlethwait 4-5 31.8 63.6 4.5 0.0 Campbell 4-6 33.4 50.0 8.3 8.3 Mean 26.9 70.0 6.3 5.9

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153 Table 42. Percent of Images of Children/Youth by Gender and Race for Introduction to Biology and Ecology Units Set 1 Book Gender Race Code Male Female Uniden tified Non-white White Unidentified Oram 1-1 0.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 Goodman 1-2 0.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 50.0 50.0 McLaren 1-3 50.0 0.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 Towle 1-4* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Alexander 1-5* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Milani 1-6 33.3 33.3 33.3 50.0 50.0 0.0 Milani 1-7 0.0 25.0 75.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 Schraer 1-8 0.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 Mean 13.9 34.7 51.4 33.3 41.7 25.0 *not included in Mean

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154 Table 43. Percent of Images of Adults by Gender and Race Introduction to Biology and Ecology Units Set 1 Book Gender Race Code Male Female Unidentified Non-white White Unidentified Oram 1-1 50.0 44.4 5.6 38.9 55.6 5.6 Goodman 1-2 78.6 21.4 0.0 35.7 64.3 0.0 McLaren 1-3 66.7 33.3 0.0 27.3 54.5 18.2 Towle 1-4 69.2 15.4 15.4 54.5 9.1 36.4 Alexander 1-5 66.7 33.3 0.0 20.0 73.3 6.7 Milani 1-6 60.0 30.0 10.0 22.2 66.7 11.1 Milani 1-7 48.4 35.5 16.1 16.7 53.3 30.0 Schraer 1-8 58.8 41.2 0.0 11.8 76.5 11.8 Mean 62.3 31.8 5.9 28.4 56.7 14.9

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155 When gender was identifiable, female childre n or youth were depicted three times as often in active poses compared to male children or youth. Activ ities that involved children or youth included learni ng to drive a car, using a micr oscope or other laboratory equipment, walking in the hallway at sc hool, playing in a park, or riding a bike. Photographs of children were al so most likely to be included with content related to malnutrition or famine. On average, adults in Set 1 were pictur ed twice as often as male compared to female with 6% of the images of adults as unidentifiable with rega rd to gender; 57% of the images depicted adults as white and 28.4% as minority with 14% percent of the images of adults unidentifiable with regard to race. Adults were de picted in variety of science and non-science activit ies including the manipulation of laboratory apparatus and field equipment, collecting specimens, operating computer equipment, leading discussions or conferences, recycling cans and other materials, operating heavy equipment, running or jogging for exercise, or diving or working underwater. Ten percent of the images of females and 8% of the images of males were classifi ed as passive for the texts in Set 1. When race was identifiable, an average of 14% of the adult white images and 5% of the adult minority images were classified as passive. Set 2 As depicted in Table 40, on the average 17% of the images represented children or youth, 74% represented adults, 4.0% were aerial shots, and 5% appeared as appendages. Images of appendages for Set 2 included hands or fingers manipulating laboratory apparatus such as a microscope, test tube or Petri dish; on the average, 67% of the appendages were white and 33% unidentif iable. Appendage images recorded as

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156 unidentifiable reflected hands in side of gloves undertaking the types of actions indicative of laboratory work. Tables 44 and 45 depict percent of imag es of children or youth and adults by gender and race for introduction to biology and ecology respectively. On average, 18% of the images of children or youth were unide ntifiable in regard to gender; 37% were classified as male and 45% were classified as female. On average, 12% of the images of children and youth were unidentifiable with regard to race; a little mo re than half of the images represented minorities and a little more than a third of the images represented whites. Children were depicted in a wide range of science and nonscience activities in Set 2 including recycling plastics and ne wspapers, performing an experiment, manipulating a microscope, usi ng a magnifying glass, or climbing a tree. Of the images where gender was identifiable, male children, on average, were depicted twice as often as passive compared to female children. Of the images where race was identifiable, minority children or youth were three times as likely to be pictured as passive compared to images of white children or youth. On average, adults in Set 2 were twice as likely to be depict ed as male compared to female with 9% of the images as unident ifiable with regard to gender. On average, 47% of the images depicted adults as white and 34% as minority; 19% of the images of adults were unidentifiable with regard to race. Adults were depicted in variety of roles: diving among kelp beds, herding animals, wo rking with computers, protesting at an event, welding pipes, operat ing heavy equipment, planting seedlings, recycling plastics, building an igloo, cooking, experimen ting, hunting food, and collecting honey.

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157 Table 44. Percent of Images of Children/Youth by Gender and Race Set 2 Book Gender Race Code Male Female Unidentified Non-white White Unidentified Essenfeld 2-1 50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 Kaskel 2-2 50.0 25.0 25.0 60.0 40.0 0.0 Johnson 2-3 44.4 55.6 0.0 42.9 47.6 9.5 Miller 2-4 57.1 42.9 0.0 66.7 33.3 0.0 Oram 2-5 50.0 50.0 0.0 50.0 0.0 50.0 Towle 2-6 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 Milani 2-7 33.3 66.7 0.0 33.3 66.7 0.0 Gottfried 2-8 50.0 0.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 50.0 Schraer 2-9 0.0 66.7 33.3 66.7 33.3 0.0 Mean 37.2 45.2 17.6 52.2 35.7 12.2

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158 Table 45. Percent of Images of Adults by Gender and Race Set 2 Book Gender Race Code Male Female Unidentified Non-white White Unidentified Essenfeld 2-1 55.0 40.0 5.0 39.1 47.9 13.0 Kaskel 2-2 57.1 28.6 14.3 50.0 30.0 20.0 Johnson 2-3 66.7 33.3 0.0 44.4 55.6 0.0 Miller 2-4 43.7 43.8 12.5 25.0 68.8 6.2 Oram 2-5 64.7 23.5 11.8 20.0 53.3 26.7 Towle 2-6 75.0 8.3 16.7 27.3 27.3 45.4 Milani 2-7 54.5 36.4 9.1 30.0 60.0 10.0 Gottfried 2-8 63.2 31.6 5.2 46.6 26.7 26.7 Schraer 2-9 57.9 36.8 5.3 23.5 52.9 23.5 Mean 59.8 31.4 8.9 34.0 47.0 19.0

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159 When gender was identifiable, an average of 5% of the adult female and 6% of the adult male images were classified as passive. When race was identifiable, an average of 6% of the white images of adults and 4% of the mi nority images of adults were classified as passive. Set 3 As depicted in Table 41, an average 27% of the images represented children or youth, 61% represented adults, 8% were aerial shots, and 4% appeared as appendages. Images of appendages for Set 3 included hands or fingers ma nipulating laboratory apparatus or holding wildlife for tagging or feeding purposes. On average, 89% of the appendage images were white and 11% were unidentifiable with regard to race. Appendage images recorded as unidentifia ble reflected hands inside of gloves undertaking the types of actions indicative of laboratory work. Tables 46 and 47 depict percent of imag es of children or youth and adults by gender and race for introduction to biology and ecology respectively. On average, 7% of the images of children or youth were unidentif iable with regard to gender. Children or youth were depicted almost equally as either male or female. On average, 20% of the images of children and youth were unidentifiab le with regard to ra ce; children or youth were depicted almost equally as minority or white. Children were depicted in a wide range of science and non-s cience activities includi ng using hand lenses, mixing chemicals, mixing soil, recycling paper, eating lunch at the food court, collecting rainwater, using a microscope, planting s eeds, riding a bike, skateboarding, playing tennis, taking water samples, working at the computer, adding seed to a feeder, watering plants, making pasta, picking up li tter, and using a Bunsen burner.

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160 Table 46. Percent of Images of Children/Youth by Gender and Race Set 3 Book Gender Race Code Male Female Unidentified Non-white White Unidentified Biggs 3-1 41.2 52.9 5.9 64.7 29.4 5.9 Johnson 3-2 42.9 42.9 14.2 33.3 50.0 16.7 Pignatiello 3-3 30.8 69.2 0.0 54.5 45.5 0.0 Johnson 3-4 37.5 50.0 12.5 37.5 56.3 6.2 Milani 3-5 50.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 50.0 50.0 Bybee 3-6 40.0 40.0 20.0 20.0 60.0 20.0 Miller 3-7 60.0 40.0 0.0 50.0 25.0 25.0 Strauss 3-8 50.0 50.0 0.0 25.0 50.0 25.0 Leonard 3-9 46.7 33.3 20.0 55.5 38.9 5.6 Oram 3-10 50.0 50.0 0.0 50.0 0.0 50.0 Miller 3-11 60.0 40.0 0.0 57.1 28.6 14.3 Mean 46.3 47.1 6.6 40.7 39.4 19.9

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161 Table 47. Percent of Images of Adults by Gender and Race Set 3 Book Gender Race Code Male Female Unidentified Non-white White Unidentified Biggs 3-1 38.9 27.8 33.3 18.8 31.2 50.0 Johnson 3-2 54.5 36.4 9.1 25.0 50.0 25.0 Pignatiello 3-3 66.7 33.3 0.0 66.7 33.3 0.0 Johnson 3-4 66.7 20.0 13.3 26.7 53.3 20.0 Milani 3-5 50.0 20.0 30.0 22.2 44.4 33.3 Bybee 3-6 50.0 50.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 0.0 Miller 3-7 66.7 23.8 9.5 25.0 55.0 20.0 Strauss 3-8 46.1 30.8 23.1 23.1 46.1 30.8 Leonard 3-9 57.1 42.9 0.0 33.3 55.6 11.1 Oram 3-10 64.7 23.5 11.8 20.0 53.3 26.7 Miller 3-11 42.9 50.0 7.1 21.4 71.4 7.1 Mean 54.9 32.6 12.5 28.7 50.9 20.4 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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162 An average of 8% of the male children or youth and 5% of the female children or youth were classified as passive when gender wa s identifiable; an average of 12% of the minority children or youth and 4% of the wh ite children or youth were classified as passive when race was identifiable. On average, 55% of the images in Set 3 depicted adult males and 33% depicted adult females with 13% of the images as unidentifiable with regard to gender. On average, 51% of the images depicted adults as white and 29% as minority; 20% of the images of adults were unidentifiable with rega rd to race. Adults were depicted in variety of science and non-science roles: measuring pl ants, using a syringe, recording bird songs, diving in the kelp beds, performing field studies, taking cultures, operating heavy equipment, performing experiments, collec ting water samples, counseling patients, tagging wildlife, recording notes protesting at an event, t eaching a class, voting in an election, dancing at a USO event, measuring fl owers, fishing, using a computer and other technological equipment, recording data, mixing chemicals, helping a stranded whale return to the ocean, releasing wildlife into natural habitat, measur ing age of tree, moving barrels of hazardous waste materials, planti ng seedlings, carrying out a census, recycling aluminum cans, cleaning pipes, pulling comb s from beehive, plowing a field, gardening, pickling cactus, spraying mattr esses with pesticides, riding a bike to work, seining for fish, cleaning up an oil spill, riding horse, hi king, and sailing. An average of 11% of the male adult images and 5% of the female adu lt images were classified as passive when gender was identifiable; an average of 7% of the adult minority images and 6% of the adult white images were classified as passive when race was identifiable.

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163 Set 4 As depicted in Table 41, an average 27% of the images represented children or youth, 70% represented adults, 6% were aerial shots, and 6% appeared as appendages. Images of appendages for Set 4 included hands or fingers ma nipulating laboratory apparatus, holding an animal for feeding purposes, illustrating an example of skin irritations such as poison ivy or holding a s eedling. All of the appendage images were identified as white with regard to race. Tables 48 and 49 depict percent of imag es of children or youth and adults by gender and race for introduction to biology and ecology for Set 4. None of the textbooks had images as unidentifiable in regard to ge nder or race. On average, children or youth were depicted almost equally as either male or female with 48% categorized as male and 52% as female. On average, children or yout h were depicted as minority in 59% of the images and as white in 41% of the images. Children were depicted in a wide range of activities including working in the lab, collecting water samples, eating lunch, taking measurements, draining samples, using binoc ulars, recycling and composting, working with test tubes, using a computer, potting pl ants, taking a census, seining for specimens, and mixing soil. An average of 6% of the ma le children or youth a nd 7% of the female children or youth were classified as passive when gender was identifiable; an average of 8% of the minority children or youth and 6% of the white children or youth were classified as passive when race was identifiable. On average, 49% of the images in Set 4 depicted adult males and 42% depicted adult females with 9% of the images as uniden tifiable with regard to gender. On average, over half of the images depicted adul ts as white and one-fourth as minority.

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164 Table 48. Percent of Images of Children/Youth by Gender and Race Set 4 Book Gender Race Code Male Female Unidentified Non-white White Unidentified Parke 4-1 50.0 50.0 0.0 80.0 20.0 0.0 Biggs 4-2 42.9 57.1 0.0 66.7 33.3 0.0 Johnson 4-3 35.7 64.3 0.0 56.3 43.7 0.0 Miller 4-4 75.0 25.0 0.0 25.0 75.0 0.0 Postlethwait 4-5 45.5 54.5 0.0 75.0 25.0 0.0 Campbell 4-6 37.5 62.5 0.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 Mean 47.8 52.2 0.0 58.8 41.2 0.0

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165 Table 49. Percent of Images of Adults by Gender and Race Set 4 Book Gender Race Code Male Female Unidentified Non-white White Unidentified Parke 4-1 57.1 42.9 0.0 28.5 42.9 28.5 Biggs 4-2 40.0 60.0 0.0 11.1 55.6 33.3 Johnson 4-3 54.5 45.5 0.0 31.6 63.2 5.2 Miller 4-4 50.0 44.1 5.9 28.6 62.9 8.5 Postlethwait 4-5 52.9 35.3 11.8 25.0 62.5 12.5 Campbell 4-6 38.5 23.0 38.5 16.7 50.0 33.3 Mean 48.8 41.8 9.4 23.6 56.2 20.2

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166 Twenty percent of the images of adults were unidentifiable with re gard to race. Adults were depicted in variety of roles: worki ng with manatees, checking satellite mirrors, working on a diary farm, giving a shot, using a computer, reading a vial, leading a nature hike, using a microscope, recording data administering an MRI, running a race, collecting water samples, pipetting liquids, skiing, picking native flowers, operating heavy equipment, holding a public forum, biking to work, working with charts, performing field studies, listeni ng to a patients h eartbeat, cleaning up oil spills, cooking pasta, reading tree rings, ta gging wildlife, measuring antle rs, mimicking a courtship dance, racing in a wheelchair, photographi ng wildlife, and gridding plots of land. An average of 11% of the male adult images and 2% of the female adult images were classified as passive when gender was iden tifiable; an average of 2% of the adult minority images and 10% of the adult white imag es were classified as passive when race was identifiable.

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167 Chapter 5 Discussion of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations This final chapter includes an 1) ov erview of the study, 2) consideration of the limitations of the study, 3) discussion of the findings, including a brief summation of additional findings, 4) conclusions, 5) implications and 6) recommendations. Overview The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which multicultural science content had been infused with in high school biology textbooks. The study evaluated the textbook as an instructional to ol and framework for multicultural science education instruction by comparing mainstr eam to indigenous knowledge perspectives portrayed in the text content. For this i nvestigation, the inclusive sample utilized 34 student editions of Florida state-adopted high school biology texts found on four adoption lists covering 1990 1994, 1994 1998, 1998 2004, and 2005 2006, respectively. Teacher editions, most of which appeared as annotated versions of the student edition counterparts, were examined when appropriate for the study. Texts were organized into four sets based on the year of adoption cycle. Issues associated with multicultural education included content debates that centered on representation and identity and encompassed larger aspects of inclusion and exclusion: the considerations of dominant versus non-dominant cultural viewpoints and their

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168 appropriate roles within K 12 curricula and re lated instructional materials. Against this backdrop, emphasis on the achievement gap unders cored the notion that society desires a populace who can do science, and the question remained whether the science curricula, most commonly conceptualized as the textbook, could not only support preparation of a workforce facing an increase in minority member ship but also hold interest so that those traditionally underrepresented in science ha d access to meaningful opportunities for learning. To address this matter, the fundamental research question investigated the extent to which multicultural science content, exemplified by indigenous knowledge representations, had been infused within th e content of high school biology textbooks. More specifically, to address concerns of the ability of textbooks to support effective multicultural science education, the following que stions were offered for consideration: 1. To what extent did the biology text books adopted in the 2005 2006 cycle include content coverage that supported perspectives of indigenous knowledge compared to biology textbooks adopted in Floridas prior adoption cycles occurring within 1990 1994, 1994 1998, and 1998 2004? 2. To what extent had multicultural perspectives been incorporated in the goals and objectives of the 2005 2006 adoption textbooks compared to the goals and objectives found in the textbooks of the ea rlier adoption cycles occurring within 1990 1994, 1994 1998, and 1998 2004?

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169 3. To what extent did the nature of representations of indigenous knowledge included in high school bi ology textbooks adopted in 2005 2006 compare to the representations of indigenous knowledge in the textbooks adopted in the cycles occurring within 1990 1994, 1994 1998, and 1998 2004? 4. To what extent had representations of indigenous knowledge, including people, events and related vocabulary, been incor porated into the content of high school biology textbooks adopted in 2005 2006 compar ed to the earlier adoption cycles occurring within 1990 1994, 1994 1998, and 1998 2004? 5. To what extent did the illustrations and photographs of non-Western science relate in quantity and quality to visu als of Western science in the 2005 2006 textbooks compared to the earlier adoption cycles of 1990 1994, 1994 1998, and 1998 2004? A variety of strategies were incorporat ed to effectively address the research questions. A tally was used to determine the frequency as well as kind of indigenous representations occurring in each of the units of the textbooks in the sample, and an archeology of statements, created from information collect ed in the tally, was used to examine the nature of representations in the subtext of ideological and textual features. A review of the general format of teacher editions allowe d the researcher to determine inclusion of multicultural content within the overarching program goals and themes. The number of multicultural components, identified by descript ors, were determined and then examined for their degree of relation to the science content found within th e chapter or section objectives.

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170 The Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO ), an instrument developed to measure bias in textbooks, was used to compare the number of multicultural terms to Eurocentric terms found in the two of the 10 textbook units cons idered most likely to support indigenous knowledge representations and al ternative ways of knowing: introduction to biology and ecology The multicultural vocabulary list and the Eurocentric vocabulary list each contained three subsets of terms: nature of science ecology and indigenous representations Coefficients were calculated for each subset and compared within and among the four sets of texts in the sample. Visuals, illustrations, and photographs were tallied as to containing human or nonhuman content. Visuals classifi ed as human were further ca tegorized as aerial, adult, child, or appendage. Visuals were also examin ed to determine per centages of male and female depictions as well as white and non-wh ite depictions per ch ild or youth and adult figures. Human images were also evaluate d with regard to de gree of activity as active or passive Limitations of the Study A primary limitation of the study remain ed that the sample was inclusive and not random and was restricted to textbooks adopt ed by one state, Fl orida, from 1990 2006, which limited the findings to this time frame and context for any broader use by interested parties within the state. In addition, the textbooks were grouped into four sets based on the adoption cycles that occurred fr om 1990 2006, and none of the texts in the inclusive sample appeared in all four of the sets. Oram with Biology Living Systems Milani et al. with An Ecological Approach and Miller and Levine with Biology represented the three au thor groups and respective texts that appeared on at least three of

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171 the four set lists found in the sample. Not ha ving textbooks representative of each of the four sets limited explicit comparison of content from later editions to earlier editions across the adoption cycles. A second limitation of th e study also related to the sample with regard to the expected range of content in the textbooks selected fo r the study. As previously mentioned in the literature review, the concept for the proposed research was based primarily on the work of Ninnes (2000; 2001a; 2001b; 2003), who sele cted textbooks known to contain the quantity and quality of indigenous representati ons necessary for the depth of comparisons planned for his various investigations. For th is particular study, the quantity and quality of indigenous representations proved an unknown and ultimately varied greatly by individual textbook as well as by set. As a result, the limited quantity of collective indigenous content that was ta llied posed a challenge for the researcher to create the degree of depth in evaluation comparab le to Ninnes (2000; 2001a; 2001b; 2003), especially for the archaeology of statements where ideological and textual features were key to the analysis. Moreover, the very nature of the te xtbooks, including aspects of the adoption process, served as a third limitation in this study as not every possible socio-cultural issue within society, particularly those i ssues that might readily prom ote inclusion of indigenous knowledge representations, could be covere d by science textbook content. Indigenous knowledge representations may appear limited or be left out entirely of the content due to space restrictions, pressure to align to state standards, or lack of vocabulary within the context of indigenous knowledge that appear on the designated checklists or among other criteria used by textbook publishers to dete rmine content for textbooks (Whitman, 2004).

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172 A fourth limitation stemmed from the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) and the associated vocabulary lists, which posed a que stion of objectivity with regard to the selection of terms. Although a ll of the Eurocentric terms were taken from one source, The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (2002), the terms for the multicultural list were selected from a variety of s ources including current research and scholarship within the scope of multicultural science education. Indigenous knowledge concepts do not easily translate into equivalent phrases, terms a nd vocabularies understood from the lens of Western Modern Science. Selection of appr opriate terms to match indigenous knowledge concepts for science and the natural worl d posed a challenge as often no word or translation existed for the concepts held by indigenous thought. The subsets themselves, due to necessity, were crafte d with terms aligned with Western Modern Science (WMS), and the researcher has been schooled from WM S perspectives. In a ddition, several of the key indigenous terms related to abstract concepts, and an attempt to secure a pure vocabulary word or phrase proved difficult. A fifth limitation stemmed from the rest riction of two of the measures used in the study to the units introduction to biology and ecology Although the basis for this decision aligned with the purpose of the st udy and was supported by current research, the tallies indicated indigenous knowledge repr esentations in other units including high frequencies for plants which was not selected for the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) or the visuals and illustrations segment of this study. As the ECO and the tally of the illustrations did not include analysis of a ll of the units in each textbook in the sample, there remained the possibility that multicu ltural vocabulary and i ndigenous depictions

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173 could have been incorporated in other parts of the text besides introduction to biology and ecology and, as such, were not recorded. Lastly, one researcher conducted this study. Although the assistance of additional coders allowed for establishment of interrater reliabilities, the fact that one researcher conducted the primary research effort and served as the sole reporter of the results of the findings posed the possibility for recording er ror and the potential for bias. Every effort was made on the part of the re searcher to ensure that the investigation represented the academic quality in its research, methodology, and reporting indicative of the expectations of the Graduate School. Discussion of Findings Indigenous Knowledge Tally In general, indigenous knowledge repres entations in all four sets for student and teacher editions appeared with the highest averages in plants and ecology compared to the other units with the exception of teacher editions in Set 2, which also had high representations in microbial world and vertebrates The high frequency of inclusion of indigenous content for plants and ecology was expected since current literature paralleled these two, couched in the broa der category of Western Modern Science (WMS), with the knowledge base generated in indigenous ways of knowing the natural world (Snively and Corsiglia, 2002). Since the number of texts varied for each set, calculations of averages served to facilitate the discussion of findings for compar isons across all four sets. For example, if one considered the average number of units that contained indigenous content for each set for both the student and teacher editions, there was an increase in representations

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174 among the sets, which occurred from Set 1 to Set 3, with a slight d ecrease in Set 4 for student editions and a larger decrease in Set 4 for teacher editions. In other words, the indigenous knowledge content, on average, in creased until the final adoption cycle where the amount of indigenous knowledge content decreased. If the same averages were considered again, with the exception of the texts in Set 1, the teacher editions had much more indigenous content compared to the to the student edition counterparts. As example, teacher editions for Set 4, from the consideration average number of recorded units with fre quencies of content, had almost twice the content compared to the student editions. Se t 3 teacher editions, on average, had more than double the content. Set 2 te acher editions, on average, had two-fifths more content than the student edi tion counter parts. Since none of the textbooks appeared on all four adoption sets, comparisons of individual texts across all four cycles, as previously not ed in the limitations of the study, were not possible and identifiabl e trends at this level were limited. However, there were several texts that appeared on three of the set lists that permitted noteworthy observations for discussion. Oram, as example, authored a series of texts for Glencoe called Biology Living Systems and the text appeared as the 6th, 7th, and 8th editions for 1989 (Set 1), 1994 (Set 2), and 1998 (Set 3), respectively. The 6th edition was designated for general Biology I and the 7th and 8th editions moved to Biology I Honors The 6th edition had very little indigenous content, but the 7th and 8th editions represented tw o of the texts in the sample, both student and teacher editions, that contained some of the highest recorded frequencies of indigenous cont ent in the inclusive sample. Frequencies for Oram 2-5 and Oram 3-10 were the same number occurring in the same units indicating no change in

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175 content. The major changes between the 7th and 8th editions occurred not in the frequencies or kinds of representations but in the labeling for the multicultural content as well as the incorporation of multimedia in structional tools in Oram 3-10. Although the content was the same, Oram 2-5 used the phrase multicultural connection and Oram 3-10 used the phrase cultural diversity as labels for the textboxes that included multicultural content. Florida adopted three ve rsions of the BSCS series th at appeared in the inclusive sample of texts, and An Ecological Approach Green Version appeared in the first three sets as the 6th, 7th and 8th editions for 1987, 1992, and 1998, respectively. A Molecular Approach (1990) and A Human Approach (1997) version appeared in Set 1 and Set 3, respectively. An Ecological Approach appeared as an honors level text for Set 1 and Set 2 but not for Set 3. Since An Ecological Approach appeared in three of the sets defined for this study, the findings for this text across the sets are reviewed here. The text had limited frequencies of indigenous c ontent across the three sets for both the student and the teacher editions, with representations in microbial world plants and ecology for all three sets and the addition of vertebrates Microbial world for the student and teacher editions dropped in frequency by two-thirds from Se t 1 to Sets 2 and 3; the frequency for plants for the student and teacher editions re mained the same for all three sets. Ecology dropped in frequency by almost half from Set 1 to Set 2 and remained the same in Set 3 for the student edition; ecology decreased in frequency by one-thi rd from Set 1 to Set 2 and then increased by one-third in Set 3. Miller and Levine authored a series of texts for Prentice Hall called Biology and the text appeared as the 2nd, 4th, and Florida 1st editions for 1993, 1998, and 2006,

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176 respectively. The 2nd edition and the Florida 1st edition were designated for general Biology I and the 4th and edition moved to Biology I Honors Miller and Levines student editions had very little in digenous content across all four sets; the teacher editions increased from Set 2 to Set 3 and then decreased by Set 4. Genetics evolution and invertebrates remained the units that did not have indigenous content for the Miller and Levine texts across all sets. This trend in decrease in indigen ous content by Set 4, coupled with same type of trend found acro ss the sets when averages were compared, suggested that the necessity to prepare for FCAT may have forced a reduction in multicultural content. The emphasis on FCAT preparation re mained the noteworthy change in the textbooks in Set 4, and Miller and Levines Biology Florida 1st edition provided a standard example of the heavy emphasis on Florida Compre hensive Assessment Testing (FCAT). The authors addressed the teacher on the opening page of the text with the following: Our students, as citizens of the most pow erful and scientifically advanced nation in the world, must have both the knowl edge to master new technologies and the insight to use them wiselyThe Sunshine State Standards were woven into our plans for each chapter, ensuring that your students will cover the materials they need to succeed. Weve also examined the FCAT requirements closely, and we have incorporated aids for stude nt success into the program (T2) The teacher interleafs (found as pages FL T1 FL T69) continued with a section devoted to Sunshine State Standards course progressions charts; links to language arts and mathematics standards; pacing guide with time range and benchmarks with annual benchmarks highlighted in blue; scop e and sequence of benchmarks for the Biology

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177 Florida 1st edition text; inquiry skills chart with pa ges numbers for the labs and activities as well as captions and assessment questions that support the skill s; charts with the Sunshine State Standards and links to the t ypes of questions found on the FCAT (multiple choice, gridded response, short response, or extended response) that are used to assess the specific benchmark; roadmap to FCAT succe ss that further emphasized the types of questions found on the FCAT as well as how to use the textbook to support FCAT preparation. Across all sets in the sample, the kinds of indigenous representations primarily occurred between two categorie s: technologies and cultural pr actices/social life. Although a wide variety of examples were provided am ong the texts, there emerged a pattern of the types of representations. The t echnologies that appeared consis tently were the use of the toxins in the frogs skin for the creation of poison-arrow darts, which appeared most often in the section of text dedicated to amphibians in vertebrates ; the medicinal value of plants, which appeared most ofte n in any section or chapter of plants ; and the use of horsetails (or scouring ru sh) as pot scrubbers, which also occurred in plants within the section dedicated to primitive vascular plants The cultural practices that appeared most consistently were corn as sacred or symbo lic to Native American tribes, which appeared primarily in plants ; the use of feather or animals in r ituals, which appear ed most often in vertebrates ; and peyote or any other hallucinogenic us ed in rituals or rites of passage, which appeared in microbial world plants or human biology depending on the text. The fact that many of the textbooks di d not have authors or content reviewers who were professionals trained in aspects of mu lticultural perspectives or had any kind of expertise in diversity issues may account for th e lack of range in th e types of indigenous

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178 representations. In addition, several of th e examples of indigenous representations, recycled by the various publishers over the y ears, appeared among all of the sets within different textbooks. This practice of recy cling commonly accepted representations may be a product of a textbook indus try geared to focus on quantit y rather than quality, and appropriating the commonly accepted images of various groups in society may hold as the path of least resistance, economically as well as politically, to get a textbook on an adoption list. Teacher Editions Although the teacher editions in the sample were more likely, on average across the sets, to increasingly include what was identi fied as multicultural components, from the perspective of the general format, only eight of the texts in the sample had over-arching program goals or objectives that supporte d multicultural content. In other words, multicultural content was identified in the teacher editions, but the content was neither linked to the general purpose, theme, philo sophy or program goal(s) espoused by the author nor included in the pacing or planning guides id entified in over 60% of the sample. The eight teacher editions found to incorporate multicultura l perspectives or diversity within the program goals or themes we re included in either Set 2 or Set 3, which were also the two sets with the highest proportions of multicultural components per teacher edition. Only two of the teacher editions in Set 1 were identified as containing multicultural components. This finding along with identificat ion of an extreme limit in the number of descriptors and associated multicultural co ntent indicated that Set 1did not provide adequate multicultural and diversity content. This would be expected as none of the

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179 authors in Set 1 addressed multicultural perspectives as a program goal or theme, and there were no multicultural content reviewers for the limited content that did occur. In addition, most of the books in Set 1 had public ation dates of the late 1980s, prior to the time that multicultural science education appe ared as a primary focus in the science education literature base. Set 1 findings may better serve as a baseline from which to compare the remaining sets. With the exception of Kaskel 2-2 and Mill er 2-4, all of the othe r teacher editions in the sample were noted to have multicultural content included in each of the 10 units in the text. There appeared no trend or pattern in the distribution of multicultural content among the units in the teacher editions. However, the in corporation of multicultural content was found to occur in two main form ats: as teacher interleafs placed as the beginning pages of the unit or as textboxes in the margins of the pages with the label multicultural perspective or multicultural connection The content connection to the chapter, section, or unit purpose or objectives was rarely determin ed, and the purpose for the multicultural content was seldom expressed. These findings also supported the conclusions of Eide and Heikkinen (1998), who examined the extent of multicultural content and its relationship to the science content in the teach er editions in middle school science. The change in the number of multic ultural components found to support the science objectives identified for the ch apter or section of text re vealed a noteworthy trend. A revisit to Table 26 showed that 10% of the multicultural content identified in Set 2 was directly related to the science objectives, with a drop to 5% in Set 3, and then an increase to 23% in Set 4. This remained an interesti ng finding since Set 4 also represented the sets

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180 of textbooks with a heavy emphasis on standard ized testing and FCAT preparation. There appeared to be an increase in quality as determined by the increase in percentage of high relation of content to the st ated science objectives. This finding could represent an indication of an increased effort by the publis hers to examine the quality of content as well as a subsequent reduction of curricul ar emphasis that did not lend itself to the purpose of the objectives written for the text. However, the prominent theme in Set 4 remained standardized test prepara tion. Findings in the Miller and Levine Biology as the only text to represent inclusi on in three consecutive sets ending with Set 4, suggested a reduction in multicultural content across adoptio n cycles. As example, Miller 2-4 had two components with one descriptor. By Set 3, th is number had increased to 121 with three descriptors in Miller 3-11, and by Set 4, th is number had decreased to 75 with one descriptor in Miller 4-4. The findings in the Miller texts also le d to an important to not e with regard to the nature of the descriptors. English as a sec ond language, the most fr equent descriptor in the Miller and Levine texts a nd the second most frequent descriptor located in the inclusive sample, qualified as an identifier of multicultural content. There was no way of knowing the intent by the authors of this desi gnation, and herein lay one of the challenges with multicultural science education: What constitutes multicu ltural science education? ; What is its purpose? ; Whom will the content serve? A revisit of Hodson (1999) suggested that multicultural science education: 1) represen ts a set of instructional strategies to help teachers address issues with diversity in th e classroom; 2) stands as curriculum that targets ethnic minorities in an effort to raise self-esteem and to reduce feelings of alienation or exclusion from opportunities in sc ience; 3) provides an approach for raising

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181 awareness of forms of discrimination within science and science education. To determine whether or not this content addition was m eant to introduce opportuni ties in science to those traditionally disenfranchised or to serv e more as an instructional strategy to help struggling learners (or even meet a mandate fo r more ESOL content) was not part of the scope of this study but warrants further inves tigation as researcher s examine not only the purpose for inclusion of multicultural science content but also the importance textbook publishers and other stakeholders place on including content that supports culturally relevant learning aimed at reducing the achie vement gap and preparing human capital for the demands of the scientific enterprise in the 21st century. Archaeology of Statements Although notions of authenticity or traditionality rarely occurred in any of the textbooks in the sample, the representations of indigenous knowledge were increasingly found, on average, to use generalizations to identify groups across the sets until Set 4, when the number of homogenizing terminologi es dropped by about 60%. This is drop was expected as the ECO mean coefficients, ad dressed in the results section of the study, showed a decrease by Set 4 in the indigenous representations subset. If there was less indigenous content, possibly driven by the need for FCAT preparations, then there remained less opportunity to homogenize the represented groups under designations such at Native Americans or aboriginals. Ther e were also very limited instances of universalizing language due to the lack of depth of inclusion of content. Examination of the textual features of the texts created a challenge for the researcher due to the lack of depth and detail pertaining to the indige nous content as well as its typical placement in the teacher editions. With regard to verb tense, many of the

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182 textbooks used present tense more often in refe rence to an extant t echnology or practice, but these occurrences were limited and, agai n, found primarily in the teacher editions. When the student editions presented signifi cant amounts of text (as depicted on half a page or more) relating an indigenous knowle dge, it was most often a short narrative describing a legend or myth in the past tense or a brief biography of a biologist or other science professional either living or deceased. Although one-fourth to one-third of the statements balanced the past indigenous knowledge with a contemporary counterpart, one half to one-third of the representations among the sets placed the indigenous knowledge representation in the past as a historical anecdote. As much of the content related indigenous knowledge as factual tidbits removed from the context of the material in the textbook, any effort at introducing indige nous knowledge representations may be perceived as a trivial pursuit ap proach to knowledge acquisition. Although the lack of content posed an obs tacle with regard to meaningful analyses of textual features, the more prominent challenge remained physical location of content in the textbooks. Almost all of the statements in the archaeology were taken from the sections of text found in textboxes, which is olated the representation contextually from the remaining content, or from the margins of the pages in the teacher manual, which again removed the content from context, in this case, of the information found in the student edition. Although Ninnes (2 003) discussed the status el evation or privileging of scientific knowledges at th e expense of indigenous and minority knowledges (p. 177) by the spatial arrangement of the text on the page, the challenge with the sample of texts in this study remained that often the location of indigenous content occurred in the margins of the teacher editions. Students would not have the opportunity to experience this

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183 knowledge as peripheral to the science conten t or as a curiosity or oddity. Rather, it would be the teacher who experienced these content additions as oddities, and it may be of import as to how these perceptions would affect the teachers inclusion or use of the content. In addition, by treating indigenous representations in the textual manners outlined by Ninnes (2003), that is, high use of generalizations, knowledge as historical anecdotes, and special relegation to a few sent ences or in textboxes, the authors of these textbooks have served to reinforce the idea of token content and limited any opportunity for a critical examination of different ways of knowing. An important caveat here not yet addressed remained that introduction to biology represented one of the units with the least amount of indigenous content and with the most potential for a meaningful examination of alternative ways of knowing. Every introductory unit identified in the sample discussed the nature of biology or the nature of science in the subtext of a scientific method or science as a way of knowing the natural world. The absence of indigenous representations as alternative ways to knowing ma y have served to position Western science as the supe rior knowledge system. Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) Although the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECO) showed no solid trend in favorable incorporation of terms deemed supportive of multicultural or indigenous content, some noteworthy findi ngs pertained to comparisons of the three series of textbooks that appeared in at le ast three of the sets of texts in the sample. The coefficient in Orams Biology Living Systems (Glencoe) increased in the subset nature of science and decreased in ecology for the student and teacher editions by about 20% and 8%, respectively, and decreased in indigenous representations for the student and teacher

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184 editions by about 35% and 38%, respectively. Coefficients in nature of science for the Milani et al., An Ecological Approach increased from 0.00 for student and teacher edition in Set 1 to 30.00 for stude nt and teacher edition in Set 3. An Ecological Approach added a new first author in Set 3, so the te xt designation appear s as Cairney 3-5 but represented the same text as Set 1 and Set 2. For ecology the coefficient more than doubled for student and teacher edition from Set 1 to Set 2 and then dropped by about 10% from Set 2 to Set 3. Coefficients for indigenous representations were the same for Set 1 and Set 2 for both student and teacher editions. By Set 3, the coefficients for indigenous representations had reduced to 0.00 for the student edition and reduced by almost half for the teacher editi on. This marked reduction by Set 3 for An Ecological Approach series may have been the result of th e addition of a new lead author, implying the possible influence of author s with regard to content. The change in Miller and Levine Biology across the sets revealed an interesting trend. The coefficient for nature of science was 0.00 for Set 2 and Set 3 for both the student and teacher edition with an increase to 9.59 and 7.61 for student and teacher edition, respectively. Ecology and indigenous representations increased from Set 2 to Set 3 for both student and teacher editions; by Set 4, coe fficients for both subsets were reduced for student and teacher editions with the most notable difference occurring with respect to indigenous representations For the student edition, the vocabulary relating indigenous concepts was reduced by two-thirds. For th e teacher editions, the vocabulary relating indigenous concepts was reduced by almost half. Again, Miller 4-4 represented a complete overhaul of content to realign with FCAT, a highstakes test linked to NCLB

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185 mandates, and the researcher would suggest the influence of FCAT and its directive under NCLB as one possible reason for the reduction in indigenous content. Although the results previously reported a reduction in the incorporation of indigenous vocabulary across the sets when the mean coefficients were examined, a noteworthy consideration here sh ifts emphasis to the nature of science word list. The texts produced from the BSCS series were more likely to report a coefficient in nature of science and were more likely to include the multicultural terms such as value and respect Upon further examination of the types of words identified for use on the vocabulary lists, the resulting coefficients for nature of science particularly in Set 4, we re due to utilization of the term qualitative as it compared to quantitative However, the inclusion of qualitative was less about the multicultural perspective it might add and more about a position of quantitative as the superior form of data. As exam ple, Postlethwait 4-5 only incorporated quantitative ; there was no mention of qualitative For the other texts, a thorough discussion of quantitative occurred with mention of qualitative as a means for describing data. As example, Biggs 4-2 offered student s the following with regard to qualitative information: Observational data that is, wr itten descriptions of what scientists observe are often just as important in the solution of a scientific problem as numerical data (p. 20). A look at the words most represented on th e Western science list in the subset of nature of science included high incorporation of evidence hypothesis, theory, models, and tools. Although multicultural vocabularies with regard to the nature of science were notably absent, the heavy use of Western science terminol ogies framed among frequent presentations of scientific knowledge ac quisition typified by forming hypotheses, performing experiments, and collecting eviden ce may further serve to privilege Western

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186 knowledge over alternative ways of knowing (N innes, 2003). Moreover, this absence of indigenous representations, as previously noted, removes the potential for critical examinations of knowledge systems inherent in the very nature of science. Another important finding in relation to vocabulary related to the kinds of words which appeared in the subset ecology across the sets. Since the literature coupled Western science and indigenous knowledge by usi ng key terms and phrases such as sustainability or sustainable development agroforestry agriculture(al) biodiversity and ethnobotany these particular terms were selected as appropriate for inclusion on the ECO ecology subset (Carter, 2008; International Council for Science, 2002; Pierotti and Wildcat, 2000). Agriculture (al) appeared as one of the most commonly used terms from the multicultural subset ecology Sustainable and sustainability did appear in various texts within each set, with increased inclusion by Set 3 and Set 4. However, the increase was from one or two words per text to eight or ten per text. This remained a noteworthy finding since issues with sustai nability of natural resources, as example, provide one area in the biological sciences where Western Modern Science and i ndigenous knowledge find similarities, representing an important curricular link to th e meaningful in corporation of indigenous knowledge representations. Environmental concerns of the 21st century open classroom learning to relevant and real world problems with a greater chance of creating opportunities for science for all. More impor tantly, the limited use of terminologies in textbooks that hold the most pot ential for this type of association may signify that textbook publishers do not understand who will be represented in the prime age workforce, that is, minorities and other underrep resented groups that historically have not had access to opportunities in science.

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187 Visuals and Illustrations Although the research que stion related to the visual/illu stration segment of the study was established to determine the extent of indigenous representa tions in relation to Western ways of knowing, the findings were limited with regard to photographs or visuals that depicted altern ative ways of knowing or indi genous groups involved in any type of activity. As such, the results remain more appropriately interpreted from the lens of Western Modern Science as dominated by white males. From this perspective, the textbook may serve to exacerbate the broader i ssues with regard to the achievement gap and minority access to science if the depicti ons of individuals who participate in the scientific enterprise remain predominantly white and male. For the sample, most of the pictures we re of adults (68%) with an average of 21% of the images depicted as children or youth, 6% classified as aerial, and 5% classified as appendages in the form of hands and arms. Of the adult images for the sample, 52% on average depicted whites, 29% depicted nonwhites, and 19% were unidentifiable with regard to race. Of the images of children or youth, 39% depicted whites, 46% depicted non-whites, and 15% were unidentifiable with re gard to race. Of the adult images for the sample, 57% on average depicted male figur es, 34% depicted fema le figures, and 9% were unidentifiable with rega rd to gender. Of the images of children or youth, 38% depicted male figures, 45% depicted female figures, and 17% were unidentifiable with regard to gender. For this sample most of the pictures depicted adult white males and non-white, female children or youth. Many of the pictures of white males positioned these individuals in laboratories or at comput ers actively engaged in what could be called

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188 doing science. These findings reflect similar results from the Powell and Garcia (1985) study on which this segment of the investigation was based. Additional Findings Although science-technology-society (STS) content was not specif ically identified as a point of data collection for the study, there remained some interesting observations with regard to the inclusion of STS content wo rthy of mention. Twenty-seven out of the 34 books included various topics related to science-technology-society issues, and the examples of content found in each text were in cluded in the results of the general format for the teacher editions. Upon application of Aikenheads (1994) crit eria, included in the literature review, for classifyi ng categories of STS, the resear cher determined that all of the STS content in the sample could be placed at level one motivation by STS content. In this case, the content finds itself in traditional school science [with] mention of STS content in order to make a le sson interestinglow status gi ven to STS content explains why this category is not normally taken seri ously as STS instruc tion [and] students are not assessed on the STS content (Aikenh ead, 1994, p. 55). Although there appeared an importance with regard to STS content exemp lified by mention of the authors rationale for inclusion, level-one content, per Aike nheads standards, w ould not promote the relevant science experiences, more specifically defined in terms of the border crossing addressed in much of literature. Most notably, this effort at inclusion implied the same token effort as suggested with regard to the multicultural content and supported the notion of superficial efforts to include multicultural content in science curricula.

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189 Conclusions Depending on the context of the study, the overall results pointed to an increase, or at least an effort at inclusion by the author s, in the infusion of multicultural content, including indigenous knowledge representations as one facet of diversity, with the most obvious infusion occurring in the quantity of multicultural component s identified in the teacher editions. While this effort certainly produced a semblance of quantity of content for whatever purpose, that is, meeting mandates or supporting policy, its product remained lacking in quality when the content inclusion was considered from several perspectives supported in the re sults including spa tial arrangement or content location in text, content connection to science objectives and homogenizing language in reference to indigenous groups. In revisiting the statement of the probl em, which served to frame this investigation, the researcher was reminded of the call for improvement within the scope of science education as the creation of curricula and inst ructional materials that reflect a balanced consideration of all pe rspectives. Accordingly, this bala nce has not been accounted for in the findings, again calling into question the notio n of quality versus quantity as a factor in the conclusions of the study. More importantl y, the authentic sense of balance intended for this study related considerations of all scientific perspectives in terms of alternative viewpoints and ways of knowing th e natural world. In this sense, an imbalance of what is valued also existed among the sample of textbooks, exemplified by the 1) types and nature of indigenous representations identified in the tally and archaeology of statements segments of the study, 2) low coefficients in the nature of science vocabulary subset

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190 within the ECO analysis, and 3) higher per centages of adult white males in the visuals and illustrations. Although the textbooks in the sample introduced students and teachers to various indigenous knowledge representations, these we re most often included as superficial one or two-sentence acknowledgements or as text relegated as a sidebar found in the margins of the pages. Inclusion at this level pl aced the indigenous content as tokens of multicultural perspectives that served to trivialize the al ternative knowledge. Moreover, the authors in general made no attempt to ad dress alternative ways of knowing indicative of indigenous knowledge, and indigenous knowledge content appeared to be included in the broader scope of addressing multicultura l education rather than as a critical component to examining the nature of knowledge or nature of biology most often included in the introductory units of the texts. Since the work of Ninnes (2001; 2003) se rved as the primary basis for this study, his findings with regard to the nature of repres entations of ways of knowing in texts would be most relevant to the conclusion of the study. Ninnes (2001) made very clear that these trivialized types of efforts at inclusion of indigen ous representations work to subordinate other ways of knowing in a manner that privileges Western Modern Science and positions it as the authority or correct way of knowing and understanding the natural world. More importantly, he contended that the nature of the re presentations did not provide opportunity for student s to question or challenge th e authority of one way of knowing over another or to cr itically examine knowledge bases or assumptions made by either Western or indigenous claims. The ove rall findings in this study most certainly support this view.

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191 The issue of quality versus quantity play s out in a different light when the results of the study are considered from the perspective of standardized test ing, specifically the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) for science, as well as the particulars of the textbook adoption process. Although the in tent of this study was not to assess the influence of policy as ex emplified by the Florida A+ Plan and No Child Left Behind or to determine the effect of pro cedures intertwined in adopti on processes on content, the findings of this study suggested an interesting trend that caused this researcher to assert that standardized testing, under the broader directives of No Child Left Behind may have trumped the inclusion of multicultural content as exemplified by the form and function of the textbooks found in Set 4. Specifically, five of the six student and teacher texts in Set 4 had special Florida editions representing a shift in content, whic h was not observed in the first three sets of texts, to include heavy emphasis on standardi zed testing and test pr eparation. In addition, the one text in the study, BSCS An Ecological Approach which appeared in the first three sets of textbooks, was no longer included in Set 4. Its thematic approach rather than generalized content organization for what is traditionally known as high school biology would not support the requirement s of standardized test pr eparation necessitated by the push for coverage of content or breadth of study. Add to the mix the overall average reduction in multicultural content as well as the telling ECO coefficients previously discussed, with particular emphasis on Miller and Levines Biology and it may not remain too far off base to conclude that FCAT (Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test) trumped IK (Indigenous Knowledge).

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192 An appreciation of date and time may also work to explain some of these findings. Citing the A+ Plan in conjunction with No Child Left Behind as means to hold students and teachers accountable for learning, the Flor ida Department of Education provided the following in regard to FCAT science testing: The A+ Plan for Education, passed by th e Florida Legislature in 1999, required a science assessment for students in Grad es 5, 8, and 10. In 2000, development of science test items beganIn 2003, FCAT Science was operational for the first time for all students in Grades 5, 8, and 10. In 2005, FCAT Science was administered to Grade 11 students, rather than Grade 10 students, in response to requests by Florida science educators to al low an additional year for students to receive high school-level sc ience instruction (FLDOE) In 1999, Florida began the emphasis on testing in the subject of science as a component of its A+ Plan No Child Left Behind entered the equation at th e start of 2002 with a focus on math and reading with science added in 2003. Since the latest public ation date in Set 3 was 1998, the textbooks in Set 4 held the most potential for influence by any policy and subsequent directive that concerned standa rdized testing and, as it would appear, the textbook publishers followed suit with the cr eation of designer books crafted especially for FCAT Florida. In addition, this emphasis on preparation for sta ndardized testing, the measure that makes or breaks the achievement gap, shifted focus to the educational needs of a student population not only increasing in minority membership but also expected to represent the human capital necessary meet the la bor demands of the scientific enterprise. The National Science Teachers Associ ation (NSTA) represented one of the many organizations with a vested interest in sc ience education, including science curricula and

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193 instructional materials. In 2000, the NSTA Boar d of Directors issued a position statement on multicultural science education that included the importance of developing science curricular that addressed the contributions of many cultures our know ledge of science (NSTA, 2000). Yet for this study, the findings would not necessarily confirm NSTAs position. Although there was a general trend in increase in the inclusion of multicultural content, this trend did no t occur consecutivel y throughout the study, and by Set 4, the textbooks not only decreased in multicultural content but also shifted focus to standardized testing. An intere sting exception to this finding occurred in the one textbook in Set 4, Parke 4-1, which did not represent a Florida FCAT edition. Parke 4-1 also had no emphasis on any kind of standardized testing and the highest number of multicultural components of any of the texts in Set 4. The content analyses of Wartenberg (1997) and Hansen (2005) add an interesting perspective to the considerati ons of policy influence. Both of these researchers confirmed an overall attempt by authors and publishers to include multicultural content in a sample of textbooks representing the respective subject areas of hi story and language arts. More importantly, both of these researchers, in an attempt to determine the overall influence of public policy supporting multiculturalism on th e content of textbooks, determined a limited influence by these policies on the qua ntity and quality of multicultural content found within their respective sa mple of textbooks. Superficia l policies appear to bring superficial change, and the di rectives meant to promote tr ansformation of content exist more likely as mere reflections of the very tokenism they perpetuate. Perhaps NCLB has had more influence on textbook content th an NSTA and its position statement on

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194 multicultural science education or any othe r policy, mandate or directive meant to challenge and improve the multicultural content in textbooks. Implications The texts in this study fall short of any attempt to approach the topic of alternative ways of knowing, an observation supported by th e extremely low coefficients in the ECO analysis within the nature of science subset, which measured the inclusion of vocabulary related to indigenous percepti ons of the natural world. Th e contrast in the use of quantitative and qualitative as previously described provi des an appropriate example in support of this conclusion. Ind eed, part of the challenge, which may have influenced the ability of the ECO multicultural word list to accurately reflect indigenous terminologies that relate to the na tural world, remained an issue of translation, that is, indigenous concepts are difficult to capture in words or phrases that would make sense to someone versed in science from the Western perspective. In fact, it has been suggested that there is no word in the language base of indigenous peoples that can translate to mean science understood from Western perspectives (Cajete, 1986). In an effort to align the two perspectives, the implications for meani ngful translation of indigenous knowledge concepts into Western terminologies may fo rce more of an appr opriation of a concept into one perspective rather than creation of an opportuni ty to critically examine similarities and differences between the two. Lost in translation or not, the very na ture of indigenous knowle dge may also serve as its own worst enemy from the standpoint of important discoveries in the life sciences with in the last 150 years. Hirsch made clear the two events that in fluenced his selection of the terms to be included in the life sciences section of his New Dictionary of Cultural

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195 Literacy (2002): the publicat ion of Darwins Origin of Species and the discoveries in genetics that included unlocking the stru cture of DNA and completion of the Human Genome Project. These events represented an important shift from studying organisms as a whole to studying the complex chemical processes inside the cell (Hirsch, 2002, p. 523). Indigenous knowledge remains rooted in an aspect of the whole, yet most of the high school biology textbooks in the sample fr amed the content from the cellular and genetic contexts outlined by Hirsch (2002). In addition, much of what appeared as STS content in the sample incor porated topics relating to cel lular biology, and a survey of these indicated that for every one STS topic w ith an ecological concept, there occurred at least three that focused on biological issu es at the cellular or genetic level. Several implications aris e here. In order to meet the needs of teachers and students, instructional materials, specifically the textbooks, may warrant an overhaul in the approach to the presentation of science content one that m oves away from the standard system of unit division which paints biology as a series of subsets of discrete content areas in cells, genetics, mi crobes, fungi, plants, animals, and humans. Students whose views of the natural world align more clos ely with holistic perspectives will need textbooks with content that frames the study of biology from the whole organism. These students will also need rigorous science experiences of the quality provided by sciencetechnology-society (STS) teaching that create a relevance indicative of their worldviews. More importantly, if the STS content identifi ed in the sample continues to represent level-one efforts by Aikenheads standards, then the science experiences provided to students may serve as mere instructional stra tegies that help teach ers address diversity issues in the classroom. Although this may represent a worthy goal, Hodson (1999) has

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196 suggested, as previously outlined in the bac kground of this study, that this particular purpose for multicultural science education repr esents educational practices that align with an assimilationist approach to learning science. For quality of content, there must be quality of input. Most of the textbooks in this study had no content reviewers with expertise or training in multicultural or diversity issues. Yet to effectively incl ude indigenous content, there remain broader implications that stem again from the nature of the knowledge itself as well as the intent by authors or publishers to include indigenous knowledge in textbook content. Ninnes (2000) pointed out that within specific indi genous societies, only certain people have the right to know particular pieces of knowledge (p. 613). Cr itical to the development of quality indigenous knowledge content includes the co ntributions that come directly from members of indigenous societies, which also creates challenges to the traditional means of developing textbook conten t. Indigenous peoples recogn ize that their knowledge systems evolve and change constantly. A ny textbook designed to incorporate these knowledge bases would need to be revisited a nd redesigned with a re gularity that runs counter to quantity imperative (Whitm an, 2004. p.33) of current textbook adoption processes. A plethora of conceptions and misconcepti ons exist in the literature with regard to multicultural science education, including a sp ecific aspect of that education known broadly as indigenous knowledge. There se ems to be a desire to link indigenous knowledge with pseudoscience, and it remain s possible that part of the misconception stems from spirituality, a notion that holds implication for effectively incorporating quality indigenous content into science curric ula. Spirituality repres ents a key value in

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197 indigenous knowledge; it is integrated into the social and cultural pr actices of indigenous peoples (Cajete, 1986). Notions of spiritua lity, tribal religions and shamans make indigenous knowledge an easy target for the ps eudoscientific designati ons most deserving of creationism and intelligent design. Indi genous knowledge is not a pseudoscience, and clear definitions of all th ree concepts indigenous knowledge, Western science, pseudoscience remain significant in order for indigenous representations to find an appropriate place in a science curricula expected to produce students who can meet the workforce demands of a scientific and technologically based world. Recommendations to Publishers Tyack and Cuban (1995) have noted th at laws, institutional custom, and cultural beliefs [have] worked together to hold th e grammar of schooling in place (p. 85), and those same laws, institutional customs, and cultural beliefs work to hold together a textbook publishing industry faced with the challenges of trying to please all of the people all of the time. Although the textbook id eally represents just one facet of a students experience in school, researchers sugge st the textbook will remain as the central instructional resource in the nations classroom, and the ability of science textbooks to be all things to all teachers remains questionabl e, especially in consideration of quality materials developed to enhan ce multicultural science education. The process of textbook creation, however, has become the quantit y imperative (Whitman, 2004, p. 33) with its associated economic rewards for those who meet the content mark. One recommendation to publishers and other involved in adopti on processes falls in line with Whitmans (2004) findings: focus on quality of content. An imperative in the ability of teachers to facilitate culturally relevant science experiences depends on the development of

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198 textbooks that illustrate the contributions and ways of knowing indicative of non-Western cultures. Partnerships with individuals versed in multicultural science education scholarship as well as individua ls directly linked to the cont ent, that is, those who have membership in indigenous societies, should not only be developed but also maintained in a manner that promotes continual evaluation, dialogue regarding, and update of included content. Quality of content could also be increased with a curricular focus that underscores one specific indige nous group, giving that group an identity in contemporary society and moving away from the homoge neity and authenticity often linked to portrayals of indigenous groups. Again, an important caveat to developing this identity in a meaningful way includes collaborative efforts that involve indigenous peoples, acknowledging that in some indi genous societies only certain people have the right to know particular pieces of knowledge (Ninnes, 2000, p. 613). In this case, sensitivity for the need to secure proper permissions to obtain and share that knowledge would circumvent charges of appropriating that knowle dge to suit the economic or other intents of the publishers and the overarchi ng textbook industry (Ninnes, 2000). If the textbook is indeed the primary in structional tool used in the classroom, then adoption policies, if currently set up in a manne r that prevents major overhaul of content, need to be amended to allow the teachers or schools to add textbooks to any stateapproved list. A set of approved books from which to choose assumes that a teacher can identify one ideal textbook to meet all of hi s or her classroom needs and forces a cookiecutter approach to students and learning. T eachers should have access to a plethora of sources for use in the classroom and should be ab le to add a text to the list of approved resources when appropriate.

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199 If the economic and political forces at work in the publishing industry prevent a major overhaul of the textbooks, then straightforwar d directions for the teacher as to how to effectively relate the included multicultural content to the science objectives would facilitate meaningful learning for all student s. In addition, the rem oval any content found to show no relation to the stated science objec tives or intent for the chapter or section would work to remove the stigma of indigenous representations as token content. When a pacing or planning guide is provided for the teacher, the multicultural content should be included and appear as part of the instru ctional map for the unit or chapter. The ecology unit, most likely to support indigenous cont ent and most often found at the back of the book, should be moved toward the front of the text. Units that find themselves relegated to the back of the text face greater likelihood of not being co vered in the school year due to time constraints. Recommendation to Researchers As the nations classrooms will certainly continue to evolve in terms of cultural diversity, the question as to how science curricula should respond to the presence of those students who represent the non-Western, Indigenous, and minority group learners (Hines, 2003, p. 167) frames several dire ctions for additiona l research, which address three key areas: multicultural sc ience education, indigenous knowledge, and scientific literacy. Over the la st two and half decades, the how piece of the puzzle has evolved into a variety of st rategies, models, and practices couched within the broad scope of multicultura l education, meant to address the overall need for cultural approaches to science education. Efforts at content coverage, exemplified by indigenous

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200 knowledge representations, indentified as part of this study represent a component of this endeavor to create opport unities as science for all While much of the dialogue among the research focuses on th e appropriate philosophy for science education, a consen sus on how we define science within the broader scope of multicultural science education is missing. Wit hout a clear definition of science in this capacity, the role of cultural approaches in classroom learning remains vague and plays out in the production of inst ructional materials limited in their capacity to support opportunities for meaningful science learning. One question for furthe r exploration seeks the development of clearly defined parameters for a framework of multicultural science education and what it means to do science fr om that perspective. If the textbook serves as a possible support for this framework, how does the added multicultural content support learning science? Should this added cont ent appear as instructional strategies to support inclusion of underrepres ented groups or curricular co ntent designed to promote critical examination of ways of knowing? Although not a content component of th e research questions pl anned for this study, science-technology-society (STS ) was present in many of th e textbooks in the sample. STS has also been identified in the body of knowledge regarding multicultural science education as a curriculum that supports culturally relevant le arning and serves as the type of content that assists teache rs in the border crossings need ed as students negotiate the subculture of science. In this sense, STS may actually serve as a descriptor of quality multicultural content if the content, using Aikenheads (1994) levels, can be classified at a four or higher. An avenue of research c ould include a reexamina tion of the STS content in the sample with emphasis on how the cont ent could be moved to the higher levels

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201 designated by Aikenhead (1994). It may be us eful to build on the work of Chiappetta, Fillman, and Sethna, who identified STS as th eme of scientific lite racy. The textbooks in this study could be examined from that th eme, using the descri ptors to identify STS content as a means to assess its ability to support multicultural science education. Hodson (1998) has stated, with regard to different ways of knowing the world, that alternative knowledge bases are not equal; they are different, and their value is that they provide alternative ways of understa nding phenomena (Hodson, 1998, p. 209). The findings in this investigation have shown that indigenous knowl edge is indeed not equal if equality is defined by the balance of inclus ion of content. The findings have shown that indigenous knowledge is indeed different so much so it warrants relegation as a sidebar. The findings have shown that indigenous knowledge has va lue as a token pawn of multicultural education. Yet the report generated by the International Council for Science (2002) makes clear that modern sc ience does not constitute the only form of knowledge available to further the developm ent of humankind (p. 18). Research that investigates the history and philosophy of science as a means to highlight the contributions of indigenous peoples would represent one way to increase the content quality of appearing in textbooks. Again, a consensus of definition remains key and includes clear distinctions among indi genous knowledge, Western science and pseudoscience. Perhaps one of the most critical research imperatives for understanding how science curricula should respond to the increasing presence of mi nority groups in contemporary classrooms stems from a comment that Hirsch (2002) relayed in the introduction to his

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202 New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy : Scientific entries presented a special problem. Because there is little broad knowledge of science even among educated people, the criteria used to compile the lists for the humanities and the social sc iences simply could not be used with the natural sciences. The gap between th e essential basic knowledge of science and what the general reader can be expect ed to know has become too large (p. xi) At the center of Hirschs obser vation lay the concept of scie ntific literacy. The disparity in basic knowledge of science may manifest it self in tangible measures identified as the achievement gap, placing an important focu s on the prime-age workforce, its racial makeup, and the number of potential workers qua lified with the skills and competencies to meet the demands of science and t echnology in a global ec onomy. How will the textbook and its content support the development of scientific literacy as an effort to reduce this gap? And are cultural approach es to learning science, including the incorporation of indigenous knowledge representations and alternative ways of knowing, the best way to address this gap?

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203 References Aikenhead, G.S. (1994). What is STS science teaching? In J. Solomon & G. Aikenhead (Eds.), STS Education International Perspectives on Reform New York: Teachers College Press. Aikenhead, G. S. (1996). Science education: Border crossing into the subculture of science. Studies in Science Education, 27 1 52. Aikenhead, G. S. (1997). Toward a first na tions cross-cultural sc ience and technology curriculum. Science Education, 81 217 238. Aikenhead, G. S. (2001). Integrating Western and Aboriginal scienc es: Cross-cultural science teaching. Research in Science Education, 31 337 355. Aikenhead, G. S. (2005). Research into STS science education. Educacion Quimica, 16, 384 397. Aikenhead, G. S., & Ogawa, M. (2007). I ndigenous knowledge and science revisited. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 2 539 620. Atwater, M.M, & Riley, J. P. (1993). Multicult ural science education: Perspectives, definitions, and research agenda. Science Education, 77 (6), 661 668. Antolin, M. F., & Herbers, J.M. (2001). Perspe ctive: Evolutions str uggle for existence in Americas public schools. International Journal of Organic Evolution, 55 (1), 2379 2388.

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206 Hansen, A. L. (2005). Multiculturalism, public policy, and the high school United States and American literature ca non: A content analysis of textbooks adopted in the state of Florida in 1991 and 2003. (Doctora l dissertation, University of South Florida, 2005). Retrieved September 29, 2008, from Dissertations & Theses @ University of South Florida FCLA database. (Publication No. AAT 3188410). Hines, S. M. (2003). (Ed.). Multicultural science education: Theory, practice and promise New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. Hirsch, E. D., Krett, J. F., & Trefil, J. (2002). The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Hodson, D. (1993). In search of a rationa l for multicultural science education. Science Education, 77 (6), 685 711. Hodson, D. (1998). Science fiction: the continui ng misrepresentation of science in the school curriculum. Curriculum Studies, 6 (2), 191 208. Hodson, D. (1999). Going beyond cultural pluralis m: Science education for sociopolitical action. Science Education, 83 151 161. Huntington, H. P. (2000). Using traditional ecological knowledge in science methods and applications. Ecological Applications, 10 (5), 1270 1274. Ingersoll, R. M. (1999). The problem of underqualified teache rs in American secondary schools. Educational Researcher, 28 (2), 26 37. International Council for Science (2002). ICSU series on science for sustainable development: Science, traditional knowledge, and sustainable development (No. 4).

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207 Irzik, G. (2001). Universalism, multiculturalism, and science education. Science Education 85 (1), 71 73. Ishii, D. K. (2003). Views of learning in science and mathematics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED482722) Johanningmeier, J. V., & Richardson T. (2008). Educational research, the national agenda, and educational reform Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc. Kemp, A. (1999). Cultural myths in the making: The ambiguities of science for all. Boston, MA: Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. (ERIC Document Repr oduction Service No. ED446916) King, D., & Domin, D. S. (2007). The representa tion of people of color in undergraduate general chemistry textbooks. Journal of Chemical Education, 84 (2), 342 345. Kirk, M., Matthews, C., & Kurtts, S. (2001) The trouble with textbooks: Examining issues in science textbook selection. The Science Teacher, 68 (9), 42 45. Knapp, S. D. (2000). The contemporary thesaurus of search terms and synonyms: A guide for natural lang uage computer searching (2nd Ed.). Phoenix:, AZ: The Oryx Press. Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An intr oduction to its methodology Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Krugly-Smolska, E. (1995). Cultural influences in science education. International Journal of Science Education, 17 (1), 45 58. Krugly-Smolska, E. (2007). Twenty-five years of multicultural science education: Looking backward, looking forward. Keynote address to the European Science Education Research Association.

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208 Lee, Y. H. (2007). How do the high school bi ology textbooks introduce the nature of science? (Doctoral dissertati on, University of Houston Lee, O. (2003). Equity for linguistically a nd culturally diverse students in science education: A research agenda. Teachers College Record, 105 (3), 465 489. Lloyd, C. V. (1990). The elaborati on of concepts in three biol ogy textbooks: Facilitating student learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27 (10), 1019 1032. Lumpe, A. T., & Beck, J. (1996). A profile of high school biology textbooks using scientific literacy recommendations. The American High School Biology Teacher, 58 (3), 147 153. McCarthy, C. (1994). Multicultural discours es and curriculum reform: A critical Perspective Educational Theory, 44 (1), 81 98. McCarthy, C. (1990). Multicultural education, minority identities, textbooks, and the challenge of curriculum reform. Journal of Education, 172 (2), 118 129. McComas, W. F. (2003). The nature of th e ideal environmental science curriculum: Advocates, textbooks, and conclusions. The American Biology Teacher, 65 (3), 171 178. Morse, J. M. (2003). Principles of mixed methods and multimethod research design. In A. Tashakkori and C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Mulkey, L. M. (1987). The use of a sociological perspective in the development of a science textbook evaluation instrument. Science Education, 71 (4), 511 522. National Education Association (2008). Issu es in education: Teacher shortage. R http://www.nea.org/teachershortage/index.html

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209 National Science Teachers Association. (2007) Position statement on multicultural Science education. Retrieved November 2, 2007, from http://www.nsta.org/about/positions/multicultural.aspx Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Ninnes, P. (2000). Representations of i ndigenous knowledge in secondary school science textbooks in Australia and Canada. International Jour nal of Science Education, 22 (6), 603 617. Ninnes, P. (2001a). Representa tions of ways of knowing in junior high school science texts used in Australia. Discourse: studies in the cu ltural policies of education, 22(1), 81 94. Ninnes, P. (2001b). Writing multicultural scie nce textbooks: Perspectives, problems, possibilities and power. Australian Scie nce Teachers Journal, 47 (4), 18 21. Ninnes, P. (2003). Rethinking multicultural science education: Representations, identities, and texts. In S. Maxwell Hines (Ed.), Multicultural science education: Theory, practice and promise (pp. 167 186). New York: Peter Lang. Oakes, J. (1990). Opportunities, achievement, and choice: Woman a nd minority students in science and mathematics. Review of Research in Education, 16 153 22. Pierotti, R., & Wildcat, D. (2000). Tradi tional ecological knowledge: The third alternative Ecological Applications, 10 (5), 1333 1340. Pomeroy, D. (1994). Science education a nd cultural diversity: Mapping the field. Studies in Science Education, 24 49 73.

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210 Powell, R.R. & Garcie, J. (1985). The portray al of minorities and women in selected elementary science series. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 22(6), 519 533. Pratt, D. (1972). How to find and measure bias in textbooks Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, Inc. Rodriguez, A. J. (1998). Strategies for count erresistence: Toward sociotransformative constructivism and learning to teach scie nce for diversity and for understanding. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35 (6), 589 622. Science, Traditional Knowledge and Sustaina ble Development. Series on Science for Sustainable Development No. 4. Siegel, H. (2002). Multiculturali sm, universalism, and science education: in search of common ground. Science Education, 86 803 820. Simonson, R. & Walker, S. (1988). (Eds.). The Graywolf annual five: Multi-cultural literacy Saint Paul, MN: Graywolf Press. Snively, G., & Corsiglia, J. (2001). Discovering indigenous scie nce: Implications for science education Science Education, 85 6 34. Stephens, S. (2003). Handbook for culturally-responsive science curriculum Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Science Consortium. Svennbeck, M. (2000). Rethinking the disc ussion about science education in a multicultural world: Some alternative questions as a new point of departure. Science Education 85 (1), 80 81. Tyack, D., & Cuban, L. (1995) Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public school reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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211 Vance, M. (1987). Biology teaching in a raci st society. In Dawn Gill and Les Levidow (Eds.) Anti-Racist Science Teaching pp. 107 123. Wang, H. A. (1998). Science textbook studies reanalysis : Teachers friendly content analysis Methods? San Diego, CA: Annual Conference of National Association of Researchers in Science Teaching. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED423142) Wartenberg, S. K. (1997). A content analysis of cultural diversity in Florida state adopted world history textbooks. (Doctora l dissertation, University of South Florida) Retrieved December 15, 2007, from Dissertations & Theses @ University of South Florida FCLA database. (Publication No. AAT 9724029). Whitman, D. (2004). The mad, mad world of textbook adoption Washington, D.C.: Thomas B. Fordham Institute. Williams, H. (1994). A critique of Hodsons I n search of a rationa l for multicultural science education. Science Education, 78 (5), 515 519. Writing Guides: Conducting Content Analysis (2006). Colorado States On-line Writing Environment. Retrieved July 5, 2006, from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/content Young, R. J. C. (2003). Postcolonialism: A very short introduction New York: Oxford University Press.

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212 Appendices

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213 Appendix A. List of Textbooks Set 1 (1990 1994) Student Editions Alexander, P., Bahret, M. J., Chaves, J ., Courts, G., & DAlessio, N. S. (1989). Biology the living world Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Goodman, H. D., Graham, L. E ., Emmel, T. G., Slowiczek, F. M., Shecter, Y. (1989). Biology Orlando: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Publishers. McLaren, J. E., & Rotundo, L. (1989). Heath Biology Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company. Milani, J. D., Erk. F.C., McInerney, J. D., Mc Iver, P.D., Mayer, W. V., Slowiczek, F., et al. (1987). Biological science: An ecological approach (6th ed.). Dubuqu, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Milani, J. P., Bradshaw, W. S., Storey, R. D ., Swartzendruber, D., Taylor, M. R., Tolman, R. R., et al. (1990). Biological science: A molecular approach (6th ed.). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath and Company. Oram, R. F. (1989). Biology living systems Columbus, OH: Me rrill Publishing Company. Schraer, W. D., & Stoltze, H. J. (1991). Biology the study of life (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Towle, A. (1989). Modern biology Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

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214 Appendix A. continued List of Textbooks Set 1 (1990 1994) Teacher Editions Alexander, P., Bahret, M. J., Chaves, J ., Courts, G., & DAlessio, N. S. (1989). Annotated teachers edition: Biology the living world Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Goodman, H. D., Graham, L. E ., Emmel, T. G., Slowiczek, F. M., Shecter, Y. (1989). Annotated teachers edition: Biology Orlando: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Publishers. McLaren, J. E., & Rotundo, L. (1989). Teachers annotated edition: Heath Biology Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company. Milani, J. D., Erk. F.C., McInerney, J. D., Mc Iver, P.D., Mayer, W. V., Slowiczek, F., et al. (1987). Teachers edition biological sc ience: An ecological approach (6th ed.). Dubuqu, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Milani, J. P., Bradshaw, W. S., Storey, R. D ., Swartzendruber, D., Taylor, M. R., Tolman, R. R., et al. (1990). Teachers edition biological sc ience: A molecular approach (6th ed.). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath and Company. Oram, R. F. (1989). Teacher annotated edition biology living systems Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Company. Schraer, W. D., & Stoltze, H. J. (1991). Annotated teachers editi on biology the study of life (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Towle, A. (1989). Teachers edition modern biology Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

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215 Appendix A. continued List of Textbooks Set 2 (1994 1998) Student Editions Essenfeld, B., Gontang, C., & Moore, R. (1994). Addison-Wesley biology Menlo, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Gottfried, S. S. (1993). Biology today St. Louis: Mosby. Johnson, G.B. (1994). Holt biology visualizing life Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press. Kaskel, A., Hummer, Jr., P. J., & Daniel, L. (1992). Merrill biology an everyday experience Lake Forest, IL: Glenco e Macmillan/McGraw-Hill. Milani, J. P., Leonard, W. H., Manney, T. R., Rainis, K. G., Uno, G. E., & Winternitz, K. A. (1992). Biological science: An ecological approach (7th ed.). Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. (1994). Biology Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Oram, R. F. (1994). Biology living systems New York: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill. Schraer, W. D., & Stoltze, H. J. (1993). Biology the study of life (5th ed.). Needham, MA, Prentice Hall. Towle, A. (1993). Modern biology Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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216 Appendix A. continued List of Textbooks Set 2 (1994 1998) Teacher Editions Essenfeld, B., Gontang, C., & Moore, R. (1994). Teachers edition Addison-Wesley biology Menlo, CA:Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Johnson, G.B. (1994). Annotated teachers edition Holt biology visualizing life Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press. Kaskel, A., Hummer, Jr., P. J., & Daniel, L. (1992). Teacher wraparound edition Merrill biology an everyday experience Lake Forest, IL: Glencoe Macmillan/McGrawHill. Lumsden, A. S. (1993). Teaching biology today St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Milani, J. P., Leonard, W. H., Manney, T. R., Rainis, K. G., Uno, G. E., & Winternitz, K. A. (1992). Teacher edition iological scie nce: An ecological approach (7th ed.). Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. (1994). Annotated teachers edition biology Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Oram, R. F. (1994). Teacher wraparound edition biology living systems New York: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill. Annotated teachers edition biology the study of life (5th ed.). Needham, MA, Prentice Hall. Towle, A. (1993). Annotated teachers edition modern biology Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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217 Appendix A. continued List of Textbooks Set 3 (1998 2004) Student Editions Biggs, A., Blaustein, D., Kapicka, C ., Kaskel, A., & Lundgren, L. (1998). Biology the dynamics of life New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Bybee, R.W., M. J. Dougherty, M. J., Powell, J. C., & Uno, G. E. (1997). Biology human approach student edition (1st ed.). Colorado Springs, CO: Kendall/Hunt Publishing. Cairney, W. J., Cassel, J. F., Cully, P., Girar d, J. C., Rainis, K. G., Uno, G. E., et al. BSCS biology an ecological approach (8th ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Johnson, G. B. (1998). Holt biology visualizing life Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Johnson, G. B., & Raven, P. H. (1998). Biology principles and explorations Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Leonard, W. H., & Penick, J. E. (1998). Biology a community context Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Educational Publishing. Miller, K. R., & Levine, K. R. (1998). Prentice Hall biology the living science Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall. Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. (1998). Biology Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Oram, R. F. (1998). Glencoe biology living systems Westerville, OH: Glencoe/McGrawHill. Pignatiello, J., Siggens, Jr., Di Ch iappari, F., & Madama, J. (1998). Essentials of biology concepts and communication Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

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218 Appendix A. continued List of Textbooks Strauss, E., & Lisowski, M. (1998). Biology the web of life Reading, MA: Scott Foresman Addison Wesley.

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219 Appendix A. List of Textbooks Set 3 (1998 2004) Teacher Editions Biggs, A., Blaustein, D., Kapicka, C ., Kaskel, A., & Lundgren, L. (1998). Teacher wraparound edition biology the dynamics of life New York: Glencoe/McGrawHill. Bybee, R. W., Dougherty, M. J., Powell, J. C., & Uno, G. E. (1997). Teachers resource book BSCS a human approach Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Cairney, W. J., Cassel, J. F., Cully, P., Girar d, J. C., Rainis, K. G., Uno, G. E., et al. Teachers edition BSCS biol ogy an ecological approach teachers edition (8th ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Johnson, G. B. (1998). Annotated teachers edition Holt biology visualizing life Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Johnson, G. B., & Raven, P. H. (1998). Annotated teachers edition iology principles and explorations Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Leonard, W. H., & Penick, J. E. (1998). Teachers guide biology a community context Cincinnati, OH: South-West ern Educational Publishing. Miller, K. R., & Levine, K. R. (1998). Teachers edition Prentice Hall biology the living science Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall. Miller, K. R., & Levine, J. (1998). Annotated teachers edition biology Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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220 Appendix A. continued List of Textbooks Oram, R. F. (1998). Teacher wraparound edition Glencoe biology living systems Westerville, OH: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Pignatiello, J., Siggens, Jr., Di Ch iappari, F., & Madama, J. (1998). Teachers edition essentials of biology concepts and communication Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Strauss, E., & Lisowski, M. (1998). Teachers edition biology the web of life Reading, MA: Scott Foresman Addison Wesley.

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221 Appendix A. continued List of Textbooks Set 4 (2005 2006) Student Editions Biggs, A., Hagins, W. C., Kapicka, C., Lundgre n, L., Rillero, P., Tallman, K.G., & et al. (2006). Florida biology the dynamics of life New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Campbell, N. A., Williamson, B., & Heyden, R. J. (2006). Florida biology exploring life Boston, MA: Pearson, Prentice Hall. Johnson, G., & Raven, P. (2006). Florida Holt biology (2006). Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Miller, K.R., & Levine, J. (2006). Prentice Hall biology Florida edition Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall. Parke, H. M, & Enderle, P. (2006). Biology cycles of life Circle Pines, MN: AGS Publishing. Postlethwait, J. H., & Hopson, J. L. (2006). Florida edition modern biology Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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222 Appendix A. continued List of Textbooks Set 4 (2005 2006) Teacher Editions Biggs, A., Hagins, W. C., Kapicka, C., Lundgre n, L., Rillero, P., Tallman, K.G., & et al. (2006). Florida teacher wraparound edition biology the dynamics of life New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Campbell, N. A., Williamson, B., & Heyden, R. J. (2006). Florida teachers edition biology exploring life Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall. Johnson, G., & Raven, P. (2006). Florida Holt biology teachers edition (2006). Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Miller, K.R., & Levine, J. (2006). Floridas teacher editi on Prentice Hall biology Florida edition Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall. Parke, H. M, & Enderle, P. (2006). Teachers edition bi ology cycles of life Circle Pines, MN: AGS Publishing. Postlethwait, J. H., & Hopson, J. L. (2006). Florida edition modern biology teacher edition Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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223 Appendix B. Indigenous Knowledge Tally Worksheet Name of Textbook: __________________________________________ Group: ______ Chapter Number Page Number Unit Name Topic Type of Discrete Text WP = word phrase S = sentence = paragraph BT = box of text P = page

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224 Appendix C. List of Terms to Identif y Indigenous Knowledge Adapted from: Knapp, S. (1992). The contemporary thesaurus of soci al science terms and synonyms: A guide for natural langua ge computer searching. Phoenix, AZ: The Oryx Press. Knapp, S. (2000). The contemporary thesaurus of se arch terms and synonyms: A guide for natural language computer searching. Phoenix, AZ: The Oryx Press. Central American Amerindians Reservation Indian(s) native cultural groups. Native American(s) Kwakiutl Central American Indian(s) Plains Indian(s) Haida Central Amerind(s) Natchez Tsimshian Middle American Indian(s) Choctaw Nootka Indian(s) Navajo Arikara Mestizo(s) Pima Hidatsa Native American(s) Tlaxcaltecan Mandam Chorotega Zuni Spokan Chibcha Apache Paiute Olmec Salish Nez Perce Teotihuacan Mohawk Shoshone Toltec Iroquois Cherokee Mixtec Hopi Creek Zapotec Papago Pomo Aztec Seminoles Eskimos Quiche Chippewa Blackfoot Maya Araphaho Aleuts Arawak Cheyennes Athapascan Carib Mohave Athabascan San blas Ojibwa Inuits Mosquitia Multnomah Mestizos Lacandones Algonquin Chipewyan Huastec Sioux Spokane Tarascan Comanche Cree Yaqui Kiowa Tarahumara Algonquian Pre Columbian Cuna Abenaki empires. Quekchi Native American(s) Andean Mayan Canad(a,ian) native(s) Mesoamerican Cakchiquel Alaska(n) native(s) Aztec(s,an) Guaymi Abnaki Inca(s,an) Manitou Maya(a,an) North American Manibozho Olmec(s) native cultural groups. Manabaus Zapotoc(s,an) North American Indian(s) Mandan Indian(s) of North America Muskogean Canadian Indian(s) Nadene

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225 Appendix C. continued List of Terms to Identif y Indigenous Knowledge Oceanic cultural groups. Guadalcanal Melpa Oceanic Gururumba Mendi Pacific islander(s) Hawaiians Mimika Australia(an) Iatmul Miyamin Australasia Kaluli Motu New Guinea(n) Kamilaroi Mountain Arapesh Melanesia(n) Kapauku Mundugumor Micronesia(n) Kapingamarangi Murik Polynesia(n) Karadjeri Murngin Abelam Kariera Muyu Ambae Keraki Namau Ambulas Kewa Nasioi Anuta Kilenge Nauru Aranda Kiribati New Georgia Asmat Kiwai Ngatatjara Banaro Koiari Nguna Bau Kosrae Ningerum Belau Kurtatchi Nissan Bikini Kwoma Niue Boazi Lak Nomoi Chambri Lakalai Ontong Java Chamorros Lau Orokaiva Chimbo Lesu Orokolo Choiseul Island Loyalty Islands Pentecost Cook Islands Mae Pintupi Dani Mafulu Pitjendra Daribi Mailu Pukapuka Dieri Maisin Rapa Dobu Malaita Raroia Easter Island Malekula Rennell Island Eipo Manam Rossel Island Enga Mandak Rotuma Foi Mangareva Sambia Fore Manihiki Samoa Futana Manus San Cristobal Gahuku Maori Santa Cruz Gama Mardudjara Selepet Gainji Marindanim Sengseng Garia Maring Siane Gebusi Marquessas Islands Sio Gnau Marshall Islands Siwai Gogodala Mejbrat Tahiti Goodenough Island Mekeo Tairora

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226 Appendix C. continued List of Terms to Identif y Indigenous Knowledge Oceanic cultural groups continued. Carib Ambo Tanga Cayapo Amharas Tanna Chibcha Anang Tasmanians Chimu Anuaks Tauade Colorado Arusha Telefomin Guarani Ashntis Tikopia Incas Atuot Tiwi Jivaro Azande Tokelau Kanamari Baganda Tolai Kraho Bakongo Tonga Makiritare Bakwiri Tongareva Mapuche Bangwa Tor Mochica Bantus Torres Straight Islanders Motilones Banyang Trobriand Islands Nazca Banyankore Truk Ona Barundi Tuvalu Panoa Basuto Ulithi Piaroa Bayak Usino Paracana Budja Uvea Pauo Bushmen Wamira Puelches Chaga Wantoat Quechua Ewe Wape Shirishana Fan Warlpiri Tehuelches Fon Waropen Ticuna Fulahs Wik Mungkan Terena Ga Wogeo Trio Gabra Woleai Tupi guarani Gallas Wongaibon Waorani Gbaya Wovan Warao Hausas Yangoru Xavante Higi Yangoru Boiken Yahgan Hottentots Yap Yanomama Ibibios Yir Yoront Igbo Yungar Isoka African cultural Kalanga South American groups. Kamba Native cultural groups. Berber(s) Kapsiki South American Indian(s) Copt(s) Kikuyu South American Amerind(s) Murle(s) Korekore Alacaluf Nubian(s) Kpelle Arawak Jerbian(s) Kumu Aymara Saharan tribes Kuria Araucanian Acoli Lala Baniwa Akans Lebou

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227 Appendix C. continued List of Terms to Identif y Indigenous Knowledge African cultural Indian (India) cultural Kanets groups continued. groups. Kanikars Lozi Indian Kasubas Lugbara Agris Katkaris Luo Aryans Kaws Mandingo Asurs Khasis Manganja Badagas Kherias Manzes Baigas Kinnar Mashona Balahis Kijahs Mongo Baltis Kilarians Mpongwe Bargundas Kolis Nama Hottentots Basors Kondhs Ndebele Bathuria Konkani Ndembu Bengali Konyaks Nguni Bhantus Korwas Nilo-Hamitic Bhils Kotas Nilotic tribes Bhiriguids Kukis Nuba Bhuiyas Kunnuvans Nuer Bhumiyas Kurmi-Mahtos Nupe Birhors Kurmis Nyakyusa Bondos Kurumbas Nzakara Brahuis Ladakhi Padola Bumij Lepchas Pare Burushos Luchai Rukuba Chaks Maitais Sarakolle Changs Malabars Shiluks Chenchoos Malaiali Sisala Dards Malas Suks Dharuas Malers Taita Doms Malpaharians Thonga Dravidians Malsers Tswana Gadabas Mannans Turkana Gaddis Marias Vasu Garhwali Maroongs Venda Garos Marvars Wahehe Gonds Meenas Wambulu Hindus Meithis Wapangwa Hos Mikirs Wolofs Irulas Moghias Xosa Juangs Mookwas Yorubas Kacharis Moduvans Zamaro Kadars Mundas Zulus Kandhs Muria

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228 Appendix C. continued List of Terms to Identif y Indigenous Knowledge Indian (India) cultural Indonesian cultural Ngadju groups continued. groups. Nias Musurs Alor Nila Nagas Ambon Obi Nahals Aru Orang Laut Nairs Atjehnese Punan Noatia Babar Redjang-Lampong Oraons Badui Roti Paharia Bahau Sadang Paliyans Bajau Salon Pandarams Bali Sangirese Paniyans Banda Savu Parsis Batak Sea Gypsies Pondans Batjan Sermata Porojas Buru Sula Prabhus Ceram Sumba Rajbansis Ceramlaut Sumbawa Rajis Damar Sundanese Rajputs Enggano Tanimbar Rawalttas Flores Tenggerese Reddis Gayo Alas Ternate Riang Goram Timor Sabakhais Gorontalo Toala Samuls Halmahera Toradja Sangtams Iban Watubela Santals Javanese Wetar Sathiyas Kayan Savaras Kei Philippine Islands Shokas Kenya cultural groups. Sikhs Kisar Aeta Sindhis Klamantan Apayos Sugalis Kubu Bagodos Swalgiri Land Dyak Bisayas Tamarias Leti Gaddang Tamils Loinan Hanunoo Telegu Lombok Ifugoas Todas Madura Igorots Uralia Makassar Ilokos Varlis Mentawei Ilongot Weddid Minangkabau Isinay Yenadis Mori Laki Kalinga

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229 Appendix C. continued List of Terms to Identif y Indigenous Knowledge Philippine Islands Cultural groups continued. Mangyans Quianganes Subamos Sulu Tagalog Tinguianws Tirurayes Yakan Yogads Generic terms. Traditional society(ies) Primitive Tribal(ism) Hunter-gatherer Indigenous Native Peasant Folk Simple Archaic Nomad(ic,s) Lapp(s) Kirghiz Gypsies Aborigines(al) Clan

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230 Appendix D. Teachers Edition Worksheet General Format Textbook___________________________________________________ Group _____ Program Goals/Objectives /Philosophies/Rationale NOTES : Relationship of multicultural content to the overall science content/purpose: 1) There is support for multicultu ral diversity content as part of the overall program goals and objectives. NOTES : 2) These is some support for multicultural dive rsity; the support is limited or not clearly defined for the teacher. NOTES : 3) There is support or link to multicultural a nd diversity content as part of the stated program goals and objectives. NOTES : Authors/reviewers expertise/degrees outside of science or education : YES NO Emphasis on FCAT and/or other standardized testing : YES NO Emphasis on Reading : YES NO Pacing Guide : YES NO Multicultural/Diversity support : YES NO Student needs : YES NO Example of needs: ________________________________ STS content : YES NO COMMENTS:

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231 Appendix E. Teachers Edition Worksheet Multicultural Content Textbook Code: ___________________________ Descriptor Instructional Strategy Curricular Content Unit Page Comments

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232 Appendix F. Directions for Coding Multicultural Components Descriptor Codes: Bilingual: BIL Cross-cultural: C-C Cross-cultural studies: C-CS Cultural: CULT Culture: CULTR Cultural activities: CULT AC Cultural awareness: CULT AW Cultural differences: CULT DIF Cultural education: CULT ED Cultural enrichment: CULT EN Cultural heritage: CULT HER Cultural pluralism: CULT PL Culturally relevant education: CRE Diversity: DIV English (Second Language): ESL Ethnic groups: ETH GR Ethnicity: ETH Global education: GE Interdisciplinary Approach: INTE Limited English Speaking: LES Minority: MINOR Minority groups: MINOR GR Multicultural: MULTI Multiculturalism: MULTISM Multicultural education: ME Social studies: SS

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233 Appendix F. continued Directions for Coding Multicultural Components Directions for Coding Background Information to Coder : Coders will be working with teacher editi ons of high school biology textbooks. For this study, 31 of 34 teacher editions ar e annotated versions of the student edition. Three of the teacher editions occur as separate manua ls. The teacher edition will include any information for the teacher as interleafs us ually found at the beginning of each unit or chapter and as annotations lis ted in the margins or embedded within what would appear as the student pages. The task for the coder is to identify a multicultural com ponent and then record the relationship of that component to the science objectives for that particular page or section of text. A multicultural component is defined as a discrete se ction of text that contains one of the descriptors listed above. A discrete section of text for the purposes of coding is 1) an annotation in the teacher edition, which may be located in the margins or directly on what would appear in the student editi on as the student page or 2) a sentence, paragraph, page or textbox that appears in th e interleafs or margins of the teacher edition. Content for coding occurs as a chapter in the textbook. Each ch apter belongs to one of ten units: 1) intro to biology; 2) cel ls; 3) genetics; 4) evolution; 5) microbial world; 6) plants, 7) invertebrates; 8) vertebrates; 9) human biology; 10) ecology. Once a coder is comfortable with the background information, the coder will: 1. Record unit name for chapte r to be coded on the Multicu ltural Content Worksheet (column 4). 2. Scan each page of the assigned unit for disc rete sections of text that utilize the descriptors from the list of Descriptor Codes. 3. Upon location of descriptor, record descriptor code (c olumn 1) and page number (column 5). 4. Check column 2 if the multicultural com ponent is considered an instructional strategy. An instructional strategy will include a task-oriented strategy. As example, the teacher may ask the students to research a topic, discuss a scenario, or create a concept map using the vocabulary. Check column 3 if the multicultural component only relates content, facts or general information about a topic. As example, there may be short biog raphy of a scientist or a story regarding a legend of a particul ar cultural group.

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234 Appendix F. continued Directions for Coding Multicultural Components 5. Once the multicultural component has been identified and labeled as instructional or curricular in content, the coder sh ould determine the degree to which the multicultural component supports the goal, purpose or objective of the chapter or unit section. 6. The coder should locate the objectives/goa ls/purpose as identif ied by the author. These are usually located at the start of the chapter section. 7. If the multicultural component should be coded in column 6 as a 1, 2 or 3 based on the degree to which the component supports the objectives: (1) highly related (the multicultural component directly supports the goals and objectives; pay attention to what the goa ls require of the student does the information or task in the multicultural co mponent allow the student to perform or meet that objective. (2) somewhat related (the multicultural component somewhat supports the stated goals and objectives; the info rmation or task is associat ed with the task but not directly related to the assigned objective. (3) not related (no connection between the multicultural component and the stated goals and objectives); there seems to be no relation between the information or task to the assigned objective for that section of task; the component seems out of place or appears as an add-on.

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235 Appendix G. Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology Living Systems Number: 1 Set: 1 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 24 Early scientists did not know how to solv e their problems. Often they did not study a problem carefully. Many times they did not know for what they were looking. One of the most important factors in good science is as king the right questions Many discoveries made in the last few hundred years are valid because the scientists who made then were good detectives. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 24 The methods of science are uniqu e. A scientist is a detectiv e who must solve problems by asking questions and putting the answer toge ther in a meaningful way. Intelligent guessing is important to the scientist. But guessing alone is not enough. The guesses must be supported or rejected by evidence. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 24 Science is a process that produces a body of knowledge about natures. Areas of study such as art, music, or history are no less scholarly than science because all of them involve creativity. But, the manner in which science studies nature makes it different from other subjects. Comments: Statement # 4 Unit: p. 523 A Mohawk Indian raised by her Quaker gr andparents, Rosa Minoka-Hill made up her mind early in life to help needy Indians. On a primitive farm in the Oneida Indian Reservation in Wisconsin, Dr. Minoka-Hill carried out that decision. Rosa Minoka-Hill delivered babies, treated diseases, and ran a kitchen clinic stocked with herbals (plants used for medical treatment) and medicines pr ovided by the doctors in Green Bay for the people of the reservation. Comments: People in Biology

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236 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: HBJ Biology Number: 2 Set: 1 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 25 The goal of science is to esta blish principles and thereby to acquire knowledge about the natural world. Scientists establish principl es through a logical, or ganized method of study called a scientific method. Many different pro cedures, performed in varying order, are part of a scientific method, but all of them draw on the following series of logical steps. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 24 Today the word science is used to describe both the body of knowledge that exists about the world and the method of study used to arrive at that knowledge. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Plants p. 434 In addition to improving existing crops, scie ntists are seek ing new sources of food. One promising discovery is grain amaranth, once a staple food of the Aztec empire. Amaranth outranks other common grains in protein content and contains important amino acids that most grains lack. Comments: Statement # 4 Unit: Plants p. 436 Long before the age of modern medicine, peopl e used plants to cure illness and soothe discomfort. Some medicinal plants are stil l in use. Dried foxglove leaves yield a substance called digitalis, which is used to treat heart disease. Extracts from the opium poppy are used in the powerful pain reliever s morphine and codeine. The bark of the cinchona tree contains quinine, a drug used to treat malaria. Comments:

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237 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 5 Unit: Human Biology p. 680 Studies of people who live at high altitudes provide information on the long-range effects of conditions in which levels of oxygen are lo w. For example, the Quechua Indians of the Andes, who live above 3,600 m (more than mi.), have developed very large chest and lung capacities. These people also differ in blood composition; they have a higher concentration of red blood cells and hemoglobi n than do people who normally live at sea level. Comments: Thinking About Biol ogy: Effects of High Altitude Statement # 6 Unit: Ecology p. 827 The Amazon Indians have lived in the rain forest for centuries. Comments: Statement # 7 Unit: Ecology p. 830 Terrace farming has been employed in some pa rts of the world for hundreds of years. The Incas of Peru built extensive terraces over 400 ye ars ago to grow corn and other crops in their mountainous areas. Comments: TE

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238 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Heath Biology Number: 3 Set: 1 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 3 Science is a way of knowing about the physic al world. Anyone can be a scientist. No laboratory or advanced college degree is needed. As soon as you ask questions about the things you observe, and begin to look for answers, you are doing science. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 5 An important characteristic of science is usi ng an organized approach to solve problems. You can learn the methods scien tists use and later put them to use in your own studies. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 7 You have been reading about a general pr ocedure, called the research method. This method is frequently use dot answer scien tific questions. The st eps of the research method are usually listed as 1. observing; 2. defining the problem or question; 3. forming a hypothesis; 4. testing the hypothesis with a controlled experiment; 5. observing and recording results; 6. forming conclusions by confirmi ng or modifying the hypothesis; 7. reporting results. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 4 Unit: Plants p. 355 Conifers produce many useful products. They are a major source of lumber, paper, and turpentine. The seed of some pines, called pi ne nuts, are used in Middle Eastern and other Mediterranean cooking. They are also eat en by the Indians of the Southwest. Comments:

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239 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 5 Unit Ecology p. 825 At one time, humans depended completely on wild plants and animals for food and clothing. Today, wildlife still represents an important natural resource. Wildlife provides food, hides, and other products. Wildlife also has recreational and artistic value. Comments:

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240 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: HRW Modern Biology Number: 4 Set: 1 Statement # 1 Unit Intro p. 17 Science is a body of knowledge. Science is also a way of learni ng about the natural world. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit Intro p. 825 Science does not prescribe one single me thod for asking and seeking answers to questions. Scientists combine some or all th e processes you have read about in a logical way to devise a scientific method best su ited for a particular research project. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit Plants p. 372 Native Americans and early settlers used horsetails as pot scrubbers. Comments: Statement # 4 Unit: Plants p. 356 When early peoples began cultivating plants, th ey usually selected the most robust plants for food and seed. This selection process le d to hardier crops with better yields. Unfortunately, it also led to decreased ge netic variation. Furthermore, because only certain traits were selected for, many wild plans with potentially beneficial traits were not cultivated. Scientists are now redisc overing some of thes e wild varieties. Comments:

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241 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: PH Biology The Living World Number: 5 Set: 1 Statement # 1 Unit Intro p. 3 Science is a method of obta ining knowledge about natu re. Science involves the examination of nature to understand and descri be aspects of it. Science seeks to answer certain kinds of questions about nature. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit Intro p. 3 The scientific method is a means of gathering information and testing ideas. It is the way a scientist tries to find answ ers to questions about nature Although the procedures can vary, the scientific method consists of these steps: making observations, forming hypotheses, testing explanations, and drawing conclusions. It is the use of the scientific method that separates science from other fields of study. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Evolution p. 186 Figure 9-17 A map showing the frequency of blood group A. The frequency of this blood group is high among the Blackfoot Indians of North America. Comments: Figure 9-17

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242 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Textbook: BSCS A Molecular Approach Number: 6 Set: 1 Statement # 1 Unit Intro p. 6 You use many scientific methods to solve problems ever y day, probably without realizing it. In science, problem solving is based on th e interpretation of data, which is information gained through observation, measurement, or experimentation. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit Intro p. Science is one way of explaining the world, an d the characteristics of science serve as a basis for establishing what qualifies as scie nce. Several characteristics generally define science. Science is a human enterprise and can be in fluenced in some ways by personal bias and by politics. Comments: nature of knowledge

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243 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Textbook: BSCS An Ecological Approach Number: 7 Set: 1 Statement # 1 Unit Intro p. 22 Science is one way of obtaining knowledge about the world around us. The method of obtaining scientific knowledge i nvolves a series of steps that begins with an observation of the living world. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit Microbial p. 371 Primitive people thought that disease came from an evil spirit that entered the body. The cure for the illness was to frighten or co ax the spirit out of the body. That became the function of a medicine man, or shaman, who ma y have used masks, rattles, and charms. Today, your dentist might say your toothach e was caused by a buildup in the population of tooth-decaying bacteria. Your dentist w ould not give you coca leaves for your pain, but he or she might inject cocaine to numb your mouth. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit Microbial p. 372 Figure 11.20 Navaho medicine man, administer ing chant to mother and baby for better health. Comments: Statement # 4 Unit: Microbial p. 432 In the Arctic, reindeer mosses accumulated radi oactive materials that drifted there from aboveground atomic bomb testing. The reindeer and caribou th at are the lichens took in the radioactive materials and passed them on to the Eskimos who ate those animals. That is another example of how unexpected ma terials are passed along a food chain to a consumer at the top of the chain. Comments:

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244 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 5 Unit: Plants p. 456 Horsetails are harsh to the t ouch; their tissues contain sili ca, a compound present in sand. American Indians and the pioneers scrubbed pot s and pans with them, thus their common name of scouring rushes. Comments: Statement # 6 Unit: Ecology p. 896 Probably humans already were gathering and using the wild wheat; now they could have wheat fields near their settlements. Hunters and gatherers can get by with working three or four days out of each week. But without any way to store food they mu st sometimes go hungry. Around AD 160, Indians in northern New England were hunters and gatherers. The Indian farmers used common village grounds for their farms. Use of common areas for grazing and farming tends to lead to wh at biologist Garrett Hardin has called the tragedy of the commons: eventually one of th e users tried to use more than his share of the common resource. Early hunters domesticated dogs before the ag ricultural revolution, but the domestication of other animals apparently came later. Comments: Statement # 7 Unit: Ecology p. 54 Compare the so-called primitive way of ge tting food with the so-called modern way. There are only a few hunting-gathering tribes left in the world today. Those people hunt and fish and gather berries, nuts, leaves, roots, and insect larvae. Comments: Figure 2.27

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245 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 8 Unit: Ecology p. 57 Among these population crashes would be: th e Inca and Maya of South and Central America, Caster Island, Anasazi Indians of US Southwest, and tr ibes of the Sahara. Reference books available to students would be helpful. Comments: TE Statement # 9 Unit: Ecology p. 900 Indians in what is now Alabama obtained c opper from the Lake Superior regions. Thus, building settlements helped them to bring about travel and trade. Comments: Statement # 10 Unit: Ecology p. 911 The Indians who settled in that area must have done some farming, but it probably affected the natural ecosystem very little. Th e people hunted deer, w ild turkey, and other animals, and they gathered hackberries and nuts. Comments:

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246 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Textbook: Biology The Study of Life Number: 8 Set: 1 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 13 Broadly speaking, science is an attempt to unde rstand the world we live in. By this, we mean that science goes beyond the simple observation and descri ption of objects and events. It tries to find general principles to explain why things ar e as they are and why things happen as they do. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 13 Within each of theses fields, there are numer ous subdivisions. Even so, scientists in all fields approach their problems in the same way. When a scientist announces a finding or proposes a new idea, other scientists may rep eat the work or test its conclusions. This universal approach to scientific problems is called the scientific me thod. Its main features are the same in all areas of science. Comments: nature of knowledge

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247 Appendix G. Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Addison-Wesley Biology Number: 1 Set: 2 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 17 What do scientists do? What skills do they have? But the re al activity of science, the interpretation of observations and data, takes place in the minds of scientists. You will understand biology best if you learn how scientists investigate nature. Science is much more than a body of knowle dge. It is a way of learning and thinking about the natural world. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 19 There is not just one particular process all scientists use in performing experiments. Their strategies are as individual as the scientists themselves. Questions, hypotheses, and ideas pop up at different times, and one experime nt may lead to another. Science is a continuous, self-generating process that leads scientists through a lifetime of learning. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 6 Native Americans living in the plains regions of the United States once used buffalo hides in the construction of their tepees. Native Americans living in the southwestern parts of the United States, where temperatures ar e fairly mild all year, used thatch roofs. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 4 Unit: Genetics p. 127 Many modern food crops are descendants of wi ld plants. Native Americans selected and bred many varieties of corn fr om a wild plant similar to the teosinte. The picture on the right shows both corn and teosinte seeds. Comments: Figure 8.1

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248 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 5 Unit: Genetics p. 127 Native Americans developed more than 300 varie ties of corn from a type of wild plant called teosinte. The native people of Peru probably developed potatoes by selecting and breeding certain wild plants that formed starchy, nutritious underground stems. Such developments occurred long before peopl e understood the proce ss of inheritance. Comments: Statement # 6 Unit: Genetics p. 189 As you learned in chapter 8, ancient native peoples of North and South America used controlled breeding to develop corn and potatoes form wild plants. In controlling the breeding of cattle and other li ving things, our ancestors were practicing biotechnology. In modern times, farmers and breeders still use controlled breeding to develop new crops and new breeds of animals to feed a hungry world. Comments: Statement # 7 Unit: Microbial p. 299 In some cultures, all things in the world are considered alive, including rocks, soil, and water. All things are considered to be a pa rt of a whole. This viewpoint is gaining popularity among some Western scientists. Acco rding to the Gaia hypothesis, Earth is analogous to an organism in its ability to correct imbalances and to maintain homeostasis. Because Earth is viewed as a whole, the Ga ia hypothesis incorporates components that have been considered nonliving in the traditional European viewpoint. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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249 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 8 Unit: Plants p. 365 The agriculture of Native Americans was a nd is different in many ways from modern agriculture, and is in some cases superior. Early in the development of their culture, Native Americans learned to honor Earth, which together with the sun is considered to be the source of all life. Native Americans base their farming practices and whole life pa ttern on a oneness with nature and a great respect for all living things Scientists who study the dynamics of life on Earth are beginning to recognize the value of the prac tices and beliefs of Native Americans. Early Native American agriculture develope d some very effective and sophisticated methods that are used in farming today. Sele ctive breeding enabled Native Americans to develop a wild grass, called Teosinte, in to more than 300 varieties of corn. But early Native American agriculture cont ributed more than just food and farming techniques to modern society. By extract ing and processing the sap of rubber trees, Native Americans invented waterproofing subs tances for clothing. Native Americans also used and still use herbs and other plant produc ts for medicines. These medicines include aspirin, digitalis, and quinine. Many Native Americans are true environmen talists. They understand the dangers of pollution and wasteful habits. As modern so ciety becomes more aware of the need to conserve resources and save the environment, the ways of Native Americans are becoming more valuable. Comments: Historical Notebook What can be learned about agric ulture from Native Americans? Statement # 9 Unit: Plants p. 365 During the 1500s, several Native American groups, who are collectively called the Aztecs, cultivated a wide variety of crops. In the higher-altitude inland regions of Mexico, the Aztec people grew maize (corn), beans, squashes, and chilies (peppers). These crops served as the staple f oods for the inhabitants of the region. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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250 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 10 Unit: Plants p. 375 Some peoples, for instance, some Native Ameri cans, express the concept that plants and animals share the same life breath. This inte rdependence of plants and animals can be expressed another way. In 1771, an Englis h clergyman and chemist named Joseph Priestly made a discovery. He found that a mous e could live in a container of air that had been spoiled by a burning candle as long as plants were in the container. Comments: Statement # 11 Unit: Plants p. 377 The chemicals in plants can also help keep humans healthy. For many years, practitioners of folk medicine have used plant extract s to cure diseases. For example, Native Americans chewed willow bark to relieve pain. Comments: Statement # 12 Unit: Plants p. 407 Not all drugs are used for their healing effects. Native Americans have long used the hallucinogenic drug peyote, which is derived from the peyote cactus button, as part of their religious ceremonies. B ecause of the hallucinogenic effects of peyote, Native American often call the peyote cactus the plan t that shows the way, or the plant that gives sleep. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 13 Unit: Plants p. 411 Maple syrup production is carried out today mu ch as it was by the Native Americans of the Great Lakes region who originated th e process hundreds of years ago. The Native Americans who invented the process used woode n spiles and containers. Also, they knew about the timing of the sap flow a nd invented ways to boil the sap. Comments: Everyday Biology

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251 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 14 Unit: Plants p. 405 Before the 1500s, more than 200 kinds of potatoes were grown by Native American people for food. Comments: Statement # 15 Unit: Invertebrates p. 479 One tribe of Native Americans living in the Amazon regions add sponge spicules to their pottery clay. The spicules serve to strengthen their ceramic pots. Comments: Statement # 16 Unit: Invertebrates p. 506 The shells of mollusks classified as S caphopoda were used by Native Americans who lived on the Pacific coast of North Amer ica as wampum, a form of currency. The mollusks in this group have small shells that resemble tusks. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 17 Unit: Invertebrates p. 529 The Tainos, an extinct aboriginal tribe from the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas, used maggots as a source of food. To obtain the maggots, the Tainos placed the pulp of a poisonous plant called the zamia out in the s un. The pulp drew flies which laid eggs on the pulp. The eggs developed into maggots that drew the poison out of the plant as they fed. The plant pulp and maggots were then made into a burgerlike food and eaten. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 18 Unit: Vertebrates p. 578 The use of frog toxins by humans is not new. People in the Amazon rain forest use chemicals form frog skin to make poisontipped arrows. People in small villages in Argentina take advantage of th e antibiotic effect of frog skins. These people place the frogs on wounds to speed healing. Comments: Frontiers of Medicine

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252 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 19 Unit: p. 578 In the rainforest regions of many South Ameri can countries, certain cultures live much as their ancestors did centuries ago. They follow the same tribal customs and mores, and use their understanding of a seemingly hostile e nvironment to their advantage. As one example, natives use poisons secreted by glands of certain frog species for a variety of purposes. Chief among the uses is to make pois on-tipped arrows and darts that stun or kill animals the people hunt for food and clothing. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 20 Unit: Vertebrates p. 598 Snakes are widely distributed in nature. Cert ain cultures of North Am erica, Africa, India, and Asia hold ceremonies and activities involving snakes. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 21 Unit: Vertebrates p. 628 The Inuit peoples living in the Arctic regions of North America have long used aquatic mammals as their primary source of food and clothing. Pinnapeds, such as walruses and seals, and whales are part of the Inuit diet. The skins of these animals are used to make clothing. The blubber, or fat, of the sea animal s is used as a cooking fat and a fuel source. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 22 Unit: Human Biology p. 803 In addition to using mescaline in religious ceremonies, some Native American cultures use mescaline as part of a rite of passage. In this ritual, a young man is given mescaline and sent off into the desert for several days. The young man may not return until he has experienced certain types of visions and su rvived the solitary experience. Upon his return, the youth is considered a man. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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253 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 23 Unit: Human Biology p. 803 Hallucinogens were used by people thousa nds of years ago. A hallucinogen called mescaline comes from peyote, a spineless cactus plant shown in Figure 44.5. Some Native American cultures use mescalin e in their religi ous ceremonies. Figure 44.5 The hallucinogen mescaline is deri ved from the peyote cactus. This drug has played an important role in certain relig ious ceremonies, both ancient and modern. Comments: Figure 44.5 Statement # 24 Unit: Ecology p. 829 Prior to the settlement of the midwestern United States by Europeans, buffalo were a dominant species in grassla nd regions. The buffalo were killed in small numbers by Native Americans who used the animals for f ood, clothing, and even to build shelters. As Europeans settled in grassland regions, buffalo hunting became a popular sport. AS a result of this practice, buffalo we re almost hunted to extinction. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 25 Unit: Ecology p. 875 Native Americans have long thought of the envi ronment as a living being. In this view, people, plants and animals each represent differe nt nations. Each nation is said to have its own language, laws, and society. According to these Native American beliefs, humans, or two-leggeds, make up only one of the many communities on Earth. The idea of the Earth as a living being is not unique to Native Americans. James Lovelock, an English scientist, developed a similar view. Lovelock class his idea the Gaia hypothesis, names for Gaia, the Greek goddess of the Earth. The Gaia hypothesis is based on Lovelocks belief that th e interactions among the biotic and abiotic factors of the environment have a natural balance. Comments:

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254 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 26 Unit: Human Biology p. 786 For 2000 years, smallpox conducted a reign of terror over all hu manity. The disease killed great numbers of pe ople around the world. The course of history was often changed as smallpox killed huge numbers of Native Americans. Comments: Historical Notebook Smallpox: Horror with a Happy Ending Statement # 27 Unit: Human Biology p. 786 After American was settled by Europeans, Native Americans became vulnerable to many diseases they had never before encountered. These diseases were introduced to Native Americans through contact with the Europeans. For example, most historians agree that smallpox was the main force behind the fall of the Aztec civilizati on, not Cortez and his small band of soldiers. Comments: TE Social Studies Connection

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255 Appendix G. Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology An Everyday Experience Number: 2 Set: 2 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 15 Much of the work of biology is to solve pr oblems. Problems are not solved by flipping a coin or taking a guess as to the outcome. Scien tists use a series of steps called a scientific method to solve problems. The following steps are often used: recognizing the problem, researching the problem, forming hypothesi s, testing the hypot hesis, and drawing conclusions. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Plants p. 425 Several centuries ago, explorer s brought plants form the tropical forests of the New World back to Europe. The explorers had disc overed that these plants were being used for medicines by native peoples. For example, qui nine was found to be used as a cure for malaria. The natives of South America had made an extract of quinine by soaking the bark of the Cinchona tree in water. Comments:

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256 Appendix G. Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Holt Biology Visualizing Life Number: 3 Set: 2 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 5 Science is a way of investig ating the world, obser ving nature in order to form general rules about what causes things to happen. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 15 It was once fashionable to claim that scien tific progress was the result of applying a series of steps called the scientific met hod. In this view, scie nce is a sequence of logical either/or steps, each step rejecting one of two inco mpatible alternatives. Trialand-error testing could inevitably lead one th rough a maze of uncertainty. If this view were true, a computer could be programmed to be a good scientist. But science is not done this way. If you ask successful scientists how they do their work, you will find that they design experiments with a good idea of how their experiments are going to come out. Not just any hypothesis is tested but ra ther a hunch or educated guess based on all the scientist knows and that allo ws his or her imagination fu ll play. Because insight and imagination are so important in scientific progr ess, some scientists are better than others. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 9 An old saying that is attributed to many different sources, from Native Americans to Amish farmers, states that we do not inher it the world from our pa rents; we borrow it from out children. Comments:

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257 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 4 Unit: Ecology p. 259 In India, the neem tree provides so many usef ul products that is has been called the village pharmacy. Its leaves are used to make medicinal teas and in sect repellents. Juice from the tree is used to treat skin prob lems, and the twigs are used to clean teeth. Comments: TE Cultural Perspective Statement # 5 Unit: Ecology p. 315 1450 AD Native Americans develop advanced syst ems of agriculture. Native American farmers, in various parts of the Americas, are producing crops such as corn, peanuts, peppers, cocoa, beans, squash, rubber trees, tobacco, and tomatoes. Europeans first learn of these crops from Native Americans. Comments: Discoveries in Science timeline Statement # 6 Unit: Intro p. 11 The native people of South America called the cinchona tree the bark of barks because it holds cures for human illnesses. With the help of natives, scientists discovered that bark of the cinchona tree contains the drug qui nine, the cure for malaria. Peruvian Native Americans also knew of the properties of the cinchona tree before AD 1500. This was documented when Native Americans offered the fever tree to Juan Lopez, a Jesuit missionary. Comments: TE Cultural Perspective

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258 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 6 Unit: Microbial p. 325 Are species natural units that are recognized by different cult ures? Or are they artificial distinctions imposed on nature by Western scient ists? It appears that the first is true. In 1928 Ernst Mayr, then a young orni thologist, traveled to Ne w Guinea to collect bird specimens. Mayr found that the local Arfak people recognized 136 kinds of birds, just one less than he did. Moreover, Mayr and th e Arfak recognized the same species expect for two very similar species that the Arfak did not distinguish. Comments: TE Cultural Perspective Statement # 7 Unit: Microbial p. 351 The Egyptians and ancient Chinese used mold from bread and cereal to treat wounds and infections. Thus, it is evident that the Egyp tians and Chinese were aware of the healing properties of some molds long be fore penicillin was discovered. Comments: TE Cultural Perspective Statement # 8 Unit: Plants p. 409 The indigenous people taught me about their medicines and the plants from which they are derived. Comments: Statement # 9 Unit: Plants p. 417 Kola nuts are cultivated in the West Indies, West Africa, and South Africa. They are the fruits of several types of evergreen trees. People who live in African countries call the nuts guru or goora nuts and chew them like gum. Kola nuts are also used to make coal soft drinks and medicines. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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259 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 10 Unit: Plants p. 430 The selective breeding of co rn began more than 7,000 years ago in Mexico. Native American farmers selected for an increase in the number of rows of grains in the ear, which evolved form the teosinte spike. Corn was cultivated y the Aztecs of central America, the Mayas of southern Mexico and northern Central America, and the Incas of western South America. Comments: Journey s History of Corn timeline Statement # 11 Unit: Plants p. 438 People have always used plants to relieve pain and cure ailments or disease. Some people still use plants to cure ailments and ma ny doctors, such as the one in Figure 20.8, are studying the cures these plants provide. Toda y plants produce many substances used in medicinal drugs. Fro instance, sweet potatoe s provide an extract used in producing steroid hormones for birth control pills and cortisone. The May apple was used by Cherokees to kill parasitic worms. In the middle of the seventeenth century, Je suit missionary a remedy for malaria made by boiling cinchona bark in water. The Native Am ericans called the tree bark quina. The medicine isolated from its bark was called quinine. Today quinine e is made synthetically. It is still wide ly used to prevent malaria. Comments: Figure 20.8 Statement # 12 Unit: Plants p. 438 The Native American doctor (left) is teach ing the Western doctor (right) how to use plants native to the Amazonian rain forest to treat some illnesses. Comments: Figure 20.8 Statement # 13 Unit: Plants p. 439 However, drug companies searching for and finding valuable botanicals throughout developing countries refuse to pay people for their knowledge or products. Comments: Social Studies Connection

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260 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 14 Unit: Plants p. 440 Native Americans of Central and South Americ a made rubber balls and waterproof shoes from latex. Comments: Statement # 15 Unit: Plants p. 443 The Chinese have been using the Quighao plant, Artemisia annua in traditional medicine for more than 2,000 years to treat chills and fever associated with malaria. Comments: TE Cultural Perspective Statement # 16 Unit: Vertebrates p. 586 Through the ages, birds and their feathers have been a part of many cultures. The Indians of North and South America have used bird sy mbols in their rituals, and bird feathers, beaks, and talons in their costumes. Costa Ri ca uses a bird on its currency. Birds have been important in mythology, as icons in certa in religions, and as pets around the world. Comments: TE Cultural Perspective Statement # 17 Unit: Human Biology p. 699 The word tobacco is a Spanish adaptation of the term the natives of the Caribbean used for cigar. Tobacco was chewed of smoked for ceremonies surrounding was, peace, puberty, the harvest, or death. Most uses sugge sted the notion of sacrificial offerings. Comments: TE Cultural Perspective

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261 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 18 Unit: Human Biology p. 702 Before the people of the Americas had c ontact with Europeans, many with highly developed agricultural societies made and us ed alcoholic beverages. The intake of alcohol for the Papagos and Pi ma Indians of the Southeast was used as part of the ceremony to bring rain. Among the Aztecs, into xication served to induce medication and prophecy. Comments: TE Cultural Perspective Statement # 19 Unit: Human Biology p. 703 Peyote, the fruit of the Lophophora williamsii cactus that grows in northern Mexico and along the Rio Grande Valley, is another hall ucinogen used by Mexican tribes and the Apache for both sacred and secular purposes. The Mexicans and Apaches learned to cut off the rounded top of the plant, dry it, and brew it into a tea. Peyote was also used as an appetite and thirst suppressant. Comments: TE Cultural Perspective Statement # 20 Unit: Ecology p. 291C For many Native Americans and tribal people on other continents, the rain forest is their home. The Cofan Indians of Ecuador, who former ly relied upon these sources for drinking water, now depend on rainwater. Comments: TE Multicultural Lesson Plan Statement # 21 Unit: Plants p. 438 At one time, members of the Crow tribe chewed willow bard to relieve headaches. Scientists have discovered that the bark of the weeping willow tree contains a chemical that turns into salicylic acid in the human body. Today we call this acid aspirin. Comments: TE History Connection

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262 Appendix G. Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Prentice Hall Biology Number: 4 Set: 2 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 5 Asking questions about the world around us is part of human nature. How did life begin? Where did plants and animals come from? W hy do animals behave as they do? Every culture in the world has tr ied to answer these questions often through myths and legends. The Pitjendara tribe of central Australia, for example, finds answers to questions about nature on an enormous mound of stone called Ayers Rock. According to the Pitjendara, the images etch on Ayers rock tell st ories that depict the adventures, the loves, and the battles of ten enorm ous creatures. The rock contains the likenesses of two snakes, Liru and Kunia. Thro ugh these and other stories, the Pitjendara explain the formation of the world and the processes of bi rth, life and death. The stories of the rock also detail the connections between th e tribe and animals important in their everyday lives: snakes, de sert lizards, and kangaroos. The stories even explain the origins of dreams. We might say that the rock pr ovides the Pitjendara with answers that other societies seek through a process known as science. People like the Pitjendara live their entire lives in a single culture. Thus, they often find it difficult to imagine that their particular stor ies about the world might be in error. Today, however, we can visit and read about many cultures. And when we assemble stories form around the globe, it becomes obvious that all these stories cannot be true. Is there some other way to explain the worl d around us? One way is to assume that all events in nature have natural causes. We can then try to arrange a series of observations or test to learn what those causes are. Science is the word that we apply to this process. The goal of science is to understand the world around us. There are, however, many important fields of human endeavor that st udy the world around us but are not considered sciences. Such fields include language, hist ory, art, music, and ph ilosophy. The character that distinguishes science from nonscience is an approach kn ows as the scientific method. Comments: Figure 1-1 Nature of knowledge

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263 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 7 The simplest definition of the scientific me thod was offered by biol ogist Claude Villee. He called it Organized common sense. That is exactly what science should be. In practice, the scientific method consists of several steps To the true scientist, however, the scientific method is more a frame of mind a frame of mind that involves curiosity. Another important char acteristic of the scientific spirit is the refusal to accept an explanation without evid ence or proof. This p rove it! attitude encourages scientists to investigate phe nomena and to develop new explanations and ideas. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 15 As knowledge grows, facts can change. This print depicts a Hindu legend that tells that the Earth is supported by three elephants resting on the back of a giant tortoise. Comments: Figure 1 -12 nature of knowledge Statement # 4 Unit: Intro p. 11 Science works best when scientists everywhere read each others papers, check each others experiments, and argue abou t what those experiments mean. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 5 Unit: Plants p. 461 At one time, mosses were ground up and used by Native Americans to treat burns and bruises. Comments:

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264 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 6 Unit: Vertebrates p. 701 Some tropical tree frogs make a poison so powerful that it can kill humans and other large animals. Native tribes in the tropics often poison th eir arrow tips by rubbing them on these frogs. For this reason, these brightly colored amphibians are called poison arrow frogs. Comments: Statement # 7 Unit: Ecology p. 1068 Although a few whales are hunted in traditiona l ways by native people, most of the whales killed today are taken by massive factor y skips that process the whales while at sea. Comments: Statement # 8 Unit: Cells p. 171 Or students may want to lear n about Native Americans use of herbs for healing, an art that is practiced in Chine even today. Comments: TE Statement # 9 Unit: Ecology p. 900 Because of this property, it was used ritual istically in ancient societies in Central America, Russia, and India. Comments: TE Tie-in Medicine

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265 Appendix G. Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology Living Systems Number: 5 Set: 2 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 33 Science is a process that produces a body of knowledge about nature. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 33 The methods of science have been practiced by many cultures for thousands of years. No one knows who first discovered fire, inve nted agriculture, or explained sexual reproduction. The Egyptians knew about phys iology and use surgery as early as 3000 BC. The Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas of Centra l and South America used accurate calendars based on the movements of celestial bodies. The Incas of Ecuador discovered the equator before the Egyptians. All cultures today share scientific methods to make new discoveries. Comments: TE Multicultural Connection Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 32 What brought up these discoveries? It was a new way of learning about nature. One of the most important factors in good science is asking the right ques tion. Many discoveries in the last 100 years are s till valid because the scientis ts who made them were good detectives. Comments: Statement # 4 Unit: Intro p. 33 Remember that scientists note effects and atte mpts to explain the causes of those effects. There is no fixed way to do this; scientists ar rive at explanations in many ways. Each situation is different. Several factors play a role in lear ning about natures. Among them are careful and thorough observati ons, interpretation of what is observed, explaining what is observed and testing to see if those explan ations are on the right track. These steps do no always follow a precise order, and a scientist may go back and forth many times between many steps to solve a puzzle. Comments:

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266 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 5 Unit: Cells p. 60 Corn is an excellent source of starch in our diets. What we know as hominy is actually made from corn. Native Americans discovered th at soaking corn in a solution made from the ashes of a wood fire (a lye solution) would change the grains into an expanded, lighter-textured material with a unique flavor. This changed corn was then baked into custard-like puddings or fried with meats and wild greens. If the hominy is dried and pounded into a fine texture, hominy grits are formed. Comments: TE Multicultural Connection Statement # 6 Unit: Cells p. 98 Water is vital to most biological processes. If you remove most of the water from in and around fish cells, microorganisms cant grow at least not we ll. The seafaring people of Northern Scandinavia are old master of the art of drying fish. So are the Eskimos. But perhaps the most dramatic example of pr eservation by drying co mes from the Native Americans of pre-Columbian Peru. Living in the Andes Mountains, they would freeze fish in the frigid night air and dry it in th e hot daytime sun. In the daytime hear, the low atmospheric pressure of the high mountains allowed much of the fish meats water, frozen during the night, to turn directly from ice to vapor. This was freeze-drying, a technique we consider very modern. Comments: Global Connection Statement # 7 Unit: Genetics p. 210 Animals were important in the cultural of Am erican Indians. They were used for food and clothing, and the hides were used for she lter. The traits of animals have been an important part of the folklore and culture. Some of their tale s describe how they got their phenotypic traits. For instance, one tale tells that the owl got its large eyes and short neck because it was always stretching its neck to see what was going on around its roost and got its big eyes so it could see at night. The names of tribal members were basically animal names that described the phenotypic traits that the person acquired from the animal. For instance, the name Silent Eagle was given to a person who was swift and who hunted quietly and with great accuracy. Comments: TE Multicultural Connection

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267 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 8 Unit: Evolution p. 308 Samoans, in the South Pacific, believed that their island came from an egg that had been broken into pieces and thrown into the wate r. The Maoris, from New Zealand, believed that a bird dropped an egg that burst open in the sea. This egg c ontained the people and animals that found their way to New Zeala nd. Ask students to make up a myth that explains how Earth and its in habitants first formed. Comments: TE Multicultural Connection Statement # 9 Unit: Evolution p. 314 Six thousand years ago, pre-In can Indians in South Amer ica were cultivating the common white potato. When they cultivated this plant, they practiced selective breeding to improve the quality of the potato form one generation to the next. Comments: TE Multicultural Connection Statement # 10 Unit: Evolution p. 350 According to Good White Buffalo of the Brule Sioux nation, crows were once white. They were also friends of the buffalo, a nd warned them when Native American hunters approached the herd, much to the resentment of plains Indians who depended on buffalo for food. A young brave captured the leader of th e crows and hurled him into the fire. He was singed black, and ever since, all crows have been black. Folklore includes a variety of stories passed orally from person to person and generation to generation within a given cu lture. Many pre-scient ific explanations for the origins and conditions of the world appear in folklore as myths. The myths of a given culture center on what that culture consider s important. How the Crow Came to Be Black illustrates the im portance of buffalo to the plains tribes. Biologists today know color has evolved thr ough natural selection a nd species adaptation. In many species, color serves important survival functions. Although evolution may provide us with many a tale of origins of weird and wonderful life forms, probably none would be as simple, or simplistic, as the myths and legends passed on from generation to gene ration in folk tales. Comments: Literature Connection

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268 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 11 Unit: Plants p. 438 Corn was so important to these early farmers that their culture was built around it, and they worshiped a god of corn. Largely as a re sult of their development of corn and other agricultural practices, the Aztecs developed a great empire. By the time Columbus came to America in 1492, Native Americans of both North and South America were growing many kinds of corn. Flint corn, whic h has a very hard, smooth kernel, was the kind most widely grow n. Flour corn was grown by the Aztecs and Incas. Because corn was an easy crop to grow and it was plentiful, it has a symbolic place in the culture of many Native American tribes. In th e Tewa Tribe of New Mexico, for instance, summer is the time of the Blue Corn Chief, while winter is the time of the White Corn Chief. Many Native American tribes consider corn a sa cred plant. Much rain is needed for corn to grow well. Before the Hopi and Zuni trib es developed the practice of irrigation, corn dances were part of a ritual to bring rain, and other dances were performed to thank the gods for a bountiful harvest. The early English colonists were taught to plant corn by Native Am ericans who lived in northeastern North America. The colonists and th e Spanish explorers not only used it as a food source, they exported it to Europe and beyond. From these begi nnings sprang a plant that is now grown all over the world and is a major food source for both humans and their livestock. Comments: Global Connection Statement # 12 Unit: Plants p. 440 Tell students about amaranth, once the Aztecs most widely cultivated crop. It produces huge numbers of seeds that are high in the amino acid lysine. When Cortez arrived in 1519, he banned the growing of amaranth because the Aztecs also use the red dye of the flowers for religious ceremonies. Comments: TE Multicultural Connection

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269 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 13 Unit: Plants p. 441 The Chinese have controlled insect pests by biological means for 1700 years, a method introduced to the West only in this century. Th e Chinese use of yellow, citrus-killer ants to protect mandarin trees is still in use t oday. Bridges of bamboo are stretched between trees to allow the ants to move easily from tress to tr ee. The ants hunt and eat the pests that would consume the oranges Comments: TE Multicultural Connection Statement # 14 Unit: Vertebrates p. 460 There is no one people called Native Ameri cans or American Indians. There are hundreds of different Native American peoples, all with differing beliefs and cultures. So there is no single Native American way of considering animals. There are, however, some broad, underlying ideas that various Native Americans hold in common, though they may express them differently. Native Amer ican beliefs generally include a strong tie between people and the land. In such a world view, its only natural that an imals have an important place. Rather than seeing animals as lower creatu res fit only for work or food, Native American traditions often portray animals as beings as important or even more important than humans. Often, animals were depicted as the descenda nts of great animal spirits responsible for the creation of the world or for the origination of social cust oms. The roles they play in Native American myths and legends not only illu strate how certain na tural things came to be, but also communicate cultural values. An Iroquois legend, for example, tells about how the owl made the Creator angry by greedily demanding too much and arrogantly st icking his beak in wh ere it didnt belong. Rather than giving the owl what he asked for, the Creator gave him a short neck so he wouldnt be able to crane his neck to look where he shouldnt and big ears so that he could better hear what he was told. A Papago myth tells of the Creator being saddened by the thought that the beautiful children, the lovely leaves, and the colorful flowers would all gr ow old and die. Much Northwestern Native American lore de als with Coyote an anthropomorphic hero and ancestor of the animal that shares his name. One story form the Nez Perce tells how Coyote tricked and killed a monster who was eating all his fellow animals. Comments: Global Connection

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270 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 15 Unit: Vertebrates p. 470 Birds were important in the arts and cr afts of the Incas of Peru in the 11th century. The Inca bird was different from the birds used in arts and crafts of Native Americans. The Zuni, one of the Pueblo tribes of Native Am ericans, used a geomet rically shaped rain bird on their pottery. The Hopi also used ge ometric shapes in creating the birds on their pottery. Comments: TE Multicultural Connection Statement #16 Unit: Vertebrates p. 502 Columbus started the confusion. Thinking he had discovered a new tr ade route to India, he called the people living in the Americas Indians. More confusion arose when the European settlers tried to learn the pers onal names of the Native Americans they encountered. The Europeans discovered that the original inhabita nts of the land often changed their names as they grew older. A childhood name might be exchanged for a new one at adolescence, or after a fi rst battle or an important dream. The Native American tradition of naming babies is a practice that survives today among many tribes. A baby might be called simply boy or girl until he or she is several months old. Buy that time, the baby has de veloped some personality. A tribe elder observing the baby will then know enough about hi s or her personal tr aits to suggest a name that seems fit. That name might be one given to honor a dead ancestor, or it might come from a dream of the babys mother or father. Even after a Native American child grows up, hi s or her name can change. In some tribes, names are considered a personal possession th at can be loaned, pawned, given away, or even thrown away. Because of misunderstandings, many Native American names have been fun of. For instance, the name Stinking Blanket may have caused snickers among Europeans. However, attitudes about that name changed significantly after hearing an explanation of its source: An Indian brave fought so long and hard against his enemie s that he never had time to stop and change his horses saddle blanket. Today, many Native Americans have two personal names. One name might be an ordinary one used for convenience. The othe r and more important name is the tribal name, which established membership in the tribe. Comments: Literature Connection

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271 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 17 Unit: Human Biology p. 530 The menstrual period has always been su rrounded by myth. The word taboo may come from the Polynesian word for menstruation. Not all the myths are negative, however. A girls first period is greeted w ith celebration in some areas, for it means that she can now have children. Canadas Naskapi, for exam ple, create elaborate caribou veils for women during their firs menses. Apache girls kneel on sacred deerskin during a four-day celebration of their fi rst menstrual period. Comments: TE Multicultural Connection Statement # 18 Unit: Human Biology p. 560 Salt also played an important part in reli gious life. In many early societies along the Mediterranean, offerings of salt were ma de to the gods. On the North American continent, the Aztecs honored a salt goddess, the Navajos prayed to Salt Woman, and the Hopis war god was Salt Man. Comments: Global Connection Statement # 19 Unit: Ecology p. 796 Fossil evidence indicates that the fruit of the prickly pear cactus was part of the diet of the native Indians of this re gion as long as 9000 years ago. Th e Aztecs prized the prickly pear for the red dye that was extracted from th e bodies of an insect th at lived on the plant. Comments: Art Connection Statement # 20 Unit: Ecology p. 807 For the Lapps, or Sami as they prefer to be called, semi-nomadic herders who live on the tundra of Scandinavia, the re indeer are the basis of thei r economy. Each Sami eats an average of eight to ten reindeer a year. They also make their coats, shoes, and tents from reindeer hides, use the antlers to make knife handles and glue, and se ll reindeer meat to markets in the southern cities. Following the migration of reindeer herds has been their way of life for more than 10000 years. Comments: Biology, Technology, and Society [STS content]

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272 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 21 Unit: Ecology p. 825 Explain to students how differe nt cultures are dependent upon the biomes in which they live. For example, Laplanders depend on the reindeer that are the dominant large animals where they live in the taiga. Comments: TE Multicultural Connection Statement # 22 Unit: Ecology p. 829 There are often parallels between cultures that share the same type of environment even though the cultures are continents apart. As k students to compare and contrast the cultures inhabiting the grasslands of North Am erica (farmers), South America (gauchos), and Africa (Masai herders of Kenya). Comments: TE Multicultural Connection Statement # 23 Unit: Ecology p. 867 The Chipko Movement began in India in 1730 when the Maharajah of Jodphur sent his wood cutters to cut down the few trees left in the area. The Bishnois, a religious sect for whom the protection of trees and wildlife was a sacred duty, pr evented this action. Bishnois women rushed in and put their arms around the trees to protect them. In 1973, a sports company was to come in to an area of Himalayan forest to cut trees for making racquet sports equipment. A community leader urged the people of the area to chipko or hold fast to the trees in their forest. When the tree cutte rs arrived, the women of the village rushed in and threw their arms around the threes. Comments: TE Multicultural Connection Statement # 24 Unit: Human Biology p. 568 Dr. Minoka-Hill (1876-1952) was a Native Ameri can born on a Mohawk reservation in New York state. After her mothers death, she stayed on the reservation with her maternal relatives until she was old enough to go to school. She also spent much of her time teachi ng the Oneida people about nutrition and good eating habits in an effort to relieve th eir constant problem of malnutrition. Comments: History Connection Lillie Rosa Minoka-Hill

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273 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 25 Unit: Human Biology p. 621 People who live at high altitude s are adapted to the lower air pressure. For example, the native Aymara and Quechua Indians that live in the Andes mountains have barrel-shaped chests, strong diaphragms, and large lungs that have a greater capaci ty than the lungs of people who live at lower altitudes. The Ayma ra and Quechua also have more capillaries around their aveoli, larger hear ts, and more red blood cells. Comments: Global Connection How high can they live? Statement # 26 Unit: Plants p. 439 Give each group an anthology of Native American poetry. Ask them to find poems that refer to plants. Ask them to explain how or why the poet used that specific plant in the poem. Comments: TE Literature Connection

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274 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Modern Biology Number: 6 Set: 2 Statement # 1 Unit: p. 17 Science is a body of knowledge. Science is also a way of learni ng about the natural world. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: p. Science does not prescribe one single me thod for asking and seeking answers to questions. Scientists combine some or all of the processes you have read about in a logical way to devise a scientific method best suited for a particular research project. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Plants p. 373 Native Americans and early settlers used horse tails as pot scrubbers. This practice led to another common name for th e genus, scouring rushes. Comments: Statement # 4 Unit: Vertebrates p. 590 Have students use library resources to rese arch the uses and significance of feathers within Native American cultures. This could include uses in clothing and art, ceremonial significance, indications of status within the tribe, or the significance of the species of birds from which the feathers are obtaine d. Suggest that students obtain information about historical tribes or about pre-Columbian civilizations, such as the Peruvian Inca. Comments: Interdiscip linary Activity Social Studies

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275 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: BSCS Ecological Approach Number: 7 Set: 2 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 19 Biology is concerned with data observati ons that do not differ from one person to another. Biologist collect and organize data about organisms. They use the data in various ways to gain more information. Science, however is more than just the collection of data. It is a systematic way of looking as the worl d, of obtaining data, and of interpreting it. It is a continuous process of inquiry, the pr oduct of which is a body of knowledge. This body of knowledge is subject to change a nd revision as we acquire new information. Above all science is a human endeavor becau se people are involved in the process of inquiry. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 20 The methods of obtaining scien tific knowledge involve a series of steps that begin with observations of the living world. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Microbial p. 327 Some reindeer moss has accumulated radioa ctive materials from aboveground atomic bomb testing in the Artic. Re indeer and caribou that have eat en the lichens have taken in the radioactive materials. When Eskimos have eaten these animals, they also have absorbed the radioactive materials. Thus materials may be passed along unexpectedly through a food chain to a consumer at the top of the chain. Comments: Statement # 4 Unit: Plants p. 345 Horsetails are harsh to the t ouch; their tissues contain sili ca, a compound present in sand. Because American Indians and the pioneers sc rubbed pots and pans with them, they are commonly called scouring rushes. Comments:

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276 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 5 Unit: Vertebrates p. 360 Frequently, bright colors on an imals are warnings to potential predators. What might the bright colors on this frog si gnal? From what you know about how frogs have sometimes been used by natives of Central and Sout h America, suggest a name for this frog. Comments: Figure Atelopus varius Statement #6 Unit: Ecology p. 671 Animal-powered agriculture. Comments: Figure 24.5 Statement # 7 Unit: Ecology p. 670 Llamas were used extensively in South Am erica; dogs (travois and sled) in North America. Otherwise, American Indians fully domesticated only turkeys and guinea pigs. Comments: TE

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277 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology Today Number: 8 Set: 2 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 3 Science often seems a mysterious process to the nonscientist. White -coated men working in the sterile laboratories and engaging in difficult-to-understand processes embody the stereotype of the typical scientist and his work. However, as you can see in the opener photos, scientists are men and women, and are a culturally and ethnically diverse group. In addition, not all scientists wo rk in laboratories. In fact, science takes place just about anywhere! Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 3 Although scientists and their science may differ in thei r focuses all scientists biologists, chemists, physicists, and so forth study the natural world and go about their work in a similar way. This similar way is referred to as the scientific method. The scientific method is a process, or series of steps, scientists use to answer the questions they ask. In addition, all scien tists ask questions that can be investigated by means of experimentation. Comments: Statement # 3 Unit: Plants p. 537 Grain amaranths were important grain crops of the Latin American hi ghlands in the days of the Incas and Aztecs, but are little used now. Their use was suppressed because they played a role in pagan ceremonies of which the Spanish conquerors disapproved. Comments: Statement # 4 Unit: Ecology p. 632 These workers are using a primitive method to thresh sorghum in southern India. Comments: Figure 36-7

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278 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 5 Unit: Ecology p. 647 The tiny tropical tree frog is so poisonous th at Indians in western Colombia use their venom to poison their blow darts.. Comments: Statement # 6 Unit: Ecology p. 699 These farmers live near the Anda sibe reserve in Madagascar. Comments: Figure 40-4.

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279 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology The Study of Life Number: 9 Set: 2 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 13 Broadly speaking, science is an attempt to unde rstand the world we live in. By this, we mean that science goes beyond the simple observation and descri ption of objects and events. It tries to find general principles to explain why things ar e as they are and why things happen as they do. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 13 Within each of theses fields, there are numer ous subdivisions. Even so, scientists in all fields approach their problems in the same way. When a scientist announces a finding or proposes a new idea, other scientists may rep eat the work or test its conclusions. This universal approach to scientific problems is called the scientific method. Its main features are the same in all areas of science. Comments: nature of knowledge

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280 Appendix G. Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology The Dynamics of Life Number: 1 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 6 For humans who share this planet with an am azing diversity of livi ng things, the natural world often poses questions that arouse our cu riosity. More often than not, such questions have simple explanations, but sometimes natu re defies common sense. Whether natures puzzles are simple or complex, many may be explained with the concepts and principles of biological science. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 9 Figure 1.4 Biology will teach you about how human s function and fit in with the rest of the natural world. It will al so equip you with the knowledge needed to handle any future biological problems of Earth. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 21 Biology, like all sciences, is a continuous process that seeks to discover facts about the natural world. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 4 Unit: Intro p. 25 How do biologists know these things? They ve acquired this knowledge using wellestablished methods of study. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 5 Unit: Intro p. 42 Observational data that is, written descriptions of what scientists observe are often just as important in the solution of a scientific problem as numerical data. Comments: nature of knowledge

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281 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 6 Unit: Intro p. 43 Some questions are simply not in the realm of science. Ma ny of these involve questions of good versus evil, ugly vers us beautiful, or similar judgm ents. If a question is not testable using scientif ic methods, the question is not sc ience. However, this does not mean the question in unimportant. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 7 Unit: Evolution p. 474 Humans reached North America by at leas t 12,000 years ago, and by 8000 to 10000 years ago, cultural innovations such as animal dome stication, agriculture, and the development of permanent settlements by Native Americans had begun. Comments: Statement # 8 Unit: Evolution p. 474 Permanent settlements in the Americas, such as this one in the Betatakin Navajo National Monument of Arizona, have been dated to 11000 years ago. Comments: Figure 19.14 Statement # 9 Unit: Ecology p. 73 Cultural adaptations to the Environment For example, the Inuit of North America created housing using their most available resources: snow and ice. People of the southwestern United States often built their houses into mountainsides using a mud-clay mixture called adobe. Comments: Statement # 10 Unit: Cells p. 226 People in early agricultural societies observed th at dried or salted meats resisted decay. Comments: TE History Connection Agricultural Lifestyles

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282 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 11 Unit: Plants p. 589 Introduce students to the growing field of ethnobotany, the study of how native cultures use plants. Ethnobotany has become increasing ly important to the development of new drugs by pharmaceutical companies. One firm Shaman Pharmaceuticals in California, sends researchers into South America, Asian, and African tropical fo rests to ask healers about the medications they drive from plants. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 12 Unit: Plants p. 631 Corn was one of the earliest crops to be dom esticated, and has been a major food source for Native Americans of both North and Sout h America for about 7000 years. In addition to its importance as a food source, corn also occupies a symbolic place in the culture of many Native American tribes. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 13 Unit: Plants p. 632 Lima beans spread from Central America to North America, where Native Americans combined them with corn to make succotash. Comments: Social Studies Beans of the World Statement # 14 Unit: Plants p. Because of its seeds, cocao was domesticated by the Mayas and Aztecs who turned the seeds into a rich brown drink called chocolate. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 15 Unit: Plants p. Animals in Cross-cultural Perspective For example, Native American traditions ofte n portray animals as im portant as or even more important than humans. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity

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283 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 16 Unit: Vertebrates p. 830 The poison secreted by these frogs is used by na tive peoples to coat the tips of the darts they use in their blow guns for hunting. Comments: Chemistry Killer Frogs Statement # 17 Unit: Human Biology p. 1010 The Chinese have used acupuncture as comple te system of medicine for many years. Acupuncture has been slow to gain accep tance in Western medical practices. Comments: TE Different Vi ewpoints in Biology Acupuncture Statement # 18 Unit: Human Biology p. 1054 Rites of Passage In many cultures and religions, traditional celebrations mark the transition from childhood to adulthood. For example, in Mexican tradition, a girl celebrates her transition from childhood to adulthood on her fifteenth birthday in a celebration known as quinceanera. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity

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284 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology Principles & Explorations Number: 2 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 8 Although there is no single scient ific method, all scientific inve stigations can be said to have six stages: collecting observations forming hypotheses, making predictions, verifying predictions, performing contro l experiments, and forming a theory. Comments: Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 5 A frog is an important character in a story a bout the first Kwakiutl totem pole, told by the Haida Indians of the American Northwest coas t. This special frog led the Haida chieftain to a spectacular totem pole the first of the tribe. The frog called it the sky-supporting pole. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 16 Using the scientific method, medical research ers in the 1970s began to prove the validity of medicinal plants known to other cultures for thousands of years. The onslaught of scientific interest in traditional medicine has both positive and negative consequences. Comments: TE Historical Note Statement # 4 Unit: Cells p. 58 Different cultures throughout the world have us ed water and mineral salts to purify their bodies. Some Native American tribes use sw eat lodges or community steam baths for physical and spiritual purification. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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285 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 5 Unit: Cells p. 75 The Hindu word om represents the sound of uni versal energy from which all things are created. Many non-Hindu Americans and Europeans have begun to use Eastern meditation practices such as the chanting of om in order to re gulate body metabolism, control chronic pain, or remedy health problem s, such as heart and respiratory disease. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 6 Unit: Cells p. 123 While most Europeans form the Middle Ages through the nineteenth century believed that genetic defects reflected inner corrupt ion, many other cultures, including both the Celtic people of Europe and Native Americans, considered such people to have a special gift of insight and a closer connection with nature. These unique members of the community were given responsibility as tribal leaders or healers. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 7 Unit: Genetics p. 154 A survey to determine the frequency of albinism in Native American communities in Arizona and New Mexico showed the numbers to range from very rare to nonexistent. However, in a Hopi tribe in Arizona, the fre quency of albinos was determined to be 1 out of every 277 people. Emphasize that Hopi pe ople have always had a high regard for albinos, and clan leaders have taken special care to protect them fr om the harsh desert sun. Comments: TE Demonstration Cultural Selection Statement # 8 Unit: Evolution p. 226 A Hopi proverb states, Earth gives life and seeks the man who walks gently upon it. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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286 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 9 Unit: Evolution p. 303 Ask students to think of ways that rocks may be used as tools, and how they might show evidence of use. If they have trouble thinking of rocks as t ools, suggest thinking of ways Native Americans use rocks. (arrowheads, axes, grinding stones, hammers) Comments: TE Teaching Tips Handy Man Statement # 10 Unit: Ecology p. 338 Isolated indigenous peoples often have more intimate and complete knowledge of their local plants and animals than do Western biologists. In the 1920s, Ernst Mayr, who would later propose the biological species concept, visited a remote area of New Guinea to collect birds. HE hired hunters of the Arfa k tribe to bring in specimens and noted the local name for each species. With one exception, Mayr and the local Arfak tribe recognized the same species of birds. The Arfak people hunted birds for food and feathers, and knowledge of appearance and habits of their prey was necessary to ensure successful hunting. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 11 Unit: Plants p. 532 Native Americans used gymnosperms in severa l ways. Using pine needles, they made a tea that was rich in vitamin C and help them prevent scurvy. They also chewed resin from spruce trees as a type of chewing gum. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 12 Unit: Plants p. 557 Native Americans once ate the young stems of cattails, which taste very much like the asparagus we eat today. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspectives

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287 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 13 Unit: Plants p. 590 Native Americans developed all of the types of corn known today, such as popcorn and sweet corn, before the time of Columbus. Th ey also developed the processes of popping and grinding corn. Comments: TE Opening Demonstration Statement # 14 Unit: Plants p. 594 American colonists of the 1600s and 1700s firs t learned how to grow corn form Native Americans. In the southeastern United Stat es, corn was more widely grown than wheat, which does not grow as well in hot climates. Comments: Statement # 15 Unit: Plants p. 594 A Hopi legend tells of a mockingbird that placed different kinds of corn in front of the different Indian tribes. Each tribe selected a different ear of corn. Some of those chosen included yellow by the Navajo, red by the Ha vasupai, white by the Sioux, flint by the Ute, and the longest ear by the Apache. The la st ear, which was blue, was selected by the Hopi. To the Hopi Indians of Arizona, blue co rn is sacred and pred icts a hard but long life. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 16 Unit: Plants p. 594 Early native farmers in Mexico are thought to ha ve selected seeds from the largest flower spikes of teostinte, a wild annual grass. Selective breeding by humans eventually produced plants that had flowed spikes with many parallel rows of grain, resembling an ear of corn. Corn was later cultivated by th e Aztecs of central Mexico, the Mayas of central Mexico and northern Central America, and the Incas of western South America. The cultivation of corn also spread among many other native North American cultures. Comments:

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288 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 17 Unit: Plants p. 601 Rural and primitive cultures around the world st ill depend on native plants to ease pain and cure illnesses. By studying the plants tr aditionally used to treat human ailments, researchers have developed many modern me dicines. For example, solutions made by soaking the bark of w illow trees, Salix, were a traditi onal cure for aches and pains. Comments: Statement # 18 Unit: Plants p. 603 Rubber was first obtained from plants. Nativ e Americans of Central and South America made rubber balls and water-proof shoes from latex, the milky white sap of tropical trees of the genus Hevea Comments: Statement # 19 Unit: Invertebrates p. 627 The Cochiti of the South-western United States have incorporated the beetles behavior into one of their creation stories. The story states that long ago th e beetle was told to place the stars in the sky. But the beetle became careless and dropped the stars, causing them to scatter. As a result, the Milky Way was formed. To this day, the beetle is so ashamed of the mishap, it lowers its head in disgrace whenever someone approaches. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 20 Unit: Invertebrates p. 666 Mollusk shells have served many different f unctions in various cultures, especially in making jewelry and crafts. In addition to thei r usefulness as decorati ons, these shells have been used for several practical purposes. P hoenicians and Romans used Murex sea snails to make a purple dye for coloring fabric. Na tive North Americans carved large clam shells into wampum beads and used other sh ells as money. Filipinos cut thin Placuna oyster shells to f it into wooden frames as window panes. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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289 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 21 Unit: Vertebrates p. 780 The snake is one of the deadli est reptiles and is also one of the most fascinating to the people of India. In a traditi on that goes back at least 2,000 years, the Indians compare areas of energy located throughout the human body, collectiv ely termed kundalini (coiled one), to a cobra. The Indians teach that this energy, like its cobra counterpart, must be treated with great respect. A very popular yoga position is called the cobra. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 22 Unit: Vertebrates p. 796 The only people in North America who can legally own an eagle feather are Native Americans. The eagle is so highly valued by tribes throughout the United States that its feathers must be earned through personal sacrifice and then used only in special ceremonies. For instance, if a Winnebago pow-wow dancer a ccidentally drops an eagle feather during a performance, the dance is stop ped until the feather is purified by an elder and then reclaimed by the dancer, who si not allowed to dance again for a year. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 23 Unit: Human Biology p. 955 The majority of the people in South America used the term before Columbus arrived in the Americas. Tobacco was chewed or smoked fo r centuries to mark events such as war, peace, puberty, the harvest, or death. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 24 Unit: Microbial p. 419 Dr. Chuck Haines is a microbiologist. He is al so an ethnobotanist. Combining his love of science with his fascination of the medicina l plants of indigenous people, Dr. Haines wrote his doctoral disserta tion on the medicinal propertie s of cinnamon. He teaches biology, ethnobotany, and microbi ology at Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas the only school in the Un ited States that brings together Native American students from over 160 tribes. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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290 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 25 Unit: Microbial p. 457 On the Navajo reservation in the four corners regions of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Arizona, a viral infection previously unkno wn to Americans killed 16 people within six months in 1993. This pulmonary syndrome, which is spread by deer mice, is caused by a hantavirus, names after the Hanteen River in Korea, where US military researchers first encountered it. The American hantavirus variant primarily at tacks the lungs, unlike Asian and European strains, which cause fever and kidney disease. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 26 Unit: Microbial p. 470 Isolated communities are at particular risk of epidemics when outsiders visit. In the northern Quebec community of Ungava Bay, 99% of the native people were afflicted with measles in 1952. Measles al so killed a high number of native Brazilian people in Xingu National Park in 1952. Today, the Yanom amo tribe of Brazil and Venezuela is dying rapidly because of the onslaught of malaria, influenza, measles, and chickenpox brought by miners in search of gold. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 27 Unit: Plants p. 578 Have students research the concept of intellect ual property rights and then debate whether businesses should have the right to use valu able plants for the economic gain without compensation to the people of the countri es in which the plants are collected. Comments: TE Instructional Strategies

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291 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Essentials of Biology Concepts and Communication Number: 3 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 6 Recall that we said biology is a science. Science is the study of how the natural world works. Scientists study the world. They observe nature. Nature is everything that is not made or change by people. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 6 Scientists study many different things, but they have common processes for their studies. These processes are called scie ntific methods. Scientific me thods are ways of asking and answering questions about the world. We will ta ke about the usual scientific methods that scientists often use. You use scientific methods every day to answer questions that come up in your life. Comments: nature of knowledge

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292 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Holt Biology Visualizing Life Number: 4 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. Science is a way of investiga ting the world in order to fo rm general rules about what causes things to happen. Science has changed the world rapidly in modern times, and new and important scientific discoveries, like th e one shown in Figure 1-1, continue to be made Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 15 It was once fashionable to claim that scien tific progress was the result of applying a series of steps called the scientific met hod. In this view, scie nce is a sequence of logical either/or steps, each step rejecting one of two inco mpatible alternatives. Trialand-error testing could inevitably lead one th rough a maze of uncertainty. If this view were true, a computer could be programmed to be a good scientist. But science is not done this way. If you ask successful scientists how they do their work, you will find that they design experiments with a good idea of the results they will get. Not just any hypothesis is tested only a hunch or educated guess that is based on all the scientist knows and that allows his or her imagination full play. Because insight and imagination are so important in scientific progress, some scientists are better than others. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 9 An old saying that is attributed to many different sources, from Native Americans to Amish farmers, states that we do not inher it the world from our pa rents; we borrow it from out children. Comments:

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293 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 4 Unit: Intro p. 13 Legends of the Navajo, Chippewa, and Si oux Native Americans have told of bears teaching people to use herbs and roots for medicine. Scientists are now giving serious attention to these legends. Some tribes obs erved and described bears digging for roots and bulbs to eat. The Native Americans found that some of these roots could be used to treat certain ailments and fight infections and parasites. In some trib es, strong medicine is still called bear medicine. Throughout the world, scientists are seeking the wisdom of indigenous peoples and observing the eating habits of animals to learn which plants hold medicinal value. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 5 Unit: Ecology p. 265 In India, the neem tree provides so many usef ul products that is has been called the village pharmacy. Its leaves are used to make medicinal teas and in sect repellents. Juice from the tree is used to treat skin prob lems, and the twigs are used to clean teeth. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 6 Unit: Microbial p. 319 Are species natural units that are recognized by different cult ures? Or are they artificial distinctions imposed on nature by Western scient ists? It appears that the first is true. In 1928 Ernst Mayr, then a young orni thologist, traveled to Ne w Guinea to collect bird specimens. Mayr found that the local Arfak people recognized 136 kinds of birds, just one less than he did. Moreover, Mayr and th e Arfak recognized the same species expect for two very similar species that the Arfak did not distinguish. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 7 Unit: Plants p. 404 Kola nuts are cultivated in the West Indies, West Africa, and South Africa. They are the fruits of several types of evergreen trees. People who live in African countries call the nuts guru or goora nuts and chew them like gum. Kola nuts are also used to make coal soft drinks and medicines. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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294 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 8 Unit: Plants p. 413 Rice plays an important part in the custom s of many cultures. For example, Japanese people place a shimenawa a rice-straw rope, over an entrance to ward off evil. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 9 Unit: Plants p. 414 Corn was cultivated by the Aztecs of Me xico, the Mayas of Yucatan and Central America, and the Incas of South America. Amer ican Indian framers selected plants that produced ears with tender grai ns that could be eaten more easily than the hard teosinte grains. They also selected plants that produced ears with more rows of grains. Comments: Statement # 10 Unit: Plants p. 419 People have always used plants to treat diseases and other ailments. Botany (the study of plants) was considered to be a branch of me dicine until the mid-1800s. Doctors, such as the ones in Figure 22-10, continue to search for plants that may provide new treatments or cures for diseases such as cancer. Many familiar medicines, their original plant sources, and their uses are listed in table 22-2. Comments: Statement # 11 Unit: Plants p. 418 An American Indian doctor (left) is teach ing a Western doctor (right) about native Amazonian rain-forest plants that can be used to treat disease. Comments: Figure 22-10 Statement # 12 Unit: Plants p. 419 American Indians of South America made r ubber balls and waterproof shoes from latex, which is shown in Figure 22-12. Comments:

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295 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 13 Unit: Vertebrates p. 488 Mollusk shells have served many different f unctions in various cultures, especially as ornaments in jewelry and craf ts. In addition to their usef ulness as decorations, these shells have been used for several practic al purposes. Phoenicians and Romans used murex sea snails to make a purple dye for co loring fabric. Native Americans carved large clamshells into wampum beads and used other shells as money. Filipinos cut thin placuna oyster shells to f it into wooden frames as window panes. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 14 Unit: Vertebrates p. 542 A female green turtle will lay her eggs on the same beach where she hatched, but it is not known how she finds the correct beach. Comments: TE Matter of Fact Statement # 15 Unit: Vertebrates p. 565 Indigenous people in Brazil wear jewelry ma de of animals bones, claws, teeth and feathers. Jaguar claws, for example, are used in necklaces. The brightly colored feathers of the toucan are used in earrings. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 16 Unit: Vertebrates p. 235 To the early European colonist s of Australia, the technology of the Aborigines indicated a very primitive people. The Aborigines c ould produce only a limited variety of tools because they did not know how to mine, sm elt or work metal. They had to rely on hunting and gathering because they did not practice agriculture. However, as the Europeans soon learned, the Aborigines compen sated for the technolog ical deficiencies with a deep and detailed knowle dge of their environment, which allowed them to survive in areas where Europeans explorers and settlers perished. In particul ar, Aborigines were experts on the behavior of animals, and they used this knowledge to capture game and to find water in dry areas. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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296 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 17 Unit: Microbial p. 349 The early struggles between Europeans a nd Native Americans may well have been decided by disease. Spanish conqueror Hernan Cortes was aided in his conquest of the Aztecs by a smallpox epidemic that struck the Aztecs smallpox had been unknown in the New World prior to the Europeans ar rival. Smallpox killed millions of Native Americans. Spanish chronicler Toribio Motoli nia wrote that so many had died that they could not be buried They pulled down the houses over them in order to check the stench that rose from the dead bodies. Nativ e Americans also died in great numbers in the northeastern United States, allowing Europe ans to more easily establish their presence there. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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297 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: BSCS Ecological Approach Number: 5 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 15 Biology is concerned with data observati ons that do not differ from one person to another. Biologist collect and organize data about organisms. They use the data in various ways to gain more information. Science, however is more than just the collection of data. It is a systematic way of looking as the worl d, of obtaining data, and of interpreting it. It is a continuous process of inquiry, the pr oduct of which is a body of knowledge. This body of knowledge is subject to change a nd revision as we acquire new information. Above all science is a human endeavor b ecause people are involved in the process of inquiry. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 16 The methods of obtaining scien tific knowledge involve a series of steps that begin with observations of the living world. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Microbial p. 303 Some reindeer moss has accumulated radioa ctive materials form aboveground atomic bomb testing in the Arctic. Re indeer and caribou that have eat en the lichens have taken in the radioactive materials. When Eskimos ha ve eaten these animals, they also have absorbed the radioactive materials. Thus materials may be passed along unexpectedly through a food chain to a consumer at the top of the chain. Comments: Statement # 4 Unit: Plants p. 322 Horsetails are harsh to the t ouch; their tissues contain sili ca, a compound present in sand. Because American Indians and the pioneers sc rubbed pots and pans with them, they are commonly called scouring rushes. Comments:

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298 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: BSCS Human Approach Number: 6 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Evolution p. 3 The biology program you are just beginning focuses on science as one of the ways human understand and explain their world. The activ ities throughout the pr ogram encourage you to think as a scientists thinks. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Evolution p. 10 Imagine yourself doing one or more of the following: Understanding the choices a doctor offers; Deciphering nutritional informa tion on a food package label; Voting on an issue involvi ng science and technology; Serving on a jury that has to listen to an expert describe DNA evidence or; Deciding whether or not to support the construction of a new dam. Will you be one of the people acting with info rmation because you have learned to think scientifically? Or will you be one of the pe ople who acts and hopes for the best, despite a lack of information and understanding? By pa rticipating in this bi ology program you are taking a big step toward join ing the first group of people. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Evolution p. 71 An important characteristic of scientific knowledge is this openness to change and modification. Scientific knowle dge is not static because scie ntists continuously discover new information and test and reevaluate existing understandings. Usually, changes in scientific knowledge are not so great that we must discard all of our previous explanations in favor of new ideas Comments: nature of knowledge

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299 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 4 Unit: Genetics p. 255 During World War II, the United States Marine Corps used this language, Navajo, to code and transfer secret information. Th ey chose Navajo because it is a complex language that is not widely known. Conseque ntly, if a message were intercepted by people outside the United States, it was unlikely that they would be able to make sense of it. Comments: Statement # 5 Unit: Human Biology p. E129 The earliest Anasazi Indians. The year is 950 A.D. To plant, they use a stick to make hol es in the ground, drop kernels of corn into each hole, and then cover them with soil. The Anasazi families will not only eat the fruit and seed of the yucca, but they will use the roots for soap and shampoo, and the strong, sturdy fibers from the leaves for making intricate baskets, sandals, aprons, mats and cradle boards. In addition to prep aring and eating the meat, the Anasazi make clothing for the winter months form the pelts of rabbits and tools a nd utensils such as needles from the bones. Comments: Statement # 6 Unit: Human Biology E153 In a tribe in the Amazon forest, adolescent boys undergo an initiation ri te that marks them as young men. Two older men make incisions in the boys skin and fill the wounds with hot, liquid tar. The tar prevents infection and leaves a patt ern of scars on their bodies. Although the ritual is painfu l, the boys are proud to be entering puberty. Similar scarification techniques are us ed by Aborigines of Australia s Northern Territory and by the Abelam of Papua New Guinea. Among the Abelam, a females first menstruation is a time of great celebration. At this time other women cut designs in the skin of the breasts, stomach and upper arms of the girl and shave her head. Such rituals are conducted with gr eat celebration. Comments:

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300 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 7 Unit: Human Biology E227 In general, traditional societies are societies that have not been influenced by the modern or Western cultures around them. Because we live in an extremely mobile world, most traditional cultures have had contact with mode rn cultures, but the timing and the extent of this contact have varied. Comments:

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301 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology The Living Science Number: 7 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 4 Thanks to human curiosity and intelligence, we have developed a remarkable process of thinking and learning about the world around us. This process is called science. As you know, there are many fields of science, each of which tries to explain one aspect of our world. Biology, the scien ce of life, is the subj ect of this textbook. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 11 People often answer their questions a bout life by thinking about their everyday experiences. However, science demands that questions be answered by the use of a precise method. In this section, youll discove r just what that method is. The precise method used by scientists is ca lled the scientific method, and it separates from other ways of studying and learning. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 11 The scientific method is a system of as king questions, developi ng explanations, and testing those explanations against the reality of the natural world. Ot her fields such as art, music, history, and philosophy all have a great deal to tell us about the world. But although each is important and deserving of careful study, none of them uses the scientific method, which means that none of them is a field of science. Comments:

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302 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 4 Unit: Genetics p. 197 Native Americans living in what is now central or southern Mexico selectively bred corn from wild plants to make it a more useful food crop. Encourage student to learn more about how advances in farming techniques change the customs and lifestyles of Native Americans, such as the Pueblo people. Have students consider why it was important for Native Americans to improve the wild plants and animals around them to help them to survive. Challenge students to compare these Native Americans to present-day breeders. Comments: TE Managing Cl assroom Diversity Multicultural Strategy Statement # 5 Unit: Genetics p. 197 Over a span of 200 years, both the Palous e and Nez Perce had acquired horses and learned how to train and breed them. Fr om Spanish horses of mixed color and temperament, the two tribes produced the appa loosa the first recognized breed of horses in North America and still a fa vorite among horse owners today. Comments: Figure 9-1 Statement # 6 Unit: Genetics p. 197 Spanish explorers tried either to convert Nati ve Americans to the Spanish way of life or conquer them. Native Americans were resistan t to giving up their customs and their land. Comments: TE In tegrating Social Studies Statement # 7 Unit: Evolution p. 250 Darwin made his voyage during one of the mo st exciting periods in Western science. Many explorers were traveling the world, e xpanding the horizons of knowledge. Great thinkers in several fields of science had begun to challenge established views about the natural world. Comments:

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303 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 8 Unit: Ecology p. 341 The indigenous peoples of the present Untied States, including Alaska and Hawaii, have inhabited all major biomes, adapting to and maki ng use of the biotic and abiotic factors in their environment. Comments: Managing Classroom Diversity Multicultural Strategy Statement # 9 Unit: Ecology p. 359 The Anasazi were the direct ancestors of mode rn Pueblo Indians, the Hopi and Zuni. For more than 1000 years, the Anasazi flourishe d across the American Southwest where the present states of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, a nd New Mexico meet. These ancient people first settled the area in about AD 100. By AD 120 0 they numbered well into the tens of thousands. Comments: TE Managing Cl assroom Diversity Multicultural Strategy Statement # 10 Unit: Ecology p. 359 The Anasazi civilization built elaborate cities and created beautiful objects but did not survive a long period of drought. Perhaps thes e cultures offer important lessons as we look to the future. Comments: Figure 16-1 Statement # 11 Unit: Ecology p. 359 In a far different environment, the Anasazi, which in Navajo means ancient people, built great cities in th e canyons of the American Southw est. AS their population grew, however, the Anasazi required more form the desert than the ecosystem could supply. Comments:

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304 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 12 Unit: Plants p. 565 Have students investigate the many uses of ferns and fern fronds in cultures around the world. Some students could con centrate on the uses of ferns in folk medicine; others could investigate the use of fern fronds in the construction of thatch houses in Asia and the South Pacific. Comments: Statement # 13 Unit: Vertebrates p. 715 Native American cultures of the northwest ern United States and Canada have many myths that involve Raven as the cent ral figure, including creation myths. Comments: TE Managing Cl assroom Diversity Multicultural Strategy Statement # 14 Unit: Evolution p. 250 Encourage students to choose a small population of people, such as aborigines form New Zealand, native Hawaiians, or American Eskimo s, and learn about their culture and their environment. Challenge students to make in ferences about why these small populations of people are diverse from ot her populations of people. Comments: TE Multicultural Strategy Statement # 15 Unit: Microbial p. 502 The Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes landed on the Mexican coast in 1519, and within two years he and a small army had c onquered the powerful Az tec empire. Part of the reason was the introduction of smallpox and other diseases, which both killed many Aztecs and demoralized their society. Over the next decades, epidemics ravaged the native populations of the Americas; one hi storian has estimated that the Mexican population was reduced by 90 percent over the next 120 years. The intentional introduction of disease among Native Americans is infamous. For example, in 1763, the commander of British forces in North America ordered blankets inoculated with smallpox to be distributed among the Ponti ac people. The resulting epidemic spread across the continent, deva stating native people as far away as California. Comments: TE Historical Perspective

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305 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 16 Unit: Microbial p. 502 In 1519, Spanish conquistador Hernando Cort es arrived in Mexi co with about 600 soldiers, some guns and a few dozen horses. The great Aztec empire he encountered was home to between 25 and 30 million people. Ye t the tiny band of Spaniards managed to topple the enormous and powerful Aztec empire Francisco Pizarro had similar results in subduing the Incas in Peru. How was this possible? Besides old Native American legends and th e alliances between the Spaniards and the discontented people who hated their Az tec overlords, there was disease. Statement # 17 Unit: Microbial p. 521 The smallpox virus was the cause of many terrible epidemics throughout human history in Europe and Asia, and as recently as 1967 it caused 2 million deaths worldwide. The introduction of the virus into the Ameri cas by Europeans caused particularly savage epidemics among Native Americans because none had immunity to the infection. Comments: TE Historical Perspective

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306 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology The Web of Life Number: 8 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 19 The work of science, and of any other di scipline, involves the careful observation of events. Scientists make meaningful connect ions between their observations and past observations made by themselves and others Mastering science is like mastering any other discipline, such as law, art, and philosophy. In scie nce and in other disciplines, researchers build upon the historical record and follow logical paths to reach new conclusions about their field of expertise. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 20 Although the exact sequence of these steps can vary depe nding upon the nature of a question, the characteristic step s in a scientific in quiry are commonly call ed the scientific method. Comments: Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 17 Wood has been used for the construction of sh elter for many years. However, wood is not the only living thing form which shelters are made. Native Americans living in the plains regions of the United States used buffalo hides to construct their tepees. Native Americans living in the southwestern part of the United States use thatch for the roofs of their shelters. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 4 Unit: Genetics p. 132 Although they may not have defined or explai ned patterns of inhe ritance, many early civilizations experimented with genetics by br eeding plants and animals for certain traits. Native Americans developed more than 300 vari eties of corn from a wild plant called teosine. Native people of Peru probably de veloped potatoes by selecting and breeding certain wild plants that formed starchy, nutritious underground stems. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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307 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 5 Unit: Genetics p. 206 For example, ancient peoples native to Nort h and South America used selective breeding to develop corn and potatoes form wild plants. Comments: Statement # 6 Unit: Evolution p. 235 Indians of South America who predated the Incas of 6000 years ago cultivated the white potato as a food crop. These peoples made use of selective breeding to create a potato that improved in quality fr om generation to generation. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 7 Unit: Plants p. 406 In the Aztec civilization that flourished in Mexico during the fifteenth century, farmers cultivated a wide variety of crops. In the high-altitude inla nd regions, Aztecs grew maize (corn), beans, squashes, avoca dos, and chilies (peppers). Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 8 Unit: Plants p. 407 Ginseng is a herbaceous plant native to Manc huria and Korea and eastern North America. Native Americans may have used the r oots to relieve pain and prolong life. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 9 Unit: Plants p. 407 For example, Native Americans chewed willow bark to relieve pain. In the 1800s, chemists discovered that willow bark containe d substances that could be used to make aspirin. Comments:

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308 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 10 Unit: Plants p. 484 For many years pine nuts were part of a sy stem of trade among Native Americans in the western United States. Comments: Statement # 11 Unit: Plants p. 488 Cacao tress had been cultivated in Central America for centuries before Spanish explorers arrived in the 1400s. The explorers, impresse d with the drink that Native Americans made from cacao seeds, took the beans and the recipe back to Spain. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 12 Unit: Invertebrates p. 517 Native Americans living in the Amazon region of ten use sponge spicules to make clay pottery. Other unusual uses for sponges ex isted more than 3 000 years ago among the inhabitants of Crete, a Greek island. The Cr etans used sponges to make masks to filter out particles in foul air to prevent disease. The Cretans also burned sponges as a way to fumigate and sterilize the air in close rooms. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 13 Unit: Invertebrates p. 518 Members of a South American tribe that inhabits the Amaz on region add sponge spicules to the clay they use for making pottery. Comments: Statement # 14 Unit: Vertebrates p. 601 Fish is a mainstay in the diets of many Native American Inuits, who live in the Artic. Although they eat many fatty meats, they rarely develop heart disease. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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309 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 15 Unit: Vertebrates p. 613 In the South American rain forest some cultu res live as their ancesto rs did centuries ago, using their understanding of a seemingly hos tile environment to heir advantage. For example, they use poisons secreted by the gl ands of certain frog species for a variety of purposes. Chief among these uses is making poi son-tipped arrows and darts that stun or kill animals hunted for food. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 16 Unit: Vertebrates p. 657 The Inuit people living in the Arctic regions of North America have long used aquatic mammals as their primary source of food and clothing. Pinnapeds, such as walruses and seals, and whales are part of the Inuit diet Inuits use the blubbe r or fat from these animals in cooking and as a fuel so urce and the skins to make clothing. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 17 Unit: Ecology p. 863 Several Native American groups have se ttled in dry biomes. The Hopi live in northeastern Arizona where they farm and herd sheep. The Ap ache live on reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. The Zuni, known for th eir jewelry craft, live in villages in New Mexico. Comments: Statement # 18 Unit: Ecology p. 908 Native Americans taught early European settlers to bury pieces of fish with the seeds of the corn they planted. According to traditi on, this practice would ensure a good harvest. The practice worked because the fish acts as a fertilizer for the corn. Decomposers break down nitrogen compounds in the fish and rel ease ammonia that remain s in the soil for use by nitrifying bacteria. The soil ammonia and nitrates re leased by the bacteria are absorbed by the corn roots and used by the plant. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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310 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 19 Unit: Ecology p. 922 Archaeologists have discovered that the ancient Maya (A.D. 1200) recycled broken pottery and grinding stones in building their temples. To reduce waste, they buried their dead with old, broken, and fake objects instead of using new pottery. Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective Statement # 20 Unit: Genetics p. 150 Anthropologic studies on the wo rldwide distribution of the bl ood-type B allele indicate that the greatest frequency (30%) appears in cen tral Asia. The B allele is 5% in western Europeans and is absent among Native Americans. Ask: Why would the US have a different statistical trend than Asia or Europe? Comments: TE Multicultural Perspective

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311 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology A Community Context Number: 9 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Glossary p. 561 Science: A process of inquiry and the knowledge that is gained through inquiry. Comments: Statement # 2 Unit: Glossary p. 558 Biology: The study of living systems. Comments:

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312 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Biology Living Systems Number: 10 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 33 Science is a process that produces a body of knowledge about nature. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 33 The methods of science have been practiced by many cultures for thousands of years. No one knows who first discovered fire, inve nted agriculture, or explained sexual reproduction. The Egyptians knew about phys iology and use surgery as early as 3000 BC. The Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas of Centra l and South America used accurate calendars based on the movements of celestial bodies. The Incas of Ecuador discovered the equator before the Egyptians. All cultures today share scientific methods to make new discoveries. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 32 What brought up these discoveries? It was a new way of learning about nature. One of the most important factors in good science is asking the right ques tion. Many discoveries in the last 100 years are s till valid because the scientis ts who made them were good detectives. Comments: Statement # 4 Unit: Intro p. 33 Remember that scientists note effects and atte mpts to explain the causes of those effects. There is no fixed way to do this; scientists ar rive at explanations in many ways. Each situation is different. Several factors play a role in lear ning about natures. Among them are careful and thorough observati ons, interpretation of what is observed, explaining what is observed and testing to see if those explan ations are on the right track. These steps do no always follow a precise order, and a scientist may go back and forth many times between many steps to solve a puzzle. Comments:

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313 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 5 Unit: Cells p. 60 Corn is an excellent source of starch in our diets. What we know as hominy is actually made from corn. Native Americans discovered th at soaking corn in a solution made from the ashes of a wood fire (a lye solution) would change the grains into an expanded, lighter-textured material with a unique flavor. This changed corn was then baked into custard-like puddings or fried with meats and wild greens. If the hominy is dried and pounded into a fine texture, hominy grits are formed. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 6 Unit: Cells p. 98 Water is vital to most biological processes. If you remove most of the water from in and around fish cells, microorganisms cant grow at least not we ll. The seafaring people of Northern Scandinavia are old master of the art of drying fish. So are the Eskimos. But perhaps the most dramatic example of pr eservation by drying co mes from the Native Americans of pre-Columbian Peru. Living in the Andes Mountains, they would freeze fish in the frigid night air and dry it in th e hot daytime sun. In the daytime hear, the low atmospheric pressure of the high mountains allowed much of the fish meats water, frozen during the night, to turn directly from ice to vapor. This was freeze-drying, a technique we consider very modern. Comments: Global Connection Statement # 7 Unit: Genetics p. 210 Animals were important in the cultural of Am erican Indians. They were used for food and clothing, and the hides were used for she lter. The traits of animals have been an important part of the folklore and culture. Some of their tale s describe how they got their phenotypic traits. For instance, one tale tells that the owl got its large eyes and short neck because it was always stretching its neck to see what was going on around its roost and got its big eyes so it could see at night. The names of tribal members were basically animals names that described the phenotypic tr aits that the person acquired from the animal. For instance, the name Silent Eagle was given to a person who was swift and who hunted quietly and with great accuracy. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity

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314 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 8 Unit: Evolution p. 308 Samoans, in the South Pacific, believed that their island came from an egg that had been broken into pieces and thrown into the wate r. The Maoris, from New Zealand, believed that a bird dropped an egg that burst open in the sea. This egg c ontained the people and animals that found their way to New Zeala nd. Ask students to make up a myth that explains how Earth and its in habitants first formed. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 9 Unit: Evolution p. 314 Six thousand years ago, pre-In can Indians in South Amer ica were cultivating the common white potato. When they cultivated this plant, they practiced selective breeding to improve the quality of the potato form one generation to the next. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 10 Unit: Evolution p. 350 According to Good White Buffalo of the Brule Sioux nation, crows were once white. They were also friends of the buffalo, a nd warned them when Native American hunters approached the herd, much to the resentment of plains Indians who depended on buffalo for food. A young brave captured the leader of th e crows and hurled him into the fire. He was singed black, and ever since, all crows have been black. Folklore includes a variety of stories passed orally from person to person and generation to generation within a given culture. Many prescientific expl anations for the origins and conditions of the world appear in folklore as myths. The myths of a given culture center on what that culture consider s important. How the Crow Came to Be Black illustrates the im portance of buffalo to the plains tribes. Biologists today know color has evolved thr ough natural selection a nd species adaptation. In many species, color serves important survival functions. Although evolution may provide us with many a tale of origins of weird and wonderful life forms, probably none would be as simple, or simplistic, as the myths and legends passed on from generation to gene ration in folk tales. Comments: Literature Connection

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315 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 11 Unit: Plants p. 438 Corn was so important to these early farmers that their culture was built around it, and they worshiped a god of corn. Largely as a re sult of their development of corn and other agricultural practices, the Aztecs developed a great empire. By the time Columbus came to America in 1492, Native Americans of both North and South America were growing many kinds of corn. Flint corn, whic h has a very hard, smooth kernel, was the kind most widely grow n. Flour corn was grown by the Aztecs and Incas. Its soft kernels made it easy to grind in to flour, the main ingredient in tortillas, a major part of the regional diet today. Because corn was an easy crop to grow and it was plentiful, it has a symbolic place in the culture of many Native American tribes. In th e Tewa Tribe of New Mexico, for instance, summer is the time of the Blue Corn Chief, while winter is the time of the White Corn Chief. When a child is named, its mother offe rs two perfect ears of corn, one white and one blue, to the six scared directions and prayers are said for good fortune. Many Native American tribes consider corn a sa cred plant. Much rain is needed for corn to grow well. Before the Hopi and Zuni trib es developed the practice of irrigation, corn dances were part of a ritual to bring rain, and other dances were performed to thank the gods for a bountiful harvest. The early English colonists were taught to plant corn by Native Am ericans who lived in northeastern North America. The colonists and th e Spanish explorers not only used it as a food source, they exported it to Europe and beyond. From these begi nnings sprang a plant that is now grown all over the world and is a major food source for both humans and their livestock. Comments: Global Connection Statement # 12 Unit: Plants p. 440 Tell students about amaranth, once the Aztecs most widely cultivated crop. It produces huge numbers of seeds that are high in the amino acid lysine. When Cortez arrived in 1519, he banned the growing of amaranth because the Aztecs also use the red dye of the flowers for religious ceremonies. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity

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316 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 13 Unit: Plants p. 441 The Chinese have controlled insect pests by biological means for 1700 years, a method introduced to the West only in this century. Th e Chinese use of yellow, citrus-killer ants to protect mandarin trees is still in use t oday. Bridges of bamboo are stretched between trees to allow the ants to move easily from tress to tr ee. The ants hunt and eat the pests that would consume the oranges Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 14 Unit: Vertebrates p. 460 There is no one people called Native Ameri cans or American Indians. There are hundreds of different Native American peoples, all with differing beliefs and cultures. So there is no single Native American way of considering animals. There are, however, some broad, underlying ideas that various Native Americans hold in common, though they may express them differently. Native Amer ican beliefs generally include a strong tie between people and the land. They stress the unity of the entire natural world, including both animate and inanimate objects and such phenomena as the wind and the rain. In such a world view, its only natural that an imals have an important place. Rather than seeing animals as lower creatu res fit only for work or food, Native American traditions often portray animals as beings as important or even more important than humans. An Iroquois legend, for example, tells about how the owl made the Creator angry by greedily demanding too much and arrogantly st icking his beak in wh ere it didnt belong. Rather than giving the owl what he asked for, the Creator gave him a short neck so he wouldnt be able to crane his neck to look where he shouldnt and big ears so that he could better hear what he was told. A Papago myth tells of the Creator being saddened by the thought that the beautiful children, the lovely leaves, and the colorful flowers would all grow old and die. To preserve some of the beauty, he took th e beautiful sights and sounds around him and created butterflies, only to be reproached by the birds. The birds were upset that the Creator had given butterflies the melodi ous songs that belonged to them. Much Northwestern Native American lore de als with Coyote an anthropomorphic hero and ancestor of the animal that shares his name. Comments: Global Connection

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317 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 15 Unit: Vertebrates p. 470 Birds were important in the arts and cr afts of the Incas of Peru in the 11th century. The Inca bird was different from the birds used in arts and crafts of Native Americans. The Zuni, one of the Pueblo tribes of Native Am ericans, used a geomet rically shaped rain bird on their pottery. The Hopi also used ge ometric shapes in creating the birds on their pottery. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement #16 Unit: Vertebrates p. 502 Columbus started the confusion. Thinking he had discovered a new tr ade route to India, he called the people living in the Americas Indians. More confusion arose when the European settlers tried to learn the pers onal names of the Native Americans they encountered. The Europeans discovered that the original inhabita nts of the land often changed their names as they grew older. A childhood name might be exchanged for a new one at adolescence, or after a first bat tle or an important dream. Another cultural mystery to Europeans was that some Native Americans considered their names so personal and sacred that only a bad-mannere d person would address them directly by those names. The Native American tradition of naming babies is a practice that survives today among many tribes. A baby might be called simply boy or girl until he or she is several months old. Buy that time, the baby has de veloped some personality. A tribe elder observing the baby will then know enough about hi s or her personal tr aits to suggest a name that seems fit. That name might be one given to honor a dead ancestor, or it might come from a dream of the babys mother or father. Even after a Native American child grows up, hi s or her name can change. In some tribes, names are considered a personal possession th at can be loaned, pawned, given away, or even thrown away. Because of misunderstandings, many Native American names have been fun of. For instance, the name Stinking Blanket may have caused snickers among Europeans. However, attitudes about that name changed significantly after hearing an explanation of its source: An Indian brave fought so long and hard against his enemie s that he never had time to stop and change his horses saddle bl anket. Similarly, the name Crazy Horse sounds different when the crazy is correc tly translated as recklessly brave. Comments: Literature Connection

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318 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement #17 Unit: Human Biology p. 530 The menstrual period has always been su rrounded by myth. The word taboo may come from the Polynesian word for menstruation. No t all myths are negative, however. A girls first period is greeted with celebration in so me areas, for it means that she can now have children. Apache girls kneel on sacred deerskin during a four-day celebration of their first menstrual period. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 18 Unit: Human Biology p. 560 Salt also played an important part in reli gious life. In many early societies along the Mediterranean, offerings of salt were ma de to the gods. On the North American continent, the Aztecs honored a salt goddess, the Navajos prayed to Salt Woman, and the Hopis war god was Salt Man. Comments: Global Connection Statement # 19 Unit: Ecology p. 796 The prickly pear cactus has long played an im portant part in the li fe of Mexico and the southwest. Fossil evidence indicates that the fr uit of the prickly pear cactus was part of the diet of the native Indians of this region as long as 9000 years ago. The Aztecs prized the prickly pear for the red dye that was extracted from the bodi es of an insect that lived on the plant. Comments: Art Connection Statement # 20 Unit: Ecology p. 807 For the Lapps, or Sami as they prefer to be called, semi-nomadic herders who live on the tundra of Scandinavia, the re indeer are the basis of thei r economy. Each Sami eats an average of eight to ten reindeer a year. They also make their coats, shoes, and tents from reindeer hides, use the antlers to make knife handles and glue, and se ll reindeer meat to markets in the southern cities. Following the migration of reindeer herds has been their way of life for more than 10000 years. Comments: Biology, Technology, and Society [STS content]

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319 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 21 Unit: Ecology p. 825 Explain to students how differe nt cultures are dependent upon the biomes in which they live. For example, Laplanders depend on the reindeer that are the dominant large animals where they live in the taiga. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 22 Unit: Ecology p. 829 There are often parallels between cultures that share the same type of environment even though the cultures are continents apart. As k students to compare and contrast the cultures inhabiting the grasslands of North Am erica (farmers), South America (gauchos), and Africa (Masai herders of Kenya). Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 23 Unit: Ecology p. 867 The Chipko Movement began in India in 1730 when the Maharajah of Jodphur sent his wood cutters to cut down the few trees left in the area. The Bishnois, a religious sect for whom the protection of trees and wildlife was a sacred duty, pr evented this action. Bishnois women rushed in and put their arms around the trees to protect them. In 1973, a sports company was to come in to an area of Himalayan forest to cut trees for making racquet sports equipment. A community leader urged the people of the area to chipko or hold fast to the trees in their forest. When the tree cutte rs arrived, the women of the village rushed in and threw their arms around the threes. Comments: TE Cultural Diversity Statement # 24 Unit: Human Biology p. 568 Dr. Minoka-Hill (1876-1952) was a Native Ameri can born on a Mohawk reservation in New York state. After her mothers death, she stayed on the reservation with her maternal relatives until she was old enough to go to school. She also spent much of her time teachi ng the Oneida people about nutrition and good eating habits in an effort to relieve th eir constant problem of malnutrition. Comments: History Connection Lillie Rosa Minoka-Hill

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320 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 25 Unit: Human Biology p. 621 People who live at high altitude s are adapted to the lower air pressure. For example, the native Aymara and Quechua Indians that live in the Andes mountains have barrel-shaped chests, strong diaphragms, and large lungs that have a greater capacity than the lungs of people who live at lower altitudes. The Ayma ra and Quechua also have more capillaries around their aveoli, larger hear ts, and more red blood cells. Comments: Global Connection How high can they live?

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321 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Textbook: Prentice Hall Biology Number: 11 Set: 3 Statement # 1 Unit: Intro p. 5 Asking questions about the world around us is part of human nature. How did life begin? Where did plants and animals come from? W hy do animals behave as they do? Every culture in the world has tr ied to answer these questions often through myths and legends. The Pitjendara tribe of central Australia, for example, finds answers to questions about nature on an enormous mound of stone called Ayers Rock. According to the Pitjendara, the images etch on Ayers rock tell st ories that depict the adventures, the loves, and the battles of ten enorm ous creatures. The rock contains the likenesses of two snakes, Liru and Kunia. The Pitjendara believe that the two snakes fought an epic battle that cr eated many features on the southern face of Ayers Rock. Elsewhere on the rock, a sand-lizard man le ft his mark digging for water. Through these and other stories, the Pitjendara explain the formation of the world and the processes of birth, life and death. We might say that the rock pr ovides the Pitjendara with answ ers that other societies seek through a process known as science. People like the Pitjendara live their entire lives in a single culture. Thus, they often find it difficult to imagine that their particular stor ies about the world might be in error. Today, however, we can visit and read about many cultures. And when we assemble stories form around the globe, it becomes obvious that all these stories cannot be true. Is there some other way to explain the worl d around us? One way is to assume that all events in nature have natural causes. We can then try to arrange a series of observations or test to learn what those causes are. Science is the word that we apply to this process. The goal of science is to understand the world around us. There are, however, many important fields of human endeavor that st udy the world around us but are not considered sciences. Such fields include language, hist ory, art, music, and philosophy. The character that distinguishes science from nonscience is an approach kn ows as the scientific method. Comments: Figure 1-1 Nature of knowledge

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322 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 2 Unit: Intro p. 7 The simplest definition of the scientific me thod was offered by biol ogist Claude Villee. He called it Organized common sense. That is exactly what science should be. In practice, the scientific method consists of several steps To the true scientist, however, the scientific method is more a frame of mind a frame of mind that involves curiosity. Another important char acteristic of the scientific spirit is the refusal to accept an explanation without evid ence or proof. This p rove it! attitude encourages scientists to investigate phe nomena and to develop new explanations and ideas. Comments: nature of knowledge Statement # 3 Unit: Intro p. 15 As knowledge grows, facts can change. This print depicts a Hindu legend that tells that the Earth is supported by three elephants resting on the back of a giant tortoise. Comments: Figure 1 -12 nature of knowledge Statement # 4 Unit: Microbial p. 339 Throughout history, various cultu res have developed alternat ive explanations concerning the origin of life. Interested students may want to research these alternative theories, focusing particularly on the ideas arising in ancient Egypt and India as well as various concepts from Native Americans. Comments: TE Multicultural Strategy Statement # 5 Unit: Microbial p. 342 There is a Native American legend from the Lakota (Sioux) tribe called Tunkashila, or Grandfather Rock, that attempts to explai n the origins of land. A ccording to the legend, at one time all things existed as spirits. Th e spirits tried to live on the sun but it was too hot for them, so they came to the Earth. They couldnt find any land on the Earth because it was totally covered by water. Comments: TE Multicultural Strategy

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323 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 6 Unit: Plants p. 494 A Native American myth from the Southwest tells how the first people climbed up into the world on the branches of a tree, Indian philosophers have noted that people are like leaves on a tree although we ma y perceive ourselves as sepa rate from one another, we all are connected and belong to so mething greater than ourselves. Comments: TE Multicultural Strategy Statement # 7 Unit: Plants p. 527 Have students investigate plan ts symbolic importance in many cultural traditions and rituals. For example, in the Navaho culture, the corn plant symbolizes life, and in many cultures throughout history, the olive branch has been a symbol of peace. Comments: TE Multicultural Strategy Statement # 8 Unit: Vertebrates p. 701 Some tropical tree frogs make a poison so powerful that it can kill humans and other large animals. Native tribes in the tropics often poison their arrow tips by rubbing them in these frogs. For this reason, these brightly colored amphibians are called poison arrow frogs. Comments: Statement # 9 Unit: Vertebrates p. 749 Tell students the Cherokee legend of Awi Usdi, the Little Deer, which stresses the Native Americans respect for animals: In early times, people and animals could commun icate with each other, and they lived in harmony. People killed animals only as n eeded for food and clothing. After the development of the bow and arrow, things changed, and some animals were slaughtered to extinction. The animals got together to see what they could do to remedy things. Awi Usdi, the Little Deer, had a suggestion. She w ould whisper in the ears of the hunters that they must first ask permission of the animal s they were hunting and then ask for pardon form the spirit of the animal they had to kill for food. Comments: TE Multicultural Strategy

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324 Appendix G. continued Archaeology of Statements Worksheet Statement # 10 Unit: Vertebrates p. 794 Animals play prominent roles in folk ta les, myths, and legends of many cultures including the Vietnamese. Comments: TE Multicultural Strategy Statement # 11 Unit: Human Biology p. 988 Perhaps some of the greatest e xperts at using toxic plants fo r beneficial purposes are the tribal peoples of Cent ral and South America. The Tarahum ara Indians, for example, use toxic plants for a variety of ailments. One such plant is Ricinus communis the source of the laxative castor oil an d a number of highly poisonous substa nces, which is used to treat headaches, boils, and bruises. Another is jimsonweed, which is used as a hallucinogen during rituals and to treat routine ailm ents such as swellings and headaches. In most cases, knowledge of the quantity of plant ingested and the way in which it is prepared are essential for the treatment to be safe. The tribal peoples knowledge is often used by pharmaceutical companies in the develo pment of new drugs for ailments such as heart disease and cancer. Comments: TE Multicultural Strategy Statement # 12 Unit: Ecology p. 1022 Many Native American legends deal with the sun. One legend from the Muskogee or Creek people form Oklahoma tells how Grandm other Spider stole th e sun. According to the legend, all the animals lived in darkness but knew of a wonderful light called the sun. First the fox tried to capture the sun but burne d its mouth, which is w hy foxes to this day have black mouths. Then the opossum tried to grab the sun but burned its tail, which is why opossums to this day have hairless tails. Finally, Grandmother Spider wove a bag of webbing around the sun and carried it home in the bag. Comments: TE Multicultural Strategy

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325 Appendix H. List of Eurocentric Terms Life Sciences (Ecology) Terms are adapted from: Hirsch, E. D., Jr., Kett, J. F., & Trefil, J. ( 2000). The new dictionary of cultural literacy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company Acid rain A type of precipitation made up of dilute acids, primarily a by-product of heavy industry. Balance of nature A concept in ecology that descri bes natural system s as being in a state of equilibrium, in which disturbing one element disturbs the entire system. The inference is usually drawn that the natural stat e of any system is the perfect state and that it is best to leave it undisturbed. Modern ecologists no longer belie ve that balance of nature exists. Biodegradable Material, that left to itself, will be decomposed by natural processes. Biodiversity A term that describes the number of different species that live within a particular ecosystem. Bioethics The application of ethics to the science and practice of biology, especially as modern science is applied to human life and reproduction. Biosphere The thin outer shell of the Earth and the inner layers of its atmosphere; the place where all living things are found. Carrying capacity In ecology, the number of living things that can exist for long periods in a given area without damaging the environment. Carson, Rachel An American author and scientis t of the twentieth century who was fervently devoted to defending the natural world against pollution. Her best-known books are Silent Spring concerning the overuse of pesticides and weed killers, and The Sea Around Us CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) Chemical compounds originally developed for use in refrigeration systems, now used widely in i ndustry. When released into the air, these compounds, break down and release chlorine, which causes damage to the earths ozone layer and is responsible fo r creating the ozone hole.

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326 Appendix H. continued Coral Reef A formation, at or near the surface of tropical waters, formed by skeletal deposits of corals, a form of sea life. Deforestation The process of destroying a forest and replacing it with something else. The term is used today to refer to the dest ruction of forest by human beings and their replacement by agricultural systems. DDT A colorless insecticide that kills on contact. It is poisonous to humans and animals when swallowed or absorbed through the skin. Earth The planet on which we live the third planet from the sun. Ecological niche The place or function of a give n organisms within its ecosystem. Ecosystem A collection of living things and th e environment in which they live. Extinction The disappearance of a species from the Earth. Florida Keys Islands off the southern coast of Florida. The best known are Key Largo and Key West. Food chain The series of steps by which energy is obtained, used, and transformed by living things. For example, sunlight helps gr ains to grow, the grain feed cattle and humans eat the cattle. Global warming The term attached to the noti on that the Earths temperature is increasing due to the greenhouse effect. Green revolution The increase in the world produc tion of cereals such as wheat and rice during the 1960s and 1970s because of be tter seed and new ag ricultural technology. Greenhouse effect A term used to describe the heating of the atmosphere owing to the presence of carbon dioxide and other gases. Groundwater Water that seeps through th e soil or rocks underground. Habitat The area or type of environment in wh ich a particular kind of animal or plant usually lives. Horticulture The science of cultivating garden plants. Hydroponics Cultivating plants in an artificial environment in which the necessary nutrients are carried to the roots in a liquid mixture.

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327 Appendix H. continued Natural resource Factors of production not create d (though harnessed) by effort. Nature of Knowledge/Nature of Science Terms are adapted from: The American Heritage College Dictionary (4th ed.). (2002). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Press. Stephens, S. (2003). The culturally responsive handbook Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Knowledge Network. Evidence A thing or things helpful in forming a conclusion or judgment. Experiment A test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth, examine the validity of a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy of something previously untried. How In what manner or way; by what means: How does this machine work? ; for what reason or purpose; why. Hypothesis In science, a statement of a po ssible explanation for some natural phenomenon. Models A schematic description of a system, theory, or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and may be us ed for further study of its characteristics Measurement The act of measuring or th e process of being measured. Procedures A set of established steps or me thods for conducting the affairs of a scientific experiment. Quantitative Expressed or expressible as a quantity; of, relating to, or susceptible of measurement; of or relating to number or quantity Skepticism A methodology based on an assumption of doubt with the aim of acquiring approximate or relative certainty. Theory In science, an explanation or mode l that covers a su bstantial group of occurrences in nature and ha s been confirmed by a substa ntial number of experiments and observations. Tools Something used in the performance of a scientific experiment; an instrument.

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328 Appendix H. continued Traditional/Indigenous Representations Terms are adapted from: Hirsch, E. D., Jr., Kett, J. F., & Trefil, J. ( 2000). The new dictionary of cultural literacy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company Aborigines The earliest known inhabitants of a region. The term is most often associated with the native hunting and ga thering population of Australia, who preceded the arrival of white settlers. Apaches A tribe of Native Americans who live in the southwestern United States. Aztecs A Native American people who ruled Me xico and neighboring areas before the Spaniard conquered the region in the sixteenth century. Bushmen The nomadic hunting and gathering people of the Kalahari Desert of southern Africa, in Botswana, Nambia, and Angola. Cherokees A Native American tribe who lived in the Southeast in the early nineteenth century; the Cherokees were known as one of the civilized tribes because they built schools and published a newspaper. In the 1803s the United States government forcibly removed most of the tribe to reservat ions west of the Mississippi River. Eskimos A widely dispersed group of peoples in the Arctic regions of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Siberia, who have traditionall y survived primarily by hunting and fishing. Folklore Traditional stories and legends, transm itted orally (rather than in writing) from generation to generation. Hunting and gathering societies Societies that rely pr imarily or exclusively on hunting wild animals, fishing, a nd gathering wild fruits, berrie s, nuts, and vegetables to support their diet. Incas A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Iroquois League A confederacy of Native American tribes in upper New York state, dating to the sixteenth century. Mayas A Native American people, living in wh at is now Mexico and northern Central America, who had a flourishing civilization fo rm before the birth of Jesus until around 1600, when they were conquered by the Spanish.

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329 Appendix H. continued Native Americans The descendents of the original inhabitants of North America and South America before the arrival of white se ttlers from Europe, also called Indians or American Indians. Navajos A tribe of Native Americans, the most numerous in the United States. The Navajos have reservations in the Southwest. Phoenicia An ancient nation of the eastern Me diterranean Sea. It s territory included what are today coastal areas of modern Israel and Lebanon. Pygmy A member of any ethnic group in which the average height of the adult male is less than four feet, eleven inches. There are Pygmy tribes in dense rainforest areas of central Africa, southern India, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Seminoles A tribe of Native Americans who inhabited Florida in the early nineteenth century. After fighting a war against the Unite d States to keep their land, they were forcibly removed to reservations west of the Mississippi River in the 1840s. Shawnees A tribe of Native Americans who inhab ited Ohio, Indiana, and other parts of the Middle West during the early nineteenth century. Sioux A common name for the Dakota people, a tribe of Native Americans inhabiting the northern Great Plains in the nineteenth century. Totem An animal, plant, or other object in na ture that has a special relationship to a person, family or clan and serves as a sign for that person or group. Totem pole Among some Native Americans, a pole on which totems are carved. The totem pole usually stands in front of a house or shelter. Wampum Beads made from polished shells that some Native Americans once used as money and jewelry.

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330 Appendix I. List of Multicultural Terms Life Sciences (Ecology) Terms adapted from: The American Heritage College Dictionary (4th ed.). (2002). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Press. Agriculture(al) The science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock; farming. Aquaculture The science, art, and business of cultivating marine or freshwater food fish or shellfish, such as oysters, clams, salmon, and trout, under controlled conditions. Agroforestry A system of land use in which harv estable trees or shrubs are grown among or around crops or on pastureland, as a means of preserving or enhancing the productivity of the land. Conservation The protection, preservation, manageme nt, or restoration of wildlife and of natural resources such as forests, soil, and water. Endangered species A species present in such small numbers that it is at risk of extinction. Environmental impact statement/assessment An assessment of the possible impact positive or negativethat a proposed project may have on the natural environment. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider environmental impacts used to decided whether to proceed with the project. Environmental movement A diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing the concerns of environmentalism. Ethnobotany The plant lore and agricu ltural customs of a people. Everglades A subtropical swamp area of sout hern Florida including Everglades National Park. It is noted for its wildlife, es pecially crocodiles, al ligators, and egrets Gaia hypothesis A belief that the interactions among the biotic and abiotic factors of the environment have a natural balance. Land ethic a perspective on environmental ethics first championed by Aldo Leopold in his book A Sand County Almanac

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331 Appendix I. continued Pesticides A chemical used to kill pests, especially insects. Recycling To extract and reuse (useful subs tances found in waste); to use again, especially to reprocess. Reforestation The restocking of existing forest s and woodlands which have been depleted, with native tree stock Sustainability/sustainable Capability of being continued with minimal long-term effect on the environment. Sustainable agriculture A method of agriculture th at attempts to ensure the profitability of farms while preserving the environment. Seattle, Chief Native American leader of th e Duwamish, Suquamish, and allied peoples, who befriended white settl ers of the Pacific Northwest. Traditional ecological knowledge The science of long-resident oral peoples and a biological label for the expa nding literature base which explores that knowledge. Virgin forest Also known as old growth forest; a t ype of forest that has attained great age and so exhibits unique biological features. Wetlands A lowland area, such as a marsh or sw amp, that is saturated with moisture, especially when regarded as the natural habitat of wildlife. Wilderness An unsettled, uncultivate d region left in its natu ral condition, especially: a large wild tract of land covered with dense vegetation or forest Nature of Knowledge Terms are adapted from: The American Heritage College Dictionary (4th ed.). (2002). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Press. Stephens, S. (2003). The culturally responsive handbook Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Knowledge Network. Belief Something believed or accept ed as true, especially a pa rticular tenet or a body of tenets accepted by a group of persons

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332 Appendix I. continued Holistic Emphasizing the importance of the whole and the interd ependence of its parts. Inherited wisdom A body of information, also referred to as a chronicle, that serves as a reference relating important information, as exam ple, to the survival of the tribe, how to prepare certain foods, how to cure certain di seases, directions of where to find useful resources, how to make tools and weapons. Metaphysical Supernatural. Moral code Conforming to standards of what is right or just in behavior; virtuous. Practical application Habitual or established practice; custom. Oral record compilation of historical data thro ugh interviews, usually tape-recorded and sometimes videotaped, with participants in, or observers of, significant events or times; primitive societies have long relied on or al tradition to preserve a record of the past in the absence of written histories. Qualitative Of, relating to, or concerning quality Respect The state of being regarded with honor or esteem. Subsistence practice a traditional way of life among many indigenous peoples; in a physical sense, it refers to the practice of relying on the surrounding environment as a source of food and materials for daily living. Value To regard highly; esteem. (A)other ways of knowing world views, or ways of thi nking about or understanding the natural world. Traditional/Indigenous Representations Terms taken from: The American Heritage College Dictionary (4th ed.). (2002). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Press. Adobe Sun-dried brick of clay and straw; a structure build with this brick.

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333 Appendix I. continued Anasazi A Native American culture flourishing in southern Colorado and Utah and northern New Mexico and Zrixona from about A.D. 100, whose descendents include the present-day Pueblo peoples. Ancestor worship A practice based on the belief that deceased family members have a continued existence, take an interest in the affairs of the world, and/or possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living. Ceremony A formal act or set of acts perfor med as prescribed by ritual or custom. Cheyenne A member of a Native American people, divided after 1832 into the Northern and Southern Cheyenne, inhabi ting respectively sout h-east Montana and southern Colorado, with present-day populations in Montana and Oklahoma. Clan A tribal division tracing de scent from a common ancestor. Coyote An anthropomorphic hero and ancestor of the coyote that shares his name. Creek A member of a Native American peopl e formerly inhabiting eastern Alabama, south-west Georgia, and north west Florida, and now locat ed in central Oklahoma and southern Alabama. Guarani A member of a South American Indian people of Paraguay, northern Argentina, and southern Brazil. Haida A member of a Native American peopl e inhabiting the Queen Charlotte Islands of British Columbia, Canada, and Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. Hopi A member of a Pueblo people occupying a number of mesa-top pueblos on reservation land in northeast Arizona. Indigenous Native to a place or area, originati ng in and characterizing a particular region or country. Inuit A member of Eskimoan peoples inha biting the Arctic from northern Alaska. Kiowa A member of a Native American people formerly inhabiting the southern Great Plains, with a present-day populat ion in southwest Oklahoma. !Kung A member of a San people of E Namibia and W Botswana. Legend An unverified story handed down from earlier times, especially one popularly believe to be historical.

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334 Appendix I. continued Maori A member of a people of New Zeala nd, of Polynesian-Melanesian descent. Medicine man A male shaman or shamanistic healer especially among Native American peoples. Mestizo A person especially a man or a boy, of mi xed racial ancestry, in particular of mixed European and Native American ancestry. Mohawk A member of a Native American pe ople formerly inhabiting northeast New York, with present-day populations chiefly in southern Ontario and extreme northern New York. Myth A traditional story dealing with supern atural beings, ancesto rs, or heroes that informs or shapes the worldview of a people, as by explaining as pects of the natural world or delineating the customs or ideals of society. Native Being a member of the original inhabita nts of a particular place; one of the original inhabitants or lif elong residents of a place. Nez Perce A member of a Native American people formerly inhabiting the lower Snake River and its tributaries, with pr esent-day populations in western Idaho and northeast Washington. Ojibwa A member of a Native Amer ican people originally locat ed north of Lake Huron before moving westward in the 17th and 18th centuries into the uppe r Midwest, with later migrations onto the northern Great Plains. Pagan One who is not a Christian, Muslim, or Jew especially a worshiper of a polytheistic religion. Papago A member of a Native American pe ople inhabiting the de sert regions of southern Arizona and northwest Mexico. Pima A member of a Native American pe ople inhabiting sout h-central Arizona. Plains Indian A member of any of the Native Am erican peoples inhabiting the Great Plains. Prayer A reverent petition made to an object of worship. Proverb A short pithy saying in frequent and widespread use that expresses a basic truth or practical precept.

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335 Appendix I. continued Pueblo A member of any of some 25 Nativ e American peoples, including the Hopi, Zuni, and Taos, living in established villag es in northern and we stern New Mexico and northeast Arizona. Ritual The prescribed order of a religious ceremony; the body of ceremonies or rites used in place of worship. Shaman A member of certain tribal societies who acts as a medium between the visible world and an invisible spirit world and pract ices magic or sorcery for healing, divination, and control over natural events. Samoa A native or inhabitant of th e islands or country of Samoa. Swahili An inhabitant of coastal eastern Afri ca for whom Swahili is the mother tongue. Spiritual Of or belonging to a reli gion; sacred; relating to or having the nature of spirits or a spirit; supernatural. Traditional society Term used to identify a particul ar group of indigenous people. Tribal religion Religion that may be divergent from the official teachings and doctrines of the majority faith. Tribe A unit of sociopolitical organization consisting of a number of families, clans, or other groups who share a common ancestry a nd culture and among whom leadership is typically neither formalized nor permanent. Walbiri The Austronesian languages s poken by Australian aborigines Yaqui A member of a Native American people of Sonora, a state of northwest Mexico, now also located in southern Arizona. Many Yaqui sought asylum in the United States in the early 19th century because of co nflict with the Mexican government. Zulu A member of a Bantu peopl e of southeast Africa, primarily inhabiting northeast Natal province in South Africa.

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336 Appendix J. Evaluation Coefficient Worksheet Textbook code _______________________________________ Set _________ Content ___________________________________________ Score _________ Page Term +/Page Te rm +/Page Term +/+ = _______ = _______ ( + ) 100 = ___________ = __________ + +

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337 Appendix K. Visuals/Illustrations Worksheet Textbook Code: __________________________________________________________ Photo # Page # Unit Comments: Aerial Child Adult Child/Adult Illustration Non-Human Male Female Comments: Active Passive Activity: Ind. Rep Group: Other Comments: Photo # Page # Unit Comments: Aerial Child Adult Child/Adult Illustration Non-Human Male Female Comments: Active Passive Activity: Ind. Rep Group: Other Comments: Photo # Page # Unit Comments: Aerial Child Adult Child/Adult Illustration Non-Human Male Female Comments: Active Passive Activity: Ind. Rep Group: Other Comments: Photo # Page # Unit Comments: Aerial Child Adult Child/Adult Illustration Non-Human Male Female Comments: Active Passive Activity: Ind. Rep Group: Other Comments: Photo # Page # Unit Comments: Aerial Child Adult Child/Adult Illustration Non-Human Male Female Comments: Active Passive Activity: Ind. Rep Group: Other Comments:

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338 About the Author Margaret Delgato graduated from Clemson University with a bachelors degree in biological sciences and a masters degree in agricultural educati on. She has taught and developed curricula, including an award-winni ng ecology program, for students in middle and high school science courses and has served as a curriculum specialist for a charter high school that allows students to simulta neously earn a high school diploma and an associates degree. Ms. Delgat o earned National Board Certif ication in biology in the fall of 2001. She currently serves as Director of Curriculum and Student Success for the College of Nursing at St. Petersburg College in St. Petersburg, Florida.