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Title:
Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and Technology (C-HMD+T) biomimetic architecture as part of nature
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Corsino Carro, Isabel Marisa
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University of South Florida
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Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Biomimicry
Architecture
Sustainability
Technology
Museum
New York City
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: If architects are to create a sustainable world, one in which we are accountable to the needs of all future generations and living creatures, we must recognize that our present form of designing buildings is deeply flawed. Being the number one cause of emission gases, building design needs to be revolutionized to be able to surpass such climatic changes and finally harmonize with nature. To create a sustainable future and solve the global warming crisis, architects need to incorporate nature within design through the process known as biomimicry. Janine Benyus, the author of Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, stressed how nature teaches to solve human problems. After billions of years of research and development within nature, Benyus believes that nature has perfected itself and has the key to human survival. Through biomimicry, architects can find solutions to design problems and apply them to sustainable design.Sustainable design has not reached its peak in uniting both aesthetics and performance within the design industry. Until now, architecture focuses more on human needs and economics, putting aside what is best for the environment thus leaving a conflict between human and nature. This thesis presents an investigation into biomimicry and its architectural applications. It is inspired by organisms within nature. The final design project will be based on the studies of organisms and how these can be incorporated on a building's entire design program including skin, structure, journey and circulation. From these studies , I will synthesize the important components and ideas of these organisms and interpret them into the building's design. The building typology chosen for this project is the museum typology which function as a living organism. The project will be site specific thus designing a museum that adapts to the site's specific surroundings.The goal for this thesis is to discover organisms within nature that can be incorporated and reinterpreted into sustainable architecture. It is also crucial to discover and study the complex systems within nature so that architects can incorporate ideas from it to improve architecture design.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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by Isabel Marisa Corsino Carro.
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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002220944
oclc - 642907385
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002917
usfldc handle - e14.2917
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Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and Technology (C-HMD+T): Biomimetic Architecture as Part of Nature by Isabel Marisa Corsino Carro of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Steven Arthur Cooke, M. Arch Theodore Trent Green, M. Arch Mark Weston, M. Arch Date of Approval: March 24, 2009 Keywords: Biomimicry, Architecture, Sustainability, Technology, Museum, New York City Copyright 2009, Isabel Marisa Corsino Carro

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DEDICATION I dedicate my Masters Thesis Project to: God who has guided me in life, my parents Isabel and Mario Corsino, my grandfather Mario Corsino and Javier Valencia. I admire, love and respect you all. Thank you for being there for me at all times. God bless you and I love you!

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my committee members: Steven Arthur Cooke, Theodore Trent Green, and Mark Weston. You have all pushed me to go further into my research and inspired me do better. I would also like to thank Wes Frusher from the University of South Florida Mechanical Engineering Department for letting me use the 3D printer.

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables List of Figures Abstract Prologue Problem within Architecture: Disconnection with Nature Cave, Industrial Revolution and the Result Result: Climate Change Building Sectors Contribution to Climate Change Is Sustainability a Part of the Solution to Climate Change? What Can We Do? Biomimicry: Studying Nature and Incorporating It into Architecture Introduction 15 v vii xxii 1 1 1 2 5 8 10 11

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ii What is Biomimicry? Biomimicry as a Growing Trend within the Professional Fields Direct Approach of Biomimicry in Architecture Extended Project Description Introduction Biomimicry as a growing trend in Architecture Building Typology Proposal: Museum Extension Data Masters Thesis Focus: Objectives Biomimicry Case Studies Introduction Case Study B2: The Birds Nest Case Study B3: The Water Cube Case Study B4: CRMA Site Possible Sites Smithsonian Institution Museum Complex: Washington, DC Metropolitan Museum of Art Extension: NYC, NY CooperHewitt National Design Museum Extension: NYC, NY 15 18 19 23 23 24 27 28 29 29 29 33 39 43 47 47 47 49 52

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iii Chosen Site: CooperHewitt Museum Extension New York City, NY Location: New York City, The Big Apple Data NYC: Mecca for the Arts & the Museum Mile Site: C-HNDM & Adjacent Garden Background Information: NYC Zoning Districts Program Introduction Building typology proposal: Museum Extension Data Field Research Introduction: New York City Trip Itinerary Places Visited Summary for Thesis 1 Final Thoughts Design Introduction Conceptual Design 58 59 60 61 65 66 70 73 73 74 78 78 79 80 86 86 89 89 89

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iv How to Apply Biomimicry to the Cooper-Hewitt Site Concept Structural Systems Applied from Biomimicry: Columns, Skin and Exterior Structure Final Design Conclusion Works Cited Bibliography 90 91 100 116 149 154 162

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v LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Global warming chart. 3 Table 2. Carbon Dioxide Variations 4 Table 3. Climate Change Attribution 4 Table 4. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Gas, 2007. 5 Table 5. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990, 2005, and 2030. 6 Table 6. World EnergyRelated Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 1990-2030. 7 Table 7. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide measured in Mauna Loa, Hawaii. 7 Table 8. Human Welfare and Ecological Footprints compared. 9

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vi Table 9. The Helix of Sustainability. 9 Table 10. Genomics GTL program. 1 0 Table 11. The Challenge to Biology: Design Spiral. 1 1 Table 12. Lifes Principles. 1 7 Table 13. R8-R10 Density Residence Districts. 6 9 Table 14. PRC Types of Uses. 6 9 Table 15. 3D print skin. 10 8 Table 16. 3D print skin detail. 10 8 Table 17. 3D print skin detail. 10 8 Table 18. 3D print skin. 10 9 Table 19. 3D print skin detail. 10 9 Table 20. 3D print skin detail. 10 9

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vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Man going into a cave. 1 Figure 2. Industrial Revolution. 1 Figure 3. Result of Climate Change: glaciers melting. 2 Figure 4. House and its contribution to climate change. 5 Figure 5. Windmill solar farming. 8 Figure 6. Geckos foot and a prototype robot that applied the idea of how the Geckos foot works. Abstract. 1 5 presentation. 2 2

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viii Figure 8. Biomimicry building case studies. 2 9 Figure 9. Case study analysis. 3 0 1 Figure 11. Computer rendering. 3 1 2 2 3 Figure 15. Exterior rendering of the Birds Nest. 3 3 Figure 16. Exterior image. 3 4 Figure 17. Night exterior image. 3 4 Figure 18. Structural detail. 3 5 Figure 19. Construction detail. 3 5 Figure 20. Site context. 3 6 Figure 21. Image of a bird nest. 3 7 Figure 22. Exterior photomontage. 3 8 Figure 23. Interior rendering. 3 8 Figure 24. Construction of the Water Cube. 3 9

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ix Figure 25. Night shot of the Water Cube. 3 9 Figure 26. Afternoon shot. 4 0 Figure 27. Construction site. 4 0 Figure 28. ETFE cladding structure in the building. 4 1 Figure 29. Zoom in of the ETFE cladding. 4 1 Figure 30. Soap bubbles. 4 2 Figure 31. Interior image. 4 2 Figure 32. Construction of the space frame. 4 2 Figure 33. Exterior rendering. 4 3 Figure 34. Exterior rendering. 4 3 Figure 35. Interior rendering. 4 4 Figure 36. Interior rendering. 4 4 Figure 37. Smithsonian complex in Washington, DC. 4 7 Figure 38. Smithsonian American Art Museum and Portrait Gallery. 4 8 Figure 39. Interior of the National Air and Space

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x Museum. 4 8 Figure 40. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 5 0 Figure 41. Interior of the Egyptian Gallery. 5 0 Figure 42. Interior shot in the museum. 5 1 Figure 43. Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum 5 2 Figure 44. Approaching the entrance. 5 3 Figure 45. Corner of Cooper-Hewitt. 5 4 Figure 46. Corner of Cooper-Hewitt. 5 4 Figure 47. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. 5 5 Figure 48. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. 5 5 Figure 49. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. 5 6 Figure 50. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. 5 6 Figure 51. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. 5 7 Figure 52. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. 5 7 Figure 53. Chosen site in NYC. 5 8 Figure 54. Chosen site in NYC next to Central

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xi Park. 5 9 Figure 55. Chosen site in NYC adjacent site to the CooperHewitt. 6 0 Figure 56. Areas within New York City: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Bronx, and Staten Island. 6 1 Figure 57. Approach to Guggenheim museum. 6 2 Figure 58. Approach to Cooper-Hewitt museum. 6 2 Figure 59. Panorama image of New York City. 6 3 Figure 60. Panorama image of Cooper-Hewitt site. 6 3 Figure 61. Panorama image of Cooper-Hewitt from Central Park entrance. 6 4 Figure 62. Panorama image of Cooper-Hewitt site from Central Park. 6 4 Figure 63. Site analysis board. 6 5 Figure 64. Zoning board with analysis. 6 6 Figure 65. Zoning rules within New York City

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xii diagrams. 6 8 Figure 66. Site analysis sketches. 7 0 Figure 67. Presentation board for the site analysis. 7 2 Figure 68. Interior of a gallery in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 7 3 Figure 69. Interior gallery of the MOMA museum. 7 4 Figure 70. Interior of the Guggenheim Museum. 7 5 Figure 71. Interior gallery MOMA museum. 7 6 Figure 72. Program presentation board. 7 7 Figure 73. NYC trip image. 7 8 Figure 74. Museum of Arts and Design 7 9 Figure 75. Guggenheim Museum 7 9 Figure 76. Cooper-Hewitt. 8 0 Figure 77. Hayden Planetarium. 8 0 Figure 78. MOMA. 8 1 Figure 79. Folk Art Museum. 8 1 Figure 80. Museum of Sex. 8 2

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xiii Figure 81. Times Square. 8 2 Figure 82. Folk Art Museum. 8 3 Figure 83. Skyscraper Museum. 8 3 Figure 84. Museum of Sports. 8 3 Figure 85. Museum of Sex. 8 3 Figure 86. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 8 3 Figure 87. Museum of Natural history 8 3 Figure 88. Interior of Hayden Planetarium. 8 4 Figure 89. Interior of Natural Museum of History. 8 4 Figure 90. Interiro of Metropolitan Museum of Art. 8 4 Figure 91. Interiro of Metropolitan Museum of Art. 8 4 Figure 92. Interior of Guggenheim museum. 8 4 Figure 93. Interior of MOMA museum. 8 4 Figure 94. NYC trip presentation board. 8 5 Figure 95. Poster board for the conceptual design. 8 8 Figure 96. Conceptual model. 8 9 Figure 97. Concept models for the museum. 9 0

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xiv Figure 98. Bug model. 9 1 Figure 99. Bug model of museum. 9 1 Figure 100. Conceptual design site plan. 9 2 2 Figure 102. Conceptual design cross section. 9 3 Figure 103. Conceptual design longitudinal section. 9 3 Figure 104. Conceptual design section. 9 3 Figure 105. Conceptual design section. 9 3 Figure 106. Concept interior rendering. 9 4 Figure 107. Concept interior rendering. 9 4 Figure 108. Concept interior rendering. 9 4 Figure 109. Concept interior rendering. 9 4 Figure 110. Concept interior rendering. 9 4 Figure 111. Concept interior rendering. 9 4 Figure 112. Conceptual section model. 9 5 Figure 113. Conceptual section model. 9 5 Figure 114. Conceptual section model. 9 5

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xv Figure 115. Conceptual section model. 9 5 Figure 116. Conceptual section model. 9 5 Figure 117. Analysis and diagrams. 9 6 Figure 118. Voronoi diagrams. 9 6 Figure 119. Analysis and diagrams. 9 7 Figure 120. Analysis and diagrams. 9 7 Figure 121. Analysis and diagrams. 9 8 Figure 122. Voronoi diagrams. 9 8 Figure 123. Crystal system: Quartz. 9 9 Figure 124. Crystallization process. 9 9 Figure 125. How the honeycomb system works (diagram). 10 0 Figure 126. Honeycomb structure. 10 0 Figure 127. First column study. 10 1 Figure 128. Column study: cross bracing. 10 1 Figure 129. Column system: modularity. 10 2 Figure 130. Column system: modularity. How these

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xvi modules can create a whole (repetition). 10 2 Figure 131. Column system: triangulation 10 3 Figure 132. Column system: triangulation detail. 10 3 Figure 133. Column system: triangulation truss system study. How does the column 3 Figure 134. Skin system study. 10 4 Figure 136. Skin system study. 10 4 Figure 135. Skin system study. 10 4 Figure 137. Skin system study. 10 4 Figure 138. Skin prototype studies: How does the external structure attach to the skin and the outer slurry wall. 10 4 Figure 139. Skin prototype system. 10 5 Figure 140. Skin prototype system. 10 5 Figure 141. Skin prototype system. 10 5 Figure 142. Skin prototype system. 10 5

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xvii Figure 143. 3D print column. 10 6 Figure 144. 3D print column. 10 6 Figure 145. 3D print column detail. 10 6 Figure 146. 3D print column detail. 10 6 Figure 147. 3D print column. 10 7 Figure 148. 3D print column. 10 7 Figure 149. 3D print column detail. 10 7 Figure 150. 3D print column detail. 10 7 Figure 151. Biomimicry research board. 11 0 Figure 152. Biomimicry research large board, 11 0 Figure 153. Biomimicry research board. 11 1 Figure 155. Biomimicry research board. 11 2 Figure 154. Biomimcry research large board. 11 2 Figure 156. Biomimicry research board. 11 3 Figure 157. Analysis sketches board. 11 4 Figure 158. Analysis sketches large board. 11 4 Figure 159. Analysis sketches board. 11 5

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xviii Figure 160. Site plan board, 11 9 Figure 161. Site plan large board, 11 9 Figure 162. Site plan board, 12 0 Figure 163. Floor plans board. 12 1 Figure 164. Floor plans large board. 12 1 Figure 165. Floor plans board. 12 2 Figure 166. Cross section board. 12 3 Figure 167. Cross section large board. 12 3 Figure 168. Cross section board. 12 4 Figure 169. Longitudinal section board. 12 5 Figure 170. Longitudinal section large board. 12 5 Figure 171. Longitudinal section board. 12 6 Figure 172. Section views board. 12 7 Figure 173. Section views large board. 12 7 Figure 174. Section views board. 12 8 Figure 175. Exterior views board. 12 9 Figure 176. Exterior views large board. 12 9

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xix Figure 177. Exterior views board. 13 0 Figure 178. Interior views board. 13 1 Figure 179. Interior views large board. 13 1 Figure 180. Interior views board. 13 2 Figure 181. Exterior rendering. 13 3 Figure 182. Exterior rendering. 13 4 Figure 183. Exterior rendering. 13 5 Figure 184. Interior rendering. 13 6 Figure 185. Interior rendering. 13 7 Figure 186. Interior rendering. 13 8 Figure 187. Context model. 13 9 Figure 188. Context model. 13 9 Figure 189. Context model. 14 0 Figure 190. Context model. 14 0 Figure 191. Site model. 14 1 Figure 192. Site model. 14 1 Figure 193. Site model. 14 2

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xx Figure 194. Site model. 14 2 Figure 195. Sketch section model. 14 3 Figure 196. Sketch section model. 14 3 Figure 197. Sketch section model. 14 4 Figure 198. Sketch section model. 14 4 Figure 199. Sketch section model. 14 5 Figure 200. Sketch section model. 14 5 Figure 201. Sketch section model. 14 6 Figure 202. Sketch section model. 14 6 Figure 203. Sketch section model. 14 7 Figure 204. Sketch section model. 14 7 Figure 205. Sketch section model. 14 8 Figure 206. Sketch section model. 14 8 9 0 0 1

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xxi 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3

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xxii Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and Technology: Biomimetic Architecture as Part of Nature Isabel Marisa Corsino Carro ABSTRACT If architects are to create a sustainable world, one in which we are accountable to the needs of all future generations and living creatures, we must recognize that Being the number one cause of emission gases, building design needs to be revolutionized to be able to surpass such sustainable future and solve the global warming crisis,

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xxiii architects need to incorporate nature within design through the process known as biomimicry. Janine Benyus, the author of Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, stressed how nature teaches to solve human problems. After billions of years of research and development within nature, Benyus believes that nature has perfected itself and has the key to human survival. Through biomimicry, architects sustainable design. Sustainable design has not reached its peak in uniting both aesthetics and performance within the design industry. Until now, architecture focuses more on human needs and economics, putting aside what is best for the This thesis presents an investigation into biomimicry and its architectural applications. It is inspired by organisms

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xxiv studies of organisms and how these can be incorporated on a buildings entire design program including skin, structure, journey and circulation. From these studies I will synthesize the important components and ideas of these organisms and interpret them into the buildings design. The building typology chosen for this project is the museum typology which function as a living organism. The goal for this thesis is to discover organisms within nature that can be incorporated and reinterpreted into sustainable architecture. It is also crucial to discover and study the complex systems within nature so that architects can incorporate ideas from it to improve architecture design.

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1 PROLOGUE Problem within Architecture: Disconnection with Nature Cave, Industrial Revolution and the Result even designed by him, it was concocted by nature. The cave gave man shelter, safety, and warmth from the outIn todays society humans cannot conform to just the basic needs safety, warmth, and shelter to live. Instead architec ture is seen as a luxury rather than a basic necessity. It all started in the 19th century with the Industrial Revolution where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and Man going into a cave. Figure 1. Industrial Revolution. Figure 2.

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2 transportation had an effect in both the socioeconomic and culture of the time. It marked a major turning point in hu man society from a manual labor based economy to a ma chine economy. This brought machines such as the steam engine as well as the exploitation of fossil fuels. After the Industrial Revolution, nature was conceived as ethically abundant. Man at this point in time did not think about the future in terms of what the emissions of the fossil fuels were going to contribute to the environment. Ever since then, humans have become dependent on fossil fuels. Result: Climate Change As a result, mans desire to dominate nature has caused nothing but damage and the destruction of the en vironment. Greed and economic gain have been human so Result of Climate Change: glaciers Figure 3. melting.

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3 cietys main interest rather than protecting the Earth. Mans way of thinking is closed minded and focuses only on ben they feed off from the Earth and do not contribute back. What happens when humans completely destroy and feed off natures limited supply? The war between humans and nature has to be stopped. If it is not stopped, in the process of nature rebooting itself it will end with the entire human race. We have the ability to become resilient, overcome the disturbance and survive. Nature has been reacting towards what man has done to the Earth. All of the weather changes that we see today are natures reaction to human societys dreadful hab its and living styles. For many, climate change may still seem abstract, its impact felt mainly in the worlds remote Global warming chart. Table 1.

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4 wild places. In reality, it is already affecting us where we live, in the form of extreme weather events such as heat waves, berth, head of the climate-analysis section at the National Center for Atmospheric Research and a lead author on last years IPCC Fourth Assesment Report, stresses such things. Its variable from year to year, then suddenly in 2003 we (in Europe) got a record-breaking heat wave. That drought and heat wave would not have occurred without global warming. Nor, he says, would Hurricane Katrina have been so severe. Record-high sea-surface temperatures in the Atlantic con tributed to it. Six to 8 percent of the rainfall in Katrina can be attributed to global warming. Hurricane Katrina killed an estimated 1,500 people or more. Europes heat wave killed as many as 35,000. Carbon Dioxide Variations Table 2. Climate Change Attribution Table 3.

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5 Building sectors contribution to Climate Change The building sector is responsible for the largest con sumption of fossil fuels and natural resources within the Unit ed States and the rest of the world today. Data from the US Energy Information Administration (USEIA) illustrates that buildings are responsible for almost half (48%) of all energy consumption and Greeen House Gas emissions annually; globally the percentage is even greater. Seventy-six percent (76%) of all power plant-generated electricity is used to oper ate buildings (within the industrial, commercial, and residen tial operations). The residential operations sector consumes 21% or 20.4QBtu. Unless architecture community acts now, emerging economies will follow current design and building practices leading disastrous global consequences. Change can start now by helping reduce the carbon footprint within House and its contribution to cli Figure 4. mate change. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Table 4. by Gas, 2007.

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6 families in the United States. Other data shows how the av erage American family contributes about 50,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year to the atmosphere9 more times per capita than in Botswana and 19 times more per capital than in India. It also shows that about half the carbon dioxide comes from our homes and half from our vehicles. A house in the United States can consume about 34, 618 pounds annually. Home heating and cooling as well as lighting systems emit the highest amount of Carbon Dioxide emissions every year. In order to stop the global warming crisis, architects have to design more meticulously by beginning to apply sustainable design within the building industry. Looking back at nature and sustainability is the solution to todays global warming crisis. World Energy-Related Carbon Diox Table 5. ide Emissions, 1990, 2005, and 2030.

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7 World EnergyRelated Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, Table 6. 1990-2030. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide mea Table 7. sured in Mauna Loa, Hawaii.

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8 Is Sustainability as a Part of the Solution to Climate Change? Architects believe that sustainability is the means to lution to the global warming crisis. The proponents of sus tainable design believe that the global warming crisis can be resolved by using innovative strategies and industrial practices which reduce the environmental impacts associ ated with goods and services. Sustainable design (green design) is considered a means of doing that while maintain ing a good quality of life by using clever planning substituting less harmful products and processes for the conventional. The principles of sustainable design are: low-impact materi and recycling, service substitution, renewability, and healthy Windmill solar farming. Figure 5.

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9 buildings. Although sustainability is a good start to repair the imperfections of building scheme it is not enough to solve the problem that society faces today. Sustainability is lacking the integration of nature within design. Architects should study natures systems and incorporate them into building designs. In order to survive all that is occurring, architecture needs to adapt and mimic natures perfect performance as well as aesthetics. A build ing can no longer sustain the role of a dead organism nor of a precarious parasite, instead a building has to resurrect into a living life form that can sustain and maintain a natural balance within itself. Organisms are naturally sustainable in line of thought as nature has already produced the master design. The next step is to interpret and incorporate such Human Welfare and Ecological Footprints Table 8. compared. The Helix of Sustainability. Table 9.

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10 system into our present-day society. What Can We Do? As a society, facing the largest problem that human ity has ever seen, we have to take responsibility regarding the global warming crisis. Climate change is something that cannot be ignored, with all of the data that is available hu mans must react quickly in order to survive. Humanity does not have the luxury of emitting more CO_2 emissions any longer. We need to stop all carbon emissions as soon as possible. Sustainability is seen as the solution to the global warming crisis but it has not been exploited to its full extent. There is a need for an Eco-Revolution where sustainable design goes beyond what is seen today. Genomics GTL program. Table 10.

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11 ture and live in peace. Architects have the power to direct humanity into living sustainably and living in harmony with nature, but where de we begin? Biomimicry: Studying Nature and Incorporating It into Architecture Nature has been continuously perfecting itself for bil lions of years. Through time, nature has distiller what works and what does not work. For over a millennia, organisms come a testing center for organisms, rather like a trial and error laboratory. The organisms that have the correct modi The Challenge to Biology: Design Table 11. Spiral.

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12 What does this teach us? Nature has provided a base that we are able to study. Now we are able to study successful we face everyday. Nature has provided us with a framework of constant improvement and this is what we need to study and incorporate in our daily lives. For this thesis, biomimicry will focus on how we can learn from nature, distill the ideas, qualities, and characteristics of natural forms and systems that can be applied to architecture. My interests in biology and design prompted my in quisition in to incorporating natures design and construction methods into architecture design and construction. I have been looking at biomimetic types of architecture approaches that have been pursued by other architects. It is believed that there will be a trend towards biomimicry within the ar

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13 biomimicry is that it can aid in slowing the climate change crisis as well as be a large contributor to sustainable design. example of biomimesis within our daily lives is Velcro. Within the architecture community. My intent is to study biomimesis through the study of organisms, distilling ideas from these organisms and incor porating these ideas into an architecture design. Biomimicry is the main topic of this thesis. Through the use of biomime sis I will study a site as well as a building typology and look

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14 for systems within nature that would work excellently for the site and building typology. The project will act as a living or would die. The museum typology was chosen and the site location will be in New York City for the thesis. The thesis design will be the expansion of the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum on the adjacent lot that is now holding the current museums garden.

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15 INTRODUCTION What is Biomimicry? Biomimicry: (from the Greek bios, life, and mimesis, imitation) is the discipline that stud ies natures brightest ideas and then imitates these designs and processes to solve human problems. Janine Benyus is the leader within the biomimicry community. In her book, Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, she discusses that human beings should con sciously emulate natures genius in their designs. Benyus co-founded the Biomimicry Guild, the Innovation Consul Geckos foot and a prototype robot Figure 6. that applied the idea of how the Geckos foot works. Abstract.

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16 tancy. These organizations help professionals interested in innovation to learn from and emulate natures systems in or der to design sustainable products, processes and policies that create proactive solutions to peoples lives. Benyus is its mission is to bring in biomimicry into our culture through the promotion of transferring ideas, designs, and strategies from nature to sustainable human systems design. Benyus believes that nature has already solved many of the problems that we are facing today. Within biomimicry, what works within the natural world is as important as what lasts. Nature has 3.8 billion years of research and develop ment, where fossil remains are the product of failure, and the organisms that still exist have perfected their way of sur vival. The organisms that still exist in the planet can give us

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17 the secret to survival. The conscious emulation of natures genius by hu mans is the correct path to a sustainable future. The more we accept and adapt to this type of natural system, the more we will understand that we are part of it instead of above it. and the more likely we humans can endure and survive on earth. If humans want to be successful in emulation natures genius, then we need to look at nature in a different manner. Within Biomimicry, nature is look upon as a model, measure and mentor. 1.) Nature as a model : Biomimicry is a science that studies natures models and emulates or Lifes Principles. Table 12.

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18 takes inspirations from their designs and pro cesses to solve human problems. 2.) Nature as a measure : Biomimicry uses an ecological standard to judge the rightness of human innovations. Through billions of years of existence, nature has learned: what works, what is appropriate and what lasts. 3.) Nature as a mentor : Biomimicry is a holis tic way of viewing and valuing nature. It intro duces an era based not on what we can ex tract from the natural world, but on what we can learn from it. Biomimicry as a Growing Trend within Professional Fields

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19 neers, designers, and more are starting to implement bio mimicry as a tool to create more sustainable designs. Be nyus had a chart named Design Spiral which is a guide to sign Spiral can be used to seek the challenge, seek nature for some type of natural system inspiration, then synthesize what was studied within the natural system and incorporate it into a sustainable design. as soon as possible. As bomimicry is the new up coming The next chapter will discuss this. Direct Approach of Biomimicry in Architecture

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20 The proposal is to apply natures concepts within sustainable design. Sustainable design should integrate aesthetics and performance like natures living organisms. Buildings should behave like organisms and provide back to the environment. For example, housing should adapt to prone areas should have houses that react to the harsh weather like a living organism. The house should protect it self and the people that inhabit it. Architects can study differ ent organisms and how they react to certain environments and situations. Iwamotto Scotts Bubble House is a good around the buildings faade and funnels rainwater where it salt solution that absorb the heat when it is warm outside

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21 ing as an insulator. With a combination of quantitative and qualitative research, a house will be designed with the prin ciples of nature within sustainability. A combination of data and personal observations will provide a multidimensional approach to the design project and to the result. Although, this is just a small contribution to solving the global warming crisis, it is a start. As humans, we have to accept that we are planet. If the global warming crisis is solved there will be a brighter and better future for human society.

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22 Figure 7.

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23 EXTENDED PROJECT DESCRIPTION Introduction chitecture. It is believed that this will be the next upcoming trend in architecture because of the Green design trend within todays society. Today, you see many companies, commercials and products that are becoming Green. Sad ly, becoming Green is the new trend and that should not be that way due to the fact that we humans do not have the luxury to continue to live the way we are living as well as continue to contaminate the planet. Climate change is on the sire and sustainable design (green design) is the answer to this serious global dilemma. Sustainability has begun to

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24 address the climate change crisis but it is lacking the inte gration with nature. This is where biomimicry comes in. Biomimicry studies organisms that have been suc cessful within nature and these can be implemented into solving our problems. This will be a growing trend within the architectural community because people are starting to embrace sustainable design (green architecture). We have Herzog and de Meuron, PTW Architects, and Santiago Ca latrava hop on the Green trend. These architects and their its vast opportunities. This is why now it the time for archi tects to look at biomimicry as a new mode for design. Biomimicry as a Growing Trend in Architecture

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25 neers, designers, and more are starting to implement bio mimicry as a tool to create more sustainable designs. Be nyus had a chart named Design Spiral which is a guide to sign Spiral can be used to seek the challenge, seek nature for some type of natural system inspiration, then synthesize what was studied within the natural system and incorporate it into a sustainable design. Within the architecture community there are two types of approaches to biomimicry: aesthetics and performance. There has been a constant debate within architecture about these two approaches. It has been observed that architects are designing based on biomimicry with the principles of form. In this case, it is believed that architects that just de

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26 sign on form are not really focusing biomimicry or returning back to nature. There are a lot of projects within the architecture com munity that evoke the presence of biomimicry. A great ex ample would be Frank Gherys and Eugene Tsui. Is a design successful it if mimics the form of a biological entity? Does the design or project solve or try to address any problem by just looking like a biological organism? This is a delicate de bate but for this thesis it is believed that just looking like an organism created by nature is not the solution to the prob lem nor is it solving any problem within the design. A building that formally mimics a biological being is very meaningful but there is a need for more substance. There has to be a reason for the design to look like something within nature way beyond aesthetics. This is where performance comes

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27 in. Building Typology Proposal: Museum Extension Data The thesis project can be applied to any building ty pology but for the amount of time given and to focus just on the biomimicry aspect of the design rather than the pro grammatic and the liberty that can be designed, the museum building typology was chosen. Designing a museum gives the opportunity of being more free with the design than in comparison designing a hospital. Because the biomimicry will address the site conditions and restrictions. The intent is mimicry design.

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28 Masters Thesis Focus: Objectives These are the objectives that this thesis is trying to address: To design a building incorporating biomim icry within the design. The design has to have an element involv ing sustainability. The design has to address the sites real constraints. To experiment with new materials and ways of construction.

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29 BIOMIMICRY CASE STUDIES Introduction For this Thesis project, there has been several case studies that have been studied. Due to biomimicry being and innovative movement within the architecture community, there are not many building case studies due to the fact that most are just mimicking the form. This thesis is not inclined in just copying the form of a natural system. The form of the applied in the beginning of the conceptual design. Biomimicry building case studies. Figure 8.

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30 sea creature, it coexists with its environment as a set of not have a brain, no central nervous system, no eyes, and its shape consists largely of the water around them. These creatures sense light and odor, are self-propulsive, biolumi nescent and highly adaptive to the changes within the wa house attempts to incorporate new materials and new digital technologies material and digital technologies in a innovative with a skin that has some of the changing qualities that the skin that reacts to the outside and the inside of the home. from the Voronoi diagram and the Delauney geometries. The Case study analysis. Figure 9.

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31 The houses location is on Treasure Island, located Buena in the middle of San Francisco Bay. Treasure Island was originally owned by the military but was recently was decommissioned and now the land is being redeveloped to create new residential areas. As seen in other sites that have been used by the military, the site suffers from environ mental hazards. The soil within the site is toxic and approxi mately 5 feet had to be removed in order to re mediate the site. This project proposed to work around this dilemma by adding wetlands to purify the intoxicated site. The wetlands storm water. tt p /ww Figure 10. House. Computer rendering. Figure 11.

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32 be incorporated within the design. The skin of the house skin that is coated with titanium dioxide and exposed to ultraviolet light from the sun. The titanium dioxide absorbs the vary harmful ultraviolet rays, and only lets in the visible blue light to purify the water and emitting a glowing skin within the building. heating and cooling using phase change materials layered water jacket, areas of the skin pattern and thickness trans liquid states heating or cooling the surrounding air. Figure 12. Figure 13. House.

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33 project that evoked the ideas of biomimicry. The buildings approach to the design. The buildings focus was on how can the skin react to the natural surroundings by contribut ing something to the area. It is believed that the biomimetic but by the surrounding wetlands that were used to purify the contaminated soils within Treasure Island. The notion of the Case Study B2_The Birds Nest Beijings National Stadium, also known as the Birds Nest, was the stadium used for the 2008 Summer Olympics. Located in the Olympic Green, the $423 million stadium is Figure 14. Exterior rendering of the Birds Nest. Figure 15.

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34 the worlds largest steel structure. The design was awarded de Meuron in April 2003, after a bidding process that includ the study of Chinese ceramics, implemented steel beams in order to hide supports for the retractable roof; giving the stadium the appearance of a Birds nest. Ironically, the re tractable roof was later removed from the design after in spiring the stadiums most recognizable aspect. Ground was in June 2008. A shopping mall and a hotel are planned to be constructed to increase use of the stadium, which will host football events after the Olympics. In 2001, after Beijing had been awarded the right to host the 2008 Summer Olympics, the city held a bidding pro cess to select the best arena design. Multiple requirements Exterior image. Figure 16. Night exterior image. Figure 17.

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35 including the ability for post-Olympics use, a retractable roof, and low maintenance costs, were required of each design. million, the stadium was built for one-tenth the cost that it would have cost to be built in the West. Beijing National Stadium was a joint venture among architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Her zog & de Meuron, project architect Stefan Marbach, artist Ai Weiwei, and CADG which was lead by chief architect Li Xinggang. In an effort to design a stadium that was porous while also being a collective building, a public vessel, the team studied Chinese ceramics. This line of thought brought the team to the nest scheme. The stadium consists of two independent structures, standing 50 feet apart: a red con crete seating bowl and the outer steel frame around it. In Structural detail. Figure 18. Construction detail. Figure 19.

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36 an attempt to hide steel supports for the retractable roof, required in the bidding process, the team developed the seemingly random additional steel to blend the supports into the rest of the stadium. Twenty-four trussed columns encase the inner bowl, each one weighing 1,000 tons. Despite random appearance, each half of the stadium is nearly identical. After a collapse of a roof at the Charles de Gaulle International Airport, Beijing reviewed all major projects. It was decided to eliminate the retractable roof, the original inspiration for the nest design. The removal of the elements helped to bring the project under the reduced construction budget of $290 million, from an original $500 million. With the removal of the retractable roof, the building was lightened, which helped it stand up to seismic activity; however, the upper section of the roof was altered to pro tect fans from weather. Due to the stadiums outward ap Site context. Figure 20.

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37 pearance, it was nicknamed The Birds Nest. The phrase believes there should be many ways of perceiving a build ing. Ground was broken, at the Olympic Green, for Bei jing National Stadium on 24 December 2003. At its height, 17,000 construction workers worked on the stadium. All 110,000 tons of steel were made in China, making the sta dium the largest steel structure in the world. Beijing National The eastern and western stands of Beijing National Stadium are higher than northern and southern stands, in order to im prove the sight lines. A 24-hour per day rainwater collector throughout and around the stadium. Pipes placed under the playing surface gather heat in the winter to warm the sta Image of a bird nest. Figure 21.

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38 dium and coldness in the summer to cool the stadium. The Birds Nest capacity is 81,000 people within the stadium. were optimized to increase ventilation. Beijing National Stadium hosted the Opening and 2008 Summer Olympics, from 8 August to 24 August 2008. the stadium will continue to host sporting events, such as football, afterwards. A shopping mall and a hotel, with rooms the Olympics. The Birds Nest has become and icon of architecture and design ingenuity. Since its creation, it has created some controversy within the architecture community. The build Exterior photomontage. Figure 22. Interior rendering. Figure 23.

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39 ings elegance is well known and as well its sustainable aspect, but is it really sustainable? This question came from the notion that the Birds Nest is made by over 100,000 tons of steel. The notion of the biomimetic aspect of a nest is present, but was there such a need for so much material to be used especially now knowing how expensive steel is. It is believed that this building is quite beautiful and attractive but it does not really convey what biomimesis is all about. There Birds Nest is another aesthetic biomimetic building. Case Study B3_The Water Cube Beijing National Aquatics center, also known was the Water Cube is located right beside the Birds Nest in the Olympic Green for the swimming competitions of the 2008 Summer Olympics. Despite its nickname, the building is a Construction of the Water Cube. Figure 24. Night shot of the Water Cube. Figure 25.

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40 rectangular box, not a cube. Construction started on Decem ber 24, 2003, and the Center was completed and handed over for use on January 28, 2008. In July 2003, the Water Cube design was chosen from 10 proposals in an international architectural competition for the aquatic center project. The Water Cube was designed and built by a consortium made up of PTW Architects (an ing group, CSCEC (China State Construction Engineering Corporation), and CCDI (China Construction Design Inter national) of Shanghai. The Water Cubes design was initi ated as a team effort: the Chinese partners felt a square was more symbolic to Chinese culture and its relationship to the Birds Nest stadium, while the Sydney based partners came up with the idea of covering the cube with bubbles, symbol izing water. The water cube has set a new standard in en Afternoon shot. Figure 26. Construction site. Figure 27.

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41 vironmental sports design, not only in China but throughout the world. Comprising a steel space frame, it is the largest ETFE clad structure in the world with over 100,000 m of ETFE pil lows that are only 1/125 of an inch in thickness. The ETFE cladding allows more light and heat penetration than tradi tional glass, resulting in a 30% decrease in energy costs. The skin system is based on the Weaire-Phelan structure, a structure devised from the natural formation of bubbles in soap foam. The complex Weaire-Phelan pattern was de veloped by slicing through bubbles in soap foam, resulting in more irregular, organic patterns than foam bubble struc tures. Using the Weaire-Phelan geometry, the Water Cubes exterior cladding is made of 4,000 ETFE bubbles. The Water Cube has the capacity to hold 6,000 people. The buildings site is approximately 7.9 acres. ETFE cladding structure in the Figure 28. building. Zoom in of the ETFE cladding. Figure 29.

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42 Soap bubbles. Figure 30. Interior image. Figure 31. Construction of the Figure 32. space frame.

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43 Case Study B4_CRMA_ Nox Architecture How can there be gaps in continuous surfaces? One might expect that in curved surfaces holes have to be cut out later, it is more logical to have holes and curvature coemerge with the form. Instead of thinking of holes as subtractions, we consider then as in ternal edge conditions. The hole need not be an absence but an element that adds struc ture. The question that Nox Architecture wanted to ask was: how can there be gaps in continuos surfaces? Nox ar within a curved surface but not as a subtraction. Usually in Exterior rendering. Figure 33. Exterior rendering. Figure 34.

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44 design voids are taken after a form is created but in this process there is an interest of holes and curves co emerging parts of the buildings structure. The biomimetic application was taken out of the rep etition within nature. Within this project the repetition within cells was largely studied. When cells start to compress with each other, these create some spaces that seem to create a backbone/structure that supports all cells together. It looks web is a good example of this. The project is a compact structure that contains two studios. There are some distinct areas within the project that are open to transformations throughout the day. The barInterior rendering. Figure 35. Interior rendering. Figure 36.

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45 restaurant can be changed into a discothque in the evening and the disco can be changed into a large hall. The patio can be changed from a dance space into a terrace, the halls can be connected or disconnected by means of mobile parti tions. The structure was designed as a generic system that is synthesized from the cell structures. The voids within the building are a reaction to the surroundings. Like the concept, the building tried to fuse the notion of void and structure. The project is like a warehouse, it is open inside and the structure is what holds it in. The building has no internal col umns so it lends itself to a open and free plan. It is believed that there was also some studies of exoskeletons due to the shell typology is evokes. This project is quite interesting within its biomimetic

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46 prototypes of a building but with the notion of the biomimetic idea. In comparison to the prior case studies, this building has no technological edge that the other buildings have. Its simplicity and thoughtful analysis of merging voids as part of the structural system is quite interesting and inspiring. As seen in other projects, it seems that they also study exoskel eton systems. Although the building does convey some sort of live animal form from its aesthetic level, it also functions in the biomimetic performance level as well through its use

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47 SITE Possible Sites There are three possible sites for the Masters Thesis project. All sites had to be in the proximity of a large museum complex in a well known city. Cities that held this possibility was Washington and New York City. Both cities are well known for their arts and history. To narrow down to the chosen site, there are other elements that were looked at to choose the appropriate site. Smithsonian Museum Complex: Washington, DC The Smithsonian Museum Complex is well known Smithsonian complex in Washing Figure 37. ton, DC.

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48 the excellent collection of the arts. In 1829 English scientist James Smithson left his fortune to the people of the United States to found an institution for the increase and diffusion of knowledge. Smithsons impetus in providing for a research and educational institution in a new country on another continent remains a mystery. His bequest sparked widespread debate over what such a national institution might be. Once established, the Smithsonian Institution became part of the process of developing the U.S. national identity. The Smithsonian Institution is now the worlds largest museum complex, composed of a group of national museums and research centers housing the United States national collections in natural history, American history, air The Institution includes 19 museums, four research cen ters, the National Zoo, the Smithsonian Institution Libraries Smithsonian American Art Museum Figure 38. and Portrait Gallery. Interior of the National Air and Figure 39. Space Museum.

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49 (a research library system), the Smithsonian magazine, the Smithsonian Institution Press, a Traveling Exhibition Ser and activities. Most of its facilities are located in Washing ton, D.C., but its 19 museums, zoo, and 9 research centers include sites in New York City, Virginia, Panama, and else where. It has over 136 million items within its collections. The Smithsonian is a world known and respected American institution. The only concerns within this site is if the location of the project is appropriate. Is Washington, DC a mecca of the arts? This research is looking for the appropriate site as well as its city. The city needs to be vi brant and rich in culture, truly a center of the artistic world. Metropolitan Museum of Art Extension: NYC, NY

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50 The Metropolitan Museum of Art is an art museum located on the eastern edge of Central Park, along what is known as Museum Mile in New York City. It has a per manent collection containing more than two million works of art, divided into nineteen curatorial departments. The main building, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest art galleries, and has a much smaller second location in Upper Manhattan, at The Cloisters, which features medieval art. Represented in the perma nent collection are works of art from classical antiquity and Ancient Egypt, paintings and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met also maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanic, Byzantine and Islamic art. The museum is also home to encyclopedic collections of musi cal instruments, costumes and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of Metropolitan Museum of Art. Figure 40. Interior of the Egyptian Gallery. Figure 41.

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51 notable interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Mets galleries. The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 by a group of American citizens. The founders includ and thinkers of the day, who wanted to open a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue. As of 2007, the Met measures almost a quarter mile long and occupies more than two million square feet. New York City seems to be the most adequate city for the thesis project. New York is a mecca for the arts around the world. The city is well known for being a cultural Interior shot in the museum. Figure 42.

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52 center. As a historic landmark within the art world, the Met would be quite an appropriate site for the thesis due to its location and the museums prestige. The problem that would be faced if there would be an extension to the mu seum would be that the site is within Central Park. Central Park is an oasis within the city and people that live there have protected its sacredness. This is an issue that this possible site faces. To construct within Central Park is a sacrilege? CooperHewitt National Design Museum Extension: NYC, NY Now that the thesis has narrowed down what city the project can be constructed with out building in sacred grounds like Central Park. Across from Central Park the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Figure 43. Museum

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53 Museum Mile is located. Museum Mile, also known as 5th Avenue, is a mecca for the museum world due to the high volume of museums within the area. Museums such was the Guggenheim, the Met, and the Smithsonian CooperHewitt National Design Museum are located in this area. The Cooper-Hewitt is a museum that is part of the Smithsonian Institution. This museum is a satellite from the Smithsonian. Since its foundation in 1848, the Smith sonian has become the worlds largest and most visited within this constellation of intellectual inquiry. Art, History, and Science are the three main divisions of the Smithso nian. Smithsonian Art is a unique national collection of museums, archives, and programs, including Cooper-He witt, National Design Museum. The breadth of collections ranges from ancient Asia at the Freer and Sackler Galleries Approaching the entrance. Figure 44.

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54 to contemporary international art at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Cooper-Hewitt forms an important beachhead for the Smithsonian in New Yorka world across the United States. Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution is the only museum in the nation devoted exclusively to historic and contemporary design. The Museum presents compelling perspectives on the impact of design on daily life through active educational and curatorial programming. It is the mission of CooperHewitts staff and Board of Trustees to advance the public understanding of design across the twenty-four centuries of human creativity represented by the Museums collection. The Museum was founded in 1897 by Amy, Eleanor, and Sarah Hewitt: granddaughters of industrialist Peter Corner of Cooper-Hewitt. Figure 45. Corner of Cooper-Hewitt. Figure 46.

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55 Cooper, as part of The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. A branch of the Smithsonian since 1967, Cooper-Hewitt is housed in the landmark Andrew Carnegie Mansion on Fifth Avenue in New York City. The campus also includes two historic townhouses renovated with state-of-the-art conservation technology and a unique terrace and garden. Cooper-Hewitts collections include more than 250,000 design objects and a world-class de sign library. Its exhibitions, in-depth educational programs, and on-site, degree-granting masters program explore the process of design, both historic and contemporary. As part of its mission, Cooper-Hewitt annually sponsors the Na tional Design Awards, a prestigious program which honors innovation and excellence in American design. Together, these resources and programs reinforce Cooper-Hewitts position as the preeminent museum and educational au thority for the study of design in the United States. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. Figure 47. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. Figure 48.

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56 Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum is housed in the former home of industrial magnate Andrew Carnegie. The sixty-four-room mansion, built from 1899 to 1902, is an impressive testament to the desire of Carnegie and his daughter, Margaret. The house was also planned as a place where Carnegie, after his retirement in 1901, could oversee the philanthropic projects to which he would dedi the mansion, Carnegie donated money to build free public libraries in communities across the country and to the im provement of cultural and educational facilities in Scotland and the United States. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. Figure 49. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. Figure 50.

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57 of Babb, Cook & Willard in the solidly comfortable style of a Georgian country house. When Carnegie purchased the land for the house, in 1898, he purposely bought property far north of where his peers were living. The relatively open space allowed him to build a large private gardenone of the only ones in Manhattanthat is still a beautiful, restful oasis today. The house is a fascinating study in innovative dence in the United States to have a structural steel frame passenger elevator (now in the collection of the Smithso nians National Museum of American History in Washing ton, DC). Another innovation was the inclusion of both cen tral heating and a precursor to air-conditioning. In the cellar a pair of enormous twin boilers ran by coal transferred from storage bin to furnace by a coal car that traveled over a miniature railroad track. The building received landmark Cooper-Hewitt garden site. Figure 51. Cooper-Hewitt garden site. Figure 52.

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58 status in 1974, and in 1976 reopened as Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution. Chosen Site_ CooperHewitt National Design Museum Extension: New York City, NY The Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum adja cent garden site was chosen as the appropriate site for the Masters Thesis project. The museum is part of the pres tigious Smithsonian Institution and the location within the Museum Mile is superb. This site is excellent for the the sis. The adjacent site to the Cooper-Hewitt lends itself for an extension to the museum as well as future mixed use development. The thesis project will be situated within this site due to its excellent location within New York which is a city well known for the arts. Chosen site in NYC. Figure 53.

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59 Location: New York City, The Big Apple New York City is located in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. The loca tion at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhat tan, Staten Island, and Long Island, making land scarce and encouraging a high population density. largest city in the United States, with a metropolitan area that is among the largest urban areas in the world. The city serves as one of the worlds primary global cities, exerting Chosen site in NYC next to Central Figure 54. Park.

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60 culture, and entertainment. The city is also an important center for international affairs, hosting the United Nations The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. It is the most densely populated major city in the United States, with an estimated 8,274,527 people within an area of 304.8 square miles. The New York metropolitan area is also the largest metropolitan area in the country, with an estimated 19,750,000 people over 6,720 square miles New York is largely unique among American cities for its high use of mass transit, and the overall density and diversity of its population. In 2005, nearly 170 languages were spoken in the city and 36% of its population was born outside the United States. Data Chosen site in NYC adjacent site to Figure 55. the CooperHewitt.

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61 Country: United States of America State: New York Boroughs: Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Population: 8,274,527 people 1rst in the US Area: City: 468.9 sq. mi Land: 304.8 sq. mi NYC: Mecca for the Arts & Museum Mile New York City is famous for its cavernous avenues, excellent restaurants, world-class shopping, and reputa tion as a leader in the arts. With its wealth of attractions Areas within New York City: Man Figure 56. hattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Bronx, and Staten Island.

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62 to tempt any visitor, there are none more interesting than New York City is home of hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, running from 82nd to 104th streets in the Up per East Side in a neighborhood known as Carnegie Hill. The MILE, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually two blocks longer than as Museum Mile in 1979 because it is the location of nine museums, a tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, since the Guggenheim in 1959. In addition to other pro gramming, the museums collaborate for the annual Mu seum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. Approach to Guggenheim museum. Figure 57. Approach to Cooper-Hewitt mu Figure 58. seum.

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63 Panorama image of New York City. Figure 59. Panorama image of Cooper-Hewitt site. Figure 60.

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64 Panorama image of Cooper-Hewitt from Central Park entrance. Figure 61. Panorama image of Cooper-Hewitt site from Central Park. Figure 62.

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65 Site: C-HNDM & Adjacent Garden Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Smithso nian Institution is the only museum in the nation devoted exclusively to historic and contemporary design. The Museum presents compelling perspectives on the impact of de sign on daily life through active educational and curatorial programming. It is the mission of Cooper-Hewitts staff and Board of Trustees to advance the public understanding of design across the twenty-four centuries of human creativ ity represented by the Museums collection. The CooperHewitt Museum wants to sell their garden lot to accommo date the new museums expansion. A good way to do this is by selling the land to a developer and form an agreement where the developer builds the new museum in return of the new land/air rights acquired to build a residential tower. Site analysis board. Figure 63.

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66 The program will accommodate the new museum exten sion and luxury apartments. The site is facing Central Park which makes this site prime lot to develop. The task will be to design both the museum and the apartments within the small lot. Background Information: NYC Zoning Districts The city is divided into three basic zoning districts: residential (R), commercial (C), and manufacturing (M). The three basic districts are further divided into a variety of lower-, mediumand higher-density residential, commercial and manufacturing districts. Any of these districts may in turn be overlaid by special purpose zoning districts tailored to the unique characteristics of certain neighborhoods. Some block fronts in residential districts may be overlaid as well by commercial districts providing for neighborhood Zoning board with analysis. Figure 64.

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67 retail stores and services. These overlay districts modify the controls of the underlying districts. Moderateand higher-density residence districts are generally found close to central and regional business districts, and are usually well served by mass transit. These areas are characterized by bulkier buildings, a wider range of building heights and lower auto ownership than lower-density areas. Like the lower-density residence districts, however, the character entirely by row houses, others by low apartment houses or high-rise buildings and still others by a mixture of all build ing types. The Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum is located in 2 East 91st Street, New York, NY 10128. The zoning in this area is located within the most expensive residential area within Manhattan, 5th Avenue. For zoning

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68 requirements, the adjacent lot to the Cooper-Hewit is R-10. R-10 is a higher density residence district and this is the highest zoning number within the residential zoning re quirements. The following chart will demonstrate what zon ing R-10s requirements are within the Manhattan district. Zoning rules within New York City diagrams. Figure 65.

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69 R8-R10 Density Residence Districts Table 13. PRC Types of Uses. Table 14.

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70 New York Citys zoning department. For The Cooper-He Residential Floor Area Ratio (FAR) Building Lot Dimensions: 90 x 208 Lot Area: 18,880 sf Total Building Area: 75,520 sf Lot Coverage: 80% Building Max Height : 60-85 (wide street) Perimeter: 615 7 1/4 Lot Size: 4,360sf larger than 1/3 Acre- 14,520sf Block Number: 1502 Site analysis sketches. Figure 66.

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71 Lot Number: 1 House Number Range: 2-16 1046980 Department of Finance Building ClasLandmark Status: Federal Government Bldg. Special District: PIPark Improvement Buildings in Lot: 2 5 Storey Building Building Height: 66-2

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72 Presentation board for the site analysis. Figure 67.

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73 PROGRAM Introduction The project will consist of two programs: the museum extension and the apartment tower. The maximum building a need to propose the height restriction to go beyond the 80 feet, Density Bonus. Due to the projects small site, a bit larger than 1/3 acre, the project proposes to go vertical and underground. eral changes within the program. It has been determined that it will not be possible to design both the museum and Interior of a gallery in the Metropoli Figure 68. tan Museum of Art.

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74 the apartments. For the rest of the thesis the focal point will be the museum. The concept of Biomimicry is complex and designing a tower has its complexity. Furthermore, the main idea is Biomimicry and this will be the main focus for the end of this semester and Thesis 2. Building typology proposal: Museum Extension Data Gross Square Footage= 31,350sf Gallery Space= 15,000sf Bio-Tech Gallery Innovation Gallery: Green by Design Exploration and Testing Gallery Education Space=3,000sf Library=1,000sf Interior gallery of the MOMA mu Figure 69. seum.

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75 Auditorium seats 155= 3,200sf Special Events Space=2,000sf Restaurant=3,650sf Museum Store=2,000sf New York City Museums are known worldwide for their high quality exhibits and permanent collections. Man hattan is home to most of the areas museums including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, American Museum of Natural History and the newly renovated Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum. Many museums in New York City are internationally renowned and regarded as one of a kind. For example, the Guggenheim Museum, located along the famous Museum Mile (on Fifth Avenue in Manhat tan, running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side) is an architectural landmark with a permanent collec tion of impressionist, post-impressionist, early modern and Interior of the Guggenheim Mu Figure 70. seum.

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76 contemporary art. The Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), is located in midtown and is often regarded as the most museums feature nature and life sciences, design, culture, history, music and even sports. There is even a group of York City every year looking for inspiration, knowledge and the rare chance to view many of the worlds most important Interior gallery MOMA museum. Figure 71.

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77 Program presentation board. Figure 72.

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78 FIELD RESEARCH Introduction: New York City Trip My trip to New York City was short I knew from the start that I had to take advantage of the time I was going to be there as much as possible. My stay in New York as from to New York City I felt overwhelmed by the energy the city has. The fast paced life is something I am not well accus tomed to in Florida nor in my native home in Puerto Rico. The energy that this city had is truly remarkable. In some way, I felt that I was in another country. Rarely did I ever hear the English language being spoken. I believe that the museum in some way should convey the energy that this NYC trip image. Figure 73.

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79 city has. I believe that the fast paced energy is a natural aspect of New York City and should be incorporated into the museums design. Itinerary From October 3 to October 6 2008, I went to New York City for my Thesis study. There was two reasons why is the adjacent garden lot to the CooperHewitt Museum National Design Museum. I had the opportunity of staying close to the site. I also went to study different museums within the area. New York City is world recognized as a leader within the arts. This is well shown within the citys world famous museums. I had a full schedule when I got to New York. Here is a description of the places I went in New York City. Museum of Arts and Design Figure 74. Guggenheim Museum Figure 75.

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80 Friday, October 3, 2008: Arrived to New York City Checked in at Helmsley Park Lane Hotel Museum of Arts and Design Walked around Central Park South and 5th Ave Visited Site at the C-HNDM Saturday, October 4, 2008: Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum Guggenheim Museum Metropolitain Museum of Art Natural Museum of History: Hayden Planetarium Cooper-Hewitt. Figure 76. Hayden Planetarium. Figure 77.

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81 Sunday, October 5, 2008: Modern Museum of Art Folk Art Museum Skyscraper Museum Museum of Sports Museum of Sex Times Square Visit Monday, October 6, 2008: Visited Site at the C-HNDM Checked out from the hotel Firm Visit: Ghery Technologies Left New York City Places Visited For those 4 days, I visited several museums and MOMA. Figure 78. Folk Art Museum. Figure 79.

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82 important sites within the New York City area. The several Museums visited were composed of small and large, well known and unknown museums. Some museums were very prestigious and other conveyed some sort of taboo within the community. I believe that the museums that were vis ited do demonstrate quality of ease of adaptation that the city has. New York City is so many things at the same time, that it is obligated to adapt really quickly to any changes within it. One day I observed that a man was wearing a t-shirt reading Z00 YORK. After reading that it came to me that New York City is indeed a melting pot of differTherefore the Cooper-Hewitt National Museum of Design and museum matrix. Museum of Sex. Figure 80. Times Square. Figure 81.

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83 Folk Art Mu Figure 82. seum. Skyscraper Figure 83. Museum. Museum of Figure 84. Sports. Museum of Figure 85. Sex. Metropolitan Figure 86. Museum of Art. Museum of Figure 87. Natural history

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84 Interior of Figure 88. Hayden Planetarium. Interior of NatuFigure 89. ral Museum of History. Interiro of MetroFigure 90. politan Museum of Art. Interiro of MetroFigure 91. politan Museum of Art. Interior of Figure 92. Guggenheim museum. Interior of Figure 93. MOMA museum.

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85 NYC trip presentation board. Figure 94.

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86 SUMMARY FOR THESIS 1 Final Thoughts research, I discovered that I was missing something. Bio mimicry is my focal point and I was not following it was I mation, I acknowledge that I have ignored my site in all its context. I had forgotten where my museum is going to be located: New York City. New York City is a country of its own and has its own ecosystem. The city and the people that inhabit it have a particular attitude and energy that is distinct and unique. It would be a sacrilege for me not to look at these elements and design a museum without

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87 accepting what New York City is. As a student of architec ture and biomimicry I have to incorporate New York Citys ecosystem within the museum design. The museum should convey a biomimicry approach to the sites context. The museum should act was a part of New York City and if it is removed from the city, it would die like any other living organism. There are some elements that will give character to the museum: the sites surroundings (Museum Mile/5th avenue, Central Park, Cooper-Hewitt), and the citys cul ture and energy. I will still focus on the skin of the project but now it will be in the adaptive aspect. This will be my focus for next semester.

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88 Poster board for the conceptual design. Figure 95.

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89 DESIGN Introduction For the Master Thesis 2 class students have to em phasize on the design concept of the Thesis. We have to gather all of the information and research that we had done nal semester because it will determine the outcome of the success or failure of the project. Early within the semester I started to apply natural systems that I had studied and incor porated them into the design. Conceptual Design Conceptual model. Figure 96.

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90 How to Apply Biomimicry to the Cooper-Hewitt Site Since the beginning, I was focused on the project be would remove it from its context, it would not work and fall apart. I started looking at the site and what this site had that was unique. This last December, I had the opportunity to re turn to New York City and go back to the Cooper-Hewitt site. what was there. There are several important elements within the site: it is in front of 5th Avenue, one of the busiest streets in New York City and above all, the site is located in front of Central Park. Central Park is a very large man made park within the city. It is an oasis for the busy hustle and bustle of New York. I believe that I was forgetting what made this site so unique. I knew then that I had to address these elements within the design. Concept models for the museum. Figure 97.

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91 Concept New York City us well known for its tall buildings. Be sides Central Park, the city is covered in concrete and steel. Cooper-Hewitt site is unique because it is between the na ture that we know and what man has made. What happens if nature breaks out of the grid that man made for it in the city? What would happen if Central Park took its natural course and started to grow outside New York Citys man made grid? This is where my design concept commences. What if this nature moved into the Cooper-Hewitt site and adapted itself to its surroundings like a living organism? My thesis design project has to adapt like a living organism. With the design concept in hand, I started to do some site models. Bug model. Figure 98. Bug model of museum. Figure 99.

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92 Conceptual design site plan. Figure 100. Figure 101. plan.

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93 Conceptual design cross section. Figure 102. Conceptual design longitudinal section. Figure 103. Conceptual design section. Figure 104. Conceptual design section. Figure 105.

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94 Concept interior rendering. Figure 106. Concept interior rendering. Figure 107. Concept interior rendering. Figure 108. Concept interior rendering. Figure 109. Concept interior ren Figure 110. dering. Concept interior ren Figure 111. dering.

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95 Conceptual section model. Figure 112. Conceptual section model. Figure 113. Conceptual section model. Figure 114. Conceptual section model. Figure 115. Conceptual section Figure 116. model.

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96 Analysis and diagrams. Figure 117. Voronoi diagrams. Figure 118.

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97 Analysis and diagrams. Figure 119. Analysis and diagrams. Figure 120.

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98 Analysis and diagrams. Figure 121. Voronoi diagrams. Figure 122.

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99 After doing these models I went directly into design ing the museum. I tried to squeeze in the square footages and spaces required in the program. For Thesis 2 midterm I had forgotten what my project was all about: Biomimicry. I was told that I should emphasize not on the building typol ogy but rather study natural systems that I wanted to apply to the museum design. After the midterm presentation, I started to do proto type systems of the skin column and structure. For the re maining part of the thesis I emphasized on doing research on structural systems within nature. As I looked as my previous research, I began to look at similarities that several natural systems had: repetition and a system of rigid shapes (tri angles and circles). I notices that the organisms that I stud ied such as the bone structure, honeycomb, cells, crystals Crystal system: Quartz. Figure 123. Crystallization process. Figure 124.

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100 and radiolaria all had something in common: these systems are all structurally strong and rigid as well as they had a common shape within them: triangles. Triangles and circles are the strongest shapes within nature and when repeated thetically pleasing. I wanted to apply this notion of natural triangulation and repetition within the design of the museum, cused on the structural systems within the museum building: skin system, column system and exterior structure system. Structural Systems Applied from Biomimicry: Column, Skin and Exterior Structure For these studies I was able to make hand made mod els, computer generated models (3D Max, Rhinoceros 4.0, Google Sketch Up, Paracloud), sketches and 3D printing. I How the honeycomb system works Figure 125. (diagram). Honeycomb structure. Figure 126.

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101 was trying to sell all of the different ways I could study these structural systems. Each tool that I used to create these models helped me to understand how things are made. 3D out how something can be built and can stand. I had to cre ate models from a computer and make them work in real life that were affected by gravity. For the column system I wanted to apply the notion of how trees work within nature. One can observe that trees have a middle long trunk and open wide on the top (branch es) and on the bottom (roots). What can be applied from the tree to the structure of a column system? What if we could columns? What could happen if columns moved free in like trees in the wind? All of these questions I was very eager to answer and discover. Another element that I wanted to study First column study. Figure 127. Column study: cross bracing. Figure 128.

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102 for the columns was the idea of rigid shapes (triangulation and circles) and repetition. I created several prototypes with different applications: modularity, structural bracing, cross ing, honeycomb structure, nurb systems and straight angle systems. For the skin system I applied the same ideas of rigid shapes (triangulation and circles) and repetition. I also start ed to apply natural systems that I had studied earlier such as the human bone/skin, honeycomb, crystals, pores, and eye system. The exterior structure system I studied how the skin and bone system works. For the project I wanted to invert this system and make the bone outside of the skin. The bone would support the skin as well as push away the slurry Column system: modularity. Figure 129. Column system: modularity. How Figure 130. these modules can create a whole (repetition).

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103 wall around the building. The exterior skin system is an extra structure system which I believed would just be extra structure but after creating the section model I discovered that I actually needed this structure for the project to work. Column system: trian Figure 131. gulation Column system: Figure 132. triangulation detail. Column system: triangulation truss Figure 133. system study. How does the column connect to the

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104 Skin system study. Figure 134. Skin system study. Figure 135. Skin system study. Figure 136. Skin system study. Figure 137. Skin prototype studies: How does Figure 138. the external structure attach to the skin and the outer slurry wall.

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105 Skin prototype system. Figure 139. Skin prototype system. Figure 140. Skin prototype system. Figure 141. Skin prototype system. Figure 142.

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106 3D print column. Figure 143. 3D print column. Figure 144. 3D print column detail. Figure 145. 3D print column detail. Figure 146.

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107 3D print column. Figure 147. 3D print column. Figure 148. 3D print column detail. Figure 149. 3D print column detail. Figure 150.

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108 3D print skin. Table 15. 3D print skin detail. Table 16. 3D print skin detail. Table 17.

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109 3D print skin. Table 18. 3D print skin detail. Table 19. 3D print skin detail. Table 20.

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110 Biomimicry research board. Figure 151. Biomimicry research large board, Figure 152.

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111 Biomimicry research board. Figure 153.

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112 Biomimcry research large board. Figure 154. Biomimicry research board. Figure 155.

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113 Biomimicry research board. Figure 156.

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114 Analysis sketches board. Figure 157. Analysis sketches large board. Figure 158.

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115 Analysis sketches board. Figure 159.

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116 Final Design 2009. All my committee members were present as well as two new members: my parents. My father Mario Corsino is a registered Architect in Puerto Rico for over 30 years and my mother Isabel Carro de Corsino is a registered Interior work including the new work created after the midterm: 3D printed models of the biomimicry structure studies, 3D com project of the museum. The C-HND+TM is located right on 5th Avenue, two blocks away from the Guggenheim museum. I knew that this project had to create a bold statement within the New York

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117 City community. From the biomimicry studies that I had tak en, I commenced to apply these ideas to the design. I knew that the project had to react drastically to its surroundings. I knew that the building had to go underground. Second, the project had to have supporting elements: col umns, exterior structure to hold the building from the ground and slurry walls. The design project reacted towards the site as if it came into the ground and suspended itself from the walls like a living organism. Also, I knew that the skin had to be porous to let light into the building. The columns also act as light wells that bring in light into the museum. A massive void in the middle of the project also act as a giant column a site model (1:20 scale), a section model (1/8 scale), site

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118 renderings and the animation that was the introduction of the thesis presentation.

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119 Site plan board, Figure 160. Site plan large board, Figure 161.

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120 Site plan board, Figure 162.

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121 Floor plans board. Figure 163. Floor plans large board. Figure 164.

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122 Floor plans board. Figure 165.

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123 Cross section board. Figure 166. Cross section large board. Figure 167.

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124 Cross section board. Figure 168.

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125 Longitudinal section board. Figure 169. Longitudinal section large board. Figure 170.

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126 Longitudinal section board. Figure 171.

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127 Section views board. Figure 172. Section views large board. Figure 173.

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128 Section views board. Figure 174.

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129 Exterior views board. Figure 175. Exterior views large board. Figure 176.

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130 Exterior views board. Figure 177.

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131 Interior views board. Figure 178. Interior views large board. Figure 179.

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132 Interior views board. Figure 180.

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133 Exterior rendering. Figure 181.

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134 Exterior rendering. Figure 182.

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135 Exterior rendering. Figure 183.

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136 Interior rendering. Figure 184.

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137 Interior rendering. Figure 185.

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138 Interior rendering. Figure 186.

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139 Context model. Figure 187. Context model. Figure 188.

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140 Context model. Figure 189. Context model. Figure 190.

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141 Site model. Figure 191. Site model. Figure 192.

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142 Site model. Figure 193. Site model. Figure 194.

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143 Sketch section model. Figure 195. Sketch section model. Figure 196.

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144 Sketch section model. Figure 197. Sketch section model. Figure 198.

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145 Sketch section model. Figure 199. Sketch section model. Figure 200.

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146 Sketch section model. Figure 201. Sketch section model. Figure 202.

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147 Sketch section model. Figure 203. Sketch section model. Figure 204.

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148 Sketch section model. Figure 205. Sketch section model. Figure 206.

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149 CONCLUSION The question of did I apply biomimicry into the design is yes, but I believe that there needed to be more research within the project. It is rather impossible to try to discover almost 4 billion years nature has perfected itself within 3 semesters of Thesis. I knew that I had achieved several of my goals but not all. Due to the shore time of this thesis I could only focus on the structural aspect of the project rather than the entire aspects of the project (circulation, materials, HVAC, light, etc.). For this project I will continue to develop the structural systems that I had studied to a point here the entire project could be built. After that, I would like to focus on the circulation and the material technology for the project. There are still a lot of questions that need to be answered. I Figure 207.

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150 also discovered that what I was criticizing the problems from Water Cube where the same problems that I encountered that is in need of further research especially within the archi of the box and think of the possibilities that we as architects can do for humanity. I believe that architects should go back to nature and study the natural wonders it has to offer be cause nature has already tested its natural systems. It is tecture with an interest in biomimicry. Figure 208. Figure 209.

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151 Figure 210. Figure 211. Figure 212. Figure 213.

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152 Figure 214. Figure 215. Figure 216. Figure 217.

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153 Figure 218. Figure 219. Figure 220.

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154 WORKS CITED Global Warming. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2008.Merriam-Webster Online. 12 July 2008. http:// www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/globalwarming. Sustainable. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2008. Merriam-Webster Online. 12 July 2008. http://www. merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sustainable. Benyus, Janine M. Biomimicry : Innovation Inspired by Nature. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

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155 Bernstein, Lenny, Peter Bosh, and Osvaldo Canziani. Cli mate Change 2007. Http://www.ipcc.ch/#. 2007. 4 June 2008. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf. Bourne, Joel K., Peter Miller, Michelle Nijhuis, and Bill McKibben. Changing Climate. National Geographic 22 June 2008. Brown, Marilyn A., Frank Southworth, and Therese K. Stovall. Solutions Towards a Climate-Friendly Built Environment. Http://www.aia.org/susn_rc_default. June 2005. 16 July 2008. http://www.pewclimate. org/. Deru, Michael. Counting Carbon: Understanding Carbon Footprints of Buildings. Http://www.buildinggreen.

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156 com. 1 July 2008. 12 July 2008. http://www.building green.com/auth/article.cfm/2008/6/27/counting-car bon-understanding-carbon-footprints-of-buildings/. The 11th Hour: Turn Mankinds Darkest Hour into its Finest. Dir. Leila Conners Petersen and Nadia Conners. Perf. Leonardo DiCaprio. 2007. Hagan, Susannah. Taking Shape : A New Contract Between Architecture and Nature. New York: Architectural P, 2001. Joachim, Mitchell. PERISTALCITY: A Circulatory Habitat Cluster for Manhattan. Http://www.archinode.com. 11 July 2008 http://www.archinode.com/peristalcity. html.

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157 Katz, Barry. Growing up Green: Building a Sustainable Fu ture. Dwell July 2008: 133-68. Kuang, Cliff. Green Megalopolis. Popular Science July 2008: 49-53. Mazria, Edward. Architecture 2030: The Building Sector a Hidden Culprit. Http://architecture2030.org/. 2006. 12 July 2008. http://architecture2030.org/current_situation/building_sector.html. skin like a lizard, and eyes like a moth? The future of engineering. (Biomimetics). National Geographic Apr. 2008. Ponte, Alessandra, and A. Picon. Architecture and the Sci

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158 ences : Exchanging Metaphors. New York: Princeton Architectural P, 2003. Snoonian, Deborah. How Architects can Reverse Global Warming: A Conversation with Edward Mazria, AIA. Http://archrecord.com. Feb. 2006. 12 July 2008. http://archrecord.construction.com/features/green/archives/060201mazria.asp. Spuybroek, Lars. Nox: Machining Architecture. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004. Thompson, Kalee. Carbon Discredit. Popular Science July 2008: 54-69. Tsui, Eugene. Evolutionary Architecture : Nature as a Basis for Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons Australia,

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159 Limited, 1999. United Nations. Millenium Development Goals Report: Goal 7, Ensure Environmental Sustainability. Http:// www.un.org/English/. 2007. 12 July 2008. http://un fccc.int/2860.php. Wang, David, and Linda Groat. Architectural Research Methods. New York: Wiley, 2002. Wikipedia contributors, Honeycomb, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Honeycomb&oldid=281884059 (accessed April 7, 2009). Wikipedia contributors, Beijing National Stadium, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://

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160 en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Beijing_Nation al_Stadium&oldid=280903579 (accessed April 7, 2009). Wikipedia contributors, Beijing National Aquatics Center, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http:// en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Beijing_Nation al_Aquatics_Center&oldid=272664069 (accessed April 7, 2009). Wikipedia contributors, Smithsonian Institution, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http:// en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Smithsonian_ Institution&oldid=281185616 (accessed April 7, 2009). Wikipedia contributors, Cooper-Hewitt, National Desi

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161 gn Museum, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=CooperHewitt,_National_Design_Museum&oldid= 2815261 126 (accessed April 7, 2009).

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162 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aldersey Williams, Hugh, and Victoria and Albert Museum. 2003. Zoomorphic : New animal architecture. London: Laurence King Pub. in association with Harper Design International. Amery, Colin, Architectural League of New York, and Suzanne Stephens. 1986. Building the new museum. New York; Princeton, N.J.: Architectural League of New York; Princeton Architectural Press. ArchiLab Conference, Marie Ange Brayer, and Batrice Simonot. 2003. ArchiLabs earth buildings : Radical ex periments in land architecture. London: Thames &

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163 Hudson. Architecture for Humanity (Group). 2006. Design like you give a damn. Dwell 6, (8) (Sep): 215-26. sammlung Nordrhein Westfalen. 2006. Museums in the 21st century concepts, projects, buildings. Munich ; London: Prestel. Behler, Ernst, and Friedrich von Schlegel. 1812-1813. Deutsches museum microform. Deutsche zeitschriften des 18. und 19. jahrhunderts ; nr. 4727. Wien: Inder Camesinaschen Buchhandlung. Benyus, Janine M. 1997. Biomimicry : Innovation inspired by nature. 1st ed. New York: William Morrow.

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164 Broeckmann, Andreas, and V2 Organisatie. 1998. The art of the accident. Rotterdam; New York, NY: NAI Pub lishers/V2Organisatie; Available in North, South and Central America through D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers. Brownell, Blaine Erickson. 2006. Transmaterial : A catalog New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Celant, Germano, Fondazione Prada, and Herzog & de Meuron. 2003. Prada aoyama tokyo : Herzog & de meuron. Milan: Fondazione Prada. Fehlhammer, Wolf Peter. 2003. Deutsches museum : Ingenious inventions and masterpieces of science and

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165 technology. Munich ; New York: Prestel. Ferr, Albert. 2007. Verb Natures: Architectural Boogazine. Barcelona: ACTAR. Gibberd, Matt, and Architecture for Humanity (Group).2006. Design like you give a damn: Architectural responses to humanitarian crises [ed. by] architecture for hu manity [book review]. World of Interiors, Vol. 26, no. 10. Pp. (Oct). Greub, Suzanne, and Thierry Greub. 2008. Museums in the 21st century : Concepts, projects, buildings. Munich; London: Prestel. Grieco, Douglas, Zaha Hadid, Wendy Ing, Nina Rappaport, and Yale University School of Architecture. 2001.

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166 CAC : Hadid studio yale : Contemporary art center, zaha hadid studio 2000, yale school of architecture. New York: Monacelli Press. Ito, Toyo. 2003. Sendai mediatheque. Barcelona: Actar. mediatheque. CASE series (prestel verlag). Munich; Cambridge, Mass.: New York; Prestel; Harvard University Graduate School of Design. Lafranchi, Guy, Daniel Egger, and Research Institute for Ex perimental Architecture. 2001. Prisoners of museum. RIEAeuropa concept series. Wien ; New York: Springer. LeCuyer, Annette W. 2003. Steel and beyond : New stratergies for metals in architecture. Basel ; Boston:

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167 Birkhuser-Publishers for Architecture. Magnago Lampugnani, Vittorio, and Angeli Sachs. 1999. Museums for a new millennium : Concepts, projects, buildings. Munich ; London: Prestel. Newhouse, Victoria. 2006. Towards a new museum. Expa ed. New York, N.Y.: Monacelli Press. . 1998. Towards a new museum. New York: Monacelli Press. Oliver, Paul. 1987. Dwellings : The house across the world. 1 University of Texas Press ed. Austin: University of Texas Press. Palumbo, Maria Luisa. 2000. New wombs : Electronic bod

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168 ies and architectural disorders. The IT revolution in architecture. Original ed. Basel: Birkhuser. Passino, Kevin M. 2004. Biomimicry for optimization, con trol, and automation. London ; New York: Springer. Rocheleau, Paul, Scott Tilden, and Scott J. Tilden. 2004. Architecture for art : American art museums, 1938-2008. New York: Harry N. Abrams. Smith, Courtenay, and Sean Topham. 2002. Xtreme houses. Munich ; New York: London; Prestel. Trulove, James Grayson. 2000. Designing the new museum: Building a destination. Gloucester, Mass.: Rockport Publishers.

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169 Witte, Ron. 2001. Toyo ito : Sendai mediathque. CASE series (prestel verlag). Munich: London; Prestel. Zeiger, Mimi. 2005. New museums : Contemporary museum architecture around the world. New York, NY: Universe.


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ABSTRACT: If architects are to create a sustainable world, one in which we are accountable to the needs of all future generations and living creatures, we must recognize that our present form of designing buildings is deeply flawed. Being the number one cause of emission gases, building design needs to be revolutionized to be able to surpass such climatic changes and finally harmonize with nature. To create a sustainable future and solve the global warming crisis, architects need to incorporate nature within design through the process known as biomimicry. Janine Benyus, the author of Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, stressed how nature teaches to solve human problems. After billions of years of research and development within nature, Benyus believes that nature has perfected itself and has the key to human survival. Through biomimicry, architects can find solutions to design problems and apply them to sustainable design.Sustainable design has not reached its peak in uniting both aesthetics and performance within the design industry. Until now, architecture focuses more on human needs and economics, putting aside what is best for the environment thus leaving a conflict between human and nature. This thesis presents an investigation into biomimicry and its architectural applications. It is inspired by organisms within nature. The final design project will be based on the studies of organisms and how these can be incorporated on a building's entire design program including skin, structure, journey and circulation. From these studies I will synthesize the important components and ideas of these organisms and interpret them into the building's design. The building typology chosen for this project is the museum typology which function as a living organism. The project will be site specific thus designing a museum that adapts to the site's specific surroundings.The goal for this thesis is to discover organisms within nature that can be incorporated and reinterpreted into sustainable architecture. It is also crucial to discover and study the complex systems within nature so that architects can incorporate ideas from it to improve architecture design.
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