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"Oye mi voz!" (hear my voice!)

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Title:
"Oye mi voz!" (hear my voice!) the perceptions of Hispanic boys regarding their literacy experiences
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Zickafoose, Rubylinda
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sociocultural
Gender
Culture
Masculunity
Critical literacy
Dissertations, Academic -- Reading and Language Arts Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to uncover the perspectives that pertain to the literacy experiences of young Hispanic boys. Hispanic boys will be asked to describe, feel, judge, and make sense of their public and private literacies (Faulkner, 2005). This phenomenological study embraces two methods of data collection, participant focus groups and individual interviews. The primary question guiding this inquiry was: What are the perceptions of adolescent Hispanic boys who are considered low level readers (by state achievement tests) regarding their literacy experiences? In order to help provide background information and set the stage for future work when considering this specific population other supporting questions were added.These include: 1.) What have researchers reported about Hispanic boys in literacy situations? 2.) What is the role of masculinity (machismo) in the literacy lives of Hispanic boys? 3.) What teaching methods do Hispanic boys consider most responsive to their literacy needs? and 4.) What role can critical literacy play in educating this marginalized population? After sorting and analyzing all data sources, the themes that evolved as considered most relevant by this group of Hispanic boys were: a). Family, b). Language: its role of language in building identity, c). Machismo: to include male discourse when dealing with gangs and violence, e). Education - public literacy, e). Literacy: reading, writing, and f). Moral Literacy.Several major implications of the study include: (a) strong value for their cultural identity, (b) disconnect from their educational settings, (c) could self-prescribe their personal educational needs, (d) lacked institutional knowledge, and (e) had the potential to rebuild their identity. It is imperative that we listen to the voices of this marginalized population in order to gain insight to how Hispanic boys live public and private literacies (Faulkner, 2005) in the hope that our educational system can respond to their personal and academic needs.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rubylinda Zickafoose.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 227 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002220714
oclc - 646291958
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002910
usfldc handle - e14.2910
System ID:
SFS0027227:00001


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PAGE 1

" O ye M i V oz ( H e a r M y V oi c e ) : T he P e r c e pt i on s of H i s pa ni c B oys R e ga r di ng t he i r L i t e r a c y E xpe r i e nc e s by R ubyl i nda Z i c ka f oos e A di s s e r t a t i on s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f u l f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of D oc t or of P hi l os ophy D e pa r t m e nt of R e a di ng E duc a t i on C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : J a m e s K i ng E d. D L i nda E va ns P h. D S us a n H om a n, P h D J a ne t R i c ha r ds P h. D B a r ba r a S hi r c l i f f e P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : D e c e m be r 18, 2008 K e yw or ds : s oc i oc ul t ur a l ge nde r c ul t ur e m a s c ul i n i t y, c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y C opyr i ght 2009 R ubyl i nda Z i c ka f oos e

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i T ab l e of C on t e n t s L i s t of T a bl e s v L i s t of F i gur e s vi A bs t r a c t vi i C ha pt e r O ne : R a t i ona l e a nd C ont e xt f o r S t udy I nt r oduc t i on 1 B a c kgr ound of R e s e a r c he r 1 S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m 6 R e t e nt i on of H i s pa ni c B oys 10 L i t e r a c y R a t e s of H i s pa ni c B oys 11 S i gni f i c a nc e of t he S t udy 13 Q ue s t i ons G ui di ng t he S t udy 15 D e f i ni t i on of T e r m s 16 C ul t ur e J our na l s 16 D i s c our s e s 17 G e nde r 17 H i s pa ni c 17 L i t e r a c y E xpe r i e nc e s 19 M a s c ul i ni t y ( M a c hi s m o) 19 P e r c e pt i ons 20 L i m i t a t i ons of t he S t udy 20 S um m a r y 21 C ha pt e r T w o: R e vi e w of L i t e r a t ur e 23 I nt r oduc t i on 23 R e s e a r c h M e t hod s 25 H i s pa ni c B oys a nd L i t e r a c y 27 L a ngua ge a nd C ul t ur e 28 O bs e r vi ng H i s pa ni c boys i n L i t e r a c y S i t ua t i ons 31 R e a di ng a nd G e nde r 31 R e a di ng a nd B oys 33 W r i t i ng a nd G e nde r 34 W r i t i ng a nd B oys 35 L e a r ni ng M a s c ul i ni t y ( M a c hi s m o) 36 E duc a t i ona l I m pa c t o f H i s pa ni c M a c hi s m o 41

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i i C r i t i c a l P e da gogy 43 C r i t i c a l L i t e r a c y 44 C onc l us i on 46 C ha pt e r T hr e e : M e t hods 48 I nt r oduc t i on 48 P hi l os ophi c a l O r i e nt a t i on t o I nqui r y 48 P he nom e nol ogy a s a M e t hod of I nqui r y 49 D e s i gn of S t udy 50 F oc us G r oup A ppr oa c h 50 R e s pons i v e I nt e r vi e w A ppr oa c h 51 T he S c hool S i t e 53 P a r t i c i pa nt s 56 D a t a C ol l e c t i on M e t hods 57 P ha s e I 57 P ha s e I I 62 D a t a A na l ys i s M e t hods 63 L i m i t a t i ons of S t udy 64 C ha pt e r F ou r : R e s e a r c h F i ndi ngs 67 I nt r oduc t i on 67 R e vi e w of M e t hods 68 P r opos e d S t udy vs A c t ua l S t udy 69 R e vi e w a nd I nt e nt i on of F oc us G r oups 70 R e vi e w a nd I nt e nt i on of R e s pons i ve I nt e r vi e w A p pr oa c h 71 I m pa c t of t he R e s pons i ve I nt e r vi e w A ppr oa c h 72 C l a s s r oom O bs e r va t i ons 78 O bs e r va t i ons of t he D e ve l opm e nt a l L a ngua ge A c qui s i t i on C l a s s 79 O bs e r va t i ons of t he I nt e ns i ve R e a di ng C l a s s 80 O bs e r va t i ons of t he R e gul a r E ngl i s h C l a s s 81 F oc us G r oups a nd I ndi vi dua l I nt e r vi e w s 84 I nvi t a t i ona l C onf e r e nc e 84 F oc us G r o up S e s s i ons 86 I ndi vi dua l I nt e r vi e w s 89 T he B oys 90 M y R ol e a s R e s e a r c he r 95 R ol e of R e s e a r c he r 95 R ol e of T e a c he r 97 R ol e of M ot he r 97 R ol e of D a ught e r 101 O t he r C onne c t i ons 101

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i i i F i ndi ngs 102 D a t a A na l ys i s 103 F a m i l y 105 M ot he r a s c a r e t a ke r 106 F a t he r a s di s c i pl i na r i a n 108 R e s pe c t w i t hi n a nd f or t he f a m i l y 108 D i c hos a nd c ons e j os 110 L a ngua ge N o, no m as s on e l l os 112 L a ngua ge l i nke d t o c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y 112 L a ngua ge i n s c hool s e t t i ng 114 R a c i s m W ho i s T he y ? 121 D i s c r i m i na t i on a nd i ne qui t y J ul i a n 123 I nqui s i t i ve a nd c ur i os i t y E m m a nue l 124 R e s e nt m e nt a nd a nge r G us t a vo a nd O s c a r 124 M a c hi s m o I l e t hi m l os e 126 I m pa c t on r ol e of m e n a nd w om e n 127 C l a s h be t w e e n t he ol d a nd ne w m a c hi s m o 1 34 D i s c our s e of f i ght i ng 135 E duc a t i on H e s al r e ady l os t 140 W ha t doe s i t m e a n t o be e duc a t e d? 141 H ow ha ve s c hool s he l pe d you ge t e duc a t e d? 143 H ow c a n s c hool l i t e r a c y be c ha nge d t o f i t t he ne e d s of H i s pa ni c boys ? 144 M or a l L i t e r a c y H i s pani c s hav e t he adv ant age of of our s e l v e s 149 M or a l de ve l opm e nt 149 M or a l i t y of H i s pa ni c boys 150 I m pa c t of m or a l i t y on be ha vi or 155 S um m a r y 159 C ha pt e r F i ve : R e s e a r c h I m pl i c a t i ons 164 D i s c us s i on of R e s ul t s 165 S t r ongl y V a l ue t he i r C ul t u r a l I de nt i t y 165 D i s c onne c t e d f r om t he i r E duc a t i ona l S e t t i ng 169 S e l f pr e s c r i be t he i r P e r s ona l E duc a t i ona l N e e ds 172 L a c k of I ns t i t ut i ona l K now l e dge 173 H a ve L i t t l e t o N o O ppo r t uni t y t o R e bui l d T he i r I d e nt i t y 177 R ol e o f C r i t i c a l L i t e r a c y 178 I m pl e m e nt a t i on of C r i t i c a l L i t e r a c y 180 R e c om m e nda t i on f or E duc a t or s 181 I m pl i c a t i ons a nd E xt e ns i ons f o r F u r t he r R e s e a r c h 184 L a ngua ge 184 D i c hos a nd C ons e j os 185 M or a l L i t e r a c y 185

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iv Machismo 186 Discourse of Fighting 187 Further Reflections on Role of Researcher 187 Impact of Roles on Data 188 Epilogue 189 References 192 Appendices 207 Appendix A: Educational Research Consent Form 208 Appendix B: Research Participant Information Sheet 212 Appendix C: Focus Group Proto col 215 Appendix D: Personal Interview Questions 216 Appendix E: Interview Framework 217 Appendix F: Definition of Literacy Presentation 218 Appendix G: Riverside Class Rotation Schedule 220 Appendix H: Themes and Concepts 221 Appendix I: Responses to Traditional Literacy 222 Appendix J: Recommendations for the Educating of Hispanic Boys 224 About the Author End Page

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v L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1 H i s pa ni c G r a dua t i on R a t e s 8 T a bl e 2 R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool G r a dua t i on R a t e s 54 T a bl e 3 R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool S t ude nt A c hi e ve m e nt L e ve l s 55 T a bl e 4 T he B oys 92 T a bl e 5 P a n e t hni c L a be l s 94 T a bl e 6 Q ui e n s on e l l os ? [ W ho a r e T he y ? ] 122

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vi L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 1 P r opos e d S t udy vs A c t ua l S t udy T i m e l i ne 6 9 F i gur e 2 C l a s s r oom S e a t i ng C ha r t s 79 F i gur e 3 M ode l f or t he s e P ub l i c and P r i v at e L i t e r ac i e s 161 F i gur e 4 T he D a y of U ni t y by L o r e nz o 193

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vi i O ye M i V oz ( H e a r M y V oi c e ) : T he P e r c e pt i on s of H i s pa ni c B oys R e ga r di ng t he i r L i t e r a c y E xpe r i e nc e s R ubyl i nda Z i c ka f oos e A B S T R A C T T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o unc ove r t he pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t pe r t a i n t o t he l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s of young H i s pa ni c boys H i s pa ni c boys w i l l be a s ke d t o de s c r i be f e e l j udge a nd m a ke s e ns e of t he i r p ub l i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005 ) T hi s phe nom e nol ogi c a l s t udy e m br a c e s t w o m e t hods of da t a c ol l e c t i on, pa r t i c i pa nt f oc us gr oups a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s T he pr i m a r y que s t i on gui di ng t hi s i nqu i r y w a s : W ha t a r e t he pe r c e pt i ons o f a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c boys w ho a r e c ons i de r e d l ow l e ve l r e a de r s ( by s t a t e a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s ) r e ga r di ng t he i r l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s ? I n or de r t o he l p pr ovi de ba c kgr ound i n f or m a t i on a nd s e t t he s t a ge f or f ut u r e w or k w he n c ons i de r i ng t hi s s pe c i f i c popul a t i on o t he r s u ppor t i ng que s t i ons w e r e a dde d. T he s e i nc l ude : 1. ) W ha t ha ve r e s e a r c he r s r e por t e d a bout H i s pa ni c boys i n l i t e r a c y s i t ua t i ons ? 2. ) W ha t i s t he r ol e of m a s c ul i ni t y ( m a c hi s m o) i n t he l i t e r a c y l i ve s of H i s pa ni c boys ? 3 ) W ha t t e a c hi ng m e t hods do H i s pa ni c boys c ons i de r m os t r e s pons i ve t o t he i r l i t e r a c y ne e ds ? a nd 4. ) W ha t r ol e c a n c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y pl a y i n e duc a t i ng t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on? A f t e r s or t i ng a nd a na l yz i ng a l l da t a s o ur c e s t he t he m e s t ha t e vol ve d a s c ons i de r e d m os t r e l e va nt by t hi s gr oup o f H i s pa ni c boy s w e r e : a ) F a m i l y, b) L a ngua ge : i t s r ol e of l a ngua ge i n bui l di ng i de nt i t y, c ) M a c hi s m o: t o i nc l ude m a l e di s c our s e w he n de a l i ng w i t h ga ngs a nd vi ol e nc e e ) E duc a t i on p ubl i c l i t e r a c y, e ) L i t e r a c y: r e a di ng

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vi i i w r i t i ng, a nd f ) M or a l L i t e r a c y. S e ve r a l m a j o r i m pl i c a t i ons of t he s t udy i nc l ude : ( a ) s t r ong va l ue f or t he i r c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y, ( b ) di s c onn e c t f r om t he i r e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ngs ( c ) c oul d s e l f pr e s c r i be t he i r pe r s ona l e duc a t i ona l ne e ds ( d) l a c ke d i ns t i t ut i ona l know l e dge a nd ( e ) ha d t he pot e nt i a l t o r e bui l d t he i r i de nt i t y I t i s i m pe r a t i ve t ha t w e l i s t e n t o t he voi c e s of t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popu l a t i on i n or de r t o ga i n i ns i ght t o how H i s pa ni c boys l i ve publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) i n t h e hope t ha t ou r e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m c a n r e s pond t o t h e i r pe r s ona l a nd a c a de m i c ne e ds

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1 C H A P T E R 1. C O N T E X T A N D R A T I O N A L E I n t r od u c t i on T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o e xpl or e t he pe r c e pt i ons of a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c boys r e ga r di ng t he i r l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s I n o r de r t o l i s t e n t o t he voi c e s of t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on, i t i s i m pe r a t i ve t ha t e duc a t or s he a r t he i r pe r s pe c t i ve s on how t he c ur r e nt e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m s uppor t s a nd/ or ne g a t e s t he i r pe r s ona l a nd a c a de m i c goa l s T hi s s t udy gr e w out of m y e xpe r i e nc e s a s a m i gr a n t M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n i n a E ur o c e nt r i c e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m ; a s t he da ught e r of a n i l l i t e r a t e m ot he r ; a s w e l l a s m y c onc e r n f o r m y ow n t hr e e H i s pa ni c boys B ac k gr ound of R e s e ar c he r R a i s e d w i t hi n a M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n m i gr a nt f a m i l y t ha t f ol l ow e d c r ops t hr o ughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s t he f i ve c hi l dr e n i n m y f a m i l y w e r e a l w a ys e nc our a ge d t o r e c ogni z e t he i m por t a nc e of e duc a t i on. M y c hi l dhood m e m o r i e s i nc l ude d l ong t r i ps s t a t e t o s t a t e ne ve r know i ng w he r e I w oul d go t o s c hool ne ve r know i ng w he r e I w oul d w a ke up T hi s c ons t a nt m ove m e nt he l pe d m e a ppr e c i a t e t he s t a bl e hom e ba s e m y l ovi ng pa r e nt s s t r uggl e d t o pr ov i de D e s pi t e t he i r ha r ds hi ps t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s pr e s s e d m e t o s e e k a f ut ur e out s i de t he r i gi d ha r s h f i e l dw or k m y pa r e nt s kne w a l l t oo w e l l N ot ha vi ng be e n e duc a t e d pa s t t he t hi r d g r a de m y pa r e nt s s t r e s s e d how e duc a t i on a nd oppor t uni t y w e nt ha nd i n ha nd, a nd t he y a l w a ys e nc our a ge d m e t o d r e a m w e l l be yond ou r m e a ns T hr ough t he e ye s of a c hi l d, one c a nnot s e e t he ul t i m a t e va l ue of l i t e r a c y. H ow e ve r a s m y m ot he r s gui de i nt e r p r e t e r a nd r e a de r I ha d t he pr i vi l e ge a nd bur de n o f

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2 a f i r s t ha nd l ook a t t he c ons e que nc e s of a n i l l i t e r a t e l i f e A s I w a t c he d a nd l i s t e ne d, I c a nnot f i nd t he w or ds t o e xpr e s s t he m a gni t ude of t he s ha m e a nd f r us t r a t i on f e l t by m y m ot he r a s s he s t r uggl e d w i t h i l l i t e r a c y H e r c our a g e ous j our ne y, of t e n de pe nde nt on m e he r young da ught e r w ho ha d t he m os t ba s i c of l i t e r a c y s ki l l s w a s l ong a nd ha r d. I r e m e m be r t he da y I f ound out m y m ot he r c oul d n ot r e a d. I w a s i n s e c ond gr a de r unni ng hom e w i t h a f r i e nd f r om s c hool w i t h m y r e por t c a r d i n ha nd. S he m y m o t he r w a s s i t t i ng on t he po r c h a f t e r a ha r d da y of w or ki n g i n t he s t r a w be r r y f i e l ds he r kne e s pa dde d w i t h a l i ght l a ye r of di r t s m udge d w i t h r e d j a m H e r s m i l e gr e e t e d us bot h a s w e r a n up w i t h a nt i c i pa t i on. I t w a s r e por t c a r d da y! W i t h a gus t o f gr e a t de s i r e I ha nde d he r m y r e por t c a r d e xpr e s s i ng t o he r t ha t I ha d done w e l l S he s m i l e d a nd s a i d, S i hi j a ( Y e s da ught e r ) I s e e t ha t M y m out h dr oppe d a s m y f r i e nd s na t c he d t he pa pe r out of he r ha nd a nd bl u r t e d a br upt l y, I t s ups i de dow n s t upi d! C a n t you r e a d ? A f r oz e n l ook s l ow l y e ngul f e d he r f a c e M y m om s s e c r e t w a s r e ve a l e d. H e r f a c e f e l l t o he r ha nds a s s he be ga n t o c r y. H e r s ha m e t h e vul ne r a bi l i t y, he r r a w i de nt i t y w e r e a l l r e ve a l e d. I s t ood t he r e i n d i s be l i e f A l t hough I kne w t ha t s o m a ny t i m e s I ha d be e n he r voi c e a nd he r r e a di ng e ye s i t ha d ne ve r be e n p a i nt e d s o c l e a r l y, ne ve r be e n s poke n a l oud. I t w a s a t t hi s m o m e nt t ha t I i nt e r na l i z e d t he pa i n of a n i l l i t e r a t e pe r s on, m y m ot he r T ha t da y i s e ng r a i ne d i n t he ve r y s oul of m y de s i r e t o t e a c h. S i nc e s he c oul d ne i t he r r e a d nor w r i t e i n S pa ni s h o r E ngl i s h, I ha d pr om i s e d he r I w oul d one da y be c om e a t e a c he r s o I c oul d t e a c h he r t o r e a d. T hi s p r om i s e be c a m e t he i m pe t us of m y j our ne y t ow a r d unde r s t a ndi ng l i t e r a c y.

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3 E ve n w i t h a n i l l i t e r a t e m ot he r l i t e r a c y w a s s t i l l a s m a l l i m po r t a nt pa r t of our l i ve s L i ke m os t H i s pa ni c f a m i l i e s m y pa r e nt s e nt r us t e d t he e duc a t i on of t he i r c hi l d r e n t o t he t e a c he r s a nd s c hool s T he m i s pl a c e d t r us t t he y ha d i n a m onol i t hi c e duc a t i o na l s ys t e m w a s i m m e a s ur a bl e T he s c hool s m i g r a nt pr og r a m ga ve t he i l l us i on of a dva nc e m e nt f or m e T h i s be ga n i n a m i gr a nt c l a s s r oom w i t h i ndi vi dua l l y e nc l os e d de s ks a l l f a c i ng t he w a l l s S t ude nt s w or ke d qui e t l y a nd i s ol a t e d i n t he i r i ndi vi dua l c ubi c l e s a s t he t e a c he r s t r ol l e d a r ound t he r oom a nd vi s i t e d e a c h s pa c e l i k e one w oul d a t t he l oc a l z oo T hi s c ul t ur a l s e gr e ga t i on w a s obvi ous t o m e a nd not onl y e l i c i t e d, bu t a l s o i ns t i l l e d, e m ot i ons of s ha m e a nd de gr a da t i on. I pe r s i s t e nt l y be gge d m y f a t he r t o r e m ov e m e f r om t h i s pr ogr a m a nd he l p m e e s c a pe t hi s m a r gi na l i z a t i on B e gr udgi ngl y, he m e t w i t h t he pr i nc i pa l w ho a gr e e d t ha t I s houl d ha ve a t w o w e e k t r i a l i n a r e gul a r L a ngua ge A r t s c l a s s O n t he dr i ve hom e m y f a t he r e m pha t i c a l l y s t r e s s e d t he f a c t t ha t he ha d pl a c e d hi s w or d on t he l i ne f or m e a nd de m a nde d I be s uc c e s s f ul i n m a i ns t r e a m r e a di ng. F a i l ur e w a s not a n opt i on! I f e a r e d t he w r a t h of m y f a t he r d r i ve n b y hi s M e xi c a n m a s c ul i ni t y a nd m y ne w gr ound w i t h a di f f e r e nt s e t of e xpe c t a t i ons L i t t l e d i d I know t hi s m ove w oul d be gi n a r e l e nt l e s s ur ge t o pr ove m ys e l f w or t hy A s w e t r a ve l e d t hr ough di f f e r e nt s t a t e s f ol l ow i ng t he f i e l dw or k, s om e of t he m os t m e m or a bl e m om e nt s f o r m e a r e t hos e c onne c t e d t o s c hool s a nd l i vi ng c ondi t i ons W i t hout f a i l w e l i ve d i n boxc a r l i ke ba r r a c ks m a de of s m a l l c onc r e t e r oom s t ypi c a l l y 10 x12 f e e t w i t h onl y a doo r a nd one w i ndow T he s e r oom s ha d no pl um b i ng f o r r unni ng w a t e r nor ba t hr oom f a c i l i t i e s j us t ba r e c onc r e t e w a l l s a nd c onc r e t e f l oor s T he c om m una l ba t hr oom s w e r e l oc a t e d i n t he m i ddl e o f t he t w o l i ne s of c onc r e t e bl oc k

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4 ba r r a c ks I t w a s i m por t a nt f or e a c h r oom t o s us t a i n t he i r t e na nc y by pr ovi d i ng a quot a of w or ki ng ha nds I f r oom s w e r e a l l ot t e d a nd not e no ugh w or ke r s s how e d up, f a m i l i e s m i ght f a c e e vi c t i on I n t he e ye s of t he f a r m e r our f a c e s w e r e i nvi s i bl e H e onl y s a w t he s pa c e w e t ook up, t he t i m e w e c oul d w or k a nd t he m one y he c oul d m a ke M y f a m i l y w a s e nt i t l e d t o t w o a dj a c e nt r oom s be c a us e w e ha d f ou r pe opl e w ho c oul d be hi r e d a s f i e l d w or ke r s W e s e t up one r oom a s a ki t c he n a nd ba t h r oom T he ot he r r oo m be c a m e t he be dr oom f or m y pa r e nt s a nd a l l t he c hi l dr e n A not he r m e m or y i s of a t i m e w he n w e l i ve d i n a n ol d V i c t or i a n t w o s t or y hom e w i t h m a ny r oo m s E a c h r oom w a s a l l oc a t e d t o a d i f f e r e nt f a m i l y w i t h t he c r e w l e a de r l i vi ng i n t he s e c t i on of t he hom e t ha t i nc l ude d t he m a i n ki t c he n a nd ba t h r oom a r e a S i nc e w e ha d f our or f i ve pos s i bl e w or ki ng pa i r s o f ha nd s w e w e r e gi ve n a bi g r oom on t he s e c ond f l oor M y m ot he r ve r y c r e a t i ve l y de l i ne a t e d e a c h s e c t i on of t he t op f l oor i nt o a l i vi ng s pa c e t ha t w oul d c r e a t e t he i l l us i on of a hom e T he r e w a s a c or ne r f or t he s how e r w hi c h c ons i s t e d of a huge m e t a l pa i l t ha t pr ovi de d a m pl e r oom f or t he a ve r a ge a dul t a nd a l s o pl e nt y of s pl a s h r oom f o r us c hi l dr e n B e s i de t he pa i l w a s a r e d t om a t o buc ke t f i l l e d w i t h he a t e d w a t e r us e d t o r i ns e of f a f t e r ba t hi ng T hi s c or ne r w a s c l os e d i n by a ha ngi ng s he e t or c ur t a i n t o s e c ur e t he i m p r e s s i on of p r i va c y. T he r e w e r e boxe s f or e a c h c a t e gor y of c l ot hi ng s t a t i one d unde r ne a t h a pol e w i r e d ho r i z ont a l l y a ga i ns t a s e c ond c or ne r us e d f or d r e s s e s a nd s hi r t s t o be hung. T he f oye r of t he hous e dow ns t a i r s w a s t he ki t c he n f or our f a m i l y a nd one o t he r f a m i l y t ha t c ons i s t e d of a c oupl e w i t h a s m a l l ba by. T he k i t c he n c a bi ne t s w e r e m a de up of ol d w oode n t om a t o box e s s t a c ke d upon one a not he r w hi c h ga ve t he f oye r a ki t c he n l i ke l ook, e ve n dow n t o t h e s hor t c ur t a i ns t ha t hung a c r os s t he

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5 w oode n r i m w i t h a s t r i ng a nd na i l t o hol d t he m de l i c a t e l y i n pl a c e T h i s pr obl e m s ol vi ng m e nt a l i t y w a s dr i ve n w i t h no w r i t t e n di r e c t i ons ye t m a de our hom e r un s m oot hl y a nd s ys t e m a t i c a l l y. T he one e l e m e nt t ha t i s m os t vi v i d of t hi s pa r t of m y c hi l dhood w a s t ha t t he f a r m e r he l d f ul l c ont r ol of how w e l i ve d a nd how w e w or ke d. I ne ve r got a gl i m ps e of t he ke e pe r Y e t I kne w he w a s w hi t e a nd i n c ha r ge E ve r yone w ho w or ke d f or hi m l i ve d w i t hi n hi s r ul e w oul d onl y he a r r um or s o f hi s de m a nds i n t he f i e l d T hi s w a s a not he r f a l s e i m pr e s s i on of w ho w a s a l l ow e d t o m a ke de c i s i ons M y m e m or i e s of t he s e pl a c e s a nd ot he r s l i ke t he m i ns t i l l e d a de e p a ppr e c i a t i on f or s i m pl e l i vi ng l uxur i e s l i ke r unni ng w a t e r a nd a i r c ondi t i oni ng, a nd a r i c h unde r s t a ndi n g of e qui t y a nd i ne qua l i t y A t t he a ge of 15, I be c a m e e nga ge d t o a M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n t e n ye a r s m y e l de r T hi s i s t ypi c a l o f t he M e xi c a n c ul t ur e O n t h e da y t ha t he a s ke d f or m y ha nd i n m a r r i a ge m y f a t he r s on l y r e que s t of hi m w a s f o r m e t o be al l ow e d t o c om pl e t e m y hi gh s c hool e duc a t i on, w hi c h, t o m y f a t he r w a s a c ul t u r a l m i l e s t one I t w a s onl y due t o m y f a t he r s r e que s t t ha t m y, t he n, hus ba nd al l ow e d m e t o f i ni s h hi gh s c hool a nd a c hi e ve t he di s t i nc t i on of a di pl om a r e c i pi e nt E duc a t i on w a s c ons i de r e d by m y t r a di t i ona l M e xi c a n f i a nc t o be a pr i vi l e ge f or a M e xi c a n w om a n. A s a t e e na ge w i f e m y i de nt i t y w a s de f i ne d by w ha t I w a s al l ow e d t o do T hi s l i s t o f pr i vi l e ge s i nc l ude d ha vi ng a c he c kbook, l e a r ni ng t o d r i ve vi s i t i ng m y pa r e nt s a nd c hoos i ng m y f e m a l e f r i e nds ( no m a l e f r i e nds ) T he oppr e s s or w ho w a s a l s o c a l l e d m y hus ba nd, d i c t a t e d t hi s l i s t A s I gr e w i n t o a m a r r i e d young w om a n, f i e l dw or k c ont i n ue d t o be a m a j or pa r t o f m y l i f e Y e t w i t hi n m e a de s i r e t o br e a k a w a y f r o m t hi s l i f e w a s s w e l l i ng. I t ook on a

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6 pa r t t i m e j ob a t t he l oc a l j uni o r c ol l e ge a nd be ga n t a ki ng unde r gr a dua t e c our s e s A s I be ga n t o l ook a t m y c a r e e r opt i ons t he pr o m i s e I m a de t o m y m am as i t a w he n I w a s e i ght ye a r s ol d r e s ur f a c e d. A f t e r w or ki ng a t va r i ou s j obs f ol l ow i ng m y hi gh s c hool gr a dua t i on, I w a s f i na l l y a bl e t o be gi n m y j our ne y out of t he l i f e t ha t I ha d g r ow n t o r e s e nt I t t ook m e s i x l ong ye a r s of w or ki ng a nd a t t e ndi ng c l a s s e s but i n 1991, I gr a dua t e d a S unc oa s t A r e a T e a c hi ng T r a i ni ng pr og r a m ( S C A T T ) honor s s t ude nt f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da w i t h a de gr e e i n E a r l y C hi l dhood/ E l e m e nt a r y E duc a t i on. A l t hough t he r oa d w a s l ong, I be c a m e t he f i r s t i n m y i m m e di a t e f a m i l y, a nd t he s e c ond of 105 gr a ndc hi l dr e n, t o gr a dua t e f r om c ol l e ge M os t i m por t a nt l y, I r e a l i z e d t ha t by a c hi e vi ng t he s e e duc a t i ona l goa l s I w a s br e a ki ng t he l i nks of m i gr a nt l i f e t he r ol e of i l l i t e r a c y i n m y f a m i l y, a nd t he s ys t e m of oppr e s s i on f or o ne l i ne of H i s pa ni c s H a vi ng l i ve d a nd w or ke d bo t h s i de s of t he r oa d I know t h e l i m i t a t i ons of l i vi ng w i t hout a n e duc a t i on a nd t he e ndl e s s oppor t uni t i e s a n e duc a t i on pr ovi de s A s I l ook ba c k a t m y be gi nni ngs I s e e t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns t ha t e m e r ge f r om t he r e a l i t y of oppr e s s i on i n t he l i ve s of pe opl e of c ol or A s m y t hr e e H i s pa ni c boys C hr i s t ophe r 19, A l e xa nde r 13 a nd M a t t he w 8, na vi ga t e t he e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m I now s e e f i r s t ha nd, t ha t t he m a r gi na l i z a t i on o f i ndi vi dua l s c ont i nue s f r om a s oc i e t y t ha t s e e ks not t o a c know l e dge t hos e w ho a r e di f f e r e nt S e e ki ng l i be r a t i on o f one s e l f c om e s a t t he e xpe ns e of s e l f c ul t u r e a nd c om pl e t e o r i l l us i on o f a c c ul t ur a t i on i nt o t he m a j or i t y. S t at e m e n t of t h e P r ob l e m O ne of t he m os t pr of ound c r i s i s c onf r on t i ng ou r w hi t e dom i na t e d e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s how t o be a ut he nt i c a l l y r e s pons i ve t o s t ude nt s w ho a r e

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7 c ul t ur a l l y a nd l i ngu i s t i c a l l y di ve r s e ( L a ds on B i l l i ngs 1994; D e l pi t 1995 ) D ur i ng t he l a s t de c a de H i s pa ni c s ha ve be c om e t he f a s t e s t gr ow i ng popul a t i on, r i s i ng f r om 12% i n 2000 t o a n e s t i m a t e d 14. 2 % o f t he t ot a l U S popul a t i on i n 2004 ( B ur e a u of C e ns us 2004) F ur t he r m or e be t w e e n 1993 a nd 2003, t he g r ow t h r a t e of H i s pa ni c c hi l dr e n i n ou r publ i c s c hool s i nc r e a s e d f r om 12. 7% t o 20% ( N C L R 200 7) E ve n m o r e s ur pr i s i ng, a c c or di ng t o a H i s pa ni c S t a t i s t i c a l B r i e f ( 2007) i s t he i nc r e a s e i n H i s pa ni c c hi l dr e n unde r 18 ye a r s of a ge ha s m a de t he m t he s e c ond l a r ge s t gr oup of s t ude nt s a f t e r W hi t e s ( p. 1) a nd t ha t num be r i s e xpe c t e d t o i nc r e a s e Y e t i t i s H i s pa ni c s w ho a r e l i ni ng up a t s c hool s e xi t door t o d r op out a t a l a r m i ng r a t e s ( L e e & B ur ka m 2003 ) W i t h t hi s g r ow i ng t i da l w a ve f l oodi ng our s c hool s c a n w e a f f or d t o f a i l s o l a r ge a popul a t i on de s t i ne d t o ove r t a ke our w or k f or c e ? I s a nyone not i c i ng a s t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on s i l e nt l y f a l l s t hr ough t he c r a c ks ? O nl y 49 pe r c e nt o f H i s pa ni c m a l e s gr a dua t e f r om hi gh s c hool ( N C E S 2004; M a nha t t a n I ns t i t ut e f or P ol i c y R e s e a r c h 2006) U nde r f ur t he r s c r ut i ny s t a t e gr a dua t i on r a t e s of H i s pa ni c m a l e s a r e s t a r t l i ng N e w Y or k t he hom e of t he l a r ge s t s c hool s ys t e m i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s r a nks l a s t i n H i s pa ni c m a l e gr a d ua t i on r a t e s w i t h onl y 29% r e c e i vi ng t he i r di pl om a S t a t e s s uc h a s C a l i f or ni a F l o r i da a nd T e xa s w hi c h e a c h hous e a huge H i s pa ni c popul a t i o n, ba r e l y br e a c h t he m i dpoi nt a ve r a gi ng 51. 6% of t he i r t ot a l m a l e H i s pa ni c s t ude nt popul a t i on gr a dua t i ng ( s e e T a bl e 1) W i t hou t r e c ogni z i ng ge nde r i s s ue s uni que be l i e f s va l ue s a nd e t hni c t r a di t i ons of H i s pa ni c boys no a m ount of w e l l i nt e nt i one d s ys t e m a t i c e duc a t i on w i l l he l p us s a ve t hi s popul a t i on f r om ul t i m a t e l y be c om i ng pa r t of t he a l a r m i ng s t a t i s t i c s t ha t a r e c ol l e c t e d t o r e pr e s e nt t he s e young m e n

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8 ( J i m e ne z M ol l R odr i gue z B r ow n & B a r r e r a 199 9; V i l l e na s & D e yhl e 1999; N C E S 2003) T ab l e 1. H i s p an i c G r ad u a t i on R a t e s M an h a t t a n I n s t i t u t e f or P ol i c y R e s e ar c h ( 2006) S t a t e H i s pa ni c M a l e G r a dua t i on R a t e A ve r a ge G r a dua t i on R a t e N at i on al 49% 70% L oui s i a na 74% 63% T e xa s 55% 69% C a l i f or ni a 51% 65% K a ns a s 50% 76% W a s hi ngt on 50% 69% F l or i da 49% 61% I l l i noi s 49% 73% C onne c t i c ut 48% 82% N e w M e xi c o 48% 59% C ol or a do 46% 72% P e nns yl va ni a 45% 81% M a s s a c hus e t t s 38% 72% N e w Y or k 29% 58% R e s e a r c h t ha t f oc us e s on t he r i s k f a c t or s c a us i ng s t ude nt s t o dr op out c a n be gr oupe d i nt o t h r e e c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) s o c i al bac k gr ound ( e g r a c e / e t hni c i t y, ge nde r s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us f a m i l y s t r uc t ur e i nne r c i t y r e s i de nc e ) ; ( b) ac ade m i c bac k gr ound

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9 ( e g. a bi l i t y, gr a de r e pe a t i ng hi s t or y t e s t s c or e s ) ; a nd ( c ) ac ade m i c al l y r e l at e d be hav i or s ( e g. e nga ge m e nt w i t h s c hool s c hool gr a de s t r ua n c y, s c hool di s c i pl i na r y e nc ount e r s ) ( L e e & B ur ka m 2003, p. 355) T he s e f a c t or s be c o m e s i gni f i c a nt w he n a na l yz i ng d r op out r a t e s a m ong m a l e s I t i s boys w ho a r e s l ow e r t o l e a r n t o r e a d, m o r e l i ke l y t o dr op out of s c hool m or e l i ke l y t o be di s c i pl i ne d, m or e l i ke l y t o be i n pr ogr a m s f or c hi l dr e n w i t h s pe c i a l ne e ds ( C onne l l 1996, p. 207) I n f a c t ha l f of t he s t ude nt s w i t hi n t he na t i on s publ i c s c hool s ys t e m a r e boys a nd t he i s s ue s t he y e xpe r i e nc e ha ve a de f i ni t e i m pa c t on t he i r a c hi e ve m e nt A s H i s pa ni c boys m a ke t he i r w a y t hr ough m i ddl e a nd h i gh s c hool t he i r s t r uggl e s a nd di s c onne c t i on f r om t he w hi t e w a l l s o f e duc a t i on c a us e t he m t o c l i ng t o t he i r f a m i l y e nvi r onm e nt w he r e s uc c e s s i s r oot e d i n f a m i l i s m ( V a l de s 1996) T hi s va l ue r e vol vi ng a r ound r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n e xt e nde d f a m i l y, pa r e nt s a nd s i bl i ngs i nvol ve not i ons of s uc c e s s i de a s a bout good j obs a nd opi ni ons a bout w ha t i s a t t a i na bl e a nd a t w ha t c os t ( V a l de s 1996, p. 169) S uppor t e d by t hi s de e p r oot e d f am i l i s m H i s pa ni c boys s oon r e a l i z e t ha t t he y c a n c ont r i but e m o r e t o t he f a m i l y a nd s uppor t t r a ns ge ne r a t i ona l bonds by be i ng a c o pr ovi de r w he t he r of f i na nc i a l s uppor t e m ot i ona l s uppor t or s oc i o c ul t ur a l s uppor t T hi s s i m pl i f i e s t he de c i s i on t o l e a ve s c hool a pl a c e l a de n w i t h e xpe r i e nc e s of f a i l ur e onl y t o e m br a c e f e e l i ngs of pr i de a nd s uc c e s s w i t hi n t he w a l l s of t he i r hom e a nd c om m uni t y W ha t pe r s ona l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of H i s pa ni c m a l e s c ont r i but e t o t hi s hi gh dr op ou t r a t e ? V a l de z ( 1996) s t a t e s t ha t t he i s s ue i s on e of c ul t ur a l c l a s h / di f f e r e nc e s w i t h s c hool s e xpe c t i ng a bl ue pr i nt of a p r ot ot ypi c a l f a m i l y ba s e d on m a i ns t r e a m m i dd l e c l a s s

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10 w hi t e A m e r i c a ns ( T r ue ba 1993 p 415 ) V a l de z ( 1996) a nd G i no r i o a nd H us t on ( 2001) f ound t ha t a l t hough L a t i no c ul t ur e va l ue s e d uc a t i on, t he c om m i t m e nt t o f a m i l y ove r r i de s m os t e duc a t i ona l de c i s i ons F or e xa m pl e dur i ng h i s s e ni or ye a r i n hi gh s c hool m y br ot he r E ddi e c hos e t o d r op out be c a us e of our f a t he r s s udde n he a r t a t t a c k. B e i ng t he onl y m a l e i n t he hous e t he f a m i l y ne e de d hi m t o b e t he pr ovi de r T he r e f o r e he dr ove m y f a t he r s s e m i t r uc k A l t hough he ha d onl y a f e w m ont hs l e f t t o gr a dua t e m y b r ot he r w a s obl i ga t e d t o he l p s uppor t t he f a m i l y. T hi s e xpe r i e nc e i s f ur t he r s uppor t e d by r e s e a r c he r s T or r e s S ol be r g & C a r l s o n ( 1998) w ho c l a i m be i ng i n s c hool w a s ne ve r a n e xc us e t o s hor t c ut f a m i l y du t i e s ( p. 174) T he r e f or e i t m i ght be s a f e t o s a y t ha t H i s pa ni c bo ys dr op out of hi gh s c hool pe r ha ps not w i t h a di s r e ga r d f o r e duc a t i on, t e a c he r s a nd l i t e r a c y. R a t he r t he i r p ur pos e i s t o s t a y t r ue t o t he i r c ul t ur e by doi ng t he r i ght t hi ng f or t he f a m i l y. H ol di ng f a s t t o c ul t u r a l c a pi t a l H i s pa ni c m a l e s f a c e l i f e w i t h l i t t l e t o no l i t e r a c y s ki l l s onl y t o be m a r gi na l i z e d f ur t he r by t he m a j or i t y. O ur de m oc r a c y, t he n, qu i e t s hi s v oi c e t a ke s hi s vot e t i e s hi s ha nds a nd hus he s hi s i nf l ue nc e T he voi c e s of hi s he a d c onf l i c t w i t h t he c onvi c t i ons of hi s he a r t Y e t w e m e e t a s t r ong, va l i a nt c onf i de nt f a m i l y pr ovi de r w ho pe r pe t ua t e s t hi s c onf l i c t e d, ye t honor a bl e c yc l e R e t e nt i on of H i s pani c B oy s C ha nc e s of dr oppi ng out of h i gh s c hool a r e i nc r e a s e d f or e ve r y ye a r a H i s pa ni c boy i s r e t a i ne d ( N C E S 2003) A t t he f o r e f r ont r e t e nt i on f a c t or s i n A m e r i c a n s c hool s a r e be i ng m a l e young f or t he g r a de o r a m i nor i t y; ha vi ng he a l t h pr obl e m s / di s a bi l i t i e s or poor s c hool r e a di ne s s ( a s m e a s ur e d by a c hi e ve m e nt of be ha vi o r ) ; l a r ge r f a m i l y s i z e l ow

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11 pa r e nt e duc a t i on a nd i nc om e a nd hi gh r a t e s of r e s i de nt i a l m obi l i t y ( N C E S 2003, p. 124) ( H e ube r t & H a us e r 1999; K a r w e i t 1999 ) R e t e nt i on i s s ue s t ha t s t e m f r om da t a c ol l e c t e d f r om t he N C E S ( 2003) hi ghl y s uppor t t h a t a H i s pa ni c boy ha s a 13 % c ha nc e of be i ng r e t a i ne d a s he m ove s t ow a r d hi s pr oj e c t e d g r a dua t i on ye a r A l l i ngt on ( 2006) ha s a r gue d f or m a ny ye a r s t ha t r e t e nt i on ha s p r ove n t o ha ve a ne ga t i ve i m pa c t on t he i ndi vi dua l c hi l d. C ons i de r e d by s om e t o be a di s c r i m i na t or y a c t a ga i ns t i m pove r i s he d c hi l dr e n, A l l i ng t on ( 2006 ) a l s o c ont e nds t ha t r e t e nt i on c a n ha ve i l l e f f e c t s on a c hi l d s s e l f c onc e pt s e l f e s t e e m a nd he i ght e n hi s c ha nc e s of d r oppi ng out of s c hool F ur t he r m or e s t ude nt s w ho a r e r e t a i ne d m a y f os t e r l ow e r a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a nd m ot i va t i on, a nd m a ny m a y c onduc t t he m s e l ve s i n w a ys t ha t unde r m i ne t he i r e f f o r t s w he n i t c om e s t o s c hool a nd t he i r s oc i a l w e l l be i ng ( N C E S 2003) E ve n t hough t he pu r pos e of r e t e nt i on i s t o pr ovi de m or e t i m e f o r c hi l dr e n H i s p a ni c or not t o m a s t e r t he s ki l l s of a gr a de t he i m pa c t of r e t a i ni ng s t ude nt s c a n be de va s t a t i ng. R e t e nt i on o f s t r uggl i ng s t ude nt s ha s be e n c ons i s t e nt l y r e por t e d t o ha ve ne g a t i ve i m pa c t s of a c hi e ve m e nt ( H ol m e s 1984) T hi s poor a c hi e ve m e nt i s m os t of t e n r e f l e c t e d f o r H i s pa ni c boys w i t hi n l i t e r a c y r a t e s L i t e r ac y R at e s of H i s pani c B oy s H i s pa ni c boys e nt e r s c hool f a c i ng one o f t he m os t i m por t a nt t a s ks of t he i r l i f e T he y w i l l be gi ve n t he oppor t uni t y of l e a r ni ng t o r e a d. T he y w i l l f a c e a di f f e r e nt l a ngua ge c onf l i c t i ng s ynt a x, a nd c onc e pt s t ha t m a y be c ons i de r e d s t r a nge by t he i r H i s pa ni c c ul t ur e M a ny r e s e a r c he r s s t r e s s t ha t H i s pa ni c pa r e nt s do, i n f a c t va l ue e duc a t i on a nd s e e k t o f ur t he r e duc a t i ona l oppo r t un i t i e s f or t he i r c hi l d r e n. T he s e s t r ong

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12 f a m i l i e s ha ve hi gh hope s a nd a s pi r a t i ons f or a be t t e r l i f e t hr ough e duc a t i on ( T r ue ba 1993; V a s que z P e a s e A l va r e z & S ha nnon, 19 94; V i l l e na s & D e yhl e 1999 ) Y e t w e f i nd m a ny H i s pa ni c c hi l d r e n e nt e r c l a s s r oom s onl y t o f e e l i s ol a t e d a nd di s e nf r a nc hi s e d. A t s c hool s t ude nt s e ne r gi e s a r e p l a c e d i nt o de c od i ng w or ds r e a di ng f l ue nc y a nd a t t e m pt i ng t o unde r s t a nd a nd de l i ve r t he w r i t t e n pa ge H i s pa ni c a nd ot he r di s a dva nt a ge d s t ude nt s m a y r e t ur n i n t he a f t e r n oon t o a hom e de pr i ve d of books a nd hum a n r e s our c e s a va i l a bl e t o a de qua t e l y ove r c om e l e a r ni ng obs t a c l e s ( C oot e r 2006 ) L i t e r a c y a nd l e a r ni ng be c om e a s t r a nge w or l d di r e c t e d, e xpe c t e d, a nd puni s he d by a m os t l y w hi t e E ngl i s h s pe a ki ng m a j or i t y ( T r ue ba 199 3; V a l de s 1996) E ve nt ua l l y, H i s pa ni c boys l i ve up t o t he e xpe c t a t i ons s e t f or t h f or t he m a r ound l i t e r a c y w hi c h ul t i m a t e l y l e a d t he m t o f e e l m a r gi na l i z e d, di s e nf r a nc hi s e d, a nd s ha m e d ( T r ue ba 1993; V a l de s 1996) H a vi ng be e n t he voi c e ( t r a ns l a t or ) f or m y i l l i t e r a t e m ot he r f or m a ny ye a r s of m y c hi l dhood a nd ha vi ng e xpe r i e nc e d f i r s t ha nd t he m a r g i na l i z a t i on of be i ng a H i s pa ni c s t ude nt I ha ve e xpe r i e nc e d t he i ne qui t i e s t ha t c onf r ont pe opl e o f c ol or B e f or e e nt e r i ng s c hool s 69 3% of H i s pa ni c boys r e por t be i ng r e a d t o, c om pa r e d t o 86. 6% of w hi t e boys be i ng r e a d t o a di f f e r e nc e of 17. 3 % ( N C E S 2003) A l s o, N a t i ona l C e nt e r of E duc a t i ona l S t a t i s t i c s N a t i ona l A s s e s s m e nt of E duc a t i ona l P r ogr e s s ( N A E P 2003) r e por t e d t ha t by a s e a r l y a s t hi r d gr a de t he l i t e r a c y r i f t be t w e e n w hi t e a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt r e a di ng s c a l e s c or e s be gi ns t o s how M e a d ( 2006) s uppor t s t hi s di s c r e pa nc y by s t a t i ng t ha t t he d i f f e r e nc e be t w e e n w hi t e a nd m i nor i t y s c or e s on t he m a i n N A E P a r e s i gni f i c a nt S he f u r t he r s t a t e s t ha t m i nor i t y boys a c a d e m i c pe r f o r m a nc e i s

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13 a l a r m i ngl y l ow ye t i t i s t he ga p be t w e e n t he m a j o r i t y a nd t he m i nor i t y t ha t i s w i de ni ng w hi c h i s e ve n m or e c onc e r ni ng s pe c i f i c a l l y i n hi g h s c hool T a ki ng a l l t he s e f a c t or s i nt o a c c ount i s s ue s s ur r oundi ng H i s pa ni c boys a r e c om pounde d by t he l a c k o f r e s e a r c h w i l l i ng t o pe r c e i ve t he s e i ndi vi dua l s a s a l e gi t i m a t e voi c e w i t hi n our s oc i e t y. W e l l i nt e nt i one d r e s e a r c he r s a r e qui c k t o r e por t t he m a ny c ha l l e nge s of H i s pa ni c i ndi vi dua l s w hi l e o t he r s s e e k t o pr e s e nt a n a l t e r na t i ve pe r s pe c t i ve or he i ght e ne d a w a r e ne s s by de l vi ng de e pe r i nt o i s s ue s i m pa c t i ng t hi s popul a t i on. T hi s m i s s i ona r y m e nt a l i t y s e e ks t o s a ve t he s e boys by a s s i m i l a t i ng t he i r pos i t i on i n our w hi t e dom i na t e d s oc i e t y. Y e t t hi s e m ot i ona l r e s pons e l e a ds t o a s t e r e ot ypi c a l pe r c e pt i o n t ha t H i s pa ni c boys a r e vi c t i m s of t he i r c ul t u r e T he r e f o r e I a s s e r t t he j uxt a pos i t i on t ha t e i t he r H i s pa ni c boys a r e honor a bl e a s s e t s t o our s oc i e t y, or s l a t e d f or f a i l u r e unl e s s t he y a s s i m i l a t e i nt o t he dom i na nt c ul t u r e T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o unc ove r t he pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t pe r t a i n t o t he l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he l i ve s of young H i s pa ni c boys I t i s i m pe r a t i ve t ha t w e l i s t e n t o t he voi c e s of t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popu l a t i on i n or de r t o ga i n i ns i ght t o how H i s pa ni c boys l i ve l i t e r a c y, i n t he hope t h a t our e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m c a n r e s pond t o t he i r pe r s ona l a nd a c a de m i c ne e ds S i gn i f i c an c e o f t h e S t u d y T hi s s t udy w i l l pr ove t o be s i gni f i c a nt i n s e ve r a l w a ys C ur r e nt r e s e a r c h of t e n f oc us e s on H i s pa ni c boys a s pa r t of l a r ge r s ubgr ou ps w he t he r ba s e d on g e nde r c l a s s or e t hni c i t y. S ubs e que nt l y, t he s e s t udi e s of f e r l i t t l e i n s i ght s pe c i f i c t o H i s pa ni c m a l e s I n a f or m a l r e vi e w of r e s e a r c h t r e nds on m e n a nd m a s c ul i ni t y c onduc t e d by W hor l e y a nd

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14 A ddi s ( 2006) t he r e pr e s e nt a t i on of m e n of c ol or w a s f ound t o be qui t e l ow onc e a ga i n unde r pi nni ng t he t r e nd t ha t our H i s pa ni c boys a r e i gnor e d a nd m a r gi na l i z e d A ddi t i ona l l y, s t udi e s i nvol vi ng H i s pa ni c m a l e s ha ve not be e n c onduc t e d f r om a pe r s pe c t i ve t ha t w oul d va l ue t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he i ndi vi dua l s a s t he y r e l a t e t o a s pe c i f i c t i m e a nd pl a c e ( P a t t on, 2002) A l l t oo o f t e n, r e s e a r c h i s c e nt e r e d on e xt e r na l f a c t or s t ha t ha ve l e d t o H i s pa ni c boys unde r a c hi e ve m e nt a nd ha ve s que l c he d t he voi c e s of t he i ndi v i dua l s w ho w e a r e t r yi ng t o unde r s t a nd. I n f a c t m a ny o f t h e r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs t ha t a r e c ur r e nt l y a va i l a bl e hol d a de f i c i t m e nt a l i t y s e e ki ng onl y t o f i nd t he c a us a t i on of t he i r poor pe r f o r m a nc e a s a gr oup a nd va l ue t he i r pe r s pe c t i ve s w i t hi n t he w hi s pe r s of t he i r i ndi vi dua l i t y A t t he i nt e r s e c t i on o f ge nde r a nd l i t e r a c y, t he r e a r e m a ny pe da gogi c a l a r t i c l e s a nd r e s e a r c h s t udi e s e xpos i ng t he unde r l yi ng m ot i ve s o f t oda y s c l a s s r oom s Y e t w he n di ggi ng de e pe r i nt o one s i de of t he ge nde r i s s ue w e f i nd H i s pa ni c boys a r e of t e n l e f t out of t he l i m e l i ght M a ny t i m e s H i s pa ni c boys f a l l by t he w a y s i de be c a us e of a pr e va i l i ng f oc us on r a c e a s a di c hot om y be t w e e n bl a c k a nd w hi t e ( P e r e a 1997; C onc ha s 2002; M a r t i ne z 1998) A t o t he r t i m e s t he y m a y a l s o be pa r t i a l l y r e pr e s e nt e d a s m a l e s i n ge nde r s t udi e s i n l i t e r a c y ( G ur i a n, 19 96; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002) S t udi e s a r e ne e de d t o c l os e t he r e s e a r c h ga p of w ha t i s t he m os t e f f e c t i ve m e t hod i n e duc a t i ng t he f a s t gr ow i ng m i nor i t y w hi l e c ons i de r i ng t he popu l a t i on m os t l i k e l y t o dr opou t of s c hool H i s pa ni c boys E duc a t or s know t he va l u e of unde r s t a ndi ng a n i ndi vi dua l s ne e ds a nd s t r e ngt hs T hi s s t udy w i l l pr ovi de i ns i ght t o H i s pa ni c boys pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005 ) a nd

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15 he l p bui l d t he br i dge t o t he i r publ i c l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005 ) I n doi ng s o, e duc a t or s a nd s c hool s ys t e m s w i l l be be t t e r e qui ppe d t o m e e t t he l i t e r a r y ne e ds of H i s pa ni c boys a nd he l p t he m be c om e pa r t of t he c ol l e c t i ve voi c e s a m ong s oc i e t y. T he f e w s t udi e s t ha t do f oc us on s pe c i f i c m a l e s t ud e nt s ( w hi c h i nc l ude a s m a l l pe r c e nt a ge of s t ude nt s of c ol o r ) a nd l i t e r a c y i nc l ude : R e adi ng D on t F i x N o C he v y s ( S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002) B oy W r i t e r s ( F l e t c he r 2006) a nd T e ac hi ng R e adi ng t o B l ac k A dol e s c e nt M al e s ( T a t um 2005 ) L i ke m os t r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a t he s e s t udi e s e m be d t he f oc us on H i s pa ni c boys de e p w i t hi n t he a na l ys i s of a l l boys of a l l e t hni c gr oups Q u e s t i on s G u i d i n g t h e S t u d y T he pr i m a r y r e s e a r c h que s t i on t ha t gui de t hi s i nqu i r y i s : W ha t a r e t he pe r c e pt i ons o f a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c boys w ho a r e c ons i de r e d l ow l e ve l r e a de r s ( by s t a t e a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s ) r e ga r di ng t he i r ow n l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s ? S e c onda r y r e s e a r c h que s t i ons i nc l ude : W ha t ha ve r e s e a r c he r s r e por t e d a bout H i s pa ni c bo ys i n l i t e r a c y s i t ua t i ons ? W ha t i s t he r ol e of m a s c ul i ni t y ( m a c hi s m o) i n t he l i ve s of H i s pa ni c boys ? W ha t t e a c hi ng m e t hods do H i s pa ni c boys c ons i de r m os t r e s pons i ve t o t he i r l i t e r a c y ne e ds ? W ha t r ol e c a n c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y pl a y i n e duc a t i ng t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on? T he qua l i t a t i ve i nqu i r y m e t hod e m pl oye d t o a ddr e s s t he s e que s t i ons w a s phe nom e nol ogy. C ol l e c t i on of da t a oc c ur r e d a t a l oc a l hi gh s c hool v i a c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons f oc us gr oups a nd i ndi v i dua l i nt e r v i e w s w i t h f ou r t o t e n a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c boys

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16 D e f i n i t i on of T e r m s T o a s s i s t r e a de r s i n unde r s t a ndi ng t he us e of s pe c i f i c t e r m s i n t hi s i nqui r y I pr ovi de t he f ol l ow i ng b r i e f de f i ni t i ons : C u l t u r e Jou r n al s : D ur i ng P ha s e I I of ga t he r i ng d a t a pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e e xpe c t e d t o w r i t e i n c ul t ur e j our na l s T he s e c om pos i t i on boo ks w e r e a pl a c e f or pa r t i c i pa nt s t o e l a bor a t e on t he i r t hi nki ng e xpe r i e nc e s t e a c he r i n t e r a c t i ons a nd r e a c t i ons t o c l a s s r oom a c t i vi t i e s M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y t he boys e l a bor a t e d a nd/ or i nt e r r oga t e d t he i r i de a s a nd que s t i ons be hi nd t he t opi c s t ha t e vol ve d f r om pr e c e di ng f oc us gr oups T he j ou r na l s w e r e i nt e nde d t o be a n a da pt a t i on of a w r i t e r s not e book ( C a l ki ns 1986; F l e t c he r 2006) W r i t e r s not e books w e r e i n t e nde d t o c a pt ur e t opi c s a nd i de a s t ha t a l l ow e d t he w r i t e r t o e xpe r i m e nt w i t h va r i ous f or m s o f w r i t i ng ( C a l ki ns 1986) F or t he pu r pos e of t hi s s t udy, I e nc our a ge d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o a dd i de a s s ke t c he s phot os a nd a ny a r t i f a c t s t ha t w oul d r e pr e s e nt t he i r pe r c e pt i ons o f l i t e r a c y. I hope d t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s w oul d j ot dow n t he i r not i c i ng, w onde r s a nd m os t i n t i m a t e t hought s on how t he i r l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s i m pa c t e d or not i m pa c t e d t he i r l i ve s D / d i s c ou r s e : D i s c our s e s a r e di f f e r e nt i a t e d a s bi g D di s c our s e s a nd l i t t l e d di s c our s e s ( G e e 2005, p 7) T he di s c our s e s de s c r i be d w i t h a l i t t l e d a r e t he s pe c i f i c l a ngua ge us e d i n t he m om e nt t o e na c t a c t i vi t i e s a nd i de nt i t i e s ( G e e 2005 p 7 ) W he n de s c r i bi ng D i s c our s e s bi g D i t i nc l ude s one s b ody, c l ot he s ge s t ur e s a c t i ons i nt e r a c t i ons s ym bol s t ool s t e c hnol ogi e s va l ue s a t t i t ude s be l i e f s a nd e m ot i ons ( G e e 2005, p 7)

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17 G e n d e r : A f t e r a ba by e nt e r s t he w or l d t he nor m i s f or t he pa r e nt s t o c a t e gor i z e m a l e a nd f e m a l e by e xa m i ni ng a na t om y bi ol ogy hor m one s a nd phys i ol ogy o f t he i nf a nt ( W e s t & Z i m m e r m a n, 1987) T h i s i s a t m os t a ve r y ba s i c vi e w of ge nde r G e nde r i s a t hi c k s t e w w i t h s e x, bi ol ogy popul a r c ul t ur e a nd pow e r bubbl i ng j us t be ne a t h t he s ur f a c e ( F l e t c he r 2006, p. 21) F or t he pu r pos e of t hi s r e s e a r c h pa pe r I us e t he t e r m ge nde r t o r e f e r e nc e t he i ns t r uc t i ona l di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n gi r l s a nd boys M y i nt e nt i on i s not t o e xc l ude a ny ge nde r or f ue l t he ge nde r de ba t e M y pur pos e t o s he d l i ght on w ha t I be l i e ve i s a t r a ge dy: a t hr ow i ng a w a y of l i ve s a nd t a l e nt t ha t l i e w i t hi n ou r H i s pa ni c boys H i s p an i c : T he s t r uggl e t o de f i ne t he M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n popul a t i on l e f t i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a f t e r t he T r e a t y of G ua da l upe l a s t e d m a ny ye a r s a nd e ve n be c a m e m or e c om pl e x w i t h ot he r H i s pa ni c gr oups f i nd i ng t he r e w a y t o A m e r i c a n s oi l ( A l va r e z 1973; G om e z 1992) A s L a t i n A m e r i c a n, C uba n, S pa ni s h, a nd P ue r t o R i c a n popul a t i ons be ga n t o i nc r e a s e t he H i s pa ni c l a be l s l ow l y e vol ve d t o i n c l ude t he s e gr oups M a ny of t he s e n e w c i t i z e ns a l s o f a vor e d t he t e r m H i s pa ni c t o p r e s e r ve t he a l l e nc om pa s s i ng pol i t i c a l um br e l l a t ha t w oul d pr ot e c t a nd t r um p ot he r i de nt i t i e s l i ke ge nde r c l a s s pol i t i c a l pr e f e r e nc e or oc c upa t i on ( T r ue ba 1999 p 572 ) T hi s l i ne of t hi nki ng i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d by gove r nm e nt o f f i c e s s uc h a s T he N a t i ona l C e nt e r of E duc a t i ona l S t a t i s t i c s ( N C E S ) a nd t he O f f i c e o f B udge t a nd M a na ge m e nt ( O B M ) w hi c h de f i ne H i s pa ni c a s a pe r s on( s ) of M e xi c a n, P ue r t o R i c a n, C uba n, C e nt r a l o r S out h A m e r i c a n or ot he r S pa ni s h c ul t u r e or or i gi n, r e ga r dl e s s of r a c e ( B ur e a u of C e ns us 2004, p 2; N C E S 2003, p. 1) T he t e r m H i s pa ni c ha s s l ow l y e m e r ge d t o be t he l a be l m os t S pa ni s h s pe a ki ng i ndi vi dua l s i de nt i f y w i t h e i t he r f or c ul t ur a l o r pol i t i c a l pur pos e s

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18 A l t hough t he de f i ni t i on of H i s pa ni c ha s a t t a i ne d m uc h c ons e ns us t he U S D e pa r t m e nt of C om m e r c e E c onom i c s a nd S t a t i s t i c s B ur e a u of C e ns us doe s not r e c ogni z e H i s pa ni c a s a one of t he of f i c i a l r a c e c a t e gor i e s I t doe s how e ve r c ons i de r r a c e a nd H i s pa ni c or i gi n t o be t w o s e pa r a t e a nd di s t i nc t c onc e pt s A c c or di ng t o t he O ve r vi e w of R a c e a nd H i s pa ni c O r i gi n C e ns us B ur e a u B r i e f t he r e a r e onl y f i ve o f f i c i a l r a c e c a t e gor i e s de f i ne d by t he C e ns us B ur e a u; W hi t e B l a c k or A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, A m e r i c a n I ndi a n a nd A l a s ka N a t i ve A s i a n, N a t i ve H a w a i i a n a nd O t he r P a c i f i c I s l a nde r a nd s om e ot he r r a c e H i s pa ni c t he t e r m us e d by t he m a j or i t y o f M e xi c a n A m e r i c a ns w hi c h m a ke up 64% of t he H i s pa ni c popul a t i on w oul d f a l l i nt o t he c a t e gor y of s om e ot he r r a c e ( B ur e a u o f C e ns us 2006, p. 28) I ndi vi dua l s a r e a s ke d t o de s i gna t e t he m s e l ve s a m i ni m um of t w o e t hni c i de nt i t i e s H i s pa ni c or L a t i no a nd N ot H i s pa ni c or L a t i no ( B ur e a u of C e ns us 2000, p. 2) T hi s w a s s ur pr i s i ng, c ons i de r i ng t he s ky r oc ke t i ng num be r of H i s pa ni c s i n ou r c ount y S o w he n l ooki n g t o de f i ne a pa n e t hni c l a be l l i ke H i s pa ni c a s a r a c e i t i s i m po r t a nt t o l oo k be yond t he bounda r i e s of t he U S C e ns us B ur e a u. A s a M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n w ho i s c om f or t a bl e w i t h e i t he r l a be l H i s pa ni c or L a t i no, I f ound i t d i f f i c ul t t o de c i de w hi c h pa n e t hn i c l a be l t o us e I a l s o di d not w a nt t o a s s um e t ha t t he s e s pe c i f i c young boys w e r e a s c om f o r t a bl e a s I w a s us i ng H i s pa ni c a nd L a t i no i nt e r c ha nge a bl y. T he r e f or e I us e d t hi s oppor t uni t y t o a s k w hi c h o f t he t w o l a be l s L a t i no or H i s pa ni c w a s t he m os t c om f o r t a bl e f o r e a c h s t u de nt I n r e f e r e nc e t o r e s e a r c h r e vi e w e d f or t hi s d i s s e r t a t i on, I us e d t he t e r m H i s pa ni c t o r e pr e s e nt t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ye t

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19 i nt e r c ha nge d w i t h t he t e r m L a t i no t o be c ons i s t e nt w i t h a ny s t udy or a r t i c l e us e d i n t he r e s e a r c h i nqui r y. L i t e r ac y e xp e r i e n c e s : F a ul kne r ( 2005) de f i ne s pu bl i c l i t e r ac i e s a s l i t e r a t e pr a c t i c e s c om bi ni ng l a ngua ge a nd t e xt s va l ue d i ns i de t he c l a s s r oom T he s e r a nge f r om w or ki ng w i t h pr i nt vi s ua l di gi t a l a udi o, a nd o r a l t e xt s P r i v at e l i t e r ac i e s a r e t hos e pe r s ona l s oc i a l a nd i nd i vi dua l l i t e r a c i e s t ha t a r e v a l ue d out of s c hool w hi c h i nf l ue nc e di f f e r e nt a s pe c t s of a s t ude nt s l i f e I n or de r t o s up por t m y s oc i oc ul t ur a l a ppr oa c h t o l a ngua ge a nd l i t e r a c y, i t w a s vi t a l t ha t I e m pha s i z e d t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e xt a nd c ont e xt T he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n t e xt a nd c ont e xt he l ps s e t t he s t a ge f or m e a ni ng m a ki ng pr oc e s s e s t ha t a r e a c qui r e d a nd e m be dde d i n s pe c i f i c e xpe r i e nc e s ( G e e 2001) F r e i r e ( 1983) be a ut i f u l l y de s c r i be s hi s c hi l dhood m e m o r i e s i n t he f o r m o f t e xt w or ds a nd l e t t e r s of a c ont e xt i nc a r na t e d i n a s e r i e s of t hi ngs obj e c t s a nd s i gns ( p. 29) t ha t pa i nt t he pi c t ur e of hi s e xpe r i e nc e s T he s e t e x t s w or ds and l e t t e r s pr ovi de d t he m e a ni ng t o hi s m e m or i e s S i m i l a r l y, I de f i ne d l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s a nd t hos e w he r e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d, i nt e r pr e t a nd r e c r e a t e t e x t s w or ds and s i gns t o m a ke m e a ni ng s i t ua t e d w i t hi n t he i r s pe c i f i c c ont e xt or s i t ua t i on M as c u l i n i t y ( M ac h i s m o) : T hi s i nqui r y r e f e r e nc e d m a c hi s m o a s t he f or m of m a s c ul i ni t y t ha t i s pr e va l e nt w i t hi n t he H i s pa ni c c ul t ur e V i e w s on m a c hi s m o hol d t ha t r e al H i s pa ni c m e n a r e s t r ong, v i r i l e v al i e nt e ( va l i a nt ) s t ubbor n f ue r t e ( S t e ve ns 1965 p. 848) . good d r i nke r s l ove r s s i nge r s a nd f i ght e r s T he y a r e b r a ve p r om i s c uous oppr e s s i ve r e s pons i bl e a ggr e s s i ve f e a r l e s s ne s s a ut hor i t a r i a n, a nd w i l l i ng t o de f e nd

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20 w ha t t he y be l i e ve ( S t e ve ns 1965; T or r e s e t a l 2 002) G i l m or e ( 1990) a s s e r t e d t ha t t r a di t i ona l m a c hi s m o hol ds t h r e e i m pe r a t i ve s t o i m pr e gna t e t o pr ot e c t a nd t o pr ovi de P e r c e p t i on s : M y goa l i s t o h a ve pa r t i c i pa nt s que s t i on t he i r pe r c e pt i ons by i nt e r r oga t i on o f t he i r s oc i oc ul t ur a l i de nt i t i e s P e r c e pt i ons I de f i ne a s t he a w a r e ne s s of r e s ul t s c um ul a t i ve unde r s t a ndi ngs a nd/ or i ns i ght r e a c he d vi a r e f l e c t i on on i de a s opi ni ons a nd a s s um pt i ons a r ound t h e i r pub l i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) I i nt e nde d t ha t t he p r oc e s s of r e f l e c t i ve i nqui r y w oul d pr ovi de a c l e a r pe r c e pt i on a bout w ha t H i s pa ni c boys va l ue a nd pr a c t i c e i n r e ga r ds t o l i t e r a c y. L i m i t at i on s o f t h e S t u d y L i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy r e vol ve a r ound r e s e a r c he r bi a s a nd t he ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y of f i ndi ngs R e s e a r c he r bi a s e s i nc l ude d m y e xpe r i e nc e s a s a m i gr a nt H i s pa ni c s t ude nt t ha t m a y ha ve i n f l ue nc e d m y pe r s pe c t i ve s t ow a r d t he e duc a t i ona l s i t ua t i on of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s O f e qua l i m por t a nc e m y m ot he r w a s m a r gi na l i z e d by he r i na bi l i t y t o s pe a k E ngl i s h a nd he r i na bi l i t y t o r e a d or w r i t e i n bot h S pa ni s h a nd E ngl i s h. H a vi ng w i t ne s s e d f i r s t ha nd t he i ne qui t i e s t ha t be i ng a pa r t of a m a r g i na l i z e d popul a t i on a l l ow e d m e t o r e f l e c t w i t hi n m y ow n c ul t u r e j ou r na l T hi s r e f l e c t i ve j our na l c a pt ur e d t he i nt e r r oga t i ons of m y ow n pe r c e pt i ons a nd he l pe d m a i nt a i n m y ba l a nc e a s a r e s e a r c he r I ne e de d t o be c a r e f ul no t t o i m pos e m y va l ue of e duc a t i on nor m y be l i e f t ha t e duc a t i on c a n br i ng a bout pos i t i ve c ha nge I c ont i n ua l l y r e m i nde d m ys e l f t ha t a l t hough m y pa r e nt s w e r e not f or m a l l y s c hool e d, t he y w e r e hone s t s uc c e s s f ul c ont r i but i ng m e m be r s of t he i r c om m uni t y a nd s uc c e s s f ul l y c ha nge d t he c our s e of a c t i on f o r t he i r c hi l dr e n w ho a l s o i nc l ude d t w o H i s pa ni c boys

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21 S i n c e t hi s gr oup of H i s pa ni c boys w i l l be s e l f r e po r t i ng t he i r pe r c e pt i ons on t he i r publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) t he f i na l r e s ul t s of t hi s i nqui r y w i l l not be ge ne r a l i z a bl e t o H i s pa ni c boys i n ot he r s i t ua t i ons F ur t he r t he va l i di t y of s e l f r e po r t e d da t a i s a poi nt o f c a ut i on due t o t he a bi l i t y of pa r t i c i pa nt s t o be hone s t a nd a c c ur a t e w he n r e s pondi ng t o t he c om pl e x r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong i de a s be l i e f s va l ue s a nd t he i nt e r a c t i on a m ong t he m ( M a r s ha l l a nd R os s m a n, 2006) Y e t t he f i ndi ngs m a y p r ovi de i ns i ght t o H i s pa ni c boys i n s i m i l a r c ondi t i ons a nd c i r c um s t a nc e s S u m m ar y T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o unc ove r a nd r e por t t he pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t pe r t a i n t o l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he l i ve s o f young H i s pa ni c boys I t i s i m pe r a t i ve t ha t t he voi c e s of t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on a r e he a r d i n or de r t o l e a r n t he i r pe r s pe c t i ve on t he e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m s s uppor t f or t he i r pe r s ona l a nd a c a de m i c goa l s T hi s di s s e r t a t i on di s c us s e s m a ny f a c t or s t ha t i m pa c t t he a c a de m i c s uc c e s s a nd/ or f a i l ur e of H i s pa ni c boys O ve r a l l I ha ve f ound t ha t t he H i s pa ni c m a l e ha s a hi ghe r pr oba bi l i t y of l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt h i gh gr a d e l e ve l r e t e nt i on, a nd e ve n h i ghe r d r op out r a t e H i s c ul t ur e a nd m a s c ul i ni t i e s a r e e xpr e s s e d by H i s pa ni c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t put hi m i n c on f l i c t w i t h t he e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m F or e x a m pl e t he f oc us on a s t r ong f a m i l y or i e nt a t i on, w he r e he m a y be a p r ovi de r a nd l e a de r m a y be i n c onf l i c t w i t h a n e duc a t e d i ndi vi dua l w ho s e e ks hi s ow n a dva nc e m e nt ( V a l de s 1996; C onc ha s 2002) T he f a m i l y f oc us pl a c e s t he H i s pa ni c m a l e s i n a pos i t i on o f l e a de r s hi p t ow a r d e ns ur i ng he t e nds t o f a m i l y i s s ue s be f or e i ndi vi dua l s uc c e s s A t t he e nd of t he da y, he c onf r on t s t he da i l y f r us t r a t i on o f a w o r l d t ha t s e e s hi m a s a n out s i de r H e doe s not f i t t he no r m H e s pe a ks

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22 d i f f e r e nt l y, l i ve s di f f e r e nt l y be l i e ve s di f f e r e nt l y. T he s e di f f e r e nc e s a l t hough t he y r e t a i n i nhe r e nt va l ue t e nd t o i nc r e a s e hi s c ha nc e s of a c a de m i c f a i l ur e T he f a c t t ha t he i s a m a l e H i s pa ni c w ho s e e ks dom i na nc e pr i de a nd p r ovi s i on f or hi s f a m i l y w i l l pul l h i m a w a y f r om t he e duc a t i on t ha t w i l l m a ke a di f f e r e nc e i n hi s l i f e a nd t ha t of hi s c hi l dr e n T he r ol e t ha t l i t e r a c y a nd e duc a t i on pl a y i n a H i s pa ni c boy s l i f e i s f a r f r om be i ng de t e r m i ne d a t a ny s t a ge of t he h i s e duc a t i ona l c a r e e r T he pr i m a r y r e s e a r c h que s t i on t ha t w i l l gu i de t hi s i nqui r y i s : W ha t a r e t he pe r c e pt i ons o f a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c boys w ho a r e c ons i de r e d l ow l e ve l r e a de r s ( by s t a t e a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s ) r e ga r di ng t he i r ow n l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s ? S e c onda r y r e s e a r c h que s t i ons i nc l ude : W ha t ha ve r e s e a r c he r s r e por t e d a bout H i s pa ni c bo ys i n l i t e r a c y s i t ua t i ons ? W ha t i s t he r ol e of m a s c ul i ni t y ( m a c hi s m o) i n t he l i ve s of H i s pa ni c boys ? W ha t t e a c hi ng m e t hods do H i s pa ni c boys c ons i de r m os t r e s pons i ve t o t he i r l i t e r a c y ne e ds ? W ha t r ol e c a n c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y pl a y i n e duc a t i ng t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on?

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23 C H A P T E R 2. R E V I E W O F L I T E R A T U R E I n t r od u c t i on B y t he ye a r 2020 46 % o f t he s t ude nt s i n publ i c s c hool s w i l l be c hi l dr e n of c ol or a nd 20. 1% w i l l be c hi l dr e n w ho l i ve i n pove r t y ( S t one H e nl e y, 1 999, p. 2) T he s e c hi l dr e n e nt e r ou r c l a s s r oom s a nd be a r t he he a r t s o f m a ny c ul t u r e s S a dl y, t hi s i s of t e n not r e c ogni z e d, a pp r e c i a t e d, a nd s om e t i m e s e ve n m e t w i t h ve i l e d a nt a goni s m I n f a c t m uc h of t he c ove r t c onf l i c t s a bout r a c e e t hni c i t y, s oc i a l c l a s s a nd ge nde r i n t he U S a r e ba s e d on t he m yt hol ogy of a s upe r i or c ul t ur e i n t o w hi c h a l l o t he r s m us t be a s s i m i l a t e d ( S t one H e nl e y, 1999, p. 1) T hi s m a r g i na l i z a t i on of ot he r c ul t u r e s a nd s oc i a l c l a s s e s bl e e ds i nt o our c l a s s r oom s e nve l ope d i n s i l e nc e T he r i f t be c om e s m or e a ppa r e nt w he n w e e xpl or e how ou r H i s pa ni c boys c a l m l y r a nkl e i n t he s t a gna nt r ow s of publ i c e duc a t i on. A l l i ngt on ( 2006 ) r e po r t e d t ha t be i ng a boy a nd b e i ng a m i nor i t y pl a c e s you f ur t he r a t r i s k f or e duc a t i ona l d i f f i c ul t i e s ( p. 22) E duc a t i on s e c t or s e ni or pol i c y a na l ys t M e a d ( 2006) out l i ne s i n t he r e po r t T he T r ut h abou t B oy s and G i r l s how ge nde r ha s pl a ye d i nt o t he a c hi e ve m e nt o f boys a nd gi r l s A l t h ough t hi s r e por t r e c ogni z e s t he dua l s uc c e s s of bot h ge nde r s M e a d ( 2006) h i ghl i ght s t h a t t he r e i s no doubt t ha t s om e gr oups of boys pa r t i c ul a r l y H i s pa ni c a nd B l a c k boys a n d boys f r om l ow i nc om e hom e s a r e i n r e a l t r oubl e ( p 3 ) due t o r a c i a l a nd e c onom i c f a c t or s T hi s t r e nd i s f ur t he r s uppor t e d by t he A m e r i c a n C ounc i l on E duc a t i on t ha t c i t e s t ha t w he r e a s 90% of w hi t e a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 25 t o 29 ye a r ol ds ha ve a t t a i ne d a hi gh s c hool d i pl om a onl y 60 % of

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24 H i s pa ni c m e n ( 2006, p 18 ) ha ve m e t t hi s e duc a t i ona l m i l e s t one G i ve n t h i s da t a i t i s a ppa r e nt t ha t be i ng bo t h H i s pa ni c a n d m a l e c r e a t e s a da nge r ous a nd pos s i bl y f a t a l c om bi na t i on. W hi l e t he r e a r e va r i ous i ns t r uc t i ona l a ppr oa c he s t ha t c l a i m t ha t t o e ns ur e e duc a t i ona l e qua l i t y l i nke d t o ge nde r a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or t he ha z a r ds of H i s pa ni c boys l i ve s m a y out w e i gh t he i m pa c t of t he s e a ppr oa c he s I f t he s e t r e nds a r e m a i nt a i ne d w i t h no c ha nge i n i ns t r uc t i ona l phi l os ophy a nd/ or a ppr o a c h, t he n our H i s pa ni c boys w i l l c ont i nue t o f l ounde r i n t hi s s oc i e t a l bl i nd s pot T he r e f or e I a s ke d w ha t m e t hods a nd unde r s t a ndi ngs a r e ne c e s s a r y f or e duc a t or s a dm i ni s t r a t or s a nd r e s e a r c h s c hol a r s t o ga i n i n or de r f or t he na t i on s H i s pa ni c boys t o r e t a i n t he i r a bi l i t y t o pu r s ue a l i t e r a t e l i f e a nd i t s a c c om pa nyi ng l i be r t y? R e vi e w i ng r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e i s a l w a ys c ha l l e ngi n g c ons i de r i ng t he va s t a m o unt of pol i t i c a l l y m ot i va t e d r e s e a r c h a nd f i ndi ngs t ha t ha ve s uppor t e d or ne ga t e d pub l i c e duc a t i ona l i ni t i a t i ve s C ons i de r i ng t hi s I ha ve t a k e n a br oa d a nd c r i t i c a l a pp r oa c h w he n de ve l opi ng gui di ng que s t i ons f or m y r e s e a r c h. I n t hi s i nve s t i ga t i on f or pe r t i ne nt r e s e a r c h a r ound t he t opi c of H i s pa ni c boys I ha ve s t r uc t ur e d m y c ol l e c t i on of r e s e a r c h a nd da t a a r ound s pe c i f i c gui di ng que s t i ons T he s e i nc l ude : P r i m a r y R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on : W ha t a r e t he pe r c e pt i ons o f a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c boys w ho a r e c ons i de r e d l ow l e ve l r e a de r s ( by s t a t e a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s ) r e ga r di ng t he i r ow n l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s ? S e c onda r y R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i ons : W ha t ha ve r e s e a r c he r s r e por t e d a bout H i s pa ni c bo ys i n l i t e r a c y s i t ua t i ons ? W ha t i s t he r ol e of m a s c ul i ni t y ( m a c hi s m o) i n t he l i ve s of H i s pa n i c boys ?

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25 W ha t t e a c hi ng m e t hods do H i s pa ni c boys c ons i de r m os t r e s pons i ve t o t he i r l i t e r a c y ne e ds ? W ha t r ol e c a n c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y pl a y i n e duc a t i ng t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on? T he pe da gogi c a l a r t i c l e s a nd r e s e a r c h s t udi e s gl e a ne d f r om t hi s s e a r c h ha d t o m e e t c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a t o be i nc l ude d i n m y r e s e a r c h. T he s e c r i t e r i a i nc l ude : ( a ) r e l e va nc e ( b) e xpe r t s c hol a r s a nd t he ( c ) qua l i t y o f t he r e s e a r c h i t s e l f I c a nnot a s s e r t t ha t I ha ve i nc l ude d a l l c ur r e nt r e s e a r c h w i t hi n t he gr ow i ng f i e l d of boys l i t e r a c y, a nd c r i t i c a l pe da gogy. Y e t I ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o i nc l ude a l l w o r ks t ha t ha ve m a de s i gni f i c a nt i nf l ue nc e t o t hi s s pe c i f i c f i e l d o f s t udy. R e s e ar c h M e t h od s T o de t e r m i ne t he r e l e v anc e of t he r e s e a r c h I ha ve i nc l ude d onl y t hos e s e l e c t i ons f oc us e d on H i s pa ni c boys l i t e r a c y, a nd a c hi e ve m e nt a s t he y ha d i m m e di a t e i m pl i c a t i ons f or m y s t udy. I n m y r e s e a r c h, I a voi de d c ul t ur a l l y or i e nt e d s t udi e s t ha t pr ove d t o be t oo br oa d f or t hi s r e vi e w s uc h a s t hos e s pe c i f i c a l l y l o oki ng a t m ul t i c ul t ur a l e duc a t i on, ge nde r or r a c e ( s pe c i f i c a l l y a ddr e s s i ng t he bl a c k/ w hi t e pa r a di gm ) W i t hi n m y s e a r c h I di d f i nd t ha t t he r e w e r e ot he r l i t e r a t u r e r e vi e w s a r o und t he s a m e a r e a of s t udy, f or e xa m pl e ge nde r T he s e w e r e us e f ul on l y t o f i nd ol de r ye t r e l e va nt r e s e a r c h a nd t o e xa m i ne w or ks t ha t w e r e pub l i s he d i n t he i nt e r i m I n t hi s c a s e I c a r e f ul l y a na l yz e d t he bi bl i ogr a phy t o c om pa r e m y l i s t of r e s e a r c he r s t i t l e s of a r t i c l e s a nd c i t e d books t o s e t up t he f r a m e w or k f or t hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w T o a s s e s s t he s c hol ar l y na t ur e of t h e r e s e a r c h c ol l e c t e d, i t w a s i m pe r a t i ve t ha t t he s c hol a r be c i t e d i n va r i ous r e s e a r c h s t udi e s j our na l s a nd/ or books T he j our na l s a nd

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26 or ga ni z a t i ons s e a r c he d w e r e t hos e w i t h w e l l e s t a bl i s he d pe e r r e vi e w e d pr oc e s s e s I n a ddi t i on, p r of e s s i ona l j our na l s s uc h a s L anguage A r t s a nd R e s e ar c h i n t he T e ac hi ng o f E ngl i s h bot h by t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l o f T e a c he r s of E ngl i s h, a nd R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y t he J our nal of A dol e s c e nt s and A dul t L i t e r at ur e a nd R e adi ng T e ac he r a l l by t he I nt e r na t i ona l R e a di ng A s s oc i a t i on, w e r e c ons i de r e d va l ua bl e due t o t he i r r e s e a r c h or i e nt a t i on a nd a f f i l i a t i on F i na l l y, w i t h r e ga r d t o t he qual i t y of t he r e s e a r c h, I onl y s e l e c t e d t hos e a r t i c l e s r e s e a r c h s t udi e s a nd books t ha t f ol l ow e d t he ge ne r a l l y a c c e pt e d s t a nda r ds f or qua nt i t a t i ve a nd qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h. I a voi de d t ho s e a r t i c l e s a nd s t udi e s t ha t pa i nt e d br oa d, opi ni ona t e d s t r i pe s t hr oughout t he i r f i ndi ng s W i t h t he s e ke y c r i t e r i a i n m i nd I t he n pe r f o r m e d e l e c t r oni c da t a ba s e s e a r c he s of E R I C J S T O R N C R E L a nd N A E P f ol l ow e d by s e a r c he s i n gove r nm e nt a ge nc i e s t ha t r e por t s t a t i s t i c a l da t a s uc h a s t he U S C e ns us B ur e a u. A ddi t i ona l l y, I c om be d t he t a bl e of c ont e nt s bi bl i ogr a phi e s of book c ha pt e r s a nd j o ur na l a r t i c l e s f o r publ i s he d w or ks a nd/ or pr om i ne nt a ut hor s i n t he a r e a o f H i s pa ni c b oys l i t e r a c y, a nd c r i t i c a l pe da gogy. K e y t e r m s us e d t o c onduc t t h i s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w w e r e : H i s pa ni c boys H i s pa ni c l i t e r a c y, m a s c ul i ni t y, m a c hi s m o, c ul t u r e a nd l i t e r a c y, a nd c r i t i c a l pe da gogy f or E ngl i s h l a ngua ge l e a r ne r s F i na l l y I pe r u s e d j our na l s on m ul t i c ul t u r a l e duc a t i on w i t h a t i ght l e ns f or s t udi e s f oc us i ng on H i s pa ni c boys A f t e r I ha d c ol l e c t e d a nd r e vi e w e d t he a c c um ul a t e d l i t e r a t ur e I c a t e gor i z e d t he r e s e a r c h i nt o t hr e e m a i n s t r a nds t ha t s t e m m e d f r o m t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons T he s e s t r a nds r e pr e s e nt t he a r e a s of i nve s t i ga t i on f or t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. T he f i r s t a r e a I w i l l di s c us s w i l l

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27 be H i s pani c boy s and l i t e r ac y w he r e I e xa m i ne t he s oc i oc ul t ur a l pe r s pe c t i ve t o p r ovi de a l e ns f or t he m a ny gi f t s H i s pa ni c boys br i ng t o U S c l a s s r oom s T he s e c ond a r e a I w i l l di s c us s i s m a s c ul i ni t y, s pe c i f i c a l l y t he c ul t ur e of m ac hi s m o a nd i t s i m pa c t on H i s pa ni c boys T he f i na l s t r a nd w i l l be t he r ol e of c r i t i c al pe dagogy a nd t he pot e nt i a l i t ha s on e duc a t i ng m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i ons w ho f i nd t he m s e l ve s di s e nf r a nc hi s e d f r om t he m a j or i t y popul a t i on H i s p an i c B oys an d L i t e r ac y T he c ur r e nt e duc a t i ona l r e s e a r c h on boys i s f r i ght e ni ng. I t e xpos e s s om e of t he i nhe r e nt c ha l l e nge s of be i ng a boy i n t oda y s s oc i e t y. S oc i a l e duc a t i ona l a nd ge nde r i s s ue s t ha t ha ve e vol ve d w i t hi n t he pa s t 35 ye a r s h a ve de ve l ope d i nt o a ge ne r a t i on of m a l e s m a ny of w hom c a nnot o r c hoos e not t o r e a d or w r i t e a t e xpe c t e d pr of i c i e nc y l e ve l s ( G ur i a n, 1996; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002; N e w ki r k, 2006) T o de e pe n t h i s s e ns e of di s pa r i t y, s t ude nt s of c ol or s pe c i f i c a l l y boys c a n f e e l a s e ns e of i s ol a t i on m or e s t r ongl y i f t he y a r e s t r uggl i ng w i t h i s s ue s of r a c i a l a nd e t hn i c i de nt i t y ( N i e t o 2004 p 102 ) T he r e vi e w of c ur r e nt l i t e r a t ur e s pe c i f i c a l l y a dd r e s s i ng t he ne e ds pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd e duc a t i ona l c ha l l e nge s of H i s pa ni c boys i s l i m i t e d a nd unba l a nc e d. R e s e a r c he r s c i t e m a ny r e a s ons f or t he l a c k of s t udi e s or i e nt e d t ow a r d H i s pa ni c boys s om e m a y i nc l ude : ( a ) t he l a c k of t he i r r e pr e s e nt a t i on w i t hi n s pe c i f i c a r e a s of r e s e a r c h ( G a y, 1994; W hor l e y & A ddi s 2006 ) ; ( b) t he bl a c k/ w hi t e pa r a di gm ( P e r e a 1997; C onc ha s 2002: M a r t i ne z 1998) ; a nd ( c ) t he m a ny e t hni c i t i e s unde r H i s pa ni c on t he U S C e ns us B ur e a u ( B ur e a u of C ons e ns us 2000) a s t he m a i n r e a s ons f or t hi s di s c r e pa nc y. T he r e f or e I f ound no s pe c i f i c pe da gogi c a l a r t i c l e s r e s e a r c h s t udi e s or b ook c ha pt e r s de vot e d t o t he t e a c hi ng

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28 a nd l e a r ni ng of H i s pa ni c boys A l t hough t he r e w e r e s t udi e s t ha t i nc l ude d H i s pa ni c boys t he i r pr i m a r y pu r pos e w a s ge a r e d t ow a r d: ( a ) G e nd e r c om pa r i ng gi r l s vs boy s or A ngl o boys vs m i nor i t y boys w he r e a l l m i nor i t i e s w e r e c om bi ne d; ( b) M ul t i c ul t ur a l onc e a ga i n w he r e a l l m i nor i t i e s w e r e c om bi ne d, ye t t he f oc us w a s on A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n c ul t ur e ; a nd/ or ( c ) C l a s s t he f oc us w a s on t he s oc i oe c onom i c f a c t or s t ha t i m pe de a s t ude nt s l e a r ni ng a t hom e a nd s c hool S t udi e s t a r ge t i ng t he H i s pa ni c popul a t i on w e r e t hos e f oc us e d on m ul t i c ul t ur a l i s m pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt o r s oc i oe c onom i c f a c t or s s pe c i f i c a l l y i n t he c ont e xt o f ge ne r a t i ona l l a c k of e duc a t i on. T h e s e s t udi e s ve r y of t e n por t r a y H i s pa ni c boys a s vi c t i m s of our s oc i e t y. F o r t he pu r pos e of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, I c hos e t o pul l s t r a nds f r om va r i ous r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t s or s t udi e s t ha t i ndi r e c t l y a l i gn w i t h l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt of H i s pa ni c boys A ddi t i ona l l y, I l oo ke d f or s t r a nds a nd pa t t e r ns of c ons i s t e nc y i n hope s of r e c ons t r uc t i ng t he f i ndi ngs a nd r e t a i ni ng t he f oc us on H i s pa ni c boys I n r e vi e w of t he s e f i ndi ngs a r ound H i s pa ni c boys I f ound i t ne c e s s a r y t o f i r s t unc ove r how c ul t ur e pl a ys i nt o t he de ve l opm e nt of l a ngua ge a nd l i t e r a c y L anguage and C ul t ur e L a ngua ge a nd c ul t ur e our l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s a r e i n s e pa r a bl e ( T r ue ba 1990; G e e 2001) L a ngua ge r e vol ve s a r ound s ubj e c t i ve i nf or m a t i on a nd c om m uni c a t i ng pe r s pe c t i ve s on e xpe r i e nc e a nd a c t i on i n t he w o r l d, of t e n i n c ont r a s t t o a l t e r na t i ve a nd c om pe t i ng pe r s pe c t i ve s ( G e e 2001, p. 716) S oc i e t a l e xpe c t a t i ons a r ound c ul t ur e i nc l ude s ur f a c e c onc e pt s l i ke f ood hol i da ys a nd d r e s s T he s e s upe r f i c i a l i nt e r p r e t a t i ons a r e unde r s t ood a nd m o r e t ha n l i ke l y a c c e pt e d by m os t m e m be r s of s oc i e t y f r om ou t s i de t he pa r t i c ul a r c ul t u r e Y e t c ul t u r e a t a de e pe r l e ve l i nc l ude s t he p r a c t i c e s be l i e f s

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29 c us t om s a nd s oc i a l be ha vi or of a gr oup o f pe opl e P e opl e w i t hi n t he c ul t ur e g r oup de ve l op va l ue or i e nt a t i ons be l i e f s ha bi t s l a ngua g e s t yl e s a nd p a t t e r ns of be ha vi or ( S m e dl e y, 1999 ) T he s e a r e d i s pl a ye d on a da i l y b a s i s vi a s oc i a l i z a t i on pa t t e r ns c hi l dr e a r i ng pr a c t i c e s a nd s oc i ol i ngui s t i c pa t t e r ns ( T r ue ba 1990 pg. 2) T he s e c ul t u r a l e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t a r e c ons t r uc t e d f r om bi r t h t h r oug h a dul t hood pr ov i de e a c h pe r s on w i t h t he l e ns t o pe r c e i ve a nd i nt e r pr e t t he w or l d a r ound t he m T hi s s oc i oc ul t ur a l know l e dge be c om e s t he ba s i s f or a n i ndi vi dua l s w a y of t hi nki ng w hi c h m a ny r e s e a r c he r s r e l a t e t o a c hi l d s l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt a nd t o t he l e a r ni ng p r oc e s s i n ge ne r a l ( T r ue ba 1990; D e l ga do G a i t a n & T r ue ba 1991) T r ue ba ( 1990) w r i t e s : L a ngua ge a nd c ul t ur e a r e i ns e pa r a bl e i n t he pr oc e s s of m e di a t i on be t w e e n s oc i a l a nd m e nt a l pr oc e s s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he i ns t r uc t i ona l pr oc e s s L a ngua ge a nd c ul t ur e pl a y a ke y r ol e i n t he or ga ni z a t i on o f c ogni t i ve t a s ks t he de ve l opm e nt o f c r i t i c a l t hi nki ng s ki l l s a nd t he pr oc e s s of c r e a t i ve t hi nki ng ( p 2 3 ) T he c ha l l e nge be c om e s m or e a ppa r e nt w he n a c hi l d s f i r s t l a ngua ge i s di f f e r e nt t ha n t he l a ngua ge s poke n by t he m a i ns t r e a m O f t e n t he l a ngua ge ba r r i e r m a y be t he f i r s t obs t a c l e H i s pa ni c boys e nc ount e r w he n e nt e r i ng t he doo r o f a ny A m e r i c a n c l a s s r oom ( V a l de s 2001 ) T he va s t m a j o r i t y o f E ngl i s h L a ngua ge L e a r ne r s ( E L L ) a ppr oxi m a t e l y 85% s i t i n m onol i ngua l E ngl i s h U S c l a s s r oom s w he r e t he r e i s l i m i t e d o r no s uppor t f or l e a r ni ng a ne w l a ngua ge ( N e uf e l d & F i t z ge r a l d, 2001; V a l de s 2001 ) R e ga r dl e s s of on e s pos i t i on on t he gr e a t de ba t e r e ga r di ng l a ngua ge i n t hi s c ount r y w ha t i s not und e r s t ood by t e a c he r s a dm i ni s t r a t o r s a n d e duc a t i ona l s c hol a r s i s how t o e f f e c t i ve l y t e a c h E ngl i s h a nd w ha t pr og r a m s i f a ny,

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30 a r e t o be i m pl e m e nt e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t he l e a r ni ng p r o c e s s f or non E ngl i s h s pe a ke r s ( V a l de s 2001) Y e t w e c ont i nue t o e duc a t e ou r c hi l d r e n of c ol or w ho a r e E ngl i s h L a ngu a ge L e a r ne r s w i t h onl y pa r t i a l s uc c e s s T hi s i s e vi de nc e d by t he s ubs t a nt i a l l a c k of l ongi t udi na l r e s e a r c h a nd e xt e ns i ve l i t e r a t u r e a r ou nd e f f e c t i ve pr a c t i c e s w i t hi n t he e duc a t i ona l a r e na ( N i e t o, 2004) W ha t i s a l s o ne gl e c t e d f r om t he di s c us s i on i s t ha t e ve n w he n pr ogr a m s a r e i m pl e m e nt e d i n E ngl i s h, non E ngl i s h s pe a ki ng c hi l dr e n ha ve l i t t l e a c c e s s t o pr a c t i c e E ngl i s h E ng l i s h l a ngua ge l e a r ne r s a r e i s ol a t e d a nd ba r r e d f r om e xpos ur e t o l a r ge a m ount s o f E ngl i s h t hr oughou t t he i r da y. T he s e s t ude nt s a r e e xpos e d t o bi t s a nd pi e c e s ( V a l de s 2001, p 13 ) o f a n a r t i f i c i a l s oundi ng l a ngua ge f r o m t e a c he r s w ho us e s i m pl i f i e d E ng l i s h or s c r i pt e d pr og r a m s t h a t a r e i nt e nde d t o gi ve s t ude nt s a c c e s s t o a c a de m i c l a ngua ge I n a ddi t i on our c ur r e nt e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m i s ba s e d on E u r o c e nt r i c va l ue s t ha t ha ve t he e f f e c t o f m i ni m i z i ng l a ngua ge di f f e r e nc e s a nd c ul t ur a l be l i e f s w hi c h c a us e l i ngui s t i c a l l y a nd c ul t ur a l l y di ve r s e c hi l dr e n t o be di s e nf r a nc hi s e d ( L a ds on B i l l i ngs 1994; G a y, 2000; B r ow n, 2003) T hi s l e a ds t o a n u nde r c ur r e nt of t e a c he r bi a s a ga i ns t l i ngui s t i c a l l y di ve r s e s t ude nt s w ho r e qui r e f ur t he r i ns t r uc t i ona l c ons i de r a t i on a nd a ddi t i ona l t e a c hi ng e f f o r t ( N i e t o, 2000 ; V a l de s 20 01) B r ow n ( 2003) pur po r t s t ha t t he i nf l ux of s t ude nt s f r om m a ny c ul t u r e s ha s a dde d l a ye r s of c ha l l e nge t o A m e r i c a n c l a s s r oom s A l t hough t he r e a r e m a ny f a c t or s t ha t c a n e ns ur e t e a c he r s w i l l i ngne s s t o m a na ge t he a c a de m i c s uc c e s s e s of c ul t ur a l l y di ve r s e s t ude nt s i t i s e s s e nt i a l t ha t t e a c he r s r e c ogni z e t he i r s of t bi a s e s t ow a r d t he s e s t ude nt s a nd w or k t o de ve l op s t ude nt / t e a c he r r e l a t i ons hi ps honor t he s t ude nt s c ul t ur e a nd m os t i m por t a nt l y r e c ogni z e a nd a dhe r e t o

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31 s t ude nt s l a ngua ge di f f e r e nc e s ( L a ds on B i l l i ngs 1 994; D e l pi t 1995; G a y 2000; B r ow n, 2003) T he pr oc e s s of de m ys t i f yi ng s uc c e s s w i t h s t ude nt s f r om c ul t u r a l l y a nd l i ngui s t i c a l l y di ve r s e ba c kgr ounds c a nnot be a t t r i b ut e d t o one s i ngl e f a c t or T hi s c om pl e x a na l ys i s m us t t a ke i nt o a c c ount t he pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s s oc i e t a l c ont e xt a nd pol i t i c a l f a c t or s i n c ur r e nt m a nda t e s t ha t a r e i ndi vi d ua l t o e a c h H i s pa ni c s t ude nt ( T r ue ba 1990, N i e t o, 2000, V a l de s 2001 ) M a ny r e s e a r c he r s w ho ha ve s t udi e d H i s pa ni c s a nd t he m a ny f a c t or s of t he i r f a i l ur e c ont e nd t ha t H i s pa ni c s w ho a r e w e l l a c qua i nt e d w i t h f a i l ur e c a n di s c ove r how t o i nt e g r a t e t he i r l i ngui s t i c a nd c ul t u r a l he r i t a ge i nt o t he w or l d of s c hool i f a t t e nt i on i s gi ve n t o t he s oc i a l c ont e xt o f t he i r l e a r ni ng ( D e l ga do, G a i t a n & T r ue ba 1991; H ue r t a M a c i a s 1998) Y e t onc e a ga i n w e a r e a s ki ng t hi s di s e nf r a nc hi s e d popul a t i on t o s t r e t c h a nd be nd t o a non r e s pons i ve s ys t e m A l t hough t he r e w e r e m a ny a r t i c l e s s t udi e s a nd bo ok c ha pt e r s de vot e d t o t e a c hi ng m e t hods t ha t w oul d p r ovi de t he s oc i oc ul t ur a l c ont e xt a nd e a s e t he l a ngua ge ba r r i e r t he qua l i t a t i ve or qua nt i t a t i ve e vi de nc e l e a di ng t ow a r d a t he or y f or s pe c i f i c a l l y t e a c hi ng H i s pa ni c boys i s non e xi s t e nt O bs e r v i ng H i s pani c B oy s i n L i t e r ac y Si t uat i ons R e adi ng and ge nde r M a l e s t hr oughout A m e r i c a c ons i s t e nt l y a r e l e s s pr e pa r e d f or a nd l e s s a pt t o ga i n t he l i t e r a c y s ki l l s t ha t s c hool s e xpe c t c om pa r e d t o t he i r f e m a l e c ount e r pa r t s ( S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002) E ve n be f o r e t he y a r e gi ve n t he i r f i r s t l e s s on i n c l a s s boys a r e r e a d t o l e s s t ol d s t or i e s l e s s a nd e xpos e d t o l i br a r i e s l e s s t ha n t he gi r l s w ho s i t ne xt t o t he m

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32 ( M a r t i no & B e r r i l l 2003; G ur i a n & S t e ve n s 2005 ) A s t he y be gi n p r i m a r y s c hool boys a r e out pe r f or m e d by g i r l s i n ove r a l l r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n gr a de s ki nde r ga r t e n t hr ough t hi r d gr a de ( N C E S 2004 ) R e s e a r c h c onf i r m s t ha t f r om t he be gi nni ng o f t he i r s c hool i ng t hr ough hi gh s c hool boys s c or e s i gn i f i c a nt l y l ow e r t ha n gi r l s on s t a nda r di z e d m e a s ur e s of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( P ot t o r f f P he l ps Z i e nt a r s ky, & S kove r a 1996; N C E S 2004) M a l e a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s r e f l e c t c onc l us i ons t ha t boys s e e l i t e r a c y a s f e m i ni z e d, a nd s i nc e m a l e s de f i ne t he i r m a l e ne s s a s not f e m a l e l i t e r a c y m us t i n f a c t be r e j e c t e d ( S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002; M a r t i no & B e r r i l l 2003 ) H ow m uc h m or e w i l l l i t e r a c y be r e j e c t e d w i t h t he s ha dow s of H i s pa ni c m a c hi s m o e ngul f i ng t he r e a di ng? E ve n be f or e H i s pa ni c boys e nt e r s c hool t he y a r e r e a d t o l e s s t ha n t he i r W hi t e m a l e c ount e r pa r t s by a di f f e r e nc e of 1 7. 3% ( N C E S 2003) A ddi t i ona l l y i n a t e a c he r s ur ve y pr e s e nt e d i n t he S t at us and T r e nd i n E duc at i on of H i s pani c s R e por t ki nde r ga r t e n t e a c he r s out l i ne t ha t f i r s t t i m e H i s pa n i c ki nde r ga r t ne r s pa y a t t e nt i on 62% of t he t i m e a r e e a ge r t o l e a r n 70% o f t he t i m e a nd pe r s i s t a t t a s ks 67% of t he t i m e T he s e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a l i gn w i t h qua l i t i e s ne e de d f o r f o r m a l r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ( C a l ki ns 2000; N C E S 2003 ) H ow e ve r N a t i ona l A s s e s s m e nt of E duc a t i ona l P r ogr e s s ( N A E P ) r e por t e d t ha t by a s e a r l y a s t h i r d g r a de t he l i t e r a c y r i f t be t w e e n W hi t e a nd H i s pa ni c s t ude nt r e a di ng s c a l e s c or e s be gi ns t o s how ( 2003) B y t he a ge s of ni ne t hi r t e e n, a nd s e ve nt e e n, t he di f f e r e nc e s i n r e a di ng s c a l e s c or e s be t w e e n t he s e t w o r a c i a l gr oups a r e t w e nt y e i ght poi nt s ( 28) t w e nt y t h r e e poi nt s ( 23) a nd t w e nt y f our poi nt s ( 2 4) r e s pe c t i ve l y ( N A E P 2003)

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33 S o, i f H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s a r e e nt e r i ng s c hool r e a dy a nd e a ge r t o l e a r n w hy i s t he di s c r e pa nc y i n r e a di ng pe r f o r m a nc e m a i nt a i ne d t h r oughout t he i r s c hool i ng? T hi s que s t i on i s one t ha t r e s e a r c he r s ha ve ye t t o a ns w e r I t i s know n, how e ve r t ha t t he r e a r e s t i l l m a ny out s i de f a c t or s t ha t c ont r i bu t e t o t he a c a de m i c f a i l ur e o f H i s pa ni c boys R e adi ng and boy s R e s e a r c he r s c on s i s t e nt l y s up por t t ha t na t i ona l l y b oys f a l l be hi nd i n r e a di ng ( Y oung & B r oz o 2001; N e w ki r k, 2006; G unz e l m a nn & C onne l l 2004) S c hol a r s f u r t he r a s s e r t t ha t ne a r l y ha l f of a l l boys c ons i de r t he m s e l ve s non r e a de r s by t he t i m e t he y e nt e r s e c onda r y s c hool ( B e e r s 1996; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002; G unz e l m a nn & C onne l l 2004; N e w ki r k, 2006) A f e w s c hol a r s c i t e t ha t boys w i l l f i nd m a ny e xc us e s t o hi de t he f a c t t ha t t he y a r e not r e a de r s W hi l e t hi s f a ke r e a di ng be ha vi or c a t c he s up w i t h t he m e ve nt ua l l y, t he s e boys a l s o m i s s t he r i c hne s s of s t or i e s t ha t m a y he l p bui l d t he i r i de nt i t i e s a s t he y s t um bl e t hr ough s c hool ( B r oz o, 2002; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002; N e w ki r k, 2006) W he n l ooki ng e ve n de e pe r a t m i nor i t y boys r e s e a r c he r s pur por t t ha t l i t e r a c y i s s ue s a r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h e duc a t or s pe r c e pt i ons of i nf e r i or i t y, l a c k o f i nt e l l e c t a nd i na bi l i t y t o ha ndl e c ha l l e ngi ng m a t e r i a l T he i nt e r s e c t i on be t w e e n e t hni c i t y, pove r t y a nd s c hool i ng i s a l s o be l i e ve d t o pr ope l m i nor i t y boys t o f a i l w i t hi n t he i r e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ng ( T a t u m 2005) A ddi t i ona l l y, r e s e a r c he r s c l a i m t ha t w he n boys a r e not gi ve n a n a ut he nt i c pu r pos e a nd m e a ni ngf ul c onne c t i ons f o r r e a di ng t he y a r e m or e l i ke l y t o di s c onne c t f r om t he pr oc e s s ( S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002) H ow i m por t a nt w oul d i t be f or m i nor i t y boys w hos e s oc i a l w or l d a nd l a ngua ge a r e s o di f f e r e nt f r om t he nor m t o be g i ve n a n a ut he nt i c

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34 pur pos e a nd m e a ni ngf ul c onne c t i on t o r e a di ng s o t he y c a n m or e e a s i l y c onne c t t o not onl y r e a di ng but t he e nt i r e U S e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m ( C a l ki ns 2000) ? A l s o, a dhe r i ng t o s t ude nt s r e a di n g l e ve l i s e s s e nt i a l f or r e a di ng s uc c e s s a nd m os t l ow pe r f or m i ng [ m i nor i t y ] boys a r e m i s m a t c he d w i t h t he i r a ppr op r i a t e t e xt l e ve l w hi c h i n t ur n e voke s f e e l i ngs of de f e a t a nd f r us t r a t i on ( B e e r s 1996; C a l ki ns 2000; G unz e l m a nn & C onne l l 2004; N e w ki r k, 200 6) M or e di s t ur b i ng t ha n a ny o f t hi s r e s e a r c h i s t he c onc l us i on ba s e d on s e ve r a l ye a r s of c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons f r om l e a di ng H i s pa ni c r e s e a r c he r s w hi c h i s c ons i de r e d t he gr e a t e s t pr obl e m i s t ha t o f no l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on ( J i m e ne z e t a l 1999, p 221) i s c onduc t e d w i t h t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on. L a c k of i ns t r uc t i on i s f ol l ow e d by i na pp r opr i a t e o r none xi s t e nt l i t e r a c y a s s e s s m e nt f or l i ngui s t i c a l l y di ve r s e s t ude nt s ( J i m e ne z G a r c i a & P e a r s on, 1996 ) T hi s c onc l us i on i s uphe l d by s t a t i s t i c s t ha t s how 4 0% of t e a c he r s i n t he U S ha d l i m i t e d E ngl i s h pr of i c i e nt s t ude nt s ( o r E ngl i s h l a ngua ge l e a r ne r s ) i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s Y e t l e s s t h a n one t hi r d ( 29 5% ) of t he s e t e a c he r s ha d s om e de gr e e of E S L t r a i ni ng ( N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i ona l S t a t i s t i c s 1994 ) T h e s e f a c t or s onl y pe r pe t ua t e t he l ow l i t e r a c y r a t e s r i s i ng r e t e nt i on, a nd s t a gge r i ng dr op out r a t e s of H i s pa ni c boys W r i t i ng and ge nde r W r i t i ng i s a not he r a s pe c t of l i t e r a c y w he r e H i s pa ni c boys unde r pe r f or m ( M e a d, 2006) B oys a r e know n t o c ons i s t e nt l y f a l l be hi nd gi r l s i n w r i t i ng ( N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s 2002 ) A c c or di ng t o a r e po r t by t he E duc a t i ona l T e s t i ng S e r vi c e ( 2002) t he w r i t i ng ge nde r ga p be t w e e n a dol e s c e nt m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s i s ove r s i x t i m e s gr e a t e r t ha n t he di f f e r e nc e s i n m a t he m a t i c a l r e a s oni ng ( C ol e 1987) I n f a c t by hi gh

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35 s c hool gr a dua t i on t he ge nde r ga p i n w r i t i ng i s a s b r oa d a s t he c ur r e nt w r i t i ng a c hi e ve m e nt ga p be t w e e n w hi t e s a nd s t ude nt s of c ol or ( N a t i ona l C e nt e r f o r E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s 2002; M e a d, 2006 ) L ooki ng b e yond t e s t s c or e s boys a nd gi r l s a r e of t e n c ons i de r e d t o be di f f e r e nt w i t hi n m a ny l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s e s pe c i a l l y w he n r e vi e w i ng t he i r c hoi c e s i n ve r ba l a nd w r i t t e n e xpr e s s i on ( M i l l a r d 1997; N e w ki r k, 2000; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002) R e s e a r c he r s c ont e nd t ha t g i r l s c o nve r s a t i on a nd w r i t i ng i s of t e n i nt i m a t e r e f l e c t i ve a nd e xpl or a t or y w hi l e ha vi ng a s oc i a l a nd m or a l c ont e xt ( B a r r s 2000; A nde r s on, 2003 ) I n c ont r a s t boys w r i t i ng i s c onf r ont a t i ona l a s s e r t i ve a nd i nde pe nde nt a nd of t e n r e f l e c t s vi ol e nt a c t i on pa c k e d t he m e s ( B a r r s 2000; N e w ki r k, 2000; A nde r s on, 2003; F l e t c he r 2006) F u r t he r m or e P ol l oc k ( 1999) a nd N e w ki r k ( 2000) bot h c ont e nd t ha t t hi s a ggr e s s i ve na t ur e s how n vi a w r i t i ng i s o f t e n a ve nue f or e xpr e s s i ng a f f e c t i on. A ddi t i ona l l y r e s e a r c he r s pu r po r t t ha t b oys w r i t i ng t ypi c a l l y e xpr e s s e s t he t r a di t i ona l s t r uggl e be t w e e n good a nd e vi l f r i e nds hi p, a nd a c t i on w hi c h a r e ke y e l e m e nt s of t he f a nt a s y ge nr e ( A nde r s on, 2000; N e w ki r k, 20 00; F l e t c he r 2006 ) G e nde r e xpr e s s i on i n w r i t i ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd w r i t i ng c ont e nt i s f ur t h e r r e ve a l i ng w he n s ol e l y l ooki ng a t boys W r i t i ng and boy s I n 1973, D ona l d G r a ve s f ound t ha t ge nde r doe s pl a y a r ol e i n t he w r i t i ng pr oc e s s C ur r e nt l y, o t he r r e s e a r c h s uppor t s t hi s a s s e r t i on ( D ys on, 1993; C a l ki ns 1986 ; F l e t c he r 2 006) I n f a c t by t he e nd of a young m a l e s h i gh s c hool c a r e e r t he ge nde r ga p i n w r i t i ng ha s w i de ne d ( G r a ve s 1973; D ys on, 1993; N e w ki r k, 2006) T hi s ga p r e f l e c t s a ge ne r a l m a l e a t t i t ude t ow a r d w r i t i ng t ha t i s t u r ne d of f di s e nga ge d, a nd di s e nf r a nc hi s e d

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36 ( F l e t c he r 2006) R e c e nt w or k ha s i de nt i f i e d be ha v i or s t ha t r a nge f r om s t a r i ng i nt o s pa c e t o r us hi ng a nd t ur ni ng i n s l oppy a nd/ or i nc om pl e t e w r i t i ng ( K i ng & G ur i a n 2006) W he n boys do w r i t e t he y s c r i pt a bout ba t t l e s w a r a nd he r oe s w hi c h s uppor t a w hol e s e t of be ha vi or s t ha t a r e t yp i c a l l y c ons i de r e d a nt i s oc i a l a nd not t o l e r a t e d w i t hi n s c hool s ys t e m s ( F l e t c he r & N e w ki r k, 2006) T he s e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons g r os s l y s i m pl i f y t he m a j or i m pa c t o f w ha t ou r c u r r e nt c l a s s r oom s ha ve on t he l i t e r a c y a c hi e ve m e nt of H i s pa ni c boys L e ar ni ng M as c ul i ni t y ( M ac hi s m o) A s our young H i s pa ni c boys g r ow up i n t r a di t i ona l H i s pa ni c c ul t ur e t he y a r e s ur r ounde d by t he a t t i t ude s m a nne r i s m s s poke n a nd uns poke n l a ngua ge t ha t a r e a l l m e di a t e d by t he t ool s a nd a r t i f a c t s of t he i r c ul t ur e t ha t w i l l be gi n t o f or m t he i r e t hni c a nd s oc i e t a l i de nt i t y a r ound m a s c ul i ni t y ( G i l l m o r e 19 90; C onne l l 1996; L l oyd, 1998; N i e t o 1999; K a ne 2006 ) T he i r f a t he r s unc l e s a nd m a l e c om pa e r os a r e t he m ode l s f or t he r ough pl a y, a ggr e s s i ve ne s s a nd dom i n a nc e t ha t t he s e young H i s pa ni c boys e xpe r i e nc e a r ound w or k a nd pl a y. T he s e pur pos e f ul a nd s ubl i m i na l m e s s a ge s w i l l c a pt ur e nua nc e s t ha t w i l l f or e ve r i nf l ue nc e how t he y a da pt t o l i f e a nd i t s va r i e d s i t ua t i ons B oys be gi n t o a dopt pa t t e r ns of be ha vi or a nd i n he r i t be l i e f s t ha t w i l l dr i ve a nd di r e c t t he i r l i f e i n a di f f e r e nt w a y ( C ol e 1987; G i l l m o r e 1990; C onne l l 1996; L l oyd 1998; N i e t o, 1999) W i t hi n t he ba r r a ge of i nput t he s e boys w i l l r e c e i ve m e s s a ge s a bout w ha t i t m e a ns t o be a m a n i n t he t r a di t i ona l H i s pa ni c c ul t ur e B y l e a r ni n g f r om e a c h da y i n t he i r pa r t i c ul a r w or l ds t he boys w i l l be e xpos e d t o i m a ge s a nd i de a s a bout w ha t i s a ppr opr i a t e a nd de s i r a bl e be ha vi or f or a H i s pa ni c m a l e T hi s s oc i a l c ons t r uc t i on of ge nde r i s a dyna m i c

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37 pr oc e s s t ha t i s a c ont i nuous l y l oopi ng i n c ons t r uc t i ng a nd r e c ons t r uc t i ng t he i r m a s c ul i ni t y ( C onne l l 1996; G i l l m o r e 1990 ; G ur i a n, 1996; N i e t o, 1999; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002 ) I nt e r t w i ne d w i t h c ul t u r a l t r a i t s w i l l be t he t oys c l ot he s l a ngua ge r e s pons e s a nd t e l e vi s i on s how s t he i r pa r e nt s w i l l us e t o pr om ot e o r ne ga t e t he s oc i a l i m pr e s s i ons t he y a r e e a c h e xpe c t e d t o a dopt w he n c ons i de r i ng t hi s e ve r c ha ngi ng m a l e pe r s pe c t i ve T he s e m e s s a ge s r e gul a t e w ha t i s a ppr opr i a t e f or t he s e H i s pa ni c boys w i t hi n t he r e a l m of t he i r H i s pa ni c w or l d M a ny r e s e a r c he r s a s s e r t t ha t m a s c ul i ni t y i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s ha s m ul t i pl e de f i ni t i ons a nd di f f e r s de pe ndi ng on r a c e c ul t ur e c l a s s s oc i oe c onom i c l e ve l a nd c om m uni t y s oc i a l s t r uc t ur e ( C onne l l 1996; M a r t i no, 2001; M a r t i no & B e r r i l l 2003; S m i l e r 2006; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002; T a t um 20 05; T or r e s e t a l 2002) T he r e f or e t he not i on of a uni f i e d de f i ni t i on or a c om m on w a y t o do or t hi nk of m a s c ul i ni t i e s i s f a r f r om be i ng doc um e nt e d i n c ur r e nt r e s e a r c h ( W e s t & Z i m m e r m a n, 1987; C onne l l 1996; J a c ks on & S a l s i bur y, 1996; Y oung, 2000) W hor l e y a nd A ddi s ( 2006 ) r e vi e w e d one hundr e d a nd s e ve nt y e i ght a r t i c l e s on m e n a nd m a s c ul i ni t y publ i s he d i n t he U S m a i ns t r e a m j our na l s be t w e e n 1995 a nd 2 004. T he r e s e a r c h f ound t ha t ou t of t he one hundr e d f i f t e e n s t udi e s t ha t i nc l ude d e t hni c gr oups t he f i ndi ngs r e ve a l e d t ha t onl y 5 87% of popul a t i ons s t udi e d w e r e of H i s pa ni c m e n w hi c h w e r e r e pr e s e nt e d i n onl y s e ve n s t udi e s T hi s l a c k of r e pr e s e nt a t i on l e a ve s a huge g a p i n unde r s t a ndi ng m a s c ul i ni t y a s i t r e l a t e s s pe c i f i c a l l y t o H i s pa ni c m a l e s a nd ope ns up que s t i ons a s t o how i n a pos t m ode r ni s t i c e r a c a n r e s e a r c he r s ge ne r a l i z e f i nd i ngs s ur r oundi ng m a s c ul i ni t i e s m a c hi s m o.

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38 R e s e a r c he r s pur por t t ha t w i t h t he di ve r s e na t ur e of a l l s t ude nt s of c ol or popul a t i ons i n t he U S c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of m a c hi s m o go f a r be yond a ny br i e f de f i ni t i on ( G a y, 1994) S t a t i s t i c a l l y t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s c a n be unde r s t ood m or e de e pl y by a na l yz i ng t he C onf or m i t y t o M a s c ul i ne N or m s I nde x ( C M N I ) T he C M N I m e a s ur e s c onf or m i t y t o t w e l ve m a s c ul i ne nor m s : w i nni ng, e m ot i ona l c ont r ol r i s k t a ki ng, vi ol e nc e dom i na nc e pl a yboy, s e l f r e l i a nc e pr i m a c y of w o r k, pow e r ov e r w om e n, di s da i n f or hom os e xua l s phys i c a l t oughne s s a nd pur s ui t of s t a t us T he de ve l opm e nt of t hi s m e a s ur e w a s gr ounde d i n c l i ni c a l ps yc hol ogy i n t he a t t e m pt t o a na l yz e i nd i vi dua l m e n s c onf or m i t y t o m a l e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd how i t i m pa c t s t he i r r e l a t i ons hi ps ( L udl ow & M a ha l i k 2002 ; S m i l e r 2006) R e s e a r c he r s ha ve c onc l ude d t ha t m e n de ve l op a nd i nt e r pr e t t he i r ow n m a s c ul i ni t y w i t hi n a pa r t i c ul a r a nd pe r s ona l i z e d c ul t ur a l f r a m e w or k ( W e s t & Z i m m e r m a n, 1987 ; D a vi s & J or don, 1994 ; C onne l l 1996; M a r t i no 20 01; P ol l oc k, 1999; P e yt on Y oung 2000; T or r e s e t a l 2002; M a r t i no & B e r r i l l 2003 ; T a t um 2005; S m i l e r 2006 ) I n s uppor t of t h i s W e s t a nd Z i m m e r m a n s ( 1987) f ou nda t i ona l s t udy on ge nde r c l a i m s t ha t s oc i e t y pe r c e i ve s ge nde r a s pa r t of a ny s oc i oc ul t ur a l e nc ount e r T he y go on t o a r gue t ha t ge nde r i s out w a r dl y e xp r e s s e d a nd a l s o e s t a bl i s he s s e l f a c c ount a bi l i t y t o how w e de c i de t o e xpr e s s ge nd e r i n s oc i a l s i t ua t i ons M a r t i no & B e r r i l l ( 2003) a s s e r t s t ha t a ny a na l ys i s of boys m us t be unde r t a ke n w i t h a c r i t i c a l s oc i ol ogi c a l pe r s pe c t i ve M a r t i no ( 2007) f ur t he r e m pha s i z e s t he da nge r o f he ge m oni c m a s c ul i ni t i e s a nd how t he y w i l l f ur t he r oppr e s s t he s oc i o c ul t ur a l m a s c ul i ni t i e s i nhe r e nt i n m e n of c ol or A ddi t i ona l l y P ol l a c k ( 1999) i de nt i f i e s t he boy c ode t ha t gui de s boy be ha vi or t hr ough c ul t ur a l l y f or m e d

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39 m yt hs of m a s c ul i ni t y. Y e t C onne l l ( 1996 ) hol ds t h a t t he r e a r e e ve n m or e d i f f e r e nc e s i n how w e a c t ua l l y pe r f o r m m a s c ul i ni t y i n a ny w or kp l a c e ne i ghbor hood, c l a s s r oom o r pe e r gr oup. T he r e f or e t he e xpr e s s i on of m a s c ul i ni t i e s ( p. 208) i s di ve r s e i n na t u r e f o r a l l m e n, s pe c i f i c a l l y a m ong H i s pa ni c a nd A ngl o m e n ( C onne l l 1996) T he r e a r e m a ny t r a d i t i ona l l y he l d pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t de l i ne a t e t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of H i s pa ni c e xpr e s s i ons of m a s c ul i ni t y, or m a c hi s m o. H i s t or i c vi e w s on m a c hi s m o hol d t ha t r e al H i s pa ni c m e n a r e s t r ong, v i r i l e va l i e nt e ( va l i a nt ) s t ubbor n f ue r t e ( S t e ve ns 1965 p. 848) . good d r i nke r s l ove r s s i nge r s a nd f i ght e r s T he y a r e b r a ve a nd w i l l i ng t o de f e nd w ha t t he y be l i e ve e ve n i t i nc l ude s a n a c t of vi ol e nc e ( S t e ve ns 1965; C onne l l 1996) A l a ndm a r k s t udy c onduc t e d by G i l l m or e ( 1990) c l a i m e d t ha t t r a di t i ona l m a c hi s m o hol d s t hr e e i m pe r a t i ve s t o i m p r e gna t e t o pr o t e c t a nd t o p r ovi de T he s e m a l e t r a i t s G i l l m o r e a s s e r t e d, w e r e e vi de nt i n m a ny c ul t ur e s a nd a l t hough pr e va l e nt t he y a r e not i s ol a t e d t o t he H i s pa ni c c ul t ur e O ddl y e nough G i l m or e s ( 1990) r e s e a r c h w a s c onduc t e d pr i m a r i l y w i t h m e n f r om hi s na t i ve c ou nt r y of S pa i n. I n a not he r s t udy T or r e s S ol be r g a nd C a r l s t r om ( 2 002) i nve s t i ga t e d t he m ul t i di m e ns i ona l m ul t i f a c e t e d c ons t r uc t i on of m a c hi s m o w hi c h i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he r e i s e vi de nc e t ha t L a t i no m e n ( t e r m L a t i no us e d a s r e f e r r e d t o i n o r i gi na l s t udy) w ho w e r e f l e xi bl e i n t he i r pe r c e pt i ons o f ge nde r r ol e s di d i n f a c t a da pt t o c ul t ur a l nor m s w i t hi n t he dom i na nt U S s oc i e t y. T hi s s t udy i nc l ude d one hu ndr e d a nd f o r t y L a t i no m e n w ho w e r e i nt e r vi e w e d a nd s ur ve ye d ove r a t e n m ont h pe r i od T he s e m e n r e p r e s e nt e d a va r i e t y o f e t hni c i de nt i t i e s t ha t i nc l ude d M e xi c a n A m e r i c a ns P ue r t o R i c a ns C uba ns I nt e r e t hni c / r a c i a l H i s pa ni c s a nd A m e r i c a ns T he y f ound t ha t t he r e w a s a n a l t e r na t i ve

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40 vi e w t o m a c hi s m o t ha t r e s e a r c he r s ne gl e c t t o i nqui r e a bout or of t e n t i m e s ge t s l os t i n t he t r a ns l a t i on ( p. 165) T h i s a l t e r na t i ve vi e w w a s m a ni f e s t e d i n pos i t i ve t r a i t s t ha t s t e m f r om m a c hi s m o s uc h a s t he e xpe c t a t i on f or m e n t o be f a m i l y o r i e nt e d, ha r d w or ki ng br a ve honor a bl e m o r a l r e s pons i bl e pr oud a nd i n t e r e s t e d i n t he w e l f a r e a nd honor of t he i r l ove d one s T he y go on t o a s s e r t t ha t L a t i no m a l e s pr ovi de f or p r ot e c t a nd de f e nd t he i r f a m i l i e s a nd t he l e s s f or t una t e m e m be r s of s oc i e t y. A m ong t he f i ndi ngs t hi s t e a m of r e s e a r c he r s f ound t ha t L a t i no m e n e m br a c e d m a ny di m e ns i ons of m a c hi s m o. T he s e m ul t i pl e di m e ns i ons of m a c hi s m o f e l l unde r f i ve f a c t or s t ha t i nc l ude d c ont e m por a r y m a s c ul i ni t y, m a c hi s m o, t r a di t i ona l m a c hi s m o, c om pa s s i ona t e m a c hi s m o, a nd c ont e m por a r y m a c hi s m o. T hi s s t udy c ont e nds t ha t L a t i no m e n pe r c e i ve a nd s ubs c r i be t o s e ve r a l di f f e r e nt t ype s o f m a c hi s m o. I t goe s on t o e m pha s i z e t ha t L a t i no m e n do e m br a c e t he ne ga t i ve a nd pos i t i ve e l e m e nt s of m a c hi s m o, not ne c e s s a r i l y e xc l us i ve of e a c h ot he r ( T o r r e s e t a l 2002, p. 175) T he f i nd i ngs of t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e t ha t w he n de f i ne d w i t hi n i t s e t hni c a nd c ul t ur a l pa r a m e t e r s c ont r a r y t o i t s s t e r e ot ypi c a l ne ga t i ve i m a ge m a c hi s m o i s a no r m a t i ve c ul t u r a l va l ue a nd s e t of be ha vi or a l i ndi c a t or s t ha t de f i ne publ i c a nd pr i va t e ge nde r r o l e s a nd f a m i l y r e l a t i on s hi ps f or L a t i no m e n ( T or r e s e t a l 2002, p 175) A l t hough t he f i ndi ngs ha ve m a j o r i m pl i c a t i ons f or m ul t i c ul t ur a l m e nt a l he a l t h i s s ue s know i ng t ha t L a t i no m e n ha ve t he p ot e nt i a l of c ons t r uc t i ng a nd de c ons t r uc t i ng m a c hi s m o ha s m a j o r e duc a t i ona l i m pl i c a t i ons T he r e f or e i t i s e vi de nt t ha t t he r e i s no s i m pl e w a y t o de s c r i be o r ge ne r a l i z e t h e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of L a t i no m a c hi s m o. T he s t udi e s m e nt i one d a bove s how bot h f a c e s of m a c hi s m o a nd how c ul t ur e m ol ds t he s pe c i f i c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t a r e f ound t o be bot h pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve

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41 A l t hough, s oc i e t y ha s c a pt ur e d t he ne ga t i ve a t t r i bu t e s of m a c hi s m o a nd a t t a c he d t he s t e r e ot ype s t o t he H i s pa ni c m a l e t he r e i s a l a c k of r e s e a r c h i n t hi s a r e a ( T or r e s e t a l 2002) T he bi g que s t i on i s : H ow c a n bot h s i de s of t he m a c hi s m o be ha r ne s s e d t o e m pow e r H i s pa ni c boys t o c ul t i va t e t he pos i t i ve a s pe c t s of m a c hi s m o w hi l e r e c ons t r uc t i ng t he ne ga t i ve i m pl i c a t i ons t ha t w i l l h e l p t r a ns f or m ye a r s of t r a di t i on? E duc at i onal i m pac t of H i s pani c m ac hi s m o. A H i s pa ni c boy s m a c hi s m o i s a c c e pt e d w i t hi n t he i nvi s i bl e bor de r s o f hi s c ul t ur e ye t hi s c ul t ur a l e xpr e s s i on of t hi s t ype of m a nhood m a y be c om e a l i a bi l i t y w i t hi n t he f e m i ni z e d w a l l s of t he c l a s s r oom B oys e nd u p ne got i a t i ng a pa t h be t w e e n t he s t e r e ot ypi c a l H i s pa ni c m a l e dom i na nc e t ow a r d w o m e n ( t e a c he r s c l a s s m a t e s ) a nd t r yi ng t o a dhe r e t o t he i r m a c hi s m o t r a i t s l i ke s e xi s m opp r e s s i on a nd c ont r ol ( P e na l os a 1968; H a w ke s & T a yl or 1975; T or r e s e t a l 2002 ) T he H i s pa ni c pe r c e pt i on of t he r o l e of w om e n i m pa c t s t he boys e xpe r i e nc e i n a f e m a l e d om i na t e d s c hool s ys t e m M y ow n e xpe r i e nc e a s a H i s pa ni c f e m a l e gr ow i ng up i n a t r a di t i ona l M e xi c a n hom e w oul d c onc ur w i t h t he m or e t r a di t i ona l de f i n i t i on of m a c hi s m o. C hr i s t i a n S m i t h s ( 1991) c r i t i c a l r e s e a r c h de t a i l s a w om e n s r ol e a s i nc om pl e t e w i t hout a m a n, t ha t m ot he r hood i s w om e n s de s t i ny, a nd t he w om e n s r i ght f ul pl a c e i s i n t he hom e ( p 192 ) O ne onl y ha s t o r e a d t he s hor t na r r a t i ve by R i t a F l or e s C a r i gna n t o unde r s t a nd t hi s s t e r e ot ypi c a l m i nds e t C a r i gna n w a s c ha s t i s e d by h e r f a t he r f or ha vi ng d r e a m s of a t t e ndi ng t he l oc a l uni ve r s i t y. T hi s ve r ba l m ut i l a t i on f or dr e a m i ng t o be m o r e know m or e a nd de s i r e t o c ha nge i s s om e t hi ng t ha t I ha v e he a r d f r o m m a ny da ught e r s w i ve s a nd w om e n f r om t he H i s pa ni c c ul t u r e A l l t oo of t e n w om e n a r e m a de t o f e e l out o f l i ne

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42 or gui l t y f or ha vi ng a t hi r s t f or know l e dge ( F l o r e s C a r i gna n, 1999) T hi s ne ga t i ve e l e m e nt of m a c hi s m o, c a r r i e d by m a ny H i s pa ni c m e n, i s t he c ul m i na t i on of ge ne r a t i ons of m a l e dom i na nc e W e ne e d t o a c know l e dge t hi s hi s t or y of m a l e dom i na nc e a nd e xpl o r e how t he c ons t r uc t i on o f m a c hi s m o dur i ng t he f or m a t i ve ye a r s c a n be de c ons t r uc t e d t o e m br a c e a f f i r m a t i ve m a c hi s m o t r a i t s t ha t w i l l he l p our young m e n r e s pe c t t e a c he r s a nd t he r e f or e e m br a c e t he m e s s a ge of e duc a t i on f or t h e m s e l ve s t he i r s ons a nd da ught e r s ( V a l de s 1999; V i l l e na s & D e yhl e 1999; T o r r e s e t a l 2002) S t udi e s s t r e s s t he i m por t a nc e of a c c e s s t o pos i t i ve a c a de m i c i nt e r a c t i ons t hr ough t he c ur r i c ul um t e a c he r s a nd ot he r s c hool a c t i vi t i e s ; t ha t t he s e a r e vi t a l f or m i nor i t y s t ude nt s w ho a r e a l r e a dy m a r gi na l i z e d i n t he e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m ( I r vi ne 1990; D a vi s & J or da n, 1994; F i nn & C ox, 1992 ) W i t h m o r e H i s p a ni c boys be i ng r e m ove d f r om c l a s s f or di s c i pl i na r y pur pos e s t he onl y r e s ul t w i l l upho l d r e s e a r c h be hi nd H i s pa ni c boys s uc h a s l ow e r s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt hi ghe r r e t e nt i on r a t e s a nd hi ghe r dr op out r a t e s S o a m ul t i f a c e t e d H i s pa ni c m a l e i de nt i t y m a y be i n c onf l i c t w i t h t he e duc a t i ona l e nvi r onm e nt he i s r e qui r e d t o a t t e nd. H i s pa ni c boy s m a y f e e l t he t e ns i on of w a l ki ng t he l i ne be t w e e n t w o di s t i nc t w o r l ds w i t h t w o di s t i nc t va l ue s ys t e m s S e e ki ng c om f or t w i t hi n t hi s i nt e r na l s t r uggl e w i l l l i ke l y l e a d hi m t o e m br a c e t he H i s pa ni c r ol e s he ha s obs e r ve d a nd e xpe r i e nc e d s i nc e hi s bi r t h. T o c onc l ude r e s e a r c h w oul d s uppor t t he di c hot om y de f i ni ng t he r ol e of H i s pa ni c boys i n our s oc i e t y. O ne r ol e i s t he s t e r e ot ypi c a l m a c ho H i s pa ni c m a l e w ho e xhi bi t s e xc e s s i v e dom i na nt be ha vi or s i s a r e l uc t a nt l e a r ne r ( r e a de r ) a nd a d r op out w ho di s pl a ys a t t i t ude s a ga i ns t be i n g e duc a t e d. T he ot he r i s t he d e di c a t e d, l oya l ha r dw or ki ng H i s pa ni c

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43 m a l e w ho s t e ps up t o be t he p r i m a r y t r a ns l a t or a nd e m br a c e s a l e a de r s hi p r ol e i n hi s f a m i l y. T he s e t w o l i ne s o f t hought l a y t he f ounda t i on f or t he j uxt a pos i t i on of m a c hi s m o i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. I t i s di f f i c ul t f o r m os t t e a c he r s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t or s t o unde r s t a nd t he l a ngua ge ba r r i e r t hi s m a c hi s m o, a nd t he a s s e t s t he s e boys c a r r y i nt o t he c l a s s r oom I t i s e s s e nt i a l t ha t w e unde r s t a nd t he de pl oym e nt of m a c hi s m o a nd l e a r n f r om t he i r s t r e ngt h a nd l e a de r s hi p. I t i s vi t a l t ha t t he voi c e of t hi s di s e nf r a nc hi s e d popul a t i on be he a r d a nd va l i da t e d. C r i t i c al P e dagogy E xpe r t s c hol a r s a gr e e i f w e a r e t o be r e s pons i ve t o t he ne e ds of H i s pa ni c boys w e m us t e xa m i ne our c ur r e nt t r e nds of e duc a t i ng a nd m e e t i ng t he i r a c a de m i c ne e ds R e s e a r c he r s c l a i m t ha t t i m e f or m ove m e nt ha nds on l e a r ni ng, i nf us i on o f t e c hnol ogy he a l t hy c om pe t i t i on, s uppor t i ve r i s k f r e e e nvi r onm e nt s opt i ons f or w r i t i ng t opi c s hi gh i nt e r e s t r e a di ng m a t e r i a l s a nd a t t e nt i on gi ve n t o t h e c ul t ur a l ba c kgr ound of t he i ndi vi dua l a r e a l l vi t a l f o r t he s uc c e s s of H i s pa ni c boys ( K i ndl on & T hom ps on, 1999; C onne l l & G unz e l m a nn, 2004 ; F l e t c he r 2006; N e w ki r k, 2006; G ur i a n & S t e ve ns 2005) R e gr e t t a bl y, e xa m i na t i on o f t he s e ba s i c i ns t r uc t i on a l m e t hod s s ugge s t s t ha t t he y a r e e s s e nt i a l ye t i ns uf f i c i e nt T he y a r e i ns uf f i c i e nt be c a us e our H i s pa ni c boys c a n be s c hool e d w i t hi n t he i r c u r r e nt l i f e s i t ua t i on; ye t t he y f i nd t he m s e l ve s w i t hout t he t ool s t o t r a ns f or m t he i r l i ve s i n s pi t e of t hi r t e e n ye a r s w i t hi n our A m e r i c a n e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m ( F r e i r e 1983) V a s que z ( 2001) c l a i m s t ha t t he pur pos e f or e duc a t i ng t he c i t i z e nr y i s t o he l p pe opl e a na l yz e t he i r c u r r e nt l i f e s i t ua t i ons a nd he l p l e a r ne r s e nvi s i on t he pos s i bi l i t i e s i n l i f e ( p 1 ) I n o r de r t o c ha nge t he c ur r e nt e duc a t i ona l r he t or i c a nd pr a c t i c e

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44 a r ound s t ude nt s of c ol or i t i s e s s e nt i a l t o ut i l i z e a pe da gogi c a l s t a nc e t ha t pr om ot e s di s c our s e a r ound a na l yt i c a l t hi nki ng, que s t i ons po w e r r e l a t i ons w i t hi n c ont e xt s a nd e m pow e r s i ndi vi dua l s t o c ha nge t he i r c ondi t i ons o f l i vi ng w i t hi n t he i r w o r l d ( F r e i r e 1983; M c L a ughl i n & D e V oogd, 2004 ) V a l de s ( 20 01) e nvi s i ons a c r i t i c a l pe da gogy t ha t doe s not m e r e l y i nvol ve s t ude nt s t o m a ke i t ( p. 1 58) but r a t he r i nvol ve s c ha ngi ng t he w a ys s t ude nt s unde r s t a nd t he i r l i ve s a nd t he pos s i bi l i t i e s w i t h w hi c h t he y a r e p r e s e nt e d. A l t hough K i nc he l oe & M c L a r e n ( 2005) s t r e s s t ha t r e s e a r c he r s t o not t r e a t c r i t i c a l t he o r y a s a uni ve r s a l gr a m m a r o f r e vol u t i ona r y t hough t . r e duc e d t o d i s c r e t e f or m ul a i c pr onounc e m e nt s or s t r a t e gi e s ( p 304) e duc a t or s m us t s e e k t o e m br a c e t he phi l os ophy be hi nd c r i t i c a l pe da gogy i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s i f t he y a r e t o ha ve s t ude nt s que s t i on a nd c ha l l e nge c ur r e nt pa r a di gm s w i t hi n our e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m C r i t i c al l i t e r ac y T he r e a r e m a ny r e s e a r c he r s w ho ha ve t a ke n a di f f e r e nt a ngl e i n r e ga r ds t o c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y a nd t he m a ny i ns t r uc t i ona l p r a c t i c e s t ha t t h e i r s pe c i f i c de f i ni t i on e m br a c e s T o s ynt he s i z e t he m a ny de f i ni t i ons a nd t he or i e s o f c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y w oul d be t o s ynt he s i z e t he s e i nt o f our di m e ns i ons : ( 1 ) D i s r upt i ng t he c om m onpl a c e ( 2) I nt e r r oga t i ng m ul t i pl e vi e w poi nt s ( 3) F oc us i ng on s oc i opol i t i c a l i s s ue s a nd ( 4) T a ki ng a c t i on a nd p r om ot i ng s oc i a l j us t i c e ( L e w i s on, F l i nt & S l uys 2002 p 3 82) M a ny w oul d i nt e r pr e t t he s e di m e ns i ons t o m e a n de c ons t r uc t i ng or di na r y s i t ua t i ons a nd i nt e r r oga t e t he i r c ur r e nt m e a ni ng t o e nvi s i on ne w pos s i bi l i t i e s ( L e w i s on, F l i nt & S l uys 2002; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002)

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45 D ys on ( 1997) l i ke ot he r r e s e a r c he r s w ho a dhe r e t o c r i t i c a l t he o r i e s a c know l e dge s a s t ude nt s l i f e out s i de of t he c l a s s r oom door S he s t r e s s e s t ha t t e a c he r s m us t t a p i nt o a c hi l d s m ul t i p l e w or l ds a nd m ul t i pl e i de nt i t i e s t o e m pha s i z e t ha t l i t e r a c y i s c a r r i e d t hr ough t he va r i ous ve nue s t ha t m a ke up t h e c hi l d s l i f e T hi s l i ne o f t hi nki ng i s a l s o e c hoe d a nd f ur t he r e xpl or e d by t he w or k of ot he r r e s e a r c he r s l i ke N e w ki r k ( 2000 ) w ho e xa m i ne d ge nde r a nd w r i t i ng w hi c h e xpr e s s e d m ul t i pl e w o r l ds a s a n a ve nue t o br oa de n l i t e r a c i e s S m i t h & W i l he l m ( 2002) a l s o f ound t ha t l i t e r a c y w a s e xpr e s s e d i n m ul t i pl e ve nue s ( m ul t i p l e w or l ds ) t hr oughout t he l i ve s of f or t y ni ne i ndi vi dua l m a l e s T he s e a ut hor s of f e r c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y a s t he a ve nue t hr ough w hi c h t o i nt e r r oga t e how l i t e r a c y i s pos i t i one d i n t he l i ve s of t he i r pa r t i c i pa n t s ( N e w ki r k, 2000; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002) W he n t he c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y l e ns m ove s t o s t u de nt s of c ol or F os s ( 2002) f or e s e e s a ne e d t o t a ke a c r i t i c a l s t a nc e s o t he s e s t ude nt s a r e a r m e d w i t h t ool s t o i de nt i f y a nd pr obl e m a t i z e t he s ys t e m s ( p. 394 ) o f pow e r w i t hi n w hi c h t he y l i ve e ve r yda y. M a ny r e s e a r c he r s w i l l ve r i f y t ha t l ooki ng t hr ough a c r i t i c a l l e ns he l ps s t ude nt s be c om e m or e i nvol ve d i n c onve r s a t i ons a bout t he i r l i f e e xpe r i e nc e s a nd m ove be yond t he s ur f a c e i nt o de e pe r r e f l e c t i on, w hi c h de a l s w i t h pe r c e pt i on, va l ue s be l i e f s a nd t r a ns pa r e nt unde r s t a ndi ng s of e ve r yda y l i f e s i t ua t i ons ( P e yt on Y oung, 2000; L e w i s on, F l i nt & S l uys 2002; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002 ) G e e ( 2005) c a l l s t hi s c onve r s a t i on D i s c our s e ( w i t h a c a pi t a l D ) w hi c h i s de f i ne d a s o ur i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h our ow n w or l d P e yt on Y oung ( 2000 ) e xpl a i ns D i s c our s e a s t he r u l e s a nd va l ue s of a s pe c i f i c c l ub T he s e t a c t i c a l r ul e s of m e m be r s hi p i nc l ude t he w a y w e s pe a k, l i s t e n, a c t va l ue t hi nk r e a d w r i t e f e e l d r e s s a nd ge s t ur e ( p 316 ) T he r e f o r e f or H i s pa ni c boy pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s

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46 s t udy, c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y w i l l e m pha s i z e t he e xpe r i e n c e s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd t he D i s c our s e w i l l i nc l ude quot e s f r om m e m be r s hi p f r om t he i r w or l d. I n or de r t o be r e s pons i ve t o t he gui di ng que s t i ons of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, I w i l l f ol l ow t he de f i ni t i on s e t f or t h by P e yt on Y oung ( 2000) w hi c h s t a t e s t ha t c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y i nvol ve s a n unde r s t a ndi ng of how s oc i a l c ont e xt s a nd pow e r r e l a t i ons w o r k t oge t he r i n a nd t hr ough di f f e r e nt c ont e xt s t o p r oduc e une qua l s oc i a l pr a c t i c e W hi l e a na l yz i ng t he l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s of f our a do l e s c e nt boys P e yt on Y oung ( 2000) f ound c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y a s a vi a bl e w a y f o r pa r t i c i pa nt s t o ga i n i ns i ght i nt o t h e i r pe r s ona l a nd s oc i a l be i ngs a s w e l l a s e s t a bl i s hi ng a pl a c e t o t hi nk a bout m ul t i pl e pos s i bi l i t i e s f or how t he y c oul d t hi nk, f e e l a nd a c t a s m a l e s ( p. 333) W i t hi n t hi s i nqui r y, I w i l l s e e k t o gu i de pa r t i c i pa nt s a s t he y s t e p out of t he pe r s ona l t o i nt e r r oga t e how s oc i opol i t i c a l s ys t e m s a nd pow e r r e l a t i ons hi ps s ha pe pe r c e pt i ons r e s pons e s a nd a c t i ons ( L e w i s on, F l i nt & S l uys 2002, p. 38 3) s o t he y c a n c om e t o a s pa c e w he r e t he y c a n a l s o c r e a t e ne w a n d e xc i t i ng pos s i bi l i t i e s ( P e yt on Y oung 2000; S m i t h & W i l he l m 2002 ) C on c l u s i on W i t hi n t he c our s e of t hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w t he r e w e r e m a ny que s t i ons not a ddr e s s e d s pe c i f i c a l l y r e ga r di ng t he pe r c e pt i ons of H i s pa ni c boys l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s i n a nd out of s c hool I f w e a r e t o de t e r m i ne w ha t i s t h e m os t e f f e c t i ve w a y t o e m pow e r H i s pa ni c boys w e m us t s uppor t a ny a nd a l l f i nd i ng s w i t h a s t r ong t he or e t i c a l ba s e t ha t i s f ounde d i n r e a l c l a s s r oom s w i t h a ke e n e a r on t he voi c e s of H i s pa ni c boys I t i s e s s e nt i a l t ha t w e e xpa nd our r e s e a r c h t o i nc l ude H i s pa ni c b oys a nd i nc r e a s e e f f or t s t o unde r s t a nd

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47 t he c ul t ur a l i s s ue s t ha t m a y i m pe de r e s e a r c h w i t h m i nor i t i e s a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y m e n of c ol or ( W hor l e y & A ddi s 2006, p. 657) A s a s t a f f de ve l ope r c ur r i c ul um s pe c i a l i s t a dj unc t pr of e s s or a nd m ot he r of t hr e e H i s pa ni c boys I ha ve s e e n f i r s t ha nd t he pl i ght a nd di s r e ga r d f o r H i s pa ni c boys t hr oughout t he e duc a t i ona l c om m uni t y. B a s e d on t he r e s e a r c h r e vi e w e d f o r t hi s di s s e r t a t i on, c ur r i c ul a r opt i ons m us t be br oa de ne d t o a l l ow f o r t he l i ngui s t i c a nd c ul t u r a l ne e ds t ha t w oul d l e a d t o t he s e l f e xpr e s s i on of H i s pa ni c boys T ur ni ng P oi nt s ( 1999 ) a r e f or m r e por t on i nc l us i on o f e t hni c a nd c ul t ur a l di ve r s i t y, w a r ns t ha t c ont i nu i ng t o a l l ow m i nor i t y yout h t o f a c e e xt r a or di na r y r i s ks of f a i l ur e i s a di r e c t t hr e a t t o our na t i ona l s t a nda r d of l i vi ng a nd de m oc r a t i c f ounda t i ons ( C a r ne gi e C ounc i l of A dol e s c e nt D e ve l opm e nt p. 27) E ns ur i ng t he s e unde r s t a ndi n gs a nd m e t hodol o gi e s w i l l r e qui r e pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt f or t e a c he r s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t or s a l i ke T he r e i s s t i l l m uc h t o l e a r n a bout t e a c hi ng H i s pa ni c boys w i t h t he i nt e nt t o m a ke t he m v i t a l a c t i ve voi c e s i n our de m oc r a c y.

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48 C H A P T E R 3: M E T H O D O L O G Y I n t r od u c t i on T h e s t udy of ge nde r c l a s s a nd r a c e a r e i s s ue s t ha t m us t be br ought t o t he di s c us s i on t a bl e i n s c hool s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s W he n l ooki ng a t ge nde r a nd l i t e r a c y, t he r e a r e m a ny pe da gogi c a l a r t i c l e s a nd r e s e a r c h s t udi e s t ha t e xpos e t he unde r l yi ng i s s ue s of t oda y s c l a s s r oom s M a ny t i m e s H i s pa ni c boys a r e f ol de d i n w i t h ot he r s t ude nt s of c ol o r s o t he y be c om e i nvi s i bl e on t he r e s e a r c h pa ge ( G a y 1994; P e r e a 1997; W hor l e y & A ddi s 2006 ) M or e s pe c i f i c s t ud y i s ne e de d t o c l os e t he r e s e a r c h ga p c onc e r ni ng t he m os t e f f e c t i ve m e t hods f o r e duc a t i ng t hi s f a s t gr ow i ng m i no r i t y, a popul a t i on m os t l i ke l y t o d r opout o f s c hool H i s pa ni c boys T h i s r e s e a r c h s t udy pr ovi de s a l e ns t o unc ove r t he pe r c e pt i ons t hought s a nd i d e a s r e ga r di ng l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s a nd he l p he a r t he voi c e s of H i s pa ni c boys P h i l os op h i c al O r i e n t at i on t o I n q u i r y B e r g ( 2007) de f i ne s qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h a s r e s e a r c h t ha t s e e ks a ns w e r s t o que s t i ons by e xa m i ni ng va r i ous s oc i a l s e t t i ngs a nd t he i ndi vi dua l s w ho i nha bi t t he s e s e t t i ngs ( p. 8) Q ua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h i s c onduc t e d b y l ooki ng a t a nd l i s t e ni ng c l os e l y t o i ndi vi dua l s w ho or ga ni z e t he m s e l ve s w i t hi n a s oc i a l c ont e xt T he r e s e a r c he r t he n s e e ks t o m a ke m e a ni ng of t he i r e nvi r onm e nt vi a s pe c i f i c c onc e pt s de f i ni t i ons c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s m e t a phor s s ym bol s w i t h de s c r i pt i ons of pe opl e a nd t hi ngs O ve r a l l qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h i s i n s e a r c h f or t he m e a ni ng of a n i ndi vi dua l s r e a l i t y w i t hi n t he i r c ur r e nt e nvi r on m e nt G i ve n t he s e ke y i de a s qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h s e e ks t o unde r s t a nd t he hum a nne s s of be i ng

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49 a n i ndi vi dua l M y goa l i s t o e xpos e t he r e a l l i f e de f i ni t i on of l i t e r a c y w i t hi n t he l i ve s of H i s pa ni c boys E m ot i ons s ym bol s m ot i va t i ons v a l ue s be l i e f s a nd be ha vi or a l r out i ne s c a n be obs e r va bl e be ha vi or s t ha t m a y he l p e duc a t o r s gl e a n c r uc i a l unde r s t a nd i ng o f t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on. P h e n om e n ol ogy as a M e t h o d of I n q u i r y I n or de r t o he a r t he vo i c e s of t he i ndi vi dua l H i s pa n i c boys w ho I i nt e r vi e w e d dur i ng t hi s s t udy, i t w a s vi t a l t o c a pt ur e t he m e a ni ng s t r uc t ur e a nd e s s e nc e of t he l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e of t he phe nom e non ( P a t t on 2002 p 104) t he i r l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s I n o r de r t o ut i l i z e a phe nom e nol ogi c a l f r a m e w or k i t w a s e s s e nt i a l f or m e t o c onduc t r i gor ous i n de pt h i nt e r vi e w s ( P a t t on 2002) dur i ng t he f i na l pha s e of t hi s r e s e a r c h i nqui r y t o r e f l e c t t he r e a l m e a ni ng o f l i t e r a c y i n t he l i ve s of t he s e H i s pa ni c boys T he i nt e r vi e w s dr e w a t t e nt i on t o how t he s e H i s pa ni c boys de s c r i be f e e l j udge pe r c e i ve a nd m a ke s e ns e of t he i r publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) M y r o l e of r e s e a r c he r w a s t o c ol l e c t de t a i l e d de s c r i pt i ons of t he s e l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s vi a f i e l d not e s a udi o t r a ns c r i pt s vi de o r e c or di ngs a nd nua nc e s pul l e d f r om c ul t u r e j our na l s t a ke n dur i ng f oc us gr oups a nd one t o one i nt e r vi e w s F ol l ow i ng t he f oc us gr oup a nd i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s i t w a s ne c e s s a r y t o gui de t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t h r ough a r e f l e c t i on on t he i r t hought s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s t a ke n f r om da t a c ol l e c t e d. M y pl a n w a s t o ge t t he i r pe r s pe c t i v e on t he i r l i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s w hi c h t r a ns pi r e d by r e a di ng ba c k f r om f i e l d not e s p r i or vi de o a nd/ or a udi o t r a ns c r i pt s a nd j our na l e nt r i e s t ha t w i l l he l p c a pt ur e t he m e a ni ng b e hi nd e a c h e xpe r i e nc e T he s e w e r e c ont i nua l l y r e vi e w e d a nd a na l yz e d s o a s t o c l us t e r c om m on t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns t o he l p i de nt i f y t he e s s e nc e of t he phe nom e non.

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50 D e s i gn of S t u d y T hi s na t ur e o f t hi s i nqu i r y i nt o t he pe r c e pt i ons of H i s pa ni c boys l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s f r a m e d t he c hoi c e s i n de s i gn f o r t h i s s t udy. I t w a s i m por t a nt f o r m e t he r e s e a r c he r t o s e t t he s t a ge f or de e p di s c us s i on a nd di s c l os ur e of i s s ue s t ha t c a n l e a d t o t he unve i l i ng of H i s pa ni c boys vi e w poi nt s r e ga r di ng w ha t t he y be l i e ve a r ound t he i r publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) a nd how t he s e l i t e r a c i e s a f f e c t t he i r w or l d T he r e f or e t hi s s e a r c h f o r i nt i m a c y of t he i r i nne r l i t e r a t e w or l d on how t he y bui l d, us e a nd e xt e nd l a ngua ge l e a d m e t o t he a ppr oa c he s t ha t s o ught t o de e pe n unde r s t a ndi ngs T hi s t e n w e e k s t udy be ga n w i t h c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons a nd l e a d t o i nqui r y m e t hods t ha t he l pe d de l ve de e pe r i nt o t he D i s c our s e a r ound l i t e r a c y a nd H i s pa ni c boys T he t w o i nqui r y a ppr oa c he s s e l e c t e d w e r e pa r t i c i pa nt f oc us gr oups a nd i ndi v i dua l i nt e r v i e w s F oc us G r oup A ppr oac h F oc us gr oup i nt e r vi e w s t ypi c a l l y i nvol ve d a hom o ge ne ous gr oup of i ndi vi dua l s w ho s ha r e d s i m i l a r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd ba c kgr ounds F oc us gr oup e xpe r t K r ue ge r ( 1994) s ugge s t s no m or e t ha n e i ght t o t e n pa r t i c i pa nt s s houl d pa r t i c i pa t e a t a ny one t i m e T he goa l of m y s i x t o e i ght pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s t o di s c us s m a j or i s s ue s t ha t i m pa c t e d t he i r pr i v at e and publ i c l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005 ) O ne of t he di s a dva n t a ge s of f oc us gr oups i s t ha t i t m a y l i m i t t he num be r of que s t i ons a s ke d due t o t he num be r o f pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s e s s i on r e s pondi ng. T he r e f or e dur i ng t he s i x w e e k f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons i t w a s vi t a l t o na r r ow t he que s t i ons t ha t w oul d he l p a c hi e ve t he pur po s e w hi c h i s t o e voke a t l e a s t f i ve i m por t a nt i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o t he l i t e r a c i e s of H i s pa ni c boys M y goa l f or c onduc t i ng f oc us gr oups w a s t o c ol l e c t a va r i e t y of pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t w oul d s uppor t w ha t e ve r pa t t e r ns

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51 e m e r ge d f r om da t a ( P a t t on, 2002) A l t hough i t w a s ha r d t o e xpe c t c onf i de nt i a l i t y w i t hi n f oc us gr oups i t w a s e s s e nt i a l t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s ha v e a c l e a r unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he pur pos e of t hi s i nqui r y. F or t hi s r e a s on, I e s t a bl i s he d a pr o t oc ol t o be p r e s e nt e d t o t he g r oup a t our f i r s t s e s s i on ( A ppe ndi x C ) T oge t he r w e r e vi e w e d a nd r e f i ne d t he pr ot oc ol t o f i t t he ne e ds of t hi s s pe c i f i c gr oup of i ndi vi dua l s P a t t on ( 2002) c a ut i ons r e s e a r c he r s w ho us e f oc us gr oups t o be c a r e f ul t ha t f oc us gr oups do not be c om e pr obl e m s ol vi ng s e s s i ons or f e e l r e s pons i bl e f or m a ki ng de c i s i ons t o r e c t i f y c ur r e nt c i r c um s t a nc e s T o e ns ur e t ha t a l l voi c e s w e r e he a r d, I e s t a bl i s he d gr ound r ul e s upf r o nt a nd pr e s e nt e d t he F oc us G r oup P r ot oc ol t ha t s e r ve d a s t he c onve r s a t i ona l s t r uc t ur e t ha t w a s i m pl e m e nt e d du r i ng a l l s e s s i ons ( A ppe ndi x C ) A s P a t t on ( 2002 ) poi nt s ou t t he pow e r i n f oc us g r oups r e s i de s i n t he m be i ng f oc us e d. R e s pons i v e I nt e r v i e w A ppr oac h B e r g ( 2007) de s c r i be s t he r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w a p pr oa c h a s a n i nt e r pr e t i ve c ons t r uc t i oni s t phi l os ophy m i xe d w i t h bi t o f c r i t i c a l t he o r y ( p 30 ) T hi s a pp r oa c h t o da t a c ol l e c t i on r e c ogni z e s t ha t bot h t he i nt e r vi e w e r a nd i nt e r vi e w e e m us t ha ve s om e ki nd of r e l a t i ons hi p du r i ng t he i nt e r vi e w p r oc e s s L i ke a ny ot he r hum a n i nt e r a c t i on i t r e l i e d he a vi l y on t he a ut he nt i c i t y a nd s i nc e r i t y o f t he hu m a n e l e m e nt T he m os t e nt i c i ng e l e m e nt of t hi s s t yl e o f r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w i ng w a s t ha t t he de s i gn r e m a i ns f l e xi bl e a nd dyna m i c t hr oughout t he pr oj e c t ( B e r g, 2007) T he goa l of t he r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w i s t o a c qui r e i nt e r pr e t a t i ons f r om t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e ga r di ng t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd t he i r unde r s t a ndi ngs of t he i r w or l d i n or de r t o c ons t r uc t a de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng of t ha t w o r l d. T he r e f or e I m e t w i t h e a c h i ndi vi dua l H i s pa ni c boy dur i ng a s i x w e e k i nt e r va l I l i s t e ne d

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52 c a r e f ul l y a nd s e l e c t e d que s t i ons t o he l p e l a bor a t e a nd s uppor t m y e m e r gi ng i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t he i r t hi nki ng c a pt ur e d dur i ng f o c us gr oup s e s s i ons D e pt h w a s a c hi e ve d by ongoi ng r e vi e w of i n f or m a t i on s o t ha t f ol l ow up que s t i ons c oul d be c r e a t e d a nd a da pt e d t o ne w i n f or m a t i on T hi s pr oc e s s w oul d he l p de a l w i t h t he c om pl e xi t y of m ul t i pl e ove r l a ppi ng, a nd s om e t i m e s c onf l i c t i ng t he m e s ( p. 35) a nd a l l ow e d m e t o f oc us on t he s pe c i f i c s of m e a ni ngf ul s i t ua t i ons ( R ubi n & R ubi n 2005) I t ook on t he r ol e o f i nt e r v i e w e r a nd de ve l ope d a s t yl e of que s t i oni ng t ha t w a s c om f or t a bl e w hi l e gr a dua l l y bui l di ng t he r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t w oul d e a s e c onve r s a t i on i nt o s e ns i t i ve w e i ght y t opi c s I t w a s i m por t a nt f o r m e t o r e m e m be r t o be r e s pons i ve t o t he ne e ds of t he pa r t i c i pa nt w hi l e c onc ur r e nt l y pa yi ng c l os e a t t e n t i on t o e ns ur e t ha t a c onve r s a t i ona l pa r t ne r s hi p w a s m a i nt a i ne d. I n pr e p a r i ng f or t he i nt e r vi e w pa r t i c i pa nt s c om pl e t e d a pe r s ona l i nf o r m a t i on f or m t ha t w oul d he l p f or m a ba c kdr op f or t he i nt e r vi e w s f ol l ow i ng f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons T he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt i nf o r m a t i on s he e t ( A ppe ndi x B ) w a s de ve l ope d w i t h que s t i ons t ha t a r e br oa d i n na t ur e a nd w oul d he l p e s t a bl i s h a ge ne r a l di r e c t i on f o r t he s ubs e que nt i nt e r vi e w I a l s o a udi o r e c or de d e a c h i nt e r vi e w t o e xt e nd a nd ve r i f y i nf o r m a t i on f r om f i e l d not e s F ol l ow i n g e a c h i nt e r vi e w s e s s i on, I r e vi e w e d gui di ng que s t i ons ( A ppe ndi x D ) a udi o r e c or di ngs a nd a ny f i e l d not e s t a ke n i n or de r t o de ve l op pur pos e f ul s t r a t e gi c ne xt s t e ps t o he l p c onve r s a t i ons de l ve i nt o pe r c e pt i ons A f t e r e a c h i nt e r vi e w I r e f l e c t e d on m y ow n bi a s e s s o t ha t I w oul d not i nf l ue nc e e a c h i nt e r v i e w w i t h m y ow n pe r c e pt i ons of l i t e r a c y B e r g ( 2007) a dvoc a t e s f or s e l f r e f l e c t i on, w hi c h i s ne e de d t o e xa m i ne r e s e a r c he r bi a s e s a nd r e a c t i ons t o r e s e a r c h c ont e nt

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53 T h e S c h ool S i t e T he s t udy t ook pl a c e i n a m i d s i z e s c hool di s t r i c t w i t h a ppr oxi m a t e l y 42 000 s t ude nt s hous e d w i t hi n f i f t y f i ve ( 55) e l e m e nt a r y m i ddl e a nd h i gh s c hool s T he s pe c i f i c s c hool c a m pus w a s a l oc a l s ubur ba n hi gh s c hool t ha t i s l oc a t e d on 30 a c r e s i n a s m a l l r e s i de nt i a l c om m uni t y. R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool hou s e d a ppr oxi m a t e l y 1735 s t ude nt s C l a s s r oom s a t R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool r e ve a l t he r i c hne s s of i t s di ve r s i t y. T he s c hool popul a t i on ha s r e m a i ne d a t 58 % w hi t e s t ude nt s 22 % H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s 15% bl a c k s t ude nt s a nd 5% ot he r C l a s s r oom obs e r v a t i ons a f f i r m t he di ve r s e c ul t ur a l l i ngui s t i c a nd a c a de m i c ne e ds of t hi s pa r t i c ul a r c a m pus I n r e ga r d t o s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us t he pe r c e nt a ge of s t ude nt s c ons i de r e d t o be e c onom i c a l l y di s a dva nt a ge d ha s gr ow n f r om 40% i n 2006 07 t o 45% i n 2007 08. T hi s c a t e gor y i s ba s e d on t he num be r of s t ude nt s e l i gi bl e f or f r e e a nd r e duc e d l unc h w hi c h c om pa r e s a nnua l i nc om e t o f a m i l y s i z e S i nc e 2002 03, t h i s hi gh s c hool ha s not m a de A de qua t e Y e a r l y P r ogr e s s ( A Y P ) a s i t r e l a t e s t o t he f e de r a l N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd ( N C L B ) A c t ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2008) U nde r N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd, e a c h s t a t e ha s de ve l o pe d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d m e a s ur e m e nt s f or de t e r m i ni ng w he t he r i t s s c hool s a nd l oc a l e duc a t i ona l a ge nc i e s ( L E A s ) a r e m a ki ng a de qua t e ye a r l y pr ogr e s s ( A Y P ) ( U S D e pa r t m e n t of E duc a t i on 2008 ) C onc ur r e nt l y, t he a c a de m i c da t a r e por t e d f o r t hi s h i gh s c hool r e ve a l e d t ha t onc e a ga i n i t f a i l e d t o m e e t t he s t a t e a c c ount a bi l i t y s ys t e m F or t he f ou r t h c ons e c ut i ve ye a r t hi s s t r uggl i ng s c hool ha s r e c e i ve d t he s c hool gr a de of a D i n a r a nge t ha t m i r r or s t he t r a di t i ona l gr a di ng s c a l e of A t o F ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2008) H ow e ve r t he m os t r e c e nt gr a dua t i on

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54 r a t e s how s a s ha r p pe r c e nt a ge i nc r e a s e i n H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s w ho gr a dua t e ( s e e T a bl e 2) T ab l e 2. R i ve r s i d e H i gh S c h ool G r ad u at i on R a t e s S c h ool Y e ar P e r c e n t age of H i s p an i c S t u d e n t s G r ad u at i n g 2003 04 39% 2004 05 48% 2005 06 40% 2006 07 41% 2007 08 59% A l t hough gr a dua t i on r a t e s a r e on t he r i s e t he 2007 08 r e a di ng t e s t s c or e s on t he s t a t e w i de a s s e s s m e nt r e ve a l s t ha t 85% o f H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s a r e not r e a di ng on o r a bove gr a de l e ve l ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 200 8) T hi s da t a w oul d i nf e r t ha t t he H i s pa ni c s t ude nt popul a t i on a t R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool a s a w hol e i s not m a ki ng r e a di ng ga i ns a nd a r e t he r e f o r e m a r gi na l i z e d i n t he i r c u r r e nt e duc a t i ona l s i t ua t i on. A c l os e r e xa m i na t i on of t hi s da t a r e ve a l e d t ha t of t he 1735 s t ude nt popul a t i on, 1, 126 ( 65% ) a r e L e ve l 1 a nd L e ve l 2 r e a de r s o f t ha t 583 ( 52 % ) a r e boys a nd 145 ( 25 % ) a r e H i s pa ni c boys L e ve l 1 a nd L e ve l 2 s t ude nt s a r e t hos e w ho s c or e d w i t hi n a r a nge of 100 t o 286 a nd 287 a nd 386, r e s pe c t i ve l y. L e ve l 1 a nd L e ve l 2 s t u de nt s a r e bot h c ons i de r e d not pr of i c i e nt a c c or di ng t o t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2008) W he n I c l os e l y a na l yz e d t he H i s pa ni c popul a t i on o f R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool 20 % of t he s t ude nt body w a s c ons i de r e d L i m i t e d E ngl i s h P r of i c i e nt a s de t e r m i ne d by a hom e

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55 l a ngua ge s ur ve y c om pl e t e d upon e nt r y t o t he di s t r i c t ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2008) A l l hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s w e r e a s s e s s e d i n gr a de s 9 a nd 10 a nd i f t he i r s c or e s w e r e not c ons i de r e d pr of i c i e nt by s t a t e s t a nda r ds t he y w e r e t o r e t a ke t he t e s t i n gr a de 11 or unt i l a pa s s i ng s c or e i s a c c om pl i s he d. L i ke m uc h o f t he na t i on t he a c a de m i c s uc c e s s of t he H i s pa ni c popul a t i on a t t h i s hi gh s c hool w a s c r i t i c a l l y l ow ( s e e T a bl e 3) T hi s da t a dr a s t i c a l l y a f f e c t s gr a dua t i on r a t e s a nd t he c om m u ni t y pe r c e pt i on o f t he s c hool T ab l e 3. R i ve r s i d e H i gh S c h ool S t u d e n t A c h i e v e m e n t L e ve l s R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool s c he dul e of c l a s s e s a l s o r e f l e c t e d t he a c a de m i c de m ogr a phi c s of i t s s t r uggl i ng popul a t i on T he hi gh s c hool of f e r s 2 9 i nt e ns i ve r e a di ng c l a s s e s f or s t ude nt s w ho s c or e d L e ve l 1 or L e ve l 2 on t he s t a t e w i de hi gh s t a ke s r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt T he s e r e a di ng c l a s s e s a r e t ypi c a l l y t a ught by t e a c he r s w ho a r e c e r t i f i e d or a r e s t a t e e n dor s e d t o t e a c h r e a di ng, a s r e c om m e nde d by t he di s t r i c t j ob de s c r i pt i on. T he c ur r i c ul um i s a n i nt e r ve nt i on pr og r a m t ha t w a s a dopt e d by a l l s e c onda r y s c hool s f or us e w i t h l ow l e ve l r e a de r s ( V oya ge r P a s s por t 2008) T hi s s c r i pt e d p r ogr a m of f e r s i ns t r uc t i on i n f l ue nc y voc a bul a r y, a nd c om p r e he ns i on. T he s e c om pone nt s a r e s uppor t e d by vi de os a c l a s s r oom l i br a r y, a nd t e c hnol ogy t ha t a r e i nt e nde d t o he l p m e e t t he ne e ds of a l l s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s A c ad e m i c S c h ool Y e ar T ot al H i s p an i c s t u d e n t s t e s t e d i n R e ad i n g P e r c e n t age of s t u d e n t s p r of i c i e n t i n R e ad i n g P e r c e n t of L e ve l 1 an d 2 S t u d e n t s 04 05 197 7% 93% 05 06 211 11% 89% 06 07 208 6% 94%

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56 A ddi t i ona l l y, 10 D e ve l opm e nt a l L a ngua ge A c qui s i t i on c l a s s e s ( D L A ) a r e a va i l a bl e f or E ngl i s h L a ngua ge L e a r ne r s ( E L L ) w hi c h c ons t i t ut e 20% o f t he s t ude nt popul a t i on. D L A i s a r e a di ng r e m e di a t i on c l a s s f or E L L s t ude nt s w hi c h i s t a ke n i ns t e a d of be i ng i n a m a i ns t r e a m e d i nt e ns i ve r e a di ng c l a s s D L A i s i n a ddi t i on t o t he E ngl i s h t hr ough E L L c l a s s e s O nc e s t ude nt s a r e m a i ns t r e a m e d i nt o t he i r r e gul a r E ng l i s h c l a s s e s t he y a r e us ua l l y r e m ove d f r om t he D L A c l a s s T he s e c l a s s e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h s t ude nt s w ho ha ve be e n de t e r m i ne d c ul t ur a l l y a nd/ or l i ngui s t i c a l l y di ve r s e a nd t hos e E L L s t ude nt s w ho de m ons t r a t e d a ne e d f or s uppor t i n ot he r c ont e nt a r e a c l a s s e s T he L e a d T e a c he r a t t hi s s i t e w ho ha s c om e i nt o e duc a t i on a s a s e c ond c a r e e r e duc a t or de ve l ope d t he c ur r i c ul um t ha t i s t a ught i n t he D L A c l a s s e s S he ha s w or ke d e xt e ns i ve l y w i t h va r i ous t e xt book publ i s he r s t o c r e a t e a c ur r i c ul um p r ogr a m t ha t i s i n t e nde d t o m e e t t he ur ge nt ne e ds of t he s e l i ngui s t i c a l l y di ve r s e s t ude nt s U nf or t una t e l y bot h i nt e ns i ve r e a di ng c l a s s e s a nd de ve l opm e nt a l l a ngua ge c l a s s e s t ook t he pl a c e of a ny e l e c t i ve s t ha t c oul d pos s i bl y ha ve e nr i c he d, de e pe ne d, o r s uppl e m e nt e d ot he r a r e a s of i nt e r e s t w hi c h t ypi c a l l y e nha nc e a s t ude nt s hi gh s c hool e xpe r i e nc e P ar t i c i p an t s F or t he s a m pl e a nd popul a t i on o f t hi s s t udy I c ond uc t e d i ni t i a l c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons i n t hr e e i nt e ns i ve r e a di ng a nd c ont e nt a r e a c l a s s r oom s f or a ppr ox i m a t e l y t w o w e e ks e qua l i ng s i x vi s i t s t ot a l D ur i ng t he s e c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons m y goa l w a s t o obs e r ve c l a s s r oom i nt e r a c t i ons c l a s s r oom e nga ge m e nt l e ve l s a nd ot he r a c a de m i c be ha vi or s of H i s pa ni c b oys P ot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s m e t t he f ol l ow i ng c r i t e r i a : ( a ) s c or e d L e ve l 1 o r 2 on t he r e a di ng por t i on o f s t a t e a s s e s s m e nt ; ( b) ha ve a t t e nde d G r e e nbr i dge

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57 D i s t r i c t s c hool s f or a ny por t i on of e a c h s c hool ye a r f o r gr a de s K 9; a nd ( c ) c ons i de r e d bi l i ngua l ba s e d on t he s t a t e H om e L a ngua ge S u r ve y ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, ( 2008) T he r e f o r e I us e d pur pos i ve s a m pl i ng, w hi c h pr ovi de d f o r t h i s s pe c i f i c popul a t i on ( P a t t on, 2002) I a l s o r e s e a r c he d s t ude nt r e c or ds a n d c onduc t e d t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s t o a s s i s t i n t h e s e l e c t i on pr oc e s s T he s e young H i s pa ni c boys w e r e s e l e c t e d t o r e f l e c t t he t w o w or l ds i n w hi c h t he y l i ve a w or l d w he r e t he y c l i ng t o c hi l dhood w hi l e c our a ge ous l y r e a c hi ng i nt o young a dul t hood w hi c h m a ke s t he m ope n a nd i ns i ght f ul i nt o t he t w o w or l ds t ha t s e e m t o be a t c onf l i c t ( F os s 2002) D at a C ol l e c t i on M e t h od s T hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy ha d a s c he dul e d t i m e l i ne of t e n w e e ks T hi s t i m e pe r i od c oul d ha ve be e n e xpa nde d, i f ne c e s s a r y, i n or de r t o ga t he r da t a t o m e e t t he pu r pos e of t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons D a t a c ol l e c t i on f or t hi s s t udy w a s pr opos e d i n t w o di s t i nc t pha s e s t o be c ont i nge nt on s t ude nt c l a s s s c hool a nd di s t r i c t s c he dul e s P has e I T he pur pos e of P ha s e I of t he i nqui r y w a s t w o f ol d : ( a ) t o obs e r ve r e a di ng a nd c ont e nt a r e a c l a s s r oom s a nd he l p s e l e c t pot e nt i a l r e s e a r c h c a ndi da t e s a nd ( b) t o c onduc t f oc us gr oups t ha t e l i c i t e d t he m e s t ha t H i s pa ni c boy s c ons i de r e d t he m os t r e l e va nt i n t he i r publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) F or t he f i r s t t w o w e e ks I c onduc t e d c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons i n i nt e ns i ve r e a di ng a nd c o nt e nt a r e a c l a s s e s a t R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool T he c l a s s e s s e l e c t e d f or obs e r va t i on w e r e de t e r m i ne d by t he r e a di ng c oa c h a nd s c hool a dm i ni s t r a t or s S t ude nt s f r om gr a de s ni ne t hr ough t w e l ve w ho s c or e d L e ve l 1 or L e ve l 2 on t he r e a di ng por t i on of t he s t a t e a s s e s s m e nt w hi c h i s us e d t o de t e r m i ne

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58 r e t e nt i on a nd ul t i m a t e l y gr a dua t i on popul a t e d t he c l a s s e s T he s e s i x ni ne t y m i nut e obs e r va t i ons a l l ow e d m e t o obs e r ve H i s pa ni c boys i n t he t he i r r e gul a r c l a s s r oom s e t t i ngs T he obj e c t i ve of t he s e obs e r va t i ons w a s t o r e c or d t he i r c l a s s r oom i nt e r a c t i ons c l a s s r oom e nga ge m e nt l e ve l a nd ot he r a c a de m i c be ha vi or s T e a c he r s i nt r oduc e d m e a s a r e s e a r c h s t ude nt f r om t he l oc a l uni ve r s i t y s t udyi ng hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s W hi l e obs e r vi ng f r om t he ba c k of t he c l a s s r oom I t ook f i e l d not e s t o doc um e nt de t a i l s not i c e d a bout s pe c i f i c H i s pa ni c boys c l a s s r oom pr a c t i c e s t ha t m a y ha ve be e n r e l a t e d t o s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i ons a nd/ or de f i ni t i ons o f l i t e r a c y. T he t w o c ol um n not e s he l d a pl a c e f or s t ude nt a c t i ons a nd s t ude nt l a n gua ge T he s e f i e l d not e s a l s o he l pe d t o r e f i ne t he l i s t of que s t i ons a nd pr om pt s ( S e e A ppe ndi x D ) t ha t he l pe d i n a l i gni ng or s uppor t i ng pe r c e pt i ons t ha t c oul d a r i s e dur i ng s ubs e que nt f oc us gr oups or i nt e r vi e w s I a l s o us e d i nf or m a t i on gl e a ne d f r om t he s e o bs e r va t i ons t o s e l e c t pot e nt i a l f oc us gr oup c a ndi da t e s F or t he s e r e a s ons I i nc l ude d f i e l d not e s on pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s w hi l e I r e s e a r c he d s t ude nt r e c or ds a nd c onduc t e d t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s t o a s s i s t i n t he s e l e c t i on pr oc e s s H i s pa ni c boys s e l e c t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n f o c us gr oups m e t t he p r e vi ous l y s t a t e d c r i t e r i a : ( a ) s c or e d L e ve l 1 o r 2 on t he r e a di ng po r t i on of s t a t e a s s e s s m e nt ; ( b) ha ve a t t e nde d G r e e nbr i dge D i s t r i c t s c hool s f o r a ny po r t i on of e a c h s c hool ye a r i n g r a de s K 9; a nd ( c ) c ons i de r e d bi l i ngua l ba s e d on t he H om e L a ngua ge S ur ve y. T he s e c r i t e r i a a l ong w i t h f i e l d no t e s f r om c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons he l p e d m e f ur t he r na r r ow t he l i s t of pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s t o m ove i nt o t he ne xt pa r t of t hi s s t udy, f oc us gr oups O nc e pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s w e r e i de nt i f i e d, I i nvi t e d e a c h pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e t o be pa r t of t he s t udy.

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59 D ur i ng a n i nvi t a t i ona l c onf e r e nc e I pr ovi de d t he r e s e a r c h obj e c t i ve s a pr opos e d t i m e l i ne t he c ons e nt f or m s a nd di s c us s e d pa r t i c i pa nt r ol e s a nd r e s pons i bi l i t i e s T he s e c ond pa r t o f P ha s e I c om m e nc e d w i t h f oc us gr oups a nd a t i m e f r a m e of s i x w e e ks w hi c h c oul d be a da pt e d t o m e e t t he ne e ds of s t ude nt c l a s s s c hool a nd di s t r i c t s c he dul e s F oc us gr oups m e t t hr e e t i m e s a w e e k w i t h t he pur pos e o f a na l yz i ng t he m e s t ha t c oul d pot e nt i a l l y i m pa c t t he publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005 ) o f H i s pa ni c boys T he f oc us g r oup a ppr oa c h w a s pur pos e f ul l y s e l e c t e d a s t he i ni t i a l da t a ga t he r i ng m e t hod t o us e w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s due t o i t s pot e nt i a l f or ga t he r i ng a va r i e t y pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd w hi l e ve r i f yi ng pa t t e r ns I n t he s c hool c onf e r e nc e r oom ou r f i r s t f oc us gr oup s e s s i on w a s de vot e d t o ga t he r i ng ba c kgr oun d i nf or m a t i on a nd t o bui l d a nd e ns ur e pa r t i c i pa nt c om f or t l e ve l ( B e r g, 2 007) T he r ound t a bl e pl a nt e d i n t he c e nt e r of t he c onf e r e nc e r oom p r ovi de d a di nne r l i ke e nvi r onm e nt pr o m ot e d i nt e r a c t i on a nd e nc our a ge d c onve r s a t i on. T he ove r a l l pu r pos e of t hi s t i m e w a s t o unc ove r t he c ons c i ous s e m i c ons c i ou s a nd unc ons c i ous ps yc hol ogi c a l a nd s oc i oc ul t ur a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ( B e r g, 2007, p 144) of w ha t H i s pa ni c boys pe r c e i ve a s t h e t he m e s t ha t i m pa c t bot h t he i r publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) I n or de r t o s e t t he s t a ge f or t hi s i nqui r y, I ha d t o f r ont l oa d t he pur pos e o f t he s t udy, s ha r e r ol e s a nd r e s pons i bi l i t i e s of pa r t i c i pa n t s pr i vy pa r t i c i pa n t s t o t he w or ki ng de f i ni t i ons of l i t e r a c y, a nd f i na l l y s e t a c om f or t a bl e c om m on gr ound I s ha r e d m y m i gr a nt e xpe r i e nc e s o pa r t i c i pa nt s c oul d f e e l a c on ne c t i on w i t h m e a nd t o s e t a n ope n t one t ha t f a c i l i t a t e d t he s ha r i ng ou r l i ve s w i t h e a c h ot he r I n t he s ubur ba n t ow n o f R i ve r s i de t he r e a r e t hr e e l a r ge t om a t o pa c ki ng hou s e s t he r e f or e e ve n i f t he s e boys a r e

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60 not m i gr a nt f i e l dw or ke r s t he y know t he l i m i t a t i on s t hi s l i f e s t yl e m a y i m pos e O r i gi na l l y I s t r uggl e d w i t h t he i de a of s ha r i ng m y ba c kgr oun d w i t h m y p a r t i c i pa nt s F or m a ny ye a r s I w a s e m ba r r a s s e d a nd a f r a i d t ha t ot he r s w oul d e i t he r j udge m e or s e c ur e t he i r i m pr e s s i ons w he n unc ove r i ng m y m i g r a nt M e xi c a n ba c kgr ound. Y e t i t i s onl y w i t hi n t he pa s t de c a de t ha t I pr e s e nt t he e nt i r e t y of w ho I a m w i t h pr i d e f o r m y c ul t ur e a nd s e c ur i t y i n know i ng t ha t m y M e xi c a n t r a di t i ons ha ve de ve l ope d a de t e r m i ne d, ha r d w or ki ng, hone s t w om a n T he r e f or e s ha r i ng m y pe r s ona l ba c kgr ound s e r ve d t o he l p e s t a bl i s h a s i nc e r e r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t B ur ge s s ( 1991) c l a i m s i s vi t a l be t w e e n r e s e a r c he r a nd pa r t i c i pa nt I n or de r t o bui l d t he pl a t f or m f o r P ha s e I i t w a s i m por t a nt t o pr om pt t he f oc us gr oup f o r c ont e nt T he f ol l ow i ng s t e ps w e r e f ol l ow e d t o e l i c i t t he i ni t i a l t he m e s r e l e va nt t o t he l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s of H i s pa ni c boys : S t e p 1: B ui l t c om m on de f i ni t i ons f o r l i t e r a c y vi a P ow e r P oi nt pr e s e nt a t i on ( A ppe ndi x F ) S t e p 2: B r a i ns t or m e d t opi c s t ha t i m pa c t upon t he e duc a t i on of H i s pa ni c boys C a pt ur e d t opi c s on bl a nk P ow e r P oi nt s l i de pr oj e c t e d on w hi t e boa r d s c r e e n. S t e p 3: R e vi e w e d t he b r a i ns t or m e d l i s t U s i ng t he bol d f e a t ur e o f M i c r os of t W or d, pa r t i c i pa nt s pr i or i t i z e d t he l i s t by pl a c i ng a n a dhe s i ve dot be s i de t opi c s t he y be l i e ve d ha d t he m os t i m pa c t on t he i r e duc a t i ona l l i ve s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gi ve n a t ot a l of f i ve a dhe s i ve dot s t o he l p na r r ow l i s t o f t o pi c s T hi s m e t hod of s i l e nt vot i ng r e c ogni z e d a l l voi c e s a nd he l pe d na r r ow t he l i s t of t opi c s

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61 S t e p 4: W he n a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s c om pl e t e d p r i or i t i z i n g t he i r t op f i ve t opi c s w e r e vi e w e d t opi c s s e l e c t e d by t he e nt i r e gr oup. ( A pp e ndi x H ) T he s e s t e ps w e r e i nt e nt i ona l l y de s i gne d t o be ope n e nde d, ye t a l s o g i ve s t r uc t ur e w hi l e e m br a c i ng a l l v oi c e s a nd opi ni ons O nc e t he m e s w e r e s e l e c t e d a nd a gr e e d upon, pa r t i c i pa nt s s pe nt a ppr oxi m a t e l y s i x w e e ks i n f oc u s gr oup s e s s i ons di s c us s i ng a nd a na l yz i ng e a c h t he m e t o c r e a t e a uni f i e d unde r s t a ndi ng a nd de f i ni t i on. A s t he m ode r a t or of t he f oc us gr oups m y goa l s w e r e t o ke e p t he c onve r s a t i on m ovi ng f o r w a r d a nd e nc our a ge pa r t i c i pa nt s t o s pe a k f r e e l y a nd c om pl e t e l y a bout t he i r be ha vi or s a t t i t ude s a nd opi ni ons a s a H i s pa ni c boy w i t hi n t he e duc a t i o na l s ys t e m A s a novi c e r e s e a r c he r I f ound i t ne c e s s a r y t o pr e pa r e t he p r ot oc ol t ha t w a s us e d a s a m ode r a t or s gui de ( s e e A ppe ndi x C ) t o p r ovi de a s a f e r e l i a bl e f or m a t ( B e r g, 2007 ) D a t a c ol l e c t i on c ons i s t e d of f i e l d not e s a nd bot h a udi o a nd vi de o r e c or di ngs t o he l p c a pt ur e i de a s t he m e s a nd nua nc e s t ha t he l pe d f i l t e r out w ha t t he m os t p r e va l e nt t he m e s a r e t o t he s e H i s pa ni c boys T r a ns c r i pt i on o f vi de o a nd a udi o r e c or di ngs w a s c om pl e t e d w hi l e t he f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons w e r e be i ng c onduc t e d. T he vi de o r e c or di n g of t he f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons w a s vi e w e d a nd a l i gne d t o t he a udi o t r a ns c r i pt s T hi s o ngoi ng a l i gnm e nt w a s done i n or de r t o i de nt i f y t r e nds a nd pa t t e r ns a m ong t he c a ndi da t e s c onve r s a t i on. W he n di s c r e pa nc i e s a r os e be t w e e n t he a udi o a nd vi de o t r a ns c r i pt i ons i t w a s br ought ba c k t o t he f oc us gr oup a nd de br i e f e d f o r c l a r i f i c a t i on. A t t he c onc l us i on of t he s e f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons I f ol l ow e d up w i t h a c onve r s a t i on w i t h e a c h m e m be r t o ve r i f y t he r e l i a bi l i t y of i nf or m a t i on s t a t e d dur i ng t he s e s s i on. T hi s pr oc e s s w a s s pe c i f i c a l l y pl a nne d t o he l p s i f t out t h e m e s H i s pa ni c boys w oul d w r i t e a bout

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62 i n t he i r c ul t ur e j ou r na l s dur i ng P ha s e I I i n hope s t ha t t he s e w oul d pr ovi de i ns i ght t o t he i r l i t e r a r y pe r c e pt i ons P has e I I P ha s e I I o f t hi s s t udy c ons i s t s of t he H i s pa ni c boys a na l yz i ng t he t he m e s m os t pr e va l e nt t o t he i r publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a u l kne r 2005 ) T he goa l w a s t o de e pe n t he unde r s t a ndi ng a nd i m pa c t o f t he t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om w i t hi n f oc us gr oups c onduc t e d i n P ha s e I T he pur pos e w a s a l s o t o a na l yz e t he c ont e nt a nd r ol e of e a c h s pe c i f i c t he m e by us i ng w r i t i ng a s a t oo l f o r t r i a ng ul a t i on ( P a t t on 2002 ) a s w e l l a s a m ode of e xpr e s s i on. P ha s e I I be ga n by a s ki ng f o r vol unt e e r s t o c ont i nue t o P ha s e I I of t he s t udy. T he goa l w a s t o c a r r y ove r a t l e a s t f ou r pa r t i c i pa nt s f r om P ha s e I t o P ha s e I I I f t he r e w e r e m or e t ha n f our vol un t e e r s I pl a nne d t o c a r r y ove r a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho vol unt e e r e d a nd hi ghl i ght t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho ha v e pr ovi de d t he m os t i ns i ght f ul pe r s pe c t i ve s t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons F or t he f i r s t s e s s i on, a l l t w e nt y t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s w h o m ove d i nt o P ha s e I I m e t f or a m i ni or i e nt a t i on t o r e vi e w a nd c on f i r m t he i nf o r m a t i on f r om t he f oc us gr oup di s c us s i on s a nd pr e vi e w t he I ndi v i dua l I nt e r vi e w F r a m e w or k ( s e e A pp e ndi x E ) t o be ut i l i z e d i n P ha s e I I T hi s t ool he l pe d w i t h s t r uc t ur e a nd pr e di c t a bi l i t y a nd a l s o pr ov i de d uni f or m i t y a nd c ons i s t e nc y t o a l l i n t e r vi e w s E a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w a s gi ve n a c om pos i t i on book a t t he o r i e nt a t i on s e s s i on t ha t w a s c a l l e d a C u l t ur e J our n a l f r a m e d by t he w r i t e r s not e book ( C a l ki ns 1986; F l e t c he r 2006) I t w a s gi ve n t hi s t i t l e t o he l p pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h t he i m pr e s s i on of c ol l e c t i ng pi e c e s t ha t r e pr e s e nt w ho t he y a r e a s H i s pa ni c m a l e s T he s e c ul t ur e j our na l s w e r e t o be w r i t t e n i n a m i n i m um o f t w i c e a w e e k. F ol l ow i ng t hi s pr e vi e w

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63 s e s s i on, I m e t w i t h i ndi vi dua l pa r t i c i pa nt s a m a xi m um of t w i c e a w e e k f o r a s i x w e e k pe r i od. I f o r m e d r a ndom pa r t ne r s hi ps f r om a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho w i s he d t o c ont i nue t o P ha s e I I T he goa l w a s t o pul l pa r t i c i pa nt s du r i ng t he i r da i l y a c a de m i c s c he dul e I nt e r vi e w s e s s i ons t ook pl a c e dur i ng t he pa r t i c i pa n t s f i f t y m i nut e l unc ht i m e a t R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool E a c h i nt e r vi e w s e s s i on be ga n w i t h a r e vi e w of r e c e nt e nt r i e s i n t he pa r t i c i pa nt C ul t ur e J our na l T hi s i ni t i a l s ha r i ng t i m e w a s f ol l o w e d by a n i nt r oduc t i on o f t he ne w t he m e f ol l ow e d by a t i m e t o w r i t e i n t he i r C ul t ur e J our na l T hi s w r i t t e n pi e c e w a s i nt e nde d t o c a pt ur e pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a c t i ons t o e a c h t he m e a nd he l p unc ove r de e pe r pe r s ona l pe r c e pt i ons I t w a s dur i ng t he s e di s c us s i o ns t ha t I p r obe d a nd a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o e l a bor a t e on c u r r e nt unde r s t a ndi ngs of t he t he m e s a nd us e d t he pe r s ona l i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons ( s e e A ppe ndi x D ) t o he l p gui de t he s e c o nve r s a t i ons A f t e r w r i t i ng, i nt e r vi e w e e s ha d a c ha nc e t o d i s c us s t he i s s ue t o r e c ogni z e pe r s ona l i m pl i c a t i ons a nd he l p r e f i ne t hi nki ng a m ong us a n d w i t hi n t he c ul t ur e j ou r na l s T he s e j our na l s w e r e t a ke n hom e by pa r t i c i pa nt s w he r e e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt c oul d w r i t e dr a w or c ol l e c t i t e m s t he y t hought w e r e r e l e va nt t o t he c ur r e nt t opi c of di s c us s i on. T hi s pr oc e s s w a s r e pe a t e d f or a t ot a l of s i x w e e ks w e r e pa r t i c i p a nt s w e r e a na l yz i ng a nd s e l f r e f l e c t i ng on a t l e a s t f i ve t he m e s D at a A n al ys i s M e t h od s D a t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d vi a f i e l d not e s f r o m i ni t i a l c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons vi de o a nd a udi o t r a ns c r i pt s f r om f oc us g r oups a nd s t ude nt i nt e r vi e w s a nd w r i t i ng s a m pl e s c ol l e c t e d f r om pa r t i c i pa nt s C ul t ur e J our na l s T o t r i a ngul a t e da t a a udi o a nd vi de o t r a ns c r i pt s f r om

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64 f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s w e r e c om pa r e d a nd a na l yz e d f o r c ons i s t e nc y a nd a c c ur a c y w i t h t he i nt e nt o f unde r s t a ndi ng i nc ons i s t e nc i e s i n f i ndi ngs a c r os s a l l da t a s our c e s ( P a t t on, 2002) W r i t i ng s a m pl e s w e r e a l s o a l i gne d w i t h vi de o a nd a udi o t r a ns c r i pt s t o he l p de t e r m i ne va l i d i t y of t r i a ngul a t i on. I ni t i a l l y, da t a w a s s or t e d by i ni t i a l t he m e s e l i c i t e d f r om pa r t i c i pa nt s W he n t r a ns c r i pt s w e r e c om pl e t e d, da t a w e r e or ga ni z e d i n t o s e pa r a t e c a t e gor i e s f or pub l i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) w hi c h he l pe d i n e xa m i ni ng pe r c e pt i ons of l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s a s t he y r e l a t e d t o e a c h t he m e T o a na l yz e da t a qua l i t a t i ve s of t w a r e w oul d be i m pl e m e nt e d t o a s s i s t w i t h da t a s t or a ge c a t e gor i z i ng, c odi ng, a nd l i n ki ng c onc e pt s I w a s r e s pons i bl e f or na m i ng c a t e gor i e s de pi c t i ng pa t t e r ns a nd s ynt he s i z i ng out c om e s r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h que s t i ons L i m i t at i on s o f t h e S t u d y I n qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h t he r e i s a l w a ys a c onc e r n f o r e xt e r na l va l i d i t y be yond t he pa r a m e t e r s of t hi s r e s e a r c h i nqui r y. F i r s t t he ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y of f i ndi ngs m us t be r e s t r i c t e d t o t hi s popu l a t i on of H i s pa ni c boys f r o m t hi s l oc a l hi gh s c hool P e r c e pt i ons of pr e va l e nt t he m e s r e ga r di ng t he publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) de s c r i be d i n obs e r va t i ons vi de o, a nd a udi o t r a ns c r i pt s a r e pe r s ona l a nd r e pr e s e nt t he t hought s f e e l i ngs a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of t hi s gr oup of i ndi vi du a l s I t i s a l s o vi t a l t o r e c ogni z e t ha t t he l e ve l of e duc a t i on a nd pr of i c i e nc y w i t h w r i t i ng o f t he s e i ndi vi dua l s m a y i m pa c t t he i r a bi l i t y t o e xp r e s s t he m s e l ve s ve r ba l l y a nd/ or i n w r i t t e n f or m a t A ddi t i ona l l y, w e c a n c onc l ude t ha t w hi l e t hi s s a m pl e s i z e c a n pr ov i de v a l ua bl e i nf or m a t i on t o he l p us gl e a n i nt o t he w or l d of H i s pa ni c boys t he qua nt i t y o f pa r t i c i pa nt s c a n onl y p r ovi de a gl i m ps e

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65 i nt o t he pe r c e pt i ons o f H i s pa ni c boys F ut ur e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a s houl d i nc l ude H i s pa ni c boys f r om a r ound t he U ni t e d S t a t e s t o e x a m i ne w ha t t he m e s m a y f u r t he r i m pa c t t he e duc a t i ng of t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on W he n l ooki ng a t w e a kne s s e s t ha t m a y ha ve i m pa c t e d t hi s s t udy, t i m e a nd l oc a t i on m a y ha ve pl a ye d i nt o i nf or m a t i on gi ve n by pa r t i c i pa nt s H i gh s c hool s t ude nt s c a n be e a s i l y i nf l ue nc e d by t he pe r c e pt i ons o f t he i r pe e r s a nd e xpe c t a t i ons f r om s c hool pe r s onne l R e s pons e s a nd i ndi vi dua l c om m e nt s c a n be s ke w e d t o e i t he r a gr e e w i t h t he gr oup or t a ke a s t a nd a ga i ns t ot he r gr oup m e m be r s I n c ol l e c t i ng t he pe r c e pt i ons of t he s e a dol e s c e nt m a l e s i t w a s di f f i c ul t t o d i s c e r n w he n p a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r e s pondi ng t o gr oup dyna m i c s or t o t hought f u l r e f l e c t i ons C onduc t i ng t hi s s t udy a t R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool c oul d ha ve a l s o a dde d i nc ongr ui t y t o t he ve r ba l a n d ph ys i c a l e xpr e s s i ons of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s i nc e t he s e young m a l e s a r e ve i l e d w i t h t he i r pub l i c pe r s ona A ddi t i ona l l y, t hi s s m a l l s ubur ba n t ow n i s popul a t e d w i t h H i s pa n i c s of M e xi c a n de c e nt w hi c h a r e t ypi c a l l y m i gr a nt f a r m w or ke r s T he s t e r e ot ypi c a l por t r a i t o f t hi s ha r dw or ki ng popul a t i on a dde d t o t he m a l e i de nt i t i e s f or m e d w i t hi n t hi s c o m m uni t y. F i na l l y, I ha ve s pe c i f i c bi a s e s t ha t i m pa c t e d t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of t h i s s t udy. M y H i s pa ni c ( M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n) upbr i ngi ng de f i ni t e l y ha d be a r i ngs on m y r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s I e nvi s i one d r e l a t i ng t o m a ny i s s ue s t ha t a f f e c t s t ude nt s of c ol or s uc h a s t r a c ki ng of c l a s s e s l ow s t ude nt e xpe c t a t i ons a nd f e e l i ngs of m a r gi na l i z a t i on. I t ur ne d t o H e r t z ( 1997 ) w ho s ugge s t e d t ha t a s a r e f l e xi ve r e s e a r c he r I m us t be c ont i nuous l y a w a r e a nd s e l f r e f l e c t on m y r ol e a s a r e s e a r c he r M y ow n s oc i a l c ul t ur a l a nd pol i t i c a l

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66 pe r s pe c t i ve s s e r ve d t o he l p pr obe a nd a na l yz e da t a t ha t w a s c ol l e c t e d dur i ng t he e nt i r e pr oc e s s D e s pi t e t he s e l i m i t a t i ons t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy l i be r a t e t he voi c e w hos e t i m e ha s c om e t o be he a r d a nd va l i da t e d. O ur young H i s pa ni c boys hol d pr om i s e i n l e a de r s hi p a nd vi s i on t o t he e ve r c ha ngi ng di ve r s i t y of t hi s na t i on.

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67 C H A P T E R 4: R E S E A R C H F I N D I N G S I n t r od u c t i on T he r e a r e m a ny f a c t or s t h a t i m pa c t t he a c a de m i c s uc c e s s a nd f a i l ur e s of a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c boys R e s e a r c h e r s ha ve f ound t ha t H i s pa ni c m a l e s ha ve a gr e a t pr oba bi l i t y of l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( N C E S 20 04) hi gh gr a de l e ve l r e t e nt i on ( H e ube r t & H a us e r 1999) a nd e ve n hi ghe r dr op o ut r a t e s ( L e e & B ur ka m 2003 ) T he s e ba r r i e r s i nc r e a s e t he i r c ha nc e s of a c a de m i c f a i l ur e w hi c h l e a d t o e c onom i c s oc i e t a l a nd pe r s ona l di s c onne c t i ons t o t he A m e r i c a n dr e a m T he s e c ha l l e nge s f a c e d w i t hi n a E u r o c e nt r i c m i ddl e c l a s s e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m a dve r s e l y a f f e c t t he c ul t u r e a nd m a s c ul i ni t i e s e xpr e s s e d by a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c m a l e s T he y a r e c onf r ont e d da i l y w i t h obs t a c l e s t ha t c ont i nue t o s i t ua t e t he m i nt o a pe r s pe c t i ve a nd r ol e t ha t r e nde r s t he m out s i de r s T he r ol e t ha t l i t e r a c y a nd e duc a t i on pl a y i n H i s pa ni c boys l i ve s c a n be de t e r m i ni ng f a c t or s a t a ny s t a ge of a n e duc a t i ona l c a r e e r T he r e f or e i t w a s t h e i nt e nt i on of da t a c ol l e c t e d t o a ns w e r t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons pos e d i n t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. T he pr i m a r y que s t i on t ha t l e d t he i nqui r y w a s : W ha t a r e t he pe r c e pt i ons o f a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c boys w ho a r e c ons i de r e d l ow l e ve l r e a de r s ( by s t a t e a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s ) r e ga r di n g t he i r ow n l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s ? S e c onda r y Q ue s t i ons i nc l ude d: W ha t ha ve r e s e a r c he r s r e por t e d a bout H i s pa ni c bo ys i n l i t e r a c y s i t ua t i on s ? W ha t i s t he r ol e of m a s c ul i ni t y ( m a c hi s m o) i n t he l i t e r a c y l i ve s of H i s pa ni c boys ?

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68 W ha t t e a c hi ng m e t hods do H i s pa ni c boys c ons i de r m os t r e s pons i ve t o t he i r l i t e r a c y ne e ds ? W ha t r ol e c a n c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y pl a y i n e duc a t i ng t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on? I n a ddr e s s i ng t he s e que s t i ons t hi s c ha pt e r w i l l f oc us on a br i e f r e vi e w o f r e s e a r c h m e t hods i nt r oduc t i on t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd f i ndi ngs w i t hi n t he f oc us gr oups a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s R e vi e w of M e t h od s T he pur pos e of t hi s i nqui r y w a s t o a na l yz e t he pe r c e pt i ons of a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c boys l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s T hi s unde r l yi ng i nt e nt i on f r a m e d t he m e t hodol ogi c a l de s i gn, w hi c h c r e a t e d t he oppor t un i t y t o t a p i nt o t he w o r l d of H i s pa ni c boys a nd c a pt ur e t he i r voi c e s P r opos e d St udy v s A c t ual St udy I n or de r t o be t t e r p r opor t i on s c hool c r e di t s f o r s t ud e nt s a l l hi gh s c hool s i n G r e e nbr i dge S c hool D i s t r i c t w e r e m ove d t o a m odi f i e d s e ve n pe r i od s c hool da y ( s e e s c hool s c he dul e A ppe ndi x G ) D ur i ng a t yp i c a l w e e k, s t ude nt s ha d f i r s t pe r i od ( 59 m i nut e s ) e ve r yda y a nd a t t e nde d ni ne t y m i nut e c l a s s e s f or t he r e m a i nde r of e a c h da y t he e nt i r e w e e k. E a c h da y a l t e r na t e s be t w e e n odd a nd e ve n, e a c h w i t h t he i r s e pa r a t e s e t of c l a s s e s a nd l unc ht i m e s T hi s s c he dul e w a s i nt e r r up t e d by a m odi f i e d W e dne s da y s c he dul e w he r e s t ude nt s a t t e nd s e ve nt y ni ne ( 79) m i nut e c l a s s e s t o a c c om m oda t e a ha l f da y f or t e a c he r pl a nni ng a nd pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt T hi s c om pl e x s c he dul e m a de i t i m pos s i bl e f or m e t o c onduc t P ha s e I a nd P ha s e I I i n c hr onol ogi c a l o r de r T he r e f or e

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69 P ha s e I ( 6 w e e ks ) a n d P ha s e I I ( 6 w e e ks ) of t hi s r e s e a r c h i nqui r y w e r e c onduc t e d s i m ul t a ne ous l y w i t h a f i ve w e e k ove r l a p ( S e e F i gu r e 1) F i gu r e 1. P r op os e d S t u d y vs A c t u al S t u d y T i m e l i n e

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70 A s pr opos e d, t he t w o i nqui r y a ppr oa c he s s e l e c t e d w e r e pa r t i c i pa nt f o c us g r oups a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r v i e w s T he s e t w o a ppr oa c he s f os t e r e d t he l e ve l of i nt i m a c y ne c e s s a r y t o r e ve a l pe r c e pt i ons r e ga r d i ng w ha t t he s e pa r t i c ul a r H i s pa ni c boys be l i e ve d a r ound t he i r publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) a nd how t he s e l i t e r a c i e s i m pa c t e d t he i r c ur r e nt a nd f ut ur e w o r l d. F ol l ow i ng I pr e s e nt a br i e f ove r vi e w of t he bo t h m e t hods of i nqui r y, f oc us gr oups a nd r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w w i t h t he i nt e nt of f ul l y de ve l opi ng t he m a s t he i nqui r y un f ol ds w i t hi n t hi s c ha pt e r R e v i e w and I n t e nt i on of F oc us G r oups F oc us gr oup s e s s i ons w e r e c onduc t e d w i t h s i x t o e i ght pa r t i c i pa nt s a s r e c om m e nde d by K r ue ge r ( 1994) T he i nt e nde d ou t c om e w a s t o e l i c i t a nd m a ke publ i c t o t he gr oup a l i s t of a t l e a s t f i ve m a j or t he m e s t ha t i m pa c t t he pr i v at e and pu bl i c l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) of t he s e H i s pa ni c boys T he pu r p os e a s pr opos e d, w a s t o c ol l e c t a va r i e t y of pe r s pe c t i ve s t o f or m t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns t ha t w oul d ul t i m a t e l y e m e r ge f r o m a nd s ubs e que nt l y i nf l ue nc e e a c h gr oup. A s pr e di c t e d by K r ue ge r ( 1994) one of t he di s a dva nt a ge s of f oc us gr oups w a s t he l i m i t e d num be r of que s t i ons a s ke d due t o t he num be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s i n e a c h s e s s i on. Y e t t he na t ur e of t he s e pa r t i c ul a r c onve r s a t i ons di d de ve l op a na t ur a l f l ow a nd di d a l l ow s e ve r a l t o pi c s t o be di s c us s e d dur i ng e a c h f oc us gr oup. E ve n w he n w o r ki ng w i t hi n t he g r ound r ul e s a nd t he p r opos e d pr ot oc ol ( A ppe ndi x C ) w hi c h w a s i nt r oduc e d a t t he i nc e pt i on of f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons t he c onve r s a t i on r e m a i ne d f oc us e d a nd m ove d e a s i l y f r om one t opi c t o t he ne xt I t w a s onl y dur i ng a f e w s i l e nt m om e nt s t ha t I pos e d a que s t i on t o s t e e r t he c onve r s a t i on i n a ne w di r e c t i on. T he s e que s t i ons w e r e ba s e d on bot h r e c a ppi ng t he c onve r s a t i on a nd a s ki ng f or m or e i npu t or

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71 pr ovi di ng a ne w t opi c i n que s t i on f o r m a t i f t he c on ve r s a t i on a t ha nd ha d e xha us t e d i t s e l f O ve r a l l t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e e nga ge d i n t he i r s ha r i ng of s t or i e s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd i ns i ght s w hi c h m a de i t di f f i c ul t not t o f ol l ow e a c h di gr e s s i on. I t w a s c l e a r t ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e ve s t e d i n t he c onve r s a t i on w hi c h w a s dr i ve n by t he i r ow n c ol l e c t i ve e nga ge m e nt T hi s w a s e vi de nc e d by t he m l e a ni ng i nt o t he t a bl e l ooki ng a t e a c h ot he r a s t he y s ha r e d, noddi ng t he i r he a ds a nd f r e que nt l y s a yi ng T ha t s r i ght M i s s A l t hough I p r opos e d f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons t o t a ke pl a c e d ur i ng P ha s e I s c hool s c he dul e s a nd e nd of ye a r a c t i vi t i e s f o r c e d m odi f i c a t i on of t he t hr e e w e e k t i m e l i ne ( S e e F i gur e 1) T he r e f or e du r i ng t he s i x w e e k f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons I r e vi e w e d di s c us s i ons a nd s e l e c t e d que s t i ons t ha t w oul d e xpa nd t he t he m e s r e l a t e d t o t he l i t e r a c y of H i s pa ni c boys ( S e e A ppe ndi x H ) A f t e r a na l yz i ng f oc us gr o up c onve r s a t i ons t he r e w e r e f i ve t he m e s t ha t s ur f a c e d t o be m or e p r e va l e nt or e xpr e s s e d by t hi s gr oup of H i s pa ni c boys C onve r ge nc e of e m e r gi ng t he m e s w a s a c hi e ve d by ongoi ng r e vi e w of i nf or m a t i on ga t he r e d dur i ng c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons f oc us gr o ups a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s F ol l ow up que s t i ons w e r e de ve l ope d a s ne w i nf or m a t i on w a s gl e a ne d w hi c h he l pe d s ol i di f y c om pl e x i s s ue s or c onf l i c t i ng t he m e s t ha t r e qui r e d c l a r i f i c a t i on. T he ot he r i m po r t a nt r e s e a r c h pr ot oc ol us e d w a s t he r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w a ppr oa c h. I t w a s us e d t o de e pe n t he c onve r s a t i on a r ound t he s e f i ve t op i c s a nd i s s ue s t ha t a ddr e s s H i s pa ni c boys R e v i e w and I nt e nt i on of R e s pons i v e I nt e r v i e w A ppr oac h T hi s i nt e r vi e w a pp r oa c h w a s i nt r oduc e d a t t he i nvi t a t i ona l c onf e r e nc e w hi c h w a s c onduc t e d a t t he i nc e pt i on o f t he r e s e a r c h s t udy, w he r e I p r ovi de d pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h r e s e a r c h obj e c t i ve s pr opos e d t i m e l i ne s c ons e nt f o r m s a nd di s c us s e d pa r t i c i pa nt r ol e s

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72 a nd r e s pons i bi l i t i e s A l ong w i t h f oc us gr oups t he r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w a ppr oa c h w a s pr e s e nt e d a s one of t he m a i n m e t hods of da t a c ol l e c t i on t ha t w oul d he l p m e c l e a r l y a ppr e c i a t e pa r t i c i pa nt s i ndi vi dua l pe r c e pt i ons T h e r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w a l s o pr ovi de d t he t i m e ne c e s s a r y t o bui l d r e l a t i ons hi ps a nd de e pe n m y unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he i r pe r s ona l t hought s s ur r oundi ng s pe c i f i c r e s pons e s c a pt ur e d dur i ng f oc us g r oup di s c us s i ons A s c onc l ude d by B e r g ( 2007 ) r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w s p r e s e nt e d a n oppor t uni t y t o he l p de ve l op t he r e s e a r c he r pa r t i c i pa nt r e l a t i ons hi p, w h i c h e l i c i t e d i ndi vi dua l s t or i e s f ul l of t r i a l s a nd t r i bu l a t i ons D ue t o t he na t u r e of t he c on ve r s a t i ons i t w a s ne c e s s a r y t o de ve l op a l e ve l of t r us t t ha t w oul d c r e a t e not onl y a n e nvi r onm e nt f or r i s k t a ki ng but a l s o a ve nue w he r e t he s e H i s pa ni c boys c oul d ope nl y s ha r e t he i r t hought s a nd be l i e f s w i t h no pot e nt i a l f or ne ga t i ve r e c our s e T he r e f o r e I c a m e i nt o t he s t udy w i t h t he pe r s pe c t i ve of s ha r i ng s c hool s t or i e s s ha r i ng l i f e e xpe r i e nc e s a n d, a t m a ny t i m e s t r e a t i ng t he boy s a s i f t he y w e r e gue s t s i n m y hom e I w a s i nqui s i t i ve f r a nk, a nd s i nc e r e T he r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w a ppr oa c h a l s o a f f o r de d m e t he ope ni ng t o be a w i t ne s s t o t he hum a ni t y be hi nd t he s e di s t i nc t i ndi vi dua l s T he s e m om e nt s r e l i e d he a vi l y on a c om bi ne d a ut he nt i c i t y o f r e s e a r c he r a nd pa r t i c i pa nt m y w i l l i ngne s s t o know a nd t he i r w i l l i ngne s s t o gi ve I t be c a m e a t r us t e d s pa c e f or m e t o l i s t e n i nt e nt l y a n d s e l e c t que s t i ons t o he l p e l a bor a t e on i nt e r pr e t a t i ons of t he i r t hi nki ng. I t a l s o he l pe d m e t o c l e a r i nt e r p r e t a t i ons on be ha vi or s s e e n dur i ng c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons a nd f oc us gr ou p i nt e r a c t i ons I m pac t of t he R e s pons i v e I nt e r v i e w A ppr oac h T o i l l us t r a t e t he va l ue a nd i m pa c t of t he r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w a ppr oa c h, I i nt r oduc e O s c a r a 9 t h gr a de pa r t i c i pa nt w ho unkn o w i ngl y c a l l e d on m e t he r e s e a r c he r

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73 t o r e s pond t o h i s s t or y. W he n pr e s e nt i ng t hi s a nd o t he r t r a ns c r i pt s I ha ve c hos e n t o va l i da t e t he l a ngua ge us e d by e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt a s i t w a s r e ve a l e d t o m e a s a r e s ul t of de ve l opi ng a r e l a t i ons hi p f ou nde d on t r us t a nd ope nne s s W he n a ppl i c a bl e unne c e s s a r y c onj unc t i ons w e r e om i t t e d f r om be gi nni ng of c onv e r s a t i ona l e xc ha nge s A l s o, a s w i t h m os t t r a ns l a t i ons pr e s e nt e d w i t hi n t he s t udy be a w a r e a s t he r e a de r t ha t t he a c t o f t r a ns l a t i on m a y c ool t he pa s s i on of t he t hough t ( D e l pi t & D ow dy, 2002, p. 12) I m e t O s c a r t he f i r s t da y of m y obs e r va t i ons i n hi s D e ve l opm e nt a l L a ngua ge C l a s s H e s a t i n hi s s e a t s t a r i ng a t t he w a l l H e i nt e r a c t e d w i t h a not he r s t ude nt w ho w a s s how i ng hi m a dr a w i ng of a c ha r a c t e r f a c e dr a w n i n t he l a ngua ge w or kbook H e g l a nc e d ba c k a t O s c a r w i t h a s m i r k. T he c ha r a c t e r w a s c r e a t i ve l y dr a w n i n t he c r e a s e of t he bl a nk pa ge s of t he w or kbook T he f a c e ha d bi g e ye s w i t h t he m out h t i l t e d t o t he s i de O s c a r s m i l e d a nd ga ve hi m a t hum bs up. T hi s t ype of e n c oun t e r t ook pl a c e s e ve r a l t i m e s w i t h ot he r s t ude nt s i n t he c l a s s A l l a ppe a r e d t o be l ooki ng t o O s c a r f o r s uppor t T he s e i nt e r a c t i ons s e e m e d t o s how how O s c a r w a s w e l l a c c e pt e d by hi s pe e r s H e l a t e r e nga ge d i n a c l a s s gr a nd c onve r s a t i on ( E e ds & W e l l s 1989 ) by l e a ni ng f or w a r d a nd r e s pondi ng t o que s t i ons i n t hi s w hol e gr oup s e t t i ng. L a t e r dur i ng t he f oc us gr oups he pa r t i c i pa t e d w i t h gr e a t i nt e nt i on, l e a ni ng i n s m i l i ng a t ot he r s a s t he y s ha r e a nd e ve n r a i s i ng hi s ha nd w hi l e w a i t i ng t o s pe a k. O nc e a ga i n he w a s a l w a ys w i l l i n g t o r e s pond a nd a dd hi s t hought s t o t he di s c us s i on. I t w a s not un t i l t he i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w t ha t I l e a r ne d a bout O s c a r s l i f e E xc e r p t f r om O s c ar s I n d i vi d u a l I n t e r vi e w T r an s l at e d f or n on S p an i s h r e ad e r s : ( M e an i n g m ay b e l os t i n t r an s l at i on ) R : V i ve s c on t us pa dr e s ? R : Y ou l i ve w i t h your pa r e nt s ? O : N o, c on m i he r m a na O : N o, W i t h m y s i s t e r

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74 R : Y donde e s t n t us pa dr e s ? R : W he r e a r e your pa r e nt s O : E n M xi c o O : I n M e xi c o. R : Y que e da d t i e ne t u he r m a na ? R : H ow ol d i s you r s i s t e r ? O : V e i nt e uno. O : T w e nt y one R : Y por que e s t n t us pa dr e s e n M xi c o ? R : W hy a r e your pa r e nt s i n M e xi c o? O : N o t i e ne n pa pe l e s O : T he y don t ha ve pa pe r s ( l e ga l i m m i gr a nt s ) R : Y c om o l l e ga s t e a da r t u a qu ? R : H ow di d you e nd up he r e ( i n t he U S ) ? O : Y o s oy na c i do a qu e n C a l i f o r ni a O : I w a s bor n i n C a l i f or ni a ( U S c i t i z e n) R : E nt onc e s t u m a m v i no, t u na c i s t e a qu y e l l a s e f ue pa r a M xi c o ? R : T he n your m om c a m e ove r you w e r e bor n a nd s he l e f t t o M e xi c o? O : Y o na c y a l a no r e gr e s e a M xi c o c on m i m a m y a pa s a r on d i e z onc e a nos y r e gr e s e a C a l i f or ni a Y de C a l i f or ni a m e vi e ne pa r a F l or i da O : I w a s bor n a nd w e a l l w e nt ba c k t o M e xi c o w i t h m y m ot he r t e n, e l e ve n ye a r s pa s s e d a nd I c a m e ba c k t o C a l i f o r ni a F r om C a l i f or ni a I c a m e t o F l or i da R : Y c on qui e n t e l l e ga s t e de C a l i f or ni a ? R : W ho di d you c om e w i t h f r om C a l i f or ni a ? O : C on m e t i a O : W i t h m y a unt R : Y por qu t e di s i di s t e ve ni r a qu s ol o? R : W hy di d you de c i de t o c om e he r e a l l a l one ? O : M i pa p m e m a ndo por que e s m e j or e s t udi o. E s m e j or e s t a r a qu que e n O : M y f a t he r s e nt m e be c a us e i t i s a be t t e r pl a c e t o s t udy. I t i s be t t e r t o be he r e t ha n i n

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75 M xi c o ha y m a s opor t un i d a d e s M e xi c om a ny m or e oppor t uni t i e s L O N G P A U S E L O N G P A U S E R : Y c u l e s opor t un i d a d e s qui e r e s bus c a r a qu e n l os E s t a dos U ni dos ? R : W ha t oppor t uni t i e s do you w a nt t o f i nd he r e i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ? O : U na c a r r e r a de e nf e r m e r o O : A c a r e e r a s a nur s e D ur i ng t he l ong pa us e i n t hi s pa r t o f t he i nt e r vi e w I w a s s t a r i ng a t t hi s s m a l l f r a m e d a dol e s c e nt young f a c e w hos e c hi n w a s s l i ght l y s hi ve r i ng a s i f r e a dy t o c r y. I w a s not s ur e of how t o r e s pond t o t hi s s i t ua t i on M y m i nd r a c e d t o m y ow n s on, M a t t he w w ho i s e i ght ye a r s ol d. C oul d I s e nd hi m t o a not he r c ount y a t t he a ge of t e n i n t he hope s t ha t he w oul d f i n d a be t t e r l i f e ? I m not s ur e T he c our a ge a nd s t r e ngt h of a m ot he r w ho w oul d a gr e e t o s e nd he r s on t o a d i s t a nt c ount r y t ha t i s e n vi s i one d a s a be t t e r pl a c e t o s t udy t o s e e k a c a r e e r a s a nur s e w a s a s t oni s hi ng. T he bl i nd e d f a i t h pl a c e d i nt o c hanc e i s no t know n by m a ny, but f ul l y e m br a c e d by O s c a r s pa r e nt s I c ont i nue d w i t h t he i nt e r v i e w que s t i ons a nd he l d c l os e m y e m ot i ons Y e t l a t e r i n t he i nt e r vi e w w e r e t ur ne d t o t he c onve r s a t i on w he n a s ke d, W ha t m a ke s you di f f e r e nt f r om t he ot he r H i s pa ni c boys ? E x c e r p t f r om O s c ar I n d i vi d u al I n t e r vi e w T r an s l at e d f or n on S p an i s h r e ad e r s : ( S om e m e an i n g m ay b e l os t i n t r an s l at i on ) R : Q u m a s t e ha c e di f e r e nt e ? R : W ha t e l s e m a ke s you di f f e r e nt ? O : L a f or m a de ha bl a r m i f a m i l i a e s di f e r e nt e m hi s t or i a de c om o vi ne a q u e s di f e r e nt e O : T he w a y I t a l kM y f a m i l y i s di f f e r e nt m y s t or y of how I c a m e he r e i s di f f e r e nt R : Y qu pi e ns a s t u de t u hi s t or i a ? R : W ha t do you t hi nk o f your s t or y?

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76 O : E s t r i s t e O : I t s s a d. R : P or qu ? R : W hy? O : P or qu t e ne r qu de j a r a s u s pa dr e s i r a un pa i s e s t a r s ol o a qu s ol a m e nt e c on m e he r m a na O : B e c a us e l e a vi ng your pa r e nt s a nd goi ng t o a di f f e r e nt l a nd a l l by you r s e l f onl y w i t h your s i s t e r R : Y l e he c ha s m e nos a s t us pa dr e s ? R : D o you m i s s your pa r e nt s ? O : S i O : Y e s L a t e be l l r i ngs a f e w m om e nt s pa s s L a t e be l l r i ngs a f e w m om e nt s pa s s R : P i e ns a s t u qu t u hi s t or i a e s t a t r i s t e . y s i e s Q ue pi e ns a s s i e ndo qu t i e ne s una hi s t or i a t a n t r i s t e ? R : Y ou t hi nk you r s t or y i s s a d a nd i t i s W ha t do you t hi nk be i ng t ha t you ha ve s uc h a s a d s t or y? O : M e s i e nt o bi e n y a ve c e s m a l por que t e ngo qu s e gui r l e a de l a nt e c om o di c e m i pa p E l l os qui e r e n a ve r m e a m i c on una c a r r e r a P or e s o m e m a nda r on a qu a l os E s t a dos U ni dos O : I f e e l o. k . . A nd s om e t i m e s f e e l ba dbe c a us e I ha ve t o m ove f o r w a r d l i ke m y da d s a ys T he y w a nt t o s e e m e i n w i t h a c a r e e r T ha t s w hy t he y s e nt m e t o t he U ni t e d S t a t e s R : E s un s a c r i f i c i o . ? R : I t i s a s a c r i f i c e ? O : S i e s un s a c r i f i c i o O : Y e s i t i s a s a c r i f i c e R : Y qu de da r e nt e nde r de t us pa dr e s ? R : W ha t doe s i t t e l l you a bout your pa r e nt s ? O : A ve c e s m uc ha ge nt e m e di c e nt us O : A t t i m e s m a ny pe opl e t e l l m e your

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77 pa dr e s no t e qui e r e n por que t e m a nda r on a qu s ol o. P e r o yo s e qu m e m a nda r on pa r a a l go bue no. E s l o qu de bo de ha c e r pa r e nt s don t l ove you t ha t s w hy t he y s e nd you he r e a l l by your s e l f B ut I know w hy t he y s e nt m e he r e f o r a good r e a s on. I t s w ha t I m s uppos e d t o do. R : Y s i e nt e s t u una obl i ga c i n? R : Y ou f e e l l i ke you ha ve a n obl i ga t i on? O : S i s e gui r e s t udi a ndo y he c ha r l e gan as a l a e s c ue l a O : Y e s ke e p s t udyi ng a nd put gan as ( t o put f or t h e f f or t a nd pus h f o r w a r d w i t h pa s s i on) i nt o m y s c hool i ng. R : M uy c i e r t o. G a na s E s o e s l o qu pi e ns o yo qu ne c e s i t a n t odos l os m uc ha c hos de l gr upo. . G a na s P or que pa r e c e qu no. pe r r o he c ha n do l e ga na s a c ua l qui e r e c os a s a l e s a de l a nt e R : V e r y t r ue G a na s T ha t s w ha t I t hi nk a l l you guys i n t he gr oup ne e dG a na s B e c a us e be l i e ve i t or not put t i ng f or t h ga na s i n a nyt hi ng you c om e out a he a d. O : S i s a l e s a de l a nt e O : Y e s you c om e out a he a d. T he r e a l i t y of t he goa l s d r e a m s a nd hope s pl a c e d a t t he door s o f our e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m w e i ghe d on m e a s t hi s young m a n s pa r e nt s pl a c e d hi s f a t e hi s you t h, hi s f ut u r e i n t he ha nds of A m e r i c a n s c hool s O s c a r r e m i n de r m e of how be yond t he bor de r s of t h i s c ount r y, ou r e duc a t i on i s s e e n a s t he l i be r a t or a n e m a nc i pa t or H e r e vi s i t s t he c onve r s a t i on a nd s ha r e s s i nc e r e t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs a bout how he i s ha ndl i ng t hi s s a d ye t i ns pi r a t i ona l s i t ua t i on. T he r e a r e s m a l l t e a r s i n t he c or ne r s o f hi s e ye s O s c a r i s no l onge r t he s m i l i ng young m a n I s a w i n bot h c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons a nd f oc us gr oup

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78 s e s s i ons I t w a s t i m e s l i ke t he s e t ha t t he r e s pons i ve pa r t o f t he i nt e r vi e w c a l l e d f or a s e ns i t i ve e a r w hos e i nt e nt i on w a s t o a c know l e dge t he i nt e r vi e w e e a s a pa r t ne r i n de ve l opi ng a nd l e a di ng t he r e s e a r c h c onve r s a t i on. T he r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w a ppr oa c h s e r ve d a s t he m a i n ve hi c l e f o r r i c h, i nt i m a t e c onve r s a t i ons C l as s r oom O b s e r vat i on s I n or de r t o be gi n t he obs e r va t i on pr oc e s s I f i r s t m e t w i t h t he s c hool r e gi s t r a r w h o a s s i s t e d m e i n r e s e a r c hi ng t he na m e s of a l l H i s pa ni c boys w ho ha d s c or e d a L e ve l 1 a nd 2 on t he s t a t e a s s e s s m e nt a t R i ve r s i de H i gh s c hool T hi s l i s t w a s e xt e ns i ve a nd c ons i s t e d of 138 H i s pa ni c boys C l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons w e r e i ni t i a l l y pl a nne d t o l ook s pe c i f i c a l l y f or H i s pa ni c boys w ho t ook a n a c t i ve pa r t i n c l a s s r oom i nt e r a c t i ons e nga ge d i n c l a s s r oom a c t i vi t i e s a nd e xhi bi t e d c onc r e t e a c a de m i c be ha vi or s I n c l a s s pa r t i c i pa t i on be ha vi or s w e r e t a r ge t e d w i t h t he t hought t ha t t he s e a c t i ve pa r t i c i pa nt s w ou l d m or e ope nl y a r t i c ul a t e t he i r pe r c e pt i ons a nd a l s o t he i r w i l l i ngne s s t o s ha r e t he i r t hought s A t ot a l of s i x c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons w e r e pr opos e d a nd c onduc t e d dur i ng a t w o w e e k t i m e f r a m e I nvol ve d i n t he s e obs e r va t i ons w e r e one i nt e ns i ve r e a di ng c l a s s one r e gul a r E ngl i s h c l a s s a nd one D e ve l opm e nt a l L a ngua ge A c qui s i t i on c l a s s f or E n gl i s h L a ngua ge L e a r ne r s ( E L L ) T he c l a s s r oom s w e r e s e l e c t e d unde r t he a dvi s e m e nt of t he s c hool pr i nc i pa l a nd r e a di ng c oa c h w i t h r e ga r d t o t e a c he r w i l l i ngne s s a nd obj e c t i ve s of t he r e s e a r c h pr opos a l E a c h i ndi vi dua l c l a s s r oom w a s obs e r ve d f or t w o c l a s s r oom pe r i ods f o r a t ot a l of s i x obs e r va t i ons a nd 180 m i nut e s of c l a s s r oom i ns t r uc t i on. W he n I obs e r ve d t he s e c l a s s r oom s I f i r s t dr e w a s e a t i ng c ha r t on w hi c h I l a be l e d e a c h H i s pa n i c boy s l oc a t i on

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79 a m ongs t t he s t ude nt s A l t hough e a c h c l a s s r oom t e a c he r ha d a s i m i l a r i ns t r uc t i ona l pur pos e i n r e ga r ds t o s e a t i ng a r r a nge m e nt e a c h c l a s s r oom w a s s e t up i n a di f f e r e nt m a nne r ( S e e F i gur e 2 ) F i gu r e 2. C l as s r oom S e a t i n g C h ar t s 2A D e ve l op m e n t a l L an gu age A c q u i s i t i on C l as s S e at i n g C h ar t 2B I n t e n s i ve R e ad i n g C l as s S e at i n g C h ar t R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 H B 1 F H B 4 H B 6 A A M W F H B 8 H B 5 H F H B 3 W F H B 7 H B 2 H F A A M H B F A A M T 1 T 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 T 6 H F W F W M W F H B 1 W F W F W F H B 3 W M W M H B 2 H B 4 2C R e gu l ar E n gl i s h C l as s S e at i n g C h ar t K e y f or S e at i n g C h ar t s H B 1 H F H B 2 H B 3 A A M H F W F W M A A M A A F W M W M A A F R 1 R ow a nd N um be r T 1 T e a m a nd N u m be r H B # H i s pa ni c boy a nd i de nt i f yi ng num be r A A M A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n M a l e W M W hi t e M a l e H F H i s pa ni c F e m a l e W F W hi t e F e m a l e A A F A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n F e m a l e O bs e r v at i on s of t he D e v e l opm e nt al L anguage A c q ui s i t i on C l as s T he D e ve l opm e nt a l L a ngua ge A c qui s i t i on c our s e l oc a t e d i n one of t he m a i n bui l di ngs w a s a r r a nge d i n f ou r r ow s o f s e ve n c ha i r s w i t h t he t r a di t i ona l r i ght s i de de s kt op ( F i gur e 2A ) T he s e w e r e pl a c e d i n t hi s pos i t i on t o a l l ow f o r s t ude nt t o s t ude nt i nt e r a c t i on, a c c or di ng t o t he t e a c he r T he r oom w a s f i l l e d w i t h m ot i va t i ona l pos t e r s w r i t e r s c he c kl i s t s e di t or m a r k r e m i nde r s a nd a w or l d m a p i ndi c a t i ng s t ude nt s hom e c ount r i e s T he phys i c a l e nvi r onm e nt o f t he r oom s e e m e d i nt e nt i ona l l y ge a r e d f o r s t ude nt s

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80 t o us e a s a r e s our c e T he r e w a s a s m a l l c l a s s r oom l i br a r y f i l l e d w i t h t e xt books c u r r e nt a dol e s c e nt l i t e r a t ur e a nd l a ngua ge di c t i ona r i e s t o m e e t t he a c a de m i c a nd l i ngui s t i c ne e ds of t he s t ude nt s T he r e w e r e f our di f f e r e nt l a ngua ge s ot he r t ha n E ngl i s h r e p r e s e nt e d i n t hi s c l a s s R us s i a n, S pa ni s h, V i e t na m e s e a nd C r e ol e A f or m e r pa r a l e ga l t he t e a c he r w a s bi l i ngua l i n bot h E ngl i s h a nd S pa ni s h, a nd e n c our a ge d s t ude nt s t o r e a d a l oud a s a w a y t o l e a r n a nd pr a c t i c e E ngl i s h. T he r e w a s a l s o a pa r a pr of e s s i ona l w ho s uppor t e d t he s e E ngl i s h L a ngua ge L e a r ne r s i n o t he r c ont e nt a r e a c l a s s e s by a t t e ndi ng c l a s s e s w i t h s t ude nt s a nd a s s i s t i ng t he m w i t h c ont e nt c l a s s r oom a s s i gnm e nt s T he t e a c he r s t a ye d i n t he f r ont of t he r oom f o r a l a r ge pa r t of t he c l a s s a nd s ha r e d m a ny e xa m pl e s a nd non e xa m pl e s of c ont e nt pr e s e nt e d. O bs e r v at i on s of t he I nt e ns i v e R e adi ng C l as s T he i nt e ns i ve r e a di ng c l a s s w a s or ga ni z e d i nt o f i ve t e a m s of t h r e e t r a di t i ona l r i ght s i de d de s kt op c ha i r s pl a c e d t oge t he r t o f or m a ps e udo t r i a ngl e ( S e e F i gur e 2B ) C ha i r s w e r e pos i t i one d i n t hi s m a nne r t o f a c i l i t a t e pe e r t o pe e r c onve r s a t i ons a c c or di ng t o t he t e a c he r T he r oom w a s out l i ne d w i t h t e n c o m put e r s on t he pe r i m e t e r t o s uppor t t he c om put e r ba s e d i nt e ns i ve r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on pr o gr a m E a c h s t ude nt ha d a not e book, w hi c h he l d s t ude nt pr og r a m f o r m s a nd a s s e s s m e nt s T he t e a c he r us e d a n ove r he a d pr oj e c t or t o i nt r oduc e a s t or y o f t he w e e k t o t he c l a s s T he r e w a s a l s o e vi de nc e of l i t e r a t ur e c i r c l e r ol e s di s pl a ye d on a bul l e t i n boa r d i n t he ba c k o f t he r oom F ur t he r l i n i ng t he w a l l s w e r e m ot i va t i ona l pos t e r s de di c a t e d t o di ve r s i t y, r e s pe c t a nd de di c a t i on. A ve t e r a n, t hi s e duc a t or m ove d a bout t he r oom w hi l e c onf e r r i ng a nd di s c us s i ng s t ude nt

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81 w or k. S he c a r r i e d a c l i pboa r d w hi c h ou t l i ne d w he r e s t ude nt s w e r e i n r e ga r ds t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on pr og r a m a nd w r ot e dow n a ne c dot a l n ot e s a f t e r e a c h c onf e r e nc e O bs e r v at i o n s of t he R e gul ar E ngl i s h C l as s T he f a r t he s t c l a s s r oom f r om t he c e nt e r o f t he s c hool he l d t he r e gul a r E ngl i s h c l a s s w hi c h w a s c onduc t e d i n a w hi t e po r t a bl e c l a s s r oom T he s e a t i ng a r r a nge m e nt i n t hi s c l a s s r oom w a s s e t up i n a U s ha pe t o a l l ow f or di s c us s i on, a c c or di ng t o t he t e a c he r ( F i gur e 2C ) T he c l a s s r oom w a l l s w e r e ba r e a nd r e f l e c t i ve of t he f ou r w e e k t i m e f r a m e s i nc e t he t e a c he r ha d be e n hi r e d T hi s ne w t e a c he r ut i l i z e d c oope r a t i ve l e a r ni ng t e a c hi ng m e t hods a s a m e a ns f or s t ude nt s t o w o r k w i t h pa r t ne r s a nd a l s o pr ovi de s uppor t f o r hi s s t r uggl i ng s t ude nt s D ur i ng our i ni t i a l d i s c us s i on, t he t e a c he r de s c r i be d t hi s c l a s s a s a s e l f s e gr e ga t e d c l a s s T hi s w a s e vi de nc e d by c l us t e r s of l i ke r a c e s s i t t i ng w i t hi n c l os e pr oxi m i t y o f e a c h ot he r I t w a s t hi s c l a s s t ha t w e l c om e d m e w i t h a s t ude nt f i ght a nd a s ubs e que nt f i r e dr i l l w i t hi n one c l a s s pe r i od. A r m e d w i t h s t ude nt s c he dul e s a nd t he l i s t of L e ve l 1 a nd L e ve l 2 H i s pa ni c boys ga ve m e a s t a r t i ng po i nt f o r goi ng i nt o c l a s s r oom s a nd be gi nni ng t he s e a r c h f o r po s s i bl e pa r t i c i pa nt s F or e a c h obs e r va t i on, I pos i t i one d m y s e l f i n t he ba c k o r l e f t s i de of t he r oom i n or de r t o s e e a nd he a r t he c l a s s r oom be ha vi or s of a l l or m os t of t he H i s pa ni c boys a nd t o r e m a i n unobt r us i ve D u r i ng m y t i m e i n e a c h c l a s s r oom s e t t i ng, f i e l d no t e s w e r e t a ke n i n m y r e s e a r c h j our na l a s I m oni t o r e d t he i nt e r a c t i on a nd e nga ge m e nt s ur r oundi ng t he a c a de m i c be ha vi or s of e a c h H i s pa ni c boy. A f t e r e a c h c l a s s r oom vi s i t I c onc l ude d w i t h a br i e f c onve r s a t i on w i t h e a c h t e a c he r t o di s c us s t he na m e s of s pe c i f i c H i s pa ni c boys w ho s t ood out due t o l ow or hi gh e nga ge m e nt l e ve l s a nd/ or pos i t i ve or de f i a nt a t t i t ude s

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82 i ndi vi dua l s m or e l i ke l y t o c ont r i but e t o t he c onve r s a t i on r e l a t e d t o t hi s i nqui r y. T e a c he r s a t t i m e s di d r e c om m e nd s pe c i f i c s t ude nt s or e l a bo r a t e d on pa r t i c ul a r be ha vi or s o r a t t i t ude s t ha t t he y t he m s e l ve s f ound t o be uni que F ur t he r m or e t he y of t e n w e r e e a ge r t o s ha r e m a ny na r r a t i ve s a bout s t ude nt s a nd/ or t he y a l s o pr ovi de d j us t i f i c a t i on f or t he i r pe r s ona l t e a c hi ng m e t hods L i s t e ni ng t o t e a c h e r s di s c us s i on s a bout i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt s a l s o ga ve m e i ns i ght i nt o t he t e a c he r s pe r c e pt i ons of s pe c i f i c s oc i a l a nd a c a de m i c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of H i s pa ni c boys F or e xa m pl e w hi l e s i t t i ng i n t he D e ve l opm e nt a l L a ngua ge A c qui s i t i on c l a s s a s c i e nc e t e a c he r c a m e i n t o di s c us s one of t he boys a nd s a i d w i t h gr e a t f r us t r a t i on, I a m s i c k of hi m H e doe s n t do a nyt hi ng H e i s l a z y a nd unw i l l i ng t o l e a r n E ngl i s h, j us t d oe s n t w a nt t o l e a r n i t H e ne ve r t u r n s i n a nyt hi ng. A l l he doe s i s s l e e pj us t c om e s i n a nd put s hi s he a d dow n. I m j us t s i c k a nd t i r e d o f i t A s s oon a s t he t e a c he r l e f t I kne w I w a nt e d t o s e e k out t hi s s t ude nt a s a pot e nt i a l pa r t i c i pa nt i n o r de r t o he a r c ount e r pe r c e pt i ons A l t hough t hi s w a s t he m os t e xt r e m e de t a i l s a r ound c onve r s a t i ons l i ke t hi s a ugm e nt e d m y obs e r va t i ons a nd m a de i t pos s i bl e f or m e t o ha ve a t ot a l o f t w e nt y t w o pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s T hi s l i s t o f t w e nt y t w o c a ndi da t e s w a s na r r ow e d dow n a f t e r r e vi e w i ng m y de t a i l e d f i e l d not e s on t he s pe c i f i c a c t i ons of t he boys a nd not e s f r om t e a c h e r r e c om m e nda t i ons a nd c onve r s a t i ons s uc h a s t he pr e vi ous e xa m pl e T he r e f o r e pa r t i c i pa nt c r i t e r i a s t ude nt be ha vi or s t e a c he r i ns i ght a nd m y pr o f e s s i ona l a nd pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s gui de d pa r t i c i pa nt s e l e c t i on. A l t hough t hi s l i s t w a s e xt e ns i ve I w a s c a ut i ous a s t o l e a ve r oom f or pa r t i c i pa nt a t t r i t i on. O nc e t he l i s t of t w e nt y t w o pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s w a s c om pl e t e I m e t onc e a ga i n, w i t h t he s c hool

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83 r e gi s t r a r t o i nve s t i ga t e i f t he pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s m e t a ddi t i ona l c r i t e r i a r e qui r e d f o r t hi s r e s e a r c h i nqui r y. T he s e c r i t e r i a i nc l ude d: ( a ) ha d a s c or e of L e ve l 1 or 2 on t he r e a di ng por t i on of s t a t e r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt ; ( b) ha ve a t t e n de d G r e e nbr i dge D i s t r i c t s c hool s f or a ny por t i on o f e a c h s c hool ye a r f or gr a de s K 9; a n d ( c ) w a s c ons i de r e d bi l i ngua l ba s e d on H om e L a ngua ge S ur ve y W he n c ons i de r i ng a l l c r i t e r i a onl y s e ve n of t he t w e nt y t w o pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s a c t ua l l y m e t a l l p r opos e d c r i t e r i a T he r e f or e I f ound i t ne c e s s a r y t o m odi f y t he pa r t i c i pa nt c r i t e r i a f r om m us t ha ve a t t e nde d G r e e nbr i dge D i s t r i c t s c hool s f o r por t i on of e a c h s c hool ye a r f or gr a de s K 9 t o ha ve a t t e nde d G r e e nbr i dge C ount y S c hool s f or a ny por t i on of a ny s c hool ye a r i n gr a d e s K 9. T h i s m odi f i c a t i on ope ne d up t he s e l e c t i on of pa r t i c i pa nt s t o a m o r e e duc a t i ona l l y di ve r s e gr oup of i nd i vi dua l s I t he n r e t ur ne d t o e ns ur e t ha t e a c h s t ude nt m e t t he m odi f i e d c r i t e r i a A l l t w e nt y t w o pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s f e l l w i t hi n a L e ve l 1 or L e ve l 2 a s i ndi c a t e d on t he s t a t e r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt a nd bi l i ngua l ba s e d on t he i r H om e L a ngua ge S ur v e y, t he r e f o r e m a ki ng i t pos s i bl e f or m e t o m ove f o r w a r d w i t h a l l t w e nt y t w o pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s W i t h t he l i s t of L e ve l 1 a nd L e ve l 2 H i s pa ni c boys i n ha nd a nd a ne c dot a l not e s f r om c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons I r e f i ne d t he l i s t of pot e nt i a l r e s e a r c h c a ndi da t e s T h e i nt e nde d out c om e of c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons w a s t o t a r ge t pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s t ha t w oul d m ove i nt o f oc us gr oups A t t i m e s i t w a s di f f i c ul t f o r m e t o c a pt ur e s t ude nt be ha vi or s e xhi bi t e d i n t he c l a s s r oom due t o t r a di t i ona l que s t i on/ a ns w e r t ype t e a c hi ng m e t hods f ound i n t h e hi gh s c hool c l a s s r oom s t ha t w e r e obs e r ve d. T hi s m e t hod of t e a c hi ng c ont r a s t s t he t e a c hi ng m e t hods I e m pl oye d a s a f our t e e n ye a r ve t e r a n p r i m a r y t e a c he r a nd a di s t r i c t s t a f f

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84 de ve l ope r i n i ns t r uc t i ona l be s t pr a c t i c e s T e a c he r d i r e c t e d i ns t r uc t i on ne c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d t he a m ount of s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa t i on I w a s a bl e t o o bs e r ve F oc u s G r ou p s an d I n d i vi d u al I n t e r vi e w s T e a c he r c om m e nt s a nd a ne c dot a l not e s f r om c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons he l pe d de ve l op a n a c a de m i c pr of i l e f or e a c h H i s pa ni c boy hi ghl i ght e d a s a po t e nt i a l c a ndi da t e f or t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. I n or de r t o a c c om m oda t e t h e s t ude nt s s c he dul e s I di vi de d t he t w e nt y t w o ( 22 ) pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s i nt o t hr e e g r o ups w hi c h w oul d u l t i m a t e l y be c om e pr os pe c t i ve f oc us gr oups W he n a s s i gni ng s t ude nt s t o t he s e gr oups I f i r s t c ons i de r e d s c hool a nd c l a s s s c he dul e s t ude nt s gr a de l e ve l a n d l unc h a s s i gnm e nt ( L unc h A L unc h B or L unc h C ) due t o t he m be i ng t he l e a s t f l e xi b l e a s pe c t s of s c he dul i ng. I n or de r t o di s pe r s e a nd di ve r s i f y t he s e pr os pe c t i ve f oc us gr ou ps I a l s o c ons i de r e d l i ngui s t i c a bi l i t i e s a nd a c a de m i c be ha vi or s I n t he e nd, w ha t r e s ul t e d w e r e t hr e e f o r m a l f oc us gr oups w hi c h w e r e di ve r s e i n r e ga r d t o l a ngua ge a bi l i t y, gr a de l e ve l s oc i a l e t i que t t e a nd a c a de m i c be ha vi or s e a c h w i t h s e ve n t o e i ght H i s pa ni c boys T o i ni t i a t e da t a c ol l e c t i on, I pr oc e e de d t o t he pr opos e d i nv i t a t i ona l c onf e r e nc e s t ha t w oul d be t he f or m a l r e que s t f or pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t h i s i nqui r y I nv i t at i onal C onf e r e nc e T he i nvi t a t i ona l c onf e r e nc e t ook p l a c e i n t he hi gh s c hool c on f e r e nc e r oom a c r os s f r om t he a dm i ni s t r a t i ve o f f i c e w hi c h w a s a t f i r s t i nt e r pr e t e d by po t e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s a s a n A m I i n t r oubl e ? w a l k T he pot e nt i a l c a ndi da t e s c a m e i n s l ow l y, s i t t i ng dow n he s i t a nt l y f a r a w a y f r om m e I t r i e d t o c om f or t t he m om e nt b y r e a s s ur i ng t he m t ha t t he y w e r e no t i n a ny t r oubl e T he f i r s t i nvi t a t i ona l c onf e r e nc e s e s s i ons w e r e m or e f or m a l t ha t I ha d

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85 e xpe c t e d. A s a f or m e r pr i m a r y t e a c he r I t r i e d t o m a ke t he m f e e l a t e a s e by pr ovi di ng s m a l l c onve r s a t i on l i ke H e y, how i t s goi ng c om e on i n. D on t w or r y you r e not i n t r oubl e I a l s o pr ov i de d br e a kf a s t i t e m s w hi c h i n c l ude d doughnut s f r om t he f a m e d l oc a l ba ke r y a nd or a nge j ui c e boxe s t o l i ght e n t he t e ns i o n a nd bui l d f a m i l i a r i t y a m ong t he s t ude nt s I i nvi t e d t he m t o e a t w hi l e w e w a i t e d f o r ot he r s t o j oi n us S o m e w e r e ve r y he s i t a nt l ooki ng a t ot he r s t o i ni t i a t e c onve r s a t i on o r e ve n pa r t a ke i n t he f ood i t e m s D ur i ng a l l t hr e e i nvi t a t i ona l c onf e r e nc e s e s s i ons I pr e s e nt e d m y pe r s ona l i nf o r m a t i on a nd e duc a t i ona l ba c kgr ound, w hi c h l e a d t o t h e i nt e nt i on of m y r e s e a r c h s t udy. T he t hr e e m a j or e xpe r i e nc e s s ha r e d w e r e : ( a ) M y m i g r a nt f i e l d w or k ba c kgr ound unt i l t he a ge o f 21, ( b ) M y e duc a t i ona l j ou r ne y w hi c h l e d t o t e a c hi ng a t t he l oc a l e l e m e nt a r y s c hool a nd f i na l l y, ( c ) M y i nt e r e s t i n l i t e r a c y a nd boys due t o m y t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd m y ow n t hr e e s ons T he n, a s a g r oup, w e r e vi e w e d t he r e s e a r c h t i m e l i ne pa r t i c i pa nt e xpe c t a t i ons a nd a ns w e r e d a ny que s t i ons pr e s e nt e d t o m e by t h e pa r t i c i pa nt s I w a s s ur pr i s e d a nd a m a z e d w he n, a t t he e nd of e a c h i nvi t a t i ona l s e s s i on, a l l t w e nt y t w o H i s pa ni c boys e a ge r l y r e a c he d f or t he pa r e nt pe r m i s s i on f o r m s T he i r w i l l i ng nods a nd pos i t i ve s l a nt i ng of t he m out h put m e a t e a s e a nd ga ve m e c onf i de n c e t ha t I w oul d ha ve a n a de qua t e num be r of pe r m i s s i on s l i ps r e t ur ne d a nd ha ve s uf f i c i e nt r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gi ve n one w e e k t o r e t ur n s i gne d pe r m i s s i on s l i ps t he r e f or e pr ovi d i ng a m pl e t i m e t o be gi n f oc us g r oups s e s s i ons T he s c hool s e c r e t a r y i n t he s t ude nt c e nt e r a gr e e d t o be t he c ont a c t pe r s on f o r t hos e r e t ur ni ng pe r m i s s i on s l i ps w hi l e I w a s of f c a m pus I t t ook a t ot a l of one w e e k t o c ol l e c t s t ude nt pe r m i s s i on s l i ps a nd t hr e e w e e ks t o

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86 r e t r i e ve a l l pa r e nt pe r m i s s i on s l i ps E i ght e e n o f t w e nt y t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s r e t u r ne d t he i r pa r e nt pe r m i s s i on s l i ps F o c us G r oups Se s s i on s T he i ni t i a l f oc us gr oup s e s s i on, w hi c h f ol l ow e d t h e i nvi t a t i ona l c onf e r e nc e w a s f a c i l i t a t e d us i ng t he p r opos e d pr ot oc ol i n C ha pt e r 3 ( A ppe ndi x C ) I c r e a t e d a m ul t i m e di a pr e s e nt a t i on ( A ppe ndi x F ) w he r e t he de f i ni t i on of l i t e r a c y w a s pr e s e nt e d a nd e xpa nde d t o e nc om pa s s t he de f i ni t i on of publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) T hi s w a s done by ut i l i z i ng a m ovi e c l i p t ha t di s c us s e d t he m ul t i pl e m e a ni ngs be hi nd a ny gi ve n s i gn or s ym bol w i t h t he i n t e nt i on of s how i ng how w e a t t a c h m e a ni ng t o a s i gn or s ym bol de pe ndi ng on our ow n e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s I t he n pr e s e nt e d t he de f i n i t i on o f t r a di t i ona l s c hool l i t e r a c y a s t ha t of m a ki ng m e a ni ng be t w e e n t e xt pa pe r a nd pe nc i l T hi s de f i ni t i on w a s t he n e xpa nde d t o s how how s i gns or s ym bol s c a r r y w i t h i t a w a y o f t a l ki ng, be ha vi ng a nd us i ng l a ngua ge T hi s l e c t ur e w a s f ol l ow e d by a di s c us s i on, w hi c h w a s f r a m e d by t he que s t i ons W ha t a r e t he l i t e r a c i e s i n our l i ve s ? or W ha t a r e t he a r e a s i n our l i ve s w e a dd m e a ni ng t o? T hi s i ni t i a l f oc us gr oup s e s s i on w a s c onc l ude d w i t h t he br a i ns t or m i ng of a l i s t of t opi c s t hus pr e s e nt i ng t he c ont e nt t ha t w oul d m ove f or w a r d f or f ur t he r i nt e r r oga t i on ( S e e A ppe ndi x H ) T he s e t opi c s w e r e t he n p r i or i t i z e d by e a c h f oc us gr oup a c c or di ng t o t he s t e ps pr opos e d i n C ha pt e r 3. I t w a s a t t he e nd of t he f i r s t i ni t i a l f oc us gr oup t ha t I i nt r oduc e d t he C ul t u r e J our na l s T he boys e xpr e s s e d a n e a ge r ne s s t o t a ke a j our na l a nd be gi n t o dr a w t a ke not e s a nd c ol l e c t i t e m s t ha t r e pr e s e nt e d t he i r c ul t ur e

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87 O ve r t he ne xt s i x w e e ks s t ude nt s w e r e pul l e d f r o m t he i r c l a s s r oom pe r i ods t o a t t e nd f oc us gr oups I m e t w i t h e a c h f oc us gr oup o nc e a w e e k dur i ng t hi s t i m e e a c h f ol l ow i ng t he i nt e nde d pr ot oc ol ( A ppe ndi x C ) w i t h t he i nt e nt i on t o f i t t he ne e ds of t he c onve r s a t i on a t ha nd. A s i ndi c a t e d i n t he pr ot oc ol pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gi ve n t he c ha nc e t o i de nt i f y one o f t he s e l e c t e d t opi c s f r om t hos e pr i or i t i z e d a s m os t pr e va l e nt ( A ppe ndi x H ) t o be gi n t he f oc us gr oup s e s s i on. M y r ol e w a s t he n t o pr o m pt c onve r s a t i on by a s ki ng c l a r i f yi ng a nd o pe n e nde d que s t i ons W he n s e t t i ng up t he f oc us gr oup s c he dul e I m a de s ur e t o a l t e r na t e c l a s s e s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w oul d m i s s a s t o not pul l t he m f r om t he s a m e c l a s s pe r i od e ve r y w e e k. T hi s w a s done t o e ns ur e t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a bl e t o ke e p up w i t h c l a s s r oom a nd hom e w or k a s s i gnm e nt s I n a ddi t i on t o t he w e e kl y f oc us gr oups pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e pr ovi de d t he opt i on o f m e e t i ng dur i ng t he i r l unc h br e a k on F r i da ys T he p ur pos e of t he l unc h m e e t i ng w a s t o de br i e f t opi c s di s c us s e d dur i ng t he w e e k a nd s ha r e i n r e gu l a r k i t c he n t abl e t al k a c r os s a m e a l I br ought i n f ood f o r t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho ha d c hos e n t o gi ve up t he i r l unc h br e a k a nd j oi n i n t he c onve r s a t i on T he boys w ho a t t e nde d t he l unc h s e s s i ons w e r e c om pr i s e d of a l l t h r e e f oc us g r oups s i nc e l unc h s c he dul e s va r i e d a c c or di ng t o e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt I s e l e c t e d f ood i t e m s t ha t w oul d e nt i c e t he m t o j oi n i n on t he d i s c us s i on: t a c os pi z z a C uba n s a ndw i c he s a nd ha m or t u r ke y s a ndw i c he s T ypi c a l l y, a r a nge of 4 t o 8 pa r t i c i pa nt s w oul d c om e t o s ha r e i n di s c us s i on a nd f ood. I t be c a m e a popul a r t i m e t o s ha r e s t or i e s l a ugh, a nd f i ni s h c onve r s a t i ons t ha t w e r e i nt e r r upt e d by t he s c hool a nd s t ude nt s c he dul e t i m e c ons t r a i nt s T hi s w a s e vi de n c e d by pa r t i c i pa nt s qui e t i nvi t a t i on of ot he r H i s pa ni c boys t o j oi n i n on t he c onve r s a t i on. A t t hr e e di f f e r e nt t i m e s w e ha d

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88 une xpe c t e d gue s t s j oi n i n on t he f ood, c onve r s a t i o n, a nd c om m uni t y t ha t w a s s o vi vi dl y c om i ng t o l i f e B oys gi ggl i ng a nd l a ughi ng, s ha r i n g t hought s w hi l e ba nt e r i ng ove r w ho ha d e a t e n m or e pi z z a e xpr e s s e d t he c ul t ur e of t hi s c r e w ope nl y. I t w a s i nt e r e s t i ng t o f i nd t ha t t he s e f i r s t t i m e gue s t s w e r e a l s o ope n a nd w i l l i ng t o s ha r e t he i r s t or i e s a nd opi n i ons E a c h gue s t m a de hi m s e l f a t hom e by e a t i ng a nd di d not hol d ba c k on i nj e c t i ng t he i r voi c e i nt o t he g r oup s o t ha t i t t oo w a s he a r d. T he s e boys f ound c om f or t i n t he c ul t u r e t ha t ha d de ve l ope d w i t hi n e a c h l unc h pe r i od a s w e l l a s e a c h f oc us gr oup T hi s i n i t s e l f w a s e vi de nc e of t hi s popul a t i ons e a ge r ne s s t o ha ve t he i r voi c e he a r d D a t a f r om gue s t s w a s not a na l yz e d nor w a s i t i nc l ude d i n a ny pa r t of t hi s s t udy. W he n pr e s e nt e d w i t h t he di l e m m a o f pha s i ng out t he f oc us gr oups a nd i nt e ns i f yi ng t he i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s w a nt e d t o c ont i nue t o be pa r t of t he r e s e a r c h s t udy. T hi s di s c us s i on w a s c a r r i e d out i n a gr a nd c onve r s a t i on ( E e ds & W e l l s 1989) m a nne r w i t h t he boys a l l t a l ki ng ove r e a c h o t he r e a ge r t o be he a r d a nd i nc l ude d i n t he e nt i r e s t udy. D ur i ng t he i ni t i a l i nvi t a t i ona l c onf e r e nc e I s t a r t e d w i t h a t ot a l o f t w e nt y t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h t he i nt e nt i on of f i ndi ng a t l e a s t f our vol un t e e r s w ho w oul d m ove ont o P ha s e I I f or i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s S i nc e t he s e t w o r e s e a r c h m e t hods w e r e c onduc t e d s i m ul t a ne ous l y, m a ny of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e e a ge r t o c ont i nue be i ng pa r t of t he s t udy, t he r e f or e I de c i de d t o i nc l ude a l l vol unt e e r s w ho w e r e w i l l i ng t o c ont i nue T hi s t ype of e a ge r ne s s w a s s e e n onc e be f or e w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e pr e s e nt e d w i t h t he i r c ul t ur e j our na l s a t t he f i r s t of f i c i a l f oc us g r oup. O nc e a ga i n due t o t i m e c ons t r a i nt s c ul t u r e j our na l s w e r e not c om pl e t e d w i t h i n t he f oc us gr oup t i m e a l l ot m e nt a s pr opos e d but gi v e n a s out s i de e xt e ns i ons of our f oc us

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89 gr oup di s c us s i ons T hr oughout t he f oc us g r oup s e s s i ons I c ont i nua l l y r e m i nde d t he m t o e xt e nd t he i r t hi nki ng i n t he i r c ul t ur e j ou r na l S t a t e m e nt s l i ke R e m e m be r i f you t hi nk of a nyt hi ng a bout w ha t w e di s c us s e d t oda y, w r i t e i n y our j our na l a nd K e e p t he c onve r s a t i on goi ng i n you r C ul t ur e J our na l w e r e c ont i nua l l y r e pe a t e d. W he n r e t ur ne d, t he s e j our na l s w e r e m a i nl y us e d f o r doodl i ng a nd s i m pl e not e t a k i ng I t w a s i nt e r e s t i ng t ha t t he not e t a ki ng w a s s ke t c hy a nd r a ndom ye t p a r t i c i pa nt s c a r r i e d j ou r na l s w i t h t he m a t a l l t i m e s du r i ng t he r e s e a r c h s t udy. T he f e w w ho di d t u r n i n t he i r C ul t ur e J our na l s w e r e ve r y r e m o r s e f ul t ha t t he y di d not l i ve up t o t h e e xpe c t a t i on. C om m e nt s l i ke I m s or r y, M i s s a nd C a n I ke e p i t f or one m o r e da y, s o I c a n w r i t e i n i t f o r you M i s s ? w e r e e xpr e s s e d. I t w a s t he n t ha t I t o l d t he m not t o w or r y a bout t he c om pl e t i on i t w a s not t o be t a ke n a s a n a s s i gnm e nt A s a r e s ul t t he r e w e r e onl y t w o c ul t u r e j ou r na l s t ur ne d i n by t he e nd o f t he s t udy. T he s e w e r e i nc l ude d w he n a na l yz i ng t he t e xt f r om f oc us gr ou p a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r v i e w t r a ns c r i pt s I ndi v i dual I nt e r v i e w s I nt e r vi e w s be ga n one w e e k a f t e r f oc us gr oups s e s s i ons A s m e nt i o ne d e a r l i e r t he r e w a s a f i ve w e e k ove r l a p due t o s c hool l unc h a nd c l a s s r oom s c he dul e s T he f i r s t i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w w a s a one t o one s e s s i on w he r e I a s ke d t he que s t i ons f r om t he R e s e a r c h P a r t i c i pa nt I nf or m a t i on s he e t ( A ppe ndi x B ) T h i s c onve r s a t i on w a s t he f i r s t t i m e I c oul d pr i va t e l y a s k e a c h i ndi vi dua l s t ude nt que s t i ons t ha t pe r t a i ne d t o hi s ba c kgr ound e xpe r i e nc e f a m i l y l i f e a nd pe r s ona l i de a s a nd i m pr e s s i ons P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i nt e r vi e w e d a t l e a s t t w o t i m e s dur i ng t he t o t a l s i x w e e k t i m e f r a m e T hi s i nt i m a t e one on one t i m e r a nge d f r om 30 m i nut e s t o hour l ong i nt e r vi e w s T ot a l da t a c ol l e c t e d

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90 e qua l i ng 16. 8 hou r s of i nt e r vi e w t i m e t r a ns c r i be d i nt o 320 pa ge s of f oc us gr oup a nd 155 pa ge s of i ndi vi dua l i n t e r vi e w t r a ns c r i pt i ons W i t h t he f r a gm e nt e d c l a s s s c he dul e w he ne ve r pos s i bl e i nt e r vi e w s w e r e s t r uc t ur e d i n p a r t ne r s hi ps a s pr o pos e d i n C ha pt e r 3 E a c h i ndi vi dua l o r pa i r w a s pr e s e nt e d w i t h t op i c s t ha t w e r e di s c us s e d dur i ng t he f oc us gr oup s e s s i on a nd a s ke d t o s ha r e or e l a bo r a t e by c ont i nui ng t he c onve r s a t i on. T he s e c onve r s a t i ons w e r e a t t i m e s c onduc t e d i n t he m i dd l e of t he s c hool c our t ya r d t he m e di a c e nt e r or unde r t he a r t c l a s s pa vi l i on. T he c onve r s a t i ons c a l l e d f or m e t o us e a uni que s t r a nd of r e s pons e s c oupl e d w i t h a n e m pa t he t i c e a r w hi c h a t a dde d a not he r d i m e ns i on t o m y r ol e a s r e s pons i ve i nt e r vi e w e r T he f i na l w e e k of c onduc t i ng i nt e r vi e w s w a s us e d a s a n oppor t uni t y t o a s k pa r t i c i pa nt s t o s ha r e c l os i ng c om m e nt s a nd pe r c e pt i ons T he s e w e r e c onduc i ve t o t he s t ude nt s c l a s s s c he dul e s P a r t i c i p a nt s w e r e gi ve n a n oppor t uni t y t o r e vi s i t a ny t opi c s a nd gi ve r e a c t i ons t o t he pr oj e c t T he B oy s O f t he t w e nt y t w o r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho be ga n t he f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons one a s ke d t o w i t hdr a w a nd a not he r c ont i nua l l y a s ke d t o c om e a nd s how e d i nt e r e s t ye t ne ve r br ought ba c k hi s s t ude nt o r hi s pa r e nt pe r m i s s i on f or m s T h r e e ot he r s s how e d l i t t l e c om m i t m e nt by a t t e ndi ng f oc us gr oups s por a di c a l l y, t hus t he y s l ow l y pha s e d t he m s e l ve s out U l t i m a t e l y a t ot a l o f s e ve nt e e n c ont i nue d t hr o ugh t he e nt i r e s t udy c om pl e t i ng a l l ne c e s s a r y r e qui r e m e nt s L ooki ng a t a l l s e ve nt e e n pa r t i c i pa nt s r e f l e c t e d a c r os s s e c t i on of gr a de l e ve l s T hr e e w e r e f r e s hm a n. F i ve w e r e s ophom or e s F our w e r e j uni or s A nd f i ve w e r e s e ni or s ( S e e T a bl e 4) A l t hough a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e bi l i ngua l a c c or di ng t o t he i r r e s pons e s on t he

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91 H om e L a ngua ge S ur ve y or t he P a r t i c i pa nt I n f or m a t i on S he e t ( A ppe ndi x B ) t hi r t e e n s poke e nough E ngl i s h t o a de qua t e l y m a na ge s c hool l i f e a nd na vi ga t e t he e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m T he ot he r f our pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e L e ve l B E ngl i s h s p e a ke r s w hi c h a c c or di ng t o t he H om e L a ngua ge S u r ve y c l a s s i f i e d t he m a s s pe a ks m os t l y t he l a ngua ge ot he r t ha n E ngl i s h but s pe a ks s om e E ngl i s h ( F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2008) T he s ur ve y i t s e l f c ont a i ne d t hr e e gui d i ng que s t i ons : 1. I s a l a ngua ge ot he r t ha n E ng l i s h us e d i n t he hom e ? 2. D i d t he s t ude nt ha ve a f i r s t l a ngua ge ot he r t he n E ngl i s h? 3. D oe s t he s t ude nt m os t f r e que nt l y s pe a k a l a ngua ge ot he r t ha n E ngl i s h? A ns w e r i ng ye s t o a ny of t he s e que s t i ons e s t a bl i s he s w he t he r a s t ude nt w i l l be gi ve n a s e pa r a t e a s s e s s m e nt t o de t e r m i ne E L L ( E ngl i s h L a ngua ge L e a r ne r ) c l a s s i f i c a t i on, s uppor t by a nnua l a c a de m i c m oni t or i ng a nd out s i de c l a s s r oom a c a de m i c s uppor t by qua l i f i e d pe r s onne l A s pa r t o f t he G r e e nbr i dge S c hool D i s t r i c t t hi s s ur ve y i s gi ve n t o ( a ) S t u de nt s not bor n i n t he U S a nd w hos e na t i ve l a ngua ge i s ot he r t ha n E ngl i s h, ( b) S t ude nt s bor n i n t he U S but w ho c om e f r om a hom e i n w hi c h a l a n gua ge ot he r t ha n E ngl i s h i s m os t r e l i e d upon f or c om m un i c a t i on, ( c ) I s a n A m e r i c a n I ndi a n o r A l a s ka n N a t i ve a nd c om e s f r om a hom e i n w hi c h a l a ngua ge ot he r t ha n E ngl i s h ha s ha d a s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t on h i s or he r l e ve l of E ngl i s h P r of i c i e nc y, a nd d ) S t ude nt s w ho a s a r e s ul t of t he a bove ha s s uf f i c i e nt di f f i c ul t y r e a di ng w r i t i ng, or unde r s t a ndi ng t he E ngl i s h l a ngua ge t o de ny hi m or he r t he oppor t un i t y t o l e a r n s uc c e s s f ul l y i n c l a s s r oom s i n w hi c h t he l a ngua ge of i ns t r uc t i on i s E ngl i s h.

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92 T ab l e 4. T h e B oys N a m e o f P a r t i c i p a n t G r a d e L e v e l A t t e n d e d a p o r t i o n o f s c h o o l y e a r f o r g r a d e s K 9 i n G r e e n b r i d g e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t H o m e L a n g u a g e S u r v e y F C A T L e v e l 1 o r 2 S c a l e S c o r e F a m i l y O r i g i n M = M o t h e r F = F a t h e r P a r e n t s E d u c a t i o n a l B a c k g r o u n d O s c a r B o r n i n M X 9 t h U S S c h o o l s f o r 3 y e a r s Y Y Y B L e v e l 1 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M 9 t h o r 1 0 t h F 3 rd G r a d e R o g e l i o B o r n i n M X 9 t h U S S c h o o l s f o r 5 y e a r s Y Y Y B L e v e l 1 2 2 6 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M P r i m a r i a F P r i m a r i a G u s t a v o B o r n i n M X 9 t h U S S c h o o l s f o r 2 y e a r s Y Y Y C L e v e l 1 2 1 0 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M P r i m a r i a F P r i m a r i a E d g a r 1 0 t h K 1 0 G r e e n b r i d g e C o u n t y S c h o o l s N N N L e v e l 1 2 0 9 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M P r i m a r i a F N o S c h o o l i n g G u i l l e r m o 1 0 t h U S S c h o o l s f o r 9 y e a r s Y Y Y C L e v e l 2 3 1 4 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M 6 t h G r a d e F H S G r a d u a t e J o s e 1 0 t h K 1 0 G r e e n b r i d g e C o u n t y S c h o o l s N N N L e v e l 1 1 6 9 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M A c c o u n t a n t F 2 y e a r s c o l l e g e R u b e n 1 0 t h K 1 0 G r e e n b r i d g e C o u n t y S c h o o l s Y Y N C L e v e l 1 2 6 8 M F l o r i d a F M e x i c o M H S G r a d u a t e F H S D r o p o u t J u a n 1 0 t h K 1 0 G r e e n b r i d g e C o u n t y S c h o o l s N N N L e v e l 1 2 7 3 M T e x a s F M e x i c o M H S D r o p o u t F 3 rd G r a d e E l i s e o B o r n i n M X 1 1 t h U S S c h o o l s f o r 2 y e a r s Y Y Y B L e v e l 1 2 3 1 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M P r i m a r i a F P r i m a r i a E d u a r d o 1 1 t h K 5 G r e e n b r i d g e 5 9 T e x a s 9 1 1 G r e e n b r i d g e N / A L e v e l 1 2 1 6 M T e x a s F M e x i c o M H S D r o p o u t F 5 t h o r 6 t h O s c a r 1 1 t h K 3 G r e e n b r i d g e 3 9 T e x a s 9 1 1 G r e e n b r i d g e N N N L e v e l 1 2 6 6 M T e x a s F M e x i c o M H S D r o p o u t F H S D r o p o u t J u l i o 1 1 t h K 9 G r e e n b r i d g e C o u n t y S c h o o l s N N N L e v e l 2 2 9 1 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M C o l l e g e i n M e x i c o F K 2 i n M e x i c o L o r e n z o 1 2 t h K 6 G r e e n b r i d g e 6 1 0 T e x a s 1 0 1 2 G r e e n b r i d g e N / A L e v e l 1 2 1 5 M T e x a s F M e x i c o M H S D r o p o u t F 5 t h o r 6 t h E m m a n u e l 1 2 t h K 1 2 G r e e n b r i d g e S c h o o l s N N N L e v e l 2 3 0 8 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M 2 n d g r a d e F 2 n d g r a d e M a r t i n 1 2 t h K 1 2 G r e e n b r i d g e S c h o o l s N N N L e v e l 1 2 8 0 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M 2 n d g r a d e F 2 n d g r a d e J o s u e 1 2 t h K 1 2 G r e e n b r i d g e C o u n t y S c h o o l s N N N L e v e l 2 2 9 0 M M e x i c o F M e x i c o M A c c o u n t a n t F 2 n d y e a r s c o l l e g e J u l i a n 1 2 t h K 6 G r e e n b r i d g e 6 9 G e o r g i a 9 1 2 G r e e n b r i d g e Y Y N C L e v e l 2 3 0 0 M C o l u m b i a F C o l u m b i a M H S G r a d u a t e F H S G r a d u a t e ( C o l u m b i a ) *P a s s i ng s c a l e s c or e of 300 t o g r a dua t e L e ve l 1 100 286; L e ve l 2 287 386

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93 T he f our N on E ngl i s h H i s pa ni c boys ha d be e n p r o vi de d w i t h a n e xt r a p e r i od of E ngl i s h a c qui s i t i on s uppor t i n a D e ve l opm e nt a l L a ngua ge A c qui s i t i on c l a s s w hi c h e a c h m e nt i one d a s a f a vor i t e c l a s s due t o t he s uppor t i ve t e a c he r A s s e s s i ng t he l e ve l of a s t ude nt s na t i ve l a ngua ge a bi l i t y i s not pa r t of t he pr oc e s s i n R i ve r s i de D i s t r i c t S c hool s T he e xpe c t a t i on i s t ha t E L L s t ude nt s be gi n t o a c qu i r e t he E ngl i s h l a ngua ge by c om pl e t e i m m e r s i on i nt o m a i ns t r e a m c l a s s r oom s E ve n w i t h t hi s e xt r a a c a de m i c s uppor t t he boys of t e n s poke of t he di f f i c ul t i e s of na vi ga t i ng a s ys t e m t ha t t he y f o und opp r e s s i ve a nd c om pl e x. A l m os t a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d a t l e a s t one pa r e nt f r o m M e xi c o a nd m os t c ons i de r e d t he m s e l ve s t o be f i r s t ge ne r a t i on M e xi c a n A m e r i c a ns M obi l i t y i n t hi s c om m uni t y t e nds t o be m or e w i t hi n t he G r e e nbr i dge di s t r i c t be t w e e n s c hool s t ha n f r om out s i de t he di s t r i c t be t w e e n di s t r i c t s T he r e f or e i t w a s s ur pr i s i ng t ha t onl y s i x pa r t i c i pa nt s a t t e nde d G r e e nbr i dge D i s t r i c t S c hool s f or t he e nt i r e t y of gr a de s K 9. F our pa r t i c i pa nt s s e l e c t e d L a t i no a nd f our s e l e c t e d H i s pa ni c a s t he i r pr e f e r r e d e t hni c l a be l e a c h f o r va r yi ng r e a s ons T w o pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a da m a nt a bout ke e pi ng t i e s t o t he i r M e xi c a n r oot s a nd i ns i s t e d be i ng l a be l e d a s M e xi c a n e ve n w he n t hi s l a be l w a s not i ni t i a l l y pr e s e nt e d a s a n opt i on. T he r e w a s one pa r t i c i pa nt w ho w a s of C ol um bi a n de s c e nt w ho pr e f e r r e d t o be c a l l e d H i s pa ni c F i ve pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d no pr e f e r e nc e w i t h e i t he r l a be l w hi c h w oul d a g r e e w i t h us i ng a pa n e t hni c l a be l f or a l l H i s pa ni c gr oups ( G a r c i a 1986 ) M os t pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a l s o a da m a nt a bout t he f a c t t ha t no one t e r m c a n de f i ne w ho t he y a r e a s i ndi vi dua l s T he c om m e nt s t ha t w e r e c ol l e c t e d dur i ng i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s a nd t ha t s uppor t e d e a c h pe r s pe c t i ve a r e l i s t e d i n T a bl e 5.

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94 T ab l e 5. P an e t h n i c L ab e l s L ab e l C om m e n t s as s oc i at e d w i t h p r e f e r r e d l ab e l L a t i no ( 4 ) L a pa l a br a L a t i no r e pr e s e nt a m a s l os H i s pa nos M e xi c a nos S ur A m e r i c a nos P ue r t o R c e nos C uba nos t odos i gua l e s ( O s c a r A ) I gua l a t odos ( E l i s e o) I gue s s L a t i noM y m om s w hi t e s o I gue s s L a t i n o ( R ube n) L a t i no i s a c a t e gor y f o r e ve r yone W hi t e pe opl e c a l l you H i s pa ni c ( G ui l l e r m o) H i s pa ni c ( 4) L a t i no i s m o r e dow n s out h . S out h A m e r i c a ( J ua n) S ounds m or e f o r m a l m or e e duc a t e d ( M a r t i n) I pr e f e r H i s pa ni c i t c ove r s m o r e pe opl e f r om o t h e r c ul t ur e s r a c e s ( J ul i a n) L a de H i s pa no ( G us t a vo) M e xi c a n ( 2) I pr e f e r i t be c a us e I don t w a nt t o be m i s t a ke n a s P ue r t o R i c a n, C uba n, you know ? D om i ni c a n, H ondur a n ( L or e nz o) M e xi c a no, por que s oy M e xi c a no ( R oge l i o) E i t he r ( 5) I don t s e e i t a s a w o r d ( E m m a nue l ) T o m e i t s t he s a m e ( J os e ) I t s m os t l y t he s a m e t hi n g ( E dga r ) I t r e a l l y doe s n t m a t t e r t o m e ( J os ue ) I t doe s n t m a t t e r t o m e i f i t m e a ns t he s a m e t hi ng t he n I don t r e a l l y c a r e ( J ul i o) T o l ook a t t he s e r e s ul t s i s t o c onf i r m t ha t t he de ba t e on t he us e o f a pa n e t hni c l a be l i s f a r f r om ove r Y e t w he n a na l yz i ng t he s pe c i f i c r e s pons e s ni ne out o f t he f i f t e e n ( 60% ) of t hos e a s ke d i nc l ude d t he t hought of o t he r s w i t hi n t he i r r e s pons e s W he t he r t he y s e l e c t e d, L a t i no or H i s pa ni c t he y s t i l l s a w t he pa n e t hni c i t y of e a c h l a be l ( G om e z 1992; T r ue ba 1999 ) Q uot e s f r om t he boys l i ke c a t e gor y f or e ve r yone or i t c ove r s m o r e pe opl e f r om ot he r c ul t u r e s r a c e s s e e m e d t o e m br a c e t hos e out s i de t he pos i t i on of t he i ndi vi dua l O nl y t w o o f t he M e xi c a n boys r e a l l y he l d c l os e t he i r de s i r e t o ke e p a nd h ol d on t o t he i r M e xi c a n i de nt i t y. I n c ont r a s t i t w a s i nt e r e s t i ng t o he a r M a r t i n s r e s pons e he s t a t e d t ha t L a t i no S ounds m or e f or m a l m or e e d uc a t e d w hi c h s e e m s t o c a l l f or t he l a be l a nd i de nt i t y o f a m or e e duc a t e d pe r s on.

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95 W he n c ons i de r i ng t he e duc a t i on l e ve l s of t he i r pa r e nt s t he r e w e r e on l y t h r e e s e t s of pa r e nt s w he r e bot h m ot he r a nd f a t he r ha d c om pl e t e d hi gh s c hool O ne s e t of pa r e nt s ha d c om pl e t e d a t l e a s t t w o ye a r s o f c ol l e ge w hi l e t hr e e m ot he r s ha d a c t ua l l y a t t e nde d c ol l e ge i n M e xi c o, t w o a t t a i ne d a de gr e e one i n a c c ount i ng a nd one t e a c hi ng, ne i t he r w or ke d i n t he i r r e s pe c t i ve c a r e e r C om put e r a c c e s s w a s a not he r va r i a bl e t ha t i m pa c t e d t he i r e duc a t i ona l s i t ua t i on N i ne boys ha d c om put e r a c c e s s a t hom e ye t onl y f i ve of t he ni ne ha d i nt e r ne t a c c e s s t ha t w or ke d e f f e c t i ve l y. A not he r t e n ha d a c c e s s t o c om put e r a nd i nt e r ne t r e s our c e s vi a l i b r a r y, r e l a t i ve ne i ghbor o r f r i e nd. M y R ol e as R e s e ar c h e r D ur i ng t he s t udy, m y r ol e s l ow l y e vol ve d i nt o a c o nve r ge nc e of r e s e a r c he r t e a c he r m ot he r a nd da ught e r w i t h e a c h r o l e dr i ve n by a uni que gr oup of t hought s i de ol ogi e s a nd bi a s e s A l t hough t he s e r o l e s w e r e d i f f i c ul t t o di s c e r n du r i ng e a c h pha s e of da t a c ol l e c t i on, t he y w e r e e a c h c l e a r l y e vi de nt a f t e r a na l yz i ng a udi o t r a ns c r i pt s T he r e f or e m y a dopt i on of m ul t i p l e r ol e s du r i ng t h i s r e s e a r c h i nqui r y b r ought i t s ow n s e t of c a ut i ons a nd i ns i ght s a s a s s e r t e d by D e nz i n ( 19 89) W ha t f ol l ow a r e m y r e f l e xi ve i ns i ght s e xpe r i e nc e d dur i ng s ubs e que nt di s c us s i on s a nd j our na l i ng. I pr e s e nt t he r ol e s t ha t w e r e r e f l e c t e d w i t hi n t he da t a a nd how I or i e nt e d m ys e l f w i t hi n e a c h i de nt i t y R ol e of R e s e ar c he r A s a r e s e a r c he r i t w a s i m por t a nt f or m e t o r e m e m be r t o be obj e c t i ve a nd r e s pons i ve t o t he ne e ds of pa r t i c i pa nt s D ue t o m y ow n hi s t or y a nd e xpe r i e nc e s a s a M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n, i t w a s c ha l l e ng i ng t o m a i nt a i n t hi s i m pa r t i a l i t y. I be c a m e a w a r e o f

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96 m y pos i t i oni ng a s a r e s e a r c he r a nd i t s i nf l ue nc e on m y pe r s ona l r e ve l a t i ons T he s e young boys e voke d s t or i e s f r om m y ow n e xpe r i e nc e w hi c h m a de c l e a r m y de s i r e t o s uppor t t hi s popul a t i on. T o l i m i t t he i n f l ue nc e of m y pe r c e pt i o ns I c ol l e c t e d da t a on m y ow n bi a s e s vi a a di gi t a l r e c or de r a nd a r e s e a r c h j ou r na l w hi c h c a pt ur e d m a ny f e e l i ngs of e m pa t hy f or t he s e i ndi vi dua l s w hi l e s e e ki ng t he c our a ge t o e m pow e r t he m F or e xa m pl e w i t hi n t he t r a ns c r i pt s of m y r e f l e c t i ons I s t a t e m a ny t i m e s I w a nt t o s a ve t he s e boys qui c kl y f ol l ow e d by t he y a r e not m i ne t o s a ve T hi s t ype of r e f l e c t i on a l l ow e d m e t o c a pt ur e m y t hought s a nd ke e p m e gr ounde d i n m y r e s e a r c h i nt e nt i on. I t ur ge d m e t o s t e p ou t of t hi s r ol e a nd b e a n a dvoc a t e f o r t he bo ys T hi s t ur m oi l a l s o pr om pt e d m e a t t i m e s t o m ove be yond m y e m pa t hy a nd i ns i s t e nt l y pr o m pt pa r t i c i pa nt s t o j us t i f y a ns w e r s a nd e xpound on t he t hi nki ng be hi nd t he i r qu i c k r e s pon s e s I a m c onf i de nt t ha t t hi s pe r s i s t e nt a ppr oa c h i m p a c t e d t he out c om e by pr oduc i ng de e pe r c onve r s a t i ons r i c he r da t a a nd ul t i m a t e l y pr ovi di ng e vi de nc e f or t he r e a de r of voi c e s s t r uggl i ng t o be he a r d A s a r e s e a r c he r I a l s o pa i d c l os e a t t e nt i on t o e ns ur e t ha t a c onve r s a t i ona l pa r t ne r s hi p w a s m a i nt a i ne d a m o ng a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l udi ng m ys e l f T he r e s e a r c h P a r t i c i pa nt I n f or m a t i on S he e t ( A ppe ndi x B ) p r ovi d e d m e w i t h t he pr e l i m i na r y que s t i ons t o e l i c i t t he ba c kgr ound i n f or m a t i on a nd de e pe r i ns i ght be hi nd t he s t ude nt s pe r s ona A dj us t i ng t he a ge nda f or t he f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons w a s a t t i m e s ne c e s s a r y t o a c c om m oda t e t he de ve l opi ng c om m uni t y o f l e a r ne r s T he k i t c he n t abl e t al k a t m os phe r e t ha t w a s ul t i m a t e l y c r e a t e d p r om pt e d a di s t i nc t c ul t ur e a m ong t he gr oup s i m i l a r t o t ha t o f a c l a s s r oom c om m uni t y. T he r e f o r e I f ound, a s a r e s e a r c he r m om e nt s w i t hi n f oc us

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97 gr oups a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w c onve r s a t i ons w he r e I w a s pr om pt e d t o c om f or t a nd a dvi s e a s m a ny t e a c he r s do w i t h t he i r s t ude nt s R ol e of T e ac he r H a vi ng w or ke d i n t he pr i m a r y g r a de s a s a c l a s s r oom t e a c he r a nd i nt e r m e di a t e gr a de s a s a r e a di ng c oa c h, m y i de nt i t y a nd r ol e of e duc a t or c l e a r l y de f i ne d m y m a nne r of t a l ki ng, t hi nk i ng, a nd br e a t hi ng B a s e d on t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s I f ound i t e a s y t o c l e a r up c l os e l y he l d m i s c onc e pt i ons a bout va r i ous s ubj e c t s i ns t i t ut i ona l know l e dge a nd c ont e nt w i t hi n t he di s c our s e of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on. I t w a s t hi s t e a c he r m i nds e t t ha t m a de i t e a s y f o r m e t o r e s pond t o c hi l dr e n pl a yi ng r oughl y on a ny publ i c pl a ygr ound o r s pe a ki ng di s r e s pe c t f ul l y t o a ny a dul t i n a gr oc e r y s t or e T he r e f or e i t w a s not s ur p r i s i ng t o f i nd m ys e l f c ha ngi ng voi c e t one f r om t he r e que s t o f C oul d you pl e a s e s i t dow n a nd j oi n t he c onve r s a t i on? F i r m l y s t a t i ng, E i t he r s i t dow n a nd j oi n us o r r e t u r n t o your r oom T he c hoi c e i s your s M y r ol e a s t e a c he r m a y ha ve g i ve n t he boys a s e ns e of f or m a l i t y t o t he i nf or m a l c onve r s a t i ona l s e t t i ng T h i s a l s o m a y ha v e pos i t i ve l y i m pa c t e d t he da t a by a l l ow i ng t he boys t o f e e l s e c ur e i n t hi s i nf o r m a l c o m m uni t y ye t a f f i r m i t w a s bound by t he r ul e s of a n e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ng. T hi s s e c ur i t y a nd a s s ur a nc e of e qua l i t y m i ght a l s o ha ve a l l ow e d t he boys t o be m or e hone s t w i t h t he i r r e s pons e s H ow e ve r I a m w e l l a w a r e t ha t t hi s s e m i f or m a l s t a nc e m a y ha ve pus he d a w a y a f e w o f t he H i s pa ni c boys w ho r e m ove d t he m s e l ve s f r om t he s t udy due t o pr e v i ou s l y s t a t e d r e a s ons R ol e of M ot he r I a l s o f ound t ha t a t t i m e s t he s i t ua t i on c a l l e d on m e t o t a ke on t he r ol e of m ot he r w hi c h i nvol ve d nur t u r i ng t he c hi l d, t he boy t he hu m a n s i de of t he a dol e s c e nt w hi l e

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98 t a ki ng a pe e k i nt o t he uni que ne s s of t he i r l i f e e xpe r i e nc e s T he s e m om e nt s r e m i nde d m e of t he m a ny c onve r s a t i ons I ha ve w i t h m y ni ne t e e n ye a r ol d s on C hr i s L a t e ni g ht c onve r s a t i ons f ul l of s t or i e s que s t i ons a nd de ba t e s a bout young l i f e e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t t oge t he r w e t r i e d t o t r a ns l a t e i nt o l i f e c ha ngi ng m e a ni ng. F or i ns t a nc e w he n de c ons t r uc t i ng a c onve r s a t i on a bout r e s pe c t dur i ng a f oc us gr oup s e s s i on, s e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s m e nt i one d t he t r e a t m e nt of w om e n. T he c onve r s a t i on t ook a t u r n a s t he boys be ga n di s c us s i ng gi r l f r i e nds S om e of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s t a t e d dur i ng t he c onve r s a t i on t ha t t he y c a l l t he i r gi r l f r i e nds t he i r v i e j as ( a de r oga t or y w or d t ha t de s c r i be s pr om i s c uous w om e n) W i t hout e ve n t hi nki ng I bul l e d m ys e l f r i g ht i n a nd a s ke d, W hy w oul d you c a l l your gi r l f r i e nd a v i e j a ? D o you not ha ve m or e r e s pe c t f or t he m or your s e l ve s f or t ha t m a t t e r ? T he c onve r s a t i on c ont i nue d a s f ol l ow s : R : I m t e l l i ng you t hi s guys qu pi e ns e n us t e de s l a c l a s e de m uj e r qu us t e de s qui e r e n [ s o a l l of you c a n t hi nk, w ha t ki nd of w om a n a r e you l ook i ng f o r ] l ook f or N o e s una v i e j a [ I t s not a v i e j a. ] D o you w a nt l a m a m de t us hi j os [ D o you w a nt t he m ot he r of your c hi l dr e n] do you w a nt una v i e j a t o be l a m a m de t us hi j os [ t he m ot he r of your c hi l d r e n] ? T hi nk a bout t ha t Y our hi j os [ c hi l dr e n] a r e goi ng t o be you r p r i d e a nd j oy. Y de c i r Y o t e ngo una v i e j a [ A nd t o s a y, I ha ve a v i e j a ] I m e a n t ha t s not t he w a y you r e s pe c t t he m ot he r of your c hi l dr e n. S o, i f t he r e s one t hi ng. . una c os a qu s e l l e ve n de e s t e pr oj e c t [ one t hi ng t h a t I w a nt you t o

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99 t a ke f r om t hi s pr oj e c t ] I m e a n. . t a ke a l i t t l e bi t m o r e r e s pe c t f or your s e l f D on t don t be s e e n or be w i t h a v i e j a O s c a r : A gi r l f r i e nd. R : Y our gi r l f r i e nd, c a l l he r by he r f r e a ki n na m e T ha t s w hy s he s got a na m e R ube n: H e r na m e ? ( L a ughs ) R : S he i s not un a v i e j a a nd not M Y gi r l f r i e nd S h e s got a na m e a nd t ha t s w hy you c a l l he r by he r na m e T ha t m a ke s e ns e ? O s c a r : Y e a h. R : S o w ha t do you guys t hi nk a bout t ha t ? M a r t i n: S he i s m y gi r l f r i e nd, no t a v i e j a A l l : H a ha R ube n: I t s ounds be t t e r w he n yo u s a y i t a di f f e r e nt w a y. R : W ha t do you m e a n? T e l l m e w ha t you m e a n? L or e nz o: B ul l s y ( ni c kna m e of H B ) R : T e l l m e w ha t you m e a n? S e oye m e j o r c ua ndo. . c ua ndo s e di c e di f e r e nt e ? [ I t s s ounds be t t e r w he nw he n you da y i t di f f e r e nt l y ( us e h e r na m e ) ? O s c a r : Y e a h. R : W hy? ( pa us e ) W hy doe s i t s ound di f f e r e nt w he n y ou, w he n you a h. . c ua ndo [ w he n] you s a y i t d i f f e r e nt ? Y por qu . e s r e pr e s e nt a nt e de t t a m bi n? [ A nd w hyi s i t r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of you

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100 t oo? ] I m e a n. . you know ? P e opl e a r e g oi ng t o l oo k a t you d i f f e r e nt w he n you s a y t hi s i s m i e s pos a [ w i f e ] or t hi s i s m y gi r l f r i e nd. H e r na m e i s . you know J ul i e P e opl e a r e go i ng t o l ook a t you di f f e r e nt be c a us e you r e r e s pe c t i ng s om e body a nd w he n you gi ve r e s pe c t you don t ge t i t a l w a ys . a l l t he t i m e . you don t ge t i t ba c k. B ut t ha t doe s n t m e a n t ha t you don t c ont i nu e t o gi ve i t T ha t s a huge huge huge l e s s on guys T ha t s a hu ge l e s s on. H uge l e s s on. I f e e l l i ke your m a m i now I t hi nk I m p r e a c hi ng t o you guys I be t t e r s t op pr e a c hi ng! H a ha ha O ka y. H ow s i t goi ng out t he r e ? I s i t goi ng oka y? T he pe r s ona l r e c i pr oc i t y of m y s t udy be c a m e f ul l y e vi de nt dur i ng t hi s i nt e r c ha nge I f e l t l i ke a m ot he r t o t he boys t r yi ng t o a dj us t a f o r bi dde n l i ne of t hi nki ng. A l ong w i t h pl a c i ng m y va l ue s a nd be l i e f s on t he t a bl e t hi s c onve r s a t i on s pe a r e d i nt o m y ow n i de nt i t y a s a H i s pa ni c w om a n t o s e e t he s e you ng m e n t a l k a bout w om e n i n s uc h a c a s ua l m a nne r w i t h no c ons i de r a t i on f or i t s i m pl i c a t i ons A s D e nz i n ( 1989) s t i pul a t e s t he r e s e a r c he r ha s m a ny di m e ns i ons of s e l f a nd c om p l e x a s pe c t s of s e l f hood a nd t he s e w e r e no doub t pr e s e nt i n m a ny a s pe c t s of t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy ( p. 57) T he i r us e o f t he t e r m vi e j a i s t he l i ne of t hi nki ng w hi c h c ont i nue s t o pl a c e w om e n a s s ubor di na t e pos s e s s i ons i n our M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n c ul t ur e H i t t i ng hom e w a s m y pe r c e pt i on t ha t t he s e young m e n c a r r i e d t he s e e d of e m ot i ona l ve r ba l a nd phys i c a l a bus e A l t hough t he s e m a y be t he f i r s t c onve r s a t i ons of t he r e ki nd, m y hope i s t ha t t he s e boys w a l ke d a w a y w i t h a di f f e r e nt l i ne of t hi nki ng not onl y i n r e ga r ds t o w o m e n but a l s o i n r e ga r ds t o s e l f

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101 A f t e r r e f l e c t i ng on t he m a ny r ol e s a s a r e s e a r c he r I f ound m y s t a nc e a t t i m e s t o be m e s s y a nd c onvol ut e d. T he s e t h r e e r ol e s r e s e a r c he r t e a c he r a nd m ot he r w e r e a l s o i nt e r m i ngl e d w i t h m a ny ot he r c onne c t i ons t i e d t o m y ow n hi s t or y a s a M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n w om e n l i vi ng i n a m a r gi na l i z e d c ul t ur e T he boys br ought m e f a c e t o f a c e w i t h m y ow n bi a s e s t ow a r d m e n w ho s e e w om e n a s s om e t hi ng l e s s t ha n a n i ndi vi dua l w ho c a r r i e s hope s dr e a m s a nd w i s he s t o bui l d a f ul l s e l f di r e c t e d l i f e R ol e of D aught e r O ur di s c us s i ons a r ound i s ol a t i on a s a non E ng l i s h s pe a ke r i n a n E ngl i s h s pe a ki ng w or l d e voke d s t r ong m e m or i e s of s ym pa t hy, u r ge n c y, a nd f r us t r a t i on r e l a t e d t o m y i l l i t e r a t e m ot he r I t w a s dur i ng t he s e c onve r s a t i ons t ha t I w a s e m ot i ona l l y d r i ve n i nt o m y r ol e of da ught e r w a l ki ng s i de by s i de w i t h a s t r on g, c our a ge ous w om a n w ho ye a r ne d t o be unde r s t ood a nd he a r d by t he non S pa ni s h s pe a ke r s a r ound he r t hi s ye a r ni ng s e e t hi ng i n s e l f doubt a nd i ns e c ur i t y. O f t he m a ny t i m e s I t r a ns l a t e d f or m y m ot he r I r e m e m be r w a l ki ng a w a y f r om s e ve r a l c onve r s a t i ons w he r e s he w oul d s ha r e he r t hought s Q ui e n f ue r a t u, m i j a ? P ode r da r m e e nt e nt e r c on ot r a j e nt e [ W ha t i t w oul d be l i ke t o be you m y da ught e r ? T o be a bl e t o e xpr e s s m ys e l f w i t h ot he r pe opl e ] T hi s i ns i ght i nt o he r t hought s m a de i t pos s i bl e f or m e t o e m pa t hi z e w i t h t he boys w ho w e r e e xpe r i e nc i ng t he s a m e m ut e d s i t ua t i on. I t s e e m e d t ha t t he non E ngl i s h s p e a ke r s of t he gr oup a l s o ye a r ne d t o be he a r d a s a n i ndi vi dua l a nd t o be c om e v i s i bl e i n c l a s s r oom s a t R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool O t he r C onne c t i ons T he r e w e r e ot he r c onne c t i ons t ha t a ugm e nt e d m y r ol e a s r e s e a r c he r t e a c he r m ot he r a nd da ught e r T he r e w a s J os ue a s e ni or w ho i s t he f a t he r of a 6 m ont h ol d l i t t l e

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102 gi r l T he c hoi c e o f be i ng a young f a t he r l i ke m y o w n m a r r i a ge a t 16, w a s c onf l i c t e d w i t h be i ng i n hi gh s c hool ye t l i vi ng i n a gr ow n up w or l d, a nd s i m ul t a ne ous l y be a r i ng f e e l i ngs of s ha m e a nd r e s pons i bi l i t y. T hi s young f a t he r t o r n be t w e e n t he a dul t w o r l d o f r e s pons i bi l i t y a nd hi s s e ni or ye a r f i l l e d w i t h t he f r e e dom s of t he w e e ke nd, t he pr om o r gr a d ni ght I s ym pa t hi z e d w i t h t he r e a l i t y o f hi s yo ung m i s gui de d de c i s i ons A not he r s e ni or M a r t i n, f ound i t ha r d t o f i t i nt o t he e xpe c t a t i ons of hi gh s c hool a s he a t t e m pt e d f o r t he f our t h t i m e t o pa s s t he s t a t e t e s t r e qui r e d f or gr a dua t i on. F e e l i ngs of doubt w hi l e l i s t e ni ng t o t he voi c e c om e f r om t he ba c k of hi s he a d, W i l l I e ve r be good e nough? e c hoe d i n m y he a r t a s I r e m e m be r e d m y ow n c ol l e ge ye a r s T he r e w a s E m m a nue l w ho j oi ne d t he r a nks of a c a de m i c s uc c e s s a nd popul a r i t y of t he s c hool s w hi t e w or l d ye t f e l t t he w obbl e of t he t i ght r ope w a l ki ng be t w e e n bo t h c ul t ur e s L i ke m ys e l f he que s t i one d w he t he r he w oul d e ve r r e a l l y f i t i n. F i na l l y I c onn e c t e d w i t h E l i s e o w hos e s t r ong de s i r e t o be a t t he s ys t e m by be c om i ng a n a t t or ne y w ho w oul d c om e ba c k t o hi s c om m uni t y a nd of f e r pos s i bi l i t i e s t o ot he r s T he s e c onne c t i ons ga ve t he r e s e a r c he r t e a c he r a nd m ot he r w i t hi n m e a n i ns i de r pe r s pe c t i ve a nd pe r s ona l c on ne c t i on t o t he l i ve s of t he s e young m e n. C ol l e c t i ve l y, I s a w ve r y s pe c i f i c pa t t e r ns a nd t he m e s e m e r ge a s w e dove de e pe r i nt o t he s e c r i t i c a l c onve r s a t i ons F i n d i n gs I n a n e f f or t t o a na l yz e t he i de nt i f i e d t he m e s m os t r e l e va nt t o t he s e H i s pa ni c boys w hi c h i nc l ude ( a ) f a m i l y ( b) l a ngua ge ( c ) r a c i s m ( d) m a c hi s m o, ( e ) e duc a t i on, a nd ( f ) m or a l l i t e r a c y i t be c a m e e s s e nt i a l f or m e t o r e vi e w a nd a na l yz e da t a c ol l e c t e d f r om obs e r va t i ons f oc us gr oups a nd i nt e r vi e w s

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103 D at a A nal y s i s W he n i ni t i a t i ng da t a a na l y s i s I a l s o f ound i t ne c e s s a r y t o phys i c a l l y s t a y i n d i r e c t c ont a c t w i t h da t a c ol l e c t e d i n or de r t o r e c a l l a nd r e t a i n c onve r s a t i ons i n t he i r e nt i r e t y, w hi c h of t e n c ont a i ne d di ve r ge nt voi c e s A f t e r t r a n s c r i bi ng a l l a udi o a nd vi de o da t a i t w a s c r i t i c a l t o s e a r c h f o r ot he r s pe c i f i c pa t t e r ns t ha t m a y ha ve s ur f a c e d out s i de t he i de nt i f i e d t he m e s T hi s w a s done by pl a c i ng e a c h f ul l l e ngt h t r a ns c r i be d c onve r s a t i on i nt o a t a bl e a nd t he n di vi di ng i t i nt o p i e c e s of di a l o gue r e vol vi ng a r ound t he t op i c s e l e c t e d f or di s c us s i on. F or e xa m pl e t h r ough t hi s pr oc e s s I w a s a bl e t o c om pi l e a l l c onve r s a t i ons s ur r oundi ng f a m i l y i nt o one c om m o n s t a c k. A n out s i de doc t o r a l s t ude nt ve r i f i e d t hi s p r oc e s s by m e pr e s e nt i ng a n ove r vi e w of e a c h t he m e w i t h t he s pe c i f i c quot e s t o r e pr e s e nt t he t he m e T he e nd p r oduc t t he n be c a m e s e c t i ons of c onve r s a t i on a r ound s pe c i f i c t opi c s di s c us s e d i n e a c h r e s e a r c h ve nue f oc us gr oups a nd i ndi vi dua l i n t e r vi e w s T he s e t a bl e s w e r e t he n c ode d a nd s or t e d i nt o g r ou ps of l i ke di s c us s i on. A l t hough t he r e w e r e ot h e r t opi c s t ha t e m e r ge d ( S e e A ppe ndi x H f or c om pl e t e l i s t ) t he f oc us w a s on t he s i x i de nt i f i e d t he m e s O nc e s or t e d, e a c h t he m e t he n be c a m e a s e c t i on t o a na l yz e f o r t r i a ngul a t i on i n r e ga r ds t o a l i gnm e nt a nd c ont e nt A f t e r s or t i ng a nd a na l yz i ng a l l c a t e gor i e s t he f i ve i de nt i f i e d t he m e s m os t r e l e va nt t o t he s e H i s pa ni c boys i nc l ude d ( a ) f a m i l y ( b) l a ngu a ge ( c ) r a c i s m ( d) m a c hi s m o, a nd ( e ) e duc a t i on. T he r e w a s a s i xt h i de nt i f i e d t he m e t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he da t a c ol l e c t e d w hi c h I l a be l e d m or a l l i t e r a c y A l t h ough t he H i s pa ni c bo ys di d not i de nt i f y t h i s a s a t he m e c ons i de r e d pr e va l e nt i n e i t he r publ i c or pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) ( S e e A ppe ndi x

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104 H f or c om pl e t e l i s t ) m o r a l l i t e r a c y s ur f a c e d a s a s e pa r a t e l i t e r a c y a f t e r a na l yz i ng bot h f oc us gr oups a nd i n di vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s W he n e xa m i ni ng t he i de nt i f i e d t he m e s m a ny c oul d be c ons i de r e d t o be t he na r r a t i ve s c r i pt s t ha t one w oul d e xpe c t t h i s m a r gi n a l i z e d popul a t i on t o r e i t e r a t e w i t hi n t he bounda r i e s of a n opp r e s s e d e xpe r i e nc e A l t hough t he s e t he m e s s e e m t o r e f l e c t t he c hr oni c l e d na r r a t i ve s c r i pt s o f t hos e opp r e s s e d, t he pr i va t e s t or i e s pe r s ona l m e m or i e s a nd uni nt e nt i ona l be ha vi or s s ha r e d du r i ng t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy m a de i t di f f i c ul t f o r m e t o i nt e r r oga t e t he m i n a m a nne r a s t o i nva l i da t e t he i n di vi dua l s t a nc e of e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt s s e nt i m e nt I n f a c t I c ha l l e nge t he r e a de r t o s e t a s i d e t he i r ow n pr e s um e d, pos s i bl y m or e pr i vi l e ge d pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd a l l ow t he c ol l e c t i ve na r r a t i ve s of t he s e i ndi vi dua l s t o p r ovi de i ns i ght i nt o t he va l ue of t he i r l i t e r a c i e s I n i nt e r r oga t i ng t he s e l oc a l na r r a t i ve s t ha t l i ve a nd br e a t he a m ong t hi s m i g r a nt r i c h a gr i c ul t ur a l c om m uni t y I f ound t ha t e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt ha d a di s t i nc t ba c kgr ound e a c h e m br a c i ng uni que c i r c um s t a nc e s A s I pr e s e nt t he s e t he m e s i t i s vi t a l t ha t r e a de r s be a r i n m i nd t he de f i n i t i on o f l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t pe r t a i n t o t hi s r e s e a r c h i nqui r y I n r e vi e w F a ul kne r ( 2005 ) de f i ne s publ i c l i t e r ac i e s a s l i t e r a t e pr a c t i c e s c om bi ni ng l a ngua ge a nd t e xt s va l ue d i ns i de t he c l a s s r oom T he s e r a nge f r o m w or ki ng w i t h pr i nt vi s ua l di g i t a l a udi o, a nd o r a l t e xt s P r i v at e l i t e r ac i e s a r e t hos e p e r s ona l s oc i a l a nd i nd i vi dua l l i t e r a c i e s t ha t a r e va l ue d out of s c hool w hi c h i nf l ue nc e di f f e r e nt a s pe c t s of a s t ude nt s l i f e I n o r de r t o s uppor t t he s oc i oc ul t ur a l a ppr oa c h t o l a ngua ge a nd l i t e r a c y, i t w a s vi t a l t ha t I e m pha s i z e t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e xt a pe r s on s w or ds a nd a c t i ons a nd c ont e xt t he s i t ua t i on or e xpe r i e nc e

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105 I n or de r t o va l i da t e t he a ut he nt i c vo i c e be hi nd e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w he n pr e s e nt i ng s e c t i ons of t r a ns c r i pt s I ha ve c hos e n t o us e t he l a n gua ge us e d by e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt a s i t w a s r e ve a l e d t o m e a f t e r de ve l opi ng a r e l a t i ons hi p f ounde d on t r us t a nd ope nne s s T he r e f or e t he c onve r s a t i ona l l a ngua ge w he n t r a ns c r i be d, m a y s e e m ha r d t o f ol l ow W he n, i n f a c t t he s poke n w or d w a s m uc h e a s i e r t o c om pr e he nd. W he n a ppl i c a bl e unne c e s s a r y c onj unc t i ons pr e s e nt e d a t t he be gi nni ng of s e nt e nc e s w e r e om i t t e d. A s I pr e s e nt t he pe r c e pt i ons of t he s e H i s pa ni c boy s l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s I be gi n w i t h t he m os t p r i va t e of l i t e r a c i e s a nd e xt e nd t o t h e m or e publ i c t o s how t he va r i a t i ons of t he s e t he m e s a nd ke e p w i t hi n t he s oc i oc ul t ur a l a ppr oa c h of l a ngua ge a nd l i t e r a c y. F am i l y I m i n s c h ool f or m y m om F a m i l y w a s hi ghl i ght e d a s one of t he f i r s t t hr e e t op i c s de t e r m i ne d dur i ng t he i ni t i a l br a i ns t or m of t opi c s i n e a c h o f t he t hr e e f oc us gr oups ( S e e A ppe ndi x H ) I t be c a m e e vi de nt t ha t t he s e H i s pa ni c boys ha d a s pe c i f i c w a y of l i vi ng a nd br e a t hi ng i nt o t he i r uni que w or l d o f f a m i l y. T he r e f o r e t hi s ve r y pr i va t e l i t e r a c y w a s s ha r e d a nd c onf i r m e d dur i ng our i ni t i a l t i m e t oge t he r T he na r r a t i ve s di s c us s e d a r ound f a m i l y w e r e m os t of t e n e xpa nde d upon dur i ng t he i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s T he i r s pe c i f i c l a ngua ge be ha vi or s a nd a t t i t ude s a r ound f a m i l y he l pe d c ons t r uc t t he t he m e of f a m i l y i n t o a f or m a l l i t e r a c y t o be r e c ogni z e d by t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. T he l i t e r a c y of f a m i l y e xpr e s s e d i t s e l f i n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a ppr e c i a t i on a nd r e c ogni t i on o f t he i r pa r e nt s pe r s ona l s a c r i f i c e s a nd ha r ds hi ps F ur t he r m o r e e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt vow e d l o ya l t y t o t he i r f a m i l y e ve n a t t he e xpe ns e of s a c r i f i c i ng pe r s ona l or e duc a t i ona l goa l s a s t a nc e w hi c h i s r e f l e c t e d i n r e s e a r c h c onduc t e d by G ua da l upe V a l de s ( 1996) S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s s ha r e d t he c hoi c e

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106 of s ur r e nde r i ng or pos t poni ng t he i r s oc i a l or e duc a t i ona l goa l s t o e nt e r t he w o r k f o r c e i n or de r t o s uppl e m e nt hous e hol d f i na nc e s T he s e s t or i e s w e r e not l a c e d w i t h r e s e nt m e nt o r a nge r of a young m a n s de f e r r e d d r e a m but t ol d w i t h t he c om pe l l i ng pr i de one t a ke s i n a n honor a bl e a c t S e ve r a l s ub t he m e s e m e r ge d a s our di s c us s i ons de l ve d de e pe r i nt o t he s ubj e c t of f a m i l y. T he vi e w of t he m ot he r a s c a r e t a ke r a nd ov e r s e e r t he f a t he r a s he a vy di s c i pl i na r i a n, r e s pe c t w i t hi n a nd f o r f a m i l y, a nd t he r ol e of s t or i e s o r di c hos t ha t he l pe d e nc ul t ur a t e t he s e boys s ur f a c e d a s s ubor di n a t e t he m e s i ns i de t he i de a of f a m i l y E a c h of t he s e s t r a nds c ont r i but e d t o t he s pe c i f i c vo i c e a nd a c t i ons t he s e H i s pa ni c boys us e d w i t hi n t hi s pr i va t e l i t e r a c y. M ot he r as c ar e t ak e r I t w a s a ppa r e nt t ha t t he s e boys l ooke d t o t he i r m ot he r s a s t he c a r e t a ke r a nd ove r s e e r of t he f a m i l y. T h i s pe r c e pt i on w a s e vi de n c e d by t he w a y t he s e boys s how e d r e ve r e nc e a nd de di c a t i on t o t he i r m o t he r s e xpe c t a t i ons a nd hope s M ot he r s w e r e a l s o s e e n a s t he f i r e t o ke e p t he m goi ng i n s c hool T o m y a m a z e m e nt m a ny pa r t i c i pa nt s e c hoe d t hi s f i r e i n t he i r m ot he r s w or ds H e c ha l e G a na s w hi c h l oos e l y t r a ns l a t e d m e a ns t o dr i v e f or w ar d w i t h s t ubbor n e f f or t and i nt e ns e pas s i on ( s om e m e a ni ng l os t i n t r a ns l a t i on) T hi s phr a s e w a s i m m e di a t e l y r e c ogni z e d a s a c ons t a nt by e a c h f oc us gr oup a nd w a s m e t w i t h pos i t i ve a f f i r m a t i on of t he i r m ot he r s i nf l ue nc e T hi s m ot i va t i ng a dvi c e a l s o be c a m e t he c e nt r a l t he m e i n one of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s gr a dua t i on s pe e c h t ha t w a s gi ve n a t R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool s c om m e nc e m e nt c e r e m ony.

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107 T he va l ue f o r t he i r m ot he r s be c a m e m or e pe r s ona l a s t he y s ha r e d t he i r de s i r e t o pl e a s e t he i r m ot he r a nd not t o m a ke t he m om c r y. A l t hough t he y di d not w e l c om e t he c om m on l e c t ur e s s c ol di ng, a nd oc c a s i ona l t hum p on t he he a d, t he y w e r e s t i l l di s t r a ught w he n t he i r m ot he r s w e r e dr i ve n t o t e a r s O ne o f t h e boys s a i d i t ve r y w e l l : J ul i o: T he onl y t i m e i t ge t s t hr ough i s l i ke w he nm y m om s t a r t s c r yi n T ha t s w he n i t ge t s t hr ough ( t he m e s s a ge ) N a h, w he n m y m om be c r yi n i t i t be ge t t i n m e t oo. T he t e nde r ne s s t ow a r d m om w a s f ur t he r a f f i r m e d w he n di s c us s i ng t he s ym pa t hy t he boys ha d w he n t he i r m ot he r s w or r i e d a bout f i na nc e s or i s s ue s w i t h ot he r f a m i l y m e m be r s J ul i o: L i ke i n m y m i nd I m i n s c hool f o r m y m om c uz s he w a nt e d m e t o, know w ha t I m s a yi n ? G r a dua t e or w h a t e ve r I m I m t r yi n t r yi ng t o do s om e t hi ng, ge t s om e m one y f or e h f or m y m om know w ha t I m s a yi n? R : Y e a h! J ul i o: B r e a k he r of f c uz s he s be e n pa yi n f or m e a l l t he t i m e T he s e boys s ha r e d a c a r e f ul l y pl a c e d s e nt i m e nt t o w a r ds how t he y t a l ke d a nd de a l t w i t h i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o t he i r m ot he r s H e r e J ul i o us e s t he w or ds B r e a k he r of f t o m e a n gi ve he r a br e a k f r om pa yi ng f or h i m a l l t he t i m e O n c e a ga i n s how i ng t he f e e l i ng of he l pi ng out w i t h f a m i l y f i na nc e s not out of a s e ns e of obl i ga t i on but a s e ns e of pr i de i n c ont r i but i on. A s a w hol e t he s e boys e m br a c e d t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he i r m ot he r s r ol e w i t hi n t he i r l i ve s

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108 F at he r as di s c i pl i nar i an. I n c ont r a s t t he c ol l e c t i ve pe r c e pt i on of t he f a t he r w a s de f i ne d by hi s r ol e a s t he he a vy di s c i pl i na r i a n w ho s e t t l e d s i t ua t i ons w he n t h e y got t oo he a vy. J ul i o e xpr e s s e d t hi s s e nt i m e nt c l e a r l y w he n he s t a t e d: C uz l i ke i f m y da d s t a l ki n t o m e t ha t d be s om e t hi ng s e r i ous r i ght t he r e boy. Y e a h, w he n i t s s om e t hi n s e r i ous s he l l l i ke L ui s ( na m e o f da d) t a l k t o hi m I m l i ke A w w m a n. M us t be s om e t hi n bi g goi n on r i ght he r e A l t hough t he y di d not s ha r e a s m uc h a bout t he i r i n t e r a c t i on w i t h t he i r f a t he r s t he y di d s e e t he m a s s i gni f i c a nt f i gur e s i n t he i r l i ve s a s pr o vi de r s a nd di s c i pl i na r i a ns I n r e ga r ds t o t he e xpr e s s i on of m a l e ne s s i n t he f a m i l y, pe r c e pt i ons o f w ha t i t m e a ns t o be t he l e a de r of a f a m i l y w a s di s c us s e d i n t he r e s pe c t i ve s e c t i on be l ow on m a s c ul i ni t y ( m a c hi s m o) R e s pe c t w i t hi n and f or t he f am i l y A not he r s ub t he m e t ha t e m e r ge d w a s r e s pe c t w i t hi n t he f a m i l y T he w or d r e s pe c t w a s not us e d l i ght l y a nd s ur f a c e d s e ve r a l t i m e s t hr oughout t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. L or e nz o c l e a r l y a nd bol dl y s t a t e d t he de f i ni t i on of r e s pe c t w he n he s a i d: N o c he a t i ng, N o s t e a l i n N o l yi n C uz how you gonna ha ve a f a m i l y know w ha t I m s a yi ng ? T he y w on t s e e you t he s a m e t he r e s a l ot of di f f e r e nt w a ys t o s e e r e s pe c t but f a m i l y w i s e j us t be hone s t w i t h e m A l t hough t hi s de f i ni t i on di d m e e t t he i nt e nt i on o f m os t boys one of t he m or e r e s e r ve d boys R oge l i o s a w r e s pe c t a s a n a c t of f e a r F u r t he r m or e R oge l i o s t a t e s :

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109 E xc e r p t f r om R oge l i o s I n d i vi d u al I n t e r vi e w T r an s l at e d f or n on S p an i s h r e ad e r s : ( S om e m e an i n g l os t i n t r an s l at i on ) B ue no, por que m i m a m c ua ndo l e ha bl a s pa r a t r a s t e pe ga ha c i na T e da c a c he t a da s y m i pa p no W e l l w he n you t a l k ba c k t o m y m om s he w i l l s l a p you a r ound but not m y da d. L i ke R oge l i o, t he not i on of us i ng f e a r t o i ns t i l l r e s pe c t i s one t ha t i s m or e de s c r i pt i ve a nd vi vi d s i nc e i t s how I l e a r ne d t o be r e s pe c t f ul M y pa r e nt s of f e r e d a c ont i nua l r e m i nde r of w ha t w oul d ha ppe n i f I e ve r t a l ke d ba c k, e xpr e s s e d m y ow n opi ni on, or de c i de d t o i nt e r j e c t m y ow n voi c e i nt o a s c ol di ng. I m not s ur e i f i ns t i l l i ng f e a r pr om pt e d m or e r e s pe c t but I f ound m ys e l f e m ot i ona l l y una va i l a bl e t o m y m ot he r a nd f a t he r a s a r e s ul t o f t hi s f e a r I t w a s not un t i l I be ga n t o be e nc ul t ur a t e d i nt o m a i ns t r e a m A m e r i c a t ha t I f ound t ha t t he r e c oul d be a ba l a nc e i n t he e xpe c t a t i on o f r e s pe c t w hi l e a c know l e dgi ng t he voi c e of t he i ndi v i dua l T hi s m i nds e t c a m e a f t e r s e ve r a l c hi l dhood e duc a t i on c l a s s e s a t e nur e of f ou r t e e n ye a r s a s a pr i m a r y t e a c he r a nd m y c on t i nue d i nt e r e s t i n c r i t i c a l pe da gogy, w hi c h I a l s o c a r r i e d i nt o m y ow n f a m i l y T he boys c ol l e c t i ve pe r c e pt i on of r e s pe c t i n t he c ont e xt of f a m i l y r e t a i ne d i t s ow n voi c e W he t he r i t w a s honor i ng t he i r pa r e nt s ga i ni ng t he r e s pe c t of t he f a m i l y, or m a i nt a i ni ng t he i r ow n va l ue i n t he e ye s of t he i r r e l a t i ve s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c l e a r l y s ha r e d t he i m por t a nc e of t a ki ng c a r e of t he i r f a m i l y a nd a t t e m pt i ng t o be l i ke t hos e i n t he f a m i l y t h a t a r e s uc c e s s f ul P e r ha ps t he boys pe r c e pt i ons of r e s pe c t f or f a m i l y i s be s t e xpr e s s e d w he n s t a t e d: G ui l l e r m o: I c oul d ne ve r t a l k t o m y pa r e nt s l i ke t he w hi t e f r i e nds do.

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110 T hi s pe r s pe c t i ve a c know l e dge s t he s i gni f i c a nc e of f a m i l y i n t he l i ve s of t he s e H i s pa ni c boys i n r e l a t i on t o t he pe r c e i ve d m i ddl e c l a s s w hi t e s t ude nt i n t he R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool c om m uni t y. T hi s H i s pa ni c boy s i m pr e s s i on s e e m e d t o s ugge s t t ha t w hi t e s t ude nt s a r e r ude a nd di s r e s pe c t f ul t o t he i r pa r e nt s I t a l s o a t t a c he s a n i de nt i t y of r e ve r e nc e t ow a r d pa r e nt s by l ooki ng up t o t he r ol e of pa r e nt w hi c h i s t o be r e s pe c t e d. I n j uxt a pos i t i on t o t hi s e xpr e s s e d r e s pe c t f or f a m i l y, w a s t he i r s t r uggl e f o r a dol e s c e nt i ndi vi dua l f r e e dom a nd pe e r i nf l ue nc e F our out of t he s e ve nt e e n H i s pa ni c bo ys c a s ua l l y ga ve r e f e r e nc e t o be i ng i nvol ve d w i t h ga ng a c t i vi t y, w hi c h c onf l i c t s w i t h r e s pe c t f or f a m i l y. O ne s pe c i f i c a l l y c a m e a t i t f r om a s t a nc e of i t s j us t pa r t of w ha t w e do, M i s s A not he r L o r e nz o w oul d s a y, r e s pe c t yo ur f a m i l y j us t be hone s t w i t h e m Y e t he of t e n f ound hi m s e l f f i ght i ng o t he r s a nd s ha r e d a t i m e w he n he w a s w a i t i ng f or s om e one t o f i ght ou t s i de hi s f a m i l y s f r ont door H e w a s a l s o f e a r f ul o f a l oom i ng d r i ve by s hoot i ng, pos s i bl y i nvi t i ng ga ng a c t i on r i ght t o hi s f r ont ya r d. A s a w hol e t he s e boys di d not s e e t hi s di s pa r i t y w i t h t h i s t hi nki ng a nd ho w t hi s f i t i nt o t he i r de f i ni t i on o f honor i ng [ r e s pe c t i ng] t he f a m i l y. D i c hos y c ons e j os T he l a s t i de a t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he l i t e r a c y o f f a m i l y w a s t he r ol e of s t or i e s di c hos ( c ul t ur a l s a yi ngs ) a nd c ons e j os ( a dvi c e i n t h e f or m of i di om s ) a nd how t he s e pl a ye d i nt o t he e nc ul t u r a t i on of t he s e boys be l i e f s a nd va l ue s w hi l e l i vi ng a nd b r e a t hi ng i n t he i r H i s pa ni c w or l d. T hi s w a s a m ov i ng s ub t h e m e due t o t he e m ot i ona l c onne c t i ons i t c r e a t e d a m ong us w he n i t e m e r ge d T he di s c us s i on a r ound f a m i l y w a s w e l l unde r w a y w he n t he boys be ga n t o d i s c us s how bot h pa r e nt s e nc our a ge d, di s c i pl i ne d, a nd s ha r e d

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111 f a m i l y hi s t or y t hr ough pe r s ona l na r r a t i ve s T he i de a of c ons e j os w a s c a s ua l l y m e nt i one d i n one f oc us gr oup s e s s i on a nd i t w a s m e t w i t h f a m i l i a r i t y but l i t t l e di s c us s i on. I b r ought i t ba c k t o t he gr oup t o p r om pt f ur t he r c onve r s a t i on T he pa r t i c i pa nt s t he n t ook a de e pe r i nt e r e s t w he n I m e nt i one d di c hos a nd c ons e j os a s a s pe c i f i c t opi c t o di s c us s T he y a c know l e dge d c ons e j os a s phr a s e s t ha t w e r e t a l ke d a t t he m w he n e i t he r pa r e nt s w e r e l e c t ur i ng or s c ol di ng t he m O ne m e m be r s a i d, S o m e t i m e s w e don t e ve n w a nna l i s t e n t o t he m A not he r c om m e nt e d, I know i t s f o r you r ow n good but I he a r i t ove r a nd ove r W he t he r i n t he f or m of di c hos or c ons e j os t he s e H i s pa ni c boys c oul d f i ni s h m out hi ng t he s e s a yi ngs be f or e i t e ve n c a m e out of t he i r pa r e nt s m out hs W hi c h bought l a ught e r a nd nods of a f f i r m a t i on t o t he e nt i r e gr oup. T he y a l s o a c know l e dge d t he r ol e of t he i r a bue l i t a or gr a ndm ot he r i n t he pa s s i ng on o f t he s e di c hos T he i de a of gr a ndm ot he r s ha r i ng di c hos w a s s ha r e d, a nd l e d t o a not he r ke y e xpe r i e nc e t ha t m a de t he t he m e e ve n m or e pe r t i ne nt t o t hi s gr oup o f H i s pa ni c boys G us t a vo, w ho c oul d not r e m e m be r t he m e a ni ng or i nt e r pr e t a t i on, br ought t he di c ho t o t he t a bl e T he di c ho w a s un c l a vo s a c a ot r o c l a vo [ o ne na i l w i l l t a ke out a not he r na i l ] a nd w a s ne w t o m os t of us i n t he r oom T he boys pr o m pt e d G us t a vo t o a s k hi s gr a ndm ot he r s o he c oul d c om e ba c k a nd s ha r e i t s m e a ni ng. H i s gr a ndm ot he r w ho r e t ol d t h i s c ul t ur a l i di om ha d pa s s e d on t he r e f o r e he c oul d not a s k f o r t he m e a ni ng I t w a s l e f t a t t ha t f or t he t i m e be i ng. I t w a s a n out s i de r w ho c a m e t o i nt r i gui ngl y a f f i r m t hi s di c ho a nd gi ve us i t s m e a ni ng. T he t r a ns c r i pt i oni s t f r om a M i a m i ba s e d f i r m w ho t r a ns c r i be d ha l f o f m y f oc us gr oup a udi ot a pe s ha ppe ne d t o be H i s pa ni c a nd i n p r oof i ng t h i s t r a ns c r i pt e m a i l e d m e t he

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112 m e a ni ng be hi nd t he di c ho S he f ound t he c onve r s a t i on ve r y i nt e r e s t i ng a nd w a nt e d t o s ha r e he r ow n w or l d w i t h us A c c or di ng t o A nni e t hi s i di om w a s us e d t o de s c r i be t he r e c ove r i ng of a r e l a t i ons hi p b r e a kup. U n c l a vo s a c a ot r o c l a vo [ O ne na i l w i l l t a ke out a not he r na i l ] m e a ns t ha t w he n you f e e l hur t by one pe r s on, a not he r ( pe r s on) w i l l e nd t he hu r t B y t he e nd of our t i m e t oge t he r w e w e r e a l l s ha r i ng w hi c h di c hos w e kne w a nd on oc c a s i on w oul d br i ng a di f f e r e nt one ba c k t o t h e gr oup t o s ha r e H a ve you he a r d t h i s one M i s s ? W ha t a bout t hi s one ? T hi s i nt i m a t e s ha r i ng br ought l a ught e r a nd be c a m e a de f i ni ng m om e nt of ou r c om m uni t y but m or e i m po r t a nt l y i t be c a m e a l i t e r a c y w e a l l s ha r e d a s a c ul t ur e A s i n m y ow n e xpe r i e nc e t he s e w or ds of a dvi c e pa s s e d on f r om ge ne r a t i on t o ge ne r a t i on he l pe d de ve l op a c om m o n t e xt f o r r a i s i ng c hi l dr e n, c hoos i ng f r i e nds a nd l i vi ng w i t h i n t he H i s pa ni c w o r l d f o r t h e s e young boys L an gu age N o, n o m as s on e l l os ( N o n ot on l y i s i t t h e m ) L anguage l i nk e d t o c ul t ur al i de nt i t y L a ngua ge w a s a not he r t he m e t ha t e m e r ge d t o be f u nda m e nt a l i n t he p r i va t e l i ve s of t he s e H i s pa ni c boys W he t he r t he boys w e r e no n E ngl i s h s pe a ke r s or ha d a n a c a de m i c c om m a nd of bot h E ngl i s h a nd S pa ni s h, i t w a s e vi d e nt t ha t t he i r l a ngua ge pl a ye d a v i t a l r ol e i n bu i l di ng t he i r c ul t u r a l i de nt i t y w i t hi n a nd o ut s i de of t he s c hool bui l di ng. N one s ha r e d be t t e r a bout t he pr i de t he s e boys t ook i n t he i r na t i ve l a ngua ge t ha n L o r e nz o w ho w a s a s ke d, H ow do you r e a c t w he n you he a r l os qu vi e ne n a qu t hos e w ho c om e ( t o A m e r i c a ) ne e d t o l e a r n E ngl i s hyou ne e d t o f o r g e t your S pa ni s h? H ow do you f e e l a bout t ha t ? T he d i a l ogue f ol l ow e d

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113 E dua r do: I m not gonna c ha nge f or t he m R : T e l l m e m or e a bout t ha t ? E dua r do: I m not gonna di s r e s pe c t m y r a c e l i ke t ha t you kn ow w ha t I m s a yi ngm y c ul t ur e L i ke t ha t s f r om ba c k i n t he d a y, e ve n be f or e I got he r e W hy s hou l d I c ha nge f or t he m I know i t s gonna t o be t t e r m e don t ge t m e w r ong. I t s gonna be t t e r m e but R : T o ke e p i t or l os e i t ? E dua r do: T o ke e p i t a nd l os e i t a t t he s a m e t i m e C uz m y gr a ndpa e ve r ybody, t ha t c a m e f r om M e xi c o. I m not gonna s t op doi ng w ha t t he y di d [ s pe a k S pa ni s h] e s pe c i a l l y f or w ha t t he y d oi ng now [ t r yi ng t o s t r i p a w a y S pa ni s h] j us t f or t he m [ non S pa ni s h s pe a ke r s ] T he y t e l l m e i f I c om e he r e I go t t a s pe a k E ngl i s h. N a h. T he di gni t y t ha t t he y he l d w i t hi n l a ngua ge us e w a s c l e a r l y f us e d w i t h t he i r s e ns e of i de nt i t y, f a m i l y a nd c ul t ur e F ur t he r c onve r s a t i on a bout be i ng bi l i ngua l a nd l e a r ni ng E ngl i s h pr om pt e d J ul i o t o e xpr e s s hi s de s i r e not t o f or ge t S pa ni s h a s he a c qui r e d t he E ngl i s h l a ngua ge H e s ha r e d: J ul i o: H ow I s e e i t l i ke he s s a y i ng. I c a n t f or ge t how t o s pe a k S pa ni s h I do ha ve t o l e a r n how t o t a l k E ngl i s h a t t he s a m e t i m e B ut a t t he s a m e t i m e t he y got t o l e a r n t oo C uz you know w ha t I m s a yi ng. S o, w e bo t h be be t t e r C uz w e bot h ha ve t w o l a ngua ge s w i t h s om e s i t ua t i ons you know w ha t I m s a yi ng.

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114 T he y pe r c e i ve d t ha t l e a r ni ng E ngl i s h w oul d be be t t e r f or t he i r l i f e but w e r e not w i l l i ng t o di s r e s pe c t t he m s e l ve s or t he i r a nc e s t or s by s ur r e nd e r i ng S pa ni s h. A ddi t i ona l c ol l e c t i ve pe r c e pt i ons a s s e r t e d not onl y t he boys r e s pons i bi l i t y t o l e a r n E ngl i s h bu t f o r ot he r s [ A m e r i c a n] t o a c qui r e S pa ni s h. D u r i ng a f oc us gr oup one H i s pa ni c boy s t a t e d: J os e : Y e a h, w e bot hyou know w ha t I m s a yi ng. I t s m a ki ng m e s m a r t e r a nd m a ki ng h i m s m a r t e r a s w e l l S o w e c a n t a l k t o di f f e r e nt pe opl e J ul i o : I t s not on l y a bout t he m T he y got t o t hi nk a bout u s t oo. Y ou know w ha t I m s a yi ng. L i ke how a r e t he y gonna t h i nk a bout t he m a nd l i ke l e a ve us out of i t N o, no m a s s on e l l os ( N o, no onl y i s i t t he m ) S om os nos ot r os dos I t s bot h of us R : T ha t s pow e r f ul J ul i o s s e nt i m e nt e xpr e s s e s a n e xpe c t a t i on of e qua l i t y. T he l a ngua ge us e d he r e b r ought f or t h a s t a nc e of e nt i t l e m e nt t o be t r e a t e d e qua l T he J os e s t a t e s T he y got t o t hi nk a bout us t ooL i ke how a r e t he y gonna t hi nk a bout t he m a nd l i ke l e a ve u s out o f i t T he s e boys ha ve a s e ns e of e qua l i t y a nd w a nt t o be he a r d T he pow e r t ha t c om e s f r om t he pe r c e pt i on t ha t N o, no m a s s on e l l os [ N o, no t onl y i s i t t he m ] ove r l a ps w i t h t he w or l d l y not i on, w e a r e a l l i n t hi s t oge t he r a nd t ha t by ho nor i ng one s c ul t u r a l c a pi t a l a nd s e ns e of be l ongi ng, t he boys c l a i m w e c a n t a l k t o di f f e r e nt pe opl e L anguage i n s c hool s e t t i ng. I n c ont r a s t pa r t i c i pa nt s c ons i s t e nt l y e xpr e s s e d t ha t t he i r na t i ve l a ngua ge w a s c ont i nua l l y ne ga t e d a nd/ or i gnor e d a t s c hool T he boy s s ha r e d e xa m pl e s of c l a s s r oom

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115 t e a c he r s a nd ot he r s t ude nt s r i di c ul i ng t he i r us e of E ngl i s h a s w e l l a s a t t r i bu t i ng t he i r m i s unde r s t a ndi ngs of c l a s s a s s i gnm e nt s due t o l a n gua ge i nt e r f e r e nc e G us t a vo, a non E ngl i s h s pe a ki ng t e nt h gr a de r i s p r of i c i e nt i n r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng i n hi s na t i ve l a ngua ge S pa ni s h, a nd w a s t w o ye a r s a w a y f r om gr a dua t i ng f r om hi gh s c hool i n M e xi c o. O n c om i ng t o A m e r i c a he w a s pl a c e d i n ni nt h g r a de H i s vo i c e i s f r us t r a t e d a nd ve r ge s on a nge r w he n he t a l ks a bout m i s s i ng s c hool i n M e xi c o a nd t hos e w ho m a ke f un o f hi s l a ngua ge a nd t he r e f o r e hi s c u l t ur e he r e i n A m e r i c a e s pe c i a l l y f r om t hos e he l e a s t s us pe c t e d, hi s t e a c he r s T he f ol l ow i n g i s a pi e c e of hi s i nt e r v i e w E xc e r p t f r om G u s t avo s I n d i vi d u a l I n t e r vi e w T r an s l at e d f or n on S p an i s h r e ad e r s : ( S om e m e an i n g l os t i n t r an s l at i on ) R : Y por qu t e qui e r e s i r pa r a t r a s a M xi c o ? R : A nd, w hy do you w a nt t o go ba c k t o M e xi c o? G : N o m e gus t a a qu t a m poc o c a s i por qu . A que l l a e s c ue l a m e gus t a m s por qu yo e nt i e ndo t odo y a qu c om o s e l l a m a uno c ua ndo l a m a e s t r a a s c om o. . N o e s l o m i s m o qu a l l e n M xi c o A l l e n M xi c o c om o qu t e s i e nt e s m e j or po r qu e s t a s e n t u pa i s y a qu c om o a ve c e s t e t r a t a n t a m bi n m a l y e s o. G : I don t l i ke i t he r e a t a l l T ha t [ M e xi c a n] s c hool I l i ke m o r e be c a us e I unde r s t a nd e ve r yt hi ng a nd he r e how do you s a y, one w he n t he t e a c he r i s l i ke I t s not t he s a m e l i ke ove r t he r e i n M e xi c o. O ve r t he r e i n M e xi c o l i ke you f e e l be t t e r be c a us e you a r e i n you r c ount r y a nd he r e l i ke a t t i m e s t he y a l s o t r e a t you ba d a nd l i ke t ha t R : E s pe c f i c a m e nt e c om o t e t r a t a n di f e r e nt e ? C om o t e t r a t a n m a l ? C ua ndo R : S pe c i f i c a l l y how do t he y t r e a t you di f f e r e nt l y? H ow do t he y t r e a t you ba d?

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116 di c e s t qu l a s m a e s t r a s t e t r a t a n m a l ? C om o e s pe c f i c a m e nt e t e t r a t a n m a l ? W he n yo u s a y, t he t e a c he r s t r e a t you ba d? H ow s pe c i f i c a l l y do t he y t r e a t you ba d? G : C om o e s a m a e s t r a qu l e e s t a ba di c i e ndo, qu c om o s e l l a m a t r a t a ba m a l a l os M e xi c a nos pe r o unos qu ha bl a ba n I ngl e s e l l a no l e s de c a na da y c om o uno no ha bl a I ngl e s e l l os e m pi e z a n a ha bl a r y yo t a m bi n c om o no e nt i e ndo a ve c e s ve o qu e s c uc ha n qu ha bl o. . e s c uc ho, c om o s e l l a m a . qu ha bl a n c os a s de M e xi c a no s y e s o y s on m a e s t r os Y c om o t a m bi n l a G : W e l l l i ke t he t e a c he r I w a s t e l l i ng you a bout l i ke w ha t I w a s s a yi n g, t r e a t s M e xi c a ns ba dl y. B ut s om e w ho s pe a k E ngl i s h, s he s a ys not hi ng t o t he m a nd how one doe s n t s pe a k E ngl i s h, t he y s t a r t t o t a l k. A l s o how I don t unde r s t a nd s om e t hi ng I s e e t ha t t he y l i s t e n t o m y t a l kl i s t e n, how do you s a yt ha t t he y s a y t hi ngs a bout M e xi c a ns a nd t ha t a nd t ha t s be c a us e t he y a r e t e a c he r s I a l s o l i ke t he R : Q u l e s ha s o do de c i r ? R : W ha t ha ve you he a r d t he m s a y? G : Y o e s t oy pl a t i c a ndo y e s o, y e m pi e z a a de c i r l e a s c om o t a m bi n, P or qu e s t a s ha bl a ndo o e s t n a s no m s l e d i c e n qu no m e r a y qu l e di c e a m i a m i go qu m e di j e r a a m qu no m e r a qu e s t a t r a ba j a ndo uno. . G : . I a m t a l ki ng a nd l i ke ( s he ) s t a r t s t o s a y, l i ke W hy a r e you t a l ki ng? O r t he y a r e t he r e j us t l i ke t he y t e l l m e not t o l a ugh, or ( s he ) w i l l t e l l m y f r i e nd t o t e l l m e not t o l a ugh. A nd one ( I m ) i s w or ki ng. R : Y qu qui s i e r a s qu e l l a s hi c i e r a n pa r a R : A nd w ha t w oul d you l i ke he r t o do t o

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117 a yuda r t e m s ? he l p you m or e ? G : C oge r l a c os a de uno m i s m o qu a p r e nda I ngl e s pa r a qu a pr e nda n y n o t e t r a t e n a s t a m bi n, por qu t e qui e r e n t r a t a r m a l no m a s por qu e r e s M e xi c a nos y por qu no ha bl a s I ngl e s y qui e r e n pone r t e m s t r a ba j o T a m bi n, e s t a bi e n a ve c e s pa r a qu a pr e nda uno pe r o. . G : T o ge t t he t hi ng f r om one s e l f t o he l p m e l e a r n E ng l i s h s o w e c a n l e a r n a nd t he y don t t r e a t us l i ke t ha t t oo B e c a us e t he y w a nt t o t r e a t you ba d j us t be c a us e you a r e M e xi c a ns a nd be c a us e you don t s pe a k E ngl i s h. A nd t he y w a nt t o gi ve you m or e w o r k. A ga i n t ha t i s o. k S om e t i m e s s o you c a n l e a r n but R : S o, qu e s pe c i a l m e nt e t i e ne n qu s e r e l l a s di f e r e nt e s ? Q u pue de n ha c e r ? P ue de n, pa r a e nt e nde r t e m e j or ? H a bl a r E s pa ol t e ne r m s l e c t ur a s e n E s pa ol t e ne r l i br os e n E s pa ol ? Q u qui s i e r a s t qu e l l os hi c i e r a n pa r a qu t t e s i e nt a s m s a c e pt a do, m s m s c onf or m e m s m s um . R : S o, w ha t s pe c i f i c a l l y do t he y ( s he ) ha ve t o do di f f e r e nt l y? W ha t c a n t he y do? C a n t he ys o t he y c a n unde r s t a nd you be t t e r ? S pe a k S pa ni s h, ha ve m o r e l e c t ur e s i n S pa ni s h, H a ve books i n S pa ni s h? W ha t w oul d you l i ke f o r t he m t o do s o t ha t you f e e l m or e a c c e pt e d, m or e m o r e c om f o r t a bl e m or e m or e um G : P ue s no s t a m bi n. P or qu unos m a e s t r os t a m bi n e l l os qui e r e n a p r e nde r E s pa ol pa r a a yuda r l e a uno. G : W e l l I a l s o don t know B e c a us e s om e t e a c he r s do w a nt t o l e a r n S pa ni s h t o be a bl e t o he l p s om e one R : S s R : Y e s ye s

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118 G : P e r o unos no qu i e r e n. E l l os di c e n N o por qu t i e ne n qu a pr e nde r I ngl e s por qu e s t n e n E s t a dos U ni dos y no e s t n e n M xi c o G : B ut s om e don t w a nt t o T he y s a y, N o, be c a us e you ha ve t o l e a r n E ngl i s h be c a us e you a r e i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd not i n M e xi c o. R : S R : Y e s G : Y e s o e s l o qu di c e l a ge nt e C om o l os m a e s t r os qui e r e n qu a f ue r z a uno . c om o uno e s M e xi c a no, l e di c e n N o ya no e s t s e n t u r a nc ho ya T i e ne s qu a pr e nde r I ngl e s y e s o. Y e s o t a m bi n e noj a Y uno t a m bi n t i e ne qu a pr e nde r I ngl e s T a m bi n c om o unos m a e s t r os qui e r e n e ns e a r a l os M e xi c a nos por e s o yo a pr e ndo. P e r o unos no qui e r e n a pr e nde r U nos qui e r e n qu e l l os a pr e nda n I ngl e s pa r a qu . G : A nd t ha t i s w h a t t he pe opl e a r e s a yi ng. L i ke t he t e a c he r s w a nt t o f or c e one l i ke one i s M e xi c a n, t he y s a y. N o, you a r e not a t your r a nc h now Y ou ha ve t o l e a r n E ngl i s h. A nd t ha t A nd t ha t t oo m a ke s ( m e ) m a d. A nd one ha s t o l e a r n E ngl i s h. L i ke t he r e a r e s om e t e a c he r s w ho w a nt t o t e a c h M e xi c a ns t ha t i s w hy I l e a r n. B ut s om e don t w a nt t o l e a r n S om e w a nt t he m t o l e a r n E ngl i s h be c a us e R : U nos s on bi e n di vi d i dos R : S om e a r e ve r y di vi de d. G : U nos s i qui e r e n a yuda r a uno y unos no qui e r e n. U nos qui e r e n qu e l l os a pr e n da n a s m i s m o. G : S om e do w a nt t o he l p a nd ot he r s don t w a nt t o O t he r s w a nt t he m t o l e a r n a t t he s a m e t i m e R : A f ue r z a s R : T o f or c e ( you) G : A ha G : A ha ( s ha ki ng he a d)

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119 R : Y c om o t e s i e nt e s c ua ndo m i r a s e s o? R : A nd how do you f e e l w he n you s e e t ha t ? G : A ve c e s m e da a s . E l l a e s l a ni c a m a e s t r a qu no nos qui e r e a s . y e s a no qui e r e a na di e de l os M e xi c a nos S i e m pr e t a m bi n. . una s a m i ga s qu s on m uj e r e s t a m bi n. . e l l a s t a m poc o no pa s a r on. S e que da r on t a m bi n c onm i go M i a m i go t a m bi n, uno qu s e l l a m a ba D e nni s y ve n a e l ot r o a o t a m bi n y l e t oc a ba e s a c l a s e y r pr obo y l o m a nda r on a l a e s c ue l a e s a de L i f e y va a a l l Y a a m no m e qui e r e n t a m poc o m a nda r a a l l por qu t oda v a no a pr e ndo bi e n I ngl e s pe r o ya m e ba n a m a nda r e l ot r o a o. G : W e l l s om e t i m e s I f e e l l i ke S he i s t he onl y t e a c he r t ha t doe s n t l i ke us l i ke a nd s he doe s n t l i ke a ny o f t he M e xi c a ns A l l t he t i m e s om e of f r i e nds a r e w om e n t oo. t he y t oo di d not pa s s T he y s t a ye d w i t h m e t oo. M y f r i e nd t oo one t ha t i s na m e d D e nni s a nd c a m e [ t o t he U S ] t he ot he r ye a r a l s o a nd he ha d t ha t c l a s s a nd w a s r e t a i ne d a nd t he y s e nt hi m t o t ha t s c hool c a l l e d L I F E a nd he goe s t he r e A nd m e t he y don t w a nt t o s e nd m e t he r e be c a us e I don t know E ngl i s h ve r y w e l l B ut t he y w e r e go i ng t o s e nd m e t he r e t he ot he r ye a r G us t a vo w a s c l e a r l y i m pa c t e d by hi s pe r c e pt i ons o f w ha t i t m e a nt f or h i m t o be e duc a t e d i n t hi s c ount r y T he i r c om m on voi c e a r ou nd l a ngua ge r e f l e c t e d t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t hi s c ul t ur a l c a pi t a l w a s di s r e ga r de d. T he b o ys pe r c e i ve d t ha t t hi s gi f t of bi l i ngua l i s m a l s o be c a m e a n obs t a c l e a s t he y t r i e d t o m a ne uve r t hr ough t he i r a c a de m i c l i ve s T he y voi c e d c ha l l e nge s s uc h a s s pe l l i ng w or ds i n E ngl i s h, a nd t he i r i na bi l i t y t o

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120 a de qua t e l y e xpr e s s a nd ve r ba l l y de s c r i be t he m e nt a l pi c t ur e s a nd i de a s a bout s ubj e c t s di s c us s e d i n c l a s s T he boys a gr e e d t ha t not know i ng E ngl i s h l i m i t e d t he i r a bi l i t y i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd a f f i r m e d t ha t i f you w e r e a non E ng l i s h s pe a ke r you of t e n ha d doubl e w or k, e i t he r di r e c t l y or i ndi r e c t l y C onve r s e l y t hos e pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho he l d a f t e r s c ho ol j obs i n m a i ns t r e a m r e t a i l s hops ha d t he i r know l e dge of t he S pa ni s h l a ngua ge e m br a c e d a nd hi ghl i ght e d i n t he e c onom i c s e t t i ng. J ul i o: E ve n a t w or k l i ke s om e of t he bos s e s be l i ke m a n, I w i s h I kne w S pa ni s h s o I c oul d t a l k t o t he c us t om e r s C uz t he y be a l ot of c us t om e r s c om i ng i n don t e ve n know E ngl i s h. T h e y don t know how t o c om m uni c a t e T ha t w oul d m a ke t hi ngs be t t e r f or t he m B ut i f t he y t h i nk t ha t w e t he one s t ha t got t o l e a r n E ng l i s h. T he n t he y w r ong, t he y got t o l e a r n S pa ni s h a t t he s a m e t i m e J us t l i ke us w e gonna l e a r n s om e t hi ng ne w a nd you l e a r n s om e t hi ng ne w F o r w e bot h l e a r n. T ha t w i l l j us t m a ke t hi ngs be t t e r I don t t hi nk w e got t o c ha nge I a i n t c ha ngi ng! I t i s e vi de nt t ha t by t he e nd o f J ul i o s c om m e nt he f i nds hi s voi c e a nd e xpr e s s e s hi s a c know l e dge m e nt of t he gi f t he ha s I a i n t c ha ngi ng! T he s e s t ude nt s w e r e a w a r e of t he j uxt a pos i t i on be t w e e n t he a c a de m i c a nd t he bu s i ne s s w or l ds i n r e ga r d t o va l ui ng bi l i ngua l i s m a nd how onl y one r e c ogni z e d t he i r c u l t ur a l c a pi t a l T he m a j or i t y of t he gr oup s a w m a s t e r y of t he E ngl i s h l a ngua ge a s a c u l t ur a l di vi di ng l i ne t ha t s e pa r a t e s w ho ow ns A m e r i c a a nd w ho doe s not T he boys r e f e r r e d t o A m e r i c a a s not j us t be l ongi ng

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121 t o t he W hi t e but i t be l onge d t o nos ot r os ( us ) . w e a l l l i ve he r e T he y c ont i nue d t o a gr e e a nd e xpr e s s t ha t A m e r i c a i s not j us t t he m r e f e r r i ng t o t he E ngl i s h s pe a ki ng popul a t i on, but a l l of us e ve r yone i nc l ude d. T he i r voi c e ye a r ni ng t o be i nc l ude d. T hi s m a de i t e vi de nt t ha t t he t he m e of l a ngua ge w a s c l os e l y t i e d t o t he i r c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y R ac i s m W h o i s T h e y ? W he n r e ve a l i ng t he l i t e r a c y of r a c i s m t he pa r t i c i p a nt s e xpr e s s e d s e ve r a l m e s s a ge s ( pe r c e pt i ons ) t ha t r e f l e c t e d a nge r r e s e nt m e nt a nd e ve n i nqui s i t i ve ne s s a bout t he r oot s of di s c r i m i na t i on. T hr oughout t he f oc us gr oups a nd i nt e r vi e w s t hi s g r oup of H i s pa ni c boys s poke ba c k t o t he i n f a m ous t he y s t a t e m e nt s t ha t ha d be e n us e d t hr oughout va r i ous r e s e a r c h ve nue s f oc us gr oups a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s S t a t e m e nt s s uc h a s T he y t r e a t us di f f e r e nt l y, T he y t r e a t us l i ke w e a r e be l ow t he m T he y t h i nk w e w on t m a ke i t a nd T he y don t r e s pe c t us r e ve r be r a t e d a s our c onve r s a t i on t r i e d t o m a ke publ i c t he boys pe r c e pt i ons I n o r de r t o unve i l t he t he y be hi nd t h e i r pe r c e pt i ons I r e i nt r oduc e d t he c onc e pt a nd di r e c t l y a ddr e s s e d i t A f t e r our f our t h f oc us gr oup a nd m i d w a y t h r ough ou r i nt e r vi e w s I be ga n t he f oc us gr oup by gi vi ng e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt a n i nde x c a r d w he r e t he y w e r e t o l i s t out w ho i s t he y. E a c h f oc us gr oup w a s gi ve n a di f f e r e nt c ol or e d i nde x c a r d t o di f f e r e nt i a t e be t w e e n f oc us gr oups W he n a s ke d f or s pe c i f i c de s c r i pt i ons of w ho t he y a r e t he r e s pons e s w e r e va r i e d i n na t ur e ( T a bl e 6) ye t r e pr e s e nt t he i ne qui t i e s t ha t bui l d a nd i nf l ue nc e t he i r i de nt i t y a s a m e m be r of t he c om m uni t y, s c hool a nd c ul t ur e

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122 T ab l e 6. Q u i e n s on e l l os ? [ Wh o ar e T h e y ? ] S oc i oc u l t u r al A r e a P ar t i c i p an t R e s p on s e s ( N u m b e r r e p r e s e n t s t ot al c ou n t e d i n b ot h S p a n i s h an d E n gl i s h ) P ol i t i c a l G ove r nm e nt G obi e r no ( 5 ) P e opl e w ho a r e not H i s pa ni c W hi t e P e opl e L os B l a nc os ( 4) B l a c k a nd W hi t e pe opl e P e opl e I don t know D i f f e r e nt ki nds o f pe opl e O l de r pe opl e B a d pe opl e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns ( 2) B l a c k pe opl e L os m ol l os ( 2) A m e r i c a ns M a ny A m e r i c a ns L os N or t e A m e r i c a nos C om m uni t y P ol i c e m a n O f f i c e r of t he l a w E duc a t i ona l T e a c he r s ( 4) I de nt i t y M y ow n r a c e S oc i a l M y f r i e nds L os a m i gos ( 2 ) I ndi vi dua l M y f a m i l y I n or de r t o a na l yz e t he s e r e s pons e s I s or t e d a nd l a be l e d t he m w i t hi n a r e a s e nc om pa s s i ng s oc i a l c ul t ur a l a nd pol i t i c a l a r e na s A n out s i de doc t or a l s t ude nt ve r i f i e d t he s e a r e a s f or r a t i ona l i t y W he n c ons i de r i ng t he i r s i gni f i c a nc e t he pe r c e pt i ons of t hi s gr oup he l d t ha t t he y c oul d be a nyone a r ound t he m pl a c i ng t he m a t t he c r os s r oa ds of f a t a l i s m a nd r e be l l i ous ne s s ( F r e i r e 2001) T hi s pe r c e pt i on of c ont i nua l i nt e r r oga t i on by ( t r us t e d) i ndi vi dua l s a nd gr oups a r ound t he s e boys i m pa c t s t he f or m a t i on of a n i de nt i t y t ha t l e a ds t o s e l f e m pow e r m e nt T he boys w ho s ha r e d t he f o l l ow i ng e xpe r i e nc e s e xpr e s s e d f e e l i ngs of i nf e r i o r i t y, i nqui s i t i ve ne s s r e s e nt m e nt a nd a nge r T he s e

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123 e xpr e s s i ons of r a c i s m a r e va l i da t e d i n l i ght of how t he y pe r c e i ve t he w or l dv i e w s H i s pa ni c boys D i s c r i m i nat i on and I ne qui t y J ul i an. I n a n i nt e r vi e w w i t h J ul i a n, a l i ght s ki nne d C ol um bi a n bor n i n M i a m i a nd t he onl y non M e xi c a n H i s pa ni c boy i n t he s t udy, w e d i s c us s e d hi s pe r s pe c t i ve on how t e a c he r s t r e a t H i s pa ni c boys H e t a l ke d a bout hi s a dva nt a ge of hi s f a i r s ki n a nd m e di um br ow n ha i r I l ook m or e C a uc a s i a n. I don t l oo k a s m uc h l i ke a H i s pa ni c boy, he s t a t e d c onf i de nt l y. W he n a s ke d, W hy i s t ha t a n a dva nt a ge ? he pl a c e d hi s pa l m dow n, c l os e t o t he f l oo r a nd s hook i t s i de t o s i de a nd s a i d, I not i c e how t he y ( t e a c he r s ) t r e a t H i s pa ni c boys H e c ont i nue d by s a yi ng, N o one know s I know S pa ni s h. I a s ke d hi m w hy he s hook h i s ha nd l i ke t ha t s i de t o s i de c l os e t o t he f l oo r T ha t s how t he y ( t e a c he r s ) t r e a t H i s pa ni c boys T he y don t s e e l i ke t ha t I f e e l ba d but I c a n t do m uc h a bout i t J ul i a n s i de nt i t y ha d t a ke n a di f f e r e nt s t a nc e I t w a s obvi ous t ha t he di d not f i t t he s t e r e ot ypi c a l l ook of a H i s pa ni c boy H e w a t c h e s t he s e i ne qui t i e s be hi nd hi s pa l e s ki n m a s k e na c t i ng a n i de nt i t y t ha t a f f o r ds hi m t he c hoi c e of s ha r i ng o r not s ha r i ng hi s e t hni c ba c kgr ound. W hi l e t he ot he r boys m e nt i one d s i t ua t i ons of f e e l i ng di s c r i m i na t e d a ga i ns t t he r e w e r e t hr e e H i s pa ni c boys w ho i nt e nt i ona l l y br oug ht up r a c i s m du r i ng t he i r i ndi v i dua l i nt e r vi e w a s a pa r t of t he i r da i l y c ha l l e nge s W hi l e one br ought i t up a s a m e a ns t o unde r s t a nd hi s r e c our s e t he o t he r t w o br ought i t u p i n a m a nne r t ha t m a gni f i e d t he i r m a r gi na l i z e d s t a t us

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124 I nqui s i t i v e and C ur i os i t y E m m anue l A l t hough a L e ve l 2, s t r uggl i ng r e a de r E m m a nue l w a s c ons i de r e d by t he s c hool pr i nc i pa l t o be a pr i z e d s t ude nt H e w a s i n honor s c l a s s e s ha d a f ul l s c hol a r s hi p f or f ou r ye a r s of c ol l e ge a nd w a s t he f i r s t H i s pa ni c s t ude nt body pr e s i de nt f or t hi s di ve r s e hi gh s c hool W he n a s ke d w ha t books he l i ke d t o r e a d, h e de s c r i be d be i ng i nt r oduc e d t o books on r a c i s m by one of h i s f r e s hm a n t e a c he r s S he g a ve m e a l i s t o f books a nd t hos e w e r e t h e one I ha d r e a d. H e goe s on t o s t a t e t ha t he l i ke s t he ki nda books t ha t a r e t r ue i t ha s t o do w i t h l i ke r a c i s m L i ke t he r e a r e pr obl e m s go i ng on i n t he w or l d. I l i ke t hos e ki nds of books S om e t hi ng t ha t i s r e a l a nd ha ppe ne d. E m m a nue l w e nt on t o m e nt i o n how he w a nt e d t o unde r s t a nd r a c i s m a nd r e a di ng a bout i t m a de e a s i e r t o ha ndl e R e s e nt m e nt and A nge r G us t av o and O s c ar I n c ont r a s t w i t h E m m a nue l s t e xt ba s e d i nve s t i ga t i on of r a c i s m G us t a vo a nd O s c a r e xpe r i e nc e d r a c i s m m or e i nt i m a t e l y T he y w e r e bot h M e xi c a n non E ngl i s h s pe a ke r s w ho ha d f e l t r i gh t e ous r a ge w he n t r e a t e d di f f e r e nt l y by t e a c he r s a nd ot he r s t ude nt s T he y w e r e i n t he s a m e f i r s t pe r i od D e ve l opm e nt a l L a ngua ge c l a s s E a c h o f t he s e boys w a s m a i ns t r e a m e d i nt o r e gul a r c l a s s e s f or a l l o t he r c ont e n t a r e a s w hi c h m a gni f i e d t he i r l a ngua ge i m pe r f e c t i ons a nd f e e l i ng s of di s c r i m i na t i on T he i r a nge r a nd r e s e nt m e nt ove r be i ng r i di c ul e d f o r t he i r br oke n E ngl i s h a nd l a c k of unde r s t a ndi ng o f c l a s s r oom a c t i vi t i e s w a s pe r c e i ve d by t he m a s r a c i s m T hi s s e e m e d t o m a ke t he m c l i ng e ve n m or e t o t he i r c ul t u r a l i de nt i t y a s t he y e a c h ye a r ne d t o r e t u r n t o t he i r na t i ve c ount r y a nd f e e l t he c om f or t of be l ongi ng W i t h i n t he i r s t a t e m e nt s t he s e boys di d not

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125 di f f e r e nt i a t e be t w e e n t he i r na t i ve l a ngua ge a nd t he i r i de nt i t y a s M e xi c a n m a l e s T he y f ound l a ngua ge a nd i de nt i t y t o be i ns e pa r a bl e ( T r u e ba 1990) T he s e t hr e e boys br ought up r a c i s m a s a be l i e f a t t a c he d t o t he i r i de nt i t y a s a H i s pa ni c boy a nd t o t he ot he r ne s s a t t r i but e d t o t hos e w ho a c t e d upon t he m P ow e r w a s di s t r i bu t e d unf a i r l y a m ong t he i r r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h ot he r s w hi c h i n t ur n t ook t he i r va l ue a nd s e l f w or t h t o a di s t r e s s i ng l e ve l T hi s d i s he a r t e ni ng e xpe r i e nc e ga ve s i gni f i c a nc e t o t he i r pe r c e pt i ons of ot he r s t ude nt s c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s a nd/ or a dm i ni s t r a t or s w ho t he s e H i s pa ni c boys be l i e ve d w e r e e nt r us t e d by t he i r pos i t i ons w i t hi n t he s c hool s ys t e m w i t h t he i r e m ot i ona l s oc i a l a nd a c a de m i c w e l l be i ng. T he c ol l e c t i ve na r r a t i ve be hi nd r a c i s m i s t ha t i t i s a l i ve a nd w e l l i n t he l i ve s of t he s e H i s pa ni c boys T he y c o m e f a c e t o f a c e w i t h t he c ul t ur e of pow e r i n ou r e duc a t i ona l i ns t i t ut i ons a nd a r e f u l l y a w a r e t ha t t he y do not c a r r y t he c ode s or r ul e s of ( t hi s ) pow e r ( D e l pi t 1995 ) I n t he f ol l ow i ng c onve r s a t i on, a not he r H i s pa ni c boy t a l ks a bout how r a c e pl a ye d i nt o t he goa l of j oi ni ng t he f oot ba l l t e a m a f t e r c om i ng f r om T e xa s R : W ha t do you do a f t e r s c hool ? O s c a r : A f t e r s c hool s t uf f I don t r e a l l y pa r t i c i pa t e on pe r s a y c uz I don t know I pl a ye d f oot ba l l ove r a t t he ne i ghbor s hous e w he r e I c a m e f r om R : R e a l l y? O s c a r : Y e a h, but C uz l i ke ove r he r e I t r i e d t ha t f or h e r e a nd I di dn t ge t a pos i t i on. C a us e I gue s s I w a s n t b l a c k; you know w ha t I m s a yi ng? I t hought t ha t w a s unf a i r a nd I w a s a b out t he goode s t

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126 one on t he t e a m B ut s t i l l t he y a i n t put m e i n. C u z I t hought H e s bl a c k a nd I a i n t b l a c k. T ha t s w hy I m not i n I t s ha r d t r yi ng t o ge t i nt o c ol l e ge f o r a f oot ba l l c a r e e r ; you know w ha t I m s a yi ng? I t ook up f oot ba l l ( pl a yi ng a t ne i ghbor s a f t e r s c hool ) f o r a l i t t l e w hi l e a nd t he n, you know ? I di dn t r e a l l y l i ke i t s o t ha t s w he n I j us t l e f t i t A f t e r s c hool I w oul d j us t go t o t he hous e a nd dr a w a bunc h o f pi c t ur e s A l t hough t hi s e xa m pl e doe s pl a y i n t o r a c e ( H i s pa ni c ) a ga i ns t r a c e ( A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n) t o O s c a r i t w a s one m or e ve nue i n w hi c h he s a w hi m s e l f a ga i ns t a n e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m t ha t pl a c e s hi m i n a m a r gi na l i z e d pos i t i on. M ac h i s m o I l e t h i m l os e M a c hi s m o, t he f or m of m a s c ul i ni t y t ha t i s p r e va l e nt w i t hi n t he H i s pa ni c c ul t ur e s ur f a c e d a s a c e nt r a l l i t e r a c y i n t he l i ve s of t he s e young m e n. T hi s w a s not p r e s e nt e d a s a pr e va l e nt t he m e s pe c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i t w a s di s c ove r e d dur i ng our f oc us gr oup c onve r s a t i ons on f a m i l y a nd w a s c l e a r l y va l ue d. T he m a j or i t y of t he s e young boys w e r e a c c or di ng t o t he i r na r r a t i ve s pr of i l e d a s ga n g m e m be r s t hugs ; or c onve r s e l y s e l l out s ; a nd a c c us e d of be i ng t oo w hi t e T he s e na r r a t i ve s w e r e of t e n i n t e r m i ngl e d w i t h e xpr e s s i ons of s t r e ngt h, a ggr e s s i on, a nd a de s i r e t o de f e nd t he i r be l i e f s T he a s pe c t s of m a c hi s m o t ha t w e r e di s c us s e d dur i ng f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s w e r e ba s i c a l l y de f i ni ng m a c hi s m o a s i t pe r t a i ne d s pe c i f i c a l l y t o w om e n, f a m i l y a nd t he D i s c our s e of f i ght i ng O t he r i nt e r e s t i ng voi c e s w e r e t hos e a voi di ng or a t t e m pt i ng t o s e pa r a t e t he m s e l ve s f r om e xpe c t a t i ons o f t r a di t i on a l m a c hi s m o.

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127 I m pac t on r ol e of m e n and w om e n. A f t e r m a ny c onve r s a t i ons on f a m i l y a n a s pe c t of m a c hi s m o s ur f a c e d a s w e de l ve d i nt o f a m i l y di s c i pl i ne S om e f e l t t he c ons i s t e nt ha nd f r o m t he c e nt r a l f e m a l e t he m ot he r w ho w a s c ons i de r e d t he da i l y d i s c i pl i na r i a n. Y e t m a ny a l s o f e l t t he he a vy ha nd of t he f a t he r w ho w he n b r ought i n t o a di s c i pl i na r y s i t ua t i on, pl a ye d a m or e s e r i ous r ol e T hi s e voke d i s s ue s s ur r oundi ng t he r o l e of m e n i n t he f a m i l y r e l a t e d t o m a c hi s m o. W he n a s ke d, W ha t i s t he de f i ni t i on of m a c hi s m o? one H i s pa ni c boy s t a t e d, M a c hi s m o e s m e t e r l a vi e j a e n l a c a s a y de j a r l a a l l i H a ha ha [ M a c hi s m o i s pus hi ng t he vi e j a ( a de r oga t or y w o r d t ha t de s c r i be s pr om i s c uous w om e n) i n t he hous e a nd l e a ve he r t he r e H a ha ha ] A not he r pa r t i c i pa nt t hought I t hought M a c hi s m o w a s l i ke t he guy t hi nki ng he s a l l bi g a nd ba d. S oon t he c onve r s a t i on t ur ne d t o t he bounda r i e s of s ons a nd da ught e r s w i t hi n f a m i l y s i t ua t i ons S ons w e r e by f a r a c c or di ng t o t w o f oc us gr oups gi ve n m o r e f r e e dom i n r e ga r ds t o da t i ng. O ne H i s pa ni c boy s t a t e d, l a m uj e r s i a nda c on m uc hos hom br e s l a t om a n c om o una pr o s t i t ut a [ t he w om e ni f s he goe s w i t h m a ny m e n, t he y vi e w he r a s a pr os t i t ut e ] F a t he r s qui e r e n qu e s t n e n l a c a s a m uy c ui da di t a s [ w a nt t o ke e p t he m ( t he i r da ught e r s ) a t hom e ve r y s a f e ] O ne pa r t i c i pa nt s t a t e d, i t w a s be l i e ve d t ha t f r om a m a n s poi nt o f v i e w e l hom br e pue s c om o qui e r a s no pi e r de na da [ a nd t he m a n. . how e ve r he l os e s not hi ng] i f he da t e s m a ny w om e n. T hi s w a s c onf i r m e d by a not he r m e m be r s a yi ng, Y e a h, T ha t s how m y da d i s w i t h m e a nd m y s i s t e r s W he n a s ke d, W ha t do y ou guys t hi nk a bout t ha t ? T he c onve r s a t i on c ont i nue d a s f ol l ow s : E dua r do : I t hi nk I t hi nk t ha t s m o r e of t he . l i ke t he ba c k i n t he da y

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128 c ul t ur e . R : M s a nt e s [ w a y be f or e ] O l d c ul t ur e E dua r do : or m s l i ke ye a h l i ke t he ge ne r a t i ons be c a us e . l i ke t he ne w ge ne r a t i on, ya . c om o l i ke . t he y r e m o r e l e ni e nt T he y don t . l i ke . W ha t he w a s s a yi ng. . qu t he y s e e he r w i t h a not he r guy or w ha t e ve r R : R i ght r i ght E dua r do : but l i ke . ( C l e a r s t hr oa t ) i f you t r us t you r da ugh t e r a nd you know your ki ds you r e a l l y don t ha ve t o w or r y a b out i t a nd I t hi nk t he y r e [ pa r e nt s ] m or e w o r r i e d a bout w ha t ot he r pe opl e t hi nk, t ha n w ha t i s a c t ua l l y go i ng on C uz i f i t s j u s t goi ng out w i t h a f r i e nd t o go ge t i c e c r e a m or t a ke a w a l k, or pl a y a ga m e o r w ha t e ve r . l i ke . t ha t s not t oo ba d. I don t know t ha t s j us t l i ke of f B ut I t hi nk ba c k i n t he da y, t he y r e j us t m or e w or r i e d a bout l os c hi s m e s [ t he gos s i p] T hi s di s c us s i on c l e a r l y e xpr e s s e d t he c l a s hi ng of t he ol d, ba c k i n t he da y, a nd ne w ne w ge ne r a t i on, m i nds e t be hi nd t he i de a of m a c hi s m o. T hi s g r oup a l s o voi c e d t he i r pe r c e pt i ons on w hi c h pe r s ona s [ pe r s ons ] na r r o w e d l a t e r t o ni na s ( gi r l s ) w e r e be c o m i ng m or e l i be r a l e s ( l i be r a t e d) w hi c h i m pa c t e d t he boys a bi l i t y t o e xp r e s s m a c hi s m o, w he t he r i n c ur r e nt or f ut ur e s i t ua t i ons A f e w boys m e nt i one d, how m e a n gi r l s a r e now a da ys t he y don t t a ke a nyt hi ng. T h e y a l l s e e m e d uns ur e of t he i nf l ue nc e of t hi s ne w w a ve o f gi r l s i nt ol e r a nc e of t r a di t i ona l m a c hi s m o.

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129 A f t e r a n i n i t i a l c onve r s a t i on a r ound a de f i ni t i on f o r m a c hi s m o, t he boys l a t e r e nvi s i one d t r e a t i ng t he i r s ons a nd da ught e r s e qua l l y, w hi c h r e ve a l e d how di f f e r e nt t he i r t hi nki ng w a s w he n c om pa r e d t o t he i r c ur r e nt f a m i l y s t r uc t ur e M a r t i n s ha r e d: M a r t i n: I don t know I f I w e r e e ve r t o be c om e a da d. . I t h i nk. . I w oul d t r e a t . t he m a l e s a nd t he f e m a l e s l i ke s ons a nd da ught e r s t he s a m e R : T he s a m e ? M a r t i n: I don t t h i nk I w oul d t r e a t t he m a n y di f f e r e nt Y ou know c uz l i ke s a y. . O h i f he [ s on] doe s n t go out you [ da u ght e r ] don t go out L i ke t r y f or t he m bot h l i ke t o c hoos e but you know l i ke gi vi ng c ons e j os [ a dvi c e ] a nd i f t he c ons e j os [ a dvi c e ] a r e onl y good i f t he y t a ke t he m R : T h a t s r i ght t ha t s r i ght M a r t i n: I d t r y m y be s t a nd. . I don t know but no s l e e pov e r s R : Y e a h. H a ha ha N o s l e e pove r s H a ha A ddi t i ona l l y, one pa r t i c i pa nt s t a t e d, Y a l a s m uj e r e s no s a be n c oc i na r pur o m i c r ow a ve H a ha ha [ N ow t he w om e n don t know how t o c ookonl y m i c r ow a ve H a ha ha ] I t w a s c l e a r t ha t t o t hi s gr oup of H i s pa ni c boys t he r ol e of w om e n w a s c ha ngi ng be f or e t he i r e ye s que s t i oni ng t he r ol e o f w om e n a nd t he i r i nhe r e nt r ol e s a nd r e s pons i bi l i t i e s I nt e r e s t i ngl y, a s t he c onve r s a t i on unf ol de d, t he r e w a s a n unde r l yi ng ba nt e r i ng of s e xi s t r e m a r ks F or e xa m pl e i n a di f f e r e nt f oc us g r oup w he n a s ke d, W ha t i s e l m a c hi s m o t o you guys now a da ys ? O ne H i s pa ni c boy r e m a r ke d N o de j a r s e m a nda r

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130 por l a vi e j a [ D on t l e t t he v i e j a bos s yo u a r ound ] T w o ot he r s s t a t e d, E l hom br e t i e ne l a pa l a br a e s e l qu t i e ne l os pa nt a l one s [ T he m a n ha s t he ( l a s t ) w o r d( H e ) i s t he one w ho w e a r s t he pa nt s ] T hi s c onve r s a t i on c ont i nue d a s f ol l ow s : E xc e r p t f r om F oc u s G r ou p T r an s l at e d f or n on S p an i s h r e a d e r s : ( S om e m e an i n g l os t i n t r an s l at i on ) R U B Y : O ka y, now w e r e ge t t i ng s om e w he r e T hi s i s m a c hi s m o c om i ng up. I t s not ba d or good, i t s j us t . t ha t s t he w a y i t i s R U B Y : O ka y, now w e r e ge t t i ng s om e w he r e T hi s i s m a c hi s m o c om i ng up. I t s not ba d or good, i t s j us t . t ha t s t he w a y i t i s E dga r : E s o e r a m a l o. E l m a c hi s m o yo pi e ns o qu e r a m a l o. E dga r : T ha t w a s ba d. E l m a c hi s m o I t hi nk t ha t i t w a s ba d. E l i s e o: E s m a l o. E l i s e o: I t i s ba d R oge l i o: P e ga r l e s a l a s m uj e r e s s R oge l i o: T o hi t w om e n, ye s ( i t w a s ba d) R U B Y : S o ha y c os a s qu s on. . de l m a c hi s m o. . qu s on bue na s pe r o ha y pa r t e s qu s on m a l a s C om o l a m uj e r no s e l e pe ga I s t ha t w ha t you r e s a yi ng? R U B Y : S o t he r e a r e t hi ngs t ha t a r e . of m a c hi s m o. . t ha t a r e good, but t he r e a r e pa r t s t ha t a r e ba d L i ke t he w om a n i s no t hi t I s t ha t w ha t yo u r e s a yi ng? E dga r : S E dga r : Y e s R U B Y : P e r o s e r hom b r e de l a c a s a s i e s oka y. R U B Y : B ut t o be m a n o f t he hous e i s oka y. E l i s e o: S e r r e s pons a bl e E l i s e o: B e r e s pons i bl e E dg a r : Y ou ve got t a w or k E dga r : Y ou ve got t a w or k R U B Y : R e s pon s a bl e ? A h, r e s pons a bl e R U B Y : R e s pons i bl e ? A h, R e s pons i bl e

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131 E l i s e o: S e r r e s pons a bl e de l a f a m i l i a H a ha E l i s e o: B e r e s pons i bl e f o r t he f a m i l y H a ha R U B Y : D e l a f a m i l i a ? Q u m s ? Q u m s ? . T hi s i s a t ough one R U B Y : F or t he f a m i l y? W ha t e l s e ? Q u m s ? . T hi s i s a t ough one M a r t i n: W or ki ng M a r t i n: W or ki ng R U B Y : W or ki ng? R U B Y : W or ki ng? M a r t i n: W e l l I gue s s f a l l s unde r r e s pons i bi l i t y, l i ke b r i ngi ng t he m one y t o t he hous e M a r t i n: W e l l I gue s s f a l l s unde r r e s pons i bi l i t y, l i ke b r i ngi ng t he m one y t o t he hous e R U B Y : M hm m S o hoy e n d a e s e l hom br e qu s e t oda v a s e . E s r e s pons a bl e de s obr e l l e va r l a f a m i l i a ? F i na nc i a l l y ? R U B Y : M hm m S o now a da ys t he m a n, he I s r e s pons i bl e t o m a i nt a i n t he f a m i l y? F i na nc i a l l y? E l i s e o: S pe r o e s t a . e s t e . l a m uj e r e s t a m bi n t r a ba j a n y a nt e s no no m s pur o hom br e s E l i s e o: Y e s bu t t he r e . huh . t he w om e n a l s o w or k a nd be f o r e no, no on l y pur e m e n. R U B Y : R i ght Y c m o ha c a m bi a do l a s c os a s e s o ? S i l a m uj e r e s m a s . hoy e n d a . R U B Y : R i ght A nd how ha s t ha t c ha nge d t hi ngs ? I f t he w om e n a r e m or e now a da ys R oge l i o: Q u . ? Q u . ? R oge l i o: W ha t . ? W ha t . ? R U B Y : t he y r e w or k i ng m o r e how ha s t ha t c ha nge d m a c hi s m o or how ha s i t R U B Y : t he y r e w or k i ng m o r e how ha s t ha t c ha nge d m a c hi s m o or how ha s i t

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132 c ha nge d l a f a m i l i a M e xi c a na ? c ha nge d l a M e xi c a n f a m i l y? E dga r : M hm m E dga r : M hm m E l i s e o: Y a e s t . bue no e s t ya . oh. E l i s e o: N ow i t i s . W e l l i t i s n ow . oh E dga r : N o, go a he a d. E s t bi e n. E dga r : N o, go a he a d. I t i s good. M a r t i n: U s t e d e nt i e nde s e gn di c e l a m uj e r t i e ne qu ha c e r l a m i t a d, e l hom br e y l a m i t a d l a m uj e r M a r t i n: Y ou know a c c or di ng t o t he w om a n, i t ha s t o be ha l f t he m a n a nd t he ha l f f or t he w om e n R U B Y : 50 50. R U B Y : 50 50. R oge l i o: A ha s R oge l i o: A ha ye s E l i s e o: C oc i na r ( poi nt i ng t o hi m s e l f ) y ot r o d a t u c oc i na r o s e a s i e m pr e c om o t r a ba j a n ya l os dos ya t i e ne n qu di vi d r s e l o. E l i s e o: C ook ( poi nt i ng t o hi m s e l f ) a nd a not he r da y you c ook ( hol di ng ha nd out ) I a gr e e l i ke s i nc e l i ke t he t w o a r e now w or ki ng, t he y ha ve t o di vi de i t R U B Y : Y qu pi e ns a s t ? R U B Y : A nd w ha t do you t hi nk? O s c a r : P ue s qui n s a be H a ha ha O s c a r : W e l l w ho know s H a ha ha R U B Y : W ha t do you guys t hi nk ( t ur ni ng he a d t o ot he r m e m be r s ) ? R U B Y : W ha t do you guys t hi nk ( t ur ni ng he a d t o ot he r m e m be r s ) ? M a r t i n: I I t hi nk t he w a y i t s c ha nge d i s t ha t s i nc e t he guy o r t he m a l e a l w a ys br ought m one y i nt o t he hous e l i ke M a r t i n: I I t hi nk t he w a y i t s c ha nge d i s t ha t s i nc e t he guy o r t he m a l e a l w a ys br ought m one y i nt o t he hous e l i ke

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133 f i na nc i a l l y a nd a l l t ha t . a nd now t ha t t he w om a n a l s o doe s t ha t . a nd ba c k t he n t he y us e d t o l ook a t t he w om a n l i ke dow n. . f i na nc i a l l y a nd a l l t ha t . a nd now t ha t t he w om a n a l s o doe s t ha t . a nd ba c k t he n t he y us e d t o l ook a t t he w om a n l i ke dow n. . M a r t i n: a nd I t hi nk how i t ha s c ha nge d i s t ha t t he w om a n. . now t he y r e e qua l l i ke . s he p r ove d. . o r s he s pr ovi ng t ha t s he c a n do t he e xa c t s a m e t hi ng a s t he guy c a n. . you know l i ke . be i ng r e s pons i bl y w i s e a nd f i na nc i a l l y w i s e s o. . M a r t i n: a nd I t hi nk how i t ha s c ha nge d i s t ha t t he w om a n. . now t he y r e e qua l l i ke . s he pr ove d . or s he s pr ovi ng t ha t s he c a n do t he e xa c t s a m e t hi ng a s t he guy c a n. . you know l i ke . be i ng r e s pons i bl y w i s e a nd f i na nc i a l l y w i s e s o. . O s c a r : I t hi nk. . O s c a r : I t hi nk. . R U B Y : S o w ha t doe s . w ha t doe s t ha t m e a n f or . our t r a di t i ons o f . H i s pa ni c m e n? R U B Y : S o w ha t doe s . w ha t doe s t ha t m e a n f or . our t r a di t i ons o f . H i s pa ni c m e n? M a r t i n: I t hi nk . i n t ha t c a s e . m a c hi s m o, l i ke . ki nda di s a ppe a r s I don t know M a r t i n: I t hi nk . i n t ha t c a s e . m a c hi s m o, l i ke . ki nda d i s a ppe a r s I don t know T hi s a nd t he s i m i l a r c onve r s a t i ons t ha t f o l l ow e d r e f l e c t e d t he i r de ve l opi ng pe r c e pt i on on t he dyna m i c r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n m e n a nd w om e n a nd how w om e n a r e be c om i ng m or e i nde pe nde nt a s a r e s ul t of t he de m a nds a nd oppo r t uni t i e s pl a c e d be f or e w or ki ng a nd

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134 s i ngl e w om e n. U l t i m a t e l y t he gr oup w a s s t r ugg l i n g w i t h t he i r pe r c e pt i ons a bout m a c hi s m o a nd t he de f i ni t i on of how m a c hi s m o f i t i nt o t he i r c ur r e nt w o r l d. A s t he ne w c ons t r uc t f or m a c hi s m o e vol ve s w i t hi n t he p r oba bl e c ont e xt of e nc ul t ur a t i on, i t w i l l be i nt e r e s t i ng how t hi s g r oup c a r r i e s m a c hi s m o t o t h e ne xt ge ne r a t i on. C l as h be t w e e n t he ol d and ne w m ac hi s m o W he n l ooki ng a t t he be ha vi or a nd de m e a nor of t he s e boys dur i ng t he s e f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons dur i ng t hi s pa r t i c ul a r di s c us s i on, I w a s ke e nl y a w a r e of t he i r f a c i a l r e a c t i ons pos t ur e a nd ot he r non ve r b a l c ue s A f e w s a t ba c k a nd de c i de d j us t t o obs e r ve w hi l e ot he r s w e r e qui c k c ont r i but or s t o t he c onve r s a t i on. A t ot he r t i m e s t he r e w a s a s hi f t i n t he phys i c a l pl a c e m e nt of t he boys T he y pl a c e d t he i r ha nds be hi nd t he i r he a ds s om e r ubbi ng t he i r a r m s T hi s s hi f t i n body pl a c e m e nt c r e a t e d a s ubt l e t e ns i on a m ong t he gr oup, m a de i t a ppa r e nt of t he i r s t r ugg l e be t w e e n o l d de f i ni t i ons o f m a c hi s m o a nd a ne w l y r e vi s e d s oc i e t a l de f i ni t i on. S e ve r a l t i m e s t ow a r d t he e nd of t hi s c onve r s a t i on, I f ound m ys e l f pr oddi ng t h e i r r e f l e c t i ons on m a c hi s m o w i t h m y ow n ni ne ye a r m a r i t a l e xpe r i e nc e w i t h a dom i na nt H i s pa ni c m a l e w ho e m br a c e d t he t r a di t i ona l r ol e s of t hi s i de nt i t y I n r e f l e c t i on, t hi s pe r i od of m y l i f e w a s ove r c a s t w i t h f e a r a nd s ubm i s s i on w hi c h de f i ne d w ha t I w a s a l l ow e d and not al l ow e d t o do ( E x s ha pe m y e ye br ow s l e a r n t o dr i ve ha ve a c he c kbook, ha ve a c a r e e r e t c ) T h i s nudgi ng e nc our a ge d t he b oys t o r e f l e c t upon w ho t he y w e r e a nd w ha t t hi s c onve r s a t i on, m e a nt f or t he m I f e l t a n i n na t e ne e d a t t hi s poi nt of t he c onve r s a t i on t o s ha r e m y t hough t s a nd f e e l i ngs w i t h t he boys

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135 R : I t s ha r d I t s ha r d t o t hi nk a bout l i ke a l l t he s e l i t t l e t hi ngs P or que [ be c a us e ] i n o ur c ul t u r e . no m s l o ha c e m os por que no s a be m os na da m s ve r da d? [ w e don t onl y do i t [ a c t ] be c a us e w e don t know w ha t e l s e t o do r i ght ? ] M i r a m os a c o m o l os hom br e s t r a t a n a s us m uj e r e s [ W e s e e how m e n t r e a t t he w o m e n] . l a s r e s pons a bi l i da de s de l hom br e [ t he r e s pons i bi l i t i e s of t he m a n ] a nd. . uno no m s . you j us t you j us t do i t be c a us e t h a t s pa r t of our c ul t ur e P e r o [ B ut ] . t o t a l k . t o t a l k a bout i t a nd s a y, O ka y, w ha t do I be l i e ve ? W ha t do I m e a n ? Q u e s pe r o y o de m i m i s m o [ W ha t do I e xpe c t of m ys e l f ] w he n i t c om e s t o m a c hi s m o a nd m y r ol e a s a m a n i n a f a m i l y? I t s a nd t he n you s t a r t t o t hi nk . W e l l oka y w ha t doe s t ha t m e a n f o r m e ? S o i t s i t s s uppos e d t o m a ke you t hi nk. I t s s uppos e d t o be ha r d M y pe r s ona l r e f l e c t i ons on t hi s m om e nt not e d m y ow n de s i r e f or t he m t o i nt e r r oga t e t he i r ow n s t a nc e on m a c hi s m o a nd i t s r e l e va nc e t ow a r d w om e n, f a m i l y a nd t he i r f ut u r e s D i s c our s e of f i ght i ng. A not he r m a j or a r e a t ha t e voke d t he l i t e r a c y of m a c hi s m o w a s our c onve r s a t i ons a r ound f i ght i ng T hi s l i t e r a c y w a s be s t e xpr e s s e d w he n a pa r t i c i pa nt J ua n, w a s a nt i c i pa t i ng hi s i m pe ndi ng a ppe a r a nc e i n c our t W he n a s ke d a bout t he e ve nt s pr e c e di ng t he c our t a ppe a r a nc e he s ha r e d hi s s t or y, w hi c h de pi c t e d a D i s c our s e f ul l y unde r s t ood by t he s e H i s pa ni c boys a s t he i ns i de r s W he n a s ke d w hy he w a s uni que J ua n r e pl i e d, I m not i n a ga ng. Y e t c oi nc i de nt a l l y, he ha d a n upc o m i ng c our t da t e f or f i ght i ng. E ve n

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136 t hough t hi s f i ght w a s of f s c hool gr ounds i t w a s dur i ng s c hool hour s a nd t hus w a s c ons i de r e d a vi ol a t i on of s c hool pol i c y, a s w e l l a s pr om pt i ng a c r i m i na l m i s de m e a nor c ha r ge T he f i ght w a s s uppos e d l y ove r a f o r m e r gi r l f r i e nd. I nt r i gui ngl y, he s ha r e d hi s s t or y c a s ua l l y a nd be ga n by s ha r i ng hi s t hi nki ng a s he dr ove o f f c a m pus t o m e e t f or t he f i ght T he r e w e r e a bout f i ve c a r s t he r e w a i t i ng f o r m e A t f i r s t I t hough t dr i ve a w a y m a n. I f you di e w ho w i l l f i nd you he r e your m o m w i l l not f i nd you. T he n I t hought i f I l e a ve now I c a n ne ve r hol d m y he a d u p. S o ok I ha ve t o do t h i s H i s f r i e nds w ho m e t hi m t he r e w a r ne d hi m a bout hi s oppone nt s r e put e d he a l t h i s s ue w hi c h w a s a hol e i n h i s c he s t bone B e c a r e f ul m a n, you c a n ki l l t hi s dude J ua n w e nt on t o e xpl a i n how he f ought w i t h t he i nt e nt not t o punc h t hi s ki d i n t he c he s t I w a s ve r y c a r e f ul o f w he r e I punc he d hi m J ua n s a i d. A s t he ot he r boys r a l l i e d a r ound bot h f i ght e r s t he f i ght w e nt on f or a bout 15 20 m i nut e s a c c or di ng t o J ua n. T he ot he r ki d w a s r e a l l y m e s s e d up. H e w a s a s ki ng m e t o s t op! S o, I l e t hi m l os e J ua n s t a t e d. W e s hook ha nds a nd got i n ou r c a r s a nd he a de d ba c k t o s c hool J ua n c onc l ude d. T he gi r l w a s ne ve r a ga i n m e nt i one d t hr oughou t t he s ha r i ng of t he s t or y T he t e r m i nol ogy us e d by J ua n s t r uc k m e odd. I t w a s not m y pe r c e pt i ons of t he r e gul a r w a y a young a dol e s c e nt boy t out s t ha t I w on t he f i ght or I m e s s e d hi m up ba d. T he i de a of a young H i s pa ni c boy l e t t i ng a no t he r H i s pa ni c boy l os e m a de m e que s t i on a l l I ha d l e a r ne d a nd r e a d a bout s t e r e ot ypi c a l H i s pa ni c m a c hi s m o. I ha d be e n e xpos e d t o t he t ype of m a c hi s m o t he boys br ought up e a r l i e r w he r e t he H i s pa ni c m a l e

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137 r e t a i ns a l l pow e r a t a l l c os t s H e r e t hi s young m a n w a s w i nni ng a f i ght a nd ye t he s t a t e s I l e t hi m l os e J ua n w e nt ba c k t o s c hool a nd on t o hi s ne xt c l a s s phys i c a l e duc a t i on, w he r e t he c oa c h s e nt hi m t o t he c l i ni c f o r t he c ut s he ha d on hi s f a c e T he y t he n c a l l e d i n t he r e s our c e of f i c e r w he n i t w a s obv i ous t ha t t hi s youn g m a n ha d be e n i n a f i ght J ua n s us e of t e r m s w a s s pe c i f i c a nd out of t he nor m w he n c ons i de r i ng t he m e di a ve r s i on of f i ght i ng, r i va l s pound i ng e a c h ot he r f or r e ve nge E ve n t hough t he boys m a de no r e f e r e nc e t o l i vi ng up t o a n i de ol ogi c a l de f i ni t i on of m a c hi s m o, t h i s l i t e r a c y w a s unde r s t ood by m os t of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy. T he y s e e m e d t o ha ve a n a gr e e d upon s e t o f r u l e s T hos e w ho w e r e pr i vy t o t he m e a ni ng of t he s e a c t i ons a nd w or ds w e r e i ns i de r s O t he r boys s poke ba c k t o t he D i s c our s e of f i ght i ng ye t r e f us e d t o be r e c or de d. T he boys e i t he r a s ke d f or m e t o t ur n of f t he r e c or de r o r w a i t e d unt i l t he e nd of t he f oc us g r oup, w he n a l l o t he r s ha d l e f t t o s ha r e t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s i n r e ga r ds t o f i ght i ng. C ol l e c t i ve l y, t h e y s poke of s i m i l a r r i t ua l s a r ound f i ght s a nd how one ha d t o be hono r a bl e a nd hol d your m a nhood i n r e ga r d s t o c onf l i c t w hi c h m e a nt t o ke e p your honor E ve n i f w e ha t e e a c h o t he r w e w a l k a w a y a nd l e a ve i t t he r e O t he r H i s pa ni c boys w ho m e nt i one d f i ght s t ha t ha ppe ne d w i t hi n or out s i de of t he c l a s s r oom e xpa nde d on t hi s l i ne of t hi nki ng A s m e nt i one d e a r l i e r dur i ng t he r e gul a r E ngl i s h c l a s s obs e r va t i on, t w o boys w e nt a t i t w i t h e a c h ot he r T he a c t ua l f i ght l a s t e d a bout t hr e e m i nut e s i t e nde d w i t h one boy s e nt t o t he of f i c e a nd one s i t t i ng i n c l a s s f or t he r e s t of c l a s s pe r i od. A c c or di ng t o t he ot he r boy s t hi s ki nd o f f i ght i ng ha ppe ns a m ong f r i e nds a nd e ne m i e s a nd c a n be p l a nne d or e r upt w i t h t he s a m e e ndi ng. E a c h w a l ki ng

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138 a w a y a s ki ng t he ot he r A r e you a l r i gh t ? or L e t i t e nd he r e I n m y j our na l I w r i t e I w a nt s o m uc h t o de b r i e f t he c onve r s a t i on w i t h t he c l a s s T o t hi s pr i m a r y t e a c he r t he f i ght br ough t t e ns i on a nd c on f us i on t o t he c l a s s a nd t a i nt e d t he l e a r ni ng e nvi r on m e nt I r e m e m be r l e a vi ng t hi s c onve r s a t i on t hi nki ng a bout J ua n s i nt e nt i ona l w or d c hoi c e I l e t hi m l os e A f i na l a r e a t ha t w a s e xpr e s s e d i n r e l a t i on t o m a c h i s m o w a s H i s pa ni c boys a s s oc i a t i on w i t h pe e r pr e s s ur e i n r e l a t i on t o ga ng a f f i l i a t i ons I t w a s i nt e r e s t i ng how t hi s t he m e r e ve a l e d i t s e l f w i t h t he onl y f our m e m be r s o f t he s t udy. T he ol de s t H i s pa ni c boy, L or e nz o, w a s 20 ye a r s ol d a nd a ge t t i ng r e a dy t o g r a dua t e f r om R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool H e e xe r t e d hi s voi c e w he ne ve r pos s i bl e a t t i m e s m a ki ng i t ha r d t o l i f t t he l e ve l o f i nt e r a c t i on f r o m ot he r m e m be r s of t he g r oup. H e t a l ke d a bout hi s ol d w a y of t hi nki ng ba c k i n t he da y a s i f he w e r e a n ol de r ge nt l e m a n r e f l e c t i ng on h i s younge r ye a r s I t w a s i nt e r e s t i ng t o he a r t hi s young m a n t a l k a bout hi s c h oi c e s a nd s e l f pr oc l a i m e d e m pow e r m e nt I t r e ve a l e d a pa r a di gm s hi f t f r om t h e ve r y t r a di t i ona l s t e r e ot ypi c a l w a y o f t hi nki ng a bout m a c hi s m o t o one o f s hi f t i ng t he i nn e r pow e r t o c ha nge t he c our s e o f hi s l i f e H e s ha r e d hi s i ns i ght a nd l i ne of t hi nki ng a bo ut l e a vi ng hi s ga ng m e m be r s hi p. H e de s c r i be s hi s vi e w s of a bout how ot he r s c a n do t he s a m e L or e nz o: T he y don t go t h r ough i t a l l t he w a y. T he y don t g o t hr ough i t T he y c a n s a y, O h I m goi ng t o c ha nge I w a nt t o ge t out J us t t he y don t m ove a w a y f r om i t Y ou kno w w ha t I m t a l ki ng a bout ? R : Y e a h.

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139 L or e nz o: J us t l i ke i f I w a nt t o m ove out of a ga ng, t he n go m ove out B ut s t i l l t he y l l c om e up t o you. H e y l e t s go, l e t s go! I gue s s you budge i n. G o, c om e out I s e e a bunc h o f t he m e ve r y da y, t he y be l i ke C om e one C om e c hi l l w i t h us R : S o t he y w a nt t o c ha nge but t he y r e a l l y don t w a nt t o c ha nge ? L or e nz o: T he y w a nt t o c ha nge I t s j us t t ha t t he y don t got t ha t m e nt a l i t y. Y ou know w ha t I m t a l ki n a bout ? T he y got i t s t uc k i n t he i r he a d R : W ha t ki nd of m e nt a l i t y do you ne e d? L i ke i f y ou l i ke i f t he r e w e r e 12 pe opl e he r e a nd t he y s a i d, you kno w W e w a nt t o c ha nge L or e nz o : t e l l us how t o c ha nge T e l l us ho w t o ge t ou t of i t W ha t w oul d you W ha t s t he m e nt a l i t y? L or e nz o: M e ? W ha t I d t e l l t he m i s t hi s j us t l e a ve a l l t ha t I f you r e a l l y w a nt t o c ha nge j us t go a nd be l i ke H e y br o D o l i ke I d i d. I m done w i t h you. I m not ha ngi ng a r o und a l l ya l l Y a l l a i n t c ool Y a l l a i n t not h i ng but l i t t l e ki ds f i ght i ng ove r s om e s t upi d t hi ng t ha t a i n t you r s a nd w e r e not go i ng t o w or k n ot hi ng t o you Y ou know ? Y e a h you m i ght s a y, O h, I ow n t hi s but you r e a l l y don t J us t c hi l l J us t be by yo ur s e l f I t s t he be s t w a y. R : Y e a h.

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140 L or e nz o: C uz you c a n t ge t i n t r oubl e i f you r e by your s e l f J us t ge t a j ob J us t t r y t o ke e p you r f oc u s a nd t r y t o ke e p out of t r oubl e T ha t s w he n I got a j ob R : S o f i nd s om e t hi ng t o ke e p you f oc us e d. L or e nz o: O c c upi e d. R : O c c upi e d. S o t ha t w a y you don t de vi a t e L or e nz o s pe r s pe c t i ve a t t i m e s s e e m e d t o be w e l l b e yond hi s ye a r s Y e t t he r e w a s a m om e nt dur i ng our i ndi vi dua l i n t e r vi e w w he r e a p a i r of H i s pa ni c boys w a l ke d by a s w e s a t unde r t he c our t ya r d pa vi l i on H i s f a c e f r oz e a s hi s e ye s t ur ne d t o w ha t r e m i nde d m e of a pi t bul l f i xe d a nd l oc ke d, r e a dy t o a t t a c k. I a s ke d, D o you know t he m ? H i s r e s pons e w a s e va s i ve but hi s e ye s s t a ye d t a r ge t e d a s t he y w a l ke d w e l l be yond our vi s i on. I w a s t a ke n ba c k by hi s be ha vi or w hi c h w a s i n c onf l i c t w i t h hi s w or ds H e qui c kl y r e t ur ne d t o t he s of t e ye s t ha t ha d c ont i nua l l y s ha r e d dur i ng f oc us gr oups a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s T hi s ga ve m e i ns i ght t o t he i nt e r na l t ur m oi l be t w e e n w ha t s om e boys s e e a s hope f or t he i r f ut ur e ve r s us t he e xpe c t a t i ons of t he i r pr e s e nt r e a l i t y. I w a s l e f t t o w onde r i f t he boys i n t hi s pos i t i on a r e c ont i nua l l y pul l e d ba c k i n t o t he f or m e r r o l e s a s ga ng m e m be r on c ons t a nt a l e r t or i s i t a w i s hf ul f a a de t ha t ne e ds t o be w a i t e d out f or t he e nd r e s ul t ( e nd of ga ng m e m be r s hi p) t o be de t e r m i ne d. W ha t e ve r t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on t hi s c onf l i c t c ont i nue s t o i m pa c t t he de c i s i ons m a de by t hi s m a r gi n a l i z e d popul a t i on. E du c at i on : H e s al r e ady l os t T he onl y pub l i c l i t e r a c y t ha t t he boys pr i or i t i z e d t h r ough f oc us gr oups a nd i nt e r vi e w s w a s e duc a t i on. T hi s w a s voi c e d du r i ng our f i r s t f oc us gr oup br a i ns t or m

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141 s e s s i on i n t e r m s of s c hool e duc at i on t e ac he r s m e nt or s gr aduat i on, f ut ur e t hi nk i ng ahe ad, a nd be i ng s uc c e s s f ul ( A ppe ndi x H ) D i s c us s i ons a r ound t hi s c onc e pt w e r e pur pos e f ul l y s t r uc t ur e d due t o t he c om pl e xi t y o f t h e i r i nt e r c onne c t e d publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) T he r e f o r e s ubs e qu e nt s e s s i ons be ga n w i t h gui di ng que s t i ons pul l e d di r e c t l y f r om t he P e r s ona l I nt e r vi e w Q ue s t i onna i r e ( A ppe ndi x D ) a nd a r e a s f ol l ow s : 1. W ha t doe s i t m e a n t o be e duc a t e d? 2. H ow ha ve / ha ve not s c hool s he l pe d you ge t e duc a t e d? 3. W ha t i s t he m os t di f f i c ul t t hi ng a bout r e a di ng/ w r i t i ng? 4. W ha t i s t he m os t s uc c e s s f ul t hi ng a bout r e a di ng/ w r i t i ng? 5. H ow c a n s c hool l i t e r a c y be c ha nge d t o be t t e r f i t t h e ne e ds of H i s pa ni c boys ? W hat doe s i t m e an t o be e duc at e d? T he c ol l e c t i ve voi c e o f t he boys e xpr e s s e d t he i r be l i e f t ha t be i ng a n e duc a t e d pe r s on w a s a n a l l e nc om pa s s i ng e vol ut i on. Y ou d r e s s be t t e r t a l k be t t e r you l i ve i n a be t t e r hous e a nd r i de i n s t yl e w hi c h w a s a c know l e dge d by m a ny he a d nods a r ound t he t a bl e T he y w e r e a l s o ke e nl y a w a r e t ha t be i ng e duc a t e d w a s a m i xt ur e o f book s m a r t a nd t he a bi l i t y t o know r i ght f r om w r ong T he s e t w o i de a s w e r e c l us t e r e d i n t o a nd t a l ke d ba c k t o i n t w o di f f e r e nt w a ys B ook s m ar t w a s de s c r i be d a s be i ng good a t l i ke books Y e t t he y a c know l e dge d, s om e pe op l e don t r e a l l y unde r s t a nd t he m [ books ] H a vi ng a good voc a bul a r y a nd m a s t e r y of gr a m m a r ( A ppe ndi x I ) w a s a l s o m e t w i t h a f f i r m a t i on you t a l k di f f e r e nt l y l i ke s m a r t l i ke T he s e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e

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142 s e e n a s a t t a i na bl e f or ot he r s but c ol l e c t i ve l y, t he s e boys f e l t w e r e not a t t a i na bl e by H i s pa ni c boys T he boys e xpounde d upon t hi s book s m a r t de f i n i t i on by c ons t r uc t i ng i t w i t h a not he r di m e ns i on, t h i s be i ng t he a bi l i t y t o m a ke t he r i ght c hoi c e s J ul i o s um s up t hi s s e nt i m e nt by s t a t i ng: Y ou c a n be s m a r t i n s c hool B ut onc e you l e a ve y ou know w ha t I m s a yi ng; you don t m a ke t he r i ght c hoi c e s out i n t he s t r e e t s T he n, you c a n m e s s up a nd you c a n be r e a l s m a r t i n t he books A nd t ha t don t m a ke a di f f e r e nc e on you r c hoi c e s a nd w ha t you do. L or e nz o f u r t he r s uppor t s t hi s i de a by s ha r i ng t he f ol l ow i ng: L or e nz o: A l ot of pe opl e a r e l oc ke d up. T he y r e not dum b. Y ou know w ha t I m s a yi ng. T he y r e s m a r t t he y got e du c a t e d. I t s j us t t ha t t he w r ong c hoi c e s t ha t t he y do Y ou know w h a t I m s a yi ng. P e opl e I know t ha t a r e doi ng t w e nt y/ t hi r t y ye a r s r i ght now f or one m i s t a ke t ha t t he y di d N ot c uz t he y w e r e n t s m a r t T he y gr a dua t e d. L i ke m y c ous i n, he s doi ng t e n, r i ght no w H e gr a dua t e d. B ut he j us t di dn t m a ke t he r i gh t de c i s i ons Y ou know w ha t I m s a yi ng. T ha t s w hy; i t s j us t a l ot o f di f f e r e nt t hi ngs T he unde r l yi ng be l i e f s e e m e d t o be t ha t t he m e r e a c t of g r a dua t i on m a ke s one s m a r t books m a r t A nd f or t hi s popul a t i on t he a c t of m a ki ng t he r i ght c hoi c e s a m o r a l di m e ns i on of t hi s l i t e r a c y, i s a l s o a n e l e m e nt w he n c ons i de r i ng t he m s e l ve s a nd ot he r s a s

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143 e duc a t e d. T he boys a l s o us e d w or ds l i ke r e s pe c t f ul hum bl e a nd s uc c e s s f ul w he n de s c r i bi ng w ha t be i ng e duc a t e d l ooks l i ke a ga i n l i nki ng m or a l i t y t o be i ng e duc a t e d. A l ong w i t h p r ovi di ng c l e a r de f i ni t i ons f or w ha t be i ng e duc a t e d l ooks l i ke t he s e boys s ha r e d hope s a nd dr e a m s of w he r e t he y s e e t h e m s e l ve s w he n f ul l y e duc a t e d. N i ne out of t he 17 H i s pa ni c boys c l a i m e d t o ha ve ne ve r e ve n t hought of t he i r ye a r s be yond hi gh s c hool or w e r e s t i l l unde c i de d, ye t w i t h i n t hi s gr oup w e ha d t w o a s pi r i ng a r c hi t e c t s one a t t or ne y, a nur s e a n opt om e t r i s t a l a nds c a pe r a m e c ha ni c a pol i c e of f i c e r a nd a c ons t r uc t i on w or ke r T he f a c t t ha t t he s e pa r t i c ul a r boys a r t i c ul a t e w ha t t he y d r e a m a s pi r e t o be c om e s how s t he i r i de a l i s t i c vi e w s of t he e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m W ha t r e m a i ns t o be s e e n i s how t he s e s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s w i l l f a c e t he a c a de m i c r i gor t he s e voc a t i ons w i l l r e qui r e H ow hav e s c hool s he l pe d y ou ge t e duc at e d? W he n a ddr e s s i ng how s c hool he l pe d t he m ge t e du c a t e d, t he boys s t a t e d t ha t s c hool a dde d t o t he i r c ont e nt know l e dge s pe c i f i c a l l y a bout H i s t or y a nd E ngl i s h. S c hool w a s a l s o c ons i de r e d a m e a ns t o a n e nd. T he boys r e por t e d how t he y f e l t t ha t s c hool pr e pa r e s you f or t he w o r l d o f w or k D u r i ng t hi s d i s c us s i on J ul i o s t a t e d: J ul i o: I s a y s c hool j us t m a ke s us be t t e r I gue s s i t pr e pa r e s us f or a l ot of t hi ngs Y ou got t o w a ke up e a r l y, you know w ha t I m s a yi ng t o c om e t o s c hool t ha t s ki nd of p r e pa r i ng us f or g oi ng t o w or k a nd you know w ha t I m s a yi ng? I t he l ps you out i n a w hol e bunc h of w a ys I t t e a c he s you t hi ngs you know l i ke he w a s s a yi ng, t ha t you don t e ve n know T he y w i l l t e a c h you t hi ngs t ha t y ou di dn t e ve n

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144 know t ha t e xi s t e d, pe opl e you di dn t e ve n know [ a bout ] un l e s s you c om e t o s c hool t o f i nd out I s a y i t he l ps T he y a l s o s a w t he va l ue o f w ha t c om i ng t o s c hool a dds t o t he bi g s c he m e of l i f e by e nt r us t i ng t ha t t he i ns t i t ut i on o f s c hool pr e pa r e s yo u f or t he w or l d of w or k ( di s c i pl i ne ) T he s e boys c l e a r l y a r t i c ul a t e d w ha t i t m e a ns t o be e duc a t e d, book s m a r t ( i n t e l l e c t ) a nd t he a bi l i t y t o m a ke good c hoi c e s ( m o r a l i t y) H ow c an s c hool l i t e r ac y be c hange d t o be t t e r f i t t h e ne e ds of H i s pani c boy s ? A not he r que s t i on t ha t a ddr e s s e d t he a r e a o f e duc a t i on w a s H ow c a n s c hool l i t e r a c y be c ha nge d t o f i t t he ne e ds of H i s pa ni c boys ? T hr oughout a l l f oc us gr oup s t he boys voi c e d t he i r de s i r e f or m e nt or t e a c he r s a nd bi l i ngua l t e a c he r s M e nt or t e a c he r s t o s pe c i f i c a l l y he l p w i t h c a r e e r c hoi c e s r e a di ng, w r i t i ng, m a i n a r e a s of s t udy B i l i ngua l t e a c he r s t he y be l i e ve d, w oul d he l p t he m w i t h l a ngua ge not f or t he s a k e of s t a yi ng w i t hi n t he S pa ni s h l a ngua ge but f or unde r s t a ndi ng t he t o pi c a t ha nd. T he s e t e a c he r s t he y i ns i s t e d, m us t unde r s t a nd you a s a n H i s pa ni c a nd s pe a k r e a l S pa ni s h. J os ue e xpl a i ne d t he r ol e o f l a ngua ge a nd i t s i m pa c t on l i ngui s t i c a l l y di ve r s e l e a r ne r s H e s t a t e d: J os ue : I t hi nk i t w oul d be good t o ha ve b i l i ngua l t e a c he r s t ool i ke w e s a i d l a s t t i m e C uz s om e t hi ngs l i ke I don t unde r s t a nd i n E ngl i s h e ve n i f t he y e xpl a i n i t t o m e I don t unde r s t a nd i t B ut l i ke i f a b i l i ngua l t e a c he r c om e s t o m e a nd t he y t e l l m e i n S pa ni s h, you know e s t o, e s t o, y e s t o [ t hi s t hi s a nd t hi s ] L i ke I m i ght be a bl e t o unde r s t a nd i t m or e t ha n i f t he y t ol d m e i n E ngl i s h. Y ou know w ha t I m s a yi ng.

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145 J os ue w a s a f l ue nt s pe a ke r of bot h E ngl i s h a nd S pa ni s h w ho c l e a r l y t hi nks i n bot h l a ngua ge s a nd a r t i c ul a t e d hi s ne e d f or t he c ogni t i v e s uppor t of hi s na t i ve l a ngua ge w hi c h he be l i e ve s w i l l c om e f r om bi l i ngua l t e a c he r s I n t he a r t i c l e P r e s e r v i ng t he C ul t ur al I de nt i t y of t he E ngl i s h L anguage L e ar ne r S um a r y ono & O r t i z ( 200 4 ) quot e P e t e r E l bow w ho a s s e r t s t ha t s t ude nt s m us t us e t he l a ngua ge t ha t i s i n t ouc h w i t h ou r [ t he i r ] unc ons c i ous or w e [ t he y] l os e ha l f ou r [ t he i r ] m e nt a l s t r e ngt h ( p 18) I t i s e vi de nt t ha t J os ue unknow i ngl y i s a w a r e of t he va l ue of ha vi ng t he s uppor t o f hi s na t i ve l a ngua ge T he y w e r e a l s o ve r y a w a r e of w hi c h t e a c he r s t he y w e r e w i l l i ng t o w or k f or a nd w hi c h t e a c he r s t he y kne w c ons i de r e d t he m l os t T hi s w a s e xpl a i ne d by J ul i o w ho s t a t e d: J ul i o: O ne t hi ng t oo l i ke t e a c he r s ne e d t o s t a r t t r yi ng o n you [ ke e p ur gi ng you t o do w e l l ] C uz l i ke m e t he y be T he y a i n t e ve n pus hi ng m e t o do m y w o r k no m or e S om e pe opl e [ ot he r s t ude nt s ] don t e ve n c om e t o c l a s s T he r e t he y go puf f i n a r ound [ s ki ppi ng] a nd t he y don t e ve n s a y not hi n t o t he m no m or e H e s al r e ady l os t a nd I gue s s t he y don t e ve n be ha vi ng no f a i t h i n t he m no m or e T he r e j us t l i ke go a he a d, a nd l e a ve t he m or go a he a d, j us t go t o s l e e p or l i s t e n t o your i P od, w ha t e ve r a nd do n t e ve n pa y a t t e nt i on no m o r e c uz you a i n t gonna pa s s no m or e T he y j us t g i v e up on y ou I t hi nk t ha t s one t hi ng t ha t t he y got t o be w or ki n on, t oo.

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146 T hi s c onve r s a t i on s how s a r e c i pr oc a l r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he s t ude nt a nd t he t e a c he r Y e t t he i r e xpe c t a t i on i s f o r t he t e a c he r t o unde r s t a nd t he i r ne e ds a nd t o ha ve f a i t h by not gi vi ng up on t he m a nd s e e i ng t he m a s H e s a l r e a dy l os t T he s e boys ha d e ndur e d m ul t i pl e f a i l u r e s i n c l a s s r oom s a s w e l l a s on s t a t e a s s e s s m e nt s T he y s a w t he i r r e s pons i bi l i t y a s s t ude nt s ye t he l d t e a c he r s e qua l l y i f not m or e r e s pons i bl e f o r t he i r e duc a t i ons T he y c ol l e c t i ve l y c l a i m e d t he y c oul d f ul f i l l t he i r r ol e of s t ude nt i f t he y ha d m or e s uppor t J os e : M or e one on one t i m e L i ke s om e pe opl e a r e s c a r e d t o t e l l pe opl e I don t unde r s t a nd i t M os t of t he m do [ un de r s t a nd] W ha t I do i s I j us t s i t ba c k, i f I don t unde r s t a nd. I t s e e m s l i ke m or e pe opl e ne e d t o s l ow dow n o r go s l ow e r N ot a l l pe opl e a r e a t t ha t s pe e d, l i ke t he y l l be on t he ne xt c ha pt e r a nd I l l be s t i l l s t uc k on s a m e one N e e d t o s l ow dow n a nd gi ve s om e m or e one on one T hi s s e nt i m e nt r e f l e c t e d h i s ne e d t o be s e e n, he a r d a nd r e c ogni z e d i n t he c l a s s r oom I t i s a f t e r a l l t he t e a c he r s r e s pons i bi l i t y t o m e e t t he i n di vi dua l ne e ds of e a c h s t ude nt I n t hi s c a s e J os e s i m pl y w i t hdr a w s a nd i s l e f t w i t h i nc om pl e t e unde r s t a ndi ng of t h e i nf o r m a t i on i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r W he n t e a c he r s f a i l t o di f f e r e nt i a t e i ns t r uc t i on, t he y f ur t he r m a r gi na l i z e t hi s popul a t i on. T he i r pe r c e pt i on of t hi s r e c i pr oc a l r e l a t i ons hi p of t e n hi nge d upon w he t he r t he boys t hought t he t e a c he r unde r s t ood t he i r ne e d s a nd c a r e d a bout t he m a s i ndi vi dua l s T he y w a nt e d e duc a t or s w ho not onl y c oul d s pe a k bot h E ngl i s h a nd S pa ni s h but w ho a l s o unde r s t ood t he i r c ul t u r e A ddi t i ona l l y, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpr e s s e d t he i r de s i r e f or t ut or s

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147 a nd one on one he l p T he voi c e s pr e s e nt e d he r e c o nve y a c l e a r m e s s a ge t ha t i f gi ve n m or e s uppor t o r m o r e t e a c he r s w ho be l i e ve d i n t he i r a bi l i t y t he boys w oul d r i s e t o t he oc c a s i on. T he di s pa r i t y be t w e e n w ha t H i s pa ni c boys w a nt i n t he i r e duc a t i on a nd w ha t i s pr ovi de d w a s e vi de nt i n t he I nt e ns i ve R e a di ng c l a s s O s c a r w a s s i t t i ng i n t he ba c k of t he c l a s s r oom a nd w a s obs e r ve d r e a di ng t he book Se e df ol k s by P a ul F l e i s c hm a n ( 1999) T he t e a c he r w a s gi vi ng de t a i l s be hi nd s c hool a nnounc e m e nt s m e nt i one d on t he m or ni ng s c hool ne w s T hi s pa r t i c ul a r H i s pa ni c boy w a s s i t t i ng i n t he ba c k of t he c l a s s i nt e nt l y r e a di ng t hi s book, he a d dow n s houl de r s s c r unc he d e ye s m ovi ng f r om t e a c he r t o pa ge t e a c he r t o pa ge H e c ont i nue d t o r e a d e ve n t h r ough t he c l a s s di s c us s i on m ove d t o S e ni or S ki p da y. W i t h e a ge r ne s s t he t e a c he r s ha r e d he r s e ni or s ki p da y e xpe r i e nc e O s c a r l ooke d up, gi vi ng t he i l l us i on of l i s t e ni ng by s ne a ki ng a p e e k a t t he pa ge w he n t he t e a c he r w a s not l ooki ng, ye t c ont i nue d t o r e a d i nt e nt l y T he t e a c he r m ove d on t o i nt r oduc e voc a bul a r y f r om a s t or y i n t he c l a s s t e xt w or kbook T he n, t he t e a c he r c a ught O s c a r r e a di ng a nd f i r m l y a s ke d, Y ou ne e d t o put t ha t book a w a y! H e r e l uc t a nt l y w a l ke d t o t he f r ont o f t he r oom a nd s t a t e d, but M i s s t hi s i s t he be s t book i n t he w hol e s c hool W a l ki ng s l ow l y, s huf f l i ng hi s f e e t t o t he f r ont of t he r oom a nd he p l a c e d t he book on s he l f T he t e a c he r r e pl i e d, G ood, w e w i l l r e a d i t l a t e r A s a p r i m a r y t e a c he r I w a nt e d t o s t a nd up a nd s hout D o you r e a l i z e w ha t he i s s a yi ng? I t i s t h e be s t book i n t he w hol e s c hool T he s t or y s t a ye d w i t h m e a l l da y. A s I s ha r e d t hi s s t or y w i t h c ol l e a gue s I c oul d he a r m y ow n j udgm e nt t ow a r ds t he t e a c he r w ho m i s s e d a n oppo r t uni t y t o he l p t hi s l i ngui s t i c a l l y

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148 di ve r s e H i s pa ni c boy gr a s p t he e nj oym e nt of r e a di ng a book t ha t c a pt i va t e d hi m a s a r e a de r T he s e boys de f i ni t e l y s a w e duc a t i on a s a w a y o f p r oduc i ng a be t t e r l i f e L o r e nz o s t a t e d t hi s qui t e c l e a r l y du r i ng t he f ol l ow i ng c onve r s a t i on: L or e nz o: Y ou l i ve l i f e t o t he f ul l e s t ; know w ha t I m s a yi ng? R : O ka y. L or e nz o: G e t a s m uc h e duc a t i on. T o m e how I s e e l i f e I s e e l i f e a s i n l i ke I s a i d a ga m e K now w ha t I m s a yi n ? B ut you c oul d upgr a de your l e ve l R : L e a r n how t o pl a y i t [ t he ga m e ] ? L or e nz o: K now w ha t I m s a yi n ? L i ke your e duc a t i on l e ve l your m one y l e ve l you r w i s e s t r e e t w i s e J us t g e t pow e r f ul w i t h your br a i n know w ha t I m s a yi n ? H e r e L or e nz o c l e a r l y us e d t he m e t a phor of a vi de o ga m e a nd l i nke d i t t o l i f e H e s e e s t ha t l i ke a ga m e t he a dva nt a ge s of ge t [ t i ng] a s m uc h e duc a t i on a s you c a n a nd how t hi s e qua t e s t o qua l i t y of l i f e m one y, pow e r f ul w i t h your b r a i n ( i nt e l l e c t ) a nd w i s e s t r e e t w i s e ( r e s pe c t on t he s t r e e t ) A s w i t h m os t t he m e s t he s e boys r e f e r r e d t o t he i r p a r e nt s de s i r e t o i ns pi r e t he m t o ga i n a be t t e r l i f e w hi l e r e s pondi ng t o s a c r i f i c e s f r om f a m i l y t o he l p m o ve t hi s ge ne r a t i on f or w a r d T he publ i c l i t e r a c y o f e duc a t i o n m a y a t t i m e s s e e m e d da unt i ng f or t hi s gr oup of H i s pa ni c boys ye t t he c ont i nua l e nc our a ge m e nt c om i ng f r om t he i r pa r e nt s s pe c i f i c a l l y m ot he r s s a yi ng H e c ha l e ga na s ur ge d t he m t o m ove f o r w a r d.

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149 M or al l i t e r ac y H i s pan i c s h av e t h e adv an t age o f of ou r s e l v e s M or al de v e l opm e nt D ur i ng bot h i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s a nd f oc us gr oup s a not he r t he m e t ha t e m e r ge d w a s m or a l l i t e r a c y. T hi s t he m e w a s not one t ha t w a s m e nt i one d a s a t opi c t ha t w a s di s c us s e d b y t he s e H i s pa ni c boys ye t i t e m e r ge d w he n a na l yz i ng f oc us gr oup a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w t r a ns c r i pt s a s a c ont i nua l l i ne of t hi nki ng w i t hi n s pe c i f i c l a ngua ge a nd be ha vi or s M or a l l i t e r a c y, he r e i s de f i ne d a s t he m e nt a l c a pa c i t y t o de t e r m i ne how uni ve r s a l hum a n pr i nc i pl e s s houl d be a ppl i e d t o ou r va l ue s goa l s a nd a c t i ons ( C O R B A 2001, p 4) I n t he s i m pl e s t t e r m s m or a l i nt e l l i ge n c e i s t he a bi l i t y t o di f f e r e nt i a t e w r ong f r om r i ght a s de f i ne d by a n i ndi vi dua l s ow n pr i nc i pl e s I n t he book, B ui l d i ng M or a l I nt e l l i ge nc e : T he Se v e n E s s e nt i al V i r t ue s t hat T e ac h K i ds t o D o t he R i ght T hi ng M i c he l e B or ba ( 2001) r e c ogni z e s t ha t c ur r e nt s oc i e t a l i s s ue s l i ke di s r e s pe c t f or a ut ho r i t y, i nc i vi l i t y, vu l ga r i t y c he a t i ng, a nd di s hone s t y a r e b e c om i ng m or e a bunda nt i n our s oc i e t y s pe c i f i c a l l y a m ong yout h. H e c ont e nds t ha t m o r a l be ha vi or s a r e gui de d by pe r s ona l s oc i a l m e nt a l e m ot i ona l a nd m or a l s ki l l s w hi c h s houl d be c ul t i va t e d a t hom e by a s t ude nt s m os t pow e r f ul m o r a l i ns t r uc t o r s t he i r pa r e nt s T he H i s pa ni c boys i n t hi s s t udy ha d a l e ve l of m or a l l i t e r a c y t ha t w a s e vi de nc e d w i t h ge ne r a l pa t t e r ns o f t hought e xp r e s s e d i n t he i r us e of l a ngua ge w hi c h, a c c or di ng t o K ohl be r g s S t a ge s of M or a l D e ve l opm e nt a r e t he m os t c r uc i a l e vi de nc e of m or a l j udgm e nt ( C r a i n, 1985 ) A c c or di ng t o K ohl be r g, t h e l i ne of t hi nki ng a nd ve r ba l de s c r i pt i ons put f or t h by t he s e boys w oul d pl a c e t h e m i n s t a ge t hr e e w hi c h s t a t e s t ha t m or a l i t y i s t he a c t of l i vi ng up t o t he e xpe c t a t i on s e t f or t h by t he f a m i l y a nd c om m uni t y

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150 A c c or di ng t o C r a i n ( 1985) K ohl be r g c onduc t e d r e s e a r c h he a vi l y on t he m o r a l de ve l opm e nt of boys l a t e r t o i nc l ude gi r l s f r om m i ddl e a nd l ow e r c l a s s f a m i l i e s i n C hi c a go i n 1958. M or a l be ha vi or m e a ns ha vi ng go od i nt e nt i ons ba s e d on f e e l i ngs o f l ove e m pa t hy, t r us t a nd c onc e r n f or o t he r s T he d e ba t e ove r K ohl be r g s m ode l w i l l be a ddr e s s e d l a t e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r M or al i t y of H i s pani c boy s W he n c ons i de r i ng m or a l be ha vi or s l i ke t hos e t ha t c a r r y good i n t e nt i ons ba s e d on f e e l i ngs of l ove e m pa t hy, t r us t a nd c onc e r n f or ot he r s i t w a s e v i de nt t ha t t he s e a r e i n c om pl e t e a gr e e m e nt w i t h t he a c c e pt e d E ur o A m e r i c a n w a ys of t hi nki ng w hi c h m os t A m e r i c a n f a m i l i e s s t r i ve t o i ns t i l l H ow e ve r t he s e H i s pa ni c boys w e r e gr ounde d i n t he i r c ul t ur a l s t a nc e w he n i t c om e s t o m or a l l i t e r a c y a nd s a w t he m s e l ve s a s unl i ke t he i r f r i e nds f r om t he t r a di t i ona l E u r o A m e r i c a n c ul t u r e T hi s b e c a m e e vi de nt i n t he pe r s ona l na r r a t i ve s a nd t he s e l f p r oc l a m a t i ons of be i ng m or e r e s pe c t f ul t ha n t he i r c ul t ur a l c ount e r pa r t s T h i s poi nt w a s m a de m o r e poi gna nt by a s t or y t o l d b y J ul i o, w ho w a s i nf or m a l l y m e nt or i ng a young H i s pa ni c boy w hom he ha d know n s i nc e bi r t h. H e w a s a young i m pr e s s i ona bl e t e n ye a r ol d boy w a nt i ng t o f i t i n w a nt i ng t o f i nd a r ol e m ode l a nd f ound i t i n J ul i o. H e s t a t e s : J ul i o: T o t e l l you t he t r ut h I m be goi ng t o s c hool c uz I got a l ot of l i t t l e hom e boys a nd t he y be l ooki ng up t o m e S o I got t a [ go ] R : D o you f e e l l i ke a r ol e m ode l ? J ul i o: Y e a h. I got t o s how t he m how i t s done C uz I be t e l l i ng

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151 t he m c uz I be s e e i ng t he m T he y be t r yi ng t o do t hi ngs t ha t t he ot he r boys be doi ng A nd I be t e l l i ng t he m t ha t a i n t c ool I be t e l l i ng t he m ye a h, Y ou c a n ha ve a l i t t l e f un do w ha t e ve r but s t a y i n s c hool D o w ha t you got t a do. C uz t he l i t t l e bo ys t he y l i ke s por t s a nd I be t r yi ng t o m a ke t he m do t ha t a l l t he t i m e T r yi ng t o ke e p pl a yi ng. T ha t s w hy I pl a y ba s ke t ba l l s oc c e r a nd do w ha t e ve r S o j us t l i ke [ t he y m i ght s a y] O K he s doi ng i t a nd pe opl e s t i l l r e s pe c t hi m a nd t hi s a nd t ha t R : V e r y c ool J ul i o J ul i o: C uz e ve n hi s t he ow n boys l i t t l e br o t he r s t he y a i n t doi ng not hi ng. O ne o f t he m dr oppe d out a nd one t he y a i n t be doi ng good. O ne o f t he m j us t ha vi ng p r obl e m s I be l i ke you know w ha t I m s a yi nghe don t e ve n, he don t e ve n l i ke i n h i s ow n br ot he r s T ha t s l i ke a l r i ght m a n I m gon na s how t he s e boy s J ul i o f e l t r e s pons i bl e a nd p r i vi l e ge d t o t a ke on t he r ol e of bi g b r ot he r f or s om e of t he young boys of h i s ne i ghbor hood. J ul i o t ook pr i de i n hi s c hoi c e s of s t a yi ng i n s c hool a nd pl a yi ng s por t s a s a f or m of a l i t t l e f un a nd a s a w a y of pe opl e s t i l l r e s pe c t [ i ng] hi m T hi s hi gh s c hool s t ude nt ha d l a ngua ge a nd a c t i ons t ha t s e r ve d a s a m e a ns t o f u l f i l l hi s ow n e xpe c t a t i ons f or t he young m e m be r s o f hi s c o m m uni t y. I t i s a ppa r e nt t ha t f o r J ul i o, t he r ol e o f m e nt or i s t o be t a ke n ve r y s e r i ou s l y e vi de nc e d by t he f ol l ow i ng : J ul i o: H m m . hm I be t r yi ng t o t e a c h l i t t l e ki ds a l i t t l e

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152 s om e t hi ng, s om e t hi ng. T he ot he r da y w e w e r e pl a y i ng ba s ke t ba l l a nd t w o ki ds w e r e goi ng a t i t H e c a n t d r op m e h e c a n t dr op m e a nd t hi s a nd t ha t I w a s l i ke he c a n dr op you boy s o c hi l l out H om e boy c a m e a nd dr oppe d h i m a nd I gue s s he g ot a l l R : E m ba r r a s s e d. J ul i o: Y e a h, s o he s t a r t e d c r yi ng T he n he s t a r t e d s w i ngi ng a t hi m I t hought t hi s l i t t l e boy i s c r a z y. E ve r ybody be l i ke l a ughi ng. E ve r ybody bus t i ng up hi s he a d. H e w e nt hom e he c a m e ba c k he ha d a kni f e R : [ G a s p] J ul i o, oh m y gos h. H ow ol d i s t hi s ki d? J ul i o: L i ke a bout t e n R : S o w ha t di d you do? J ul i o: S o I l e t hi m you know w ha t I m s a yi ng, go a f t e r m e A nd l i ke he w a s pul l i ng a t m e a c oupl e of t i m e s I w a s t hi nki ng s houl d I l e t hi m s t a b m e s o he c oul d s e e t ha t s o he c oul d s e e m e a l l bl oody S o, he ge t s c a r e d. R : S o he c oul d ge t s hoc ke d? J ul i o: Y e a h. S o he c oul d ge t s c a r e d. T he n I w a s l i ke I do n t know T he n he s w ung a nd t he n I j us t w a nt t o s e e l i ke w ha t he d do. A nd t he n, I j us t l i ke T he n, I gr a bbe d hi m a nd l i ke I t h r e w t he kni f e A nd t he n, I g r a bbe d hi m a nd l i ke s a t hi m do w n. A nd s t a r t e d hi t t i ng hi m but l i ke I s t a r t e d, but l i ke t e a c hi ng hi m W ha t you

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153 doi ng t ha t f o r ? Y ou know boy t ha t s om e t hi ng s e r i ous Y ou know w ha t I m s a yi ng, hom e y f or e ve r y l i t t l e r e a s on w h y you ge t m a d t he n you gonna go hom e a nd br i ng a kni f e C uz y ou know w ha t I m s a yi ng? C uz I w oul d ne ve r s a y not h i ng s om e t hi ng ha nd on a gun t he n s om e t hi ng dum b gonna ki l l s om e body f o r l i ke a good r e a s on l i ke j us t t o m a ke hi m l e a r n he l e a r ne d f r o m hi m t he w hol e t i m e t ha t s m y l i t t l e hom e boy t oo. H e s c ool H e s c ool m a n, c ool I l i ke t he l i t t l e m a n. R : H ow l ong ha ve you know n hi m ? J ul i o: M a n, s i nc e he w a s a ba by. R : S o you know hi m J ul i o: T ha t s w ha t I m s a yi ngt ha t s m y l i t t l e m a n. S o I got t o t e a c h hi m R : A nd you, t e a c hi ng hi m t he r i ght t hi ng? A s I l i s t e ne d t o J ul i o s ha r e t hi s i nc r e di bl e s t or y, I s a w a young m a n de t e r m i ne d t o m a ke a pos i t i ve i m pr e s s i on on t hi s young boy. I n m y m i nd I c oul d c l e a r l y s e e a nd he a r t he i r r a t i ona l i t y of hi s t hi nki ng w he n he s t a t e d, I w a s t hi nki ng s houl d I l e t h i m s t a b m e s o he c oul d s e e t ha t s o he c oul d s e e m e a l l bl oody. S o, h e d ge t s c a r e d. Y e t I a l s o know t he da i l y pr e s s ur e f or t hi s young boy t o be r e c ogni z e d, r e s pe c t e d, not t e a s e d by t he pe e r s a t t he young a ge of t e n, a n unde r s t a ndi ng o f t r a di t i on a l H i s pa ni c m a l e m a c hi s m o. T hi s ki nd of e xpe r i e nc e s om e w oul d a r gue doe s ne e d t ha t t ough l ove s c a r e i t out of you, m e nt a l i t y Y e t i t w a s one H i s pa ni c boy s w a y o f m a ki ng a n i m pa c t on hi s c om m uni t y

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154 T hr ough t he s e a c t i ons J ul i o e xpr e s s e d t he r e s pons i bl e a c t of l i vi ng up t o t he s e l f i m pos e d e xpe c t a t i ons a nd t hos e uns poke n r ul e s s e t f or t h by hi s c om m uni t y. H e t ook pr i de i n s ha r i n g hi s w i l l i ngne s s t o be s t a bbe d a s a w a y o f e m br a c i ng t he r e s pons i bi l i t i e s of m e nt or i ng t hi s a nd ot he r young boys i n hi s t ough ne i ghbor hood. H e c our a ge ous l y pl a c e s hi m s e l f i n t he r ol e of ol de r br ot he r a nd s e e ks t o m a ke a di f f e r e nc e i n t he l i ve s o f t he yo ung boys w ho l ook up t o hi m W he t he r l i s t e ni ng t o J ul i o a nd hi s gui da nc e of you nge r H i s pa ni c boys w ho l i ve on hi s bl oc k, or t he s t or y of how a f i ght i s c a r r i e d ou t by J ua n honor f r o m w i l d w i l d w e s t your w or d i s you r bond I f I s a y I m goi ng t o f i ght you I l l f i ght you. T hi s r e f l e c t i ve vi e w of w ha t i t m e a ns t o be r e s pe c t f ul i s de f i ni t e l y a n i ns i de r pe r s pe c t i ve A n out s i de r m a y not u nde r s t a nd i t i n i t s e nt i r e t y. T he r e i s a n unde r s t a ndi ng a m ong t he s e H i s pa ni c boys of how t he l i t e r a c y of r e s pe c t i s a c t e d upon a nd e na c t e d w i t hi n t he i r c om m uni t y. S i xt y pe r c e nt 11 out of t he 17 of t he m w e r e a bl e t o r e f l e c t on t he i r ow n be ha vi or a nd de f i ne t he m s e l ve s a s r e s pe c t f ul or ha vi ng a de e pe r i nna t e i n t e r pr e t a t i on of w ha t i t m e a ns t o be r e s pe c t f ul W e r e m or e r e s pe c t f ul t ha n w hi t e pe opl e a nd I w oul d ne ve r s pe a k t o m y pa r e nt s l i ke w hi t e pe opl e do I a m di f f e r e nt i n m y m a nne r of be i ngi n h ow I dr e s s c ons i de r m ys e l f m or e r e s pe c t f ul a nd m o r e hum bl e t ha n ot he r s T he voi c e s of m or a l young m e n a t t e m pt i ng t o l i ve b y a n uns poke n c ode w a s pr e va l e nt t hr oughout m y da t a c ol l e c t i on.

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155 I m pac t of m or al i t y on be hav i or B e i ng a m or a l i nd i vi dua l t o t he s e young H i s pa ni c boys r e qui r e d a de f i ni t i on be yond know i ng t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n r i ght a nd w r ong. I t di c t a t e s a n i nd i vi dua l s c ons c i e nc e t o m ove pa s t t he s i m pl e m or a l i t y of t he s i t ua t i on a nd w or k t ow a r d t he hi ghe r good, a s i r r a t i ona l a s i t m a y s e e m T he pos i t i oni ng of t he boys w he n t he y s a y, I a m m or e r e s pe c t f ul t ha n t hos e a r ound t he m i n i t s e l f i s a n e xpr e s s i on of t hi s l i t e r a c y T hi s s e l f e xpr e s s i on a l s o br e d a n i de ol ogy, w hi c h t he y e m b r a c e w i t h pr i de f or s e l f a nd p r i de f o r c ul t ur e T he l e ve l o f r e s pons i bi l i t y t ha t s e e m s t o be s e l f i m pos e d a l s o e xhi bi t s a s e ns e of pr i vi l e ge a nd obl i ga t i on T he f ol l ow i ng e xc e r pt w a s t a ke n f r om t he e nd o f one o f ou r f oc us gr oups w he r e J ua n ha d c hos e n t o s t a y ba c k a nd ope n up f or t he f i r s t t i m e T he f ol l ow i ng di s c us s i on w a s a r ound t he pr o m pt W ha t m a ke s you uni que ? : E xc e r p t f r om F oc u s G r ou p T r an s l at e d f or n on S p an i s h r e ad e r s : ( S om e m e an i n g l os t i n t r an s l at i on ) R : Y e a h, ye a h. A nd, i n w ha t w a y w oul d you s a y you r e m os t di f f e r e nt y m os t m e j or ? R : Y e a h, ye a h. A nd, i n w ha t w a y w oul d you s a y you r e m os t di f f e r e nt a nd be t t e r ? J U A N : E n. . l o m e j or a s ha bl a ndo t ot a l de l os H i s pa nos s om os m s r e s pe t uos os J U A N : I n. . be t t e r w e l l i n t a l ki ng a bout a l l H i s pa ni c s a r e m or e r e s pe c t f ul R : O ka y. R : O ka y. J U A N : Y ou know l l e ga s l l e ga s a una c a s a . E s de c i r c om o nos ot r os l l e ga m os a l a c a s a de m i g r a ndm a y l a s a l uda m os you know c on e l be s o e n l a m a no. . J U A N : Y ou know you ge t t o a hous e . I t s t o s a y, t ha t w e ge t t o a hous e l i ke t ha t of m y g r a ndm ot he r a nd w e s a y he l l o, you know w i t h a ki s s on t he ha nd

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156 R : R i ght R : R i ght J U A N : O r you r e j us t l i ke ya e s t a m os . J U A N : O r you r e j us t l i ke w e a r e . R : I m pue s t os R : us e t o t ha t J U A N : i m pue s t os Y a t odos . e ve r ybody e l s e i t s a h l i ke a t oda s l a s s e or a s i t s a ki s s on t he c he e k y a l os s e or e s i t s a ha nds ha ke T ha t s how w e a r e Y l ue go you s e e . J U A N : us e t o i t A nd t o e ve r ybody e l s e i t s a h, l i ke a t o a l l t he w om e n ( e l de r s ) i t s a ki s s on t he c he e k a nd t o t he m e n ( e l de r s ) i t s a ha nds ha ke T ha t s how w e a r e A nd, t he n you s e e . R : W e your f a m i l y or w e t odos l os de m s m s a s c on l a s a m i ga s ? R : W e you r f a m i l y o r w e a l l t he r e s t m or e l i ke a l l your f r i e nds ? J U A N : I m gue s s i ng i n H i s pa ni c s ove r a l l J U A N : I m gue s s i ng i n H i s pa ni c s ove r a l l R : M hm m R : M hm m J U A N : Y ha vi s t o qu l i ke s e ve n. . C om o l os ot r os I don t c a r e w he r e I s e e t he m A h l os s a l u do l i ke i f I w a s gonna s e e t he m a t t he hous e Y s i ve s a ot r os l i ke ot he r ot r os t he y r e l i ke t e s a l uda n pe r o l i ke c us s i ng a t e a c h ot he r J U A N : A nd I ha ve s e e n t ha t l i ke t he y s e e L i ke t he ot he r s ( ot he r s out s i de of c ul t ur e ) I don t c a r e w he r e I s e e t h e m T he r e I s a y he l l o l i ke i f I w a s gonna s e e t he m a t t he hous e A nd i f you s e e ot he r s ( ot he r s out s i de of c ul t ur e ) l i ke ot he r s t he y r e l i ke t he y s a y he l l o but l i ke c us s i ng a t e a c h ot he r

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157 J ua n s e e s t he l i t e r a c y of r e s pe c t c om e t h r ough hi s a c t i ons w he n gr e e t i ng ot he r s i n hi s c om m uni t y w he t he r a t hi s hous e or i n publ i c H e h a s not i c e d t he di f f e r e nc e s i n r e ga r d t o how e l de r s s houl d be gr e e t e d w i t hi n a c om m uni t y. T he c onve r s a t i on c ont i nue d, a s f ol l ow s : E xc e r p t f r om F oc u s G r ou p T r an s l at e d f or n on S p an i s h r e a d e r s : ( S om e m e an i n g l os t i n t r an s l at i on ) J U A N : S o t ha t s I m e a n, ove r a l l t ha t s w ha t I t hi nk us a s hi s pa nos ha ve a n a dva nt a ge of o f our s e l ve s J U A N : S o t ha t s I m e a n, ove r a l l t ha t s w ha t I t hi nk us a s H i s pa ni c s ha ve a n a dva nt a ge of o f our s e l ve s R : A nd do you t hi nk a l ot of pe opl e know t ha t a bout us ? R : A nd do you t hi nk a l ot of pe opl e know t ha t a bout us ? J U A N : A l os hi s pa nos r i ght he r e nos m i r a n qu J U A N : T he H i s pa ni c s r i ght he r e t he y s e e us a s ( A nnounc e m e nt on s c hool s pe a ke r ) ( A nnounc e m e nt on s c hool s pe a ke r ) J U A N : no m s s on ga ngi t a s w he n t he r e s l i ke ye a h t he r e i s a l ot o f t he m pe r o t he y don t s e e t ha t t he r e s m or e be t t e r of ______ qu ha n t e ni do, no m s a l os hi s pa nos ove r a l l O r A nd t ha t s ba s i c a l l y c om o nos ve n e l l os E l l os t a t he y don t t he y don t s e e t ha t t he t he r e s a good pa r t of us pe r o t he y s e e t he ba d one J U A N : not hi ng e l s e a s ga ngs t e r s w he n t he r e s l i ke ye a h t he r e i s a l ot o f t he m but t he y don t s e e t ha t t he r e s m o r e be t t e r of ______ t ha t t he y ha ve ha d, no m a t t e r a l l t he H i s pa ni c s ove r a l l O r A nd t ha t s ba s i c a l l y how t he y s e e us T he y t he y don t t he y don t s e e t ha t t he t he r e s a good pa r t o f us but t he y s e e t he ba d one

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158 T hi s c onve r s a t i on w a s r e pr e s e nt a t i ve of t he m a ny s t a t e m e nt s be ha vi or s a nd i nf e r e nc e s t ha t w e r e e xpr e s s e d w i t hi n e a c h r e s e a r c h ve nue I m not s ur e i f J ua n s e e s t he pow e r o f hi s ow n be l i e f s H i s pa nos [ H i s pa ni c s ] ha ve t he a dva n t a ge of of ou r s e l ve s T hi s s t a t e m e nt c l e a r l y a r t i c ul a t e s hi s t hi nki ng a r ound t he pr i de J ua n br i ngs t o hi s c ul t u r e t he a dva nt a ge of o f ou r s e l ve s W ha t w a s e vi de nt i s t ha t m o r a l l i t e r a c y w a s a t he m e t ha t t he s e H i s pa ni c boys w e r e w e l l a w a r e of a nd c oul d j us t i f y i n t he i r l i ve s a s a f or m o f l a ngua ge a nd a c t i on. F i na l l y, w a s t he di s t i nc t c ol l e c t i ve s t a nc e t ha t m os t o f t he s e boys be l i e ve d i n t he pos i t i oni ng of e nt i t l e m e nt t a ke n by ot he r s w hi c h t he y f e l t w a s m i s pl a c e d a nd m i s di r e c t e d. T hi s g r oup o f H i s pa ni c boys f e l t r i ght e ous a nd a da m a nt i n s ugge s t i ng t ha t A m e r i c a di d not j us t be l ong t o t he W hi t e but i t be l onge d t o nos ot r os [ us ] w e a l l l i ve he r e T hi s pow e r f ul s t a nc e br ough t out t he de s i r e t o br e a k a w a y f r om opp r e s s i ve de pe nde nc y a nd s t i pul a t e hope f or a m o r e uni t e d A m e r i c a T he r e i s m uc h de ba t e w he n a ppl yi ng K ohl be r g s m ode l of m o r a l de ve l opm e nt t o c ul t ur e F o r e xa m pl e S i ge l m a n ( 1999) pur po r t s t h a t t he s e s t a ge s a r e hi ghl y i m pa c t e d by s oc i a l l e a r ni ng e xpe r i e nc e s w hi c h I c ont e nd r e f l e c t s t he l i f e e xpe r i e nc e s of t he s e H i s pa ni c boys C r i t i c s of K ohl be r g s s t a ge s of m o r a l de ve l opm e nt f ur t he r c l a i m t ha t hi s t he or y h ol ds a bi a s a ga i ns t m o r e c ons e r va t i ve i ndi vi dua l s w ho a dhe r e t o s t r i c t pr i nc i pl e s of j us t i c e c ul t u r a l di f f e r e nc e s w he r e t he hi ghe s t l e ve l s of m or a l i t y r e f l e c t W e s t e r n i de a l s a s w e l l a s t ow a r d ge nde r due t o f e m a l e s ha vi ng a m or e f e m i ni ne or i e nt a t i on t o m o r a l i s s ue s H ow e ve r t he r e i s no doubt t ha t K ohl be r g s t he or y on m or a l de ve l opm e nt i s t he m os t pr om i ne nt a nd ha s t he c l os e t r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he f i ndi ngs i n t hi s s t udy.

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159 S u m m ar y W he n r e vi e w i ng t he p r i m a r y a nd s e c onda r y que s t i ons t ha t gui de d t he i nqui r y f or t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy, i t w a s e vi de nt t ha t t he s e H i s pa ni c boys e xpr e s s s e ve r a l pr i v at e and publ i c l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) e a c h w i t h a d i f f e r e nt i de nt i t y t ha t i m pa c t e d t he i r e duc a t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve a nd a c a de m i c goa l s T he l i s t of t he m e s br a i ns t or m e d dur i ng our f i r s t f oc us gr oup s e s s i on of f e r e d m uc h i ns i ght i nt o t he c ul t ur a l c a pi t a l t hi s gr oup of H i s pa ni c boys br ought t o t he i r e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ng T he r ol e t ha t t he i r pr i v at e and pub l i c l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) pl a ye d w a s e vi de nt i n t he i r w a y of r e s pondi ng t o e l a bor a t i ng on, a nd r e f l e c t i ng a r ound e a c h t he m e T hi s g r oup o f H i s pa ni c boys de f i ni t e l y r e ve a l e d s e ve r a l l i t e r a c i e s t ha t l i ke P a ndor a s box c oul d op e n a ne w na t i ona l di a l ogue T he f i ndi ngs r e ve a l e d t he t he m e s m os t r e l e va nt t o t hi s gr oup of H i s pa ni c boys T he ve r y p r i va t e l i t e r a c y of f am i l y br ough t out ho w t he s e H i s pa ni c boys r e l a t e t o t he i r pa r e nt s a nd how t he r ol e of di c hos a nd c ons e j os a r e c a r r i e d f r om one ge ne r a t i on t o a not he r he l pi ng s ha pe a nd m ol d t he i de nt i t i e s of t he s e young boys L an gu age w a s e xpr e s s e d a s a t ool t o f us e t he i r s e ns e of s e l f f a m i l y, a nd c ul t u r a l i de nt i t y w hi c h be l onge d s ol e l y t o t he s e H i s pa ni c boys M ac h i s m o w a s s how n t o e voke l ong he l d be l i e f s i n t r a ns i t i on f or t hi s uni que g r oup. A not he r t he m e w a s t ha t of r ac i s m w hi c h br ou gh t out i s s ue s of a nge r a nd r e s e nt m e nt w hi c h pl a c e d t he m a t a m o r a l c r os s r oa d. F i na l l y, t he publ i c l i t e r a c y o f e d u c at i o n e l i c i t e d t he m os t va r i e t y of r e s pons e s ye t i f c ons i de r e d, ha ve t he m os t pot e nt i a l i n m e e t i ng t he a c a de m i c ne e ds of t hi s gr oup of i ndi vi dua l s L a s t l y, t he t he m e t ha t w a s pa t t e r ne d t h r oughout t he i r c om m e n t s a nd t he a c t i ons w a s t ha t of m or al

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16 0 l i t e r ac y T h i s t he m e c a r r i e d nua nc e s a nd ha bi t s of m i nd t ha t b r ought out a s i nc e r e pr i de i n t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popu l a t i on. T he s e t he m e s e xpos e hi dde n p e r c e pt i ons t o be a dd r e s s e d i f w e a r e t o ope n t hi s c ount r y t o t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on I t w a s a l s o e vi de nt t ha t t hi s r e s e a r c h i nqui r y w a s not onl y w e l l r e c e i ve d by t he m a j or i t y of t he s e H i s pa ni c boys but a l s o he l p va l i da t e t he i r na r r a t i ve s pa c e I t i s i m po r t a nt t o r e c ogni z e t ha t a l t hough t he na t ur e of t hi s i nqui r y c om pa r t m e nt a l i z e d t he s e publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) i nt o s i ngl e s t r a nds t he s e t he m e s a r e i n f a c t i nt e r m i ngl e d a nd a r e m ut ua l l y c ons t r uc t e d. T he s e H i s pa ni c boys s ha r e d pe r c e pt i ons a r ound m ul t i pl e i de nt i t i e s a nd a r e s i t ua t e d w i t hi n s pe c i f i c c ont e xt s a nd s i t ua t i ons T he m ode l be l ow s e e ks t o uni f y t he s e l i t e r a c i e s a nd s how t he i r i nt e r c onne c t e dne s s a nd i nt e r de pe nda bi l i t y ( F i gur e 3) I n t he f i gur e t he out e r w a l l hol ds t he dyn a m i c of l a ngua ge w hi c h s e r ve s a s t he m e di um f or s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i on, a nd e m b r a c e s t he e nt i r e m ode l L a ngua ge i n t hi s m ode l r e pr e s e nt s t he ge ne r a l pa t t e r ns of t hought t ha t a r e e xpr e s s e d vi a s pe c i f i c c hoi c e of w or ds t one a nd e xpr e s s i on t ha t g i ve m e a ni ng t o s pe c i f i c a c t i ons T he i nne r w a l l c a r r i e s c ul t ur e i n t hi s c a s e t he H i s pa ni c c ul t ur e ( ha bi t s be l i e f s va l ue s ) w hi c h i s e xpr e s s e d i n t he i r us e of l a ngua ge T he s e t w o bi g c ons t r uc t s c ul t ur e a nd l a ngua ge w he n c om bi ne d c ul t i va t e m or a l l i t e r a c y T he c e nt e r s pa c e hol ds e a c h l i t e r a c y va l ue d by t hi s gr oup o f H i s pa ni c boys I t s i m por t a nt t o not i c e t ha t e a c h t he m e c a r r i e s m ul t i pl e i de nt i t i e s e a c h s i t ua t e d

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161 F i gu r e 3. M od e l f or t h e s e P u bl i c a n d P r i v at e L i t e r ac i e s w i t hi n a di f f e r e nt c ont e xt a nd/ or s i t ua t i on. T he r e f o r e i t i s s na ps hot m ode l t ha t i s i n a c ons t a nt s t a t e of c ha nge W i t hi n t he m ul t i pl e c ont e xt s of a s t ude nt s l i f e t he i de nt i t i e s f or m e d w i t hi n t he s e di f f e r e nt l i t e r a c i e s of t e n c onn e c t t o ot he r l i t e r a c i e s t o e xp r e s s i t s e l f i n a gi ve n s i t ua t i on. F or e xa m pl e a s p r e vi ous l y di s c us s e d w he n J ua n s ha r e d hi s di s c our s e of f i ght i ng, i t w a s m a c hi s m o a nd c ul t ur e t ha t c onne c t t o c ons t r uc t t ha t s i t ua t e d i de nt i t y. T he r e f or e H i s pa ni c boys unc ons c i ous l y na vi ga t e t hi s m ode l pr oduc i ng onc e a ga i n m ul t i pl e i de nt i t i e s w i t hi n m ul t i pl e w or l ds ( D ys on, 1997)

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162 M os t of t he boys r e s ponde d pos i t i ve l y t o t he e nt i r e s t udy, w he n a s ke d, W ha t do you t hi nk a bout t hi s pr oj e c t ? m os t m e nt i one d, G e t t i ng out o f c l a s s M i s s i s c ool Y e t w ha t f ol l ow e d w a s t he s ur p r i s i ng voi c e t ha t e c hoe s t he i nt e nt of t hi s i nqui r y J unt os va m os a s e r a l go [ t oge t he r w e a r e goi ng do s om e t hi ng] s o ot he r pe opl e c a n s e e w ho w e r e a l l y a r e I t s pa r ke d s om e t hi ng i n m e a nd w e ha ve t he a dva nt a ge of ou r s e l ve s T hi s w a s f ur t he r e xpr e s s e d by L o r e nz o w ho w a s a t w e nt y ye a r ol d ( 20) s e ni or w a s t he ol de s t of t he bunc h de s c r i be s hi s f e r vo r f or not onl y t he pr oj e c t but f or t he ot he r H i s pa ni c boys he c a m e t o r e ga r d a s f r i e nds L or e nz o: I l ove i t R : D o you? L or e nz o: Y e a h. R : T e l l m e w hy L or e nz o: I w a s hopi ng f or s om e t hi ng l i ke t hi s t o br e a k t hr ou gh, you know w ha t I m s a yi ng? I w a s t r yi ng t o ge t t ha t out I t hough t a bout i t a c oupl e o f t i m e s L i ke w ha t i f s om e body j us t c a m e i n a nd s how e d us t a l ke d a bout you know w ha t I m s a yi n g? H i s pa ni c ki ds Y ou he a r a bout t he b l a c k ki ds a l l t he t i m e o r l i t t l e B i l l y J oe i s pr om ki ng W ha t a bout us ? W ha t do w e ge t ? Y ou know w ha t I m s a yi ng? S o w he n you a s ke d i f I d t a ke i t I s a i d ye a h, i n a he a r t be a t I l i ke i t R : W ha t do you t hi nk a bout t he ot he r guys ?

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163 L or e nz o: T he y r e p r e t t y c ool I m t r yi ng t o t a l k t o pe opl e I a i n t r e a l l y t a l k t o. R : G ood, good. L or e nz o: T ha t s w hy. I m l i ke I t br i ngs l i ke m or e s e ns e t o i t you know w ha t I m t a l ki ng a bout ? L i ke m or e know l e dge O h w e l l l ook, I l i ke w ha t he s a i d s o I m a s t a r t o r I l i ke w ha t s he s a i d. Y ou know w ha t I m s a yi ng? J us t l i ke e ve r ybody ge t s t o s pi t out t he i r ow n c om m e nt s t he i r ow n R : T he i r ow n f e e l i ngs L or e nz o: T he i r ow n opi ni on a nd s t uf f l i ke t ha t R : A nd i t i s r e s pe c t e d. L or e nz o: Y e a h, i t s r e s pe c t e d. N obody ge t s di s r e s pe c t e d. L i ke t he m a c ho, t he y t e a s e m e E ve r ybody t a l ks a bout t ha t L i ke c om pa r i ng t o w ha t ot he r c l a s s e s s a y. L i ke ot he r g r oups t he y d on t l i ke t o he a r a bout t he s e t hi ngs A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t c ont r i but e d t o t he s e f i ndi ngs e xpr e s s e d s i m i l a r s e nt i m e nt

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164 C H A P T E R 5: R E S E A R C H I M P L I C A T I O N S I n t r od u c t i on T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o r e ve a l a nd r e por t t he pe r s pe c t i ve s of H i s pa ni c boys r e ga r di ng t he i r l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s I s e t ou t t o e xpl or e t hi s a r e a be c a us e of m y ow n pe r s on a l e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h i l l i t e r a c y, e duc a t i ona l m a r gi na l i z a t i on, dom i na nt m a s c ul i ni t y, a nd m y ow n t h r e e H i s pa ni c s ons W i t h r e s e a r c h, d a t a a nd pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e a s e vi de nc e i t w a s c l e a r t ha t our e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m w a s f a i l i ng t o m e e t t he a c a de m i c ne e ds of t he s e boys T he r e w a s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h t ha t e qui pp e d t e a c he r s w i t h i ns t r uc t i ona l m e t hods or f r a m e w or ks t o s uppor t t hi s popul a t i on M y goa l w a s t o pr ovi de i ns i ght i nt o t h i s popul a t i on t ha t w oul d he l p c r e a t e pos s i bi l i t i e s f o r t he s e a nd ot he r H i s pa ni c boys T h i s f i na l c ha pt e r be gi ns w i t h a di s c us s i on of r e s ul t s ba s e d on t he m a j or f i ndi ngs f ol l ow e d by i ns t r uc t i ona l r e c om m e nda t i ons f or e duc a t or s T he f i na l que s t i on w i l l t he n be a dd r e s s e d, W hat r ol e c an t hat c r i t i c al l i t e r ac y pl ay i n e duc at i ng t hi s m ar gi nal i z e d po pul at i on ? T hi s c ha pt e r c onc l ude s w i t h i m pl i c a t i ons f o r f ur t he r r e s e a r c h, a l l w hi c h a ddr e s s t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons gui di ng t hi s s t udy. T he s e a r e a s f ol l ow s : T he pr i m a r y que s t i on w a s : W ha t a r e t he pe r c e pt i ons o f a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c boys w ho a r e c ons i de r e d l o w l e ve l r e a de r s ( by s t a t e a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s ) r e ga r di n g t he i r l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s ? S e c onda r y que s t i ons : W ha t ha ve r e s e a r c he r s r e por t e d a bout H i s pa ni c bo ys i n l i t e r a c y s i t ua t i ons ?

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165 W ha t i s t he r ol e of m a s c ul i ni t y ( m a c hi s m o) i n t he l i t e r a c y l i ve s of H i s pa ni c boys ? W ha t t e a c hi ng m e t hods do H i s pa ni c boys c ons i de r m os t r e s pons i ve t o t he i r l i t e r a c y ne e ds ? W ha t r ol e c a n c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y pl a y i n e duc a t i ng t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on? T he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs r e vol ve d a r ound t he s i x t he m e s w hi c h w e r e i de nt i f i e d a nd d i s c us s e d w i t hi n a t e n w e e k pe r i od us i ng f oc us gr o ups a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s T he s i x t he m e s f ound t o be m os t s i gni f i c a nt t o t he s e H i s pa ni c boys i nc l ude d: ( a ) f a m i l y ( b) l a ngua ge ( c ) r a c i s m ( d) m a c hi s m o, ( e ) e duc a t i on a nd ( f ) m or a l l i t e r a c y. T he s e f i n d i ngs of f e r e d a g l i m ps e i nt o t he publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005 ) o f t hi s g r oup o f H i s pa ni c boys a nd a l s o r e ve a l e d w ha t D ys on ( 199 7) c a l l e d t he i r m ul t i pl e w or l ds and m ul t i pl e i de nt i t i e s D i s c u s s i on of R e s u l t s A f t e r r e vi e w i ng t he f i nd i ngs i t be c a m e i m pe r a t i ve t o s i t ua t e t he m i nt o c onc e pt s t ha t e duc a t or s c a n di s c us s e xt e nd, a nd i m p l e m e nt I m pl i c a t i ons f r om t he f i ndi ngs s uppor t t ha t t he s e H i s pa ni c boys ( a ) s t r ongl y va l ue d t he i r c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y ( b) w e r e di s c onne c t e d f r om t he i r e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ng, ( c ) c oul d s e l f pr e s c r i be t he i r pe r s ona l e duc a t i ona l ne e ds ( d) l a c ke d i ns t i t ut i ona l know l e dge a nd ( e ) ha d l i t t l e t o no oppo r t uni t y t o r e bui l d t he i r i de nt i t y. T he s e w i l l be p r e s e nt e d w i t h t he i nt e nt pr ovi de s uppor t f o r f u r t he r di s c us s i on. St r ongl y V al ue t he i r C ul t ur al I de nt i t y T he s e H i s pa ni c boys t ook pr i de i n a nd hono r e d t he i r c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y T he y ha d a uni que bond t o t he i r c ul t ur a l unde r s t a ndi ng of w ha t i t m e a nt t o be a H i s pa ni c m a l e T he y

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166 c onve ye d c onf i de nc e a nd pr i de i n w ho t he y w e r e a nd how t he y c hos e t o be ha ve T hi s w a s e vi de nt i n t he i r r e ga r d f or t he i r c ul t ur e a nd l a ngua ge T he s e H i s pa ni c boys r e ve a l e d a f e r ve nt e xpe c t a t i on t o not di s r e s pe c t t he i r r a c e by de nyi ng t he i r na t i ve l a ngua ge a nd a c c e pt t he E ngl i s h l a ngua ge a s t he i r s ol e s our c e of c om m uni c a t i on. T h i s s t a nc e r e ve a l e d a ke e n a w a r e ne s s of s e l f a nd w ha t t he y a r e w i l l i ng a nd unw i l l i ng, t o s ur r e nde r A s s e t f or t h by G e e ( 2005) l a ngua ge w a s c l e a r l y f us e d w i t h t h e i r s e ns e of i de nt i t y f a m i l y, a nd c ul t ur e w hi c h w e r e c l e a r l y w i t hi n t he f i n di ngs H a vi ng t o de f e nd t he i r i de nt i t y on bot h s i de s of t hi s c ul t ur a l s t r a i t be t w e e n t he E ngl i s h a nd S pa ni s h w or l ds J ul i o a nd J os ue s pe c i f i c a l l y s ha r e d how t he y a r e c ont i nua l l y on t he de f e ns i ve a ga i ns t t he ba s i c que s t i on, W ho a m I a nd w he r e do I be l ong? J ul i o: E ve n your ow n pe opl e t a l k dow n on you c uz you r e f r om t hi s s i de ( U S ) L i ke I w e nt out t he r e ( t o M e xi c o) i t w a s w a y ba c k, I w e nt out t he r e but I w a s t hi s m a y ha ve not hi n t o do w i t h i t B ut l i ke i t doe s i n a l i t t l e w a y. I w a s gonna r i de t hi s l i t t l e bul l ( m e c ha ni c a l bul l ) a nd t he y ( M e xi c a ns ) s a y N a h, c uz you don t know how t o do i t Y ou r e f r om t he ot he r s i de ( U S ) I w a s l i ke M a n you c r a z y! A nd I hoppe d on i t a nd I s how e d t he m I c oul d do i t W ha t m a ke s m e di f f e r e nt f r om you, you know w ha t I m s a yi ng? M y bl ood i s t he s a m e Y ou know w ha t I m s a yi ng? I m t he s a m e r a c e a s you! J us t c uz I m ove r he r e ( U S ) i t s gonn a m a ke m e di f f e r e nt ? I don t t hi nk s o.

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167 R : W he n t he y s a y t he ot he r s i de m e a ni ngU ni t e d S t a t e s ? J ul i o: T he U ni t e d S t a t e s ye a h. T ha t w ha t t he y s a i di t got m e s o m a d I t s l i ke l i ke t he y r e t r yi ng t o s a y t ha t you know w ha t I m s a yi ng? I m not a M e xi c a n. J os ue : T ha t you f or got a bout t he m T he y t hi nk t ha t you t h i nk you r e be t t e r t ha n t he m N ot j us t be c a us e you r e ove r he r e ( i n t he U S ) or por que e r e s de l nor t e [ B e c a us e your a r e f r om t he n or t h] you know w ha t I m s a yi ng. J ul i o: A l l I know i s t he y j us t m a d c uz I m ove r i n t he ___ ___. B ut i t a i n t e ve n l i ke t ha t R : H ow doe s t ha t m a ke you guys f e e l ? I m e a n ha ve a l ot o f you e xpe r i e nc e d t ha t w he r e t he y t hi nk now t ha t you r e ove r he r e ( i n t he U S ) m a ybe s om e of you w e r e bor n he r e J os ue : S om e pe opl e s om e pe opl e l i ke t he y r e l i ke t ha t b ut s om e pe opl e on t he ot he r ha nd t he y r e l i ke good t o you. O s i t a s bue nos a l i e r on a de l a nt e [ O h, ye s you r be t t e r yo u a l l c a m e out a he a d] Y ou know Y o qui e r o s e r l o m i s m o [ I w a nt t o do t he s a m e ] B ut s om e o t he r pe opl e a r e j us t l i ke t he y j us t put you dow n c uz your f r om your pa r e nt s c a m e ove r he r e a nd ga ve you a be t t e r l i f e T hi s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s t he c ul t ur a l s t r a i t t ha t t he s e H i s pa ni c boys da i l y na vi ga t e T hi s pe r pe t ua l i nt e r na l de f e ndi ng of w ho t he y a r e s e e m s t o s ol i di f y t he i r c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y a s

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168 t he y de f i a nt l y a s s e r t W ha t m a ke s m e di f f e r e nt f r om youM y bl ood i s t he s a m e T hi s s t r ongl y he l d pos i t i on c l e a r l y s i t ua t e s t he i r i de nt i t y a nd i m pa c t s how t he y be ha ve i n t he i r t w o s i de d w or l d. T hi s f i r m s t a nc e a l s o r e ve a l s i t s e l f i n t he e duc a t i on a l s e t t i ng. T hi s s e t of H i s pa ni c boys be l i e ve d t ha t e duc a t i on i s a ba l a nc e o f s c hool i ng a nd t he a bi l i t y t o m a ke good c hoi c e s t o know r i ght f r om w r ong. W he n t he s e boys a r e c onf r ont e d by e duc a t or s w i t h l ow e xpe c t a t i ons or t he y h i t a w a l l of f a i l ur e t he y w e r e not c r i ppl e d by o r f e l l vi c t i m t o t he i de nt i t y o f s c hool f a i l u r e T he s e boys of t e n f a c e d t hi s f a i l ur e w i t h f r us t r a t i on a nd a nge r f e e l i ng e nt i t l e d t ha t t e a c he r s s houl d unde r s t a nd t he i r ne e ds ha ve f a i t h i n t he i r a bi l i t y, a nd not gi ve up by s a yi ng H e s a l r e a dy l o s t M a ny s t ude nt s m i ght r e s pond t o m ul t i pl e f a i l u r e s w i t h he l pl e s s ne s s but not t he s e H i s pa ni c boys T he y t ook pr i de i n t he i r i de nt i t y a nd w oul d not be r e nde r e d pow e r l e s s or a c c e pt c ul t ur a l m a r gi na l i z a t i on W i t h a da m a nc y, w he n a s ke d, t he y t a l k a bout t he i r i ndi vi dua l ne e ds a nd t he i r s t r uggl e t o unde r s t a nd c onc e pt s i n bot h E ng l i s h a nd S pa ni s h. T he y do, how e ve r i n s om e s i t ua t i ons or w i t h s om e t e a c he r s r e a c t w i t h r e s i s t a nc e or di s c onne c t i on, w hi c h f i r m l y pl a c e s t he m a t a c r os s r oa ds of f at al i s m or r e be l l i on ( F r e i r e 2001) M c C a r t he y a nd M oj e ( 2002) c l a i m t ha t c ur r e nt r e s e a r c h a r ound i de n t i t y ha s m ove d i nt o t he di c hot om i z i ng of pos s i bi l i t i e s f or i de nt i t y. T he y c l a i m t ha t i de nt i t i e s c a n s how c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of bot h m ot i va t e d a nd l a z y ( p. 230 ) a nd a r e c ont i nge nt on t he s pa c e t he pe r s on i s i n, a nd t he r e l a t i ons hi ps s i t ua t e d w i t hi n t ha t s p a c e t ha t he l p a n i ndi vi dua l e na c t e i t he r e nd of t he di c hot om y T he r e f or e t h i s r e s e a r c h s uppor t s t he i m pl i c a t i on t ha t t he s e boys m a y be e na c t i ng a d i f f e r e nt i de nt i t y de pe ndi ng on t he t e a c he r

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169 c l a s s a nd s i t ua t i on. F u r t he r m or e t he s e boys m a y be e na c t i ng a di f f e r e nt i de nt i t y w i t hi n a nd out s i de of s c hool T hus t he y ha ve t he oppor t u ni t y t o e m b r a c e t he i r c ul t u r a l m a s c ul i ni t y m os t l y out s i de of s c hool w he r e t he y a r e m a ki ng w ha t t he y be l i e ve a r e t he r i ght c hoi c e s or s e l e c t t he c ul t ur a l ou t l e t w he r e t he i r i de nt i t y i s va l i da t e d a nd c on f i r m e d I a s s e r t t ha t t hi s s t r ong va l ue f o r c ul t u r a l i de nt i t y i f not r e c ogni z e d a nd unde r s t ood, w i l l i nc r e a s e t he i r c ha nc e s t o be c om e hi gh s c hool dr opout s R e s e a r c h s how s t ha t t he y w oul d r a t he r d r op out t ha n be s e e n a s w e a k, a c ha r a c t e r i s t i c w hi c h c l e a r l y r e s i de s i n t he i r c ul t u r a l i de nt i t y a s a H i s pa ni c m a l e ( V a l e nz ue l a 1999) R e s e a r c he r s w oul d a l s o c l a i m t ha t i de nt i t i e s a r e c ons t r uc t e d i n r e l a t i on t o ot he r pe opl e s pe r c e pt i ons a nd bui l t w i t hi n s oc i a l i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h ot he r s ( M c C a r t he y a nd M oj e 2002) I t w a s c l e a r t ha t t he s e H i s pa ni c boys s t r ongl y va l ue d t he i r c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y a nd i t i m pa c t e d e ve r y a s pe c t of t he i r pr i v at e and publ i c i de nt i t y ( F a ul kne r 2005 ) D i s c onne c t e d f r om t he i r E duc at i onal Se t t i ng A s a r e s ul t of t he s e f i ndi n gs i t w a s ove r w he l m i ngl y e vi de nt t ha t t he s e H i s pa ni c boys w e r e di s c onne c t e d f r om t he i r e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ng. D ur i ng t he t e n w e e k t i m e pe r i od of t he r e s e a r c h i nqui r y, t he s e H i s pa ni c boys s how e d c om pl e t e di s e nga ge m e nt f r om c l a s s r oom e f f or t s W he n obs e r vi ng c l a s s r oom s dur i ng t he i ni t i a l s t a ge s of t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy, i t w a s di f f i c ul t f or m e t o obs e r ve a ny c l a s s r oom i nt e r a c t i ons e nga ge m e nt l e ve l s a nd ot he r a c a de m i c be ha vi or s of t he H i s pa ni c boys due t o t hi s di s e nga ge m e nt T hi s vo i d c r e a t e d a di s c onne c t i on be t w e e n s t ude nt s t e a c he r s a nd c ont e nt T he i ns t r uc t i ona l m e t hod of a l l c l a s s r oom s obs e r ve d w a s a s i ngl e voi c e d l e c t ur e or s i m pl e que s t i on a ns w e r vol l e y,

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170 w hi c h bot h a r e c ons i de r e d l e a s t e f f e c t i ve a c c or di n g t o r e s e a r c h s uppor t i ng t he di s t r i c t s w a l k t hr ough c r i t e r i a ( S c hl e c ht y, 2002 ) T he di s t r i c t w a l k t hr ough pr oc e s s w a s i m pl e m e nt e d a f t e r a dm i n i s t r a t or s a t t e nde d a t hr e e da y t r a i ni ng w he r e t he y r e vi e w e d vi de os o f hi ghl y e nga ge d, w e l l m a na ge d, a nd dys f unc t i ona l l y m a na ge d c l a s s r oom s T hi s t r a i ni ng w a s i m pl e m e n t e d t o e ns ur e c ons i s t e nc y on de f i ni t i on of pr a c t i c e a nd a c c ur a c y on s c or i ng obs e r va t i ons w hi c h w e r e c om pl e t e d on P a l m P i l ot s t o e a s e pr oc e dur e s a nd d a t a c ol l e c t i on. T he a dm i ni s t r a t or s w e e kl y di s t r i c t w a l k t hr ough da t a f or R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool s how e d t ha t ou t of 1293 w a l kt hr oughs i n 2007 08 a ppr oxi m a t e l y 60% ( 800 ) c l a s s e s w e r e w e l l m a na ge d w hi c h i s de s c r i be d a s ha vi ng pa s s i ve c om pl i a nc e a nd r e t r e a t i s m ( p. 5 ) w i t h s t ude nt s w i l l i ng t o be c om pl i a nt ( S c hl e c ht y 2002) T hi s da t a s uppor t s t he c om pl a c e nt be ha v i or a nd di s c onne c t t ha t t he s e H i s pa ni c boys e xpe r i e nc e d i n c l a s s r oom s a t R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool I t i s e qua l l y i m por t a nt t o c ons i de r t he i m pa c t o f t h e s e c om pl i a nt c l a s s r oom s a s t he y a f f e c t a l l s t ude nt s a t R i ve r s i de H i gh T he c r i t i c a l di f f e r e nc e i s t ha t H i s pa ni c boys w a l k i n t o s c hool a l r e a dy s i l e nc e d due t o l a ngua ge a nd c ul t ur e i s s ue s a nd m a y not ha ve a n out l e t t o i nt e r a c t out s i de o f t he w a l l s of R i ve r s i de H i gh T hus t hi s da t a c om pounds t he pa s s i vi t y a nd c om pl i a nc e of t he i r c l a s s r oom e xpe r i e nc e s T o f u r t he r punc t ua t e t hi s di s c onne c t i on, w he n a t t e ndi ng a f oc us gr ou p, t he s e s t ude nt s r a r e l y kne w w ha t c l a s s t he y w e r e c om i ng f r om r a r e l y kne w t he na m e of t he c l a s s e s t he y w e r e t a ki ng, a nd r a r e l y kne w w ha t c o nt e nt w a s be i ng t a ught i n t ha t c l a s s A l ong w i t h c a r r y i ng l i t t l e t o no s c hool s uppl i e s du r i ng our t i m e t oge t he r t he y c ont i nua l l y of f e r e d s t or i e s of bor e dom a nd de t a c hm e nt t o t he poi nt o f f a l l i ng a s l e e p i n

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171 c l a s s T hi s w a s f ur t he r e d e vi de nc e d w he n pul l i ng boys t o c onduc t i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s O n f our oc c a s i o ns I pul l e d boys out o f c l a s s w ho ha d t he i r he a ds dow n, f ul l y a s l e e p. T e a c he r s w ho w e r e t e a c hi ng i n f r ont o f t he i r c l a s s r oom s w oul d w a ke t he m by ye l l i ng t he i r na m e a nd po i nt i ng t o m e t he gue s t a t t he doo r S pe a ki ng di r e c t l y t o t he t e a c he r s a t R i ve r s i de H i gh S c hool t he y s ha r e d na r r a t i ve s of w hy t he s e boys w e r e e xc us e d f r om m e e t i ng c l a s s r oom e xpe c t a t i ons a nd a l l ow e d t o f a l l a s l e e p. S om e s ha r e d s t or i e s l i ke t ha t of t he young boy w ho w or ke d 40 60 hou r s a w e e k t o he l p s uppor t t he f a m i l y T ha t s w hy I l e t h i m s l e e p, s a i d t he t e a c he r O t he r t e a c he r s s a i d, H e s not go i ng do a nyt hi ng a nyw a ys o I l e t hi m s l e e p, a t l e a s t he s out of m y ha i r T hi s m e nt a l i t y a l t hough pos s i bl y e m pa t he t i c of t he s t ude nt s phys i c a l ne e d s or e a s i ng a t e a c he r s m a na ge m e nt i s s ue s c o nt i nue s t o m a r gi na l i z e a nd di r e c t t he qua l i t y of l i f e f or t he s e H i s pa ni c boys T he s e i ns t r uc t i ona l c ons i de r a t i ons a c c or di ng t o N i e t o ( 2000) a nd V a l de s ( 2001) c ont i nue t o l e a d t o a n unde r c ur r e nt o f t e a c he r bi a s e s a ga i ns t pove r t y s t r i c ke n, l i ngui s t i c a l l y d i ve r s e s t ude nt s a nd w i de n t he di s c o nne c t i on of t he s e H i s pa ni c boys f r om t he i r e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ng. D ur i ng r e f l e c t i on i n m y r e s e a r c h not e book t he r e w e r e num e r ous t i m e s w he n I de s c r i be d t he boys a s pa s s i ve l e a r ne r s dur i ng m y c l a s s r oom obs e r va t i ons I obs e r v e d s i m pl e que s t i on a ns w e r t ype m ove s a nd t r a di t i ona l l e c t ur e de l i ve r y m e t hods w hi c h s t ood f or t he i ns t r uc t i ona l i n f r a s t r uc t ur e o f m os t of t he c l a s s e s F or e xa m pl e I not e d t ha t i n t he de ve l opm e nt a l r e a di ng c l a s s I he a r d s t ude nt s s pe a k be a ut i f ul S pa ni s h a nd E ngl i s h ye t obs e r ve d t he s e s t ude nt s be i ng a s ke d t o r e a d a l oud s i m pl e pa s s a ge s a l ong w i t h a pr e s c r i be d a udi o C D B r i s k ( 2006) s ugge s t s t ha t E ngl i s h L a ngua ge L e a r ne r s s houl d be

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172 a c t i ve l y e nga ge d i n c l a s s r oom i ns t r uc t i on, l i s t e ni n g t o a C D i s a pa s s i ve a c t i vi t y t ha t pr ovi de s no oppor t uni t y t o ut i l i z e l a ngua ge i n a ut h e nt i c s i t ua t i ons F ur t he r m or e t hi s pr a c t i c e doe s not m i r r or a ut he nt i c l a ngua ge pr oc e s s i ng s ki l l s w hi c h t he s e s t ude nt s ne e d i f t he y a r e t o ga i n a c c e s s t o a c t i ve l a ngua ge s pr oc e s s e s T he r e w a s l i t t l e t o no oppo r t uni t y t o pr a c t i c e t he i r l a ngua ge s ki l l s i n e i t he r l a ngua ge t hus f ur t he r e d t he di s c onne c t i on f or t he s e H i s pa ni c boys C oul d Se l f P r e s c r i be t he i r P e r s onal E duc at i onal N e e ds W he n c ons i de r i ng t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he f i nd i ngs unde r t he t he m e o f e duc a t i on, t he s e H i s pa ni c boys w e r e ve r y a w a r e of t he m s e l ve s a s r e a de r s a nd w r i t e r s A f t e r s e ve r a l w e e ks of c om m uni t y bui l d i ng w i t hi n t he g r oup, t h e s e boys w e r e a bl e t o i de nt i f y t he i r pe r s ona l l i t e r a c y ne e ds I t w a s dur i ng t he f oc us g r o up s e s s i on on t r a di t i ona l l i t e r a c y t ha t t he y r e s ponde d t o t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons : W ha t i s t he m os t di f f i c ul t / s uc c e s s f ul t hi ng a bout r e a di ng/ w r i t i ng? W ha t m a ke s you f e e l s uc c e s s f ul a bout r e a di ng/ w r i t i ng? T he boys w e r e ne i t he r r e s i s t a nt nor a s ha m e d t o voi c e t he i r s uc c e s s e s or s t r uggl e s a s t he y s ha r e d t he i r m e t a c ogni t i ve t hought s r e ga r di ng t he i r l i t e r a c y ne e ds T he y f r a nkl y s ha r e d s i m pl e s ur f a c e e xa m pl e s l i ke I t s bo r i ng, I j us t s i t t he r e a nd s t a r e a t t he book, a nd w he n t he r e s no pi c t ur e s I ge t bor e d Y e t t he s e boys a l s o e xhi bi t e d de e pe r r e f l e c t i on f or i ns t a nc e I ge t di s t r a c t e d a nd c a n t b r i ng ba c k m y f oc us I t s ha r d t r yi ng t o t r a ns l a t e ( E ngl i s h t o S pa ni s h or vi s a ve r s a ) i t i n m y he a d, a nd I t s ha r d t o de s c r i be s om e t hi ng I s e e i n m y he a d. T he s e di r e c t quot e s r e f l e c t hi gh l e ve l m e t a c ogni t i ve t hi nki ng s t e m s t ha t t e l l us e xa c t l y w ha t t he s e r e a de r s a nd w r i t e r s know a bout t he m s e l ve s a s l e a r ne r s I n a n

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173 a r t i c l e e nt i t l e d, T he r e adi ng s t r at e gi e s of bi l i ngual L at i na/ o s t ude nt s w ho ar e s uc c e s s f ul E ngl i s h r e ade r s : O ppor t uni t i e s and obs t ac l e s J i m e ne z G r a c i a a nd P e a r s on ( 1996) c i t e t he or i s t s w ho c ont e nd t ha t bi l i ngua l i s m m a y a c t ua l l y e nha nc e c hi l dr e n s c a pa c i t y f or c ons c i ous i nt r os pe c t i on. T he y c i t e ot he r r e s e a r c he r s w ho a s s e r t t ha t s e c ond l a ngua ge l e a r ni ng m a y br i ng a b out gr e a t e r a w a r e ne s s of c o gni t i ve pr oc e s s e s T he s e F C A T L e ve l 1 a nd L e ve l 2 H i s pa ni c boys s how e d e vi de nc e of k now i ng w hi c h s t r a t e gi e s w e r e e f f e c t i ve f or t he m a nd w he n t he i r c ogni t i ve p r oc e s s e s br oke dow n. I n f r ont of t he i r pe e r s t he s e boys s ha r e d w he n l e a r ni ng m a de t he m f e e l s uc c e s s f ul a nd w he n l e a r ni ng w a s di f f i c ul t T he s e boys c a r r i e d w i t h t he m t he a bi l i t y t o s e l f r e f l e c t on t he i r l e a r ni ng T he s e boys w e r e c l e a r a bout t he i r s t r e ngt hs a nd s hor t c om i ngs a nd l i t e r a c y ne e ds L ac k of I ns t i t ut i ona l K now l e dge D ur i ng t he f oc us gr oup s e s s i on on l i t e r a c y one H i s pa ni c boy m a de t he c om m e nt N o, M i s s t he y don t gi ve s c hol a r s hi ps t o M e xi c a ns e s pe c i a l l y. know w ha t I m s a yi n ? I w a s t a ke n ba c k by t hi s c om m e nt be c a us e I ha d f i r s t ha nd e xpe r i e nc e of t he num e r ous s c h ol a r s hi ps f e l l ow s hi ps a nd gr a nt s de di c a t e d t o t he H i s pa ni c popul a t i on a s a r e s ul t of m y s on s r e c e nt g r a dua t i on f r om hi gh s c hool I r e m e m be r t hi nki ng i f a H i s pa ni c s t ude nt doe s n t go t o c ol l e ge i t s be c a us e t he y don t w a nt t o Y e t t hi s w a s one of t he m a ny i ndi c a t or s t ha t pr ove d t h i s gr oup o f H i s pa ni c boys l a c ke d i ns t i t ut i ona l know l e dge T hr oughout t he t r a ns c r i pt s of our l i t e r a c y f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons a nd i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w s I f ound m ys e l f pr ovi di ng t he s e boys w i t h i nf or m a t i on on how t he e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m w or ks A t one poi n t O s c a r a s ks A r e you i n c ol l e ge t o do a l l t h i s M i s s ? I t he n

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174 s t oppe d a nd w e nt t hr ough a m i ni l e s s on on t he i r p os t hi gh s c hool gr a dua t i on op t i ons w hi c h i nc l ude d voc a t i ona l a nd t e c hni c a l s c hool s I w e nt on t o e xpl a i n de gr e e s a l l t he w a y f r om a n A s s oc i a t e of A r t s t hr ough t he P h. D I t w a s a ppa r e nt t ha t t he s e H i s pa ni c boys l a c ke d a ny r oa dm a p t o e duc a t i on out s i de of t he i r a l r e a dy di s c onne c t e d e xpe r i e nc e T he bur e a uc r a t i c o r ga ni z a t i on of s c hool m a y be pe r ha ps m or e e a s i l y na vi ga t e d b y m os t A m e r i c a ns due t o t he f a c t t ha t t he y pe r s ona l l y e xpe r i e nc e d how A m e r i c a n s c hool s w or k a nd t he i r m a ny i nt r i c a c i e s L a c ki ng a l ong w i t h ot he r f a c t or s l i ke l a ngua ge ( V a l de s 2001) a nd f e a r ( B r i s k 2006) p l a c e s t he s e boys a t t he m e r c y of ga t e ke e pe r s w h o hol d t he pow e r of e s s e nt i a l e duc a t i ona l i nf o r m a t i on ( N or gu e r a 2006) D ue t o t he l a c k of e xpe r i e nc e a nd ba c kgr ound know l e dge of t hi s pop ul a t i on w i t h r e ga r ds t o A m e r i c a n i ns t i t ut i ons of e duc a t i on ( H i l l & F l ynn 2006 ) m os t H i s pa ni c pa r e nt s s uppor t i s m ut e d i n t he f a c e of i ns t i t ut i ona l opp r e s s i on ( O gbu, 1992 N or gue r a 2006 ) T he s e s t ude nt s a nd pa r e nt s a r e a t a s e ve r e di s a dva nt a ge w hi c h a dds s e r i ous obs t a c l e s t o c ur r e nt o r pos t hi gh s c hool a c a de m i c s uc c e s s T hi s i ns t i t ut i ona l opp r e s s i on, c onf i r m e d by r e s e a r c he r s l i ke O gbu ( 1992) a nd T r ue ba ( 1999 ) be c a m e m or e c l e a r w he n I w a s s uppor t i ng one o f t he r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho ha d f a i l e d t he s t a t e a s s e s s m e nt f our di f f e r e nt t i m e s a nd w a s qui c kl y he a de d t ow a r d dr oppi ng out A f t e r hi s f our t h a t t e m pt a nd h i s c onf i di ng i n m e of hi s i nt e nt t o qui t I qui c kl y pl a c e d hi m i n c ont a c t w i t h a hi gh s c hool t u t or t ha t c oul d he l p hi m s t udy. T he t ut or i ng s e s s i ons f oc us e d hi s e f f or t s on e i t he r pa s s i ng t he A C T S A T or m a ki ng a not he r a t t e m pt a t t he s t a t e a s s e s s m e nt H e a nd hi s c ou ns e l or c om pl e t e d a l l t he ne c e s s a r y pa pe r w or k f or hi m t o t a ke t he S A T on a S a t ur da y m or ni ng. T he pa s s i ng of t hi s a l t e r na t i ve

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175 a s s e s s m e nt w oul d de t e r m i ne i f he w a s t o a t t e nd c o m m e nc e m e nt c e r e m oni e s a nd gr a dua t e w i t h t he r e s t o f hi s s e ni or c l a s s or be l a be l e d a f a i l ur e a f i f t h t i m e a nd s a dl y w a t c h h i s c l a s s m a t e s w a l k a c r os s t he s t a ge T he F r i da y e ve ni ng be f or e t h i s S a t ur da y S A T a s s e s s m e nt I s e nt hi m a t e xt w i s hi ng hi m good l u c k. T o m y d i s m a y, w ha t c a m e ba c k w a s a phone c a l l not i ng h i s l a c k of t e s t i ng i nf o r m a t i on. H i s c ouns e l or w a s not a t s c hool t ha t da y ( F r i da y) a nd he di d not know w he r e t o go t o t a ke t he S A T t he ne xt m o r ni ng. T hi s pr om pt e d a m om e nt of pa ni c f r om m e W ho do I c a l l ? W he r e s ha l l I s e nd hi m ? I r e a l i z e d t ha t he d i d not ha ve i nt e r ne t a c c e s s t o vi s i t S A T w e bs i t e s t o obt a i n r e l e va nt de t a i l s A f t e r a f e w phone c a l l s a nd s om e i nt e r ne t r e s e a r c h, I w a s a bl e t o di r e c t hi m t o t he l oc a l hi gh s c hool hol di ng t he S A T t e s t a dm i ni s t r a t i on, f ol l ow e d by a huge s i gh of r e l i e f U pon r e f l e c t i on o f t hi s s i t ua t i on I w onde r e d w ha t t hi s H i s pa ni c boy w oul d ha ve done H e ha d not t he know l e dge of w ho t o c a l l w h e r e t o go or w ha t r e s our c e s c oul d he l p. H e w a s di s t r a ught a nd c r i ppl e d by a l a c k of i nf or m a t i on, t he r e s ul t of w hi c h c oul d ha ve dr a s t i c a l l y c ha nge d hi s f ut ur e W ha t w e f a i l t o r e a l i z e i s t ha t f or m a ny H i s pa ni c boys t hi s t r a ge dy bl e e ds i nt o t he e xpe c t a t i ons of f u t ur e ge ne r a t i ons I r e c a l l e d t he di s t r e s s e d, f r a ught s ound of hi s voi c e Y e t how c o ul d he ha ve know n w he r e t o go f o r he l p, he w a s one o f t he f i r s t f r om hi s f a m i l y t o gr a dua t e f r om hi gh s c hool A l t hough r e m ove d f r om t he s t udy, a not he r s i t ua t i o n, w hi c h i nvo l ve d a gi r l f r i e nd of one of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c l e a r l y s how e d t he l a c k of i ns t i t ut i ona l know l e dge f or t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on. S he s a dl y f ound he r s e l f p r e gna nt t he s um m e r be f or e he r s e ni or ye a r S he w a s de va s t a t e d, ye t de t e r m i ne d t o c om pl e t e he r hi gh s c hool r e qui r e m e nt s a nd

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176 a t t a i n he r hi gh s c hool di pl om a w i t h hope s of a t t e n di ng c ol l e ge W he n I s poke t o he r s he ha d no i de a of a ny opt i ons ope n t o he r I u r ge d he r t o m e e t w i t h he r s e ni or a dvi s or a nd i m pr e s s upon he r t he m e e t i ng t he de m a nds o f he r c ur r e nt s i t ua t i on. B e c a us e s he ha d a l l 21 c r e di t s a s a n i nc om i ng s e ni or a nd a G P A hi ghe r t ha n 3 0, s he w a s a bl e t o m odi f y he r F a l l s c he dul e t o c om pl e t e t w o of h e r s e ni or ye a r r e qui r e m e nt s i n t he f i r s t s e m e s t e r a nd t a ke he r f i na l r e qui r e m e nt on l i ne dur i ng t he S pr i ng. U nl i ke he r m or e pr i vi l e ge d c ount e r pa r t s s he a nd he r pa r e nt s w e r e not know l e dge a bl e of t he i ns t i t ut i ona l w or ki ngs t o na vi ga t e que s t i ons a r ound c r e di t s c l a s s e s a nd a l t e r na t i ve s f o r r e qui r e m e nt c om pl e t i on A l t hough t he di s t r i c t a nd s c hool do not a dvoc a t e t hi s p r a c t i c e i t i s a n opt i on, a nd w a s a va i l a bl e a s a n opt i on t o he l p t hi s young, i nt e l l i ge nt w om e n a c hi e ve he r a c a de m i c goa l s T hr oughout t he t i m e of t hi s s t udy, I f ound t he s e boys ne e di ng i nf or m a t i on on c ur r e nt hi gh s c hool a nd f ut u r e pos t hi gh s c hool op por t uni t i e s T he y w e r e l ook i ng f o r a n a l l y t o na vi ga t e t he s ys t e m w i t h t he m a s t he i r s ur r ogat e c ouns e l or I w a s a bl e t o f i l l i n s om e of t he bl a nks I di d s o r e s pe c t f ul l y c ons i de r i n g t ha t c ouns e l or s a t R i ve r s i de H i gh ha ve a m i ni m um c a s e l oa d of 500 s t ude nt s t o e ve r y one ( 1 ) c ouns e l or T he i m pa c t of ove r bur de ne d c ouns e l or s a nd t he i r a va i l a bi l i t y t o m i nor i t y s t ude nt s i s w e l l doc um e nt e d ( C or w i n, V e ne ga s O l i ve r e z C ol ya r 2004; Y oung & B r ooks 2008 ) T he di s pr opo r t i ona l s t ude nt t o c ouns e l or r a t i o l e a ve s s t ude nt s t o s e e k out s c hol a r s hi p a ppl i c a t i ons c ol l e ge e nt r a nc e r e qui r e m e nt s a nd ot he r pos t hi gh s c hool i nf or m a t i on w i t hi n t he i r ow n s oc i a l ne t w or ks or no t a t a l l F u r t he r m or e m i nor i t y s t ude nt s r e por t m i s gi vi ngs a bout c ouns e l i ng s e r vi c e s due t o l a c k of c ouns e l or s unde r s t a ndi ng o f c ul t ur a l ne e ds or f e a r a dvi s e m e nt

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177 i nt o ge ne r a l e duc a t i on a nd voc a t i ona l pr og r a m s ( Y oung & B r ooks 2008) T he s e H i s pa ni c boys w e r e no di f f e r e nt W he n a s ke d w ha t i nf or m a t i on w oul d he l p t he m na vi ga t e t he s ys t e m dur i ng a f oc us gr oup, i n f or m a t i on a r ound a s s e s s m e nt s l i ke A C T a nd S A T c ol l e ge a ppl i c a t i ons s c hol a r s hi ps f or c ol l e ge oppo r t uni t i e s t o c onne c t a nd ne t w or k, a nd opt i ons f or o n l i ne c our s e s w e r e a m ong t he r e que s t s f or s uppor t Y e t t he y a r e s t i l l a t t he m e r c y o f t he ga t e ke e pe r s w ho hol d pow e r a nd ha ve t he i nt i m a t e c hoi c e of w ho t he y e ndow w i t h i nf or m a t i on, t ha t f or s om e i m pa c t de s t i ny a nd/ or q ua l i t y of l i f e ( N or gue r a 2006) T h i s l a c k of i ns t i t ut i ona l know l e dge l i m i t s t he r e opt i ons a nd f u r t he r m a r gi na l i z e s H av e L i t t l e t o N o O ppor t uni t y t o R e bui l d T he i r I de nt i t y D e s pi t e s oc i a l s t e r e ot ype s t he s e H i s pa ni c boys pr ove d t o ha ve t he pot e nt i a l t o r e bui l d t he i r i de nt i t i e s w hi c h of t e n br i ngs a bout p e r s ona l t r a ns f or m a t i on. Y e t w i t hi n t he c ur r e nt da i l y c ont e xt of t he i r a c a de m i c l i f e t he r e w a s l i t t l e t o no oppor t uni t y f o r t hi s t ype of di a l ogue T hi s i m pl i c a t i on w a s bui l t upon t he i r di s c l os ur e of m ul t i pl e s i de nt i t i e s t ha t w e r e r e ve a l e d d ur i ng t he c our s e of t he f oc us gr oup s e s s i ons T o s uppor t t hi s D ys on ( 1997) c ont e nds t ha t s t ude nt s m ul t i pl e w or l ds a nd m ul t i pl e i de nt i t i e s a s s i s t i n br oa de ni ng t he i r l i t e r a c i e s D u r i ng e a c h f oc us gr oup, t he H i s pa ni c boys w e r e a s ke d t o s ha r e t he i r be l i e f s va l ue s f e e l i ngs t hought s a nd w a ys of a c t i ng. W hi l e s ha r i ng t he s e w ha t w a s a l s o r e ve a l e d w e r e nua nc e s ge s t ur e s a nd a s pe c i f i c us e of l a ngua ge w hi c h G e e ( 2 005) ha s c ol l e c t i ve l y c a l l e d D i s c our s e s A c c or di ng t o G e e ( 2005) e a c h D i s c our s e c a n i nvol ve m ul t i p l e l i t e r a c i e s w hi c h t a ke on s i t ua t e d i de nt i t i e s di f f e r e nt f r om e a c h ot he r a nd di f f e r e nt w i t hi n di f f e r e nt a c t i vi t i e s ( p 34 ) S i nc e

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178 f oc us gr oups w e r e de di c a t e d t o a s pe c i f i c t opi c o f c onve r s a t i on, t hi s c ont e xt c a l l e d on t he boys t o c ons i de r t he i r D i s c our s e w hi c h e xpos e d t h e i r s i t ua t e d i de nt i t i e s I t w a s i m pe r a t i ve t o c ons i de r t ha t t he s e i de nt i t i e s be gi ve n t he oppor t un i t y t o be a c t i ve l y r e bui l t ( G e e 2005 p 10 ) s o ne w pos s i bi l i t i e s c a n unf ol d i n t he i r l i ve s W ha t i s a l s o i m por t a nt t o c ons i de r i s t ha t t he m u l t i pl e i de nt i t i e s m a de publ i c dur i ng t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy c oul d gi ve e duc a t or s a n oppor t uni t y t o e nga ge i n w ha t c oul d be s i gni f i c a nt e xpl i c i t c onve r s a t i ons a r ound ge nde r r a c e a nd s oc i a l c l a s s I f our goa l i n e duc a t i ng t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on i s t o c r e a t e pos s i bi l i t i e s a nd ope n up oppor t uni t i e s of ot he r s w a ys t o be t he n w e m us t f i nd w a ys t o he l p t he m r e f r a m e t he i r i de nt i t i e s I f M c C a r t he y & M oj e ( 2002 ) a r e c or r e c t t he n t he s e boys m a y ha ve c l us t e r s of s t or i e s t ha t a r e pe r f or m e d and e nac t e d, not j us t t o l d a s na r r a t i ve s w hi c h m a y pr ov i de i ns i ght i nt o how r e f r a m i ng m a y s ha pe i t s e l f w i t hi n c l a s s r oom s M y hope i s t ha t i n s t e ppi ng i nt o t he m om e nt of t he i r t hi nki ng a nd s ha r i ng t he s e m ul t i pl e i de nt i t i e s e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt ha s t he oppor t uni t y t o c ons t r uc t e xpa nd, or t r a ns f or m t he i r D i s c our s e s a nd w ho t he y pe r c e i ve t he y c a n be c om e T he s e i m pl i c a t i ons r e f l e c t t he m i nds e t of c r i t i c a l pe da gogy, w hi c h, l e a ds i nt o m y f i na l que s t i on W h at r ol e c an c r i t i c al l i t e r ac y pl ay i n e duc at i ng t hi s m ar gi nal i z e d pop ul at i on? R ol e of C r i t i c al L i t e r ac y M y i nt e nt i on t o va l ue c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y a s a m e t hod t o e duc a t e t hi s popul a t i on i s bot h pe r s ona l a nd s oc i opol i t i c a l H a vi ng l i ve d a m i gr a nt l i f e s t yl e ha vi ng e xpe r i e nc e d a t r oubl e d r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h a dom i na nt H i s pa ni c m a l e a nd ha vi ng l i ve d w i t hi n t he m a r gi na l i z a t i on of a dom i na nt c ul t ur e I ha ve a ve s t e d i nt e r e s t i n t a ki ng a c t i on on be ha l f

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179 of e duc a t i ng H i s pa ni c boys I f w e e duc a t e a popul a t i on of H i s pa ni c boys a nd t he y, i n t ur n, a r e a bl e t o r e s pe c t t he m ul t i pl e vi e w poi nt s of t he i r s ons a nd da ught e r s t he y w i l l s e e t he f i na nc i a l e m ot i ona l a nd pol i t i c a l be ne f i t s a nd t r a ns f e r t he m t o t he i r f ut u r e ge ne r a t i ons C r i t i c a l L i t e r a c y ha s t he po t e nt i a l t o h e l p H i s pa ni c boys s e e pos s i bi l i t i e s w i t hi n t he m s e l ve s a nd c a n br i ng a bout s o c i a l c ha nge w hi l e ke e pi ng t he i r c ul t ur a l c a pi t a l i nt a c t A s i ndi c a t e d i n c ha pt e r t h r e e w e m us t l ook be yon d t he pl e t hor a of ba s i c i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s w hi c h ha ve be e n i ns uf f i c i e nt i n e duc a t i ng ou r H i s pa ni c s t ude nt s ( D e l ga do G a i t a n & T r ue ba 1999; H ue t r a M a c i a s 1998) W e m us t l ook be yond t he s t a nda r d t ool ki t of t e a c hi ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd s e e k m e t hods t ha t w i l l no t onl y e duc a t e t hi s popul a t i on but a l s o, t r a ns f or m t he i r l i ve s W e m us t de ve l op a pe da gogi c a l s t a nc e t ha t pr om ot e s di s c our s e a r ound a na l yt i c a l t hi nki ng t ha t que s t i ons pow e r r e l a t i ons w i t hi n c ont e xt s a nd t ha t e m pow e r s i nd i vi dua l s t o c ha nge t he i r c ondi t i ons of l i vi ng w i t hi n t he i r w or l d ( F r e i r e 1983; M c L a ughl i n & D e V oogd 200 4) C ons i de r i ng t he f i ndi ngs of t h i s r e s e a r c h i nqui r y, t he s e boys do ha ve t he a bi l i t y t o unde r s t a nd t he i r c ur r e nt s i t ua t i ons a nd ha ve t he pot e nt i a l t o s e e t he pos s i bi l i t i e s f or t he i r f ut ur e A l s o, i n c ha pt e r t hr e e t he m a ny de f i ni t i ons a nd t h e or i e s of c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y w e r e s ynt he s i z e d i nt o f our di m e ns i ons : ( 1 ) D i s r upt i ng t he c om m onpl a c e ( 2 ) I n t e r r oga t i ng m ul t i pl e vi e w poi nt s ( 3) F oc us i ng on s oc i opol i t i c a l i s s ue s a nd ( 4) T a ki ng a c t i on a nd pr om ot i ng s oc i a l j us t i c e ( L e w i s on, F l i nt & S l uys 2002, p 382) T hr ough ut i l i z a t i on of t he s e f our di m e ns i ons t he s e boys c oul d ha ve a f i r m unde r s t a ndi ng of t he s oc i opol i t i c a l i s s ue s of pow e r t ha t pl a y ou t i n t he i r s oc i a l a nd e d uc a t i ona l s e t t i ngs I t i s i m pe r a t i ve t ha t

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180 w e a r m t he m w i t h t he t ool s t o i nt e r r oga t e how pow e r r e l a t i ons f unc t i on i n t he i r l i ve s a nd m or e i m por t a nt l y, how pow e r i m pa c t s t he pos s i bi l i t i e s w i t hi n t he H i s pa ni c m a l e popul a t i on. I m pl e m e nt at i on of C r i t i c al L i t e r ac y I n or de r t o i m pl e m e nt c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y w i t h H i s pa ni c boys t he y m us t be pr om pt e d t o r e f l e c t on t he i r c ur r e nt l i f e e xpe r i e nc e s a nd e nvi s i on t he pos s i bi l i t i e s i n t he i r l i ve s A c c or di ng t o C om be r ( 2001) c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y i s no t a f i ni t e s e t of pr a c t i c e s t e c hni que s or s t r a t e gi e s ; r a t he r i t i s a phi l os ophi c a l s t a nc e on t hi nki ng a nd que s t i oni ng. C r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y c a l l s upon t e a c he r s t o m ode l a nd s uppor t s t ude nt s c r i t i c a l e xa m i na t i on of t e xt s by i nt e r r oga t i ng c ha r a c t e r s s i t ua t i ons a nd i s s ue s of pow e r e m be dde d w i t hi n t he t e xt I t i s e qua l l y vi t a l f o r t e a c he r s t o m ode l pur pos e f ul que s t i oni ng t o de ve l op a nd s uppor t t r a ns f or m a t i ona l t hi nki ng w hi c h e nc our a ge s s t ude nt s t o que s t i on t he i r w or l ds ( M c D a ni e l 2004) F r e i r e ( 2000) c a l l s t hi s t he or y t o c l a s s r oom pr a c t i c e pr a xi s de f i ne d a s t he r e f l e c t i on a nd a c t i on upon t he w o r l d i n or de r t o t r a ns f or m i t ( p. 51) T hi s i nf or m e d c om m i t m e nt t o a c t i on i s ba s e d on s t ude nt e xpe r i e n c e s a nd r e f l e c t i ons T he f i ndi ngs o f t hi s i nqui r y a l s o s ugge s t t ha t t he s e boys ha ve a f i r m unde r s t a ndi ng of t he s oc i opol i t i c a l s t r uc t ur e s i n t h e i r publ i c and pr i v at e l i v e s S t ud i e s l i ke t ha t of P e yt on Y oung ( 2000) w ho a na l yz e d t he l i t e r a c y pr a c t i c e s of f o ur a dol e s c e nt boys br ought t he ge nde r ( m a l e ) f a c t or i nt o c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y. S he f ound c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y a s a vi a bl e w a y f or pa r t i c i pa nt s t o ga i n i ns i ght i nt o t he i r pe r s ona l a nd s oc i a l be i ngs a s w e l l a s e s t a bl i s hi ng a pl a c e t o t hi nk a bout m ul t i pl e pos s i b i l i t i e s f or how t he y c oul d t hi nk f e e l

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181 a nd a c t a s m a l e s ( p. 333 ) S t udi e s l i ke t hi s e duc a t e t he s t ude nt a nd e m pow e r t he m w i t h t ool s t o t r a ns f or m t he m s e l ve s t he i r f a m i l i e s a nd p os s i bl y t he i r c om m uni t i e s I n or de r f o r t hi s popul a t i on t o a c c e s s t he pe r s o na l t r a ns f or m a t i on of c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y t he y ne e d t o c om pr e he nd a nd e xpa nd t he i r pos i t i ons a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s of t he i r s oc i a l pol i t i c a l a nd a c a de m i c w or l ds ( L e w i s on, F l i nt & S l uys 2002) R e c om m e n d at i on s f or E d u c at or s T hi s s t udy gr e w out of a de e p c onc e r n f or t he a c a d e m i c di s pa r i t y i n t he s oc i a l a nd e duc a t i ona l l i ve s of H i s pa ni c boys T he f i ndi ngs a nd i m pl i c a t i ons a r e bot h e nc our a gi ng a nd c om pl e x. I r e c ogni z e t ha t H i s pa ni c boys a r e m a r gi na l i z e d w he n c ons i de r i ng r a c e ge nde r a nd c l a s s A l l i ngt on s ( 2006 ) r e c ogni t i on t ha t be i ng a m i no r i t y, w ho i s m a l e a nd of pove r t y r a i s e s t he l i ke l i ho od of t hi s i ndi vi dua l f a l l i ng a c a de m i c a l l y be hi nd a s a r e s ul t of l a ngua ge r e t e nt i on, a nd/ or r e a di ng a bi l i t y e s c or t i ng t he m t o t he dr op out door W e m us t r e c ogni z e t ha t w e a r e f a i l i ng our H i s pa ni c boys a nd w e m us t a c know l e dge our r ol e i n t ha t f a i l u r e c yc l e A r e H i s pa ni c boys honor a bl e a s s e t s t o our s oc i e t y or a r e t he y s l a t e d f or f a i l u r e unl e s s t he y a s s i m i l a t e i nt o t he do m i na nt c ul t ur e ? H ow w i l l t he y f i nd t he i r ow n pa t h t o a s s i m i l a t i on w hi l e ke e pi ng t he i n t e gr i t y of t he i r c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y? M y hope i s t ha t t hi s i nqu i r y ha s yi e l de d a ddi t i ona l i ns i ght s unde r s t a ndi ngs a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i ons t ha t c oul d a m pl i f y t he de s i r e t o s t ud y t hi s of t e n i nvi s i bl e m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on. I pr e s e nt f ou r pe r t i ne nt r e c om m e nda t i ons f or e duc a t or s t ha t m a y i nt r oduc e a l i ne of i nve s t i ga t i on t ha t w oul d pr ovi de f ur t he r i ns i ght i nt o how be s t t o s e c ur e t he s oc i a l a nd a c a de m i c s uc c e s s of H i s pa ni c boys

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182 F i r s t w e m us t f ur t he r i nt e r r oga t e t he m ul t i pl e i de nt i t i e s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s br ought i nt o c l a s s r oom s by H i s pa ni c boys W e m us t a dopt m e t hods t ha t s ha t t e r t he s t e r e ot ypi c a l m a s ks w e pl a c e on t he s e i ndi vi dua l s I ns t e a d of l o oki ng a t t he w a y t he y dr e s s w a y t he y t a l k, t he da r kne s s of t he i r s he l l w e m us t l ook t o m e e t t he i ndi vi dua l be hi nd t he b r ow n f a c e U nde r s t a ndi ng t he D i s c our s e s of H i s pa ni c bo ys w i l l a l l ow us t o f i nd a ve nue s t o i ns t r uc t i ng t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on. T hi s i n t r o s pe c t i on w i l l c a l l upon us a s e duc a t or s t o l ook i n t he m i r r or a nd c om e f a c e t o f a c e w i t h our b i a s e s a nd a s s um pt i ons S e c ondl y, w e m us t e xpa nd c ur r e nt de f i ni t i ons of l i t e r a c i e s t o e nc om pa s s bot h publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005) a s t o s ubs t a nt i a t e ot he r va l ua bl e a s s e t s H i s pa ni c boys br i ng t o t he c l a s s r oom O nc e e s t a bl i s h e d, c l a s s r oom dyna m i c s w i l l br e a k t he a nt i qua t e d i ns t r uc t i ona l m e t hods a nd a l l ow f o r l e a r ni ng t o be c ons t r uc t e d a r ound t he s t or i e s pe opl e t e l l t he m e a ni ngs a ut hor e d be t w e e n l e a r ne r a nd t e a c he r a nd t he e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t s ha pe t he voi c e s of H i s pa ni c m a l e s ( M c L a r e n, 2003) I n s uppor t o f t he c e nt r a l i t y of voi c e M c L a r e n ( 2003 ) a s s e r t s : I t i s a r ound t he c onc e pt of voi c e t ha t t he or y o f bo t h t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng c a n t a ke pl a c e one t ha t poi nt s t o ne w f or m s of s oc i a l r e l a t i ons a nd t o ne w a nd c ha l l e ngi ng w a ys of c onf r ont i ng e ve r yda y l i f e ( p 245) T hi r dl y a nd i n s uppor t of e xpa nde d l i t e r a c i e s i t i s a l s o e s s e nt i a l t ha t w e c r e a t e pos s i bi l i t i e s f or t he s e boys t o r e a d a nd w r i t e i n a ut he nt i c w a ys W e m us t c r e a t e a n e nvi r onm e nt f o r t he m t o f r e e l y s ha r e t he i r l i t e r a c i e s a nd m e t a c ogni t i ve i nt r os pe c t i ons w hi c h e m e r ge d f r o m t he f i ndi ngs of t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. O nc e i ns t i t ut i ona l i z e d t hi s

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183 s uppor t i ve e nvi r onm e nt m a y a l l ow ou r H i s pa ni c b oys t o not onl y e xhi bi t t he i r t r a di t i ona l l i t e r a c i e s but a l s o s uppor t ou r ow n b r o a de ni ng de f i ni t i on of l i t e r a c y. F i na l l y, w e m us t i nc or por a t e t he s t udy o f qua l i t y m ul t i c ul t ur a l l i t e r a t ur e a nd t e xt s t ha t i l l us t r a t e va r i e d i de nt i t i e s a nd c ul t u r e s w hi c h w i l l e xpa nd t he pe r c e pt i on of H i s pa ni c m a l e i de nt i t i e s T he s e t e xt s m us t r e pr e s e nt a va r i e t y of H i s pa ni c c ul t u r e s t o i nc l ude M e xi c a n, P ue r t o R i c a n, S pa ni s h, C uba n, C ol um bi a n, a nd a m ul t i t ude of voi c e s a nd pos s i bi l i t i e s T e a c he r s m us t t he n i nt e r r oga t e t he s e books w i t h s t ude nt s t o he l p H i s pa ni c boys e nvi s i on t he pos s i bi l i t i e s w i t hi n t he m s e l ve s T e a c he r s a l s o ne e d t o r e f l e c t on t he i r ow n c ul t ur a l bi a s e s a nd i de nt i f y a m e a ns t o de a l w i t h bi a s e s t ha t i m pa c t t he e m ot i ona l s oc i a l a nd a c a de m i c w e l l be i ng o f t he i r c ul t ur a l l y di ve r s e s t ude nt s ( M c D a ni e l 2004) T he s e a ppr oa c he s w i l l he l p s t ude nt s s pe c i f i c a l l y H i s pa ni c boys de ve l op, m a i nt a i n, or c ha l l e nge t he i r s e ns e of c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y ( H a r r i s 1992) W he n f ur t he r l ooki ng i n t o t he r ol e o f books t ha t m a y e nha nc e t he m ul t i pl e i de nt i t i e s of t hi s m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on w e m us t a l s o l ook i nt o t h e r ol e of di c hos a nd c ons e j os a s a l i t e r a c y t ha t e m br a c e s t he w or l d t ha t t he s e boys know a l l t o w e l l I t i s m y hope t ha t t hi s s t udy e s t a bl i s he s t he f ounda t i on t o de ve l op a c a c he of e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i ona l p r a c t i c e s w hi c h w i l l e ve nt ua l l y l e a d t ow a r d a f r a m e w or k f o r t e a c hi ng H i s pa ni c boys T he s e r e c om m e nda t i ons f or e duc a t or s c ons t i t ut e a n i ni t i a l s t e p i n c onc e pt ua l i z i ng t hi s f r a m e w or k ( A ppe ndi x J ) I a l s o hope t hi s f r a m e w or k f ur t he r pr om pt s t he di s c us s i on of how t o s uppor t t he de ve l opm e nt of i ns t i t ut i ona l kn ow l e dge a m ong H i s pa ni c boys I t i s m y f e r ve nt de s i r e t ha t t hi s w or k pr ovi de s a not he r s t e p t ow a r d c l os i ng t he c ul t ur a l a nd a c hi e ve m e nt ga ps f or H i s pa ni c boys

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184 I m p l i c at i on s an d E xt e n s i on s f or F u r t h e r R e s e ar c h L anguage T he da t a f r om t h i s s t udy a f f i r m s t ha t l a ngua ge a nd c ul t ur e a r e i ns e pa r a bl e ( T r ue ba 1990) a nd t ha t s oc i a l be l i e f s be ha vi or s a nd c hi l d r e a r i ng pr a c t i c e s a r e f i l t e r e d t hr ough l a ngua ge ( S m e dl e y, 1999 ) A ddi t i ona l l y t hi s s t udy s uppor t e d t he be l i e f t ha t f or E ngl i s h L a ngua ge L e a r ne r s ( E L L ) pe r c e i ve t ha t t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o no e f f e c t i ve s uppor t w i t hi n c ont e nt a r e a c l a s s e s ( V a l de s 2001) T h i s s t udy a l s o c a pt ur e d a ne ga t i ve r e a c t i on f r om t he boys w he n t he i r l a ngua ge w a s de ni e d a nd di s r e s pe c t G i ve n t hi s f ur t he r r e s e a r c h m us t i de nt i f y t o w ha t de gr e e H i s pa ni c boys gua r d t he i r c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y i n r e s pe c t t o l a ngua ge e nc ul t ur a t i on? F i na l l y, w ha t i s t he c os t t o t he i ndi vi dua l f a m i l y a nd c om m uni t y w he n w e de va l ue t he l a ngua ge of H i s pa ni c boys w hi c h a s ks t he m t o c hoos e be t w e e n w ho t he y a r e a s i ndi vi dua l s a nd w ho t he e duc a t i ona l e xpe c t s t he m t o be c om e W ha t t e nds t o be m i s unde r s t ood by t e a c he r s a dm i ni s t r a t or s a nd e duc a t i ona l s c hol a r s i s how t o e f f e c t i ve l y pr ovi de E ngl i s h i ns t r uc t i on a nd w ha t pr ogr a m s i f a ny c a n be e xe c ut e d t o s uppor t t he l e a r ni ng p r o c e s s f or non E ngl i s h s pe a ke r s ( V a l de s 2001) I n r e ga r ds t o e f f e c t i ve l a ngua ge pr ogr a m s i t ha s b e e n r e por t e d t ha t by t he ye a r 2030, our s c hool s w i l l ne e d t o m e e t t he c ha l l e nge of ha vi ng 40 % of t he i r c hi l dr e n be l i ngui s t i c a l l y di ve r s e l e a r ne r s ( C e nt e r of R e s e a r c h on E duc a t i on, D i ve r s i t y, & E xc e l l e nc e 2003) A c ur r e nt s t udy on t he l ong t e r m a c hi e ve m e nt of l i ngu i s t i c a l l y di ve r s e s t ude nt s c l a i m s t ha t t w o w a y i m m e r s i on pr og r a m s a nd one w a y de ve l opm e nt a l pr ogr a m s w hi c h f oc us on s c a f f ol di ng a s t ude nt t ow a r d f ul l E ngl i s h w hi l e us i ng t he i r na t i ve l a ngua ge a s t he ba s e a s s i s t s t ude nt s i n r e a c hi ng t he 50 t h pe r c e nt i l e or hi ghe r C ons i de r i ng t hi s i t i s

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185 i m pe r a t i ve t ha t w e a dopt pr og r a m s t ha t c onc l ude a f i r m t he or e t i c a l s t a nc e w hi c h va l ue s t he s oc i a l a nd c ul t ur a l c a pi t a l of H i s pa ni c boys w hi l e r e s pe c t f ul l y e nc ul t ur a t i ng ( E L L ) t he m w i t hi n ou r s c hool s ys t e m ( B r i s k, 2006; S out o M a nni ng, 2007) D i c hos and C ons e j os T hi s por t i on of one of t he f oc us g r oup s e s s i ons w a s by f a r one of t he m os t e xc i t i ng. T h i s s t udy br ought ou t t h i s c ul t ur a l l i t e r a c y i n a l i t e r a t e w a y. S e e i ng t he vi gor a nd e nt hus i a s m w he n t he s e know n c ul t ur a l pr ove r bs l a c e d w i t h r i c h m e a ni ngs w e r e di s c us s e d c oul d be a br i dge f or H i s pa ni c boys t o s ha r e t he i r c ul t u r a l i de nt i y m o r a l l i t e r a c y, t ha t w oul d ul t i m a t e l y e nha nc e t he i r c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y a nd s e e n a s va l ue d i n t he s c hool s ys t e m I n a s i m pl e G oog l e s e a r c h w i t h t he w or d di c hos br ought up 15, 100 000 s i t e s T he s e s i t e s r a nge d f r om s i m pl e l i s t s of di c hos w he r e t he l i t e r a l E ngl i s h t r a ns l a t i on i s l i s t e d t o bl o gs w i t h va r i ous di c hos w i t h s t or i e s a t t a c he d of t he i r ge ne r a t i ona l pa s s i ng. L a ngua ge A r t s c l a s s e s c oul d br i ng i n w ha t M ol l A m a nt i N e f f & G onz a l e z ( 1992) c a l l F unds of K now l e dge w hi c h a r e de f i ne d a s bodi e s of know l e dge a nd c ul t u r a l a r t i f a c t s t ha t uphol d f a m i l y di s c us s i ons a nd a c t i vi t i e s T hi s i s a c r i t i c a l a r e a f o r f ur t he r r e s e a r c h due t o t he a m ount of e xc i t e m e nt m ot i va t i on, a nd va l i da t i on i t b r ought t o t he i de nt i t i e s of t h i s gr oup of H i s pa ni c boys M or al L i t e r ac y T he m os t s ur pr i s i ng f i ndi ng f r om t hi s s t udy w a s t h a t t he s e H i s pa ni c boys c ons i s t e nt l y a nd unknow i ngl y e xpr e s s e d a de e p m or a l l i t e r a c y. T hi s gr oup o f H i s pa ni c boys c ons i de r e d t he m s e l ve s t o be m or a l l y g r ounde d m uc h m or e t ha n t he i r non H i s pa ni c c l a s s m a t e s I n t he book r e vi e w w r i t t e n by N e i l K r e s s e l on E t hni c E t hi c s : T he

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186 R e s t r uc t ur i ng of M or al T he or y w r i t t e n by A n t hon y C or t e s e t he a ut ho r c l a i m s t ha t H i s pa ni c s a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s ge ne r a l l y ba s e t he i r m o r a l r e a s oni ng on pr i nc i pl e s of c a r i ng l ove a nd r e s pons i bi l i t y, ( p 1 55) a s oppos e d t o K ohl be r g s f r a m e a r ound pr i nc i pl e s of j us t i c e Y e t K r e s s e l ( 1991) c l a i m s t ha t f i r m e r da t a a r e r e qui r e d t o va l i da t e t hi s s t a nc e I a s s e r t t ha t f ur t he r r e s e a r c h m us t be c onduc t e d w i t h p r e dom i na nt m i nor i t y c ul t u r e s l i ke H i s pa ni c a nd A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns t o uphol d or d i s m i s s t hi s c l a i m M ac hi s m o T he c ur r e nt l i t e r a t ur e on m a s c ul i ni t y a s i t r e l a t e s t o t he H i s pa ni c c ul t ur e i s na r r ow a nd l i m i t e d. T hi s s t udy f ound t ha t t he s e a dol e s c e nt H i s pa ni c m a l e s w e r e ope n a nd hone s t w he n i t c om e s t o s ha r i ng t he i r c ur r e nt v i e w of t he c ha ngi ng r ol e s of m e n a nd w om e n w i t hi n t r a di t i ona l M e xi c a n f a m i l i e s I t w a s c ur i ous t o no t e t ha t t he y c oul d s pe a k ba c k t o t he ol d da y m a c hi s m o a nd e ve n s poke of ne w a c t i ons ge a r e d t ow a r d f ut ur e l i be r a t e d w or ki ng w i ve s a nd da ught e r s M a ny que s t i ons r e m a i n f o r f u t ur e r e s e a r c h t o a ddr e s s W ha t i s t he c ha ngi ng out l ook of ne w ge ne r a t i ons of H i s pa ni c m e n a bout m a c hi s m o a nd how i t pe r t a i ns t o t he i r r ol e s ? H ow do young H i s pa ni c m a l e s w or ds a nd a c t i ons di f f e r i n r e ga r d t o t he i r gi r l f r i e nds ? W ha t s pe c i f i c vi e w s of s c hool do t he y c ons i de r t o be f e m i n i ne a nd i s be i ng s m a r t a s i gn o f w e a kne s s ? H ow m uc h of t he i r c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y i s t i e d t o G i l l m o r e s ( 1990 ) t r a di t i ona l vi e w of m a c hi s m o, w hi c h i s t o i m pr e gna t e t o pr ot e c t a nd t o pr ovi de ? W or k on t h e s e c ons i de r a t i ons w i l l pr ovi de m or e i ns i ght t o how m a c hi s m o i m pa c t s t he l i ve s of H i s pa ni c boys

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187 D i s c our s e of F i ght i ng I t w a s a l s o i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t he i r l i t e r a c y a r ound phys i c a l f i ght i ng. I w a s de f i ni t e l y a n out s i de r dur i ng t he s e di s c us s i ons a nd, t he r e f or e I w a s l e f t w i t h m a ny que s t i ons A m ong t he s e a r e : W ha t a r e t he s pe c i f i c r i t ua l s a nd g r ound r ul e s ? A r e t he y di f f e r e nt w i t h i n c ul t ur a l c l us t e r s of ne i ghbor hoods ? A r e t he i r i ns i de r s f r o m ot he r c ul t ur e s ? W ho i s pr i vy t o t hi s l i t e r a c y a nd how doe s one l e a r n i t ? D o t he y e ve r f i ght t w i c e a nd w he n doe s r e ve nge be gi n t o de ve l op? F ur t he r r e s e a r c h m us t be c onduc t e d t o f ul l y unde r s t a nd t he dyna m i c of t hi s unde r l yi ng l i t e r a c y A s f ur t he r r e s e a r c h i s c onduc t e d i t w oul d pr ude nt t o r e m e m be r t ha t t he l i t e r a c i e s a nd i de nt i t i e s e xpr e s s e d by t hi s gr oup of H i s pa ni c boys of t e n ove r l a ppe d a nd i nt e r m i ngl e d w i t h e a c h ot he r F u r t h e r R e f l e c t i o n s on R ol e of R e s e ar c h e r I n m y r e e xa m i na t i on of t he t r a ns c r i be d da t a I not i c e d t ha t a s t he i nqui r y c a m e t o a c l os e m y r e s pons e s gr e w l onge r t ha n t hos e of t h e pa r t i c i pa nt s I w a s t a ke n ba c k w i t h a m om e nt of de ni a l f ol l ow e d by a ga s p o f s ha m e I h a d f a i l e d t o m a i nt a i n t he l i ne of r e s pe c t f ul r e s e a r c h honor i ng t he voi c e s of m y pa r t i c i pa nt s t hi s be i ng t he e nt i r e t h r us t of t hi s s t udy. I n di s be l i e f I q ui c kl y w e nt ba c k a nd r e r e a d w ha t m us t ha ve be e n I know w ha t you ne e d t o s uc c e e d, c om m e nt s B e i ng hum bl e d a nd a l i t t l e r e l i e ve d, I f ound t he i nt e nt i on of m y w or ds t o be hope f ul o f m a ki ng a di f f e r e nc e I n t he w a ni ng da ys of our c onve r s a t i ons I f ound m y s e l f pos i t i one d i n a m a n ne r t o s ha r e m y ow n c ons e j oe s ( a dvi c e ) w i t h m y boys T he y ha d of f e r e d t he i r pe r s ona l s t or i e s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd f e a r s t o a

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188 buddi ng r e s e a r c he r a ve t e r a n t e a c he r a nd a c onc e r ne d m ot he r I s ha r e d m y hope s a nd dr e a m s w i t h t he m a s m ot he r t e a c he r r e s e a r c he r a nd, ul t i m a t e l y o r a c l e I m pac t of R ol e s on D at a I t w a s e vi de nt t ha t m y ba c kgr ound e xpe r i e nc e ( m i gr a nt ) e t hni c i t y ( H i s pa ni c ) ge nde r ( f e m a l e ) t i e s t o c om m uni t y ( ve s t e d, m y c hi l dr e n, t e a c he r ) bi l i ngua l i s m ( f l ue nt i n S pa ni s h a nd E ngl i s h) a nd i ns i ght i nt o m a r gi na l i z a t i on va l i da t e d t he boys i n r e ga r ds t o W ha t ha s s ha pe d t he i r w or l dvi e w ? ( P a t t on 2002 ) T oge t he r w e w e r e a bl e t o r e l a t e t o m a ny e xpe r i e nc e s I unde r s t ood t he f oo t s t e ps t he y w a l ke d ha vi ng ha d m a ny s i m i l a r s i t ua t i ons bot h w i t hi n m y publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac i e s ( F a ul kne r 2005 ) T hi s w i ndow w hi l e ope n, m a y ha ve a f f o r de d a uni que s pa c e f or t he de ve l opm e nt of t r us t a nd uni t y be t w e e n us a l l T hi s t r us t gr a nt e d a s a pe r c e i ve d i n s i de r m a y ha ve i m pa c t e d t he da t a by a l l ow i ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o be m o r e hone s t a nd e x pos e s pe c i f i c pe r s pe c t i ve s onl y pr i vy t o i ns i de r s H ow e ve r t he y a l s o s a w be f or e t he m a m i ddl e c l a s s a s s i m i l a t e d, e duc a t e d pr oduc t of t he i r ow n c om m uni t y I a m l e f t t o w ond e r i f a t a nyt i m e di d a ny one of t he boy s pos i t i on m e i n t he r ol e of t he y? ( T a bl e 8 ) I t m a y ha ve be e n e vi de nt t o s om e t ha t I w a s t oo f a r r e m ove d f r om t he w or l d t ha t s ha pe d bo t h our m a r gi na l i z e d pos i t i on a nd c ur r e nt w or l dvi e w ( P a t t on 2002 ) I f s o, c oul d t hi s ha ve i m pa c t e d t hos e w ho c hos e t o r e m ove t he m s e l ve s f r om t he s t udy? C oul d t he y ha ve s ha r e d ne ga t i ve s t e r e ot ypi ng t ha t w oul d c onve y t he m e s s a ge or m a r gi na l i z a t i on w hi l e i nc l udi ng m e i n t he d i s c us s i on? W ha t e ve r t he i nt e nt i on, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s ha r e d voi c e s a r ound i s s ue s t ha t i m pa c t t he e duc a t i ng of H i s pa ni c boys i n hope t ha t t he s e voi c e s w oul d be he a r d. I n r e f l e c t i on, i t w a s m y de e pe s t de s i r e t o m a ke a di f f e r e nc e w i t h t hi s g r oup of H i s pa ni c boys

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189 E P I L O G U E T h e D ay of U n i t y O ne H i s pa ni c boy s poke a bout a t i m e a nd pl a c e w he r e t he r e s no ga ngs a nd no m or e no m or e not i n l i ke t ha t T hi s e xpr e s s i on w a s r e f l e c t e d w he n de pi c t i ng a dr a w i ng he ha d c r e a t e d i n h i s c ul t ur e j ou r na l e nt i t l e d T he D a y of U ni t y ( F i gu r e 4) T hi s w a s i nc l ude d t o r e pr e s e nt t he c ol l e c t i ve voi c e of t he s e H i s pa ni c boys de s i r e t o f i nd a l oc a t i on, a pl a c e t o be t he m s e l ve s bot h phys i c a l l y a nd m e t a phor i c a l l y. T he c onve r s a t i on w e nt a s f ol l ow s : L or e nz o: T ha t s w hy I w a nt t o m a ke l i ke a l i t t l e t hi ng f or l i ke pe opl e t ha t don t ha ve not hi ng t o ha ng out w i t h, j us t t o c om e w i t h us R : A nd w ha t w oul d t ha t l ook l i ke ? W ha t doe s t ha t l oo k l i ke i n your m i nd? L or e nz o: P e r f e c t you know w ha t I m s a yi ng? R : T e l l m e w ha t i t s T e l l m e L or e nz o: J us t l i ke R : P i c t ur e T e l l m e s o I c a n s e e i t i n m y he a d L or e nz o: J us t l i ke s a yi ng l i ke a bui l di ng l i ke l i ke t ha t L o ok, f o r i ns t a nc e R : O ka y, a bui l di ng L or e nz o: O ka y, a nd w e got l i ke a r t w or k on t he w a l l s a nd on a l l f ou r w a l l s of l i ke t he pa s t hi s t or y. I t s not j us t goi ng t o be H i s pa ni c s you

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190 know w ha t I m s a yi ng? Y ou r e goi ng t o ha ve m u r a l s w ha t e ve r w ha t e ve r A l l r a c e s a l l r a c e s R : A l l r a c e s L or e nz o: A nd j us t l i ke I don t know J us t l i ke a m ur a l of j us t w ha t t he y ve be e n t hr ough a nd s t uf f l i ke t ha t S o l i ke i f a ne w m e m be r c om e s i n, t he n w e l l gi ve t he m l i ke a s pa c e f or t he m t o g e t t he i r ow n m ur a l but t he y got t o be l i ke t he s a m e t hi ng f r om l i ke w he r e e ve r ybody c a m e f r om f r om t he pa s t j us t t o be on t ha t s a m e w a l l S o t he r e a pi c t u r e c a n t e l l a t hous a nd s t or i e s a s I s e e i t A nd t ha t s w hy, j us t l i ke m a ke a bui l d i ng l i ke t ha t Y ou kno w how t he y got l i t t l e s e c t i ons of e m ? R : R i ght r i ght L or e nz o: L i ke t ha t J us t i f t he y don t w a nt a s e c t i on, ha ve s om e body e l s e dr a w i t T e l l m e w ha t you t hi nk a nd I l l d r a w i t f or you. R : A nd w ha t w oul d be ha ppe ni ng a t t h i s bui l di ng w i t h a l l t he m ur a l s t ha t c onne c t pe opl e ? L or e nz o: J us t t o s how t ha t t he r e i s uni t y a nd l i ke I s a i d, I m w a i t i ng f o r t ha t da y t o c om e R : A D a y of U ni t y. L or e nz o: T ha t s w ha t I w a nt T ha t s w ha t I w a nt m y t hi ng t o be c a l l e d, A D a y of U ni t y J us t l i ke e ve r ybody, a l l r a c e s pe opl e

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191 t oge t he r nobody bot he r s nobody Y ou c a n go t o t h e be a c h s i t dow n w i t hout ge t t i ng s hot a t J us t uh uni t y l i ke t h a t t oge t he r F i gu r e 4. T h e D ay o f U n i t y b y L or e n z o

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192 R E F E R E N C E S A l l i ngt on, R ( 2006 ) W hat r e al l y m at t e r s f or s t r uggl i ng r e ade r s ? B os t on, M A : P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc A l va r e z R ( 1973) T he ps yc o hi s t or i c a l a nd s oc i o e c onom i c de ve l opm e nt of t he C hi c a no c om m uni t y i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s Soc i al Sc i e nc e Q u ar t e r l y 53 920 942 A m e r i c a n C ounc i l on E duc a t i on. ( 2006, N ove m be r ) M i nor i t i e s i n H i ghe r E duc a t i on ( 22 n d ) A nnua l S t a t us R e por t W a s hi ngt on, D C A nde r s on, M ( 2003) R e a di ng vi ol e nc e i n boys w r i t i ng. L anguage A r t s 80 ( 3 ) 223 230. B a r r s M ( 2000) G e nde r e d l i t e r a c y? L anguage A r t s 77 ( 4) 287 293 B e e r s K ( 1996 ) N o t i m e no i nt e r e s t no w a y! : T he 3 voi c e s of a l i t e r a c y ( P a r t 2 ) Sc hool L i br ar y J our nal 42 ( 3) 110 113 B e r g, B ( 2007) Q ual i t a t i v e r e s e ar c h m e t hods f or t he s oc i al s c i e nc e s ( 6t h e d) B os t on, M A : A l l y & B a c on. B or ba M ( 2001) B ui l di n g m or al i nt e l l i ge nc e : T h e s e v e n e s s e nt i al v i r t ue s t hat t e ac h k i ds t o do t he r i ght t hi ng S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s B r i s k, M E ( 2006) B i l i ngual e duc at i on : F r om c om pe ns at or y t o qual i t y s c hool i ng ( 2 n d e d. ) M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s I nc B r ow n, D ( 2003 ) U r ba n t e a c he r s us e of c ul t ur a l l y r e s pons i ve m a na ge m e nt s t r a t e gi e s T he or y i nt o P r ac t i c e 42 ( 4) 277 282

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193 B r oz o. W ( 2002) T o be a boy t o be a r e ade r N e w a r k, D E : I n t e r na t i ona l R e a di ng A s s oc i a t i on. B ur e a u of C e ns us ( 2000) U S D e pa r t m e nt o f C o m m e r c e E c onom i c s a nd S t a t i s t i c s A dm i ni s t r a t i on, O v e r v i e w of R ac e and H i s pani c O r i gi n, 2000 B y E l i z a be t h M G r i e c o a nd R a c he l C C a s s i dy. R e t r i e ve d on J une 10 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w c e ns us gov/ B ur e a u of C e ns us ( 2001) U S D e pa r t m e nt o f C o m m e r c e E c onom i c s a nd S t a t i s t i c s A dm i ni s t r a t i on. R e t r i e ve d on J une 10, 2007 f r om h t t p: / / w w w c e ns us gov/ B ur e a u of C e ns us ( 2004) U S D e pa r t m e nt o f C o m m e r c e E c onom i c s a nd S t a t i s t i c s A dm i ni s t r a t i on. R e t r i e ve d on J une 10, 2007 f r om h t t p: / / w w w c e ns us gov/ B ur e a u of C e ns us ( 2006) U S D e pa r t m e nt o f C o m m e r c e E c onom i c s a nd S t a t i s t i c s A dm i ni s t r a t i on. R e t r i e ve d on O c t obe r 21 2007 f r o m ht t p: / / w w w c e ns us gov/ B ur ge s s R ( 1991) S pons or s ga t e ke e pe r s m e m be r s a nd f r i e nds : A c c e s s i n e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ngs I n W B S ha f f i r & R A S t e bbi ns ( E ds ) E x pe r i e nc i ng f i e l dw or k : A n i ns i de v i e w of qual i t at i v e r e s e ar c h ( pp. 43 52) N e w bur y P a r k C A : S a ge P ubl i s he r s C a l ki ns L ( 1986) T he ar t of t e ac hi ng w r i t i ng ( 2 n d E d. ) N e w Y or k: A l l yn & B a c on. C a l ki ns L ( 2000) T he ar t of t e ac hi ng r e adi ng N e w Y or k: A l l yn & B a c on. C a r ne gi e C ounc i l on A dol e s c e nt D e ve l opm e nt ( 1 999) T ur ni ng poi nt s : P r e par i ng A m e r i c an y out h f or t he 21 s t c e nt ur y W a s hi ngt on, D C : C a r ne gi e C or por a t i on of N e w Y or k.

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194 C e nt e r f or R e s e a r c h on E duc a t i on, D i ve r s i t y, & E x c e l l e nc e ( 2003, J a nua r y) A nat i onal s t udy of s c hool e f f e c t i v e ne s s f or l anguage m i nor i t y s t ude nt s l ong t e r m ac ade m i c ac hi e v e m e nt R e t r i e ve d on O c t obe r 30 2007 f r om w w w c a l or g/ r e s our c e s / di ge s t / R e s B r i e f 10. ht m l C hr i s t i a n S m i t h, L K ( 1991 ) R e ade r s t e x t and c ont e x t : A dol e s c e nt r om anc e i n s c hool s N e w Y or k: R out l e dge C ol e M ( 19 87) I m pr ov i ng s c i e nc e and m at he m at i c s e duc at i on f or m i nor i t i e s and w om e n: C ont e x t ual f ac t or s i n e duc at i on. M a di s on, W I : C e nt e r f or E duc a t i on R e s e a r c h. C om be r B ( 2001, A pr i l ) N e got i a t i ng c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c i e s B e t w e e n t he i de a l a nd t he r e a l w or l d of t e a c hi ng, Sc hool T al k 25, 1 3 C onc ha s G ( 2002) T he c ol or of s uc c e s s N e w Y or k: T e a c he r s C ol l e ge P r e s s C onne l l R W ( 1996) T e a c hi ng t he boys : N e w r e s e a r c h on m a s c ul i ni t y, a nd ge nde r s t r a t e gi e s f or s c hool s T e ac he r s C ol l e ge R e c or d. 9 8 ( 2) 206 23. C onne l l D & G unz e l m a nn, B ( 2004) T he ne w g e nde r ga p. I ns t r uc t or M agaz i ne 113 ( 6) 14 17 C oot e r K ( 2006 ) W he n m a m a c a n't r e a d: C ount e r a c t i ng i nt e r ge ne r a t i ona l i l l i t e r a c y T he R e adi ng T e ac he r 59 ( 7 ) 698 702. C or w i n, Z V e ne ga s K O l i ve r e z P C ol ya r J ( 2 004) S c hool c ouns e l : H ow a ppr opr i a t e gui da nc e a f f e c t s e duc a t i ona l e qui t y U r ban E duc at i on, 39 ( 4) 442 457.

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197 G a r c i a C ( 1986, W i nt e r ) [ R e vi e w of t he book L a t i no E t hni c C ons c i ous ne s s ] I nt e r nat i onal M i gr at i on R e v i e w Spe c i al I s s ue : T e m por ar y W o r k e r P r ogr am s : M e c hani s m s C ondi t i ons C ons e que nc e s 20 ( 4) 10 57 1058 G a y, G ( 1994) C om i ng of a ge e t hni c a l l y: T e a c hi ng a dol e s c e nt s of c ol or T he or y I nt o P r ac t i c e 33 ( 3) 149 155. G a y, G ( 2000) C ul t ur al l y r e s pons i v e t e ac hi ng: T he or y r e s e a r c h, and pr a c t i c e N e w Y or k: T e a c he r s C ol l e ge P r e s s G e e J P ( 2001) R e a di ng a s s i t ua t e d l a ngua ge : A s oc i o c ogni t i ve pe r s pe c t i ve J our nal of A dol e s c e nt & A dul t L i t e r ac y 44 ( 8) 714 725 G e e J P ( 2005) D i s c our s e anal y s i s : T he or y and m e t hod ( 2 n d e d. ) N e w Y or k: R out l e dge G i l l m or e D ( 1990) M anhood i n t he m ak i ng: C ul t ur al c onc e pt s of m as c ul i ni t y N e w H a ve n, C T : Y a l e U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s G i nor i o, A & H us t on, M ( 2001) S i s e pue de Y e s w e c a n. L a t i na s i n s c hool W a s hi ngt on, D C : A m e r i c a n A s s oc i a t i on of U ni ve r s i t y W om e n E duc a t i ona l F ounda t i on. G om e z L ( 1992 ) T he bi r t h of t he H i s pa ni c ge ne r a t i on. L a t i n A m e r i c an P e r s pe c t i v e s 19 ( 4) 45 58 G r a ve s D ( 1973) S e x di f f e r e nc e s i n c hi l dr e n s w r i t i ng. E l e m e nt ar y E ngl i s h 50 ( 7 ) 1101 1106.

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198 G unz e l m a nn, B & C onne l l D ( 2004 ) T he ne w g e nde r ga p: S oc i a l ps yc hol ogi c a l ne ur o bi ol ogi c a l a nd e duc a t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve s E d uc at i onal H or i z ons 84 ( 2) 94 101. G ur i a n, M ( 1996) T he w onde r of boy s : W hat par e nt s m e nt or s and e duc at or s c an do t o s hape boy s i nt o e x c e pt i onal m e n. N e w Y o r k: P u t n a m P r e s s G ur i a n, M & S t e ve ns K ( 2005) T he m i nds of bo y s : Sav i ng our s ons f r om f al l i ng be hi nd i n s c hool and l i f e S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s H a r r i s V ( 1992 ) T e ac hi ng m ul t i c ul t ur al l i t e r at ur e i n gr ade s K 8 N o r w ood, M A : C hr i s t ophe r G or don. H a w ke s G & T a yl or M ( 1975 ) P ow e r s t r uc t u r e i n M e xi c a n a nd M e xi c a n A m e r i c a n f a r m l a bor f a m i l i e s J our nal of M ar r i age and t he F am i l y 37 807 811 H e r t z R ( 1997) R e f l e x i v i t y and v oi c e T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons H e ube r t J & H a u s e r R ( 1999) H i gh s t ak e s t e s t i ng f or t r ac k i ng, pr om ot i on, and gr aduat i on W a s hi ngt on, D C : N a t i ona l A c a de m y. H i l l J & F l ynn K M ( 2006) C l as s r oom i ns t r uc t i on t hat w or k s w i t h E ngl i s h l anguage l e ar ne r s A l e xa ndr i a V A : A S C D H ol m e s C T ( 1984) T h e e f f e c t s of non pr o m ot i on on e l e m e nt a r y a nd j uni or hi gh s c hool pupi l s : A m e t a a na l ys i s R e v i e w of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h, 54 225 236 H ue r t a M a c i a s A ( 1998 ) E duc at i ng L at i no s t ude nt s : A gu i de t o s uc c e s s f ul pr ac t i c e L a nc a s t e r P A : T e c hnom i c P ubl i s hi ng C om pa ny, I nc I r vi ne J J ( 1990) B l ac k s t ude nt s and s c hool f ai l ur e W e s t por t C T : G r e e nw ood P r e s s

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199 J a c ks on, D & S a l i s bur y J ( 1996 ) W hy s houl d s e c onda r y s c hool s t a ke w or ki ng w i t h boys s e r i ous l y? G e nde r and E duc at i on, 8 103 115 J i m e ne z R G a r c i a E G & P e a r s on, D ( 1996 ) T he r e a di ng s t r a t e gi e s of b i l i ngua l L a t i na / o s t ude nt s w ho a r e s uc c e s s f ul E ngl i s h r e a de r s : O ppor t uni t i e s a nd obs t a c l e s R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 31 ( 1) 90 112 J i m e ne z R M ol l L R odr i que z B r ow n F & B a r e r r a R ( 1999) L a t i na a nd L a t i no r e s e a r c he r s i nt e r a c t on i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o l i t e r a c y l e a r ni ng. R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 34 ( 2) 217 230. K a ne E ( 2006 ) N o w a y m y boys a r e goi ng t o be l i ke t ha t P a r e nt s r e s pons e s t o c hi l dr e n s ge nde r nonc onf o r m i t y. G e nde r & Soc i e t y 2 0 ( 2) 149 176 K a r w e i t N L ( 1999 ) G r ade r e t e nt i on: P r e v al e nc e t i m i ng and e f f e c t s ( C R E S P A R R e por t N o. 33 ) B a l t i m or e M D : J ohns H opki ns U ni ve r s i t y. K i nc he l oe J & M c L a r e n P ( 2005) R e t hi nki ng c r i t i c a l t he or y a nd qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h. I n N L D e nz i n & Y S L i nc ol n ( E ds ) T he s age ha ndbook of qual i t at i v e r e s e ar c h ( pp. 303 340) T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge P ub l i s he r s K i ndl on, D & T hom ps on, M ( 1999) R ai s i ng C ai n: P r ot e c t i ng t he e m ot i onal l i f e of boy s N e w Y or k: B a l l a nt i ne B ooks K i ng, K & G ur i a n M ( 2006) T e a c hi ng t o t he m i nds of boys E duc at i onal L e ade r s hi p 64 ( 1) 56 61 K r e s s e l N ( 1991 ) B ook R e vi e w s [ R e vi e w of t he book E t hni c E t hi c s : T he r e s t r uc t ur i ng of m or al t he or y by A nt hony J C or t e s e ] T he A m e r i c an J our nal of Soc i ol ogy 97 ( 1) 239 24 1

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200 K r ue ge r R ( 1994 ) F oc us gr oups : A pr ac t i c al gui de f or appl i e d r e s e ar c h ( 2 n d e d. ) T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons L a ds on B i l i ngs G ( 1994) T he dr e am k e e pe r s S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s L e e V & B ur ka m D ( 2003 ) D r oppi ng out o f hi gh s c hool : T he r ol e of s c hool or ga ni z a t i on a nd s t r uc t ur e A m e r i c an E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h J our nal 40 ( 2) 353 393. L e w i s on, M F l i nt A S & S l uys K V ( 2002) T a ki ng on c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y: T he j ou r ne y of ne w c om e r s a nd novi c e s L anguage A r t s 79 ( 5) 382 392. L l oyd C ( 1998) A dol e s c e nt gi r l s : C ons t r uc t i ng a nd doi ng l i t e r a c y, c ons t r uc t i ng a nd doi ng ge nde r R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 33( 1) 129 136. L udl ow L & M a ha l i k, J R ( 2002) C ongr ue nc e b e t w e e n a t he or e t i c a l c ont i nuum o f m a s c ul i ni t y a nd t he R a s c h m ode l : E x a m i n i ng t he c onf or m i t y t o m a s c ul i ne nor m s i nve nt or y. J our nal o f A pp l i e d M e as ur e m e nt 2 20 5 221. M a nha t t a n I ns t i t ut e f or P ol i c y R e s e a r c h. ( 2006 A pr i l ) L e av i ng boy s be hi nd : P ubl i c hi gh s c hool gr aduat i on r at e s ( I s s ue N o. 48 ) N e w Y or k : J a y P G r e e ne a nd M a r c us A W i nt e r s M a r s ha l l C & R os s m a n, G ( 2006) D e s i gni ng qu al i t at i v e r e s e ar c h ( 4t h E d ) T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons M a r t i ne z E ( 1998 ) S e e i ng m o r e t ha n b l a c k a nd w hi t e Z M agaz i ne 33( 1) 1 7. R e t r i e ve d on N ove m be r 24 2007 f r o m w w w z m a g. or g/ z m a g/ a r t i c l e s / m r t i ne z 2. ht m

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201 M a r t i no, W ( 2001) B oys a nd r e a di ng: I nve s t i ga t i ng t he i m pa c t o f m a s c ul i ni t i e s on boys r e a di ng pr e f e r e nc e s a nd i nvol ve m e nt i n l i t e r a c y. J our nal of L anguage and L i t e r ac y 24 ( 1) 61 75 M a r t i no, W ( 2007) T he P o l i t i c s a nd C r i s i s of B oys L i t e r a c y: B e yond E s s e nt i a l i s t M i nds e t s a nd t he B oy F r i e ndl y C ur r i c ul um I n R H a m m e t t & K S a nf o r d ( E ds ) B oy s gi r l s and t he m y t h o f l i t e r ac i e s and l e ar ni ng ( pp. 91 114) T or ont o: C a na di a n S c hol a r s P r e s s M a r t i no, W & B e r r i l l D ( 200 3 ) B oys s c hool i ng a nd m a s c ul i ni t i e s : I nt e r r oga t i ng t he r i ght w a y t o e duc a t e boys E duc at i onal R e v i e w 5 5( 2) 99 117 M e a d, S ( 2006) T he t r ut h about gi r l s and boy s E duc a t i on S e c t or R e t r i e ve d J ul y 10, 2006 f r om w w w e duc a t i ons e c t or or g M c C a r t he y, S & M oj e E ( 2002) I de nt i t y m a t t e r s R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 37 ( 2) 228 238. M c D a ni e l C ( 2004) C r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y: A que s t i oni ng s t a nc e a nd t he pos s i bi l i t y f o r c ha nge T he R e adi ng T e ac he r 57 ( 5 ) 472 480 M c L a r e n, P ( 2003 ) L i f e i n s c hool s : A n i nt r oduc t i on t o c r i t i c al pe dagogy i n t he f oundat i ons of e duc at i on ( 4 t h e d ) B os t on: P e a r s on E duc a t i on, I nc M c L a ughl i n, M & D e V oogd, G ( 2004) C r i t i c al l i t e r ac y : E nhanc i ng s t ude nt s c om pr e he n s i on of t e x t N e w Y or k: S c hol a s t i c I nc M i l l a r d, E ( 1997) D i f f e r e nt l y l i t e r at e L ondon: F a l m e r P r e s s

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202 M ol l L A m a nt i C N e f f D & G onz a l e z N ( 19 92) F unds of know l e dge f or t e a c hi ng: U s i ng a qua l i t a t i ve a ppr oa c h t o c onne c t hom e s a nd c l a s s r oom s T he or y i nt o P r ac t i c e 31 ( 2) 132 141. N a t i ona l A s s e s s m e nt of E du c a t i ona l P r ogr e s s ( N A E P ) ( 2003 ) T he e duc at i on s t at i s t i c s on H i s pani c s W a s hi ngt on, D C : U S D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on. N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i ona l S t a t i s t i c s ( N C E S ) ( 2002) T he e duc at i on s t at i s t i c s on gi r l s and w om e n W a s hi ngt on, D C : U S D e pa r t m e n t of E d uc a t i on. N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i ona l S t a t i s t i c s ( N C E S ) ( 2004) T he e duc at i on s t at i s t i c s on gi r l s and w om e n W a s hi ngt on, D C : U S D e pa r t m e n t of E duc a t i on. N a t i ona l C ounc i l of L a R a z a ( N C L R ) ( 2 007) H i s p ani c E duc at i on i n t he U n i t e d St at e s St at i s t i c al B r i e f B y A dr i a na D K ohl e r a nd M e l i s s a L a z a r n. R e t r i e ve d on N ove m be r 2007, f r om ht t p: / / w w w nc l r o r g/ c ont e nt / publ i c a t i ons / dow nl oa d/ 43582 N e uf e l d, P a nd F i t z ge r a l d, J ( 2001) E a r l y E ngl i s h r e a di ng de ve l opm e nt : L a t i no E ngl i s h l e a r ne r s i n t he l ow r e a di ng g r oup. R e s e ar c h i n t he T e ac hi ng of E ngl i s h 36 ( 1) 64 109. N e w ki r k, T ( 2000) M i s r e adi ng m as c ul i ni t y N e w Y or k: H e i ne m a nn. N e w ki r k, T ( 2006) M e di a a nd l i t e r a c y: W ha t s go od? E duc at i onal L e ade r s hi p, 64 ( 1) 62 66. N i e t o, S ( 19 99) P r o f oundl y m u l t i c ul t ur a l que s t i ons E duc at i onal L e ade r s hi p, 60 ( 4) 6 10. N i e t o, S ( 20 00) P l a c i ng e qui t y f r ont a nd c e nt e r : S om e t hought s on t r a ns f or m i ng t e a c he r e duc a t i on f or a ne w c e nt ur y. J our nal of T e ac he r E duc at i on, 51 ( 3 ) 180 188

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203 N i e t o, S ( 20 04) A f f i r m i ng di v e r s i t y : T he s oc i opol i t i c al c ont e x t of m ul t i c ul t ur al e duc at i on ( 4t h E d ) B os t on: A l l y & B a c on. N or gue r a P & J Y W i ng. ( E ds ) ( 2006) U nf i ni s h e d bus i ne s s : C l os i ng t he r ac i al ac hi e v e m e nt gap i n our s c hool s S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s O gbu, J U ( 1992) A da pt a t i on t o m i no r i t y s t a t us a nd i m pa c t on s c hool s uc c e s s T he or y I nt o P r ac t i c e 31 287 295 P a t t on, M ( 2002 ) Q ual i t at i v e r e s e ar c h & e v al uat i on m e t hods ( 3r d E d) T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons P e na l os a T ( 1968) M e xi c a n f a m i l y r o l e s J our nal o f M ar r i age and F am i l y T he r apy 30 680 689. P e r e a J F ( 1997) T he bl a c k/ w hi t e bi na r y pa r a di g m of r a c e : T he nor m a l s c i e nc e of A m e r i c a n r a c i a l t hought C al i f or ni a L aw R e v i e w 85 ( 5) 1213 1258. P e yt on Y oung J ( 2000 ) B oy t a l k: c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y a nd m a s c ul i ni t i e s R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 35 ( 3) 312 337. P ol l oc k, W ( 1999 ) R e al boy s : R e s c ui ng our s ons f r om t he m y t hs of boy hood N Y : H e nr y H ol t a nd C om pa ny. P ot t or f f D P he l ps Z i e nt a r s ky, D & S kove r a M ( 1996) G e nde r pe r c e pt i ons of e l e m e nt a r y a n d m i ddl e s c hool s t ude nt s a bout l i t e r a c y a t s c hool a nd hom e J our nal of R e s e ar c h and D e v e l opm e nt i n E duc at i on, 29 20 3 211. R ubi n, H & R ubi n, I ( 2005 ) Q ual i t at i v e i nt e r v i e w i ng: T he ar t of he ar i ng dat a ( 2nd E d) T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons

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204 S c hl e c ht y, P C ( 2002) W or k i ng on t he w or k : A n ac t i on pl an f or t e ac he r s pr i nc i pal s and s upe r i nt e nde nt s S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s S m e dl e y, A ( 1999 ) R ac e i n A m e r i c a ( 2 n d E d) B o ul de r C O : W e s t vi e w P r e s s S m i l e r A ( 2006) C onf o r m i ng t o m a s c ul i ne nor m s : E vi de nc e f or va l i di t y a m ong a dul t m e n a nd w om e n. Se x R ol e s 54 767 775 S m i t h, J & W i l he l m J ( 2002 ) R e adi ng don t f i x no c he v y s N e w Y or k: H e i ne m a nn. S out o M a nni ng, M ( 2007) I m m i gr a nt f a m i l i e s a n d c hi l dr e n ( r e ) de ve l op i de nt i t i e s i n a ne w c ont e xt E ar l y C hi l dhood E duc at i on J our nal 34 ( 6) 399 405 S t e ve ns E ( 1965 ) M e xi c a n m a c hi s m o: P ol i t i c s a n d va l ue or i e nt a t i ons T he W e s t e r n P ol i t i c al Q uar t e r l y 18 ( 4) 848 857 S t one H a nl e y, M ( 1999 ) T he s c ope of m ul t i c ul t ur al e duc at i on. N e w H or i z ons f o r L e a r ni ng. R e t r i e ve d on J ul y 10 2007 f r om ht t p: / / w w w ne w hor i z ons or g/ s t r a t e gi e s / m ul t i c ul t ur a l / ha nl e y. ht m S um a r yono, K & O r t i z F ( 2004 ) P r e s e r vi ng t he c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y of t he E ngl i s h l a ngua ge l e a r ne r V oi c e s i n t he M i ddl e 11 ( 4 ) 16 1 9. T a t um A ( 2005) T e ac hi ng r e adi ng t o bl ac k ado l e s c e nt m al e s : C l os i ng t he ac hi e v e m e nt gap M a i ne : S t e nhous e P ubl i s hi ng T or r e s J S ol be r g S & C a r l s on, A ( 2002) T he m yt h of s a m e ne s s a m ong L a t i no m e n a nd t he i r m a c hi s m o. A m e r i c an J our nal of O r t hops y c hi at r y 72 ( 2) 163 181 T r ue ba E ( 1990 ) T he r ol e o f c ul t ur e i n l i t e r a c y a c qui s i t i on: A n i nt e r di s c i pl i na r y a ppr oa c h t o qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h. I nt e r nat i onal J our nal of Q ual i t at i v e St ud i e s i n E duc a t on, 3 ( 1) 1 13

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205 T r ue ba E ( 1993 ) C a s t i f i c a t i on i n m u l t i c ul t ur a l A m e r i c a I n H T r ue ba C R odr i gue z Y Z ou, J C i nt r on ( E ds ) H e al i ng m ul t i c ul t ur al A m e r i c a: M e x i c an i m m i gr ant s r i s e t o pow e r i n r ur al C al i f or ni a ( p. 29 51) W a s hi ngt on, D C : F a l m e r P r e s s T r ue ba E ( 1999 ) L at i nos uni dos : F r om c ul t ur al di v e r s i t y t o t he pol i t i c s of s ol i dar i t y N e w Y or k: R om a n a nd L i t t l e f i e l d P ubl i s he r s U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2008) St r onge r a c c ount abi l i t y : ade quat e y e ar l y pr ogr e s s R e t r i e ve d on N ove m be r 21 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w e d. gov/ nc l b/ a c c ount a bi l i t y/ a yp/ e dpi c k s j ht m l ? s r c = a z V a l de s G ( 1996 ) C on r e s pe c t o: B r i dgi ng t he di s t anc e be t w e e n c ul t ur al l y di v e r s e f am i l i e s and s c hool s N e w Y or k: T e a c he r s C ol l e ge P r e s s V a l de s G ( 2001 ) L e ar ni ng and not l e ar ni ng E ngl i s h: L at i no s t ude nt s i n A m e r i c an s c hool s N e w Y or k: T e a c he r s C ol l e ge P r e s s V a l e nz ue l a A ( 1999 ) Subt r ac t i v e s c hool i ng: U S M e x i c an y out h and t he pol i t i c s of c ar i ng N e w Y or k: N e w Y or k P r e s s V a s que z V ( 2001 ) N e got i a t i ng a c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y c ur r i c ul u m w i t h young c hi l d r e n. P hi D e l t a K appa 29 1 7 V a s que z O P e a s e A l va r e z L & S ha nnon S ( 19 94) P us hi ng boundar i e s : L anguage and c ul t ur e i n a M e x i c an c om m uni t y C a m br i dge : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s V i l l e na s S & D e yhl e D ( 1999) C r i t i c a l r a c e t he or y a nd e t hnogr a phi e s c ha l l e ngi ng t he s t e r e ot ype s : L a t i no f a m i l i e s s c hool i ng, r e s i l i e nc e a nd r e s i s t a nc e C ur r i c ul um I nqui r y 29 ( 4 ) 413 445.

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206 V oya ge r P a s s por t ( 2008 ) V oy age r e x pande d l e ar ni ng ( T e a c he r E d ) A nn A r bor M I : V oya ge r L e a r ni ng C om pa ny W e s t C & Z i m m e r m a n D ( 1987) D oi ng ge nde r G e nde r and Soc i e t y ( 1) 125 151 W hor l e y, M R & A ddi s M ( 2006 ) T e n ye a r s of ps yc hol ogi c a l r e s e a r c h on m e n a nd m a s c ul i ni t y i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s : D om i na nt m e t ho dol ogi c a l t r e nds Se x R ol e s 55 649 658. Y oung, M D & B r ooks J S ( 2008) S uppo r t i ng gr a dua t e s t ude nt s of c ol or i n e duc a t i ona l a dm i ni s t r a t i on pr e pa r a t i on pr ogr a m s : F a c ul t y pe r s pe c t i ve s on be s t pr a c t i c e s pos s i bi l i t i e s a nd pr obl e m E duc at i onal A dm i ni s t r at i on Q uar t e r l y 44 ( 3) 391 423 Y oung, J & B r oz o, W ( 2001) B oys w i l l be boys or w i l l t he y? L i t e r a c y a nd m a s c ul i ni t i e s R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 36 ( 3) 316 325.

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207 A P P E N D I C E S

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A ppe ndi x A 208 I n f or m e d C on s e n t t o P ar t i c i p at e i n R e s e ar c h I n f or m a t i o n t o C o n s i d e r B e f or e T ak i n g P a r t i n t h i s R e s e ar c h S t u d y R e s e a r c he r s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l o r i da ( U S F ) s t udy m a ny t opi c s T o do t hi s w e ne e d t he he l p of pe opl e w ho a g r e e t o t a ke pa r t i n a r e s e a r c h s t udy. T hi s f or m t e l l s you a bout t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. W e a r e a s ki ng you t o t a ke pa r t i n a r e s e a r c h s t udy t ha t i s c a l l e d: O y e M i V oz ( H e ar M y V oi c e ) : L i t e r ac y E x pe r i e nc e s of H i s pani c B oy s T he pe r s on w ho i s i n c ha r ge o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s t udy i s R uby l i nda Z i c k af oos e T hi s pe r s on i s c a l l e d t he P r i nc i pa l I nve s t i ga t or H ow e ve r ot he r r e s e a r c h s t a f f m a y be i nvol ve d a nd c a n a c t on be ha l f o f t he pe r s on i n c ha r ge T he r e s e a r c h w i l l be done a t P al m e t t o H i gh Sc hool P a l m e t t o, F l or i da. P u r p os e of t h e s t u d y T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy B y doi ng t hi s s t udy, w e hope t o e xa m i ne a nd a na l y z e t he pe r c e p t i ons of H i s pa ni c boys publ i c and pr i v at e l i t e r ac y e x pe r i e nc e s ( F a l kne r 2 005) W hi l e a num be r of r e s e a r c he r s ha ve c onduc t e d i nqui r i e s a r ound H i s pa ni c boys t h e y t ypi c a l l y a r e s ke w e d t ow a r d a n a r e a of r e s e a r c h s uc h a s ge nde r c l a s s or r a c e T he s e m a i nl y f oc us on ne ga t i ve a s pe c t s of H i s pa ni c boys i n m i ddl e a nd h i gh s c hool popul a t i o ns w hi c h r e s ul t i n a m i s r e p r e s e nt a t i on of t hi s popul a t i on T hi s s t udy w i l l e xpa nd on r e s e a r c he r s c ur r e nt r e s e a r c h s t r a nds by i nve s t i ga t i ng t he m a r gi na l i z e d voi c e s of H i s pa ni c b oys w i t hi n our e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m T he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs m a y s ugge s t oppor t uni t i e s f or l e a r ni ng a f f or de d t o t hos e o f us w ho s e e H i s pa ni c boys a s a m a r gi na l i z e d popul a t i on. Study Procedures I f you t a ke pa r t i n t h i s s t udy, you w i l l be a s ke d t o Y our s on s i nv ol v e m e nt i n t hi s s t udy w i l l i nc l ude p ar t i c i pat i on i n f oc us gr oup di s c us s i ons and i ndi v i dual i n t e r v i e w w hi c h w i l l be v i de o and audi o t ape d. T he r e s e ar c h w i l l t ak e pl ac e dur i ng s c hool hour s and be gi n i n M ar c h 200 8 t o c onc l ude s om e t i m e i n M ay 2008 T he t ot al t i m e of i nv ol v e m e nt w i l l be appr ox i m at e l y t w e l v e w e e k s Sc hool adm i ni s t r at i on and s t af f has al r e ady gi v e n t he i r s uppor t f or t hi s p r oj e c t

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A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 209 Alternative Y ou hav e t he al t e r nat i v e t o c hoos e f or y our s on not t o par t i c i pat e i n t hi s r e s e ar c h s t udy Risks or Di scomfort T he r e ar e no r i s k s t o t hos e w ho t ak e par t i n t hi s s t udy Confidentiality W e m us t ke e p your s t udy r e c or ds c onf i de nt i a l A l l audi o and v i de o t ape s w i l l be k e pt c onf i de nt i al and s t or e d f or at l e as t f i v e ( 5) y e ar s unde r l oc k e d s e c ur e f i l e c abi ne t s T hi s i nf or m at i on w i l l onl y be us e d f or t hi s r e s e a r c h di s s e r t at i on. H ow e ve r c e r t a i n pe opl e m a y ne e d t o s e e s t udy r e c or ds B y l a w a nyone w ho l ooks a t your r e c or ds m us t ke e p t he m c om pl e t e l y c onf i de nt i a l T he onl y pe opl e w ho w i l l be a l l ow e d t o s e e t he s e r e c or ds a r e : T he r e s e a r c h t e a m i nc l udi ng t he P r i nc i pa l I nve s t i g a t or s t udy c oo r di na t or a nd a l l ot he r r e s e a r c h s t a f f C e r t a i n gove r nm e nt a nd un i ve r s i t y pe opl e w ho ne e d t o know m or e a bout t he s t udy. F o r e xa m pl e i ndi vi dua l s w ho pr ovi de ove r s i ght on t hi s s t udy m a y ne e d t o l ook a t t he s e r e c or ds T hi s i s done t o m a ke s ur e t ha t w e a r e doi ng t he s t udy i n t he r i ght w a y. T he y a l s o ne e d t o m a ke s ur e t ha t w e a r e pr ot e c t i ng you r s on s r i gh t s a nd your s on s s a f e t y. ) T he s e i nc l ude : t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) a nd t he s t a f f t ha t w or k f o r t he I R B O t he r i nd i vi dua l s w ho w or k f or U S F t ha t pr ovi de ot he r ki nds of ove r s i ght m a y a l s o ne e d t o l ook a t your r e c or ds t he D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s ( D H H S ) W e m a y publ i s h w ha t w e l e a r n f r om t hi s s t udy. I f w e do, w e w i l l not l e t a nyone know your s on s na m e W e w i l l not publ i s h a nyt hi ng e l s e t ha t w oul d l e t pe opl e know w ho you a r e Voluntary Participation / Withdrawal Y ou s houl d onl y t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy i f you w a nt your s on t o vol unt e e r Y ou s houl d not f e e l t ha t t he r e i s a ny pr e s s ur e t o t a ke pa r t i n t he s t udy, t o pl e a s e t he i nve s t i ga t or Y ou a r e f r e e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s r e s e a r c h or w i t hd r a w your s on a t a ny t i m e T he r e w i l l be no pe na l t y i f you s t op t a ki ng pa r t i n t hi s s t udy Questions, concerns, or complaints I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons c onc e r ns or c om pl a i nt s a bout t hi s s t udy, c a l l R uby l i nda Z i c k af oos e a t ( 941) 812. 0488 I f you ha ve que s t i ons a bout your or your s on s r i g ht s a s a pa r t i c i pa nt i n t hi s s t udy, ge ne r a l que s t i ons or ha ve c om pl a i nt s c onc e r ns or i s s ue s you w a nt t o di s c us s w i t h

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A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 210 s om e one out s i de t he r e s e a r c h, c a l l t he D i vi s i on of R e s e a r c h I nt e gr i t y a nd C om pl i a nc e of t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da a t ( 813 ) 974 9343. I f you e xpe r i e nc e a n a dve r s e e ve nt or una nt i c i pa t e d pr obl e m c a l l R uby l i nda Z i c k af oos e a t ( 941) 812. 0488 Consent to Take Part in this Research Stud y I t i s up t o you t o de c i de w he t he r you w a nt your s on t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. I f you w a nt your s on t o t a ke pa r t pl e a s e s i gn t he f or m i f t he f o l l ow i ng s t a t e m e nt s a r e t r ue I f r e e l y gi ve m y c on s e n t t o t a k e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y. I unde r s t a nd t ha t by s i gni ng t hi s f or m I a m gi vi ng pe r m i s s i on t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. I ha ve r e c e i ve d a c opy o f t hi s f or m t o t a ke w i t h m e ______ P a r e nt S i gna t ur e of P e r s on T a ki ng P a r t i n S t udy D a t e P r i nt e d N a m e o f P a r e nt of P e r s on T a ki ng P a r t i n S t udy Statement of Person Obtaining Informed Consent I ha ve c a r e f ul l y e xpl a i ne d t o t he pe r s on t a ki ng pa r t i n t he s t udy w ha t he o r s he c a n e xpe c t I he r e by c e r t i f y t ha t w he n t hi s pe r s on s i gns t hi s f or m t o t he be s t of m y know l e dge he or s he unde r s t a nds : W ha t t he s t udy i s a bout W ha t pr oc e dur e s a nd pr oc e s s e s w i l l be us e d. I a l s o c e r t i f y t ha t he or s he doe s not ha ve a ny p r obl e m s t ha t c oul d m a ke i t ha r d t o unde r s t a nd w ha t i t m e a ns t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s r e s e a r c h. T hi s pe r s on s pe a ks t he l a ngua ge t ha t w a s us e d t o e xpl a i n t hi s r e s e a r c h. T hi s pe r s on r e a ds w e l l e nough t o unde r s t a nd t hi s f or m or i f not t hi s pe r s on i s a bl e t o he a r a nd unde r s t a nd w he n t he f or m i s r e a d t o hi m or he r T hi s pe r s on doe s not ha ve a m e di c a l / ps yc hol ogi c a l pr obl e m t ha t w oul d c om p r om i s e c om pr e he ns i on a nd t he r e f or e m a ke s i t ha r d t o und e r s t a nd w ha t i s be i ng e xpl a i ne d a nd c a n, t he r e f or e gi ve i nf or m e d c ons e nt

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A ppe ndi x A ( C ont i nue d) 211 T hi s pe r s on i s not unde r a ny t ype of a ne s t he s i a or a na l ge s i c t ha t m a y c l oud t he i r j udgm e nt or m a ke i t ha r d t o unde r s t a nd w ha t i s be i ng e xpl a i ne d a nd, t he r e f or e c a n be c ons i de r e d c om pe t e nt t o gi ve i n f or m e d c ons e nt S i gna t ur e of P e r s on O bt a i ni ng I nf o r m e d C ons e nt D a t e P r i nt e d N a m e o f P e r s on O bt a i n i ng I n f or m e d C ons e nt

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A ppe ndi x B R e s e a rc h P a rt i c i p a n t I n f o rm a t i o n S h e e t 212 N am e : __________________________________ ___________ G r ad e : _____________ S c h ool s at t e n d e d i n M an at e e S c h ool D i s t r i c t ( G r ad e s K 9) : F C A T I n f or m at i on : 9 t h g ra d e s c or e ____________ L e ve l 1 L e ve l 2 10 t h gr a de s c or e ____________ L e ve l 1 L e ve l 2 11 t h gr a de s c or e ____________ L e ve l 1 L e ve l 2 12 t h gr a de s c or e ____________ L e ve l 1 L e ve l 2 C u r r e n t R e ad i n g C ou r s e s : Wou l d you r at h e r b e c on s i d e r e d H i s p an i c or L at i n o? P l e as e e xp l ai n w h y? F am i l y B ac k gr ou n d ( W h e r e f r om ? N u m b e r of s i b l i n gs ?, Wh o l i ve s w i t h you ?) : B i l i ngua l ( S pa ni s h) Y or N

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A ppe ndi x B ( C ont i nue d) R e s e a rc h P a rt i c i p a n t I n f o rm a t i o n S h e e t 213 P ar e n t s s c h ool i n g i n f or m at i o n ( Wh at d o t h e y d o n ow e m p l oym e n t ?) : N am e s / age s of s i b l i n gs at t e n d i n g M a n at e e s c h oo l d i s t r i c t : D o you r e ad / w r i t e ou t s i d e o f s c h ool h ow o f t e n ? D o you r e ad a n d w r i t e i n S p an i s h ? ( H ow o f t e n an d f or w h at r e as on s ?) Wh at l i f e i s s u e s i m p ac t you r e d u c at i on ( f am i l y r e s p on s i b i l i t i e s af t e r s c h ool i s s u e s w or k c h u r c h ac t i vi t i e s e t c ) ?

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A ppe ndi x B ( C ont i nue d) R e s e a rc h P a rt i c i p a n t I n f o rm a t i o n S h e e t 214 Wh at b ook s or m agaz i n e s d o you r e ad ? D o you h ave a c om p u t e r a t h o m e ? Wh at ar e you r f avor i t e t e c h t oys ( p h o n e . t e x t i n g, p od c as t s w e b s i t e s w i k i s e t c ) ? Wh at m a k e s you u n i q u e f r om o t h e r H i s p an i c b oys ? O t h e r I n f or m at i on :

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A ppe ndi x C 215 F o c u s G ro u p P ro t o c o l M y F i n al Wor d P u r p os e : T o p r ovi de e a c h pe r s on a n oppor t uni t y t o ha ve t he i r i de a s unde r s t a ndi ngs a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s e nha nc e d by he a r i ng f r om ot he r s T i m e : F or c i r c l e s of 5 10 pa r t i c i pa nt s : A t ot a l of 4 0 60 m i nut e s i f t he t i m e i s f ol l ow e d r e l i gi ous l y. 8 m i nut e s pe r p r e s e nt e r P r e s e nt e r : 3 m i nut e s R e s pons e : 1 m i nut e / r e s ponde r : 4 m i nut e s P r e s e nt e r : F i na l w o r d: 1 m i nut e S t e p s : 1. E a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w i l l be gi ve n a c ha nc e t o i de nt i f y one of t he s e l e c t e d i de a s f r om t opi c s pr e vi ous l y pr i or i t i z e d t ha t i m pa c t H i s pa ni c boys H a ve c ha r t o f br a i ns t or m e d i de a s f r om pr e vi ous s e s s i on pos t e d. 2. T he f i r s t pe r s on be gi ns by r e a di ng a n i de a a nd t he n de s c r i be s i n de t a i l w ha t a bout t hi s i de a ha s ha d t he m os t e duc a t i ona l i m pa c t or l a c k o f 3. E a c h pe r s on r e s ponds t o t hi s i de a s a nd c om m e nt s T he pur pos e of t he r e s pons e i s t o e xpa nd on t he pr e s e nt e r s t h i nki ng a bout t he i s s ue s t o pr ovi de a di f f e r e nt l ook a t t he i s s ue t o c l a r i f y t hi nki ng a bout t he i s s ue s a nd t o q ue s t i on t he pr e s e nt e r s a s s um pt i ons a bout t he i s s ue 4. A f t e r goi ng a r ound t he c i r c l e w i t h e a c h pe r s on r e s pondi ng, t he f i r s t pe r s on ha s t he f i na l w or d. I n no m o r e t ha t one m i nut e t he pr e s e nt e r r e s ponds t o w ha t ha s be e n s a i d: W ha t i s he t hi nki ng a f t e r ot he r t h i nki ng ha s b e e n s ha r e d? W ha t i s hi s r e a c t i on t o w ha t w a s s a i d? 5. T hi s pr oc e s s c ont i nue s unt i l e ve r yone ha s ha d t he oppor t uni t y t o ha ve t he i r f i na l w or d. 6. D e br i e f t he p r oc e s s G u i d e l i n e s : C onve r s a t i on ne e ds t o be s ha r e d a m ong gr oup m e m be r s P e opl e a r e e nc our a ge d t o c ha l l e nge i de a s ye t c ha l l e nge s a r e m a de w i t h r e s pe c t a nd i de a s not pe opl e a r e c ha l l e nge d. T he s uc c e s s of t he di s c us s i on i s t he r e s pons i bi l i t y of t he e nt i r e gr oup not j us t t he f a c i l i t a t or T he f a c i l i t a t or s t a s k i s t o l i s t e n f or pa t t e r ns o r r e p e a t e d quot e s i n or de r t o de c i de w hi c h t he m e s s houl d be c l um p e d t oge t he r f or P ha s e I I i ndi vi dua l i n t e r vi e w s A d a p t e d f r o m C o l o r a d o C r i t i c a l F r i e n d s G r o u p T h e F i n a l W o r d p r o t o c o l

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A ppe ndi x D 216 P e rs o n a l I n t e rv i e w Q u e s t i o n s P u r p os e : T o p r ovi de e a c h pe r s on a n oppor t uni t y t o s ha r e i ns i ght s unde r s t a ndi ngs a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s on t he m e s t ha t i m pa c t H i s pa ni c boys l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s Q u e s t i on s t o b e p u r s u e d : 1. W ha t i s one w or d you w oul d us e t o de s c r i be s c hool ? 2. D o you ha ve f a vo r i t e s ubj e c t s ? 3. W ha t i s your pu r pos e i n c om i ng s c hool ? 4. W ha t i s t he m os t di f f i c ul t t hi ng a bout r e a di ng? W r i t i ng? 5. W ha t m a ke s you f e e l s uc c e s s f ul a bout r e a di ng? W r i t i ng? 6. N a m e a pe r s on w ho i s s m a r t ? a W ha t m a ke s ________ f e e l s m a r t ? 7. D e f i ne s uc c e s s i n s c hool ? 8. D o you pl a n t o gr a dua t e ? a W ha t w oul d he l p you s t a y i n s c hool ? 9. H ow doe s your m ot he r he l p you w i t h s c hool ? a F a t h e r ? b. O t he r br ot he r s a nd s i s t e r s ? 10. W ha t do you not i c e a bout H i s pa ni c boys ? a H ow a bout t hos e a r ound you? 11. W ha t do you t hi nk m a c hi s m o i s ? a H ow doe s i t i m pa c t you r l i f e ? 12. D e s c r i be a m a n w ho e m br a c e s hi s m a c hi s m o, Q u e e s ha c e r m a c ho? 13. W ha t do you w i s h you r t e a c he r s w oul d a s k you? 14. W ha t do you w i s h you r t e a c he r s w oul d do di f f e r e n t l y? 15. H ow ha ve s c hool s you ve be e n i n he l pe d you ge t t o t hi s poi nt ? 16. H ow do you e xpr e s s your c ul t ur e a t s c hool ? 17. H ow do you f e e l a bout t he c ol or of you r s ki n? 18. A r e you pr oud of be i ng H i s pa ni c ? a W ha t m a ke s you m os t pr oud of be i ng H i s pa ni c

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A ppe ndi x E 2 17 I n d i v i d u a l I n t e rv i e w F ra m e w o rk S t r u c t u r e C on t e n t R e vi e w & S h ar i n g P ar t i c i p an t s R e vi e w r e c e nt e nt r i e s i n t he c ul t ur e j our na l ( I f pa r t ne r s hi ps e xi s t T ur n a nd T a l k w i t h your s houl de r pa r t ne r t o r e vi e w ne w e nt r i e s i n j ou r na l s ) R e s e ar c h e r C ol l e c t f i e l d not e s of nua nc e s i m pr e s s i ons a nd not i c i ngs D e br i e f S ha r e out pe r c e pt i ons a nd que s t i ons t ha t m a y a r i s e f r om r e vi e w a nd s ha r i ng. N e w T h e m e I n t r od u c t i on R e s e ar c h e r I nt r oduc e c ur r e nt t he m e a nd d i s c us s c onve r s a t i ons or pe r t i ne nt i n f or m a t i on f r o m f oc us gr oups B r i ng i n t r a ns c r i pt s a nd/ or vi de o c l i ps t ha t m a y pe r t a i n t o ne w t he m e O p e n D i s c u s s i on P ar t i c i p an t s O pe n di s c us s i on of ne w t he m e pr e s e nt e d R e s e ar c h e r P r obe t o gl e a n i nf or m a t i on a bout pa r t i c i pa nt s t h i nki ng. S e e pe r s ona l i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons ( A ppe ndi x D ) C u l t u r e Jou r n al A l l P r ovi de t i m e f o r pa r t i c i pa nt s t o w r i t e i n c ul t u r e j our na l s O p e n D i s c u s s i on A l l O pe n di s c us s i on t o s ha r e or r e f i ne t h i nki ng a r ound w r i t t e n t e xt o r i de a s t ha t ha ve c om e a bout i n r e s po ns e t o pe r s ona l i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons C l os i n g R e s e ar c h e r C onc l ude s e s s i on by r e c a ppi ng di s c us s i on a nd r e m i ndi ng pa r t i c i pa nt s t o c ont i nue c onve r s a t i on i n c ul t ur e j our na l s C onf i r m ne xt s e s s i on

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A ppe ndi x F 218 D e f i n i t i o n o f L i t e r a c y P re s e n t a t i o n

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A ppe ndi x F ( C ont i nue d) 219 D e f i n i t i o n o f L i t e r a c y P re s e n t a t i o n

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A p pe ndi x G 220 R i v e r s i de H i g h Sc h o o l C l a s s R ot a t i on S c he dul e C ur r e nt S c hool Y e a r M on d ay, T u e s d ay, T h u r s d a y, F r i d ay P e r i od O n e 7: 45 8: 44 59 m i nut e s c l a s s P e r i od T w o/ T h r e e 8: 50 10: 24 94 m i nut e s c l a s s L unc h A 10: 30 11: 00 A C l a s s 11: 06 12: 40 ( 94 m i nut e s ) L unc h B 11: 15 11: 45 B C l a s s 10: 30 11: 15 ( 45 m i nut e s ) B C l a s s 11: 51 12: 40 ( 49 m i nut e s ) P e r i od F o u r / F i ve L unc h C 12: 10 12: 40 C C l a s s 10: 30 12: 04 ( 94 m i nut e c l a s s ) P e r i od S i x/ S e ve n 12: 46 2: 20 94 m i nut e c l a s s We d n e s d ay P e r i od T w o/ T h r e e 7: 45 9: 04 79 m i nut e c l a s s P e r i od F o u r / F i ve A B r unc h 9: 10 9: 40 A C l a s s 9: 46 11: 05 ( 79 m i nut e s c l a s s ) B B r unc h 9: 46 10: 16 B C l a s s 9: 10 9: 46 ( 36 m i nut e s c l a s s ) B C l a s s 10: 22 11: 05 ( 79 m i nut e s ) C B r unc h 10: 35 11: 05 C C l a s s 9: 10 10: 29 ( 79 m i nut e s ) P e r i od S i x/ S e ve n 11: 11 12: 30 79 m i nut e c l a s s

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A ppe ndi x H 221 T h e m e s a n d C o n c e p t s T hi s l i s t w a s br a i ns t or m e d du r i ng t he f i r s t f oc us gr oup s e s s i on. T he s e a r e l i s t e d i n or de r a s t he y w e r e pr e s e nt e d by r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa nt s B ol d a r e t hos e f ound m os t p r e va l e nt t o t hi s gr oup of H i s pa ni c boys F oc us A F oc us B F oc us C B i l i ngua l t e a c he r s ( l e a r n E ngl i s h) F am i l y S c h ool S pa ni s h L a ngua ge S c hool F am i l y F am i l y J ob H obbi e s M one y R a c e Job s S c hool ( doi ng w e l l ) G i r l s F r i e nds G r a dua t i on M one y D r e s s C hur c h R e l i gi on ( C hur c h) T e a c he r s J obs R e s pe c t M e nt or s G i r l s L oyal t y F ood T r uc ks a nd C a r s C a r s ( a nd T r uc ks ) F ai t h R e l i gi on R e s p e c t C u l t u r e E xe r c i s e Wor k i n g ou t R ac i s m E duc a t i on M a nne r s M i n or i t y R a c i s m B e i ng j udge d C u l t u r e R ac i s m C u l t u r e S t e r ot ype d C a r s I m m i gr a t i on ( G r e e n C a r d) F r i e nds W he r e you l i ve pa r t o f t ow n ( poor o r a f f l ue nt ) C i t i z e ns hi p B e l on gi n g H ow w e t r e a t ot he r s a r ound us ? F r i e nds A t t e nt i on F ut ur e T hi nki ng a he a d S por t s P a r t of s om e t hi ng k now n P e t s A ni m a l s B e l i e f i n s e l f be l i e f i n you G i r l s L i f e s t l ye E nvi r onm e nt E a r t h S uc c e s s f ul D e a t h P as t H ow m y p ar e n t s g ot h e r e ( H ow m u c h t h e y s t r u ggl e d t o b e w h e r e w e ar e r i gh t n ow ? ) F ood

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A ppe ndi x I 222 F o c u s G r o u p L i t e r a c y R e s p o n s e s t o T r a di t i o n a l L i t e r a c y

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A ppe ndi x I ( C ont i nue d) 223 F o c u s G r o u p L i t e r a c y R e s p o n s e s t o T r a di t i o n a l L i t e r a c y

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A ppe ndi x J 224 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e E du c a t i n g o f H i s p a n i c B o y s

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A ppe ndi x J ( C ont i nue d) 225 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e E du c a t i n g o f H i s p a n i c B o y s

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A ppe ndi x J ( C ont i nue d) 226 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e E du c a t i n g o f H i s p a n i c B o y s

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227 A b ou t t h e A u t h or R ubyl i nda r e c e i ve d a B a c he l or s D e gr e e i n E a r l y C hi l dhood/ E l e m e nt a r y E duc a t i on a nd a M S i n R e a di ng bot h f r om U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da S he s t a r t e d t e a c hi ng a t P a l m e t t o E l e m e nt a r y S c hool a nd c ont i nue d a s a pr i m a r y e duc a t or w hi l e i n he r M a s t e r s pr ogr a m A s a R e a di ng C oa c h a nd l a t e r a C ur r i c ul um S pe c i a l i s t s he ve nt ur e d i nt o t he P h D pr ogr a m a t he r a l m a m a t e r W hi l e i n t he P h. D pr og r a m M s Z i c ka f oos e w a s ve r y a c t i ve i n he r di s t r i c t w i t h a t e a c he r or ga ni z a t i on, A c c om pl i s he d T e a c he r s of M a na t e e C ount y ( A T O M ) w hi c h pr ovi de s pr of e s s i on de ve l opm e nt f o r di s t r i c t i ni t i a t i ve s a nd c om m uni t y out r e a c h. S he ha s a l s o c oa ut hor e d t w o publ i c a t i ons S t e ppi n i nt o m y T e a c he r S hoe s a nd S t e ppi n up w i t h m y R e a di ng R oa dm a p bot h publ i s he d by B yond Z I nc


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Zickafoose, Rubylinda.
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"Oye mi voz!" (hear my voice!)
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b the perceptions of Hispanic boys regarding their literacy experiences /
by Rubylinda Zickafoose.
260
[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida,
2009.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 227 pages.
Includes vita.
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Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to uncover the perspectives that pertain to the literacy experiences of young Hispanic boys. Hispanic boys will be asked to describe, feel, judge, and make sense of their public and private literacies (Faulkner, 2005). This phenomenological study embraces two methods of data collection, participant focus groups and individual interviews. The primary question guiding this inquiry was: What are the perceptions of adolescent Hispanic boys who are considered low level readers (by state achievement tests) regarding their literacy experiences? In order to help provide background information and set the stage for future work when considering this specific population other supporting questions were added.These include: 1.) What have researchers reported about Hispanic boys in literacy situations? 2.) What is the role of masculinity (machismo) in the literacy lives of Hispanic boys? 3.) What teaching methods do Hispanic boys consider most responsive to their literacy needs? and 4.) What role can critical literacy play in educating this marginalized population? After sorting and analyzing all data sources, the themes that evolved as considered most relevant by this group of Hispanic boys were: a). Family, b). Language: its role of language in building identity, c). Machismo: to include male discourse when dealing with gangs and violence, e). Education public literacy, e). Literacy: reading, writing, and f). Moral Literacy.Several major implications of the study include: (a) strong value for their cultural identity, (b) disconnect from their educational settings, (c) could self-prescribe their personal educational needs, (d) lacked institutional knowledge, and (e) had the potential to rebuild their identity. It is imperative that we listen to the voices of this marginalized population in order to gain insight to how Hispanic boys live public and private literacies (Faulkner, 2005) in the hope that our educational system can respond to their personal and academic needs.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Advisor: James King, Ed.D.
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Sociocultural
Gender
Culture
Masculunity
Critical literacy
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Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Reading and Language Arts Education
Doctoral.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
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u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.2910