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Foraminiferal responses to arsenic in a shallow-water hydrothermal system in papua new guinea and in the laboratory

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Title:
Foraminiferal responses to arsenic in a shallow-water hydrothermal system in papua new guinea and in the laboratory
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English
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McCloskey, Bryan
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University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Benthic
Ecology
Taxonomy
Heavy metals
Coral reef
Dissertations, Academic -- Marine Science -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: The tropical Indo-Pacific is the location of highest global foraminiferal biodiversity. However, the shallow-water hydrothermal system in Tutum Bay at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, possesses some of the world's highest naturally-occurring As. Foraminifers were collected in this intriguing system in 2003 and 2005 as part of a larger project to examine the possible effects of As and other hydrothermal factors on benthic communities. Despite the high ambient As, a diverse foraminiferal fauna was observed. Foraminferal communities were examined from surface sediment and from material adhered to rubble at locations from 1-300m from venting and from reference sites, at depths from 1-28m. From this material, 159 species were identified representing 107 genera, 55 families, 30 superfamilies, and 10 orders.Species abundances exhibit a logarithmic series distribution, with two species comprising 40%, twelve species comprising two-thirds, and 20 species comprising 80% of all identified specimens. All other species individually contributed <1% to the total community. Foraminiferal abundance and diversity were analyzed across the hydrothermal field; both increase with decreasing hydrothermal influence: decreasing sediment and pore water As and temperature, and increasing pH and salinity. A thorough taxonomic reference of the region was compiled, consulting appropriate original descriptions, and is herein presented, and initial steps in creating an online database of all Recent foraminifers is described. Scanning electron micrographs of the most common taxa are provided. Laboratory experiments assessed the effects of As³⁺ and As⁵⁺ on growth of Amphistegina gibbosa.Exposure to As³⁺ and As⁵⁺ at concentrations of 0- 1000μg/kg showed that As³⁺ is approximately 2.2 times more toxic than As⁵⁺, that As³⁺ of 600- 1000μg/kg is sufficient to kill or severly impair specimens on approximately two-week timescales, and that As⁵⁺ of 1000μg/kg or As³⁺ of 200μg/kg are sufficient to retard the growth of A. gibbosa on approximately four-week timescales. Over timescales of several months, cultures with extremely low As (2μg/kg As⁵⁺ and 0μg/kg As), showed growth rates not significantly greater than high-As treatments, possibly due to antimicrobial/parasiticidal properties of low As. Foraminifers displayed an exponentially-decaying functional relationship to As, halving their rate of growth with every 300μg/kg increase in As³⁺ or 600μg/kg increase in As⁵⁺.Measurements of foraminiferal whole-specimen As via SEM-EDX, AFS, and ICP-MS revealed high As of ~20mg/kg for specimens near hydrothermal venting declining to background values of ~2mg/kg for distal and non-hydrothermal reference species. Laboratory-exposed specimens contain As of ~6mg/kg indicating an As adsorption rate of ~0.25mg/kg/wk. The major portion of foraminiferal As likely occurs in a reduced-toxicity organoarsenical form, such as arsenobetaine.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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by Bryan McCloskey.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 425 pages.
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Includes vita.

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ABSTRACT: The tropical Indo-Pacific is the location of highest global foraminiferal biodiversity. However, the shallow-water hydrothermal system in Tutum Bay at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, possesses some of the world's highest naturally-occurring [As]. Foraminifers were collected in this intriguing system in 2003 and 2005 as part of a larger project to examine the possible effects of As and other hydrothermal factors on benthic communities. Despite the high ambient [As], a diverse foraminiferal fauna was observed. Foraminferal communities were examined from surface sediment and from material adhered to rubble at locations from 1-300m from venting and from reference sites, at depths from 1-28m. From this material, 159 species were identified representing 107 genera, 55 families, 30 superfamilies, and 10 orders.Species abundances exhibit a logarithmic series distribution, with two species comprising 40%, twelve species comprising two-thirds, and 20 species comprising 80% of all identified specimens. All other species individually contributed <1% to the total community. Foraminiferal abundance and diversity were analyzed across the hydrothermal field; both increase with decreasing hydrothermal influence: decreasing sediment and pore water [As] and temperature, and increasing pH and salinity. A thorough taxonomic reference of the region was compiled, consulting appropriate original descriptions, and is herein presented, and initial steps in creating an online database of all Recent foraminifers is described. Scanning electron micrographs of the most common taxa are provided. Laboratory experiments assessed the effects of [As] and [As] on growth of Amphistegina gibbosa.Exposure to As and As at concentrations of 0- 1000g/kg showed that As is approximately 2.2 times more toxic than As, that [As] of 600- 1000g/kg is sufficient to kill or severly impair specimens on approximately two-week timescales, and that [As] of 1000g/kg or [As] of 200g/kg are sufficient to retard the growth of A. gibbosa on approximately four-week timescales. Over timescales of several months, cultures with extremely low [As] (2g/kg As and 0g/kg As), showed growth rates not significantly greater than high-[As] treatments, possibly due to antimicrobial/parasiticidal properties of low [As]. Foraminifers displayed an exponentially-decaying functional relationship to [As], halving their rate of growth with every 300g/kg increase in [As] or 600g/kg increase in [As].Measurements of foraminiferal whole-specimen [As] via SEM-EDX, AFS, and ICP-MS revealed high [As] of ~20mg/kg for specimens near hydrothermal venting declining to background values of ~2mg/kg for distal and non-hydrothermal reference species. Laboratory-exposed specimens contain [As] of ~6mg/kg indicating an As adsorption rate of ~0.25mg/kg/wk. The major portion of foraminiferal As likely occurs in a reduced-toxicity organoarsenical form, such as arsenobetaine.
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Foraminiferal Responses to Arsenic in a Shallow Water Hydrothermal System in Papua New Guinea and in the Laboratory by Bryan James McCloskey A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philoso phy College of Marine Science University of South Florida Major Professor: Pamela Hallock Muller, Ph.D. James R. Garey, Ph.D. John H. Paul, Ph.D. Susan L. Richardson, Ph.D. Joseph J. Torres, Ph.D. Date of Approval: March 27, 2009 Keywords: benthic, ecology, taxonomy, heavy metals, coral reef Copyright 2009, Bryan J. McCloskey

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am greatly indebted to my advisor, Dr. Pamela Hallock Muller, whose patience, support, insight, knowledge, and creativity have been invaluable in maki ng this dissertation possible. Thanks to my committee members, Drs. James Garey, Joseph Torres, John Paul, and Susan Richardson, whose classes were interesting, whose research was informative, and whose comprehensive examination questions were challenging. Thanks to Dr. Lisa Robbins for graciously agreeing to chair my dissertation defense. The Tutum Bay biocomplexity research team helped prepare, conduct, analyze, and interpret Papua New Guinea field operations and samples. Thanks to Thomas Pichler, Roy Pri ce, Jan Amend, D'Arcy Meyer Dombard, Jim Garey, and David Karlen, and to the captain and crew of the Star Dancer, for truly enjoyable experiences in the field and in the lab. Thanks to current and past members of the Reef Indicators Lab, including Lore Ayo ub, K'wasi Barnes, Elizabeth Carnahan, Camille Daniels, Jennifer Dupont, Ana Hoare, Michael Mart’nez Col—n, Elizabeth Moses, Alexa Ramirez, and Heidi Souder for field help in the Florida Keys, laboratory help with sample preparation, and scientific help, c ommiseration, and moral support. Thanks to Tony Greco for SEM training and assistance, and for the opportunity to teach SEM laboratory techniques. Thanks to Zachary Atlas for assistance preparing samples and analyzing them via ICP MS and interpreting the r esults. Thanks to Jasmine

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Naik for helping conduct As dosing experiments in the laboratory as a student assistant. Thanks to Lore Ayoub, Jeanne Marie Bellucci, Amy Eisenmann and Rebecca Walker, Olesya Lazareva, Laura Lorenzoni, and Michael Mart’nez Col—n f or translation help on elderly taxonomic references in written in German, French, Latin, Russian, Italian, and Spanish, respectively. Financial support for this research came from the National Science Foundation, in the form of a grant awarded to Dr. Thoma s Pichler (BE: CBC# 0221834). Other support came from the Paul L. Getting Memorial Fellowship in Marine Science (2004), the Robert M. Garrels Fellowship (2005), and the St. Petersburg Progress Endowed Fellowship in Coastal Science (2006); thanks to the end owing agencies, and to the faculty of the College of Marine Science for bestowing them. Thanks to previous scientific mentors, including (but not limited to) my high school math and physics teacher Mr. Richard Andra, my University of Kansas undergraduate a dvisor Dr. Daphne Fautin, and my Dauphin Island Sea Lab advisor Dr. John Valentine. Thanks to friends and colleagues at the US Geological Survey St. Petersburg office. Thanks especially to my family; to my parents, Mike and Donna, to my sister, Katie, to m y grandparents, and to my partner, Chasity, who have continually supported, encouraged, and believed in me with unfailing love and kindness. And to all of my friends who have put up with irregular hours, distraction, and absenteeism, thank you for the inte llectual stimulation you have provided for many years through your uniquely thought provoking interests, insights, and worldviews.

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES iv LIST OF FIGURES vi LIST OF PLATES xi ABSTRACT xiii CHAPTER 1. ARSENIC IN THE EN VIRONMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING AROUND TUTUM BAY, AMBITLE ISLAND, PNG 1 1.1 Overview of Dissertation Research 1 1.2 Environmental Setting 4 1.2.1 Regional Context 4 1.2.2 Vent Fluid Properties 13 1.2.3 Other Environmental Parameters 20 1.3 Arse nic in the Environment 27 1.4 Arsenic Chemistry 32 CHAPTER 2. TAXONOMY OF THE FORAMINIFERA OF TUTUM BAY, AMBITLE ISLAND, PAPUA NEW GUINEA 35 2.1 Introduction 35 2.2 Methods 36 2.3 Results 41 2.4 Discussion 54 2.5 Taxonomy 62 CHAPTER 3. COMMUNITY ST RUCTURE OF FORAMINIFERA NEAR AN ARSENIC ENRICHED SHALLOW WATER HYDROTHERMAL VENT IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA 67 3.1 Introduction 67 3.2 Methods 70 3.2.1 Sampling Locations and Protocol 70 3.2.2 Environmental Parameters 74 3.2.3 Foraminiferal Analyses 76 3.2.4 Data Analysis 76 3.3 Results 80 3.4 Discussion 95

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ii CHAPTER 4. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC ON FORAMINIFERAL GROWTH RATES IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS, INCLUDING GROWTH ENHANCEMENT AT INTERMEDIATE [AS] 117 4.1 Introduction 117 4.2 Methods 118 4.3 Results 124 4.3.1 Skewness/Kurtosis 124 4.3.2 Experiment 1 127 4.3.3 Experiment 2 130 4.3.4 Experiment 3 132 4.3.5 Experiment 4 135 4.4 Discussion 135 4.5 Conclusions 152 CHAPTER 5. MEASUREMENT OF FORAMINIFERAL TEST [AS] VIA SEM X RAY DISPERSIVE SPECTROSCO PY, ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY, AND INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROSCOPY 153 5.1 Introduction 153 5.2 Methods 155 5.3 Results 158 5.4 Discussion 163 CHAPTER 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 169 6.1 Overview 169 6.2 Conclusions 174 REFERENCE S 176 PLATES 198 APPENDICES 239 Appendix I. Counts of species observed in samples at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, corrected for relative sample weight and proportion picked. 240 Appendix II. Counts of genera observed in samples at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, corrected for relative sample weight and proportion picked. 282 Appendix III. Counts of families observed in samples at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, corrected for relative sample weight and proportion picked. 310 Appendix IV. Count s of superfamilies observed in samples at Ambitle Island, PNG, corrected for relative sample weight and proportion picked. 324

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iii Appendix V. Counts of orders observed in samples at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, corrected for relative sample weight and p roportion picked. 331 Appendix VI. Counts of functional groups observed in samples at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, corrected for relative sample weight and proportion picked. 335 Appendix VII. Foraminiferal taxonomy in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Pap ua New Guinea. 339 Appendix VIII. An online database of foraminiferal taxonomy. 404 Appendix IX. Measured temperatures (¡C) at 17 locations along a 300m transect away from Tutum Bay hydrothermal vent mouths over a seven day period. 414 Appendix X. Perce ntage of foraminiferal species in samples vs. size of the total foraminiferal community in individuals per 1.5g. 419 ABOUT THE AUTHOR End Page

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iv LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1 Physical parameters, chemical content, and gas components from Tutum Bay hydroth ermal fluids as reported by Pichler et al. (1999). 14 Table 2.1 Foraminiferal species identified from sediment and rubble samples from Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG, and nearby reference sites, and their higher taxonomy. 42 Table 2.2 The 20 most abundan t species identified in the pooled 114 samples examined, with the percentage abundance of each. 46 Table 2.3 Variance covariance matrix for the 13 most abundant species in those samples with foraminiferal densities >100 foraminifers per 1.5g. 49 Table 2. 4 Squared coefficient of variation (CV 2 )/covariation(CCV) matrix for the 13 most abundant species in those samples with foraminiferal densities >100 foraminifers per 1.5g, providing a correction for the differences in population size of the species being c ompared. 50 Table 2.5 Correlation coefficient matrix for the 13 most abundant species in those samples with foraminiferal densities >100 foraminifers per 1.5g, providing standardization of the variance/covariance. 52 Table 2.6 Observed vs. expected numbe r of species with n individuals. 55 Table 3.1 114 samples from Ambitle Island were examined in this study from three transects near hydrothermal vents (A, B, and C) and two reference sites (Picnic Island [PI] and Danlum Bay [DB]). 73 Table 3.2 Representa tive measurements of environmental parameters measured at stations analyzed in this study 86 Table 3.3 Functional group membership of observed Ambitle Island foraminiferal genera as defined by Hallock et al. (2003) and Carnahan (2005) 92

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v Table 3.4 BEST analysis of controlling environmental variables for Tutum Bay sediment and rubble foraminiferal communities. 112 Table 4.1 Experimental design: 0* indicates that no As was added to the seawater medium, as explained in the text. 121 Table 4.2 Statistical tests for departure from normality ( i.e. skewness and kurtosis) in pooled treatment maximum specimen diameters. 126 Table 4.3 Average shell diameters (in !m) at measurement intervals for each experiment. 128 Table 4.4 r 2 values obtained by running a qu adratic regression line through log transformed [As 5+ ] and [As 3+ ] multiplied by the particular x factor, yielding the amount As 3+ is more toxic to foraminifers than As 5+ 143

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vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Location of Ambitle Island in northeastern Papua New Guinea. 5 Figure 1.2 Tectonic setting of the Feni Islands. 7 Figure 1.3 Location of the main areas of hydrothermal venting within Tutum Bay on the west side of Ambitle Island. 9 Figure 1.4 Underwater photographs of Tutum Bay hydrothermal venting 1 0 Figure 1.5 Underwater photographs of Tutum Bay sediments. 11 Figure 1.6 Ratio of calculated endmember composition of Tutum Bay hydrothermal fluids (data from Pichler et al. 1999b) to seawater. 16 Figure 1.7 Arsenic concentrations in 10cm pore waters (top) and surface and bottom waters (bottom) along transect B. 19 Figure 1.8 Model of hydrothermal components in Tutum Bay; cross section (top) and surface and bottom horizontal slices (bottom). 21 Figure 1.9 Arsenic abundance and distribution in surface sediments with distance from hydrothermal venting 22 Figure 1.10 Physical, chemical, and biological trends stepping away from the area of active venting in Tutum Bay. 24 Figure 1.11 Representatives of seven of the most numerous and/or diverse orders of Foraminifera found in Tutum Bay, PNG 25 Figure 2.1 Observed abundance of foraminiferal species at Ambitle Island, PNG. 45 Figure 2.2 Predicted occurrence of species with n individuals for a logarithmic series distribution with "=24.13 and x =0.999. 53 Figure 2.3 Species effort curves for foraminiferal communities at Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG for 100 random replicates of sampling protocol. 58

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vii Figure 2.4 The predicted abundance of the m th foraminiferal species at Ambitle Island, PNG with "=24.13 and x =0.999 versus the observed abundances. 60 Figure 2.5 The within order abundance of foraminifers observed at Ambitle Island, PNG. 61 Figure 2.6 The within order foraminiferal diversity observed at Ambitle Island, PNG, as species richness ( S ). 63 Figure 2.7 Position of the Foraminifera ( Quinqueloculina and Reticulomyxa within the Rhizaria) within the eukaryotes. 65 Figure 3.1 Location of transect B, along which surface sediment and rubble, core samples, sediment pore water, and ambient seawater were col lected, and where environmental parameters such as pH, temperature, and salinity were measured. 72 Figure 3.2 Temperature profile along transect B away from Tutum Bay hydrothermal vent 4 over seven days in November 2005, displaying temperature (¡C) vertic ally and by color, distance from the main vent mouth (m) laterally, and time of measurement displayed as depth into the model, with readings taken every minute for seven days. 82 Figure 3.3 Potentially stressing environmental parameters with distance from direct influence by hydrothermal venting (outliers due to local spikes in the hydrothermal field have been removed) 84 Figure 3.4 2005 surface sediment characteristics for Tutum Bay hydrothermal transect B and Danlum Bay reference site 85 Figure 3.5 F oraminiferal abundance ( N ) and species richness ( S ) along transects away from Tutum Bay hydrothermal activity, and at reference sites. 88 Figure 3.6. Observed abundance of foraminiferal species at Ambitle Island, PNG for pooled samples <150m from hydrothe rmal venting (top) and >150m from venting and reference sites (bottom). 90 Figure 3.7 Percentages of major morphological groups versus total foraminiferal abundance; sediment samples are in red. 91

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viii Figure 3.8 Fisher's ", Margalef ( D Mg ), Menhinick ( D Mn ) Shannon's ( H' ), Pielou's ( J' ), and Buzas and Gibson's ( E ) diversity indices for Tutum Bay and non hydrothermal reference samples vs. distance from hydrothermal venting. 94 Figure 3.9 Potential models of hydrothermal influence on benthic foraminiferal co mmunities in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG. 98 Figure 3.10 Potentially stressing environmental parameters with distance from direct influence by hydrothermal venting (outliers due to local spikes in the hydrothermal field have been removed), adjusted to decline relative to background levels, and normalized so that all values are on a relative scale from one (maximally hydrothermal value for that variable) to zero (background level). 100 Figure 3.11 Fisher's and Margalef's D Mg diversity indices for Tutu m Bay and non hydrothermal reference samples vs. effective distance from hydrothermal venting determined from the geometric mean of measured hydrothermal parameters. 103 Figure 3.12 Fisher's and Margalef's D Mg diversity indices for Tutum Bay and non hyd rothermal reference samples vs. sediment [As]. 104 Figure 3.13 Fisher's and Margalef's D Mg diversity indices for Tutum Bay and non hydrothermal reference samples vs. sampling depth. 105 Figure 3.14. Multidimensional scaling plot of ten sampling locatio ns from Tutum Bay transect B in 2005 for which the entire suite of ten environmental parameters was available. 106 Figure 3.15. CLUSTER diagram of Tutum Bay and non hydrothermal reference sampling locations based on 1% SIMPROF determined groups based on e nvironmental parameters. 108 Figure 3.16. Multidimensional scaling plot of Tutum Bay and non hydrothermal sampling locations showing SIMPROF groups determined by CLUSTER analysis. 109 Figure 3.17. CLUSTER diagram of foraminiferal communities from Tutum B ay and from non hydrothermal reference locations with 1% SIMPROF determined groups based on assemblage similarity. 110 Figure 3.18. # sample statistics for BEST analysis of controlling environmental variables for Tutum Bay sediment and rubble foraminifera l communities presented in Table 3.4. 113

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ix Figure 3.19. Bubble plot showing the abundance of foraminiferal tests in sediments (bubble diameter) versus sediment [As] and pore water pH. 114 Figure 3.20 Showing the number of agglutinated (black) and planktic (red) foraminifers found in sediment (broken lines) and scrubbed rubble (solid lines) samples with distance away from vent mouths. 115 Figure 4.1 A pooled histogram of Amphistegina gibbosa specimens with minimal exposure to As ( i.e. those in 0!g/kg, 2!g/ kg As 5+ and 2 !g/kg As 3+ ) eight weeks after initial exposure to As. 125 Figure 4.2 Experiment 1: Mean shell diameters of Amphistegina gibbosa specimens after four weeks exposure to As from less concentrated stock solutions (As was removed from 200 and 100 0 !g/kg As 3+ and 1000!g/kg As 5+ treatments after only one week). 129 Figure 4.3 Experiment 2: Mean shell diameters of A. gibbosa specimens after two weeks of As exposure, several weeks before failure of the experimental incubator. 131 Figure 4.4 Experimen t 3: Mean shell diameters of Amphistegina gibbosa specimens after 12 weeks exposure to various [As]. 133 Figure 4.5 Experiment 4: Mean shell diameters of Amphistegina gibbosa specimens after six weeks of As exposure. 136 Figure 4.6 Spiral view of Experim ent 3 foraminiferal specimens after 12 weeks exposure to arsenic solutions of various concentrations, arranged from approximately smallest at top left to largest at bottom right. 138 Figure 4.7 Average weekly growth (in !m) experienced by foraminiferal sp ecimens exposed to various [As]. 144 Figure 4.8 Average weekly growth (in !m) experienced by foraminiferal specimens exposed to various [As], with the two effects of [As] on foraminiferal growth analyzed separately. 148 Figure 4.9 Percent of the maximal obtainable growth rate attained by foraminifers exposed to different effective [As 3+ ]. 151 Figure 5.1 SEM EDX analysis of a Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG Assilina ammonoides representative of all foraminiferal specimens examined. 159

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x Figure 5.2 Specimen [As] in several foraminiferal species exposed to various in situ [As] in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG, determined via ICP MS. 161 Figure 5.3 Mean specimen [As] in foraminifers exposed to various seawater [As] in laboratory experiments determined via IC P MS. 162 Figure 5.4 Total biotic [As] for various non foraminiferal species in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG. 165 Figure VIII.1 Screen capture of the hierarchical taxonomic Database of Recent Foraminifera. 411

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xi LIST OF PLATES Plate 1 Textularia a gglutinans d'Orbigny, 1839 272 Plate 2 Hauerina pacifica Cushman, 1917 274 Plate 3 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis McCulloch, 1977 276 Plate 4 Quinqueloculina tropicalis Cushman, 1924 278 Plate 5 Pseudotriloculina patagonica (d'Orbigny, 1839) 280 Plate 6 Triloculinella pseudooblonga (Zheng, 1980) 282 Plate 7 Dendritina striata Hofker, 1951 284 Plate 8 Globigerinoides ruber (d'Orbigny, 1839) 286 Plate 9 Reussella pulchra Cushman, 1945 288 Plate 10 Rosalina globularis d'Orbigny, 1826 290 Plate 11 Planor bulina acervalis Brady, 1884 292 Plate 12 Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny, 1826 294 Plate 13 Amphistegina radiata (Fichtel and Moll, 1789) 296 Plate 14 Heterolepa subhaidingeri (Parr, 1950) 298 Plate 15 Calcarina defrancii d'Orbigny, 1826 300 Plate 16 Calcarina spengleri (Gmelin, 1791) 302 Plate 17 Elphidium crispum (Linn Ž, 1758) 304 Plate 18 Assilina ammonoides (Gronovius, 1781) 306

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xii Plate 19 Heterostegina depressa d'Orbigny, 1826 308 Plate 20 Nummulites venosus (Fichtel and Moll, 1798) 310

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xiii FORAMINIFERAL RESPONSES TO ARSENIC IN A SHALLOW WATER HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA AND IN THE LABORATORY Bryan James McCloskey ABSTRACT The tropical Indo Pacific is the location of highest global foraminiferal biodiversity. However, the shallo w water hydrothermal system in Tutum Bay at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, possesses some of the world's highest naturally occurring [As]. Foraminifers were collected in this intriguing system in 2003 and 2005 as part of a larger project to examine the possible effects of As and other hydrothermal factors on benthic communities. Despite the high ambient [As], a diverse foraminiferal fauna was observed. Foraminferal communities were examined from surface sediment and from material adhered to rubble at loc ations from 1 300m from venting and from reference sites, at depths from 1 28m. From this material, 159 species were identified representing 107 genera, 55 families, 30 superfamilies, and 10 orders. Species abundances exhibit a logarithmic series distribut ion, with two species comprising 40%, twelve species comprising two thirds, and 20 species comprising 80% of all identified specimens. All other species individually contributed <1% to the total community. Foraminiferal abundance and diversity were analyze d across the hydrothermal field; both increase with decreasing hydrothermal influence: decreasing sediment and pore water [As] and temperature, and increasing pH and salinity. A thorough taxonomic reference of the

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xiv region was compiled, consulting appropriat e original descriptions, and is herein presented, and initial steps in creating an online database of all Recent foraminifers is described. Scanning electron micrographs of the most common taxa are provided. Laboratory experiments assessed the effects of [ As 3+ ] and [As 5+ ] on growth of Amphistegina gibbosa Exposure to As 3+ and As 5+ at concentrations of 0 1000 !g/kg showed that As 3+ is approximately 2.2 times more toxic than As 5 + that [As 3+ ] of 600 1000 !g/kg is sufficient to kill or severely impair specimens on approximately two week timescales, and that [As 5 + ] of 1000!g/kg or [As 3 + ] of 200!g/kg are sufficient to retard the growth of A. gibbosa on approximately four week timescales. Over timescales of several months, cultures with extremely low [As] (2!g/kg A s 5+ and 0!g/kg As), showed growth rates not significantly greater than high [As] treatments, possibly due to antimicrobial/parasiticidal properties of low [As]. Foraminifers displayed an exponentially decaying functional relationship to [As], halving their rate of growth with every 300!g/kg increase in [As 3+ ] or 600!g/kg increase in [As 5+ ]. Measurements of foraminiferal whole specimen [As] via SEM EDX, AFS, and ICP MS revealed high [As] of ~20mg/kg for specimens near hydrothermal venting declining to backgr ound values of ~2mg/kg for distal and non hydrothermal reference species. Laboratory exposed specimens contain [As] of ~6mg/kg indicating an As adsorption rate of ~0.25mg/kg/wk. The major portion of foraminiferal As likely occurs in a reduced toxicity orga noarsenical form, such as arsenobetaine.

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1 CHAPTER 1 ARSENIC IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING AROUND TUTUM BAY, AMBITLE ISLAND, PNG "I tore myself away from the safe comfort of certainties through my love for truth and the truth rewarde d me ." (Simone de Beauvoir, 1972) 2.6. Overview of Dissertation Research The shallow water marine communities of Papua New Guinea and surrounding regions, as centers of marine biodiversity ( e.g. for fish, invertebrates including coral, and protists such as fo raminifers), represent some of the world's most valuable natural resources ( e.g ., AndrŽfou‘t et al. 2006) These waters, and many others around the world, are threatened from a number of interrelated sources, both natural and man made, including ocean war ming, ocean acidification, pollution, eutrophication, disease, and over utilization. Often, these stressors occur in complicated patterns that vary over both space and time for instance, anthropogenic heavy metal pollution typically occurs as some subset o f a suite of metallic elements, often in conjunction with various organics (PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, fertilizers, etc.) ( e.g. Carnahan et al. 2008) The shallow water

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2 system at Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, offers a fortuitous opportunity: The chance to examine the effects of a single point source toxin (or, at least, a small set of non anthropogenic stressors) on a diverse tropical benthic foraminiferal community. The west side of Ambitle Island contains a suite of hydrothermal vents erupti ng into approximately 8m of water (Pichler and Dix, 1996). These high volume output vents, while largely non enriched in most other potentially toxic elements (PTE), release a substantial amount of arsenic (As) into the surrounding environment. Chapter 1 e xamines the regional context in which venting in Tutum Bay occurs, As chemistry and the effects of As in the environment in general, and the environmental setting and hydrothermal gradients within and around Tutum Bay. (Parts of this chapter appear as intr oductory material in McCloskey et al [in revision], and McCloskey and Hallock [in prep.].) The tropical Indo Pacific is the location of highest global foraminiferal biodiversity ( e.g ., Loeblich and Tappan, 1994) and more than 150 species of foraminifers are herein identified in samples from Tutum Bay and several non hydrothermal reference sites. The identification of the diverse set of species observed at Ambitle Island required examination of a large body of taxonomic references, including many obscure or rare documents from the last three hundred years of foraminiferal nomenclature. Chapter 2 provides a collected taxonomic reference for the region, presenting the original descriptions of the identified species (where available), translated where necessa ry, with scanning electron micrographs of the most abundant taxa. The overarching structure of this foraminiferal community is examined to obtain a regional context in which to describe hydrothermal deviations (McCloskey and Hallock [in prep.])

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3 Chapter 3 examines the patterns in the gradients of sediment and pore water [As] and other potentially stressing variables (temperature, pH, and salinity) within and around Tutum Bay, the patterns in abundance of foraminifers with proximity to hydrothermal venting, changes in foraminiferal diversity with various environmental parameters, and the contribution of various functional groups to elucidating patterns in community structure (McCloskey and Hallock [in prep.]) Although Tutum Bay's hydrothermal system is simpl er than many anthropogenically polluted systems, it is complicated by several co varying parameters. While all of these generally decrease similarly towards background levels with increasing distance from the point source vents, they nevertheless complicat e the analysis. Thus, Chapter 4 (McCloskey et al [in revision]) discusses a series of laboratory experiments conducted on Florida Keys specimens of Amphistegina gibbosa d'Orbigny, 1839, where co varying hydrothermal parameters (temperature, pH, and salini ty) could be controlled to examine the effects on foraminiferal growth rates of As in isolation. The foraminifers utilized in laboratory experiments, as well as those collected from Tutum Bay, were exposed to [As] ranging from extremely low ambient seawate r values to hydrothermal and experimental solutions with values three orders of magnitude higher. These exposures occurred on timescales ranging from a few weeks to more than a year. Various analyses were conducted to determine whether and how much As was incorporated within the specimens, and are discussed in Chapter 5. The high diversity of the Foraminifera, their ubiquity, and their ease of collection, combined with their detailed and lengthy fossil record and their common use as important indicators in scientific and industrial fields, has led to a taxonomic literature of incredible

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4 richness, but also to one filled with daunting depth, complexity, and contradiction. Appendix VII provides a detailed taxonomy of Tutum Bay Foraminifera, while Appendix VIII describes a prototype online database of Recent foraminiferal taxonomy designed to address these issues, and proposes the creation of a complete electronic reference for extant species, including full nomenclatural history; relevant published literature, g enetic sequences, and imagery; and biogeographic information. Such a reference would be of invaluable utility to researchers in the field by, among other benefits, providing rapid assessment and characterization of marine environments through an abundant a nd easily obtained taxon. Finally, Chapter 6 provides a short summary of the main conclusions reached through this work, and describes the primary observed features of foraminiferal community structure around the Tutum Bay hydrothermal system, the environm ental factors determining those features, and the results of laboratory examinations of the effects of As on foraminifers, and its ultimate fate. These results are placed in the context of the current knowledge of benthic communities generally and foramini feral communities particularly around other shallow water hydrothermal systems, and in the context of other non hydrothermal Indo Pacific shallow water benthic foraminiferal communities. 1.2 Environmental Setting 1.2.1 Regional Context Ambitle Island is l ocated in the 260km long Tabar Feni chain of islands in far northeastern Papua New Guinea (Fig. 1.1, top). The Tabar Feni chain is a group of fore arc alkaline volcanoes situated northeast of the Bismarck Island Arc on the small North

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5 Figure 1.1. Location of Ambitle Island in northeastern Papua New Guinea. Samples were collected from high As hydrothermal Tutum Bay, and from non hydrothermal reference sites at Picnic Island and Danlum Bay to the northeast and southwest.

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6 Bismarck Plate (Glaessner, 1 915) under which the Pacific Plate is subducting via the West Melanesian Trench (Fig. 1.2; Hamilton, 1979) The southeasternmost Feni island group is located 70km from the next group to the northwest (the Tanga Islands) and 55km east of New Ireland, and c omprises Ambitle and neighboring Babasse Island to the east. Larger, diamond shaped Ambitle Island is located at 4¡05'S, 153¡37'E, and is approximately 12km from east to west and 14km from north to south, having a total area of about 87km 2 mostly mantled b y dense rain forest (Fig. 1.1, bottom). The human population of Ambitle Island is very small (just over 1000 on both Feni islands as of 1983), and consists mostly of subsistence farmers; the anthropogenic impact on the nearshore environment has been minima l (Wallace et al. 1983; and personal observation in 2003 and 2005) The island is a Quaternary stratovolcano (Wallace et al. 1983) reaching 450m above sea level from a surrounding sea depth of about 2400m. The Feni Islands have a complex layering of mos tly 2 8Ma lavas and pyroclastic deposits intermixed with various marine limestones (Heming, 1979) The island's youngest lavas, located within Ambitle's 3km wide caldera, have K Ar dates of 0.490.10Ma; the oldest exposed limestones of the tilted basement occur at the northeastern base of the volcano and have been micropalaeontologically dated to the middle to late Oligocene (Johnson et al. 1976; Wallace et al. 1983) The most recent volcanism is evidenced by breccia deposits within the caldera 14 C dated to 2300100BP; there is no recorded historic volcanic activity (Licence et al. 1987) The region is of economic interest due to proximity and geologic similarity to Lihir Island, a more northwesterly member of the Tabar Feni chain. Lihir is very geotherma lly

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7 Figure 1.2. Tectonic setting of the Feni Islands. Ambitle and Babasse are marked by a grey circle. Subduction zones have barbs on overriding plates; volcanoes active in the late Quaternary are indicated by "$". (Modified from Hamilton, 19 79.)

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8 active, and epithermal mineralization there has produced one of the world's youngest (the only one known from an active hydrothermal area) and largest gold deposits. With estimated reserves of 42 million ounces, Lihir contains approximately 1% of the remaining gold to be mined on the Earth (Davies and Ballantyne, 1987; Simmons and Brown, 2006) Thermal activity is found on all four of the Tabar Feni chain island groups, indicating that a high geothermal gradient persists throughout the chain, but is st rongest on Lihir and Ambitle Islands, with significant hydrothermal activity occurring within Ambitle's caldera and at several locations along its western slope (Licence et al. 1987) While some gold has been found on Ambitle Island (Licence et al. 1987) of more potential environmental import were the discovery of several submarine hydrothermal vents unique in both size and chemistry (Pichler and Dix, 1996) Tutum Bay, situated on the west side of Ambitle Island, contains a number of high volume, focused discharge vent mouths located in 5 10m water depth along the inner shelf within 100m of the shoreline (Fig. 1.3; Pichler et al. 1999b) The vent mouths occur within ~10m diameter "crusts" of mineralized volcanic sediments covered with gravel and cobbles situated in the midst of large coral heads/spurs and an apparently healthy coral reef community (Fig. 1.4, top). These crusts give way at further distances from vent mouths to unconsolidated medium to coarse grained orangish volcanic sands, with almost no carbonate component present, which are physically warm to the touch. There are several grooves between large carbonate spurs down which the unconsolidated sediment continues, to a distance of ~150 200m, at which point carbonate grains begin to occur as an increasingly large percentage until they make up the bulk of the sediment 250 300m from vent mouths (Fig. 1.5).

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9 Figure 1.3. Location of the main areas of hydrothermal venting within Tutum Bay on the west side of Ambitle Island. Major fo cused venting occurs at several locations (marked by stars); diffuse venting occurs within most of the sediment patches throughout the reef, and sporadically beyond that. The stippled area adjacent to the island comprises volcanic boulders. Most of the sam ples were collected from a transect away from vent 4 through the channel to the southwest (Transect B), though samples were also collected along a transect away from vent 4 through the channel to the northwest (Transect A), as well as a small number from c lose to vent 1 (Transect C). (Modified from Pichler et al. 1999b.)

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10 Figure 1.4. Underwater photographs of Tutum Bay hydrothermal venting. Top: Focused venting (photo by David Karlan); note proximity to corals. Bottom: Diffuse venting (photo by Roy Price)

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11 Figure 1.5. Underwater photographs of Tutum Bay sediments. Top: Close to hydrothermal venting, unconsolidated sediments are mostly volcanic, with very little carbonate (photo by Roy Price). Bottom: Further removed from hydrothermal venting (here 175m) sediments have a much higher carbonate fraction (photo by Pamela Hallock Muller).

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12 The area containing these point source vents is ~50m onshore offshore $ 100m alongshore and contains about four large vent mouths. Due to the dynamic nature of hydrothermal systems, specific vent mouths occasionally slow or cease, and new ones emerge. However, largely the same vent mouths were observed over 5 7 years, and island inhabitants report that venting has occurred in the bay for at least the last 50 years. Main vent mouths are 10 15cm in diameter, with a high flow rate of 300 400L/min ( i.e. discharge rates similar to that of a fire hose), and little or no significant associated topological edifice (Pichler and Dix, 1996) Thermal refractive shimmering is visible for several meters over the vent mouths, demarcating the region of hot water, yet one is able to swim pleasantly through the column of water that emerged near boiling moments before, and fish have been observed basking in this warm plume, indicating rapid mix ing of the hydrothermal fluids with surrounding seawater. A second type of hydrothermal discharge occurs, namely diffuse seepage of fluid and gas bubbles through unconsolidated substrate and cracks in volcanic rocks; this diffuse venting is lower volume, m ore inconsistent, not associated with apparent mineralization, and occurs throughout the area as both isolated bubble streams and large bubble fields (Fig. 1.4, bottom). Sediments are physically warm to the touch in areas of diffuse venting, sometimes unco mfortably so, and patches of sediment noticeably warmer than the background can be found up to 150m from focused discharge. The variable nature of this diffuse fluid seepage field, presumably due to subsurface fluctuations in fluid supply/pressure and chan ges in the tortuous seepage routes, creates periodic spikes and pulses in community exposure to hydrothermal fluids. This is discussed below in sections on gradients of environmental variables, and is modeled via the local thermal field.

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13 Reference sites wi th no observed hydrothermal activity were also examined around Ambitle Island. These were at Picnic Island 5km to the northeast and Danlum Bay 2km to the southwest (Fig. 1.1). These sites were dominated by carbonate sediments (although Danlum Bay had a sig nificant volcanic component), and had temperatures, pH values, and sediment and pore water [As] indicative of absence of hydrothermal activity. Picnic Island samples comprised two rough transects from onshore to offshore with depths ranging from 1 to 23m i n an area characterized by large carbonate grains with a sizable calcareous algal component. Danlum Bay much more resembled the mix of carbonate and volcanic sediments observed in Tutum Bay, and samples were collected there at a depth of 13m. 1.2.2 Vent F luid Properties The Tutum Bay hydrothermal system releases gasses, both as a component of direct venting of fluids (although much of this gas is due to phase separation of the boiling hydrothermal fluids), and as streams of bubbles at sites of diffuse vent ing. Hydrothermally discharged gasses are largely CO 2 (93 98%), with the rest being mostly N 2 (2 5%), and CH 4 (1 2%). Vented gasses are composed of less than 1% each of O 2 H 2 S, He, and H 2 in order of decreasing abundance (Pichler et al. 1999b) Values m easured for vent 4 are reported in Table 1.1. Vent fluids have outflow temperatures measured at between 89 and 98¡C while diffusely seeping fluids were generally cooler, ranging from 30 to 70C (Pichler et al. 1999b) The estimated hydrothermal source wa ters are ~300¡C at a subterranean depth of 1100m (Licence et al. 1987; Pichler et al. 1999b) The ultimate water source for vent

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14 Table 1.1. Physical parameters, chemical content, and gas components from Tutum Bay hydrothermal fluids as reported by Pichl er et al (1999b). Values are averages of all replicates (where applicable) from vent 4, from which the majority of this study's samples were taken. Environmental parameters were measured at the vent mouth. Chemical species are the calculated endmember val ues for major and selected minor constituents. The first row (Cl Ca) are reported in mmol/kg; the second (Li As) in !mol/kg. Gas components were measured for gasses collected from vent mouths, and are reported in mmol/mol. Physical parameters T (¡C) pH 90.3 6.4 Chemical species Cl Br SO 4 B Si Na K Ca 9.9 0.13 9 0.8 3.8 29 2.4 4.5 Li Mn Fe Rb Sr Sb Cs Tl As 143 7.0 19 4 71 0.1 0.5 0.02 13 Gas components CO 2 H 2 He H 2 O 2 N 2 CH 4 949 <0.3 <0.01 <0 .01 4.3 35 14

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15 fluids is meteoric recharge from Ambitle Island (Pichler and Dix, 1996), and thus fluids have salinities <3 (Pichler et al. 1999b). Resultant thermal and salinity effects on buoyancy are discussed below. Consequent to the meteoric orig in of the fluids, Tutum Bay vent waters are depleted in most major seawater components: Cl, Na, SO 4 Mg, Ca, K, and Br. However, due to high temperature interactions with host rock and/or magmatic bodies at depth, Tutum Bay vent fluids are greatly enriched relative to seawater ( i.e. from 10 1000 $) in certain other elements: Co, Sb, Tl, Fe, Cs, Zn, As, Mn, and Si. Figure 1.6 shows ratios of calculated endmember concentrations of various vent fluid species to seawater ( i.e. enrichment/depletion factors), wh ile Table 1.1 shows absolute calculated endmember values for several selected species (data from Pichler et al. 1999b) The Tutum Bay hydrothermal system is unique and of interest chiefly for two reasons: 1) it is of exceptionally large size and volume of output, and possesses [As] among the highest ever described for a submarine hydrothermal system, including mid ocean ridge black smokers (Pichler et al. 1999c) ; and 2) while other submarine hydrothermal systems are often enriched in biologically toxic el ements, such as As, Cr, Pb, Cu, Hg, Cd, etc., As is the only PTE released in substantially elevated amounts into the Tutum Bay system (Pichler et al. 1999b) Highly enriched species present in Tutum Bay hydrothermal fluid (species enriched over 100$ seawa ter values) are Si, Mn, As, Zn, Cs, and Fe. Most of these elements, including As, potentially have biologically toxic effects; however, as Paracelsus informs us, "the dose makes the poison" (1538 [1564]) Enrichment in several of these species derives from their exceedingly low values in seawater (Si, Cs, and Mn), and so are not

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16 Figure 1.6. Ratio of calculated endmember composition of Tutum Bay hydrothermal fluids (data from Pichler et al. 1999b) to seawater. For temperature, a vent mouth value of ~90¡C was used, rather then the calculated reservoir value of ~300¡C. pH values are given as [H + ], as ratios of pH values do not capture the logarithmic nature of the pH scale. Arsenic is the only PTE with concentrations substantially elevated both absolutely and relative to seawater.

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17 present in high absolute concentrations. Some species are potential nutrients (Si, Fe, Mn, and Zn); some are not particularly toxic (Cs and Si), and thus are of little concern. Silicon is the most enriched species present in hydrothermal fluid at ~540$ over seawater, but is more likely to be utilized as a nutrient ( e.g. by diatoms and sponges), and is generally not likely to be toxic. Mn, Zn, and Fe are enriched ~290, 110, and 100$ over seawater to concent rations of 0.4, 0.6, and 1.1mg/L, respectively; however, all are essential trace nutrients. All become toxic at some concentration, but their level of toxicity to marine organisms is difficult to determine absolutely. There have been many measurements of t he content of PTEs in marine organisms, but there have been relatively few direct toxicity studies. Those studies that have been conducted on marine taxa are generally of limited phylogenetic and elemental breadth (mostly conducted on edible species), and thus generalization to diverse marine life in toto is difficult. The majority of metal toxicity dose studies have been conducted in rats and mice, other standard experimental mammals (guinea pigs, dogs, pigs, monkeys, rabbits, etc.), and through human case studies (see ATSDR, 2007 and toxicological reports for other specific elements) However, utilizing studies on rats at least provides the best available comparator, as they have been used for LD 50 determinations across all metals of interest in Tutum Bay. LD 50 values in rats of 700 1000mg Mn/kg body mass ( e.g ., Kostial et al. 1989), 200 600mg Zn/kg body mass ( e.g ., Domingo et al. 1988) and 300 1000mg Fe/kg body mass ( e.g ., Boyd and Shanas, 1963) have been reported Thus, these metal species in Tutum Ba y are not likely to approach potentially toxic levels, and are more likely to be utilized as nutrients.

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18 Cesium is enriched in Tutum Bay hydrothermal fluids ~100$ over seawater to 0.06mg/L. While it is not known to be a nutrient, its toxicity is quite low, with acute oral LD 50 values for rats and mice ranging from 800 to 2000mg Cs/kg body mass ( e.g. Ghosh et al. 1990, 1991) Comparatively, while it has been suggested that As may serve as an ultratrace nutrient ( e.g. requirements on order of 25ng/kg body m ass; Nielsen, 1998) the LD 50 values in rats for As 3+ (the dominant species in Tutum Bay hydrothermal fluids) is ~20mg As/kg body mass ( e.g ., Harrisson et al. 1958; ATSDR, 2007). Thus, As is the only highly enriched PTE of concern in the Tutum Bay hydroth ermal fluids, being enriched some 250 500 $ over seawater values; the system outputs as much as 1.5kg As/day into the bay (Pichler et al. 1999c) The vents themselves output fluids with [As] of almost exactly 1mg/L, compared to measured local seawater valu es of 4!g/L (Pichler et al. 1999b) or average global seawater [As] of 1 2!g/L (Pilson, 1998) Values remain extremely high in the pore waters (measured in the top 10cm of the sediment) in the immediate vicinity of focused venting (Fig. 1.7, top; Price and Pichler, 2005) Pore water [As] values drop off extremely quickly with distance from venting, to values of around 20!g/L at distances of 30 50m from vents, although occasional spikes at distances up to 150m are observed this pattern of distal hydrothermal incursion is repeated for other environmental variables, and is discussed at length in Chapter 3. Pore water [As] values drop even further, to ~10!g/L (approximately reference site values), at distances of 200 300m from focused venting. Pichler and Price (2005) measured [As] for both seawater collected 15cm below the sea surface and bottom seawater collected 1m above the seafloor along the sampled transect (Fig. 1.7, bottom). Observed values are much lower than pore water [As] values,

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19 Figure 1.7. A rsenic concentrations in 10cm pore waters (top) and surface and bottom waters (bottom) along transect B. The first four pore water measurements (vent fluid and 0.5, 1, and 2.5m from the vent) are off the scale, with values listed at the top. Picnic Island pore water value is disconnected at the right in the top panel; ambient seawater value is the circle in the bottom panel. (Data from Price and Pichler, 2005; and Price, 2008.)

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20 as would be expected due to mixing. Surface water [As] values are higher and rem ain near 8!g/L to a distance of ~200m, where values drop sharply to background levels of ~2 3mg/L; bottom water [As] values are lower at ~3!g/L, dropping to ~2!g/L at a distance of 40m from focused venting. This pattern of higher surface [As] indicates tha t a surface slick is formed by high temperature, low salinity hydrothermal fluid rising rapidly from vent mouths and spreading laterally along the sea surface, with mid column water sampled near the bottom being closer to ambient seawater in composition. I ndeed, a model demonstrating this thermal/salinity buoyancy behavior was developed by Pichler et al. (1999b) utilizing Si (the most concentrated species in hydrothermal fluids) as a tracer of hydrothermal fluid and assuming conservative, linear mixing. The model shows that seawater [As] are indeed highest directly above venting, diminish radially outward (with some directionality), and display potentially convective behavior (Fig. 1.8; Pichler et al. 1999b) 1.2.3 Other Environmental Parameters Similar to [As] in pore waters, As in the surface sediments is extremely high in the immediate vicinity of vent mouths, with values as high as 76,000mg/kg caused by the concentration of As into hydrous ferric oxides (Fig. 1.9; Price and Pichler, 2005; Price, 2008) These values drop precipitously, but remain much higher than values in reference sediment, with values of 500mg/kg out to 150m from venting. Even 225m from venting, sediment As content is 25$ levels seen in reference sediments. However, despite the high [A s] in these sediments, the bioavailability of As to organisms may be significantly lower, and depends on the tightness of the sediment As association, determined by

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21 Figure 1.8. Model of hydrothermal components in Tutum Bay; cross section (top ) and surface and bottom horizontal slices (bottom). Contour lines represent concentration of hydrothermal component in %. Darker colors indicate higher hydrothermal component. Suggested hydrothermal convection cells are indicated by dashed lines. (From Pi chler et al. 1999b.)

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22 Figure 1.9. Arsenic abundance and distribution in surface sediments with distance from hydrothermal venting. Note the transition from orangish As rich hydrous ferric oxides to white carbonates with distance from h ydrothermal influence. (From Price, 2008.) control Vent Precipitate 1m 7.5m 12m 30m 60m 90m 125m 150m 175m 200m 225m 76,500 As (mg/kg) 1525 893 666 550 658 475 457 422 355 163 52 2.12

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23 microenvironment pH, temperature, and salinity ( e.g ., Riba et al. 2003; Price and Pichler, 2005; Price, 2008) Other hydrothermally influenced environmental parameters show similar gradients. For instance, tempera ture drops sharply from nearly boiling directly at hydrothermal sources to 40¡C 10m away (Fig. 1.10; Pichler et al. 2006) After the initial rapid decline, temperatures remain elevated above background levels to about 150m from venting, although spikes ar e observed in both space and time (Fig. 3.2, Supp. Fig. 3.2.1 3 [ http://www.marine.usf.edu/reefslab/pages/png_temps.html] ). Similarly, pH and salinity values show rapid changes from near vent samples to those slightly removed, and thereafter return to back ground values gradually over several hundred meters, while still exhibiting occasional spikes. Figure 1.10 presents several environmental parameters plotted against distance from hydrothermal venting, together with some associated biological data (Pichler et al. 2006) Measurements of spatiotemporal hydrothermal gradients, as well as analysis of environmental parameters and their effects on benthic foraminiferal communities, are further discussed in Chapter 3. Thus, while other factors are also potential s tressors, As is of particular interest as a determiner of community structure. Despite the high [As] of the vent water, the biota of the bay does not show an obvious adverse response corals, clams, and fish have high diversity and density, and apparently n ormal behavior. In fact, fish can be observed to bathe in the hydrothermal fluid a few tens of centimeters over the vent openings (personal observation). In all appearances, this is a healthy tropical coral reef ecosystem, and a high diversity of foraminif ers is found in and around the bay (Fig. 1.11).

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24 Figure 1.10. Physical, chemical, and biological trends stepping away from the area of active venting in Tutum Bay. From left to right, the y axes are number of foraminifer shells per gram of sediment, [As] in surface sediment (mg/kg) and in pore water (mg/L), pH, and temperature (¡C). The values for [As] in pore waters were multiplied by a factor of 10 4 to appear on the scale; the value at a distance of 1m is 0.9mg/L. The macrofauna p ie at a distance of 300m represents a sample taken at a reference site. In the legend on the right, UC and UE indicate "uncultured Crenarchaeota" and "uncultured Euryarchaeota," respectively. (From Pichler et al. 2006.)

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25 Figure 1.11. Representatives of s even of the most numerous and/or diverse orders of Foraminifera found in Tutum Bay, PNG. Top row, from left: Agglutinated taxa. Haplophragmoides pusillus (Lituolida), Paratrochammina globorotaliformis (Trochamminida), and Textularia agglutinans (Textularii da). Middle row, left: Porcelaineous taxa, Sigmoihauerina involuta (Miliolida). Middle row, right, and bottom row, from left: Hyaline taxa, Globigerinoides ruber (Globigerinida), Sagrina zanzibarica (Buliminida), and Heterostegina depressa (Rotaliida). All scale bars are 100!m.

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26 As previously stated, the combined discharge of all the vents in the area has been estimated at more than 1.5kg As/day into an area approximately 50"100m with an average depth of 6m (Pichler et al. 1999c) How can such a healthy and diverse community exist adjacent to such high As output in a natural marine setting? Two mechanisms act to reduce Tutum Bay water [As]: 1) dilution of bay water by seawater through diffusion and wave and tidal mixing, and 2) removal of As by incorporation into As containing precipitates. Specifically, when hydrothermal fluids mix with seawater, a crust of hydrous Fe(III) oxides precipitates form which act to concentrate As up to measured values of 76,000mg/kg (Pichler et al. 1999c) Consequently, [As] are considerably higher near vent mouths, in pore waters, and near the sediment/water interface, which are in close proximity to these precipitates, than in overlying seawater. Additionally, interaction with high temperature and/or low pH fluids releases this precipitate into the microenvironment, further complicating relationships between these variables. The effect of the high As microenvironment on foraminifers may be more substantial than that on the local macrofauna due to several factors, including close proximity and intimate association with the sediment surface and sediment grains, where [As] may be significantly higher; small size and innate sensitivity of foraminifers; high surface to volume ratios, which promote diffusive processes; and incorporatio n into or disturbance of calcite tests by As ions, or effect of As laden sediment grains on agglutinated taxa.

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27 1.3 Arsenic in the Environment The detrimental effects of As on biota are well known; As ions and compounds in the environment are also of con cern because of their toxic effects on humans. Arsenic is toxic and probably carcinogenic through exposure via contaminated drinking water (Gebel, 2001) currently a very serious problem in areas such as Bangladesh and West Bengal (Smith et al. 2000; Meha rg, 2005) As in Tutum Bay, the As in these areas is also found adsorbed onto hydrous ferric oxides, the reduction of which causes regional drinking water contamination. But while this Bengalese contamination can be remedied by simply digging deeper wells (Michael and Voss, 2008) it is illustrative of the precarious nature of the huge quantities of As adsorbed in Tutum Bay: disturbance of these sediments or change in local pH, both prima facie consequences of altering the local hydrothermal regime through future gold mining activities, could result in the release of large amounts of this As, with potentially drastic effects on the local biota ( e.g ., Culver and Buzas, 1995) Arsenic can have detrimental effects on most members of the biota at large (Eisler, 1994; Yu, 2005) Besides ingestion via drinking water by humans or terrestrial fauna As is often biologically taken up directly from the medium by aquatic organisms (Eisler, 1994) rather than by consuming As containing organisms; examples of chronic or a cute As toxicity through accumulation in food organisms are rare or unknown (Ferguson and Gavis, 1972) Although As may be greatly concentrated in aquatic organisms living in high [As] environments (Fattorini et al. 2004) the biological half life of As i n organisms is often short, although its distribution differs across tissues and taxa, and it does not generally bioaccumulate in the same manner as, e.g ., Hg (Gebel, 1997) Biomagnification

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28 of As up food chains does not appear to occur, and low trophic le vel marine macroalgae often contain the greatest [As] (Maher and Butler, 1988) Concentration often occurs in the form of organic arsenicals, such as arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and arsenosugars, which, when consumed as organically bound species in flesh have been found to be essentially nontoxic (Eisler, 1988) For example, the LD 50 of arsenobetaine in mice was found to be greater than 10g/kg body mass; in fact, no deaths were observed at that concentration (Kaise et al. 1985) Similar effects have bee n observed for other organoarsenicals and taxa (Charbonneau et al. 1978; Siewicki, 1981; Luten et al. 1982; Tam et al. 1982; Cannon et al. 1983; Yamauchi et al. 1986; Brown et al. 1990) Due to their low toxicity, these organic forms have been sugges ted to be the final products of the biological arsenical detoxification process (Phillips, 1990; Francesconi et al. 1998). These characteristics of As contrast with other well known environmental heavy metal pollutants, such as Hg, where concentration up food chains and toxicity of organically bound species are significant issues (Ferguson and Gavis, 1972) There are many human uses of As, most of which result in its general or localized release into the environment. Arsenic has been utilized as a general poison for hundreds of years, being used on plants, insects, rodents, vermin, and humans. In fact, As was the leading homicidal poison from the Middle Ages until the 19 th century (Harrisson et al. 1958) and its use is retained by "some classicists of the art" (Vallee et al. 1960) Arsenical compounds were used medicinally in the Orient as early as 2000 3000 years ago, and in the West at least since the time of Hippocrates, c 400 B.C.E. (Woolson, 1975).

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29 Arsenic has a long history of being utilized as a t opical prophylactic for surface parasites in livestock, etc. When he first isolated elemental As by heating orpiment (As 2 S 3 ) with soap, Albertus Magnus declared that among its properties, "[if] mixed with milk, if a Fly fall upon it, it dieth" (Magnus, c .1 250) Seven hundred years later, Florida retains a well known historical legacy of 3400 cattle dipping vats constructed and used for tick eradication in the first half of the 20 th century ( e.g ., Graham and Hourrigan, 1977) In the 19 th and early 20 th centu ries, phenylarsenic acid (C 6 H 5 AsO(OH) 2 ) and other phenyl and diphenyl arsenicals were used as chemotheraputic agents against trypanosomal and spirochaetal agents, and for other medicinal purposes (Vallee et al. 1960; Ferguson and Gavis, 1972) ; for exampl e Paul Ehrlich's "compound 606" (Sa lvarsan, arsphenamine) was the "magic bullet" against syphilis discovered in 1909 (Ehrlich, 1910) The observation of such an apparent topical prophylactic effect on laboratory dosed foraminifers will be discussed in Chap ter 4. More recently, the agriculture industry utilized the toxic effects of arsenical com pounds as herbicides and pesticides, particularly before development of the synthetic alternative DDT in 1947, intentionally introducing As into the environment in a variety of forms. Arsenic pentoxide (As 2 O 5 ) was used as a preharvest defoliant of cotton, and calcium arsenate (As 2 Ca 3 O 8 ) was used as an insecticide in the control of the boll weevil and cotton leaf worm (Lemmo et al. 1983) Monomethylarsonic (MMA) and di methylarsinic acid (DMA, also known as cacodylic acid), CH 3 AsO(OH) 2 and (CH 3 ) 2 AsOOH, respectively, have also had application as pesticides, as have lead arsenate (AsHO 4 Pb), copper acetoarsenite (C 4 H 6 As 6 Cu 4 O 16 ), copper arsenate (As 2 Cu 3 O 8 ), potassium arsenit e (AsKO 2 ), sodium arsenite (AsNaO 2 ), and various others

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30 (see the Compendium of Pesticide Common Names at www.alanwood.net/pesticides). While the more famous Agent Orange comprised organic herbicides, Agent Blue was a combination of DMA and sodium arsenite. In the United States, the agricultural use of these arsenical compounds, common in the first four decades of the 20 th century, has largely been replaced by synthetic organic compounds since World War II (Eisler, 1994) However, the use of cheap, simple, e ffective arsenical compounds as pesticides persists in some developing countries, as does its subsequent ultimate deposition in the environment. In addition to pesticidal and herbicidal uses, many other human activities introduce As into the environment. T hese include soil erosion and the mining and processing of sulfide minerals, as well as smaller scale industrial uses of As, such as the manufacture of colored glass and metal alloys. The burning of fossil fuels releases the As contained therein; the repor ted As content of coals ranges from 3 to 45mg/kg, and <1mg/kg for crude petroleum (Veal, 1966) Arsenical compounds such as lewisite (CH 3 CH=CHAsCl 2 ) have been developed as chemical warfare agents. Having the poisonous qualities of As compounds, combined wi th the blistering qualities of mustard gas, it was discovered by a young priest working on his Ph.D. at the Catholic University of America in 1903. It was subsequently rediscovered by Winford Lee Lewis in 1917 working for the American war effort, though it was not utilized during World War I (Lewis, 1919; Vilensky, 2005) Finally, As is a trace constituent of all rock types, and is ubiquitous in the environment. It is the 20 th most abundant element in the earth's crust, the 14 th in seawater, and 12 th in the human body (Eisler, 1988; Cullen and Reimer, 1989) Volcanic activity is the original source of much of the As found in sedimentary rocks. Arsenic is

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31 found in shale and sandstone at concentrations of 13 and 1.0mg/kg, and in igneous rock at concentrations of 1.8mg/kg (Lemmo et al. 1983) The average for the lithosphere as a whole may be taken to be 2.0mg/kg. The ionic radii of As 3+ (0.58"10 10 m) and As 5+ (0.46"10 10 m) are sufficiently similar to the radii of Si 4+ (0.43"10 10 m) and Al 3+ (0.51"10 10 m), and, to some extent, Fe 3+ (0.64"10 10 m) and Ti 4+ (0.75"10 10 m), to allow substitution of As in crystal matrices of common minerals such as quartz, feldspars, magnetite, and ilmenite (Onishi and Sandell, 1955) While the aforementioned minerals vary in their sol ubility, As is not necessarily "trapped" in the more insoluble ones. Arsenic closely resembles sulfur in its escaping tendency, and an appreciable mobility of As is to be expected from the physical and chemical properties of some of its compounds. AsCl 3 A sF 3 AsH 3 and As 2 O 3 are volatile at relatively low temperatures; As 2 O 3 is water soluble, and arsenic sulfides dissolve easily in alkaline solutions (Onishi and Sandell, 1955) Soils and waters have a natural ambient As load due to the high solubility of m ost arsenical compounds. Usually, this load is quite small (Ferguson and Gavis, 1972) Some members of this panoply of arsenical compounds persist in water, while others are rapidly oxidized, hydrolyzed, or otherwise degraded (Ferguson and Gavis, 1972) Ho wever, it is unlikely that human activity has or will change the worldwide distribution of As appreciably, or that it will greatly increase its concentration in the oceans. Ferguson and Gavis (1972) list typical oceanic concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 6 !g/kg, and a general average value of 2!g/kg may be used (Pilson, 1998) Rather, anthropogenic activities generally lead to elevated [As] in local environments, such as individual streams, rivers, lakes, and bays (Ferguson and Gavis, 1972)

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32 1.4 Arsenic C hemistry While actually a metalloid, As has occasionally been referred to as a "heavy metal." As this term is poorly defined, the moniker "potentially toxic element" is generally preferred (Duffus, 2002) Arsenic in the environment appears in several forms ; the most abundant in the marine environment being As 3+ and As 5+ Which of these two species is more prevalent depends on the redox potential of the system. Thermodynamic calculations predict that the As 5+ /As 3+ ratio in normal seawater should be approxima tely 10 26 ; however, the observed ratio in seawater is often in the range 10 1 to 10 1 (Johnson, 1972) For instance, Sugawara and Kanamori (1964) reported measurements of northwestern Pacific Ocean water showing an [As 5+ ] of 1.0!g/kg and an [As 3+ ] of 0.52!g /kg, yielding an As 5+ /As T ratio of 0.67. Johnson (1972) demonstrated that bacterial reduction can account for this departure from thermodynamic equilibrium. Arsenic is a Group 5 element, and therefore has properties similar to phosphorous, i.e. it is typi cally found in the 5+ oxidation state [As 5+ As(V), or arsenate] in oxidized waters, and is often depleted at the surface and enriched in the sediments (Cutter et al. 2001) Additionally, it is often taken up biologically and included in biochemical struc tures as if it were phosphorous, in a similar fashion as Mg 2+ can be taken up and incorporated in crystal structures in place of Ca 2+ Arsenic may also be present in the trivalent form [As 3+ As(III), or arsenite] in surface waters if the Eh (oxidation pot ential) is less than ~0.1V, or if oxidation to As 5+ is incomplete (Ferguson and Gavis, 1972) This species is much more mobile and toxic than As 5+ (up to 60" more toxic in humans), and has been reported to cause neurological

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33 damage in humans at concentrati ons as low as 100!g/kg body mass (Gebel et al. 1997) The reason for this high toxicity is that As 3+ like Hg, reacts with sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in proteins, causing enzyme inactivation and extreme biochemical duress (Webb, 1966) But unlike Hg, t here is little, if any, concentration of As upward through the food chain. Arsenic can also form a reduced 3 species, but this is not common in marine environments. When present, it is usually in the form of arsine (AsH 3 ), an extremely poisonous gas (Lemm o et al. 1983) (It has been speculated that Napoleon Bonaparte was killed by arsine gas released when fungi metabolized arsenic containing green pigment in his wallpaper [Jones and Ledingham, 1982]; this has recently been disproven [Clemenza et al. 2008 ].) As 3+ and As 5+ in the low concentrations normally found in the marine environment, are largely unreactive. Arsenic undergoes no significant complexing interactions with any inorganic radicals other than OH (Ferguson and Gavis, 1972) However, As does readily form associations with organic matter, especially lightweight dissolved organic matter of less than ~10,000 molecular weight (Waslenchuk and Windom, 1978) Other forms of As found in the environment, which are less toxic than the trivalent species and normally of comparable concentration, are monomethylarsonic (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) (CH 3 AsO(OH) 2 and (CH 3 ) 2 AsOOH). Trimethylarsineoxide ((CH 3 ) 3 AsO) is also possible, but is much less common in the marine environment. Methylation of As spec ies is not thermodynamically favorable in water, and therefore must be mediated biologically. MMA and DMA are formed in the marine environment by the reduction of inorganic As by methanogenic bacteria (and possibly fungi). These

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34 forms are intermediates for med by the microorganisms on the way to forming dimethylarsine ((CH 3 ) 2 AsH). Dimethylarsenic acid is a major and ubiquitous form of As in the environment; it is very resistant to oxidation, not being oxidized to a quantitatively measurable degree even by aq ua regia. It therefore likely has a significant residence time in natural waters (Braman and Foreback, 1973) Methylation may serve as a means of detoxification of As. However, arsine and trimethylarsine are even more toxic than arsenite (Vallee et al. 19 60) Foraminifers may be exposed to As either through anthropogenic input or by natural local [As] sources. The Tutum Bay hydrothermal system is of interest due to its non anthropogenic output of As 3+ at concentrations surpassing 1000!g/kg (Pichler et al. 1999b), while retaining a diverse fauna of shallow tropical foraminifers (Fig. 1.11) Many studies have examined foraminiferal response to heavy metal exposure [ e.g. to Pb (Boltovskoy, 1956); Zn, Cr, and V (Ellison et al. 1986); and Cu (Sharifi et al. 1991)]. However, many of these studies were conducted in anthropogenically polluted sites, and few have examined As in particular. In addition to examining foraminiferal community structure in a natural high As setting (Chapters 2 and 3), effects of exposu re to As 5+ and As 3+ across a wide range of concentrations was examined (Chapter 4), revealing the responses of a group of organisms of significant value as bioindicators (Hallock et al. 2003) to a PTE of considerable environmental interest.

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35 CHAPTER 2 TAXONOMY OF THE FORAMINIFERA OF TUTUM BAY, AMBITLE ISLAND, PAPUA NEW GUINEA [. .] And truth seeking brings Sometimes a silliness we view askance, Like Darwin playing his bassoon to plants; He too had lapses, but he claimed no wings." (Robert Conquest, 1969) 2.1 Introduction The tropical Indo Pacific is a hotspot of marine biodiversity ( e.g ., UNEP/IUCN, 1988; Veron, 2000; AndrŽfou‘t et al. 2006), and this is apparent within the reef communities in Tutum Bay at Ambitle Island Among the many organisms present, there are diverse teleost and elasmobranch fishes, scleractinian coral, soft coral, actiniaria, ascidi ans, and calcareous algae; particularly abundant are the soft coral Clavularia sp., the calcareous alga Halimeda sp., and the tunicate Polycarpa sp. (personal observation). The region is also the location of highest global foraminiferal biodiversity ( e.g ., Loeblich and Tappan, 1994). Several genera of larger, symbiont bearing benthic

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36 Foraminifera are apparent to the diver's naked eye, including Amp histegina Calcarina Heterostegina and Alveolinella This is consistent with other authors' observations of the most prevalent foraminiferal taxa found in this region; e.g. Baccaert (1986) stated that the highest foraminiferal abundances around Lizard I sland in Australia's Great Barrier Reef are reached by the Soritidae, Amphisteginidae, Calcarinidae, and Elphidiidae. Many additional foraminiferal taxa were observed under the microscope, including Rosalina Peneroplis Elphidium Textularia and a large number of small miliolids. This chapter describes this diverse foraminiferal community, examines the overarching community structure, and consolidates the large body of taxonomic references applicable to the region. 2.2 Methods An initial trip to Tutum Ba y was made in November 2003, and a second trip in May 2005. On these trips, sediment and rubble samples were collected from transects along gradients of hydrothermal influence outwards from vent mouths, and from reference sites with no hydrothermal activit y. These samples were examined for foraminiferal species assemblages; assemblages are compared relative to exposure to hydrothermal fluids, sediment [As], depth, and other environmental parameters in Chapter 3. Sampling generally consisted of meter long pu sh cores, 5cm minicores, and rubble samples (push cores were utilized in geochemical analysis of the area [Price and Pichler, 2005; Price, 2008]) Transects were established beginning at hydrothermal vent mouths and following channels of loose sediment bet ween reef spurs roughly offshore for several hundred meters. Once initial transects were laid out, intervals were chosen for push core

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37 sites based on locations determined to provide good resolution of the temperature/pH gradient at the sediment/seawater in terface. Minicores and rubble were then later collected from the flagged locations of these push cores, and additional interspersed sites as deemed appropriate. This led to a sampling pattern that generally consisted of samples taken every few meters close to venting, and more infrequently (approximately every 30m) at greater distances. Three hydrothermal transects (A, B, and C) were sampled for sediment and rubble in 2003; in 2005, transect B was extended and re sampled, once for sediment and twice for rub ble. In 2003, references samples were collected from Picnic Island, several kilometers to the north of Tutum Bay (herein referred to as Picnic Island, PI, or transect D); in 2005, reference samples were collected from Danlum Bay (DB or transect E) to the s outh (Fig. 1.1). Sampling sites and the measurement of corresponding environmental parameters are more thoroughly described in Chapter 3 and are enumerated in Table 3.1. Minicores consisted of small 7cm diameter cylinders pushed by hand into the surface se diment and capped on both ends. Samples were maintained upright and care was employed to ensure as little mixing of sediment as possible. Shipboard, approximately 15cm 3 of sediment was collected from the upper 1cm of the minicores. Rubble samples consisted of small (~10 15cm) pieces of dead coral or volcanic cobble lying exposed on the substrate; several such pieces of rubble were collected at each sampling location into plastic zip top bags. Shipboard, these rubble pieces were scrubbed with a brush to remo ve attached foraminifers (and other epiphytes) according to the protocol of Williams et al (1997) Resulting sedimentary and scrubbed rubble material was collected into

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38 HDPE bottles and preserved with ethanol for future taxonomic analysis (Pingitore et al 1993) In the laboratory, subsamples weighing approximately 1.5g (wet weight) were taken from the well mixed bulk samples. These subsamples were washed over a 63!m mesh sieve to remove mud and examined using a stereomicroscope. All foraminiferal tests w ere picked from each subsample, unless several hundred were obtained in some simple fraction of the sample 1/6, 1/3, 1/2, or 2/3 in which case, only that fraction was picked. The resulting tests were sorted by taxa and fixed onto micropaleontological slide s. A total of 114 samples were picked and identified for this study: 42 sediment samples along transects (22 in 2003 and 20 in 2005), nine reference sediment samples (eight in 2003 and one in 2005), 52 transect rubble samples (22 in 2003 and 30 in 2005), a nd 11 reference rubble samples (nine in 2003 and two in 2005). A full list of samples is provided in Table 3.1. All taxa were identified to species level. Species identifications were generally made using Loeblich and Tappan (1994) Hottinger et al. (1993) Jones (1994) (containing Brady's original plates of the Challenger material [1884]) and Albani et al (2001) and confirmed against Ellis and Messina (1940) with supplementation as necessary. Raw species counts were normalized to number of foraminifera l tests per 1.5g sample. Large scale statistical characterization of the community was performed by calculating mean observed frequencies of species across samples with >100 foraminifers ( i.e ., ignoring severe population depression due to extremes of hydro thermal environmental parameters). Variance covariance and coefficient of variation covariation

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39 matrices were also calculated for this subset of samples. Covariance was calculated according to "ij= ( Xi# i)( Xj# j)j = 1 N$i= 1 N$N which reduces to # i 2 for the covariation of a species with itself (Hayek and Buzas, 1997). As the coefficient of variation normalizes a unit based value (the standard deviation) to a unitless measure by dividing by the mean, a coefficient of covariation (CCV) may be comput ed according to CCVij="ij"ij "ij ij or CCVij="ijij which acts to offset the differences in population size between the species being compared by dividing by the geometric mean (see Mertens, 2008 for a description of how use of the geomet ric mean prevents large values from biasing the result) Again, in the case where within species comparisons are being made, this equation reduces to the coefficient of variation (CV= # i /! i ) (Seeletse, 2001). Note that there appears to be some disagreement in the literature as to which measure is correctly referred to as the CCV: The square root of the covariance over the geometric mean of the means is analogous to the CV (standard devi ation over the mean), and therefore may more justifiably be called the CCV (Seeletse, 2001). However, many authors seem to use the square of this metric (the covariance over the product of the means), which perhaps is more justified in that the special cas e diagonal CV elements in this instance actually uses the variance (instead of the standard deviation as in the regular CV) (Deng and Lynch, 1996; Chao et al. 2000; Singh, 2003; Chao et al. 2004) Both definitions are easily interconverted (in the same

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40 manner as the variance and standard deviation), so long as the sign is kept in mind when squaring. Henceforth, the second version of CCV will be used, which appears to be more easily interpretable; the diagonal matix elements will be referred to as CV 2 i n accordance with traditional nomenclature. The CCV appears to be a metric with little historic precedence of use in ecological settings, but one of possible utility. For instance, unlike the correlation coefficient, the CCV is not constrained to the range 1; dividing by the geometric mean removes the component of central tendency while preserving the relative dispersion information present in the variance covariance matrix A more typical method of normalizing covariance is via calculation of a correlatio n coefficient by dividing by the standard deviation of each variable (Pearson, 1920): rij="ij"i"i which is also provided. This measure has a maximum value of 1; r =1 is observed within species by definition. Observed species abundances from al l samples regardless of type, location, or year were pooled to provide a view of the entire community. Analysis of this pooled abundance data was conducted according to protocols described by Hayek and Buzas (1997) to determine whether a logarithmic specie s distribution would accurately describe observed species distributions within the community Fishers $ proportionality constant and shaping constant x (Fisher et al. 1943) for the pooled data set were calculated using the following formulae: N S = eS" # 1 S" ; x = N N +"

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41 where N is the total number of individuals, S is the number of species observe d, $ is Fisher's diversity index and is iteratively derived with the first formula, and x is the shaping constant derived via substitution in the second. Fisher's $ was utilized to provide a diversity measure free from sample size effect; $ should be const ant for a given assemblage, regardless (within reasonable limits) of the size of the sample (Fisher et al. 1943). 2.3 Results One hundred fifty nine testate foraminiferal species were identified in the 114 sediment and rubble samples from hydrothermally influenced Tutum Bay, and from non hydrothermal Picnic Island to the north and Danlum Bay to the south (Table 2.1). These species are listed, described, and selectively illustrated below. The diverse community comprises 10 foraminiferal orders, 30 superfam ilies, 55 families, 35 subfamilies, and 107 genera. Species counts across the 114 samples are provided in Appendix I, with aggregate counts for genera, families, superfamilies, and orders provided in Appendices II V; aggregate counts according to functiona l groups as defined by Hallock et al (2003) and Carnahan (2005) are provided in Appendix VI Twelve species accounted for 66.9% of the foraminiferal specimens observed, and 77.3% of the specimens were accounted for by 20 species (Fig. 2.1 and Table 2.2). Of these, two species ( Amphistegina lessonii and Calcarina defrancii ) were particularly dominant, almost equally abundant, and together accounted for 38.3% of the assemblage. There was a large drop to the next most abundant species, having an abundance <5% ; nine species had abundances of 2 5%. Of the ten most abundant species, six were

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42 Table 2.1. Foraminiferal species identified from sediment and rubble samples from Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG, and nearby reference sites, and their higher taxonomy. Orde r Superfamily Family Subfamily Species ASTRORHIZIDA HIPPOCREPINACEA Hippocrepinidae Hippocrepininae Jaculella acuta LITUOLIDA LITUOLACEA Haplophragmoididae Haplophragmoides pusillus TROCHAMMINIDA TROCHAMMINACEA Trochamminidae Trochammininae Paratrocha mmina globorotaliformis TEXTULARIIDA TEXTULARIACEA Textulariidae Textulariinae Sahulia barkeri Textularia agglutinans Textularia cushmani Textularia foliacea Textularia lateralis Septotextulariinae Septotextularia rugosa Pseudo gaudryinidae Pseudogaudryininae Pseudogaudryina pacifica Siphoniferoidinae Siphoniferoides siphoniferus Valvulinidae Valvulininae Clavulina angularis Clavulina pacifica SPIRILLINIDA Planispirillinidae Conicospirillinoides denticulatus Conicospirillinoides inaequalis Planispirillina spinigera Spirillinidae Mychostomina revertens Spirillina grosseperforata Spirillina cf. limbata Spirillina vivipara MILIOLIDA CORNUSPIRACEA Cornuspiridae Cornuspirinae Cornuspi ra involvens Cornuspira planorbis NUBECULARIACEA Fischerinidae Fischerininae Planispirinella exigua Fischerinellidae Fischerinella diversa Nubeculariidae Nodobaculariinae Nubeculina advena Nodobaculariellinae Nodobaculariella convexiu scula Vertebralina striata Wiesnerella auriculata Wiesnerella ujiiei MILIOLACEA Spiroloculinidae Adelosina pascuaensis Adelosina sp. B Flintia robusta Spiroloculina angulata Spiroloculina communis Spiroloculina c orrugata Spiroloculina excisa Spiroloculina fragilis Spiroloculina nummiformis Spiroloculina subimpressa Spiroloculina tenuiseptata Spiroloculina venusta Hauerinidae Siphonapertinae Agglutinella agglutinans Schlumbe rgerina alveoliniformis Hauerininae Hauerina diversa Hauerina pacifica Lachlanella compressiostoma Lachlanella parkeri Lachlanella subpolygona Massilina granulocostata Quinqueloculina bubnanensis Quinqueloculina crass icarinata Quinqueloculina cuvieriana Quinqueloculina funafutiensis Quinqueloculina parvaggluta Quinqueloculina philippinensis Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata Quinqueloculina sulcata Quinqueloculina tropicalis Quinque loculina tubilocula Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis

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43 Table 2.1. Continued. Order Superfamily Family Subfamily Species MILIOLIDA (cont.) MILIOLACEA (cont.) Hauerinidae (cont.) Miliolinellinae Miliolinella labiosa Miliolinella philippinensis Miliolinella suborbicularis Pseudotriloculina patagonica Ptychomiliola separans Pyrgo sarsi Pyrgo striolata Pyrgo yabei Pyrgo cf yabei Triloculina bertheliniana Triloculina littoralis Triloculina transverses triata Triloculina tricarinata Triloculina cf tricarinata Triloculinella pseudooblonga Triloculinella sublineata Wellmanellinella striata Polysegmentininae Parahauerinoides fragilissimus Sigmoilinitinae Sigmoihauerina bra dyi Sigmoihauerina involuta Spirosigmoilina bradyi Tubinellidae Articularia sp Articulina alticostata Articulina cf mucronata AUSTROTRILLINACEA Brebinidae Pseudohauerininae Pseudohauerina orientalis ALVEOLINACEA Alveolini dae Alveolinella quoyi Borelis schlumbergeri SORITACEA Peneroplidae Dendritina striata Laevipeneroplis laevigatus Peneroplis pertusus Peneroplis planatus Spirolina cylindracea Soritidae Archaiasinae Parasorites orbitol itoides Soritinae Amphisorus hemprichii Sorites marginalis Sorites orbiculus LAGENIDA NODOSARIACEA Lagenidae Cerebrina perforata POLYMORPHINACEA Polymorphinidae Polymorphininae Guttulina yamazaki GLOBIGERINIDA GLOBOROTALIACEA Globorotal iidae Neogloboquadrina humerosa Pulleniatinidae Pulleniatina obliquiloculata GLOBIGERINACEA Globigerinidae Globigerininae Beella digitata Globigerina bulloides Globigerinella siphonifera Globigerinoides ruber Globigerinoides sa cculiferus Orbulininae Orbulina bilobata BULIMINIDA BOLIVINACEA Bolivinidae Aphelophragmina britannica Bolivina vadescens Bolivinellina translucens Lugdunum hantkenianum LOXOSTOMATACEA Bolivinellidae Rugobolivinella elegans Tortoplectellidae Tortoplectella rhomboidalis TURRILINACEA Stainforthiidae Cassidelina subcapitata BULIMINACEA Siphogenerinoididae Siphogenerinoidinae Loxostomina porrecta Rectobolivina bifrons Sagrinella lobata Tubulogenerininae Allassoida schlumbergerii Sagrina jugosa Sagrina zanzibarica Siphogenerina raphana Buliminidae Bulimina marginata Orthoplectidae Floresina durrandi Uvigerinidae Uvigerininae Neouvigerina ampullacea Reussellidae Chrysalidin ella dimorpha Reussella pulchra FURSENKOINACEA Fursenkoinidae Sigmavirgulina tortuosa

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44 Table 2.1. Continued. Order Superfamily Family Subfamily Species ROTALIIDA DISCORBACEA Bagginidae Baggininae Baggina philippinensis Eponididae Eponidi nae Eponides cribrorepandus Eponides repandus Discorbidae Rotorbis auberi Neoeponididae Neoeponides procerus Rosalinidae Neoconorbina petasiformis Rosalina globularis Pannellainidae Pannellaina earlandi GLABRATELLACEA G labratellidae Angulodiscorbis corrugatiformis Schackoinella globosa Buliminoididae Buliminoides williamsonianus SIPHONINACEA Siphoninidae Siphonininae Siphoninoides diphes DISCORBINELLACEA Parrelloididae Parrelloides bradyi Pseudoparr ellidae Pseudoparrellinae Pseudoparrella zhengae PLANORBULINACEA Planorbulinidae Planulina retia Planorbulinidae Planorbulininae Planorbulina acervalis ASTERIGERINACEA Epistomariidae Epistomariinae Asanonella tubulifera Amphisteginidae Amphis tegina lessonii Amphistegina radiata NONIONACEA Nonionidae Nonioninae Nonionoides grateloupi Almaenidae Anomalinellinae Anomalinella rostrata CHILOSTOMELLACEA Heterolepidae Anomalinoides globosus Heterolepa subhaidingeri ROTALIAC EA Calcarinidae Baculogypsina sphaerulata Calcarina defrancii Calcarina hispida Calcarina spengleri Elphidiidae Elphidiinae Cellanthus craticulatus Elphidium crispum Elphidium simplex NUMMULITACEA Nummulitidae Assilina ammonoides Heterostegina depressa Nummulites venosus

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45 Figure 2.1. Observed abundance of foraminiferal species at Ambitle Island, PNG. Species are colored from red to blue according to taxonomic order as given in Table 2.1, thus blue rotaliids, red textulariids, and the diverse miliolids occupyin much of the orange to green spectrum. Note that four species of rotaliids comprise nearly 50% of the population, and 15 species of rotaliids and miliolid s comprise nearly three quarters.

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46 Table 2. 2. The 20 most abundant species identified in the pooled 114 samples examined, with the percentage abundance of each. Forty percent of identified specimens are accounted for by the two most abundant species, two th irds by twelve, and nearly 80% by the 20 most abundant species; all other taxa contributed <1% to the total, and less than 100 individuals absolute. Taxonomic order of each species is marked in parentheses (rotaliid [R], miliolid [M], globigerinid [G], tex tulariid [T], or buliminid [B]). Larger, symbiont bearing mixotrophs are bolded. Species Percentage Cumulative % Amphistegina lessonii (R) 19.5% 19.5% Calcarina defrancii (R) 18.9% 38.3% Rosalina globularis (R) 4.7% 43.0% Amphistegina radiata (R) 4.1% 47.1% Triloculinella pseudooblonga (M) 3.4% 50.5% Pseudotriloculina patagonica (M) 3.3% 53.8% Heterostegina depressa (R) 2.6% 56.4% Globigerinoides ruber (G) 2.4% 58.8% Planorbulina acervalis (R) 2.2% 61.0% Hauerina pacifica (M) 2.2% 63.2% Dendritin a striata (M) 2.0% 65.1% Quinqueloculina bubnanensis (M) 1.8% 66.9% Assilina ammonoides (R) 1.6% 68.6% Calcarina spengleri (R) 1.4% 70.0% Heterolepa subhaidingeri (R) 1.4% 71.4% Quinqueloculina tropicalis (M) 1.4% 72.8% Textularia agglutinans (T) 1.3 % 74.1% Nummulites venosus (R) 1.3% 75.3% Elphidium crispum (R) 1.1% 76.4% Reussella pulchra (B) 0.9% 77.3%

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47 rotaliids, three miliolids, and one globigeriniid. That is, a planktic species was actually the eighth most abundant species observed. Four of the ten most abundant species (including the two most abundant) were large, symbiont bearing mixotrophic rotaliids (Table 2.2), as would be expected for a healthy, low nutrient reefal environment in this location ( e.g ., Baccaert, 1986; Langer and Lipps, 2 003) This is as opposed to the smaller, opportunistic, heterotrophic species one might expect to find in a system experiencing stress from PTEs. Such stress has been found to increase abundance of test deformities in other PTE polluted environments ( e.g ., Alve, 1991a, 1995; Yanko et al. 1998) Lack of evidence for PTE stress in Tutum Bay is further indicated by the fact that very few deformed specimens were observed in these samples. The overwhelming dominance of the large mixotrophic rotaliids may also i ndicate that the elevated [Si] is a beneficial nutrient to endosymbiotic diatoms (the endosymbiont of all the most abundant symbiont bearing taxa in Tutum Bay, Table 3.3), although it remains unclear to what extent Si acts as a nutrient for afrustular endo symbiotic diatoms (see, e.g ., Hallock, 1981; Lee et al. 1984; Tappan and Loeblich, 1988; Lee and Anderson, 1991) A number of samples close to hydrothermal venting had no or very few foraminiferal tests present. To analyze overall community structure befo re examining more subtle patterns in density and distribution caused by environmental variables, those samples in which <100 foraminiferal tests were observed have been left out of this part of the analysis. Forty nine samples with >100 foraminiferal tests are herein examined, representing 91% of the total abundance data. With low density samples removed, species abundance rankings remain largely the same, with the 12 most abundant species

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48 retaining the same relative order, and, though there are several sli ght changes in order, the same species comprising the 25 most populous. The variance covariance matrix ( ) for the 13 most abundant species is provided as Table 2.3, with the mean vector included, as: ) =1Mn" # $ $ $ % & ' ; ) ( =)11M O)n1L)nm" # $ $ $ % & ' CV 2 /CCV and correlation coef ficient matrices are likewise included as Tables 2.4 and 2.5. The magnitudes of the variances along the diagonal may be utilized to gage the relative sizes of the covariances; for instance, a high negative covariance is seen between the two most abundant t axa ( A. lessonii and C. defrancii ). Table 2.4 can be interpreted as indicating that species populations are independent of each other if and only if CCV=0; species are positively or negatively dependent on each other proportionally to the magnitude of thei r CCV. Though more intensive to calculate, and more prone to rounding errors, metrics analogous to the CCV can be calculated for arbitrarily higher dimensional sets of species according to CCVk1Kkm= L ( Xk1" k1) K ( Xkm" km)km= 1 N#k1= 1 N#N k1K km( ) (Chao et al. 2004) For instance, the CCV i jk for the three most abundant species in this dataset is indistinguishable from zero, indicating the independence of the populations of these three species. Generally, the miliolids have low covariation with rotaliids relative to higher covariations with other miliolids. The abundant globigerinid, Globigerinoides ruber has

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49 Table 2.3. Variance covariance matrix for the 13 most abundant species in those samples with foraminiferal densities >100 foraminifers per 1.5g. The diagonal provides the variance of t he mean across samples within species ( i 2 ), other entries provide the covariance of the mean across samples between species ( ij ). High positive values represent species which tend to vary together, while highly negative values indicate species whose densities vary inversely; those near 0 indi cate little relationship between species abundances. Values in units of (foraminifers/1.5g) 2 The transposed mean vector appears across the bottom in units of foraminifers/1.5g. Amphistegina lessonii Calcarina defrancii Rosalina globularis Amphistegina ra diata Triloculinella pseudooblonga Pseudotriloculina patagonica Heterostegina depressa Globigerinoides ruber Planorbulina acervalis Hauerina pacifica Dendritina striata Quinqueloculina bubnanensis Heterolepa subhaidingeri Amphistegina lessonii 7709 Calcarina defrancii 1385 4504 Rosalina globularis 639.4 365.9 230.5 Amphistegina radiata 1065 140.4 56.26 325.0 Triloculinella pseudooblonga 27.91 662.8 136.4 20.37 196.5 Pseudotriloculina patagonica 120 .5 151.4 72.26 14.17 74.69 99.67 Heterostegina depressa 412.0 110.8 55.10 75.25 44.37 24.49 68.73 Globigerinoides ruber 558.7 213.6 99.98 69.61 60.45 28.77 46.94 105.2 Planorbulina acervalis 22.37 693.1 119.2 16.08 149.0 48.27 39.95 63.11 183.8 Hauerina pacifica 128.1 259.1 58.47 15.11 68.81 31.56 25.00 28.20 64.87 44.60 Dendritina striata 193.1 312.5 22.46 31.56 61.02 46.54 47.42 26.94 34.24 26.35 369.4 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis 80.32 119.6 29.60 1.519 53.73 62.12 37 .96 13.63 34.61 20.64 115.8 122.5 Heterolepa subhaidingeri 294.8 24.59 47.62 34.48 14.91 14.24 19.69 34.98 15.26 11.98 8.236 2.616 24.90 Mean abundance: 66.1 59.1 15.2 14.0 10.9 9.65 8.92 7.76 7.09 6.91 6.89 6.30 4.64

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50 Table 2.4. Squared coefficie nt of variation (CV 2 )/covariation(CCV) matrix for the 13 most abundant species in those samples with foraminiferal densities >100 foraminifers per 1.5g, providing a correction for the differences in population size of the species being compared. The diagon al provides the squared coefficient of variation of the mean across samples within species ( ii / ii ), other entries provide the coefficient of covariation of the mean across samples between species ( ij / ij ). Species populations are independent of each other if and only if CCV=0; species are positively or negatively dependent on each other propor tionally to the magnitude of their CCV. Values are unitless, and thus allow direct comparison of values. Amphistegina lessonii Calcarina defrancii Rosalina globularis Amphistegina radiata Triloculinella pseudooblonga Pseudotriloculina patagonica Heteroste gina depressa Globigerinoides ruber Planorbulina acervalis Hauerina pacifica Dendritina striata Quinqueloculina bubnanensis Heterolepa subhaidingeri Amphistegina lessonii 1.764 Calcarina defrancii 0.354 1.288 Rosalina globularis 0.635 0.406 0.992 Amphistegina radiata 1.155 0.170 0.265 1.671 Triloculinella pseudooblonga 0.039 1.027 0.820 0.134 1.651 Pseudotriloculina patagonica 0.189 0.265 0.491 0.105 0.709 1.070 Heterostegina depressa 0.69 8 0.210 0.405 0.605 0.456 0.284 0.863 Globigerinoides ruber 1.090 0.466 0.846 0.644 0.714 0.384 0.678 1.748 Planorbulina acervalis 0.048 1.654 1.104 0.163 1.927 0.706 0.632 1.148 3.659 Hauerina pacifica 0.280 0.634 0.555 0.157 0.912 0.47 3 0.405 0.526 1.324 0.933 Dendritina striata 0.424 0.767 0.214 0.328 0.811 0.700 0.771 0.504 0.701 0.553 7.771 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis 0.193 0.321 0.308 0.017 0.781 1.021 0.675 0.279 0.775 0.474 2.665 3.085 Heterolepa subhaidingeri 0.962 0 .090 0.674 0.533 0.295 0.318 0.476 0.973 0.464 0.374 0.258 0.090 1.158

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51 fairly high covariations with most taxa, and medium to high correlations according to the criteria of Cohen (1988) ; the importance of which will be discussed in Chapter 3. The coeff icients of variation indicate that the most variable species are the smaller miliolids and rotaliids, Dendritina striata Planorbulina acervalis and Quinqueloculina bubnanensis (CVs from 2.8 to 1.8); other species show less variability, without a great di fference between them (CVs from 0.9 to 1.3). The strongest negative correlation occurs between A. lessonii and C. defrancii although, at 0.235, it is only a small correlation, according to the criteria of Cohen (1988). Calculation of expected number of s pecies with n individuals, assuming a logarithmic series distribution, is given, along with observed frequencies, in Table 2.6 and Figure 2.2. The value of x generated from Fishers (1943) equations, 0.999, is very close to unity, and thus, as Hayek and Bu zas (1997) point out this logarithmic series distribution closely approximates a harmonic series distribution; the shape of Figure 2.2 reflects this. This logarithmic series distribution is also equivalent to a negative binomial distribution with the shap ing constant k =0 (Fisher et al. 1943) The variance for (" 2 ) was found to be 0.536 using the formula provided by Anscombe (1950) : "#2=#ln( 2 ) ln x 1 $ x % & ( ) $ 1 + / 0 2 This variance provides a standard error ( ) of 0.732 (similar to estimates of 0.72 and 0.712 fro m Williams Figure 8 and Table 8 (Fisher et al. 1943)) and, with a z of 1.96 for a 95% confidence limit, yields a confidence interval of =24.131.435 for the Tutum Bay vicinity in toto

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52 Table 2.5. Correlation coefficient matrix for the 13 most abundant species in those samples with foraminiferal densities >100 foraminifers per 1.5g, providing standardization of the variance/covariance. The diagonal provides the correlation coefficient of the mean across samples within species ( ii / ii ), which is 1 by de finition; other entries provide the correlation coefficient of the mean across samples between species ( ij / i j ). Correlation values between 0.5 1.0 are large (dark grey), between 0.3 0.5 are medium (medium grey), between 0.1 0.3 are small (light gray), and between 0.0 and 0.1 are effectively uncorrelated, according to Cohen's (1988) criteria. Values are unitless. Amphistegina lessonii Calcarina defrancii Rosalina globularis Amphistegina radiata Triloculinella pseudooblonga Pseudotriloculina patagonica Heterostegina depressa Globigerinoides ruber Planorbulina acervalis Hauerina pacifica Dendritina striata Quinqueloculina bubnanensis Heterolepa subhaidingeri Amphistegina lessonii 1.000 Calcarina defrancii 0.235 1.000 Rosalina gl obularis 0.480 0.359 1.000 Amphistegina radiata 0.673 0.116 0.206 1.000 Triloculinella pseudooblonga 0.023 0.705 0.641 0.081 1.000 Pseudotriloculina patagonica 0.137 0.226 0.477 0.079 0.534 1.000 Heterostegina depr essa 0.566 0.199 0.438 0.504 0.382 0.296 1.000 Globigerinoides ruber 0.620 0.310 0.642 0.377 0.420 0.281 0.552 1.000 Planorbulina acervalis 0.019 0.762 0.579 0.066 0.784 0.357 0.355 0.454 1.000 Hauerina pacifica 0.218 0.578 0.577 0.126 0 .735 0.473 0.452 0.412 0.716 1.000 Dendritina striata 0.114 0.242 0.077 0.091 0.226 0.243 0.298 0.137 0.131 0.205 1.000 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis 0.083 0.161 0.176 0.008 0.346 0.562 0.414 0.120 0.231 0.279 0.544 1.000 Heterolepa subhaidinger i 0.673 0.073 0.629 0.383 0.213 0.286 0.476 0.684 0.226 0.360 0.086 0.047 1.000

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53 Figure 2.2. Predicted occurrence of species with n individuals for a logarithmic series distribution with =24.13 and x =0.999 (black line). Observed species occurrences for pooled Tutum Bay foraminiferal data given as red dots.

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54 2.4 Discussion Sample preparation protocols applied in this study neglect or underrepresent certain groups of foraminifers. Specifical ly, naked and organic walled taxa (Allogromiida) are not amenable to the methods used and are completely absent; and particularly fragile textulariids, and possibly very fragile calcareous forms, may be underrepresented due to disintegration during sample preparation. Encrusting forms and other morphotypes which are not easily recognized as foraminifers are systematically underpicked, and specimens smaller than 63"m are lost during sieving. This does not, however, imply that these forms are not present or i mportant in the community, nor that their distribution is not influenced by the presence of environmental stressors. The total number of expected species ( S *= ln(1 x )=158.99) and individuals ( N *= x /(1 x )=17515.5) compared to the observed 159 species and 1 7516 individuals indicates the quality of the population estimating parameters and x The predicted logarithmic species distribution shows good agreement with the observed species distribution for species with medium to high densities (Table 2.6). There is a discrepancy at the lower densities, suggesting the possibility that a "splitter" could likely identify another ~20 species with abundances of <4 in the data set. However, considering that S* # S the "missing" singletons may be middle value species defi ned slightly too broadly. A minor discrepancy also exists on the high freq uency end, with more specimens of the two most abundant species than predicted by the model distribution. By definition, should remain constant across samples of various sizes take n from the same community; thus it is that Fisher's is utilized as an index of the diversity of the population. The parameter x however, depends on N ; a particular pair of values of x

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55 Table 2.6. Observed vs. expected number of species with n individual s. Calculated with N =17516; S =159; !=24.13; and x =0.998624 Raw Data Grouped Data N obs. exp. interval obs. exp. 1 16 24.10 [1,2) 16 24.10 2 2 12.03 [2,4) 9 20.04 3 7 8.01 4 7 6.00 [4,8) 25 18.20 5 9 4.79 6 3 3.99 7 6 3.41 8 2 2.98 [8,16) 22 17.24 9 5 2.65 10 4 2.38 11 2 2.16 12 2 1.98 13 1 1.82 14 4 1.69 15 2 1.58 16 5 1.48 [16,32) 23 16.59 18 3 1.31 19 2 1.24 21 1 1.12 22 1 1.06 23 1 1.02 24 2 0.97 25 1 0 .93 28 3 0.83 29 2 0.80 30 2 0.77 34 2 0.68 [32,64) 24 15.89 37 2 0.62 38 1 0.60 40 1 0.57 43 2 0.53 46 1 0.49 48 2 0.47 49 1 0.46 51 1 0.44 52 2 0.43 54 1 0.41 55 1 0.41 56 2 0.4 0 58 1 0.38 59 1 0.38 61 1 0.36 62 1 0.36 63 1 0.35 65 1 0.34 [64,128) 18 14.83 71 1 0.31 72 2 0.30 76 1 0.29 77 1 0.28 81 1 0.27 86 1 0.25 87 1 0.25 91 1 0.23 92 1 0.23 96 2 0.22 99 1 0.21 100 1 0.21 106 1 0.20 109 1 0.19 127 1 0.16

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56 Table 2.6. Continued. Raw Data Grouped Data n obs. exp. interval obs. exp. 128 1 0.16 [128,256) 9 13.03 135 1 0.15 165 1 0.12 184 1 0.10 222 1 0.0 8 225 1 0.08 242 1 0.07 249 1 0.07 251 1 0.07 285 1 0.06 [256,512) 7 10.13 314 1 0.05 345 1 0.04 383 1 0.04 389 1 0.04 415 1 0.03 453 1 0.03 573 1 0.02 [512,1024) 4 6.18 600 1 0.02 723 1 0.01 819 1 0.01 3303 1 0.00 [1024,2048) 0 2.37 3408 1 0.00 [2048,4096) 2 0.38 Totals: 159 158.99

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57 and represents a particular generating combination of N and S Williams (Fisher et al. 1943) points out that, since S* = ln(1+ N / ), where the contribution of the constant 1 can be neglected if N is sufficiently large, the expected number of species observed in a differently sized sampling is S* + ln( z ), where z is the factor by which N has been increased or decreased. Thus, a more ambitious research project in Tutum Bay twice as intensive as ours ( N =35000; z =2), would only be expected to yield an additional 17 observed species (if the sampling effort were increased by a factor of e S would increase by ). Species effort curves are presented in Figure 2.3, displaying the number of observed species accumulated with increasing number of samples collected and inc reasing number of individuals identified for 100 randomized replicates of the Tutum Bay sampling protocol. It is apparent that 80% of observed species may be expected to be found in ~30 samples containing 5000 individuals; 90% of observed species would be expected in ~60 samples containing 9000 individuals (although there is significantly more variability between runs at this point). Species accumulation becomes nearly flat at 100+ samples and 15,000+ individuals, though the remaining positive slope indicat es further species will continue to be found with increasing collection effort. It is apparent from the formula for the logarithmic series distribution ( i.e. the series expansion of ln(1 x )= x + x 2 /2+ x 3 /3+) that the total number of expected species ( S *) can be viewed as the integration of a curve defined by the obtained parameters with respect to the x axis i.e. S ="1 # x 0 x$dx = #"ln 1 # x( )

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58 Figure 2.3. Species effort curves for foraminiferal communities at Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG for 100 random replicates of sampling protocol. Left: Accumulation of number of observed species ( S ) with increasing number of 1.5g samples. Right: Accumulation of number of observed species ( S ) with accumulation of observed individuals ( N ). Number of samples and indivi duals at which 80% (solid line) and 90% (dashed line) of observed species are expected is also indicated.

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59 between 0 and the x value derived for a particular N The expected population of the m th occurring species (rather than how many species are expected to contain n individuals) can thus similarly be found by integrating the curve in Figure 2.2 ( x n /n ) with respect to n in slices of area 1 that increase in width with n That is, the logarithmic series expansion can be viewed as a Riemann integral with respect to n of the curve x n /n on intervals with unit width centered on the integers. Unfortunat ely, x n /n is not an easy function to integrate, and the resulting function is difficult to compute. However, to gauge where the m th species should be expected to occur, we can divide the region into slices of area 1 according to Sm *="xnn dna b#="Ei n(ln( x ))[ ]a b where Ei( z ) is the exponential integral, which can be evaluated via MATLAB (MathWorks, 2007) or similar software package, or via mathematical tables ( e.g ., Abramowitz and Stegun, 1964) For instance, the region out to n =67.5 has an area of 116.2, and we ma y thus expect to find the 116 th species (counting from the least abundant) at n =67. Figure 2.4 shows the predicted abundance of the m th species compared with the observed distribution, according to this model. The smooth decline in observed abundances for subsequent species again demonstrates that the community structure is well described by a logarithmic distribution, though discrepancies are apparent on both sides of the intersection of the observed and expected curves at about n =50. Abundance by foramini feral orders is shown in Figure 2.5, indicating a similar logarithmic series type distribution, though in this case the total number of groups ( S ) is

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60 Figure 2.4. The predicted abundance of the m th foraminiferal species at Ambitle Island, PNG with =24.13 and x =0.999 (red) versus the observed abundances (black)

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61 Figure 2.5. The within order abundance of foraminifers observed at Ambitle Island, PNG. Overlaid white bars indicate algal symbiont bearing taxa, which comprised 7 7.1% of rotaliids and 11.1% of miliolids.

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62 too small to definitively describe the distribution. The two most abundant orders were Rotaliida (64.2%) and Miliolida (27.1%), totaling 91.3% of the observed specimens, combined. Of these, 77.1% of the rotaliids a nd 11.1% of the miliolids were symbiont bearing, for a total of 52.5% of the community. Three other orders, Buliminida, Globigerinida, and Textulariida, each made up ~3% of the total, with the remaining five orders observed comprising less than 1% of the t otal, combined. Figure 2.6 shows diversity observed within foraminiferal orders at Ambitle Island, ranked by total diversity (as species richness, S ). The rotaliids, though the most abundant order, were much less diverse (33 spp.) than the miliolid assembl age (75 spp.). Of the middle abundance orders, the buliminids (20 spp.) were more diverse than the textulariids (11 spp.), which were more diverse than the globigerinids (8 spp.). 2.5 Taxonomy The Foraminifera have a lengthy and complex taxonomic history due to their readily identifiable morphological characteristics, small size, high abundance, ease of collection, and excellent preservation in a 500+ million year fossil record. Tens of thousands of species have been described as fossils, but "only" around 6,000 extant species are known (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Of these, many hundreds have been identified in the tropical Indo Pacific. The supraordinal phylogeny of the Foraminifera is uncertain and undergoing a considerable amount of flux (as are many ot her protist groups), though their position within the monophyletic, stiff pseudopodial and mostly test forming Rhizaria (R) along with cercozoans, radiolarians, and a few smaller groups seems certain

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63 Figure 2.6. The within order foraminiferal di versity observed at Ambitle Island, PNG, as species richness ( S ).

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64 (Cavalier Smith, 2002; Burki and Pawlowski, 2006) Recent work supports the monophyly of most photosynthetic eukaryotes, and includes the rhizarids (and suggesting a far historic acquistion and subsequent loss of plastids within foraminiferal ancestors [Andersson and Roger, 2002; Nosaki, 2005]) within this large megagroup. Along with plants, haptophytes (H), cryptomonads (R), stramenopiles (S), and alveolates (A), this supports the position of Rhizaria within the Bikonta (Fig. 2.7; Burki et al. 2008) Within this megagroup, there is evidence that S+A+R form a monophyletic taxon (temporarily given the non Linnean appelation SAR) (Burki et al. 2007) sister to the plants and associated taxa (H +C) (Burki et al. 2008) These authors mention an "increased capability of all [. .] members to accept and keep plastids or plastid bearing cells," perhaps shedding light on the practice of kleptoplasty in some foraminiferal groups. This is as opposed t o a more "traditional" taxonomy where Rhizaria might be viewed as sister taxon to plants+Chromalveolata (HCSA) ( e.g ., Cavalier Smith, 1998). Within the Rhizaria, the Foraminifera themselves also seem to be monophyletic, with the inclusion of several small groups such as Reticulomyxa and Xenophyophora (Pawlowski et al. 1999; Pawlowski et al. 2003) Foraminifera may justifiably be regarded as a phylum ( e.g ., Cavalier Smith, 2002) as their bauplan is original and distinct, but I shall herein retain their sta tus as a class to allow the major groups to keep their traditional position as orders. As a class, the group should possibly properly be referred to as "Foraminiferea" ( e.g ., Lee, 1990) but the traditional name "Foraminifera" is used herein. An extensive taxonomy of the foraminiferal species encountered at Ambitle Island in Tutum Bay and from nearby referece areas has been prepared, and is included as

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65 Figure 2.7. Position of the Foraminifera ( Quinqueloculina and Reticulomyxa within the Rhizaria) within the eukaryotes. The Bikonta appear in orange (sister to the blue unikonts), contain most plastid bearing taxa (colored genera represent various photosynthetic pigments; asterisks indicate primary, secondary, or tertiary endosymbiosis), and include two clad es: Plants+H+C and SAR. Rhizaria appear as basal SARs, and Foraminifera as basal rhizarids. (From Burki et al. 2008.)

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66 Appendix VII. This taxonomy contains the original species descriptions of all species encountered, translated from the original language of publication as necessary. Also included as Appendix VIII is the description of an online database of foraminiferal taxonomy. The need for such a reference has become increasingly apparent, as the existing taxonomy is 20+ years out of date; as the origi nal references are becoming increasingly old, fragile, and obscure; as genetic sequence information sheds new light on foraminiferal phylogeny; and as the requisite information technology has become increasingly available.

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67 CHAPTER 3 COMMUNITY STRUCTUR E OF FORAMINIFERA NEAR AN ARSENIC ENRICHED SHALLOW WATER HYDROTHERMAL VENT IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA "The case of the three species of protozoan [. .] which apparently select differently sized grains of sand &c is almost the most wonderful fact I ever heard o f. One cannot believe that they have mental power enough to do so, & how any structure or kind of viscidity can lead to this result passes all understanding ." (Darwin, 1873. Letter to Dr. W. B. Carpenter.) 3.1 Introduction The Foraminifera are by far the most useful group of paleoenvironmental indicators utilized by geoscientists because (a) they are ubiquitous in marine environments, and their shells are important sediment constituents; (b) their small size and wide abundance allows for easy collection of small, low impact samples with statistically significant populations; (c) different taxa have evolved to exploit most environments, substrates, and nutritional modes in marine systems, and their short lifespans allow them to respond to quickly to environm ental change; (d) taxonomic references are widely available; and (e)

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68 their shells morphologically and geochemically record environmental conditions ( e.g ., Alve, 1991a; Yanko et al. 1994a; Alve, 1995; Sen Gupta, 1999a; Yanko et al. 1999; Schafer, 2000) T hese same characteristics are responsible for the increasing use of foraminifers in environmental monitoring (Saraswat et al. 2004; Nigam et al. 2006) For example, the "FORAM (Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring) Index (FI) was developed and evaluated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for ecological indicators (Hallock et al. 2003). In response to pollution, foraminiferal communities can display a wide variety of morphological deformities ( e.g ., Watkins, 1961; Boltovskoy et al. 1991; Sharifi et al. 1991; Yanko et al. 1992; Yanko et al. 1994b; Geslin et al. 1998; Yanko et al. 1998; Yanko et al. 1999; Coccioni, 2000; Samir, 2000; Samir and El Din, 2001; Geslin et al. 2002; Elberling et al. 2003, etc.) They also exh ibit changes in assemblage structure and species abundance, particularly in the presence of potentially toxic elements ( e.g ., Banerji, 1974; Rygg, 1985; Yeruku Naidu et al. 1985; Alve and Nagy, 1986; Banerji, 1990; Alve, 1991a; 1991b; Yanko et al. 1998; Schafer, 2000; Debenay et al. 2001b; Gonz‡lez Regalado et al. 2001; Cearreta et al. 2002; du Ch‰telet et al. 2004, and many others) To date no direct predictive relationship has been established between these factors ( e.g ., Boltovskoy et al. 1991; Al ve, 1995; Debenay et al. 2001a) Pichler and Dix (1996) discovered and described several shallow water hydrothermal vents that discharge into Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, northeastern Papua New Guinea (PNG). Subsequent reports by Pichler and coworkers have described the hydrology and geochemistry of the system in some detail (Pichler et al. 1999a; Pichler et al. 1999b; 1999c) and is summarized and expanded below. Tutum Bay vent waters feature some of

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69 the world's highest naturally occurring arsenic concent rations ([As]) up to 11.8!mol/L (Pichler et al. 1999b) which are 250 500 higher than normal seawater (Pilson, 1998) Discharge by the vents has been estimated at >1500g As/day into an area approximately 5000m 2 with an average depth of 6m. This As is mit igated by mixing with seawater and by removal of As via incorporation into As containing hydrous ferric oxide precipitates, which form as crusts when hydrothermal fluids mix with seawater. These crusts contain up to 76,000mg As/kg (Pichler et al. 1999c) which may be compared with sedimentary effects range low (ERL) and median (ERM) values determined for As. The ERL and ERM represent the level of a toxin measured in the sediment below which adverse biological effects were measured in the aquatic environmen t 10% and 50% of the time. For As, these levels may be taken as lying in the range 8 33mg/kg and 70 85mg/kg, respectively (Long and Morgan, 1990; NOAA, 1999) Consequently, seawater [As] are considerably higher near vent sites, in pore waters, and near the sediment/water interface, than in overlying seawater. In addition to point source introduction of As enriched water at vent mouths, a diffuse field of slow hydrothermal fluid seepage occurs in the area surrounding the vents. In addition to their high As l oad, hydrothermal fluids have elevated temperatures and lowered pH values and salinities relative to seawater. Benthic foraminifers live immersed in or in close proximity to pore waters, and in intimate association with As rich sediments. The relatively sm all sizes of the foraminifers, their high surface to volume ratios (which promotes diffusive processes), dependence on local microfauna, and the extension of their reticulopodia into hydrothermally influenced microenvironments, all may amplify their exposu re to

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70 stressful conditions. Some foraminiferal taxa have the remarkable ability to survive in heavily polluted environments, while recording evidence of that stress both in their shell morphologies and in trace element concentrations in their shells (Alve, 1995) Unfortunately, in most areas of toxic metal pollution, the biological effects are complicated and compounded by nutrient and organic pollution ( e.g ., Carnahan, 2005) Thus, the Ambitle Island hydrothermal site provides an opportune natural setting in which to study the effects of As on foraminiferal assemblages, populations, test morphologies, and test geochemistry, without the complications of anthropogenic pollutants. Although the hydrothermal venting also influences temperature, salinity, and pH, the potentially stress inducing parameters are still more limited than in most areas of anthropogenic pollution. We thus went to Ambitle Island, PNG, in November 2003 and May 2005 to examine the structure and density of foraminiferal communities dwelling in the benthos surrounding the hydrothermal vents. 3.2 Methods 3.2.1 Sampling Locations and Protocol Samples analyzed in this study were obtained from Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, northeastern PNG (4¡05'S, 153¡37'E), in November 2003 and May 2005 as part of a larger project studying the geochemistry, micro and macrobiology, and community ecology of the As rich Tutum Bay hydrothermal system ( e.g ., Pichler et al. 2006). Various environmental parameters were measured as part of this collaborative effort, and are discussed below

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71 Surface sediments were collected using small push cores (7cm diameter, 5cm long) taken along transects proceeding away from the Tutum Bay hydrothermal vents and at several nearby reference sites that had similar depths and settings but no apparent hydrothermal activity. Shipboard, approximately 15cm 3 from the upper 1cm of these push cores was removed, placed in HDPE vials, and preserved with ethanol for later laboratory analysis. Samples of reef rubble either volcanic cobbles or fragmen ts of dead coral were collected at the same sites. These rubble pieces were scrubbed with a toothbrush to remove attached foraminifers (and other epiphytes) according to the protocol of Williams et al (1997) and the resulting material was collected into bottles and preserved with ethanol for later laboratory analysis. Sampling locations were spread semi regularly along transects proceeding offshore from vent mouths (Fig. 3.1; Table 3.1). In 2003, samples were collected approximately every 5m close to the vent mouths, and approximately every 30m further out. Three transects were established at two different vent mouths within a few tens of meters from each other: Transects A and B took two different headings away from vent 4 (Pichler et al. 1999b, Fig. 3.1 ) ; transect C consisted of a small number of samples from vent 1 (Fig. 1.3). Reference samples were collected from Picnic Island, approximately 5km to the northeast. In 2005, sampling was augmented by prior knowledge of the surface sediment temperature/pH gradient, allowing interesting locations and gradients to be identified and sampled more densely. Examination of the 2003 data revealed that the zone of hydrothermal influence around the vents was larger than had been originally estimated, and the transect length was subsequently extended from 225 to 300m from vent mouths. Additionally, interesting effects were noted through the transition zone from

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72 Figure 3.1. Location of transect B, along which surface sediment and rubble core samples, sediment pore water, and ambient seawater were collected, and where environmental parameters such as pH, temperature, and salinity were measured. Sampling locations are marked at 7, 12, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 140, 150, 160, and 180m; several other sample sites are not shown, and the transect extends to 300m. Transect A (not shown) extends northwestward along the channel above vent 4. (From Price and Pichler, 2005.)

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73 Table 3.1. 114 samples from Ambitle Island were examined in this study from th ree transects near hydrothermal vents (A, B, and C) and two reference sites (Picnic Island [PI] and Danlum Bay [DB]). Distance of samples from vents is given in meters for the transect samples. Sample depth is reported in meters. Samples were taken in eith er 2003 or 2005, and were either surface sediment (S) or rubble scrubbings (R); multiple samples of the same type from the same location in the same year are listed in parentheses. Transect Distance Depth Samples A 2 11 03S,R 3.5 11 03S,R 9 12 03S,R 14 12 03S,R 30 12 03S,R 64 13 03S,R 89 14 03S,R 114 15 03S,R B 1 9 03S,R; 05S,R(2) 7.5 10 03S,R; 05S,R(2) 12 10 03S,R; 05S,R(2) 20 10 05S,R(2) 30 10 03S,R; 05S,R(2) 60 12 03S,R; 05S,R(2) 90 12 03S,R; 05S,R(2) 120 13 05S,R(2) 125 1 4 03S,R 130 14 05S 140 15 05S,R(2) 150 15 03S,R; 05S,R(2) 160 16 05S 170 17 05S 175 17 03S,R 180 18 05S,R(2) 190 18 05S 200 19 03S,R; 05S 210 21 05S,R(2) 225 20 03S,R 240 23 05S,R(2) 270 25 05S,R(2) 300 28 05S,R(2) C 3 10 03S,R 6 10 03S,R 20 7 03S,R PI 1 23 03S(8),R(9) DB 13 05S,R(2)

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74 strong hydrothermal dominance to more normal appearing sediment. This transition zone was centered at ~150m from hydrothermal venting, and sampling was conducted more densely in this tran sition in 2005. Only transect B was resampled in 2005, to allow for a more thorough examination of a single area. In 2005 Danlum Bay, approximately 2km to the southeast, was utilized as the reference site, as it was more similar to Tutum Bay in sedimentary composition (having mostly volcanics) compared to Picnic Island (having mostly carbonate). 3.2.2 Environmental Parameters Key environmental parameters were measured, including surface sediment temperature; pore water pH; pore water, bottom water, and su rface water [As 3+ ], [As 5+ ], and [As T ]; sediment [As]; salinity; depth; and sedimentary characteristics. Sediment and water [As] were measured and previously reported by Price and Pichler (2005) and Price (2008); sedimentary characteristics were measured an d reported by Karlen et al. ([in review]). All are included here to facilitate correlation analyses. In 2003, temperatures were recorded by hand with a probe thermometer at shallow depths within the sediment. Measurements were taken every meter along trans ect B away from vent 4, at sediment depths of ~5cm using an IQ Scientific Instruments¨ #IQ 150 pH/mV/temperature probe in an underwater housing. In 2005, temperature data loggers were deployed for seven days, which recorded temperatures every minute during that deployment. Most temperature loggers were StowAway¨ TidbiT¨ temperature loggers deployed within the top centimeter of the sediment by attaching to a 3kg lead diving weight and placing face down on the sediment surface. Loggers closest to the vent

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75 mou ths were probe type stainless steel HOBO¨ U12 loggers, utilized to penetrate the mineralized surface crust and more rocky sediment, and deployed 5 10cm into the sediment. Pore water/sediment seawater interface water was hand collected for pH measurement by inserting air filled 50mL HDPE bottles into the surface sediment and slowly inverting. Due to the sensitive temperature and oxidation dependence of the measurement, samples were brought immediately on board, where pH was measured using a Myron L Ultramete r TM Model 6P. Shipboard readings were found to be very similar to those made in situ using the IQ pH meter with the underwater housing (Price, 2008). Salinity was measured using a hand held refractometer. Pore water, vent fluid, and seawater were collected preserved, and measured for [As 3+ ], [As 5+ ], and [As T ] utilizing hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG AFS) at the USF Center for Water and Environmental Analysis as described in Price and Pichler (2005) and Price (2008). Sediment [As] w as measured by a combination of HF AFS, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) at Actlabs, Ontario, Canada and at the Center for Water and Environmental Analysis, USF, Tampa Price (2008). The median gra in size, sorting coefficient, percent organic carbon, and percent carbonate of surface sediments were measured and provided by David Karlen (Karlen et al. [in review]).

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7 6 3.2.3 Foraminiferal Analyses In the laboratory, subsamples weighing approximately 1 .5g (wet weight) were taken from the well mixed bulk samples. These subsamples were washed over a 63!m mesh sieve to remove mud, and were examined using a stereomicroscope. All foraminiferal tests were picked from each subsample, unless several hundred tes ts were obtained in some simple fraction of the sample 1/6, 1/3, 1/2, or 2/3 in which case, only that fraction was picked. These tests were sorted by taxa and fixed onto micropaleontological slides. All foraminifers picked from the samples were identified to species according to the taxonomy provided in Chapter 2; note also the caveats provided in Chapter 2 as to those foraminiferal taxa which are underrepresented or excluded by these protocols. A total of 114 samples were picked and identified for this stu dy (Table 3.1): 42 sediment samples along transects (22 in 2003 and 20 in 2005), nine reference sediment samples (eight in 2003 and one in 2005), 52 transect rubble samples (22 in 2003 and 30 in 2005), and 11 reference rubble samples (nine in 2003 and two in 2005). 3.2.4 Data Analysis Measured abundances were normalized to number of foraminiferal tests picked per standardized sample weight of 1.5g. A number of samples close to hydrothermal venting contained zero or very few foraminiferal tests, causing div ersity indices to produce aberrant values of zero or many millions. These samples have generally been excluded from such analyses; a cutoff of at least 50 individuals per sample is used in most cases. The number of individuals and species found in each sam ple was counted and used to calculate Fisher's alpha diversity indices (#) for individual samples (Fisher et al. 1943;

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77 Murray, 1973, 1991; Langer and Lipps, 2003) ; # was also calculated for the entire pooled set of samples and compared against observed species occurrences (see Chapter 2 for a discussion of # as a par ameter describing population distribution). A variety of other diversity i ndices were also calculated, including Margalef ( D Mg ), Menhinick ( D Mn ), and Shannon ( H' ) diversity indices (Shannon, 1948; Margalef, 1957, 1958; Menhinick, 1964) ; species richness ( S ); and Buzas and Gibson's evenness metric E (1969) Since the magnitude of Shannon's H' is dependent on the total number of species, Pielou's J' is also provided as a normalized metric of evenness, where J' = H' / H' max (Pielou, 1966) All diversity indices ha ve their shortcomings, deriving ultimately from the compromises required to compress several informational dimensions into a single metric ( e.g ., Hurlbert, 1971) By presenting a range of diversity indices, the advantages of the total will outweigh individ ual shortcomings, and a clearer representation of the community may be obtained. For instance, Margalef's index is intuitively simple and, not utilizing information on species proportions, is easily calculated. However, because it is a ratio, it lacks the power of discriminating changes in species richness from changes in sample size (Hayek and Buzas, 1997) ; Menhinick's index possesses similar qualities. Fisher's # also does not utilize proportion information, but its more complex iterative calculation and two parameter nature conserve more inherent information; as Williams (1943) points out, # can be used as a measure of diversity even when the logarithmic series distribution is not a good model of the community. Additionally, the shape parameter x provides a check on the value of the diversity measure #. As an ultimate bound, when x < 0.50 # becomes greater than N and one expects more singletons than individuals, an obviously nonsensical result; at this point, # "loses its meaningfulness for

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78 biological w ork" (Hayek and Buzas, 1997) More conservatively, w hen x < ~0.61, # becomes greater than S and one expects more singletons than species, which is also unacceptable (Hayek and Buzas, 1997) This provides an empirical justification for herein excluding div ersity measures for populations with fewer than 50 individuals, which are observed to have x in this range. The use of an entropic measure of information content utilizes species proportion data, and is therefore a more informative, though more intensive, calculation. The true population diversity, H can only be calculated for collections where all members are known; i.e. populations rather than samples (Brillouin, 1962) H' is an estimate of H that may be made in samples of the population in which the to tal number of species is known. As shown in the discussion of # in Chapter 2 the number of unknown species in this system is estimated to be low, and would consist mostly of singletons. Thus, this system meets Pielou's criteria for a Type B collection, an d Shannon's H' may justifiably be used (Pielou, 1966) However, H' is known to be an underestimate of the diversity of the sampled population (Zar, 1999) as the contribution of rare species not found in the sample is not included in the proportion summati on (Basharin, 1959; Bowman et al. 1971) Pielou's J' is similarly an overestimate, as the absent rare species now more strongly affect the denominator, H max (Zar, 1999) Both of these biases, however, tend to minimize as N increases (Basharin, 1959) ; for instance, the expected error in H' is ( s 1)/2 N (Pielou, 1966), which is < 0.2 for most samples in this study; < 0.05 for larger samples. Again, this provides further justification for eliminating diversity measures for samples containing fewer than 50 indi viduals, as these exhibit errors in H' up to 0.4 As Buzas and Hayek point out (1996; Hayek and Buzas, 1997) Shannon's H' when viewed

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79 as an information function ( i.e. as a metric of entropy), can be decomposed into components of species richness and spe cies evenness according to H =ln( S )+ln( E ), allowing these different indices to be meaningfully tied together. The close relationship between Buzas and Gibsons E and Pielous J is apparent, as E = e H / S while J = H /ln( S ). Fishers # was calculated for each o f the samples to provide a diversity measure free from sample size effect; # should be constant for a given population, regardless of the size of the sample (Fisher et al. 1943). # was calculated using the following iterative formula provided by Hayek and Buzas (1997): N S = eS" # 1 S" ; x = N N +" where N is the total number of individuals observed in any sample, and S is the number of species observed. Margalef ( D Mg ) and Menhinick ( D Mn ) diversity indices were calculated according to the formulas: DMg= S 1 ln( N ) and DMn= S N respectively (Margalef, 1957, 1958; Menhinick, 1964) Shannons H was calculated according to the formula: H = piln( pi)i# where p i is the proportion of individuals belonging to the i th species (Shannon, 1 948) Note that Shannons H is here computed to the logarithmic base e ; other logarithmic bases are commonly encountered in the literature, particularly base 10 and 2, and care

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80 must be taken to ensure that the measures utilize the same base or are convert ed before comparisons are made (Zar, 1999) Additionally, a number of PRIMER (Plymouth Routines in Multivariate Ecological Research; Clarke and Gorley, 2006) and R (R Development Core Team, 2008) multivariate analytical and graphing tools were utilized to examine the species distribution, environmental parameters, and taxonomic data, including CLUSTER, MDS, SIMPROF, MANOVA, and BEST analyses. Foraminiferal assemblage patterns are correlated to patterns of environmental variables using these tools. 3.3 Resu lts Sediment surface temperatures drop precipitously with distance from hydrothermal sources; the sediment surface is uncomfortably hot within approximately 10m of the vent mouths, although temperature above the sediment surface drops rapidly to normal amb ient seawater temperature within several centimeters. The sediment surface remained noticeably warm to a distance of more than 100m, though only a few degrees above ambient seawater temperature. After about 150m, the sediment surface temperature was essent ially the same as ambient water temperature. However, both at the edge of this hydrothermal zone and nearer to vent mouths, temperature fluctuations occurred, both laterally perpendicular to the transect, and over time. Temperature probes deployed for seve n days reported 10 15 ¡C temperature spikes, and the variable nature of the fluid field was also observable in the occasional appearance of streams of bubbles (mostly CO 2 [Pichler et al. 1999b]) at various locations across the field.

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81 The extended deploymen t of temperature probes allowed for development of a high resolution spatio temporal model of the hydrothermal field (Fig. 3.2). Fifteen data loggers deployed for seven days taking readings every minute resulted in ~10,000 readings per logger, or 150,000 t otal temperature measurements. These data were trimmed at the head and tail to allow for equilibration of equipment temperature upon deployment and retrieval, and were further trimmed to the record size of the logger that collected the fewest measurements, resulting in a square matrix (Appendix IX, giving maximum hourly temperature measurements). This matrix was then plotted as surface in three dimensions using MATLAB 7.4 (MathWorks, 2007), portraying distance along the transect horizontally (abscissa), tim e from deployment to retrieval as depth into the page (ordinate), and temperature as an elevation (applicate) and as color, with warmer colors indicating warmer temperatures (Fig. 3.2). This model shows that, while the temperature field displays a generall y consistent overall shape, large local excursions of up to 10 15¡C occur with durations from a few hours to a day, indicating temporary escape of fluids due to shifts in the hydrothermal field, and suggesting the scale of variability experienced by benthi c biota. An animation of the development of this hydrothermal system over the course of the observed week can be viewed at http://www.marine.usf.edu/reefslab/pages/png_temps.html as Supplementary Figure 3.2.1. Animations from various perspectives of the sa me data after logarithmic transformation and compression of the color axis to visually enhance temperature differences can also be found at this address as Supplementary Figures 3.2.2 and 3.2.3. A tidal influence on distal temperature spikes is apparent fr om the periodic nature of the peaks at ~150m in these figures.

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82 Figure 3.2. Temperature profile along transect B away from Tutum Bay hydrothermal vent 4 over seven days in November 2005, displaying temperature (C) vertically and by color, distance from t he main vent mouth (m) laterally, and time of measurement displayed as depth into the model, with readings taken every minute for seven days. Ten degree temperature contours are projected onto the bottom surface. Note the precipitous decrease in temperatur e 40C within 10m and the occasional spikes in temperature at distance from the vents due to periodic escape of hydrothermal fluid. Animations of these data are available online at http://wwwmarine.usf.edu/reefslab/pages/png_temps.html as Supplementary Fi g. 3.2.1 3. Prepared with MATLAB 7.4.

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83 Sediment pore water pH values displayed a pattern similar to temperature: highly acidic values very near the vent mouths precipitously becoming more basic with distance therefrom, and returning slowly to background le vels over a distance of ~150m (Fig. 3.3). The most acidic waters near the vents (pH 5.8) decreased to near ambient seawater pH values (8.0 8.2) within about 75 100m (the effect of the logarithmic nature of the pH scale on this shift is discussed below). Te mporal and spatial spikes similar to those seen for temperature were also observed in pH values. In particular, a drop in pH from 8.1 to 6.0 was observed at 125 150m, at the location where the temperature spikes were observed. Most other environmental vari ables displayed a similar progression, with initial hydrothermal values, sharp declines within short distances from venting, and extended regions of slower decline to background levels, with occasional spikes indicating insurgence of hydrothermal influence at ~150m distance (Fig. 3.3). Variables that exhibited this pattern included temperature, pH, salinity, sediment [As], pore water [As], and various sedimentary characteristics. Particularly, the sedimentary characteristics median grain size, sorting coeff icient, organic carbon content, and percent carbonates show particularly strikingly the abrupt nature of the transition between hydrothermal and non hydrothermal regimes at ~150m from venting, with sharp transitions in this region (Fig. 3.4; Karlen et al [in review]) Measured environmental parameters are provided in Table 3.2. The complete species table of identified foraminifers from each sample is provided as Appendix I. The "dead zone" around hydrothermal vents, in which very few foraminiferal shells ( or any other calcitic particles, whether algal, mollusk, etc.) were

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84 Figure 3.3. Potentially stressful environmental parameters with distance from direct influence by hydrothermal venting (outliers due to local spikes in the hydrothermal field have b een removed). Most factors return rapidly from hydrothermal values to background levels with distance from venting, indicating mostly point source injection and conservative mixing. See Fig. 1.10 for another representation of these data, and other paramete rs.

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85 Figure 3.4. 2005 surface sediment characteristics for Tutum Bay hydrothermal transect B and Danlum Bay reference site. Top left: Median grain size (mm); Top right: Sorting coefficient ( ); Bottom left: Percent organic carbon; Bottom right: Percent inorganic carbonates. (Data from Karlen et al [in review].)

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86 Table 3.2. Representative measurements of environmental parameters measured at stations analyzed in this study. Distance from vents (Dist) in meters, temperature (Tem) in C salinity (Sal) in , sediment [As] (S[As]) in mg/kg, pore water [As] (PW[As]) in !g/L, median grain size (Med) in mm, sorting coefficient (Sort) as and organic carbon (OC) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) as %. Arsenic concentrations from Price and Pichler (2005) and Price (2008) ; sedimentary characteristics and salinities from Karlen et al. ([in review]). Missing data indicated by ". Tran Dist Tem pH Sal S[As] PW[As] Med Sort OC CaCO 3 A 2 93.2 6.22 548 3.5 67.45 5.88 678.75 9 39.3 6.25 995.25 14 53.7 6.24 675.5 30 77 6.05 754.5 64 33.9 7.93 616.25 89 8.20 579.75 114 8.25 404.25 B 1 84.12 6.81 11.7 1069.5 900 4.33 2.28 2.19 0.73 7.5 65.03 6.19 15 391 255.5 12 47.68 5.90 32.5 321 36.6 20 31.69 6.82 33.5 372 28.3 30 30.91 6.54 30 383 25 0.14 0.45 1.78 0.34 60 30.98 7.18 28.5 482 16.4 0.15 0.42 1.56 0.40 90 31.64 7.89 32 317 21.9 0.17 0.46 1.48 0.50 120 35.87 7.74 32.5 396 0.20 0.42 1.48 0.42 130 38.37 8.12 140 40.87 6.60 29 364 0.23 0.60 1.62 0.63 150 35.58 7.91 1 60 30.49 8.11 277 170 30.61 7.97 180 30.49 7.93 34 225 19.6 0.30 1.58 3.85 7.42 190 30.75 7.99 200 30.77 7.99 158 210 30.79 7.96 4.5 240 30.91 7.94 34 51 7.8 0.50 1.76 6.13 28.77 270 29.94 7.93 300 30.18 7.75 33 35 14.1 0.84 1.79 7.17 31.66 C 6 46.6 6.03 926.5 3 56.1 6.14 560 20 40.1 6.20 187 PI NA 30.2 8.17 2.175 NA 30.2 7.99 3.975 NA 30.2 8.20 4.425 NA 30.2 7.94 4.325 NA 30.2 7.98 5.375 NA 30.2 NA 30.2 8.20 5.075 NA 30.2 8.14 4.025 NA 30.2 7.81 7.425 DB NA 29.95 7.51 32.8 45.2 0.17 1.00 8.66 6. 46

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87 found in the sediment, extended considerably farther than was initially estimated, and several 2003 transects ended before large numbers of sedimentary foraminifers were encountered. The number of individual foraminifers ( N ) found in each 1.5g subsampl e increases from zero near the vents to 150 450 at 300m distance (Fig. 3.5, top). The number of species ( S ) observed in each sample likewise increases with distance from the vents (Fig. 3.5, bottom). However, a large portion of this raw species richness in crease is due to the increasing foraminiferal density, as many more singlets are observed with increasingly large numbers of individuals. Rotaliida (hyaline perforate taxa) are numerically dominant along the transects, with Calcarina and smaller rotaliid t axa dominating in water depths of <20m (more proximal sample sites), with increasing percentages of Amphistegina spp. and Nummulitidae at depths >20m (distal sites beyond 200m from the vents). Foraminiferal assemblages at reference sites are similarly domi nated by rotaliid taxa, with subgroups determined largely by sample depth, although milioliids were more common than in proximity to the vents. Multiple analysis of variance analysis (MANOVA) was conducted on the dependent variables of abundance and divers ity (species counts) by the factors of sample year, transect, sample type (rubble or sediment), and distance binned as in Figure 3.5. No significant differences across years are observed, and differences between transects are found to be reflective of dist ance effects. However, MANOVA confirms that foraminiferal abundance and diversity differ between rubble and sediment samples (Pillai's trace [ V ]=0.477; P =2.2"10 14 ), and among distances ( V =0.909; P =2.2"10 16 ); the interaction between distance and type is a lso highly significant ( V =0.499; P =2.7"10 7 ). Individual ANOVAs of the two dependent variables reveal both to be highly significantly

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88 Figure 3.5. Foraminiferal abundance ( N ) and species richness ( S ) along transects away from Tutum Bay hydrotherma l activity, and at reference sites. Samples have been pooled into bins of ~40m along the transect; error bars represent one standard deviation; reference samples are given to the far right. Top: Number of foraminifers found in each sample increases with di stance away from hydrothermal venting. Bottom: Number of species observed also increases with distance from venting; however, much of this is due to increasing density. Rubble samples have higher foraminiferal abundance and much higher diversity than sedim ent samples, especially at proximal sites.

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89 different across sample type and distance; there are significant differences across interactions between distance and type for diversity, but not for abundance. Figure 3.6 illustrates the foraminiferal distributio ns at sites near hydrothermal venting, and at locations further removed. Pooled samples from sites <150m from venting display an overwhelming dominance by Calcarina defrancii which, along with Amphistegina lessonii comprise more than half the population. Though these two species (in reverse order) remain numerically dominant in pooled samples from sites >150m from venting and reference sites, they represent 33% of the total abundance, and the remaining species exhibit a more even distribution. Note that, while the proximal sites constituted the majority of the sampling locations (69 vs. 45 samples), total abundance was much higher in the distal sites (3860 vs. 13655 foraminifers). However, with some scatter at small abundances, the majority of samples are similar in overall composition across major taxonomic groupings, comprising ~1 5% agglutinated, 10 40% porcelaneous, and 50 90% hyaline individuals (Fig. 3.7); functional group membership of observed foraminiferal genera is provided in Table 3.3. Abundance of most individual species similarly shows no apparent correlation to sample size, although for several species there is the indication of a possible trend (Appendix X). Values for # obtained from samples with N >50 ranged from about 5 18 (samples with very small N had very low or very high values); # values were lower near venting, but remained fairly constant at distances >~125m (Fig. 3.8). D Mg values were likewise depres sed proximally and increased with distance from hydrothermal vents (from ~2 to 5 10), while D Mn values remained fairly flat at about 2. H' J' and E were also relatively flat, with values of about 2.5, 0.9, and 0.5, respectively. Sediment samples with N >5 0

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90 Figure 3.6. Observed abundance of foraminiferal species at Ambitle Island, PNG for pooled samples <150m from hydrothermal venting (top) and >150m from venting and reference sites (bottom). Species are colored from red to blue according to taxonomic o rder as given in Table 2.1 (compare to Fig. 2.1 for overall foraminiferal abundance, which is most similar to >150m values).

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91 Figure 3.7. Percentages of major morphological groups versus total foraminiferal abundance; sediment samples are in red. The composition is generally consistent at ~1 5% agglutinates, 10 40% porcelaneous, and 50 90% hyaline; the mean percentages for all samples are 2.5%, 29.8%, and 67.8%, respectively, and are marked with horizontal lines.

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92 Table 3.3. Functional group member ship of observed Ambitle Island foraminiferal genera as defined by Hallock et al. (2003) and Carnahan (2005) Genera are grouped into families by horizontal lines. Endosymbiont types are as described by Lee and Anderson (1991) and Hallock (1999) R, rhodop hytes; C, chlorophytes; Df, dinoflagellates; D, diatoms; Ch, chrysophyte; K, kleptoplastidy. Functional Group Order Genus Sym Symbiont bearing MILIOLIDA Alveolinella D Borelis D Dendritina R Laevipeneroplis C Peneroplis R Spirolina R Par asorites C Amphisorus Df Sorites Df GLOBIGERINIDA Neogloboquadrina Ch Pulleniatina Ch Beella ? Globigerina Ch Globigerinella Ch Globigerinoides Df Orbulina Df ROTALIIDA Amphistegina D Baculogypsina D Calcarina D Assili na D Heterostegina D Nummulites D Opportunistic LITUOLIDA Haplophragmoides TROCHAMMINIDA Paratrochammina BULIMINIDA Aphelophragmina Bolivina Bolivinellina Lugdunum Bulimina ROTALIIDA Cellanthus K Elphidium K Agglutin ates ASTRORHIZIDA Jaculella TEXTULARIIDA Sahulia Textularia Septotextularia Pseudogaudryina Siphoniferoides Clavulina Smaller porcelaneous SPIRILLINIDA Conicospirillinoides Planispirillina Mychostomina Spirillina MILIOLIDA Cornuspira Planispirinella Fischerinella Nubeculina Nodobaculariella Vertebralina Wiesnerella Adelosina Flintia Spiroloculina Agglutinella Schlumbergerina

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93 Table 3.3. Continued. Smaller po rc. (cont.) MILIOLIDA (cont.) Hauerina Lachlanella Massilina Quinqueloculina Miliolinella Pseudotriloculina Ptychomiliola Pyrgo Triloculina Triloculinella Wellmanellinella Parahauerinoides Sigmoihauerina Spirosigmoilina Articularia Articulina Pseudohauerina LAGENIDA Cerebrina Guttulina Smaller hyaline BULIMINIDA Rugobolivinella Tortoplectella Cassidelina Loxostomina Rectobolivina Sagrinella Allassoid a Sagrina Siphogenerina Floresina Neouvigerina Chrysalidinella Reussella Sigmavirgulina ROTALIIDA Baggina Eponides Rotorbis Neoeponides Neoconorbina Rosalina Pannellaina Angulodiscorbis Schackoinella Buliminoides Siphoninoides Parrelloides Pseudoparrella Planulina Planorbulina Asanonella Nonionoides K Anomalinella Anomalinoides Heterolepa

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94 Figure 3.8. Fisher's #, Margalef ( D Mg ), Menhinick ( D Mn ), Shannon's ( H' ), Pielou's ( J' ), and Buzas and Gibson's ( E ) diversity indices for Tutum Bay and non hydrothermal reference samples vs. distance from hydrothermal venting. Sediment samples are outlined points, rubb le samples are filled; reference sample values are given at the far right. Fisher's # and D Mg increase steadily with distance from the vents, while D Mn H' J' and E remain fairly constant.

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95 were mostly confined to distances greater then 150m from hydrothe rmal venting, while rubble samples maintained sufficiently high populations much closer to vent sources; those sediment samples with N >50 had diversity indices very similar to rubble samples. Diversity index values for the pooled 114 samples ( N =17516) were S =159, #=24, D Mg =16, D Mn =1.2, H' =3.4, J' =0.7, and E =0.2. 3.4 Discussion Hydrothermal fluid emerges from Tutum Bay vents at or near boiling temperatures. Near the vent mouths, the character of the surface sediment is that of a crust formed of volcanic sediments l ocked together by precipitates and littered with larger cobbles; there was very little loose sediment at these short distances. However, larger foraminifers were observed living within very small distances of the vent mouths on top of these cobbles, elevat ed several centimeters above the much hotter sediment and acidic pore water of the very hostile microenvironment of the bottom boundary layer, which was barren of foraminiferal tests for a radius of 30 50m around vent mouths. Further removed, a few 10s of meters from vent mouths, the sediment was dominated by sand sized volcanic grains, no longer locked together in a precipitate crust. Almost no carbonate grains were noted in these sediments, presumably due to the still significantly lowered (relative to se awater) pH. Sediment composition remained similar to approximately 150m from vent mouths, whereupon carbonate grains became an increasingly predominant sedimentary component. Salinity and thermal buoyancy of the vast amounts of water erupting from the vent mouths (~300 400L/min [Pichler et al. 1999b]) causes the bulk of the water to rise

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96 rapidly in a fairly coherent columnar manner, and thus spreads much of the thermal energy of the system along a slick at the surface. However, sediments are heated by the hydrothermal system from below, and from hydrothermal fluids percolating through the sediments in a field surrounding the vent mouths. Despite the several potentially stressing environmental parameters, the observed # diversity values within Tutum Bay (5 18) seem in keeping with those determined by other researchers in the region. For example, # values from ~8 20 found from deeper samples further out along the transects indicate similar diversity to Langer and Lipps' (2003) "Cluster 3" and "Cluster 4" i.e. values typical to those seen in a PNG sandy patch reef environment. Increases in both foraminiferal abundance and species diversity wi th decrease in concentration of potentially toxic elements, and with the removal of other potentially stressful environmental parameters, is consistent with, e.g ., du Ch ‰telet (2004) An important question thus becomes: Which of the environmental parameter s, if any, is most important in controlling foraminiferal populations in Tutum Bay. A first approach to this is to determine which component(s) of hydrothermal influence decreases with distance from venting with the greatest rapidity, or if any diverge gre atly from the others in their return to background values. Obvious outliers indicating excursions of the hydrothermal fluid at distances far removed from venting ( e.g. at ~150m along transect B) were removed from the data set to create smooth transitions from fully hydrothermal values to background levels (Fig. 3.3). A simple model of the venting as a central point source discharge diffusing into the surrounding area would suggest an inversely square diminution of hydrothermal parameters with radial distan ce in the volume of seawater

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97 surrounding the vent mouths, or along the plane defined by the seafloor, analogous with diminution of gravitation or luminescence with distance from a central source; i.e. a power law with scaling exponent of 2 (Fig. 3.9). Co nsideration of the thermohaline buoyancy of the vent fluid would suggest more rapid diminution, and an exponent < 2 would be predicted. In fact, such a steep decline in hydrothermal influence is observed with several of the raw parameters; specifically por e water [As] and temperature drop off very steeply with distance from venting. However, except for sediment and pore water [As], the parameters must be normalized to allow them to be properly compared to each other. First, Celsius temperature, as opposed t o [As], is not on a ratio scale; the zero point is not at a meaningful position. It may seem at first that using the ratio Kelvin scale would allow comparison between temperature and [As] decline. However, as Tutum Bay is a system mixing from a fully hydro thermal point to a fully background point, in fact, background temperature serves as the meaningful zero point in this system (background [As] are essentially zero, so these variables do not share this problem). Thus, all temperature values must be lowered by 30 Celsius degrees. pH and salinity, while ratio scale data, share with temperature the need to have their zero point brought in line with background levels. Additionally, they are increasing from hydrothermal values to background levels, and so must a lso be inverted. Thus, measured salinity values were subtracted from 34ppt to give values of salinity deficiency from background. Finally, pH is a logarithmic value, so an increase in one unit towards background reflects a 10" decrease in [H + ]. Thus, pH va lues were converted to [H + ] via [H + ]=10 pH which serves to both activate its inherent zero point and to invert the transition into a decline towards

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98 Figure 3.9. Potential models of hydrothermal influence on benthic foraminiferal communities in Tutum Bay Ambitle Island, PNG. Top: If hydrothermal influence can be accurately modeled as primarily a point source from vent mouths, hydrothermal parameters should diminish as the inverse square of distance from that source, analogous to gravitation or illuminanc e. Bottom: Strong secondary and peripheral venting causes hydrothermal parameters to diminish more slowly.

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99 background. This additionally reveals that acidity also shows a trend that can be described by a power law, rather than by the more apparent logarit hmic increase of the original pH values. Finally, though this does not affect the exponent by which the variables transition from hydrothermal values to background, the values for each were normalized by dividing all measurements by that parameter's maximu m to place all values between zero and one, so that the rates of decrease can be directly visually compared (Fig. 3.10). When this is done, it is apparent that all potentially stressing parameters do in fact decline according to a power law, with the excep tion of sediment [As], which decreases logarithmically, presumably due to the fact that this is not a point source being diluted with distance, but rather a local chemical equilibrium between adsorption and dissolution within the sediment The tightness of the trend lines relative to one another indicates that no stressful component of the hydrothermal system diminishes appreciably more or less rapidly than any other, with the exception of sedimentary [As]. For instance, there is no evidence that there is, an appreciable temperature flux through the sediment in the absence of flux of hydrothermal fluid itself. This associativity between factors does not, however, preclude the possibility that certain individual factors influence community structure more than others; but it does suggest that a single metric of hydrothermal influence may be utilized to describe the behavior of all of these at a particular temperature, pH, redox level, etc. along the transect. Additionally, the decline curves of the various pote ntial stressors are not grossly different; all have very similar exponents close to 1. Rather than the inverse square curve that would be expected from a point source of hydrothermal influence, the 1 exponent indicates a slower return to

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100 Figure 3.10. Potentially stressing environmental parameters with distance from direct influence by hydrothermal venting (outliers due to local spikes in the hydrothermal field have been removed), adjusted to decline relative to background levels, and normalized so that all values are on a relative scale from one (maximally hydrothermal value for that variable) to zero (background level). Most factors drop with distance from venting according to a power law of exponent 1, indicating point source in jection with significant peripheral input. The exception is sediment [As], which decreases logarithmically, indicating a more complex equilibrium than simple point source dilution. Depth of samples (m) with distance from venting is shown on the secondary a ccess, showing a nearly linear increase.

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101 background levels and empirically describes the degree of diffusive venting. Specifically, the value of any hydrothermal parameter k at distance from venting x 2 (neglecting hydrothermal excursions) is expected to be ax 1 ( k 1 k $ )/ x 2 where k 1 and k $ are the values of that parameter at a location near the vent ( x 1 ) and at an arbitrarily distant background, respectively, and a is an empirically determined scaling constant (approximately 1.4 in this system for the variable s after normalization). This metric of degree of hydrothermal activity can thus be back calculated from the pH, temperature, salinity, and pore water [As] at each sampling site by rearranging the above equation to solve for x 2 and taking the geometric mean across the variables. For instance, a site physically 140m from the vent has an "effective distance" of 9.5, 8.0, 6.7, and 16.0m according to temperature, pH, salinity, and pore water [As], respectively, giving it an overall mean effective distance of 9.5 m, indicating significant hydrothermal incursion into this region. Utilizing the geometric mean ensures that the averages will not be unduly affected by exceedingly aberrant values, caused either by bad measurements for particular variables, by temporal va riations, by sampling at locations within the microenvironment that may be highly divergent from immediately neighboring locales, or by the asymptotic nature of the decay curve. When this is done, samples fall into approximately three groups: Those interio r to spikes of hydrothermal activity have effective distances of <140m from venting; these are in the zone of highest hydrothermal influence. Samples at intermediate distances that are not exposed to spikes of hydrothermal fluid, as well as samples from Da nlum Bay and Picnic Island reference sites, have effective distances of 200 650m from hydrothermal activity, indicating a zone of limited hydrothermal influence. Samples from the ends of

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102 transects furthest removed from hydrothermal input have effective dis tances of >1000m, indicating a zone of very little, if any, hydrothermal influence, and a deeper, cooler, more carbonate dominated regime (Fig. 3.11). These groupings are well defined, with separations of 100m effective distance between highly and moderat ely influenced samples (with one outlier), and 400m between moderate and low influence samples (these separations are less evident on the logarithmic axis of Fig. 3.11). When organized according to effective distance from hydrothermal influence, the incr easing trend in Fisher's # and D Mg with removal from venting is more apparent. However, the correlation between hydrothermal influence and diversity remains low ( r 2 <0.1). Correlations are slightly higher when diversity indices are plotted against both sedi ment [As] and depth (Figs. 3.12, 3.13), but remain generally low (0.1< r 2 <0.2). Thus, we may say that some 13% of the variation in Fisher's # diversity is explained by sediment [As], 9% by depth of sampling, and only 2% by general hydrothermal influence (ne glecting the possibility of collinearity). CLUSTER analysis of the environmental parameters at sampling locations similarly indicates clear separation of sites into a small number of environmental regimes. Only ten sample locations had the full (or near fu ll) suite of ten environmental parameters measured, including sediment analysis parameters (Table 3.2). These sites divide into three regions: a very hydrothermal site, five medially hydrothermal sites (with the more distal sites clustering closer to proxi mal sites, indicating distal hydrothermal encroachment), and four minimally or non hydrothermal sites, including the reference site. These hydrothermal regimes are well separated via multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, with a stress level of 0.01 (Fi g. 3.14). CLUSTER analysis of the complete set of

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103 Figure 3.11. Fisher's # and Margalefs D Mg diversity indices for Tutum Bay and non hydrothermal reference samples vs. effective distance from hydrothermal venting determined from the geometric mean of measured hydrothermal parameters. Sediment samples are outlined poin ts, rubble samples are filled. Both # and D Mg increase steadily with distance from the vents (though r 2 <0.1).

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104 Figure 3.12. Fisher's # and Margalef's D Mg diversity indices for Tutum Bay and non hydrothermal reference samples vs. s ediment [As]. Sediment samples are outlined points, rubble samples are filled. Both # and D Mg decrease steadily with increasing sediment [As] (though r 2 <0.21).

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105 Figure 3.13. Fisher's # and Margalef's D Mg diversity indices for Tut um Bay and non hydrothermal reference samples vs. sampling depth. Sediment samples are outlined points, rubble samples are filled. Both and D Mg increase marginally with increasing depth (though r 2 <0.1).

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106 Figure 3.14. Multidimensional scaling p lot of ten sampling locations from Tutum Bay transect B in 2005 for which the entire suite of ten environmental parameters was available. Sample names indicate distance from venting in meters. The middle distance sites (120, 140m) double back on the more p roximal sites (30, 60m) due to spikes of hydrothermal influence. Far removed sites are very similar to the non hydrothermal Danlum Bay reference site (5E).

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107 sampling locations was conducted on a smaller set of environmental parameters (neglecting sediment c haracteristics), resulting in a small number of environmental regimes similar to that obtained by from the full suite of parameters. Five such regimes are detected by 1% similarity profile (SIMPROF) testing of the CLUSTER analysis. A small number of extrem ely hydrothermal sites were the most distinct, followed by a larger group of slightly more distal sites. The remaining three regimes were more similar to each other, with the shallowest reference sites being the most distinct, and two distinct clades of di stal and far distal+deep reference sites being most similar (Fig. 3.15). MDS analysis reveals well separated regimes (stress=0.07), with suggestions of possible sub regimes. Separation occurs along two axes, with one displaying mostly hydrothermal influenc e, and one mostly depth effects (Figs. 3.16). CLUSTER analysis of the foraminiferal communities from rubble samples reveals a very similar dendrogram. SIMPROF analysis finds nine distinct clusters at the 1% level (with five individual samples not belonging to any SIMPROF group). Though with somewhat more noise and spread than environmental groups, the foraminiferal rubble communities fall out in nearly the same pattern: The communities from extremely hydrothermal and very hydrothermal sites were most distin ct; other samples were more similar, with reference samples comprising three groups being the most distinct of these, and with distal transect and very distal transect sites comprising two groups each being most similar (Fig. 3.17). A BEST analysis was con ducted to determine which environmental variables were most important in determining foraminiferal communities. Results suggest that pH and temperature are the environmental variables most responsible for foraminiferal

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108 Figure 3.15. CLUSTER dia gram of Tutum Bay and non hydrothermal reference sampling locations with 1% SIMPROF determined groups based on environmental parameters. Sample names indicate sampling year (2003 [3] or 2005 [5]), transect (A, B, C, Picnic Island [D], or Danlum Bay [E]), a nd distance from venting in meters (reference samples have index numbers). Five groups of sampling sites are apparent; from most to least distinct, they are: Extremely hydrothermal, very proximal sites (a); slightly more distal, but still very hydrothermal sites, including those more distal with hydrothermal incursion (b); Danlum Bay and all Picnic Island sites but the two deepest (c); medium distance sites exclusive of hydrothermal incursions (e); and far distal transect sites and deep Picnic Island sites (d).

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109 Figure 3.16. Multidimensional scaling plot of Tutum Bay and non hydrothermal sampling locations showing SIMPROF groups determined by CLUSTER analysis. Two main axes of separation are apparent, one representing mostly hydrothermal param eters, the other mostly depth effects. Indication of several subgroups is also apparent.

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110 Figure 3.17. CLUSTER diagram of foraminiferal communities from Tutum Bay and from non hydrothermal reference locations with 1% SIMPROF determined groups based on assemblage similarity. Samples are assigned to groups based on environmental SIMPROF groupings (Fig. 3.14). Sample names indicate sampling year (2003 [3] or 2005 [5]), transect (A, B, C, Picnic Island [D], or Danlum Bay [E]), distance from venting in m eters (reference samples have index numbers), and sample number (1 or 2 for 2005 samples). Samples fall into nine SIMPROF groups, very similar to those determined from environmental parameters; from most to least distinct, they are: Extremely hydrothermal, very proximal sites (mostly a); slightly more distal, but still very hydrothermal sites, including those more distal with hydrothermal incursion (mostly b); Danlum Bay and all Picnic Island sites but the two deepest (mostly c; three groups); medium distan ce sites exclusive of hydrothermal incursions (mostly e; two groups); and far distal transect sites and deep Picnic Island sites (mostly d; two groups).

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111 community variation in rubble samples, while depth and sediment [As] are most important for sediment sa mples (Table 3.4). The sample % statistics generated for these best explanatory variables were seen to be widely separated from 1000 replicate permutations of the data, indicating significance at the 0.1% level (Fig. 3.18). For sediment samples, depth is the single variable most predic tive of community, followed by sediment [As]; the combination of the two is an even better predictor, at the sacrifice of parsimony. For rubble samples, the interactions between parameters are more important; similar predictive ability is possible for seve ral combinations of environmental variables. Short of measuring all variables, elimination of depth or sediment [As] remains nearly as predictive. Given the close relationship between temperature and pH, combining either with sediment [As] may be the most parsimonious predictive model of rubble foraminiferal communities. An indication of the importance of pH in particular in determining total sediment foraminiferal abundance is indicated in Figure 3.19, showing the abundance of foraminiferal tests as bubble diameter versus pH and sediment [As]. While tests are found at [As] up to 400mg/kg, virtually none are found at pH values below 7.5. The importance of pH, and thus of hydrothermal fluid, as a controlling variable in the distribution of foraminiferal tests and calcitic benthic fauna and sedimentary particles in general is further indicated by the lack of globigerinid (planktic) tests in samples close to the vents. These tests "rain" down evenly over all areas of the transects, and are found in higher number s in more distal samples and reference sites (Fig. 3.20). They are almost entirely missing from sites in environmental SIMPROF group "a", much reduced in group "b", and begin to approach levels similar to background in group "e". The agglutinated

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112 Table 3 .4. BEST analysis of controlling environmental variables for Tutum Bay sediment and rubble foraminiferal communities. The % sample statistics of the most predictive variables are significant at the 0.1% level; the significance of the other values can be ju dged against their position on Figure 3.17. Sediment Samples No. Vars Variables 2 0.564 Depth, Sed [As] 1 0.512 Depth 1 0.446 Sed [As] 3 0.424 Depth, pH, Sed [As] 3 0.374 Depth, Temp, Sed [As] 2 0.339 Depth, pH 4 0.312 Depth, Temp, pH, Sed [As] 2 0.303 pH, Sed [As] 2 0.282 Depth, Temp 2 0.261 Temp, Sed [As] Rubble Samples No. Vars Variables 4 0.602 Depth, Temp, pH, Sed [As] 3 0.587 Temp, pH, Sed [As] 3 0.568 Depth, Temp, pH 2 0.561 Temp, Sed [As] 2 0.548 pH, Sed [As] 1 0.532 pH 2 0.5 30 Temp, pH 3 0.527 Depth, Temp, Sed [As] 3 0.521 Depth, pH, Sed [As] 1 0.491 Temp

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113 Fig. 3.18. sample statistics for BEST analysis of controlling environmental variables for Tutum Bay sediment and rubble foraminiferal communities presented i n Table 3.4. for the most predictive variables appear as a line to the right; histograms for 1000 permutations of the data appears to the left. Both global statistics are significant at the 0.1% level; significance of other predictive variables can be judged against these scales and histograms.

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114 Fig. 3.19. Bubble plot showing the abundance of foraminiferal tests in sediments (bubble diameter) versus sediment [As] and pore water pH. While some foraminiferal tests are found at [As] co nsiderably higher than ERM, virtually none are found below pH 7.5.

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115 Figure 3.20. Showing the number of agglutinated (black) and planktic (red) foraminifers found in sediment (broken lines) and scrubbed rubble (solid lines) sampl es with distance away from vent mouths. The lack of globigerinid (planktic) tests near vent mouths suggests that pH, and thus hydrothermal fluids, rather than [As] is controlling foraminiferal distribution.

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116 species, which have a total abundance nearly iden tical to the planktic species, are similarly missing from precisely the same samples as the globigerinids in Figure 3.20, indicating that, rather than being excluded due to high temperature or [As], all tests experience limited preservation in proximal sed iment samples due to low pH. Additionally, the complete lack of any carbonate grains, or any calcareous organisms, including algae, echinoids, or mollusks, from proximal samples further illustrates the local importance of pH on community composition. Such hydrothermal pH effects on carbonate producing organisms have obvious implications as a proxy for more wide spread effects in a world of increasing atmospheric CO 2 ; pH reduction from volcanic carbon dioxide has previously been shown to cause shifts in bent hic ecosystem structure, to the detriment of carbonate producing organisms (Hall Spencer et al. 2008)

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117 CHAPTER 4 EFFECTS OF ARSENIC ON FORAMINIFERAL GROWTH RATES IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS, INCLUDING GROWTH ENHANCEMENT AT INTERMEDIATE [AS] "Was ist d as nit Gift est? Alle Ding sind Gift, und nichts ohn Gift; allein die Dosis macht, da§ ein Ding kein Gift ist." [What is not poisonous? All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; the dose alone makes the poison.] (Paracelsus, 1538 [1564]) 4.1 I ntroduction Foraminifers may be exposed to As either through anthropogenic input or by natural local [As] sources. The Tutum Bay hydrothermal system is of interest due to its non anthropogenic output of As 3+ at concentrations surpassing 1000!g/kg (Pichler et al. 1999b) Many studies have examined foraminiferal response to heavy metal exposure [ e.g. to lead (Boltovskoy, 1956); zinc, chromium, and vanadium (Ellison et al. 1986); copper (Sharifi et al. 1991); cadmium, copper, and mercury (Bresler and Yanko 1995a; 1995b); iron, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and mercury (Yanko et al. 1994a) ]. However,

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118 many of these studies have been field observations, which rarely study single toxins in isolation and have poorer or no controls of complicating environmental variables, and few of these studies have examined As, particularly in a laboratory setting. This study aimed to isolate and examine the effects of As exposure on the common Caribbean reef foraminifer Amphistegina gibbosa d'Orbigny, 1839, in a controlled la boratory environment. Exposure to As 5+ and As 3+ at concentrations ranging from 2 to 1000!g/kg was examined, revealing the response of an organism of significant value as a bioindicator (Hallock et al. 2003) to a potentially toxic element of considerable e nvironmental interest. 4.2 Methods A series of experiments were conducted, with the protocols being slightly modified and improved as informed by the initial experiments. The following protocols were followed for all experiments. Foraminiferal specimens w ere collected from reefs in the Florida Keys, USA, from depths of approximately 10m. Bulk material was collected from epiphytic rubble communities by techniques similar to those described in Williams et al. (1997) ; i.e. open circuit SCUBA divers placed 5 to 15cm diameter pieces of reef rubble into resealable plastic bags where they were scrubbed to remove sediment, algae, and periphyton at depth. Scrubbed rubble was returned to the seafloor, while sediment algal slurry was taken to the laboratory where it was distributed into large Petri dishes and the benthic foraminifers examined under a dissecting microscope. Amphistegina gibbosa specimens were picked using forceps and/or fine brushes from this material into 140mm diameter Petri dishes and placed in a 25 ¡C incubator with a 12 hour day/night cycle at

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119 10 !mol photons/m 2 /s light intensity (Williams and Hallock, 2004) Dishes were maintained in culture for several weeks to allow time for reproductive events. Small, healthy looking juveniles between ~200 and 40 0 !m maximum shell diameter were used in experiments. Experimental solutions were created by diluting 1000mg/kg As 3+ or As 5+ stock solutions (except for Experiment 1, which utilized 10mg/kg stock solutions) appropriately into 200mL natural seawater enriched with 10% Erdschreiber nutrient medium (recipe from Hallock et al. 1986) Resulting pH was corrected to values between 8.1 and 8.3 using HCl or NaOH, if necessary. Fifty mL of the As/seawater solution was added to each 85mm treatment Petri dish. Dishes we re covered with polyvinyl chloride plastic wrap to prevent evaporation and hypersalinity within the cultures. Established experimental dishes were cultured in a 25¡C incubator with a 12 hour day/night cycle at 10 !mol photons/m 2 /s intensity, with random pla cement to ensure that effects due to differences in air flow, temperature, and light intensity would be minimized. As/seawater solutions were changed weekly (oxidation of As in seawater, in both light and dark exposures, was shown to occur on timescales lo nger than a single week [Roy Price, personal observation]). Measurements of maximum shell diameter were made biweekly using a stereo dissecting microscope with a micrometer, measuring the widest portion of the shell to the nearest 20!m. Dish placement with in the incubators was re randomized after each water change or measurement. Numbers of "dead" or "unhealthy" individuals were also noted during each interval. Due to the nature of these experiments, various numbers of these unhealthy individuals appeared i n the experimental dishes as time progressed, but the precise determination of

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120 alive/dead is somewhat arbitrary and difficult to non destructively determine in foraminifers. Individuals exhibiting unhealthy appearance such as anomalous coloration, lack of rhizopodial attachment, or colonization by cyanobacteria or other parasites, were all counted as "unhealthy", and will be referred to as such henceforth. Though expected to increase over the course of experiments due to the toxicity of prolonged As exposur e, these numbers would sometimes decrease from week to week, as unhealthy individuals recovered or became acclimated to the conditions causing their distress either As exposure or stress induced by handling. The effect that these small, anomalously colored and, most importantly, non growing individuals had on determining the effect of [As] on average treatment growth rate is discussed below. Experiment 1 was performed to explore experimental design and to gain a preliminary approximation of the critical co ncentrations of As to which A. gibbosa is sensitive. This experiment utilized three replicates of 20 individual foraminfers exposed to 0, 2, 20, 200, or 1000!g/kg As 3+ or As 5+ (Table 4.1). Note that in this and subsequent experiments, "0"!g/kg treatments h ave no added As, but, as natural seawater was used in the construction of the culture media, they contained a background [As] (mostly As 5+ ) of ~2 !g/kg ( e.g ., Pilson, 1998) Culture media were created using less concentrated stock solutions of As 3+ and As 5+ than were utilized in subsequent experiments, requiring larger volumes of stock solution to be used. This resulted in slightly reduced salinities (~32) at the highest [As], possibly compounding the detrimental effects of As exposure. Exposure to As was c ontinued in each treatment until >50% of the foraminiferal population was classified as unhealthy, after which these treatments received only Erdschrieber and seawater, with no As added. After one week, nearly all foraminifers in

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121 Table 4.1. Experimental d esign: 0* indicates that no As was added to the seawater medium, as explained in the text. Only one set of control replicates was used per experiment, except for Experiment 1, which utilized two sets. Experiment As species Treatment concentrations in !g/kg # forams/ replicate # of replicates 1 3+ 0* 2 20 200 1000 20 3 1 5+ 0* 2 20 200 1000 20 3 2 3+ 0* 2 10 50 100 200 30 3 2 5+ 2 10 50 100 200 30 3 3 3+ 0* 2 10 50 100 200 30 3 3 5+ 2 10 50 100 200 30 3 4 3+ 0* 300 600 1000 10 3

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122 treatments ex posed to 1000!g/kg As 3+ and >50% of those exposed to 200!g/kg As 3+ and 1000 !g/kg As 5+ appeared to be dead and were placed in seawater medium without As to determine if any recovery could be seen. Arsenic was removed from all treatments after four weeks. Ex periment 2 consisted of three replicates of 30 individual foraminifers exposed to each of 11 treatments (Table 4.1): 0!g/kg added As; or 2, 10, 50, 100, or 200!g/kg of either As 3+ or As 5+ This experiment was terminated prematurely due to an incubator malf unction (specimens were exposed to temperatures in excess of 50¡C). Prior to this malfunction, treatments had been exposed to As for six weeks, and had been measured four times: at weeks zero, two, four, and six. However, given the unexpected failure of th e incubator thermostat, it is possible that unnoticed temperature fluctuations occurred prior to the final high temperature event. Experiment 3 followed the same protocol as Experiment 2, with the following improvement: To obtain the most uniform specimen starting size, approximately 1500 specimens between 200 and 400!m maximum shell diameter, including specimens from recent reproductions and field collected juveniles, were selected to be the pool of individuals from which experimental specimens were chosen Thirty five randomly selected healthy looking individual foraminifers were picked into each of 33 experimental dishes. Initial measurements of maximum shell diameter of each were made, and five specimens with outlier diameters or with appearance anomalie s were removed from each dish to ensure the most similar across dish mean shell diameter with the healthiest possible individuals. The average beginning size of the A. gibbosa specimens utilized in this experiment was 305!m, with an average standard deviat ion

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123 within an experimental dish of 26.8!m. Three replicate dishes were established for each of 11 treatment [As] ranging from 0 to 200!g/kg As 3+ or As 5+ (Table 4.1), yielding a total of 33 experimental dishes. This experiment ran for 12 weeks, during which seven biweekly sets of measurements were taken: at weeks zero, two, four, six, eight, ten, and twelve. At the end of the experiment, both sides of all individuals were photographed. This experiment provided most of the data discussed in this paper. Experi ment 4: A small experiment utilized three replicates of 10 individuals exposed to 0, 300, 600, and 1000!g/kg As 3+ (Table 4.1) to examine concentrations between 200 !g/kg, where As 3+ was observed to reduce foraminiferal growth by ~40%, and 1000 !g/kg, where A s 3+ was observed to prevent foraminiferal growth almost entirely. Foraminiferal specimens were exposed to As for six weeks, and were measured for maximum shell diameter four times: at weeks zero, two, four, and six. Replicate averages and treatment average s were tested for differences at every measurement period utilizing single factor ANOVAs (Zar, 1999) When significant differences were detected for treatment averages, Tukey HSD and Student Newman Keuls (SNK) tests (Zar, 1999) were performed for those mea surement periods to determine which treatments differed significantly from which others. An analysis of the skewness and kurtosis of the distribution of sizes of the pooled treatments was made for the fifth measurement period of Experiment 3 ( i.e. after e ight weeks of As exposure) to determine whether the proportion of smaller, unhealthy specimens was affecting the normality of the size distribution. This analysis was conducted utilizing the third and fourth moments about the mean ( g 1 and g 2 ), K. Pearson's beta functions of symmetry and kurtosis (" b 1 and b 2 ), and D'Angostino and E. Pearson's K 2 test for normality.

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124 4.3 Results 4.3.1 Skewness/Kurtosis Given the presence of a fluctuating group of unhealthy slow or non growing specimens, data for each experime ntal dish was tested for skewness/kurtosis to determine whether there were significant departures from normality, which would affect further analysis (Fig. 4.1). Analyses were made utilizing the third and fourth moments about the mean ( g 1 and g 2 ), K. Pears ons beta functions of symmetry and kurtosis ( b 1 and b 2 ), and DAngostino and E. Pearsons K 2 test for normality, given by the equations: g1= n ( Xi" X )3#s3( n 1 )( n 2) ; g2= ( Xi" X )4n ( n + 1 ) /( n 1 ) 3 ( Xi" X )2#[ ]2#s4( n 2 )( n 3 ) b1 = ( n 2) g1n ( n 1 ) ; b2= ( n 2)( n 3 ) g2( n + 1 )( n 1 ) + 3 ( n 1 ) n + 1 K2= Zg12+ Zg22 where the derivations of Z 2 g1 and Z 2 g2 are to lengthy to detail here, but are as define d as in Zar (1999). Of these tests, none were statistically significant for pooled diameters of treatment specimens during the fifth measurement period (eight weeks after As exposure), though some were close (Table 4.2). The As 5+ 2! g/kg treatment had a sta tistically significant rightward skew, but only when utilizing one tailed testing, and since such testing would be for leftward skew, this is discarded. No other samples are significantly skewed utilizing either one tailed or two tailed tests. The As 3+ 50! g/kg treatment was significantly platykurtic when using a one tailed testing, but there is no justifiable reason to choose this over two tailed, which must be retained as the default choice. No treatments show kurtosis with two tailed tests. Likewise, no b or K tests were significant. As there is a fairly high chance of committing a Type II error when

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125 Figure 4.1. A pooled histogram of Amphistegina gibbosa specimens with minimal exposure to As ( i.e. those in 0!g/kg, 2!g/kg As 5+ a nd 2!g/kg As 3+ ) eight weeks after initial exposure to As. The mode at left centered at 320!m was produced by the very slow growing, extremely unhealthy individuals. However, tests for skewness and kurtosis did not show this population to significantly diff er from a normal distribution.

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126 Table 4.2. Statistical tests for departure from normality ( i.e. skewness and kurtosis) in pooled treatment maximum specimen diameters. [As] in !g/kg. Critical values of parameters for #=0.5 are approximately (depending slightly on n which was generally ~90, but occasionally varied slightly) 0.50 for g 1 and b 1 and 1.23 for g 2 and b 2 However, rather than 0, b 2 must be different from 3( n 1)/( n +1) by more than the critical value to be significant ( i.e. it must be less than ~1.70 in this example). K 2 follows the $ 2 distribution, and thus must be greater than $ 2 =5.991 to be significant. As5+ As3+ 0 2 10 50 100 200 2 10 50 100 200 g 1 0.10 0.44 0.19 0.18 0.15 0.06 0.34 0.23 0.22 0.31 0.16 g 2 0.77 0.25 0.57 0.30 0.81 0.86 0.42 0.65 1.04 0.67 0.86 b 1 0.10 0.44 0.19 0.18 0.14 0.06 0.33 0.23 0.22 0.30 0.16 b 2 2.21 2.70 2.39 2.65 2.17 2.12 2.54 2.32 1.95 2.30 2.12 K 2 2.24 3.54 1.99 1.08 2.58 2.49 2.67 2.51 3.64 3.24 2.84

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127 conducting 55 statistical tests at #=0.05, these few near significant results are not surprising. Thus, it shall henceforth in the se analyses be assumed that the population maximum diameters pooled by treatment do not differ significantly from normal distributions ( i.e. show no sign of skewness or kurtosis), and the entire pool of specimens, including the small percentages of dead o r severely affected individuals are included in analyses. 4.3.2 Experiment 1 In the initial experiment, utilizing concentrations of 0, 2, 20, 200, and 1000!g/kg As 3+ and As 5+ (Table 4.1), foraminifers exhibited highly significantly different mean shell di ameters between treatments at four weeks after initial As exposure (Table 4.3; Fig. 4.2), according to single factor ANOVA tests ( F =11.22 > F 0.05(1),(9),(20) =2.39; P =4.73%10 6 ). Tukey HSD analysis revealed that foraminifers exposed to the highest [As 3+ ] (1 000 !g/kg) grew the least (545!m final size). Intermediate [As] treatments (20 and 200 !g/kg As 5+ and 20!g/kg As 3+ ) grew the most (648 672 !m final size). Control treatments with no As added also fell into this high growth group. High and extremely low [As] ( 2 and 1000!g/kg As 5+ and 2 and 200!g/kg As 3+ ) showed an intermediate level of growth (578 618!m final size), but were either not significantly different from the high growth group, or from the low growth group, or both. Student Newman Keuls (SNK) test resu lts for this measurement period were identical. Both Tukey and SNK tests for the subsequent three measurement periods were very similar, both to each other, and to the first measurement period, with the notable exception that the second slowest growing tre atment (1000!g/kg As 5+ ) was often a significantly distinct mean (622!m final

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128 Table 4.3. Average shell diameters (in m) at measurement intervals for each experiment. Top rows of data shows treatment averages early in the experiments, which are statisticall y indistinguishable. The middle portion shows averages during intervals where significant differences were observed. Bolded entries are significantly different according to a Tukey HSD test, while italicized entries are significant according to a SNK test. At bottom are total average growth experienced by treatments, and total average growth per week. Treatments are listed from smallest average growth to largest (this order is the same or similar to average diameter at most periods). Shaded areas show range categories into which the treatments may be divided. Experiment 1 Week 3+ 1000 5+ 1000 3+ 200 3+ 2 5+ 2 5+ 20 0 3+ 20 5+ 200 0 0 544.7 544.7 544.7 544.7 544.7 544.7 544.7 544.7 544.7 544.7 4 545.2 577.6 611.7 615.8 617.7 647.7 660.8 662.1 669.6 671.5 x 4" x 0 0.6 32.9 67.0 71.2 73.0 103.0 116.2 117.4 124.9 126.8 m/w 0.1 8.2 16.7 17.8 18.2 25.8 29.0 29.4 31.2 31.7 Experiment 2 Week 3+ 200 5+ 200 5+ 100 3+ 100 3+ 50 5+ 50 5+ 10 3+ 10 0 5+ 2 3+ 2 0 233.3 231.8 234.4 234.0 227.8 230.7 2 34.9 234.0 231.8 230.4 228.4 2 239.8 241.8 262.2 269.3 267.3 274.7 278.9 278.9 279.8 290.2 294.0 x 2" x 0 6.4 10.0 27.8 35.3 39.6 44.0 44.0 44.9 48.0 59.8 65.6 m/w 3.2 5.0 13.9 17.7 19.8 22.0 22.0 22.4 24.0 29.9 32.8 Experiment 3 Week 3+ 200 5+ 2 0 5+ 200 5+ 100 3+ 50 3+ 100 3+ 2 5+ 10 5+ 50 3+ 10 0 304.2 304.7 304.4 304.7 305.1 305.3 304.4 304.9 304.9 304.9 304.2 2 324.9 341.3 339.1 342.4 336.7 335.1 335.3 338.9 338.7 344.2 349.7 4 363.1 365.3 365.3 387.8 375.2 384.0 378.2 381.3 384 .9 396.9 415.5 6 400.0 398.2 407.3 460.9 450.3 441.5 436.7 438.0 448.2 482.9 477.8 8 454.0 440.7 447.3 520.0 508.7 513.6 507.6 504.7 525.8 554.2 555.3 10 502.0 504.5 520.5 577.6 558.2 571.1 558.4 569.0 592.0 637.3 622.9 12 549.4 549.2 563.0 604.2 608.8 615.1 617.7 643.1 658.2 692.6 698.9 x 12" x 0 245.0 244.8 258.5 299.6 303.7 309.7 313.3 338.3 353.3 387.7 394.7 m/w 20.4 20.4 21.5 25.0 25.3 25.8 26.1 28.2 29.4 32.3 32.9 Experiment 4 Week 3+ 600 3+ 1000 3+ 300 0 0 613.3 606.0 592.7 60 4.4 2 624.7 616.0 603.3 680.0 4 632.7 642.7 661.3 778.7 6 644.7 649.3 674.0 828.7 x 6" x 0 31.3 43.3 81.3 224.7 m/w 5.2 7.2 13.6 37.4

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129 Figure 4.2. Experiment 1: Mean shell diameters of Amphistegina gibbosa spec imens after four weeks exposure to As from less concentrated stock solutions (As was removed from 200 and 1000!g/kg As 3+ and 1000!g/kg As 5+ treatments after only one week). Each point represents the mean size of three replicates of 20 individuals. Error ba rs represent one standard deviation of the means of the three replicates per treatment. Specimens from extremely high [As] (1000!g/kg As 3+ ) display significantly lowered growth, and those from low and moderate [As] (0 !g/kg As; 20!g/kg As 3+ ; and 20 and 2 00!g/kg As 5+ ) display significantly higher growth according to Tukey HSD and SNK tests.

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130 size). The third highest [As] (200!g/kg As3+), though its mean was not significantly distinct, was always the third smallest treatment (649!m final size). 4.3.3 Exper iment 2 The second experiment tested concentrations of 0, 2, 10, 50, 100, and 200!g/kg As 3+ and As 5+ (Table 4.1). This experiment utilized an optimized experimental protocol, but was cut short after six weeks exposure to As due to failure of the incubator' s thermostat, which caused experimental dishes to be exposed to temperatures in excess of 50¡C. Measurements were obtained at zero, two, four, and six weeks, before this failure. Measurements of mean maximum shell diameter made after four and six weeks wer e not significantly different from each other according to single factor ANOVA analysis, possibly due to unnoticed temperature fluctuations in the failing incubator detrimentally affecting the entire population. Treatment mean shell diameters were likewise not significantly different at week zero (Table 4.3), as expected from experimental design (there were, however, differences between replicate means, prompting improvement of initial specimen selection protocol in Experiment 3). However, after two weeks, maximum diameter means were statistically significant via ANOVA ( F =2.68 > F 0.05(1),(10),(22) =2.30; P =0.03) (Fig. 4.3). Tukey test results were barely significant, though, showing only that 200!g/kg As 3+ was significantly the smallest treatment mean (240!m) and 2!g/kg As 3+ was significantly the largest (294!m), with the rest of the treatments smoothly grading between, and not different from either extreme (although appearing in roughly the order expected).

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131 Figure 4.3. Experiment 2: Mean shell diameters of A. gibbosa specimens after two weeks of As exposure, several weeks before failure of the experimental incubator. Each point represents the mean size of three replicates of 30 individuals. Error bars represent one standard deviatio n of the means of the three replicates per treatment. Specimens from extreme high [As] (200!g/kg As 3+ ) display significantly lowered growth, while those from one moderate [As] (2!g/kg As 3+ ) display significantly higher growth according to a Tukey HSD test. An SNK test included 200!g/kg As 5+ and 2!g/kg As 5+ in low growth and high growth groups, respectively.

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132 4.3.4 Experiment 3 The third experiment also tested concentrations of 0, 2, 10, 50, 100, and 200!g/kg As 3+ and As 5+ (Table 4.1). Initial mean shell dia meters (Table 4.3) were not significantly different from each other according to single factor ANOVA, either when the means of the 33 experimental dishes were compared against each other ( F =0.05 < F 0.05(1),(32),(957) =1.46; P =1.00), or when the means of the 11 treatments were compared against each other ( F =0.24 < F 0.05(1),(10),(22) =2.30; P =0.99). Thus, the samples are presumed to have been drawn from a single population, with equal means and standard deviations. After four weeks, significant differences in m ean diameter (Fig. 4.4) were seen among the 33 experimental dishes ( F =2.15 > F 0.05(1),(32),(946) =1.46; P =0.00026), and between the 11 treatment averages ( F =2.42 > F 0.05(1),(10),(22) =2.30; P =0.04). Significant differences in mean diameters remained between these groups for the duration of the experiment (at the termination of the experiment, the relevant statistics were F =4.25 > F 0.05(1),(32),(938) =1.46; P =1.29%10 13 between the 33 dishes and F =7.01 > F 0.05(1),(10),(22) =2.30; P =7.34%10 5 between the 11 treat ments). Given the significant ANOVA results beginning with the third measurement period (four weeks after initial As exposure), Tukey HSD and SNK multiple comparison tests were again utilized to identify which treatments differed significantly from which o thers (Table 4.3). At this and subsequent measuring periods, treatments divided into three groups: treatments with low and high mean diameters that were significantly different from each other, and a middle group whose average diameters were not significan tly different from either the high or low growth treatments. Generally, two or three

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133 Figure 4.4. Experiment 3: Mean shell diameters of Amphistegina gibbosa specimens after 12 weeks exposure to various [As]. Each point represents the mean size of three replicates of 30 individuals. Error bars represent one standard deviation of the means of the three replicates per treatment. Specimens from extreme high (200!g/kg As 3+ ) and low (2!g/kg As 5+ and 0!g/kg As) [As] display significant ly lowered growth, and those from moderate [As] (10!g/kg As 3+ and 50!g/kg As 5+ ) display significantly higher growth according to Tukey HSD and SNK tests.

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134 treatments formed the low growth group, and one or two made up the high growth group; membership of t hese groups remained largely the same from the third measuring period to the end of the experiment. Of the groups with the low growth rates, treatments with As 3+ at 200!g/kg and with As 5+ at 2!g/kg were always significantly smaller than the rest of the tre atments, and the 0 !g/kg treatment was significantly smaller during three measurement periods, and was very close to being significantly smaller during the other two periods. Of the groups with the significantly higher growth rates, treatments with As 3+ at 10!g/kg and with As 5+ at 50!g/kg were generally significant, with the former significantly larger during the third measurement period, the latter during the fourth, and both for the remaining three periods. Analysis utilizing the Student Newman Keuls test was very similar with only the occasional inclusion or exclusion of one of the aforementioned treatments from their respective groups during some measurement periods. The means of the remaining six treatments, As 5+ at 10, 100, and 200!g/kg and As 3+ at 2, 50, and 100!g/kg, were not shown to be statistically different at any measurement interval utilizing these tests, meaning that they could either not be simultaneously distinguished from the high growth group and the low growth group, or between an extreme (high or low) group and a middle grouping. However, these six treatment means fall into two sub groupings (Table 4.3): higher than optimal [As] ( i.e. 50 and 100!g/kg As 3+ and 100 and 200!g/kg As 5+ ) suppressed growth more than the lower than optimal [As] ( i.e. 2!g/kg As 3+ and 10!g/kg As 5+ ).

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135 4.3.5 Experiment 4 In the final experiment, four treatments of [As 3+ ] (0, 300, 600, and 1000!g/kg) were compared (Table 4.1). Single factor ANOVA indicated that mean diameters did not differ significantly during the initial measurement period ( F =2.04 < F 0.05(1),(3),(8) =4.07; P =0.19), but did differ significantly from the second week to the end of the experiment at six weeks, with the most significant differences occurring in the sixth week ( F =38.3 > F 0.05(1),(3),(8) =4 .07; P =4.31%10 5 ) (Fig. 4.5). Grouping of treatments according to Tukey HSD and Student Newman Keuls tests were identical for all significant measurement periods, showing that mean diameters in As free treatments (898!m final size) were significantly large r than all As containing treatments (645 674 !m final size), which were not significantly different from each other. However, the 300!g/kg As 3+ treatment (674!m) was trending towards becoming significantly different from the 600 and 1000 !g/kg As 3+ treatment s (645 649!m), and may have become so in another few weeks (Table 4.3). 4.4 Discussion As mentioned above, various numbers of unhealthy specimens appeared in the experimental dishes and accumulated as time progressed (for experiments with extremely high [ As]), although, on some occasions, the number decreased as individuals recovered. One might have hypothesized that increasing levels of exposure to toxic As may have caused correspondingly increasing numbers of dead individuals as the LD 50 is approached. H owever, at the relatively low concentrations tested in Experiments 2 and 3, this did not seem to be the case. Numbers of unhealthy individuals were not significantly

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136 Figure 4.5. Experiment 4: Mean shell diameters of Amphistegina gibbosa specimens after six weeks of As exposure. Each point represents the mean size of three replicates of 10 individuals. Error bars represent one standard deviation of the means of the three replicates per treatment. Specimens from all treatments ex posed to As (300, 600, and 1000!g/kg As 3+ ) display significantly lowered growth, while those exposed to 0!g/kg As display significantly higher growth according to Tukey HSD and SNK tests.

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137 different among treatments according to ANOVA analysis, even after 12 weeks of As exposure ( F =1.41 < F 0.05(1),(10),(22) =2.30; P =0.24 for the final measurement period). Figure 4.6 shows specimens after 12 weeks of As exposure; specimens exposed to the most toxic [As] (200!g/kg As 3+ ), though smaller in size, still mostly ex hibit healthy coloration and pseudopodial attachment. However, precisely this hypothesized type of effect was seen at higher [As] in Experiment 1, where exposure to [As 3+ ] of 1000!g/kg was 100% lethal to foraminifers after approximately two weeks. ANOVA re sults of proportion of unhealthy individuals during the first measurement period were highly significant ( F =40.22 < F 0.05(1),(9),(20) =2.39; P =7.14%10 11 ). Tukey HSD and SNK results were identical to each other, and showed that treatment with 1000!g/kg As 3+ had the highest proportion (100%) of unhealthy individuals. Treatments 1000!g/kg As 5+ and 200!g/kg As 3+ grouped together with median proportions of unhealthy individuals (48 57% unhealthy). All other treatments exhibited significantly lower proportions of unhealthy individuals (5 25% unhealthy). Since the number of unhealthy specimens was not statistically different between treatments at lower concentrations, what explains their presistence in the experimental cultures? Previous experimental studies utilizi ng Amphistegina spp. have reported small numbers of specimen deaths due to the trauma of collection, picking, and transferal from dish to dish, especially in small individuals for which the rhizopodial mass that may be lost during transfer represents a sub stantial portion of the total cytoplasm (Hallock et al. 1986) In Experiment 3, most dishes had 7 13% unhealthy individuals during the first measurement period, recovering slightly to 0 10% during the second measurement period, and fluctuating only slight ly thenceforth.

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138 (a) (b)

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139 (c) Figure 4.6. Spiral view of Experiment 3 foraminiferal specimens after 12 weeks exposure to arsenic solutions of various concentrations, arranged from approximately smallest at top left to largest at bottom ri ght. Scale bar = 1000!m (note that the bottom figure is at a different magnification from the top two). (a) Specimens exposed to no arsenic above that naturally occurring in seawater (~2!g/kg). Most specimens are generally healthy appearing, but display le ss growth than treatments with slightly higher [As]. The individual at top left is dead and covered with microbial growth. (b) Specimens exposed to 10!g/kg As 3+ a treatment exhibiting higher growth rates. These specimens appear healthy the white individua l at the left of the middle row underwent asexual (suicide) reproduction during the preceding week. (c) Specimens exposed to 200!g/kg As 3+ a high [As] treatment showing lowered growth rates. Specimens showing discoloration/poor health are seen at the uppe r left in each photo.

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140 Mean daily growth rates determined from the experimental data range from 2.5 3 !m/day for the slowest growing treatments to 4.5 5 !m/day for the fastest growing treatments, which may be compared to rates of ~7!m/day for healthy culture s of Pacific Amphistegina madagascariensis d'Orbigny, 1826 (nom. nud.) (since divided into A. lessonii d'Orbigny, 1826 and A. lobifera Larsen, 1976 ) reported by Muller (1974), or to rates of 12.2!m/day for A. gibbosa and 13.9 for A. lessonii exposed to 14! mol photons/m 2 /s reported by Hallock et al. (1986) Also note that the growth rate increased during most of the experiment, before tailing off at the end for instance, averaging 3.99!m/day for the first four weeks, 4.46!m/day for the next two, and 5.53, 5. 83, 4.43!m/day for each two weeks after that in the As 3+ 10!g/kg treatment. This pattern differs from the asymptotically decreasing growth rate for Pacific Amphistegina reported by Muller (1974) and Hallock et al. (1986) perhaps indicating an initial peri od of acclimation, either to the arsenic exposure, or to the experimental conditions generally, before the expected tailing off in growth rates towards the end of the experiment, due to decreasing growth rate as specimens near reproductive size. It has bee n suggested that As may be an essential ultratrace element; e.g. requirements on order of 25ng/kg body mass (Nielsen, 1998). Poor growth and abnormal reproduction have been observed in laboratory experiments with As deprived red algae, chickens, rats, goa ts, and pigs (Eisler, 1988; Nielsen, 1998) It is possible that the observed beneficial effects of small amounts of As in this study may be due to this nutritional requirement; however, it seems more likely to be due to its antimicrobial effect. In fact, i t is not clear that the ultratrace "nutritional" benefits of As noted in other studies are not increases in health resultant of decreased parasite load (Eisler, 1988)

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141 The observed relationship between foraminiferal growth rates and [As] was that cultures exposed to moderate [As] showed the highest growth rates, while cultures exposed to either higher or to extremely low [As] showed lowered growth rates. This relationship is very similar to that reported by Gustafsson et al. (2000) who found higher foramin iferal abundances at extremely low tributyltin concentrations (0.02nmol/g) than at high concentrations (2.00nmol/g) or in the absence of tributyltin. The suggestion that this relationship is due to a greater susceptibility to As toxicity in parasites or co mpetitors than in foraminifers is supported by observations such as Seiglie's (1975) that foraminifers are less susceptible to heavy metal pollution than nematodes, and Schafer et al .'s (1975) similar observations versus ostracods and mollusks. Ellison et al (1986) observed that Ammobaculites crassus was able to outcompete other foraminiferal species exposed to moderate concentrations of Cu, Cr, Cd, and Pb, though at higher concentrations, all species were detrimentally affected. Phenyl arsenic acid has be en observed to stimulate growth in chickens, turkeys, swine, rats, and calves when administered at concentrations of 50 100mg/kg in feed (Anonymous, 1956; Vallee et al. 1960) Geiszinger et al. (2001) found that the brown alga Fucus serratus exposed to ar senate (As 5+ ) showed detrimental effects at concentrations of 50 100 !g/L. Though not reported as statistically significant, F. serratus cultures exposed to 20!g/L As 5+ experienced more growth (7.3cm) than cultures exposed to 0, 50, or 100!g/L (5.3, 3.0, an d 0cm, respectively). The responses of foraminiferal growth to [As] suggested a quadratic polynomial functional relationship. Examination of the graph in Figure 4.4 shows that the change in growth rate is steeper at lower [As], followed by a long tailing o ff at higher

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142 concentrations i.e. only a very small amount of arsenic is necessary to provide antimicrobial effects, while the decrease in growth rate with concentration takes place over a much wider concentration range. Thus, transforming the data logarit hmically provides a more symmetrical data distribution and allows a parabolic curve to more realistically fit the data. Also, observation of the raw data suggests that exposure to As 3+ is approximately 3 5 % as toxic as exposure to As 5+ e.g. treatments As 3 + 2! g/kg and As 5+ 10! g/kg, As 3+ 10 g/kg and As 5+ 50! g/kg, and As 3+ 50! g/kg and As 5+ 100/200! g/kg in Experiment 3 are very similar to each other. Thus, plotting log(3 % [As 3+ ]) with log([As 5+ ]) allows plotting of a quadratic trend line through the entirety of the data. When this is done, it results in a regression equation of: ) Y = 19.49 + 15.49 X 5.48 X2 ; r 2 =0.77, where is the predicted growth rate at X =log([As 5+ ]) or log(3 % [As 3+ ]). Analysis at this stage confirms that a quadratic curve best fits this data, as the highest order parameter of a linear curve ) Y = 25.60 + 0.36 X has a p =0.8243 and the highest order para meter of a cubic curve ) Y = 19.60 + 14.78 X 4.81X2" 0.16 X3 has a p =0.9166, while the above quadratic has a p =0.0009. However, as the factor of three was arbitrarily chosen after a cursory examination of the raw data, an iterative procedure was followed to identify the multiplicative factor that would yield the highest r 2 value (Table 4.4). Examination of that data shows that multiplicative factors between 2 and 2.5 all yield an r 2 =0.78. Running a regression line through the data in Table 4.4 provides an equation ( r 2 =0. 98), the local maxima of which is ~2.2. Using this value as the multiplicative, the graph in Fig. 4.7a is obtained, with the regression equation of ) Y = 19.43 + 16.80 X 6.23 X2 ; r 2 =0.78. Further, pooling all the growth data for foraminifers exposed to As from t he various experiments conducted and

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143 Table 4.4. r 2 values obtained by running a quadratic regression line through log transformed [As 5+ ] and [As 3+ ] multiplied by the particular x factor, thus yielding the amount by which As 3+ is more toxic to foraminifers than As 5+ (see Fig. 4.7). Experiment 1 1 4 1,3,&4 x factor r 2 r 2 r 2 1 0.6236 0.5414 0.6445 1.5 0.7536 0.5568 0.6711 1.625 0.5579 1.75 0.7745 0.5584 0.6751 1.8125 0.5585 1.875 0.5585 0.6761 1.9375 0.5585 2 0.7826 0.5583 0.6765 2.0625 0.783 3 0.6766 2.125 0.7837 0.6766 2.1875 0.7838 0.6765 2.25 0.7835 0.5571 0.6763 2.375 0.7825 2.5 0.7807 0.5554 0.6752 3 0.7696 0.5509 0.6716 4 0.7433 0.5411 0.6627 5 0.7199 0.5318 0.6539

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144 (a) (b)

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145 (c) Figur e 4.7. Average weekly growth (in !m) experienced by foraminiferal specimens exposed to various [As]. When displayed on a logarithmic scale, the parabolic nature of this relationship is apparent, as is the fact that As 3+ is several times more toxic than As 5 + (a) When the data from Experiment 3 are thus transformed and the As 3+ data are shifted by 2.2% (determined via an iterative procedure to find the optimal multiplier). (b) When all collected data on foraminiferal exposure to As are pooled, a multiplier o f 1.9 was obtained. (c) When pooled data from all Experiments 1, 3, and 4 were analyzed, leaving out the data from the experiment with an equipment failure, a multiplier of 2.1 was obtained.

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146 applying an iterative analysis yields a toxicity multiplicative o f 1.9 (Fig. 4.7b). The regression equation for the pooled data with this multiplicative is ) Y = 25.97 + 5.58 X 3.77 X2 ; r 2 =0.56, showing considerably more scatter. Pooling data for only Experiments 1, 3, and 4 yields a toxicity multiplicative of 2.1 (Fig. 4.7c ). The regression equation for this multiplicative is ) Y = 24.78 + 10.63 X 5.05 X2 ; r 2 =0.68. Extrapolation beyond the high end of this data set (a risky proposition) by utilizing the quadratic formula to find the upper root of the equation (3.57 with the 2.2 mu ltiplicative; 3.47 with the 1.9 multiplicative; 3.51 with the 2.1 multiplicative) yields a suggested [As 3+ ] which would result in zero foraminiferal growth of 1690! g/kg (or [As 5+ ]=3720! g/kg) (utilizing the 2.2 multiplier; utilizing 1.9 yields [As 3+ ]=1540! g/kg or [As 5+ ]=2930! g/kg; utilizing 2.1 yields [As 3+ ]=1520! g/kg or [As 5+ ]=3200! g/kg). This estimate is somewhat high, as it is known from the Experiment 1 that [As 3+ ] of 1000! g/kg is sufficient to prevent foraminiferal growth, but its reasonable magnitude lends confidence to the polynomial regression that generated it. Further, the maxima of the equations at ) X 0= b1/ 2 b2 and ) Y 0= a b1 2/ 4 b2 suggest a maximum growth rate of 30.8! m/wk with exposure to 22! g/kg As 5+ or 10! g/kg As 3+ (or 28.0!m /wk with exposure to 6! g/kg As 5+ or 2.9 g/kg As 3+ with the pooled data from Experiments 1 4, or 30.4! m/wk with exposure to 11! g/kg As 5+ or 5.4! g/kg As 3+ with the pooled data from Experiments 1, 3, and 4), similar to the 32.3 and 32.9! m/wk growth observed i n the 50! g/kg As 5+ and 10! g/kg As 3+ treatments in Experiment 3. A test of this regression extrapolation would be to predict the growth rate observed with exposure to 1000! g/kg As 3+ 6.0! m/wk, according to the above optimal regression (3.7! m/wk for the poole d data from all experiments; 4.4! m for the pooled data from

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147 Experiments 1, 3, and 4). Experiments 1 and 4 utilized this setup, where 1000! g/kg As 3+ was one of the concentrations used. In Experiment 1, treating three replicates of 20 individual A. gibbosa w ith 1000! g/kg As 3+ for one week produced a total growth of 0.58! m after four weeks, or a growth rate of 0.15 m/wk. In Experiment 4, treating three replicates of ten individual A. gibbosa with 1000! g/kg for six weeks produced a total growth of 43.3! m, or a growth rate of 7.2! m/wk. Considering the shorter duration of these experiments, that the specimens in Experiment 4 were of a larger initial size than those utilized in the regression generating Experiment 3 (610 vs. 305 m), and that Experiment 1 utilized A s stock solutions of weaker initial starting concentration, these results are consistent with the regression prediction. Note that predictions of Experiments 1 and 4 should be compared against the regression equation with multiplier 2.2, as the data provid ed from these experiments were part of those used to generate the equation[s] with multipliers 1.9 and 2.1. It is possible to examine the two effects of [As] on foraminiferal growth separately by generating linear regressions for the low [As] and high [As] treatments, respectively, where foraminiferal growth increases with [As] for low [As] treatments due to microbicidal effects, and foraminiferal growth decreases with increasing [As] for high [As] treatments due to toxicity effects (Fig. 4.8). Treatments w ere divided into low and high [As] populations a ccording to the data in Table 4.3, with those treatments exposed to &50 g/kg As 3+ or 100 g/kg As 5+ deemed high [As] treatments. Analysis of this population yielded a regression equation of ) Y = 70.3 20.1 X ; r 2 =0.875. The low [As] treatments ( '20 g/kg As 3+ or 50 g/kg As 5+ ) yielded a regression equation of ) Y = 25.9 + 1.96 X but with considerably more scatter: r 2 =0.043. This scatter is mostly

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148 Figure 4.8. Average weekly gr owth (in !m) experienced by foraminiferal specimens exposed to various [As], with the two effects of [As] on foraminiferal growth analyzed separately. Higher [As] (&50!g/kg As 3+ or 100!g/kg As 5+ ) cause a sharp drop off in foraminiferal growth. Treatments w ith no added As show considerably more scatter, as expected by the hypothesis that As is acting as a microbicide to keep contaminating organism populations down; potentially contaminating communities will be expected to differ with differing experimental i nitial conditions, time of year, starting seawater, and other random factors. When the three high outliers at 0!g/kg added As are removed, the regression equation becomes Y =7.60 X +18.9; r 2 =0.629, a steeper regression with a much tighter fit.

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149 due to the hig h variability in growth rates observed at 0! g/kg added As. Such variability is expected from the hypothesis that As is acting as a general microbicide at low concentrations: with no added As, treatments may or may not be exposed to infections, competitors, parasites, etc., depending on initial conditions, time of year, seawater source, and random chance. Thus, both very high (37.4! m/wk) and relatively low (21.5! m/wk) growth rates were observed in 0! g/kg added As treatments. If the three high growth 0! g/kg A s outliers are removed from the analysis ( i.e ., those not showing effects of being exposed to infection or competition), a regression equation of ) Y = 18.9 + 7.60 X is obtained, with a much tighter correlation: r 2 =0.629. The high and low [As] regressi on equations intersect at ) Y = 1.854 suggesting an optimal [As] of 71.5 g/kg As 5+ or 31.0! g/kg As 3+ for a maximal growth of 33.0! m/wk. This agrees well with the data in Table 4.3, where the treatments closest to these values always appear in the high growth groups, with growths close to this predicted value. Removal of the three 0! g/kg As outliers also improves the parabolic regression, producing a regression equation of of ) Y = 15.61 + 20.78 X 7.44 X2 ; r 2 =0.851. This new parabolic equation predict s an [As] resulting in zero foraminiferal growth of 1210! g/kg As 3+ or 2550! g/kg As 5+ and a maximum foraminiferal growth rate of 30.1 m/wk at 11.8 g/kg As 3+ or 24.8! g/kg As 5+ An alternative way to view the As toxicity data is as an exponential decay curve similar to a radioactive half life. Maximal growth rate observed in an experiment may be defined as the average of the statistically indistinguishable high growth treatments. Growth rate obtained is defined for the average of statistically indistinguishab le supra optimal treatments in each experiment (low dose effects of [As] are ignored in this analysis). Effective [As] may be defined as the average [As] of the statistically

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150 indistinguishable treatments once [As] have been corrected with the above determi ned multiplicative to equate [As 3+ ] and [As 5+ ]. Thus, in Experiment 3, a maximum obtainable growth rate of 32.6! m/wk is the average of the 10 g/kg As 3+ and 50! g/kg As 5+ high growth treatments, which have an average effective [As] of 17! g/kg As 3+ Supra opt imal [As] treatments in Experiment 3 break into two statistically indistinguishable groups: As 3+ at 50 and 100! g/kg and As 5+ at 100 and 200! g/kg, which have an average growth rate of 26 m/wk at an effective [As] of 73! g/kg As 3+ ; and 200! g/kg As 3+ with a g rowth rate of 20 g/wk. The percent of the maximal obtainable growth rate achieved for the individual statistically indistinguishable populations are thus 100%, 70%, and 61%. When plotted against effective [As], percent maximal obtained growth rate for the combined experimental data describes an exponential decay curve with the regression equation ) Y = 95.85 e"00024 X ; r 2 =0.96 (Fig. 4.9). This equation has what may be expressed as a scaling concentration (analogous to scaling lifetime) of "= 1 /#= 417 g/kg As 3+ The equivalent of half life (the equivalent [As] at which treatments are predicted to attain half their optimal growth rate) is thus X1 / 2="ln 2 or 289 g/kg As 3+ As N 0 in the above regression is not 1, the actual percentage of the maximal obtainable growth rate expected at the half life effective [As] is 48%. As the exponential decay equation is asymptotic to the abscissa, a cutoff of 5% growth may be used to define the point below which A. gibbosa can be predicted to show effectively zero (<5%) growth. This would be attained at an [As] of 1250! g/kg As 3+ or 2620 g/kg As 5+

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151 Figure 4.9. Percent of the maximal obtainable growth rate attained by foraminifers exposed to different effective [As 3+ ]. Da ta points represent the means of statistically indistinguishable treatments. [As] have been corrected by a factor of 2.1 to equate [As 3+ ] and [As 5+ ] treatme nts. The resultant exponential decay curve has a scaling concentration of (=1/)=417!g/kg As 3+ and a "half life" (concentration halving expected foraminiferal growth) of 289!g/kg As 3+

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152 4.5 Conclusions 1. Exposure to As 3+ at concentrations & 50!m/kg suppressed growth in Amphistegina gibbosa Concentration s of 600 1000 !g/kg stopped growth almost entirely. 2. Exposure to As 5+ at concentrations & 100!m/kg suppressed growth in A. gibbosa 3. As 3+ is ~2% more toxic than As 5+ to A. gibbosa 4. Concentrations of As 3+ from 2 10 !m/kg and As 5+ from 10 50 !g/kg appear ed to stimulate growth in A. gibbosa as compared to lower concentrations and control treatments. 5. A. gibbosa growth rates display an exponential decay functional relationship to [As], halving their rate of growth with every 289!g/kg increase in [As 3+ ] or 607!g/kg increase in [As 5+ ].

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153 CHAPTER 5 MEASUREMENT OF FORAMINIFERAL TEST [AS] VIA SEM X RAY DISPERSIVE SPECTROSCOPY, ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY, AND INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROSCOPY 5.1 Introduction Arsenic is an ubiquitous, albei t generally dilute, component of the marine environment, and biological mechanisms to handle it are found across the biota (Maher and Butler, 1988; Neff, 1997; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002) Thermodynamic calculations predict that the As 5+ /As 3+ ratio in no rmal seawater should be approximately 10 26 ; however, the observed ratio in seawater is often in the range 10 1 to 10 1 Johnson (1972) demonstrated that bacterial reduction can account for this departure from thermodynamic equilibrium. Marine organisms ofte n have [As] values many times higher than seawater (Benson and Summons, 1981), though the levels of inorganic As within organisms is generally very low (Maher, 1983; Shinagawa et al. 1983). Instead, organismal As is generally organically bound and non tox ic (Lunde, 1973) A variety of organoarsenicals are commonly found in marine organisms, including various methylations, arsenocholine, arsenobetaine, and arsenosugars (Francesconi and Edmonds, 1998; Francesconi et al. 1998)

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154 Many studies have been done on the As content of marine organisms exposed to such in environmental settings and in the lab (e.g., Klumpp and Peterson, 1979; Benson and Summons, 1981; Maher, 1983; Shinagawa et al. 1983; Shiomi et al. 1983; Maher and Butler, 1988; Shiomi, 1994) Conduc ting such analyses on foraminfers requires a much higher technical resolution (or samples of very many individual foraminifers) to detect the presence of As in such small organisms; for instance, 100 individual 0.05mg foraminifers combined and digested int o a 10mL liquid sample, if each had a relatively high [As] of 10mg/kg, would under ideal circumstances require the ability to resolve the presence of As at the 5ppb level. Measuring fewer, smaller, or less As enriched individuals would require correspondin gly higher resolution. Such high resolution has been technically impossible until relatively recently. Foraminifers utilized in laboratory experiments on the toxicity of As, and foraminiferal specimens collected from the As enriched hydrothermal system of Tutum Bay, PNG, have been exposed to [As] ranging from extremely low ambient seawater values to hydrothermal and experimental solutions with values three orders of magnitude higher. Foraminifers in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG, have been exposed to high [As] conditions for generations; exposure concentrations vary spatiotemporally across the hydrothermal field and with fluctuations in fluid output. Maximum hydrothermal fluid [As] is of order 1000!g/L; minimum [As] approach background seawater levels of or der 5 !g/L. Foraminifers in laboratory experiments have been exposed to known concentrations of As for known periods on timescales ranging from several weeks to several months. Exposure concentrations in the laboratory range from background levels

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155 to maximu m exposures of 1000!g/L. As may be present in foraminiferal organic matter, or may be sequestered or otherwise deposited into test calcite. Various analyses have been conducted at the University of South Florida College of Marine Science and at the USF Cen ter for Water and Environmental Analysis to determine whether and how much As is incorporated within these specimens, including scanning electron microscope energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy (SEM EDX), hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG AFS), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Thus far, it has been determined via ICP MS that environmental specimens show a marked ~10 % increase in test As from ~1 2mg/kg background to ~15 20mg/kg in specimens near to hydrothermal venting; a similar trend is hinted at in laboratory specimens, though of smaller intensity due to shorter exposure timescales maximum [As] in laboratory exposed individuals is ~6mg/kg. 5.2 Methods Foraminifers exposed to various [As] were analyzed to det ermine their residual As content. Foraminifers of several species were obtained near several shallow water hydrothermal vents discharging into Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, in 2003 and 2005. Surface sediments and scrubbed rubble material wer e collected via SCUBA at distances of 30m (the closest distance with appreciable foraminiferal communities) to 300m from the vents, and from several near by, non hydrothermal reference sites. Arsenic exposure history of these specimens cannot be directly d etermined, but environmental [As] varied from a maximum pure hydrothermal 1000 !g/L to a background seawater value of 1 2 !g/L; hydrothermal fields fluctuate

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156 temporospatially, but specimens are presumed to have been exposed to elevated levels for throughout their lifespan. Analyzed specimens include individuals picked live from this material, and specimens from material preserved in ethanol. Additionally, live specimens of Florida Keys Amphistegina gibbosa were exposed to various [As] in the laboratory in a s eries of experiments to determine the effect of As on foraminiferal growth (Chapter 4). Arsenic exposure in these experiments ranged from 0 !g/L to 1000!g/L of either As 3+ or As 5+ ; exposure timescales ranged from four to twelve weeks. After these experiment s, these specimens were preserved frozen at 40¡C until analyzed for their residual [As]. A number of analyses were conducted to identify As within foraminiferal specimens. First, scanning electron microscope energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy (SEM EDX) of whole foraminifers was performed to attempt to identify surface or near surface As, possibly adsorbed in higher concentrations in organic tissue or newly added carbonate, or stored in specific locations. Examination of specimens of various taxa was cond ucted on a Hitachi S 3500N variable pressure scanning electron microscope with an EDAX Sapphire Si(Li) X ray detector and Genesis Apex 2 digital pulse processing electronics and analytical software housed at the USF College of Marine Science Electron Micro scopy Laboratory. Specimens were not sputter coated, and were examined in variable pressure SEM mode to prevent obfuscation of As signal by coating metals. Total As content of foraminifers from Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG, and foraminifers utilized in l aboratory experiments in 2005 and 2007 were measured via inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry utilizing a Perkin Elmer Elan series quadrupole ICP MS at the USF Department of Geology. As masses of individual

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157 foraminifers were of order 5 30 !g, analyse s required dissolution of numerous individual foraminifers to produce sufficient sample for analysis. All individuals from each laboratory exposure experimental condition (see Chapter 4) were combined into single samples of ~1 8mg; environmental specimens, being considerably larger and more abundant, allowed creation of samples 3 50mg in mass. Samples were digested with 0.5mL HNO 3 and 0.25mL H 2 O 2 and diluted to 2mL with deionized water. Samples were gently warmed (70¡C) for an hour to promote digestion, c overed so as to prevent loss due to outgassing/vaporization; 0.01mL of Ir was added to samples to function as an internal standard to compensate against matrix interferences. Arsenic abundance and speciation in foraminiferal specimens exposed to As in labo ratory experiments in 2006 were examined via hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (HG AFS) on a PSAnalytical 10.055 Millennium Excalibur system at the USF Center for Water and Environmental Analysis. As masses of individual foraminifers were of order 10!g, this analysis required dissolution of numerous individual foraminifers to produce sufficient sample for analysis. All 90 individuals from each experimental condition (see Chapter 4) were combined into single samples of ~1mg. Samples were di gested with 0.5mL HNO 3 and 0.25mL H 2 O 2 and diluted to 10mL with deionized water. Samples were gently warmed (70¡C) for an hour to promote digestion, covered so as to prevent loss due to outgassing/vaporization. Of the resultant solution, 1mL subsamples w ere diluted to 30mL prior to analysis to reduce the [HNO 3 ] to a level sufficiently low (0.2%) so as not to interfere with analysis. Samples were run both with and without addition of 1mL saturated potassium iodide (KI) to reduce As 5+ to As 3+

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158 Both ICP MS a nd AFS samples were run against external standards NRCC DORM 2 (dogfish muscle) and IAEA 392 (brown alga, Scenedesmus obliquus ). Spiking of samples and certified reference materials were carried out using arsenate and arsenobetaine purchased from High Puri ty Standards and Fisher Scientific. 5.3 Results Eleven specimens belonging to four species ( Assilina ammonoides Baculogypsinoides spinosus Calcarina defrancii and Amphistegina radiata ) were examined via SEM EDX. The spectrum for all specimens was essen tially the same: The strongest signals were K# lines of Ca, O, C, Cl, Na, and Mg; other present elemental components include K, S, Si, Cu, Fe, and Al (presumably a detection of the SEM mounting stub) (Fig. 5.1). This technique was unable to detect As in an y of the foraminiferal specimens, indicating that localized specimen [As] values never reach sufficiently concentrated levels of ~0.1%. ICP MS was able to detect foraminiferal [As] in all samples (including control and reference specimens exposed to As lev els no greater than background) ranging from 0.3 to 20mg/kg. Field specimens showed a very rapid decline in foraminiferal [As] with distance from hydrothermal vents, similar to previously measured sediment and pore water [As] gradients. Foraminiferal [As] ranged from 16.8 20.0mg/kg 30m from vent sources to 0.3 2.0mg/kg 300m from venting. Middle distance individuals 120m from venting have intermediate [As] values ranging from 3 9mg/kg. Foraminiferal [As] values from specimens far removed from venting are sim ilar to background levels of 0.4 4.4mg/kg measured in individuals from non hydrothermal reference sites, with most

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159 Figure 5.1. SEM EDX analysis of a Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG Assilina ammonoides representative of all foraminiferal specim ens examined. Primary components are Ca and O; secondary constituents are C, Mg, and Cl; tertiary are Na and S; trace components include Al, Si, K, Fe (not apparent in this specimen), and Cu. Arsenic is not detectable in any specimens (arrow). Major peaks are K# (K); also marked are K*, sum, and escape peaks.

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160 being close to 2mg/kg (Fig. 5.2). Background levels indicate that foraminiferal [As] is already substantially elevated over ambient seawater [As] of ~5!g/L. Differences were seen among the five foramin iferal species examined, both in total [As], and in rate of decrease of [As] with distance from venting, although too few specimens have been thus far examined to make any inferences about these interspecific differences Laboratory exposed individuals hav e lower specimen [As] than proximal vent specimens owing to shorter duration of As exposure; specimen [As] values range from 2 7mg/kg. Individuals exposed to lethal [As] had low [As] similar to control specimen [As] (~1.5 2mg/kg), indicating a lack of time for incorporation of As prior to lethality. Specimens of Amphistegina gibbosa exposed to As in the laboratory showed an inversely parabolic relationship between exposure [As] and final foraminiferal [As], indicating that As was increasingly incorporated i nto the specimens with increasing exposure to As, but as foraminiferal growth rates and general health declined with increasing exposure, As incorporation also declined. While background [As] values were similar to field exposed specimens, specimen [As] va lues for high [As] exposure individuals was considerably lower than Tutum Bay vent proximal foraminifers, presumably due to the much shorter exposure times experienced by laboratory specimens. Background foraminiferal [As] were again observed to be ~1.5 2. 0mg/kg, with values of 3.0 6.8mg/kg observed in foraminifers exposed to 50 600 !g/L As for several weeks (Fig. 5.3). Whereas growth rate effects were dependent upon species of As exposure As 3+ or As 5+ showing clear differences in toxicity between the two sp ecies, no such difference is apparent in final foraminiferal [As]; foraminiferal [As] is dependent only on total As exposure concentration ([As T ]), indicating physical rather than biological uptake.

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161 Figure 5.2. Specimen [ As] in several foraminiferal species exposed to various in situ [As] in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG, determined via ICP MS. Specimen [As] decreases with distance from hydrothermal venting.

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162 Figure 5.3. Mean specimen [As] in foraminifers exposed to various seawater [As] in laboratory experiments determined via ICP MS. Error bars represent the range of [As] values observed at each exposure level. Specimen [As] increases with exposure [As] until exposure levels become high enoug h to prevent incorporation through reduced growth.

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163 Foraminiferal specimens exposed to As 3+ and As 5+ at concentrations from 0 to 200 !g/L for six weeks were examined via HG AFS. ICP MS analyses of specimens exposed to identical conditions measured specimen [ As] ranging from 2 7mg/kg. However, no As was detected by HG AFS in any foraminiferal specimen despite a detection limit of approximately 1mg/kg. Background [As] in foraminiferal specimens not exposed to As were measured to be above this level, suggesting that foraminiferal As is sequestered in a form not amenable to HG AFS detection; i.e. rather than adsorption of As into foraminiferal calcite, these results suggest detoxification by conversion of As into organoarsenicals. 5.4 Discussion Biological [As] have been found to be correlated with elevated environmental [As] for a number of taxa and locations (Klumpp and Peterson, 1979; Langston, 1980, 1984; Maher and Butler, 1988) Benson and Summons (1981) reported foraminiferal whole specimen [As] values of 3 mg/kg for Lizard Island, Australia, Marginopora vertebralis values similar to the background values herein reported for both field and laboratory specimens. These values are much lower than those found in other marine taxa, such as macroalgae, mollusks, a nd crustaceans, where [As] values are generally 10 100 % greater; values observed in fish, however, are of a similar magnitude (Klumpp and Peterson, 1979; Benson and Summons, 1981; Maher, 1983; Maher and Butler, 1988) Biological [As] observed in Tutum Bay foraminifers is of a similar magnitude as biological [As] observed in other Tutum Bay biota (Price, 2008) ; they are very similar to values in the

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164 soft coral Clavularia sp. and the green calcareous algae Halimeda sp., and 2 3 % higher than those observed in the tunicate Polycarpa sp. (Fig. 5.4). While laboratory exposed specimens provided more controlled conditions than field specimens, several complicating variables lead to difficulties in comparing specimen [As] analyses on foraminifers from different As ex posure experiments. 1) Florida Keys field specimens utilized as experimental specimens were collected from various locations, depths, and times. Thus, these foraminifers may not have had identical initial [As]. 2) While within experiment controls on specim en size were utilized, different experiments utilized size classes appropriate and available at that time. Depending on the mechanism of As incorparation, the differing initial amounts of "clean" biological and calcitic material may alter final specimen [A s] through signal dilution. 3) Exposure times to high [As] solutions differed among experiments. If the process of As incorporation in foraminiferal specimens is not at equilibrium with the medium, but an accumulative process, the increased exposure time o f some experiments will tend to increase specimen [As]. Localized biological concentration of As has been observed in some tissues of some organisms; for example, the kidneys of the giant clam Tridacna maxima may have [As] of >1000mg/kg while other tissues contain only a few percent as much (Benson and Summons, 1981) The SEM EDX profiles observed here for foraminiferal specimens essentially provide the basic recipe for constructing a foraminifer: abundant calcium, carbon, and oxygen; a medium amount of sod ium, chlorine, magnesium, and potassium; and a smattering of other essential trace components, including silicon, iron, and copper. ICP MS demonstrates that foraminifers exposed to high As media for as short as six

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165 Figure 5.4. Total biotic [As] for vari ous non foraminiferal species in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG. Top: Soft coral Clavularia sp. Middle: Calcareous green alga Halimeda sp. Bottom: Tunicate Polycarpa sp. From Price (2008) The more uniform [As] observed in Polycarpa sp. may be due to its u tilization of a planktonic and more transitory food source.

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166 weeks accumulate As and concentrate it to levels many times higher than exposure levels, and several times higher than background levels, with extreme observed field values three times higher. Des pite this, no evidence is found of localized concentration of As to levels detectable via SEM EDX i.e ., intra specimen [As] was never observed to reach the level of ~0.1%. For highly enriched hydrothermally proximal field specimens with a specimen [As] of 20mg/kg, this suggests that localized within specimen As content is never concentrated by a factor of more than 50 % (localized concentration of more than 80 % were observed in T. maxima ). If specimens are acclimating to high As exposure by sequestering the As into local calcite deposits, cytoplasm, or organic shell matrix, the As is either concentrated to a lesser degree than detectable, or it is sequestered in a region, such as the interior, not yet examined. Differences in specimen As uptake was noted rela tive to both length of exposure to As, and to initial specimen size, the latter suggesting direct physical ties between specimen As incorporation and surface area/volume relationships. It is suggested that laser ablation spectroscopy (LA ICP MS) could prov ide both the spatial resolution and degree of sensitivity necessary to identify possible As sequestration. Reichelt Brushett and McOrist (2003) found that the vast majority of As in Great Barrier Reef (GBR) scleractinian corals ( Acropora tenuis ) was found in the soft tissue and zooxanthellae (1.12 3.46mg/kg), and only a tiny fraction was found in skeletal carbonate (<0.001mg/kg), suggesting that foraminiferal calcite may not be the ultimate location of sequestered As. Physiological differences between these taxa make this supposition speculative, however, and it is further noted that GBR corals are exposed to only typical ambient [As] Tutum Bay foraminifers may incorporate more As into

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167 calcite due to the higher intrinsic load. There is some indication that b iologic As accumulation is enhanced by endosymbionts (Benson and Summons, 1981; Maher and Butler, 1988) ; and Reichelt Brushett and McOrist (2003) found that the zooxanthellae fraction contains the highest [As] in GBR corals. Experimental samples were expos ed to high As solutions for various time periods; generally six or twelve weeks. Despite these different exposure timescales, some preliminary adsorption rates may be estimated. Assuming a fairly linear rate of As accumulation and a background specimen [As ] of approximately 2mg/kg, laboratory exposed specimens are observed to sequester As at a rate of approximately 0.25mg/kg/wk. This would suggest that field exposed specimens exhibiting [As] of 15 20mg/kg have been exposed to high As fluids for on order 52 72wks, an estimate which does not seem unreasonable, but which is ~2 % longer than local foraminiferal lifespans, and perhaps suggests more intense exposure conditions or utilization of As rich algae as a food source When sample dilution and initial specim en weight is taken into account, positive results should have been seen by HG AFS if foraminiferal [As] were >~1mg/kg (depending on initial sample weights). However, all samples examined were below detection limit on the instrument. As it is known that oth er specimens measured via ICP MS, even those exposed to no As, contained [As] greater than this, it is surmised that the As present in the foraminifers measured via HG AFS was of a type unavailable to this technique. The lack of detection of these values v ia HG AFS suggests that a substantial fraction of the foraminiferally sequestered As (>50%) is present in the form of organoarsenicals, which would not be detectable thereon unless initially broken down to

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168 inorganic As (conversion to ionized plasma effecti vely does this, which is why this As is detectable via ICP MS). The levels of inorganic As within organisms is generally very low (Maher, 1983); most organismal As is organically bound and non toxic (Lunde, 1973) A variety of organoarsenicals are commonly found in marine organisms, including various methylations, arsenocholine, arsenobetaine, and arsenosugars, and more than 30 others (Francesconi and Edmonds, 1998; Francesconi et al. 1998) Price (2008) found that Tutum Bay biota containing elevated amoun ts of As sequester it in a variety of organoarsenicals, mostly arsenobetaine; it is surmised that a significant proportion of foraminiferal As may be sequestered in the same manner.

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16 9 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS "Tout ce q ui, dans la nature, n'est pas apprŽciable ˆ la vue simple, non seulement reste inconnu de la masse des populations, mais encore Žchappe, des sicles entiers, ˆ l'observation des hommes spŽciaux qui cherchent ˆ dŽvoiler les beautŽs de la crŽation. Combien d e myriades d'tres nous restent encore ˆ conna”tre! combien d'annŽes s'Žcouleront encore avant que nous ayons acquis une juste idŽe de l'ensemble de la zoologie!" [All that, in nature, is not appreciable to plain sight, not only remains unknown to the mass of the population, but still escapes, over the span of centuries, the observation of those special men who seek to reveal the beauties of creation. How many myriad beings still remain to become known to us! how many more years will run out before we have acquired a true idea of the ensemble of zoology!] (d'Orbigny, 1839a) 6.1 Overview The marine shallow water hydrothermal system in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, PNG, is unique in both chemistry and scale, containing both some of the highest concentrations

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170 and volume of output of As ever recorded for submarine hydrothermal systems, including mid ocean ridge black smokers. Foraminifers in the benthic system are living in proximity to [As] as high as 1000mg/kg, temperatures as high as 90¡C, and pH values as low a s 6. Despite the high ambient [As] and generally adverse conditions, a diverse foraminiferal fauna was observed in Tutum Bay. Foraminiferal abundance and diversity both increase with decreasing hydrothermal influence, as determined by decreasing temperatur e and sediment and pore water [As], and increasing pH, salinity, and carbonate content of sediments. Foraminiferal diversity increases both in terms of species counts, and as defined by Fisher's # diversity metric. Several other diversity measures, however show little or no change with increasing distance from hydrothermal venting. A sharp transition zone between regions of very low and regions of higher, more normal abundance occurs 140 150m from venting, defining zones of higher and lower hydrothermal in fluence. Several environmental parameters drop together and exponentially with distance from hydrothermal venting and serve as proxy markers of hydrothermalicity, including temperature, pH, salinity, and pore water [As]. Rubble sample assemblages were most strongly tied to these variables. Sediment bound [As] declines logarithmically with distance from venting; sediment sample assemblages were most strongly tied to this variable. Finer scale division of the environmental parameters elucidate five sub region s: high hydrothermal, low hydrothermal, distal, far distal/deep reference, and shallow reference sites. Foraminiferal assemblages show very good agreement with these sub regions, mostly controlled by high temperature and low pH in hydrothermal regions, hig h sediment [As] at distal sites, and depth at reference sites.

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171 Foraminifers were observed to be amongst the first taxa to appear in samples with increasing distance from hydrothermal venting. Temperature and pH appeared to ultimately be more important in d etermining foraminiferal diversity and abundance in Tutum Bay than did sedimentary or pore water [As]. In the laboratory, foraminifers showed an increased growth rate in the presence of As due to either the antimicrobial effect of the As on potential paras ites, and/or to possible foraminiferal utilization of As as an ultratrace nutrient. These observations suggest that at least some foraminifers may be slightly more tolerant of As exposure than other benthic macrofauna, and are able to take advantage of the local high As microenvironment where growth of parasites and/or competitors is suppressed. Comparisons may be made between the Tutum Bay foraminiferal community and those observed in other shallow water hydrothermal systems, and with non hydrothermal shal low water benthic foraminiferal communities in general in the tropical Indo Pacific. The nearest foraminiferal research to our Tutum Bay study site is likely work done in Madang and Papuan Lagoons off mainland Papua New Guinea, although other regional work has been done on the Great Barrier Reef. However, "one extensive area from which shallow water foraminifera are virtually unknown is the north coast of the island of New Guinea" (Langer and Lipps, 2003). Those studies which have been done have found a hig h foraminiferal diversty, and a species assemblage similar to that presented in Chapter 2. Langer and Lipps (2003) identified 182 foraminiferal species from samples totaling more than 13,000 individual foraminfers taken from Madang Lagoon on the northeast coast of mainland PNG, ~800km nearly due west of Ambitle Island. This compares well to the 159 species I

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172 identified out of a total of >15,000 specimens. Though covering a wider range of habitats than those sampled at Tutum Bay, similar diversity index valu es were reported: their sandy central lagoon floor had 50 species and # values from 8 20; their sandy reef barrier had 79 species and # values >20 These environments and # values are similar to far distal Tutum Bay sites, as well as to Picnic Island and D anlum Bay reference sites, which exhibited # values generally from 10 22. Haig (1988) reported 101 species of miliolids from 125 samples collected from Papua Lagoon on mainland PNG's southeastern coast; Belford (1966) reported 156 foraminiferal species bel onging to 58 genera from Miocene and Pliocene deposits on mainland PNG. Loeblich and Tappan's (1994) much more extensive survey of 378 samples collected across the Sahul Shelf identified a much greater 946 benthic and planktic species. However, these sampl es covered depths of up to 3,500m; when restricted to benthic foraminiferal species observed from samples <100m, only 280 species remain. Shallow water hydrothermal systems occur in many geologically active areas, such as Baja California, Dominica in the C aribbean, and Italy and Greece in the Mediterranean, as well as at several locations around Papua New Guinea. Due to the steep thermal and geochemical gradients, much work has been done on bacterial and archaeal communities, examining extremophiles and hyp erthermophiles, and seeking novel chemoautotrophic pathways similar to those observed in terrestrial hot springs or deep sea hydrothermal venting (e.g., Brinkhoff et al. 1999; Amend et al. 2003; Rogers and Amend, 2005; Rusch et al. 2005). In contrast to deep sea vents, which are characterized by exotic thermophilic micro and megafauna (Van Dover, 2000), shallow water hydrothermal systems typically show no vent specific fauna other than prokaryotic extremophiles.

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173 Rather, opportunistic species, such as th e polychaete Capitella capitata and the nematode Oncholaimus campyloceroides may show higher local abundance (Dando et al. 1999), but, overall, the infauna shows a much reduced diversity, while the epifaunal diversity remains high (Tarasov et al. 1999; Panieri et al. 2005). These observations are consistent with how the foraminiferal fauna responded at Tutum Bay. Such responses are likely due to the geologically short lifespans of shallow water hydrothermal systems, and the lack of selection pressure to utilize these particular niches (Dando et al. 1999). Relatively little work has been conducted on foraminiferal communities in hydrothermal ecosystems, and what work has been done has largely been concerned with deep water locales. These deep hydrotherma l studies have generally found that agglutinated species dominate, and that assemblages exhibit low diversity and abundance ( e.g ., Nienstedt and Arnold, 1988). Low abundance and diversity in these environments may be due to rapid changes in physical and ch emical conditions (Jonasson et al. 1995). Panieri et al (2005) studied benthic foraminiferal communities around a shallow water hydrothermal system in the Tyrrhenian Sea, although, at 60 300m, the depths were still considerably greater than those experie nced by hydrothermal communities at Ambitle Island. Similarly to Ambitle, however, no or very few foraminifers were observed in samples proximal to hydrothermal activity, and no hydrothermally endemic species were recovered. The authors further report that although trends of increasing diversity and abundance were apparent between hydrothermal and non hydrothermal areas, the particular species membership of assemblages was variable and "likely reflects the extreme variability of the investigated areas" and that "these differences cannot be explained through a simple correlation with one environmental parameter or with several

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174 parameters in combination". They also acknowledge the effect low pH has on the abundance of foraminifers in hydrothermal areas (Panie ri et al. 2005) 6.2 Conclusions Thus, the following conclusions may be drawn from this dissertation research: A total of 159 foraminiferal species belonging to ten orders were observed in the Tutum Bay hydrothermal system and near by non hydrothermal re ference sites. The majority of specimens observed were symbiont bearing larger rotaliids, typical of tropical Indo Pacific reef systems; the most diverse taxa were the smaller miliolids, representing nearly half of all observed species. The foraminiferal c ommunity is well described by a logarithmic series distribution, with a small number of very abundant taxa, and a long tail of many rare taxa; the parameters which describe the Tutum Bay foraminiferal community are #=24 with x =1. Foraminiferal abundance and diversity increase with distance from hydrothermal venting, from # values of 5 10 to # values from 10 20; communities elevated from the sediment surface onto rubble exhibit a more rapid increase in abundance and d iversity. Neither major morphological groups nor individual species constitute higher proportions in various hydrothermal regimes; rather, physiochemical parameters equally prevent all foraminiferal taxa from occupying or accumulating in hydrothermal areas

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175 Most hydrothermal parameters (temperature, pH, pore water [As], salinity) return to background levels as a power law of degree 1 with distance from venting; sediment [As] decreases logarithmically with distance. Depth and sediment [As] are the best pred ictors of sedimentary foraminiferal communities; temperature and pH are the most important controlling variables for rubble communities. Exposure to A s 3+ at concentrations &50 !m/kg suppressed growth in Amphistegina gibbosa Concentrations of 600 1000 !g/kg stopped growth almost entirely. Exposure to As 5+ at concentrations &100 !m/kg suppressed growth in A. gibbosa As 3+ is ~2% more toxic than As 5+ to A. gibbosa Concentrations of As 3+ from 2 10 !m/kg and As 5+ from 10 50!g/kg appeared to stimulate growth in A. gibbosa as compared to lower concentrations and control treatments, possibly due to antimicrobicidal effects of low [As]. A. gibbosa growth rates display an exponential decay functional relationship to [As], halving their rate of growth with every 300!g/kg increase in [As 3+ ] or 600!g/kg increase in [As 5+ ]. Foraminiferal tests from Ambitle Island show background total [As] of ~2!g/kg; tests proximal to hydrothermal venting show total [As] of 17 20 !g/kg. Laboratory exposed foraminifers exhibit similar backgro und test total [As], and maximum test [As] of 5 7 !g/kg. Lack of detection via SEM EDX indicates intra specimen subregional concentration factors of < 50 %; HG AFS analysis suggests the majority of As is present as organoarsenicals.

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198 PLATES

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199 Plate 1. Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny, 1839 1.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 1.2 Light micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 100!m. 1.3 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 1.4 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 1.5 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of left side; scale bar = 50!m. 1.6 Scanning electron micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 100!m. 1.7 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of edge view; scale bar = 100!m.

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200 Plate 1. Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny, 1839

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201 Plate 2. Hauerina pacifica Cushman, 1917 2.1 Light micro graph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 2.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 2.3 Light micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 2.4 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 2.5 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; s cale bar = 100!m. 2.6 Scanning electron micrograph; right side, enlargement of aperture; scale bar = 50!m. 2.7 Scanning electron micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 2.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of end view; scale bar = 50!m.

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202 Plate 2. Hauerina pacifica Cushman, 1917

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203 Plate 3. Quinqueloculina bubnanensis McCulloch, 1977 3.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 3.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 3.3 Light micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 3.4 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 3.5 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 3.6 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of aperture; scale bar = 50!m. 3.7 Scanning electron micrograph; end view; sc ale bar = 100!m. 3.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of end view; scale bar = 50!m.

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204 Plate 3. Quinqueloculina bubnanensis McCulloch, 1977

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205 Plate 4. Quinqueloculina tropicalis Cushman, 1924 4.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 10 0 !m. 4.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 4.3 Light micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 4.4 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 4.5 Scanning electon micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 4.6 Scanning el ectron micrograph; enlargement of aperture; scale bar = 20!m. 4.7 Scanning electron micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 4.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of end view; scale bar = 30!m.

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206 Plate 4. Quinqueloculina tropicalis Cushman, 1924

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207 Plate 5. Pseudotriloculina patagonica (d'Orbigny, 1839) 5.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 5.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 5.3 Light micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 5.4 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 5.5 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 5.6 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of right side; scale bar = 30!m. 5.7 Scanning electron micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 5.8 Scanning e lectron micrograph; enlargement of end view; scale bar = 50!m.

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208 Plate 5. Pseudotriloculina patagonica (d'Orbigny, 1839)

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209 Plate 6. Triloculinella pseudooblonga (Zheng, 1980) 6.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 6.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 6.3 Light micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 6.4 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 6.5 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 6.6 Scanning electron micrograph; enlarge ment of right side; scale bar = 50!m. 6.7 Scanning electron micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 6.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of end view; scale bar = 50!m.

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210 Plate 6. Triloculinella pseudooblonga (Zheng, 1980)

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211 Plate 7. Dendrit ina striata Hofker, 1951 7.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 7.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 7.3 Light micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 100!m. 7.4 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 7.5 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 7.6 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of right side, final chambers; scale bar = 100 !m. 7.7 Scanning electron micrograph; apertural face; scale bar = 100!m. 7.8 Scanning electron micro graph; enlargement of apertural face; scale bar = 50!m.

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212 Plate 7. Dendritina striata Hofker, 1951

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213 Plate 8. Globigerinoides ruber (d'Orbigny, 1839) 8.1 Light micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 100!m. 8.2 Light micrograph; umbilical side; scale b ar = 100!m. 8.3 Light micrograph; side view; scale bar = 100!m. 8.4 Scanning electron micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 100!m. 8.5 Scanning electron micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 100!m. 8.6 Scanning electron micrograph; spiral side, enlarg ement of secondary aperture; scale bar = 50!m. 8.7 Scanning electron micrograph; side view; scale bar = 100!m. 8.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of chamber surface; scale bar = 50!m.

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214 Plate 8. Globigerinoides ruber (d'Orbigny, 1839)

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215 Pl ate 9. Reussella pulchra Cushman, 1945 9.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 9.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 9.3 Light micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 9.4 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 9.5 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 9.6 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of left side; scale bar = 100!m. 9.7 Scanning electron micrograph; end view; scale bar = 100!m. 9.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enl argement of end view; scale bar = 100!m.

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216 Plate 9. Reussella pulchra Cushman, 1945

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217 Plate 10. Rosalina globularis d'Orbigny, 1826 10.1 Light micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 100!m. 10.2 Light micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 100!m. 10. 3 Light microtraph; edge view; scale bar = 100!m. 10.4 Scanning electron micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 100!m. 10.5 Scanning electron micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 100!m. 10.6 Scanning electron micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 100!m. 10.7 Scanning electron micrograph; oblique umbilical view; scale bar = 100!m. 10.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of umbilical flap and aperture; scale bar = 50!m.

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218 Plate 10. Rosalina globularis d'Orbigny, 1826

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219 Plate 11. Planorbulina ace rvalis Brady, 1884 11.1 Light micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 500!m. 11.2 Light micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 500!m. 11.3 Light micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 500!m. 11.4 Scanning electron micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 300!m. 11.5 Scanning electron micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 300!m. 11.6 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of chamber surface, spiral side; scale bar = 100!m. 11.7 Scanning electron micrograph; oblique umbilical view; scale bar = 300!m. 11.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of oblique umbilical view showing multiple apertures; scale bar = 100!m.

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220 Plate 11. Planorbulina acervalis Brady, 1884

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221 Plate 12. Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny, 1826 12.1 Light micrograph; spiral side; s cale bar = 500!m. 12.2 Light micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 500!m. 12.3 Light micrograph; umbilical side, enlargement of aperture; scale bar = 500!m. 12.4 Scanning electron micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 500!m. 12.5 Scanning electron mic rograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 500!m. 12.6 Scanning electron micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 500!m. 12.7 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of edge view; scale bar = 200!m. 12.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of spiral surface of last chamber; scale bar = 100!m.

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222 Plate 12. Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny, 1826

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223 Plate 13. Amphistegina radiata (Fichtel and Moll, 1789) 13.1 Light micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 500!m. 13.2 Light micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 500!m. 13.3 Light micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 500!m. 13.4 Scanning electron micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 500!m. 13.5 Scanning electron micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 500!m. 13.6 Scanning electron micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 200!m. 13.7 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of apertural face; scale bar = 50!m.

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224 Plate 13. Amphistegina radiata (Fichtel and Moll, 1798)

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225 Plate 14. Heterolepa subhaidingeri (Parr, 1950) 14.1 Light micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 100!m. 14.2 Light micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 100!m. 14.3 Light micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 100!m. 14.4 Scanning electron micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 100!m. 14.5 Scanning electron micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 1 00 !m. 14.6 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of umbilical side final chambers; scale bar = 50!m. 14.7 Scanning electron micrograph; apertural face; scale bar = 100!m. 14.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of aperture; scale bar = 30!m.

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2 26 Plate 14. Heterolepa subhaidingeri (Parr, 1950)

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227 Plate 15. Calcarina defrancii d'Orbigny, 1826 15.1 Light micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 500!m. 15.2 Light micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 500!m. 15.3 Light micrograph; umbilical side enlargement of final chambers; scale bar = 500 !m. 15.4 Scanning electron micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 500!m. 15.5 Scanning electron micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 500!m. 15.6 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of apertural face ; scale bar = 200!m. 15.7 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of spines; scale bar = 200!m. 15.8 Scanning electron micrograph; spiral side, enlargement of final chambers; scale bar = 200!m.

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228 Plate 15. Calcarina defrancii d'Orbigny, 1826

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229 Plat e 16. Calcarina spengleri (Gmelin, 1791) 16.1 Light micrograph; spiral side; scale bar = 500!m. 16.2 Light micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 500!m. 16.3 Light micrograph; apertural view; scale bar = 500!m. 16.4 Scanning electron micrograph; spir al side; scale bar = 500!m. 16.5 Scanning electron micrograph; umbilical side; scale bar = 500!m. 16.6 Scanning electron micrograph; side view, apertural face; scale bar = 300!m. 16.7 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of apertural face; scale ba r = 100!m. 16.8 Scanning electron micrograph; spiral side, enlargement of final chambers; scale bar = 200!m.

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230 Plate 16. Calcarina spengleri (Gmelin, 1791)

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231 Plate 17. Elphidium crispum (Linn Ž, 1758) 17.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 10 0!m. 17.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 17.3 Light micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 100!m. 17.4 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 17.5 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 17.6 Scan ning electron micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 100!m. 17.7 Scanning electron micrograph; edge view, enlargement of apertural face; scale bar = 100 !m. 17.8 Scanning electron micrograph; oblique view, enlargement of apertural face; scale bar = 100!m.

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232 Pl ate 17. Elphidium crispum (Linn Ž, 1758)

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233 Plate 18. Assilina ammonoides (Gronovius, 1781) 18.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 18.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 18.3 Light micrograph; apertural face; scale bar = 100!m. 18.4 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 18.5 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 18.6 Scanning electron micrograph; apertural view; scale bar = 50!m. 18.7 Scanning electron micrograph; edge vie w; scale bar = 100!m. 18.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of edge view; scale bar = 50!m.

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234 Plate 18. Assilina ammonoides (Gronovius, 1781)

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235 Plate 19. Heterostegina depressa d'Orbigny, 1826 19.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 500!m. 19.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 500!m. 19.3 Light micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 300!m. 19.4 Scanning electron micrograph; right side; scale bar = 300!m. 19.5 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; scale bar = 300!m. 19.6 Sc anning electron micrograph; edge view; scale bar = 200!m. 19.7 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of edge view; scale bar = 50!m. 19.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of surface; scale bar = 50!m.

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236 Plate 19. Heterostegina depressa d'Orbi gny, 1826

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237 Plate 20. Nummulites venosus (Fichtel and Moll, 1798) 20.1 Light micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 20.2 Light micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 20.3 Light micrograph; side view; scale bar = 100!m. 20.4 Scanning electr on micrograph; right side; scale bar = 100!m. 20.5 Scanning electron micrograph; left side; scale bar = 100!m. 20.6 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of left side ultimate chambers; scale bar = 100!m. 20.7 Scanning electron micrograph; edge view ; scale bar = 100!m. 20.8 Scanning electron micrograph; enlargement of apertural face; scale bar = 50!m.

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238 Plate 20. Nummulites venosus (Fichtel and Moll, 1798)

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239 APPENDICES

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240 Appendix I. Counts of species observed in samples at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, corrected for relative sample weight and proportion picked. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Jaculella acuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoides pusillus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Paratrochammina globorotaliformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sahulia barkeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Textularia agglutinans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 0 0 Textularia cushmani 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia foliacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 Textularia lateralis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 Septotextularia rugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pse udogaudryina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides siphoniferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Clavulina angularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clavulina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoid es denticulatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides inaequalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillina spinigera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mychostomina revertens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina grosseperforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina cf limbata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina vivipara 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira involvens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira planorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirinella exigua 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella diversa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculina advena 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Nodobaculariella convexiuscula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina striata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella auriculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella ujiiei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 Adelosina pascuaensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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241 Appendi x I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Adelosina sp. B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Flintia robusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina angulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina communis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Spiroloculina corrugata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina excisa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiro loculina fragilis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina nummiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina subimpressa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 Spiroloculina tenuiseptata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculi na venusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Agglutinella agglutinans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 9 5 5 8 Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 Hauerina diversa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hauerina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 Lachlanella compressiostoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lachlanella parkeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Lachlanella subpolygona 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massilina granulocostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina crassicarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina cuvieriana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina funafutiensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina parvaggluta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina sulcata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina tropicalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina tubilocula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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242 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Miliolinella labiosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 Miliolinella philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Miliolinella suborbicularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudotriloculina patagonica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 Ptychomiliola separans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo sarsi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyr go striolata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Pyrgo yabei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo cf yabei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina bertheliniana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina littoralis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina transversestriata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina tricarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Triloculina cf tricarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculinella pseudooblonga 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 Triloculinella sublineata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wellmanellinella striata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parahauerinoides fragilissimus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina involuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirosigmoilina bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articularia sp. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 1 0 0 0 Articulina alticostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Arti culina cf. mucronata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudohauerina orientalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alveolinella quoyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 Borelis schlumbergeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dendritina striata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Laevipeneroplis laevigatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplis pertusus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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243 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5 S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Peneroplis planatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirolina cylindracea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Parasorites orbitolitoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphis orus hemprichii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sorites marginalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Sorites orbiculus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cerebrina perforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina yamazaki 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neogloboquadrina humerosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pulleniatina obliquiloculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 Beella digitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Globigerina bulloides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 10 1 9 1 2 3 Globigerinella siphonifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides ruber 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Globigerinoides sacculiferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Orbulina bilobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aphel ophragmina brittanica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 Bolivina vadescens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bolivinellina translucens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Lugdunum hantkenianum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rugobolivinella ele gans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectella rhomboidalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Cassidelina subcapitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Loxostomina porrecta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rectobolivina bifrons 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrinella lobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 Allassoida schlumbergerii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina jugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina zanzibarica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerina raphana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

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244 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Bulimina marginata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Floresina durrandi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 Neouvigerina ampullacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Chrysalidinella dimorpha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella pulchra 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 2 2 2 Sigmavirgulina tortuosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Baggina philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Eponides cribrorepandus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 1 Eponides repandus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Rotorbis aube ri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 Neoeponides procerus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Neoconorbina petasiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Rosalina globularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 14 0 4 0 0 0 Pannellaina earlandi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Angulodiscorbis corrugatiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schackoinella globosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Buliminoides williamsonianus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninoides diphes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Parrelloides bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrella zhengae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 8 0 0 0 0 1 Planulina retia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulina acervalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 Asanonell a tubulifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphistegina lessonii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 3 6 8 8 27 23 43 Amphistegina radiata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 12 6 17 Nonionoides grateloupi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinella rostrata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 2 Anomalinoides globosus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 Heterolepa subhaidingeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Baculogypsina sphaerulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

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245 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Calcarina defrancii 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 8 22 8 9 10 4 7 Calcarina hispida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Calcarina spengleri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 3 0 1 Cellanthus craticulatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 5 Elphidium crispum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 Elphidium simplex 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 2 25 0 0 0 0 0 Assilina ammonoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 5 9 13 11 9 Heterostegina depressa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 Nummulites venosus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 6 7 9 TOTAL 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 7 2 32 33 164 36 83 95 74 126

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246 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5 R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Jaculella acuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoides pusillus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Paratrochammina globo rotaliformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sahulia barkeri 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 Textularia agglutinans 2 8 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 0 2 6 0 5 Textularia cushmani 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Textularia foliacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 Textularia lateralis 1 3 0 0 0 0 4 1 3 0 0 3 0 0 1 3 2 0 Septotextularia rugosa 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 1 1 Pseudogaudryina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides siphoniferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 1 0 Clavulina angularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clavulina pacifica 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides denticulatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 Conicospirillinoides inaequalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillina spinigera 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mychostomina revertens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Spirillina grosseperforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina cf limbata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina vivipara 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira involvens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira planorbis 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirinella exigua 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella diversa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculina advena 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nodobaculariella convexiuscula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina striata 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella auriculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella ujiiei 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Adelosina pascuaensis 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0

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247 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B 5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Adelosina sp. B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Flintia robusta 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 Spiroloculina angulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina communis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina corrugata 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Spiroloculina excisa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina fragilis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina nummiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina subimpressa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Spiroloculina tenuiseptata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina venusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Agglutinella agglutinans 7 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 3 4 9 6 4 Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 2 Hauerina diversa 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 Hauerina pacifica 0 2 2 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 0 3 2 0 3 15 0 2 Lachlanella compressiostoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 L achlanella parkeri 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Lachlanella subpolygona 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Massilina granulocostata 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 Quinquelocul ina crassicarinata 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Quinqueloculina cuvieriana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina funafutiensis 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina parvaggluta 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quin queloculina philippinensis 2 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 3 5 Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina sulcata 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina tropicalis 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Quinqueloculina tubilocula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

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248 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5 R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Miliolinella labiosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Miliolinella philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Miliolinella suborbicularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudot riloculina patagonica 0 2 1 2 0 1 5 2 4 4 1 1 1 1 0 5 2 7 Ptychomiliola separans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo sarsi 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 Pyrgo striolata 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 Pyrgo yabei 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 Pyrgo cf yabei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 Triloculina bertheliniana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina littoralis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina transversestriata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina tricarinata 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 Triloculina cf tricarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculinella pseudooblonga 0 0 7 0 0 1 2 0 5 0 3 8 1 0 2 5 0 0 Triloculinella sublineata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wellmanellinella striata 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parahauerinoides fragilissimus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Sigmoihauerina bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina involuta 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 Spiros igmoilina bradyi 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 Articularia sp 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 Articulina alticostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina cf mucronata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudohauerina orientalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 Alveolinella quoyi 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Borelis schlumbergeri 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dendritina striata 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Laevipeneroplis laevigatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplis pertusus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 1

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249 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Pe neroplis planatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirolina cylindracea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parasorites orbitolitoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisorus hemprichii 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Sorites marginalis 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 Sorites orbiculus 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Cerebrina perforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina yamazaki 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neogloboquadrina humerosa 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Pulleniatina obliquiloculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 0 Beella digitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerina bulloides 6 8 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 8 4 3 0 1 23 7 13 Globigerinella siphonifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 Globigerinoides ruber 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 3 0 2 Globigerinoides sacculiferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Orbulina bilobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aphelophragmina brittanica 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 Bolivina vad escens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bolivinellina translucens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lugdunum hantkenianum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Rugobolivinella elegans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectella rhomboidalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cassidelina subcapitata 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Loxostomina porrecta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rectobolivina bifrons 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrinella lobata 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Allassoida schlumbergerii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina jugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina zanzibarica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerina raphana 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

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250 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Bulimina marginata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Floresina durrandi 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Neouvigerina ampullacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Chrysalidinella dimorpha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella pulchra 4 10 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 5 1 0 2 0 3 8 Sigmavirgulina tortuosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Baggina philippinensis 0 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponides cribrorepandus 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 2 3 Eponides repandus 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rotorbis auberi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 2 0 0 Neoeponides procer us 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 Neoconorbina petasiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalina globularis 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 4 1 0 1 30 3 10 Pannellaina earlandi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Angulodiscorbis corrugatiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schackoinella globosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Buliminoides williamsonianus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninoides diphes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parrelloides bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrella zhengae 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 Planulina retia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulina acervalis 0 0 4 3 0 0 3 2 2 1 3 2 1 1 0 6 1 1 Asanonella tubulifera 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 Amphist egina lessonii 54 94 4 0 0 1 1 1 3 6 25 48 17 13 46 296 66 163 Amphistegina radiata 17 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 18 13 5 13 72 36 70 Nonionoides grateloupi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinella rostrata 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 3 1 1 Anomal inoides globosus 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 Heterolepa subhaidingeri 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3 1 3 3 0 2 11 1 9 Baculogypsina sphaerulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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251 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Calcarina defrancii 2 8 11 4 3 5 86 23 15 38 91 118 29 11 8 18 5 4 Calcarina hispida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Calcarina spengleri 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 Cellanthus craticulatus 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 3 4 Elphidium crispum 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 2 4 4 0 3 3 2 0 Elphidium simplex 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 Assilina ammonoides 13 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 17 18 6 11 Heterostegina depressa 3 11 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 4 3 3 4 1 4 24 12 8 Nummulites venosus 17 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 15 8 24 TOTAL 152 373 55 15 5 16 123 40 40 83 175 270 108 53 137 615 191 382

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252 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B 5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Jaculella acuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoides pusillus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Paratrochammina g loborotaliformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 3 1 0 Sahulia barkeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 5 0 0 Textularia agglutinans 18 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 1 1 3 6 5 5 4 3 0 Textularia cushmani 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 2 1 4 3 0 0 Textularia foliacea 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 Textularia lateralis 12 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 2 3 5 4 1 3 0 Septotextularia rugosa 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 Pseudogaudryina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides siphoniferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Clavulina angularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clavulina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides denticulatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Conicospirillinoides inaequalis 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillina spinigera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mychostomina revertens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 Spirillina grosseperforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina cf limbata 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Spirillina vivipara 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Cornuspira involvens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 Cornuspira planorbis 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 Planispirinella exigua 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella dive rsa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Nubeculina advena 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Nodobaculariella convexiuscula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina striata 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella auriculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella ujiiei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 Adelosina pascuaensis 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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253 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R 150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Adelosina sp. B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Flintia robusta 30 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 2 2 2 8 0 Spiroloculina angulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina communis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina corrugata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Spiroloculina excisa 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Spiroloculina fragilis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina nummiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina subimpressa 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 Spiroloculina tenuiseptata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina venusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Agglutinella agglutinans 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 8 7 8 7 2 0 Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 2 0 Hauerina diversa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 Hauerina pacifica 30 8 0 0 0 7 4 3 9 3 3 3 1 8 7 13 10 0 Lachlanella compressiostoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lachlanella parkeri 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lachlanella subpolygona 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 Massilina granulocostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 2 5 0 Quinque loculina crassicarinata 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 Quinqueloculina cuvieriana 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina funafutiensis 6 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 6 7 0 Quinqueloculina parvaggluta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 3 3 10 1 0 Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 Quinqueloculina sulcata 18 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 0 Quinqueloculina tropicalis 36 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 3 0 1 1 0 1 8 0 Quinqueloculina tubilocula 18 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0

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254 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Miliolinella labiosa 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Miliolinella philippinensis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Miliolinella suborbicularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudotriloculina patagonica 24 6 0 3 1 6 3 1 13 4 5 5 6 11 9 23 8 0 Ptychomiliola separans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo sarsi 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 4 0 0 Pyrgo striolata 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Pyrgo yabei 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 2 1 0 0 Pyrgo cf yabei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 Triloculina bertheliniana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina littoralis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina transversestriata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina tricarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina cf tricarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculinella pseudooblonga 78 5 0 2 0 4 8 1 5 4 3 3 4 6 19 7 18 0 Triloculinella sublineata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wellmanellinella striata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Parahauerinoides fragilissimus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 Sigmoihauerina bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina involuta 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 Spirosigmoilina bradyi 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 Articularia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 Articulina alticostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina cf mucronata 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Pseudohauerin a orientalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 6 3 0 0 Alveolinella quoyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 Borelis schlumbergeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 Dendritina striata 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 0 3 2 0 Laevipeneroplis laevigatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Peneroplis pertusus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0

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255 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Peneroplis planatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirolina cylindracea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parasorites orbitolitoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisorus hemprichii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 Sorites m arginalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 Sorites orbiculus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 2 0 2 0 0 8 1 0 Cerebrina perforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina yamazaki 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neogloboquadrina humerosa 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 4 4 7 0 0 Pulleniatina obliquiloculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Beella digitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerina bulloides 48 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 10 3 7 5 32 19 20 33 7 0 Globigerinella siphonifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides ruber 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides sacculiferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Orbulina bilobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Aphelophragmina brittanica 6 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 4 7 6 1 0 Bolivina vadescens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 Bolivinellina translucens 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 Lugdunum hantkenianum 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Rugobolivinella elegans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Tortoplectella rhomboidalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Cassidelina subcapitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Loxostomina porrecta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Rectobolivina bifrons 24 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 0 Sagrinella lobata 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Allassoida schlumbergerii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 Sagrina jugosa 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Sagrina zanzibarica 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 Siphogenerina raphana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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256 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Bulimina marginata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Floresina durrandi 6 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 3 5 9 1 0 Neouvigerina ampullacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Chrysalidinella dimorpha 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella pulchra 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 6 6 10 9 2 0 Sigmavirgulina tortuosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 Baggina philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponides cribrorepandus 12 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 4 1 0 Eponides repandus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rotorbis auberi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 4 6 6 2 0 Neoe ponides procerus 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 Neoconorbina petasiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalina globularis 66 8 1 0 2 0 1 0 27 7 14 30 17 33 33 61 22 0 Pannellaina earlandi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 Angulodiscorbis corrugatiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schackoinella globosa 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 Buliminoides williamsonianus 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninoides diphes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parrelloides bradyi 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrella zhengae 24 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 Planulina retia 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulina acervalis 90 5 0 1 0 2 1 1 4 0 5 7 3 3 13 8 12 0 Asanonella tubulifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 3 2 6 6 0 Amphistegina lessonii 18 0 0 0 5 10 2 10 34 30 57 89 157 209 254 450 19 0 Amphistegina radiata 24 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 4 12 14 5 10 17 33 59 2 0 Nonionoides grateloupi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 Anomalinella rostrata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 4 1 3 3 7 5 0 Anomalinoides globosus 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 4 0 4 3 1 0 Heterolepa subhaidingeri 12 0 0 0 0 5 2 3 17 7 11 2 8 8 15 22 6 0 Baculogypsina sphaerulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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257 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Calcarina defrancii 408 15 2 8 109 69 35 23 92 52 89 38 25 6 9 3 77 0 Calcarina hispida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Calcarina spengleri 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Cellanthus craticulatus 12 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 7 1 0 Elphidium crispum 18 2 0 0 1 2 9 3 5 0 2 5 4 2 3 1 1 0 Elphidium simplex 24 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 5 2 3 1 1 0 Assilina ammonoides 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 14 19 6 10 0 0 Heterostegina depressa 24 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 6 1 8 2 16 10 24 22 9 0 Nummulites venosus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 12 14 17 0 0 TOTAL 1284 66 3 15 132 132 73 65 284 149 258 223 394 449 578 913 300 0

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258 Appendix I. Continu ed. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Jaculella acuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Haplophragmoides pusillus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Paratrochammina globorotaliformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sahulia barkeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia agglutinans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia cushmani 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia f oliacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Textularia lateralis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Septotextularia rugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudogaudryina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides siphoniferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clavulina angularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clavulina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides denticulatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides inaequalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillina spinigera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Mychostomina revertens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina grosseperforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina cf limbata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina vivipara 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira involvens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Cornuspira planorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirinella exigua 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella diversa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculina advena 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nodobaculariella convexiuscula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina striata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella auri culata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella ujiiei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Adelosina pascuaensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

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259 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S 12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Adelosina sp. B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Flintia robusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina angulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina communis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina corrugata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 Spiroloculina excisa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina fragilis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina nummiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina subimpressa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 Spiroloculina tenuiseptata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina venusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Agglutinella agglutinans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Hauerina diversa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Hauerina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 Lachlanella compressiostoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lachlanella parkeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Lachlanella subpolygona 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massilina granulocostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Quinquelocu lina crassicarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina cuvieriana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Quinqueloculina funafutiensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina parvaggluta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Qui nqueloculina philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Quinqueloculina sulcata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina tropicalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina tubilocula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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260 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Miliolinella labiosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Miliolinella philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Miliolinella suborbicularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudotriloculina patagoni ca 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Ptychomiliola separans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo sarsi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo striolata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo yabei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Pyrgo cf yabei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina bertheliniana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina littoralis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina transversestriata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Triloculina tricar inata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Triloculina cf tricarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculinella pseudooblonga 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 Triloculinella sublineata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wellmanellinella st riata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parahauerinoides fragilissimus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina involuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirosigmoilina bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 Articularia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina alticostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina cf mucronata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudohauerina orientalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alveolinella quoyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Borelis schlumbergeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dendritina striata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Laevipeneroplis laevigatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pene roplis pertusus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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261 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Peneroplis planatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirolina cylindracea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parasorites orbitolitoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisorus hemprichii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sorites marginalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 So rites orbiculus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cerebrina perforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina yamazaki 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neogloboquadrina humerosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pulleniatina obliquiloculat a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Beella digitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerina bulloides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 4 Globigerinella siphonifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides ruber 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides sacculiferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Orbulina bilobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aphelophragmina brittanica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Bolivina vadescens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bolivinellina translucens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lugdunum hantkenianum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rugobolivinella elegans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectella rhomboidalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cassi delina subcapitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Loxostomina porrecta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Rectobolivina bifrons 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrinella lobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Allassoida schlumbergerii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina jugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina zanzibarica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerina raphana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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262 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4 A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Bulimina marginata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Floresina durrandi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neouvigerina ampullacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Chrysalidinella dimorpha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella pulchra 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 Sigmavirgulina tortuosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Baggina philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponides cribrorepandus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 Eponides repandus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rotorbis auberi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neoeponides procerus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Neoconorbina petasifo rmis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalina globularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Pannellaina earlandi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Angulodiscorbis corrugatiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schackoinella globosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Buliminoides williamsonianus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Siphoninoides diphes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parrelloides bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrella zhengae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Planulina retia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulina acervalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Asanonella tubulifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Amphistegina lessonii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 12 43 38 Amphiste gina radiata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 8 Nonionoides grateloupi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinella rostrata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Anomalinoides globosus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Heterolepa subhaidingeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 Baculogypsina sphaerulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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263 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S2 25 Calcarina defrancii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 23 14 9 Calcarina hispida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Calcarina spengleri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Cellanthus craticulatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 Elphidium crispum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Elphidium simplex 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Assilina ammonoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 8 15 Heterostegina depressa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Nummulites venosus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 14 TOTAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 11 56 106 136

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264 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Jaculella acuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hapl ophragmoides pusillus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Paratrochammina globorotaliformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sahulia barkeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia agglutinans 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 0 2 0 2 3 Textularia cu shmani 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia foliacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia lateralis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 Septotextularia rugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudogaudryina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides siphoniferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 Clavulina angularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clavulina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides denticulatus 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides inaequalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillina spinigera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mychostomina revertens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina grosseperforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina cf limbata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina vivipara 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira involvens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira planorbis 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 Plan ispirinella exigua 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella diversa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculina advena 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nodobaculariella convexiuscula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina stria ta 0 0 0 0 2 11 0 2 0 5 3 0 0 0 0 3 2 3 Wiesnerella auriculata 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella ujiiei 0 0 0 3 0 3 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Adelosina pascuaensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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265 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3 S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Adelosina sp. B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Flintia robusta 0 0 0 0 3 8 0 0 4 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 Spiroloculina angulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina communis 0 0 0 0 1 3 2 4 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Spiroloculina corrugata 0 0 0 1 0 5 1 2 0 2 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Spiroloculina excisa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina fragilis 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloc ulina nummiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina subimpressa 0 0 0 0 1 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Spiroloculina tenuiseptata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina venusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Agglutinella a gglutinans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hauerina diversa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Hauerina pacifica 0 0 0 0 3 8 4 11 5 4 8 0 0 0 2 5 12 12 Lachlanella compressiostoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lachlanella parkeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lachlanella subpolygona 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Massilina granulocostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis 0 0 0 0 2 32 11 14 2 9 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina crassicarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina cuvieriana 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 12 2 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Quinqueloculina funafutiensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina parvaggl uta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 4 1 4 24 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Quinqueloculina sulcata 0 0 0 0 1 5 4 11 1 0 8 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 Quinqueloculina tropicalis 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 4 3 4 5 0 0 0 1 1 2 5 Quinqueloculina tubilocula 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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266 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3S e D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Miliolinella labiosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Miliolinella philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Miliolinella suborbicularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ps eudotriloculina patagonica 0 0 0 10 4 32 6 4 1 18 50 1 1 2 3 26 12 0 Ptychomiliola separans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo sarsi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo striolata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 Pyrgo yabei 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Pyrgo cf yabei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina bertheliniana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina littoralis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina transversestriata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina tricarinata 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 6 Triloculina cf tricarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculinella pseudooblonga 0 0 0 1 2 34 7 5 7 26 21 0 0 0 1 19 14 23 Triloculinella sublineata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wellmanellinella striata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parahauerinoides fragilissimus 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina involuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Spirosigmoilina bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 2 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Articularia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina alticostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina cf mucronata 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudohau erina orientalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 Alveolinella quoyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Borelis schlumbergeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dendritina striata 0 0 0 1 0 5 1 5 4 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Laevipeneroplis laevigatus 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplis pertusus 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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267 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Peneroplis planatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirolina cylindracea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parasorites orbitolitoides 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 9 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisorus hemprichii 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 Sorites marginalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sorites orbiculus 0 0 0 2 1 8 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Cerebrina perforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina yamazaki 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neogloboquadrina humerosa 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Pulleniatina obliquiloculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Beella digitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerina bulloides 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 11 8 0 0 0 0 0 16 5 Globigerinella siphonifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides ruber 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides sacculiferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Orbulina bilobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aphelophragmina brittanica 0 0 0 1 1 3 2 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 Bolivina vadescens 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bolivinellina translucens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lugdunum hantkenianum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rugobolivinella elegans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectella rhomboidalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cassidelina subcapitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Loxostomina porrecta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Rectobolivina bifrons 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrinella lobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Allassoida s chlumbergerii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina jugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina zanzibarica 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerina raphana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0

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268 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Bulimina marginata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Floresina durrandi 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Neouvigerina ampullacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Chrysalidinella dimorpha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella pulchra 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 5 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Sigmavirgulina tortuosa 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Baggina philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponides cribrorepandus 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Eponides repandus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rotorbis auberi 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neoeponides procerus 0 0 0 0 2 8 2 5 4 5 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neoconorbina petasiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalina globularis 0 0 0 11 8 42 8 16 12 32 24 0 0 0 4 6 6 11 Pannellaina earlandi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Angulodiscorbis corrugatiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Schackoinella globosa 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 Buliminoides williamsonianus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninoides diphes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parrelloides bradyi 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrella zhengae 0 0 0 1 0 11 6 2 2 5 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planulina retia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulina acervalis 0 0 0 2 5 16 0 5 6 4 3 0 0 0 0 5 4 6 Asanonella tubulifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphistegina lessonii 0 0 0 4 12 11 15 18 8 11 19 0 0 0 2 3 38 26 Amphistegina radiata 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 14 Nonionoides grateloupi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinella rostrata 0 0 0 0 2 8 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Anomalinoides globosus 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 Heterolepa subhaid ingeri 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 4 1 7 5 0 0 0 0 2 0 9 Baculogypsina sphaerulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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269 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Calcarina defrancii 0 0 0 1 21 48 26 64 11 48 53 0 1 1 16 21 182 90 Calcarina hispida 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Calcarina spengleri 0 0 0 34 17 34 8 14 15 21 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cellanthus craticulatus 0 0 0 1 0 3 3 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 Elphidium crispu m 0 0 0 0 1 5 4 2 0 4 8 0 0 1 0 0 6 6 Elphidium simplex 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Assilina ammonoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Heterostegina depressa 0 0 0 0 1 19 4 7 2 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 16 14 Nummulites venosus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 0 0 0 79 96 474 145 275 106 296 482 1 2 4 33 107 376 272

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270 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Jaculella acuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoides pusillus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Paratrochammina globorotaliformis 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sahulia barkeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia agglutinans 3 2 0 0 2 1 3 0 0 0 3 21 1 0 0 1 2 8 Textularia cushmani 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 6 0 Textularia foliacea 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia lateralis 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 6 Septotextularia rugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 P seudogaudryina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides siphoniferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clavulina angularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clavulina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillino ides denticulatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides inaequalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillina spinigera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Mychostomina revertens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillin a grosseperforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina cf limbata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina vivipara 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira involvens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira planorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirinella exigua 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella diversa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculina advena 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nodobaculariella convexiuscula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina striata 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 2 4 2 Wiesnerella auriculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella ujiiei 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Adelosina pascuaensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

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271 Appen dix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Adelosina sp. B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Flintia robusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 S piroloculina angulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina communis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Spiroloculina corrugata 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 Spiroloculina excisa 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina frag ilis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina nummiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina subimpressa 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina tenuiseptata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina venusta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Agglutinella agglutinans 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hauerina diversa 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 Hauerina pacifica 12 2 0 0 1 1 4 3 1 2 5 18 4 0 0 6 20 2 Lachlanella compressiostoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lachlanella parkeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lachlanella subpolygona 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Massilina granulocostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 0 4 6 0 0 0 0 0 12 Quinqueloculina crassicarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Quinqueloculina cuvieriana 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina funafutiensis 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 Quinqueloculina parvaggluta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 2 Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 4 Quinqueloculina sulcata 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 Quinqueloculina tropicalis 4 1 1 0 2 1 1 5 2 1 3 6 2 1 2 5 8 20 Quinqueloculina tubilocula 3 0 0 0 0 1 4 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

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272 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Miliolinella labiosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Miliolinella philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Miliolinel la suborbicularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudotriloculina patagonica 9 4 0 2 2 1 9 10 6 9 12 27 12 2 6 9 4 8 Ptychomiliola separans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo sarsi 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo striolata 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo yabei 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo cf yabei 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina bertheliniana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina littoralis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Triloculina transversestriata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina tricarinata 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 4 3 0 0 0 1 0 2 Triloculina cf tricarinata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculinella pseudooblonga 13 2 1 0 7 2 9 11 5 5 4 27 3 0 2 6 44 8 Triloculinella sublineata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wellmanellinella striata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parahauerinoides fragilissimus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina involuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 2 Spirosigmoilina bradyi 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Articularia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina alticostata 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina cf mucr onata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudohauerina orientalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alveolinella quoyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 Borelis schlumbergeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dendritina striata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 15 0 0 0 4 4 52 Laevipeneroplis laevigatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplis pertusus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4

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273 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4 B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Peneroplis planatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirolina cylindracea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Parasorites orbitolitoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 Amphisorus hemprichii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Sorites marginalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 Sorites orbiculus 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 8 Cerebrina perforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina yamazaki 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Neoglo boquadrina humerosa 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pulleniatina obliquiloculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Beella digitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerina bulloides 4 0 0 0 1 3 2 4 3 4 5 33 0 0 0 0 2 2 Globigerinella sipho nifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides ruber 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides sacculiferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Orbulina bilobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aphelophragmina brittanica 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 6 0 0 0 1 0 2 Bolivina vadescens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 4 Bolivinellina translucens 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lugdunum hantkenianum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rugobolivinella elegans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Tortoplectella rhomboidalis 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 2 0 Cassidelina subcapitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Loxostomina porrecta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rectobolivina bifrons 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Sagrinella lobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Allassoida schlumbergerii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina jugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina zanzibarica 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerina raphana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

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274 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Bulimina marginata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Floresina durr andi 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 2 Neouvigerina ampullacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Chrysalidinella dimorpha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella pulchra 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 2 0 0 4 6 4 0 0 1 2 8 Sigmavirgulina tortuosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Baggina philippinensis 1 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 9 1 0 1 0 0 0 Eponides cribrorepandus 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponides repandus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rotorbis auberi 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 9 0 0 0 0 6 0 Ne oeponides procerus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 6 4 Neoconorbina petasiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalina globularis 8 3 5 0 1 2 5 5 3 8 19 21 4 1 3 0 40 30 Pannellaina earlandi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Angulodiscorbis co rrugatiformis 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schackoinella globosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Buliminoides williamsonianus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninoides diphes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parrelloides bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 2 0 0 3 4 0 Pseudoparrella zhengae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 1 0 4 Planulina retia 0 0 1 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 Planorbulina acervalis 1 0 0 3 0 1 4 4 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 4 14 6 Asanonella tubulifera 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphistegina lessonii 21 1 0 2 1 1 21 13 18 18 24 243 0 0 0 0 54 52 Amphistegina radiata 11 0 0 0 0 1 1 4 2 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 2 6 Nonionoides grateloupi 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinella rostrata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinoides globosus 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Heterolepa subhaidingeri 2 0 0 0 4 0 1 1 2 3 4 15 0 3 0 0 0 6 Baculogypsina sphaerulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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275 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B 3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Calcarina defrancii 72 1 8 5 19 2 65 81 53 12 10 33 16 1 33 2 100 124 Calcarina hispida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Calcarina spengleri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 22 6 Cellanthus craticulatus 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 9 0 0 0 0 0 8 Elphidium crispum 6 1 0 0 3 1 2 2 2 1 3 9 0 0 2 0 4 2 Elphidium simplex 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Assilina ammonoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 8 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 Heterostegin a depressa 6 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 8 5 5 27 0 0 0 0 4 10 Nummulites venosus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 228 27 16 16 59 20 158 177 136 97 159 657 56 10 52 74 384 462

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276 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Jaculella acuta 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Haplophragmoides pusillus 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Paratrochammina globorotaliformis 0 0 0 0 3 0 14 Sahulia barkeri 0 0 0 0 3 0 29 Textularia agglutinans 18 6 5 28 0 3 225 Textularia cushmani 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 Textularia foliacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 Textularia lateralis 0 0 0 0 3 3 91 Septotextularia rugosa 0 0 0 0 3 0 43 Pseudogaudryina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Siphoniferoides siphoniferus 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 Clavulina angularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Clavulina pacifica 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Conicospirillinoides den ticulatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Conicospirillinoides inaequalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 Planispirillina spinigera 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Mychostomina revertens 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Spirillina grosseperforata 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Spirillina cf limbata 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Spirillina vivipara 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Cornuspira involvens 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Cornuspira planorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 37 Planispirinella exigua 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Fischerinella diversa 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Nubeculina advena 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Nodobaculariella convexiuscula 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Vertebralina stri ata 3 0 0 5 9 9 86 Wiesnerella auriculata 0 0 0 0 3 0 9 Wiesnerella ujiiei 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 Adelosina pascuaensis 9 0 0 0 0 0 29

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277 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Adelosina sp. B 3 0 0 0 0 0 5 Flintia robusta 0 0 5 15 6 0 128 Spiroloculina angulata 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 Spiroloculina communis 3 0 0 0 3 0 23 Spiroloculina corrugata 0 6 0 5 3 6 56 Spiroloculina excisa 3 2 0 0 0 0 14 Spiroloculina fragilis 0 0 0 5 3 0 15 Spiroloculina nummiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Spiroloculina subimpressa 12 0 0 0 0 6 56 Spiroloculina tenuiseptata 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 Spiroloculina venusta 3 0 0 0 12 3 22 Agglutinella agglutinans 0 0 0 0 0 0 127 Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis 3 6 0 0 0 6 59 Hauerina diversa 9 6 0 0 6 9 48 Hauerina pacifica 9 2 7 18 27 9 383 Lachlanella compressiostoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Lachlanella parkeri 0 2 0 5 0 0 40 Lachlanella subpolygona 3 2 1 0 0 0 18 Massilina granulocostata 0 4 0 0 0 9 21 Quinqueloculina bubnanensis 27 22 0 5 30 48 314 Quinqueloculina crassicarinata 0 0 0 0 0 6 30 Quinqueloculina cuvieriana 3 8 0 0 6 0 71 Quinqueloculina funafutiensis 3 0 4 0 3 6 61 Quinqueloculina parvaggluta 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Quinqueloculina philippinensis 3 12 0 0 0 3 96 Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata 0 0 8 0 6 0 99 Quinqueloculin a sulcata 3 0 0 5 3 21 109 Quinqueloculina tropicalis 15 10 14 5 12 12 242 Quinqueloculina tubilocula 0 0 0 0 0 6 58 Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 16

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278 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Miliolinella labiosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 Miliolinella philippinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Miliolinella suborbicularis 0 0 1 0 6 0 13 Pseudotriloculina patagonica 18 10 15 15 27 6 573 Ptychomiliola separans 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Pyrgo sarsi 0 4 0 0 0 0 28 Pyrgo striolata 0 0 0 0 3 3 25 Pyr go yabei 0 0 0 0 3 6 46 Pyrgo cf yabei 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 Triloculina bertheliniana 0 0 1 5 3 0 9 Triloculina littoralis 0 0 0 5 3 0 9 Triloculina transversestriata 0 0 1 0 3 0 7 Triloculina tricarinata 9 0 0 0 0 3 76 Triloculina cf tricarinata 0 0 0 3 0 6 10 Triloculinella pseudooblonga 30 0 5 10 24 12 600 Triloculinella sublineata 6 4 0 0 0 0 10 Wellmanellinella striata 0 0 0 0 3 3 16 Parahauerinoides fragilissimus 0 0 0 0 3 0 15 Sigmoihauerina bradyi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina involuta 9 4 0 0 0 12 52 Spirosigmoilina bradyi 3 0 0 3 3 3 63 Articularia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 Articulina alticostata 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Articulina cf mucronata 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 Pseudohauerina orientalis 6 2 0 0 0 9 43 Alveolinella quoyi 12 4 1 0 0 6 72 Borelis schlumber geri 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 Dendritina striata 117 18 2 10 48 30 345 Laevipeneroplis laevigatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Peneroplis pertusus 0 4 0 3 6 0 37

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279 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Peneroplis planatus 42 10 1 0 12 12 87 Spirolin a cylindracea 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Parasorites orbitolitoides 0 0 0 0 9 0 28 Amphisorus hemprichii 3 0 0 0 9 9 52 Sorites marginalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 Sorites orbiculus 15 4 0 8 9 6 92 Cerebrina perforata 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 Guttulina yamazaki 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Neoglob oquadrina humerosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 51 Pulleniatina obliquiloculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 Beella digitata 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Globigerina bulloides 3 0 0 0 0 0 415 Globigerinella siphonifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Globigerinoides ruber 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 Globigerinoides sacculiferu s 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Orbulina bilobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Aphelophragmina brittanica 0 4 0 0 0 0 77 Bolivina vadescens 0 0 0 0 3 0 16 Bolivinellina translucens 0 0 0 0 3 0 55 Lugdunum hantkenianum 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Rugobolivinella elegans 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Tortoplect ella rhomboidalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Cassidelina subcapitata 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 Loxostomina porrecta 0 0 0 0 3 0 9 Rectobolivina bifrons 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 Sagrinella lobata 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 Allassoida schlumbergerii 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Sagrina jugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Sagr ina zanzibarica 3 0 0 0 0 3 24 Siphogenerina raphana 0 0 0 0 0 0 8

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280 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Bulimina marginata 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Floresina durrandi 0 0 0 0 0 0 49 Neouvigerina ampullacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Chrysalidin ella dimorpha 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 Reussella pulchra 0 2 0 3 9 6 165 Sigmavirgulina tortuosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Baggina philippinensis 3 2 1 8 6 6 54 Eponides cribrorepandus 3 4 1 0 0 3 81 Eponides repandus 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Rotorbis auberi 0 0 0 0 6 0 65 Neoeponi des procerus 0 0 1 0 0 0 62 Neoconorbina petasiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Rosalina globularis 18 2 2 20 12 9 819 Pannellaina earlandi 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 Angulodiscorbis corrugatiformis 0 0 0 0 3 0 7 Schackoinella globosa 0 0 0 5 0 0 30 Buliminoides williamsonia nus 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Siphoninoides diphes 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Parrelloides bradyi 0 6 10 20 3 0 72 Pseudoparrella zhengae 0 0 0 3 0 3 100 Planulina retia 0 4 0 0 0 0 18 Planorbulina acervalis 12 6 15 30 27 9 389 Asanonella tubulifera 0 0 0 3 0 3 38 Amphisteg ina lessonii 132 54 2 55 69 63 3408 Amphistegina radiata 24 22 0 0 30 27 723 Nonionoides grateloupi 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Anomalinella rostrata 0 4 0 0 6 9 96 Anomalinoides globosus 0 0 3 0 0 3 48 Heterolepa subhaidingeri 0 0 0 5 3 6 249 Baculogypsina sphaer ulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

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281 Appendix I. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Calcarina defrancii 144 14 1 80 150 30 3303 Calcarina hispida 6 2 0 0 0 0 28 Calcarina spengleri 6 4 3 10 6 0 251 Cellanthus craticulatus 15 0 0 0 9 9 135 Elphidiu m crispum 3 2 6 3 3 6 184 Elphidium simplex 0 0 0 0 0 6 106 Assilina ammonoides 6 14 0 0 3 6 285 Heterostegina depressa 15 30 1 0 21 24 453 Nummulites venosus 0 0 0 0 0 0 222 TOTAL 798 330 118 398 693 525 17516

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282 Appendix II. Counts of genera observe d in samples at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, corrected for relative sample weight and proportion picked. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Jaculella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Paratrochammina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sahulia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Textularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 2 4 1 1 Septotext ularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudogaudryina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Clavulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P lanispirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mychostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fisch erinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Nodobaculariella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 Adelosina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Flintia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 Agglutinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 9 5 5 8 Schlumbergerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 Hauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 Lachlanella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Massilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 6 1 6 0 0 2 Miliolinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1

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283 Appendix II. Continued. Sample : 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Pseudotriloculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 Ptychomiliola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 Triloculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 Triloculinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 Wellmanellinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parahauerinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirosigmoilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 1 0 0 0 Articulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudohauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alveolinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 Borelis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dendritina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Laevipeneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Parasorites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisorus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sorites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Cerebrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 N eogloboquadrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pulleniatina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 Beella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Globigerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 10 1 9 1 2 3 Globigerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globige rinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Orbulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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284 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5 S240 Aphelophragmina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 Bolivina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bolivinellina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Lugdunum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rugobolivinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T ortoplectella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Cassidelina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Loxostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rectobolivina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 Allassoi da 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Bulimina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Floresina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 Neouvigerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Chrysalidinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 2 2 2 Sigmavirgulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Baggina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Eponides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 1 1 Rotorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 Neoeponides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Neoconorbina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Rosalina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 14 0 4 0 0 0 Pannellaina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Angul odiscorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schackoinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Buliminoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

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285 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5 S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Parrelloides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 8 0 0 0 0 1 Planulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 Asanonella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphistegina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 4 9 8 9 39 29 60 Nonionoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 2 Anomalinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 Heterolepa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Baculogypsina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Calcarina 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 8 23 8 11 13 4 8 Cellanthus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 5 Elphidi um 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 2 25 0 2 0 0 1 Assilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 5 9 13 11 9 Heterostegina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 Nummulites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 6 7 9 TOTAL 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 7 2 32 33 164 36 83 95 74 126

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286 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Jaculella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Paratrochammina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sahulia 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 Textularia 7 11 4 0 0 0 4 1 3 1 5 8 5 1 5 9 4 6 Septotextularia 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 1 1 Pseudogaudryina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 1 0 Clavulina 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 Planispirillina 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mychostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Spirillina 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculina 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nodobaculariella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Adelosina 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 Flintia 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 Spi roloculina 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 Agglutinella 7 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 3 4 9 6 4 Schlumbergerina 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 2 Hauerina 0 3 2 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 0 3 3 0 3 15 1 2 Lachlanella 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 Massilin a 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Quinqueloculina 4 18 2 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 3 4 2 3 5 6 3 7 Miliolinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

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287 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R 120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Pseudotriloculina 0 2 1 2 0 1 5 2 4 4 1 1 1 1 0 5 2 7 Ptychomiliola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo 0 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 3 2 3 7 1 1 2 3 0 Triloculina 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 Triloculinella 0 0 7 0 0 1 2 0 5 0 3 8 1 0 2 5 0 0 Wellmanellinella 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parahauerinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Sigmoihauerina 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 Spirosigmoilina 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 Articularia 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 Articulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudohauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 Alveolinella 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Borelis 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dendritina 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Laevipeneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 Spirolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parasorites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Am phisorus 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Sorites 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 Cerebrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neogloboquadrina 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Pulleniatina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 0 Beella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerina 6 8 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 8 4 3 0 1 23 7 13 Globigerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 Globigerinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 3 0 2 Orbulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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288 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Aphelophragmina 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 Bolivina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bolivinellina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lugdunum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Rugobolivinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cassid elina 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Loxostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rectobolivina 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrinella 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Allassoida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerina 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bulimina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Floresina 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Neouvigerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Chrysalidinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella 4 10 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 5 1 0 2 0 3 8 Sigmavirgulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Baggina 0 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponides 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 2 3 Rotorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 2 0 0 Neoeponides 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 Neoconorbina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalina 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 4 1 0 1 30 3 10 Pannellaina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Angulodiscorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schacko inella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Buliminoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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289 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B 5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Parrelloides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrella 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 Planulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulina 0 0 4 3 0 0 3 2 2 1 3 2 1 1 0 6 1 1 Asanonella 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 Amphistegina 71 154 4 0 0 1 1 1 3 11 28 66 30 18 59 368 102 233 Nonionoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinella 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 3 1 1 Anomalinoides 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 Heterolepa 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3 1 3 3 0 2 11 1 9 Baculogypsina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Calcarina 2 11 12 4 3 5 86 23 15 38 91 120 30 11 8 18 6 5 Cellanthus 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 3 4 Elphidium 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 2 7 4 0 3 3 2 1 Assilina 13 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 17 18 6 11 Heterostegina 3 11 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 4 3 3 4 1 4 24 12 8 Nummulites 17 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 15 8 24 TOTAL 152 373 55 15 5 16 123 40 40 83 175 270 108 53 137 615 191 382

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290 Appendi x II. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Jaculella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Paratrochammina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 3 1 0 Sahulia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 5 0 0 Textularia 30 1 0 0 2 1 1 3 4 1 6 5 12 11 13 8 7 0 Septotextularia 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 Pseudogaudryina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Clavulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Planispirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mychostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 Spirillina 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 Cornuspira 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 0 Planispirinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Nubeculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Nodobaculariella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 Adelosina 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Flintia 30 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 2 2 2 8 0 Spiroloculina 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 2 0 Agglutinella 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 8 7 8 7 2 0 Schlumbergerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 2 0 Hauerina 30 8 0 0 0 7 4 3 12 3 3 3 2 8 8 13 10 0 Lachlanella 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 Massilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina 126 1 0 0 0 4 0 2 7 3 6 2 11 9 4 23 37 0 Miliolinella 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

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291 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R1 20b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Pseudotriloculina 24 6 0 3 1 6 3 1 13 4 5 5 6 11 9 23 8 0 Ptychomiliola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo 0 1 0 0 1 4 0 0 2 2 1 1 5 0 3 5 3 0 Triloculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculinella 78 5 0 2 0 4 8 1 5 4 3 3 4 6 19 7 18 0 Wellmanellinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Parahauerinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 Sigmoihauerina 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 Spirosigmoilina 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 Articularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 Articulina 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Pseudohauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 6 3 0 0 Alveolinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 Borelis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 Dendritina 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 0 3 2 0 Laevipeneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Peneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 Spirolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parasorites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisorus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 Sorites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 2 0 5 0 1 8 1 0 Cerebrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neogloboquadrina 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 4 4 7 0 0 Pulleniatina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Beella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerina 48 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 10 3 7 5 32 19 20 33 7 0 Globigerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Or bulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

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292 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Aphelophragmina 6 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 4 7 6 1 0 Bolivina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 Bolivinellina 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 Lugdunum 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Rugobolivinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Tortoplectella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Cassidelina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Loxostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Rectobolivina 24 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 0 Sagrinella 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Allassoida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 Sagrina 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 Siphogenerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bulimina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Floresina 6 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 3 5 9 1 0 Neouvigerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Chrysalidinell a 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 6 6 10 9 2 0 Sigmavirgulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 Baggina 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponides 12 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 4 1 0 Rotorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 4 6 6 2 0 Neoeponides 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 Neoconorbina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalina 66 8 1 0 2 0 1 0 27 7 14 30 17 33 33 61 22 0 Pannellaina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 Angulodiscorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schackoinella 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 Buliminoides 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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293 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R6 0b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Parrelloides 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrella 24 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 Planulina 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbul ina 90 5 0 1 0 2 1 1 4 0 5 7 3 3 13 8 12 0 Asanonella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 3 2 6 6 0 Amphistegina 42 0 0 0 6 10 4 12 38 42 71 94 167 226 287 509 21 0 Nonionoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 Anomalinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 4 1 3 3 7 5 0 Anomalinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 4 0 4 3 1 0 Heterolepa 12 0 0 0 0 5 2 3 17 7 11 2 8 8 15 22 6 0 Baculogypsina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Calcarina 408 15 2 8 110 69 35 23 94 52 89 38 25 6 9 3 79 0 Cellanthus 12 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 7 1 0 Elphidium 42 3 0 0 1 2 9 3 7 1 2 5 9 4 6 2 2 0 Assilina 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 14 19 6 10 0 0 Heterostegina 24 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 6 1 8 2 16 10 24 22 9 0 Nummulites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 12 14 17 0 0 TOTAL 1284 66 3 15 132 132 73 65 284 149 2 58 223 394 449 578 913 300 0

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294 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Jaculella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Haplophragmoid es 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Paratrochammina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sahulia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Septotextularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudogaudryina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clavulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Mychostom ina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Planispirinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nodobaculariella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Wiesnerella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Adelosina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Flintia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 Agglutinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schlumbergerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Hauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 Lachlanella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Massilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Quinqueloculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6 Miliolinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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295 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3 S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Pseudotriloculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Ptychomiliola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Triloculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 Triloculinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 Wellmanellinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parahauerinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirosigmoilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 Articularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudohauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alveolinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Borelis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dendritina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Laevipeneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parasorites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisorus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sorites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cerebrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neogloboquadrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pulleniatina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Beella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 4 Globigerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Orbulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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296 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Aphelophragmina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Bolivina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bolivinellina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lugdunum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rugobolivinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cassidelina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Loxostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Rectobolivina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Allassoida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bulimina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Floresina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neouvigerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Chrysalidinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 Sigmavirgulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Baggina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 Rotorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neoeponides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Neoconorbina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Pannellaina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Angulodiscorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schackoinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Buliminoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Siphoninoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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297 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3 S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Parrelloides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Planulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Asanonella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Amphistegina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 16 47 46 Nonionoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Anomalinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Heterolepa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 Baculogypsina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Calcarina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 25 14 10 Cellanthus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 Elphidium 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Assilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 8 1 5 Heterostegina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Nummulites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 14 TOTAL 1284 66 3 15 132 132 73 65 284 149 258 223 394 449 578 913 300 0

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298 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3S f D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Jaculella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Paratrochammina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sahulia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 2 13 0 0 0 3 2 4 3 Septotextularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudogaudryina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 Clavulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mychostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 Planispirinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nodobaculariella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina 0 0 0 0 2 11 0 2 0 5 3 0 0 0 0 3 2 3 Wiesnerella 0 0 0 3 0 8 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Adelosina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Flintia 0 0 0 0 3 8 0 0 4 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 Spiroloculina 0 0 0 1 3 19 4 9 0 5 13 0 0 0 0 2 0 5 Agglutinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schlumb ergerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hauerina 0 0 0 0 3 8 4 11 5 4 8 0 0 0 2 5 12 14 Lachlanella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Massilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Quinqueloculina 0 0 0 1 5 61 22 49 13 28 93 0 0 0 1 3 8 9 Miliol inella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

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299 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Pseudotriloculina 0 0 0 10 4 32 6 4 1 18 50 1 1 2 3 26 12 0 Ptychomilio la 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 Triloculina 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 6 Triloculinella 0 0 0 1 2 34 7 5 7 26 21 0 0 0 1 19 14 23 Wellmanellinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parahauerin oides 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Spirosigmoilina 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 2 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Articularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudohauer ina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 Alveolinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Borelis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dendritina 0 0 0 1 0 5 1 5 4 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Laevipeneroplis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 5 1 2 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parasorites 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 9 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisorus 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 Sorites 0 0 0 2 1 8 1 0 0 2 11 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Cerebrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neogloboquadrina 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Pulleniatina 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Beella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerina 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 11 8 0 0 0 0 0 16 5 Globigerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Orbulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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300 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Aphelophragmina 0 0 0 1 1 3 2 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 Bolivina 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bolivinellina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lugdunum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rugobolivinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cassidelina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Loxostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Rectobolivina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Allassoida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Bulimina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Floresina 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Neouvigerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Chrysalidinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 5 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Sigmavirgulina 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Baggina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponide s 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Rotorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neoeponides 0 0 0 0 2 8 2 5 4 5 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neoconorbina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalina 0 0 0 11 8 42 8 16 12 32 24 0 0 0 4 6 6 11 Pannellaina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Angulodiscorbis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Schackoinella 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 Buliminoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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301 Appendix II. Continue d. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Parrelloides 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrella 0 0 0 1 0 11 6 2 2 5 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulina 0 0 0 2 5 16 0 5 6 4 3 0 0 0 0 5 4 6 Asanonella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphistegina 0 0 0 4 12 11 19 26 8 11 19 0 0 0 2 4 46 39 Nonionoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinella 0 0 0 0 2 8 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Anomalinoides 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 Heterolepa 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 4 1 7 5 0 0 0 0 2 0 9 Baculogypsina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Calcarina 0 0 0 34 38 82 35 79 26 69 79 0 1 1 16 21 184 90 Cellanthus 0 0 0 1 0 3 3 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 Elphidium 0 0 0 1 1 11 4 2 0 4 8 0 0 1 0 1 6 6 Assilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Heterostegina 0 0 0 0 1 19 4 7 2 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 16 14 Nummulites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 0 0 0 79 96 474 145 275 106 296 482 1 2 4 33 107 376 272

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302 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Jaculella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Paratrochammina 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sahulia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textularia 6 2 0 0 5 1 3 2 1 1 6 24 1 0 1 2 8 14 Septotextularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 Pseudogaudryina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoniferoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Clavulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conicospirillinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Mychostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspira 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculina 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nodobaculariella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vertebralina 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 2 4 2 Wiesnerella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Adelosina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Flintia 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 Spiroloculina 3 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 9 0 0 0 0 4 2 Agglutinella 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schlumbergerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hauerina 15 2 0 0 1 1 4 3 1 2 5 21 4 0 0 6 20 4 Lachlanella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Massilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Quinqueloculina 21 1 1 0 2 2 6 12 15 1 10 18 4 1 2 9 22 42 Miliolinella 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

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303 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4 B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Pseudotriloculina 9 4 0 2 2 1 9 10 6 9 12 27 12 2 6 9 4 8 Ptychomiliola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pyrgo 5 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 Triloculina 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 4 3 0 0 0 2 0 2 Triloculinella 13 2 1 0 7 2 9 11 5 5 4 27 3 0 2 6 44 8 Wellmanellinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parahauerinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sigmoihauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 2 Spirosigmoilina 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Articularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Articulina 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudohauerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alveolinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 Borelis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dendritina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 15 0 0 0 4 4 52 Laevipeneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Spirolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Parasorites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 Amph isorus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Sorites 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 14 Cerebrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guttulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Neogloboquadrina 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pulleniatina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Beella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerina 4 0 0 0 1 3 2 4 3 4 5 33 0 0 0 0 2 2 Globigerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Orbulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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304 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Aphelophragmina 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 6 0 0 0 1 0 2 Bolivina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 4 Bolivinellina 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lugdunum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rugobolivinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Tortoplectella 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 2 0 Cassidelina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Loxostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rectobolivina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Sagrinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Allassoida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sagrina 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Bulimina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Floresina 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 2 Neouvigerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Chrysalidinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussella 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 2 0 0 4 6 4 0 0 1 2 8 Sigmavirgulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Baggina 1 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 9 1 0 1 0 0 0 Eponides 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rotorbis 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 9 0 0 0 0 6 0 Neoeponides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 6 4 Neoconorbina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalina 8 3 5 0 1 2 5 5 3 8 19 21 4 1 3 0 40 30 Pannellaina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Angulodiscorbis 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schackoinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Buliminoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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305 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Parrelloides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 2 0 0 3 4 0 Pseudoparrella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 1 0 4 Planulina 0 0 1 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 Planorbulina 1 0 0 3 0 1 4 4 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 4 14 6 Asanonella 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphistegina 32 1 0 2 1 2 22 17 20 18 26 246 0 0 0 0 56 58 Nonionoides 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anomalinoides 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Heterolepa 2 0 0 0 4 0 1 1 2 3 4 15 0 3 0 0 0 6 Baculogypsina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Calcarina 72 1 8 5 19 2 65 82 53 13 10 33 16 1 33 15 122 130 Cellanthus 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 9 0 0 0 0 0 8 Elphidium 7 10 0 0 3 1 2 2 2 4 3 9 0 1 2 0 4 2 Assilina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 8 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 Heterostegina 6 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 8 5 5 27 0 0 0 0 4 10 Nummulites 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 228 27 16 16 59 20 158 177 136 97 159 657 56 10 52 74 384 462

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306 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Jac ulella 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Haplophragmoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Paratrochammina 0 0 0 0 3 0 14 Sahulia 0 0 0 0 3 0 29 Textularia 18 6 5 28 3 6 369 Septotextularia 0 0 0 0 3 0 43 Pseudogaudryina 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Siphoniferoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 Clavulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Conicospirillinoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 Planispirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Mychostomina 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Spirillina 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Cornuspira 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 Planispirinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Fischerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Nubeculina 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Nodobaculariell a 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Vertebralina 3 0 0 5 9 9 86 Wiesnerella 0 0 0 0 3 0 29 Adelosina 12 0 0 0 0 0 34 Flintia 0 0 5 15 6 0 128 Spiroloculina 21 10 1 10 21 15 194 Agglutinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 127 Schlumbergerina 3 6 0 0 0 6 59 Hauerina 18 8 7 18 33 18 432 L achlanella 3 4 1 5 0 0 61 Massilina 0 4 0 0 0 9 21 Quinqueloculina 54 52 26 15 60 102 1099 Miliolinella 0 0 1 0 6 0 33

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307 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Pseudotriloculina 18 10 15 15 27 6 573 Ptychomiliola 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Pyrgo 0 4 0 0 6 9 114 Triloculina 9 0 2 13 9 9 110 Triloculinella 36 4 5 10 24 12 610 Wellmanellinella 0 0 0 0 3 3 16 Parahauerinoides 0 0 0 0 3 0 15 Sigmoihauerina 9 4 0 0 0 12 52 Spirosigmoilina 3 0 0 3 3 3 63 Articularia 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 Arti culina 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 Pseudohauerina 6 2 0 0 0 9 43 Alveolinella 12 4 1 0 0 6 72 Borelis 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 Dendritina 117 18 2 10 48 30 345 Laevipeneroplis 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Peneroplis 42 14 1 3 18 12 123 Spirolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Parasorites 0 0 0 0 9 0 28 Amphisorus 3 0 0 0 9 9 52 Sorites 15 4 0 8 9 6 116 Cerebrina 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 Guttulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Neogloboquadrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 51 Pulleniatina 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 Beella 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Globigerina 3 0 0 0 0 0 415 Globigerinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Globigerin oides 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 Orbulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

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308 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Aphelophragmina 0 4 0 0 0 0 77 Bolivina 0 0 0 0 3 0 16 Bolivinellina 0 0 0 0 3 0 55 Lugdunum 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Rugobolivinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Tortoplectella 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Cassidelina 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 Loxostomina 0 0 0 0 3 0 9 Rectobolivina 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 Sagrinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 Allassoida 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Sagrina 3 0 0 0 0 3 26 Siphogenerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 Bulimina 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Floresina 0 0 0 0 0 0 49 Neouvigerina 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Chrysalidinella 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 Reussella 0 2 0 3 9 6 165 Sigmavirgulina 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Baggina 3 2 1 8 6 6 54 Eponides 3 4 1 0 0 3 84 Rotorbis 0 0 0 0 6 0 65 Neoeponides 0 0 1 0 0 0 62 Neoconorbina 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Rosalina 18 2 2 20 12 9 819 Pannellaina 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 Angulodiscorbis 0 0 0 0 3 0 7 Schackoinella 0 0 0 5 0 0 30 Buliminoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Siphoninoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

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309 Appendix II. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Parrel loides 0 6 10 20 3 0 72 Pseudoparrella 0 0 0 3 0 3 100 Planulina 0 4 0 0 0 0 18 Planorbulina 12 6 15 30 27 9 389 Asanonella 0 0 0 3 0 3 38 Amphistegina 156 76 2 55 99 90 4131 Nonionoides 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Anomalinella 0 4 0 0 6 9 96 Anomalinoides 0 0 3 0 0 3 48 Heterolepa 0 0 0 5 3 6 249 Baculogypsina 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Calcarina 156 20 4 90 156 30 3582 Cellanthus 15 0 0 0 9 9 135 Elphidium 3 2 6 3 3 12 291 Assilina 6 14 0 0 3 6 285 Heterostegina 15 30 1 0 21 24 453 Nummulites 0 0 0 0 0 0 222 TOTAL 798 330 118 398 693 525 17516

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310 Appendix III. Counts of families observed in samples at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, corrected for relative sample weight and proportion picked. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Hippocrepinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Trochamminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textulariidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 2 4 1 2 Pseudogaudryinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Valvulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspiridae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculariidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 Spiroloculinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 Hauerini dae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 0 9 5 28 2 19 8 6 15 Tubinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 8 0 1 0 0 0 Brebinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alveolinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 Peneroplidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Soritidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Lagenidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymorphinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globorotaliidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pulleniatinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 Globigerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 10 1 9 2 3 4 Bolivinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 0 0 0 0 1 Bolivinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Stainforthiidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogeneri noididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 Buliminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

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311 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Orthoplectidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 Uvigerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 2 2 2 Fursenkoinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bagginidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Eponididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 1 1 Discorbidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 Neoeponididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 14 0 4 1 0 0 Pannellainidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Glabratellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Buliminoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Parrelloididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 8 0 0 0 0 1 Planulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 Epistomariidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisteginidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 4 9 8 9 39 29 60 Nonionidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Almaenidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 2 Heterolepidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 Calcarinidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 8 23 8 11 13 4 9 Elphidiidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 2 25 0 2 1 2 6 Nummulitidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 6 9 19 20 21 TOTAL 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 7 2 32 33 164 36 83 95 74 126

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312 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Hippocrepin idae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Trochamminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textulariidae 9 13 4 0 0 0 4 1 3 1 6 8 7 2 6 14 7 10 Pseudogaudryinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 1 0 Valvulinidae 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillinidae 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 Spirillinidae 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 Cornuspiridae 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculariidae 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculinidae 0 0 8 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 2 3 0 0 0 5 2 1 Hauerinidae 17 52 16 3 0 3 16 5 13 12 10 22 16 8 20 48 20 25 Tubinellidae 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 Brebinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 Alveolinidae 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Peneroplidae 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 2 1 1 Soritidae 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 Lagenidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymorphinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globorotaliidae 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Pulleniatinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 0 Globigerinidae 6 8 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 10 5 3 0 2 27 8 16 Bolivinidae 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 Bolivinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Stainforthiidae 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerinoididae 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 Buliminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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313 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Orthoplectidae 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Uvigerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussellidae 4 10 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 6 1 0 2 0 3 8 Fursenkoinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bagginidae 0 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponididae 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 2 3 D iscorbidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 2 0 0 Neoeponididae 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 Rosalinidae 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 4 1 0 1 30 3 10 Pannellainidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Glabratellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Bu liminoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parrelloididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrellidae 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 Planulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulinidae 0 0 4 3 0 0 3 2 2 1 3 2 1 1 0 6 1 1 Epistomariidae 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 Amphisteginidae 71 154 4 0 0 1 1 1 3 11 28 66 30 18 59 368 102 233 Nonionidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Almaenidae 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 3 1 1 Heterolepidae 1 2 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 3 2 3 5 0 3 11 1 10 Calcarinidae 2 11 12 4 3 5 86 23 15 38 91 120 30 11 8 18 6 5 Elphidiidae 4 7 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 4 8 4 0 5 3 5 5 Nummulitidae 33 53 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 4 3 3 4 10 24 57 26 43 TOTAL 152 373 55 15 5 16 123 40 40 83 175 270 108 53 137 615 191 382

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314 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Hippocrepinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Trochamminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 3 1 0 Textulariidae 36 1 0 0 2 1 1 3 4 2 8 5 14 12 13 15 8 0 Pseudogaudryinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Valvuli nidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillinidae 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Spirillinidae 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 8 0 0 Cornuspiridae 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 0 Fischerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fisc herinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Nubeculariidae 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 Spiroloculinidae 42 2 0 0 1 0 0 2 3 0 2 1 3 2 3 2 10 0 Hauerinidae 282 22 0 6 3 27 15 9 42 19 27 19 39 47 62 93 80 0 Tubinellidae 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 Brebinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 6 3 0 0 Alveolinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 9 0 0 Peneroplidae 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 1 3 2 3 2 0 Soritidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 2 0 5 1 3 8 1 0 Lagenidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymorphinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globorotaliidae 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 4 4 7 0 0 Pulleniatinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinidae 48 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 10 3 9 5 32 19 20 33 8 0 Bolivinidae 36 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 2 2 1 0 5 6 8 7 3 0 Bolivinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Tortoplectellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Stainforthiidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerinoididae 30 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 2 3 1 8 0 Buliminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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315 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Orthoplectidae 6 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 3 5 9 1 0 U vigerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Reussellidae 6 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 6 6 10 9 2 0 Fursenkoinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 Bagginidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponididae 12 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 4 1 0 Discorb idae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 4 6 6 2 0 Neoeponididae 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 Rosalinidae 66 8 1 0 2 0 1 0 27 7 14 30 17 33 33 61 22 0 Pannellainidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 Glabratellidae 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 B uliminoididae 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parrelloididae 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrellidae 24 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 Planulinidae 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulinidae 90 5 0 1 0 2 1 1 4 0 5 7 3 3 13 8 12 0 Epistomariidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 3 2 6 6 0 Amphisteginidae 42 0 0 0 6 10 4 12 38 42 71 94 167 226 287 509 21 0 Nonionidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 Almaenidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 4 1 3 3 7 5 0 Heterolepidae 12 0 0 0 0 5 3 5 17 7 11 2 12 8 19 25 7 0 Calcarinidae 408 15 2 8 110 69 35 23 94 52 89 38 25 6 9 3 79 0 Elphidiidae 54 3 0 0 2 2 9 3 8 1 3 6 10 5 8 9 3 0 Nummulitidae 30 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 6 3 8 6 39 41 44 49 9 0 TOTAL 12 84 66 3 15 132 132 73 65 284 149 258 223 394 449 578 913 300 0

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316 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Hippocrepinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Haplophragmoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Trochamminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textulariidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Pseudogaudryinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Valvulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Spirillinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspiridae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Fischerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinel lidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculariidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiroloculinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 Hauerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 3 8 21 Tubinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Brebini dae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alveolinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Peneroplidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Soritidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lagenidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymorphinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globorotaliidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pulleniatinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 4 Bolivinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Bolivinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Stainforthiidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Siphogenerinoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Buliminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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317 Appendi x III. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Orthoplectidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Uvigerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 Fursenkoinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bagginidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 Discorbidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neoepo nididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Rosalinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Pannellainidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Glabratellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Buliminoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Siphon inidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parrelloididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Planulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ep istomariidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Amphisteginidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 16 47 46 Nonionidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Almaenidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Heterolepidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 Cal carinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 25 14 10 Elphidiidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 4 Nummulitidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 15 32 TOTAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 11 56 106 136

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318 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3 Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Hippocrepinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Trochamminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textular iidae 0 0 0 0 2 3 4 2 0 7 21 0 0 0 3 2 4 3 Pseudogaudryinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 Valvulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillinidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spirillinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspiridae 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 Fischerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculariidae 0 0 0 3 2 19 1 2 0 5 8 0 0 0 0 3 2 3 Spiroloculinidae 0 0 0 1 5 26 4 9 4 14 19 0 0 0 0 2 2 11 Hauerinidae 0 0 0 11 13 164 41 79 34 81 191 1 1 2 8 56 58 53 Tubinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Brebinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 Alveolinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplidae 0 0 0 2 0 11 2 11 4 2 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Soritidae 0 0 0 3 1 11 1 9 0 4 19 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 Lagenidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymorphinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globorotaliidae 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Pulleniatinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 11 8 0 0 0 0 0 16 5 Bolivinidae 0 0 0 2 1 3 2 2 1 9 8 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 Bolivinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tortoplectellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Stainforthiidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Siphogenerinoididae 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 Buliminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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319 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Orthoplectidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Uvigerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussellidae 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 5 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Fursenkoinidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bagginidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Eponididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Discorbidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Neoeponididae 0 0 0 0 2 8 2 5 4 5 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rosalinidae 0 0 0 11 8 42 8 16 12 32 26 0 0 0 4 6 6 11 Pannellainidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Glabratellidae 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Buliminoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parrelloididae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pseudoparrellidae 0 0 0 1 0 11 6 2 2 5 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planorbulinidae 0 0 0 2 5 16 0 5 6 4 3 0 0 0 0 5 4 6 Epistomariidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisteginidae 0 0 0 4 12 11 19 26 8 11 19 0 0 0 2 4 46 39 Nonionidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Almaenidae 0 0 0 0 2 8 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Heterolepidae 0 0 0 1 2 5 2 4 1 7 8 0 0 0 0 2 6 12 Calcarinidae 0 0 0 34 38 82 35 79 26 69 79 0 1 1 16 21 184 90 Elphidiidae 0 0 0 2 1 13 6 2 1 4 11 0 0 1 0 1 12 8 Nummulitidae 0 0 0 0 1 19 4 9 2 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 18 14 TOTAL 0 0 0 79 96 474 145 275 106 296 482 1 2 4 33 107 376 272

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320 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Hippocrepinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Haplophragmoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Trochamminidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Textulariidae 6 2 0 0 5 1 4 3 1 1 6 24 1 0 1 2 12 14 Pseudogaudryinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Valvulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planispirillinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Spirillinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cornuspiridae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fischerinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nubeculariidae 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 3 3 0 1 0 0 3 4 2 Spiroloculinidae 3 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 9 0 0 0 0 12 8 Hauerinidae 71 8 2 2 14 7 34 42 28 23 43 105 26 3 10 35 90 68 Tubinell idae 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Brebinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alveolinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 Peneroplidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 15 0 0 0 6 4 56 Soritidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 2 0 26 Lagenidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Polymorphinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Globorotaliidae 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pulleniatinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Globigerinidae 4 0 0 0 1 3 2 4 3 4 5 33 0 0 0 0 2 2 Bolivinidae 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 9 0 0 0 1 0 6 Bolivinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Tortoplectellidae 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 2 0 Stainforthiidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphogenerinoididae 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Bul iminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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321 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Orthoplectidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 2 Uv igerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Reussellidae 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 2 0 0 4 6 4 0 0 1 2 8 Fursenkoinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bagginidae 1 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 9 1 0 1 0 0 0 Eponididae 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Discorbida e 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 9 0 0 0 0 6 0 Neoeponididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 6 4 Rosalinidae 8 3 5 0 1 2 5 5 3 8 20 21 4 1 3 0 40 30 Pannellainidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Glabratellidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Buliminoi didae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Siphoninidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Parrelloididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 2 0 0 3 4 0 Pseudoparrellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 1 0 4 Planulinidae 0 0 1 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 Planor bulinidae 1 0 0 3 0 1 4 4 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 4 14 6 Epistomariidae 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Amphisteginidae 32 1 0 2 1 2 22 17 20 18 26 246 0 0 0 0 56 58 Nonionidae 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Almaenidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 Heterolepidae 2 0 0 1 4 0 1 1 3 3 4 15 0 3 0 0 0 6 Calcarinidae 72 1 8 5 19 2 65 82 53 13 10 33 16 1 33 15 122 130 Elphidiidae 9 10 0 0 3 1 4 2 2 4 5 18 0 1 2 0 4 10 Nummulitidae 6 0 0 0 0 0 8 3 8 11 16 57 0 0 0 0 4 10 TOTAL 228 27 16 16 59 20 158 1 77 136 97 159 657 56 10 52 74 384 462

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322 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Hippocrepinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Haplophragmoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Trochamminidae 0 0 0 0 3 0 14 Textulariidae 18 6 5 28 9 6 441 Pseudogaudryinid ae 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 Valvulinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 Planispirillinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 Spirillinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 Cornuspiridae 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 Fischerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Fischerinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Nubeculariidae 3 0 0 5 12 9 121 Spiroloculinidae 33 10 6 25 27 15 357 Hauerinidae 153 96 57 78 174 189 3384 Tubinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 31 Brebinidae 6 2 0 0 0 9 43 Alveolinidae 12 4 1 0 0 6 80 Peneroplidae 159 32 3 13 66 42 473 Soritidae 18 4 0 8 27 15 196 Lagenidae 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 Polymorphinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Globorotaliidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 51 Pulleniatinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 Globigerinidae 3 0 0 0 0 0 435 Bolivinidae 0 4 0 0 6 0 151 Bolivinellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Tortoplectellidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 Stainforthiidae 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 Siphogenerinoididae 3 0 0 0 3 3 95 Buliminidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

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323 Appendix III. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Orthoplectidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 49 Uvigerinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Reussellidae 0 2 0 3 9 6 172 Fursenkoinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Bagginidae 3 2 1 8 6 6 54 Epo nididae 3 4 1 0 0 3 84 Discorbidae 0 0 0 0 6 0 65 Neoeponididae 0 0 1 0 0 0 62 Rosalinidae 18 2 2 20 12 9 824 Pannellainidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 Glabratellidae 0 0 0 5 3 0 37 Buliminoididae 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Siphoninidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Parrelloididae 0 6 10 2 0 3 0 72 Pseudoparrellidae 0 0 0 3 0 3 100 Planulinidae 0 4 0 0 0 0 18 Planorbulinidae 12 6 15 30 27 9 389 Epistomariidae 0 0 0 3 0 3 38 Amphisteginidae 156 76 2 55 99 90 4130 Nonionidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Almaenidae 0 4 0 0 6 9 96 Heterolepidae 0 0 3 5 3 9 297 Calcarinidae 156 20 4 90 156 30 3583 Elphidiidae 18 2 6 2.5 12 21 425 Nummulitidae 21 44 1 0 24 30 960 TOTAL 798 330 118 398 693 525 17516

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324 Appendix IV. Counts of superfamilies observed in samples at Ambitle Island, PNG, corrected for relati ve sample weight and proportion picked. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 HIPPOCREPINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LITUOLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TROCHAMMINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TEXTULARIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 2 4 2 2 SPIRILLINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CORNUSPIRACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 NUBECULARIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 MILIOLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 0 10 7 37 4 21 9 6 15 AUSTROTRILLINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ALVEOLINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 SORITACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 NODOSARIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 POLYMORPHINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBOROTALIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 GLOBIGERINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 10 1 9 2 3 4 BOLIVINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 0 0 0 0 1 LOXOSTOMATACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 TURRILINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 BULIMINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 9 1 2 2 2 2 FURSENKOINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DISCORBACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 17 5 9 1 2 2 GLABRATELLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 SIPHONINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 DISCORBINELLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 8 0 0 0 0 1 PLANORBULINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 ASTERIGERINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 4 9 8 9 39 29 60 NONIONACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 2 CHILOSTOMELLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 ROTALIACEA 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 10 10 48 8 13 14 6 15 NUMMULITACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 6 9 19 20 21

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325 Appendix IV. Continued. Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a HIPPOCREPINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LITUOLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TROCHAMMINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TEXTULARIACEA 9 14 4 0 0 0 4 1 3 1 6 9 8 2 6 17 8 10 SPIRILLINIDA 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 CORNUSPIRACEA 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NUBECULARIACEA 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 MILIOLACEA 18 52 24 3 0 3 17 5 15 12 12 25 17 9 20 53 23 26 AUSTROTRILLINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 ALVEOLINACEA 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 SORITACEA 1 3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 3 3 1 1 NODOSARIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 POLYMORPHINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBOROTALIACEA 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 0 0 GLOBIGERINACEA 6 8 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 10 5 3 0 2 27 8 16 BOLIVINACEA 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 LOXOSTOMATACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TURRILINACEA 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 BULIMINACEA 4 14 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 8 1 0 2 2 3 9 FURSENKOINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DISCORBACEA 1 12 1 3 2 0 1 2 1 0 8 11 3 0 4 32 5 17 GLABRATELLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 SIPHONINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DISCORBINELLACEA 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 PLANORBULINACEA 0 0 4 3 0 0 3 2 2 1 4 2 1 1 0 6 1 1 ASTERIGERINACEA 71 155 4 0 0 1 3 1 4 11 28 67 30 18 59 371 102 233 NONIONACEA 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 1 1 0 3 1 1 CHILOSTOMELLACEA 1 2 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 3 2 3 5 0 3 11 1 10 ROTALIACEA 6 18 12 4 3 5 88 24 15 41 95 128 34 11 13 21 11 10 NUMMULITACEA 33 53 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 4 3 3 4 10 24 57 26 43

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326 Appendix IV. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 HIPPOCREPINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LITUOLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 TROCHAMMINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 3 1 0 T EXTULARIACEA 36 1 0 0 2 1 1 4 4 3 8 5 14 12 13 16 8 0 SPIRILLINIDA 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 9 0 0 CORNUSPIRACEA 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 0 NUBECULARIACEA 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 MILIOLACEA 330 24 0 6 4 27 15 11 45 19 29 21 42 50 65 95 91 0 AUSTROTRILLINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 6 3 0 0 ALVEOLINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 9 0 0 SORITACEA 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 1 3 1 6 4 5 11 3 0 NODOSARIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 POLYMORPHINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBOROTALIACEA 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 4 4 7 0 0 GLOBIGERINACEA 48 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 10 3 9 5 32 19 20 33 8 0 BOLIVINACEA 36 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 2 2 1 0 5 6 8 7 3 0 LOXOSTOMATACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 TURRILINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 BULIMINACEA 42 2 0 0 0 6 1 0 7 1 0 1 8 11 18 20 11 0 FURSENKOINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 DISCORBACEA 84 11 1 0 2 0 2 1 28 9 16 31 21 41 43 76 25 0 GLABRATELLACEA 6 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 SIPHONINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DISCORBINELLACEA 42 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 PLANORBULINACEA 90 6 0 1 0 2 1 1 4 0 5 7 3 3 13 8 12 0 ASTERIGERINACEA 42 0 0 0 6 10 4 12 40 43 71 94 170 229 289 515 27 0 NONIONACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 4 1 4 3 7 6 0 CHILOSTOMELLACEA 12 0 0 0 0 5 3 5 17 7 11 2 12 8 19 25 7 0 ROTALIACEA 462 18 2 8 112 71 44 26 102 53 92 44 35 11 17 12 82 0 NUMMULITACEA 30 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 6 3 8 6 39 41 44 49 9 0

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327 Appendix IV. Continued. Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3 S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 HIPPOCREPINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 LITUOLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 TROCHAMMINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TEXTULARIA CEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 SPIRILLINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 CORNUSPIRACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 NUBECULARIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 MILIOLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 4 10 24 AUSTROTRILLI NACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ALVEOLINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 SORITACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 NODOSARIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 POLYMORPHINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBOROTALIAC EA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBIGERINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 4 BOLIVINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 LOXOSTOMATACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TURRILINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 BULIMINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 FURSENKOINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DISCORBACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 GLABRATELLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 SIPHONINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DISCORBINELLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 PLANORBULINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASTERIGERINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 16 48 46 NONIONACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 CHILOSTOMELLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 ROTALIAC EA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 26 16 14 NUMMULITACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 15 32

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328 Appendix IV. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 HIPPOCREPINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LITUOLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TROCHAMMINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TEXTULARIACEA 0 0 0 0 2 3 4 2 0 7 26 0 0 0 3 2 6 5 SPIRILLINIDA 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CORNUSPIRACEA 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 NUBECULARIACEA 0 0 0 3 2 19 1 2 0 5 13 0 0 0 0 3 2 3 MILIOLACEA 0 0 0 12 19 193 45 88 37 97 209 1 1 2 8 58 60 63 AUSTROTRILLINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 ALVEOLINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SORITAC EA 0 0 0 4 1 21 3 19 4 5 34 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 NODOSARIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 POLYMORPHINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBOROTALIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 GLOBIGERINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 11 8 0 0 0 0 0 16 5 BOL IVINACEA 0 0 0 2 1 3 2 2 1 9 8 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 LOXOSTOMATACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TURRILINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 BULIMINACEA 0 0 0 0 1 8 2 5 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 4 8 FURSENKOINACEA 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DISCORB ACEA 0 0 0 11 10 50 12 25 16 44 32 0 0 0 4 7 6 11 GLABRATELLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 SIPHONINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DISCORBINELLACEA 0 0 0 1 1 11 6 2 2 5 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PLANORBULINACEA 0 0 0 2 5 16 0 5 6 4 3 0 0 0 0 5 4 6 ASTERIGERINACEA 0 0 0 4 12 11 19 26 8 11 19 0 0 0 2 4 46 39 NONIONACEA 0 0 0 0 2 8 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 CHILOSTOMELLACEA 0 0 0 1 2 5 2 4 1 7 8 0 0 0 0 2 6 12 ROTALIACEA 0 0 0 36 39 95 41 81 27 72 90 0 1 2 16 22 196 98 NUMMULITACEA 0 0 0 0 1 1 9 4 9 2 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 18 14

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329 Appendix IV. Continued. Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc HIPPOCREPINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LITUOLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TROCHAMMINACEA 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TEXTULARIACEA 6 2 0 0 5 1 4 3 1 1 6 27 1 0 1 2 12 14 SPIRILLINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 CORNUSPIRACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 NUBECULARIACEA 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 3 3 0 1 0 0 3 4 2 MILIOLACEA 75 8 2 3 14 7 36 43 29 24 43 114 26 3 10 35 102 76 AUSTROTRILLINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 ALVEOLINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 SORITACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 18 0 0 0 8 4 82 NODOSAR IACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 POLYMORPHINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 GLOBOROTALIACEA 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBIGERINACEA 4 0 0 0 1 3 2 4 3 4 5 33 0 0 0 0 2 2 BOLIVINACEA 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 9 0 0 0 1 0 6 LOXOS TOMATACEA 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 2 2 TURRILINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 BULIMINACEA 2 0 0 0 1 1 3 3 2 0 7 12 4 0 0 1 2 14 FURSENKOINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DISCORBACEA 12 3 5 0 3 2 8 8 4 8 24 42 5 1 4 0 52 34 GL ABRATELLACEA 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 SIPHONINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DISCORBINELLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 1 3 2 0 0 4 4 4 PLANORBULINACEA 1 0 1 4 5 1 4 4 4 0 2 3 0 1 2 4 14 8 ASTERIGERINACEA 33 1 0 2 1 2 22 17 20 18 26 246 0 0 0 0 56 58 NONIONACEA 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 CHILOSTOMELLACEA 2 0 0 1 4 0 1 1 3 3 4 15 0 3 0 0 0 6 ROTALIACEA 81 11 8 5 22 3 69 84 55 17 15 51 16 2 35 15 126 140 NUMMULITACEA 6 0 0 0 0 0 8 3 8 11 16 57 0 0 0 0 4 10

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330 Appendix IV. Continu ed. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL HIPPOCREPINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 LITUOLACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 TROCHAMMINACEA 0 0 0 0 3 0 14 TEXTULARIACEA 18 6 5 28 9 6 463 SPIRILLINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 38 CORNUSPIRACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 NUBECULARIACEA 3 0 0 5 12 9 127 MILIOLACEA 186 106 63 103 201 204 3772 AUSTROTRILLINACEA 6 2 0 0 0 9 43 ALVEOLINACEA 12 4 1 0 0 6 80 SORITACEA 177 36 3 20 93 57 669 NODOSARIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 POLYMORPHINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 GLOBOROTALIACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 GLOBIGERINACEA 3 0 0 0 0 0 435 BOLIVINACEA 0 4 0 0 6 0 151 LOXOSTOMATACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 TURRILINACEA 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 BULIMINACEA 3 2 0 3 12 9 318 FURSENKOINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 DISCORBACEA 24 8 5 28 24 18 1095 GLABRATELLACEA 0 0 0 5 3 0 42 SIPHONINACEA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 DISC ORBINELLACEA 0 6 10 23 3 3 172 PLANORBULINACEA 12 10 15 30 27 9 407 ASTERIGERINACEA 156 76 2 58 99 93 4169 NONIONACEA 0 4 0 0 6 9 101 CHILOSTOMELLACEA 0 0 3 5 3 9 297 ROTALIACEA 174 22 10 93 168 51 4008 NUMMULITACEA 21 44 1 0 24 30 960

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331 Appendix V. C ounts of orders observed in samples at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, corrected for relative sample weight and proportion picked. Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B 5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 ASTRORHIZIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LITUOLIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TROCHAMMINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TEXTULARIIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 2 4 2 2 SPIRILLINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 MILIOLIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 0 10 7 42 5 23 11 9 16 LAGENIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBIGERINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 10 1 10 3 3 4 BULIMINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 17 1 2 2 2 3 ROTALIIDA 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 17 22 93 27 46 75 58 101 TOTAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 0 15 11 71 9 37 20 16 25 Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a ASTRORHIZIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LITUOLIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TROCHAMMINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TEXTULARIIDA 9 14 4 0 0 0 4 1 3 1 6 9 8 2 6 17 8 10 SPIRILLINIDA 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 MILIOLIDA 19 80 26 3 0 9 18 5 15 15 1 4 28 17 9 23 59 24 32 LAGENIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBIGERINIDA 6 10 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 10 6 3 1 2 32 8 16 BULIMINIDA 4 17 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 3 3 9 1 0 3 3 3 9 ROTALIIDA 114 250 24 10 5 6 100 33 22 61 142 217 78 41 103 504 147 315 TOTAL 38 12 3 31 5 0 10 23 7 18 22 33 53 30 12 34 111 44 67

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332 Appendix V. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 ASTRORHIZIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LITUOLIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 TROCHAMMINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 3 1 0 TEXTULARIIDA 36 1 0 0 2 1 1 4 4 3 8 5 14 12 13 16 8 0 SPIRILLINIDA 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 9 0 0 MILIOLIDA 342 26 0 6 5 28 16 11 57 20 33 22 48 56 81 122 98 0 LAGENIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBIGERINIDA 54 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 10 3 11 6 34 23 24 40 8 0 BULIMINIDA 78 3 0 0 0 9 2 0 9 4 2 1 16 19 27 29 14 0 ROTALIIDA 768 36 3 9 123 91 54 48 203 118 204 188 281 337 430 693 1 71 0 TOTAL 516 30 0 6 9 41 19 17 81 31 54 35 113 112 148 220 129 0 Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 ASTRORHIZIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 LITUOLIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 TROCHAMMINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TEXTULARIIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 SPIRILLINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 MILIOLIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 4 12 26 LAGENI DA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBIGERINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 4 BULIMINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 ROTALIIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 51 83 101 TOTAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 6 23 35

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333 Appendix V. Continued Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 ASTRORHIZIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LITUOLIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TROCHAMMINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TEXTULARIIDA 0 0 0 0 2 3 4 2 0 7 26 0 0 0 3 2 6 5 SPIRILLINIDA 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 MILIOLIDA 0 0 0 19 21 236 49 111 42 109 265 1 1 2 8 62 70 72 LAGENIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLOBIGERINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 8 4 0 0 16 8 0 0 0 0 0 16 6 BULIMINIDA 0 0 0 3 2 11 4 7 1 12 13 0 0 0 0 2 4 9 ROTALIIDA 0 0 0 56 71 217 84 154 62 152 167 0 1 2 22 41 280 180 TOTAL 0 0 0 23 25 257 61 122 44 145 315 1 1 2 11 66 96 92 Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc ASTRORHIZIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LITUOLIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TROCHAMMINIDA 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TEXTULARIIDA 6 2 0 0 5 1 4 3 1 1 6 27 1 0 1 2 12 14 SPIRILLINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 MILIOLIDA 77 9 2 4 14 7 37 47 32 29 49 147 27 3 10 46 110 160 LAGENIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 GLOBIGERINIDA 5 0 0 0 1 3 2 5 5 4 7 36 0 0 0 0 2 2 BULIMINIDA 4 1 0 0 2 2 3 4 2 1 8 24 5 0 0 2 4 22 ROTALIIDA 136 15 14 12 36 8 112 118 97 61 88 420 23 7 41 24 256 260 TOTAL 92 12 2 4 23 12 46 59 39 36 71 237 33 3 11 50 128 202

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334 Appendix V. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL ASTRORHIZIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 LITUOLIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 TROCHAMMINIDA 0 0 0 0 3 0 14 TEXTULARIIDA 18 6 5 28 9 6 463 SPIRILLINIDA 0 0 0 0 0 0 38 MILIOLIDA 384 148 67 128 306 285 4739 LAGENIDA 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 GLOBIGERINIDA 3 0 0 0 0 0 495 BULIMINIDA 6 6 0 3 18 9 501 ROTALIIDA 387 170 46 240 357 2 22 11253 TOTAL 411 160 72 158 336 303 17516

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335 Appendix VI. Counts of functional groups observed in samples at Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, corrected for relative sample weight and proportion picked. Groups as defined by Hallock et al. (2003) and Car nahan (2005) Sample: 4B5S0 4B5S7.5 4B5S12 4B5S20 4B5S30 4B5S60 4B5S90 4B5S120 4B5S130 4B5S140 4B5S150 4B5S160 4B5S170 4B5S180 4B5S190 4B5S200 4B5S210 4B5S240 Symbiont bearing miliolids 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 1 Symbiont bearing globigerinids 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 10 1 10 3 3 4 Symbiont bearing rotaliids 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 7 13 38 22 29 71 53 90 Opportunistic 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 2 31 0 3 1 2 7 Agglutinates 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 2 4 2 2 Smaller porcelaneous 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 0 10 7 41 5 22 9 6 15 Smaller hyaline 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 41 6 16 5 5 7 TOTAL 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 7 2 32 33 164 36 83 95 74 126 Sample: 4B5S270 4B5S300 DC5S 4B5R0a 4B5R7.5a 4B5R12a 4B5R20a 4B5R30a 4B5R60a 4B5R90a 4B5R120a 4B5R140a 4B5R150a 4B5R180a 4B5R210a 4B5R240a 4B5R270a 4B5R300a Symbiont bearing miliolids 1 25 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 3 3 1 6 Symbiont bearing globigerinids 6 10 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 10 6 3 1 2 32 8 16 Symbiont bearing rotaliids 106 218 16 4 3 6 90 24 18 53 122 189 64 39 91 443 134 281 Oppor tunistic 4 9 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 4 9 4 0 6 5 5 5 Agglutinates 9 14 4 0 0 0 4 1 3 1 6 9 8 2 6 17 8 10 Smaller porcelaneous 18 57 26 3 0 9 17 5 15 14 12 27 18 9 20 57 24 26 Smaller hyaline 8 40 8 7 2 0 9 8 4 8 19 28 11 2 9 60 11 38 TOTAL 152 373 55 15 5 16 1 23 40 40 83 175 270 108 53 137 615 191 382

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336 Appendix VI. Continued. Sample: DC5Ra 4B5R0b 4B5R7.5b 4B5R12b 4B5R20b 4B5R30b 4B5R60b 4B5R90b 4B5R120b 4B5R140b 4B5R150b 4B5R180b 4B5R210b 4B5R240b 4B5R270b 4B5R300b DC5Rb 4A3S2 Symbiont bearing miliolids 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 1 3 1 6 4 7 20 3 0 Symbiont bearing globigerinids 54 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 10 3 11 6 34 23 24 40 8 0 Symbiont bearing rotaliids 480 15 2 8 119 79 39 38 138 97 168 138 231 273 340 561 109 0 Opportunistic 90 4 0 0 2 5 10 3 11 4 4 7 15 13 18 20 7 0 Agglutinates 36 1 0 0 2 1 1 4 4 3 8 5 14 12 13 16 8 0 Smaller porcelaneous 348 26 0 6 4 28 16 11 52 19 30 21 43 52 75 111 95 0 Smaller hyaline 276 20 1 1 2 16 7 7 64 22 34 45 51 72 101 145 70 0 TOTAL 1284 66 3 15 132 132 73 65 284 149 258 223 394 449 57 8 913 300 0 Sample: 4A3S3.5 4A3S9 4A3S14 4A3S30 4A3S64 4A3S89 4A3S114 4B3S1 4B3S7 4B3S12 4B3S30 4B3S60 4B3S90 4B3S125 4B3S150 4B3S175 4B3S200 4B3S225 Symbiont bearing miliolids 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 Symbiont bearing globigerinids 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 4 Symbiont bearing rotaliids 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 48 76 87 Opportunistic 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 Agglutinates 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Smaller porcelaneous 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 4 11 25 Smaller hyaline 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 10 12 TOTAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 11 56 106 136

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337 Appendix VI. Continued. Sample: 1C3S6 1C3S3 1C3S20 D3Sa D3Sb D3Sc D3Sd D3Se D3Sf D3Sg D3Sh 4A3R2 4A3R3.5 4A3R9 4A3R14 4A3R30 4A3R64 4A3R89 Symbiont bearing miliolids 0 0 0 4 1 21 4 19 4 5 37 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 Symbiont bearing globigerinids 0 0 0 0 0 8 4 0 0 16 8 0 0 0 0 0 16 6 Symbiont bearing rotaliids 0 0 0 39 52 111 57 115 36 86 103 0 1 1 18 25 248 143 Opportunistic 0 0 0 4 2 16 8 4 2 12 19 0 0 1 0 2 12 9 Agglutinates 0 0 0 0 2 3 4 2 0 7 26 0 0 0 3 2 6 5 Smaller porcelaneous 0 0 0 16 20 214 47 94 39 104 230 1 1 2 8 62 64 71 Smaller hyaline 0 0 0 16 20 101 22 42 25 65 58 0 0 0 4 16 24 38 TOTAL 0 0 0 79 96 474 145 275 106 296 482 1 2 4 33 107 376 2 72 Sample: 4A3R114 4B3R1 4B3R7 4B3R12 4B3R30 4B3R60 4B3R90 4B3R125 4B3R150 4B3R175 4B3R200 4B3R225 1C3R6 1C3R3 1C3R20 D3Ra D3Rb D3Rc Symbiont bearing miliolids 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 27 0 0 0 8 4 82 Symbiont bearing globigerinids 5 0 0 0 1 3 2 5 5 4 7 3 6 0 0 0 0 2 2 Symbiont bearing rotaliids 110 2 8 7 20 4 95 102 82 42 52 336 16 1 33 15 182 198 Opportunistic 11 10 0 0 5 2 4 3 2 6 6 27 0 1 2 1 4 16 Agglutinates 6 2 0 0 5 1 4 3 1 1 6 27 1 0 1 2 12 14 Smaller porcelaneous 77 9 2 4 14 7 36 46 31 27 48 1 23 27 3 10 38 106 82 Smaller hyaline 19 4 6 5 14 4 16 17 15 15 38 81 12 5 6 10 74 68 TOTAL 228 27 16 16 59 20 158 177 136 97 159 657 56 10 52 74 384 462

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338 Appendix VI. Continued. Sample: D3Rd D3Re D3Rf D3Rg D3Rh D3Ri TOTAL Symbiont bearing miliolids 18 9 40 4 20 93 63 749 Symbiont bearing globigerinids 3 0 0 0 0 0 495 Symbiont bearing rotaliids 333 140 7 145 279 150 8674 Opportunistic 18 6 6 3 21 21 595 Agglutinates 18 6 5 28 9 6 464 Smaller porcelaneous 195 108 63 108 213 225 4034 Smaller hyaline 42 30 33 95 78 60 2503 TOTAL 798 330 118 398 693 525 17516

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339 Appendix VII FORAMINIFERAL TAXONOMY IN TUTUM BAY, AMBITLE ISLAND, PAPUA NEW GUINEA Generic descriptions in the following taxonomic section are from Loeblich and Tappan (1987) or from the original describing reference if unavailable from Loeblich and Tapppan (1987). Species descriptions were obtained from the original describing reference, where available, or from other sources as indicated, and have been translated as necessary. A short li st of citations follows the individual species descriptions, which includes the original describing reference, as well as citations from important regional references, if they include that particular species. Additionally, scanning electron micrographs are provided for the most abundant taxa. Suprafamilial taxonomy is from Loeblich and Tappan (1987) as updated in Loeblich and Tapan (1990) with incorporation of more recent changes, as needed. EUKARYOTA Whittaker and Margulis, 1978 BIKONTA Cavalier Smith, 2002 SAR Burki et al. 2007 RHIZARIA Cavalier Smith, 2002 FORAMINIFEREA Lee, 1990 ASTRORHIZIDA Lankester, 1885 HIPPOCREPINACEA Rhumbler, 1895 HIPPOCREPINIDAE Rhumbler, 1895 Hippocrepininae Rhumbler, 1895

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340 Jaculella Brady, 1879 Test free, large, elongate, co nical, tapering, up to 12 mm in length; wall coarsely agglutinated, thick, firmly cemented, both exterior and interior surfaces roughly finished; aperture rounded, at slightly constricted open end of tube. Holocene; cosmopolitan, from 120 m to 5,800 m dept h. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Jaculella acuta Brady, 1879 Test elongate, straight or nearly so, closed and pointed at one extremity, gradually increasing in width towards the other, which, slightly constricted and rounded, but otherwise open, forms the ge neral aperture. Texture arenaceous, very compact, and hard; exterior surface rough, interior also rough, but in a less degree. Colour rich brown in the earlier portion of the test, becoming gradually lighter towards the wide end. Length 1/3 inch (8.5 milli m.). (Brady, 1879a) Brady, 1879, p. 35 36, pl. 3, figs. 12 13. Brady, 1884, p. 255 256, pl. 22, figs. 14 18. Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 44, pl. 33, figs. 5 6. Jones, 1994, p. 33, pl. 22, figs. 14 18. LITUOLIDA Lankester, 1885 LITUOLACEA de Blainville, 1827 HAPLOPHRAGMOIDIDAE Maync, 1952 Haplophragmoides Cushman, 1910 Test planispirally enrolled, involute to slightly evolute, biumbilicate, sides somewhat flattened, chambers inflated and margin lobulate; wall thin, finely to coarsely agglutinated, exterio r smoothly finished; aperture an elongate equatorial slit at the base of the apertural face. Cretaceous to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Haplophragmoides pusillus Collins, 1974 Test minute, planispiral, somewhat compressed, slightly e volute with depressed umbilicus, periphery, rounded and lobulate. Chambers inflated with depressed sutures, six in the last whorl, increasing in both size and inflation. Aperture simple, arcuate, peripheral, with slight lip. Wall thin, composed of sand gra ins of varying size with minimal cement, surface slightly rough. Dimensions of holotype: Diam. 0.35 mm., thickness 0.14 mm. This species has points of resemblance to Haplophragmoides canariense (d'Orbigny) but is much smaller, averaging 0.27 mm. in diamete r and is rather more compressed, with fewer chambers to the whorl and more rapid increase in size of the later chambers. It is probably Chapman's "small compressed form" of H. canariense recorded from Beaumaris, Port Phillip. (Collins, 1974) Collins, 1974, p. 9, pl. 1, fig. 2. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 16, pl. 7, figs. 1 7. TROCHAMMINIDA Saidova, 1981 TROCHAMMINACEA Schwager, 1877 TROCHAMMINIDAE Schwager, 1877 Trochammininae Schwager, 1877 Paratrochammina Bršnnimann, 1979 Test free, chambers in a low t rochospiral coil, periphery rounded; wall agglutinated, single layered, imperforate; aperture single, interiomarginal, umbilical extraumbilical, extending across the umbilicus over the margins of the two adjacent chambers, apertures of previous chambers re maining open into the umbilicus. Holocene; N. Atlantic, off USA: N. Carolina; Gulf of Mexico; S. Atlantic, Campos shelf off Brazil; USA: off California; Gulf of California. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Paratrochammina globorotaliformis (Zheng, 1988) Test la rge, periphery round, lobulate. Dorsal side with the early portion highly protruding, ventral side with deep umbilical region. Chambers of many whorls, those of the early whorls not very distinctly marked, forming a high spire, the final whorl with 4 disti nct scalariform chambers, increasing rapidly in length and in thickness, especially so with the final chamber. Sutures of the early portion slightly depressed, those of the final whorl deeply depressed. Wall consisting of coarse and fine sand grains firmly cemented together, surface coarse. Aperture at the base of the ventral face of the chamber, extending from

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341 the umbilicus to the periphery, lowly arched, with distinct lip. Color of the early portion, deep orange brown, of a lighter hue in the later portio n. Length 1.05 mm, width 0.85 mm, thickness 0.63 mm. The shape and arrangement of the chamber as well as apertural characteristics make it resemble a globorotalid. (Zheng, 1988) Zheng, 1988, p. 83, 316, pl. 39, fig. 3 (as Trochammina globorotaliformis ). Lo eblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 23, pl. 23, figs. 1 12. TEXTULARIIDA Lankester, 1885 TEXTULARIACEA Ehrenberg, 1838 TEXTULARIIDAE Ehrenberg, 1838 Textulariinae Ehrenberg, 1838 Sahulia Loeblich and Tappan, 1985 Test free, biserial throughout and forming a low c one with circular outline, septa nearly horizontal or slightly arched, chambers very broad and low, chamber interior simple and undivided; wall finely agglutinated, thin, canaliculated; aperture at the base of the apertural face, forming a low and nearly s traight slit across the center of the flattened terminal face, with a distinct flaplike lip bordering the opening, apertural reentrant present at the ends of the lip. Holocene; central and S. Pacific; N. Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico; Caribbean. (Loeblich and T appan, 1987) Sahulia barkeri (Hofker, 1978) Test round in topview, flatly triangular in side view, with numerous biserial chambers with distinct slightly protruding sutures and a very fine agglutination. At the apertural side two chambers are visible, bot h with a flat to slightly concave surface and a distinctly bordered rectangular lip over the aperture. In section the chambers are low and broad, with thin septa and slightly thicker outer walls, which are finely agglutinated. Diameter of the rounded test about 0.75 mm, height of the cone 0.40 mm. As Barker pointed out, this species is found solely in the coastal waters of New Guinea and has nothing to do with T. trochus d'Orbigny nor with the species found in the Caribbean Sea and the east coast of America named by Cushman. T. pseudotrochus (Hofker, 1978) Brady, 1884, p. 366, pl. 43, figs. 15 16, 18 19 (as Textularia trochus ). Hofker, 1978, p. 27 28, pl. 1, fig. 3 (as Textularia barkeri ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 173, pl. 191, figs. 9 12. Hottinger e t al. 1993, p. 33 34, pl. 8, figs. 7 11 (as Sahulia cf. S. barkeri ). Jones, 1994, p. 48, pl. 43, figs. 15 16,18 19. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 27, pl. 32, figs. 1 8. Textularia Defrance, 1824 Test biserial throughout or may have an adventitious third chamber against the first pair of chambers in the microspheric generation; wall agglutinated, traversed by canaliculi that may open as perforations or be closed externally by a thin agglutinated layer and typically are closed internally by the organic lini ng of the test; aperture a low arch or slit at the base of the apertural face. Paleocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Textularia agglutinans d' Orbigny, 1839 (Plate 1, figs. 1 7) Testa elongato conica, rugoso agglutinante, alba, la teraliter convexiuscula; postice cuneata; loculis largis, ultimis convexis; apertura semi lunari. Dimensions : Longueur 1 millim. Coquille allongŽe; sa longueur plus du double de sa largeur, droite, un peu renflŽe sur sa longueur, non carŽnŽe, trs convexe, acuminŽe postŽrieurement, peu Žlargie en avant, convexe ˆ cette partie, partout couverte d'aspŽritŽs qui, ˆ l'aide d'un fort grossissement, paraissent, en partie, composŽes de grains de sable agglutinŽs et adhŽrens [ sic ] ˆ la coquille, comme on le voit da ns le Trochus agglutinans Loges larges, convexes, transversales sans tre obliques, s'assemblant sur la ligne mŽdiane latŽrale d'une manire rŽgulire, mais obtuse, elles se recouvrent ˆ peine et sont plut™t appliquŽes les unes sur les autres; les deux de rnires, pour cette raison, sont de peu de chose plus larges que les autres; celles ci sont convexes en dessus. Ouverture semi lunaire, Žtroite sur le retour de la loge. Couleur blanche.

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342 Par l'assemblage transversal droit des loges, l'allongement de la coq uille, sa convexitŽ latŽrale, cette espce diffre de toutes les autres; elle est bien plus allongŽe que la prŽcŽdente [ T. candeiana ]; beaucoup moins renflŽe, et plus conique que notre Textularia lvigata (d'Orbigny, 1839a) [ Test is elongated conical, rug ose and agglutinated, white, sides made convex; back wedge shaped; large chambers, end convex; aperture partially lunate .] [ Dimensions : 1 millim. in length. Elongated shell; its length is more than double of its width, bulging a little in length on the rig ht, not streamlined, very convex, ending in a thin, elongated point in the back, hardly enlarged in the front, convex in this area, overall covered with rough edges, which, when largely magnified, seemed partly composed of grains of sand, agglutinated and adhering to the shell, as we see it in Trochus agglutinans Large convex chambers, transverse without being oblique, gathering on the median, lateral line in an even way, but obtuse, they overlap but only partially cover each other; the last two, for this reason, are not significantly larger than the others; these are convex above. Semi lunar aperture, narrow towards the back of the chamber. White in color. [With the right transverse mounting of the chambers, the shell's elongation, its lateral convexity, t his species differs from all others; it is much more elongated than the preceding one [ T. candeiana ]; much less bulging, and more cone shaped than our Textularia laevigata ] d'Orbigny, 1839, p. 144 145, pl. 1, figs. 17 18, 32 34. Brady, 1884, p. 363 364, p l. 43, figs. 1 2. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 36, pl. 13, figs. 1 9. Jones, 1994, p. 48, pl. 43, figs. 1 2. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 27, pl. 33, figs. 8 12. Textularia cushmani Said, 1949 Test of medium size, compressed, elongate, narrow and slender, oblong in transverse section; periphery broad, siphonate; chambers distinct, numerous, slightly broader than high, later chambers extending laterally into open siphons; sutures depressed, distinct, straight, nearly horizontal, although slightly oblique in some specimens; wall coarsely arenaceous, roughly finished; aperture a narrow, short slit located at the base of the inner margin of the last chamber. Length 0.60 mm.; breadth 0.30 mm. This species is characterized by its slender elongate form and its siph onate periphery. (Said, 1949) Said, 1949, p. 7, pl. 1, fig. 13. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 36 37. pl. 13, figs. 10 14. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 28, pl. 35, figs. 1 4. Textularia foliacea Heron Allen and Earland, 1915 Test free, highly compressed, con sisting of seven to nine pairs of chambers regularly increasing in width so as to give a leaf shaped outline to the shell. Sutural lines depressed, often strongly marked, but at times very obscure, and obliquely set, so that the tapering off of the ultimat e pair of chambers gives the characteristic diamond of foliaceous outline. Median line of the shell depressed below the marginal edges, aperture small and regularly textularian. Test composed of sand grains and other adventitious substances firmly and neat ly cemented together, but with a rough external surface. Length 1.0 to 1.5 mm.; breadth .6, thickness .3 mm. The affinities of our species are between T. luculenta Brady and T. hauerii or gramen d'Orbigny. It may be compared as regards its highly compresse d and parallel faced test with the Textularia immensa of Cushman (1913), from which it differs only in the character of its aperture. (Heron Allen and Earland, 1915) Heron Allen and Earland, 1915, p. 628 629, pl. 47, figs. 17 20. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 37, pl. 13, figs. 15 18, pl. 14, figs. 1 5 (as Textularia foliacea foliacea ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 28, pl. 34, figs. 6 14. Textularia lateralis Lalicker, 1935 Test subtriangular in outline, slightly longer than wide, somewhat compressed, subrhom boidal in end view, periphery subacute to spinose; chambers numerous, about twice as wide as high, usually rounded at the periphery, but terminating in short, conical spines in some specimens, especially near the initial end, upper margin of chamber very s lightly overhanging; sutures distinct, slightly depressed, gently curved in an anterior direction; wall finely arenaceous and rather smoothly finished; aperture a very low opening at the

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343 base of the inner margin of the last formed chamber, with a short lip at the upper edge. Length of holotype 0.71 mm.; width 0.70 mm.; thickness 0.31 mm. (Lalicker, 1935) Lalicker, 1935, p. 2, pl. 1, figs. 3 5. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 28, pl. 33, figs. 13 16. Septotextulariinae Loeblich and Tappan, 1985 Septotextulari a Cheng and Zheng, 1978 Test free, large, up to 2 mm in length, stout, biserial throughout, the lower margin of each chamber deeply incised just anterior to the septa, and with about four backward directed projections on each chamber that overlap the sutur es, chamber lumen subdivided by four to six vertical radial partitions that extend nearly to the center of the test; sutures slightly arched, septa thick, particularly in the vicinity of the aperture; wall agglutinated, canaliculated, thick, coarser graine d near the exterior and somewhat fined [ sic ] grained toward the test interior; aperture a low arch at the base of the apertural face. Holocene: Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Septotextularia rugosa Cheng and Zheng, 1978 Test free, elongate, roughly o blong in apertural view. Chambers biserial, throughout. Wall finely arenaceous. With the exception of earliest chambers, each chamber with two internal vertical partitions, sometimes with one to two smaller septa between vertical partitions. Aperture an ar ched opening at the base of the final chamber. (Cheng and Zheng, 1978) Brady, 1884, p. 363, pl. 42, figs. 23 24 (as Textularia rugosa ). Cheng and Zheng, 1978, p. 167 168, 257 258, pl. 3, figs. 5 10 (as Septotextularia rugulosa ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 177 178, pl. 195, figs. 5 8. Jones 1994, p. 47, pl. 42, figs. 23 24. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 32, pl. 43, figs. 9 15. PSEUDOGAUDRYINIDAE Loeblich and Tappan, 1985 Pseudogaudryininae Loeblich and Tappan, 1985 Pseudogaudryina Cushman, 1936 Test free elongate, early stage triserial, later biserial, but test triangular throughout, so that the two series of angular biserial chambers are dissimilar, one series being roughly triangular in section and the other quadrangular in section, maintaining the tri angular test shape; wall agglutinated, canaliculated; aperture an interiomarginal arch. U. Cretaceous (Senonian) to Holocene; Jamaica; Trinidad; USA: Texas, South Carolina; Australia; Caribbean; Gulf of Mexico; Atlantic; Germany. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987 ) Pseudogaudryina pacifica Cushman and McCulloch, 1939 Variety differing from the typical in the much smoother surface, smaller size and more nearly horizontal sutures. There is a considerable amount of variation in this form as our figures indicate and th ere are intermediate specimens that seem to indicate that it is but a varietal form. (Cushman and McCulloch, 1939) Cushman and McCulloch, 1939, p. 94, pl. 9, figs. 1 2 (as Gaudryina [ Pseudogaudryina ] atlantica var. pacifica ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 33, pl. 45, figs. 20 23. Siphoniferoidinae Loeblich and Tappan, 1985 Siphoniferoides Saidova, 1981 Test elongate, early stage triserial and sharply triangular, later biserial, chambers with fistulose projections at the lateral angles, and later chambers w ith similar projections in vertical rows on the chamber faces, the rows occasionally bifurcating so that the adult test may have six to eight such rows of tubular outgrowths that form small chamberlets external to the main chamber wall and cavity, lacking any connection with the test interior other than through the wall canaliculi, fistulose chamberlets also closed to the exterior in well preserved specimens but commonly broken, irregular to vermiform openings of the wall canaliculi may be seen through the opening left into the chambers when tips of some or all projections are worn or broken; wall agglutinated, that of the sides of the test itself distinctly canaliculated but wall of the tubular projections, septa, and apertural face non canaliculate, openin gs of the canaliculi irregular, the path of the pores then straight through the wall

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344 itself; aperture a low arch at the base of the apertural face, small and nearly circular in young specimens, forming a somewhat more elongate slit in the adult. Holocene; Indo Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Siphoniferoides siphoniferus (Brady, 1881) Test subcylindrical, nearly round in transverse section, tapering and pointed at the primordial end, each of the two opposing series of chambers furnished with from two to four rows of tabulated fistulose openings, arranged with more or less regularity. Length, 1/16 inch (1.5 mm.). (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 53 (as Textularia siphonifera ). Brady, 1884, p. 362 363, pl. 42, figs. 25 29 (as Textularia siphonifera ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 180, pl. 198, figs. 5 9. Jones, 1994, p. 47, pl. 42, figs. 25 29. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 33, pl. 46, figs. 1 10. VALVULINIDAE Berthelin, 1880 Valvulininae Berthelin, 1880 Clavulina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test elongate, early stage tr iserial and triangular in section, later stage uniserial and rectilinear, with angular to rounded section; wall agglutinated, with considerable calcareous cement, in at least some species addition of a new chamber results in addition of an imperforate floo r to the new chamber, so that the septa are secondarily doubled; wall canaliculated, fine canaliculi bifurcating within the wall, openings of the canaliculi sealed internally by an inner organic lining, and externally by the imperforate surface layer of th e wall; aperture interiomarginal in the early triserial stage, terminal and rounded in the adult, with imperforate bordering rim and an imperforate apertural toothplate obstructing part of the aperture, reducing it to a semilunate form, then extending inwa rd from the aperture through the chamber to attach to that preceding, successive toothplates oriented 120¡ apart, reflecting the original triseriality. Paleocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Clavulina angularis d'Orbigny, 1826 [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Test agglutinated, elongate, early stages triangular, later stages subrectangular in side view. Triangular with acute margins in aboral view, triangular to subrounded in distal view. Earlier chambers trian gular in section, rapidly increasing in size, arranged triserially for about 4 to 5 coils; later chambers triangular in section with flat to concave sides, gradually increasing in size, especially in height, arranged uniserially, 8 9 in the adult. The acut e edges of the chamber wall are strongly drawn in proximal direction. The sutures are strongly curved and depressed. Aperture in triserial stages basal, in uniserial stages terminal, rounded and restricted by the free edge of a folded tooth plate, running from aperture to foramen. Tooth plates of successive uniserial chambers set at 120 angles between each preceding and each succeeding chamber. Agglutinated material mostly non calcareous, heterogenous in size and shape, cemented by calcareous matter. Irreg ular. large anastomosing and branching parapores penetrate most of the thick chamber wall (except in the septal area and in the tooth plate), covered in part by a thin layer of agglutinated grains (pavement). (Hottinger et al. 1993) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 26 8, pl. 12, fig. 7. Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 182, pl. 200, figs. 1 2. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 41 42, pl. 21, figs. 1 13. Clavulina pacifica Cushman, 1924 Test elongate, early portion triserial, short, trihedral; later portion uniserial, the sides p arallel or nearly so, triangular in transverse section, the sides flat or somewhat convex; chambers fairly high; sutures distinct, depressed, curved; wall arenaceous, but very smoothly finished, last formed chamber tapering toward the apertural end, the wh ole rounded; aperture circular, with a fairly large tooth; color yellowish brown. Length up to 1.5 mm. The development of the early stages is like that of Verneuilina the aperture being connected with the edge of the chamber. This gradually closes and the aperture becomes central. Clavulina tricarinata from the Atlantic has sharper, more prominent angles to the test, the sides are usually distinctly concave, the apertural end is not so drawn out, the chambers are closer together, and the

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345 color grayish whit e. Clavulina pacifica has the reverse of all these characters and a yellowish brown color, and the test is even more smoothly finished than in C. tricarinata (Cushman, 1924) Brady, 1884, p. 396, pl. 48, figs. 22 24 (as Clavulina angularis ). Cushman, 1924, p. 22 23, pl. 6, figs. 7 11. Jones, 1994, p. 53, pl. 48, figs. 22 24. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 34, pl. 47, figs. 16 24. SPIRILLINIDA Gorbachik and Mantsurova, 1980 PLANISPIRILLINIDAE Piller, 1978 Conicospirillinoides Cheng and Zheng, 1978 Test with globular proloculus and undivided planispirally enrolled tubular second chamber, wall extending into a high spiraling flange bordering the whorls that partially overlaps the umbilical region and slopes sharply upward considerably beyond the chamber lumen, surface of the flange bearing numerous curved radial indentations that are slightly oblique to the periphery and spiral suture and falsely appear to represent internal septa, but present only on the flanges and do not subdivide the chamber lumen; on the fl attened umbilical side similar but horizontal flanges extend from the inner chamber margin, covering the umbilical region with thick lamellae that have a papillate surface with numerous rounded bosses; aperture at the end of the tubular chamber at the peri phery. Holocene; S. Pacific: Torres Straits; S. China Sea: Xisha Islands; Indian Ocean: off N. Mozambique. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Conicospirillinoides denticulatus (Brady, 1884) External form and general characters of the test resembling those of Spi rillina limbata ; the raised spiral band covering the sutural line furnished with buttress like teeth, set at regular intervals along its inner margin. (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1884, p. 632, pl. 85, fig. 17 ( as Spirillina limbata var. denticulata ). Jones, 1994, p. 92, pl. 85, fig. 17 (as Spirillina denticulata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 35, pl. 51, figs. 1 3. Conicospirillinoides inaequalis (Brady, 1879) Test free or adherent, discoidal, thick; inferior face flat, broader than the superior; superior surfac e excavated at the umbilicus. Composed of a number of convolutions (three to five) of a non septate tube. Inferior peripheral margin acute or sub carinate, superior obtuse. Shell wall conspicuously foraminated. Diameter, 1/70 inch (0.36 millim.). Compared with the typical Spirillina vivipara this species presents a small thick shell, with a sloping instead of a rounded peripheral wall. Though it has never been met with attached to any hard body, the appearance of its inferior surface and the fact of its be ing brought up upon minute shreds of algae and the like, leave little doubt that it is of parasitic habit. The extension of the margin of the inferior surface is due mainly to the thickening of the shell wall, which on the superior side remains thin, perfo rate, and delicately transparent. (Brady, 1879b) Brady, 1879, p. 278, pl. 8, fig. 25 (as Spirillina inqualis ). Brady, 1884, p. 631, pl. 85, figs. 8 11 (as Spirillina inqualis ). Jones, 1994, p. 92, pl. 85, figs. 8 11 (as Spirillina inaequalis ). Loeblich a nd Tappan, 1994, p. 35, pl. 51, figs. 4 6. Planispirillina Bermœdez, 1952 Test discoidal, globular proloculus followed by undivided tubular and planispirally enrolled second chamber, evolute on one side and involute on the opposite; wall perforate on the evolute side, imperforate on the opposite side where earlier whorls are obscured by a covering of papillose lamellae, wall of aragonite by X ray determination; aperture at the open end of the tubular chamber. Holocene; Pacific: off Japan; Guam; Hawaiian Is lands; S. China Sea; Atlantic: English Channel; W. Atlantic: Florida; Mediterranean Sea. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987)

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346 Planispirillina spinigera (Chapman, 1900) Test free, but perhaps at one time adherent or resting generally on one face, discoidal, consis ting of a single tube in four convolutions. The two sides unequal, the broader or basal face concave, having the primordial or central portion globulose and armed with a short blunt spine which does not project beyond the general surface; around the periph ery other blunt spines are arranged, to the number of fourteen or more, and the salient edges of the coils are more or less spinose. The upper (smaller) face is slightly convex and tolerably smooth. The terminal portion of the coil is separated from the re st of the shell and is slightly reverted. Diameter of test 1/77 inch (.325 mm.). In having the lateral faces of unequal size this form resembles Spirillina inaequalis Brady. It also shows some affinity towards S. tuberculata Brady, in its separated termi nation. The form may have been derived directly from S. limbata var. denticulata Brady, by the redundant outgrowth of the transverse bars or denticul, but this is merely a suggestion. (Chapman, 1900) Chapman, 1900, p. 10 11, pl. 1, fig. 7 (as Spirillina spinigera ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 35, pl. 51, figs. 7 12. SPIRILLINIDAE Reuss and Fritsch, 1861 Mychostomina Berthelin, 1881 Test low conical, with convex evolute spiral side, opposite side flat to concave, proloculus followed by tubular enrolled second chamber of several low trochospiral whorls that then crosses the periphery to add one or two whorls on the flattened side as it coils toward the umbilicus, periphery may be carinate; wall calcareous, hyaline, of a single crystal to many crystals of calcite, both surfaces of the test with coarse pseudopores; aperture at the end of the tubular chamber, opening into the umbilicus, and may be bordered by a thickened lip. L. Cretaceous (Barremian) to Holocene; USSR: Caucasus; Atlantic; Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Mychostomina revertens (Rhumbler, 1906) Diese VarietŠt unterscheidet sich von der typischen Spirillina vivipara Ehrbg. dadurch, da§ das Wachstumsende der Schale auf einer gewissen Grš§enstufe den peripheren Schalenrand verlŠ§t und auf der konkaven UnterflŠche der Schale sich spiraling weiterwickelt, so da§ es den konkaven Hohlraum der UnterflŠche der Schale allmŠhlich ausfŸllt und die SchalenmŸndung der Embryonalkammer wieder nŠhert. Die anfangs enge, meist rauhwandige ungleich perforierte Ršhre windet sich zu einem flachen Kegelmantel auf, in deren Innenraum sie dann unter fast gleichbleibender grš§erer Weite spiralig zurŸckkehrt, um bei ausgewachsenen Exemplaren die MŸndung der Primordialkammer von unten her anzulegen. Bei ausgewachsen Ex emplaren lŠ§t sich die der Embryonalkammer wieder zugefŸhrte MŸndung manchmal nicht mehr nachweisen, bei nicht ausgewachsenen Exemplaren ist sie meist deutlich sichtbar. Die KontinuitŠt des weitern in der Kegelhohlraum zurŸckkehrenden Ršhrenteils mit dem e ngern Ršhrenteil des Šu§ern Kegelmantels im Verein mit dem Aussehen unausgewachsener Exemplare und der Anwesenheit nur einer Embryonalkammer schlie§t eine Verwechslung mit cytogamisch verbundenen Schalenpaaren der S. vivipara aus, mit denen sie sonst Šu§er e €hnlichkeit haben kšnnen. Durchmesser 0.07 0.15 mm. (Rhumbler, 1906) [This variety differentiates itself from the typical Spirillina vivipara Ehrbg. in that the growth end of the test leaves the peripheral test at a certain stage of growth, and continues to develop itself on the concave underside of the test, so that it eventually fills in the concave cavity in the underside of the test, and again approaches the test mouth of the embryonic chamber. [The at first narrow, mostly rough walled, unevenly perfo rated tube winds itself into a flat cone sheath, the inner chamber of which it then, with an almost constant width, turns around in a spiral, to connect, in the case of full grown individuals, with the mouth of the primordial chamber from the bottom. In fu ll grown individuals, the mouth returning to the embryonic chamber is sometimes no longer identifiable; in juvenile individuals the mouth is usually clearly visible. The continuity of the widening of the returning tube end into the cone cavity with the nar rower tube end of the outer cone sheath, in association with the appearance of juvenile individuals, and the presence of just one embryonic chamber leads to confusion with "cytogamic" associated test pairs of S. viviparus with which they otherwise can hav e external similarity. Diameter 0.07 0.15 mm.] Brady, 1884, p. 630, pl. 85, fig. 5 (not figs. 1 4; as Spirillina vivipara ). Rhumbler, 1906, p. 32 33, pl. 2, figs. 8 10 (as Spirillina vivipara var. revertens ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 303 304, pl. 31 8, figs. 9 11, 13 15 (not fig. 12).

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347 Jones, 1994, p. 92, pl. 85, fig. 5. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 36, pl. 52, figs. 1 13. Spirillina Ehrenberg, 1843 Test discoidal, globular proloculus followed by a gradually enlarging enrolled, undivided by a gradual ly enlarging enrolled, undivided tubular second chamber, earliest few whorls may be in a low trochospiral, later ones planispiral, commonly four to nine closely appressed whorls, tubular chamber may not be entirely cylindrical but lies against the peripher y of the preceding whorl, and final part of the last whorl may bend at a right angle so that the aperture opens into the umbilical depression, asexually formed gamont with smaller test and smaller proloculus than those of sexually produced agamont; wall ca lcareous, hyaline, appearing optically as a single calcite crystal with c axis oriented perpendicular to the plane of coiling or less commonly parallel to this plane, others may have a transitional orientation with c axis at first perpendicular to the coil ing axis and becoming progressively oblique to this in successive whorls, or may have a helicoidal structure, with c axes at an angle of about 45¡ to the radii from the center of the test, or may consist of a mosaic of crystals in which the c axes are vari ously oriented, the calcite being deposited over an organic membrane; surface commonly with numerous pores or pseudopores of limited distribution; aperture rounded to crescentic, at the open end of the tubular chamber; gamont individuals uninucleate, agamo nt multinucleate, asexual multiple fission occurs within a reproductive cyst formed by the animal, during sexual reproduction two or three individuals are enclosed within a fertilization cyst, the syzygy ensuring gametic fusion. U. Triassic (Rhaetian) to H olocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Spirillina grosseperforata Zheng, 1979 Test small, circular, the dorsal and ventral side of equal width, of 8 9 coils, periphery truncate, peripheral angles subacute. Dorsal side flattened, coarsely and d ensely perforate; ventral side not visibly perforate, rather rough, central portion depressed. Aperture arched, opening slightly to the ventral side. This species differs from Spirillina perforata (Schultze) in the smaller test, in being perforate only on the dorsal side and in the aperture opening slightly to the ventral side. (Zheng, 1979) Zheng, 1979, p. 174, 222, pl. 19, fig. 12. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 36, pl. 53, figs. 1 8. Spirillina cf. limbata Brady, 1879 Test planospiral, thin, equilateral, discoidal; peripheral margin square. Spiral sutural line marked externally by a raised band of shelly deposit; surface otherwise smooth. Diameter, 1/66 inch (0.4 millim.). This is a well marked form differing from Sp. vivipara in its less delicately thin shell wall, its distinct sutural limbation, and its square periphery. (Brady, 1879b) Brady, 1879, p. 278 279, pl. 8, fig. 26. Brady, 1884, p. 632, pl. 85, figs. 18 21. Jones, 1994, p. 92, pl. 85, figs. 18 21. Spirillina vivipara Ehrenberg, 1843 Testula sp iralis orbicularis porosa hyaline laevis, passim testulis pullis foeta. (Ehrenberg, 1843) [ Test a porous and glassy, smooth circular spiral, occasionally the test has a dark proloculus .] Ehrenberg, 1843, p. 422, pl. 3, fig. 41. Brady, 1884, p. 630, pl. 85, figs. 1 4 (not fig. 5). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 304, pl. 318, figs. 4 7. Jones, 1994, p. 92, pl. 85, figs. 1 4. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 36, pl. 54, figs. 5 10. MILIOLIDA Lankester, 1885 CORNUSPIRACEA Schultze, 1854 CORNUSPIRIDAE Schultze, 185 4 Cornuspirininae Schultze, 1854

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348 Cornuspira Schultze, 1854 Test free, discoidal, of globular proloculus and undivided planispirally enrolled and evolute tubular second chamber; wall calcareous, porcelaneous, imperforate, surface smooth or with occasional transverse growth lines; aperture at the open end of the tube. Carboniferous to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Cornuspira involvens (Reuss, 1850) Discoidea, valde compressa, centro concave, margine subrotundata, laevigata; anfractibus numerosis, planis, subinvolventibus, rapide increscentibus, internis angustissimis, extimis latis. Diam. = 1 2 mm. Zeichnet sich vor allen andern Arten schon beim ersten Anblick durch die Beschaffenheit ihrer zahlreichen (10 12) UmgŠnge aus. Diese sind nŠm lich ganz flach, am RŸcken sehr wenig gewšlbt und umfassen jedesmal einen Theil des vorhergehenden Umganges. Ueberdiess nehmen sie sehr rasch an Breite zu. Die innersten sind sehr schmal, der letzte dagegen sehr breit, so dass er beinahe den 4. 5. Theil de s Gesammtdurchmessers des GehŠuses einnimmt. Dieses ist Ÿberdiess an beiden FlŠchen stŠrker concav, als es bei andern Arten zu sein pflegt, indem die UmgŠnge nach innen hin treppenartig absetzen. Die MŸndung fand ich an keinem meiner Exemplare wohlerhalten Die SchalenoberflŠche ist glatt. Von der an den KŸsten von Cuba und Martinique lebenden O. incerta d'Orb. unterscheidet sich unsere Species schon bei flŸchtiger Betrachtung durch die ganz flachen, sehr ungleichen, theilweise umfassenden UmgŠnge. Selten. (Reuss, 1850) [Discoid, strongly compressed, center concave, margin subrotund, smooth; many whorls, planar, sub involute, rapidly increasing from the innermost chamber, becoming broadest at the external end. Diameter=1 2mm. [ Distinguishes itself from the o ther types on first impression by its nature of its many (10 12) whorls. These are namely very flat, on the dorsal side slightly curved, and include each time a portion of the previous whorl. Moreover, they increase in width very quickly. The innermost one s are very narrow, the last one in contrast very wide, so that it takes up almost the 4th to 5th part of the of the total diameter of the test. In addition, it is strongly concave on both sides, as it tends to be with the other types, in that the whorls ar e deposited like a staircase toward the inside. The mouth was not well preserved in any of my samples. The shell surface is smooth. [Our species distinguishes itself from O. incerta d'Orb from the coast of Cuba and Martinique, under quick examination, by t he very flat and uneven, occasionally extensive whorls. Rare. ] Reuss, 1850, p. 370, pl. 46, fig. 30 (as Operculina involvens ). Brady, 1884, p. 200 201, pl. 11, figs. 1 3. Jones, 1994, p. 26 27, pl. 11, figs. 1 3. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 36 37, pl. 56 figs. 14 15. Cornuspira planorbis Schultze, 1854 Schale ohne jede Spur feiner Poren, braun durchscheinend. Durchmesser der mittleren kugligen Hšhlung 0.02", Zahl der allmŠhlich sich erweiternden Windungen bis sechs, vielleicht noch mehr. (Schultze, 1854 ) [ Shell without any sign of pores, brown translucent. Diameter of the middle ball shaped cavity 0.02", number of the gradually widening whorls up to six, maybe even more ] Schultze, 1854, p. 40, pl. 2, fig. 21. Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 310, pl. 322, figs. 7 8. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 43, pl. 23, figs. 1 3. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 37, pl. 56, figs. 1 7. NUBECULARIACEA Jones, 1875 FISCHERINIDAE Millett, 1898 Fischerininae Millett, 1898 Planispirinella Wiesner, 1931 Test discoidal, flattened, g lobular proloculus followed by planispirally coiled narrow second chamber, later with about three chambers per whorl, septa oblique, very thin, external sutures obscured by the thickened wall; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous, thick, as additiona l lamellae cover the central part of the test with each successive whorl to leave only a much restricted chamber lumen;

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349 aperture a high slitlike opening in the face of the final chamber. Holocene; Pacific; Australia. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Planispirin ella exigua (Brady, 1879) Test free, thin, discoidal, planospiral; composed of a number of convolutions of a narrow, slightly embracing, septate tube, but showing no indication of the spiral suture beyond the final circuit. Septa few, about three in each c onvolution, not marked by any external depression. Aperture simple, terminal, Diameter 1/50 inch (0.5 millim.) or less. (Brady, 1879b) Brady, 1879, p. 267 (as Hauerina exigua ). Brady, 1884, p. 196, pl. 12, figs. 1 4, text fig. 5b (as Planispirina exigua ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 317 318, pl. 329, figs. 13 16. Jones, 1994, p. 27, pl. 12, figs. 1 4, text fig. 5b. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 38, pl. 57, figs. 7 8. FISCHERINELLIDAE Saidova, 1981 Fischerinella Loeblich and Tappan, 1962 Test conical, glo bular proloculus followed by spiral chamber of nearly complete whorl, then with gradually enlarging trochospirally enrolled chambers, progressively more numerous per whorl, up to four or five in the final one, all whorls visible from the convex spiral side only those of the final whorl visible from the flattened to concave umbilical side, sutures radial; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture ovate at the open end of the final chamber. Holocene; E. Africa: Kerimba Archipelago; Indonesia; Mala y Peninsula; Australia. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Fischerinella diversa McCulloch, 1977 Test free calcareous small circular in contour periphery irregularly lobed, rounded; planispiral organization of chambers; wall hyaline smooth imperforate thin fragil e; sutures on evolute side distinct depressed, interlocular septa radiate narrow white lines; evolute side showing about four or five chambers in final whorl; proloculus distinct followed by not more than three whorls of second tubular chamber but usually less than three complete ones; involute side slightly depressed centrally; aperture marginally at open end of final chamber subcircular in shape and tending to lean slightly toward ventral or involute side. Fixcherina helix Heron Allen & Earland, 1915, the type species for genus Fischerinella is planoconvex with the evolute side being convex. Its apertural end also tends to turn downward to end under the last formed whorl ventrally; the present species is more lobulate peripherally, more complete planispira l with aperture ending laterally and usually with an additional chamber in final whorl. (McCulloch, 1977) McCulloch, 1977, p. 587, pl. 248, figs. 9 10. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 38, pl. 58, figs. 1 12. NUBECULARIIDAE Jones, 1875 Nodobaculariinae Cushm an, 1927 Nubeculina Cushman, 1924 Test elongate, narrow, proloculus followed by enrolled second chamber, and then by a rectilinear to slightly irregular series of chambers separated by stolonlike necks; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous, milky whi te, and may incorporate some agglutinated particles at the exterior; aperture terminal on a tubular neck, with phialine lip that has a few teeth projecting inward from the rim. Holocene; Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Nubeculina advena Cushman, 1924 Test free, elongate, tapering from the initial end, broadest at the last formed chamber; composed of several uniserial chambers, the initial end milioline; wall porcellaneous, the exterior with included sand grains; aperture elongate, tubular, with an ever ted phialine lip and the apertural opening with a series of inwardly pointing teeth. Length of Samoan specimens up to 2..5 mm. It is very different from the typical form of the species which has slender stolon like connections between the chambers and very different apertural characters. (Cushman, 1924) Cushman, 1924, p. 53, pl. 19, figs. 1 4 (as Nubeculina divaricata var. advena ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 38, pl. 59, figs. 1 12.

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350 Nodobaculariellinae Bogdanovich in Subbotina, Voloshinova, and Azbel', 1981 Nodobaculariella Cushman and Hanzawa, 1937 Test somewhat elongate, flattened, broad, with carinate periphery, proloculus followed by tubular planispiral chamber, then by rapidly widening chambers of one half coil in length, rarely three chambers per whorl, coiling evolute to slightly overlapping in the later whorls, final chamber uncoiled and rectilinear; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous, surface of the final whorl may have narrow longitudinal costae; aperture elongate, terminal on the final chamber, with a bordering everted lip. Pliocene to Holocene; Pacific: Ryukyu Islands; Atlantic: E. coast USA. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Nodobaculariella convexiuscula (Brady, 1884) Test compressed, broadly elliptical or nearly circular, slightly biconve x, peripheral edge sharp or carinate; lateral surfaces marked by partial, irregular, longitudinal costae. Segments few in number, broad, embracing; septation obscure externally. Aperture placed somewhat at one side of the median peripheral line; oval, bord ered by a thickened or everted lip. Long diameter rarely more than 1/50 inch (0.5 mm.). It is difficult to say to which of the Milioline genera this pretty little species may with most propriety be assigned. At first sight it has the appearance of the youn g or immature condition of some larger species, but its very constant characters and its distribution alike forbid this supposition. In many specimens the broad embracing chambers of the final convolution completely enclose all the preceding ones, a condit ion which suggests affinity with a section of the genus Biloculina characterized by compression in a direction contrary to the normal or typical plan. But this is not an invariable feature, and the form or orifice is very distinct from that of any known m ember of that genus; indeed the position of the aperture and the occasional asymmetry of the shell, so far as they go, indicate a relationship with the genus Miliolina The general contour of the test and its many points of resemblance to Spiroloculina acu timargo probably furnish on the whole the safest guide, and it has therefore been placed provisionally amongst Spiroloculin (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1884, p. 155 156, pl. 10, figs. 18 20 (as Spiroloculina (?) convexiuscula ). Jones, 1994, p. 26, pl. 10, figs. 18 20. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 39, pl. 59, figs. 15 19. Vertebralina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test flattened, broad, and somewhat elongate, early chambers slightly trochospiral and involute, final chamber uncoiled and rectilinear; wall calcareous, imperfora te, porcelaneous, surface with numerous closely spaced longitudinal costae; aperture terminal, a narrow elongate slit with smooth and thickened bordering lip, slightly turned toward the side with the umbilical view of the coil. Holocene; Atlantic; Pacific; Mediterranean. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Vertebralina striata d'Orbigny, 1826 [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Test porcelaneous, subpolygonal to rectangular in side view, strongly compressed, subelliptical in end view, periphery ro unded. Chamber arrangement slightly trochospiral and involute in early stages, later uncoiling and finally uniserial. Test covered with longitudinal, diverging and anastomosing costae, in the late stages of some specimens interconnected by transverse ridge s producing a reticulate pattern. Aperture an elongated, distal, subelliptical, asymmetrical slit with a thick peristomal everted lip. (Hottinger et al. 1993) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 283. Brady, 1884, p. 187, pl. 12, figs. 14 16. Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 319, pl. 330, figs. 17 19. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 43, pl. 23, figs. 8 15. Jones, 1994, p. 28, pl. 12, figs. 14 16. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 39, pl. 60, figs. 1 7. Wiesnerella Cushman, 1933 Test flattened, ovate in outline, periphery carinate, ea rly stage planispirally enrolled to low trochospiral, whorls overlapping more on one side than the opposite; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous, surface smooth; aperture a broad opening at the end of the final chamber, slightly turned

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351 toward the mo re evolute side of the test, bordered by a broad everted lip. Holocene; Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Wiesnerella auriculata (Egger, 1893) Diese Art ist nach dem flachen Aufbau der sich gegenŸberstehenden Kammern eine Spiroloculina aber die trompetenfšrmige Endigung in der Schlusskammer in ein weit offen stehendes Ohr lŠsst sie bei Spiroloculina nicht einstellen. Es wird desshalb die Einreihung bei Planispirina versucht. Das GehŠuse ist oval im Umriss, sehr flach, hat scharfen Kiel, ist hinten gerundet, endet vorne in ein flaches, rundes Ohr mit frei abstehendem Rande. Die Seiten zeigen breite Schlusskammern, welche in der halben Schalenbreite sich zu einer flachen Kante erhšhen, von da nach dem Kiele und nach dem Saume gegen die Sch alenmitte flach abfallen. Die Mittelkammern sind aufrech gestellt, treten im Schalenquerschnitt nicht heraus, weder mit Zacken, noch mit Buckeln. Die Schalenhšhe ist 0.15 bis 0.25 Millimeter. Die MŸndung ist von der Ohrmuschel umschlossen. Die OberflŠche i st glatt. Durch die glatte OberflŠche, das mehr ausgebildete Ohr und die lŠngere Form des Umrisses unterscheidet diese Art sich von der Šhnlichen, aber mit LŠngsleisten bedeckten Spiroloc. convesiuscula (Egger, 1893) [This type is, on the basis of the fla t construction of the opposing chambers, a Spiroloculina but the trumpet shaped ending in the terminal chamber in a wide open standing cochlea, does not allow it to be assigned to the Spiroloculina It is attempted, for this reason, to be aligned with (as signed to) the Planispirina [The shell's contour is oval, very flat, has a sharp keel, is rounded in the back, ends in the front in a flat, round cochlea, with a free standing margin/edge or border. The sides exhibit wide terminal chambers, which, at the half width, heightens into a flat edge/angle, from there after the keel and the seam, slopes down around the middle of the shell. The middle/intermediate chambers stand upright, do not stand out in the cross section of the shell, either with sharp edges/po ints or humps. The shell/test height is 0.15 to 0.25 millimeters. The mouth is surrounded by the auricle. The surface is smooth. [Due to the smooth surface, the more developed cochlea, and the longer shape of the margin, this type differentiates itself fr om the similar Spiroloc. convesiuscula which is covered with bands along the length.] Egger, 1893, p. 245 246, pl. 3, figs. 13 15 (as Planispirina auriculata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 319, pl. 330, figs. 11 13. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 43, pl. 24, figs. 1 4. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 39, pl. 62, figs. 1 3. Wiesnerella ujiiei Hatta in Hatta and UjiiŽ, 1992 Test minute, somwhat [ sic ] compressed, ovate in outline, 1.6 times as long as broad, periphery carinate, early stage planispirally enrolled to low trochospiral, whorls overlapping more on one side than the opposite; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous, surface smooth; sutures fairly distinct, not depressed; aperture an elliptical opening at the end of the final chamber, slightly turned toward the more evolute side of the test, bordered by a broad everted lip, fringe of the lip never touching the chamber of the more evolute side. Length, 0.35 mm; breadth, 0.22 mm; thickness, 0.12 mm in holotype. (Hatta and Ujiie, 1992) Hatta and UjiiŽ, 19 92, p. 62 63, pl. 4, fig. 8. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 39, pl. 62, figs. 4 6. MILIOLACEA Ehrenberg, 1839 SPIROLOCULINIDAE Wiesner, 1920 Spiroloculininae Wiesner, 1920 Adelosina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test of the microspheric generation quinqueloculine in the early stage, megalospheric test with proloculus followed by planispirally enrolled and involute second chamber with distal end produced in a neck, third chamber with a 90¡ change in plane of coiling, later chambers quinqueloculine in both generations, wit h planes of coiling 130¡ to 160¡ apart, three to four chambers visible at the exterior of the adult, chambers complete with floor and not merely lying against the previous chambers; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous, surface smooth, striate or cos tate; aperture terminal, rounded, produced on a neck, with a simple or bifid tooth. Miocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987)

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352 Adelosina pascuaensis Koutsoukos and Falcetta, 1987 Test free, elongate, fusiform in outline, axial periphery subacute to truncate, quinqueloculine coiling. Chambers distinct, elongated, curved and sigmoidal in shape, each one is one half coil in length and slightly twisted. Usually four chambers are visible externally, with a probable early fifth one partially c amouflaged by the test ornamentation and overlapped by the subsequent chambers. Sutures distinct, slightly depressed. Wall calcareous, porcelaneous, imperferate, surface with numerous longitudinal costae, slightly raised, which tend to be sigmoidal followi ng the shape of the chambers. Aperture terminal, rounded, with a small, simple tooth, produced on distinct neck. Maximum length of figured holotype, 530 !m; breadth, 320 !m; thickness, 210 !m. (Koutsoukos and Falcetta, 1987) Brady, 1884, p. 176 177, pl. 6, fig. 8 (not figs. 6 7; as Miliolina undosa ). Koutsoukos and Falcetta, 1987, p. 151 154, pl. 1, figs. 1 9. Jones, 1994, p. 22, pl. 6, fig. 8. Adelosina sp. B This species shows reticulation similar to Quinqueloculina philippinensis Cushman, 1921, but ofte n smooth at chamber periphery, or entire chambers lacking reticulation. Overall test shape is more angular, triangular in cross section, and more distinctly quinqueloculine, though twistedly in a manner like Adelosina Aperature appears on smooth, thin nec k. Flintia Schubert, 1911 Test ovate in outline, robust, sides flattened to concave, periphery broaly rounded, with carinate angles, proloculus followed by chambers one half coil in length, planispiral; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture a low ovate opening at the end of the final chamber, with a short and broad bifid tooth. Holocene; Caribbean; Gulf of Mexico. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Flintia robusta (Brady, 1884) Test oblong or oval, with angular or pointed extremities, compressed or complanate; broad and thick, slightly concave on both faces, rounded at the periphery. Segments few in number, much arched; the inner margin of each overlapping a considerable portion of the previous segment on the same side, their lateral surfaces creste d by angular ridges. Length, 1/10 th inch (2.5 mm.). (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1884, p. 150, pl. 9, figs. 7 8 (as Spiroloculina robusta ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 329, pl. 338, figs. 12 14. Jones, 1994, p. 25, pl. 9, figs. 7 8 (as Spiroloculina robusta ). S piroloculina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test ovate to fusiform in outline, with flattened sides and truncate periphery, microspheric proloculus followed by planispirally wound tubular second chamber of one whorl in length, later part of microspheric test and all of m egalospheric test with chambers one half coil in length added in a single plane; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture at the open end of the final chamber, with simple bifid tooth, commonly slightly produced on a short neck. U. Cretaceous ( Santonian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Spiroloculina angulata Cushman, 1917 Variety differing from the typical in having the chambers angular instead of circular in transverse section and the costae parallel to the peripheral mar gin of the chamber instead of oblique as in the typical, in extreme forms with the periphery having a decided keel. (Cushman, 1917) Brady, 1884, p. 155, pl. 10, figs. 16 17, 22 23 (as Spiroloculina grata ). Cushman, 1917, p. 36, pl. 7, fig. 5 (as Spirolocul ina grata var. angulata ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 44 45, pl. 24, 11 14 (as Spiroloculina cf. S. angulata ). Jones, 1994, p. 26, pl. 10, figs. 16 17, 22 23. Spiroloculina communis Cushman and Todd, 1944 Test 1 1/2 to 2 times as long as broad, strongly co ncave with the central part of the periphery the thickest part, periphery usually concave but sometimes convex, distinctly angled at the margins; chambers rapidly increasing in size and thickness as added, the peripheral margins of the early chambers persi sting as raised ridges in the early part, the chambers tending to be raised above and overlap the previous chambers in the adult stage, chambers projecting strongly in a point at the basal end, extending into a long, slender

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353 neck at the apertural end; sutu res distinct, depressed, tending to become irregular in the adult due to the overlapping of the chambers; wall unornamented, smooth, polished, and usually translucent in the young, becoming thick and roughened in the adult; aperture circular, surrounded by a slight flaring lip, with a slender, T shaped tooth on the inner margin and a simple tooth on the opposite margin. Length 1.25 1.60 mm.; breadth 0.75 0.95 mm.; thickness 0.30 0.40 mm. S. communis appears to be the most common and widely distributed speci es of the Pacific and is extremely variable in size, relative length, breadth, and thickness, texture of the wall, and in the prominence of the early peripheral margins raised above the surface. However, a large series of specimens from numerous localities seems to belong to one species. A few specimens from the West Indies, although smaller, have the characteristic shape of test and translucent early part and appear to be the same. (Cushman and Todd, 1944) Brady, 1884, p. 151 152, pl. 10, figs. 3 4 (as Spi roloculina impressa ). Cushman and Todd, 1944, p. 63 64, pl. 9, figs. 4 5, 7, 8. Jones, 1994, p. 25, pl. 10, figs. 3 4. Spiroloculina corrugata Cushman and Todd, 1944 Test large, twice as long as broad, slightly depressed in the middle, periphery rounded; chambers distinct, numerous, nearly circular in transverse section, increasing gradually and rather uniformly in size as added, base extending in a bluntly angled projection, apertural end with a cylindrical neck, little if at all tapering; sutures distinc t, depressed; wall ornamented with numerous, fine, longitudinal costae, in general parallel to the periphery; aperture rounded, with a prominent bifid tooth on the inner margin. Length 1.45 1.80 mm.; breadth 0.68 0.83 mm.; thickness 0.12 0.14 mm. S. corrug ata differs from S. antillarum d'Orbigny in the much larger size, more numerous and finer costae, and the relatively thinner test. (Cushman and Todd, 1944) Cushman and Todd, 1944, p. 61 62, pl. 8, figs. 22 25. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 43, pl. 65, figs 4 7. Spiroloculina excisa Cushman and Todd, 1944 Variety differing from the typical in the generally larger, sturdier, more inflated test, commonly with a convex periphery; in the chambers being strongly overlapping and raised above the previous ones; a nd in having a prominent bifid tooth on the outer as well as the inner margin of the aperture. Length 1.65 1.80 mm.; breadth 0.85 1.10 mm.; thickness 0.50 0.62 mm. (Cushman and Todd, 1944) Cushman and Todd, 1944, p. 65, pl. 9, figs. 15 17 (as Spiroloculin communis var. excisa ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 43, pl. 66, figs. 19 20. Spiroloculina fragilis Uchio, 1960 Test minute, fragile, less than twice as long as broad, slightly depressed in the central portion, periphery rounded; chambers very distinct, numerous, narrow, arched, tubular, earlier ones very narrow, later ones gradually increasing in size and thickness as added; the successive coils separated or loosely connected by deeply depressed sutures; apertural end projecting, but becoming extended ou t beyond the normal line of coiling in the larger specimens because of the loose connection between successive coils. Sutures distinct, very strongly depressed in the adult; wall dull white; aperture at the end of a neck, circular, without a tooth, with a lip. Holotype: Length ca. 0.48 mm.; width ca. 0.25 mm. Comparison Spiroloculina tenuiseptata Brady (1884) is very similar to this new species. Spiroloculina fragilis is easily separated from Spiroloculina tenuiseptata by its rounded periphery, smooth wall and smaller size (less than 0.5 mm. in length). It is obvious that Brady included two species in Spiroloculina tenuiseptata because he said that the peripheral edge was square or rounded. (Uchio, 1960) Uchio, 1960, p. 57, pl. 3, figs. 5 6. Loeblich and Ta ppan, 1994, p. 43, pl. 69, figs. 3 8. Spiroloculina nummiformis Said, 1949 Test large, circular in outline, slightly depressed in the center; periphery sharply keeled, sometimes bicarinate and concave due to the bifurcation of the keel; chambers distinct, few in number, rapidly increasing in size as added, of equal breadth throughout, hench the circular appearance of the test, basal end with a distinct subacute lobe, apertural end with a short, broad neck; sutures distinct, slightly depressed;

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354 wall thick p olished; aperture at the end of the neck, circular, with a bifid tooth on the inner margin. Length 1.10 mm.; breadth 0.90 mm. This species differs from S. circularis Chapman in having a thicker wall, and in the last chamber not projecting at the base. (Sai d, 1949) Said, 1949, p. 16, pl. 1, fig. 39. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 46, pl. 27, figs. 1 9. Spiroloculina subimpressa Parr, 1950 Test broadly elliptical, periphery usually grooved but sometimes flat, apertural end extended, both faces concave; chambers regularly curved, each longer and of greater diameter than its predecessor, the faces sloping gently towards the centre of the test but with the outer margin somewhat raised; sutures distinct but not depressed; surface dull and roughened; aperture oval, wi th a slight lip and a small bifid tooth. Length, 1.8 mm.; breadth, 1.0 mm.; thickness, 0.4 mm. This is possibly the same species as that figured by Brady (1884) from off Papua as S. impressa Terguem. It is common on the east coast of Australia and is more regularly formed than Terquem's species, from which it also differs in developing a much broader test with more chambers. (Parr, 1950) Brady, 1884, p. 151, pl. 9, figs. 5 6 (as Spiroloculina excavata ). Parr, 1950, p. 291, pl. 6, figs. 12 13. Jones, 1994, p 25, pl. 9, figs. 5 6 (as Spiroloculina communis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 44, pl. 68, figs. 9 15. Spiroloculina tenuiseptata Brady, 1884 Test complanate, elongate oval, extremities tapering, subangular, peripheral edge square or rounded. Segments numerous, narrow, arched, tubular, the successive convolutions separated by deep depressions on both sides of the test, the interspace being occupied by a thin horizontal, shelly septum, which is sometimes wanting between the later chambers. Aperture simpl e, circular. Length 1/22 nd inch (1.2 mm.). The test of Spiroloculina tenuiseptata resembles at first sight that of Spiroloculina limbata but in reality the conditions are exactly reversed, that is to say, the raised portions of the surface represent the c hambers, and the intervening depressions the shelly septa. M. Terguem has figured a Spirillina (or Cornuspira ?) with the same peculiarity developed to an even greater degree under the name Spirillina lateseptata in which a thin, broad, horizontal plate se parates the successive convolutions of the spire. In the present species the width of the septa varies a good deal, and it is not uncommon to find a small portion of the final segment left unattached at its inner margin. In one minute specimen the thin she lly plate, which is unusually broad in the earlier portion of the test, is incomplete, and the later segments are entirely free and separated from the previous convolutions by an open space. One or more of the specimens figured in von Schlicht's work on th e Foraminifera of the Septaria clay of Pietzpuhl, named by Reuss Spiroluculina dorsata appear to belong to this species. (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1884, p. 153 154, pl. 10, figs. 5 6. Jones, 1994, p. 26, pl. 10, figs. 5 6. Spiroloculina venusta Cushman and To dd, 1944 Test about 1" times as long as broad, much compressed, periphery keeled, acute; chambers distinct, increasing rapidly in size as added, the sides nearly flat or very slightly convex, then dropping rapidly to the flat keel which is nearly as wide a s the chamber, base extended, apertural end with a slender neck, quadrate in section, chambers as added leaving a triangular opening between the base and the neck of the previous chamber; sutures very distinct, strongly depressed; wall smooth, except for o ccasional ribs on the last chamber and on the neck; aperture nearly circular, with a slight lip, a simple, occasionally bifid, elongate tooth on the inner margin, and the opposite side sometimes slightly projecting on the outer edge. Length 0.70 0.75 mm.; breadth 0.45 0.48 mm.; thickness 0.05 0.07 mm. This had previously been referred to S. caduca Cushman, but differs from the Atlantic species in the very different shape of the chambers, squarish instead of elliptical in section, the very much separated cha mbers, leaving triangular openings along the median line, and the neck with distinct angles. (Cushman and Todd, 1944) Brady, 1884, p. 154, pl. 10, fig. 15 (not figs. 12 14; as Spiroloculina acutimargo ). Cushman and Todd, 1944, p. 60, pl. 8, figs. 16 17.

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355 Jo nes, 1994, p. 26, pl. 10, fig. 15. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 44, pl. 67, figs. 8 9. HAUERINIDAE Schwager, 1876 Siphonapertinae Saidova, 1975 Agglutinella El Nakhal, 1983 Test ovate in outline, chambers one half coil in length, early stage quinquelocul ine, later stage pseudotriloculine with only three chambers visible from the exterior; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous, with outer agglutinated cover; aperture terminal and may be slightly produced on the final chamber, circular to elliptical, b ordered by a nonagglutinated porcelaneous lip and with a simple to bifid tooth. Eocene to Holocene; Red Sea; Philippines; Pakistan; Panama. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Agglutinella agglutinans (d'Orbigny, 1839) Testa ovata, convexa, alba, irregulari, agglu tinante, antice posticeque acminato obtusa, margine subcomplanata; loculis subangularibus, arcuatis, antice truncatis, dorso subcomplanatis; apertura ovali, intus denticulata. Dimensions Diamtre 1 millim. Coquille ovale, trs convexe, un peu triangulaire dans son ensemble, rugueuse, couverte partout de petits grains de sable et autres corps agglutinŽs et attachŽs ˆ la coquille, un peu acuminŽe ˆ ses extrŽmitŽs, son pourtour lŽgrement aplati. Loges un peu anguleuses, tronquŽes en avant, acuminŽes en arri re, ˆ dos aplati, ˆ sutures distinctes. Ouverture ovale, paraissant manquer de la dent ordinaire, mais Žtant sur son pourtour interne couverte de cannelures profondes, qui rendent les bords comme dentŽs. Couleur blanch‰tre uniforme. Parmi nos espces ancie nnement observŽes, nous trouvons, dans la Quinqueloculina rugosa quelques rapports ŽloignŽs; ces rapports sont plus Žvidents avec la Q. enoplostoma qui est Žgalement agglutinante; nŽanmoins elle diffre des deux par son ouverture moins compliquŽe, puisqu 'elle manque de la dent ordinaire, par sa carne moins marquŽe et par ses angles trs ŽmoussŽs et non saillants. (d'Orbigny, 1839a) [ Oval test, convex, white, irregular, agglutinated, front and back bluntly pointed, margin subcomplanate; chambers subangula r, arched, front truncated, back subcomplanate; aperture oval, finely toothed within .] [ Dimensions : 1 millim. in diameter. Oval shell, very convex, somewhat triangular overall, coarse, covered all over with small grains of sand and other substances aggluti nated and attached to the shell, with a small elongation at its extremities. Its circumference is slightly flattened. Chambers a little angular, shortened in the front, elongated at the opposite end, with a flat back, and distinctive transversal sutures. O val aperture, which seems to be missing the typical tooth, but is covered with deep striations in its internal circumference, which makes the edges appear toothed. Color is evenly whitish. [Among our formerly observed species, we find, in Quinqueleculina r ugosa remote similarities; these similarities are more obvious with Q. enoplostoma which is also agglutinated; nevertheless it differs from both by its less complicated opening, since it is missing the usual tooth, by its less marked shell, and by its ve ry dulled and non prominent angles. ] d'Orbigny, 1839, p. 195 196, pl. 12, figs. 11 13 (as Quinqueloculina agglutinans ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 332, pl. 341, figs. 1 4 (as Agglutinella soriformis ). Hottinger et al ., p. 48, pl. 30, figs. 7 10, pl. 31, figs. 1 4 (as Agglutinella soriformis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 44 45, pl. 70, figs. 1 9. Schlumbergerina Munier Chalmas, 1882 Test with elongate tubular chambers one half coil in length, added in more than five planes from the earlies stage, sligh tly inflated, sutures depressed; wall agglutinated; aperture at the end of the final chamber, directed laterally, provided with a trematophore with numerous rounded openings. Holocene; Gulf of Mexico; Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Schlumbergerina al veoliniformis (Brady, 1879) Test free, elongate, fusiform; composed of narrow chambers arranged more or less spirally around the long axis. Segments numerous, sometimes seven or eight visible on the exterior; ventricose or subcylindrical, arcuate. Apertur e porous or radiate, obscure, terminal. Texture thin, porcellanous and nearly smooth in very young shells; finely arenaceous in adult specimens. Length 1/10 inch (2.5 millim.) or more. (Brady, 1879b)

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356 Brady, 1879, p. 268 (as Miliolina alveoliniformis ). Brad y, 1884, p. 181 182, pl. 8, figs. 15 20 (as Miliolina alveoliniformis ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 61 62, pl. 58, figs. 11 14, pl. 59, figs. 1 9. Jones, 1994, p. 24, pl. 8, figs. 15 20. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 46, pl. 72, figs. 9 11. Hauerininae Sch wager, 1876 Hauerina d'Orbigny, 1839 Test discoidal, periphery subacute, sides flattened, early chambers in quinqueloculine arrangement, later planispiral with three chambers per whorl; wall calcareous, porcelanous; aperture multiple, of numerous pores in a trematophorelike plate at the end of the final chamber. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Hauerina diversa Cushman, 1946 Test compressed, nearly circular, periphery rounded, earliest portion quinqueloculine, later planispiral; chambers of the earlier portion somewhat covered and indistinct, in the adult distinct, slightly inflated, three to five making up the adult coil; sutures of the adult portion distinct, slightly depressed, distinctly curved; wall nearly smooth but very fi nely striate reticulate; aperture slightly projecting, cribrate, with very fine openings. Diameter up to 1 mm. The species differs from H. bradyi Cushman in the rounded periphery, larger number of chambers in the adult coil, less prominent quinqueloculine chambers, and the finely ornamented surface. (Cushman, 1946) Cushman, 1946, p. 11 12, pl. 2, figs. 16 19. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 50 51, pl. 36, figs. 1 7. Hauerina pacifica Cushman, 1917 (Plate 2, figs. 1 8) Test irregularly suboval in front view, ear ly chambers quinqueloculine, later ones nearly in one plane, slightly carinate, otherwise nearly circular in tranverse section, wall smooth, in the last formed coil usually four chambers required to form the whole volution; aperture without neck or thicken d lip, sieve like, consisting of a circular plate, slightly convex, with numerous pores irregularly arranged. Length, averaging about 0.75 mm. (Cushman, 1917) Cushman, 1917, p. 64 65, pl. 21, fig. 2. Lachlanella Vella, 1957 Test elongate ovate, chambers o ne half coil in length, quinquelocuine, five chambers visible from the exterior, subquadrate in section, slightly eccentric, the base of each chamber covering the end of the test, and the straight apertural end of the chamber resulting in the aperture bein g on one margin, chambers without a floor and lying against the previous whorl; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture large, with subparallel sides and everted rim, provided with a long slender tooth with short bifid termination. Oligocene ( Rupelian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Lachlanella compressiostoma (Zheng, 1988) Test slightly longer than broad, periphery acute, four chambered side very convex, three chambered side slightly so, with only the peripheral portion of its middle chamber showing. Chamber distinct, not inflated, the periphery of the chamber adjacent to final chamber projecting out of the surface of the test; in transverse section, chambers triangular, one lateral face slightly convex, about 1" times a s wide as the other flat to slightly depressed face; chamber cavity broadly oblong to subcircular, successive chamber added in planes about 135¡ apart. Sutures distinct. Wall smooth, polished. Apertural end obliquely truncate, much compressed; aperture an elongate narrow slit, with a simple elongate tooth nearly reaching its tip. Length 0.65 mm, width 0.53 mm, thickness 0.35 mm. The apertural characteristics of this new species are very constant. It resembles Q. ungeriana d'Orbigny in general shape, but dif fers from the latter in the much smaller size, in the four chambered side being much more convex, in the compressed apertural end, in the shape of the aperture which is elongate, slitlike instead of nearly round, and aso in the very elongate tooth which is almost as long as the aperture. The differences between these two species are more obvious when seen in transverse section. In this species, chambers are added successively in planes about 135 o apart, in the latter, about 141 o apart.

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357 Furthermore, the two lateral faces of a chamber in this species differ greatly in width, one face being about 1.6 times as wide as the other face, in the latter species, it is about 1.1 times. (Zheng, 1988) Zheng, 1988, p. 197, 329, pl. 5, fig. 6, pl. 30, figs. 7 9, text fig. 14 (as Quinqueloculina compressiostoma ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 46, pl. 73, figs. 1 15. Lachlanella parkeri (Brady, 1881) This form is figured by Professor W. K. Parker in one of his earliest papers (1858), where it is simply characterized as a Qu inqueloculina with oblique ridges," but without distinctive name. The test is elongate and subtriangular, the peripheral margins of the segments sharp, with a tendency to become carinate; their surfaces traversed by somewhat oblique transverse ridges or cr enulations. Length, 1/25 th inch, (1. mm.). (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 46 (as Miliolina parkeri ). Brady, 1884, p. 177, pl. 7, fig. 14 (as Miliolina parkeri ). Jones, 1994, p. 23, pl. 7, fig. 14 (as Quinqueloculina parkeri ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 4 7, pl. 74, figs. 1 6. Lachlanella subpolygona (Parr, 1945) Test about 1" times as long as broad; chambers distinct; sutures slightly depressed; each chamber polygonal in cross section, the periphery concave, usually with a projecting, sometimes undulate, carina at either angle; apertural end extended into a short neck, aperture more or less quadrate, with an everted lip and a single bifid tooth; surface dull. Length 1.0 mm., breadth 0.6 mm., thickness 0.4 mm. This is the commonest species of the genus on t he south coast of Australia. It has been confused with Q. polygona d'Orbigny, from the West Indies, but has a shorter, more strongly carinate test than that species and is also less regularly built. Another species which resembles Q. subpolygona is Q. sulc ata d'Orbigny, as figured by Cushman (1932) from off Fiji. This is proportionately much longer and the apertural end is extended to form a long neck. (Parr, 1945) Parr, 1945, p. 196, pl. 12, fig. 2 (as Quinqueloculina subpolygona ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 51 52, pl. 37, figs. 4 10. Massilina Schlumberger, 1893 Test ovate in outline, slightly flattened and fusiform in section, early chambers quinqueloculine, later added in a single plane on alternate sides as in Spiroloculina chambers with floors, perip hery rounded to carinate; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture terminal, ovate, provided with a short to elongate and slightly protruding tooth that may be bifid at the tip. L. Cretaceous to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 198 7) Massilina granulocostata (Germeraad, 1946) Test elongate, 2x higher than broad, apertural end extending little beyond the main body of the test; chambers distinct, with 5 6 irregular granulated costae in the adult; sutures not very distinct, slightly de pressed; wall calcareous, not smooth, but finely granulated; aperture a wide opening with indistinct lip and bifid tooth. There are enough specimens in our material to propose a new name and to give a description of Brady's Miliolina linneana that cannot be the same as d'Orbigny's species, as it is no Triloculina (Germeraad, 1946) Brady, 1884, p. 174 175, pl. 6, figs. 15 20 (as Miliolina linnana ). Germeraad, 1946, p. 63 (as Quinqueloculina granulo costata ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 55, pl. 46, figs. 7 12 (as Pseudotriloculina (?) granulocostata ). Jones, 1994, p. 23, pl. 6, figs. 15 20 (as Adelosina granulocostata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 47, pl. 75, figs. 19 21, pl. 79, figs. 1 12. Quinqueloculina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test ovate in outline, early cham bers quinqueloculine in both microspheric and megalospheric generations, or may be cryptoquinqueloculine, depending on the degree of overlap of successive chambers, chambers one half coil in length, added in planes of coiling that are 72¡ apart, successive chamber added 144¡ apart, commonly with five chambers visible at the exterior, of which four are

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358 visible from one side and three from that opposite, chambers with floors at least in the mature stage; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture ov ate, flush with the surface, provided with a bifid tooth. Cretaceous to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Quinqueloculina bubnanensis McCulloch, 1977 (Plate 3, figs. 1 8) Test free, calcareous, compressed, broadly ovate, quinqueloculine o rganization of chambers; periphery narrowly truncate, keeled; wall semihyaline to opaque, finely granular, with some minute longitudinal striae in connection with matte surface of both opaque and semihyaline areas; sutures depressed; chambers arcuate, quit e symmetrical, quite uniform in width except for tapering ends, not extended basally, anterior one ending in an oblique curve, slightly extended; opening ovate, narrow; lip simple, elongate tooth. This species is characterized by its apertural structure, i ts unique texture and its narrow, sinuous truncate periphery. Its end view in contour suggests the Q. bicostata group. (McCulloch, 1977) McCulloch, 1977, p. 483, pl. 210, fig. 19, pl. 212, fig. 16. Loeblich and Tappan, 1992, p. 48, pl. 77, figs. 1 3. Quin queloculina crassicarinata Collins, 1958 Test porcellaneous, smooth, quinqueloculine, subcircular in frontal view, chambers wedge shaped in section with a strong square edged keel, somewhat sinuate in outline. Aperture oval with a flared lip and small simp le tooth, produced on a short neck. Dimensions of holotype: Length 0.81 mm.; breadth 0.69 mm.; thickness 0.49 mm. This species is distinguished from Q. lamarckiana d'Orbigny by its produced neck and the square edged keel. (Collins, 1958) Collins, 1958, p. 359, pl. 2, fig. 6. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 48, pl. 77, figs. 4 12. Quinqueloculina cuvieriana d'Orbigny, 1839 Testa suborbiculari, convexa, alba, nitida, lvigata, margine carinata, longitudinaliter striata, antice posticeque obtusa; loculis triang ulatis, arcuatis, antice truncatis, dorso carinatis; apertura oblonga, unidentata; dente elongato, angustato, simplici. Dimensions : Diamtre millim. Coquille suborbiculaire, bossue, convexe, luisante, lisse, fortement tronquŽe en avant, arrondie en arri re, ˆ pourtour trs carŽnŽ. Deux ou trois stries longitudinales accompagnent la carne de chaque c™tŽ. Loges triangulaires trs larges, arquŽes, rŽtrŽcies en arrire, tronquŽes en avant, ˆ dos carŽnŽ, tranchant; sutures peu marquŽes. Ouverture trs allongŽ e, comprimŽe, oblongue, sans pŽristome saillant; pourvue d'une longue dent saillante, Žtroite et simple. Quelques trs vieux individus nous ont montrŽ leur superficie comme grattŽe, marquŽe de stries interrompues, peu visibles. Couleur Blanc de lait unifo rme. Cette espce ressemble beaucoup ˆ la Quinqueloculina Lamarckiana par sa forme ramassŽe, par sa carne aigu‘; elle en diffre par sa loge tronquŽe et non prolongŽe en avant, par sa carne plus tranchante et accompagnŽe de stries longitudinales, tandis qu'elle est lisse dans l'autre, et par sa bouche plus allongŽe. (d'Orbigny, 1839a) [ Test circular, covex, white, shiny, smooth, edge carinate, longitudinally striate, front and back blunt; triangular chambers, curved, front truncated, back carinate; apertu re oblong, single toothed; tooth elongate, narrow, simple .] [ Dimensions : millim. in diameter. Suborbicular shell, with a hump, convex, shiny, smooth, strongly shortened in the front, rounded in the back, with a very streamlined circumference. Two or thre e longitudinal striae come along the streamline on each side. Very large, triangular, curved chambers, narrow in the back, truncated forward, with a streamlined back, with sharp edges; not very accentuated transversal sutures. Very elongated aperture, comp ressed, oblong, without prominent border; equipped with a long prominent tooth, narrow and simple. A few very old specimens showed us their surface as scratched, marked by uninterrupted striae, hardly visible. Color is evenly milk white. This species looks a lot like Quinqueloculina Lamarckiana due to its compacted shape, and its pointed streamline; it differentiates by its truncated chamber and non prolonged front, by its sharper streamline accompanied by longitudinal striae where it is smooth in the other and by its more elongated mouth. ] d'Orbigny, 1839, p. 190, pl. 11, figs. 19 21. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 48, pl. 78, figs. 1 9.

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359 Quinqueloculina funafutiensis (Chapman, 1901) Test elongate, distinctly triangular, sometimes with a well marked keel; a perture slightly prolonged. Surface with delicate, slightly oblique, vertical striations. Length .5 mm. (Chapman, 1901) Chapman, 1901, p. 178, pl. 19, fig. 6 (as Miliolina funafutiensis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 49, pl. 77, figs. 13 20. Quinquelocul ina parvaggluta Vella, 1957 Shell small, solid, ovate, one and a half times as long as wide, finely arenaceous, coloured light yellow brown. Chambers of equal width throughout their length, quadrate in section with concave sides and periphery, and rounded angles. Sutures depressed and distinct. Aperture hardly produced, nearly circular, containing a small tooth with a minute but distinct bifurcation. Length of holotype 0.73 mm.; width 0.43 mm.; thickness 0.35 mm. Remarks. Q. agglutinata Cush. has more infla ted, and rounded chambers; Q. subagglutinata [Asano] has less prominently bicarinate chambers and is more coarsely arenaceous. (Vella, 1957) Vella, 1957, p. 27, pl. 4, figs. 71 73. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 49 50, pl. 80, figs. 1 9. Quinqueloculina ph ilippinensis Cushman, 1921 Test elongate, quinqueloculine; peripheral margin of the chambers broadly rounded, sides convex, surface ornamented; the peripheral face with regular reticulations with thin walls between, large but very regular, sides either wit h the reticulate pattern entire, or becoming obsolescent or even wanting, especially in older specimens; apertural end of the chamber projecting and contracted to form an exsert cylindrical neck without ornamentation, with a thin border, not thickened, but with a phialine lip and a simple bifid tooth. Length seldom exceeding 1 mm. This variety differs from the typical form in the greater regularity of the ornamentation, and in the peripheral margin which is not striate but reticulate. The progressive appear ance of the smooth area on the periphery is just the opposite of the development in Q. albatrossi (Cushman, 1921) Brady, 1884, p. 177 178, pl. 9, figs. 2 3 (not fig. 4; as Miliolina reticulata ). Cushman, 1921, p. 438 439, pl. 89, figs. 2 3, textfig. 34 (a s Quinqueloculina kerimbatica var. philippinensis ). Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 55 56, pl. 47, figs. 1 7 (as Pseudotriloculina philippinensis ). Jones, 1994, p. 25, pl. 9, figs. 2 3 (as Quinqueloculina pseudoreticulata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 50, pl. 81, figs. 1 10. Quinqueloculina quinquecarinata Collins, 1958 Test minute, quinqueloculine, elongate, chambers wedge shaped with sharp keel, chamber wall translucent, keel opaque and white, apertural end produced as a short neck with a slightly flaring l ip, aperture rounded with a small simple tooth. Dimensions of holotype: Length 0.47 mm., breadth 0.18 mm., thickness 0.13 mm. This small species bears some resemblance to Q. ferussacii d'Orbigny, but lacks the strong lateral costae which are developed on t he later chambers of that species. (Collins, 1958) Collins, 1958, p. 360, pl. 2, fig. 8. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 49, pl. 33, figs. 7 15 (as Cycloforina quinquecarinata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 50, pl. 79, figs. 13 18. Quinqueloculina sulcata d'O rbigny, 1826 [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Test elongate, 2" to 3 times as long as broad, apertural end considerably extended out beyond the main body of the test; chambers distinct, elongate, in the early stages with a single angle at the periphery, later becoming truncate with two distinct angles, and in the adult typically with three raised costae; sutures fairly distinct, not much depressed; wall smooth except for the costae; both ends of the last formed chamber extending beyond the previous chambers, the apertural end tapering with a rounded opening, a definite lip and a simple tooth, which extends slightly beyond the rim of the aperture in side view. Maximum length, 1.75 mm.; breadth, 0.6 mm.; thickness, 0.3 mm. (Cushman, 1932) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 301.

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360 Cushman, 1932, p. 28 29, pl. 7, figs. 5 8. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 50, pl. 82, figs. 1 6. Quinqueloculina tropicalis Cushman, 1924 (Plate 4, figs. 1 8) Test elongate, two to three times as long as broad, periphery rounded, c hambers distinct, circular in transverse section, surface granular, dull; apertural end with the neck level with the last formed chamber or a little above, with a slight lip and single tooth. Length up to 1 mm. (Cushman, 1924) Brady, 1884, p. 160 161, pl. 5, fig. 3 (as Miliolina gracilis ). Cushman, 1924, p. 63, pl. 23, figs. 9 10. Jones, 1994, p. 21, pl. 5, fig. 3. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 50 51, pl. 78, figs. 13 15. Quinqueloculina tubilocula Zheng, 1979 Test small and elongate, about 3 4 times as lo ng as broad, periphery round, basal end broadly rounded, not projecting, four chambered side convex, three chambered side rather flat. Chambers distinct, tubular, basal end curved. Sutures distinct, slightly depressed. Wall rather thin, surface smooth. Ape rture round, sometimes with a short neck, with thickened and sometimes flaring rim, with a simple tooth. (Zheng, 1979) Zheng, 1979, p. 128, 207, pl. 6, figs. 2 3. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 50, pl. 78, figs. 13 15. Quinqueloculina vandiemeniensis Loebl ich and Tappan, 1994 Diagnosis A species of Quinqueloculina with subquadrate outline, and trapezoidal section. Description Test small, elongate, with nearly parallel sides and subacute periphery, chambers in quinqueloculine arrangement, sutures straight, vertical, depressed; wall calcareous, porcelaneous, surface smooth; aperture terminal, with thickened rim, not produced, provided with a bifid tooth. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1994) Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 51, pl. 83, figs. 1 3. Miliolinellinae Vella, 1957 Miliolinella Wiesner, 1931 Test ovate in outline, flattened, periphery rounded, early stage quinqueloculine, later planispiral, chambers without a floor, added alternately as in Massilina or may have slightly more than two chambers in the final whorl, from four or five to as many as seven chambers visible from the exterior; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture an arch, terminal on the final chamber, with a broad and low apertural flap. M. Miocene (L. Tortonian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Miliolinella labiosa (d'Orbigny, 1839) Testa tuberosa, convexa, alba, laevigata, nitida, lateraliter expansa, antice posticeque obtusissima, margine convexa; loculis globulosis, inflatis, oblongatis, suturis excavatis; apertur a transversaliter elongata, angustata. Dimensions : Diamtre 1/5 de millim. Coquille globuleuse, convexe, lisse, brillante, ˆ pourtour arrondi, fortement obtuse en avant et en arrire, les c™tŽs trs dilatŽs, ce qui la rend plus large que haute. Loges trs globuleuses, oblongues, presque pyriformes, leur partie postŽrieure Žtant trs renflŽe, puis s'amincissant vers les parties antŽrieures, la troisime souvent rŽgulirement placŽe au milieu des deux autres, mais aussi venant frŽquemment saillir ˆ l'extrŽmit Ž antŽrieure. Les sutures sont trs profondes et lisses. Ouverture trs grande, transversale, Žtroite et longue, bordŽe d'un bourrelet prononcŽ; pourvue d'une dent si large, si obtuse, qu'elle reprŽsente un second bourrelet supŽrieur, et forme, avec le pŽr istome, comme deux lvres bŽantes. Couleur Blanc de lait uniforme. Sa forme plus large que haute, la grosseur de ses loges, la font un peu ressembler ˆ notre Triloculina inflata de la MŽditerranŽe, et au T. flavescens des c™tes de l'OcŽan en France, mais moins difforme et plus lisse que la premire, sa bouche est tout ˆ fait distincte. Elle diffre de la seconde par moins de convexitŽ, et par sa bouche transversale au lieu d'tre ronde. (d'Orbigny, 1839a) [ Test tuberous, convex, white, smooth, shiny, sides made expansive, front and back made blunt, edge convex; chambers globular, inflated, oblong, sutures excavated; aperture transversely elongate, narrow .]

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361 [ Dimensions : 1/5 millim. diameter. Globular shell, convex, smooth, shiny, with a rounded circumference strongly obtuse in the front and in the back, the sides very distended, which makes it wider than tall. Chambers very globular, oblong, nearly pyriform, their posterior part bulging a lot, then thinning towards the anterior part, the third often regularl y placed in the center of the other two, but also often protruding to the extreme anterior. The transversal sutures are very deep and smooth. Very large aperture, transversal, narrow and long, edged with a pronounced fold; equipped with such a wide tooth, so obtuse, that it shows a second upper fold, and forms, with the peristome, like two gaping lips. Color is evenly milk white. [Its shape, more wide than tall, and the thickness of its chambers, somehow makes it resemble our Mediterranean Triloculina infla ta and also T. flavescens of the French Ocean's coasts, although less misshapen and smoother than the first one, its mouth is altogether distinct. It differentiates itself from the second one by less convexity, and by its mouth being transversal instead o f round. ] d'Orbigny, 1839, p. 178 179, pl. 10, figs. 12 14 (as Triloculina labiosa ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 52, pl. 87, figs. 10 12. Miliolinella philippinensis (McCulloch, 1977) Test free, calcareous, irregularly oblong, compressed, periphery roun ded; quinqueloculine organization of chambers; width more than twice length, thickness more than half length; wall white smooth polished imperforate porcelaneous; suture depressed; chambers short arcuate, width almost equal to length, basal end rounded ind ented at suture off center; two margins about symmetrical; anterior end of test broadly rounded, end view shows greater thickness of test to be across last formed chamber; apertural structure slightly extended, narrow angular arch with sides somewhat infol ded. (McCulloch, 1977) McCulloch, 1977, p. 525, pl. 237, figs. 1 2 (as Pateoris philippinensis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 52, pl. 76, figs. 6 11. Miliolinella suborbicularis (d'Orbigny, 1826) [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Test compressed in apertural view, subcircular in side view, as borad as long; chambers rounded; wall ornamented with fine longitudinal costae, often interrupted; aperture circular, with a broad tooth. Diameter up to 1.8mm. (Asano, 1951a) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 3 00 (as Triloculina suborbicularis ). Asano, 1951, p. 16, figs. 108 109 (as Triloculina suborbicularis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 52, pl. 89, figs. 1 9, pl. 96, figs. 11 16. Pseudotriloculina Cherif, 1970 Test ovate in outline, periphery broadly rounde d, chambers one half coil in length, early stage cryptoquinqueloculine, later with planes of coiling increasing to 180 o to become approximately planispiral or very slightly sinuate as seen in section, chambers lack a floor and broadly overlap preceding cha mbers so that only two to three are visible from the exterior; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture large, rounded, at the end of the final chamber, may be bordered with a thick rim and provided with a protruding bifid tooth. M. Eocene (Lut etian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Pseudotriloculina patagonica (d'Orbigny 1839) (Plate 5, figs. 1 8) Q. test‰ oblongo convex‰, alb‰, nitid‰, lvigat‰, antic posticque obtus‰, margine rotundat‰; loculis elongatis, convexis, ang ustatis, minim arcuatis, subqualibus, dorso rotundatis; apertur‰, ovali, unidentat‰; dente brevi, simplici. Dimension : Longueur, 1/3 millimtre. Coquille : Oblongue ou allongŽe, convexe, trs lisse, brillante, obtuse ˆ ses extrŽmitŽs, ˆ pourtour arrondi. Loges convexes, Žtroites, Žgales sur leur longueur, obtuses ˆ leur extrŽmitŽ, ˆ dos arrondi, ˆ sutures assez profondes. Ouverture ovale, sans pŽristome rŽflŽchi, armŽe d'une dent courte et simple. Couleur : Blanche. Cette espce diffre de toutes les Quinqu Žloculines ˆ loges bombŽes et lisses, par son allongement, que nous ne trouvons aussi grand que dans notre Q. Boscii de Cuba, dont elle se distingue nettement par ses loges Žgales sur leur longueur. Elle se rapproche aussi de la Q. Isabellei par la convexi tŽ de ses loges, tout en diffŽrant par moins de largeur, ainsi que par la dent de sa bouche. (d'Orbigny, 1839b)

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362 [ Test oblong, convex, white, shiny, smooth, front and back blunt, edge round; chambers elongated, convex, narrow, slightly arced, somewhat equal back rounded; aperture oval, single toothed; tooth short, simple .] [ Dimension : 1/3 millim. in length. Shell: Oblong or elongated, convex, very smooth, shiny, obtuse at its extremities, with a rounded circumference. Convex chambers, narrow, even in their length, obtuse at its extremity, with a rounded back, with quite deep transversal sutures. Oval aperture, without reflected peristome, equipped with a short and simple tooth. White in color. [This species differentiates from all the Quinqueloculines with r ounded and smooth chambers by its elongation, which we also find so large only in our Q. Boscii from Cuba, from which it clearly distinguishes itself by its equal length chambers. It also approaches Q. Isabellei in the convexity of its chambers, while bein g different in its width, and with the tooth of its mouth. ] d'Orbigny, 1839, p. 74, pl. 4, figs. 14 16 (as Quinqueloculina patagonica ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 60, pl. 55, figs. 11 17 (as Quinqueloculina patagonica ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 53, pl 80, figs. 16 18, pl. 83, figs. 10 12. Ptychomiliola Eimer and Fickert, 1899 Test subtriangular in outline, early chambers milioline in arrangement, later planispiral and evolute, with three chambers per whorl, loosely coiled so that small gaps may occur between chambers, or rarely uncoiling with the final chamber extending away from the early part of the test; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous, surface may be ornamented with numerous longitudinal costae; aperture terminal, rounded, at the slight ly constricted end of the final chamber, bordered by a narrow everted lip and provided with a small bifid tooth. Holocene; Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Ptychomiliola separans (Brady, 1881) Test irregular in form, angular, outspread; consisting of s everal long, slightly inflated, strongly costate, Milioline segments; the earlier segments arranged on the normal plan, the later ones centrifugally, that is to say, at irregular angles, as though in process of uncoiling. Length, 1/10 inch (2.5 mm.) or som etimes more. (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 45 (as Miliolina separans ). Brady, 1884, p. 175, pl. 7, figs. 1 4 (as Miliolina separans ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 343, pl. 353, figs. 10 11. Jones, 1994, p. 23, pl. 7, figs. 1 4. Pyrgo Defrance, 1824 Test ovate in outline, compressed through the midpoint of the opposing chambers, periphery angular to carinate, chambers one half coil in length, microspheric generation with early quinqueloculine to cryptoquinqueloculine arrangement, adult biloculine; wall cal careous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture at the end of the final chamber, ovate, with a short bifid tooth. U. Eocene (Priabonian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Pyrgo sarsi (Schlumberger, 1891) Forme A. Disposition rŽgulire d e toutes les loges dans le plan de symŽtrie, on remarque seulement que le canal qui accompagne la mŽgasphre a une paroi exceptionnellement Žpaisse. Forme B. La microsphre est entourŽe de cinq loges. Les quatre premires ont un contour circulaire, les l oges V et VI ont une carne d'un seul c™tŽ, les suivantes jusqu'ˆ la loge XII, ont un contour trapŽzo dal ˆ face externe arrondie et portent deux carnes aigu‘s aux angles. Les loges XIII ˆ XV ont une face externe anguleuse et la loge XVII est la premire du cycle biloculinaire. On remarquera que les seize premires loges suivent assez exactement la loi d 'arrangement des QuinquŽloculines dans cinq plans de symŽtrie, mais la loge XVI empite dŽjˆ sur la loge XV, de sorte qu'ˆ ce moment il n'y aurait que quatre loges visibles extŽrieurement. Caractres externes des formes A et B Plasmostracum disco•dal ˆ carne aigu‘, trs semblable ˆ celui de B. depressa mais relativement plus Žpais. Il arrive frŽquemment dans les grands individus qu'un c™tŽ est beaucoup plus convexe que l'autre; c'est une consŽquence de la disposition des loges centrales. Lorsqu'on enl ve successivement ˆ un individu de grande taille les loges externes, on trouve ˆ l'intŽrieur l'individu jeune reprŽsentŽ. L'ouverture est alors petite et circulaire. Dans l'adulte, au contraire, elle est

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363 assez grande, bordŽe d'un lŽger bourrelet, et la prŽ sence d'une dent sinueuse lui donne la forme d'une accolade. Tt [ sic ] lisse. (Schlumberger, 1891) [ Form A. Regular arrangement of all chambers at the symmetrical scale, we only note that the canal which accompanies the megalosphere has an exceptionally thick surface. [ Form B The microsphere is surrounded by five chambers. The first four have a circular outline, V and VI have only a streamline on one side, the next ones, until chamber XII have a trapezoid outline with a rounded exterior side and bear t wo sharp streamlines at the angles. Chamber XIII to XV have an angular exterior and chamber XVII is the first of the biloculinaire cycle. We note that the first 16 chambers follow quite exactly the arrangement of the Quinqueloculine law in five symmetrical planes, but chamber XVI already encroaches on chamber XV in such a way that, at this moment, there would be only four chambers visible externally. [ External characteristics of A and B forms Discoidal plasmostracum with a sharp streamline, very similar in shape to B. depressa but relatively thicker. It often happens in large specimens that one side is more convex than the other; it is a consequence of the arrangement of the central chambers. When the exterior chambers of a specimen are successively remo ved, we find the young specimen inside represented. The aperture is then small and circular. To the contrary, in the adult, it is quite large, edged with a slight fold, and the presence of a sinuous tooth gives it a shape of an accolade. Smooth head.] Brad y, 1884, p. 142 143, pl. 2, fig. 7 (not fig. 8; as Biloculina ringens ). Schlumberger, 1891, p. 553 556, pl. 9, figs. 55 59, textfigs. 10 12 (as Biloculina sarsi ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 343, pl. 351, figs. 7 8. Jones, 1994, p. 18, pl. 2, fig. 7. Loe blich and Tappan, 1994, p. 54, pl. 94, figs. 1 9. Pyrgo striolata (Brady, 1884) General characters the same as those of var denticulata but having in addition a surface ornamentation of slightly irregular, raised, longitudinal stri over the inferior po rtion of the shell, especially of the penultimate chamber. Length 1/33 rd inch (0.75 mm.). (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1884, p. 143 144, pl. 3, figs. 4 5 (as Biloculina ringens var. striolata ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 57 58, pl. 51, figs. 5 11. Jones, 1994, p. 19, pl. 3, figs. 7 8 (as Pyrgo denticulata var. striolata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 54 55, pl. 92, figs. 9 15. Pyrgo yabei Asano, 1936 Test elongate, tapering gradually toward apertural end, widest at near opposite end, biconvex in end view; periphe ry subacute, often sinuous; sutures distinct; wall smooth; aperture short and narrow, with a small flattened tooth with short lateral extensions at tip, only partially filling aperture. Length about 0.4 mm. Closely resembles P. elongata [(d'Orbigny)] in ou tline of test, but differs in the acute periphery and sinuous suture line which is concave toward the last chamber near the aperture and toward the preceding chamber at the opposite end. (Asano, 1936) Asano, 1936, p. 622 623, pl. 33, figs. 1, 5. Pyrgo cf. yabei sensu Hottinger et al. 1993 Test porcelaneous, biloculine, involute in the adult. Pear shaped in outline in peripheral view, biconvex, sublenticular in side view. The width of the test about half of its greatest diameter. Chambers helmet shaped in transverse section, variably domed, apparently progressively less so with ontogeny. Asymmetrically biconvex in lateral view due to the chamber's stronger convexity toward the aboral end. The peripheral wall separated from the lateral one by an acute, varia bly carinated shoulder. Sutures slightly sigmoid in lateral view. Aperture an oval to subcircular opening bordered by a faint peristomal lip and restricted by a distinct bifid tooth with a narrow base and sometimes with crenulated, wing like extensions. Th e test is smooth except at the aboral end, where denticulations and spinose projections occur along the carina. (Hottinger et al. 1993) Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 58, pl. 52, figs. 1 7.

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364 Triloculina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test ovate in outline, equilaterally tri angular or subtriangular in section, chambers one half coil in length, early stage cryptoquinqueloculine, at least in the microspheric generation, but this stage may be lacking in the megalospheric generation, later pseudotriloculine or triloculine, only t hree chambers visible from the exterior, chambers without a floor; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture rounded, at the end of the final chamber, with a short bifid tooth. M. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Tri loculina bertheliniana (Brady, 1884) Test elongate, tapering at both ends, triangular; salient edges sharp or subcarinate. Segments disposed in Triloculine manner, broad, convex externally; surface decorated with an embossed reticulation. Aperture large, s ubtriangular or rounded, furnished with the Milioline tooth. Length, 1/66 th inch (0.4 mm.). This little shell may be regarded as a variety of Miliolina tricarinata which it resembles in all respects except the surface ornamentation. (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1 884, p. 166 167, pl. 114, fig. 2 (as Miliolina bertheliniana ). Jones, 1994, p. 112, pl. 114, fig. 2. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 55, pl. 95, figs. 1 4. Triloculina littoralis Collins, 1958 Test porcellaneous, white and polished, ovate in side view with 3 chambers visible, subtriangular in end view with broadly rounded periphery. Chambers strongly embracing at ends, costate. Apertural end produced as a short neck, aperture oval with everted lip and large thin tooth. Dimensions of holotype: Length 0.40 mm. ; breadth 0.22 mm.; thickness 0.16 mm. This small species resembles the form figured by Heron Allen and Earland (1915) as Miliolina cultrate Brady, striate form, but differs in its rounded periphery. (Collins, 1958) Collins, 1958, p. 369, pl. 3, fig. 12. L oeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 55, pl. 89, figs. 15 17, pl. 95, figs. 11 13. Triloculina transversestriata (Brady, 1881) A minute, elongate, angular, Triloculine variety, with the peripheral margins of the chambers sharp or subcarinate, and the surface mark ed by regular, parallel, transverse or diagonal riblets or stri. Length, 1/50 inch (0.5 mm.). (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 45 (as Miliolina transversestriata ). Brady, 1884, p. 177, pl. 4, fig. 6 (as Miliolina transversestriata ). Jones, 1994, p. 20, pl. 4 fig. 6. Triloculina tricarinata d'Orbigny, 1826 [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Test porcelaneous, triloculine in the adult, broadly ovate in lateral view, nearly equilaterally triangular in end view. Chambers gradually increasing in size. Peripheral wall nearly straight, separated from the lateral walls by a distinctly carinated shoulders. Carina visible at sutures. Sutures distinct, slightly depressed. Aperture at distal end of chamber, subtriangular in shape, surrounded by an eve rted peristomal lip and provided by a Y shaped bifid tooth composed of a very long basal bar and two short extensions. Test surface smooth, but covered by extremely faint and minute, short, elongated microstriae. (Hottinger et al. 1993) d'Orbigny, 1826, p 299. Brady, 1884, p. 165 166, pl. 3, fig. 17 (as Miliolina tricarinata ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 65, pl. 68, figs. 7 12. Jones, 1994, p. 20, pl. 3, fig. 17. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 56, pl. 96, figs. 1 7. Triloculina cf. tricarinata d'Orbigny, 1 826 Possesses faint striations, smooth neck, round aperture, tooth. Test shape resembling T. tricarinata

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365 Triloculinella Riccio, 1950 Test ovate in outline, rounded to ovate in section, periphery rounded, chambers one half coil in length, arrangement cr yptoquinqueloculine to quinqueloculine, the final three to five chambers visible from the exterior; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture an arch at the end of the final chamber, largely covered by a broad apertural flap. Oligocene to Holoce ne; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Triloculinella pseudooblonga (Zheng, 1980) (Plate 6, figs. 1 8) Test elongate oval, periphery rounded. Chambers inflated, arcuate, broadest near the base. Sutures distinct, slightly depressed. Wall smooth. Aper ture with a crescentiform or semilunate toothplate. This species differs from Miliolinella oblonga (Montagu) in having an aperture corresponding to the shape of the tooth plate which is crescentiform or semilunate. Montagu described the aperture of the for mer as oval, without mentioning the presence of toothplate. (Zheng, 1980) Zheng, 1980, p. 158, 177, pl. 2, fig. 5 (as Miliolinella pseudooblonga ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 57, pl, 88, figs. 7 18, pl. 97, figs. 10 12, pl. 98, figs. 1 3, 7 9. Triloculi nella sublineata (Brady, 1884) Similar in general contour, disposition of segments, form of aperture and dimensions to Miliolina circularis Shell thin and often sub translucent; decorated with a surface ornament of delicate, interrupted, longitudinal stri . (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1884, p. 169, pl. 4, fig. 7 (as Miliolina circularis var. sublineata ) Jones, 1994, p. 20, pl. 4, fig. 7. Wellmanellinella Cherif, 1970 Test ovate in outline, periphery lobulate, laterally compressed, with one side more evolute and flattened, possibly due to attachment, opposite side convex with inflated chambers more embracing, early stage quinqueloculine in arrangement, later chambers rapidly enlarging, planispirally arranged, three chambers per whorl in the adult; wall calcareous, porcelaneous, highly polished, thin and translucent, convex surface with fine longitudinal irregular striae that are less apparent on the flattened side; aperture a broad arched opening at the end of the final chamber, bordered by a narrow everted lip, an d with a wide semilunate flaplike tooth. Holocene; Greece; Adriatic. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Wellmanellinella striata (Sidebottom, 1904) This handsome form is frequent in these dredgings. The test is compressed, the underside much flattened, as if the test had been adherent; the chambers are convex on the upperside, besides being more embracing than they are underneath. They are beautifully but irregularly striate, the striation following their curvature. On the underside these stri are not so marked. The test is polished and thin and the underside is semi translucent. The mouth is heavily lipped, and is partially closed by the flap on the anti penultimate chamber. The section shows the arrangement of the chambers, the last few of which are constricted at their ends. Frequent. (Sidebottom, 1904) Sidebottom, 1904, p. 21, pl. 5, figs. 12 14, textfig. 9 (as Planispirina striata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 346, pl. 354, figs. 13 17. Polysegmentininae Mikhalevich, 1986 Parahauerinoides McCulloch, 1977 Te st discoidal, circular to ovate in outline, strongly compressed, planispiral and evolute throughout, early stage not elevated above the level of the later whorls, chambers one half coil in length, increasing very slowly in height as added, final whorl with two and a half chambers; wall calcareous, imperforate, smooth, hyaline in appearance, with a row of tiny pores and short grooves perpendicular to and just anterior to the sutures of the final whorl as in Polysegmentina ; aperture at the end of the final ch amber, with numerous pores in an ovate convex trematophore. Holocene; Sri Lanka; Philippines. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Parahauerinoides fragilissimus (Brady, 1884) Test nearly circular, complanate, extremely thin; peripheral edge rounded. Segments numer ous, much curved, the later ones in adult specimens nearly semicircular. Shell wall delicately thin and opalescent, the sutures appearing as conspicuous white lines. Aperture cribrate. Diameter, 1/30 th inch (0.8 mm.).

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366 This is a very well marked intermediat e form, which may be classed either amongst Hauerin or Spiroloculin with almost equal propriety. The cribrate aperture is a common character of Hauerina but is also an occasional feature of Miliolina On the other hand, though the length of the segments is sometimes irregular, there are never more than two in each convolution, so that their general arrangement is that of Spiroloculina In short, it may be regarded either as a Spiroloculina with porous aperture, or as a Hauerina with abnormally long segme nts; and whichever view be adopted, it supplies an interesting connecting link between the two genera. (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1884, p. 149 150, pl. 9, figs. 12 14 (as Spiroloculina fragilissima ). Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 62, pl. 61, figs. 1 3 (as Sigmoihau erina fragilissima ). Jones, 1994, p. 25, pl. 9, figs. 12 14 (as Hauerina fragilissima ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 51, pl. 87, figs. 1 6. Sigmoilinitinae # uczkowska, 1974 Sigmoihauerina Zheng, 1979 Test broadly ovate, chambers one half coil in length a nd sigmoiline in arrangement in the somewhat inflated biconvex early stage, later planispiral and strongly compressed, with somewhat shorter but much broader chambers, final whorl commonly has three chambers, chambers with floors; wall calcareous, imperfor ate, porcelaneous, surface may have fine longitudinal striae; aperture at the end of the final chamber, cribrate. L. Miocene (Burdigalian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Sigmoihauerina bradyi (Cushman, 1917) Test much compressed, th e very earliest ones milioline, later ones becoming spiroloculine and finally in the last formed coil more than two chambers appear, usually three making up a complete coil; wall very finely striate reticulate, periphery rounded or subcarinate, aperture a sieve plate the entire height of the chamber, curved, with numerous pores. Diameter, about 1 mm. D'Orbigny figures a much less compressed form with more chambers in the final whorl, a smooth surface, the last formed coil making up a greater portion of the visible test and the milioline portion much less distinct. In his figure of the apertural face there is a single large opening surrounded by numerous papillae, which are probably pores. Our recent species seems to be essentially different from that describ ed by d'Orbigny in all its particulars. (Cushman, 1917) Brady, 1884, p. 190 191, pl. 11, figs. 12 13 (as Hauerina compressa ). Cushman, 1917, p. 62 63, pl. 23, fig. 2 (as Hauerina bradyi ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 348, pl. 358, figs. 5 10. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 62, pl. 60, figs. 1 12. Jones, 1994, p. 27, pl. 11, figs. 12 13. Sigmoihauerina involuta (Cushman, 1946) Test almost completely involute, periphery acute, early stages quinqueloculine, adult planispiral; chambers distinct, somewhat inflated thickest near the inner margin, usually three in the adult coil; sutures distinct, depressed; wall ornamented with numerous radial ridges, often slightly curved toward the periphery, the depressed areas between transversely striate; aperture slightly pro truding, distinctly cribrate. Diameter 0.85 0.90 mm. The species differs from H. orientalis Cushman in the involute character, thicker test, and the curved ridges of the ornamentation. This species has probably been referred to as H. ornatissima in various Pacific records but specimens would have to be reexamined to determine this. The specimens figured by Howchin and Parr (1938) from the upper Pliocene of Australia as H. ornatissima (Karrer)," have some characters which suggest H. involuta especially in the peculiar curvature of the ridges. (Cushman, 1946) Brady, 1884, p. 192, pl. 7, figs. 15 17 (not figs. 18 22; as Hauerina ornaitssima ). Cushman, 1946, p. 13, pl. 2, figs. 25 28 (as Hauerina involuta ). Jones, 1994, p. 23, pl. 7, figs. 15 17 (as Pseudohaue rina occidentalis involuta ) Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 58, pl. 100, figs. 8 12.

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367 Spirosigmoilina Parr, 1942 Test ovate to nearly circular in outline, flattened, numerous narrow and elongate chambers one half coil in length added in various planes to f orm a sigmoid series in the inflated early portion but rapidly becoming planispiral and adult chambers added on opposite sides of the test, chambers with floors; wall calcareous, porcelaneous; aperture terminal, with a short simple tooth. Miocene; Australi a. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Spirosigmoilina bradyi Collins, 1958 Specimens of the form figured by Brady were frequent in the samples of group 3. A close examination of the early chambers reveals that they are sigmoiline rather than quinqueloculine, as h as been previously stated. There is some variation in the degree to which the later massiline chambers embrace the earlier formed portion, some specimens having the sigmoiline chambers obscured. Brady's fig. 26, however, shows this character clearly. The f igured specimen is one in which the crenulate development is not taken on so early as in other specimens from the same material, and hence exhibits the earlier chambers better. As this form has the characteristic growth plan of the genus Spirosigmoilina Pa rr, described from the Miocene of Victoria, it is accordingly removed to that genus. Cushman and Todd (1944) have examined the types of Karrer's Spiroloculina crenata and state that it is a species of Hauerina (Collins, 1958) Brady, 1884, p. 156, pl. 10, figs. 24 26 (as Spiroloculina crenata ). Collins, 1958, p. 365. Jones, 1994, p. 26, pl. 10, figs. 24 26. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 58, pl. 102, fig. 1 8. TUBINELLIDAE Rhumbler, 1906 Articularia # uczkowska 1974 Test narrow and elongate, early stage ovoid and inflated, consisting of narrow elongate chambers one half coil in length and in quinqueloculine or cryptoquinqueloculine arrangement, later stage uncoiled and rectilinear, of three to four el ongate subpyriform chambers with oval to rounded section; wall calcareous, porcelaneous; aperture in the quinqueloculine stage oval with a short broad tooth, and in the uncoiled chambers is terminal and rounded with an everted lip but without a tooth. U. M iocene (L. Sarmatian); USSR; Poland. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Articularia sp. Appears similar to Articularia scrobiculata (Brady, 1884), but smooth, without costae. Articulina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test elongate, early ovoid portion consisting of chambers on e half coil in length, quinqueloculine or cryptoquinqueloculine, later with a few cylindrical, ovoid to pyriform rectilinear chambers that may be circular or flattened in section; wall calcareous, porcelaneous, surface smooth to longitudinally costate; ape rture terminal, rounded to ovate, bordered by a prominent everted lip. M. Eocene (Lutetian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Articulina alticostata Cushman, 1944 Test elongate, only slightly compressed, early portion triloculine, late r chambers uniserial, two or three in number, possibly more; chambers of the early portion indistinct, later uniserial ones very broad at the base, increasing slightly in width, then decreasing toward the apertural end; sutures of the early portion indisti nct; wall ornamented by numerous very narrow, high costae, often projecting backward at the base of the uniserial chambers; aperture terminal, slightly compressed, with a very distinct lip projecting beyond the periphery of the chamber and turning backward Length 0.75 1.10 mm.; diameter 0.20 0.30 mm. This species may be distinguished from A. sagra d'Orbigny by the straight test, very high, thin costae which project at the base of the chamber, and the difference in shape of the chambers. (Cushman, 1944) Cus hman, 1944, p. 16, pl. 4, figs. 10 13. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 59, pl. 104, figs. 5 10. Articulina cf. mucronata (d'Orbigny, 1839) Testa elongata, compressissima, alba; loculis tribus convexis, longitudinaliter costatis, margine rotundata, postice i nflatis, antice dilatatis, lateraliter mucronatis; apertura elongata, angustata. Dimensions : Diamtre: millim. Coquille allongŽe, comprimŽe dans son ensemble ˆ bords arrondis, non carŽnŽs ni tranchants. Spire d'abord enroulŽe sur elle mme, puis projectŽ e en ligne droite. Loges au

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368 nombre de trois par tour, avant de se projeter, puis surmontŽes de deux loges allongŽes sur une seule ligne; elles sont convexes dans le jeune ‰ge, comprimŽes dans l'‰ge adulte, fortement costŽes [ sic ] en long; chacune de profil montre un renflement postŽrieur, puis un lŽger rŽtrŽcissement en avant, suivi d'un grand Žlargissement formŽ par le bourrelet supŽrieur qui borde l'ouverture, et dans sa forme arquŽe laisse, de chaque c™tŽ, une forte pointe aigu‘ dirigŽe en arrire. Ouver ture Žtroite allongŽe, Žlargie ˆ ses extrŽmitŽs, rŽtrŽcie et presque linŽaire au milieu de sa largeur. Couleur d'un beau blanc de lait non transparent. Assez voisine de la Vertebralina striata par son prolongement en droite ligne, par sa compression, elle s'en distingue facilement par ses fortes c™tes, et surtout par la saillie du bourrelet de l'ouverture et les pointes qu'il forme latŽralement. (d'Orbigny, 1839a) [ Test elongate, constricted, white; chambers three way convex, longitudinally costate, sides r ounded, back inflated, front expanded, edges made sharp; aperture elongate, narrow .] [ Dimensions : millim. diameter. Elongated shell, overall compressed with rounded edges, neither streamlined nor sharp. Whorls first coiling up over themselves, then proje cted in a straight line. Three chambers per whorl, before projecting themselves, then surmounted by two elongated chambers in one line only; convex in their young age, compressed in their adult life, strongly costate along its length; in profile, each show s a posterior bulge, then a small narrowing in the front, followed by a large widening shaped by the upper fold edging the aperture, and with its curved shape, leaves, on each side, a pronounced sharp point angled back. Elongated narrow aperture, enlarged in its extremities, narrowed and nearly linear in the center of its width. Beautiful non transparent milk white in color. [Close enough to Vertebralina striata by its extension in a straight line and by its compression, it easily distinguishes itself by it s large ribs and particularly by its projecting apertural fold and the points it shapes laterally. ] d'Orbigny, 1839, p. 52, pl. 7, figs. 16 19 (as Vertebralina mucronata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 59, pl. 104, figs. 1 4. AUSTROTRILLINACEA Loeblich an d Tappan, 1986 BREBINIDAE Mikhalevich, 1988 Pseudohauerininae Mikhalevich, 1988 Pseudohauerina Ponder, 1972 Test ovate to subcircular in outline, lenticular, chambers in the early stage one half coil in length and quinqueloculine, later chambers planispira l as in Massilina but adult may have more than two chambers to a whorl, interior subdivided by numerous radial septula that project inward from the walls for about one third the breadth of the chamber; wall calcareous, porcelaneous, thin, surface ornament ed with numerous longitudinal striae or costae and with less closely spaced radial indentations that correspond to the internal radial septula; aperture terminal, in the juvenile stage an opening with simple tooth, later chambers may have a ringlike struct ure attached to the apertural margins, and adult test has a complex convex trematophore with many openings. Oligocene (Balcombian) to Holocene; Atlantic; Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Pseudohauerina orientalis (Cushman, 1946) Test strongly compresse d, irregularly rounded, earliest portion quinqueloculine and strongly angled, later portion very strongly compressed and forming nearly the whole surface of the test, peripheral margin lobulate, subacute, delicately crenulate; chambers distinct, very sligh tly if at all inflated in the adult coil which consists of usually two or three chambers; sutures distinct, very slightly depressed in the adult; wall ornamented with numerous very fine radial ridges which are transversely striate; aperture rather finely c ribrate. Diameter usually less than 1.00 mm., occasionally greater. This species differs from H. ornatissima (Karrer) in the more compressed test, much finer radial ridges, and more finely cribrate aperture. The ornamentation is more strongly developed on the outer portion of each adult chamber. The species is common in warm, shallow waters of the Tropical Pacific. (Cushman, 1946) Brady, 1884, p. 192, pl. 7, fig. 20 (not figs. 15 19, 21 22; as Hauerina ornatissima ). Cushman, 1946, p. 12 13, pl. 2, figs. 22 24 (as Hauerina orientalis ). Jones, 1994, p. 23, pl. 7, fig. 20 (not figs. 18 19, 21 22). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 60, pl. 76, figs. 12 14.

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369 ALVEOLINACEA Ehrenberg, 1839 ALVEOLINIDAE Ehrenberg, 1839 Alveolinella DouvillŽ, 1907 Test elongate fusiform, increasing in proportionate length with growth, early coiling irregular in both generations, later planispiral, vertical septula forming numerous chamberlets, septula of adjacent chambers aligned, chambers in the adult further subdivided by horizontal flo ors into two or more layers of main chamberlets and an additional upper row of low chamberlets or attics, preseptal passages at the chamber floor laterally connect adjacent chamberlets of the same chamber, later whorls may also have smaller secondary prese ptal passages; aperture multiple, of several longitudinal rows along the apertural face corresponding to the layers of chamberlets, and smaller openings leading into the outer narrower row of attics. Miocene to Holocene; Indo Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Alveolinella quoyi (d'Orbigny, 1826) [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Under favourable conditions recent specimens of this species attain a length of half an inch (12 or 13 mm.), and shells but little smaller than this are not u ncommon. The internal structure of recent specimens is of the complex type, whilst fossil shells with the same external characters have for the most part undivided chamberlets. (Brady, 1884) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 307, pl. 17, figs. 11 13 (as Alveolina quoii ) Brady, 1884, p. 222 223, pl. 17, figs. 7 12 (as Alveolina boscii ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 361 362, pl. 373, figs. 1 3. Jones, 1994, p. 30 31, pl. 17, figs. 7 12 (as Alveolinella quoii ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 60 61, pl. 107, figs. 1 4. Bor elis de Montfort, 1808 Test small, spherical to fusiform, dimorphism minor, early whorls nautiloid and streptospirally enrolled in both generations, septula aligned from chamber to chamber and may appear Y shaped in axial section because of the alternately larger and smaller chamberlets and radial displacement of the smaller ones, preseptal passage present; apertures in a single row. U. Eocene to Holocene; Spain; Austria; Romania; Italy; Greece; Turkey; Israel; Iran; Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Egypt; Indonesi a; Red Sea; Indian Ocean; tropical Atlantic; Caribbean. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Borelis schlumbergeri (Reichel, 1937) Petite espce fuselŽe, d'allongement trs prononcŽ, mais variable, renflŽe ˆ l'Žquateur, effilŽe aux p™les. Septa rectilignes sur leur plus grand parcours, lŽgrement inflŽchis vers l'arrire, ˆ leur extrŽmitŽ; au dernier tour, correspondant ˆ un diamter de 0,6 mm., on compte 5 6 loges. La face orale est basse, les ouvertures, disposŽes en une seule rangŽe, sont lŽgrement quadrangulair es et souvent plus larges que hautes. Le bord supŽrieur de la face orale prŽsente une fine striation verticale. Les stries sont deux fois plus nombreuses que celles formŽes par les logettes. Le test est lisse, d'aspect vitreux. Les cloisonnettes se voient par transparence. (Reichel, 1937) [ Small spindle shaped species, with a very pronounced elongation, but variable, bulging at the equator, slender at the poles. Septa rectilinear on the largest surface, slightly inflected towards the back, at their extremit y; at the last outline, corresponding to 0.6 mm. in diameter, we count 5 6 chambers. The oral face is low, the apertures, arranged in one row only, are slightly quadrangular and often wider than high. The upper edge of the oral face presents fine vertical striations. The ridges are twice as numerous as those formed by the chamberlets. The test is smooth, of vitreous appearance. The compartments are seen through translucency. ] Reichel, 1937, p. 110 112, pl. 10, figs. 1 3, pl. 11, fig. 6 (as Neoalveolina pygm aea var. schlumbergeri ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 362, pl. 375, fig. 1. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 68 69, pl. 75, figs. 1 17. SORITACEA Ehrenberg, 1839 PENEROPLIDAE Schultze, 1854 Dendritina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test planispirally enrolled and involute, n umerous chambers per whorl, sutures radial, may be slightly arcuate; wall calcareous, porcelaneous, surface with numerous striae aligned with the direction

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370 of coiling; aperture in the adult areal, dendritic, and complexly branched. M. Eocene (Lutetian) to Holocene; Europe; West Indies; Bermuda. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Dendritina striata Hofker, 1951 (Plate 7, figs. 1 8) The tests are closely coiled, relatively large, diameter up to 2 mm., with about 16 chambers in the last coil. These chambers are narro w, with heavy sutures, not depressed, and possess very thick septal walls. The periphery is not carinate, but rounded; the test is not much thickened at the centre, as the chambers are but slightly overlapping, so that it cannot be described as totally inv olute. The umbilical area is slightly filled up with secondary material, and flattened. The ornamentation consists of longitudinal stri, without any suggestion of punctation, and the stri form an angle with the periphery. In many tests the aperture consi sts of a single opening, running along the apertural face, in the middle of it with poorly developed lateral teeth. However, in older tests this aperture may be subdivided into two rows of openings, which always develop from the primitive single opening wi th a basal tooth by a lengthening of that tooth so that its upper end is fastened to the opposite border of the foramen. This, this species from the Pacific area shows characters of Dendritina : coiled form, heavy septal walls, dendritine aperture in most c ases, together with characters of Peneroplis : longitudinal stri, aperture in adult specimens often subdivided into separate openings. In all specimens that I studied, the megalospheric proloculus was relatively small (diameter about 40!), followed by a ve ry narrow and long neck chamber. This character and the not involute test point to primitiveness. So this suggests that this species may be the ancestral one of the real Peneroplis Horizontal sections, moreover, showed that at least 12 chambers with a sin gle aperture follow the proloculus, and often many more of them are found. This is also a primitive character. Besides, in the initial chambers in horizontal section the teeth are nearly absent, contrary to Dendritina carinata (Hofker, 1951b) Hofker, 1951 p. 234 235, textfigs. 12 14. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 61, pl. 108, figs. 5 10. Laevipeneroplis $ulc, 1936 Test nautiloid in the early stage, numerous low chambers in a close flat trochospiral or planispiral coil, later uncoiling, laterally compress ed and flaring, with chambers progressively broader and more arched although increasing very little in height, interior of chambers undivided, sutures depressed; wall calcareous, porcelaneous, that of earliest chambers perforate, surface of the adult smoot h and unornamented other than having very fine pseudopores; aperture in the early coil may consist of a row of pores near the base of the apertural face, becoming centrally arched as the chambers increase in size, then with two rows of pores up the apertur al face, and in the final uncoiled stage may have two offset rows of pores or a single row. Miocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Laevipeneroplis laevigatus (Karrer, 1868) Fand sich in vier SchlemmrŸckstŠnden nicht selten, in einem sogar hŠufig, aber stets glatt ohne Leisten oder Streifen, Šhnlich P. prisca Rss. aus Oberburg, aber mit viel mehr Kammern. (Karrer, 1868) [ Were to be found not uncommonly in four silt residues, in one even abundantly, but always smooth without ridges or stripes, similar to P. prisca Rss. from Oberburg, but with many more chambers .] Karrer, 1868, p. 153, pl. 3, fig. 7 (as Peneroplis planatus var. laevigata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 370, pl. 392, figs. 1 2. Peneroplis de Montfort, 1808 Test compresse d, early stage planispirally enrolled and involute, later chambers rapidly increasing in breadth and strongly arched but of nearly constant height resulting in a flaring test, interior of chambers not subdivided, sutures slightly depressed; wall calcareous porcelaneous, perforate in the juvenile stage, later imperforate, surface with numerous striae or grooves alternating with fine ribs aligned parallel to the test periphery, fine pseudopores commonly present in the grooves between the surface ribs; apertu re in the adult consisting of a linear or alternating series of large, circular to oval or irregular pores, each bordered by a distinct elevated lip. Miocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Peneroplis pertusus (ForskŒl, 1775) Anfract ibus compressis, transverse sulcatis, longtudinaliter striatis leviter; apertura poris pertusa. Descr. Color niveus. Apertura non alia, nisi pori ad marginem. Anfractus ad basin recti, fpe dilatati: interdum lineares: apice spiraliter convoluti. (ForskŒl, 1775)

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371 [Compressed spiral, transverse furrows, longitudinally lightly striate; aperture of perforate pores. [Description. Color white. Aperture no others, except pores along the margin. Spiral directed back onto itself, frequently enlarging: occasionally b ecoming linear: the extreme end of the spiral becoming convoluted.] ForskŒl, 1775, p. 125 (as Nautilus pertusus ). Brady, 1884, p. 204, pl. 13, figs. 16 17, 23 (not figs. 12 15, 18 22, 24 25). Jones, 1994, p. 29, pl. 13, figs. 16 17, 23. Loeblich and Tappan 1994, p. 62, pl. 110, figs. 1 5. Peneroplis planatus (Fichtel and Moll, 1798) Testa spiralis involuta, subovalis, utrinque [ sic ] planata, umbilico parvo, parum profundo; dorso licet tenui, tamen obtusato, anfractibus repente crescentibus duobus, extimo solum conspicuo; articulis (sub quibus thalami) levissime transversim striatis, circa viginti, striis oculo armato vix visibilibus; isthmis antrorsum convexis, ad partem test interiorem magis arcuatis; versus dorsum s. marginem exteriorem rectiusculis; p lano orali lineari, totum latus anterius ultimi articuli constituente, utrinque leviter marginato; orificio longitudinaliter per medium plani oralis totum protenso angustissimo lineari, loco apertur simplicis, ex foraminulis minutis interruptis composito. (Fichtel and Moll, 1798) [Test an involute spiral, suboval, flat on both sides, umbilicus very small, not very spread out; dorsally may be thin, yet obtuse, spiral consisting of two whorls, of which only the outer is visible, increasing quickly in size; c hambers (below which are subchambers) are lightly longitudinally striate, about twenty, the striae being barely visible to the armored eye; sutures curved forward, more strongly arcuate towards the interior part of the test; versus those towards the back o r outermost margin, which are straighter; oral face linear, takes up the entire front side of the last chamber, having on both sides a faint rim; apertures longitudinally elongated and extending the whole length along the middle of the oral face, instead o f a simple opening, consists of many small holes separated from each other by equal sized dividing walls.] Fichtel and Moll, 1798, p. 91 92, pl. 16, figs. a f, i (not figs. g h; as Nautilus planatus ). Brady, 1884, p. 204, pl. 13, fig. 15. Loeblich and Tapp an, 1987, p. 371, pl. 391, figs. 7 8. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 70 71, pl. 79, figs. 1 16, pl. 80, figs. 1 8. Jones, 1994, p. 29, pl. 13, fig. 15. Spirolina Lamarck, 1804 Test large, elongate, crosier shaped, early chambers planispirally enrolled and biu mbilicate, later uncoiling and rectilinear, with short barrel like chambers, interior simple and undivided; wall calcareous, porcelaneous, surface ornamented with numerous longitudinal costae; aperture terminal, rounded. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan in warm seas. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Spirolina cylindracea Lamarck, 1804 Spirolinites (cylindracea) recta, apice tantum incurva; apertura orbiculata. La coquille de cette espce est presque entirement droite, et ce n'est qu'ˆ son sommet qu'elle forme u ne petite courbure ou commencement de spirale. Elle ressemble ˆ un trs petit b‰ton dont l'extrŽmitŽ supŽrieure seroit un peu courbŽe en crosse. Dans une variŽtŽ le tube cloissonŽ, au lieu d'tre cylindrique, s'agrandit un peu vers sa base comme une corne d'abondance; et dans une autre variŽtŽ plus remarquable encore, la coquille est tout ˆ fait droite, mme ˆ son sommet. La longueur de cette coquille est de 3 ˆ 4 millimtres. (Lamarck, 1804) [Spironlinites (cylindracea) straight, the extreme end to a great extent uncurved; aperture circular.] [ This species' shell is almost completely straight, and it is only at the top that it is shaping into a small curve or a spiral beginning. It resembles a very small stick of which the upper extremity could somewhat bec ome curved. In one variety the isolated tube, instead of being cylindrical, enlarges a little towards its base like a cornucopia; and with another variety, even more remarkable, the shell is completely straight, even at its top. Shell's length is 3 to 4 mi llimeters. ] Lamarck, 1804, p. 245. Brady, 1884, p. 205, pl. 13, figs. 20 21 (as Peneroplis cylindraceus ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 371 372, pl. 393, figs. 3 4. Jones, 1994, p. 29, pl. 13, figs. 20 21. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 61, pl. 107, figs. 5 10 (as Coscinospira acicularis ).

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372 SORITIDAE Ehrenberg, 1839 Archaiasinae Cushman, 1927 Parasorites Seiglie and Rivera in Seiglie et al. 1977 Test large, discoidal, proloculus and flexostyle followed by a planispiral stage in the microspheric generation an d by a peneropline early stage in the megalospheric generation, later chambers rapidly enlarging and test becoming reniform and finally discoidal with annular chambers, chambers subdivided internally by intradermal plates that are thickest adjacent to the lateral walls, their basal part extending across the chamber to fuse with the base of the plate from the opposite side, resulting in nearly complete chamberlets, or when plates projecting from the two sides of the test alternate in position, a Y like fusio n of their bases produces a double series of chamberlets; wall calcareous, porcelaneous, surface smooth, may be punctate; aperture of one or two alternating rows of rounded openings in a groove at the periphery. Pliocene?; Pleistocene to Holocene; Puerto R ico; Dominican Republic; Cuba; USA; Florida; New Guinea. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Parasorites orbitolitoides (Hofker, 1930) The shell forms a flat, very thin, round disk of white colour. In most cases it shows an inner part, which is more hyaline, abrup tly followed by much more opaque rings, while the outer margin once more is thin and hyaline. Diameter of the shells up to 4 mm. Hofker, 1930, p. 149 151, pl. 55, figs. 8, 10 11, pl. 57, figs. 4, 6, pl. 58, figs. 1 5, pl. 61, figs. 3, 14 (as Praesorites or bitolitoides ). Brady, 1884, p. 214 215, pl. 15, fig. 4 (not figs. 1 3, 5; as Orbitolites marginalis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 380, pl. 416, figs. 1 9. Jones, 1994, p. 30, pl. 15, fig. 4. Soritinae Ehrenberg, 1839 Amphisorus Ehrenberg, 1839 Test larg e, discoidal, biconcave with thickened rims, megalospheric proloculus and flexostyle of a half whorl followed by a large deuteroloculus that has numerous apertures, later chambers cyclic and subdivided by septula, microspheric peneropline early stage with about six undivided chambers and up to ten additional spiral chambers with septula before becoming annular, septula alternating and forming lateral chamberlets, leaving a large annular passage in the median plane that is not crossed by the lateral septula, a system of crosswise oblique stolons connects successive chambers; wall calcareous, imperforate, porcelaneous; aperture of numerous pores on the peripheral margin, elongated across the margin, and aligned in two alternating rows, additional supplementary openings in the median plane in the megalospheric test open into the median annular passage, microspheric test may have more elongate and more irregular openings into the annular passage. Miocene to Holocene; Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, Caribbean (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg, 1839 Disciformis magnus, disco plano. Habitu Soritae orbiculi crassior. (Ehrenberg, 1839) [Large disc shape, disc planar. In the habit of Soritae orbiculi, but thicker.] Ehrenberg, 1839, p. 13 0, pl. 3, fig. 3. Brady, 1884, p. 216 217, pl. 16, fig. 7 (as Orbitolites duplex ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 380 381, pl. 417, fig. 1 8. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 71 72, pl. 81, figs. 1 8, pl. 82, figs. 1 11. Jones, 1994, p. 30, pl. 16, fig. 7. Loebli ch and Tappan, 1994, p. 62, pl. 109, figs. 7 13, pl. 110, fig. 6 7. Sorites Ehrenberg, 1839 Test discoidal, thick, megalospheric juvenarium of proloculus, flexostyle and one undivided chamber, then with a few peneroplid chambers, microspheric test penerop line in early stage, later stage of both generations with annular series of small chamberlets that are symmetrical with respect to the equatorial plane, separated by a median annular passage that appears circular in section, crosswise oblique stolon system connects chamberlets with two chambers of the preceding series and two chambers of the following series, stolons in a single plane; wall calcareous, porcelaneous, smooth; aperture a single row of openings with protruding rims and with figure 8 outline res ulting from the crosswise oblique stolons, shell material may bridge the narrow part of the opening to form two

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373 openings; adult test may produce reproductive chambers. Miocene to Holocene; Atlantic; Caribbean; Pacific; Indian Ocean; Red Sea. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Sorites marginalis (Lamarck, 1816) Orbulites utrinque plana; margine poroso. Elle n'a que deux mille mtres de largeur. (Lamarck, 1816) [Orbulites on both sides planar; porous margin.] [ It has only two millimeters in width. ] Lamarck, 1816, p. 196 (as Orbulites marginalis ). Brady, 1884, p. 214 215, pl. 15, figs. 1 3, 5 (not fig. 4; as Orbitolites marginalis ). Jones, 1994, p. 30, pl. 15, figs. 1 3, 5 (as Parasorites marginalis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 62, pl. 112, figs. 1 5. Sorites orbi culus (ForskŒl, 1775) Orbicularis, utrinque planus, spiris subconcentricis, moniliformibus; margine extus toto poris bifariam pertuso. Totus albus: lente parum major. Nisi hie Nautilus esset prorsus planus, sine ulla convexitate; facile haberem pro Nautili te placentula in montibus Kahirinis calcareis petrefacto. (ForskŒl, 1775) [Circular, both sides planar, subconcentric spiral, moniliform. Total exterior margin porous as a double row of perforations. [Totally white: slowly growing large. Unless the Nautil us is truly planar, without convexity; it could readily be taken for Nautilite placentula in the Kahirinis mountains as calcareous stones.] ForskŒl, 1775, p. 125 (as Nautilus orbiculus ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 382 383, pl. 419, figs. 4 10. Hottinge r et al ., 1993, p. 72 73, pl. 83, figs. 1 13. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 63, pl. 112, figs. 6 8. LAGENIDA Lankester, 1885 NODOSARIACEA Ehrenberg, 1838 LAGENIDAE Reuss, 1862 Cerebrina Patterson, 1986 Diagnosis. A genus with variously complex raised reti culate sculpture on each test face. Range. Cretaceous to Recent. Description. Test free, unilocular, pyriform, compressed; wall calcareous, hyaline to translucent, non porous; each test face sculpted with variously complex raised reticulate patterns; perip hery may have single or multiple carinae; aperture fissurine or a slightly compressed oval; entosolenian tube present. (Patterson, 1986) Cerebrina perforata (LeRoy, 1964) Test compressed, about twice as long as broad, base rounded and with spine; periphery subacute with blunt narrow rim; surface finely perforate; aperture elliptical, at end of short neck. Similar to F. milletti Todd but differs by having a less extended neck, by possessing a blunt basal spine, and by showing finer perforations. Length 0.40 0.42 mm., width 0.21 0.23 mm., thickness 0.10 0.13 mm. (LeRoy, 1964) LeRoy, 1964, p. F32 F33, pl. 13, figs. 25 26 (as Fissurina perforata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 76, pl. 136, figs. 5 6, 9 10. POLYMORPHINACEA d'Orbigny, 1839 POLYMORPHINIDAE d'Orbig ny, 1839 Polymorphininae d'Orbigny, 1839 Guttulina d'Orbigny, 1839 Test ovate to elongate, chambers inflated, added spirally in five planes, successive chambers 144 o apart and each extending farther distally while strongly overlapping preceding ones proxim ally, sutures distinct, depressed; wall calcareous, hyaline, radial, surface smooth; aperture terminal, radiate. M. Jurassic (Bathonian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987)

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374 Guttulina yamazaki Cushman and Ozawa, 1930 Test elongate, the b ase broadly rounded, uniformly tapering toward the apertural end; chambers elongated, especially in the later ones, arranged in a quinqueloculine series, each succeeding chamber slightly removed from the base; sutures but little depressed, distinct; wall s mooth, rather thick; aperture radiate. Length 0.80 1.35 mm.; breadth 0.35 0.65 mm.; thickness 0.20 0.45 mm. (Cushman and Ozawa, 1930) Cushman and Ozawa, 1930, p. 40, pl. 8, figs. 3 4. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 82, pl. 146, figs. 4 7, pl. 148, figs. 1 3 GLOBIGERINIDA Lankester, 1885 GLOBOROTALIACEA Cushman, 1927 GLOBOROTALIIDAE Cushman, 1927 Neogloboquadrina Bandy, Frerichs, and Vincent, 1967 Test subglobular, low trochospiral, subglobular chambers enlarging rapidly as added, five to six in the final w horl, sutures radial and straight to slightly curved, depressed, umbilicus open, moderately broad and deep, periphery broadly rounded; wall calcareous, uniformly perforate, smooth in the early stage, without spines, later becoming thickened and pitted as s econdary layers of calcite are added, the pore pits distinct in tropical specimens; aperture interiomarginal, at first extraumbilical umbilical but may tend to become umbilical in the adult, bordered with a subtriangular toothlike lip in the early stage, b ut this may be absent in adult chambers. L. Miocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Neogloboquadrina humerosa (Takayanagi and Saito, 1962) Test low trochospiral, biconvex, but occasionally almost flat in spiral side, equatorial perip hery lobate axial periphery rounded, chambers ovate, 10 to 14 arranged in about two whorls, usually six to seven in last whorl, chambers increasing in size in last whorl somewhat irregular, frequently last and/or penultimate chambers much reduced in size c ompared with preceding ones in last whorl, last chamber occasionally somewhat protruding and tending to be displaced towards umbilical side; sutures not limbate, radial to slightly curved, depressed on spiral side, radial to faintly curved, depressed on um bilical side; wall calcareous, thick, cancellate, surface granular in appearance; umbilicus fairly wide and deep, aperture medium to low arch, with a narrow distinct lip, interiomarginal, umbilical extraumbilical, apertural openings of preceding chambers o ften connected with last one to make large channeled hollow; coiling of tests is mostly in right direction. Maximum diameter of holotype 0.46 mm., maximum thickness 0.32 mm. Maximum diameter of paratype 0.44 mm., maximum thickness 0.31 mm. (Takayanagi and Saito, 1962) Takayanagi and Saito, 1962, p. 78, pl. 28, figs. 1 2 (as Globorotalia humerosa ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 102, pl. 199, figs. 1 6. PULLENIATINIDAE Cushman, 1927 Pulleniatina Cushman, 1927 Test globular, early stage trochospirally enrolle d, streptospiral in the adult, whorls progressively covering the umbilical side, chambers in the early stage spherical, later more embracing, about four to four and a half chambers in the final whorl, sutures distinct and depressed in the juvenile, flush a nd obscure in the adult, periphery broadly rounded; wall calcareous, perforate, juvenile stage with large pores in distinct pore pits and appearing cancellate, surface later completely covered by a thick smooth cortex that obscures the perforations and sut ures, closely spaced pustules may occur both above and below the apertural opening; aperture a broad and low interiomarginal arch, extraumbilical. U. Miocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Pulleniatina obliquiloculata (Parker and Jo nes, 1865) The smooth walled compact Globigerin such as have been named Gl. inflata D'Orb., come near in structure to the highly polished, flush celled, somewhat gigantic specimens of Pullenia obliquiloculata [This] form of Pullenia has the chambers se t on obliquely. (Parker and Jones, 1865) Parker and Jones, 1865, p. 365, 368, pl. 19, fig. 4 (as Pullenia sphroides var. obliquiloculata ). Brady, 1884, p. 618, pl. 84, figs. 16 20 (as Pullenia obliquiloculata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 480, pl. 524, figs. 4 12.

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375 Jones, 1994, p. 92, pl. 84, figs. 16 20. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 103, pl. 187, figs. 8 13, pl. 188, figs. 1 6. GLOBIGERINACEA Carpenter, Parker, and Jones, 1862 GLOBIGERINIDAE Carpenter, Parker, and Jones, 1862 Globigerininae Carpenter, Parker, and Jones, 1862 Beella Banner and Blow, 1960 Test trochospirally coiled, spiral side strongly convex, early chambers globular and increasing rapidly in size as added, those of the final whorl radially elongate and subconical, sutures radial, depre ssed, umbilicus open, periphery rounded, peripheral outline lobulate to stellate; wall calcareous, perforate, pores may be grouped in clusters, surface between the pores covered by irregular ridges or costellae that may represent spine bases; aperture umbi lical in position, a wide open arch, bordered by a recurved lip but without porticus or umbilical teeth. U. Miocene (Tortonian) to Holocene; tropical to temperate; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Beella digitata (Brady, 1879) A very singular modi fication of the type [ G. bulloides ], and one that has not hitherto been described. The earlier segments are commonly regular and trochoid, but the later ones are much elongated and spreading. In some specimens, generally of small size, the final segment on ly is extended, like the index finger of the hand, but in others, two, three, or more chambers radiate in palmate fashion. The apertures of the chambers have thickened or lipped borders. It is a rare form, and usually of small size, 1/50 inch (0.5 millim.) but in one dredging specimens have been met with measuring 1/17 inch (1.5 millim.) in diameter. (Brady, 1879b) Brady, 1879, p. 286 (as Globigerina digitata ). Brady, 1884, p. 599 600, pl. 80, figs. 6 10 (not pl. 82, figs. 6 7; as Globigerina digitata ). Lo eblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 488 489, pl. 534, figs. 1 4. Jones, 1994, p. 89, pl. 80, figs. 6 10. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 105, pl. 194, figs. 4 11. Globigerina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test globose, trochospirally enrolled, chambers spherical to ovate but not radially elongate, enlarging rapidly as added, commonly only three to five in the final whorl, sutures distinct, depressed, umbilicus open, periphery rounded, peripheral outline lobulate; wall calcareous, perforate, with cylindrical pores, surface in life has numerous long slender spines of circular cross section that are broken on dead or fossil shells, the short blunt spine remnants resulting in a hispid wall surface; primary aperture a high umbilical arch that may be bordered by an imperforate rim or na rrow lip, no secondary apertures. U. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Globigerina bulloides d'Orbigny, 1826 [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Test low trochospiral, evolute and slightly higher on the spiral side, involute on the umbilical one, with about 9 subglobular, inflated chambers in total, arranged in 2" coils, 4 chambers in the adult coil. Peripheral outline subcircular, strongly lobulated, peripheral margin broadly rounded. Sutures distinct, depresse d and nearly straight on both sides. Umbilicus widely open and deep. Cameral aperture a symmetrical high arch in interiomarginal umbilical position, with a narrow poreless and weakly pustular rim. Walls bilamellar, regularly perforated by small pores. Acic ular spines extend from pustular to low subconical, slightly irregular in outline spine bases. Very low irregular interpore ridges connecting the spine bases may occur, being more prominent in secondarily laminated earlier chambers and producing occasional ly a very weakly cancellated surface. (Hottinger et al. 1993) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 277. Brady, 1884, p. 593 595, pl. 77, pl. 79, figs. 3 7. Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 489, pl. 535, figs. 1 7. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 86, pl. 101, figs. 4 8. Jones, 199 4, p. 88, pl. 77, pl. 79, figs. 3 7. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 105 106, pl. 197, figs. 1 9.

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376 Globigerinella Cushman, 1927 Test with low trochospiral coil in the early stage, later nearly planispiral and evolute, globular to ovate chambers enlarging rap idly, about four to six in the final whorl, sutures radial, depressed, periphery rounded, peripheral outline lobulate; wall calcareous, densely perforate, with numerous circular pores in slight depressions of the surface, interpore areas smooth and set wit h numerous fine elongate spines that are circular in section at the base, shorter spines remain circular in section but more elongate ones become triradiate distally, with smooth and unbarbed surface; aperture interiomarginal, a large open equatorial arch that may be asymmetrical with respect to the plane of coiling, without a bordering lip. U. Oligocene to Holocene; tropical to subtemperate, cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Globigerinella siphonifera (d'Orbigny, 1839) Testa creberrima, tubulifera, alba; spira plana, loculis tribus sphricis; apertura elongata. Dimensions : Diamtre 1/3 de millim. Coquille globuleuse, couverte partout d'un grand nombre de petits tubes percŽs ˆ leur extrŽmitŽ, qui la rendent comme hŽrissŽe. Spire non saillante, compos Že d'un tour seulement ou de cinq loges ˆ l'‰ge adulte. Loges sphŽriques, ou un peu ovales, trs distinctes, au nombre de trois au dernier tour. Ouverture en croissant sur le retour et la dernire loge. Couleur blanc uniforme. Comme la Globigerina bulloid es vivant dans l'Adriatique et aux Canaries, cette espce a quatre loges seulement au dernier tour de spire, caractre que nous trouvons sans exception chez tous les individus; mais elle s'en distingue facilement par les pointes tubuleuses dont elle est c ouverte: ces mmes pointes se retrouvent, il est vrai, chez la GlobigŽrine hŽrissŽe ; mais celle ci a une toute autre forme, et le dernier tour y est composŽ de cinq loges. (d'Orbigny, 1839a) [Test thick, tubuliferous, white; planar spiral, three spherical chambers; aperture elongated. [ Dimensions : 1/3 millim. in diameter. Globular shell, covered everywhere with a large amount of small tubes pierced at their extremities, giving a bristly look. Non projecting whorl, consisting of only one turn or five chamber s at adult age. Spherical chambers, or slightly oval, very distinct, in a group of three at the last turn. Crescent shaped aperture on the way back [along the spral] and on the last chamber. Color, evenly white. [As with Globigerina bulloides living in th e Adriatic Sea and the Canary Islands, this species has four chambers only in the last whorl, a characteristic found without exception in all specimens; but it is easily distinguished by the tubulous points with which it is covered: These identical points are found, it is true, within the bristly Globigerina herissee ; but this one has a totally different shape, and the last turn consists of five chambers. ] d'Orbigny, 1839, p. 83 84, pl. 4, figs. 15 18 (as Globigerina siphonifera ). Brady, 1884, p. 605 606, p l. 80, figs. 18 21 (as Globigerina quilateralis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 489 490, pl. 535, figs. 8 12 (as Globigerinella aequilateralis ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 86 87, pl. 102, figs. 1 10. Jones, 1994, p. 89, pl. 80, figs. 18 21 (as Globigerine lla aequilateralis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 106, pl. 200, figs. 7 10, pl. 201, figs. 1 3. Globigerinoides Cushman, 1927 Test with globular to ovate rapidly enlarging discrete chambers in a low to high trochospiral coil, few chambers per whorl, sutu res radial, depressed, umbilicus open, periphery rounded, peripheral outline lobulate; wall calcareous, coarsely perforate and spinose, pores at the base of shallow pits, the smooth spines circular in section and set on slightly raised spine bases; primary aperture a large interiomarginal umbilical arch, one or more secondary sutural openings present on the spiral side at the intersection of the spiral and radial sutures. Uppermost Oligocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Globigerino ides ruber (d'Orbigny, 1839) (Plate 8, figs. 1 8) Testa elevata, rugosa, rubra; spira convexa, loculis tribus, sphricis; aperturis plurimis. Dimensions : Diamtre millim. Coquille ŽlevŽe, rugueuse ou mme comme finement hŽrissŽe et perforŽe. Spire sailla nte, composŽe d'un tour et demi, ou, dans l'‰ge adulte, de cinq loges seulement. Loges sphŽriques, trs distinctes, au nombre de trois au dernier tour. Ouvertures IndŽpendamment de l'ouverture ordinaire, placŽe au centre de l'ombilic, il y en a deux autre s en dessus de la dernire loge, et une sur l'avant dernire; nŽanmoins ce nombre para”t varier suivant les individus et n'tre pas toujours le mme.

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377 Couleurs Les dernires loges sont jaunes ou jaunes rouge‰tres; elles deviennent de plus en plus teintŽes de rouge, ˆ mesure qu'elles approchent du sommet de la spire, o elles sont d'un rouge jaun‰tre p‰le. Par les trois loges qui composent son dernier tour de spire, cette espce se rapproche Žvidemment de nos Globigerina trilocularis G. globularis et G. si phonifera ; mais elle s'en distingue par sa forme plus ŽlevŽe, par sa couleur rouge, puis par les ouvertures nombreuses de sa dernire et de son avant dernire loge. (d'Orbigny, 1839a) [Test elevated, rugose, red; convex spiral, three chambers, spherical; a pertures multiple.] [ Dimensions : millim. in diameter. Elevated shell, coarse or even finely bristling and pierced. Protruding whorl, consisting of one and a half turns, or, at adult age, of only five chambers. Spherical chambers, very distinct, in a grou p of three at the last turn. Apertures : Independent of the ordinary aperture, which is placed in the center of the umbilicus, there are two more above the last chamber, and one above the penultimate one; nevertheless this number seems to vary between speci mens and is not always the same. Colors The last chambers are yellow or reddish yellow; they become more and more tinted with red, as they approach the top of the whorl, where they are pale yellowish red. [With the three chambers which forms its last spir al turn, this species will obviously be closer to our Globigerina trilocularis G. globularis and G. siphonifera ; but it distinguishes itself by its more elevated shape, by its red color, and by the numerous apertures of its last and next to last chamber. ] d'Orbigny, 1839, p. 82 83, pl. 4, figs. 12 14. Brady, 1884, p. 602 603, pl. 79, figs. 11 12, 16 (not figs. 13 15; as Globigerina rubra ); p. 605, pl. 81, figs. 4 5 (as Globigerina helicina ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 490, pl. 536, figs. 1 6. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 87 88, pl. 103, figs. 3 8, pl. 104, figs. 1 4. Jones, 1994, p. 89, pl. 79, figs. 11 12, 16, p. 90, pl. 81, figs. 4 5. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 107, pl. 203, figs. 1 9, pl. 206, figs. 10 12. Globigerinoides sacculiferus (Brady, 1877) The trivial name sacculifera has been applied to a set of Globigerin in which the terminal chamber or chambers take an elongate, pouch shaped and usually pointed contour, and always present at least one large aperture on the superior or spiral surface. Such forms are common and grow to considerable size, especially in deep water south of the Equator. (Brady, 1877) Brady, 1877, p. 535. Brady, 1884, p. 604, pl. 80, figs. 11 17, pl. 82, fig. 4 (as Globigerina sacculifera ), p. 595, pl. 81, figs. 2 3 (not pl. 79, figs. 1 2; as Globigerina bulloides var. triloba ). Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 88, pl. 104, figs. 5 10, pl. 105, figs. 1 7 (as Globigerinoides sacculifer ). Jones, 1994, p. 89, pl. 80, figs. 11 17, p. 90, pl. 81, figs. 2 3, pl. 82, fig. 4 (as Globigerin oides sacculifer ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 107, pl. 205, figs. 1 9. Orbulininae Schultze, 1854 Orbulina d'Orbigny, 1839 Test spherical, early stage with up to fifteen globular and trochospirally arranged chambers, four to five per whorl, those of fi rst whorl slightly compressed, final chamber spherical and enveloping, early trochospiral stage may be completely free within the spherical chamber but is held in place by long spines that perforate the outer chamber wall; wall calcareous, perforate, with two pore classes, the more numerous smaller ones interspersed among the fewer considerably larger pores, earliest whorl nonspinose and without sutural apertures, later chambers and adult test with long monocrystalline spines arising from a terraced base, s pines proximally circular in section, distally becoming triangular and finally triradiate, the triradiate spines being far more common on the test, spines from enclosed earlier chambers that penetrate the outer wall lack the terraced base at the outer surf ace, wall of earlier chambers very thin and delicate and may be resorbed in later growth, perhaps in relation to the reproductive cycle, the dissolution proceeding first along the sutures and earliest chambers; primary aperture in the young stage interioma rginal, umbilical, with irregular imperforate bordering lip, final chamber with sutural supplementary openings, the larger series of pores possibly also representing an areal aperture. Base of M. Miocene (Serravallian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987)

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378 Orbulina bilobata (d'Orbigny, 1846) G. test ‰ oblong ‰ convex ‰ maxim perforat ‰ ; loculis duabus inqualibus ornat ‰ Diam. 1 millim. Cette espce, qu'on pourrait prendre, au premier aperu, pour le jeune du G. bulloides s'en distingue par ce que les deux loges dont elle est composŽe sont plus grosses ˆ elles seules que deux fois les plus fortes coquilles adultes compltes du G. bulloides Elle s'en distingue encore par sa surface trs largement criblŽe de trous infiniment plus grands. Son o uverture est ˆ peine visible. (d'Orbigny, 1846) [Oblong test, convex, large perforations; two unequal ornamented chambers.] [ This species, which could be taken, at first glance, as the young of G. bulloides distinguishes itself because both chambers, of w hich it is made, are larger by themselves than twice the largest complete adult shells of G. bulloides It distinguishes itself once more by its surface, which is very widely riddled with immensely larger holes. Its aperture is hardly visible. ] d'Orbigny, 1846, p. 164 165, pl. 9, figs. 11 14 (as Globigerina bilobata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 495, pl. 541, fig. 7 (not figs. 1 6, 8 11; as Orbulina universa ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 109, pl. 211, figs. 1 3. BULIMINIDA Fursenko, 1958 BOLIVINACEA Gl aessner, 1937 BOLIVINIDAE Glaessner, 1937 Aphelophragmina Loeblich and Tappan, 1994 Diagnosis A biserial hyaline member of the Bolivinidae, with smooth uninterrupted sutures and lacking proximal chamber projections across the preceding sutures. Descriptio n Test free, biserial, lanceolate, compressed, periphery rounded to acute or carinate; chambers usually broader than high, sutures horizontal to oblique, without proximal chamber projections across the preceding sutures; wall calcareous, hyaline, opticall y radial, finely perforate; surface smooth or may have low longitudinal costae; aperture loop shaped, extending up the face from the base of the last chamber, provided with an internal toothplate. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1994) Aphelophragmina brittanica (Mac fadyen, 1942) (nom. nov.) Differs from the typical form [see Textularia variabilis Williamson, 1858] in the surfaces of its segments being scarcely raised above the septal lines. Hence its outline is but little, if at all, lobulated. The smooth appearance thus produced is increased by the exceeding minuteness of its foramina. In a large number of the specimens I have seen, the segments are so nearly opposite one another as to appear arranged in pairs. (Williamson, 1858) Williamson, 1858, p. 77, pl. 6, fig. 168 (as Textularia variabilis var. lvigata ). Macfadyen, 1942, p. 143 (as Bolivina britannica ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 110, pl. 214, figs. 13 24 (as Aphelophragmina brittanica ). Bolivina d'Orbigny, 1839 Test elongate, ovoid to triangular in outline somewhat compressed, chambers broad and low, biserial throughout, rarely the final chamber may be nearly central in position, infolding of the perforate outer wall along the basal margin of the chambers commonly results in proximally directed digitate ov erlaps of the preceding chamber but without imperforate septula like those of Afrobolivina septa flush to slightly depressed, obscured by the surface ornamentation; wall calcareous, hyaline, optically radial, perforate, surface ornamented with irregularly anastomosing imperforate costae, or costae may have an occasional pore; aperture a narrow loop at the base of the apertural face, bordered by a thickened and imperforate rim on one margin, the other margin continuing within as an internal folded toothplat e with narrow attached part extending to the previous foramen and broad and short free part projecting through the opening as a long tooth, the two parts changing orientation in successive chambers. U. Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Bolivina vadescens Cushman, 1933 Test elongate, in the adult about 2" times as long as broad, periphery distinctly rounded, the early stages rapidly increasing in width as chambers are added, after which the sides become nearly parallel; chambers very distinct but not strongly inflated, of rather uniform shape throughout but increasing very slightly in size as added; sutures very distinct, limbate, peculiarly sigmoid, the inner end especially in adult having almost a distinct ang le, after which the sutures pass to the border in a nearly straight line which is

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379 strongly oblique to the horizontal; wall smooth but very distinctly perforate; aperture at the base of the last formed chamber, consisting of a broad loop shaped opening. Len gth 0.65 mm.; breadth 0.30 mm.; thickness 0.15 mm. This species in its general size and shape is very similar to Bolivina oceanica but the chambers are very different in their shape, and the sutures particularly with their sigmoid curvature and strongly l imbate character are very distinct. (Cushman, 1933c) Cushman, 1933, p. 81, pl. 8, fig. 11. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 111, pl. 214, figs. 1 4, 7 12. Bolivinellina Saidova, 1975 Test elongate, narrow, oval in section, chambers narrow and high, slightly inflated, biserial throughout, sutures oblique, slightly depressed; wall calcareous, hyaline, optically radial, distal part of chambers clear, translucent and poreless, wall perforate only in the proximal chamber half, coarser pores concentrated nearest th e sutures; aperture a basal loop shaped opening with narrow lip and an internal toothplate with narrow free part. Pliocene to Holocene; Pacific; Indian Ocean; Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico; Mediterranean. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Bolivenellina translucens (P hleger and Parker, 1951) Test small, very slightly tapering, initial end subacute in microspheric form, bluntly rounded in megalospheric; periphery rounded, slightly lobulate; chambers numerous, increasing gradually in size as added, about 13 pairs in adul t microspheric form, slightly inflated; sutures straight, narrow, very slightly oblique, slightly depressed; wall thin, translucent, lower half of chambers with conspicuous, rather fine perforations, upper portion often apparently imperforate or possibly w ith very fine perforations; aperture narrow, loop shaped, with a slight lip. Maximum length 0.43 mm.; breadth 0.10 mm.; thickness 0.07 mm. Resembles B. spinescens Cushman, differing in much less inflated chambers, presence of conspicuous perforations on lo wer parts of chambers, much narrower aperture. (Phleger and Parker, 1951) Phleger and Parker, 1951, p. 15, pl. 7, figs. 13 14 (as Bolivina translucens ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 498, pl. 547, figs. 6 7. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 111, pl. 213, figs 9 14. Lugdunum Saidova, 1975 Test ovate to subtriangular in outline, lenticular in section, periphery carinate, chambers moderately inflated, biserially arranged, increasing in proportionate breadth as added, sutures straight to oblique, depressed; wall calcareous, finely perforate, thin, hyaline, optically radial, surface smooth to longitudinally costate, with short, fine ribs, peripheral keel may be entire or may be interrupted at each suture and have a serrate margin; aperture basal to areal, large an d oval, with a thick bordering lip and an internal folded or U shaped toothplate, attached part broad and triangular, free part narrow, one angle showing through the aperture as a short tooth. Holocene; Pacific; Atlantic. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Lugdun um hantkenianum (Brady, 1881) Test depressed, equally convex on the two faces; varying in contour, from a relatively long form tapering to a point at the base, to broadly oval one with rounded ends. Composed of numerous, rounded, inflated segments, in two more or less regular alternating series, surrounded by a delicate keel of varying width and completeness. Surface often traversed by short, delicate, longitudinal cost. The long narrow specimens seldom have a continuous wing or keel, and they attain a len gth of about 1/28 inch (0.9 mm.), whilst those of wider proportions with the broader more regular wing are less than 1/40 inch long (0.6 mm.) and about 1/50 inch (0.5 mm.) broad. (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 58 (as Bolivina hantkeniana ). Brady, 1884, p. 4 24, pl. 53, figs. 16 18 (as Bolivina hantkeniana ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 499, pl. 550, figs. 1 4. Jones, 1994, p. 59, pl. 53, figs. 16 18. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 112, pl. 217, fig. 12. LOXOSTOMATACEA Loeblich and Tappan, 1962 BOLIVINELLIDAE Hayward in Hayward and Brazier, 1980

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380 Rugobolivinella Hayward, 1990 Diagnosis Profile strongly compressed throughout. Medial ornament a narrow, crisp, straight rib for half to full length of the test. Sutural ornament usually dominated by narrow ribs with secondary riblets and beads. Finely perforate wall texture. Discussion This genus is distinguished by its characteristic strongly compressed profile and dominance of narrow ribs and riblets (with square profiles) as medial ornament. Sutural ornament is al so dominantly narrow ribs and riblets with some fine beads. (Hayward, 1990) Rugobolivinella elegans (Parr, 1932) A tropical species, which is distinguished from B. folium by its fewer, proportionately higher chambers, the less convex apertural end, the abs ence of beading on the sutures, and by the usually more flaring test. (Parr, 1932) Brady, 1884, p. 357, pl. 42, figs. 3 5 (not figs. 1 2; as Textularia folium ). Parr, 1932, p. 223 224, pl. 21, fig. 23 (as Bolivinella elegans ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 501, pl. 553, figs. 6 7 (as Bolivinella elegans ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 93, pl. 113, figs. 1 6 (as Bolivinella elegans ). Jones, 1994, p. 46, pl. 42, figs. 3, 5 (as Bolivinella philippinensis ), 4 (as Bolivinella elegans ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 113, pl. 220, figs. 1 6. TORTOPLECTELLIDAE Loeblich and Tappan, 1985 Tortoplectella Loeblich and Tappan, 1985 Test free, flaring in side view, quadrangular in section but rhomboid rather than rectangular, sides flattened, the distinctly angular posterior and lateral chamber margins resulting in a serrate test outline; chambers biserially arranged throughout; sutures slightly depressed; wall calcareous, hyaline oblique (optically granular), very thin, distinctly and coarsely perforate except for a narrow i mperforate region adjacent to the aperture, perforations irregularly arranged and of varied size, wall surface smooth and polished; aperture an areal slit, commencing a slight distance above the base of the rhomboid apertural face near one edge and extendi ng obliquely upward across the apertural face toward its midpoint, bordered by a distinct lip but not elevated on a neck. Holocene: Raine Island, Torres Straits, Coral Sea, at about 283 m; Rongelap, Marshall Islands, at 80 m to 300 m; W. Indian Ocean, off Mozambique, from 0.5 m to 3.7 m. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Tortoplectella rhomboidalis (Millett, 1899) Test cuneiform, quadrilateral; the peripheral oblique to the lateral faces making the transverse section of the test rhomboidal; sides slightly concave margins rounded and lobulate, sutures curved and deeply excavated. Aperture an arched slit. Shell substance hyaline and coarsely perforate. Length, 0.34 mm. The rhomboidal section and hyaline test will serve to distinguish this from any other species of Textularia A superficial resemblance to Verneuilina spinulosa [Reuss] may have caused it to be overlooked hitherto, as it is widely dispersed. (Millett, 1899) Millett, 1899, p. 559, pl. 7, fig. 4 (as Textularia rhomboidalis ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 93 pl. 113, figs. 7 11 (as Abditodentrix rhomboidalis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 113, pl. 216, figs. 1 6. TURRILINACEA Cushman, 1927 STAINFORTHIIDAE Reiss, 1963 Cassidelina Saidova, 1975 Test elongate fusiform, circular to oval in section, initial end pointed and commonly with a basal spine, inflated chambers in a twisted biserial arrangement, increasing rapidly in relative height as added, final pair occupying over half the test length, sutures slightly oblique, depressed; wall calcareous, optically r adial, perforate, pores of medium size, surface smooth; aperture a broadly oval interiomarginal opening occupying most of the apertural face, one margin with a low rim, the other bending inward to form an internal toothplate like that of Stainforthia spoo nlike in form and nearly closing the apertural opening, the free part almost reaching the opposite apertural rim but not protruding above the apertural level. Pliocene to Holocene; Europe; North America; Atlantic; Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987)

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381 Cas sidelina subcapitata (Zheng, 1979) Test elongate, compressed, increasing in width towards the apertural end, periphery round. Chambers numerous, inflated, increasing rapidly in height. Sutures distinct, depressed, obliquely curved. Wall thin, nearly transp arent, finely perforate. Aperture elongate, a curved slit, slightly eccentric, sometimes tending to become terminal. This species differs from B. capitata (Cushman) in being more compressed, in the eccentric instead of terminal aperture, and in the shape o f the aperture which is elongate curved, instead of being oblong. (Zheng, 1979) Zheng, 1979, p. 160, 218, pl. 15, fig. 15 (as Brizalina subcapitata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 118, pl. 229, figs. 8 12. BULIMINACEA Jones, 1875 SIPHOGENERINOIDIDAE Said ova, 1981 Siphogenerinoidinae Saidova, 1981 Loxostomina Sellier de Civrieux, 1969 Test narrow, elongate, slightly compressed and ovate in section, early stage biserial, later with cuneate chambers and finally uniserial, chambers progressively higher as add ed, sutures oblique in the early stage, horizontal in the uniserial stage, slightly depressed; wall calcareous, perforate, hyaline, optically radial, surface ornamented with very fine longitudinal costae; aperture terminal in adult, oval, with a narrow lip provided with an internal subcylindrical toothplate that extends from the aperture to the previous foramen, those of successive chambers changing orientation by 180¡, one border being produced as a tooth. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and T appan, 1987) [Loeblich and Tappan (1987, p. 516) recognized Loxostomina as having fine longitudinal costae, and Parabrizalina as otherwise similar but with smooth surface. However, some species are costate or finely striate over only part of the test, and Zweig Strykowski and Reiss originally included only costate species in Brizalina ( Parabrizalina ), hence the two nominal genera are here regarded as identical. Some of the following species previously were placed in Parabrizalina (Loeblich and Tappan, 1994 ) ] Loxostomina porrecta (Brady, 1881) Test elongate, straight, slightly tapering, finger shaped, somewhat compressed, margin and ends rounded. Segments about as broad as long, the earlier ones arranged on the normal Textularian plan, the later ones taking a nearly triangular form, each extending the entire width of the test, the sutures forming a zigzag line from side to side. Walls thin and clear, very finely perforated; sutural depressions very slight. Aperture large, terminal, oblique. Length, 1/26 inch (0.9 mm.). (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 57 (as Bolivina porrecta ). Brady, 1884, p. 418, pl. 52, fig. 22 (as Bolivina porrecta ). Lobelich and Tappan, 1987, p. 516 517, pl. 566, fig. 24 26 (as Parabrizalina porrecta ). Jones, 1994, p. 57, pl. 52, fig. 22 (as Parabrizalina porrecta ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 120, pl. 235, figs. 1 7. Rectobolivina Cushman, 1927 Test elongate, slightly compressed and oval in section with median groove on the flat sides of the test, chambers broad and low, biserial in the e arly stage, later uniserial and rectilinear with chambers slightly arched at the midline of the test, sutures straight in the juvenile stage, later ones arched, depressed; wall calcareous, finely perforate, optically radiate, surface smooth or with longitu dinal costae at the borders of the median sulcus, accompanied by additional longitudinal costae in the later part of the test; aperture in the adult a broad circular opening bordered by a projecting lip, provided with a twisted hemicylindrical toothplate t hat is folded at both edges, those of successive chambers 180 o apart in orientation. M. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Rectobolivina bifrons (Brady, 1881) Test elongate, compressed, both sides slightly concave along the media n line; margin thick and rounded. Uvigerine chambers few, distinct; those of the linear series numerous, short, not inflated. Sutures flush externally; septa thickened by deposit of clear shell substance. Aperture large, oval, surrounded by a sessile lip. Length 1/30 inch (0.84 mm.). (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 64 65 (as Sagrina bifrons ).

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382 Brady, 1884, p. 582, pl. 75, figs. 18 20 (as Sagrina bifrons ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 517, pl. 567, figs. 11 17. Jones, 1994, p. 87, pl. 75, figs. 18 20. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 120, pl. 234, figs. 13 16. Sagrinella Saidova, 1975 Test elongate, slightly compressed and oval in section, chambers broad, low, and biserially arranged in the early stage, later becoming relatively higher, loosely biserial and final ly uniserial, chambers sharply angled about one third the distance from the basal suture, with a prominent ridge or carina at the angle resulting in a serrate outline, terminal face convex, sutures depressed, strongly oblique; wall calcareous, optically ra dial, chamber angle variously pustulose or carinate, perforate, with large pores in the lower part of the chambers below the carinate angle; aperture large, oval, areal to terminal, with bordering lip and a hemicylindrical toothplate that changes orientati on about 180 o in successive chambers. Holocene; tropical and subtropical Atlantic; Pacific; Timor Sea. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Sagrinella lobata (Brady, 1881) Test elongate, depressed, digitate; superior extremity obliquely truncate or rounded, inferio r obtuse. Segments inflated, especially the later ones, their peripheral margins subangular. Surface of the later chambers more or less granulated. Sutures thickened, deeply sunk. Aperture a long oval slit contracted at the middle; nearly central. Length, 1/60 inch (0.4 mm.). (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 58 (as Bolivina lobata ). Brady, 1884, p. 425, pl. 53, figs. 22 23 (as Bolivina lobata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 517, pl. 567, figs. 19 21. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 99, pl. 123, figs. 1 7 (as Sagrin ella lobata lobata ). Jones, 1994, p. 59, pl. 53, figs. 22 23 (as Pseudobrizalina lobata ). Tubulogenerininae Saidova, 1981 Allassoida Loeblich and Tappan, 1994 Diagnosis Short biserial or trochospiral stage followed by inflated uniserial chambers and cons tricted sutures, a terminal rounded aperture with flaring lip and internal toothplate. Description Test with biserial stage of two to four chambers, followed by elongate uniserial stage of globular to pyriform chambers, sutures deeply constricted; wall ca lcareous, hyaline, surface spinose; aperture terminal, rounded, surrounded by prominent flaring lip, internal toothplate present. Remarks Allassoida differs from Siphogenerina in more delicate construction, inflated globular to pyriform chambers and deepl y constricted sutures rather than having a nearly parallel sided test, in the hispid to distinctly spinose surface and absence of longitudinal costae, and the broadly flared apertural lip with elongate spines at the lower border. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1994 ) Allassoida schlumbergerii (Millett, 1900) Test hyaline, thin, elongate, tapering, slightly compressed; biserial and uniserial chambers both inflated, and both having short spines scattered over the surface. Aperture large and curved. Throughout the unise rial chambers a tube connects the aperture of each chamber with that of the one preceding it. Length 0.46 mm. (Millett, 1900) Millett, 1900, p. 7, pl. 1, figs. 5 6 (as Bigenerina ( Siphogenerina ) schlumbergerii ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 121, pl. 237, figs. 9 11. Sagrina d'Orbigny, 1839 Test small, flaring, subtriangular in outline, oval in section, short early triserial stage, later biserial with inflated chambers that are distinctly angular at the widest part and overhang a deeply recessed lower marg in a short distance above the previous suture; wall calcareous, finely perforate, surface ornamented with numerous low and longitudinal costae that are not continuous from one chamber to the next and may end in short spinules at the angular chamber margin; aperture terminal, ovate, large, occupying a large area of the terminal face, bordered by a low narrow lip, and with broad hemicylindrical internal toothplate. Holocene; Atlantic; West Indies; Cuba; Red Sea. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987)

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383 Sagrina jugosa (Br ady, 1884) Test oblong, tapering, compressed; oral end elliptical, truncate; aboral extremity subangular or rounded. Segments numerous, 6 to 10 in each series; sutures marked externally by stout raised bands of clear shell substance. Length, 1/50 th inch (0 .5 mm.). (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1884, p. 358, pl. 42, fig. 7 (as Textularia jugosa ). Jones, 1994, p. 47, pl. 42, fig. 7 (as Sagrinella jugosa ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 122, pl. 237, figs. 12 17. Sagrina zanzibarica (Cushman, 1936) Test about twice as long as broad, somewhat compressed, periphery in end view broadly rounded, tapering throughout, from the subacute initial end to the greatest breadth formed by the last two chambers; chambers distinct, somewhat inflated, earlier ones about twice as broad a s high, gradually increasing in relative height as added, in adult with height and breadth about equal; sutures distinct, those of early portion somewhat limbate and often raised, later ones depressed, nearly straight, oblique, forming an angle of about 25 ¡ 30¡ with the horizontal; wall ornamented with numerous small, short, blunt, spinose projections, particularly on the lower half of the chamber; aperture elongate, with a distinct, raised lip. Length 0.30 mm.; breadth 0.15 mm.; thickness 0.10 mm. This spe cies differs from B. subspinescens Cushman in the more rapidly tapering form, less lobulate margin and raised sutures in the early portion. (Cushman, 1936) Cushman, 1936, p. 58 59, pl. 8, fig. 12 (as Bolivina zanzibarica ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 122 pl. 238, figs. 12 17. Siphogenerina Schlumberger in Milne Edwards, 1882 Test elongate, large, robust, short triserial early microspheric stage or biserial megalospheric one, later uniserial, with closely appressed subcylindrical chambers and straight an d slightly depressed horizontal sutures; wall calcareous, hyaline, finely perforate, optically radial, surface with heavy and generally continuous longitudinal costae; aperture terminal, rounded, with a short neck and phialine lip, provided with internal s iphonlike toothplate, those of successive chambers changing orientation by about 120 o Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Siphogenerina raphana (Parker and Jones, 1865) Dimorphism of the Uvigerine type is seen best in specimens f rom shell beds in the tropical and subtropical parts of the Indian and Atlantic Ocean; but in these the triserial mode of growth is obsolete, and even the biserial is but feebly developed; the result being a shell which, at first sight, might easily be mis taken for a Nodosaria Raphanus Close examination, however, shows the short, wide, strongly labiate aperture of Uvigerina markedly developed, and a plaiting of the early chambers. A ribbed form from the East Indian Seas is our Uvigerina (Sagrina) Raphanus (Parker and Jones, 1865) Parker and Jones, 1865, p. 364, pl. 18, figs. 16 17 (as Uvigerina (Sagrina) raphanus ). Brady, 1884, p. 585, pl. 75, figs. 21 22, 24 (not fig. 23; as Sagrina raphanus ). Jones, 1994, p. 87, pl. 75, figs. 21 22, (as Siphogenerina ra phanus ), fig. 24 (as Siphogenerina indica ?). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 123, pl. 240, figs. 1 11. BULIMINIDAE Jones, 1875 Bulimina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test elongate ovate to subcylindrical, chambers triserially arranged, but later ones may be nearly center ed as if tending to become uniserial, septa distinct, depressed; wall calcareous, finely to coarsely perforate, optically radial, surface smooth, but lower margin of chambers may be carinate, fimbriate, or spinose; aperture a loop extending up the face fro m the base of the last chamber, a free border having an elevated rim, and a fixed border continuous with an internal folded toothplate that attaches to the inside chamber wall below the aperture, and has a smooth to dentate, flaring to enrolled and almost tubular free shank. Paleocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Bulimina marginata d'Orbigny, 1826 [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Test small, triserial throughout, tapering, broadly rounded in end view. Chambers slightly inflated, rounded in side view, rapidly increasing in size as added, strongly overlapping. Lowermost border of chamber angulate, forming a narrow shoulder. Sutures depressed. Pseudospines on lower part of chamber

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384 and on shoulder, giving a serrate impression. Apical pseudospine often present. Wall lamellar, finely perforate, smooth. Aperture a basal loop bordered by a weak rim. Toothplate with two tongues producing an adapertural depression, bordered by a weak ridge. (Hottinger et al. 1993) d'Orbig ny, 1826, p. 269, pl. 12, figs. 10 12. Brady, 1884, p. 405, pl. 51, figs. 3 5. Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 521, pl. 571, figs. 1 3. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 100, pl. 125, figs. 1 6 (as Bulima marginata var. marginata ). Jones, 1994, p. 55, pl. 51, figs. 3 5. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 124, pl. 242, figs. 1 4. ORTHOPLECTIDAE Loeblich and Tappan, 1984 Floresina Revets, 1990 Description Test free, multilocular; irregular outline, compressed trochospiral, twisted; 1 to 2 coils, rarely more, coiling ill defined, up to 6 chambers per coil; chambers wider than high, disk shaped, rounded; sutures ill defined, usually obscured due to the twisted nature of the coiling or to ornamentation; aperture a rounded opening almost in the middle of a large semi circular apertural face, apertural face furrowed by a few radial grooves; a simple toothplate connecting the foramina; wall calcareous, finely perforate, may be ornamented. Remarks The genus differs from Buliminoides in that it has a furrowed, very oblique apertu ral face, and possesses a reduced toothplate, somewhat resembling that of Praebulimina It differs from the Buliminella madagascariensis like species in that Floresina 's aperture is usually not covered by an apertural flap, its apertural face is ploughed b y well defined and relatively deep grooves, and the coiling is different, resembling somewhat the coiling in Buliminoides (Revets, 1990) Floresina durrandi Revets 1990 Test free, ovate, laterally compressed, even periphery, sides almost parallel, 1" whorl s, 6 chambers per whorl; sutures ill defined, very gently curved; chambers discoidal, flattened, wider than high, obliquely arranged; apertural face occupying upper third of test, inclined to coiling axis, semicircular, 7 to 8 grooves radiating away from a perture, lowermost groove continuing halfway down the test, aperture a small hole in middle of apertural face; toothplate a curved plate, descending into lumen from upper side of aperture and joining the floor of chamber adjacent to foramen; wall calcareou s, smooth, finely perforate, pores round, 0.25 0.5 !m in diameter. (Revets, 1990) Reverts, 1990, p. 157 160, pl. 1, figs. 1 6. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 126, pl. 245, figs. 1 6. UVIGERINIDAE Haeckel, 1894 Uvigerininae Haeckel, 1894 Neouvigerina Thalma nn, 1952 Test small, with early triserial stage and later irregularly uniserial, chambers inflated, sutures depressed; wall calcareous, perforate, surface finely hispid; aperture terminal, rounded, on a thin and elongate neck with a phialine lip, and with a narrow ribbon like toothplate extending within the neck to attach at the side of the preceding foramen. U. Oligocene (Chattian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Neouvigerina ampullacea (Brady, 1884) The weaker modifications of Uvige rina asperula exhibit a tendency to a dimorphous habit of growth. The contour of such specimens is peculiar; the earlier segments form a broad, rounded, compact cluster, and to these are added one or two chambers joined end to end, and terminating in a pro duced tubular neck. In point of fact they constitute an intermediate group, connecting the hispid Uvigerinae with certain forms of Sagrina They cannot be separated specifically from Uvigerina asperula but may be distinguished in a subordinate way by the varietal name ampullacea ." (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1884, p. 579, pl. 75, figs. 10 11 (as Uvigerina asperula var. ampullacea ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 524, pl. 573, figs. 14 17. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 101, pl. 126, figs. 8 11, pl. 127, figs. 1 3. Jo nes, 1994, p. 86 87, pl. 75, figs. 10 11 (as Siphouvigerina ampullacea ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 126, pl. 246, figs. 9 19.

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385 REUSSELLIDAE Cushman, 1933 Chrysalidinella Schubert, 1908 Test elongate, early stage pyramidal, later with nearly parallel side s and triangular or rarely quadrangular in section, early chambers triserially arranged and enlarging rapidly, later chambers uniserial and rectilinear, sutures arched on the test faces and curving proximally at the angles, apertural face domed; wall calca reous, optically radial, coarsely perforate, surface smooth; early triserial stage with interiomarginal aperture and a small spoutlike toothplate as in Reussella uniserial stage with a cribrate aperture of numerous rounded pores scattered over the termina l face, each bordered with a small lip and without a toothplate. Eocene to Holocene; Caribbean; Cuba; USA; Kerimba Archipelago; Pacific; Indonesia. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Chrysalidinella dimorpha (Brady, 1881) Test elongate, triangular, tapering; the three sides nearly equal, the angles subcarinate; inferior extremely pointed, superior broad and convex. Test composed of many segments, the earlier ones triserial, the later uniserial. Aperture consisting of numerous minute perforations on the superior fa ce of the terminal segment. Texture hyaline. Length, 1/50 inch (0.5 mm.). (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 54 (as Chrysalidina dimorpha ). Brady, 1884, p. 388, pl. 46, figs. 20 21 (as Chrysalidina dimorpha ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 527, pl. 575, figs. 3 5. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 102, pl. 129, figs. 6 9. Jones, 1994, p. 51, pl. 46, figs. 20 21. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 129, pl. 252, figs. 7 13. Reussella Galloway, 1933 Test pyramidal, triserial, and triangular throughout, angles carinate and may be spinulate, chambers enlarging gradually, sutures curved and oblique; wall calcareous, optically radial, coarsely perforate, surface smooth to pustulose; aperture a slit at the base of the final chamber, with an internal spoutlike toothplate. M. Eocene ( Lutetian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Reussella pulchra Cushman, 1945 (Plate 9, figs. 1 8) Test averaging about 1" times as long as broad, triangular in transverse section, the sides carinate and with a spine at the base of each chamber and a distinct spine at the initial end; chambers distinct, not inflated; sutures very distinct, limbate, raised well above the surface and often finely spinose to give a sculptured appearance to the test; wall distinctly and rather coarsely perfor ate; aperture a narrow opening, slightly curved, in the inner margin of the last formed chamber, often with a distinct lip. Length 0.40 0.50 mm.; diameter 0.30 mm. (Cushman, 1945) Cushman, 1945, p. 34, pl. 6, figs. 11 12. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 129, pl. 253, figs. 5 7. FURSENKOINACEA Loeblich and Tappan, 1961 FURSENKOINIDAE Loeblich and Tappan, 1961 Sigmavirgulina Loeblich and Tappan, 1957 Test flaring, compressed, biserial throughout, early chambers added slightly more than 180 o apart, resulting in a sigmoid alignment of chambers that at first form a tight low spire, later biserial chambers of increasing relative breadth resulting in a widening test and added more nearly in a single plane, periphery acutely angled or carinate, sutures slightly depre ssed; wall calcareous, of calcite by X ray determination, optically granular, coarsely perforate, surface smooth or early stage may have short spinules; aperture an elongate oval at the inner margin of the final chamber, surrounded by a lip that grades lat erally into the marginal keel, more rarely closed basally so that the opening is subterminal, situated a short distance above the chamber base, and provided with a simple twisted and flaring toothplate. Miocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tapp an, 1987) Sigmavirgulina tortuosa (Brady, 1881) Test elongate, tapering, broadest near the top; the sides bent obliquely towards the median line, so as to give the whole shell a twisted contour; margin thin, sharp, lobulate. Segments numerous, long, narrow projecting and rounded at the free ends. Shell conspicuously perforated. Length, 1/55 inch (0.45 mm.). (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 57 (as Bolivina tortuosa ).

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386 Brady, 1884, p. 420 421, pl. 52, figs. 31 34 (as Bolivina tortuosa ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987 p. 531, pl. 579, figs. 1 5. Jones, 1994, p. 58, pl. 52, figs. 31 34. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 132, pl. 261, figs. 1 10. ROTALIIDA Lankester, 1885 DISCORBACEA Ehrenberg, 1838 BAGGINIDAE Cushman, 1927 Baggininae Cushman, 1927 Baggina Cushman, 1926 Te st subglobular, with low trochospiral coil of few inflated and rapidly enlarging chambers per whorl, final chamber occupying about one half the umbilical side, umbilicus closed, sutures gently curved, depressed, periphery broadly rounded; wall calcareous, optically radial, perforate but with a broad clear nonperforate area on the umbilical side just above the aperture, surface smooth; aperture a broad umbilical opening at the base of the apertural face. U. Cretaceous to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Baggina philippinensis (Cushman, 1921) Test rounded, composed of about three coils, the outer one consisting of five chambers, very rapidly increasing in size, the last formed chamber in the adult making up nearly half the volume of the test ; periphery very broadly rounded; dorsal and ventral sides slightly rounded; sutures distinct, but not deep on the dorsal side, somewhat deeper on the ventral side; slightly umbilicate; wall smooth, very thin, punctate. Diameter 0.4 to 0.6 mm. (Cushman, 19 21) Brady, 1884, p. 690, pl. 106, fig. 7 (not fig. 6; as Pulvinulina hauerii ). Cushman, 1921, p. 331 332, pl. 58, fig. 2 (as Pulvinulina philippinensis ). Jones, 1994, p. 105, pl. 106, fig. 7. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 134, pl. 265, figs. 1 6. EPONIDID AE Hofker, 1951 Eponidinae Hofker, 1951 Eponides de Montfort, 1808 Test biconvex, periphery angular to carinate, a low trochospiral coil of about two to three whorls, with about six to seven chambers per whorl, umbilicus closed, sutures curved and limbate on the spiral side, continuing into the peripheral keel, nearly radial on the umbilical side; wall calcareous, optically radiate, finely perforate, sutures and keel imperforate, surface smooth to faintly pustulose; aperture a broad low interiomarginal arch extending from the umbilicus to the periphery, bordered by a narrow lip, and may have a few supplementary areal openings. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Eponides cribrorepandus (Asano and Uchio in Asano, 1951) The form of th e test is similar to that of Eponides repandus (Fichtel and Moll), but the apertural face has the numerous scattered rounded openings typical of Poroeponides Diameter up to 1.2 mm. (Asano, 1951b) Brady, 1884, p. 684 685, pl. 104, fig. 18 (as Pulvinulina r epanda ). Asano, 1951, p. 18, testfigs. 134 135 (as Poroeponides cribrorepandus ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 549, pl. 594, figs. 9 13. Jones, 1994, p. 104, pl. 104, fig. 18 (as Cribroeponides cribrorepandus ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 135, pl. 269, f igs. 1 9. Eponides repandus (Fichtel and Moll, 1798) Testa spiralis involuta, subovali repanda, laevis, utrinque valde convexa; dorso subacuto, margine tenui angusto, tamen obtuso, subflexuoso; anfractibus sinistrorsis, thalamis s. articulis subelevatis; dissepimentis antrorsum convexis, octo in extimo anfractu conspicuis; plano orali triangulari curvilineo subinquilatero, non totam crassitudinem test, uti in plurimis congeneribus, occupante, sed existente in latere inferiore ad sinistram a centro ad per ipheriam sese extendente; orificio ad hujus latus interius subcurvato lanceolato a centro ad peripheriam acuminato, minutissime marginato, foraminulo rotundo

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387 minuto non nist optime armatis oculis perceptibili, in angulo exteriore apertur opposito. Utrum h oc foramen mere accidentale, an apertura siphunculi sit, vel ob maximam pusillitatem, vel quia in unico solum specimine nobis obvio hoc observari licet, certo asserere non possumus. Color ex flavescente albidus. Mensura lin. diam. (Fichtel and Moll, 1798 ) [ Test an involute spiral, suboval and opening, smooth, strongly convex on both sides; the dorsal side is subacute, capped with a thin, narrow, though dull margin, and a bit convoluted; the whorls run left, the limbs, or chambers, are somewhat raised; the septa arched forward, wherefrom one can count eight on the outermost whorl; the oral surface builds a crooked lined, somewhat unequal sided triangle, and does not, like with the other types of this genera, take up the entire width of the test, but finds i tself on the underside of the left side and reaches from the midpoint to the edge of the test; the aperture itself lies on the inner site of the oral surface, is somewhat curved, lancet shaped, tapered from the midpoint toward the circumference and very de licately bordered. Opposite the orifice in the outermost angle of the oral surface is a very small round hole, only visible with the most sharply armored eye; whether this is coincidental, or the opening is a nerve duct, cannot be determined with certainty partly because the extreme minuteness, partly also because we at present only can observe it on the single individual lying before us. Color is golden yellow/white. Measuring line in diameter. ] Fichtel and Moll, 1798, p. 35 36, pl. 3, figs. a d (as Na utilus repandus ). Brady, 1884, p. 685, pl. 104, fig. 19 (as Pulvinulina repanda var. concamerata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 549, pl. 594, figs. 1 3. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 106 107, pl. 137, figs. 1 10. Jones, 1994, p. 104, pl. 104, fig. 19. Loebli ch and Tappan, 1994, p. 136, pl. 268, figs. 10 13. DISCORBIDAE Ehrenberg, 1838 Rotorbis Sellier de Civrieux, 1977 Diagnosis del g Ž nero: Caparaz—n peque–o, trocoespiral, espiro convexo, de contorno circular u ovalado; periferie aguda y generalmente aquilla da. Lado espiral evoluto, con c‡maras bajas y alargadas, en forma de semilunas, y suturas bien visibles. Lado umbilical involuto, con suturas radiales, abiertas en forma de hendiduras hacia la regi—n proximal, bordeadas por unas protuberancias calc‡reas es trechas, alargadas y fueremente dobladas hacia atr‡s. Ombligo parcial o totalmente obstruido por una placa calc‡rea, no convexa ni prominente, de contorno irregular y variable. Abertura interiomarginal, en el lado umbilical, en forma de hendidura arqueada y con reborde labial, m‡s o menos ancho e hinchado, en el extremo distal de la œltima sutura, prolong‡ndose en forma de un surco abierto a lo largo de la misma. (Sellier de Civrieux, 1977) [ Genera Diagnosis: Small shell, trochospiral, spiroconvex, ovate or circular shape; sharp perifery and generally keeled. [Spiral side evolute, with elongated and low chambers, half moon shape, and well visible sutures. Umbilical side invlolute, with radial sutures, and open trough shape extending towards the proximal regi on, bordered by narrow calcareous protuberances, elongated and strongly bent backwards. Umbilical plug area either partially or completely obstructed by a calcareaous plate, non convex and not prominent, of variable and irregular contour. [Aperture is inte riomarginal, on umbilical side, with a bended trough shape and labial margin, more or less wide and swollen, on distal side of the last suture, prolonging in an open groove shape along the suture. ] Rotorbis auberi (d'Orbigny, 1839) Testa orbiculato conica, carinata, supra subtusque perforata, luteo rubescente; spira conica, anfractibus tribus subplanis; loculis magnis, squammosis, per quamque spiram quaternis. Dimensions : Diamtre 1/3 de millim. Coquille orbiculaire, trochiforme, carŽnŽe, conique en dessus, presque plane en dessous; perforŽe partout de trous assez grands, Žgalement espacŽs, et bordŽs d'un trs lŽger bourrelet. Spire conique, ŽlevŽe, ˆ sommet peu aigu, composŽe de trois tours peu saillants les uns sur les autres, les sutures ˆ peine marquŽes. Loges au nombre de quatre par tour, toutes trs larges en dessus, en demi cercle, trs obliques, peu convexes, largement ŽchancrŽes et sŽparŽes ˆ leur point de jonction dans l'ombilic, o chacune forme une pointe libre. Ouverture occupant l'extrŽmitŽ des loges tout autour de

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388 l'ombilic. Couleur Sa teinte gŽnŽrale est jaun‰tre, mais en dessus le jaune passe au rouge, qui devient de plus en plus intense en approchant du sommet de la spire. Aucune autre espce ne peut tre comparŽe ˆ celle ci par sa forme tro cho•de, et son peu de loges par tour de spire. C'est aussi l'une de celles o les petits trous de la coquille sont le plus distincts. Nous avons remarquŽ qu'elle s'enroule indiffŽremment ˆ droite ou ˆ gauche. (d'Orbigny, 1839a) [Test orbicular conical, car inate, perforated above and below, yellow reddish; spiral conical, three subplanar whorls; chambers large, scale shaped, four per each whorl. [ Dimensions : 1/3 millim. in diameter. Shell orbicular, trochiform, streamlined, cone shaped above, nearly flat und erneath; pierced all over with quite large holes, evenly spaced, and edged by a slight fold. Cone shaped whorl, elevated, with a slightly pointed top, consisting of three turns hardly protruding one over the other, transversal sutures hardly marked. Each t urn has four chambers, all very large above, in semi circle, very oblique, somewhat convex, widely indented and separated at their point of junction in the umbilicus, where each forms a free point. Aperture occupying the chamber's extremity all around the umbilicus. Color Its general shade is yellowish, but above the yellow becomes red, which becomes more and more intense as it approaches the top of the whorl. [No other species can be compared to this one due to its trochoid shape, and its smaller number o f chambers per turn. It is also one of those where the shell's small holes are the most distinct. It coils up indiscriminately to the right or to the left. ] d'Orbigny, 1839, p. 94 95, pl. 4, figs. 5 8 (as Rosalina auberii ). Brady, 1884, p. 642 643, pl. 87, fig. 8 (as Discorbina turbo ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 558, pl. 605, figs. 5 7 (as Neoeponides auberi ). Jones, 1994, p. 94, pl. 87, fig. 8 (as Neoeponides auberii ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 137 138, pl. 278, figs. 1 11. NEOEPONIDIDAE Loeblich a nd Tappan, 1994 Neoeponides Reiss, 1960 Test a relatively high trochospiral coil, with two and a half to three whorls, periphery angular to carinate, chambers broad, low, and crescentic and sutures strongly oblique on the elevated spiral side, chambers wed gelike and sutures radial and deeply depressed on the flat to slightly convex umbilical side, with internal paries proximus attached to the chamber floor, extending back to attach against wall of preceding chamber and also extending laterally to the umbili cal chamber wall, thereby completely isolating a foliar chamberlet in each chamber beneath an umbilical prolongation or folium from the outer wall, a hooklike forward part resembling that of Trochulina and successive foliar chamberlets forming a stellate p attern around the umbilicus, externally reflected by a prominent sutural notch in young tests, in older individuals the foliar extensions may fuse to form a solid umbilical area; wall calcareous, thick, optically radial, both sides distinctly perforate but pores later filled by secondary lamination over the umbonal region of the spiral side, surface smooth, other than the elevated sutures on the spiral side and a few pustules near the umbilicus on the umbilical side; aperture interiomarginal, extraumbilical with narrow bordering lip or crescentic flap. Miocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Neoeponides procerus (Brady, 1881) Shell spiral; superior surface forming an elevated cone with rounded apex; inferior, flat or truncate. Chamber s numerous, about six in the last convolution, oblique, segmentation usually obscure, except on the inferior aspect, where the sutures and periphery are more or less limbate. Aperture, an arched slit on the inferior side of the last segment, near the umbil icus. Diameter, 1/22 inch (1.1 mm.). Brady, 1881, p. 66 (as Pulvinulina procera ). Brady, 1884, p. 698, pl. 105, fig. 7 (as Pulvinulina procera ). Jones, 1994, p. 105, pl. 105, fig. 7. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 138, pl. 280, figs. 1 4. ROSALINIDAE Reiss 1963 Neoconorbina Hofker, 1951 Test circular in outline, low conical trochospiral, spiral side convex with all of the three whorls visible, chambers increasing rapidly in breadth from an early subglobular form to become very low and crescentic, final cha mber occupying most of the periphery, umbilical side flat to concave, exposing

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389 only the three to four chambers of the final whorl around the open umbilicus, umbilical extension from the chambers forms a triangular to platelike folium, sutures curved, stron gly oblique on both sides, periphery acutely angled to carinate; wall of calcite, by X ray powder diffraction film, finely and densely perforate on the spiral side, more coarsely perforate on the umbilical side, surface smooth; aperture at the umbilical ma rgin of the chamber, beneath the folium, with a reentrant at both anterior and posterior margins of the folium. Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Neoconorbina petasiformis (Cheng and Zheng, 1978) Test sombrero shaped, dorsal side with 3 4 whorls, the early portion covered with very thick dome shaped transparent shell material, the ventral side slightly convex, with only the chambers of the last whorl visible, the umbilical region with a few bosses; periphery subacute, on the ventral side a ppearing as a rather wide keel which is slightly upturned. Chambers numerous, on the dorsal side crescentiform, overlapping, 8 10 in the final whorl; on the ventral side, the umbilical end of the chambers thickened by shell material, sometimes in the form of bosses. Sutures curved, on the dorsal side limbate and flush with the surface, on the ventral side depressed. Wall of the dorsal side finely perforate, of the ventral side coarsely perforate. Aperture a low arched slit at the base of the chamber on the ventral side. (Cheng and Zheng, 1978) Cheng and Zheng, 1978, p. 211 212, 260, pl. 19, figs. 9 10, pl. 32, fig. 6 (as Rosalina petasiformis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 139, pl. 283, figs. 8 10, pl. 371, figs. 11 13. Rosalina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test trocho spiral, planoconvex to concavoconvex, all of the rapidly enlarging chambers visible on the convex spiral side where the depressed sutures are oblique and curved back at the periphery, on the umbilical side chambers are subtriangular and strongly overlappin g, the final chamber occupying about one third of the circumference, sutures strongly curved, umbilicus open, bordered by a triangular umbilical flap or folium from each chamber of the final whorl, chamber interior simple and undivided, periphery subacute; wall calcareous, with organic inner lining, distinctly perforate, surface smooth; aperture a low interiomarginal arch near the periphery on the umbilical side, with narrow bordering lip, separated by the umbilical folium from a small secondary opening at the preceding suture on the opposite margin, other secondary openings of the final whorl remain open. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Rosalina globularis d'Orbigny, 1826 (Plate 10, figs. 1 8) [No description given in original. ] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Thin walled and nearly transparent, with the pores appearing as white dots on the wall. The periphery is lobulate and rounded, with no trace of a keel and no difference in porosity between dorsal and ventral surfaces. The spire is small and not raised above the surface of the dorsal side, and the umbilicus is open. (Todd, 1965) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 271, pl. 13, figs. 1 4. Brady, 1884, p. 643, pl. 86, fig. 13 (as Discorbina globularis ). Todd, 1965, p. 11 12, pl. 3, fig. 4. Loeblich and Tap pan, 1987, p. 561, pl. 610, figs. 1 5, pl. 611, figs. 1 3. Jones, 1994, p. 93, pl. 86, fig. 13. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 140, pl. 286, figs. 7 15. PANNELLAINIDAE Loeblich and Tappan, 1984 Pannellaina Seiglie and Bermœdez, 1976 Test tiny, planoconvex, with five or six low trochospiral whorls of seven to nine chambers each, chambers very broad and low as seen on the strongly convex spiral side, aligned with those of the preceding whorl and appearing triangular, with straight and radial sutures around th e depressed umbilicus on the umbilical side, spiral suture flush, septal sutures strongly elevated and costate on the spiral side, depressed on the umbilical side and bordered on each side by an elevated poreless margin, periphery sharply angled; wall calc areous, thickened, and with smooth poreless surface between the carinate radial sutures on the spiral side, surface on the umbilical side appearing finely microreticulate with a few scattered pores; aperture obscure. Oligocene to Holocene; USA: Mississippi ; Sahul Shelf, Northwest Australia. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987)

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390 Pannellaina earlandi (Collins, 1958) Test minute, compressed, subhexagonal in outline, with slightly inflated chambers and a narrow keel. On the ventral side the sutures are straight and rad ial, slightly depressed, chambers triangular and somewhat inflated, with a depressed umbilicus. On the dorsal side all chambers are visible, subrectangular, 3 to 4 times as long as wide, arranged in a spiral hexagonal series, surface concave with the ends of the chambers curving up to form ridges which are continuous from the centre of the test to the periphery. Ventral side smooth, very finely perforate, dorsal side more coarsely perforate. Aperture is a narrow slit at the anterior margin of the last chamb er on the ventral side, extending from the periphery to the umbilicus. Dimensions of holotype: Diameter 0.20 mm.; thickness 0.07 mm. The geometric outline and ridged dorsal side suggest relationships with Conorbella pyramidalis (Heron Allen and Earland) an d Conorbella corrugata (Millett), but in this case the ridges are caused by the upward curved radial sutures, not by an angular form of the chamber itself. (Collins, 1958) Collins, 1958, p. 405 406, pl. 5, fig. 6 (as Conorbella earlandi ). Loeblich and Tapp an, 1994, p. 140 141, pl. 290, figs. 1 7. GLABRATELLACEA Loeblich and Tappan, 1964 GLABRATELLIDAE Loeblich and Tappan, 1964 Angulodiscorbis Uchio, 1953 Test pyramidal, a high trochospiral coil with strongly elevated spiral side, numerous whorls of four to five vertically aligned angular chambers per whorl, angular to vertically carinate along the median line of the rows of chambers, sutures flush to depressed on the spiral side, radial and depressed around the open umbilicus on the umbilical side; wall cal careous, perforate, surface of spiral side may have vertically aligned angles, carinae, fine striae, or rows of pores, umbilical side with radially aligned pores and granular striae; aperture a low umbilical, interiomarginal slit; sexual reproduction plast ogamic, pairs of tests cemented together by their umbilical surfaces are common, and after these are separated, the central part of the umbilical side has been resorbed. Holocene; Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Angulodiscorbis corrugatiformis (McCull och, 1977) Test free, calcareous, pentagonal, cone shaped; surface of cone covered by a comparatively thick, perforate hyaline layer obscuring the component chambers centrally; basal area not flat, five slightly inflated areas for the five chambers making up the last formed whorl; edge compressed to the extent of appearing to be marginated; not indented marginally between chambers of the apertural surface, but sutures almost immediately become depressed; surface of each chamber heavily ornamented with radia ting granular striae; apertural slit at base of last formed chamber; round umbilical area filled with shell granules. Size: .165 x .165 x .155 mm. This species differs from Discorbina corrugata Millett in not being excavated markedly on the five sides, in lacking the pattern of the heavy uniform pustules covering the cone, in being a smaller form and in showing a rather large, depressed, round umbilical area filled with shell granules. (McCulloch, 1977) McCulloch, 1977, p. 304, pl. 114, fig. 18 (as Subfasti giella corrugatiformis ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 565, pl. 617, figs. 19 21. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 141, pl. 290, figs. 8 10. Schackoinella Weinhandl, 1958 Test trochospiral, about two to two and a half whorls of globular, rapidly enlarging ch ambers, commonly four to five but rarely up to seven in the final whorl, umbilicus open, periphery rounded but a large pointed spine arising from the midpoint of each chamber results in a stellate peripheral test outline; wall calcareous, optically radial, finely perforate, surface smooth to reticulate, with a single large spine on the spiral side of each chamber, umbilical side with striae radiating from the umbilicus and separating rows of fine granules; aperture interiomarginal, umbilical to slightly ext raumbilical; sexual reproduction plastogamic and paired individuals common. M. Eocene (Lutetian) to Holocene; Austria; Western Australia; Timor Sea: Sahul Shelf; Yellow Sea; India. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Schackoinella globosa (Millett, 1903) This vari ety differs from the type in several respects; the superior face is flatter, and the inferior more convex; the chambers are more inflated, and the peripheral edge less acute; the aperture is indistinct, and the radiating lines on the umbilical region are n ot apparent. (Millett, 1903)

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391 Millett, 1903, p. 701 702, pl. 7, fig. 6 (as Discorbina imperatorial var. globosa ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 142 143, pl. 294, figs. 1 10. BULIMINOIDIDAE Seiglie, 1970 Buliminoides Cushman, 1911 Test elongate, circular in section, with high trochospiral coil, about five broad and low, strongly oblique chambers per whorl, enrolled around an open umbilicus, septal walls commonly resorbed, perhaps during reproduction, sutures obscured by ornamentation; wall calcareous, optica lly radial, finely perforate, surface with prominent longitudinal costae nearly perpendicular to the sutures but oblique to the test axis, costae may be continuous and occasionally bifurcate, or may be somewhat irregular and rugose in appearance, terminal face with radial striae; aperture interiomarginal, umbilical, in a depressed part of the terminal face; sexual reproduction plastogamic. Oligocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan, on shallow water reefs. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Buliminoides williamsonianus ( Brady, 1881) Test elongate, cylindrical, more or less sinuate in contour, circular in transverse section, composed of a spiral band of long narrow, nearly erect segments. Inferior extremity slightly tapering and rounded, superior obliquely truncate. Surfac e traversed from end to end by a series of somewhat sinuate and diagonal parallel costae, which entirely obscure the internal structure. Aperture simple, situate in a depression at the centre of the oblique superior face, bordered by radiating lines. Lengt h, 1/40 inch (0.64 mm.) or less. (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 56 (as Bulimina williamsoniana ). Brady, 1884, p. 408 409, pl. 51, figs. 16 17 (as Bulimina williamsoniana ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 570, pl. 622, figs. 10 12. Jones, 1994, p. 56, pl. 51, figs. 16 17. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 143, pl. 297, figs. 1 9. SIPHONINACEA Cushman, 1927 SIPHONINIDAE Cushman, 1927 Siphoninoidinae Loeblich and Tappan, 1984 Siphoninoides Cushman, 1927 Test subglobular, irregularly trochospiral, chambers enlarging rapidly; wall calcareous, hyaline, thin in the early stage, later much thickened and coarsely perforate, surface pustulose; aperture elevated on a short neck, rounded, and filled with a concave plate that has a single small central pore. Miocene to Holocen e; Australia; Pacific Ocean; Indian Ocean; Caribbean: Cuba. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Siphoninoides diphes Loeblich and Tappan, 1994 Diagnosis A species of Siphoninoides with a few coarse, blunt spines interspersed among numerous small surface tubercles Description Test small, globular, irregularly trochospiral, sutures obscure; wall calcareous, thick, surface covered with small tubercles, with large conical spines interspersed among them; aperture terminal, large, rounded, elevated on a short tubular neck. Remarks This species has large spines interspersed with many smaller ones, hence differing from the smooth S. laevigatus and the highly spinose S. echinatus (Loeblich and Tappan, 1994) Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 144, pl. 300, figs. 5 6. DISCORB INELLACEA Sigal, 1952 PARRELLOIDIDAE Hofker, 1956 Parrelloides Hofker, 1956 Test tiny, trochospiral, spiral side low to strongly convex, evolute, numerous slowly enlarging whorls, six to eight chambers in the final whorl, spiral suture depressed, intercame ral sutures curved, oblique, and may be limbate, umbilical side less convex, sutures straight, radial, and depressed, umbilicus filled with clear shell material that may be continuous with the somewhat thickened sutures, periphery rounded; wall calcareous, hyaline, optically radial, sparse and widely spaced pores on the spiral side, none visible on the umbilical side, surface smooth; aperture interiomarginal and equatorial, a short and low arch against the previous whorl, bordered above by a projecting lip. Holocene; W. Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987)

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392 Parrelloides bradyi (Trauth, 1918) Im Gegensatz zu Truncatulina Dutemplei ist bei ihr der Scheibenrand nicht kantig, sondern abgerundet und, von oben betrachtet, lappig, die Spira fast bis in die Mitte der Oberseite deutlich zu verfolgen und in der Regel die Grš§e des GehŠuses (Scheibendurchmesser 0.2 bis 0.4 mm gegen 0.5 bis 1.5 mm bei der typischen, teriŠren Tr. Dutemplei ) und die Kammerzahl der Schlu§windung (6 bis 8 bei Tr. Bradyi 7 bis 14 bei Tr. Dute mplei ) eine geringere. (Trauth, 1918) [ Contrary to Truncatulina dutemplei the disk margin is not angular but rounded off, and, observed from above, lobate; the spiral can clearly be traced almost to the middle of the top side; and, as a rule, the size of the shell (disk diameter 0.2 0.4 mm as opposed to 0.5 1.5 mm for the typical, Tertiary T. dutemplei ) and the number of chambers in the last whorl (6 8 for T. bradyi 7 14 for T. dutemplei ) are smaller. ] Brady, 1884, p. 665, pl. 95, fig. 5 (as Truncatulina dutemplei ). Trauth, 1918, p. 235 (as Truncatulina bradyi ). Jones, 1994, p. 99, pl. 95, fig. 5 (as Gyroidina bradyi ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 144, pl. 301, figs. 1 9. PSEUDOPARRELLIDAE Voloshinova in Voloshinova and Dain, 1952 Pseudoparrellinae Volos hinova in Voloshinova and Dain, 1952 Pseudoparrella Cushman and ten Dam, 1948 Test small to medium in size, circular in outline, biconvex, trochospiral and tightly coiled, two and a half to three whorls, spiral side evolute, sutures strongly oblique and st raight to curved, only the eight to nine chambers of the final whorl visible on the involute umbilical side, sutures gently curved to nearly radial around the closed umbilicus, periphery angular but noncarinate; wall calcareous, optically radial, finely pe rforate, surface smooth; aperture a narrow and straight interiomarginal and subequatorial slit extending up the face of the final chamber on the umbilical side, bordered by a narrow lip. Oligocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Pseu doparrella zhengae Loeblich and Tappan, 1994 Diagnosis A small obese species of Pseudoparrella with convex spiral side and depressed umbilical area of the opposite side, and with broadly rounded periphery. Description Test small, trochospiral, with abou t three whorls visible on the spiral side, only the five inflated chambers of the last whorl visible on the umbilical side, periphery broadly rounded; sutures curved and bending backwards toward the periphery on the spiral side, straight and radial on the umbilical side; wall calcareous, surface smooth; aperture a vertical slit in the apertural face on the umbilical side, and paralleling the periphery. Remarks Previously referred to P. pulchra the present species lacks the fimbriate margin, and many enlar ged pores of the type species of Facetocochlea It differs from Pseudoparrella umbonifera (Cushman 1933) in lacking the angled and carinate periphery. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1994) Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 146 147, pl. 308, figs. 1 3. PLANORBULINACEA S chwager, 1877 PLANULINIDAE Bermœdez, 1952 Planulina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test discoidal, very low trochospiral of about two whorls, spiral side evolute, umbilical side partially evolute, nine to ten broad, low, and arched chambers in the final whorl, septa thic k, sutures imperforate, thickened and elevated, strongly curved back at the peripheral margin, periphery truncate, with thick imperforate marginal keel; wall calcareous, optically radial, finely perforate, and with scattered larger pores, secondary lamella e cover and fill the umbilical region but are pierced by a few pores; aperture an equatorial and interiomarginal arch with narrow imperforate bordering lip, extending somewhat onto the umbilical side beneath the imperforate umbilical folium. U. Eocene to H olocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Planulina retia Belford, 1966 Diagnosis: A trochoid plano convex species with narrowly rounded periphery; evolute on dorsal side, usually involute on ventral; chambers in 1" to 2 whorls, 6 to 7 visible fro m ventral side; sutures narrow, strongly curved, reflexed; surface with raised irregularly reticulate ornament; aperture interiomarginal, open on dorsal side.

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393 Description: Test trochoid, plano convex to concavo convex, dorsal surface flat to concave, ventr al surface convex, usually circular in outline, sometimes irregularly oval. Periphery narrowly rounded, with small margin of shell material, often not present on younger chambers. Test evolute on dorsal side, usually involute on ventral side, later chamber s of some specimens becoming evolute. Chambers arranged in 1" to 2 whorls, increasing slowly in size as added, 6 to 7 visible from ventral side of involute specimens. Sutures narrow, strongly curved, reflexed, usually smooth at first, later slightly to dee ply depressed; early sutures on dorsal side raised on rare specimens. Surface of test, particularly early chambers of last whorl, with raised irregularly reticulate ornament. Test wall perforate on both dorsal and ventral sides, pore diameter 8 to 10 micro ns; radiate in texture. Septal walls double, no internal structure present. Aperture a narrow interiomarginal slit extending back over several chambers along spiral suture on dorsal side. (Belford, 1966) Belford, 1966, p. 123 124, pl. 11, figs. 1 9. Loebli ch and Tappan, 1994, p. 149, pl. 315, figs. 1 11, pl. 316, figs. 4 7. PLANORBULINIDAE Schwager, 1877 Planorbulininae Schwager, 1877 Planorbulina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test discoidal, early stage in low trochospiral coil of random coiling direction, attached to the substrate by the spiral side, microspheric proloculus 11 !m to 14 !m in diameter, megalospheric one 23 !m to 56 !m in diameter, later chambers have two apertures and each gives rise to new biapertural chambers, producing numerous spirals and eventually whorls of chambers, sutures distinct, may be thickened and elevated on the attached side, commonly depressed on the free side, periphery rounded to subangular; wall calcareous, optically radial, coarsely perforate, organic membrane giving a brownish color to the early spire and pierced only by the apertures, not by the wall perforations; aperture in early coil single, arched, and interiomarginal on the periphery, each later chamber with two apertures on the periphery at opposite ends of the chamber, each o pening bordered by a narrow lip, smaller supplementary openings for the extrusion of pseudopodia may occur on both sides of the test; vegetative cytoplasm greenish brown to salmon rose in color but pigments eliminated at reproduction, pseudopodia rectiline ar, about equal to test diameter in length, anastomosing slightly and showing slow circulation of granules; much of parent test dissolved during schizogony, 60 to 100 embryos with only an organic test layer being produced in a temporary agglutinated reprod uctive cyst, calcification commences at about the five chamber stage and is followed by escape from the cyst; sexual reproduction involves many nuclear divisions and utilization of all parent cytoplasm to produce numerous inequally biflagellate gametes tha t are released from the parent test at night. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Planorbulina acervalis Brady, 1884 (Plate 11, figs. 1 8) Test normally adherent, discoidal; superior (attached) face flat, inferior more or less con vex; margin lobulated, with interspaces between the segments of the final whorl. General structure resembling that of Planorbulina mediterranensis with the addition of a mass of minute acervuline segments covering to a greater or less thickness the free s urface of the test. Diameter, 1/25 th inch (1 mm. or more). The acervuline varieties of Planorbulina are distinguished from corresponding modifications of Tinoporus (Gypsina) by the retention of the normal Planorbuline arrangement of the segments on the att ached face of the shell, and more especially by the peripheral apertures. (Brady, 1884) Brady, 1884, p. 657, pl. 92, figs. 4. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 125 126, pl. 169, figs. 1 9, pl. 170, figs. 1 8 (as Planogypsina acervalis ). Jones, 1994, p. 97, pl. 92 fig. 4. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 151 152, pl. 326, figs. 1 10. ASTERIGERINACEA d'Orbigny, 1839 EPISTOMARIIDAE Hofker, 1954 Epistomariinae Hofker, 1954 Asanonella Huang, 1965 Test lenticular to inequally biconvex, trochospiral, all of the two and a half whorls visible, rapidly enlarging chambers appearing semilunate on the spiral side, tubular projections are developed around the major fields of coarse perforations in earlier chambers, sutures strongly oblique and slightly

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394 depressed, chambers subtria ngular on the umbilical side, sutures radial and slightly depressed, umbilicus closed, periphery subacute; wall calcareous, optically radial, coarsely perforate in a band near the periphery on both spiral and umbilical sides of the final chamber, with late r growth a crenulate ridge is added around the band of coarse perforations on the spiral side of earlier chambers, becoming progressively more elevated with lamellar additions and forming short wide cylinders within which the pores gradually are filled, th e cylindrical structures of earlier whorls resembling a large elevated pore at the midpoint of each chamber, coarse perforations present only on the final chamber on the umbilical side, where they continue to the previous intercameral suture, those of earl ier chambers secondarily filled; aperture an elongate interiomarginal and extraumbilical slit, partially filled with a tooth like protrusion of transparent shell material arising from the previous spiral wall. Pliocene to Holocene; Taiwan; S. China Sea; tr opical Pacific; Indian Ocean; Timor Sea: Sahul Shelf off Northwest Australia; Caribbean: off Venezuela. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Asanonella tubulifera (Heron Allen and Earland, 1915) Test free, biconvex, consisting of two to three convolutions, all visi ble on the superior face, the last convolution only on the inferior. Six to seven chambers in the last convolution. Sutures flush, but thickened. The walls of the chambers between the sutural lines are coarsely perforate, each perforation often produced in to a raised tube. These tubes may coalesce so as to form a cristate growth following the curve of the chamber and opening at the top into a crater. The tubular outgrowths are especially marked on the superior face, often wanting on the inferior. Aperture a curved slit on the inner edge of the terminal chamber. Umbilical portion sometimes marked by a solid mass of shell substance, but this is flush with the surface, and does not project as a stud. Average width .4 mm., height .25 mm. It is undoubtedly closel y allied to T. reticulata Czjzek, but differs in the character of its aperture, which is normally truncatuline instead of being situated on a produced neck. (Heron Allen and Earland, 1915) Heron Allen and Earland, 1915, p. 710, pl. 52, figs. 37 40 (as Trun catulina tubulifera ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 600, pl. 666, figs. 1 7. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 155, pl. 337, figs. 1 10. AMPHISTEGINIDAE Cushman, 1927 Amphistegina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test low trochospiral, lenticular and inequally biconvex, may b e bi involute or partially evolute on the spiral side, chambers numerous, broad, and low, strongly curved back at the periphery to form chamber prolongations, interior of all chambers with primarily formed toothplate that extends from the apertural face to about the middle of the previous septum and almost completely divides the chamber lumen, contact of the toothplate with the wall of the umbilical side producing a stellate pattern like that of Asterigerina although commonly more irregular due to the twist ing of the toothplate, distinct umbilical plug present, periphery angular to carinate; wall calcareous, optically radial, finely perforate, surface smooth other than the papillae in the apertural region; aperture an interiomarginal slit on the umbilical si de, bordered by a lip, those of preceding chambers serving as intercameral foramina, surface of the preceding whorl just beneath the aperture covered with fine papillae or rugae oriented in the direction of growth. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loebli ch and Tappan, 1987) Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny, 1826 (Plate 12, figs. 1 8) [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Perforate, lamellar, thick shelled, lenticular test. Peripheral outline smooth, peripheral margin angular. Chambers invol ute, arranged in a comparatively loose, low trochospire. Ventral side of shell may be slightly more convex than dorsal side. Dorsal chamber sutures flush, sharply bent backwards in a long falciform arch, broken over the periphery of the previous whorl. Sut ures of alar prolongations almost radial or slightly sinusoidal, alternating with single, short hemiseptular sutures, sinusoidal or radially straight and of variable length. Most of them reach the line determined by the periphery of the previous whorl wher e the septal sutures are broken. Umbo small, flush, transparent in spite of very sparce perforation. Ventral chamber sutures flush, sometimes slightly depressed in the ultimate and penultimate chambers, distinctly sinusoidal, bent backwards in their periph eral part. Stellar sutures almost radially directed, sinusoidal, also bent backward and meeting the chamber sutures far outward of the line determined by the periphery of the previous whorl. Ventral umbo larger than dorsal one, flush and transparent in spi te of perforation.

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395 Aperture strictly interiomarginal forming a comparatively short, low arch provided with a pustulate lip. Apertural face moderately inclined backwards and covered with pustules arranged in rows radiating from the aperture. In front of the aperture, the umbilico lateral walls of the first 2 3 chambers of the last whorl are covered with rows of pustules, at low angles obliquely directed towards the periphery. The main chamber lumen is separated from a stellar chamberlet by an umbilical plate attached along the roof of the apertural arch and running horizontally backwards through the main chamber lumen for about half the chamber's breadth. It is then twisted to about 90¡ separating the previous foramen in two halves. By another twist of the p roximal free edge of this stellar wall, a short, steep gutter is formed ending abruptly against the previous whorl without reaching the peripheral end of the foramen. All free margins of the umbilical plate are thickened by lobulate rims pointing outward, into the main chamber lumen. The stellar chamberlet lumen has a distinct peripheral extension bent backwards and comparatively voluminous. All internal wall surfaces of the stellar and the main chamber cavities are covered with eggholder structures (intern al pore pits) housing diatom symbionts of B2a type ultrastructure producing the olive greenish colour of the living protoplast. Megalospheric specimens with spherical proloculus of about 40 50 !m in diameter, with a single, oblique, tubular foramen rimmed by a peristome. Deuteroconch much larger than protoconch, asymmetrical in equatoral section, possibly with a stellar chamberlet as in all following chambers. Microspheric forms with a spherical proloculus of about 15 !m followed by a minute first whorl of chambers with stellar chamberlets lacking peripheral extensions. Coiling ratio measured without distinction of megalo or microspheric generations 90% sinistral. (Hottinger et al. 1993) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 304, pl. 17, figs. 1 4. Brady, 1884, p. 740 742, pl. 111, figs. 2, 4 7 (not figs. 1, 3). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 609 610, pl. 677, figs. 3 5. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 132 133, pl. 184, figs. 1 11, pl. 185, figs. 1 7. Jones, 1994, p. 109 110, pl. 111, figs. 2, 4 7. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 15 6 157, pl. 340, figs. 1 9. Amphistegina radiata (Fichtel and Moll, 1798) (Plate 13, figs. 1 7) Testa spiralis involuta, orbicularis, lvis, utrinque satis convexa & radiata radiis multis approximatis, flexuosis, plurimum simplicibus, passim versus ambitu m bifurcatis, aliis alterne injectis brevibus, ab ambitu ad centrum tertiam circiter semidiametri partem occupantibus; dorso obtuse carinato; anfractibus quatuor licet exterioribus majoribus, interiores plene obtegentibus, tamen latitudine apparenter lente crescentibus; dissepimentis antrorsum mediocriter convexis valde obliquis & approximatis; centro intus globulari cavo; orificio detrito. Color flavo albescens, radiis subcrulescentibus. Mensura 1 lin. diam. (Fichtel and Moll, 1798) [ Spiral and involute t est, circular, smooth, both sides rather convex and radiated, the rays are curved about, plentiful, close to each other, mostly single, here and there quite a number forked toward the circumference, between them lie alternately other short ones, that from the circumference toward the midpoint take up about a third to half the diameter; the dorsal side is bluntly bowed; whorls are four, which notwithstanding the inner are fully covered by the outer larger ones, yet apparently very gradually increase in wid th; the septa are slightly forward curved, very inclined, and close to each other; the midpoint is ball shaped and hollow on the inside; the orifice is abraded. Color yellowish white, with somewhat blueish rays. Measuring 1 line in diameter. ] Fichtel and M oll, 1798, p. 58 59, pl. 8, figs. a d (as Nautilus radiatus ). Brady, 1884, p. 740 742, pl. 111, fig. 3 (not figs. 1 2, 4 7; as Amphistegina lessonii ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 609 610, pl. 677, figs. 1 2. Jones, 1994, p. 110, pl. 111, fig. 3. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 157, pl. 339, figs. 8 11, pl. 341, figs. 8 10. NONIONACEA Schultze, 1854 NONIONIDAE Schultze, 1854 Nonioninae Schultze, 1854

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396 Nonionoides Saidova, 1975 Test slightly asymmetrical and weakly trochospiral, with evolute spiral side and nearly involute and deeply umbilicate opposite side, chambers of nearly constant height but increasing rapidly in breadth to result in an auriculate test outline, sutures slightly depressed, particularly in the umbilical region, gently curved, sides flatt ened, periphery rounded; wall calcareous, perforate, hyaline, optically granular, transparent, surface smooth, but with pustules or small spinules bordering the umbilical rim of the chambers, in the vicinity of the aperture; aperture a low interiomarginal and equatorial arch. Holocene; sublittoral region, Atlantic, Caribbean, Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Nonionoides grateloupi (d'Orbigny, 1826) [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Test lamellar, flat, very low trochospiral, spiral s ide evolute and umbilical side involute. Peripheral outline subelliptical and smooth; peripheral margin broadly rounded. Chambers short, radially very rapidly increasing in size as added, 10 12 in the adult coil, provided with a minute, but distinct folium on the umbilical side. Septal face with nearly parallel sides. Sutures very slightly curved, depressed, particularly so toward the umbilical ends of the umbilical side. Cameral aperture interiomarginal, equatorial, a narrow arch, flanked (also in the ulti mate chamber) by two small, backwards directed plate like ridges attached to the adjacent coil and running towards the intercameral foramen. These ridges separate the cameral aperture from the foliar anterior aperture on the umbilical side and from a suppl ementary aperture along the spiral suture. Both, the anterior and posterior foliar apertures remain open at least in most chambers of the last coil. The intercameral foramen is arch shaped, larger than the aperture due to partial resorption at the base of the septal face. Large pustules and conical pseudospines cover the base of the septal face obscuring the aperture and are present along the foliar apertures and the supplementary spiral ones. The heavy ornamentation at the border of the folia obscures the narrow umbilicus. Wall optically granular, perforated by small pores which are larger on the inside than on the outside. (Hottinger et al. 1993) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 294 (as Nonionina grateloupi ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 618, pl. 692, figs. 7 14. Hot tinger et al. 1993, p. 138, pl. 195, figs. 4 13. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 158, pl. 342, figs. 1 5. ALMAENIDAE Myatlyuk in Rauzer Chernousova and Fursenko, 1959 Anomalinellinae Saidova, 1981 Anomalinella Cushman, 1927 Test lenticular, slightly trocho spiral but planispiral in the adult, bi involute and biumbonate, nine to ten gradually enlarging chambers in the final whorl, sutures gently curved, limbate, periphery angular, carinate, with a less elevated second keel paralleling the periphery a slight d istance to one side of the median plane; wall calcareous, optically granular, hyaline, coarsely perforate, sutures and keels imperforate, apertural face imperforate or with a few pores; aperture a low rounded interiomarginal and equatorial arch against the peripheral margin of the preceding whorl, with protruding bordering lip, supplementary aperture consisting of an elognate slit on the periphery between the two keels, those of earlier chambers secondarily closed. U. Eocene to Holocene; Pacific; India. (Lo eblich and Tappan, 1987) Anomalinella rostrata (Brady, 1881) Test biconvex, subnautiloid, slightly unsymmetrical, periphery thin, subcarinate. Chambers equitant; about ten in the final convolution, which completely encloses the penultimate. Sutures limbate especially near the centre; marked by indentations at the periphery. The true aperture is an arched, labiate opening, placed transversely on the face of the terminal segment, close to the margin of the previous convolution; but there is usually, in addit ion, a second or spurious orifice, in the form of a vertical slit in the beak like projection of the peripheral angle of the same. Diameter, 1/30 inch (0.84 mm.). (Brady, 1881) Brady, 1881, p. 65 (as Truncatulina rostrata ). Brady, 1884, p. 668 669, pl. 94, fig. 6 (as Truncatulina rostrata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 623 624, pl. 700, figs. 8 12. Jones, 1994, p. 98, pl. 94, fig. 6. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 160, pl. 349, figs. 1 8.

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397 CHILOSTOMELLACEA Brady, 1881 HETEROLEPIDAE Gonz‡les Donoso, 1969 Anom alinoides Brotzen, 1942 Test robust, in a low trochospiral coil, spiral side partially evolute with early whorls later covered by central boss, chambers inflated and sutures curved and depressed, umbilical side involute with sutures depressed, gently curve d to nearly straight and radial around the small umbilicus, periphery broadly rounded, peripheral outline lobulate; wall calcareous, optically granular, coarsely perforate; aperture a low interiomarginal arch against the periphery of the preceding whorl, e xtending onto the spiral side where it continues along the spiral suture beneath the umbilical margin of the last few chambers of the final whorl, a narrow bordering lip present above the aperture. L. Cretaceous (Albian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblic h and Tappan, 1987) Anomalinoides globulosus (Chapman and Parr, 1937) Test consisting of about two and a half coils, all of which are visible on the superior face, with only the last formed coil showing on the inferior face; about seven chambers in last co il which are strongly inflated; periphery rounded; sutures deeply impressed; superior face more or less flattened, inferior face depressed in the umbilical region, otherwise strongly convex. Surface of test deeply pitted. Diameter of test is about two and a half times the thickness. Aperture crescentic, and placed almost symmetrically in the median line. Dimensions Diameter, 0.6 to 1 mm.; thickness, 0.25 to 0.4 mm. Although Brady recorded Anomalina grosserugosa (GŸmbel) from the "Challenger" dredgings, his figures show his species to be distinct from GŸmbel's from the Nummulitic limestone of Kressenberg, Bavaria. The type figure of Anomalina grosserugosa shows it to be a more elongated helicoids shell, whilst only the last formed coil is visible on both fac es of the test. (Chapman and Parr, 1937) Brady, 1884, p. 673, pl. 94, figs. 4 5 (as Anomalina grosserugosa ). Chapman and Parr, 1937, p. 117 118, pl. 9, fig. 27 (as Anomalina globulosa ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 162, pl. 354, figs. 11 13, pl. 355, figs 4 13. Jones, 1994, p. 98, pl. 94, figs. 4 5 (as Cibicidoides globulosus ). Heterolepa Franzenau, 1884 Test trochospiral, planoconvex to inequally biconvex with flatter spiral side, about three slowly enlarging volutions, ten to twelve quadrangular appear ing chambers in the final whorl, sutures limbate, oblique, very slightly curved, umbilical side convex, chambers broad and low, converging at the closed umbilicus, sutures curved and flush to weakly depressed, periphery subangular; wall calcareous, optical ly granular, thick and lamellar, coarsely and regularly perforate, surface smooth; aperture a low interiomarginal slit on the umbilical side, extending from about midway between the umbilicus and periphery across the periphery to continue a short distance onto the spiral side, bordered above with a low lip. U. Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Heterolepa subhaidingeri (Parr, 1950) (Plate 14, figs. 1 8) Test large, unequally biconvex, the dorsal side showing al l of the whorls and much less convex than the ventral, periphery bluntly rounded; whorls numerous; chambers numbering 8 to 10 in the adult whorl, with only the last 4 or 5 distinct and slightly inflated; sutures scarcely visible except in the last few cham bers, when they are flush and limbate; they are recurved dorsally and radial ventrally; wall rather coarsely perforate, thickened over the earlier chambers; aperture large, with a slight lip which extends from half way down the base of the last formed cham ber over to the dorsal side well along the inner margin of the chamber. Diameter, 1.2 mm.; height, 0.6 mm. Following Brady, this species has usually been identified by authors with d'Orbigny's Rotalina haidingerii from the Miocene of the Vienna Basin, whi ch has only five chambers to a whorl and a comparatively high spire. The present species is clearly derived from C. victoriensis Chapman, Parr, and Collins, from the Miocene (Balcombian) of Victoria. From C. victoriensis it is distinguishable by having fe wer chambers to a whorl (8 10 compared with 12 14). Cushman (1924) as [ sic ] described, under the name of Truncatulina haidingeri (d'Orbigny) var. pacifica a form close to C. subhaidingerii This is, however, stated by Cushman to have the periphery acute a nd his figured specimens have respectively 7 and 5 chamber to a whorl, with only 2" whorls in the specimen. (Parr, 1950) Brady, 1884, p. 663, pl. 95, fig. 7 (as Truncatulina haidingerii ). Parr, 1950, p. 364, pl. 15, fig. 7 (as Cibicides subhaidingerii ). Ho ttinger et al ., 1993, p. 139, pl. 197, figs. 1 4 (as Heterolepa cf. H. subhaidingerii ).

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398 Jones, 1994, p. 99, pl. 95, fig. 7 (as Cibicidoides subhaidingerii ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 163, pl. 359, figs. 1 13. ROTALIACEA Ehrenberg, 1839 CALCARINIDAE Sc hwager, 1876 Baculogypsina Sacco, 1893 Test biconvex, lenticular, with prominent radial spines, thick walled embryo consists of spherical proloculus and one and a half whorls of trochospirally arranged chambers interconnected by two to three stolons each a nd communicate with the spiral canal system on the ventral side by a single small radial canal, four to eight large spines arise from the spiral juvenarium and continue to enlarge with growth, anastomosing spine canals connected by radial canals to the cen tral spiral canal, spiral juvenile followed by successive growth steps of numerous domelike lateral chamberlets in a loose network over the test, chamberlets of successive networks alternate in position and communicate through oblique multiple stolons, but chamberlets also are aligned in series that radiate from the center, those adjacent to the spines may have connections to the spine canals and those of the final series have small basal apertures on all sides of the chamberlets, solid pillars inserted bet ween the vertical rows of chamberlets and appear at the surface as imperforate pustules; wall calcareous, coarsely perforate. Holocene; W. tropical Pacific. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Baculogypsina sphaerulata (Parker and Jones, 1860) Among the spherical specimens from the Rewa reefs of Fiji there are some rather flattened individuals, which present at their margin one or more small conical or nipple like processes, composed of cells similar to those of the body, but more compressed. In other specimens the se projections are larger and give a lobulate form to the shell, the outline being somewhat like that of an ivy leaf, and imitating Calcarina Spengleri or Polystomella unguiculata with thickened spines. Other individuals have subcylindrical spines which d o not always lie on one plane. The length of the spine sometimes exceeds the diameter of the body of the shell. Similar forms occur on the coasts of New Zealand. In these spinous and stellate forms the growth of the shell is symmetrical, the two convex sur faces having about equal proportions of the annular tiers of cells. The vertical section in such forms reminds one of the structure of Orbitoides excepting, 1 st that in the latter and flatter Foraminifer the two surfaces of the shell are unequal; 2ndly, the over and under lying cells have usually an irregularity of arrangement; and 3rdly, the central cells are small, but numerous, regular, and distinct. Coexistent with the habit of producing lobes or processes (as holds good also in Calcarina and Polysto mella ), we find an increased development of the interlocular or canalicular passages, to the sarcode of which the granulations and overgrowths in other forms are due. Here we find smooth, minute, glossy hemispherical knobs of this exogenous shell matter qu incuncially arranged over the whole surface, three or four cells being included in the area of each quincunx. This style of exogenous growth is also recognizable in some of the spherical lobeless individuals. (Parker and Jones, 1860) Parker and Jones, 1860 p. 33 34 (as Orbitolina concava var. sphrulata ). Brady, 1884, p. 716, pl. 101, figs. 4 7 (as Tinoporus baculatus ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 670, pl. 778, figs. 1 6. Jones, 1994, p. 101 102, pl. 101, figs. 4 7. Calcarina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test large, up to 2 mm in diameter, lenticular, biconvex, commonly with a few to many heavy and blunt to splayed or bifurcating radial spines, five to six whorls, trochospirally coiled throughout, ten to twenty chambers in the final whorl, spiral canal system present on the umbilical side, giving rise to radial canals and to numerous anastomosing radial spine canals that pass over the chambers on the spiral side to run through the spines; wall calcareous, thickly lamellar, perforate but with imperforate apertural face surface highly ornamented, numerous pustules and spinules covering the test and obscuring the sutures, umbilicus filled by a pillarlike mass formed by lamellar deposits, apertural face may have radiating ridges; aperture and intercameral foramina consist of multiple rounded pores with elevated lips along the base of the the apertural or septal face. Pliocene to Holocene; Pacific Ocean. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Calcarina defrancii d'Orbigny, 1826 (Plate 15, figs. 1 8) [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826)

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399 Test lenticular, biconvex, chambers numerous in a close coiled, flattened, trochoid spire of about three volutions, each with several chambers; the sutures distinct on the ventral side, but much obscured or obsolete on the dorsal side, t he spire, however, usually distinct; wall, especially on the dorsal side, covered by a supplementary skeleton, the surface with spinose tubercles; peripheral border bluntly angled, with a series of elongate spines, generally cylindrical; the outer ends blu nt, typically one spine from the outer end of each chamber, channeled longitudinally; the neighboring spines of the different whorls often fusing near the base and the free ends continuing their direction make an apparent bifurcating spine; aperture at the base of the last formed chamber. Diameter up to 2.5 mm. or more. (Cushman, 1921) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 276, pl. 13, figs. 5 7. Brady, 1884, p. 714, pl. 108, fig. 6. Cushman, 1921, p. 353 354, pl. 75, fig. 2. Jones, 1994, p. 107, pl. 108, fig. 6 (not figs. 5 7; as Calcarina spengleri ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 167, pl. 391, figs. 3 4. Calcarina hispida Brady, 1876 Test free, unequally biconvex, rotalian: margin, thin lobulate or rowelled; segments numerous, slightly inflated; peripheral borders thin, r ounded, angular, or produced sufficiently to form radiating spurs. Surface covered with adpressed spiny processes, obscuring the sutures, except those of the later chambers. Diameter 1/20 inch (1.3 mm.) or more. The characters are, indeed, very much those of Calcarina calcar excepting for the superficial spiny armature. (Brady, 1876) Brady, 1876, p. 589. Brady, 1884, p. 713 714, pl. 108, figs. 8 9. Jones, 1994, p. 107, pl. 108, figs. 8 9. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 167, pl. 375, figs. 3 6. Calcarina sp engleri (Gmelin, 1791) (Plate 16, figs. 1 8) Spirales rotundati. Anfractibus disjunctis. N. testa laevi: tuberculis quatuor conicis. Testa minima. (Gmelin, 1791) [Spiraling around. Whorls separate. N. test smooth: four united protuberances. Test minute.] G melin, 1791, p. 3369, 3371 (as Nautilus spengleri ). Brady, 1884, p. 712 713, pl. 108, figs. 5, 7. Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 671, pl. 780, figs. 1 6, pl. 781, figs. 1 6. Jones, 1994, p. 107, pl. 108, figs. 5, 7 (not fig. 6). ELPHIDIIDAE Galloway, 1933 Elphidiinae Galloway, 1933 Cellanthus de Montfort, 1808 Coquille libre, univalve, cloisonnŽe, cellulŽe, en disque aplati, et contournŽe en spirale; mamelonnŽe sur les deux centres; le dernier tour de spire renfermant tous les autres; dos obtus mais carŽnŽ; bouche en ogive ŽcrasŽ contre le retour de la spire qu'elle reoit dans son milieu, ˆ demi recouverte par un diaphragme; cloisons unies. (de Montfort, 1808) [ Free shell, univalve, partitioned, enclosed, in a flat disk, and outlined in spiral; nipple like protuberance on its two centers; the last whorl containing all the others; blunt back but streamlined; diagonally arched mouth squashed against the return of the spiral towards the center, half covered by a diaphragm; smooth partitions. ] Cellanthus craticu latus (Fichtel and Moll, 1798) Testa spiralis involuta, orbicularis, utrinque admodum convexa, adeo ut primo intuitu compresso globularem crederes, ni dorso carinato, licet obtuse, gauderet; umbilico leviter prominulo, permagno, longitudinem fere semidiame tri test exquante, multis punctis impressis sparsis notato; a hujus peripheria ad peripheriam exteriorem sive marginem test striis radiantibus multis approximatis subelevatis, lineis incisis subtilissimis confertis strias transversim seu margini paralle lis decussantibus (sic testa speciem craticulatam mentitur); dissepimentis antrorsum leniter convexis, hinc thalamis angustis; plano orali propter ultimi articuli s. thalami parvam prominentiam satis angusto, semilunato sive subfalcato; orificio sublineari angusto secundum curvaturam articulorum subparabolice arcuato. Color albus. Mensura lin. diam. (Fichtel and Moll, 1798)

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400 [ Spiral involute test, circular, both sides strongly convex, so that one could take them for depressed ball shaped at first glance, i f they didn't have a, although dully keeled, dorsal side; the umbilicus sticks out, is very big, in that it almost amounts to the length of half of the diameter of the test, and designated throughout with many scattered lying indented points; from its peri phery, many weakly raised stripes, close to each other, run like rays to the outer circumference, transversely crossed by very delicate recessed lines parallel with the back, also lying close to each other (whereby the test gets the appearance, that it wou ld be woven like a basket); the septa are slightly curved forward and very close to each other, therefore the chambers narrow; the oral surface is, because of the slightly protruding last limb or chamber, rather narrow, to some extent half moon shaped, or somewhat sickle shaped; the orifice is almost line shaped, narrow, somewhat parabolically bent toward the curve of the limbs. Color white. Measuring line in diameter. ] Fichtel and Moll, 1798, p. 51 52, pl. 5, figs. h, i, k (as Nautilus craticulatus ). Bra dy, 1884, p. 739, pl. 110, figs. 16 17 (as Polystomella craticulata ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 674 675, pl. 788, figs. 6 13 (as Elphidium craticulatum ). Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 147 148, pl. 208, figs. 1 10, pl. 209, figs. 1 6, pl. 210, figs. 1 6 (a s Elphidium craticulatum ). Jones, 1994, p. 109, pl. 110, figs. 16 17. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 167, pl. 380, figs. 1 10. Elphidium de Montfort, 1808 Test large, lenticular, planispirally enrolled, involute or partially evolute, biumbonate, may have u mbilical plug on each side, seven to twenty chambers in the final whorl, deeply incised sutures form interlocular spaces that communicate with an umbilical spiral canal system, may have vertical umbilical canals leading from the spiral canal to the surface of the umbilical plug, externally ponticuli span the gently curved sutures, and fossettes between the ponticuli open into the intercameral space, internally may have retral processes (small backward extensions from the chamber lumen along the sutures), pe riphery carinate; wall calcareous, optically radial or less commonly granular, finely perforate, bilamellar, septal flap partly or completely covering previous septa as the new chamber is formed, surface with openings of canal system in the plugs and along the sutures and may have pustules or spiraling striae or ridges; aperture and foramina, a single interiomarginal pore or multiple, and may have additional areal openings. L. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Elphidium crispum ( LinnŽ, 1758) (Plate 17, figs. 1 8) Spirales rotundati. N. test apertura semicordata, anfractibus contiguis, geniculis crenatis. Minutus. (LinnŽ, 1758) [Spiraling around. N. test aperture half heart shaped, spiral close, sections notched. Minute.] Linn Ž, 1 758, p. 709 (as Nautilus crispus ). Brady, 1884, p. 736 737, pl. 110, figs. 6 7 (as Polystomella crispa ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 674 675, pl. 786, figs. 8 9, pl. 787, figs. 1 5. Jones, 1994, p. 109, pl. 110, figs. 6 7. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 1 68 169, pl. 378, figs. 4 6. Elphidium simplex Cushman, 1933 Test nearly circular inside view, periphery rounded, becoming very slightly lobulated in the later portion in side view, umbilical region occupied by a large flat boss; chambers numerous, distinc t, 10 to 12 in the last formed coil, of rather uniform shape, increasing very slightly in size as added, the later ones slightly inflated; sutures distinct, depressed, rather strongly curved, retral processes often indistinct, but usually visible, especial ly in the later chambers; aperture one or more openings at the base of the apertural face. Length, up to 0.55 mm; breadth, 0.45 mm; thickness, 0.15 mm. This species is a rather simple primitive form in which the retral processes are very slightly developed It is so abundant at some of the stations that it is to be suspected that it is a characteristic Indo Pacific species. (Cushman, 1933a) Cushman, 1933, p. 52 53, pl. 12, figs. 8 9. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 170, pl. 385, figs. 1 12.

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401 NUMMULITACEA de Blainville, 1827 NUMMULITIDAE de Blainville, 1827 Assilina d'Orbigny, 1839 Test large, flattened, may be involute but more commonly evolute, with rapidly enlarging whorls and numerous chambers per whorl, sutures radial, slightly curved back at the peripher y, imperforate and may be elevated, septa simple, septal flap unfolded, no trabeculae, marginal cord thick, canal system with elongate meshes in the marginal canal, intraseptal canals join the lateral canals of the lateral walls that in turn connect the sp iral canal at the base of the whorl to the bundle of marginal canals at the periphery, simple, narrow, and short sutural canals along the lateral canals may be forked or ramified and form rows of alternating openings along the imperforate septal suture, st olons simple, radial, or oblique and irregularly distributed; wall calcareous, finely perforate, surface may be smooth, have pustules reflecting interseptal pillars, or have a reticulate pattern due to elevated or pillar bearing spiral and radial sutures; intercameral foramen formed by resorption at the base of the imperforate septal face, apertural face with longitudinal grooves that are continuous along the periphery to the preceding septum. M. Paleocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan tropical and subtropical. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Assilina ammonoides (Gronovius, 1781) (Plate 18, figs. 1 8) Testa compressa: apertura lineari: anfractibus contiguis: striis elevatis multiradiata. Testa minuta alba vix ullius crassitiei. Carina nulla. Peripheria autem testae plana, margine vix notabili elevatur. Striae anfractuum respondent innumeris dissepimentis. D. D. M. Th. Brunniche. (Gronovius, 1781) [Test compressed: aperture linear: spiral close: striations elevated and multiradiate. [Test small white scarcely any thic kness. Carina none. Periphery test planar however, margin scarely notably elevated. Striae spiral answering numerous divisions.] Gronovius, 1781, p. 282, v, pl. 19, figs. 5 6 (as Nautilus ammonoides ). Brady, 1884, p. 745, pl. 112, figs. 1 2 (as Operculina ammonoides ). Loeblich and Tappan, 1987, p. 682 683, pl. 804, figs. 1 7. Hottinger et al ., 1993, p. 154 156, pl. 222, figs. 1 8, pl. 223, figs. 1 14, pl. 224, figs. 1 8, pl. 225, figs. 1 9. Jones, 1994, p. 110, pl. 112, figs. 1 2 (as Hyalinea balthica ). Loe blich and Tappan, 1994, p. 170 171, pl. 387, figs. 7 9, pl. 388, figs. 1 4. Heterostegina d'Orbigny, 1826 Test involute to evolute, centrally thickened, megalospheric proloculus followed by up to sixteen operculinoid and unfolded septa, larger and relativ ely rare microspheric test with about thirty unfolded septa, then with chamberlets formed by complete secondary septa produced by folds of the septal flap, no communication between adjacent chamberlets of the same chamber, marginal cord consists of an anas tomosing bundle of canals in the peripheral band that are continuous with those in the spiral septum of earlier whorls, intraseptal canals formed from part of former marginal canals as new chamber is added, and connect the marginal canals of successive who rls, secondary sutural canals in the septula forming the chamberlets connect successive sutural canals, and those in peripheral position may lead into the marginal canals, apertures of proloculus and early undivided chambers form the primary stolons or ape rtural or foraminal tubes, later chambers and chamberlets of a single chamber connected by radial stolons or tubes and may also have annular stolons or tangential tubes, so called because of their position, Y shaped supplementary stolons occur at the dista l tip of the secondary septula in the median plane, smaller connections occur between the chamber lumen and peripheral canals of the final whorl and spiraling canals of the underlying whorl and may also lead to the intraseptal canals, canal system opens th rough small branches or trabeculae into the relatively large pores or openings of the marginal, septal and secondary septal canals and to the exterior; wall calcareous, finely perforate, chambers and stolons with organic lining but none present in the cana l system, up to six interseptal pillars present on the lateral chamberlet walls; openings of the canal system along the periphery may serve for ingestion of nutrients, waste excretion, and exit of the protoplasm from the test at the time of sexual reproduc tion; live individuals have endosymbiotic diatoms whose photosynthesis provides nutrition for the host; asexual reproduction by multiple fission of protoplasm that earlier had streamed outside the test, producing 100 to over 1,000 young that obtain

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402 symbion ts from the parent protoplasm, rarely some residual protoplasm remains in the parent cell, continues to grow, and later reproduces a second time; at gamogony thousands of 120 !m ovoid biflagellate gametes are produced. U. Eocene to Holocene; cosmopolitan, tropical to temperate Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Heterostegina depressa d'Orbigny, 1826 (Plate 19, figs. 1 8) [No description given in original.] (d'Orbigny, 1826) Test complanate, the early portion usually somewhat i nvolute and thickened, later portion very thin and flaring, early chambers only slightly divided, becoming increasingly so in the later ones, periphery thin and rounded with a slight specialized border such as is frequent in this and the preceding genus; c hambers elongate, curved, numerous, divided into chamberlets by transverse partitions usually alternating in adjacent chambers, the division into chamberlets first appearing on the periphery and progressively working farther and farther in toward the centr al portion as growth progresses; sutures distinct, slightly limbate, not raised but occasionally very slightly depressed in the adult, strongly curved, often somewhat sigmoid; aperture at the base of the final chamber together with a series of pores along the apertural face. Length, up to 2.5 mm; breadth, 1.85 mm; thickness, 0.35 mm. (Cushman, 1933a) d'Orbigny, 1826, p. 305, pl. 17, figs. 5 7. Brady, 1884, p. 746 747, pl. 112, figs. 14 18 (not figs. 19 20). Cushman, 1933, p. 57 58, pl. 16, figs. 4 9. Loebli ch and Tappan, 1987, p. 684 685, pl. 808, figs. 3 4. Hottinger et al. 1993, p. 157 158, pl. 228, figs. 1 11, pl. 229, figs. 1 8, pl. 230, fig. 9. Jones, 1994, p. 111, pl. 112, figs. 14 18. Loeblich and Tappan, 1994, p. 171, pl. 389, figs. 1 6, pl. 390, fi gs. 1 3. Nummulites Lamarck, 1801 Test globular, lenticular or discoidal, commonly large, up to about 12 cm in diameter, dimorphism pronounced in larger species, planispirally enrolled, commonly involute but may be evolute in the later stage, proloculus a nd deuteroconch separated by an imperforate common wall with a single central round pore and with a row of pores at the base of the septum, outer wall of the embryonal chambers perforate, later chambers simple and undivided, many per whorl, septa curved ba ck at the periphery and may be sigmoidal, supplementary stolons in the unfolded septa, distinct marginal cord on the periphery, marginal canal with a network of elongate meshes, sutural canals ramified, directed obliquely backward and foreward on both side s of the septa, the oblique paths of the sutural canals and the branches in the lateral walls visible on the lateral wall surface where the offset pores leave narrow unperforated bands as transverse trabeculae, dissolution may modify the trabecular canals into radial passages that directly connect the canal systems of superposed whorls of involute tests, supplementary lateral passages result from gaps in the septa between adjacent alar prolongations of the involute chambers, pillars may be interspersed betw een septal filaments and appear at the surface as pustules; aperture in all post prolocular chambers consists of a row of pores at the base of the face. Paleocene to Holocene; tropical and subtropical cosmopolitan. (Loeblich and Tappan, 1987) Nummulites ve nosus (Fichtel and Moll, 1798) (Plate 20, figs. 1 8) Testa spiralis involuta, orbicularis, lvis, utrinque satis convexa, radiata radiis sat distantibus, (remotioribus ideoque paucioribus, quam in N. radiato ), flexuosis, plurimum simplicibus, hinc inde ve rsus ambitum bi & trifurcatis, nullis brevioribus intercalaribus, (quo etiam distinguitur a N. radiato ); dorso obtuse carinato; anfractibus quatuor apparenter lente crescentibus; isthmis quoque satis distantibus (buplo remotioribus, quam in N. radiato mi nusque obliquis, quam in illo), antrorsum convexis; centro interno mediocri globulari cavo. Orificio detrito. Color, patria & mensura, uti in N. radiato Nota. Primo intuitu hc cum Naut. radiato eadem species esse videtur, sed ex prcedente descriptione p atebit, diversas inter se esse species. Forsan nonnullis du sollummodo varietates unius speciei esse videbuntur. (Fichtel and Moll, 1798) [ Test an involute spiral, circular, smooth, on each side quite convex and radiated, the rays are curved back, quite d istant from each other, (further distanced and consequently fewer, than with N. radiato ), most of which are single, occasionally toward the periphery they are two or three forked, without short mid septa (whereby this one also differs from N. radiato ); th e dorsal side is bluntly keeled; the four whorls apparently increase slowly in width; the septa also stand separate from each other (twice as wide, as N.

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403 radiato and less oblique), and are curved forward; the interior midpoint is of undistiguished size, globose and hollow. The orifice is abraded. Color, location, and size is as in N. radiato Note: at first glance this species appears to be the same as N. radiato just by the above description is it illuminated, that they are two different species. Maybe it would seem to some that they are just two modifications of the same species. ] Fichtel and Moll, 1798, p. 59 60, pl. 8, figs. e h (as Nautilus venosus ). Brady, 1884, p. 749, pl. 112, figs. 11 13, textfig. 22 (as Nummulites cumingii ). Jones, 1994, p. 110, pl. 112, figs. 11 13, textfig. 22 (as Operculinella cumingii ). Loeblicah and Tappan, 1994, p. 171, pl. 388, figs. 5 9.

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404 Appendix VIII AN ONLINE DATABASE OF FORAMINIFERAL TAXONOMY "I was trying several small and single Magnifying Glasses, and casually viewing a parcel of white Sand, when I perceiv'd one of the grains exactly shap'd and wreath'd like a Shell, but endeavouring to distinguish it with my naked eye, it was so very small, that I was fain again to make use of the Glass to find it; then, while st I thus look'd on it, with a Pin I separated all the rest of the granules of Sand, and found it afterwards to appear to the naked eye an exceeding small white spot, no bigger than the point of a Pin Afterwards I view'd it every way with a better Microsc ope and found it on both sides, and edge ways, to resemble the Shell of a small Water Snail with a flat spiral Shell: it had twelve wreathings, all very proportionably growing one less than another towards the middle or center of the Shell, where there was a very small round white spot." (Hooke, 1665. Description of the first published foraminiferan illustration; Fig. VIII.1.) Introduction To perform useful biological, palaeoclimatological, or stratigraphic work, one must accurately and consistently define the fundamental biological taxonomic units. The Foraminifera are an extremely important and diverse taxon, with uses in the fields of

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405 biostratigraphy, paleoclimatology, carbonate geology, and the evolution of basal eukaryotes. The taxonomy of the Foramini fera has been in constant flux for more than 200 years, since entering scientific nomenclature misclassified as tiny cephalopods by Linneaus in 1758 (Cifelli, 1990; Richardson, 1990) Due to their general character of possessing a hard test, they have an e xcellent fossil record, and therefore have one of the best and most thorough taxonomies of all unicellular eukaryotic groups. However, this taxonomy is constantly changing, and its historical basis is spread across hundreds of rare, difficult to obtain ref erences, often hundreds of years old and written in a dozen languages for instance, Foraminifera were first reported by Herodotus and Pliny the Elder describing the nummulitic limestone of the Pyramids, were first illustrated as "water snails" in Robert Ho oke's Micrographia (1665) and 15 species of them were included in the twelfth edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae (1766) An online resource has been created containing historical taxonomic information, currently accepted descriptions, original publishe d images and images useful for identification, biogeographic, and molecular information. The electronic nature of this resource means that it is easily updatable as new information is obtained, and can provide researchers convenient and usable access to ac curate taxonomic information. The ease of preservation of foraminiferal tests and the suitability of many of their habitats to preservation has resulted in a long and detailed fossil record of 550Ma, making them a favorite for generations of paleostratigra phers. Their extensive use in academe and industry, and the importance of their utility as indicators, has provided high impetus to constantly revise their taxonomy. The problem of nomenclatural confusion persists to the present day, and every indication s uggests it will likely continue and grow

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406 worse in the future. The standard taxonomic reference for the group, Loeblich and Tappan's Foraminiferal Genera and Their Classification (1987) while an excellent reference, is 20 years out of date, becoming more s o all the time, and classifies only to genus level. One striving for an accurate suprageneric classification must supplement it with numerous updates, revisions, additions, and emendations, including Loeblich and Tappan's "Present status of foraminiferal c lassification" (1990), and Sen Gupta's "Systematics of Modern Foraminifera" (1999b) Modern genetic techniques and consequent taxonomic conceptions mean these groupings will shift all the more often. Accurate species level classification requires a vast an d growing, not to mention often conflicting, library of references. We have recently entered the age of viable computerized taxonomic databases. A number of ambitious projects have tackled the substantial problem of cataloguing and enumerating all life for ms on Earth. However, with at least 10 million other taxa to research and accommodate, the Foraminifera have thus far been largely neglected. The University of Arizona's Tree of Life project (Maddison and Schulz, 2007) has a single word entry for the Foram inifera a considerable condensation for a 10,000 species taxon. E. O. Wilson's Encyclopedia of Life (Wilson, 2008) has, at this early stage, done slightly better; it contains rudimentary data on some 59 families, and several dozen species. However, this sp ecialists' taxon is not likely to receive the attention of more charismatic and/or widely studied species, and will likely never reach the level of detail proposed herein. The probable fate of the Foraminifera on all encompassing sites such as the Encyclop edia of Life is likely to ultimately be pictures and descriptions of extant

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407 taxa. However, the vast historical scientific literature is not likely to be incorporated in such an effort, and its loss is to be lamented. The preservation of degrading historica l materials is also a desirable goal. Acidic paper, insects, fires, water damage, rough handling, loss, societal changes (especially for ex Soviet references), etc., take their toll on this literature annually, the vast majority of which has never been dig itized. Already, many references from the dawn of foraminiferal taxonomy are difficult or impossible to obtain some have only handfulls of copies left in existence. All of this material can easily be scanned and housed in an electronic repository, not only to facilitate access, cross referencing, ease of use, and searchability, but to be preserved for posterity. A similar project to the one herein proposed has been carried out for the extant Zoantharia by Dr. Daphne Fautin et al at the University of Kansas The Hexacorallians of the World biogeographic and taxonomic database (Fautin, 2008) consists of several thousand described species and references; experience as an undergraduate with its initial construction and function was of invaluable assistance whil e conceiving and designing a similar edifice for a considerably larger and more thoroughly described group. Confining the database at present to extant species reduces the dimensions of the database several degrees by removing a number of complicating vari ables (age, strata, extent, etc.), as well as reducing its overall size; the modular nature of the data construction ensures that extension of the schema to include these, or other, additional variables will be easily possible at a later date. The proposed solution to the current foraminiferal taxonomic quagmire is thus an online database of foraminiferal taxonomy, bibliography, and biogeography. Such a

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408 database would provide the benefits of being hierarchical, easily searchable, widely and easily available and always up to date. Additionally, it would bring together descriptions from multiple sources for comparison, provide a variety of taxon images (illustrations, light micrographs, SEM, etc.) from descriptions and other sources, and could be linked to ge netic information available in GenBank and elsewhere. It would be an invaluable resource to researchers attempting to identify foraminifers. A prototype of such a database has been constructed, presently containing Recent Foraminifera complete to the famil y level. However, this database could easily be expanded to contain any number of the perhaps 6000 Recent and 10,000 fossil taxa. Project Goals The goals of this project are to: 1) provide a convenient and easy to use tool for up to date foraminiferal tax onomy and identification; 2) bring together and translate into English often old, rare, valuable, and/or hard to find original descriptions for convenient use and distribution to researchers; 3) electronically preserve important scientific, historic, and a rtistic information that otherwise runs the risk of being lost or fading further into obscurity; 4) consolidate descriptive, imagery, taxonomic, geographic, stratigraphic, and molecular data into one easily accessible location; 5) bring traditional, morpho logy based taxonomy in line with phylogenies obtained from modern molecular techniques ( i.e ., to create a monophyletic taxonomy).

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409 Nomenclatural Guidelines This taxonomic database strives to comply with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ( ICZN), Fourth Edition (1999) Although, according to the ICZN, "The Code does not fully regulate the names of taxa above the family group" (Introduction, p. XIX), this project endeavors to extrapolate ICZN policies to all taxonomic levels. For instance, cr edit for description of a taxon is given to first usage of said taxon name at that rank. Thus, for, say, the rank of order, any description of a taxon as an order, suborder, superorder, or any other order level rank simultaneously establishes names at all other levels in the rank (in extension of ICZN Article 36). For instance, if Smith, 1880 described Suborder Allogromiina, and it is now considered an Order, Smith would still be the describing author, as he simulatneously established names at Order and Sup erorder level. If it is now considered a Class, Subclass, or Superclass (or any other non Order rank), credit for authorship would go to the first author to utilize that rank level. Use of names at one rank retain original authorship even if the original a uthor used a spelling for the name that later must be changed in form to maintain compliance with standard Latinized ending conventions (indicated in notes by nom. corr ."). So far as possible, the following endings have been applied to all taxa belonging to the levels: Phylum: a Class: ea (Class Foraminifera being the obvious exception to this) Order: ida Suborder: ina Superfamily: acea

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410 Family: idae Subfamily: inae Current Database Features A prototype complete taxonomic guide to currently recogniz ed taxa of extant Foraminifera to the superfamily level has been constructed, containing 15 orders and 56 superfamilies. The 177 currently recognized extant families are hierarchically included, but do not yet contain complete taxonomic histories. The fora miniferal taxonomic database consists of an Apache Server MySQL database, accessed by a collection of PHP scripts generating HTML pages. Primary entries consist of taxon name, rank, describer, and parent and subsidiary taxa. Additionally, each taxon includ es its original description, as well as the currently accepted description, and supplementary descriptions as informative and appropriate. Further, relevant images are included to aid in identification, linked to further images of that taxon and from that reference (Fig. VIII.1). Relevant references pertaining to each taxon are included, linked to a general list of references, with electronic copies to download, as available, for those freely available or with expired copyright. Keywords are linked to a glo ssary of foraminiferal vocabulary collected and combined from a number of standard foraminiferal references, including Hottinger and Scheuring's (1997) Glossary of Terms Used in Foraminiferal Research. The database is currently searchable by taxon, and is potentially easily searchable by author, description text, etc. Nearline data includes scanned imagery from nearly one hundred references, consisting of more than 3000 plates, and 700 digitized references, which can ultimately be incorporated into species records. Offline material currently

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411 Figure VIII.1. Screen capture of the hierarchical taxonomic Database of Recent Foraminifera. Individual taxa are linked to parent and child taxa, original and supplemental imagery, and original and supplementa ry descriptions. The database also includes a foraminiferal taxonomic bibliography and anatomical glossary. Proposed extensions include addition of embedded Google Map biogeographic information.

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412 Figure VIII.1. Continued.

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413 consists of a personal library of several thousand taxonomic references. Additional proposed extensions of the structure include incorporation of CSS and JavaScript functionality to allow personalization and selective inclusion of information to be displayed. Google Map based incorporat ion of biogeographic and historic data (location of description, range, location of type specimen, etc.) is planned. A number of difficulties have been encountered thus far in the project, common to all projects of this nature, including the difficulty in obtaining originals, high quality copies of, or access to old, rare, obscure, and/or delicate references, such as LinnŽ, Gronovonius, Fichtel and Moll, de Blainville, etc. One group of references particularly difficult to obtain are those published behind the Iron Curtain during the Cold War; yet Soviet science contributed a great deal to foraminiferal taxonomy during this half century period. This group of publications also introduces the second major difficulty in this undertaking: That of translating ref erences originally written in Latin, French, Italian, German, Russian, Spanish, Mandarin, Japanese, etc., into English. Additionally, the Linnaean classification ranks do not superimpose well onto modern phylogenetic clades. Continuing work will need to be done to reconcile these classification modes and incorporate the full range of information.

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414 Appendix IX. Measured temperatures (¡C) at 17 locations along a 300m transect away from Tutum Bay hydrothermal vent mouths over a seven day period. Reported value s are the maxima of the 60 measurements taken each hour; "ND" indicates missing data due to logger malfunction. 1m 7.5m 12m 20m 30m 40m 60m 80m 100m 120m 140m 160m 180m 210m 240m 270m 300m 5/28/05 11:30 84.03 55.87 39.72 30.04 30.56 30.39 30.98 31.13 30. 01 30.36 31.87 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.25 29.62 5/28/05 12:30 83.95 56.70 39.57 30.04 30.56 30.39 30.98 31.13 30.01 30.36 30.80 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.25 29.62 5/28/05 13:30 84.03 56.98 39.43 29.99 30.56 30.21 30.98 31.13 30.01 30.36 30.80 29.79 2 9.69 29.74 29.51 29.25 29.62 5/28/05 14:30 84.03 56.98 39.35 29.97 30.56 30.21 30.98 31.13 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.25 29.62 5/28/05 15:30 84.03 55.64 39.46 29.92 30.21 30.21 30.98 31.13 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.62 5/28/05 16:30 84.03 55.48 39.35 29.97 30.21 30.21 30.63 31.13 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.81 5/28/05 17:30 83.95 55.10 39.06 29.99 30.21 30.21 30.63 31.13 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.62 5/28/05 18:30 83.95 56.22 38.73 29.97 30.21 30.21 30.63 31.13 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.62 5/28/05 19:30 83.87 56.11 38.42 29.92 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.62 5/28/05 20:30 83.79 56.46 38.31 29.9 2 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.62 5/28/05 21:30 83.71 56.58 38.14 29.92 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.62 5/28/05 22:30 83.63 56.54 38.23 29.92 30.21 30.21 30.28 30 .78 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.62 5/28/05 23:30 83.47 57.38 38.34 29.89 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.81 5/29/05 0:30 83.39 55.95 38.31 29.89 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.36 30.10 2 9.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.62 5/29/05 1:30 83.23 56.70 38.23 29.89 30.21 30.02 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.62 5/29/05 2:30 83.23 57.58 38.09 29.89 30.21 30.02 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 2 9.25 29.62 5/29/05 3:30 83.23 57.62 38.14 29.87 30.21 30.02 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.40 29.51 29.59 29.62 5/29/05 4:30 83.23 57.46 38.03 29.84 30.21 30.02 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.40 29.51 29.25 29.62 5/29/05 5:30 83.23 58.07 38.17 29.82 30.21 30.02 30.28 30.43 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.81 5/29/05 6:30 83.23 59.32 38.25 29.84 30.21 30.02 30.28 30.43 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.81 5/29/05 7:30 83.23 60.44 38.25 29.87 30.21 30.02 30.28 30.43 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.81 5/29/05 8:30 83.31 61.09 38.20 29.89 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 30.36 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.81 5/29/05 9:30 83.47 61.67 37.87 29.97 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 30.71 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 29.59 29.81 5/29/05 10:30 83.63 62.21 37.92 30.02 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.71 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 29.59 29.81 5/29/05 11:30 83.71 61.85 38.50 29.99 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.71 30.45 29. 79 29.69 29.74 29.85 29.25 29.62 5/29/05 12:30 83.79 61.76 38.70 29.99 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.71 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 29.25 29.62 5/29/05 13:30 83.95 61.90 38.81 30.02 30.21 30.39 30.63 30.78 30.01 30.71 30.45 30.14 29.69 29.74 29.85 2 9.25 29.62 5/29/05 14:30 84.03 61.94 38.59 30.02 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 29.59 29.81 5/29/05 15:30 84.03 61.54 38.31 29.99 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 29.59 29.81 5/29/05 16 :30 84.03 61.40 37.92 30.04 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 29.59 29.81 5/29/05 17:30 83.87 59.71 37.95 30.07 30.56 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.06 30.80 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 29.59 29.99 5/29/05 18:30 83.87 60.05 37.81 30.07 30.56 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.06 30.80 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 29.94 29.99 5/29/05 19:30 83.87 60.13 37.65 30.07 30.56 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.41 31.16 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 29.94 30.18

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415 Appendix IX. Continued. 1m 7.5m 12m 20m 30m 40m 60m 8 0m 100m 120m 140m 160m 180m 210m 240m 270m 300m 5/29/05 20:30 83.79 60.31 37.56 30.07 30.56 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.41 31.16 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/29/05 21:30 83.71 59.32 37.43 30.02 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.41 31.16 29.79 29.69 29.7 4 29.51 ND ND 5/29/05 22:30 83.71 59.41 37.37 30.02 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.41 37.55 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/29/05 23:30 83.63 59.24 37.21 30.07 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.06 37.55 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 5/30/05 0:30 83.55 58.03 37.18 30.07 30.56 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.01 31.06 31.87 30.14 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 5/30/05 1:30 83.47 57.70 36.99 30.09 30.56 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 31.06 32.23 30.14 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 5/30/05 2:30 83.39 55.87 36.99 30.09 30.56 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 31.06 32.23 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 3:30 83.23 55.87 36.88 30.12 30.56 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 30.71 31.87 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 4:30 83.23 57.79 36.88 30.14 30.56 30.21 30.63 31.49 30.36 30.71 30.80 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 5:30 83.08 58.57 36.82 30.14 30.91 30.21 30.63 31.13 30.01 30.71 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 6:30 83.15 59.07 36.72 30.09 30.91 30.21 30.63 31.13 30.01 30.71 31.16 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 7:30 83.2 3 59.92 36.80 30.09 30.91 30.21 30.63 31.13 30.01 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 8:30 83.23 60.66 36.96 30.12 30.91 30.21 30.63 31.13 30.01 31.06 31.87 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 9:30 83.31 60.74 36.91 30.14 30.91 30.21 30.2 8 31.13 30.36 31.06 31.51 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 10:30 83.47 60.48 37.01 30.12 30.91 30.02 30.28 31.13 30.01 31.41 31.51 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 11:30 83.63 60.44 37.15 30.14 30.91 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 31.41 31.16 29.79 29 .69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 12:30 83.79 59.37 37.26 30.14 30.91 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 31.77 33.32 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 13:30 83.87 59.37 37.37 30.14 30.56 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 31.77 30.80 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 14: 30 83.87 58.69 37.48 30.17 30.56 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 31.77 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 15:30 83.87 57.83 37.48 30.14 30.56 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 31.77 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 16:30 83.87 58.28 37.51 30.12 30.56 3 0.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 32.13 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 17:30 83.79 58.49 37.51 30.12 30.56 30.21 30.63 31.13 30.36 32.13 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 18:30 83.87 57.75 37.43 30.12 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.36 32.13 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 5/30/05 19:30 83.79 57.70 37.48 30.17 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.36 32.13 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 5/30/05 20:30 83.71 58.03 37.43 30.17 30.21 30.21 30.63 31.13 30.36 32.13 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 5/ 30/05 21:30 83.63 57.95 37.34 30.17 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.36 32.13 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 5/30/05 22:30 83.55 58.90 37.37 30.22 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.36 32.13 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/30/05 23:30 83.39 58.94 37.32 30.2 2 30.21 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 32.13 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 0:30 83.31 59.15 37.26 30.19 30.21 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 32.13 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 1:30 83.23 59.20 37.21 30.19 30.21 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.36 32.1 3 39.59 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 5/31/05 2:30 83.23 60.05 37.15 30.22 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.49 40.02 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 5/31/05 3:30 83.15 60.39 37.21 30.34 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.49 40.44 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND N D 5/31/05 4:30 83.08 60.44 37.21 30.52 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.86 40.02 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 5/31/05 5:30 83.08 61.01 37.29 30.62 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.71 32.86 40.87 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND

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416 Appendix IX. Continued. 1m 7.5m 12m 20m 30m 40m 60m 80m 100m 120m 140m 160m 180m 210m 240m 270m 300m 5/31/05 6:30 83.08 61.14 37.29 30.75 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.71 32.86 40.87 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 7:30 83.08 61.67 37.26 30.93 30.21 30.02 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.86 31. 87 29.79 29.69 29.40 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 8:30 83.08 61.81 37.23 30.90 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.86 31.16 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 9:30 83.15 62.53 37.34 30.87 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.86 31.16 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/ 31/05 10:30 83.23 62.85 37.40 30.85 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.86 30.80 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 11:30 83.31 62.95 37.37 30.90 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.86 30.80 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 12:30 83.39 62.95 37.32 30.9 0 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 33.22 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 13:30 83.47 61.63 37.37 31.05 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 33.22 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 14:30 83.63 61.45 37.54 31.08 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 35 .87 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 15:30 83.55 60.92 37.43 30.87 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 35.87 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 16:30 83.47 60.92 37.56 30.85 30.21 30.02 30.28 30.78 30.71 35.48 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 17:30 83.47 60.83 37.62 30.80 30.21 30.02 30.28 30.78 30.71 35.10 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 18:30 83.39 59.03 37.51 30.72 30.21 30.02 29.93 30.43 30.71 34.72 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.40 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 19:30 83.23 59.07 3 7.43 30.98 30.21 30.02 29.93 30.78 30.71 34.72 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.40 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 20:30 83.08 58.82 37.34 31.18 30.21 30.02 29.93 30.78 30.71 34.34 30.10 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 21:30 83.00 58.86 37.40 31.23 30.21 30.21 29.93 31.13 30.71 34.34 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 22:30 82.84 59.15 37.34 31.48 30.21 30.21 29.93 31.13 30.71 34.34 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 5/31/05 23:30 82.76 59.37 37.26 31.59 30.21 30.21 29.93 31.13 30.71 33.97 30.45 29.79 29.69 29. 74 29.51 ND ND 6/1/05 0:30 82.68 61.05 37.23 31.66 30.21 30.21 29.93 30.78 30.71 33.97 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/1/05 1:30 82.61 61.76 37.15 31.69 30.21 30.02 29.93 31.13 30.71 33.97 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/1/05 2:30 82.53 61.5 8 37.21 31.64 30.21 30.02 29.93 31.13 30.71 33.97 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/1/05 3:30 82.61 60.31 37.10 31.51 30.21 30.02 29.93 30.78 30.71 33.97 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/1/05 4:30 82.76 60.26 37.15 31.51 30.21 30.02 29.93 30.78 30.71 33.97 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/1/05 5:30 82.84 60.18 37.21 31.23 30.21 30.02 29.93 30.78 30.71 33.97 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/1/05 6:30 82.92 59.75 37.21 31.26 30.21 30.02 29.93 30.78 30.71 33.97 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29 .51 ND ND 6/1/05 7:30 82.92 61.05 37.12 31.31 30.21 30.21 29.93 30.78 30.71 33.59 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/1/05 8:30 82.84 62.03 37.10 31.54 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 33.59 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/1/05 9:30 82.92 62.53 36. 99 31.51 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.78 30.71 33.59 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 10:30 82.92 62.81 37.26 31.56 30.21 30.39 30.28 31.13 31.07 33.22 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 11:30 82.84 62.85 37.37 31.64 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.78 31. 07 33.22 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 12:30 82.92 62.30 37.26 31.64 30.21 30.39 30.28 31.13 30.71 33.22 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 13:30 83.00 60.83 37.59 31.56 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.86 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29. 85 ND ND 6/1/05 14:30 83.08 59.53 38.14 31.61 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.86 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 15:30 83.23 58.99 38.17 31.48 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.78 30.71 33.22 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND

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417 Appendix IX. Continued. 1 m 7.5m 12m 20m 30m 40m 60m 80m 100m 120m 140m 160m 180m 210m 240m 270m 300m 6/1/05 16:30 83.39 58.20 38.09 31.00 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.43 30.71 33.22 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 17:30 83.39 57.26 37.84 30.67 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.43 30.71 33 .59 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 18:30 83.47 57.10 37.76 30.50 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.43 30.71 33.59 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 19:30 83.55 57.79 37.81 30.37 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.43 30.71 33.22 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 20:30 83.55 57.70 37.56 30.29 30.21 30.39 30.63 30.43 30.71 33.22 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 21:30 83.47 57.62 37.37 30.27 30.21 30.39 30.63 30.43 30.71 32.86 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 22:30 83.39 58.36 37.29 30.22 30.21 30.39 30.63 30.43 30.71 32.49 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/1/05 23:30 83.39 59.07 37.54 30.24 30.21 30.39 30.63 30.43 30.71 32.49 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/2/05 0:30 83.39 59.07 37.65 30.24 30.21 30.39 30.63 30.43 30.71 3 2.49 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/2/05 1:30 83.47 58.86 37.98 30.19 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.43 30.71 32.13 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/2/05 2:30 83.55 58.65 38.03 30.19 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.43 30.71 32.13 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/2/05 3:30 83.63 59.24 38.09 30.22 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.78 30.71 32.13 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/2/05 4:30 83.71 60.18 37.81 30.22 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.43 30.71 31.77 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/2/05 5:30 83.79 60.83 37.62 30.1 9 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.43 30.71 31.41 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/2/05 6:30 83.87 61.45 37.43 30.32 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.43 30.71 31.41 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/2/05 7:30 83.95 61.99 37.34 30.60 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.43 30.71 31.41 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/2/05 8:30 83.95 61.58 37.51 30.95 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.78 30.71 31.41 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/2/05 9:30 83.95 60.57 37.45 31.20 30.21 30.39 30.28 30.78 31.07 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6 /2/05 10:30 83.87 59.79 37.48 31.26 30.21 30.39 30.63 30.78 31.07 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 11:30 83.87 57.95 37.26 31.08 30.56 30.39 30.63 30.78 31.07 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 12:30 83.87 56.86 37.43 31.26 30.21 30.39 30.63 30.78 31.07 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 13:30 83.87 56.54 37.40 31.31 30.21 30.39 30.63 30.78 31.07 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 14:30 83.87 56.58 46.80 31.36 30.21 30.39 30.63 30.78 31.07 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 15:30 83.87 55.79 47.03 31.31 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.40 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 16:30 83.95 55.95 46.80 31.26 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.40 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 17:30 83.95 55.91 46.58 31.28 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.43 30.71 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.40 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 18:30 83.95 57.30 46.42 31.23 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.43 30.71 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 19:30 83.95 57.26 45.81 31.2 6 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.43 30.71 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 20:30 83.87 57.70 45.50 31.23 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.43 30.71 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 21:30 83.79 57.91 45.40 31.18 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.43 30.71 31.0 6 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 22:30 83.71 57.79 45.06 31.23 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.43 30.71 31.06 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/2/05 23:30 83.63 57.54 45.06 31.08 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.43 30.71 30.71 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND N D 6/3/05 0:30 83.47 58.24 45.12 30.65 30.21 30.21 30.63 30.78 30.71 30.71 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.40 29.51 ND ND 6/3/05 1:30 83.55 58.32 46.00 30.55 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 30.71 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND

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418 Appendix IX. Continued. 1m 7.5m 12 m 20m 30m 40m 60m 80m 100m 120m 140m 160m 180m 210m 240m 270m 300m 6/3/05 2:30 83.71 58.94 46.29 30.37 30.21 30.21 30.28 30.78 30.71 30.71 30.45 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/3/05 3:30 83.79 59.41 46.48 30.29 30.21 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.71 30.71 30.45 2 9.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/3/05 4:30 83.87 59.75 46.67 30.24 30.21 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.71 30.71 30.80 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/3/05 5:30 83.95 59.92 46.74 30.22 30.21 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.71 30.71 30.80 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/3/05 6 :30 84.03 59.79 47.13 30.22 30.21 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.71 30.71 30.80 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.51 ND ND 6/3/05 7:30 84.03 59.66 47.58 30.24 30.21 30.21 30.28 31.13 30.71 30.71 31.16 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 8:30 84.03 58.73 47.68 30.34 30.21 30.3 9 30.28 31.13 31.07 30.71 31.16 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 9:30 84.03 58.73 47.58 30.47 30.56 30.39 30.63 31.13 31.07 30.71 31.16 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 10:30 83.95 59.75 47.22 30.75 30.56 30.39 30.63 31.13 31.07 30.71 31.16 29.79 29.69 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 11:30 83.87 59.96 47.09 30.95 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.13 31.07 30.71 31.51 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 12:30 83.87 60.61 46.77 31.15 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.49 31.07 30.71 31.51 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 13: 30 83.87 61.23 46.61 31.15 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.13 31.07 30.71 31.51 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 14:30 83.87 61.23 46.64 31.15 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.49 31.07 30.71 31.51 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 15:30 83.87 61.23 46.90 31.13 30.56 30. 58 30.63 31.49 31.07 30.71 31.87 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 16:30 83.87 61.27 47.16 31.08 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.13 31.07 30.71 31.51 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 17:30 83.95 61.40 47.22 31.08 30.56 30.39 30.63 31.49 31.07 30.71 31.51 30. 14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 18:30 83.95 61.49 47.29 31.15 30.56 30.39 30.63 31.49 31.07 30.71 31.51 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 19:30 83.87 61.76 47.16 31.18 30.56 30.39 30.63 31.49 31.07 30.71 31.51 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 2 0:30 83.87 62.08 47.09 31.13 30.56 30.39 30.63 31.49 30.71 30.71 31.51 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 21:30 83.71 62.03 46.83 31.18 30.56 30.39 30.63 31.49 30.71 31.06 31.51 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 22:30 83.63 62.26 46.74 31.13 30.56 3 0.39 30.63 31.49 30.71 31.06 31.87 30.14 30.03 29.74 29.85 ND ND 6/3/05 23:30 83.55 62.67 46.64 31.05 30.56 30.39 30.63 31.49 30.71 31.06 31.87 30.14 30.03 30.09 29.85 ND ND 6/4/05 0:30 83.55 63.08 46.67 31.18 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.49 30.36 31.41 31.87 30 .14 30.03 30.09 29.85 ND ND 6/4/05 1:30 83.55 64.02 46.45 31.13 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.84 30.36 32.13 31.87 30.14 30.03 30.09 29.85 ND ND 6/4/05 2:30 83.47 64.79 46.80 31.31 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.84 30.36 32.13 31.87 30.14 30.03 30.09 29.85 ND ND 6/4/05 3: 30 83.55 64.98 47.03 31.31 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.49 30.36 31.77 31.87 30.14 30.03 30.09 29.85 ND ND 6/4/05 4:30 83.71 65.03 47.35 31.20 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.84 30.36 31.41 31.51 30.14 30.03 30.09 29.85 ND ND 6/4/05 5:30 83.95 64.89 47.48 31.13 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.84 30.36 31.41 31.51 30.14 30.03 30.09 29.85 ND ND 6/4/05 6:30 84.03 64.21 47.61 31.05 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.84 30.36 31.06 31.87 30.14 30.03 30.09 29.85 ND ND 6/4/05 7:30 84.12 63.32 47.58 31.13 30.56 30.58 30.63 31.84 30.36 31.06 31.87 30.14 3 0.03 30.09 29.85 ND ND 6/4/05 8:30 84.12 62.49 47.58 31.28 30.56 30.77 30.98 31.84 30.36 31.06 33.32 30.14 30.03 30.44 30.20 ND ND 6/4/05 9:30 83.95 62.35 47.48 31.31 30.56 30.77 30.63 32.21 30.36 31.06 30.80 30.14 30.03 30.79 30.91 ND ND 6/4/05 10:30 8 3.63 62.21 47.29 31.28 30.56 30.77 30.98 32.21 30.36 31.06 30.80 30.14 30.03 ND ND ND ND 6/4/05 11:30 83.39 62.21 47.29 31.26 30.56 30.77 30.98 32.21 30.36 31.06 30.80 30.14 30.03 ND ND ND ND

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419 Appendix X. Percentage of foraminiferal species in samples vs. size of the total foraminiferal community in individuals per 1.5g.

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420 Appendix X. Continued.

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421 Appendix X. Continued.

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422 Appendix X. Continued.

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423 Appendix X. Continued.

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424 Appendix X. Continued.

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42 5 Appendix X. Continued. "Forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabi t ." (Virgil, c.19BC)

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About the Author Bryan McCloskey grew up in northeast Kansas and received a Bachelor's of Science Degree in Biodiversity, Ecology, and Evolutionary Biology from the University of Kansas in 2000 while working on sea anemone taxon omy in the laboratory of Dr. Daphne Fautin. He completed a Research Experience for Undergraduates project at Dauphin Island Sea Lab with Dr. John Valentine working on brittlestar benthic ecology before coming to St. Petersburg, FL in 2000 to work at the US Geological Survey, where he currently creates databases for several South Florida and greater Everglades research projects.