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The role of image resolution to locomotion tasks in virtual desktop wayfinding

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Material Information

Title:
The role of image resolution to locomotion tasks in virtual desktop wayfinding
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Anderson, Lisa Dawn
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Virtual Environment
Eye Tracking
Navigating
Dissertations, Academic -- Secondary Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: An experimental study at a large research university evaluated the role of image resolution on 60 participant's locomotion tasks in an interior virtual desktop wayfinding environment. Four virtual environments were developed using different resolutions for wayfinding images including high level 150 ppi, medium high level 100 ppi, medium level 75 and low level 30 ppi images. The environment was designed to accommodate forward, backward, sideways and figure 8 locomotion tasks as defined by the VEPAB. The effects of the different image resolutions on time-on-task performance scores to navigate through the environment, object-based visual attention as recorded by two eye movements - saccade and gaze fixation detections in viewing the images and the perceived usability of the computer system and virtual environment as measured by two post tests - the System Usability Scale and the Virtual Environment Presence Questionnaire were evaluated. Eye movement scores were collected with an eye tracking system that used the dark pupil method of eye analysis with a video lipstick camera. Results indicate that image resolution has a statistically (p<.05) significant effect on time-on-task performance wayfinding tasks and on object-based visual attention as indicated by gaze fixation scores. Participants fixated longer on lower resolution images, which affected their time-on-task performance. Resolution did not have a statistically significant effect on the perceived usability of the computer system or virtual environment.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Lisa Dawn Anderson.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 199 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002210863
oclc - 642719135
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002831
usfldc handle - e14.2831
System ID:
SFS0027148:00001


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Full Text

PAGE 11

System Usability Scale Virtual Environment Presence Questionnair

PAGE 16

Purpose of the Study Research Questions:

PAGE 17

Hypotheses :

PAGE 19

Definition of Terms Desktop Interior Virtual Learning Environment

PAGE 20

Eye Tracking Fixation Detections (Gaze Fixations) Image Image fidelity Image Resolution Locomotion Navigation

PAGE 21

Optic flow (eye gaze pattern) PPI pixels per inch Resolution . Saccade Detection Scores 3-D Desktop Wayfinding Wayfinding

PAGE 26

where,what how where what how

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The Where Viewpoint of Visual Attention The What Viewpoint of Visual Attention

PAGE 28

what where The How Viewpoint of Visual Attention how what where how Feature Integration Theory of Visual Attention

PAGE 29

Object -Based Visual Attention Theory Object -Based Visual Attention, Feature Integratio andthe Spotlight Model of Visual At tention

PAGE 31

Support of Object-Based Visual Attention

PAGE 35

what where what where

PAGE 42

ImageStat ImageStat

PAGE 44

2005 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference

PAGE 45

State of the Art Report 2004 Eurographics Conference

PAGE 48

Overview of Quality Measures of Image Resolution

PAGE 58

Performer Town

PAGE 60

The Image of the City Wayfinding in Archit ecture I mageability Imageability

PAGE 62

Soda Hall Soda Hall

PAGE 65

Considerations in Wayfinding Research Literature

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Wayfinding and Signage

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Cyberwalk Cyberwalk Soda Hall Cyberwalk Cyberwalk

PAGE 79

Cyberwalk

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Selection of Sample

PAGE 85

Previous Environmental Exposure

PAGE 86

Computer Skills Individual Differences

PAGE 90

. Time Saver Standards of Interior Design

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Resolution of the Wayfinding Images

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Sample Wayfinding Images with Different Resolution Levels

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.

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Research Area

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Computer Equipment Used in the Research Setup of the Eye Tracking System Equipment

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Mental Rotations Test (MRT)

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Reliability of the MRT Test

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Validity of the MRT Test

PAGE 102

Time -onTask Performance Measure

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Eye Tracking System Measure Arrington Research Total Quick Clamp Arrington Research Total Quick Clamp System Viewpoint Data Analysis

PAGE 104

Validity and R eliability of E ye Tracking Equipment

PAGE 105

System Usability Scale

PAGE 106

Validity of the SUS The American Institute of Research National Institute on Aging National Library of Medicine Virtual Environment Presence Questionnaire (VEPQ)

PAGE 107

Reliability of the VEPQ

PAGE 108

Logistics of the Research Area and Equipment IRB

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Eye Tracking System Scores Treatment Group 1 Treatment Group 2 Treatment Group 3 Treatment Group 4 Participants Sign In Phase One Administration of MRT ( Spatia l Ability Scores ) MRT Pha se Two Study Descriptor and Random Assignment Administration of (SUS ) Time on Task Scores

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Procedures of the Research Design Data Collection and Reporting Administration of VEPQ

PAGE 114

Time -onTask Performance Scores Administration of t he Eye Tracking System Arrington Research Total Quick Clamp System

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ViewPoint Data Analysis Administration of the SUS

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Administration of the VEPQ ViewPoint Data Analysis

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Characteristics of the Participant Sample by Image Resolution Group

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Means and S.D. of Mental Rotation Test Scores by Image Resolution Group Analysis of Variance for Mental Rotation Test Scores by Image Resolution Groups F p

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p Results of Research Question I Differences in Time -onTask Performance Scores Based on Image Resolution

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Means and S.D. of Time-onTask Performance Scores by Image Resolution Group

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Analysis of Variance of Time On Task Performance Scores by Image Resolutio n Group. F p p

PAGE 127

. Final Study Scatter Plot Analysis of Variance for TimeOn Task Performance Scores by Image Resolution Group.

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Results of Research Question II Differences in Visual Attention a s Reported by Eye Tracking Response Scores Based on Image Resolution

PAGE 129

Arrington Research Total Quick Clamp Arrington Quick Clamp System View Point Data Analysis

PAGE 130

Summary Data on Saccade Movement Score Averages by Image Resolution Group Summary Data on Gaze Fixation Detection Score Averages by Image Resolution Group

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Analysis of Variance for Saccade M ovement Scores by Image Resolution Group F p F(3,58) p

PAGE 132

Analysis of Variance on Gaze Fixation Detection Scores by Image Resolution Groups F p F (2,45) p

PAGE 133

Results of Research Question III Perception of Us ability of the Virtual Desktop Environment as a Function of Image Resolution

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System Usability Scores

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Summary of System Usability Scores by Image Resolution Group

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Analysis of Variance for SUS Scores by Image Resolution Groups F p F(3,56) p

PAGE 137

Repeated Measures ANOVA with VEPQ Items F p

PAGE 138

VEPQ VEPQ Summary of Virtual Environment P resence Questionnaire Overall Item Averages by Treatment Group

PAGE 145

.

PAGE 163

Proceedings of the International Society for Optical Engineering Applications of Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, How people look at pictures: A study of the psychology of perception in art. Proceedings of the 14th Eurographi cs Workshop on Rendering, Spatial Cognition II Integrating abstract theories, empirical stu dies, formal models & practical applications Science, Journal of the American Society for Information Sciences, Proceedings of the IEEE Transactions on Multimedia Visual attention Blackwell handbook of perception

PAGE 164

Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences Perceptual and Motor Skills .Annals of the Association of American Geographers Environment and Behavior, The Handbook of Virtual Environment Technology Proceedings of the CHI 96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ). Time saver standards of interior design and space planning. .Proceedings of the International Conference of Artificial Neural Networks .Proceedings of the 3rd Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture an d Urban Planning Conference. Proceedings of the 3rdAnnual Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia: CAADRIA'98 Proceedings of the 2000 Symposium on Eye Tracking Resea rch & Applications.

PAGE 165

Proceedings of the 2002 Symposium on Eye Track ing Research and Applications. Attention and Performance. Individual differences in cognition Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance Perception & Psychophysics Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Psychological Research Selective attention in vision. Proceedings of the 20thAnnual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques Psychologic e. al Bulletin Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception and Performance

PAGE 166

Proceedings of the 31st Annual Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Annual Proceedings of the 2002 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications Perception & Psychophysics, A Framework for comparing task performance in real and virtual scenes. Behavior Research Methods The principles of psychology Environment & Behavior Proceedings of the Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, Towards the integration of perceptual organization and visual attentio n: The inferential attentional allocation model. Annales d'Oculistique, Journal of General Psychology Vision Research,

PAGE 167

Proceedings of the 13th Annual Association for Computing Machinery Conference on Multimedia. The Astrophysical Journal Psychology Review The virtual environment performance assessment battery: Development and evaluation. Presence : Teleope rators and Virtual Environment, Journal of Environmental Psychology Proceedings of the Annual Theory and Practice of Computer Graphics Conference The image of the city Current Opinion in Neurobiology Multidimensional modeling of image fidelity measures

PAGE 168

Experience and results in teleoperation of land vehicles Pictorial Communication in Virtual and Real Environments Hierarchical data visualization Proceedings of the 4th Annual International Conference on Information Visualization Evolution and Human Behavior, International Journal of HumanComputer Interaction, Cognition, Proceedings of the 16th Annual Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group The design of everyday things Scientific American

PAGE 169

Perceptually adaptive graphics. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Human Computer Interaction, Environment and Behavior, Environment and Behavior Wayfinding in architecture. Vision Resea r ch Brain Cognition. British Journal of Ophthalmology Journal of the Institute of Electronic Radio Engineers Attention and Performance X Journal of Experimental Psychology Annual Review of Neuroscience

PAGE 170

.Spatial Vision, Perceptual Motor Skills. Environment and Planning. The effects of low frame rate on a measure for user performance in virtual environments Perceptually modulated level of detail for virtual environments. Psychological Bulletin Human Neurobiology Proceedings of the Annual IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications Conference. Proceedings of the 2000 Annual Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications .Child Development Navigation and wayfinding in virtual reality: Finding proper tools and cues to enhance navigational awareness. Sex Roles A Journal of Research. Interaction in virtual building space

PAGE 171

Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Image Processing Indian Journal of Aerospace Medicine Human Performance. Articulating the sense of place experienced by visitors to the J encks Landform. The image fidelity assessor. Proceedings of the 1998 IS & T SPIE International Symposium on Electronic Imaging Science and Technology,. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 3 Journal of Vision3 Cognitive Psychology Landscape Ecology. Perceptual Motor Skills Acta Psychological

PAGE 172

Telemedicine Journal Treatise of Physiological Optics. American Journal of Psychology Annual Proceedings of the Annual Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Graphics and Interactive Techniques Conference. Proceedings of the Annual Association for Computing Machinery Conference Human Factors. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Graphics and Interactive Techniques Conference, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting. Scale, resolution and resampling: Representation and analysis of remotely sensed landscapes across scale in geographic information systems

PAGE 173

Measuring presence in virtual environments. Presence. Eye movements and vision

PAGE 175

)

PAGE 176

MRT ) )

PAGE 177

Mental Rotation Test Scores

PAGE 178

Pilot Study Correlation Coefficient Betwe en TimeOn Task Performance Scores and Mental Rotation Test Scores Time -onTask Scores by Treatment Group

PAGE 179

Pilot Study Analysis of Variance for TimeOn Task by Image Resolutio n Group F Value p F (3,8) p Eye Tracker Data Scores

PAGE 180

Pilot Study Analysis of Variance for Saccade Movements by Image Resolution Group F Value p F (3,8) p Pilot Study Analysis of Variance for Gaze Fixation Detection Scores by Image Resolution Group F Value p

PAGE 181

F(3,8) p System Usability Scores scores to

PAGE 182

Pilot Study Correlation Coefficient Between Time On Task Performance Scores and System Usabilit y Scores 1 tailed p < Pilot Study Virtual Environment Presence Questionnaire Scores

PAGE 183

Pilot Study Correlation Coefficient Between Time On Task Performance Scores and Virtual Environment Presence Questionnaire Scores 1 tailed. p <

PAGE 184

RES4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 .5TOT400 300 200 100 0 Pilot Study Scatter Plot Analysis of Variance for TimeOn Task Performance Scores by Resolution.

PAGE 186

Student Name Meeting Time Classroom Visited Age Please check if you have had Previous Courses in:

PAGE 189

*

PAGE 191

Model floor plan in 3 D virtual environment Model environment oblique view Model environment corridor near conference room Model environment looking from e levator entry point of lobby Model environment looking down typ ical corridor Model environment looking down typical corridor

PAGE 194

*

PAGE 197

Independent Variable Resolution Participant 1 Participant 2 Participant 3 IR1 Resolution 150 ppi IR2 Resolution 100 ppi IR3 Resolution 75 ppi IR4 Resolution 30 ppi

PAGE 198

Independent Variable Resolution Participant 1 Participant 2 Partici pant 3 IR1 Resolution 150 ppi IR2 Resolution 100 ppi IR3 Resolution 75 ppi IR4 Resolution 30 ppi

PAGE 199

Independent Variable Resolution Participant 1 Participant 2 Participant 3 IR1 Resolution 150 ppi IR2 Resolution 100 ppi IR3 Resolution 75 ppi IR4 Resolution 30 ppi

PAGE 200

Independent Varia ble Resolution Participant 1 Participant 2 Participant 3 IR1 Resolution 150 ppi IR2 Resolution 100 ppi IR3 Resolution 74 ppi IR4 Resolution 30 ppi

PAGE 201

Independent Variable Resolution Participant 1 Participant 2 Participant 3 IR1 Resolution 150 ppi IR2 Resolution 100 ppi IR3 Resolution 75 ppi IR4 Resolution 30 ppi

PAGE 202

Item Numbers Participants IR1 150 ppi IR2 100 ppi IR3 75 ppi IR4 30 ppi 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

PAGE 203

I. V. Resolution Participant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 IR1 150 ppi (%) IR2 100 ppi (%) IR3 75 ppi (%) IR4 30 ppi (%)

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I. V. Resolution Participant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 IR1 150 ppi (seconds) IR2 100 ppi (seconds) IR3 75 ppi (seconds) IR4 30 ppi (seconds)

PAGE 205

I. V. Resolution Participant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 IR1 150 ppi IR2 100 ppi IR3 75 ppi IR4 30 ppi

PAGE 206

I. V. Resolution Participant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 IR1 150 ppi IR2 100 ppi IR3 75 ppi IR4 30 ppi

PAGE 207

I. V. Resolution Participant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 IR1 150 ppi (%) IR2 100 ppi (%) IR3 75 ppi (%) IR4 30 ppi (%)

PAGE 208

Group Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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Group Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4


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The role of image resolution to locomotion tasks in virtual desktop wayfinding
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Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
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ABSTRACT: An experimental study at a large research university evaluated the role of image resolution on 60 participant's locomotion tasks in an interior virtual desktop wayfinding environment. Four virtual environments were developed using different resolutions for wayfinding images including high level 150 ppi, medium high level 100 ppi, medium level 75 and low level 30 ppi images. The environment was designed to accommodate forward, backward, sideways and figure 8 locomotion tasks as defined by the VEPAB. The effects of the different image resolutions on time-on-task performance scores to navigate through the environment, object-based visual attention as recorded by two eye movements saccade and gaze fixation detections in viewing the images and the perceived usability of the computer system and virtual environment as measured by two post tests the System Usability Scale and the Virtual Environment Presence Questionnaire were evaluated. Eye movement scores were collected with an eye tracking system that used the dark pupil method of eye analysis with a video lipstick camera. Results indicate that image resolution has a statistically (p<.05) significant effect on time-on-task performance wayfinding tasks and on object-based visual attention as indicated by gaze fixation scores. Participants fixated longer on lower resolution images, which affected their time-on-task performance. Resolution did not have a statistically significant effect on the perceived usability of the computer system or virtual environment.
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Navigating
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