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Beyond orthographic segmentation

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Material Information

Title:
Beyond orthographic segmentation neurophysiological evidence that pseudo-derived word stems are processed semantically
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Herbert, Theresa
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Early N400
Morphological segmentation
Semantic priming
Dual-route cascaded model
Interactive activation model
Dissertations, Academic -- Communication Sciences and Disorders -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Morphological segmentation while reading is essential for new vocabulary learning. The study's aim was to investigate semantic-level morphological segmentation using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in typical young adult readers. Past research has suggested that, because semantically opaque words prime their stems (e.g., corner/corn) similarly to transparent words (e.g., farmer/farm), readers recognize complex words from their constituent morphemes without regard to semantic information. However, this priming effect may be due to orthographic and phonological overlap between prime and target words. The research presented here addressed this possibility by creating five conditions in which orthographic, phonological, and semantic relationships between prime and target words were manipulated: Condition 1,wherein prime and target shared no relationship (e.g., inn/brother), served as Control. In Condition 2, prime and target were the same (e.g., brother/brother). In Condition 3, prime was the stem of target (e.g., broth/brother). Condition 4, our critical experimental condition, used primes semantically related to the stem of the target word (e.g., soup/brother). Finally, in Condition 5, prime was semantically related to the whole target word (e.g., sibling/brother). Semantically priming the stem (Condition 4) did not modulate the amplitude of the standard N400 ERP component (as did Conditions 2, 3, and 5), but did affect an early N400-like ERP component peaking in amplitude at ~262 ms after target. Other ERPs were observed that responded uniquely to shared orthography (Conditions 2, 3). Results set the stage for investigating morphological processing in adult reading impairments to evaluate whether, and to what extent, these readers semantically process morphological stems during text comprehension.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Theresa Herbert.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 74 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002029069
oclc - 436868993
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002870
usfldc handle - e14.2870
System ID:
SFS0027187:00001


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Full Text
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Beyond orthographic segmentation :
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University of South Florida,
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Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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ABSTRACT: Morphological segmentation while reading is essential for new vocabulary learning. The study's aim was to investigate semantic-level morphological segmentation using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in typical young adult readers. Past research has suggested that, because semantically opaque words prime their stems (e.g., corner/corn) similarly to transparent words (e.g., farmer/farm), readers recognize complex words from their constituent morphemes without regard to semantic information. However, this priming effect may be due to orthographic and phonological overlap between prime and target words. The research presented here addressed this possibility by creating five conditions in which orthographic, phonological, and semantic relationships between prime and target words were manipulated: Condition 1,wherein prime and target shared no relationship (e.g., inn/brother), served as Control. In Condition 2, prime and target were the same (e.g., brother/brother). In Condition 3, prime was the stem of target (e.g., broth/brother). Condition 4, our critical experimental condition, used primes semantically related to the stem of the target word (e.g., soup/brother). Finally, in Condition 5, prime was semantically related to the whole target word (e.g., sibling/brother). Semantically priming the stem (Condition 4) did not modulate the amplitude of the standard N400 ERP component (as did Conditions 2, 3, and 5), but did affect an early N400-like ERP component peaking in amplitude at ~262 ms after target. Other ERPs were observed that responded uniquely to shared orthography (Conditions 2, 3). Results set the stage for investigating morphological processing in adult reading impairments to evaluate whether, and to what extent, these readers semantically process morphological stems during text comprehension.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
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Co-advisor: Nathan D. Maxfield, Ph.D.
Co-advisor: Elaine R. Silliman, Ph.D.
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Semantic priming
Dual-route cascaded model
Interactive activation model
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PAGE 29

/0 nrrnn rnnr "nrnrn"n r8 rnnrnnn+3n n") %nr+rn"n,r "nnrnrn"""n nrn)nn "3nnn" r*n3rrnrn nnr*) *n+n400n"n,r*" n) *+,,-#nr.*rr rr)r r & 400nr rrrn "nn,r+ rnrnnnrnr "nr+rr6 rnrnE400:;r"nnn "r3n)rn" n400nrr"nrn" rnrr3 Crnrn3nnrnn *n)'*r+nr nn"nrnn3n rr "nr n4003r:r""F'rTnr r+/00BG9 r+%r+F,rn+/00BG Ir+9r3+<+FHr+/00?;+r r ""nrn36r rnrn:))+n rrn36rn n3""n3;)7n 3""nr +nrn "n400n3r"n r:n;+r r rrn36rr n3nn33)rn n 3rnr400 rn=rnnr2nr:-11-;n "n400n"n ,rr*"r38rnrnn nr*rnnr+"r

PAGE 30

/3r rnr rn +400rnr 3n3n)%+3r3 rn rnr rn+400rnr) )nr-# )n"nrrrn, rnn*nr3+ rnn rrnn r )nnnrn "3r3rnr rn n3nn33rrn) nr+nn rn n3nn33+nrn3 nnn3 "3nrn"n"n) r +rn+nn33r rrn36nrn n3 :))+ ;+n3 :))+ ;rr+K)Lnr r+3nrn nrrrn3nr ""n) nrnrnrrr rnnnnnrrrnr n"nr r*3n rr)$+
PAGE 31

// nr+rrnr;)rn3n rrnrr#n3 #nrnnnrrrn""*+n rnnCnrnrr nr"n*n3r3r n+rrnn) rrnn3+r / +rnnn "nn nrnrrrn33rr) rrnn )n"n$nr) :/00@;nnn",%n *nn)&nrn"n 3 +rrCnrrr *3"n ""* 0 )rrn r"rrn nrn"n3 rnrnnr nrn+nCn r "n M +r+"r+Cn3n nn)3'4+nr#3+ +nrrrCnr 3r)!3+nrnn3n nnnn M +rrnrnrn nnr6 "n3+nr3"nrn* rn*n)6+ n"+nrnnr3r rn "r"nr nn33rrn) nnrnrnrn n nrnrnrrnrrn rr#3rr nrn"n*r n)!3+n""n3rn rnr $nr)nnrn "nr)

PAGE 32

/. '4)rnrr#rn$" ,%$) nrn$nr):/00@;3 rnrnr 3rnr)7nnrnn nrnn rn n3r3r nrnrrn3rnr r+r+r rnr)'>+"3r 6 +nr+ r+rrnrrrn) '3r6 + rnnrnrnr#+n3 nrnrrr r)7n""nn63nn n"r"rn, ""n "rn"3r ) nrn"nr $nr):/00@; n"nnrn)n nrnnrnrnr rnrnrr3nrnrr ""*+3nnrnr rn"rnr n33 nrnnn) nrn nr n c cc c c cc c n n n n "# $% c c $ %! c !! c n rr

PAGE 33

/4 '>)nr+r+rrn ,rnr nrn rr rr n && !3+ rn 33rnnn nrnn+nnr n33nrn rr ""n" rn rrrrn rnn6r+r3rn3 3rr)'*r+nr + nnnr + rrr n: M ;+"rrn nr nrr33+r ") #n n+nrrr rrr rnnr"n33 +rnr6rr n3nn33 3)$rr rnnnn3: ;nrrrnr n r"n 3+ ) nn%1r%#r r,n%rr",r:%nr n+/00-;nnrn3nn 3rn3nnrn3r n*rD33 nrr*rDnrn)r"n FI:-11>;n nrnrnrnnrnn*r n "r

PAGE 34

/> rr)n rr:%r+/000;r r:$n)r)+/00@; rnrnn3)!3+n$nr) n3rnrn r nnrr:))+ G '$'$ ;nrnn ""nnr3nnrn3n nnrrrnn" n*rn"n"n3nr rnn3+ 3nrnrrDrn ""n) nrn nnrn n "nrnrr rrrnnrr "n$nr):/00@; ") nnr63nn r3 rrnr3r rnr3 )!+n"nnn3r nr3nnn" r*33r nr n"n*rn"r *3)r r#nr63nnn" r*+ 3+r % rnrnnnr*+r3n nrn r)#n3rrr3 ,nnrnn nrnrrn"rn+nr+ rrrn n3 3rnrn3 ) ,3nnnrn3 )*nrn3rnrn "nn"3 rrnrn nnr*+nn r rrr +rnnr n"n400,3 33rrnrrnnnn"3 -:))+ r% 3

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/? r r r;)7nrn+400 n r n"33-3rrnrrn n3/:))+ r ;)

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/B %!,/$! rnrn rnrn3n"rrnr rrnrrnn &n"n'r)nnr"/0rn rnrnnn)rnr"* rnrn3*33rnr6 rnnrnr""nn "n+n#nr"n+n3 rn3rnr6 "+ r"*n ,r+r3n "3nnn*n)r -4rnrn:1"r+> r;+3rnr3+3 n3n r"-1r4-r:r+ />)B1rGnrrrn+U?)-Br;) rnrnn*nr ,nr+rrnr6" r+rnn r+n"rrr rrrn+r rnr""nn"n)r r"nn rnrnnn+rn*n rrnrnrrn "V/0r"nrnrn) rrrrr r nn"n )' 2!!!rnr :6+$<3+F$rn+/00-;3 rnnrrnrnrrr nnrn6nrr 33nrnrnnrrr)n3 nnn,r %%n)rn nrr3r-0?)>.

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/@ :nrrrn+U1)-/;+rnnrnr rr r r6333nnrrr "rr n) $rnr r) ) nnn".@r"3nn 3)3 rr3rr3+3nr rrrn+"nr ""*)r"n.@nrn33rn r n3nr-;nnr rrrn""*: r'8:/004;rn "nn""*;r /;n3rrrnrr# nnrrnrrn) rnnrn+rnn3"r r3:))+n 33rrn: r 3 rrrrn""*: r ;;+nr"n 33n r n nr""*:))+ r M n3K nL;) '*nrn3nrn3 n3r nnr+r+rDrn rn3nnnrn3: *r"nr /;)7%n:&rn;+n3rn nrn3rnr+r+ rnrn: r ;) %+n3r%n/:7nr ;rrnrn+3n nrnrn3 nr: rr ;)n%n-r/ rnrrCn)3r %n.:7nrn; rnrr+ nnr rnr+rnn *nrKr#Ln: rr ;",rnnr):/004;)

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/1 %n4:rnr,rnn;3 rnrrnnn rn "nnrn3: r ;+3n%n>:rnr, rn ;3rnrrnnn $ nrn3: r ;)%n4 r>3 n36"$nr):/ 00@;nrn*rnrn "rnrr#*3: '$'$ ;)nn n"""$nr)nrnn-; nCrnr r r#nrn3r/;rn nnnn3nrn 3:r /*r;) #n) ) 3%n-3rn rr"r3n nnrn3nrrnr+ r+rDrnr) nrrrr3r n n"rr rDnr3n n3"rr)rn r3rn n"rn rnrrn r n3n3rnnn"nn rn3n3nrn3) 3%n4r>3n n""n3 rrn-;n&n"n' r8'rn rnr r:+$+F +-11@;+/;n rnr :+/00B;+r.;rn):!r +/00@;)nrn3"3 n3rrrnrnrrrn3 3rr3nrnr6 "rnr)

PAGE 39

.0 r / *r"n7n r(!& ) 3r3rn"n"n +nrr'#7*> :'7;r"r"n33rrn" I+7+$r+rr :-11>;)33n '7r) n"3nnn 3r3n rnr3"#) rnn33r nC"nnnnrr 3 ) 7nr"rnnn+rrnr nrn+ n#Cnrn"r rn3n33r'7r n nn/>nn"nn n "n"#rW/>nnP >'7rr*rn"n"#"r 33nnn*n ) %n&rn %n/ 7nn %n. 7nr ,n %n4 rn,n %n> rn n n n n n n n 6 n n nrnrrrrr rrr rr rr rr rrr 3r r rnrr 3rnrnrnrnrn3rn rn ""nnnn3n rn rr nnn r n" 6n r nr rnrnrnrrnnrn rnrn

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.'7"44).X)44n#C3rnrr nrnnnr *n)nnrnrrnrn3r *"nrrCrnrn "nrnr)3-1nnr rnnnrn3rnrn )rnn"n" rr3r1/)?@Y:nrr rn+UB)0@Y;)'7r"n3 r"/1).n44)/0+3nr rrr".?)@?)rrr "rnrn n3 n "nrn3rrn'7 r: 4P)0?1;)r"n 3rrnnr "r .)r "n#Cr *) nrr ) r*n3r"rnnr"-10 3rnn3 6"1>r)nr 6+-1"r rn3nr) rnn+nnn+" rnrnnrnnnr63rnr 3nrnrrn+n rnn3rnr 3rr+nn(n"r nrn n3nn3 3rr"-> r *)r nrn"n"3 n-;rr"*rnn:M;3n "nnn"B>0 :;G"3 /;3-3n "nn"400G "3 .;rr"*rnn:M;3 n"nn"/00G "3 4;3/3n"n n"400G"3 >;r r6"?00G"3 ?;rn

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./ r %rrnn r'7 =r r9n r n=r %n->-)-@>).//)1B %n/4?)?>)B4/)0. %n.41)B..)4B--)/? %n4>.)?>>)-.>)4/ %n>41)@/>)1/.)00 rnn33r:KZZZL;3n "nn"-000Gr+ "r+B;r96nr:'?;)rn rn3#nrr r3nrnnrn+rnrn n3rrrr3n r3rn)3n rnr3rnr "n3r+-)-: "n3r+nn + ;) 'rr ) rnrn3rr6n(+r96n r"->+nn 3n"nn3rr3rn r)"K-Lrn nrnn33nr+3r" K>Lrnnrnn33n rnrnr)'rnr+n96nr rnnn rnrnrr)r3r +n*nnr r)96nr 3nr"n *)nnrnr3r -000)nnrrnrnn"nr *n3r

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.. '?)nnrnr*rn.0n+->n 6+ rn r6nrn3r n3 6) nn ) rnrnrnnr"-103r ".@r> n)rn n3n3 rnrnrr+ rnr+rr)7%n-+n n333rnr nrn:))+ r ;)7%n/+n33nrrn rrnrn:))+ rr ;)7%n.+n"n33r rnnrrnn3:))+ rr ;)7%n4+n"n 33rrnrnrnnn"n 3:))+ r ;) 7%n>+n"n33rrnrn rnn33:))+ r ;) rrnr, rnrn3rnrn+rnn rn nrnrnr".? "nnn)r3n n3r+3n+ ZZZ QQQQQ-000 M QQQQQB>0 QQQQQ400 M QQQQQ/00 / QQQQQ400 QQQQQ?00 !3 rnrn 3 $7<[ -nr/rn.rn43rnrn > nrn

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.4 //n+00!C:/;"r "?/nnr rrnrnn++r r 6"nr+r"" rnrnrn"r+ nn"rrn"rn) r;)

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.> n;)"nn 7%n"r< n??n+n3n:r r;"rn3 rn3nr 6nrnrn rr rnrrnr6rnn "n3 6*rr"rrnr n)n3 3nrnn 6nrn:P)1 nn ;3rn"rr 6n) rnnrnnr 6n3r "rnr"n nr;n "-10nrrnrn3n" 6rnn) --6"r ) "n7% 6n+r3"rnr rrn*/00 n:r"n;3r6 rGr3 r3""nrrn *-00n:"#;) Y"nnnr "r;3r (n""nrr) rnrnnnr-0Y"nnr" rn)? 'r< 'rrnnr3nrr6 r:\. ;+n;"%n.+/1)/-:4)>-;" %n4+r.0)>:4)>;"%n>)

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.? 3rrnn+rrn"rn )rn+rrnrnr "n",rr+"rn) rr,rnr3nrn nnnrn33:-00n000;+"nrrr "+r rn:-00n0;) rnrr 8r nrnrrr+nrnrn8#Cr3 + r+r96n rnr*n3 3"rr)r3 3n#Cn* n: rn+n3+ ;3*"rnrrr) 7rn+nr396nrrn 3nn3n*n 3*)'*r+n 3r%n: D r ;3*nn K>L:nrn;r"% n/: r D r ; 3*nn K-L:nr;:r 4;) ,"K/+LK.+LrK4Ln3 r%n>3n rnr +nrnrn nn3r (n)+ nnrK>L:nrn; %n-: r ;+.: rr ;+r4: r ;3*G nnrK-L:nr;%n/ : rr ;3*Gr "K-L:nr;K>L:nrn; %n>: r ;3 *)"+nrnr 3"3rnrn3 nr"rnrr nrn)nnr"4-4nr

PAGE 46

.B r 4 *n96nr,) %n-: D r ; >Jnrn %n/: r D r ; -Jnr %n.: r D r ; >Jnrn %n4: D r ; >Jnrn %n>: D r ; /Jrn.Jrn4J3rnrn 3+r/+44?nr"rr) r "nr rnrn nrCr >) -#r r%nr:%;3rn rCrrrn rr"n,rnrn)rr,rnr "rrnrn3 nrrnrrn*">>:"r"nr nnnrn33;r4+.403 :nrr,nr"-4 rnrn+"r"n"n +rnr"?/nG-4]>]?/ P4+.40;)rn*3rrnnrn r%+"3nrr3r nrrnrn "nrrrn* :rn;)%nr+n r"nnr%3rn n"nn33"nn,rr :r"n+nr"rn; 3r,rr3rnr nrn) n 3+-0rnrrnr"r n3n"+r nrnnrnn",rr3n r"33"n)7 nnn"*nr""n+"rn rCn,rr3nr

PAGE 47

.@ r >)$r "7n%n%n ".@ r) %n -.. /.4 ..4.>.-?0 n33+rn"n+3 nnnrrnr= 3nrr3n (n"rn3n" :&rn+7nr+ 7nrn+rnr,rnn+rn r,rn;+rn rr3n (n"rn3n" :'C+'C+%C+C+C;)n nrn3rrn+n" "3n:< F<+-1>1;)n"nn nr) "3"3n nnnr%)'n+ nn3rrnrr n3*nrn r %+3,:"F$ +-1@@;) ,nrn3r n*nrn"rrrnrnrn" rrnr n*nrn"rrnrn"r n n+rr rnrrnrrnrn) nnnn" r%3nrrnrnnnn r*:!6F n+-1?4;3n2rrCrnr6P/:, r+-1@?Grnr++F

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.1 <+-111;)%rrrr*nrn 3nn$rnr r% *:+/00> ;)

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40 %!,.,&9 rrrnr rnrn8n"rr r nnrn*n 3rrC"rr)7nnn r r#C3*" rnr3nrr)963+n nrn3n *n3"rnr3n rr)r3 rnrnn rC n33 r*)'r+nr 396nr33n" 3n*n3 ) 3rr rrrnrn8 rr)'*r+r rnrnnrnn" r rrrn3 n*nrD(n3r D r n)"+ n r nr"n""nn "rnr)7r+ -B>nr rnnnr3G rrnrB?nr3 "rnGrrnr-1nr3 rnrnrn nrnnnGrrrn r-44nr3 r "nn96nr)nrn"nnrn3r "rn+ 96nr"rrnrn3r rrrrC)r" nrrr ?)

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4r ?)$r96nr,"r"n '%n %n-4)1> %n/-)0%n.4)?@ %n44)B1 %n>/)B,rnr 'Brrrr3r"rn" n)=r n"n3r"rnr"n nr "" rn n3%n-:&rn;+3 rn+rr"n n"n),rnnrnn r3rrrC3n" n33"nnrn nnr %+n*n)

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4. rnrrrn-0n r"rnrn" 1>)>1Y"nrr)n+rn r"rnnrn 33"nn,rr)'@3n "rnr"rnr "rn)rnrrnnn n3r"rnn" ,rr3rnrn)'"nn r"rn3'@+n n""nnnn)"rn 6n)"nnr "rnrr3"n+(nn 3"nrC nrnnr"rn*nr""nn ,rr:'@+r "rn33nnr6rn;)3 r"n "nn r6rn+))+/?/+.@4+r>.0+n ) 494-r5 ,rnr="n"rnr rn3nn/?/n 33rrnrn"rn + W-?+/0@XP.)11+ P)00>) "nr3rnnn rn"%n:&rn;rrnnrn"rn nrnrnnr"rn ""nrnn3""nn)nn' C+n""rn n3 %n/:7nr;r%n-:& rn;3rnrnnr"rn : P)000;)3'1+n7nr nrrrn rnnrn&rnn)""n +3nnrnr rnrn n+nn3nn rnrn"r/00n,r n"nr)

PAGE 53

44 '@)=rrr'rn9r'r "-0r'rn:7))+ -0,"7nn;7n"& r%)'rnn< r7rn3rnnnrn nr"rn*nr ""n:r6rn"r333 ;) & # ( # 0nn )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( & # ( # )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( & # ( # )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( 12( & # ( # )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( & # ( # )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( #*# & # ( # )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( 2&' & # ( # )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( & # ( # )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( & # ( # )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( & # ( # )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( (

PAGE 54

4> '1)/?/'rn9r:;: nn;nn'C:$;) & # ( # 0nn )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( #*# & ( nr )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( +, -n .n .n nn /n nn /n +n3r#41#4()41)4( 41 (4( 41 -n.n.nnn /nnn /n

PAGE 55

4? 7rn+rnnC+n""r n n3%n4 :rnr,rnn;r%n-:&r n;3rnrnnr"rn : P)0-?;)3'-0+n&rnn 3rrrn3nrn rnnnrn3rrnnrnrn" nrnr,rnn n)""n+3nnr:/?/;n rnrn n+ nn3nnrnrn"r400n ,rn"rrn rnnCr/?/ r"nnnrn) :;+-r5 ,rnr="n"rnr rn3nn.@4n 33rrr""n"+ :4+>/;P?)-.+ P)00/)"n r3r+nnnrn"% n-:&rn;rrnn rn"rnn+rrnrn nr"rn"" n3 %n/:7nr;r%n-: P)0/.;Gr3rrnrnnr "rn"" n3%n.:7n rn;r%n-:&rn; : P)0./;)3'--+n7nrr 7nrnn3 nrrn3nn,rnn rnnn&rnn) ""nnn3nr.00nrnrn+3 r rrn3nrn "36)

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4@ '--).@4'rn9r:;: nn;r' $n) & # ( # 0nn )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( 2&' +n3r414'424#4) (4( 4)4# -n.n.nnn /nnn /n

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PAGE 59

>0 '-/)>.0'rn9r:;: nn;nn%C:$;) & # ( # 0nn )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( 12( & ( nr )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( -n .n .n nn /n nn /n +n3r)4( 41 (4( 41 )4()41 -n.n.nnn /nnn /n

PAGE 60

>nnC+n""rn n3 %n/:7nr; r%n-:&rn;3rnrnnr "rn: P)00-;Gr3rn"" rn n3%n>:rnr,r n;r%n:&rn;: P)00B;)3'-.+n&rnn 3rrr rrn3nrn:))+4006;r nnnrn3rrnnrnrn "n7nrrrnr,rn n+rn"rn rnnCr>.0r"nn nrn)

PAGE 61

>/ '-.)>.0'rn9r:;: nn;nnC:$;) & # ( # 0nn )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( 12( & ( nr )((( &(( *(( '(( #(( ( -n .n .n nn /n nn /n +n3r)41)4( 41 (4( 41 )4( -n.n.nnn /nnn /n

PAGE 62

>. %!,'&,7%&7 r"nn3rnn3nn rrnrrrC 3"rnr nnrnr) 'nrnrnrrnr6nrn# nnrnrn3 r)'n3rn3n nrnrnr nrr+r+rDrnr +r"3%n-:&rn D r ;G%n/:7nr r D r ;G%n.:7nrn r D r ;G%n4:rnr,rnn D r ;G%n> :rnr,rn D r ;),nn3 rr3rrCrnnn rnr"3n n-000"33n)rrnrrr, ""n:))+ ""rn; n3%n-:& rn;r*nrn -;nrn"n/00n"% n/:7nr;G/;n rn"rr4006n"% n4:rnr,rnn;G .;nrn"n.00n"% n/:7nr;r. :7nrn;Gr+"r+4;nrn "rnrr+rn400n" %n/:7nr;+.:7nrn;+ r>:rnr,rn;) r"nnr B) "rnn3nn3+ rnr,""nrnrn3 3r6rnrn/?/ r"nnrn3nJrn nnr:/00;r

PAGE 63

>4 r B)r",""n""nrn* nr%n"%n rn9rnnr%n r) n nn nn / : n n; nr rnrn : n n; nr [ nrF rn r 4 : n; rn > : n; rn nnrnnrn:400;) 3+nr4006 ""nnnnnrnrr 3nrnrrn) rrnn",""n --#-r 3,nrn"" n*nrn 3nnr+rn33r6rnE/?/ r"nnnrn "nrn3)3rr"nr/""n+3 3rrrn"%n /:7nr;nr"%n-:&rn; )nnrnnrnr /rnrrr6"nr 3r:rr FCnC+-11@;)"r+,++r :-11>;r,rn =r:-111;"nrnrnrr3 nnnrr:/00 400;n3r)rn3r "nn3nnr:r nrnr;+r3r "r3 nn" 3+nrnnrnnr/6 ""nnr8 "r3nr),n% n/r"nnnr

PAGE 64

>> 3nn""n+rnnrn33 nr)%n. :7nrn;nnnrn+n rnnrnrnrn rnnnn33)nrn+n r nrnnnr r6 r/r rnrn3 nr) $r+3nnrn33rn +rn, n3rn %n-:&rn; n3rrnnrn %n4) rnrnnrn"n400nr rnn3n*rrn )=rnnr2nr:-11-; nrn400rn3r rrn3nr38rnrn r3rnr nnnrn+nnrr rn400nnr3 nrnr)400nrr nrnrnrrnr+ r6rnr*rn400nnn :2++F$r+/00>;) !3+rnnnnrnrn nr6rn "/>0/B0nnn:+,r+F +-11@G$rn^9+ !(r+%rr+$C+F'rC'r+/004G rCC+!r6+F_+ /00B;)rnrrnnn+r CCnr):/00B;"r, nrnnr6r/@0./0 n33+rn rnn rr4006n) ,n rnn"nnr nnrnrn"r rn,nnrnr 3rn3r :3+/001;)'n+rrnn r#n+nnr nrnrrnn 3n3rn Cnrr+r n"nrn:$nr)+/00@ ;+ nrrrrnr)7

PAGE 65

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>B %n/),nr):-11>;3nrnn n3rn3nrn3 r3nn33nr rrnrnrr nrnnnrnrrnr ) nnrnnr/ n %n/3rnr+rrr nrrnn)r nnrrr rrn n"%n.+3 nnrnr3nrr rrn""nn n"r n3n3 )nnnrn rnnrnr#"nn) r-#-r 'r+%n-:&rn;nr n 400nrn3r rnnrnrn"n"nn" n)nr +400r ,nn *rn:' +-110;+r6rnrn E400?00r"n3n)%r+ 400rnrn nr38rnrn:=rnn F2nr+-11-;)33 rnrnr rn nrrnr400+3 r3nrrnr400) %n/:7nr;+.:7nrn;+r> :rnr,rn; rrnnrn400)n""n3r *n"%n/r>+n 3rrr *n"%n.)rn rnnrn"n400 nrrnn3nrnnr 6)nnrnr %n/r>rrnr+rrnnr n4003r*n)7 nrn+nnrn3%n. nrrnr)n+r

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>@ rnnrn400n3r )3n n+! r
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>1 33)nr nnrrn+r rrCnn "rrnnGnrn+nr nrnrrrnrn rnnrn"nn)7n *n+n nn rrnrnrn3+33n rn3 r 3rn /00rn)3r n/?/3 3+3r+ rnn" r :))+ r3 3rrnrnrnrrn3 3rn+ rnnn"3rnn r3nnrn63) '3nrnrrnrnrrn +rn rnrnn rrnnrrnr33r )7nrn+nn" 3nn nn33 r)nrn+ n rrnnr nrrn*r n" r rn33n) n.@4n33+rnn nrrn nr 33rn)nrn >.033nr+ nnr+r33r+ rrn400 rn %n/+.+r>+n) #n""nr 3nnrrnrnnn"3n rn"3rnr 33r+"+3rnr rnrnr3rnrr n")7n3+n33 rn""n >.0nn3rrrn 33rrnrn"r *nrn"3:n"nrnr n;nr n)7n3r nnrrrnrnnnr 3rrrnrn

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?0 "rnrn nn)7nn n rnrnnr"rr rnrr"rnnrn"n ""n"r) r+nnn#nrn" ,%r r)3'-4+n nnrnnrrnrr 3 nrr3rr nrrr nrr)"+3r 3n :))+ r ;+nn rnr3nn rn n3n rr"rn: r J ;r"n33) rn+n+nrn"nrJ3rn nrn",% r3rn "n""rn [%n nrnr"n "nnrnrnnn r"rrrn "rn+ n+r"nr ""n[3nn #n"nnr"r rnr rn "nnnrn) n$r7rr rnr*rn rnnrn" rnrnrnrn n rrrr n)!+rnr3nn nnr *rrn r"""rrr)

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?'-4)nrn"rnr r#:%n4;n $",%$rr"" ""n 5555n 5555 55 nr555 63/7386/386=r#n#nr# ) $rnr):-114;"nrnrnn nnrrn:))+ nr ;rr#3r:))+ r ;3n"rn ""nrr6rr+ nrnrnrnnn3n "3r)""n %n4"nn+ rn"n400n+nnr nr $rn r)nrnnrrrnrnrn n *r*3) rnnn"n3nr "" n3nn3n) "n""rnnnrr $rnr) :-114;r6+3r+n nn+rn n3r)rnn" nrnr)$r nrn nr 5 5 c cc c n n n n n 5! r5 $5 c $ 5!! c n rr

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?/ nr)rnrr#33 nnrr"n n3r+3rrn ""n) 33n"nnnrnr rr"nrrnnnn rnnr""rnr r":%n.;) 7nrn+nrrn n3nn nnr""nnn+ rnnrnrnnn nrnrnrr rr) =r)#r ) $nr):/00@;r"nrn $rnr):-114; n,nrn"n) "r+""n3 n400n" nnrrnrr# n+r nnrnn)"r rnn"$nr)nrn ""n3 n400n "3) nrr3rnn3nn nn:))+n;+ nnrrnn3""n)3 nn$r*n+n n"""nrn"$nr)+3 nrrr rr3r)r+n" rnnrnnnr ""nnnrnnrr rnrrrr rn400 n)

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?. =r ) 7nrnnn rrrr ""n"n $rnr):-114;rn$nr) :/00@;n+r3rnn n+,6r:/00@;"n ""n"rnr r#3rr rnn)!+ nn"n n3n nrn,6rnrn+ nrnnn nrn:))+ nn;) rr nn"rnnrn ,6rrnnnr ""n) rr rrnr r"rn "nrr r n n:,n9n"n$" ,%$;)n""n+rnnr rn n3n3 rnrnrrnrrn"n rnrn rnr"rnrn) 7r+nrnn"$r nr):-114;r $nr)+:/00@;+nrnn rn"n nrnn+3r+r rn)nnn nrnrnrrnrnrrr nr+"nr nn nnnr"n33 3nnr) n"""n",6r:/00 @;+3"n ""n"rnrr#3) r("" n3n rnrn),6r rrnn nr*rn""n+3,3 nn)nr + rnnrnr 3#6rn rnr)nnr+

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?4 nrn rnnrrnrrnr "rrn ") nrn"nnrnnn nnrnnrn nnrn3 nrnrr rr#)n n "nnrn n* n)rnr nrr nrrnn rn:))+"#+ n+n+n);)"+n 3rrnnn r#3rnnrn3+rnnrrn 3n3rnrnnn "$nr):/00@;)3nrn 3rnnr 3nrr"n)7nr nnrn nn$nr) nr3rnnnCnrnnr nrn"3"#) "nnrnnnr"*r r nrnrrn+rrn r3n*r)"rnr nnn n"*r33 r6rr+ nr 6rrnnrn)7n nrnnrn+rr r nrrn"rnn" r"rn) "3nnrn rnn rnnrnn*rn +rnrn6 +r ),nrnrrnr r "nrnr+"nnnn #rrnnrn n3rnrn"3 rr n3nrrn+n3 rrn 3nrrrrrn)

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?> % 7+nnnnnnrn "3 nrrnr) rrr rnn nrn r nnrrnrr#3 3nrnr r+rnrn" 3"3n rrnn)n rrn: ,6F+/00@;" nnnr)nrnnrn rnrn" rnrr#3r"rn+ n rrn33:/?/;) 'nnr6n*rr rrrr rn+rn+rr n)

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?? ,',% +)H)F(36+)H):-11>;)"rn r*Crnrrn rrnr n) *nrr%>% --/1-->1) rr+)FCnC+):-11@;)rr nr"! 3 3nrrn) 26r#%?<@% 41/>04) rrr+<)r3+%)):/004;) *&rA=r Br.rn r*$ C' )rn+%r"*nrn) r""+)+F'rTnr r+'):/00B;)! ""nn" rn"n rnnnr:,;) 8 r%9:% -/.-.>) %r+H)')+Fr )$):-11.;) rrrr3r -nr) #r%?+% -BB-1>) %r+H)'):/000;)3r"nnn rr"r *37rnr) )r%?4 +-?1-10) %r+H)'):/004;)$rnr n"rnr)7%)) n+),)r+)H)+F2):) ;+ r. nr :).-@..1;)3`6<") %nrn+$)+,rn+2)++%)+9r+,)+ FI+H):/00-;),%rn rr"r3nrr r) #$% ?,; +/04/>?)

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?B r+)!)F2 +H),):/004;)$r r3rHnK r[L"rr rr3rr n) #r%4<% //./.@) +H):/00>r;)7%6 *W%n"n3 rX)9r3+2&n" 2rr) +H):/00> ;)% *W%n"n3rX: =-)1.;)9r3+2) rr nnDD333))6)DE(D3r)n ) +H):/001;)n r"r 3rnr rn,"rn3r) r+@0+-0//) +)+%+$)<)!):-11@;)%n*nrn rn.00)rrr r/-+-41J-?@) 'r+9))Fnr+)<):-111;)$ r" rn+rnnrr+rr""*n ) 8%9;% ...1) '+)%):/000;)nrn"n r<)+,nr <+7) '+7)):-110;)%rr3n nrnnnr)7H)) r+,)rrrr+F,)H+H):);+ -rrrr. 8r :)-?>-BB;)3`6*"&n) 'r6+$))++H)++H)!)+! +)+ Frn+9)):/00B;)rn rnn400+.00+r400,) *%??;% -0>.-0?@) '+)):/004;) rD'r5 r'r+Hr+

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B0 rCC+)+!r6+)+F_+'):/00B;) rrnn*nnrn r*rrrr nrn r nnr) 8 #%>+% .B4.@@) "nn+%)):-11/;)nrn rr#n)7))<+ 9)%)+F,)r:);+ (r :)-4>-B4;)!r+H r) "+,))F$ +%)):-1@@;) rnrr nrrr)3`6) ,rn+2+r+$)!)+$r+))+F +9)2):/000;)$r rrn""nr3n nn) r#%?<% >0B>.B) ,rn2)+r$)!)+3):/004;) n nb n$ nrnrnr3n ) #n8rE $%??% -010-01@) ,r+$):-1@?;),nrn"rn ) 2nr%9% /1. ..>) ,6+H)<)F+2)):/00@;)%,,r ,!,r *[nnn) r#%4:% 1B/-00-) ,+$))++$)%)+F+):-11>;) r3nn3n rrrnrnrnnnrn ) 2r *%>% /01//B) ,+$))Fn=r+$):-111;)$rn """n"rn3 nnnr) *r%?,% /??-/??4)

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Br3nC+)H)+=r,+)+F3r+H):-11B; ),rnnnr rrnnnnn) *r%;% B>BB?0) +$))+F$%r+H)9):-1@1;) n n+nr" 3nrr) #$% @9% >/.>?@) +)%)+,r+2)+F+$)7):-11@;) nr rn"3 n"nrn rnnnr) *r%@% /-1>//00) r"n+$)+FI+O):-11>;)nrn" n* %n)79))'r:);+ r :)/1..-?;)!r+H r) rnr+)H)++H)$)+F<+,)9):-111 ;)nnnr"6r* nrn) -r# nr%<@% .@4.1-) 6nr +))++<)')+H+2)$)+FI" "+)):/00/;)$nrrr"n "nrrrn"3r$n rrrn) *!n%?9 +B?>B@0) =rnn+%)+F2nr+$):-11-;)n r"n"* n" *r)7<)):);+ Fr$r :) -/1J-B4;)nr) +$)):/00B;) )rr5 ,nH->+/00@" nnDD333)rn))r)6D ) 6+,))+$<3+2))+F$rn+):/00-; ) )'2!!! )7nrr+ 79, )

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B/ I+)$)+7r+)!)+$r+,))+r r+,):-11>;) -rD$ ( )3n+`nrn ) Ir+A)+9r3+)+<+%)+FHr+`):/00?;) nrrn" rr""n) 88r%>?% .-?./.)

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B4 *rAC7n -) $"" r) rr+r#6 r+"n3n ) rr"3rb6"3rn) ) rnnrn++n"n /) !n r) nr6rGn3nrr ) nnr3GGnn ) nr"n+) rrrr .) % r) r3nnnrnn+r"rn+n nrn ) rnrnn"3" ) "rn"nrr n"rnnrnr n""rr 4) 9 r) r""3nrnr+rnr+r "r ) rrn 6""rn+3 n rrnr ) r r"rnr >) %r r) r nrn*nrn ) "nrnr""rnrnn r""nrnr n ) rGn ?) %rn r) n3rnr++ r+"n+ n) ) r*n"nrn# ) nrrr""r "n B) %n r) nrr rnrGrnrnrr3n nrnr ) rrrr nrnn3rr nr3n rn ) GnnnGrn @) % r) rr#rnGrnGr6 ) r#rnn Gr rn ) r nn""r 1) r) n" ) nr rnG#nr G nr ) rrnn"r rnrn"nr #r"r nrn