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Correlates of body depilation in men
h [electronic resource] /
by Michael Boroughs.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 84 pages.
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: Body depilation is a relatively new area of research inquiry. Although women in many industrialized cultures have engaged in body depilation for some time, this behavior has been documented only recently in men. While originally thought to be the practice of just a small percentage of men, recent studies suggest that more men engage in body depilation than had been previously hypothesized (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs, Cafri, & Thompson, 2005; Martins, Tiggemann, & Churchett, 2008; Tiggemann, Martins, & Churchett, 2008). Nevertheless, this area of research is understudied and the relationship between body depilation and men's overall body image is poorly understood.Since much of the documented evidence of men's body depilation is either descriptive anecdotes via media accounts (see Gomes, 2001; Smith, 2000; Stuever, 2000; Stein, 1999; Schuler, 2000) or scientific investigations of the behavior that were undertaken to provide descriptive data about body depilation by men (see Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs, et al., 2005; Martins, et al., 2008; Porche, 2007; Tiggemann, et al., 2008), now the time has come to further the understanding of this behavior in men. The purpose of these studies was to increase both the breadth and depth of our understanding of body depilation in men and its correlates with general body image concerns. A central aim of the first study was to test Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954) as a workable theoretical paradigm to explain the genesis and maintenance of body depilation. The second study investigated women's attitudes towards men's body hair and men's body depilation.Research questions that have provided the foundation for the design of this study include: a) is there a relationship between men's drive for muscularity, frequency of weekly exercise, and influence by others (via social comparison) that is related to their body depilation behaviors, b) do sexual minority men differ from heterosexual men with regard to depilation behaviors, c) what are women's attitudes toward men's body hair and body depilation by men, and d) how might the attitudes of sexual minority women differ from heterosexual women on the topic of men's body hair and body depilation by men?
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Advisor: J. Kevin Thompson, Ph.D.
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Correlates Of Body Depilation In Men by Michael Boroughs A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Psychology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: J. Kevin Thompson Ph.D. Jennifer Bosson, Ph.D. Jaime Goldenberg, Ph.D. Date of Approval: January 28, 2 009 Keywords: body image, hair removal, body dissatisfaction, muscularity, attitudes Copyright 2009 Michael Boroughs
i Table of Contents List of Tables i ii Abstract v Chapter One Introduction 1 Social Comparison Theory 3 Body Image Concerns in Men 5 Body Depilation in Men 7 Health Implications of Body Depilation 1 3 P references for B ody H air o n M en 15 19 Goals and Predictions for the Current Studies 2 1 Hypotheses 2 2 Chapter Two Study 1 Method 24 Chapter Three Study 1 Results & Discussion 3 0 Chapter Four Study 2 Method 45 Chapter Five Stu dy 2 Results & Discussion 48 Factor Analysis 49 Reliability Estimates 5 2
ii Chapter Six General Discussion 5 9 References 6 6 Appendices 7 4
iii List of Tables Table 1 Correlation of BoDeQ Scaled Items with other Body Image Measures 3 0 Table 2 Level of Body Hair Growth on Adult Males by Body Site 3 1 Table 3 Method and Frequency of Body Depilation by Body Site 3 3 Table 4 Correlations between Study 1 Measures with Mean and Standard 37 Table 5 reported body hair growth by body site 4 0 Table 6 Drive for Muscularity Scale Mean and Standard Deviations 4 1 Table 7 Ethnic Differences on the Appearance Evaluation Scale 4 4 Table 8 Mean differences by Sexual Orientation on the ATBHM scale 4 9 Table 9 Factor Pattern Coefficients of the ATBHM scale from a Principal Axis Factor Analysis with Orthogonal Rotation (original) 5 0 Table 10 Factor Pattern Coefficients of the ATBHM scale from a Principal Axis Factor Analysis with Orthogonal Rotation (Final) 5 1 Table 11 Item to total correlations for the ATBHM full scale 5 2 Table 12 Item to total correlations for Factor 1 of the ATBHM scale 5 3 Table 13 Item to total correlations for Factor 2 of the ATBHM scale 5 3 Table 14 Item to total correlations for Factor 3 of the ATBHM scale 5 4 Table 15 Item to total correlations for Factor 4 of the ATBHM scale 54
iv Table 16 Factor Correlations of the ATBHM scale 5 5 Table 17 Mean, Standard Deviation, and Percent Agree or Strongly Agree for items on the ATBHM scale 5 6
v Correlates of Body Depilation in Men Michael Boroughs ABSTRACT Body depilation is a relatively new area of research inquiry Although women in many industrialized cultures have engaged in body depilation for some time, this behavior has been documented only recently in men. While originally thought to be the practice of just a small percentage of men, recent studies suggest that more men engage in body depilation than had been previously hypothesized ( Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs, Cafri, & Thompson, 2 005; Martins, Tiggemann, & Churchett 2008 ; Tiggemann, Martins, & Churchett, 2008 ) Nevertheless, this area of research is is poorly understood. Since much of the documented descriptive anecdotes via media accounts (see Gomes, 2001; Smith, 2000; Stuever, 2000 ; Stein, 1999; Schuler, 2000 ) or scientific investigations of th e behavior that were undertaken to prov ide descriptive data about body depilation by men (see Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs, et al., 2005; Martins, et al. 2008 ; Porche, 2007 ; Tiggemann, et al. 2008 ) now the time has come to further the understanding of this behavior in men. The purpos e of th ese stud ies wa s to increase both the breadth and depth of our
vi understanding of body depilation in men and its correlates with general body image concerns. A central aim of the first study was to test Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954) as a workable theoretical paradigm to explain the genesis and maintenance of body depilation. The second study investigate d ttitudes toward s men a nd R esearch questions that have provided the foundation for the design of this study include: a) is there a relationship between drive for muscularity, frequency of weekly exercise, and influence by others ( via social comparison) that is related to their body depilation behaviors, b ) do sexual minority men differ from heterosexual m en with regard to depilation behaviors, body depilation by men, and d) how might the attitudes of sexual minority wo men differ from heterosexual women air and body depilation by men ?
1 Chapter One Introduction Body image is thought to be how cognitively internalize how they look. Though part of our body image is derived from some form of self reflection, e.g. looking in the mirror, it does not occur in isolation, but rather in concert with the observed images of others. Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954) may be a theoretical paradigm that helps to explain the body image concerns of both women and men. By comparing our appearan ce to that of others, individuals then create a cognitive baseline with which to internalize their thoughts about how they look. Because the body image concerns of individuals are generally related to comparisons with others, body depilation is also likely associated with a cultural message for women ( Basow & Braman, 1998; Hope, 1982; Tiggemann & Kenyon, 1998 ; Toerien & Wilkinson, 2003, 2004 ) and men (Boroughs & Thompson 2002; Boroughs, Cafri, & Thompson, 2005 ) through some psychological mechanism such a s social comparison Although body depilation by men has been documented in the literature (see Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs, et al. 2005; Martins, et al. 2008; Tiggemann, et al., 2008) c urrently the gen e sis and maintenance of this behavior by me n is poorly understood. Even if social comparison is a viable theoretic paradigm to explain this with body hair removal and reduction. Some possibilit ies include but are not limited to body dissatisfaction, changes in gendered norms and gender roles, a drive for muscularity, satisfaction with appearance and others. While thought to be a relatively
2 benign behavior whereby individuals modify the way thei r body appears through home be related to some physical and psychological health i mplications After all the process of shaving itself involves taking a very sharp blade and sliding it o ver t he entirety of the body. Indeed if body depilation involves social comparison and internalization of a new cultural norm for men then the possibility of some psychological effect s are evident. N o study has ever engagement in body depilation although previous studies have examined w e valuation s of m b odies in general (e.g. Lynch & Zellner, 1999 ; Pope, Phillips, & Olivardia 2000; Olivardia, Pope, Borowiecki, & Cohane 2004 ; Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005 ) their p references for b ody h air on m en more specifically ( e.g. Dix s on, Halliwell, East, Wignarajah, & Anderson, 2003 ; Dixson, Dixson, Baoguo, & Anderson, 2007 ; Dixson, Dixson, Morgan & Anderson, 2007 ) and the attitudes of women and men to ward women failure to engage in body depilation (Basow & Braman, 1999) Though Social C omparison T heory (Festinger, 1954) is offered as a possible explanation for the genesis of body depilation in men, and the maintenance of its associated behavior s alt ernative hypothesis exist including general body image disturbance, dissatisfaction with the appearance of hair at a particular body site, some type of psychopathology such as Body Dysmorphic D isorder, gender role conflict or the drive for muscularity (i. e. the idea that will examine each of these possibilities to learn more about this understudied phenomenon among men.
3 Social Comparison Theory Social Comparison Theory (SCT; Festinger, 1954) captures the idea that people tend to compare themselves to others in an effort to assess how they are doing at some task such as academic achievement, occupational success, or achieving an ideal body shape ( Fiske, 2004). In the context of body image research, the use of social comparison look. This theoretical paradigm may aid in a better understanding of the motives for t he initiation and maintenance of body depilation in men. Social comparison serves two functions, 1) to understand [those directly observable in the immediate environment], and 2) to motivate behavior [through some change mechanism such as removing body hai r and/or working out]. A key piece of the theory is that people compare themselves with M en who depilate their body hair would then be expected to socially ld be operationally defined as: a) other college students that men observe in their classes, b) other students observed around the college campus, or c) similar others such as other men observed at the gym or another exercise venue. The adaptation of Soci al Comparison Theory as a paradigm with which to research body depilation has never been attempted, though SCT has been widely cited in the general body image literature as a theoretical paradigm. The results of the application of SCT with more general bo dy image outcomes for men has thus far been mixed (see Halliwell, Dittmar, & Orsborn, 2007; van den Berg, Paxton, Keery, Wall, Guo, & Neumark Sztainer, 2007; Dittmar, 2005; Hospers & Jansen, 2005; Miller & Halberstadt, 2005; Franzoi & Klaiber, 2007; and He inberg & Thompson, 1992). For example, in their
4 study of adolescent boys, Morrison, Kalin and Morrison (2004) found fairly strong comparison to predict appearance self esteem, n umber of diets to gain weight, use of pathogenic weight control practices, and use of steroids to increase muscle mass. Because themselves to celebrities, sports stars, or other media figures, it failed to take into account others such as friends, classmat es, or gym mates. Nevertheless, the regression analyses conducted by Morrison et al. (2004) indicated that universalistic social comparison was a significant predictor on several criterion measures for males and this study suggested that this type of socia l comparison may have a fairly powerful effect on appearance self esteem in young men. This brings about an important consideration for the use of social comparison as a theoretic al framework for males, specifically as it is applied to the context of body image research. Some men may believe that the acknowledgment of comparisons of their the traditional sex role cultural expectation that males should be relatively unco ncerned about their physical appearance (Gettelman & Thompson, 1993; Morrison, Kalin, & Morrison, 2004). Indeed men in American culture may refrain from more open assessments of the attractiveness of other men because of the fear of being labeled as gay. Men may therefore be resistant to admitting to social comparison of bodily appearance with other men explicitly, though t he use of SCT as a framework might explain why men
5 choose to engage in body depilation regardless of the reasons they cite for engaging in the behavior. In a previous study of body depilation, researchers found that 40% of men said they were not influenced whatsoever by others or that they began body depilation on their own accord (Boroughs et al., 2005). Therefore, caution must be used w hen selecting appropriate items or instruments to collect these data from men. Though th e trend of body hair reduction and removal is relatively recent for men, it is quite possible that men are comparing their bodies to those they perceive as better than themselves, e.g. athletes, gym mates, classmates, celebrities, or similar others as gymmates) along with ideal others (professional athletes, actors, porn stars) may se rve to not only facilitate the initiation of body depilation, but may also serve to reinforce and maintain the behavior over time (Hobza, Walker, Yakushko, & Peugh, 2007). Although comparison with other men on the level of body hair may be new, clearly muc h research has been conducted over the past two decades into understanding the body image provides a foundation for more specific body image concerns for men such as b ody depilation. Body Image Concerns in Men Body image research has traditionally focused on the concerns of females (Thompson, 1990). However, in recent years, it has become apparent that men also have issues with their appearance ( Thompson, 1990 ; Borou ghs & Thompson, 2002) In fact, r may center around different aspects of appearance than the concerns of w omen, with a focus on muscularity rather than thinness
6 ( McCreary, Hildebrant, Heinberg, Boroughs & Thompson, 2007; Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff Dunn, 1999). For instance, Thompson and Tantleff (1992) found that men desired a larger and more muscular chest size than they currently possessed. Pope, Gruber, Choi, Olivardia, and Phillips (1997) s muscularity might a pproximate pathological levels and t hese researchers found that some bodybuilders met criteria for a diagnosis of B ody D ysmorphic D isorder (BDD). BDD is a somatoform disorder found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) with the essential feature being an excessive preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Al t hough typical complaints for a BDD patient include localization on a body site such as a wrinkle on the ir face or the shape and/or the size of the ir nose, the criteria also allow for a simultaneous focus on several body parts. In fact, the diagnostic crit eria for this disorder were expanded in the text revision of the DSM IV TR to more broadly cover general body image disturbance s that approximate pathological levels such as Muscle Dysmorphia (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Therefore, the possibi which might be considered by prospective BDD patients to be excessive at various body sites or even the compulsive removal of body hair is not beyond the scope of this diagnosis. Phillips and Diaz (1997) suggested that cultural norm s and values m ay influence the content of BDD symptom atology such as the particular site or aspect of body concern and therefore as social norms change related to body hair on men, so to o the appearance of hair on their bodies
7 A shift has occurred in cultural norms and in the scientific literature, over the past ten to 15 years w ith body image concerns moving beyond women alone, and towards the full inclusion of men. T h ese changes are no t indicat ive of a reduc tion in the pr evalence of body image disturbance (s) in women, but rather the add ition of o the group of the objectified and com m odified in the culture Rightly so, researchers have moved f rom a singular focus on diet ary restrictions and the more typical ea ting disorders symptomatology found mostly in women as strategies to conform to an unrealistic thin ideal, to also examine techniques used by men to change their appearance to a muscular ideal including weight training, excessive aerobic exercise and the use of steroids and supplements ( McCreary, Hildebrandt, Heinberg, Boroughs, & Thompson, 2007 ; Thompson & Cafri 2007 ) Scientific investigators have finally developed research measures and clinical image issues. One such issue of importance to men is body depilation. While normative for women in western and industrial cultures, docume ntation of body depilation in men is a relatively new ph enomenon in contemporary societies Body Depilation in Men B ody depilation can be operationally defined as the reduction or removal of body hair from the neck down For example, body hair reduction ma y constitute the use of an electric clipper to shave hair leaving some visible stubble, while body hair removal could involve the use of a razor, laser, or an other method to either temporarily or permanently remove visible hair Both of the described techniques used to remove or reduce the appearance of body hair would be characterized as body depilation. Although
8 documentation of the behavior of body depilation in men is new in contemporary societies, t he practice of body depilat ion by men is not. During ancient times both Egyptian and Greek cultures placed a premium on the appearance of a hairless male body and ancient Egyptian men often shaved their body hair with pumice stones and razors (Luciano, 2001). Much of the art that h as survived the times support s this notion with Greco Roman statuary illustrative of hairless men even in the post pubescent ephebo typic al archetypes. While a hairless norm ha s endured f or women in many western cultures it fell out of favor for men. The resultant cultural sanction was for only females to engage in body depilation and therefore, until recently it has been strongly normative within contemporary Western culture for only women to depilate their body hair ( Basow & Braman, 1998; Hope, 1982; Tiggemann & Kenyon, 1998 ; Toerien & Wilkinson, 2003, 2004 ). Men, conversely, have not been noted for engaging in body depilation outside of antiquity perhaps because the presence of body hair has been indelibly associated with masculinity (Basow, 1991; L ewis, 1987; Basow & Braman, 1998; Tiggemann & Kenyon, 1998). With relatively few exceptions such as athletes and bodybuilders men have not engaged in body depilation because the presence of body hair has traditionally been symbolic of masculinity and th (Basow, 1991; Basow & Braman, 1998; Lewis, 1987; Tiggemann & Kenyon, 1998). It appears, however, that the hairless male body ideal has come b ack into vogue (Luciano, 2001). According to popular press accounts, shifting cultural ideal s h ave influenced many men to depilate their body hair (Gomes, 2001; Schuler, 2000; Smith, 2000; Stein,
9 1999; Stuever, 2000). In fact several recent empirical accounts suggest that a wide variety of men are concerned with their body hair and are engaging in body depilation behaviors ( Boroughs & Thompson 2002 ; Boroughs, et al., 2005; Martins, et al., 2008 ; Tiggemann, et al., 2008 ) In one of the few studies to explore attitudes about body hair, Lewis (1987) found that the presence or absence of body hair generally d id identity. A more recent study found that body hair was a common appearance concern for men with ( 51.6% ) of the sample naming body hair as a concern preceded only by head hair ( 64.5% ) and penis size ( 61.3% ) and followed by height ( 48.4% ) (Tiggemann et al., 2008). Basow and Braman (1998) also examined attitudes toward body hair asking both male and female college s tudents to identify their reactions to ward women who did not re move their body hair. Both male and female participants made negative attributions toward women who did not remove their body hair ; though unfortunately neither the attitudes toward the presence of male body hair nor b ody depilation by men w ere evaluated in this study ( Basow & Braman 1998 ) Naturally, society is central in determining such as the acceptability of body depilation for one or both sexes. Therefore, although body depilat ion might be characterized as simply the acceptance of socialized norms for women it is a rejection of those norms for men An evaluation of the factors underlying m body depilation might contribute uniquely to an understanding of male appearance concerns and body dissatisfaction by the general population has been the basis for many new investigation by
10 researchers Of particular interest are those examinations into m the depilation of their body hair. Observations and a necdotal r eports from various sources suggested the potential for a new form of body image concern that might warrant further investigation: engagement in behaviors with t he goal of reducing or remov ing hair from atypical body sites. Popular press accounts have preced ed empirical examinations of this phenomenon ( see Gomes, 2001; Smith, 2000; Stuever, 2000 ; Stein, 1999; Schuler, 2000 ). Such accounts and anecdotal cases suggest that body depilation may occur not only in athletes ( predominantly in bodybuilders and swimmers ) and sexual minority men, but also in a broad cross section of men in American society. Body depilation has even be en described Metzler & Williams, 2003) and as a key part of the modal profile of the author and social commentator Mark Simpson (1994, 2002). The result of these docume n ted media accounts coupled with other factors such a s systematic field observations was a n initial exploratory investigation was undertaken to examine some qualitative and quantitative facets of this relatively new body image concern for men (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002) Specifically, the goals of this initial study included seeking information from male participants on ( a ) their frequency of body depilation, ( b ) reasons behind engaging in th e behavior, ( c ) methods used to reduce or remove body hair, ( d ) b ody sites where depilation occurred, and ( e ) social and affective correlates of body depilation which were measured to determine whether there might be conceptual similarities to more general body image dissatisfaction and disturbance. Men reported depilat ing body hair weekly or bi weekly, gave reasons for depilation that included
11 their bodies of which regu lar straight razors (100%), and electric clippers (65%) were reported as being used with the highest frequencies (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002). The areas of the body that were most frequently depilated included the abdomen (90%), chest and the groin (85%), and upper legs (70%). Participants reported feeling dirty (25%) less muscular or less presentable just before engaging in body depilation and reported some level of either moderate or situational anxiety (55%) if they were unable to depilate for some pe riod of time (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002). T he findings from this study do not preclude the possibility that men engage in body depilation to approximate a hairless ideal of attractiveness. Given the anecdotal reports that support an emerging hairless ideal for men the observations of experts in the field (e.g., Luciano, 2001) the media attention to the topic ( e.g. Gomes, 2001; Schuler, 2000; Simpson, 1994, 2002; Smith, 2000; Stein, 1999; Stuever, 2000 ) and qualitative data that indicate d that men ar e depilating their body hair in order to increase their attractiveness (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002), there was sufficient foundation to hypothesize that appearance and body image concerns are a critical underlying factor influenc ing body depilation in men In the absence of social norms to guide the behavior, it is expected that some other mechanism must be present in order to influence men to en gage in a behavior that has hitherto been considered not masculine. Clearly, there wa s a need to confirm the nu merous anecdotal accounts and preliminary data that suggest ed that body depilation is indeed a new and potentially important component of body image concern for men. Therefore, in the ir study into the
12 prevalence and correlates of body depilation in men, Bo roughs, Cafri, and Thompson (2005) had several objectives: (1) to estimate the prevalence of body depilation in a sample of men, (2) to assess the characteristics of body depilation by examining the various body sites where depilation takes place, (3) to d etermine the reasons for body depilation (4) to assess the methods used to depilate body hair, and ( 5 ) to assess the social and affective variables related to body depilation. With a sample of 118 men from a large southeastern university, the results inc luded an estimated prevalence of body depilation in men at ( 63.6 % ) (Boroughs et. al, 2005). Additionally, these authors reported that the body sites most common ly depilat ed included the groin (74%), chest (56%), abdomen (47%), back of the neck (37%), arm pits (33%), and upper legs (27%) (Boroughs et al., 2005) The method most frequently used by men to depilate their body hair was indica ted by whether the goal wa s to remove the hair completely or only to partially remove the hair (i.e. trim the hair ) to le ave the appearance of stubble Boroughs et al., (2005) reported that a regular straight razor garnered the highest frequency (71%) for complete depilation of body hair followed by the use of an electric razor (32%) or electric clippers (29%) used for tr imming which they characterized as body hair reduction. Despite the main hypothesis that men engage d in body depilatio n as a strategy to make them appear more muscular, participants in this study reported that their main reasons for depilation were cleanliness (75%) and sex appeal ( 69%) (Boroughs et al., 2005) There we re also potential health implications for men who engaged in body depilat ion and these health risks could be characterized as both physical and psychological Men reported various i njuries related to body depilation such as razor
13 burn (38.7%), nicks to the skin (29.3%), in grown hairs (32%), and cuts to the skin (26.7%) (Boroughs et al., 2005). Health Implications of Body Depilation In addition to the self reported physical injuries that could result from body depilation, this behavior might also be associated with a diagnosis of B ody D ysmorphic D isorder for some men. For example, i n their study, Boroughs et al. (2005) reported that 16% of the male participants questioned said that it would disturb them if they were hypothetically unab le to depilate their body hair and an additional 18% rated their anxiety to be in the moderate to extreme range when asked how they would feel if they could not shave or trim their body hair for a few weeks. These findings indicate that, for at least a subset of men, body depilation is critical in maintaining positive feelings and lo wer ing anxiety about their body image and appearance ( Boroughs et al., 2005; McCreary, Hildebrandt, Heinberg, Boroughs, & Thompson, 2007 ) In addition to the potential for the se physical and mental health issues linked to body depilation in men there are other physical health issues that are of concern As noted earlier, men have report ed using mostly regular razors as the primary instrument with which to remove their body hair. This might explain the recent ly documented increases in S taphylococcus Aureus I nfections identified in men who depilate their body hair (Begier, et al., 2004 ) as well as an enhance d risk of contracting or transmitting the herpes simplex or human papilloma viruses ( Porche, 2007; Trager, 2006). These studies suggest that shaving body hair leaves the skin more susceptible to these diseases because of skin irritation, nicks and cuts, abrasions, and folliculitis ( Porche, 2007; Trager, 2006) T hey also suggest that men may not be as vigilant about t he depilation process as women, and that m en should
14 be educated on improved depilation techniques to prevent medical complications from body depilation ( Porche, 2007). The most recent study of (N=228) with g ay men (N=106) in Australia and found that ( 33% ) of heterosexual and ( 63% ) of gay men engaged in depilation of their body hair specifically o n either the back or buttocks at least once in their lives (Martins, Tiggemann, & Churchett, 2008 ). An even higher percentage of heterosexual (66%) and gay (82%) men engaged in depilation of their pubic area (Martins et al., 2008 ). An overwhelming majority of men (80%) used shaving as the main technique for body hair removal, and the reasons stated for engaging in bo dy depilation included improved appearan ce, and better feeling [about the appearance of the body] (Martins et al., 2008 ). Given the mounting evidence for an increase in the number of men who engage in this behavior and both the psychological and physical health ramifications of it, it is important for researchers to gain a better understand ing of the motivation by men to engage in this activity, and determine how it relates to both their pursuit of the muscular ideal and their overall body image concerns or body dissatisfaction Whereas women have traditionally depilate d their body hair because of cultural demands to evade the stigma of body hair and to avoid the association body hair has with masculinity ( Tiggemann & Kenyon, 1998; Torien & Wilkinson, 2003 2004), men have report ed that they engage in body depilat ion because it makes them look cleaner more sexually attractive, enhances their sexual experience, provides a sense of youthfulness, improves their appeara nce, and makes them look more muscular (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs et al., 2005 ; Martins, et al. 2008 ; Tiggmann, et al. 2008 ). Furthermore, there is
15 currently no understanding of why some men choose complete depilation of their body hair versus trimming the hair to leave stubble ( McCreary, Hildebrandt, Heinberg, Boroughs, & Thompson 2007 ) The latter though theoretically an option for both sexes is rarely if ever observed in women and is seemingly exclusive to men One might suspect the remnants of normative masculinity are at play with those men who choose only to trim their body hair, or perhaps this choice preferences for some level of body hair on men P revious research on W attitudes toward body hair on men has shown that they tend to rate men with some body hair on their trunks as more attractive than men with a complete absence of body hair (Dix s on, Halliwell, East, Wignarajah, & Anderson, 2003). for Body Hair on Men The e xtant e vidence is contradictory on the topic of hair as demonstrated through several cross cultural work s. For example, in her e xpos Laura Miller (2003) report ed that the cu ltural paradigm for men in that country is to have smooth, civilized bodies, and that the removal of their body hair is not only culturally acceptable, but mandated by women. For many centuries, the Japanese have held hairy bodies in some disfavor ( Diktt er, 1998; Miller, 2003). In earlier times, hairiness was exemplary of the uncivilized barbarian, as illustrated by the pejorative label in the Japanese language for a white person, keto literally hairy Chinese In both China (Dikt ter, 1998) and Japan, excessive body hair on men came to symbolically represent ethnic or racial boundaries between the in group and the out group For the Japanese, t he hirsute male body might
16 r epresent an outside r, suc h as the Ainu or Okinawans (Miller, 2003) Indeed, c ritics note that attitudes towards body hair on men have undergone dramatic changes since the postwar period in Japan (Across, 1989) and some of these attitudes have been empirically demonstrated in other Asian countries In their recent Anderson (2007) found that Chinese women preferred male torsos without body hair. Using frontal mesomorphic silhouette figures (Sheldon 1954) this study presented five frontal male figures varying only in the amount of trunk (chest and abdominal) hair, and found that Chinese women rat ed the male figure lacking any trunk hair as the most attractive, and that th ere was a progressive decli ne in the attractiveness ratings as the level of hair increased among the silhouette figures of men while controlling for all other body shape variables (Dixson et al., 2007) These findings observed with a Chinese sample are contrasted by research into th e same topic conducted with a sample of women in the United Kingdom British women rated both endomorphic and mesomorphic male body silhouette figures as more attractive when they contained visible body hair on the chest and abdomen (Dixson, Halliwell, East Wignarajah, & Anderson, 2003) and i n another more recent study conducted with women in central Africa, Bakossi women showed only a small preference for one of the five front posed mesomorphic figures incorporating varying degree s of trunk (chest and abdominal) hair further obfuscating the for body hair on men The summative results of these studies suggest that cultur e and socialization may play a great role in influencing
17 nces on this issue The figure lacking body hair was rated least attractive by Bakossi women on average, but only marginally so and the figure rated most attractive was the second from the most hirsute leaving the only observed statistically significant f inding being the average difference between the hairless figure and second from the most hirsute male silhouette (Dixson, Dixson, Morgan & Anderson, 2007) Apparently somewhat frustrated by the inconsistent finding s cross culturally, the authors of these studies stated that a t present, we do not know how typical the occurrence of mascul ine chest and abdominal hair is as a secondary sexua l characteristic in the Bakossi population (or other populations, e.g. Chinese) although our impression is that many me n lack trunk hair suggesting that studies are indicated to measure differential body hair growth on men cross ethnically (Dixson et al. 2007 pp 373 ) These studies demonstrate differential r as the amount of body hair varies Although limitations exist ratings such as the young age and non married status of the sample in the Chinese study, overall, the results demonstrate differences that might be culturally relevant biologically determined (actual men in these various ethnicities may tend to be more or less hirsute), or some interaction of both biology and culture Because so little is known about body depilation behaviors, and even less is known about preferences for body hair on men, or body depilation by men part of the goal of the current study will be to examine th is important research question. T hough few researchers have examined the idealization of body hair on the male body by others (inclu siv e of heterosexual women, or sexual minority men) data have been inconclusive on whether body hair on men is considered unattractive (Dixson, et al.,
18 2007) preferable (Dix s on, et al. 2003 Lewis, 1987). The r esults of the previous studies into this area however, may have been due to a number of methodological limitations beyond sample characteristics such as age and marital status For instance, Dix s on et al. (2003) found that women rated male silhouette figu res as more attractive if they had hair on the chest and abdomen. One shortcoming of th is ( Dix s on et al. 2003) Conversely the study by Lewis (1987) examined the natural presence or absence of body hair and its relation ship to their masculinity, but did not measure this in others, nor was body depilation a consideration in that investigation Another shortcoming of the Dixson et al. (2003, 2007, 2007) studies is that the body site location s where hair may grow were not examined as variables so that excessive body hair and/or hair on certain parts of the body where it may not be considered appealing were not measured. T hese studies have been conducted with British, African Bakossi, Chinese, and Japanese cultures and it remains unclear if there are cultural influences biological differences, or a combination of both that affect th e outcomes reported in these studies. Finally, the studies have lacked psychological components known to play a role in these preferences such as internalization, social norms, and social comparison. The se inconclusive findings suggest a need for a better understanding in this area of body image research, with women as informants on their attitudes toward hair on and also for the collection of data from sexual minorities to examine what differences there may be when gay and bisexual men are i ncluded as informants on other body hair, and body depilation behaviors Despite divergent socio historical and
19 both the East (Across, 1989; Diktter, 1998; Mi ller, 2003) and West (Lewis, 1987; though perhaps muted in the patriarchal past, are beginning to come to light as researchers have begun to give them a voice ( Dixson, et al., 2003; Dixson et al., 2007; Dixson et al 2007). body depilation by men have never been studied, extant evidence suggests the existence believe those preferences to be. E In the general body image literature, men have been found to overestimate the degree of muscularity that is found attractive by women (Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005), and women estimate that other women idealize more muscul ar males than they really do (Lynch & Zellner, 1999). In another study that supported the findings that incongruence exists between the beliefs men have about their body shape, and what women find ideal Pope Phillips, and Olivardia (2000) found cross cu ltural support for 27 to 32 pounds of additional muscle mass. In th at study, researchers were so stunned by this finding that they later asked women at the Austrian data collection site to complete some of the measures given to men ( those used with male participants to estimate their actual body shape) to help to conceptualize a supposed female ideal body shape for men and found that the women did not choose the highly muscular body image that men thought they would like, but instead preferred a man who looked very much like an actual average man in their country (Pope et al 2000)
20 These findings were replicated empirically as part of a less ad hoc design by a more rec ent examination of 77 American women by Olivardia Pope, Borowiecki, and Cohane ( 2004 ) Here the design was to measure ideal and actual body shape via both muscle mass and body fat and it was found that male p articipants thought that women wanted th em to be significantly more muscular and leaner than the ideal male body shape selected by the female participants (Olivardia et al., 2004) M (as calculated through skin fold measurements) and perceived (assessed through the Somatomorphic Matri x on a computer) muscularity was significantly lower than the muscularity of the ideal male body shape chosen by the female participants ; m en chose an ideal image that was significantly more muscular and significantly fatter than the ir perceived female ideal of the male body (Olivardia et al. 2004). These and other findings demonstrate the idea that when it comes to body image, and the expectations that others have, people sometimes make errors in judgment. So if men erroneously engage in body depilation (or even the drive for muscularity for that matter) beyond what is desired of them by women or other men, what explains this behavior ? and perhaps even body depilation is propagated by g oals of looking more attractive in an effort to gain the interest of others. Yet, none of these anecdotal reports have suggested that men have received these messages via explicit feedback from others, but rather that they learn, or come to believe this mu scular and hairless ideal is what is preferred by the sexual other. One theoretic al paradigm would suggest that instead of men learning directly and explicitly about a hairless and muscular ideal, which has hitherto not been supported in the literature (Po pe et al., 2000; Olivardia et al., 2004; Frederick, Fessler, &
21 Haselton, 2005 ) from potential sexual others, they instead learn about it fr om each other by observation and comparison, this SCT may be implicated in body depilation. Goals and Predictions of the Current Studies The current studies are intend ed to address these limitations note from the previous research on the relationship between body depilation and other body image concerns as well as to investigate depilation by men. Specifically, the studies aim to determine: a) if social comparison is a viable theoretic al paradigm with which to association between body depilation and other body image related correlate s such as exercise habits, appearance evaluation, body areas satisfaction, drive for muscularity, hair this study. Some r esearch q uestions of interest include : a) d o men who eng age in body depilation socially compare themselves to other men via explicitly stating that they notice that other men have depilated their body hair in social contexts such as gyms school, work, or other social situations (amongst strangers) ; b) i ody d epilation related to age that is are younger men more likely to engage in the behavior than older men ; c) i s ody d epilation correlated with hair growth by body site s uch that t he more body sites where men reported hair the more likely they will depilate ; d) what role does m en who are more conflicted about their masculinity have with body depilation behaviors ; e) d o w omen who go to gyms at a greater frequency h ave more positive attitudes toward body depilation and hairless ness in men?
22 The following hypotheses are offered: Social Comparison 1) Body Depilation will be positively associated with gym attendance because this environment provides for ample social comparison of a group of men thought to have a higher prevalence of body depilation, or at the very least, the ability to see and compare themselves to like other on many body sites due to the cultural no rms for gym attire 2) Men who engage in b ody d epilation will be more likely to socially compare themselves to like others in the context of appearance. Body Image 3) Body Depilation will be associated with self reported sexual orientation such that sexual mino rity men will be more likely than heterosexual men to depilate (empirically driven hypothesis see Boroughs et al., 2005; Martins et al., 2008; Tiggemann et al., 2008). 4) Men that have a higher drive for muscularity will be more likely to depilate (empiricall y derive d hypothesis given the proposed genesis of modern body depilation in men having its foundation in the body building community). 5) Men who engage in body depilation will have a higher incidence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (empirically derived hypothesis the literature suggests that body dissatisfaction can lead to Muscle Dysmorphia, cosmetic surgery, and therefore body depilation may be a strategy used to cope with dysmorphia)
23 6) Men who engage in body depilation will hav e greater body dissatisfaction and less satisfaction with their appearance. (empirically driven hypothesis because f indings suggest that contemporary American men display substantial body dissatisfaction (Olivardia et al., 2004) and one explanation for bod y depilation may be dissatisfaction with body hair growth).
24 Chapter Two STUDY 1 Method Participants Study 1 included a sample of 360 male participants from a large southeastern American university. The age ranged from 18 to 44 (M=20.92 SD=3.99) with a modal age of 18 years which account ed for 24 1 % of the total sample. The majority of the sample was single (9 4 .2%), grew up in the United States (92. 2 %), and identified as heterosexual (91. 4 %). Euro American was the largest reported ethnicity ( 61 1 %), followed by Latinos (1 4 5 %), African Americans (1 2 2 %), Asian Americans ( 10 5%), and Native Americans 1.7 %. The sample was relatively evenly distributed across year in college with 1% post baccalaureate students, 19.3% seniors, 24.1% juniors, 19.8% sop homores, and 21.4% freshman. A majority of the sample ( 74.3% ) reported viewing pornography for some period of time over the span of a week with the average being 56 minutes, and the median 30 min ute s. There were significant differences found between heterosexual (M=51.7 minutes SD=133.5 ) and sexual minority (M=98.9 minutes SD=92.4 ) men in pornography viewership, F (1, 357) = 3.69, p = .05. A total of 4 5 sexual minority men (8.6%) participated in the study S exual minori ties compose a group whose s exual identity, orientation attractions, or behaviors differ from the majority of the surrounding culture or society ( Ullerstam 1966) For this study, t he term sexual minorities is operationalized as gay or bisexual men, but also
25 lesbians or bisexual wom en as is noted in study 2. The screen in question which selected men for the sexual minority protocol rather than the heterosexual protocol was a single question on a Mass Testing Screener Survey used to manage the USF psychology Th e question read, How would you describe your sexual attraction towards others? All participants answered this question with a 5 point Likert response set from 1= Attracted only to the same sex (gay) to 5= Attracted to only the opposite sex (straight) Participants answering 5 on this question were directed to the heterosexual protocol, whereas all other participants whose answer s ranged from 1 to 4 on this item were directed to the sexual minority prot ocol. The sexual minority protocol included one additional measure outlined in Study 2. Four human sexuality questions were asked of all S tudy 1 participants eliciting ratings on a 5 point Likert scale having to do with Sexual Attraction, Sexual Behavior Sexual Fantasy, and Sexual Orientation (Identity). The responses for the s exual m inority attraction for, behavior with, or fantasy about other same sex individuals. In order to determine whether these cases should remain within the sexual minority group for the purpose of data analys e s or be moved to the heterosexual group, a criterion was established whereby any case that fell within the sexual minority protocol t hat responded to all four sexuality questions heterosexual group. No such cases existed; therefore all 4 5 sexual minority cases remained labeled as being within the sexual minority group, with one case del eted because all items on every questionnaire were unanswered.
26 For the sexual minority m ale sub sample, the mean age was M=21.55 SD=5.56, and the modal age was 18 years with 27.3% of the sub sample reporting this age. The majority (95.5%) were socialized in the United States, and 56.8% were Euro American, 22.7% Latino, 11.4 % African American, 6.8% Asian American, and 2.3% Native American. Chi square tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of diversi ty between the heterosexual and sexual minority groups and no significant differences were observed Measures Social Comparison: Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS; Thompson, Heinberg, & Tantleff, 1991) The five item PACS was used to measure the tendency of men to make personal physical appearance related comparisons with like others in various social situations. Participants indicated on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = never, 5 = always) the frequency with whic Items 2 ( The best way for a person to know if they are overweight or underweight is to compar ) and 5 ( In social situations, I sometimes compare my figure to the figure of other people ) were modified for use with the male sample in Study 1 time it appeared in these two items to adjust to a more comfortable linguistic syntax for men The authors report an alpha of .61, though the observed alpha for this sample was .68. In th e current study, one of the items, which is the only reverse coded item on the
27 scale (item 4) had a negative correlation with the item total. Therefore, this item was deleted and the resulting observed alpha for the PACS was .78 Body Image: Body Depil ation Questionnaire (BoDeQ; Boroughs, Cafri, & Thompson, 2005) This 1 6 item measure was used to measure descriptive information about the body depilation habits of men including aspects of mood and anxiety associated with hypothetical limitations being pu There are three item clusters with good internal consistencies ( s) : Importance of depilation 77 ( item 9 a b c ); f .77 (item 13 a b ); and o a b c d ). Because most items on the BoDeQ are check list style, the above alphas are reported only for the continuo us ly scaled items on this measure. As an adjunct to the PACS in measuring social comparison, four additional items were added to the end of the BoDeQ instrument comparison and observation of other men that depilate their body hair in four different contexts: a) at the gym, b) among other male friends, c) among classmates, and d) among other men elsewhere in the general population (see Appendices ). Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination, Self Report (BDDE SR ; Rosen & Reiter, 1996) This 32 item self administere d questionnaire was used to measure the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The BDDE SR has acceptable test retest reliability ( r =.94), internal consistency ( r =.95), and concurrent validity with other body image questionnaires ( r s = .68 to .83) ( Rosen, Reiter, & Orosan, 1995). The BDDE SR is considered a psychometrically sound instrument that allows for an accurate
28 diagnosis of BDD and assesses for typical BDD symptom atology that can be targeted in treatment. The o s Alpha for this sample was Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (Brown, Cash & Mikula, 1990) The MBSRQ Appearance Scale (MBSRQ) is a 34 item measure that consists of 5 subscales: 1) Appearance Evaluation (AES), 2) Appearance Orientation, 3) Overweight Preoccupation, 4) Self Classified Weight, and 5) the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS). The MBSRQ is widely used in body image res earch and has adequate psychometric properties with test retest reliability ( r = .91) and internal consistency ( r = .88) ( Brown, Cash & Mikula, 1990 ). Two o f the five M BS RQ sub scales : the AES and the BASS w e re administered to participants Appearance Evalua tion Scale (MBSRQ A E S) Th e AES is a 7 item subscale that looks (Cash et al., 1990) The obse was = .90 Body Areas Satisfactio n Scale (MBSRQ BASS) The BASS is a 9 item subscale that asks participants for satisfaction ratings for specific body sites and parameters One item was added to this subscale, participants was also asked to rate their satisfaction with their b ody hair including the amount, locations, and coarseness The observed ample was = .86. Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS; McCreary & Sass e, 2000) This 15 item scale is designed to assess attitudes toward muscularity. Items are rated o n a 6 point Likert scale ranging from 1=always to 6=never, and then reverse scored so that higher scores indicate a greater drive for muscularity. The authors (McCreary & Sasse, 2000) report an alpha = .84, and for this sample, the observed
29 originally published sample. Gender Role Conflict (Masculinity) : ) This is a 37 item questionnaire traditional male gender roles in the United States and the negative consequences that result from violations of this role. Four factors were measured with this instrument including: 1) Success, Power, and Competitio n, 2) Restrictive Emotionality, 3) Restrictive Affectionate Behavior between Men, and 4) Conflict between work and family relations. Participants respond to items using a 6 point scale from 1=strongly disagree to 6=strongly agree, with higher scores indica ting greater gender role conflict. Test four factor structure was found to be internally consistent with alphas ranging from .75 to
30 Chapter Three Results and Discussion The scaled items on the BoDeQ related to feedback from others on body depilation and the importance of depilating before being seen by friends, significant others, or stra ngers were not associated with the measures of social comparison (i.e. the PACS or the four BoDeQ items related to observations that others have engaged in body depilation). Conversely, the BoDeQ scaled items having to do with anxiety if participants were unable to depilate for a few weeks, and positive or negative feelings when body hair is not depilated, were associated with some of the measures of body image, namely the AES, BASS, BDDE SR, and the DMS. For example, a negative correlation ( r = .269) was o bserved between the BoDeQ feeling items (feeling good) and body dysmorphia measured through the BDDE SR Negative correlations were also observed between appearance evaluation ( r = .442) and body areas satisfaction ( r = .413) and body dysmorphia indicatin g that men who have great appearance satisfaction and greater body areas satisfaction were less likely to have experience body dysmorphia. The results of these Pearson correlations appear in the Table 1.Table 1. Correlation of BoDeQ scaled items with other Body Image Measures 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. BoDeQ Feeling items .257** .171* .198** .269** .058 2. BoDeQ Anxiety item .036 .008 .136* .180** 3. MBSRQ AES .788** .442** .140* 4. MBSRQ BASS .413** .182** 5. BDDE SR .218** 6. DMS p<.05 **p < .001
31 reported body hair growth by site, the following was reported by participants that were asked to u s e a 1 to 5 scale with 1 = no hair (or very little hair) and 5= very hairy, to indicate the amount of hair that grows on the following body sites listed in table 2 The results indicate that the body sites with the greatest amount of hair reported were the groin (M=3.4, SD=1.0), legs (M=3.3, SD=.99), and armpits (M=3.2, SD=.95). Approximately 2/3 of men re ported little to no hair on their backs while 1/3 of men reported having a hairless chest. See Table 2 for the results. Table 2. Level of Body Hair growth on Adult Males by Body Site N (1) No hair/very little hair (2) (3) (4) (5) Very hairy M(SD) 1 Neck 358 56.7 (203) 27.7 (99) 9.5 (34) 2.8(10) 3.4 (12) 1.7(.99) 2 Shoulders 359 74.1(266) 18.1(65) 5.3(19) 1.4(5) 1.1(4) 1.4(.75) 3 Armpits 355 4.5(16) 15.8(56) 45.6(162) 25.9(92) 8.2(29) 3.2(.95) 4 Chest 358 33(118) 26.5(95) 20.9(75) 12.3(44) 7.3(26) 2.3(1.3) 5 Abdomen 357 24.6(88) 34.7(124) 21.8(78) 12.6(45) 6.2(22) 2.4(1.2) 6 Groin 358 4.5(16) 12.6(45) 38.8(139) 29.9(107) 14.2(51) 3.4(1.0) 7 Back 359 61.8(222) 22.8(82) 10.9(39) 1.9(7) 2.5(9) 1.6(.94) 8 Buttocks 358 28.2(101) 32.7(117) 23.7(85) 9.5(34) 5.9(21) 2.3(1.2) 9 Arms 358 16.5(59) 39.7(142) 29.1(104) 10.9(39) 3.9(14) 2.5(1.0) 10 Hands 358 47.5(170) 30.7(110) 15.4(55) 4.7(17) 1.7(6) 1.8(.97) 11 Legs 358 3.4(12) 16.2(58) 38.3(137) 30.4(109) 11.7(42) 3.3(.99) 12 Feet 357 37.5(134) 35.9(128) 16.8(60) 7.3(26) 2.5(9) 2.0(1.0) Of those men who engaged in body depilation at any body site the primary sites reported by men for depilation behaviors were the groin (92.7%), abdomen (61%), back of the neck (57.6%) and chest (56.9%). The most frequently reported methods used for reducing or removing body hair were body site dependent, though a regular razor and
32 either an electric razor or electric clippe rs were the most common methods. Other than these three body depilation methods, the o nly other methods reported by 1% or more of the sample were s cissors and depilatory creams For example, participants reported using scissors for the groin/pubic area ( 13.6%), armpits (9.5%), or abdomen (2.5%) and depilatory creams f or the chest (1.3%), buttocks (1.4%), and abdomen (1.2% ). Table 3 contains the methods used for body depilation by body site along with the average frequency of body hair reduction or removal Male p articipants reported that they ha d been depilat ing their body hair from less than one year to 20 years with 29% of the sample reporting body depilation behaviors for one year or less, M= 3.7 (years), SD=3.1 (years). Body image issues were key fac tors in explaining body hair reduction and removal behaviors The main reasons noted for depilation included: cleanliness ( 61 9 %), sex appeal ( 57 2 %), better sexual experience (29.7%), and body definition/muscularity ( 20 8%). Also of interest are the vario us injuries that were reported as a result of removing or reducing body hair, including razor burn ( 35.6 %), nicks to the skin ( 31.9 %), in grown hairs ( 28.9 %), and cuts to the skin ( 24.7 %). Twenty five percent of the sample reported no occurrence of injuries. Although this study more directly tested Social Comparison Theory as a theoretical paradigm for the initiation and maintenance of body depilation in men, participants were asked as part of the BoD eQ assessment about f actors that influenced their first depilation experiences and variables related to hair reduction and removal behaviors were also examined. Participants reported that the influences for the genesis of body depilation included : no influ ence by others or tried depilation on their own accord ( 39.2 %), overheard someone talking about it (22.8%), talked to someone about it
33 ( 21.4 %), influenced by media ( 18.9 %), saw that others engage d in the practice ( 13.9 %) and observed a known person doing it (11.4%) Table 3 Method and Frequencies of Body Depilation by Body Site Body Site Method % Frequency M (SD) 1 Neck Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers 34.2 12.8 10.7 4.7 ( 1.7 ) 2 Shoulders Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers 14.5 6.3 2.7 5. 6 ( 1. 8) 3 Armpits Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers Scissors 10.8 12.6 11.3 9.5 5. 6 ( 1.4 ) 4 Chest Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers Depilatory Creams Scissors 27 13.1 13.1 1.3 1.3 5.2 ( 1. 6) 5 Abdomen Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers Scissors Depilatory Creams 27 15.4 14.5 2.5 1.2 5. 2 ( 1. 5) 6 Groin/Pubic Area Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers Scissors 35.3 21.7 20.6 13.6 5.2 ( 1.4 ) 7 Back Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers 11.8 3.6 3.2 5.8 ( 1.6 ) 8 Buttocks Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers Depilatory Creams 12.7 7.7 5.0 1.4 5.7 ( 1. 6) 9 Arms Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers 11.9 4.6 3.2 5.6 ( 1. 9) 10 Hands Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers 7.5 5.2 1.4 5.7 ( 1. 9) 11 Legs Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers 5.0 8.3 6.0 5.8 (1.8) 12 Feet Regular Razor Electric Razor Electric Clippers 12.1 5.1 2.8 5. 8 ( 1. 8)
34 They were also asked if their body depilation behaviors were curtailed for certain reasons such as: (a) relationship status, (b) during the off season of a sport, or (c) climatic differences (i.e., colder weather). Sixty seven of the 360 participants ( 18.6 %) said that shaving or trimming became less important w hen they were not in a romantic relationship. Forty s even ( 13.1 important. Another 27 participants ( 7.5 %) reported that the off season for a sport made body depilation less important to them One hun dred fifty eight ( 44 %) reported no changes in depilation behaviors over time, and 37 participants ( 10.3 %) said that they ha d not been depilating long enough to respond to the question. Affective dimensions of body depilation were assessed. Participants we re asked to rate the importance of removing or reducing body hair prior to social contact with others The scale for this series of questions was as follows: 5 (extremely important) to 1 (not important). s sample was = .77. Ratings of importance for the removal or reduction of body hair prior to social contact were variable, though steady, across the three reference groups in question. Participants reported depilation prior to social contact as moderately i mportant before having interactions with significant others ( M = 3 11 SD = 1 34 ), but slightly to somewhat important before being seen by the general public ( M = 2 6 7, SD = 1 39 ), or friends ( M = 2 65 SD = 1 26 ). Participants were asked to describe their feelings related to a hypothetical inability to remove or reduce body hair in general and after a few days without depilation. The scale for these items was as follows: 1 (extremely good) to 5 (extremely bad) w ith the observed alpha for this scale was = .77. The average score for the item related to general inability to depilate was ( M= 2. 58 SD = 8 4 ) which indicated
35 feelings of ambivalence, however, 1 0 % of the sample rated th is item as a indicating to extremely midrange for the item that assessed feelings after going a few days without depilation ( M = 2 6 4 SD = 8 0); 1 % of the sample rated this item as a 7.8 % rated it as a Participants were also asked to hypothetical ly estimate their level of anxiety if they could not depilate their body hair for a few weeks. The scale for this item was: 1 (not anxious at slightly anxious ( M = 1.85 SD = 1 09), though 9.9 % of the sample rated their anxiety as moderate to extreme if they could not depilate their body hair for a few weeks. Although clothing usually covers many of the oft reported body sites where depilation occurs several participants reported depilating parts of their bodies that are regularly exposed to the public (e.g ., forearms or legs). Almost one half of the participants ( 45.3 %) reported that friends or acquaintances had taken notice of their body depilation and had given them direct feedback about it. Average scores indicated that the feedback was moderately positi ve ( M = 3.4 SD = 88 ; range from 1 to 5, on a scale of 1 extremely negative to 5 extremely positive ) W hile most (88.4%) participants reported either neutral or positive feedback about their body depilation, 11.7 % of participants reported moderate to ext remely negative comments from others about their body depilation. Pearson correlations were computed for all of the measures used in Study 1. The scaled items for the BoDeQ are unrelated. The ob served alpha for four adjunct items added to the BoDeQ to test for social comparison among body depilators was= .94. Therefore, the added social
36 comparison items were partitioned from the other scaled items on the BoDeQ for the purpose of presenting the in ter correlation matrix of all measures used in study. The social comparison items from the BoDeQ had a positive statistically significant correlation with the PACS, another measure of social comparison, r = .28, p < .001, as well as with the BDDE SR, measuring body dysmorphia, r =.21, p <.001, the DMS, a measure of drive for muscularity, r =.28, p <.001, and the GCRS measuring gender role conflict, r =.19, p <.001. These significant correlations, though relatively weak, sug gest that men who depilate their body hair and observe that other men do so as well have higher scores on measures of physical appearance social comparison, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, drive for muscularity and gender role conflict. The most notable observed correlations between the measures were the PACS and the BDDE SR, r =.40, p < .001, and the MBSRQ AES and the BDDE SR, r = .44, p < .001. These results indicate that body dysmorphia in general and possibly Body Dysmorphic Disorder are positively associated w ith greater levels of physical appearance social comparison and negatively associated with higher levels of appearance evaluation. Further, the PACS was positively associated with the DMS, r =.38, p <.001, and the GCRS, r =.34, p <.001 indicating the physical appearance social comparison is related to greater drive for muscularity and greater gender role conflict. In addition, there were several other statistically significant observed correlations, those these were more weakly correlated. For example, greater gender role conflict was negatively associated with body areas satisfaction, r = .28, p <.001, and also negatively associated with appearance evaluation, r = .19, p <.001. Negative correlations found with the body image measures indicate that greater gender role conflict is related to poorer body satisfaction. Full results from these correlations are presented in Table 4.
37 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. BoDeQ .070 .007 .113 .019 .010 .081 .029 2. BoDeQ SC .275** .207** .076 .052 .278** .194** 3. PACS .401** .189** .169** .375** .340** 4. BDDE SR .442** .413** .218** .226** 5. MBSRQ AES .788** .140* .194** 6. MBSRQ BASS 1.82** .281** 7. DMS .386** 8. GRCS M 20 9.5 14.4 36.5 25.2 35.6 43.3 133.9 SD 3.3 4.3 3.6 25.5 5.5 6.8 13.9 28.6 .26 .94 .78 .94 .90 .86 .89 .93 # of items 7 4 5 32 7 10 15 37 p < .01 ** p < .001 In order to test the hypothesis that body depilation is related to social comparison that occurs in the context of gym attendance, t otal exercise was computed by the sum of aerobic and anaerobic exercise both inside and outside of a gym Heterosexual men reported higher (M=244 minutes per week SD=265) tota l exercise time than gay men (M=92 minutes per week SD=114), t (358) =2.04, p =.04. This statistically significant group difference was realized only when comparing gay men (inclusive of only those wit h all other men in the sample, and was not observed when comparing all sexual minority men with heterosexual men. T tests did not however reveal significant differences between body d epilat ors (M= 136 minute s per week SD= 188 ) and the non depilation group ( M=1 10 minutes per week
38 SD=2 05 ), t (35 1 ) = 9 3, p > .05 on in gym exercise which was the sum of both aerobic and anaerobic exercise that took place in a gym only An independent samples t test was conducted to determine whether s ocial comparison occurred at a greater rate for the body depilation group when compared with the non depilation group. Men who engaged in body depilation (M=11.7, SD=3.4) had significantly higher scores on the PACS ( Thompson, Heinberg, & Tantleff, 1991) when compared with the non depilation group (M=10.7, SD=3.0), t (353)=2.15, p =.032. An adjunct set of four items were included with the BoDeQ SC ( Boroughs, 2008; Boroughs, Cafri &Thompson, 2005) to measure to what degree men observe d that other men have depilated their body hair. The questions were as follows: 1) How often do you see (notice) other men at the gym that have removed or reduced their body hair?; 2) How often do you see (notice) other male friends that have removed or reduced their body hair?; 3) How often do you see (notice) other male classmates at school that have removed or reduced their body hair?; and 4) How often do you see (notice) other men anywhere else that have removed or reduced their body hair? These items had a scaled response set from 1=Never to 5= Always. More than 7 0 % of the participants responded affirmatively to each of the four adjunct social comparison questions which were directly Mean scores indicate that men sometimes to fr equently observe that other men have depilated their bo dy hair at the gym (M=2.5, SD=1.3 ), with friends (M=2.4, SD=1.6), at school (M=2.2, SD=1.1), and out in public (M=2.3, SD=1.1 ). Sexual minority men reported higher levels of social comparison on each of the four aforementioned items with comparisons at school s exual minority men (M=2.6, SD=1.3), compared to h eterosexual men (M=2.2, SD=1.1) F (1,
39 297) = 4. 10 p = .04 5 and out in public, s exual minority men (M=2.7, SD=1.2), compared to h eterosexual men (M =2.3, SD=1.1), F (1, 298) =4. 43 p = .03 6 being the observed statistically significant findings in the mean between group differences These results supported the hypothesis that men who depilate their body hair are more likely to engage in physical appearance social comparison than those who do not. Body depilation was not associated with the age of the participant s. Men who engaged in body depilation (M=20.9, SD=4.1) were of equal age on average as non depilators (M=20.8, SD=3.7), t (350)=.282, p > .05. A lthough more sexual minority men ( 88.6 %) were included among the group of body depilators when compared with heterosexual men ( 83 %), a series of chi square test s indicate d this was a non significant relationship, X 2 =2. 68, n/s, therefore this hypothesis was not supported. Using a scale of 1= no hair (or very little hair) to 5= very hairy, participants were ask ed about their body hair growth at specific body sites. Table 5 contains the data reflecting body hair growth with the three main sites for most men being the armpits (M=3.18, SD=.95) groin (M=3.37, SD=1.02) and legs (M=3.31, SD=.99) Median data were also includ ed, along with the percentage of men reporting little or no hair at a particular body site. A logistic regression was calculated to measure the predictive relationship between the level of body hair at the 12 body sites, and the likelihood of body depilati on at those sites Body depilation was significantly predicted by X 2 (343, 12)= 28.31, p =.005 greater amounts of body hair growth at the following three body sites: groin/pubic hair (odds ratio=1.7, p =.006), the back of the neck (odds ratio=1.5 p =.04), and the buttocks (odds ratio=.61, p =.02). Table 5 shows the percentage of no hair growth by body site along with the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals
40 for the univariate logistic regression analysis. These results indicated that men with gr eater amounts of body hair at the groin/pubic area and neck were 70% and 48% more likely to depilate while greater buttock hair resulted in a 61% likel ihood of not depilat ing given the negative b weight of 4.77, p=.023 for the buttocks. Table 5 Odds Ra tios of Depilation by Body Site in Relation to Self Reported Hair Growth by Site and Body Depilation Status Body Site % little or no hair Odds Ratio 95% CI P value 1. Neck 56.5 1.48 1.02 2.14 .040* 2. Shoulder 74.2 .849 .45 1.62 .620 3. Armpits 4.5 .824 .55 1.23 .342 4. Chest 32.9 1.07 .70 1.65 .754 5. Abdomen 24.6 .819 .51 1.32 .414 6. Groin 4.5 1.70 1.16 2.49 .006** 7. Back 61.9 1.36 .79 2.32 .269 8. Buttocks 28.4 .614 .41 .93 .021* 9. Arms 16.4 .842 .53 1.33 .458 10. Hands 47.4 1.06 .63 1.78 .823 11. Legs 3.3 .997 .66 1.51 .989 12. Feet 37.4 .664 .42 1.06 .085 p<.05 ** p<.01 A Pearson correlation was conducted to determine if an association exists between body depilation and hair growth by body site. This procedure was calculated by creating a composite score of the hair growth at all 12 body sites, and a composite score of to tal number of body sites where depilation took place. Body depilation wa s positively correlated, r (202) = .224, p = .001, with hair growth by body site. Men who reported having hair at a greater number of body sites, or a greater amount of hair at each sit e, were more likely to engage in body depilation. Table 6 contains the results from the analysis of the Drive for Muscularity Scale for the sample. There were notable differences found on the scale scores with heterosexual men (M= 2.6 SD=1.11 ) having a greater level of Muscle Development Behaviors when compared with sexual minority men (M=1.97 SD=1.06 ), F ( 1, 35 8 )=
41 12.22, p = .001. In addition, racial/ethnic differences were discovered on the DMS, with Asian American men (M= 3.74 SD=1.33 ) having signi ficantly greater drive on the Muscularity Oriented Body Image Attitudes subscale, when compared with African American Men (M= 2.98 SD=1.02 ), F ( 4, 3 47 ) = 2.4, p = .05. Though the drive for muscularity on this subscale was highe r for Asian American participa nts compared to all other ethnicities (African American, Latino, Native American, and Euro American) only the difference between Asian Americans and African Americans was statistically significan t as demonstrated through the Bonferroni post hoc analysis. See Table 6 for means and sta ndard deviations for each of the 15 items contained within the Drive for Muscularity S cale (McCreary & Sasse, 2000). Table 6. Drive for Muscularity Scale Mean and Standard Deviations Item M SD 1. I wish that I were more muscular. 4.01 1.26 2. I lift weights to build up muscle. 3.72 1.56 3. I use protein or energy supplements. 2.72 1.69 4. I drink weight gain or protein shakes. 2.43 1.65 5. I try to consume as many calories as I can in a day. 2.20 1.47 6. I feel guilty if I miss a weight training session. 2.69 1.57 7. I think I would feel more confident if I had more muscle mass. 3.51 1.50 8. Other people think I work out with weights too often. 1.79 1.14 9. I think that I would look better if I gained 10 pounds in bulk. 3.13 1.73 10. I think about taking anabolic steroids. 1.48 1.10 11. I think that I would feel stronger if I gained a little more muscle mass. 3.60 1.57 12. I think that my weight training schedule interferes with other aspects of my life. 2.00 1.30 13. I think that my arms are not muscular enough. 3.48 1.47 14. I think that my chest is not muscular enough. 3.58 1.17 15. I think that my legs are not muscular enough. 3.05 1.57 An independent samples t test was conducted to test the relationship between (M=2.94, SD=.94) had a higher drive for muscularity than non depilators (M=2.62, SD=.88), t (353 )=2.33, p =.02. This result supports the hypothesis that men who have a
42 greater drive for muscularity are more likely to engage in body depilation than men with lower drive for muscularity. An Independent samples t test was conducted to examine the relati onship between Body Depilation and the possible diagnosis of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Thirteen cases were removed because of participant failure to answer any of the items on this scale Of the remaining 347 participants imputations were made f or o ne case o n some items and up to the maximum of 9 cases on item 7. Two t tests were conducted with this scale. Men who engage in body depilation (M=37.22, SD=25.17) were no more likely to have self reported clinical levels of BDD than non depilators (M=32.80, SD=26.64), t (341)=1.20, p > .05. Conversely, to explore the data with this scale further an analysis of sexual orientation differences was undertaken. S exual minority men (M=50.0, SD=29.39) had statistically significant higher scores o n the BDDE SR when compared to heterosexual men (M=34.60, SD=24.29), t (345)= 3.82, p <. 000. In addition, a Pearson correlation was conducted to measure the association with the amount of body hair men reported and body dysmorphic symptomatology. A positive correlation between amount of body hair and BDDE SR total score was observed, r (334) = .255, p < .000. T he sample average on the BDDE SR was (M=36.55 SD=25.47 ) which closely matches the scores reported for a normal population of men outlined by the off measure, 83.9% of the sample of men fell at or below this cut off, and S cores in this range are notable because they were derived from a clinical treatment group (Rosen & Reiter, 1996).
43 The relationship between body depilation and both appearance evaluation and body dissatisfaction ( MBSRQ AES & BASS ; Brown, Cash, & Mikula, 1990) was tested. Independent samples t tests were conducted reveal ing no statistically significant differences on t hese measures. M en who engage d in body depilation ha d higher body areas satisfaction (M=35.7, SD=6.8) and greater appearance evaluation (M=25.3, SD=5.5) when compared to non depilators (M=34.9, SD=7.2, and M=24.2, SD=5 8 respectively), n/s This arrangeme nt was reversed for the item added to the BASS sub scale which measured the it was found that non depilators (M=3.53, SD=1.26) were more satisfied with their body hair on ave rage than men who engage in body depilation (M=3.44, SD=1.12), t (348)= .535, p > .05 though this difference was not statistically significant This additional item to the BASS sub scale, which measure d satisfaction with the amount locations and coarsen ess of body hair also had a negative correlation with the number of body sites that were depilated, r (207) = .189, p = .006. Although n o s ignificant differences were observed between heterosexual and sexual minority men on either the composite total of the Appearance Evaluation Scale or the seven items within the scale further analyses were undertaken to investigate racial/ethnic differences. Differences by rac e /ethnic ity were observed for the total composite score, and on 5 of the 7 subscale items an d the observed differences demonstrated that African American men had higher scores on the (see Table 7 ).
44 Table 7. Ethnic Differences on the Appearance Evaluation Scale African American Asian American Latino Native American Euro American 1. My body is sexually appealing. 3.84 3.22* 3.53 4.00 3.56 2. I like my looks just the way they are. 3.95 ** 2.97 ** 3.76 3.50 3.43** 3. Most people would consider me good looking. 3.88 3.54 3.78 3.50 3.64 4. I like the way I look without my clothes. 3.93 ** 2.86 ** 3.49 3.50 3.26 ** 5. I like the way my clothes fit me. 4.09 ** 3.14 ** 3.58 3.67 3.64 ** 6. I dislike my physique. 3.84 3.11 3.65 3.17 3.50 7. 4.10 3.59 4.22 3.83 4.01 8. MSBRQ AES total composite score 27.53 ** 22.35 ** 25.86 25.17 25.02 ** p < 0 01, p < .05 An independent samples t test was computed to determine whether men who depilate their body hair (M=134.58, SD=28.37) had greater levels of gender role conflict compared to non depilators (M=130.44, SD=30.42), t (348)=.996, p > .05, the results were not sta tistically significant. In addition, a Pearson correlation was computed to measure the influence of gender role conflict and depilation behaviors. This was tested by measuring the correlation between th e total G RC S score, an d number of body sites depilated A statistically significant positive correlation was observed r (207) = .164, p = .018 indicating that men who engaged in depilation of a greater number of body sites had higher levels of gender role conflict. The results from Study 1 revealed the highest prevalence of body depilation by men to date (83%). Although several hypotheses were not supported, others such as those related to greater levels of social comparison by men who engage in body depilation alon g with a higher drive for muscularity by those that depilate did find support from the data that were collected.
45 Chapter Four STUDY 2 The goal of S tudy 2 was to collect data from female participants to measure their attitude d toward body depilation by men A 24 item scale was developed for this project. Previous research has show n that some women ha ve a preference for trunk hair on men regardless of body shape (Dixson et al., 2003) while a nother study found that women rated hairless male bodies a s most attractive with a steady decline in attractiveness reported (Dixson et al., 2007) With a paucity of attitudes toward body hair on men, and g iven the research indicating th at a substantial number of men remove or reduce their body hair (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs, Cafri, & Thompson, 2005; Martins, Tiggemann, & Churchett 2008 ; Tiggemann, Martins, & Churchett, 2008 ) a natural course for new research woul d be an investigation into male body depilation along with their preferences for body hair on men. Method Participants Study 2 included a sample of 723 female participants from a large southeastern American university that c ompleted a measure on the topic along with a demographic questionnaire. The mean age of participants was ( M=20.97, SD=4.43), with 27.3% of the sample reporting the modal age of 18. T he majority of the sample
46 (5 9 .5%) was Euro American, with 17. 7% Latina 15 % African American, 6 % Asian American, and 1.7% Native American. A majority of the sample (93. 2 %) was socialized (grew up) in the United States, and indicated a marital status of single (9 1 2 %). Educational attainment was variable acro ss college years with 12.7% having completed a high school diploma but not yet having completed the first year of college, 23.9% freshman, 15.5% sophomores, 24.8% juniors, and 22.3% seniors. Less than 1% of the sample was graduate students. The majority o f the sample was heterosexual (94.5%), with 3.6% indicating a bisexual orientation, and 1.9% indicating they identified as lesbian. Procedure Data were collected via S ONA Systems at the University of South Florida. This is a system set up within the USF Department of Psychology to remunerate students with extra credit points for research participation. Students elect to sign up to be a part of the S ONA System at the begi nning of each semester. Only those students who completed the a screener, were eligible to participate in this study. The study participants as to the nature of the questions they would be asked about body depilation. Female participants, regardless of sexual orientation reported on their attitudes about body hair on men as part of Study 2. Sex ual minority men, whose data were collected as a part of Study 1, also completed the same scale hair The se sexual minority male participants were asked to serve as informants about
47 their atti tudes toward body hair on other men and on their atti tudes toward body depilation by [other] men. Measures Attitudes Toward Body Hair on Men (ATBHM; Boroughs, 2008) Developed for use with this research project, and inspired by a previous set of 13 similar questions used with men and women hair (see Basow & Braman, 1998) the Attitudes Toward Body Hair on Men Questionnaire (Boroughs, 2008) is a 24 item measure which utilizes a 5 point Likert scale to measure wo agreement with a series of statements concerning body hair on men, and body depilation practices by men (see Appendices ). Although t here were originally 729 female participants screened in for Study 2 six participants were dropped because none of the items for the ATBHM instrument were completed. Mean imputation was used for the remaining participants (N=723). The imputations using mean values were as follows: items 2, 10, 17 and 24 (one imputation), items 3, 4, 7, 8, and 9 (two imputations), items 6 and 13 (three imputations), items 11 and 18 (four imputations), item 16 (five imputations), item 20 (six imputations), and items 1, 5, 14, 15, 19, 21, 22, and 23 did not have any missing data.
48 Chapter Five R esults and Discussion In order to determine whether any differences exist between heterosexual and sexual minority women, a one way ANOVA was conducted to measure mean differences on the 24 item ATBHM scale. Seven of the 24 items yielded statisticall y sig nificant mean differences between heterosexual and sexual minority women. Average scores were higher for heterosexual women on items 1, 2, 6, and 15 which indicates that heterosexual women agree more strongly than sexual minority women that body hair is a ttractive on men, F (1, 720) =7.84, p = .005, that the absence of body hair feminizes men, F (1, 720) =12.62, p < .000, that men who depilate should receive social disapproval, F (1, 720) =5.84, p =. 016, and that body hair makes men look more mature, F (1, 720) = 4 52 p =.0 15 Sexual minority women, by contrast, agreed more strongly with items 4, 11, and 14. This suggests that they agree that body hair on men is disgusting, F (1, 720) = 5.23, p = .022, that body hair makes men look like animals, F (1, 720) =12.82, p < .000, and that body hair on men is ugly, F (1, 720) = 7.29, p = .007. These results indicate greater acceptance, and perhaps even preference for male hirsuteness by heterosexual women when compared to either bisexual or lesbian women. These results are listed with means and standard deviations for significant findings in Table 8
49 Table 8 Mean differences by Sexual Orientation on the ATBHM scale. I tem Heterosexual M (SD ) Sexual m inority M (SD) F p Value 1 Body hair on men is attractive. 2.85 (1.04) 2.38 (1.10) 7.84 .005 2 Lack of body hair makes men look like women. 2.28 (1.02) 1.70 (.85) 12.6 .000 4 Body hair on men is disgusting. 2.83 (1.04) 3.22 (1.19) 5.23 .022 6 Men who remove or reduce their body hair should receive social disapproval. 1.79 (.82) 1.48 (.72) 5.84 .016 11 Body hair makes men look like animals. 2.47 (.98) 3.05 (1.11) 12. 8 .000 14 Body hair on men is ugly. 2.60 (1.01) 3.05 (1.28) 7.29 .007 15 Body hair makes men look mature. 3.35 (.87) 3.00 (1.01) 5.92 .015 Despite the observed differences between the heterosexual and sexual minority women on several items contained within the scale, a series of Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were conducted with the entire sample as well as separately for heterosexual women, and sexual minority women. The factor structure was not affected by this split, so it was decided to keep all participants in the analyses r egardless of sexual orientation to maintain sample variability. Therefore all factor analysis results will be reported for the entire sample (N=723) Factor Analysis An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine the structure of the ATBHM scale which was developed for this research pr oject. The proposal called for Principal Axis Factorin g with Varimax Rotation, though several alternative models were also looked at including a Principle Components Analysis with Varimax and Promax rotations. Upon review of the factor loadings, multiple rotations, and various interpretations of the data, a 5 Factor orthogonal solution was originally extracted. This model was problematic because although 23 of the 24 items surpassed the minimum .40 factor loading (only item 10 fell below this threshold loading at .399), several of the items cross loaded onto o ther factors, and had weak (minimal) factor loadings. It was therefore decided to eliminate four items (2, 9, 10, and 20), and proceed with another EFA to examine the factor structure of the remaining 20 items. Table 9 contains all of the
50 original ly propo sed items o f the Attitudes Toward Body Hair on Men scale that were developed for this study. Each of the not yet named Factors appear across the top of the table and factor loadings appear under each factor (F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5) representative of t he o riginal 5 Factor solution. Table 9 Factor Pattern Coefficients of the ATBHM scale from a Principal Axis Factor Analysis with Orthogonal Rotation (original) Item F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 1. Body hair on men is attractive. .636 .42 2 .18 6 .17 8 .0 01 2. Lack of body hair makes men look like women. .15 8 .34 4 .0 40 .441 .05 7 3. Men should remove back hair. .3 3 4 .0 12 .17 5 .17 5 .6 35 4. Body hair on men is disgusting. .7 67 .273 .1 80 .001 201 5. Body hair on men feels physically uncomfortable. .75 3 .180 .16 3 .00 2 .1 3 1 6. Men who remove or reduce their body hair should receive social disapproval. .03 3 .130 .033 .61 3 .04 9 .21 1 .444 .07 3 .028 .22 3 8. Body hair is masculine. .2 70 .68 0 .05 7 .04 1 .05 5 9. Men need to remove or reduce body hair in order to appeal to others. .41 1 .24 7 .1 94 .2 31 .371 .04 6 .399 .031 .1 10 .00 1 11. Body hair makes men look like animals. .5 21 .12 6 .1 60 .24 7 .179 .03 5 .258 .027 .557 .02 8 13. Removing or reducing body hair signals that a man is gay. .002 .00 3 .13 1 .77 1 .0 80 14. Body hair on men is ugly. .68 3 .33 3 .18 9 .088 .2 28 15. Body hair makes men look mature. .1 81 .55 2 .050 .11 7 .0 88 16. Men should reduce or remove their body hair to look more muscular. .2 76 .20 6 .48 9 .22 8 .2 88 17. Back hair on men is disgusting. .4 64 .05 4 .24 9 .093 .5 2 4 18. Men who remove or reduce their body hair look cleaner. .52 1 .01 8 .4 72 .207 .26 9 19. Hairy men should remain hairy, and naturally smooth men should remain smooth. .095 .45 4 .115 .18 5 .26 4 20. Body hair on men feels good. .476 .393 .180 .261 .103 21. Chest hair on men is masculine. .27 6 .59 3 .09 5 .12 8 .06 2 22. Men look more muscular without body hair. .1 48 .11 9 .80 6 .092 .089 23. Men appear more defined (cut) without body hair. .19 0 .03 5 .8 19 .092 .07 9 24. Men look cleaner without body hair. .4 88 .03 5 .58 3 .23 3 .1 31 The second EFA using principal axis factoring with an orthogonal rotation produced a four factor solution. The previous two items that loaded onto the fifth factor now load onto Factor 1. Table 10 contains the f actor p attern c oefficients of the ATBHM scale without the four eliminated items (2, 9, 10, and 20). This rotation all owed all of the items on the scale to surpass the minimum .4 0 factor loading and both the eigenvalue > 1, and S cree Plot methods of evaluation suggest this is a good fit for the data. This
51 extraction of 4 Factors was decidedly the best both theoretically and statistically despite a few items that cross loaded onto other factors with one exception. Item 19 was dropped from the scale, leaving a total of 19 items for the final scale. The final factor loadings appear in Table 10 in bold. Table 10 Factor Pat tern Coefficients of the ATBHM scale from a Principal Axis Factor Analysis with Orthogonal Rotation (Final) Item F1 F2 F3 F4 1. Body hair on men is attractive. .46 4 .56 5 .17 6 .10 1 3. Men should remove back hair. .6 00 .03 5 .16 3 .18 7 4. Body hair on men is disgusting. .70 0 .463 .1 53 .050 5. Body hair on men feels physically uncomfortable. .64 5 .375 .145 .05 8 6. Men who remove or reduce their body hair should receive social disapproval. .01 4 .105 .02 8 601 .22 3 .428 .066 .009 8. Body hair is masculine. .08 1 .736 .057 .03 5 11. Body hair makes men look like animals. .50 0 .246 .13 9 .2 68 .027 .236 .020 .579 13. Removing or reducing body hair signals that a man is gay. .08 5 .00 5 .11 6 .79 5 14. Body hair on men is ugly. .6 48 .4 71 .1 63 .133 15. Body hair makes men look mature. .0 10 598 .053 .11 4 16. Men should reduce or remove their body hair to look more muscular. .3 59 .22 4 .46 4 .194 17. Back hair on men is disgusting. .68 5 .01 1 .2 22 .0 92 18. Men who remove or reduce their body hair look cleaner. .609 .0 87 .4 44 .1 75 19. Hairy men should remain hairy, and naturally smooth men should remain smooth. .1 59 .38 6 .11 2 .22 1 21. Chest hair on men is masculine. .16 3 .638 .09 2 .129 22. Men look more muscular without body hair. .1 86 .140 .80 7 .08 8 23. Men appear more defined (cut) without body hair. .23 1 .083 .81 0 .092 24. Men look cleaner without body hair. .50 0 .14 5 .5 54 .1 8 9 As mentioned, four factors were extracted from the second PAF. Five items (1, 14, 16, 19, and 24) were questionable. It was decided to drop only one item (19), due to weak loadings, but leave the other items for the full scale if not for a particular factor. Proposed factors names are as follows: Factor 1 (Body Hair Dis gust) items 3, 4, 5, 11, 14, 17, 18; Factor 2 (Masculinity) items 1, 7, 8, 15, 21; Factor 3 (Muscularity) items 16, 22, 23, 24, and Factor 4 (Social Feedback) items 6, 12, 13. In order to further examine the reliability of the factor structure, a series of reliability estimates were run for the full scale, and for each of the four factors.
52 Reliability Estimates 65 as well as for each of the four factors. Table 11 contains the item to total correlations for the full scale. Table 11 65 Item Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item Total Correlation Squared Multiple Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted 1. Body hair on men is attractive. 54.23 52.325 .389 .559 .715 3. Men should remove back hair. 53.27 40.825 .408 .455 .619 4. Body hair on men is disgusting. 54.20 40.396 .447 .697 .614 5. Body hair on men feels physically uncomfortable. 54.21 40.311 .440 .594 .615 6. Men who remove or reduce their body hair should receive social disapproval. 55.28 45.556 .119 .306 .654 7. 53.58 48.934 .177 .232 .685 8. Body hair is masculine. 53.71 47.354 .051 .440 .673 11. Body hair makes men look like animals. 54.56 40.829 .446 .399 .616 12. Removing or reducing body hair signals that a 54.72 44.248 .154 .308 .653 13. Removing or reducing body hair signals that a man is gay. 55.41 46.409 .035 .441 .662 14. Body hair on men is ugly. 54.44 40.576 .446 .644 .615 15. Body hair makes men look mature. 53.73 46.426 .027 .312 .664 16. Men should reduce or remove their body hair to look more muscular. 54.36 40.748 .490 .430 .612 17. Back hair on men is disgusting. 53.43 38.576 .520 .515 .600 18. Men who remove or reduce their body hair look cleaner. 53.41 40.458 .529 .628 .608 21. Chest hair on men is masculine. 53.90 48.169 .118 .391 .682 22. Men look more muscular without body hair. 53.73 41.549 .412 .583 .621 23. Men appear more defined (cut) without body hair. 53.49 41.508 .457 .609 .618 24. Men look cleaner without body hair. 53.37 40.854 .486 .652 .613 The alpha for Factor 1 (Body Hair Dis gust) of the ATBHM scale was .87 The 12 contains the item to total c orrelations for the 7 items of Factor 1.
53 Table 12 7 Item Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item Total Correlation Squared Multiple Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted 3. Men should remove back hair. 18.09 23.160 .546 .414 .859 4. Body hair on men is disgusting. 19.02 21.397 .755 .661 .830 5. Body hair on men feels physically uncomfortable. 19.03 21.761 .690 .582 .839 11. Body hair makes men look like animals. 19.37 23.805 .523 .354 .861 14. Body hair on men is ugly. 19.25 21.891 .718 .590 .835 17. Back hair on men is disgusting. 18.25 21.669 .628 .499 .848 18. Men who remove or reduce their body hair look cleaner. 18.23 23.562 .613 .400 .850 The alpha for Factor 2 (Masculin ity) of the ATBHM scale was .76 The 13 contains the item to total correlations for the 5 items of Factor 2. Table 13 Item to total correlations for Fact Item Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item Total Correlation Squared Multiple Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted 1. Body hair on men is attractive. 13.31 7.139 .554 .312 .714 7. 12.66 8.522 .392 .170 .766 8. Body hair is masculine. 12.79 7.417 .634 .409 .686 15. Body hair makes men look mature. 12.81 7.998 .517 .292 .726 21. Chest hair on men is masculine. 12.98 7.363 .576 .356 .705 The alpha for Factor 3 (Muscularity) of the ATBHM scale was .8 2 The 1 4 contains the item to total correlations for the 4 items of Factor 3.
54 Table 1 4 2 Item Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item Total Correlation Squared Multiple Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted 16. Men should reduce or remove their body hair to look more muscular. 10.58 5.778 .510 .268 .833 22. Men look more muscular without body hair. 9.95 4.985 .723 .571 .733 23. Men appear more defined (cut) without body hair. 9.71 5.181 .744 .598 .727 24. Men look cleaner without body hair. 9.60 5.463 .604 .394 .790 The alpha for Factor 4 (Social Feedback) of the ATBHM scale was .69. The necessary to support the rest of scale theoretically. Therefore, all items were retained for this factor. Table 1 5 contains the item to total correlations for the 3 items of Factor 4. Table 1 5 Item to total correlations for Fact Item Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item Total Correlation Squared Multiple Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted 6. Men who remove or reduce their body hair should receive social disapproval. 3.99 2.659 .502 .285 .625 12. Removing or reducing body hair 3.42 2.087 .477 .237 .681 13. Removing or reducing body hair signals that a man is gay. 4.12 2.399 .589 .356 .518 Table 1 6 contains the observed correlations between the four named factors of the ATBHM scale as well as the correlation between each factor and the full scale. Items produ cing the Body Hair Disgust Factor were negatively associated ( r = .53, p < .001) with the Masculinity Factor, and ( r = .08, p <.05) the Social Feedback F actor, but positively correlated ( r = .62, p <.001) with the Muscularity Factor.
55 Table 1 6 Factor correlations of the ATBHM scale Factor Name 1 2 3 4 5 1 Body hair disgust .532 ** 616 ** .082 .775 ** 2 Masculinity .370 ** .222** .025 3 Muscularity .135 ** .70** 4 Social Feedback .298** 5 Full Scale ATBHM p<.05 ** p<.001 The final scale included 19 items and four factors. On average, women disagreed was either disgusting (M=2.85, SD=1.1), or ugly (M=2.62, SD=1.0). Women agreed that back hair is disgusting (M=3.62, SD=1.2), and that men should remove it (M=3.8, SD=.90). Women did not agree that men who engage in body depilation should receive social disapproval (M=1.8, SD=.81), or that they were gay (M=1.7, SD=.85), or metrosexual (M=2.3, SD=1.1). Table 17 contains the means, standard deviation and items of the ATBHM scale.
56 Table 1 7 Mean s standard deviation, and percent agree for items on ATBHM scale Item Mean SD % A or SA 1. Body hair on men is attractive. 2.83 1.049 27.2 3. Men should remove back hair. 3.79 1.066 65.3 4. Body hair on men is disgusting. 2.85 1.057 26 5. Body hair on men feels physically uncomfortable. 2.85 1.083 26.6 6. Men who remove or reduce their body hair should receive social disapproval. 1.78 .814 3.3 7. 3.48 .887 53.7 8. Body hair is masculine. 3.35 .901 46.1 11. Body hair makes men look like animals. 2.50 .999 17.3 12. 2.34 1.055 16.3 13. Removing or reducing body hair signals that a man is gay. 1.65 .845 3.6 14. Body hair on men is ugly. 2.62 1.034 19.4 15. Body hair makes men look mature. 3.33 .879 47.2 16. Men should reduce or remove their body hair to look more muscular. 2.70 .942 17.7 17. Back hair on men is disgusting. 3.62 1.173 60.4 18. Men who remove or reduce their body hair look cleaner. 3.65 .923 63.5 21. Chest hair on men is masculine. 3.15 .971 38 22. Men look more muscular without body hair. 3.33 .954 46.3 23. Men appear more defined (cut) without body hair. 3.57 .888 60.4 24. Men look cleaner without body hair. 3.68 .934 65.8 F1 Body Hair Disgust 3.13 .781 F2 Masculinity 3.23 .674 F3 Muscularity 3.32 .749 F4 Social Feedback 1.92 .719 FS Attitudes Toward Body Hair on Men 3.00 .363 In addition to the factor analyses and reliability analyses that were conducted for the ATBHM scale, a series of linear regressions were undertaken with the entire sample (N=723) as well as with the sample of heterosexual women alone (N=682) to test the re search question that posited that gym attendance may be related to a preference for the hairless ideal on men. The model included five independent variables: 1) aerobic exercise in the gym, 2) aerobic exercise outside the gym, 3) anaerobic exercise in the gym, 4) anaerobic exercise outside the gym, and 5) the sum of all exercise variables. These five
57 factors (independent variables) were tested against 9 individual items (dependent variables) from the ATBHM questionnaire that pertained to preference for eith er Only these items were selected because they were expected to be indicative of bodily hairlessness and could be visually judged This decided by experts and was th ought to be superior to the inclusion of unrelated items from the ATBHM scale such as those items that require contact or other unrelated items such as those related to social feedback. In addition to the 9 selected items used to represent either a prefere nce for hairlessness, or a preference for men to engage in body depilation to remove or reduce body hair, a composite score was created by summing these 9 items which resulted in a total of 10 dependent variables that were tested in the regression model. All of these regressions were n/s, and therefore the frequency with which women participate in exercise activities both inside and outside of a gym is not related to their preference for the hairless male body ideal regardless of whether or not sexual mino rity women were include in the model. image research. By using the latest available measures, in this case a measure created specifically for use with this research question (ATB HM; Boroughs, 2008), a four factor solution was extracted that both statistically and theoretically explained the observed data and addressed the substantive issue phenomenologically. Like previous studies (see Dixson et al, 2003; Dixson et al, 2007; and Dixson et al., 2007), S tudy 2 but for the first was measured
58 Heterosexual women had a more positive attitude towards body hair on men than sexual minority women. Although sexual minority wo men reported body hair (chest hair specifically) to be more related to masculinity, they were more tolerant in their attitudes toward body depilation by men, whereas heterosexual women endorsed more strongly the idea that men should receive social disapproval for body depilation The one exception the 2 items on this topic originally for med their own factor. Statistical considerations lead to removal of some items from the scale and on to another factor (Factor 1) which was
59 Chapter Six General Discussion Though b ody image research has traditionally focused on the concerns of females (Thompson, 1990), over the past two decade s researchers have endeavored to measure and explain the body image issues of both men and women. It is clear tha t while men have some overlap with women in their body image concern s appearance concerns, and exercise attitudes, men also have some unique appearance issues (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs, Cafri, & Thompson, 2005; McCreary, Hildebrant, Heinberg, B oroughs & Thompson, 2007; Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff Dunn, 1999 ; Cafri & Thompson, 2007 ). Starting about 15 years ago when Thompson and Tantleff (1992) found that men desired a larger and more muscular chest size than they currently possessed a nd further supported by the research of Pope, et al. (1997) who found that might a pproximate pathological levels after finding that a remarkable number of bodybuilders met criteria for B ody D ysmorphic D isorder (BDD), resear chers have since moved toward a bottom up process in the creation of measures to investigate the body image concerns of men and next theoretical paradigms to explain the findings This forever changed the model that relied on minor modifications to the wording of instruments already in use with women. This research project reflects one of the contemporary approaches in use in the field of g the latest available measures ( e.g. DMS, McCreary & Sasse, 2000; BoDeQ; Boroughs, Cafri, & Thompson, 2005) and coupling
60 these modern measures with an internet data collection strategy, large sample sizes were achieved which allowed for not only greater statistical power, but also the ability to conduct more complex analyses o f the data. Many of the hypotheses included in this project hinged on the relationship of adjunct factors as they related to body image (e.g. gender role conflict, appearance evaluation ) as predictors of body depilation. While several of the hypotheses we re not supported by the data, this may well be attributed to the very high base rate of body depilation that was observed. To date, the prevalence estimate of body depilation reported in this study is the highest ever observed in men at 83.7% which is appr oximately 20% higher than previous reports (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Boroughs, Cafri, & Thompson, 2005) and is double, or even triple the rate more recently reported by Australian researchers (see Martins, Tiggemann, & Churchett, 2008; and Tiggemann, Mar tins, & Churchett, 2008 ). It is unclear at this time if this high base rate is related to an increase in the behavior, or simply an artifact of better methodologies being used to collect the data. The higher than expected base rate makes the prediction of body depilation through ancillary variables rather difficult. Nevertheless, several key hypotheses were supported. For example, men overwhelming ly endorsed statements suggesting that Social Comparison Theory is a viable explanation for the proliferation o f body depilation among men. Men who engaged in body depilation had statistically significant higher average scores on a measure of physical appearance comparison (PACS; Thompson, Heinberg, & Tantleff, 1991). Most men (75 % ) that were part of the body depi lation group also affirmatively endorsed several statements related to their observations that other men had depilated in se veral different social spheres including friends, classmates, gym mates, and unknown
61 strangers. Although sexual minority men differe d significantly with their social observations, heterosexual men still reported observing that others depilated from frequently to sometimes in all of the noted social spheres. The concern that men may fear admitting to social comparison on issues surround ing their body image because of fear of being labeled gay was not supported by the observed results Other hypothes e s that w ere supported include the correlat ion between hair growth by body site and depilation behaviors reported at those sites ( r = .224, p = .001) so the more hirsute a man is, the more likely it is that he will depilate his body hair. A relationship between the drive for muscularity and body depilation was found where depilators (M=2.9) ha d a higher drive for muscularity than non depilato rs (M=2.3), t (353)=2.33, p = .02 therefore those men that depilate their body hair have a higher drive for muscularity. Though unclear as to whether the drive for muscularity precedes or follows body depilation, this key issue has not been studied before Though gym attendance was not associated with body depilation, clearly the desire for greater muscularity is. In addition heterosexual men were shown to have a great er drive for muscularity than sexual minority men, and Asian men were shown to have gre ater drive than other with the findings measured in this study on body image disturbance where Asian American men reported lower appearance satisfaction, and less body s ite satisfaction than the other ethnicities measured Surprisingly, African American men reported the highest levels of body areas satisfaction and appearance evaluation suggestive of some protective factors that may be
62 at work Heterosexual men also repo rted greater levels of body areas satisfaction and appearance evaluation co mpared with sexual minority men, and sexual minority men (M= 50) had statistically significant higher scores on a measure of BDD than heterosexual men (M=35) a finding that would be an additional body image risk factor for gay and bisexual men who already have a reportedly higher level of eating disturbance (see Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Yelland & Tiggemann, 2003; Duggan & McCreary, 2004; Kimmel & Mahalik, 2005). Though significant d ifferences were not observed between heterosexual (83%) and sexual minority men (88 % ) on body depilation in this study, other studies have documented differences across the sexual orientations (Martins et al., 2008). P sychological health implications were measured along with physical injuries that men sustained as a result of their depilating their body hair. Epidemiological studies have identified clustered outbreaks of treatment resistant Staphylococcus Infections in athletes in both college (Begier, et al., 2004) and professional sports (Miller et al., 2007) These of towels or whirpools that athletes share in the course of their practice and/or games (Begier et al., 2004; Miller et al., 2007). Porche (2007) suggested that healthcare providers screen for male body depilation and educate them about the risks of infection. Clearly the youngest generation of men who engage in body depilation (the mean age of this sample was 20.9 years and the modal age 18 years) potentially grew up with the prospect of trying this behavior as it was already trumpeted in the media ( Gomes, 2001; Smith, 2000; Stuever, 2000 ; Stein, 1999; Schuler, 2000; and Simpso n, 1994, 2002 ) and the scientific literature (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002) by the time the ir age cohort
63 entered puberty. The area of psychological and physical health implications as they relate to body depilation is ripe for further scientific inquiry. T his study was not only the first to measure self reported body hair growth across 12 distinct body sites, but was also the first investigation in A measure was created for this study that also i ncluded items that asked (ATBHM; Boroughs, 2008) Heterosexual women had a more positive attitude towards body hair on men than sexual minority women. Although sexual minority wo men reported body hair ( chest hair specifically) to be more related to masculinity, they were more tolerant of body depilation by men, whereas heterosexual women endorsed more strongly the idea that men should receive social disapproval for body depilation The one exception to were originally extracted onto their own factor during the course of the first factor analysis Perhaps sexual in men relates to their same strongly normative (Basow & Braman, 1998; Hope, 1982; Tiggemann & Kenyon, 1998; Toerien & Wilkinson, 2003, 2004). Limitations exist with this study including the small sample si ze of both sexual and racial/ ethnic minorities. A related limitation is the measurement of human sexuality in the context of body image research and the implications of asking participants about their orientation, attraction or both when trying to learn a bout how this may affect their ratings of attractiveness or social comparison While the internet technology utilized in this study may provide for some challenges and limitations, most of the traditional
64 limitations of research were not problematic. For example, although there was missing data observed for several participants in this study, very few cases required imputation, and even fewer cases were lost to listwise deletions The sample size for the majority of analyses that were conducted was robust. A strength of the study perhaps realized best through the support for Social Comparison Theory as a paradigm to explain body depilation i s that like any body image study, the confidential nature of the data collect ion via personal computers and the internet most likely allowed for great er candor by research participants. Future directions should include addressing the issue of the role of sexual attraction in body image research, the use of addition al measures of body dissatisfaction with measures of BDD to better detect the role of appearance dissatisfaction or sub clinical levels of BDD with body depilation. Another possibility would be to revise the ATBHM scale and collecting more data to shore up the factor struc ture. Revising the ATBHM scale might bolster the current factor structure, and then a confirmatory factor analysis of the scale would be appropriate. It might be important to investigate adding items to the scale that evaluate body hair by body sites oth er than just the back. Another fruitful direction may be distinguishing whether women have differential attitudes toward total body hair removal as compared with clipping to leave stubble. These questions, and others, were not addressed in the curre nt version of the ATBHM (Boroughs, 2008) scale that was developed. With the success of the findings related to social comparison theory, additional assessment using extant measures could help to better explain the phenomenology of body depilation and its g enesis in men. Revisions of the BoDeQ measure would also be
65 helpful to remove redundancies and develop the instrument to be more directed towards specifics based on body site rather than assuming body depilation techniques are uniform across all body sites The i mplications of these studies include a greater understanding of body depilation and its associated correlates including the role of appearance satisfaction, body areas sastisfaction, the drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, sexual orientation differences, rac e/ethnic differences the role of the amount of extant body hair, and
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74 Appendices Demographic Questionnaire 1) Please enter your d ate of b irth: ) _____ Date _____ Year _____ 2) Please enter your age: ____ 3 ) Please check one of the following to describe your race/e thnicity ( check one): ___ African A merican ___ Asian/Pacific Islander ___ Hispanic/Latino ___ N ative American ___ Euro American 4 ) Did you grow up in the United States? ___ Yes ___ No 5) Please check on the highest level of education that you have achieved: ___ High School Diploma ___ College Freshman ___ College Sophomore ___ College Junior ___ College Senior ___ Doctoral Degree (Ph.D., M.D., etc.) Other (please specify) ___ _______________________ 6) Please check which best describes your present marital status: ___ Married ___ Single ___ Divorced ___ Remarried 7 ) Please enter your height in feet and inches: feet ______ inches ____ 8 ) Please enter your weight in pounds: ______
75 9 ) Please estimate the number of times you weigh yourself per week: ________ 10) Please enter an estimate of how much of each of the following types of exercise you engage in per week (in minutes) both inside a nd outside a gym (for example for none enter '0', for 1 hour enter '60', etc.): Aerobic Exercise, e.g. running, cycling, stair climbing elliptical ( in a gym) _____ Aerobic Exercise (outside a gym) _____ Anaerobic Exercise, e.g. weightlifting, body bu ilding, strength training (in a gym) ____ Anaerobic E xercise (outside a gym) _____ 11 ) Please check one of the following numbers that best describes your sexual attraction to others: ___ 1 attracted to only the opposite sex ___ 2 mostly attracted to the opposite sex but sometimes to the same sex ___ 3 attracted to both males and females equally ___ 4 mostly attracted to the same sex but sometime to the opposite sex ___ 5 attracted only to the same sex 12 ) Please check one of the followin g numbers that best describes your sexual behavior with others: ___ 5 attracted only to the same sex ___ 4 mostly attracted to the same sex but sometime to the opposite sex ___ 3 attracted to both males and females equally ___ 2 mostly attracted to the opposite sex but sometimes to the same sex ___ 1 attracted to only the opposite sex 13 ) Please check one of the following numbers that best describes your sexual fantasy to ward others: ___ 1 attracted to only the opposite sex ___ 2 mostly attracted to th e opposite sex but sometimes to the same sex ___ 3 attracted to both males and females equally ___ 4 mostly attracted to the same sex but sometime to the opposite sex ___ 5 attracted only to the same sex
76 14) Please check one of the following numbers that best describes your sexual orientation: ____ 3 Heterosexual _____ 2 Bisexual _____ 1 Gay/Lesbian 15) Please enter an estimate of the total number of minutes per week that you view pornography (for example for three hours enter "180", for five hours enter "300", etc.): _______
77 Attitudes Toward Body Hair on Men (ATBHM; Boroughs, 200 8) ( Instructions: Females ) Below are a series of statements concerning body hair on men. Please read each item carefully and c heck your level of agreement for each statement using the following scale: ( Instructions: Sexual Minority Males ) Below are a series of statements concerning body hair on men. When answering these questions, refer to men that you are attracted to. Please r ead each item carefully and check your level of agreement for each statement using the following scale: 1= Strongly Disa gree 2= Disagree 3= Neutral, n either a gree n or d isagree 4= Agree 5=Strongly A gree 1. Body hair on men is attractive. 2. Lack of body hair makes men look like women. (R) 3. Men should remove back hair. 4. Body hair on men is disgusting. 5. Body hair on men feels physically uncomfortable. 6. Men who remove or reduce their body hair sho uld receive social disapproval. unshave d. 8. Body hair is masculine. 9. Men need to remove or reduce body hair in order to appeal to others. ( R ) 11. Bod y hair makes men look like animals. 12. Removing or reducing body hair signals 13. Removing or reducing body hair signals that a man is gay. 14. Body hair on men is ugly. 15. Body hair makes men look mature. 16. Men should reduce or remove their body hair to look more muscular. 17. Back hair on men is disgusting. 18. Men who remove or reduce their body hair look cleaner. 19. Hairy men should remain hairy, and naturally smooth men should remain smooth. 20. Body hair on men feels good. (R) 21. Chest hair on men is masculine. 22. Men look more muscular without body hair. 23. Men appear more defined (cut) without body hair. 24. Men look cleaner without body hair. ( R ) = reverse scored item
78 Body Depilation Questionnaire ( BoDeQ; Boroughs, Thompson & Cafri, 2001 ; Revised Boroughs, 2008 ) For the next set of questions, we would like to ask about your body hair growth for specific body sites. 1) Using a scale of 1= no hair (or very little hair) to 5= very hairy, please indicate the amount of hair that grows on the following body sites: No hair/very little hair (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Very hairy 1 Neck 2 Shoulders 3 Armpits 4 Chest 5 Abdomen 6 Groin/Pubic Area 7 Back 8 Buttocks 9 Arms 10 Hands 11 Legs 12 Feet 2) Do you or have you ever removed (e.g. shaved, waxed, etc.) or reduced (e.g. trimmed via electric razor, clippers etc.) any of your body hair from the neck down? (for example: chest, back, pubic area, underarms, legs, etc.) _____ Yes _____ No [ Participants that answer affirmatively to Question 2 proceed to the items below. Participants study. ] 3 ) How many years have you been removing or reducing your body hair? (If less than ________ 4 ) How did others influence you to begin this behavior? ( Check all that apply ) overheard someone talking about it observed someone I know doing it talked to someone about it magazines and other media i nfluenced me observed others that did it not influenced by others Other (please specify) _________________________________
79 5 ) Does removing or reducing your body hair become less important during certain times of the year? ( Check all that apply ) yes, in th e off season for sports yes, when it is colder (climatic season) yes, when I am not in a relationship haven't been shaving or trimming long enough to know no, it does not become less important Other (please specify) ____________________________________________ 6 ) Have any of the following injuries occurred as a result of your body depilation ? ( Check all that apply ) nicks cuts ingrown hair razor burn no injuries have ever occurred other injury 7 ) Why do you depilate your body hair? ( Check all that apply ) definition/muscularity cleanliness to avoid teasing sex appeal better healing youthfulness better sexual experience makes a part of my body appear larger Other (please specify) _______________________________________________ 8 ) How do you remove or reduce your body hair? ( Check all that apply ) shaving cream electrolysis waxing at home chemical depilatories regular razor laser hair removal scissors electric razor electric clipper s waxing in a salon Nads creams Other (please specify) _______________________________________________ 9 ) Please estimate the number of times per week you remove or reduce your body hair : __
80 10 ) Do you allow any visible re growth before you resume the depilation process? ______ No ______ Yes 11 ) For the next three questions, please indicate the level of importance for removing or reducing your body hair using the following scale: 1= extreme ly important 2= moderately important 3= somewhat important 4= slightly important 5= not important a) Rate how important it is for you to remove or reduce your body hair when being seen by significant others. 1 2 3 4 5 extremely moderately somewhat slightly not important important important important important b) Rate how important it is for you to remove or reduce your body hair when being seen by friends. 1 2 3 4 5 extremely moderately somewhat slightly not important important important important important c) Rate how important it is for you to remove or reduce your body hair when being seen (by strangers) out in public. 1 2 3 4 5 extremely moderately somewhat slightly not important important important important important 1 2 ) Have others mentioned to you that they notice that you have depilated your body hair? _____ Yes ____ No
81 13 ) If you responded 'yes' to the previous ques tion, please answer this item, if you responded 'no', then skip to the next item (#1 4 ). Rate the kind of feedback you have received from others related to your body hair depilation. extremely moderately neutral; moderately extremely negative negative neither negative positive positive nor positive 14) Do you feel different ly about yourself or your body after you your body hair compared to when it has grown back? ____ Yes ____ No 15) Please answer the next two questions with ratings from "extremely good" to "extremely bad". a) Rate how you feel w hen you do not remove or reduce your body hair. extremely moderately some moderately extremely good good good and some bad bad bad feelings b) Rate how you feel if you have gone a few days without removing or reducing your body hair. extremely moderately some moderately extremely good good good and some bad bad bad feelings 1 6 ) Rate how anxious you would be if you could not remove or reduce your body hair for a few week s. 5 4 3 2 1 extremely moderately somewhat slightly not anxious anxious anxious anxious anxious at all
82 17) Using the following drop down menus, please indicate the most frequently used METHOD of body hair removal or reduction that you use for each of the following body sites, and the FREQUENCY you depilate the hair at that site. Body Site List Method (s) Frequency 1 Neck Regular razor More than once daily 2 Shoulders Electric razor Daily 3 Armpits Electric clippers Twice weekly 4 Chest Waxing at home Weekly 5 Abdomen Nads Twice monthly 6 Groin/Pubic Area Depilatory creams (e.g. Nair or Veet ) Monthly 7 Back Chemical Depilatories Less than once monthly 8 Buttocks Scissors 9 Arms Electrolysis 10 Hands Laser Hair Removal 11 Legs No Hair at this site 12 Feet This site not depilated other 18) Please refer to your observations of body depilation by others to answer the next four items. a) How often do you see (notice) other men at the gym that shave or trim their body hair? always almost always frequently sometimes never b) How often do you see (notice) other male friends that shave or trim their body hair? always almost always frequently sometimes never c) How often do you see (notice) other male classmates that shave or trim their body hair? always almost always frequently sometimes never d) How often do you see (notice) others men a nywhere else that shave or trim their body hair? always almost always frequently sometimes never
83 Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS; Thompson, Heinberg, & Tantleff, 1991 ; Revised Boroughs, 2008) Use the following scale ranging from 'never' to 'always' to answer the next 5 items by checking the answer that comes closest to how you feel: Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 1. At parties or other social events, I compare my physical appearance to the physical appearance of others. 2. The best way for a person to know if they are overweight or underweight is to compare their body shape to the body shape of others. 3. At parties or other social events, I compare how I am dressed to how other people are dressed. 4. Comparing your "looks" to the "looks" of others is a bad way to determine if you are attractive or unattractive. 5. In social situations, I sometimes compare my body shape to the body shape of other people.
84 Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire Body Areas Satisfaction Scale ( MBSRQ BASS; Brown, Cash & Mikula, 1990 ; Revised Boroughs, 2008 ) Instructions: Using the following scale for the next 10 items, indicate how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with each of the following areas or aspects of your body: Very dissatisfied Mostly dissatisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Mostly satisfied Very satisfied 1. Face (facial features, complexion) 2. Hair (on head color, thickness, texture) 3. Lower torso (buttocks, hips, thighs, legs) 4. Mid torso (waist, stomach) 5. Upper torso (chest, shoulders, arms) 6. Muscle tone 7. Weight 8. Height 9. Overall appearance 10. Body hair (amount, locations, coarseness)