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Teaching social studies in an age of globalization

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Material Information

Title:
Teaching social studies in an age of globalization a case study of secondary social studies teachers' participation in the UNA-USA's Global Classrooms curriculum program
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Miliziano, Kelly R
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Curricular decision-making
Global education
Global perspectives
Secondary education
Teacher education
Dissertations, Academic -- Secondary Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: The researcher found few studies that explore decisions of social studies teachers as they plan what and how to teach their classes. Over a century, social studies educators have adapted and responded to political, social, and economic changes. From educating immigrants a century earlier to addressing contemporary cross-border issues, social studies educators inherit unique challenges in today's increasingly globalized world. In addition to these external forces, constraints are placed on teachers which prescribe what content must be included in an already crowded curriculum. This qualitative approach using a case study provides a better understanding of the influence a globally oriented program has on participants' teaching social studies by investigating how participation in UNA-USA Global Classrooms program influenced how social studies teachers teach social studies.The goal was to provide a rich, compelling account of experiences of high school social studies teachers so that others can understand the issues reflected in their experiences better. The primary method of gathering data was the hour-long interview, in a case study approach. Analysis resulted in six themes: (1) teachers' perceived influence of Global Classrooms on student interest and engagement, (2) content expertise and confidence, (3) challenges to teaching global perspectives stemming from students, (4) challenges to teaching global perspectives stemming from school environment (5) innovative pedagogy and learning activities, and (6) projects and advocacy dimensions evolved from Global Classrooms experiences. Participants' unique experiences underscore the importance of studying the influence of globally oriented curriculum programs on social studies instruction.Implications include (1) teacher preparation and inservice training needs to be responsive to the need to develop an emerging cadre of teachers who are becoming increasingly aware of the need to infuse global perspectives into the social studies curriculum, (2) it is important that school districts realign professional development programs to help teachers gain content knowledge and expertise on global issues (3) participants in this study confirm that globally oriented programs such as the UNAUSA Global Classrooms Curriculum enable teachers to build pedagogical content expertise in teaching about global issues, and (4) as pedagogical knowledge improved, participants became more adept at reinventing the curriculum and infusing components to serve the courses they taught.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kelly R. Miliziano.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 153 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002029510
oclc - 436936283
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002925
usfldc handle - e14.2925
System ID:
SFS0027242:00001


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PAGE 1

T e a c hi ng S oc i a l S t udi e s i n a n A ge of G l oba l i z a t i o n: A C a s e S t udy of S e c onda r y S oc i a l S t udi e s T e a c he r s P a r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r ogr a m by K e l l y R M i l i z i a no A di s s e r t a t i on s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f u l f i l l m e nt of t he r e qu i r e m e n t s f or t he de g r e e of D oc t or of P hi l os o p h y D e pa r t m e n t of S e c ond a r y E du c a t i on C ol l e g e of E du c a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l or i d a C o M a j or P r of e s s or : B r b a r a C C r u z E d. D C o M a j or P r of e s s or : H o w a r d J ohn s t on, P h. D D om i n i c P u g l i s i P h. D M a r k A m e n P h. D D a t e of A p p r ova l : M a r c h 12, 2009 K e y w or d s : c ur r i c u l a r d e c i s i on m a k i n g g l ob a l e du c a t i on, g l o b a l pe r s p e c t i v e s s e c ond a r y e du c a t i on, t e a c h e r e du c a t i on C o p y r i g h t 2009, K e l l y R o s e M i l i z i a no

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D e di c a t i on I de di c a t e t hi s m a nus c r i pt t o m y f a m i l y M y m ot he r a nd f a t he r A nge l o a nd J oyc e S pi c ol a y our l i ve s a nd de vot i on t o ou r f a m i l y a nd c om m un i t y c ont i nue t o i ns pi r e m e i n a l l t ha t I do I f e e l e s pe c i a l l y f or t una t e t ha t you pl a ye d a n i m por t a nt r ol e i n t hi s e nde a vor A nd t o m y hus ba nd J ohn, a nd m y c hi l dr e n S ophi a a nd J os e ph, you a r e t he w or l d t o m e E ve r y s t e p I t a ke I do i t w i t h you i n m y m i nd a nd he a r t Y ou r c ons t a nt r e m i nde r of w ha t i s r e a l l y i m po r t a nt i n l i f e m a ke t hi s e ve r m or e w or t hw hi l e

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A c know l e dgm e nt s I w oul d l i ke t o pe r s ona l l y t ha nk t he t e n t e a c he r s w ho a gr e e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy: A nna E l i s e G l e nda G e or ge J oe L i nda R i c k, S t e pha ni e S a br i na a nd T om Y our pa s s i on f or t e a c hi ng a nd you r w i l l i ngne s s t o s ha r e your e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r c e pt i ons i s t r ul y a n i ndi c a t i on of e xc e l l e nc e i n t e a c hi ng I w oul d a l s o l i ke t o a c know l e dge t he e xc e l l e nt t e a c hi ng f a c ul t y i n t he a r e a of s oc i a l s c i e nc e e duc a t i on a nd ot he r de pa r t m e nt s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da F i na l l y, I w i s h t o e xt e nd m y s i nc e r e t ha nks t o m y di s s e r t a t i on c om m i t t e e B a r ba r a C r uz H ow a r d J ohns t on, D om i ni c P ugl i s i a nd M a r k A m e n f or he l pi ng m e t o s ha pe m y i de a s i nt o t hi s m a nus c r i pt Y our e xpe r t i s e w i s dom a nd p r of e s s i ona l de di c a t i on w e r e e xt r e m e l y va l ua bl e t o m e pe r s ona l l y a nd a c a de m i c a l l y. I n pa r t i c ul a r D r B a r ba r a C r uz w a s a nd c ont i nue s t o be a c ons t a nt s our c e of i ns pi r a t i on. A s I p r ogr e s s e d t hr ough t hi s doc t or a l pr ogr a m you pr ovi de d m e w i t h oppor t uni t i e s t ha t c ha l l e nge d m e i nt e l l e c t ua l l y E ve n m or e i m por t a nt l y you ga ve m e c on f i de nc e pr ovi de d m e w i t h oppor t uni t i e s f or gr ow t h a s a s c hol a r a nd t e a c he r a nd m a de m e be l i e ve I c oul d c om pl e t e t hi s pr oj e c t Y ou a r e a n i nc r e di bl e t e a c he r r o l e m ode l a nd pos s e s s a s pe c i a l t a l e nt f or m e nt or i ng I a m c e r t a i nl y a be t t e r t e a c he r a nd s c hol a r be c a us e of yo u.

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i T a bl e of C o nt e nt s L i s t of T a bl e s i i i A bs t r a c t i v C ha pt e r 1 I nt r oduc t i on 1 S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m 1 T he or e t i c a l F r a m e w or k 10 P ur pos e of S t udy & R a t i ona l e 12 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 13 R e s e a r c h M e t hod 14 S i gni f i c a nc e of t he S t u dy 16 D e l i m i t a t i ons 16 L i m i t a t i ons of t he S t udy 1 7 D e f i ni t i on of T e r m s 17 O r ga ni z a t i on of R e m a i ni ng C ha pt e r s 19 C ha pt e r 2 R e vi e w of t he R e l a t e d L i t e r a t ur e 2 1 O ve r vi e w 2 1 D e f i ni ng G l oba l E duc a t i on 2 4 O pe r a t i ona l i z i ng H a nve y s F i ve D i m e ns i ons 2 7 A B r i e f H i s t or y of t he G l oba l E duc a t i on M ove m e n t 3 1 A C r i t i que of G l oba l E duc a t i on 3 4 P e da gogy of G l oba l E duc a t i on 3 7 T e a c he r E duc a t i on 40 U N A U S A s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r ogr a m 4 8 S um m a r y 50 C ha pt e r 3 M e t hods 5 4 I nt r oduc t i on 5 4 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 5 4 R e s e a r c h D e s i gn 5 5 U ni que ne s s of W e s t C e nt r a l F l or i da 5 5 P a r t i c i pa nt s f or t hi s S t udy 5 6 I nt e r vi e w P r oc e s s 5 8 E t hi c a l N a t ur e o f t he D a t a C ol l e c t i on 60 D a t a A na l ys i s 60

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i i C ha pt e r 4 R e s ul t s 6 3 I nt r oduc t i on 6 3 P a r t i c i pa nt s B i ogr a phi c a l D a t a 6 4 P a r t i c i pa nt s us e of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um M a t e r i a l s 6 8 P a r t i c i pa nt s S c hool D i s t r i c t D a t a 71 H i l l s bo r ough C ount y S c hool D i s t r i c t 71 P a s c o C ount y S c hool D i s t r i c t 71 P i ne l l a s C ount y S c hool D i s t r i c t 72 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 7 2 T he m e 1: S t ude nt I n t e r e s t a nd E nga ge m e nt 7 3 T he m e 2: C ont e nt E xpe r t i s e a nd C onf i de nc e 7 8 T he m e 3: C ha l l e nge s S t e m m i ng f r om S c hool E nvi r onm e nt 81 T he m e 4: C ha l l e nge s S t e m m i ng f r om S t ude nt s 91 T he m e 5: I nnova t i ve P e da gogy a nd L e a r ni ng A c t i vi t i e s 9 5 T he m e 6: P r oj e c t s a nd A dvoc a c y D i m e ns i ons 9 6 E vi de nc e of H a nve y s D i m e ns i ons 9 8 T e a c he r D e c i s i on M a ki ng a nd P l a nni ng 103 P a r t i c i pa nt S um m a r y T h ought s 10 6 C h a pt e r 5 D i s c us s i on 111 P ur pos e of t he S t udy 111 M e t hod a nd S um m a r y of D a t a C ol l e c t i on 1 11 P a r t i c i pa nt D a t a 113 S t ude nt I nt e r e s t a nd E nga ge m e nt 1 14 C ont e nt E xpe r t i s e a nd C onf i de nc e 11 6 C ha l l e nge s t o T e a c hi ng w i t h a G l oba l P e r s pe c t i ve 11 9 I nnova t i ve P e da gogy a nd L e a r ni ng A c t i vi t i e s 1 20 P r oj e c t s a nd A dvoc a c y D i m e ns i ons 1 21 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or T e a c he r E duc a t i on 1 23 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or S c hool D i s t r i c t s 1 24 R e c om m e nda t i ons F ut ur e R e s e a r c h 12 6 C onc l us i on s a nd I m pl i c a t i ons 12 7 R e f e r e nc e s 1 30 A ppe ndi c e s 1 43 A ppe ndi x A I nvi t a t i on t o P a r t i c i pa t e 1 4 4 A ppe ndi x B I nf or m e d C ons e nt 1 45 A ppe ndi x C I nt e r vi e w S c r i p t 1 48 A ppe ndi x D P a r t i c i pa nt I n f or m a t i on S he e t 1 52 A bout t he A ut hor E nd P a ge

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i i i L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1. S um m a r y of P a r t i c i pa nt I n f or m a t i on 68 T a bl e 2. P a r t i c i pa nt s R e por t e d U s e of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um 70 T a bl e 3. A na l ys i s of H a nve y s D i m e ns i ons 102 T a bl e 4. A na l ys i s of T e a c he r D e c i s i on M a ki ng 10 5

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i v T e a c hi ng S oc i a l S t udi e s i n a n A ge of G l oba l i z a t i o n: A C a s e S t udy of S e c onda r y S oc i a l S t udi e s T e a c he r s P a r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r ogr a m K e l l y R M i l i z i a no A bs t r a c t T he r e s e a r c he r f ound f e w s t udi e s t ha t e xpl o r e de c i s i ons of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s a s t he y pl a n w ha t a nd how t o t e a c h t he i r c l a s s e s O ve r a c e nt ur y s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t or s ha ve a da pt e d a nd r e s ponde d t o pol i t i c a l s oc i a l a n d e c onom i c c ha nge s F r om e duc a t i ng i m m i gr a nt s a c e nt ur y e a r l i e r t o a ddr e s s i ng c ont e m por a r y c r os s bor de r i s s ue s s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t or s i nhe r i t uni que c ha l l e nge s i n t oda y s i nc r e a s i ngl y gl oba l i z e d w or l d I n a ddi t i on t o t he s e e xt e r na l f or c e s c ons t r a i nt s a r e pl a c e d on t e a c he r s w hi c h pr e s c r i be w ha t c ont e nt m us t be i nc l ude d i n a n a l r e a dy c r ow de d c u r r i c ul um T hi s qua l i t a t i ve a ppr oa c h us i ng a c a s e s t udy pr ovi de s a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he i n f l ue nc e a gl oba l l y or i e nt e d pr ogr a m ha s on pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c hi ng s oc i a l s t udi e s by i nve s t i ga t i ng how pa r t i c i pa t i on i n U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m i n f l u e nc e d how s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s T he goa l w a s t o pr ovi de a r i c h, c om pe l l i ng a c c ount of e xpe r i e nc e s of hi gh s c hool s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s s o t ha t ot he r s c a n unde r s t a nd t he i s s ue s r e f l e c t e d i n t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s be t t e r T he pr i m a r y m e t hod o f ga t he r i ng da t a w a s t he hour l ong i nt e r vi e w i n a c a s e s t udy a ppr oa c h. A na l ys i s r e s ul t e d i n s i x t he m e s : ( 1) t e a c he r s pe r c e i ve d i nf l ue nc e of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s on s t ude nt i nt e r e s t a nd e nga ge m e nt ( 2 ) c ont e nt e xpe r t i s e a nd c onf i de nc e ( 3) c ha l l e nge s t o t e a c hi ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s s t e m m i ng f r om s t ude nt s ( 4 ) c ha l l e nge s t o

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v t e a c hi ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s s t e m m i ng f r om s c hool e nvi r onm e nt ( 5) i nnova t i ve pe da gogy a nd l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s a nd ( 6 ) pr o j e c t s a nd a dvoc a c y di m e ns i ons e vol ve d f r om G l oba l C l a s s r oom s e xpe r i e nc e s P a r t i c i pa nt s uni que e xpe r i e nc e s unde r s c or e t he i m por t a nc e of s t udyi ng t he i nf l ue nc e of gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um pr og r a m s on s oc i a l s t udi e s i ns t r uc t i on. I m pl i c a t i ons i nc l ude ( 1 ) t e a c he r p r e pa r a t i on a nd i n s e r vi c e t r a i ni ng ne e ds t o be r e s pons i ve t o t he ne e d t o de ve l op a n e m e r g i ng c a dr e o f t e a c he r s w ho a r e be c om i ng i nc r e a s i ngl y a w a r e of t he ne e d t o i n f us e gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i nt o t he s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um ( 2 ) i t i s i m por t a nt t ha t s c hool di s t r i c t s r e a l i gn pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt pr ogr a m s t o he l p t e a c he r s ga i n c ont e nt know l e dge a nd e xpe r t i s e on gl oba l i s s ue s ( 3) pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy c onf i r m t ha t gl oba l l y or i e nt e d p r ogr a m s s uc h a s t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um e na bl e t e a c he r s t o bu i l d pe da gogi c a l c ont e nt e xpe r t i s e i n t e a c hi ng a bout gl oba l i s s ue s a nd ( 4) a s pe da gogi c a l know l e dge i m pr ove d, pa r t i c i pa nt s be c a m e m or e a de pt a t r e i nve nt i ng t he c ur r i c ul um a nd i nf us i ng c o m pone nt s t o s e r ve t he c our s e s t he y t a ught

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1 C ha pt e r 1 I nt r oduc t i on S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m H a vi ng r e c e nt l y r e t ur ne d f r o m s um m e r br e a k, a nd e a ge r t o be gi n pl a nni ng f o r t he s c hool ye a r a t a hi gh s c hool i n a l a r ge w e s t c e nt r a l s c hool di s t r i c t i n F l or i da s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s ga t he r e d f or t he i r f i r s t de pa r t m e nt m e e t i ng of t he ye a r M a ny of t he m ha d a t t e nde d v a r i ous s oc i a l s t udi e s w or ks hops ove r t he s um m e r a nd ha d be e n a s ke d t o br i ng pe r t i ne nt m a t e r i a l t o s ha r e w i t h c ol l e a gue s O ne t e a c he r of f e r e d m a t e r i a l s f r o m a n a l l da y w or ks hop on A f r i c a s pons or e d by a l oc a l uni ve r s i t y. T he t e a c he r s how e d t he onl i ne a nd pr i nt r e s our c e s a va i l a bl e a nd s a i d s he w a s goi ng t o us e t he r e s our c e s a s ki ng i f a nyone e l s e w oul d l i ke t o p l a n s om e l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s w i t h he r S e ve r a l m e m be r s w e r e i m pr e s s e d w i t h t he qua l i t y of t he onl i ne r e s our c e s a nd w e r e c l e a r l y e xc i t e d a bout l e a r ni n g m or e a bout A f r i c a a nd us i ng t he r e s our c e s T he n c a m e t he i ne vi t a bl e obj e c t i on. A ve t e r a n t e a c he r i nt e r j e c t e d T hi s m a y be a gr e a t r e s our c e but t he r e i s onl y one que s t i on on A f r i c a on t he di s t r i c t s r e qui r e d m i dt e r m e xa m a nd i t s on B a nt u m i gr a t i on T h e w or ds f e l l l i ke a w e t bl a nke t on t he e nt hus i a s m of t he t e a c he r s w ho, m om e nt s a go, w e r e pl a nni ng on w he n a nd w he r e t o i nf us e t he A f r i c a n r e s our c e s T hi s s c e na r i o a nd e ns ui ng di s c us s i on ove r w ha t t o t e a c h i n t he w or l d hi s t or y c l a s s e s br ought t o l i ght one o f t he m a ny c ons i de r a t i ons t e a c he r s t a ke w he n pl a nni ng w ha t t o t e a c h i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s e s

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2 T he goa l o f s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ha s l ong be e n c om m i t t e d t o pr e pa r i ng c i t i z e ns f or pa r t i c i pa t i on i n a de m oc r a t i c s oc i e t y. A c c or di ng t o a pos i t i on s t a t e m e nt pr e pa r e d by t he N C S S T a s k F o r c e on R e vi t a l i z i ng C i t i z e ns hi p E duc a t i on ( N C S S 2001 ) C i t i z e ns hi p e duc a t i on i s a s i m por t a nt t oda y a s a t a ny ot he r t i m e i n our hi s t or y. C i t i z e ns i n t he t w e nt y f i r s t c e nt ur y m us t b e pr e pa r e d t o de a l w i t h r a pi d c ha nge c om pl e x l oc a l na t i ona l a nd gl oba l i s s ue s c ul t ur a l a nd r e l i gi ous c onf l i c t s a nd t he i nc r e a s i ng i nt e r de pe nde nc e of na t i ons i n a gl oba l e c onom y. T he f i e l d of s oc i a l s t udi e s i s r oot e d pr i m a r i l y i n t h e a c a de m i c di s c i pl i ne s of hi s t or y, ge ogr a phy c i vi c s pol i t i c a l s c i e nc e a nd e c onom i c s O ve r t he c our s e of a c e nt ur y, s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t or s ha ve a da pt e d a nd r e s ponde d t o pol i t i c a l s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c c ha nge s F r om t he e duc a t i on of i m m i gr a nt s a c e nt ur y e a r l i e r t o a dd r e s s i ng c ont e m por a r y c r os s bor d e r i s s ue s t oda y, s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t or s i nhe r i t uni que c ha l l e nge s i n t oda y s i nc r e a s i ngl y gl oba l i z e d w or l d. I n a ddi t i on t o t he s e e xt e r na l f or c e s c ons t r a i nt s pl a c e d on t e a c he r s w ho pr e s c r i be w ha t c ont e nt m us t be i nc l u de d i n a n a l r e a dy c r ow de d c ur r i c ul um A r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e i n gl oba l e duc a t i on r e ve a l s s e ve r a l c ha l l e nge s t o t e a c hi ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve M e t z ge r ( 1988) i de nt i f i e s s e ve n s uc h pot e nt i a l ba r r i e r s or c ha l l e nge s t o gl oba l e duc a t i on; t e a c he r know l e dge t e a c he r i n s t r uc t i on or pe da gogi c a l c om pe t e nc y, c ur r i c ul um r i gi di t y, t e xt book bi a s s t ude nt a t t i t ude s m a s s m e di a a nd t he c ont r ove r s i e s s ur r oundi ng t he e xi s t e nc e of t he f i e l d of gl oba l e du c a t i on. E ve n w i t h t he s e c ha l l e nge s t e a c he r s a r e t e a c hi ng s oc i a l s t udi e s w i t h a gl oba l p e r s pe c t i ve ( K a s a i & M e r r yf i e l d, 2004) A ve r y ( 2004) a na l yz e d t he de s i r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of c i t i z e ns hi p f or t he 21 s t c e nt ur y a s

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3 i de nt i f i e d by a pa ne l of s c hol a r s pr a c t i t i one r s a nd pol i c y l e a de r s f r om e duc a t i on, s c i e nc e a nd t e c hnol ogy, bus i ne s s a nd l a bor a nd gove r nm e nt W he n m e r gi ng a t r a di t i ona l m ode l of c i t i z e ns hi p w i t h a m ode l o f c i t i z e ns hi p i n t he gl oba l c ont e xt A ve r y ( 2004 ) e xpl a i ns t ha t t he r e s ul t i ng f r a m e w or k i s one of a n i ndi vi du a l w hos e c i vi c i de nt i t y i s g r ounde d i n t he na t i ona l c ont e xt but c onne c t e d t o t he gl oba l s oc i e t y ( p. 41) I t a ppe a r s i nc ongr uous t o c ons i de r c i t i z e ns hi p c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s f or t he f ut u r e w i t hout c ons i de r i ng t he pow e r f ul t r a ns f or m a t i ons oc c ur r i ng unde r gl oba l i z a t i on ( M a i r a 2004; S ua r e z O r oz c o& Q i n H i l l i a r d, 2004) G l oba l i z a t i on, a phe nom e non t ha t ha s be e n oc c ur r i ng s i nc e our a nc e s t or s t ook t he i r f i r s t s t e p out o f t he R i f t va l l e y i n A f r i c a ha s a c c e l e r a t e d t he i nt e r c onne c t e dne s s of pe opl e a nd pl a c e s a nd t r a ns f or m e d t he w or l d w e l i ve i n. G l oba l i z a t i on i s pe r ha ps t he m os t i m por t a nt c ha nge ha ppe ni ng i n s oc i e t i e s a r ou nd t he w or l d ( M e r r y f i e l d & K a s a i 2004) A c c or di ng t o a pos i t i on s t a t e m e nt i s s ue d by t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l f or S oc i a l S t udi e s ( 2001) T he i nc r e a s i ng gl oba l i z a t i on i n t he hu m a n c ondi t i o n ha s c r e a t e d a ddi t i ona l oppor t uni t i e s a nd r e s pons i bi l i t i e s f or i ndi vi dua l s a nd gr oups t o t a ke pe r s ona l s oc i a l a nd pol i t i c a l a c t i on i n t he i nt e r na t i ona l a r e n a G i ve n t he r a pi d pa c e of gl oba l t r a ns f or m a t i on t oda y, i t i s unc l e a r i f e duc a t i ona l i ns t i t ut i ons ha ve r e a l i gne d t he i r goa l s t o p r e pa r e s t ude nt s t o be c om pe t e nt c i t i z e ns i n a n a ge of gl oba l i z a t i on ( R e i m e r s 2006 ) T he s e c ha nge s be c om e e vi de nt by t he w a y w e c om m uni c a t e ne w m a r ke t pl a c e s i n w hi c h w e pa r t i c i pa t e a nd i n t he c ul t ur a l i nf l ue nc e s t ha t a r e i m be dde d i n e ve r yda y l i f e T he i nf or m a t i o n a g e pl a c e s a n i m por t a nt r e s pons i bi l i t y of c onne c t i ng s t ude nt s w i t h a c ons t a nt l y c ha ngi ng w or l d ne w i nf or m a t i on

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4 a nd t e c hnol ogi c a l de ve l opm e nt s ( M e r r yf i e l d 1997 ) F or i ns t a nc e r e c e nt w or l d e ve nt s de m ons t r a t e A m e r i c a s i nvol ve m e nt i n a nd c onne c t i on t o va r i ou s gl oba l s i t ua t i ons l i ke t he w a r i n t he M i ddl e E a s t H I V / A I D S i n A f r i c a a nd hum a n r i gh t s vi ol a t i ons of w om e n a nd c hi l dr e n a r ound t he w or l d. I n t oda y s hi ghl y i n t e r de pe nde nt a nd i nt e r a c t i ve w or l d, gl oba l e ve nt s i m pa c t vi r t ua l l y e ve r y t ow n, c i t y a nd s t a t e i n t he U S ( H e yl & M c C a r t hy, 2003) T he i m pl i c a t i ons f or s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s a r e c l e a r ye t onl y a ha ndf ul of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s ha ve a n i nt e r na t i ona l o r gl oba l c om pone nt ( M e r r y f i e l d, 2006) A ve r y ( 2004 ) a s ks how s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s t oda y ne got i a t e t he i r w a y t hr o ugh c ha ngi ng na t i ona l a nd gl oba l c ont e xt s a nd t h r ough c i vi c i de nt i t i e s t ha t a r e t o r n be t w e e n na t i ona l a nd gl oba l G i ve n t ha t f o r m a ny i n t he f i e l d, c i t i z e ns hi p e duc a t i on i s t he c or ne r s t one of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on, a nd on e of t he p r i m a r y w a ys i n w hi c h young pe opl e a c qui r e c i vi c know l e dge i s t hr ough s oc i a l s t udi e s i ns t r uc t i on, i t i s unde r s t a nda bl e t ha t i n 2007 t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l f or S oc i a l S t udi e s w oul d i s s ue a pol i c y s t a t e m e nt e xpr e s s i ng a l a r m ove r t he e r os i on of t he i m p o r t a nc e of s oc i a l s t udi e s a s a r e s ul t of f e de r a l N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd ( N C L B ) l e gi s l a t i on: T he r e ha s be e n a s t e a dy r e duc t i on i n t he a m ount o f t i m e t e a c hi ng s oc i a l s s t udi e s w i t h t he m os t p r of ound de c l i ne not i c e d i n t he e l e m e nt a r y gr a de s T ha t s uc h a s i t ua t i on e vol ve d i s unt e na bl e i n a na t i on t ha t pr i de s i t s e l f on i t s hi s t or y, i t s s ys t e m of gove r nm e nt a nd i t s p l a c e a s a l e a de r i n t he gl oba l c om m uni t y. I n a ddi t i on, f e w s t a t e s a nd s c hool di s t r i c t s ha ve gr a dua t i on r e qui r e m e nt s t ha t i nc l ude gl oba l e duc a t i on ( H o l l ow a y, 2001) I n a n E duc at i o n W e e k r e por t ( 2006 ) out o f 23 s t a t e s

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5 t ha t ha ve e xi t e xa m s onl y 9 s t a t e s r e por t t ha t hi s t o r y or s oc i a l s t udi e s i s t e s t e d i n t he e xa m G i ve n t ha t t e a c he r s ge ne r a l l y a r e r e s pons i bl e f or pr e pa r i ng t he i r s t ude nt s f o r hi gh s t a ke s t e s t s t he a bs e nc e of s oc i a l s t udi e s f r om s t a t e w i de t e s t i ng t e nds t o de va l ue t he c ont e nt i n pl a c e of t he m o r e f r e que nt l y a s s e s s e d r e a di ng a nd m a t he m a t i c s ( N C S S 2007) S oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on, bot h t e a c he r e duc a t i on a n d t he i ns t r uc t i on gi ve n i n our K 12 c l a s s r oom s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ha s not c ha nge d m uc h ove r t he pa s t 100 o r s o ye a r s ( D a vi s & D a vi s 2007 ) T he c u r r i c ul um i s s t i l l l a r g e l y t e xt book dr i ve n a nd t he c l a s s r oom i s pr i m a r i l y t e a c he r dom i na t e d ( T hor nt on 1991 ; W he l a n, 2007) Y e t c ont e m por a r y not i ons of e f f e c t i ve s oc i a l s t udi e s i ns t r uc t i on c a l l f or c l a s s r oom s t ha t a r e s t ude nt c e nt e r e d, i nt e r a c t i ve a nd i n f us e gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s ( K i r kw ood, 2001; M e r r y f i e l d, 2005; A u & A ppl e 2004) T he t r a di t i ona l not i on of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s r oot e d i n t he c onc e pt of a l l e gi a nc e t o t he na t i on s t a t e ; ye t gl oba l i nt e r de pe nde nc e ha s be c om e a r e a l i t y i n w a ys unpa r a l l e l e d i n hum a n e xpe r i e nc e ( A nde r s on, B r uc e & P ode m s ki 1991 ) I n a s pe c i a l r e por t of t he N a t i ona l A s s oc i a t i on f or S e c onda r y S c hool P r i nc i pa l s B e c ke r ( 1989) pl a i nl y s t a t e d t ha t e f f e c t i ve a nd r e s pons i bl e a c t i on a t t he l oc a l l e ve l r e qui r e s c i t i z e ns w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve T he U ni t e d S t a t e s de pe nde nc e on t he r e s t of t he w or l d a l ong w i t h i nf l ue nc e of t r a ns na t i ona l i nt e r a c t i ons on t he a f f a i r s of hum a ns ha s m a de m or e a c ut e t he ne e d f or s ophi s t i c a t e d know l e dge a bout gl oba l p r oc e s s e s a nd i s s ue s t he uni t y a nd di ve r s i t y of c ul t ur e s na t i ons a nd pe opl e s a nd t he t hr e a t s t o hum a n s ur vi va l ( p 31)

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6 I nnova t i ons i n t e c hnol ogy ha ve gi ve n t e a c he r s a c c e s s t o a pl e t hor a of r e s our c e s i n t he w a y of i nf o r m a t i on a nd pe da gogy. M uc h e f f or t i s c ont i nuous l y put i nt o a s s e m bl i ng r e s our c e s t ha t s uppor t e f f e c t i ve s oc i a l s t udi e s i ns t r uc t i on i n ou r gl oba l a ge O ut of t he s e e f f or t s ha ve c om e e xc e l l e nt t e a c h i ng i de a s m a t e r i a l s a nd c ur r i c ul um p r ogr a m s C l e a r l y t hough, a t e a c he r m us t de l i be r a t e l y c hoos e t o s e e k out a nd m a ke us e of s uc h r e s our c e s D e c i di ng w ha t a nd how t o t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s i s a n i nhe r e nt pa r t of t e a c hi ng i n ge ne r a l C l a r k a nd L a m pe r t ( 1986 ) e xpl a i n t he i m p or t a nc e of r e s e a r c h i n t e a c he r t hi nki ng a s a w a y unde r s t a ndi ng t he c om pl e xi t i e s of t e a c hi n g a nd t he ki nds o f know l e dge t e a c he r s c a n us e r a t he r t ha n t o pr e s c r i be gui de l i ne s o r r e gul a t i ons f or t e a c hi ng. R e s e a r c h i n t e a c he r de c i s i on m a ki ng ha s hi s t or i c a l l y f oc us e d on obs e r va bl e be ha vi or s a nd s t ude nt out c om e s ( W e s t e r m a n, 1991) T e a c hi ng s oc i a l s t udi e s w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i s a de l i be r a t e de c i s i on on t he pa r t of t he t e a c he r T hor n t on ( 1989 ) de s c r i be s t hi s t e a c he r de c i s i on m a ki ng a s c ur r i c ul a r i ns t r uc t i ona l ga t e ke e pi ng a s t he c r uc i a l de c i s i ons t e a c he r s m a ke c onc e r ni ng t he c ont e nt a nd m e t hods t he y br i ng t o t he i r s t ude nt s T he r e i s l i t t l e i n t he w a y of r e s e a r c h t ha t e xpl o r e s t hi s de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s of t he s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r a s t he y c ho os e t o t e a c h gl oba l l y o r i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um a nd t he i nf l ue nc e t hi s ha s on t he i r t e a c hi ng s oc i a l s t udi e s T hough m uc h ha s be e n w r i t t e n a bout t he ne e d f or e duc a t or s t o ha ve a nd a c t upon a gl oba l vi e w o f l i f e l i t t l e a c t i on ha s be e n t a ke n t o c ha nge i ndi vi dua l o r i ns t i t ut i ona l a c t i on ( K i s s oc k, 2002) D e c a de s a go t he ne e d f o r a n i nt e r na t i ona l pe r s pe c t i ve i n e duc a t i on w a s r e c ogni z e d by w e l l know n gl oba l e d uc a t i on a dvoc a t e s H a nve y ( 1976) B e c ke r ( 1989) A nde r s on ( 1991 ) a nd T uc ke r ( 199 0) poi nt e d ou t t ha t a gl oba l e duc a t i on ought t o r e qui r e t ha t s t ude nt s de ve l op c om pe t e nc i e s t ha t w i l l p r e pa r e t he m f or a w or l d

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7 c ha r a c t e r i z e d by r a pi d g r ow t h a nd m ount i ng i ne qui t i e s L i ke w i s e po l i c ym a ke r gr oups s uc h a s t he N a t i ona l G ove r nor s A s s oc i a t i on ha ve a f f i r m e d t he ne e d f o r s t r e ngt he ne d gl oba l a nd i nt e r na t i ona l c onne c t i ons s o t ha t t he U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n be t t e r m e e t t he e c onom i c pol i t i c a l a nd s oc i a l c ha l l e nge s f ound i n a n i nc r e a s i ngl y gl oba l i z e d w o r l d ( M e r r yf i e l d, 1995) M e t z ge r ( 1988 ) s t r e s s e s t he i m por t a nc e of unde r s t a ndi ng gl o ba l i nt e r de pe nde nc e a s a n i nt e gr a l pa r t of c i t i z e ns hi p e duc a t i on a nd t he s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um T he e xpl o r a t i on o f t hi s i nt e r s e c t i on, t h e c r os s r oa ds be t w e e n t he hi s t or i c goa l of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on a nd t he gl oba l i z e d s t a t e of t he w or l d i s a n i m po r t a nt e nde a vor S c hool di s t r i c t s t ha t p r ovi de p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a nd c ont i nuous l e a r ni ng oppor t uni t i e s ha ve a ve s t e d i nt e r e s t i n m a ki ng s ur e t e a c he r s a r e pr e pa r e d t o t e a c h i n a n i nc r e a s i ngl y gl oba l i z e d w or l d. S oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c h e r s i n U S K 12 pub l i c i ns t i t ut i ons ha ve a n obl i ga t i on t o pr oduc e t he ki nd o f c i t i z e ns h i p t ha t w oul d r e nde r s t ude nt s pr e pa r e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a n i nc r e a s i ngl y i n t e r c onne c t e d s oc i e t y ( D i a z 2004; M e r r y f i e l d, 2002; P a r ke r 2004) C onve nt i ona l bor de r s a nd a r c ha i c n ot i ons of na t i ona l i s t i c ge ogr a phi e s a r e l os i ng m e a ni ng t o a m or e gl oba l ki nd of c i t i z e n. D e l a nt y ( 2000) s t a t e s t ha t t he t r a di t i ona l c i t i z e ns hi p c our s e w he t he r i t be c i vi c s or U S G o ve r nm e nt w i l l be c om e c om pl e t e l y i r r e l e va nt i f i t doe s not obs e r ve a nd i nc or por a t e t he c om pl e xi t i e s of gl oba l i z a t i on. T hi s i nc l ude s t he s oc i a l i z a t i on pr oc e s s e s t ha t f os t e r a n a w a r e ne s s of t he gr ow i ng i nt e ns i t y of c onne c t i ons be t w e e n t he l oc a l a nd t he di s t a nt ( A ve r y, T r yge s t a d & S e dr o, 1991) C ol l e ge s of e duc a t i on a l s o ha ve a n obl i ga t i on t o p r e pa r e t e a c he r s by pr ovi di ng t he m w i t h pe da gogi c a l a nd c ont e nt know l e dge s o t ha t t he y c a n t e a c h i n a n i nc r e a s i ngl y gl oba l i z e d s oc i e t y ( T uc ke r & C i s t one 1991; D i a z 2004 ) S m i t h ( 2002) pr opos e d t ha t t he m os t

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8 c r i t i c a l f a c t or r e m a i ns i na de qua t e t e a c he r kn ow l e d ge of t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r T hi s m a y i nde e d w a r r a nt t he e xa m i na t i on of t e a c he r l i c e ns ur e r e gul a t i ons p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt r e s our c e s i n s e r vi c e oppor t un i t i e s t h a t pr ovi de i nt e r na t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s t o t e a c he r s t he de ve l opm e nt of pr og r a m s a nd a r e v i e w of p r e s e r vi c e a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on r e qui r e m e nt s f or pr os pe c t i ve t e a c he r s ( H e yl & M c C a r t hy, 2003) A c c or di ng t o t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l f o r t he S oc i a l S t udi e s ( N C S S ) 2001 pos i t i on pa pe r on P r e pa r i ng C i t i z e ns f or a G l oba l C om m uni t y G l oba l e duc a t i on a nd i nt e r na t i ona l e duc a t i on a r e c om pl e m e nt a r y a ppr oa c he s w i t h di f f e r e nt e m pha s e s T he i nt e gr a t i on of bot h pe r s pe c t i ve s i s i m pe r a t i ve f or s t ude nt s t o de ve l op t he s ki l l s know l e dge a nd a t t i t ude s ne e d e d f or r e s pons i bl e pa r t i c i pa t i on i n a de m oc r a t i c s oc i e t y a nd i n a gl oba l c om m uni t y i n t he t w e nt y f i r s t c e nt ur y T he s e s ki l l s a nd know l e dge a r e e xpr e s s e d i n t he N C S S S t a nda r ds a s w e l l I n a l i gnm e nt w i t h N C S S t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l f o r t he A c c r e di t a t i on of T e a c he r E duc a t i on ( N C A T E ) 2004 gui de l i ne s a ddr e s s t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on: T e a c he r c a ndi da t e s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s s houl d pos s e s s t he know l e dge c a pa bi l i t i e s a nd di s pos i t i ons t o or ga ni z e a nd p r ovi de i ns t r uc t i o n a t t he a pp r opr i a t e s c hool l e ve l f or t he s t udy of G l oba l C onne c t i ons a nd I nt e r de pe nde nc e ( p. 36) T hi s N C A T E s t a t e m e nt de m ons t r a t e s t ha t t he r e i s a n a w a r e ne s s of t he ne e d t o p r e pa r e t e a c he r s f or a n i nc r e a s i ngl y i nt e r c onne c t e d w or l d I n s pi t e of t he s e s t a nda r ds t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on pr o gr a m s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ha ve not e m pha s i z e d t he de ve l opm e nt of gl oba l o r m ul t i c u l t ur a l c om pe t e nc i e s ( M e r r yf i e l d 1991, 1997; D i a z 2004 ) S oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul u m f r a m e w or ks r e f l e c t l i t t l e e m pha s i s on t e a c hi ng a bout t he w or l d ( H i c ks 2003) A s a r e s ul t s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um

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9 ha s c ha nge d l i t t l e ove r t he pa s t 100 ye a r s ( H i c ke s T l ou, & L e e 2002 ) C ol l e ge s of E duc a t i on pr e pa r e s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s i n m uc h t he s a m e w a y t he y di d de c a de s a go. M e r r yf i e l d s ( 1990 ) s t udy on t e a c he r e duc a t i on i n s oc i a l s t udi e s r e ve a l e d t ha t f e w pr os pe c t i ve s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s w e r e be i ng pr e pa r e d t o t e a c h a bout t he w or l d T he l a c k of know l e dge a nd i nt e r e s t a bout t he w or l d w e r e c i t e d a s t he m a i n c onc e r ns of gl oba l t e a c he r e duc a t or s ( M e r r yf i e l d, 1990) M a ny e xpe r t s a s ke d t he que s t i on, how a r e t e a c he r s t e a c hi ng young s t ude nt s a bout t he w or l d f r om a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve w he n gl oba l e duc a t i on i s l a c ki ng i n t he e xi s t i ng t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on pr og r a m s ( M e r r y f i e l d, 2002; H e yl & M c C a r t hy, 2003 ) ? U ni t e d S t a t e s c i t i z e ns w ho vot e a r e a pow e r f ul e l e c t or a t e T he i r de c i s i ons c om e e l e c t i on t i m e ul t i m a t e l y ha ve t he pot e nt i a l t o i m pa c t pe opl e a nd pl a c e s a c r os s t he gl obe ( D i a z 2004 ) A n e duc a t e d e l e c t or a t e i s not j us t a goa l of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t or s ; i t i s t he unde r l yi ng m i s s i on of publ i c e duc a t i on. S c hool s ha ve a r e s pons i bi l i t y, gi ve n t he i r r ol e i n a de m oc r a t i c s oc i e t y, t o gi ve f ut u r e vot e r s t he t ool s ne e de d t o e va l ua t e U S e c onom i c a c t i vi t y a nd f or e i gn pol i c y ( D i a z 2004) T he l i t e r a t ur e i n t he f i e l d of gl oba l e duc a t i on i s dom i na t e d by a s e ns e of ur ge nc y a nd a dvoc a c y f or t he i nc l us i on o f gl oba l know l e dge ye t t he c l a r i on c a l l s e e m s not t o be he e de d. F ur t he r m o r e m uc h of t he r e s e a r c h f oc us e s on t he e xt e nt t ha t gl oba l l y or i e nt e d p r ogr a m s i m pa c t t e a c he r a t t i t ude a nd know l e dge F e w s t udi e s ha ve i nve s t i ga t e d how t he s e pr ogr a m s i m pa c t t e a c hi ng. N a t i ona l s t a t e a nd di s t r i c t s t a nda r ds de f i ne w ha t s houl d be t a ught ; how e ve r t e a c he r s ul t i m a t e l y de c i de pl a n a nd t e a c h t he c ur r i c ul um ( D a r l i ng H a m m ond W i s e & K l e i n, 19 99) R e s e a r c h i n t e a c he r de c i s i on m a ki ng s how s di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n ne w a nd e xpe r t t e a c he r s ( W e s t e r m a n, 1991 ) T he i m por t a nc e of unde r s t a ndi ng t he p r oc e s s e s t ha t unde r l i e i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons i s

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10 i m por t a nt i n he l pi ng t e a c he r s unde r s t a nd t he i r pr a c t i c e ( C l a r k & Y i nge r 1977) U nde r s t a ndi ng t he pr a c t i c e of t e a c hi ng w i l l i nf or m t e a c he r e duc a t i on, t he pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of t e a c he r s a nd t he goa l s of gl oba l e duc a t i on. T he or e t i c a l / C onc e pt ua l F r a m e w or k T he t he or e t i c a l a s s um pt i ons gui di ng t he r e s e a r c h p r opos e d he r e a r e f i r s t t ha t t e a c he r s a r e a c t i ve c ur r i c ul um a ge nt s ( K i r kw ood 2001) W ha t t e a c he r s do i n a c l a s s r oom t he a c t ua l i z e d c ur r i c ul um i s o f t e n t he r e s ul t of a t e a c he r ne got i a t i ng f o r m a l c ur r i c ul um w i t h t he i ndi v i dua l t e a c he r s i nt e nde d obj e c t i ve s r e s ul t i ng i n w ha t a c t ua l l y t r a ns pi r e s i n a gi ve n c l a s s r oom T he a c t ua l i z e d c ur r i c ul um i s i n f l ue nc e d by t e a c he r s know l e dge be l i e f s a nd pr i o r e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t s e r v e a s a m e di a t i ng l e ns t ha t s ha pe t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons i n t he c l a s s r oom ( K i r kw ood 2001) L a s t t he r e i s a n i nt e r t w i ne d r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n g l oba l i z a t i on a nd gl oba l e duc a t i on ( M e r r yf i e l d, 2004) G l oba l i z a t i on i s a t r a ns na t i ona l a nd i nt r a na t i ona l f or c e w hi l e gl oba l e duc a t i on i s a t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng p a r a di gm T hus t he i r a r e a s of f oc us a r e i n di f f e r e nt dom a i ns G l oba l i z a t i on de s c r i be s t he f or c e s i n our w or l d t ha t s ha pe s oc i a l e c onom i c a nd pol i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s w hi l e g l oba l e duc a t i on a i m s t o p r e pa r e s t ude nt s t o l i ve i n a gl oba l s oc i e t y ( M e r r y f i e l d & K a s a i 2004) T he c onc e pt ua l f r a m e w or k f o r t hi s s t udy i s r oot e d i n t he m ode l de ve l ope d by R obe r t H a nve y. A c c or di ng t o H a nve y ( 1976 ) i n A n A t t ai nabl e G l obal P e r s pe c t i v e f i ve di m e ns i ons r e pr e s e nt a c om bi na t i on of c ont e nt t he m e s be l i e f s a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l s ki l l s : 1. P e r s pe c t i ve c ons c i ous ne s s r e f e r s t o a n a w a r e ne s s of a nd a ppr e c i a t i on f or ot he r i m a ge s of t he w or l d, a nd r e c ogni t i on t ha t ot he r s ha ve v i e w s of t he w o r l d t ha t i s pr of oundl y di f f e r e nt f r om one s ow n

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11 2. S t a t e of t he pl a ne a w a r e ne s s r e qui r e s a n i n de pt h unde r s t a ndi ng of t he pr e va i l i ng gl oba l i s s ue s e ve nt s a nd c ondi t i ons ; e m e r gi ng t r e nds s uc h a s popul a t i on gr ow t h; m i gr a t i on; e c onom i c c ondi t i on s ; he a l t h a nd r e s our c e s ; i nt r a na t i ona l a nd i nt e r na t i ona l c on f l i c t s ; a know l e dge of ge ogr a phy a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s pa c e hum a n s e t t l e m e nt a nd m ove m e nt 3. C r os s c ul t ur a l a w a r e ne s s i s a ge ne r a l unde r s t a ndi ng of t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of w or l d c ul t ur e s w i t h a n e m pha s i s on unde r s t a ndi ng di f f e r e nc e s a nd s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd a l i m i t e d unde r s t a ndi ng of how one s ow n s oc i e t y m i ght be vi e w e d f r o m ot he r pe r s pe c t i ve s 4. K now l e dge of gl oba l dyna m i c s i s de f i ne d a s ha vi n g a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he ke y t r a i t s a nd m e c ha ni s m s of t he w or l d s ys t e m s c onc e pt s a nd t he or i e s ; a n i nt r oduc t i on t o t he c om pl e x i nt e r na t i ona l s ys t e m i n w hi c h s t a t e a nd non s t a t e a c t or s a r e l i nke d i n pa t t e r ns of i nt e r de pe nde nc e a n d de pe nde nc e on a va r i e t y i s s ue s a nd a c ons c i ous ne s s of gl oba l c ha nge 5. A w a r e ne s s of hum a n c hoi c e s de pe nds on unde r s t a ndi ng pr obl e m s of c hoi c e t ha t c onf r ont i ndi vi dua l s a nd na t i ons ; a r e vi e w o f s t r a t e gi e s f or a c t i on on i s s ue s i n l oc a l na t i ona l a nd i nt e r na t i ona l s e t t i ngs H a nve y s ( 1976) i n f l ue nt i a l a nd w i de l y c i t e d w o r k r e m a i ns a c or ne r s t one i n t he c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on of gl oba l e duc a t i on. C ont e m por a r i e s c ont i nuous l y us e hi s w or k i n t he f i e l d of gl oba l e duc a t i on a s a f r a m e w or k f or c ur r i c ul um de ve l opm e nt t e a c he r e duc a t i on, a nd t r a i ni ng. S i nc e H a nve y s publ i c a t i on hi s i de a s ha ve be e n us e d t o s uppor t c ur r i c ul um de ve l opm e nt i n gl oba l e duc a t i on ( M e r r yf i e l d & W i l s on, 2005)

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12 P ur pos e of S t udy & R a t i ona l e T he i nt e nt o f t hi s s t udy w a s t o ga i n a de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s e s of s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c h e r s i n or d e r t o ga i n i ns i ght i n t o how pa r t i c i pa t i on i n a gl oba l l y o r i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um p r oj e c t i nf l ue nc e s how t he y t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s T he de c i s i on t o s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m i s m a de ba s e d on a num be r of r e a s ons : t he pr ogr a m ha s be e n i n pl a c e f or f our ye a r s ; W e s t C e nt r a l F l or i da s c hool di s t r i c t s o f f i c i a l l y s up por t t he us e o f t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um ; a nd t he r e s e a r c he r ha s a c c e s s t o t he a ppr oxi m a t e l y 35 pa r t i c i pa t i ng hi gh s c hool t e a c he r s A l oc a l c ons ul t a nt a nd t e a m o f t r a i ne r s a l s o pr ovi de c ont i nui ng pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a nd s uppor t B y i nve s t i ga t i ng t he s e t e a c he r s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um a nd t he n a s c e r t a i ni ng t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t hi s pa r t i c i pa t i on i nf l ue nc e s t he a c t ua l i z e d c ur r i c ul u m i t i s hope d t ha t a de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c hi ng i n t he c ont e xt of gl oba l i z a t i on w i l l i nf o r m t e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s s c hool di s t r i c t s a nd c ur r i c ul um w r i t e r s T he l i t e r a t u r e i n g l oba l e duc a t i on r e ve a l s a w i de b ody of r e s e a r c h on t e a c he r s a t t i t ude s a nd know l e dge M uc h of t he l i t e r a t ur e i s w e i ght e d i n t he a r e a of a dvoc a c y, ( i e w ha t w e s houl d be t e a c hi ng ou r s t ude nt s ) a nd ur g e nc y, ( i e t he u r ge nt ne e d t o pr e pa r e s t ude nt s t o t hr i ve i n our i nc r e a s i ngl y i nt e r de pe nde nt gl oba l s oc i e t y) I n a ddi t i on, s t udi e s ha ve not e d w ha t gl oba l e duc a t i on s c hol a r s r e ve a l w ha t ki nds of e xpe r i e nc e s i m pa c t t e a c he r s know l e dge a bout t he w or l d a nd t he i r a t t i t ude s a bout t e a c hi ng w i t h gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s ( K i r kw ood, 2004; M e r r yf i e l d 1994; B e ni t e z 2001) F e w s t udi e s how e ve r ha ve e xpl or e d t he i m pa c t of pa r t i c i pa t i on i n gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um pr ogr a m s on how t e a c he r s t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve

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13 P a r t i c i pa t i on i n gl oba l s t udi e s pr og r a m s i s de s i gne d t o i nc r e a s e gl oba l know l e dge a nd i nc r e a s e of s uppor t t he i nf us i on o f gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n t he c l a s s r oom T he pr obl e m e xi s t s t ha t gl oba l t opi c s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s a r e not r e f l e c t e d i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um gui de s a nd a s s e s s m e nt s N a t i ona l s t a t e a nd di s t r i c t s t a nda r ds de f i ne w ha t s houl d be t a ught ; how e ve r t e a c he r s ul t i m a t e l y de c i de pl a n, a nd t e a c h t he c ur r i c ul um ( D a r l i ng H a m m ond, W i s e & K l e i n, 1999) I t i s w e l l a c c e pt e d t ha t t e a c he r s m a ke c r uc i a l de c i s i ons c onc e r ni ng w ha t a nd how t o t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s a nd ul t i m a t e l y a f f e c t t he i r s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e s ( T hor nt on, 1989) C ons e que nt l y, i n or de r t o p r e pa r e s e c onda r y l e ve l s t ude nt s t o be c om e know l e dge a bl e c i t i z e nr y c a pa bl e of und e r s t a ndi ng a nd pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n a n i nc r e a s i ngl y gl oba l s oc i e t y ( M e r r yf i e l d & K a s a i 2 004) ; i t i s e s s e nt i a l t o g a i n i ns i ght i nt o t he de c i s i on m a ki ng t hought p r oc e s s e s a bout t he t e a c hi ng of s oc i a l s t udi e s T o t ha t e nd, t he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons gui de d t he i nqui r y. R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 1. I n w ha t w a ys do t e a c he r s r e por t us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s ? 2. W ha t c om pone nt s of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom c ur r i c u l um pr ogr a m do pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t m os t i nf l ue nt i a l on t he i r t e a c hi ng pr a c t i c e s a s a w hol e ? 3. H ow doe s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n T he U N A U S A s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r oj e c t i nf l ue nc e how pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c h s oc i a l s t u di e s ? 4. W ha t a r e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he c ha l l e nge s i n t e a c hi ng a gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um ? 5. H ow do s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s pe r c e i ve t he y ne got i a t e c ha l l e nge s i n t e a c hi ng gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c u r r i c ul um ?

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14 6. D o pe r c e pt i ons of pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c h e r s e xpe r i e nc e s di f f e r ba s e d on t he na t ur e of how t he y us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um u ni t s ? R e s e a r c h M e t hod T he r e s e a r c he r e m pl oye d a qua l i t a t i ve a ppr oa c h i n or de r t o pr ovi de a de t a i l e d a c c ount of t he e xpe r i e nc e s of hi gh s c hool s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s e xpe r i e nc e s a s a f unc t i on of t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r oj e c t T he goa l o f t hi s s t udy w a s t o pr ovi de a r i c h c om p e l l i ng a c c ount of t he e xpe r i e nc e s of hi gh s c hool s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s s o t ha t ot he r s c a n be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he i s s ue s r e f l e c t e d i n t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s T he pow e r of t he qu a l i t a t i ve s t udy i s t he di s c ove r y o f how t he r e s ponde nt s e e s t he w or l d ( M c C r a c ke n, 1988 ) T he pr i m a r y m e t hod of ga t he r i ng da t a w a s t he hour l ong i nt e r vi e w A c a s e s t udy w a s c onduc t e d i n or de r t o ga i n i ns i ght i nt o t he c ur r i c ul a r a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s e s of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s w ho e l e c t t o ut i l i z e a nd pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um A c a s e s t udy i s a n e m pi r i c a l i nqui r y t ha t i nve s t i ga t e s a c ont e m por a r y phe nom e non w i t hi n i t s r e a l l i f e c ont e xt ( Y i n, 2003) T he e xpl or a t o r y na t u r e of t hi s s t udy e na bl e d m e t o c onduc t a n i n de pt h s t udy a nd a na l ys i s of how pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um p r oj e c t m a ke m e a ni ng of a nd unde r s t a nd t he i n f l ue nc e of t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on on t he i r t e a c hi ng. T he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons f oc us e d on how t e a c he r s us e t he c ur r i c ul um uni t s how t he y na vi ga t e c ha l l e nge s i n t he us e of t he c ur r i c ul um a nd t he i n f l ue nc e t he y pe r c e i ve i t m a y ha ve on t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons W hi l e t he s c ope of t hi s s t udy a ppe a r s t o be phe nom e nol ogi c a l pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e bounde d by p a r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s pe c i f i c pr ogr a m

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15 c ont e xt a nd ove r a s pe c i f i c pe r i od of t i m e T he r e f or e a c a s e s t udy a ppr oa c h w a s us e d i n or de r t o pr ovi de a n i n de p t h s t udy of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s pe r c e i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s A pur pos i ve c r i t e r i on s a m pl i ng s c he m e w a s e m pl oye d f or t he pur pos e of qua l i t y a s s ur a nc e ( M i l e s & H ube r m a n, 1994) T hi s a l l ow e d m e t o s e l e c t pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho w oul d pr ovi de t he m os t i nf or m a t i on f o r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons s t udi e d. T he c r i t e r i a f or i de nt i f yi ng t he s e t e a c he r s i nc l ude d ha vi ng a m i ni m um of t w o ye a r s i nvo l ve m e nt w i t h G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m T hi s e ns ur e d t he y ha d t he oppor t un i t y t o a t t e nd pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt w or ks hops us e t he c u r r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s a nd r e s our c e s a nd pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he a nnua l c ul m i na t i ng m ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c onf e r e nc e P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i de nt i f i e d w i t h t he a s s i s t a nc e of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ons ul t a nt f or t he G r e a t e r W e s t C e nt r a l F l or i da A r e a a nd t he l oc a l c ur r i c ul um t r a i ne r s e m pl oye d by U N A U S A G l o ba l C l a s s r oom s T he goa l i n pa r t i c i pa nt s e l e c t i on w a s t ha t t he num be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s r e f l e c t s pr opor t i ona l l y t he popul a t i on of pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c h e r s f r om e a c h pa r t i c i pa t i ng s c hool di s t r i c t T he r e s e a r c he r w a s t he s o l e i ns t r um e nt of da t a c ol l e c t i on, a nd t he hour l ong i nt e r vi e w w a s t he m e t hod us e d. T he hour l ong i nt e r vi e w a pow e r f ul qua l i t a t i ve t ool s e r ve d bot h de s c r i pt i ve a nd a na l yt i c a l pu r pos e s ( M c C r a c ke n, 1988) T he i nt e r vi e w que s t i onna i r e i nc l ude s bot h bi ogr a phi c a l que s t i ons i n a ddi t i on t o que s t i ons de s i gne d t o a r r i ve a t a ns w e r s t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons A c ons t a nt c om pa r i s on a na l ys i s w a s us e d t o c ode a nd c a t e gor i z e r e s pons e s f r om t he t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s ( M i l e s & H ube r m a n, 1994) T he da t a a na l ys i s w a s bot h e xpl or a t or y a nd c onf i r m a t or y, s e e ki ng t o e xpa nd on e xi s t i ng know l e dge a bout s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons a nd t he i m pl i c a t i ons f or t e a c he r e duc a t i on a nd p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt

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16 S i gni f i c a nc e of t he S t udy A va s t a m ount of t he l i t e r a t ur e i n gl oba l e duc a t i on i s r oot e d i n a dvoc a c y. S t udi e s i ndi c a t i ng w ha t young pe opl e i n A m e r i c a don t kn ow a bout t he w o r l d pr ov i de a n unde ni a bl e r a t i ona l e f or t he i nc l us i on of g l oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s M uc h of t he l i t e r a t u r e r e s ounds w i t h a s e ns e of ur ge nc y d ue t o r e c e nt w or l d e ve nt s B y s t udyi ng t he i m pa c t o f gl oba l l y or i e nt e d p r ogr a m s na m e l y t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um uni t s on how t e a c he r s t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s i t i s hope d t h a t t hi s s t udy w i l l i nvi gor a t e t he de ba t e on t e a c he r e duc a t i on, a nd f u r t he r l e a d t o i ns t i t ut i on a l c ha nge s i n t he w a y w e p r e pa r e t e a c he r s a nd i n t hi s r e s pe c t t he w a y s oc i a l s t udi e s i s t a ught E a r l y r e s e a r c h i n t e a c he r de c i s i on m a ki ng ha s l a r ge l y c e nt e r e d on obs e r va bl e t e a c he r be ha vi or s a nd s t ude nt out c om e s ( W e s t e r m a n, 1991) T he goa l o f t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy i s t o a dd t o t he know l e dge ba s e of s oc i a l s t udi e s hi gh s c hool t e a c hi ng, a nd de e pe n our unde r s t a ndi ng o f t e a c he r de c i s i on m a ki ng i n s oc i a l s t udi e s i n a n a ge of gl ob a l i z a t i on. D e l i m i t a t i ons T hi s s t udy w i l l i nve s t i ga t e t he e xpe r i e nc e s of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s a s pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he U N A U S A s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r oj e c t a nd w ha t t he y r e por t t he i m pa c t on t he i r t e a c hi ng t o be A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c h s oc i a l s s t udi e s gr a de s 9 12. T he r e s e a r c he r e xpe c t s t ha t w hi l e t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s w i l l be s i m i l a r t o ot he r t e a c he r s t ha t pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s a m e or s i m i l a r g l oba l c ur r i c ul um pr oj e c t s t he y w i l l a l s o r e f l e c t t he di s t r i c t a nd c ur r i c ul a r m a nda t e s of t he s c hool s t he y t e a c h i n.

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17 L i m i t a t i ons of t he S t udy T hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy ha s s e ve r a l t hr e a t s t o l e gi t i m a t i on. T he r e s e a r c he r a c know l e dge s t ha t t he s e t hr e a t s c a n oc c ur a t t he f o l l ow i ng s t a ge s : da t a c ol l e c t i on, da t a a na l ys i s a nd da t a i nt e r pr e t a t i on ( O nw ue gbuz i e 20 00) O nw ue gbuz i e ( 2003) i de nt i f i e d 22 pos s i bl e t hr e a t s t o i nt e r na l va l i di t y. T hr e a t s t o i nt e r na l va l i di t y m a y be r e s e a r c he r bi a s due t o t he f a c t t ha t t he r e s e a r c he r i s a pa r t i c i pa nt i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r oj e c t P e r s ona l a t t i t ude s a nd bi a s t o w a r ds t he da t a m a y i n f l ue nc e c odi ng of r e s pons e s t o t he i nt e r v i e w s I n t hi s c a s e s t udy, t he r e s e a r c he r i s t he pr i m a r y i ns t r um e nt of da t a c ol l e c t i on; f or t hi s r e a s on, t he i ns t r um e nt a t i on t hr e a t t o va l i di t y m a y be p r e s e nt ( O nw ue gbuz i e 2003) T he i nt e r p r e t i ve va l i di t y a nd de s c r i pt i ve va l i di t y of t he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs w a s s uppor t e d by m ul t i pl e m e a s ur e s i n da t a c ol l e c t i on a nd a na l ys i s V e r i f i c a t i on p r oc e dur e s s uc h a s m e m be r c he c ki ng, pa r t i c i pa nt f e e dba c k, a u di t t r a i l s a nd t r i a ngul a t i on of da t a w i l l s e r ve t o s uppor t de s c r i pt i ve a nd i nt e r pr e t i ve va l i di t y ( M a xw e l l 1992 ) P opul a t i on ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y i s a l s o a l i m i t a t i on of t hi s s t udy. T he i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y of t hi s s t udy w i l l be i nc r e a s e d by i nc r e a s i ng t he num be r o f pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd by pur pos e f ul l y s a m pl i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h va r yi ng e xpe r i e nc e s s o a s t o s uppor t t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ve ne s s of t he s a m pl e ( M i l e s & H ube r m a n, 1994) D e f i ni t i on of T e r m s G l obal e duc at i on A c ur r i c ul um r e f or m m ove m e nt de s i gne d t o e xpa nd i ndi vi dua l pe r c e pt i on a nd unde r s t a ndi ng of t he w o r l d by de ve l opi ng s e ns i t i vi t y t o t he m ul t i c ul t u r a l a nd t r a ns na t i ona l na t ur e o f t he hu m a n c ondi t i on ( F a r ouk, 2004 )

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18 G l obal pe dagogy T e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c ont e nt t ha t s uppor t t he goa l s of gl oba l e duc a t i on ( B e ni t e z 2001; C r uz 1990; K i r kw ood 2001 ; M e r r yf i e l d, 1998; T uc ke r 1983) G l obal pe r s pe c t i v e s L e a r ni ng, w hi c h he l ps a n i ndi vi dua l unde r s t a nd hi s / he r ow n c ondi t i on by unde r s t a ndi ng c ul t u r a l a nd pol i t i c a l u ni ve r s a l s a nd di f f e r e nc e s i n t he w or l d T e a c hi ng w i t h a g l oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s e e ks t o he l p s t ude nt s unde r s t a nd t ha t de c i s i ons t he y m a ke a f f e c t ot he r s a nd t he de c i s i ons of ot he r s a f f e c t us ( H a nve y, 1976; C a s e 1993) G l obal m i nde dne s s A w or l dvi e w i n w hi c h one s e e s one s e l f a s c onne c t e d t o t he w or l d c om m uni t y a nd f e e l s a s s e ns e of r e s pons i bi l i t y t o i t s m e m be r s T he gl oba l l y m i nd e d pe r s on ha s a n unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he l ong t e r m r a m i f i c a t i ons of he r / hi s ow n be ha vi or on t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd gl oba l s oc i e t y a n d pos s e s s e s a s e ns e of e f f i c a c y i n a ddr e s s i ng w or l d pr obl e m s H e or s he r e f l e c t s t hi s va l ue s ys t e m i n hi s or he r be ha vi or ( H e t t 1993 p 90 ) G l obal i z at i on. T he i nt e gr a t i on of t e c hnol ogi c a l i n f or m a t i ona l e c onom i c a l c ul t ur a l a nd pol i t i c a l f or c e s t ha t a r e ope r a t i ng a nd w e a vi ng t he gl oba l m a r ke t pl a c e I ns t r uc t i onal de c i s i ons and i ns t r uc t i onal gat e k e e pi ng. C hoi c e s m a de by a t e a c he r t ha t m a y i nc l ude pe da gogy, c ont e nt r e s our c e s t e c hnol ogy, or l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s t ha t i m pa c t w ha t a nd how s t ude nt s l e a r n i n a c l a s s r oom I nt e r c onne c t e dne s s and I nt e r de pe nde nc e T he r e l a t i ons hi p a nd c onne c t e dne s s of t e c hnol ogi e s c ul t ur e s e c onom i e s a nd pol i t i c s M ode l U ni t e d N at i ons M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons i s a n a ut he nt i c s i m ul a t i on o f t he U N G e ne r a l A s s e m bl y a nd ot he r m ul t i l a t e r a l bod i e s S om e M ode l U N e xe r c i s e s t a ke pl a c e i n t he c l a s s r oom a nd ot he r s a r e s c hool w i de S t i l l ot he r s a r e r e gi ona l na t i ona l or

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19 e ve n i nt e r na t i ona l T he s e a r e c a l l e d c onf e r e nc e s a nd t he e ve nt s a r e m uc h l a r ge r w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s f r om a l l ove r t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd t he w or l d. U N A U SA U ni t e d N a t i ons A s s oc i a t i on of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s of A m e r i c a i s a not f or pr o f i t m e m be r s hi p or ga ni z a t i on de di c a t e d t o b ui l di ng unde r s t a ndi ng of a nd s uppor t f or t he i de a l s a nd w or k of t he U ni t e d N a t i ons a m o ng t he A m e r i c a n pe opl e U N A U SA s G l obal C l as s r oom s C u r r i c ul um P r oj e c t A c ur r i c ul um pr oj e c t be gun i n 1998 de s i gne d t o s uppor t U ni t e d N a t i ons A s s oc i a t i on e duc a t i on goa l s I t s e e ks t o e nga ge publ i c s e c onda r y s t ude nt s i n a n e xpl or a t i on of c u r r e nt w o r l d i s s ue s t hr ough i nt e r a c t i ve s i m ul a t i ons a nd c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s T h e pr ogr a m i s c e nt e r e d on M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons a n a c t i vi t y t ha t p r om ot e s i n t e r na t i ona l c oope r a t i on t o s ol ve gl oba l pr obl e m s O r ga ni z a t i on of R e m a i ni ng C ha pt e r s C ha pt e r 2 pr e s e nt s a r e vi e w o f r e l e va nt l i t e r a t ur e i n t he f i e l d of gl oba l e duc a t i on a s a goa l of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on a t t he s e c onda r y l e ve l T he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w i s or ga ni z e d a c c or di ng t o t he f ol l ow i ng s ub he a di ngs : a hi s t or y of g l oba l e duc a t i on, c r i t i que of gl oba l e duc a t i on a b r i e f ove r vi e w of t he r e l a t i o ns hi p be t w e e n gl oba l i z a t i on a nd gl oba l e duc a t i on, r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs w hi c h s uppor t t he r a t i ona l e f or c onduc t i ng t h i s s t udy, t he pe da gogy of gl oba l e duc a t i on, s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r e duc a t i on, a nd a de s c r i pt i on o f t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r ogr a m C ha pt e r 3 e xpl a i ns t he m e t hodol ogy t o be us e d i n t hi s s t udy. T hi s i nc l ude s t he r e s e a r c h de s i gn, r a t i ona l e a nd s e l e c t i on o f pa r t i c i p a nt s da t a c ol l e c t i on pr oc e dur e s e t hi c a l c ons i de r a t i ons i n c ol l e c t i ng da t a a nd publ i s hi ng t h e da t a a nd t he da t a a na l ys i s C ha pt e r 4 r e por t s t he r e s e a r c h f i ndi ngs i nc l udi ng e xc e r pt s f r om t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s t ha t s uppor t t he

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20 f i ndi n gs C ha pt e r 5 c ont a i ns a di s c us s i on of t he f i n di ngs r e c om m e nda t i ons f or t he f i e l d, a nd s ugge s t i ons f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h.

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21 C ha pt e r 2 R e vi e w of t he R e l a t e d L i t e r a t ur e O ve r vi e w O ve r t he pa s t t w e nt y ye a r s l i t e r a t u r e i n t he f i e l d of gl oba l i z a t i on ha s s ur g e d, r e ve a l i ng t he m ul t i di s c i pl i na r y na t u r e of t he f i e l d. O ne of t he m os t i n f l ue nt i a l popul a r w or ks t ha t w oul d po r t r a y t he ur ge nc y o f gl oba l i s m w a s F r i e dm a n s T he W or l d i s F l at ( 2005) T he m e t a phor o f a f l a t w or l d, or l e ve l pl a yi ng f i e l d a l l ow e d r e a de r s t o i m a gi ne gl oba l i z a t i on l i ke ne ve r be f or e I t s ur e l y w a s n t t he f i r s t w o r d o f t he t opi c but i t s popu l a r a ppe a l w oul d us he r i n pub l i c de ba t e a nd di s c us s i on on t he r a pi d pa c e of gl oba l i z a t i on E a r l i e r w or ks l i ke H unt i ng t on s ( 1998 ) T he C l as h of C i v i l i z at i ons F r i e dm a n s ( 1999) T he L e x us and t he O l i v e T r e e B a r be r s ( 1995 ) J i had v s M c W or l d: H ow G l obal i s m and T r i bal i s m ar e R e s hapi ng O ur W or l d, a nd M c C a r t hy ( 1998) i n T he U s e s of C ul t ur e e xpl or e c ul t ur a l i de nt i t y, c ul t ur a l c on f l i c t e c onom i c a nd pol i t i c a l e qui t y i s s ue s a nd t he c onve r ge nc e of l oc a l a nd g l oba l f o r c e s t ha t a r e s ha pi ng t he hum a n e xpe r i e nc e t oda y. T e c hnol ogi c a l i nnova t i on, w hi c h i nt e ns i f i e s t he i nt e r c onne c t e dne s s of t he pl a ne t on m a ny l e ve l s i s s a i d t o ha ve c o e vol ve d a l ong w i t h gl oba l i z a t i on ( R yc r o f t 2002) P i e t e r s e ( 2004) a l s o s t a t e s t ha t gl oba l i z a t i on i s be i ng s ha pe d by t e c hnol ogi c a l c ha nge T he c om pl e xi t i e s of gl oba l i z a t i on r e qui r e a ne w pa r a di gm f or l e a r ni n g a nd t e a c hi ng ( S ua r e z O r oz c o & Q i n H i l l i a r d, 2004) A nde r s on ( 1982 ) w r i t i ng m or e t ha n 2 5 ye a r s a go pl a i nl y s t a t e s t ha t t he c hoi c e w he t he r or no t t o gl oba l i z e e duc a t i on ha s p a s s e d us by; t he r e a l c hoi c e i s how ?

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22 J ohn D e w e y ( 1899) r e f l e c t i ng on gl oba l t r a ns f or m a t i ons ove r 100 ye a r s a go pr opos e d t ha t i t i s i nc onc e i va bl e t ha t e duc a t i on i s not a f f e c t e d by t he c ha nge s goi ng on i n t he w or l d. M a ny e duc a t i on s c hol a r s ha ve r a i s e d t he que s t i on a bout w ha t e f f e c t g l oba l i z a t i on ha s on s c hool i ng ( M e r r yf i e l d & W i l s on, 2004) F o r t he s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r t he e c onom i c a nd pol i t i c a l f or c e s of gl ob a l i z a t i on c a n br i ng c ha l l e nge s t o t r a di t i ona l a l l e gi a nc e s t o t he na t i on s t a t e I n f a c t m uc h of t he c r i t i c i s m of t he gl oba l e duc a t i on m ove m e nt c om e s f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve t ha t i t r e nd e r s t he na t i on s t a t e obs ol e t e ( M e r r yf i e l d & W i l s on, 2 005) C r i t i c s of gl ob a l i z a t i on w a r n of t he e r os i on of t he na t i on s t a t e ; how e ve r a qui c k s ur ve y of t he m e m be r s hi p of t he U ni t e d N a t i ons s how s a n i nc r e a s e of t he m e m be r s t a t e s f r om 51 i n 1945 t o 1 91 i n 2007 T he i m pl i c a t i ons f or c i t i z e ns hi p e duc a t i on une a r t he d i n t hi s de ba t e a r e p ow e r f ul va l ue l a de n, a nd of t e n f ue l f i e r c e de ba t e ove r t he c ont e nt o f w ha t a nd how c hi l dr e n a r e be i ng t a ught i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s r oom s O ne r e a l i z a t i on f or s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t or s i s t he f a c t t ha t c ount l e s s r e s e a r c h s t udi e s s how t ha t A m e r i c a n s t ud e nt s ha ve a l i m i t e d vi e w of t he w or l d a nd a r e i gnor a nt of ge ogr a phy a nd gl oba l i s s ue s ( K i r kw ood 2006) T h i s s houl d c om e a t no s ur pr i s e gi ve n s t ude nt s e xpos ur e t o gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i s of t e n l i m i t e d by f o r m a l a nd i nf o r m a l f a c t or s ( H a nve y, 1976) D a t a s our c e s s uc h a s t he N a t i ona l A s s e s s m e nt of E duc a t i ona l P r ogr e s s ( N A E P ) t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l on E c onom i c E duc a t i on ( N C E E ) t he G e ogr a phi c E duc a t i ona l N a t i ona l I m pl e m e nt a t i on P r oj e c t ( G E N I P ) a nd a N a t i ona l G e ogr a phi c s R ope r s ur ve y r e ve a l t ha t r e c e nt gr a dua t e s a r e unp r e pa r e d f or a n i nc r e a s i ngl y gl oba l f ut ur e ( D a vi s & D a vi s 2007 )

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23 I nnova t i ons i n t e c hnol ogy i n t he pa s t 20 ye a r s ha v e gi ve n r i s e t o a va s t a r r a y of t e a c hi ng r e s our c e s f or t he gl oba l l y m i nde d t e a c he r T he r e a r e m a ny p r ogr a m s de s i gne d t o pr ovi de t e a c he r s w i t h r e s our c e s l e s s ons a nd oppor t uni t i e s t o i nc r e a s e t he i r know l e dge of gl oba l i s s ue s a nd e xpos e t he i r s t ude nt s t o gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s S om e of t he s e i nc l ude t he I nt e r na t i ona l C om m uni c a t i ons a nd N e got i a t i on S i m ul a t i ons ( I C O N S ) a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of M a r yl a nd; W or l d W i s e S c hool s publ i s he d by t he P e a c e C or ps ; U C L A s G l oba l i nk A f r i c a ; a nd t he S P I C E pr og r a m on I nt e r na t i ona l a n d C r os s C ul t ur a l E duc a t i on a t S t a nf or d U ni ve r s i t y I n a ddi t i on M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons ( M U N ) a s a t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t y ha s be e n a r ound s i nc e t he bi r t h o f t he U ni t e d N a t i ons T e a c he r s a c r os s t he pl a ne t ha ve us e d r ol e p l a ys a nd s i m ul a t i ons a s a w a y t o e nga ge s t ude nt s a nd gi ve t he m a de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he c om pl e xi t i e s o f gl oba l i s s ue s M a ny of t he s e pr ogr a m s w e r e de ve l ope d i n r e s pons e t o t he de m a nd f or a m or e gl oba l l y c om pe t i t i ve w or kf or c e a nd know l e dge a bl e c i t i z e nr y i n a n i nc r e a s i ngl y di ve r s e U ni t e d S t a t e s s oc i e t y. F or i ns t a nc e ke y f i ndi ngs i n a r e po r t i s s ue d by P a r t ne r s hi p f or 21 s t C e nt ur y Sk i l l s ( 2007) c l e a r l y i ndi c a t e t ha t A m e r i c a ns a r e de e pl y c onc e r n e d t ha t t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s not pr e pa r i ng young pe opl e t o c om pe t e i n t he gl oba l e c onom y. T he r e por t r e ve a l s t ha t i n a 2007 na t i ona l s ur ve y o f 800 r e gi s t e r e d vot e r s 42 % of r e s ponde nt s r a nke d gl oba l a w a r e ne s s a s a 9 or 10 i n i m por t a nc e on a s c a l e of 0 t o 10 H e r e i n l i e s a di s c r e pa nc y how e ve r be t w e e n t he pu bl i c a nd e duc a t i ona l out c r y t o pr e pa r e our young pe opl e w i t h t he s ki l l s t he y ne e d t o c om pe t e i n t he gl oba l s oc i e t y a nd t o know m or e a bout t he w or l d a nd t he s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um t ha t i s a c t ua l l y de l i ve r e d i n c l a s s r oom s B e c ke r ( 1982) c a l l s a t t e nt i on t o t he ga p be t w e e n t he va r i ous gl oba l e duc a t i on goa l s t a t e m e nt s t he r he t or i c of e duc a t i ona l l e a de r s t he s t a t e s a nd l oc a l e duc a t i on l e a de r s

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24 c a l l f or a nd t he e xpe c t a t i ons of s oc i e t y. F u r t he r m o r e H e yl a nd M c C a r t hy ( 2003) w a r n t ha t t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ha s a uni que l y dom i na nt gl o ba l r ol e w hi l e i t s c i t i z e ns s t a y da nge r ous l y i gnor a nt of t he ne w gl oba l dyna m i c s F or e xa m pl e t he 2006 R ope r S u r ve y on G l oba l G e ogr a phi c L i t e r a c y r e ve a l e d t ha t de s pi t e e xt e ns i ve m e di a c ove r a ge onl y 17% of 18 24 ye a r ol ds c oul d f i nd I r a q a nd A f gha ni s t a n on a m a p M or e ove r t he r e por t s t a t e s t ha t not onl y a r e t he m os t r e c e nt g r a dua t e s of ou r e duc a t i ona l s ys t e m unpr e pa r e d f or a n i nc r e a s i ngl y gl oba l f ut u r e but a l s o t ha t f a r t oo m a ny l a c k e ve n t he m os t ba s i c s ki l l s f o r na vi ga t i ng t he i nt e r na t i ona l e c onom y or unde r s t a ndi ng t he r e l a t i ons hi ps a m ong pe opl e a nd pl a c e s t ha t p r ovi de c r i t i c a l c ont e xt f o r w o r l d e ve nt s ( R ope r S ur ve y, 20 06, p 3) T he s e r e s ul t s pr om pt a n e va l ua t i on on w ha t c ur r i c ul um i s de l i ve r e d i n our K 12 i ns t i t ut i ons W ha t di r e c t i on m us t e duc a t i on t a ke s pe c i f i c a l l y s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on, i n or de r t o r e m a i n a vi a bl e r e l e va nt i ns t r um e nt o f pr o duc i ng c i t i z e ns i n a n a ge o f gl oba l i z a t i on? I t i s e qua l l y i m por t a nt t o r e f or m ho w c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s pr e pa r e t e a c he r s s i nc e t he y ha ve a n obl i ga t i on t o pr ovi de t he i r s t ude nt s w i t h t he know l e dge a nd e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t w i l l e na bl e t he m t o e f f e c t i ve l y i nc or por a t e gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n K 12 c l a s s r oom s ( H e yl & M c C a r t hy, 2003) D e f i ni ng G l oba l E duc a t i on T he t e r m s gl oba l e duc a t i on, i nt e r na t i ona l e duc a t i o n, w or l d c e nt e r e d e duc a t i on, a nd gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n e duc a t i on a r e of t e n us e d i nt e r c ha nge a bl y i n t he l i t e r a t u r e a nd a r e ge ne r a l l y a gr e e d upon t o ha ve t he s a m e m e a ni ng. A t f i r s t t he va r i e t y of t e r m s a ppe a r s t o de m ons t r a t e a l a c k o f c ons e ns us i n t he f i e l d of gl oba l e duc a t i on. H ow e ve r T ye a nd T ye ( 1992 ) c a ut i one d t ha t i t i s not unc om m on f or a m bi gui t y a nd l a c k of c ons e ns us i n

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25 a n e m e r gi ng f i e l d I n a n a t t e m pt t o c l a r i f y di s c r e pa nc i e s K i r kw ood ( 2001 ) e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he phi l os ophi c a l unde r pi nni ngs of gl oba l e duc a t i o n r e s t on t he be l i e f t ha t ( a ) hum a ns a r e c r e a t e d e qua l ( b ) hum a n be ha vi or i s c ul t u r a l l y de t e r m i ne d, ( c ) a l l hum a ns pos s e s s ba s i c hum a n r i ght s a nd ( d ) gl oba l e duc a t i on ha s a m or a l pur pos e A f t e r a c om pa r a t i ve a na l ys i s of m a j or de f i ni t i ons o f gl oba l e duc a t i on, K i r kw ood ( 2001) c onc l ude d t ha t t he r e a r e no s ubs t a nt i ve di f f e r e nc e s a nd t ha t e xi s t i ng gl oba l de f i ni t i ons a r e g r ounde d i n f our m a j or t he m e s : m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s c om pr e he ns i on a nd a ppr e c i a t i on of c ul t u r e s know l e dge o f gl oba l i s s ue s a nd t he w or l d a s i nt e r r e l a t e d s ys t e m s K i r kw ood c onc l ude d t ha t s c hol a r s bot h w i t hi n a nd out s i de t he f i e l d of gl oba l e duc a t i o n de s c r i be gl oba l l y e duc a t e d pe opl e a s T hos e w ho pos s e s s hi gh t e c h s ki l l s br oa d i nt e r d i s c i pl i na r y know l e dge a bout t he c ont e m por a r y w or l d a nd a da pt a bi l i t y f l e xi bi l i t y, a nd w or l d m i nde dne s s t o pa r t i c i pa t e e f f e c t i ve l y i n t he g l oba l i z e d w or l d ( p 14) R e c ogni z i ng t ha t i ndi vi dua l s a r e pa r t i c i pa nt s i n a w or l d s ys t e m a nd ha ve r e s pons i bi l i t i e s i nf l ue nc e s r i ght s a nd pr i vi l e ge s i n s uc h a s ys t e m i s a ne c e s s i t y of c i t i z e ns hi p e duc a t i on i n t oda y s gl oba l w or l d ( B e c ke r 1982 ) A ve r y ( 2004 ) di s c us s e s t hi s gl oba l di m e ns i on i n t e r m s of a m ode l of good c i t i z e ns hi p. A gl oba l e duc a t i on i s one t ha t e nvi s i ons a know l e dge a bl e c i t i z e ns hi p t ha t c a r e s a bout c ur r e nt a f f a i r s i n t he w hol e w or l d not j us t i n i t s ow n na t i on I t f a c i l i t a t e s pa t t e r ns of t hi nki ng a nd a c t i ng t ha t a r e t r a ns na t i ona l i n s c ope a nd s ubs t a nc e O ne s c hol a r a s s e r t s : C ur r i c ul um f r om a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i s de s i gne d t o e xpa nd i ndi vi dua l pe r c e pt i on a nd unde r s t a ndi ng or t he w o r l d by de ve l opi ng s e ns i t i vi t y t o t he m ul t i c ul t ur a l a nd t r a ns na t i ona l na t ur e o f t he hum a n c ondi t i on ( F a r ouk, 2004, p 2)

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2 6 G l oba l e duc a t or s w a nt t he i r s t ude nt s t o s e e c onne c t i ons a c r os s c ul t ur e s a nd bor de r s S t ude nt s of gl oba l e duc a t i on c a n e xpe c t t o be e xpo s e d t o a va r i e t y of pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd s our c e s on i s s ue s e ve nt s or t opi c s M a ny c r i t i c s o f gl oba l e duc a t i on m i s t a ke i t f or t he a ba nd onm e nt of na t i ona l s ove r e i gnt y ( D i a z 2004) O n t he c ont r a r y, gl oba l e duc a t i on i s qui t e a gr e e a bl e w i t h c i vi c e duc a t i on ( P a r ke r 2004) B e c a us e t e c hnol ogy a nd c om m e r c e ha ve i nt e ns i f i e d our g l oba l c onne c t i ons i t i s no l on ge r pos s i bl e t o s e e our na t i on a s i s ol a t e d f r om t he r e s t of t he w o r l d ( M e r r yf i e l d, 20 02) N a t i ona l s e c ur i t y i s a m a j or t op i c of di s c us s i on i n r e c e nt t i m e s ( D i a z 2004 ) A s i m p or t a nt a t opi c a s i t i s one c a nnot i gnor e t ha t a na t i on s s e c ur i t y i s i nc r e a s i ngl y de pe nde nt o n t he pe a c e a nd s e c ur i t y i n t he r e s t of t he w or l d ( K i r kw ood, 2004) O ne i m por t a nt goa l of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on i s t o e qui p s t ude nt s w i t h t he t ool s ne c e s s a r y t o m a ke s e ns e of i nt e r na t i ona l de ve l opm e nt s a nd t o pos e que s t i ons t ha t he l p s t ude nt s unde r s t a nd t he w or l d a nd how i t c a m e t o be ( D unn, 2002) I n t hi s r e s pe c t gl oba l e duc a t i on c a n be s e e n a s a pr oc e s s or pr oc e dur e f o r e xa m i ni ng t he w or l d a nd i t s e vol ut i on. T hi s w oul d i nc l ude s ki l l s f or c ons t r uc t i n g m e a ni ng of c ur r e nt e ve nt s a s w e l l G l oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on i s de f i ne d a s a c t i vi t i e s t ha t he l p a n i ndi vi dua l unde r s t a nd hi s / he r ow n c ondi t i on by un de r s t a ndi ng c ul t ur a l a nd po l i t i c a l uni ve r s a l s a nd di f f e r e nc e s i n t he w or l d ( M e r r yf i e l d 2004) A ba s i c a s s um pt i on of gl oba l e duc a t or s i s t ha t by t e a c hi ng s t ude nt s a bout t he w o r l d i n w hi c h t he y l i ve t h r ough va r yi ng poi nt s of vi e w t he y c a n de ve l op t he s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y t o l i ve i n ou r c om pl e x, m ul t i c ul t u r a l a nd i nt e r c onne c t e d w or l d. O ne of t he m os t e ndur i ng c onc e pt ua l i z a t i ons of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i s R obe r t H a nve y s ( 1976) A n A t t ai nabl e G l obal P e r s pe c t i v e W i de l y c i t e d a s t he c or ne r s t one o f

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27 t he gl oba l e duc a t i on m ove m e nt H a nve y s c onc e i v e d t he f r a m e w or k t ha t w oul d i ni t i a t e di s c us s i on a nd de ba t e on w ha t a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve w oul d l ook l i ke H a nve y s f i ve di m e n s i ons of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i nc l ude pe r s pe c t i ve c ons c i ous ne s s c r os s c ul t ur a l a w a r e ne s s s t a t e of t he pl a ne t a w a r e ne s s know l e dge of gl oba l dyna m i c s a nd a w a r e ne s s of hum a n c hoi c e s O pe r a t i ona l i z i ng H a nve y s F i ve D i m e ns i ons H a nve y s i ni t i a l publ i c a t i on i n 1976 w a s de s i gne d t o f ue l a n e xpl or a t i on i nt o w ha t a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve m i ght be A c c or di ng t o H a nve y, t he pu r pos e of h i s publ i c a t i on w a s t o D e s c r i be c e r t a i n m ode s of t hought s e ns i t i vi t i e s i n t e l l e c t ua l s ki l l s a nd e xpl a na t or y c a pa c i t i e s w hi c h m i ght i n s om e m e a s ur e c ont r i but e t o t he f or m a t i on o f a g l oba l pe r s pe c t i ve a nd w hi c h young pe opl e i n t he U S m i ght a c t ua l l y be a bl e t o a c qui r e i n t he c our s e of t he i r f or m a l a nd i n f or m a l e duc a t i on. ( p 2) O pe r a t i ona l i z i ng H a nve y s f i ve di m e ns i ons i s e s s e nt i a l t o a n a l yz i ng e f f or t s o f gl oba l e duc a t or s i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons be f or e a n d dur i ng i ns t r uc t i on, a nd t e a c he r s pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s a t t i t ude s a nd t he i r e nga ge m e nt i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s e s T he f ol l ow i ng e xa m pl e i s a n a t t e m pt t o put f l e s h on t he s e di m e ns i o ns by us i ng a c ur r i c ul um gui de s pe c i f i c a l l y de ve l ope d t o a ppl y t he H a nve y m ode l t o t he s t udy of L a t i n A m e r i c a B e r m ude z a nd C r uz ( 1991) de ve l ope d a c ur r i c ul u m gui de t i t l e d L at i n A m e r i c an and t he C ar i bbe an i n t he 21 s t C e nt ur y : A R e s our c e G ui de f or F l or i da T e ac he r s T he l e s s ons w e r e w r i t t e n w i t h t he e xpr e s s e d pur pos e of a ppl yi ng t he H a nve y m ode l t o t he s t udy o f L a t i n A m e r i c a T he l e s s ons r e pr e s e nt a gl oba l a ppr oa c h t o t e a c hi ng a bout L a t i n A m e r i c a a nd

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28 t he C a r i bbe a n. T he s t a t e d goa l of t he c u r r i c ul um g ui de i s t o i nc r e a s e s t ude nt s gl oba l a w a r e ne s s by us i ng m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s i n s t udyi ng L a t i n A m e r i c a A br i e f e xpl a na t i on of e a c h di m e ns i on i s f o l l ow e d by a s e l e c t e d l e s s on de ve l ope d t o pr ovi de s t ude nt s a n oppor t uni t y t o a t t a i n a pa r t i c ul a r gl oba l di m e ns i on. E xa m pl e s i nc l ude : P e r s pe c t i ve C ons c i ous ne s s i s t he r e c ogni t i on t hat w e hav e a pe r s pe c t i v e t hat i t c an be s hape d by s ubt l e i nf l ue nc e s t hat ot he r s hav e di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i v e s I n a l e s s on t i t l e d E nc ue nt r o ( e nc ount e r ) s t ude nt s e xa m i ne di f f e r i ng pe r s pe c t i ve s on C ol um bus di s c ove r y of t he ne w w or l d S t ude nt s a r e pr e s e nt e d w i t h t h r e e di s t i nc t hi s t or i c a l a c c ount s of t he s i gni f i c a nt e nc ount e r be t w e e n E ur ope a ns N a t i ve A m e r i c a ns a nd A f r i c a ns S t ude nt s a r e e nc our a ge d t o e xpl or e how t he i r ow n l e a r ne d pe r s pe c t i ve o n C ol um bus di f f e r s f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve pr e s e nt e d i n t he doc um e nt s O ne of ke y l e a r ni ng obj e c t i ve s i s t ha t s t ude nt s w i l l i n unde r s t a nd c ur r e nt a nd hi s t or i c a l e ve nt s f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of di ve r s e c ul t ur a l a nd na t i ona l g r oups S t a t e of t he P l a ne t A w a r e ne s s i s a r e as onabl e de p e ndabl e s e ns e of w hat s hape t he w or l d i s i n, and aw ar e ne s s of pr e v ai l i ng w or l d c ondi t i ons e g. popul at i on gr ow t h, m i gr at i ons e c onom i c c ondi t i ons r e s our c e s and phy s i c al e nv i r onm e nt pol i t i c al de v e l opm e nt s s c i e nc e t e c hnol ogy l aw he al t h, i nt e r nat i on and i nt r a nat i on c onf l i c t s e t c I n a l e s s on t i t l e d N i M odo s t ude nt s e xpl or e t r a ns bo unda r y i s s ue s t ha t t hr e a t e n l i f e on ou r pl a ne t by c ons i de r i ng i s s ue s t ha t a f f e c t t he qua l i t y of l i f e i n M e xi c o C i t y. T hr ough a gui de d i m a ge r y e xe r c i s e s t ude nt s a r e a s ke d t o c l os e t he i r e ye s a nd i m a gi ne t he i r c i t y 50 ye a r s i n t he f u t ur e pl a gue d w i t h e nvi r onm e nt a l c a l a m i t y s uc h a s l a c k of w a t e r no s e w a ge f a c i l i t i e s c he m i c a l a nd bi ol ogi c a l poi s ons hundr e ds of t hous a nds of pe opl e dyi ng f r om ga s t r oi nt e s t i na l di s e a s e e t c S t ude nt s a r e t he n a s ke d t o de s c r i be w ha t t he i r l i f e w a s l i f e

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29 unde r t hos e c ondi t i ons S t ude nt s a r e t he n t ol d t ha t t he i r c i t y o f t he f ut ur e de s c r i be d i n t h i s e xe r c i s e i s r e a l l y M e xi c o C i t y i n t he 1980s L e a r n i ng obj e c t i ve s a r e t ha t s t ude nt s w i l l de s c r i be t he m a j or gl oba l i s s ue s f a c i ng t he w or l d t oda y a nd s ugge s t pos s i bl e s ol ut i ons a s w e l l a s r e c ogni z e t he i nt e r de pe nde nt na t u r e of gl ob a l pr obl e m s C r os s C ul t ur a l A w a r e ne s s i s at t ai ni ng an unde r s t andi ng of a pe r s on f r om an ut t e r l y di f f e r e nt c u l t ur e I t i s a r e adi ne s s t o r e s pe c t and ac c e pt and a c apac i t y t o par t i c i pat e H anv e y ( 1976) i de nt i f i e d l e v e l s of c r os s c ul t ur al aw ar e ne s s r angi ng f r om and aw ar e ne s s of s upe r f i c i al or v e r y v i s i bl e c ul t ur al t r ai t s : s t e r e ot y pe s t o and aw ar e ne s s of how anot he r c ul t ur e f e e l s f r om t he s t andpoi nt of t he i ns i de r : e m pat hy or e v e nt ual l y t r ans pe c t i on. T r ans pe c t i on i s an e f f or t t o put one s e l f i n t he he ad of anot he r pe r s on. T he l e s s on t i t l e d R e t r ai dos pr ovi de s s t ude nt s w i t h t he oppor t uni t y t o a s s e s s t he i m por t a nc e of c r os s c ul t ur a l unde r s t a ndi ng f o r c on duc t i ng bus i ne s s e s i n ot he r c ount r i e s S t ude nt s e nga ge i n r ol e pl a y s ki t s t ha t i l l us t r a t e c r o s s c ul t ur a l m i s unde r s t a ndi ngs due t o c ul t ur a l di f f e r e nc e s i nvol vi ng pe r s ona l s pa c e w he n t a l ki ng. S t ude nt s r e a d c r os s c ul t ur a l d i a l ogs a nd di s s e c t t he r e a s ons f or m i s c om m uni c a t i on. E t hnoc e nt r i s m a s a c onc e pt i s di s c us s e d. K now l e dge of G l oba l D y nam i c s r e f e r s t o s om e m ode s t c om pr e he n s i on of k e y t r ai t s and m e c hani s m s of t he w or l d s y s t e m w i t h e m phas i s on t he or i e s and c onc e pt s t hat m ay i nc r e as e i nt e l l i ge nt c ons c i ous ne s s of gl obal c hange I n t he l e s s on e nt i t l e d E l N o r t e s t ude nt s t r a di t i ona l unde r s t a ndi ng of i m m i gr a t i on t o t he U ni t e d S t a t e s w hi c h i s us ua l l y e xa m i ne d f r o m t he vi e w of t he pul l f a c t or s c ha l l e nge d t o c ons i de r t he pus h f a c t or s t ha t c ont r i but e t o m a n y pe opl e l e a vi ng f a m i l i a r s ur r oundi ngs t he i r na t i ve l a ngua ge f a m i l y a nd f r i e nds a nd e m b a r k on a d i f f i c ul t a nd da nge r ous

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30 j our ne y t ow a r ds t he d r e a m of a be t t e r l i f e S t ude nt s w i l l e xa m i ne i m m i g r a nt da t a doc um e nt s i n or de r d e s c r i be t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e l e c t e d i m m i gr a nt g r oups a nd t he c ondi t i ons t he y f a c e d upon a r r i va l t o t he U ni t e d S t a t e s S t ude nt s w i l l de t e r m i ne how t he m ove m e nt s of pe opl e a nd t he i r r e s ul t i ng i nt e r a c t i o n a f f e c t t he e c onom i c s oc i a l a nd ge opol i t i c a l i ns t i t ut i ons of s oc i e t y. S t ude nt s w i l l a l s o di f f e r e nt i a t e be t w e e n pus h a nd pul l f a c t or s c ont r i but i ng t o t he r e c e nt i n f l ux o f i m m i gr a nt s f r om L a t i n A m e r i c a a nd t he C a r i bbe a n. A w a r e ne s s of H um a n C hoi c e s i s an aw ar e ne s s of t he pr obl e m s of c hoi c e c onf r ont i ng i ndi v i dual s nat i ons and t he hum an s pe c i e s as c ons c i ous ne s s and k now l e dge of t he gl obal s y s t e m e x pands T he l e s s on t i t l e d A r e M y H a nds C l e a n? i s i nt e nde d t o s how how t he c r os s bor de r m ove m e nt of goods pe opl e i nf or m a t i on, c a pi t a l a nd e ve n pol l ut i on a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of our gl oba l a ge S t ude nt s e xpl or e t he J our ne y of t h e B l ous e : A G l obal A s s e m bl y s o t ha t t he y c a n a na l yz e t he i nt e r de pe nde nt a nd c om pl e x n a t ur e of s ys t e m s a nd c ons i de r s om e of t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t he i r e f f e c t s on pe opl e i n L a t i n A m e r i c a a nd t he C a r i bbe a n. T hi s c ur r i c ul um gui de i s bu t one e xa m pl e of t he m a ny c ur r i c ul um e f f or t s t ha t w e r e i ns pi r e d by H a nve y s s e m i na l pi e c e S i nc e t he pub l i c a t i on of A n A t t ai nabl e G l obal P e r s pe c t i v e ( 1976) a num be r of e duc a t or s ha ve us e d hi s f r a m e w or k t o c r a f t e xpe r i e nc e s f or t he i r s t ude nt s i n o r de r t o f os t e r a n a w a r e ne s s of t he w or l d a r ound t he m a nd a n unde r s t a ndi ng of t he c om pl e xi t i e s of a ny num be r o f w or l d pr obl e m s I n a N a t i ona l C ounc i l f or t he S oc i a l S t udi e s B ul l e t i n Soc i al St ud i e s and t he W or l d: T e ac hi ng G l obal P e r s pe c t i v e s M e r r yf i e l d a nd W i l s on ( 2005) of f e r f or t y ni ne s pe c i f i c t e a c hi ng i de a s f or de ve l opi ng s t ude nt s gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve T hi s bul l e t i n w a s de ve l ope d s pe c i f i c a l l y t o he l p

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31 t e a c he r s pr e pa r e s t ude nt s f or c i t i z e ns hi p i n a c ul t ur a l l y di ve r s e a nd gl oba l l y i nt e r c onne c t e d w or l d. T he goa l o f t e a c hi ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i n s oc i a l s t udi e s i s t o br oa de n s t ude nt s pe r s pe c t i ve s ( B a c on & K i s c hne r 2002) I n br oa de ni ng s t ude nt s pe r s pe c t i ve s e duc a t or s a r e not onl y f ul f i l l i ng t he m i s s i on of c r e a t i ng be t t e r c i t i z e ns but a l s o c r e a t i ng c i t i z e ns w ho ha ve t he t ool s t o pa r t i c i pa t e a c t i ve l y i n a n i nc r e a s i ngl y i nt e r c onne c t e d w or l d. O ne m i ght a s k, c a nnot t hi s be a c c om pl i s he d i n a t r a di t i ona l s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s r oom us i ng t r a di t i ona l s oc i a l s t udi e s c or e c our s e s ? W hy i nc l ude gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul a a nd t e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s ? T he a ns w e r i s s i m pl e ; one gl a nc e a t hi gh s c hool c ur r i c ul a a nd s oc i a l s c i e nc e e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s s how s t ha t t he f oc us i s s t i l l l a r ge l y na t i ona l i s t i c ( G ua r m e r y 200 2 ) W he n pr e s e nt gl oba l s t udi e s w o r l d ge ogr a phy, a nd gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s a r e of t e n l e f t t o c ha nc e i n t he f or m of e l e c t i ve c our s e s of s t udy. A B r i e f H i s t or y of t he G l oba l E duc a t i on M ove m e n t T he hi s t or y o f gl oba l e duc a t i on c a n be v i e w e d f r o m m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s ; a hi s t or i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve w i t h t he i ni t i a l bi r t h o f t he f i e l d, c onc e pt ua l i z i ng a nd de f i ni ng t he goa l s of gl oba l e duc a t i on a dvoc a c y or t he r he t o r i c of w ha t s t a t e s l e a de r s a nd s c hol a r s s a y s c hool s s houl d be doi ng, i e t he e xpe c t a t i ons of s oc i e t y, a nd a c t ua l i z e d c ur r i c ul um w ha t i s a c t ua l l y ha ppe ni ng i n c l a s s r oom s T he i ni t i a l c ons ol i da t i on of e duc a t i on r e f or m i n w ha t w oul d be c om e t he f i e l d o f gl oba l e duc a t i on m or phe d out o f t he pos t W or l d W a r I I e r a I n 1946, r oc ke t bo r ne c a m e r a s ga ve us our f i r s t l ook a t e a r t h f r om be yond t he a t m os phe r e ( R e i c ha r dt 2006) T he m a r ve l of t hi s e ve nt c ouc he d i n t he ba c kdr op of w or l d w a r a nd t he e m e r ge nc e o f t he C ol d W a r w oul d t r a ns f or m t he w o r l d ye t a ga i n. T he

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32 f ol l ow i ng t w o de c a de s w oul d br i ng ye t a not he r w a ve of l a ndm a r k hi s t or i c a l s oc i a l e c onom i c a nd pol i t i c a l e ve nt s t ha t w oul d e xpos e t h e U ni t e d S t a t e s vul ne r a bi l i t y on t he w or l d s t a ge S put n i k w oul d c a l l a t t e nt i on t o t he s pa c e r a c e w hi c h i nt e r n pr om p t e d f e de r a l l e gi s l a t i on r e l a t i ng t o m a t h a nd s c i e nc e e duc a t i on G l oba l c onf e r e nc e s w oul d f oc us a t t e nt i on on t he H um a n e nvi r onm e nt nuc l e a r pr ol i f e r a t i on, w or l d popu l a t i on i s s ue s a nd c ont r ove r s i e s s ur r oundi ng t he pl a ne t s r e s our c e s ( T uc ke r & C i s t one 1991) M e di a c ove r a ge of gl oba l e ve nt s a nd t he e m e r ge nc e of bo oks a nd a r t i c l e s on gl oba l i s s ue s w oul d s t i m ul a t e publ i c a w a r e ne s s ( B e c ke r 1973; H a nve y 1976) I t w oul d be no s ur pr i s e t ha t t he i m pe t us f or gl oba l e duc a t i on w oul d c om e f r om r a pi dl y c ha ngi ng w or l d e ve nt s B e c ke r ( 1980) t hought o f a s t he f a t he r o f gl oba l e duc a t i on, m a de t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n w or l d e ve nt s G r ow i ng i nvol ve m e nt i n t he w o r l d s ys t e m i nc r e a s e t he num be r of oc c a s i ons on w hi c h i ndi vi dua l s m a ke de c i s i ons t ha t a r e i n f l ue nc e d by a nd i n t ur n i nf l ue nc e t he de c i s i ons of ot he r i nha bi t a nt s of our pl a ne t ( p. 27) B e c ke r e xpl a i ns t ha t f or m os t t he not i on of pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n a g l oba l s ys t e m i s hi nde r e d by t he t r a di t i ona l l y he l d vi e w o f t he w or l d a s s e pa r a t e na t i on s t a t e s t ha t ha ve l i m i t e d c ont a c t e xc e pt i n t i m e s of w a r a nd t r a de T uc ke r ( 1991) s i m i l a r l y s t a t e s t ha t t he f a i l ur e o f s c hool s t o m a ke gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s a pr i or i t y m a y s t e m f r om a m bi gui t y ove r t he U ni t e d S t a t e s r o l e i n g r o w i ng i nt e r de pe nde nc e T he t e a c he r e duc a t i on r e f or m m ove m e nt of t he 19 80 s be ga n t o a l i gn t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on w i t h t he de m a nds of a n e m e r gi ng i nf or m a t i on s oc i e t y a nd a n i nc r e a s i ngl y i nt e r de pe nde nt w or l d a t t he e nd o f t he 20 t h c e nt ur y ( M c C a r t hy & H e yl 2003)

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33 I n 1981, t he N a t i ona l T a s k F o r c e on E duc a t i on a nd t he W or l d V i e w c a l l e d f o r a n ur ge nt ne e d t o r e e va l ua t e t he pr e pa r a t i on of t e a c he r s a nd e ns ur e oppor t uni t i e s f or t he de ve l opm e nt of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s ( p. 3) I n a hi ghl y publ i c i z e d w or k T he N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on on E xc e l l e nc e i n E duc a t i on ( 1983) a l s o a l e r t e d A m e r i c a ns t ha t : O ur N a t i on i s a t r i s k. O ur onc e unc ha l l e nge d pr e e m i n e nc e i n c om m e r c e i ndus t r y, s c i e nc e a nd t e c hnol ogi c a l i nnova t i on i s be i ng ove r t a ke n by c om pe t i t or s t hr oughout t he w or l d ( p 2 ) T hi s e duc a t i ona l w a ke up c a l l a t t a c ke d t he m e di oc r i t y i n e duc a t i on a s w e l l a s de f i c i e nc i e s i n t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on A l l a c c or di ng t o t he r e por t r e ga r dl e s s of r a c e c l a s s or e c onom i c s t a t us a r e e nt i t l e d t o a f a i r c ha nc e a t de ve l opi ng t h e m s e l ve s E ve n t hough t he N a t i ona l C om m i s s i on on E xc e l l e nc e m a de a s t r ong c a s e f or r i gor i n m a t h, s c i e nc e l a ngua ge a nd s oc i a l s t udi e s l i t t l e a r gum e nt w a s m a de f or t he i nc l us i on of gl oba l i s s ue s ( T uc ke r & C i s t one 1991) T he de ve l opm e nt of s t a nda r ds r e l a t i ng t o di ve r s i t y w oul d e ve nt ua l l y i nc l ude not i ons of t he unde r s t a ndi ng t he U ni t e d S t a t e s e xi s t e nc e i n a gl oba l s ys t e m T hr oughout t he 1990 s m a ny of t he s e s t a nda r ds t ha t m a de t he i r w a y i nt o pr of e s s i ona l s t a nda r ds a nd pos i t i on s t a t e m e nt s w oul d a dvoc a t e t e a c hi ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s T he gl oba l e duc a t i on r e f o r m m ove m e nt of t he 1980 s a nd 1990 s di d i nvol ve c ha nge s i n c ur r i c ul um M os t of t he s e c ha nge s c a m e i n t he w a y of a ddi t i ve c ur r i c ul um m ode l s ( T uc ke r & C i s t one 1991 ) W i t h na t i ona l s t a nda r ds i n pl a c e s pe c i a l i z e d pr ogr a m s de s i gne d t o pr ovi de r e s our c e s f or t e a c hi ng a bout t h e w or l d w oul d e m e r ge T he s e pr ogr a m s i nc l ude : c our s e s w i t h a gl oba l f oc us i nc r e a s e i n e xpe r i e nc e s a br oa d, e xpa ns i on of f o r e i gn l a ngua ge i ns t r uc t i on w or l d hi s t or y s t a nda r ds e s t a bl i s he d, I nt e r na t i ona l

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34 B a c c a l a ur e a t e pr ogr a m s w i t h i nt e r na t i ona l f oc us w e r e e s t a bl i s he d, a nd ge ogr a phy s t a nda r ds a r e r e i nt r oduc e d w i t h t he s uppor t of t he N a t i ona l G e ogr a phi c S oc i e t y ( H e yl & M c C a r t hy, 2003) T he s e pr og r a m s s how a f e w o f t he m a ny c ha nge s de s i gne d t o m e e t t he ne e d f or p r e pa r i ng s t ude nt s t o l i ve i n a n i nc r e a s i ng l y di ve r s e s oc i e t y. T he s e pr ogr a m s w e r e not w i t h out c r i t i c i s m C r i t i que of G l oba l E duc a t i on I n t he m i d 1980s l e s s t ha n a de c a de a f t e r t he e m e r ge nc e of t he gl oba l e duc a t i on m ove m e nt t he f i e l d c a m e unde r a ba r r a ge of a t t a c ks be gi nni ng w i t h a pa r t i c ul a r l y pot e nt a t t a c k on t he C e nt e r f or T e a c hi ng I n t e r na t i ona l R e l a t i ons ( C T I R ) a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of D e nve r A r e por t e nt i t l e d B l ow i ng t he W hi s t l e on G l obal E duc at i on ( C unni ngha m 1986) c ha r ge d t he C T I R a nd ot he r p r ogr a m s of pr om o t i n g l e f t i s t pr opa ga nda r a di c a l po l i t i c a l c ha nge a nd s t ude nt a c t i vi s m O t he r gl oba l e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s l i ke t he one a dva nc e d by t he I ow a D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, w e r e a t t a c ke d f or pr e s e nt i ng unba l a nc e d c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s ( S c huka r 1993) P o l i t i c a l pundi t s na t i on a l m e di a c om m e nt a t or s l i ke P hyl l i s S c hl a f l y, he a d of t he c ons e r va t i ve E a gl e F or um c h a r ge d t ha t gl oba l e duc a t i on w a s f ounde d on be l i e f of c ul t ur a l e qui va l e nc e ( S c hl a f l y 1986) S c hl a f l y l a be l e d t he m ove m e nt a c ul t a nd c ha r ge d t ha t i n f us i on t e c hni que s w e r e a ki n t o i ndoc t r i na t i on by de c e pt i on ( p. 23 ) T he f i e l d o f gl oba l e duc a t i on a l s o dr e w f i r e f r o m a n a s s or t m e nt o f i ndi vi dua l s l i ke D i a ne R a vi t c h, C he s t e r F i nn, a nd t he T hom a s B F or dha m F ounda t i on. L i ke w i s e B ue hr e r s ( 1990) T he N e w A ge M as que r ade : T he H i dde n A ge nda i n Y our C hi l d s C l as s r oom w a r ne d pa r e nt s of t he gl oba l i s t i c i de ol ogy, a nd r a nt e d a ga i n s t t he a l l e ge d pr om ot i ng o f c ul t u r a l r e l a t i vi t y, a nd w or l d gove r nm e nt I t a ppe a r s t ha t c r i t i que s c om i ng f r om out s i de t he f i e l d o f e duc a t i on na m e l y f r om ul t r a c ons e r va t i ve gr oups

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35 c ha r ge gl oba l e duc a t or s w i t h i m pos i ng s oc i a l a nd pol i t i c a l vi e w s on s t ude nt s a nd e nc our a gi ng di s r e s pe c t f or A m e r i c a n i ns t i t ut i ons a nd c ul t ur e T he s e c r i t i que s f oc us m or e on t he m ot i ve s of t he g l oba l e duc a t i on m ove m e nt a nd t a ke on a po l i t i c a l l y m ot i va t e d pe r s pe c t i ve C r i t i que s of g l oba l e duc a t i on c om i ng f r om w i t h i n t he f i e l d o f e du c a t i on, c e nt e r on t he c ont e nt s o f gl oba l e duc a t i on, na m e l y c ont e nt t ha t e nc our a ge s a m or e pl ur a l i s t i c vi e w of t he w or l d. L a m y ( 1991 ) e xpl a i ns t ha t no m a t t e r how c a r e f ul e duc a t or s a r e i n pr e s e nt i ng m u l t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s o n gl oba l i s s ue s i f t he y don not r e i nf or c e t he vi e w t ha t t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s t he pr i m a r y w or l d l e a de r r e pr e s e nt i ng w ha t i s good i n t he w or l d, t he y w i l l be c r i t i c i z e d. M a ny of t he s e c r i t i c i s m s s t i l l r e s ona t e i n m or e r e c e nt c r i t i que s of gl oba l e duc a t i on. B ur a c k ( 2004 ) de l i ve r e d a m ul t i p r onge d c r i t i que o f w ha t he c a l l e d t he gl oba l e duc a t i on i de ol ogy. T he s e c r i t i que s i nc l ude t he c h a r ge t ha t gl oba l e duc a t i on de e xc e pt i ona l i z e s A m e r i c a n hi s t or y, t e a c he s c ul t ur a l r e l a t i vi s m pr o m ot e s one w or l di s m a nd i s unpa t r i ot i c ( B ur a c k, 2004 ; S c hl a f l y 1986 ) T he r e s e e m t o be t hr e e a s pe c t s t ha t f ue l t he de ba t e on gl oba l e duc a t i on. F i r s t c r i t i c s f e a r t h a t gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s m i ght unde r m i ne t he t r a di t i ona l na t i ona l na r r a t i ve a nd t h e r e by, unde r m i ne na t i ona l i s m a nd pa t r i ot i s m ( L a m y, 1991) S e c ond, t he de f i n i t i on o f gl oba l e duc a t i on a nd gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s ha s be e n a s our c e of c ont e nt i on a nd d e ba t e gi vi ng t he i m p r e s s i on of va gue a nd unc l e a r f i e l d of s t udy ( K i r kw ood 2001 ) A nd l a s t l y, c r i t i c s c l a i m g l oba l e duc a t or s f oc us on pr oc e dur e pr oc e s s a nd hi ghe r o r de r t hi n ki ng a nd pr obl e m s ol vi ng w i t hout t e a c hi ng ba s i c f a c t s a nd know l e dge ( E ngl i s h, 1987 ) D oe s ha vi ng a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve de c r e a s e na t i ona l i s m a nd pa t r i ot i s m t he r e by di m i n i s hi ng t he s t a t us of t he na t i on s t a t e ? T hi s s e e m s t o be t he f e a r of t hos e t ha t t a ke i s s ue w i t h t he goa l s of gl oba l e duc a t or s

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36 B e c a us e i t ha s be e n t he goa l of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on t o p r e pa r e c i t i z e ns t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he pol i t i c a l s t a t e w i l l t he bl u r r i ng of na t i ona l b ounda r i e s m a ke i s s ue s s o uni ve r s a l t ha t t he pow e r a nd t he i nf l ue nc e o f t he na t i on s t a t e w i l l be r e duc e d? H ow c a n w e e xpe c t s t ude nt s t o e nga ge i n hi ghe r o r de r t hi nki ng a nd c r i t i c a l a na l ys i s w i t hout f i r s t know i ng t he f a c t s ? G l oba l e duc a t i on i s l i ke e xpe c t i ng c hi l d r e n t o r un be f o r e t he y c a n w a l k s yndr om e ( E ngl i s h, 198 7) W hi l e m a ny of t he s e c r i t i c i s m s s e e m t o us e i nf l a m m a t or y pol i t i c a l l a ngua ge t he y a l s o l a c k a c ohe s i ve s ubs t a nt i ve a r gum e nt M a ny o f t he s e c ha r ge s a ppe a r t o be f ue l e d f i r s t by t he de ba t e ove r t he r ol e t he U ni t e d S t a t e s pl a ys i n t he w or l d t oda y a nd s e c o nd by de ba t e ove r w ha t r o l e s c hool s s houl d pl a y i n t he p ol i t i c a l e duc a t i on of s t ude nt s ( L a m y 1991) R on S c huka r ( 1993) i n hi s a na l ys i s of l e a di ng gl oba l e duc a t i on p r ogr a m s e xpl a i ns t ha t gl oba l e duc a t or s a r e no t w i t hout f a ul t L a c k of ba l a nc e d c ur r i c ul a r m a t e r i a l s a nd bi a s e d m a t e r i a l s ga ve f odde r t o c r i t i c s T he ha r s hne s s of t he s e a t t a c ks m a ke s t he a dva nc e m e nt of gl oba l e duc a t i on i n i t i a t i ve s m or e di f f i c ul t t ha n r e f o r m i n ot he r s ubj e c t a r e a s ( Z e m e l m a n, D a ni e l s & H yde 1998) T he bi t t e r a nd s om e t i m e s pe r s ona l a f f r ont t o e a r l y gl oba l e duc a t or s ha d a pol a r i z i ng e f f e c t on a ny c ons t r uc t i ve de ba t e i n t he f i e l d of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on. B ur i e d w i t hi n t hi s de ba t e ove r c ont e nt a nd pe r s pe c t i ve a nd r e c e i vi ng f a r l e s s a t t e nt i on i n t he f i e l d s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on, a r e t he s ki l l s i de nt i f i e d a s e s s e nt i a l i n e duc a t i ng f o r c i vi c e nga ge m e nt i n t he gl o ba l i z e d s oc i e t y w e l i ve i n, a nd be s t p r a c t i c e s i n t he f i e l d o f s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on. E ve n t he m os t a r de nt a dv e r s a r i e s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on a gr e e on c e r t a i n s ki l l s t ha t a r e e s s e nt i a l l y f or c i vi c l i t e r a c y a nd e nga ge m e nt i n a pl ur a l i s t i c de m oc r a t i c s oc i e t y. T he s e s ki l l s i nc l ud e a na l ys i s s ynt he s i s a nd e va l ua t i on of

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37 c om pe t i ng a r gum e nt s t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s a nd c o ope r a t i ve s t r a t e gi e s f or p r obl e m s ol vi ng ( L a m y 1991 2007) I n o r de r t o e xpl or e m or e on t he pr a c t i c e of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c hi ng, a c l os e r l ook a t pe da gogy i s ne c e s s a r y. E xpe r t s i n t he f i e l d o f gl oba l e duc a t i on ha ve i de nt i f i e d t e a c hi ng p r a c t i c e s t ha t f os t e r t he a t t a i nm e nt of a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve F or e xa m pl e t e a c hi ng a bout t he w or l d m us t i nc l ud e e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t a r e s t ude nt c e nt e r e d, f oc us on c ogni t i ve obj e c t i ve s s uc h a s i nd e pe nde nt r e s e a r c h f r om a num be r o f r e s our c e s e va l ua t i ng a l t e r na t i ve s ol ut i ons t o pr obl e m s a nd di s c us s i ng i s s ue s i n c l a s s ( F i e n & W i l s on, 1997 ) I t i s t he r e f or e i m por t a nt t o e xpl or e gl oba l e duc a t i on pe da gogy i n t he c ont e xt of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c hi ng. P e da gogy of G l oba l E duc a t i on G l oba l pe da gogy i s t he p r a c t i c e of t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng gl oba l l y o r i e nt e d c ont e nt i n w a ys t ha t s upp or t t he goa l s of gl oba l e duc a t i on ( M e r r yf i e l d, 1997 ) T he r e ha ve be e n m a ny s t udi e s c onduc t e d i n or de r t o l e a r n m or e a bo ut how t e a c he r s i nf us e gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n t he c l a s s r oom ( B e ni t e z 2001; K i r k w ood, 1995) G l oba l e duc a t or s s ha r e c e r t a i n t e a c hi ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd pe r s ona l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s : t he y c onf r ont s t e r e ot ype s a nd r e s i s t ove r s i m pl i f i c a t i on of ot he r c ul t ur e s a nd gl ob a l i s s ue s ; e nc our a ge t he e xa m i na t i on of m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s ; t e a c h a bout i nj us t i c e d i s c r i m i na t i on, a nd pow e r ; a nd pr ovi de c r os s c ul t ur a l e xpe r i e nt i a l l e a r ni ng oppor t uni t i e s ( M e r r yf i e l d, 1994 1998 2002 ) T he gl oba l e duc a t or r e nounc e s t he i de a t ha t w or l d hi s t o r y i s t he s t udy of ot he r c ul t ur e s a nd i ns t e a d e m br a c e s t he not i on t ha t i t i s a n i nve s t i ga t i on of l a r ge s c a l e c ha nge s i n t he w or l d ( M e r r yf i e l d, 2002) T he y l ook f or e xpl a na t i ons of c ha nge r a t he r t ha n j us t de s c r i bi ng w ha t a pa r t i c ul a r c i vi l i z a t i on w a s l i ke l ong a go, or w ha t i t s gr e a t a c c om pl i s hm e nt s w e r e ( D unn, 2002) T he i nt e r c onne c t e dne s s a nd i nt e r de pe nde nc e of ou r w or l d i s a ba s i s f o r e xpos i ng

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38 s t ude nt s t o pe opl e a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s unl i ke t he i r ow n. T oda y gl oba l e duc a t i on ha s e vol ve d t o e m br a c e ne w c ha l l e nge s t ha t c om e w i t h i nc r e a s i ng di ve r s i t y i n our s c hool s ( M e r r yf i e l d & W i l s on, 2 005) G l oba l e duc a t i on a n d m ul t i c ul t ur a l e duc a t i on, e a c h ha vi ng di f f e r e nt r oot s ha ve m a ny s ha r e d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s M e r r yf i e l d a nd W i l s on ( 2005) i de nt i f i e d s e ve r a l c om m ona l i t i e s i nc l udi ng t e a c hi n g a bout s t r uc t ur a l a nd i ns t i t ut i ona l i ne qui t i e s t e a c hi ng a bout e f f or t s t o ove r c om e opp r e s s i on, t e a c hi ng t o i m pr ove i nt e r gr oup r e l a t i ons a nd c r os s c ul t ur a l s ki l l s r e duc i ng s t e r e ot ype s a nd pr e j udi c e t e a c hi ng t ha t he l ps s t ude nt s r e f l e c t on t he i r ow n c ul t u r e a nd w ha t i t m e a ns t o be a n A m e r i c a n, t e a c hi ng t ha t pr ovi de s a c c e s s t o m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd t e a c hi ng t o de ve l op a n unde r s t a ndi ng of pow e r a nd i t s r ol e i n t he pr oc e s s of know l e dge c ons t r uc t i on. G l oba l e duc a t or s us e r e a l w or l d r e s our c e s T e a c he r s w ho us e gl oba l or m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s w i l l of t e n l ook t o t he i r c om m uni t i e s a s a r e s our c e t o s e e k out d i ve r s e pe r s pe c t i ve s ( M e r r yf i e l d, 1998 ) G ue s t s pe a ke r s m a ke pr e s e nt a t i ons a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s a nd e xpe r t s i n t he i r f i e l d s ha r e t he i r u ni que pe r s pe c t i ve s on va r i ous t opi c s T he s e c om m uni t y l e a de r s w i l l br oa de n s t ude nt s k now l e dge of ot he r pe r s pe c t i ve s ; t hi s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e a s t ude nt s a bi l i t y t o a c t i ve l y e nga ge i n r ol e pl a y a nd s i m ul a t i on a c t i vi t i e s R ol e pl a yi ng f os t e r s s t ude nt s i nhe r e nt i n t e r e s t i n hi s t or i c a l e ve nt s a nd t he pe opl e t ha t e xpe r i e nc e d t he m ( C r uz & M ur t hy, 2006) A s s t ud e nt s t a ke on t he f e e l i ngs a n d voi c e s of pe opl e s of ot he r t i m e s a nd pl a c e s t he l e a r ni ng of h i s t or i c a l c ont e nt be c om e s m or e na t ur a l O ne e xa m pl e of s uc h a n a c t i vi t y i s M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons I n t hi s a c t i vi t y a s w e l l a s ot he r s l i ke i t s t ude nt s e nga ge i n c r i t i c a l l y e xa m i ni ng gl oba l i s s ue s f r om a m ul t i t ude of pe r s pe c t i ve s ( K i r kw ood, 2004) A c t i vi t i e s l i ke t hi s pr ovi de s t ude nt s w i t h t he oppor t un i t y t o pr obe t he de e p l a ye r s of pe r s pe c t i ve a nd dr e dge t o t he s ur f ac e as pe c t s of pe r s pe c t i v e

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39 t hat hav e ne v e r be f or e s e e n t he l i ght of da y ( H a nve y, 1976 p 7 ) I t i s t hi s a c t o f e xc a va t i ng t he s e pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t t he gl oba l e duc a t or de l i be r a t e l y unde r t a ke s i n t he c our s e t e a c hi ng s oc i a l s t udi e s G l oba l e duc a t or s ha ve c e r t a i n e xpe c t a t i ons of t he i r s t ude nt s T he y w a nt t he i r s t ude nt s t o a ppr e c i a t e t he c om pl e xi t y o f di ve r s e vi e w poi nt s a nd i nve s t i ga t e t hos e vi e w poi nt s t ha t a r e di f f e r e nt f r om t he i r ow n. A s f a r a s c ont e nt know l e dge gl oba l e duc a t or s e xpe c t t he i r s t ude nt s t o m a ke c r os s c ul t ur a l c om pa r i s ons ye t f oc us on w hy i ndi vi dua l s m a y ha ve di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd ho w c ul t ur e m i ght a f f e c t t he s e pe r s pe c t i ve s ( M e r r yf i e l d, 1998 ) T oni F us s K i r kw ood ( 2002) s t udi e d how 33 t e a c he r s f r om 21 s c hool s e l e m e nt a r y a nd s e c onda r y, w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he J apan T oda y P r ogr am t a ught a bout J a pa n. D a t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d ove r a t w o ye a r pe r i od. T he s t udy f oc us e d on how t e a c he r s c onc e pt ua l i z e d t e a c hi ng a bout J a pa n a nd t he f a c t or s t ha t s ha pe d t h e i r i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons T he f i ndi ngs w e r e c a t e gor i z e d i nt o t w o t he m e s : i ns t r uc t i on a nd c ur r i c ul um i m pa c t S i m i l a r i t i e s be t w e e n t he e l e m e nt a r y a nd s e c onda r y t e a c he r s w e r e t ha t s t ude nt s m us t be a bl e t o m a ke i n de pt h c om pa r i s ons be t w e e n U S a nd J a pa ne s e c ul t ur e s i n or de r t o f os t e r c r os s c ul t ur a l unde r s t a ndi ng t ha t w oul d l e a d t o t he di s m a nt l i ng of s t e r e ot ype s T he r e w a s a l s o a s ha r e d c om m i t m e nt t o t e a c h a bout r e s pe c t f or a l l c ul t u r e s a nd na t i ons T e a c he r s a l s o s ha r e d a c om m i t m e nt t o t e a c h t he i nt e r c onne c t e dne s s of hi s t or y a nd s how how c ul t ur a l pe r s pe c t i ve s s ha pe hi s t or i c a l e ve nt s T he y a l s o a ddr e s s e d t he m or a l i s s ue s of t he U S nuc l e a r bom bi ng of J a pa n a nd t he i nj us t i c e of J a pa ne s e i nt e r nm e nt K i r kw ood ( 2002) f ound t ha t c ont e nt e xpe r t i s e a s a r e s ul t of t h e e xt e ns i ve a c a de m i c pr e pa r a t i on f or

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40 t he t r a ve l t o J a pa n m e a nt gr e a t e r c onf i de nc e e nt hu s i a s m a nd f e e l i ngs of e m pow e r m e nt f or t he t e a c he r a nd s how e d be ne f i c i a l t o t he s t ude n t s T e a c he r E duc a t i on I f s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s a r e s uppos e d t o pr e pa r e t he i r s t ude nt s t o l i ve i n a n i nc r e a s i ngl y i nt e r de pe nde nt w or l d t e a c he r e duc a t o r s m us t l i ke w i s e e qui p pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s w i t h t he t ool s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t e nc our a ge a nd f os t e r gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s I n a w or l d of r a pi d c ha nge i t i s t he r e s pons i bi l i t y of t e a c he r e duc a t i on t o de ve l op hum a n r e s our c e s a nd t he r e by c ont r i but e t o t he i m pr ove m e nt of t he hum a n c ondi t i on ( T uc ke r & C i s t one 1991) H e yl a nd M c C a r t hy ( 2003 ) w a r ne d t ha t unt i l t he r e a r e c oor di na t e d e f f or t s a t a l l l e ve l s o f t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on a nd i n s e r vi c e pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt t o e nha nc e t h e na t i on s t e a c he r s a bi l i t y t o t e a c h a bout t he w o r l d, U S s t ude nt s w i l l c ont i nue t o e xhi bi t a pr of oundl y di s c our a gi ng l a c k of know l e dge a bout t he w or l d ( p. 16 ) F or t hi s r e a s on, i t i s a w or t hw hi l e e nde a vor t o a s s e s s t hos e qua l i t i e s s t ude nt s pos s e s s a s t he y e nt e r our c ol l e ge s of t e a c he r e duc a t i on. I t i s i m por t a nt a t t hi s poi nt t o c ons i de r t ha t a l t ho ugh p r ogr e s s ha s be e n m a de i n t he w a y of a dvoc a t i ng f or t he us e of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s i ns t r uc t i on, t h e m ove m e nt s t i l l de pe nds l a r ge l y on t he t e a c he r a s t he i ns t r uc t i ona l ga t e ke e pe r i e t h e t e a c he r e l e c t s w he t he r or not t o t e a c h w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve ( T ho r nt on, 1989) F o r t hi s r e a s on, K i r kw ood ( 2006) c onduc t e d a s t udy e xa m i ni ng t he w o r l dm i nde dne s s of 644 t e a c he r c a ndi da t e s e nr ol l e d i n s oc i a l s t udi e s m e t hods c our s e s a t f i ve F l or i da publ i c uni v e r s i t i e s K i r kw ood s r e s e a r c h w a s ba s e d on t he t he or y t ha t t e a c he r s gl oba l be l i e f s ys t e m s s ha pe t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l c ur r i c ul a r a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons K i r kw ood i d e nt i f i e d pr e di c t or s o f

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41 w or l dm i nde dne s s t ha t c a n be a ddr e s s e d i n t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on pr og r a m s : gl oba l c ont e nt c our s e s pr of i c i e nc y i n a f o r e i gn l a ngua ge i nt e r na t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s of a s pe c i f i e d l e ngt h a nd hi ghe r G P A a ve r a ge s r e qui r e d t o e nt e r t e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s K i r kw ood ( 2006) not unl i ke H e yl & M c C a r t hy ( 2003) a dvo c a t e s t ha t t he ke y t o p r e pa r i ng t e a c he r s t o t e a c h i n a g l oba l a ge i s c a r e f ul s c r ut i ny of t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on pr ogr a m s a s w e l l a s a c oor di na t e d s us t a i ne d e f f or t t o gl oba l i z e t e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s E ve n w i t h a s e e m i ngl y a i r t i ght r a t i ona l e f or t he us e of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on, t he r e a r e s e ve r a l r e a s ons w hy t e a c he r s don t t e a c h gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s W hy i s t he gl oba l e duc a t i on m ove m e nt t oda y, w i de l y he l d a s i m por t a nt s t i l l f i ndi ng e nt r y i n t o s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s r oom s di f f i c ul t ? M e t z ge r ( 1988) i de nt i f i e d s e ve r a l pos s i bl e ba r r i e r s : ( 1) t e a c he r s t he m s e l ve s a r e uni nf or m e d, p r oduc t s of t he ve r y s ys t e m i n ne e d of r e f or m ( 2) i na de qua t e know l e dge of pe da gogy, ( 3 ) c ur r i c ul a r r i gi di t y ( 4) t e xt book l i m i t a t i ons ( 5 ) pe r s ona l a nd m ot i va t i ona l obs t a c l e s of t he s t ude nt s a nd ( 6) i nf l ue nc e of m a s s m e di a M e t z ge r doe s a c know l e dge t ha t a s m o r e gl oba l m a t e r i a l s a r e m a de a va i l a bl e a nd t he gl oba l ne t w or ks a r e e xpa nd e d, t e a c hi ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s houl d be c om e m or e m a na ge a bl e M a ny of t he c ha l l e nge s M e t z ge r ( 1988) i de nt i f i e d ne a r l y t w e nt y ye a r s a go, c ont i nue t o be f a c e d by s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s t oda y, a s t he y e l e c t t o br i ng a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i nt o t he i r c l a s s r oom s F or e xa m pl e r e v ol ut i ona r y c ha nge i n t he w a y pe opl e ge t t he i r ne w s vi a onl i ne m e di a de m a nds t ha t s t ude nt s a r e pr e pa r e d t o be c r i t i c a l m e di a c ons um e r s t ha t di s c e r n r e l i a bl e s our c e s of i nf or m a t i on. T e xt books ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o i nc l ude t he voi c e s of pe opl e l ong l e f t out of t he hi s t or i c a l na r r a t i ve s by pr ovi di ng s uppl e m e nt a r y a nd onl i ne r e s our c e s l i ke w e b que s t s a nd i nt e r a c t i ve m e di a s o t ha t

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42 s t ude nt s c a n e xpl or e di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i ve s H ow e ve r a t e a c he r s c l a s s r oom us e of t he s e r e s our c e s r e m a i ns i n que s t i on. T he ve r y l a be l i ng o f t he s e r e s our c e s a s s uppl e m e nt a r y i m pl i e s t ha t t he y a r e not pa r t of t he m a i n body na r r a t i ve S m i t h ( 2002 ) a l s o s uppor t s M e t z ge r s ( 1988) c l a i m t ha t t e a c he r s ow n know l e dge of t he w or l d i s a c ha l l e nge t o t e a c hi ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i n a ddi t i on pe da gogi c a l c om pe t e nc e i n t e a c hi ng c r i t i c a l a na l yt i c a l a nd e va l ua t i ve s ki l l s T he s e how e ve r a r e i s s ue s t ha t m a y no t e xc l us i ve l y f a l l t o t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on p r ogr a m s b ut c ol l e ge s t ha t de l i ve r i ns t r uc t i on i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c ont e nt a r e a s a s w e l l A c r i t i c a l que s t i on t ha t ne e ds i m m e di a t e a t t e nt i on i n our c ol l e ge s of e duc a t i on i s how c a n w e m a ke s ur e ou r s t ude nt s ( i e p r e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s ) ga i n t he gl oba l know l e dge a nd pe da gogi c a l t ool s f or t e a c hi ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve ? H e yl a nd M c C a r t hy ( 2003) s t udi e d 690 uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s w ho ha ve be e n l i c e ns e d t o t e a c h K 12 e duc a t i on i n or de r t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e i s a n i nt e r n a t i ona l di m e ns i on i n t he na t i on s c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s T he i r f i ndi ngs r e ve a l a s m a l l pe r c e nt a ge of s t ude nt s e nga gi ng i n a c t i vi t i e s t ha t a r e i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e r na t i ona l i n na t u r e A c t i vi t i e s t ha t a r e i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng a n i nt e r na t i ona l di m e ns i on i nc l ude pu r s ui ng a f or e i gn l a ngua ge t r a ve l or s t udy a br oa d, m e m be r s hi p i n a p r of e s s i ona l or ga ni z a t i on, a nd e n r ol l m e nt i n i nt e r na t i ona l or g l oba l c our s e s ( H e yl & M c C a r t hy, 2003; K i r kw ood 2002 ; M e r r yf i e l d, 2001) M a ny f a c t or s c ont r i but e t o a t e a c he r s us e of g l oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n t e a c hi ng s oc i a l s t udi e s K i r kw ood ( 2002) e nc our a ge s t e a c he r e duc a t i on p r ogr a m s not onl y t o i nt e gr a t e gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i nt o t he i r pr ogr a m s but a l s o t o i nc l ude t r a ve l s t ud y pr ogr a m s L a m y ( 2007 ) pr ov i de s a not he r pe r s pe c t i ve on w ha t c ol l e ge s c a n do t o p r e pa r e f ut ur e s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s H e a dvoc a t e s t ha t a not he r w a y of a ddr e s s i ng t he i m po r t a nt

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43 ne e d of pr e pa r i ng s t ude nt s f or t he i r f ut ur e r ol e a s c i t i z e ns i n a gl oba l s oc i e t y i s t o p r om ot e a c t i ve l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s i n c ol l e ge c ou r s e s t ha t t r a di t i ona l l y w e r e t a ught by l e c t u r e s T he s e s t r a t e gi e s i nc l ude c a s e s t udi e s pr obl e m ba s e d l e a r ni ng s c e na r i os t ha t f oc us on i nt e r na t i ona l i s s ue s e ve nt s a nd gl oba l c ondi t i ons W i t h t hi s f or m a t s t ude nt s w oul d be e xpos e d t o ot he r w or l dv i e w s i ns t e a d of t he m ai n t ai ne r pa r a di gm t ha t m os t U S s t ude nt s vi e w t he w or l d t hr ough L a m y ( 2007) e xpl a i ns t he m a i nt a i ne r pa r a di gm a s a w or l dv i e w hous e d i n r e a l i s m ne o r e a l i s m or ne ol i be r a l i s m i de ol ogy. T e xt books t he pr i nt a nd vi s ua l m e di a i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s he a s s e r t s pr om ot e t h i s w or l dvi e w T he a ddi t i on of a n i nt e r na t i ona l or gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i n c ol l e ge c our s e s br oa de ns s t ude nt s c ons t r uc t i on of t he w or l d a nd f a c i l i t a t e s t he i nc l us i on o f a c t i ve l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s i n c our s e s t ha t w oul d ot he r w i s e be t a u ght by t r a di t i ona l l e c t ur e L a m y ( 2 007) e xpl a i ns t ha t s t ude nt s w oul d e nga ge i n c oope r a t i ve r e s e a r c h a nd p r obl e m s ol vi n g a nd t he r e by p r a c t i c e t he s ki l l s t he y ne e d t o be s uc c e s s f ul i n a gl oba l s oc i e t y. T hi s a pp r oa c h m i ght w e l l bui l d a f ounda t i on f or i n f us i n g gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s f or pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s t ha t a r e r e qui r e d t o t a ke c our s e s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c ont e nt a r e a s T hi s pr oa c t i ve pos i t i on w oul d e ve n be e nha nc e d w i t h a f or m a l a r t i c ul a t i on w i t h s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t or s i n c ol l e ge s of e duc a t i on. G l oba l e xp e r t s ha ve l ong doc um e nt e d t he pr o f e s s i ona l di s pos i t i on of s uc c e s s f ul gl oba l e duc a t or s a nd ha ve s how n t ha t t he y s ha r e p e r s ona l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a s w e l l M a ny s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s ha ve ha d pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s s uc h a s e xt e nde d c ont a c t w i t h ot he r c ul t ur e s t hr ough t r a ve l r e a di ng, or e xpe r i e nc e w i t h di s c r i m i na t i on ( M e r r yf i e l d, 2001) E xc e pt i ona l gl oba l e duc a t or s be l i e ve t he i r s t ude nt s s houl d be l e s s e t hnoc e nt r i c a nd m o r e e m pa t he t i c T he y a r e pe r s ona l l y c om m i t t e d t o t e a c hi ng a bout i ne qui t i e s hum a n s t r uggl e a nd s oc i a l j us t i c e by us i ng m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s ( M e r r yf i e l d 1998) K i r kw ood ( 2002 )

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44 a c know l e dge d i n he r s t udy t ha t t he s t r onge s t c ont e xt ua l f a c t or f or a l l t e a c he r s w a s t he i r e nt hus i a s m a nd c om m i t m e nt t o t e a c hi ng a bout J a pa n be c a us e of t he i r s pe c i a l i z e d kno w l e dge a nd t r a i ni ng. G l oba l e duc a t or s pe r c e i ve t he m s e l ve s a s c ha nge a ge nt s ; t he y r e a l i z e t he s oc i a l i z i ng pow e r o f t he s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s r oom a nd t he y be l i e ve t ha t a n unde r s t a ndi ng of m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s w i l l he l p s t ude nt s t o de ve l op e m pa t hy a nd a de s i r e t o he l p ot he r s ( K i r kw ood 2002; M e r r y f i e l d, 1998) N ot a l l s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s or s t ude nt s t r a ve l or s t udy a b r oa d. O ne of t he bi gge s t c ha l l e nge s f or t e a c he r s i s i na de qua t e t e a c he r know l e dge of t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r ( S m i t h 20 02) C a n e xpe r i e nc e s r i ght h e r e i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i n ou r c i t i e s c om m uni t i e s s c hool s or c l a s s r oom s f os t e r t he de ve l opm e nt of a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve ? M ul t i c ul t ur a l e duc a t or s ha ve l ong he l d t ha t t he di ve r s i t y i n our s oc i e t y pr ovi de s t e a c he r s w i t h r i c h r e s our c e s t hr ou gh w hi c h t o t e a c h a bout di f f e r e nt gr oups a nd t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s ( M e r r yf i e l d, 1998) W i t h l i t t l e c ha nge i n how t e a c he r s a r e c r e de nt i a l e d, i t i s w or t hw hi l e t o e xpl o r e t e a c he r l i c e ns i ng pr oc e dur e s U ni t e d S t a t e s c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s t he p r i m a r y s our c e of t r a i ne d t e a c he r s a r e obl i ga t e d t o p r ovi de g r a dua t e s w i t h know l e dge a nd e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t w i l l e na bl e t he m t o i nc or por a t e gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n K 12 c l a s s r oom s ( H e yl & M c C a r t hy, 2003) H e yl a nd M c C a r t hy f u r t he r c a l l f or c ol l e ge s of e duc a t i on t o pr ovi de l e a de r s hi p a nd s u ppor t t o t he t hous a nds of t e a c he r s a l r e a dy i n t he f i e l d w ho c a n l e a d t he w a y i n r e f o r m i ng c ont e nt a nd de l i ve r y i n K 12 c l a s s r oom s T hi s i s not ne w s i n t he f i e l d of gl oba l e duc a t i on W r i t i ng m o r e t ha n t w o de c a de s e a r l i e r T uc ke r a nd C i s t one ( 1991) m a de t hi s s a m e a ppe a l t o t e a c he r e duc a t i on p r ogr a m s T he r e i s no s hor t a ge i n t he l i t e r a t u r e l a m e nt i ng t he l a c k of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n t e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s F or t una t e l y t he r e a r e s t udi e s t ha t de m ons t r a t e s uc c e s s f ul

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45 m ode l s of t e a c he r e duc a t i on, bot h p r e s e r vi c e a nd i n s e r vi c e t ha t s uppor t t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve T he r e a r e i ndi c a t or s of gl oba l m i nde dne s s ( K i r kw ood, 2006) a nd s c a l e s t ha t m e a s ur e gl oba l know l e dge M e r r yf i e l d ( 1998 ) ha s w e l l doc um e nt e d di s pos i t i ons t ha t a r e pr e va l e nt a m ong gl oba l e duc a t or s T he s e pe r s ona l i ndi c a t or s i nc l ude be i ng m ul t i l i ngua l s t udi e d or l i ve d a br oa d, a nd s pe c i a l t r a i ni ng f or gl oba l e duc a t i on or c ont e nt s pe c i f i c a r e a s t udi e s T e a c he r s ha ve a n e nor m ous i m pa c t i n s ha pi ng t he i r s t ude nt s a t t i t ude s a bout t he w or l d. T he s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um c a n be us e d a s a s oc i a l i z a t i on a ge nt B e ni t e z ( 2001) s t udi e d t he e f f e c t s of a gl oba l i z e d U S H i s t or y c ur r i c ul um on s t ude nt a t t i t ude s B e ni t e z hypot he s i z e d t ha t s t ude nt s e xpos e d t o a n e xpe r i m e nt a l c r i t i c a l a ppr oa c h t o U S hi s t or y w i l l be c om e m or e gl oba l l y s e ns i t i ve or i nt e r na t i o na l i s t i c w he r e a s t he t r a di t i ona l c ur r i c ul um gl o r i f yi ng pa s t pa t r i ot s w i l l r e nde r s t ude nt s m or e na t i ona l i s t i c T he e xpe r i m e nt a l gl oba l i z e d c ur r i c ul um w a s t a ught t o t hr e e s e c t i ons of 11 t h gr a de U S hi s t or y s t ude nt s T he c ont r ol g r oup, a l s o c om pr i s i n g of t h r e e s e c t i ons of U S hi s t or y, w a s t a ught vi a a t r a di t i ona l m ode l B e ni t e z ( 2001) f oun d t ha t t he s t ude nt s t a ught t he gl oba l i z e d c ur r i c ul um e xpe r i e nc e d c ogni t i ve di s s ona nc e a t e r m us e d t o de s c r i be c onf l i c t i ng t hought s a bout w ha t one hol ds t o be t r u e a nd w ha t one l e a r ns t o be t r ue T he c ont e nt a nd c ur r i c ul um i n a gl oba l a pp r oa c h t a ught s t ude nt s ne w i nf or m a t i on t ha t c onf l i c t e d w i t h t he i r l ong he l d be l i e f s l e a r ne d t hr o ugh t r a di t i ona l U S hi s t or y c ur r i c ul um C onduc t e d i n M i a m i F l or i da t hi s s t udy ha s m a ny i m pl i c a t i ons f or t he M i a m i D a de s c hool di s t r i c t w i t h i t s l a r ge H i s pa ni c a nd H a i t i a n i m m i gr a nt popul a t i on C ur r i c ul a t ha t e xpos e s t ude nt s t o m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s m a y l e a d t o gr e a t e r t o l e r a nc e a nd e f f i c a c y ( B e ni t e z 2001) A s s t ude nt s e xpl or e c om pl e x i s s ue s s uc h a s hum a n va l ue s gl oba l

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46 s ys t e m s a nd gl oba l pr obl e m s t he y a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o de ve l op s e l f or gr oup s upe r i or i t y ( H e ndr i x, 1998) S t ude nt s r e por t a gr ow i ng i nt e r e s t i n i nt e r na t i ona l ne w s a s a r e s ul t o f a pa r t i c ul a r t e a c he r s us e of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i n hi s or he r c l a s s e s ( H a hn, 2001) A ve r y T r yge s t a d a nd S e dr o ( 1991 ) s t udi e d t he ge opol i t i c a l or i e nt a t i ons of s t ude nt s T he y s ur ve ye d s t ude nt s c onc e pt ua l know l e dge of c om m uni t y, s t a t e na t i ona l a nd l oc a l s phe r e s T he i r s t udy r e ve a l e d t ha t m a ny s t ude nt s ha d di f f i c ul t y i n c onc e pt ua l i z i ng gl o ba l s phe r e s T he y c onc l ude d t ha t t hi s m i ght be a t t r i bu t e d t o a l a c k o f e xpos ur e t o gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s Y e t gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um pr o gr a m s do not s e e m t o be t he nor m ( M e r r yf i e l d, 1990) O s unde T l ou, a nd B r ow n ( 1996) s t udi e d 100 p r e s e r vi c e s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s f r om a s t a t e uni ve r s i t y i n P e nns yl va ni a a nd a s t a t e uni ve r s i t y i n V i r gi ni a i n or de r t o e xpl or e t he e xi s t e nc e of s t e r e ot ype s a bout s ub S a ha r a n A f r i c a T he r e s e a r c he r s a dm i ni s t e r e d a s ur ve y ove r a t hr e e ye a r pe r i od I n a ddi t i on, t he y c onduc t e d a c ont e nt a na l ys i s of t he s oc i a l s t udi e s t e xt books us e d i n s e l e c t e d publ i c s c hool di s t r i c t s i n P e nns yl va ni a T he s t udy r e ve a l s t ha t a l t hough t e xt books ha ve i nc r e a s e d t he i r c ove r a ge of A f r i c a n t opi c s r a r e l y w i l l s t ude nt s l e a r n a bout A f r i c a n na t i ons a nd c ul t ur e s T he i r f i ndi ngs s how e d t ha t de s pi t e be i ng e xpos e d t o a n i nc r e a s i ng a m ount of i n f or m a t i on on A f r i c a t hr ough t he i r c ol l e ge c our s e s a nd s e m i na r s a nd e ve n t hough t he m e di a pr e s e nt e d ne w s on A f r i c a w i t h m or e f r e que nc y, pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s hol d t he s a m e m i s c onc e pt i ons a bout A f r i c a a s e a r l i e r ge ne r a t i ons D ur i ng i nt e r vi e w s m a ny t e a c he r s r e a di l y a dm i t t e d t ha t t he y di d not f e e l t he y ha d a de qua t e know l e d ge of w ha t t o t e a c h a bout A f r i c a T hi s of t e n l e a ds t o t e a c hi ng a bout e xot i c s t e r e ot ypi c a l t opi c s on A f r i c a T hi s d i s c om f or t w i t h c ont e nt know l e dge a bout di f f e r e nt c ont i ne nt s na t i ons a nd c ul t ur e s i s one of t he a r e a s

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47 t e a c he r e duc a t or s m us t a ns w e r T he s e s ur ve y r e s ul t s hol d m a ny i m p l i c a t i ons f or pr e pa r i ng s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s H a a ke ns on, S a vu kova a nd M a s on ( 1999) out l i ne t hr e e s t e ps i n pr e pa r i ng pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s t o t e a c h w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve P r e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s m us t ga i n know l e dge of t he w or l d a nd pe r c e pt i ona l unde r s t a ndi ng; t he y m us t be e xpos e d t o i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s a nd pe r s ona l l y c om m i t t e d t o gl oba l i z i ng t he i r t e a c hi ng a ppr oa c he s S oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r c a ndi da t e s s houl d e nc ount e r m ul t i p l e pe r s pe c t i ve s a s w e l l a s a s s i gnm e nt s t ha t r e qui r e t he m t o c ons t r uc t hi s t or i c a l na r r a t i ve s us i ng pr i m a r y a nd s e c onda r y s our c e s ( B oha n & D a vi s 1998) T he ki nds of oppor t uni t i e s t ha t s uppor t pr e pa r i ng t e a c he r s t o t e a c h f r om a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i nc l ude c r os s c ul t ur a l e xpe r i e nc e s c oope r a t i ve l e a r ni ng, i n t e r di s c i pl i na r y t he m e s pr o bl e m s ol vi ng t a s ks e xpe r i e nt i a l l e a r ni ng, a nd c om m uni t y ba s e d l e a r ni ng G l oba l p e da gogy, a c c or di ng t o H a a ke ns on e t a l ( 1999) i s r e f or m or i e nt e d. G l oba l e duc a t or s w o r k ha r d t o di s pe l s t e r e ot ype s t a c kl e s e ns i t i ve i s s ue s of i nj us t i c e pr ov i de e xpe r i e nt i a l c r os s c ul t ur a l l e a r ni ng, a nd e nc our a ge t he ha bi t of e xa m i ni ng di ve r s e pe r s pe c t i ve s ( M e r r yf i e l d, 1998; B a c on & K i s c hne r 2002) W hi l e t he goa l s of gl oba l e duc a t i on a r e r e a l i z e d i n m a ny of f i c i a l doc um e nt s of pr of e s s i ona l t e a c hi ng or ga ni z a t i ons ( K i r kw ood 20 01) e qui ppi ng pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s w i t h t he t ool s a nd c onc e pt ua l f r a m e w or k a nd a ut h e nt i c i nf or m a t i on f or t e a c hi ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i s i m pe r a t i ve ( O s unde T l ou, & B r ow n, 1996; H a a ke ns on, S a vukova & M a s on 1999; K i r kw ood 200 1) T he r e a r e m a ny c h a l l e nge s f or gl oba l e duc a t or s W e m us t e xa m i ne c r i t i c a l l y t he s hor t c om i n gs of t he pa s t a nd t he e xc l us i ona r y pr a c t i c e s t ha t s t i l l pe r m e a t e our s c hool s ( T or r e s 2002 ) O ne i m po r t a nt r e a s on f or i de nt i f yi ng t he s e c ha l l e nge s i s s o t ha t c ol l e ge s of e duc a t i on c a n s ha pe t he i r t e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s f or

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48 s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t or s t o pr e pa r e a de qua t e l y f ut u r e t e a c he r s w i t h t he a t t i t ude a nd t he know l e dge ne c e s s a r y f or he l pi ng s t ude nt s t o be gl o ba l c i t i z e ns U N A U SA s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r o g r a m T he G l obal C l as s r oom s c ur r i c ul a r uni t s i n P e a c e ke e pi ng, H um a n R i ght s a nd S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt ha ve be e n de s i gne d t o w or k w i t hi n a n e xi s t i ng c our s e s uc h a s A m e r i c a n or w o r l d hi s t or y gl oba l s t udi e s pa r t i c i p a t i on i n gove r nm e nt c i vi c s l a w s t udi e s or E ng l i s h l a ngua ge a r t s T he un i t s c a n be us e d a s t he s ol e r e s our c e f or a n e l e c t i ve c our s e or a s a n a ddi t i on t o e xi s t i ng c our s e s yl l a bi A t t he c e nt e r of t he U N A U SA s G l obal C l as s r oom s pr ogr a m i s M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons D e ve l ope d m or e t ha n 50 ye a r s a go, M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons or M U N a s i t i s popul a r l y c a l l e d, a l l ow s s t ude nt s t o s t e p i nt o t he s hoe s of a m ba s s a dor s f r om U N m e m be r s t a t e s t o de ba t e c ur r e nt i s s ue s on t he or ga ni z a t i on s i m m e ns e a ge nda S t ude nt de l e ga t e s r e s e a r c h i s s ue s c ount r y pos i t i ons pr e pa r e dr a f t r e s ol ut i ons ne got i a t e w i t h s uppor t e r s a nd a dve r s a r i e s r e s ol ve c onf l i c t s a nd na vi ga t e t he U N s r ul e s o f pr oc e du r e a l l i n t he i nt e r e s t of m obi l i z i ng i nt e r na t i ona l c oope r a t i on t o r e s ol ve pr obl e m s a r ound t he gl obe ( w w w una us a or g/ g l oba l c l a s s r oom s ) G l obal C l as s r oom s i s a s t a nda r ds ba s e d c ur r i c ul um t ha t p r ovi de s m i ddl e a nd h i gh s c hool s t ude nt s w i t h t he oppor t uni t y t o e nga ge g l o ba l c onc e r ns a nd e ve nt s a l l w i t hi n t he dyna m i c s of t he U ni t e d N a t i ons s ys t e m T he pr ogr a m c ur r e nt l y o f f e r s t h r e e c ur r i c ul um uni t s : P e a c e ke e pi ng ( 2001) S us t a i na bl e D e ve l opm e nt ( 2002) H um a n R i ght s ( 2003) a nd T he E c onom i c s of G l oba l i z a t i on ( 2008) E a c h t e a c hi ng uni t i nc l ude s a T e a c he r s G ui de w i t h a c c om pa nyi ng s t ude nt w or kbooks w hi c h a r e a va i l a bl e onl i ne f or f r e e dow nl oa di ng, r e pr oduc t i on a nd d i s s e m i na t i on t o s t ude nt s E a c h c ur r i c ul um uni t i nc l ude s s t e p by s t e p

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49 l e s s on pl a ns t ha t be gi n w i t h a n i nt r oduc t i on t o t he U ni t e d N a t i ons a nd c ul m i na t e w i t h a s i m ul a t i on of a s e l e c t e d U N body A l l l e s s ons a r e a l i gne d w i t h m ul t i di s c i pl i na r y s t a nda r ds a nd i nc or por a t e i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s c ons i s t e nt w i t h be s t pr a c t i c e m e t hodol ogi e s i n t e a c hi ng s oc i a l s t udi e s a nd l i t e r a c y. T he c ur r i c ul um uni t s a l s o i nc l ude a s s e s s m e nt t ool s s uc h a s r ubr i c s a nd w r i t i ng s a m pl e s T he r e i s a r e f e r e nc e a nd r e s our c e s e c t i on t ha t pr ovi de s a ddi t i ona l s uppor t m a t e r i a l s pr i m a r y doc um e nt s a gl os s a r y of t e r m s a nd a c r onym s a nd I nt e r ne t r e s our c e s I n or de r t o e ns ur e t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he G l obal C l as s r oom s pr ogr a m U N A U S A e s t a bl i s he d c ons ul t a nt pos i t i ons i n e a c h c i t y t o l i a i s on be t w e e n U N A U S A a nd t e a c he r s s c hool s s c hool di s t r i c t a dm i ni s t r a t or s a n d i m por t a nt l oc a l s t a ke hol de r s P a r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s a r e o f f e r e d f or m a l pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a nd ongoi ng s uppor t by t he l oc a l c ons ul t a nt a nd a t e a m o f l oc a l l e a d t e a c he r s a nd s e l e c t e d uni ve r s i t y i nt e r ns a l l e xpe r i e nc e d i n M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons i n or de r t o pr ovi de e duc a t i on a nd s uppor t f or t he pr ogr a m T he c ul m i na t i ng e xpe r i e nc e f or G l ob al C l as s r oom s s t ude nt a nd t e a c he r i s t he a nnua l M ode l U N c onf e r e nc e hos t e d by U N A U SA T he G l obal C l as s r oom s w e bs i t e a l l ow s s t ude nt s a n d t e a c he r s f r om G l obal C l as s r oom s t o m e e t G l obal C l as s r oom s pa r t i c i pa nt s f r om ot he r c i t i e s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd a br oa d. T he w e bs i t e f e a t ur e s r e s e a r c h l i nks di s c us s i on f o r um s a nd pe r s ona l pr o f i l e s T e a c he r s c a n pos t l e s s ons ne t w or k w i t h f e l l ow e d uc a t or s a nd a c c e s s ba c kgr ound gui de s on c ur r e nt a f f a i r s i s s ue s A l l pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s ha ve a n oppor t uni t y t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he a nnua l c onf e r e nc e A l l c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s t e a c he r w or ks hops ongoi ng p r of e s s i ona l s uppor t a nd c onf e r e nc e pa r t i c i pa t i on a r e pr ovi de d f r e e of c ha r ge t o publ i c s c hool s P r i va t e s c hool s a r e e l i gi bl e t o pa r t i c i pa t e f or a nom i na l f e e a nd c ur r i c ul um uni t s c a n be

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50 pur c ha s e d t hr ough U N A U S A A t t he t i m e of t hi s s t udy, G l oba l C l a s s r oom s i s a c t i ve i n B os t on, B e i j i ng, B e i r ut B e r l i n C hi c a go, D e nve r H ous t on, J oha nne s bur g, L ondon L os A nge l e s M a dr i d, M e xi c o C i t y, M i a m i M i nne a pol i s S t P a ul M um ba i N e w D e l hi N e w Y or k C i t y, S a n J ua n, S a o P a ul o T a m pa T e l A vi v a nd W a s hi ngt on, D C S um m a r y T he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s a pl ur a l i s t i c s oc i e t y. E duc a t i n g s t ude nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a pl ur a l i s t i c s oc i e t y a nd t o r e l a t e t o di ve r s i t y i s not o nl y pol i t i c a l l y c or r e c t a s s e r t s J a m e s C H e ndr i x ( 1998) but i t i s a s i m por t a nt a s pr e pa r i ng s t ude nt s t o be c om e c om pe t e nt bus i ne s s l e a de r s pr of e s s i ona l s a nd w or ke r s I n f a c t s om e w oul d a r gue t ha t a c om pe t e nt w or kf or c e i s de pe nde nt on be i ng c onve r s a nt a nd s ki l l e d w i t h di ve r s i t y i s s ue s M or e of t e n t ha n not s t ude nt s a r e e xpos e d t o ot he r c ul t ur e s i n a s upe r f i c i a l w a y, e m pha s i z i ng di f f e r e nc e s or f oc us i ng on de s c r i pt i ve i nve s t i ga t i o ns of di f f e r e nt c ul t u r e s r a t he r t ha n t he s t udy of how t he w or l d c a m e t o be ( D unn, 2002) F or e xa m pl e t he s t udy o f t r a di t i ona l ge ogr a phi c uni t s of t e n t e nds t o r e i n f or c e s t ude nt s m i s c onc e pt i ons a bout ot he r c ul t ur e s ( H ol l ow a y, 2001 ) E duc a t or s m us t c ons i de r r e c e nt w or l d e ve nt s f o r e xa m pl e c ont i nui ng c onf l i c t s i n t he M i ddl e E a s t a nd s out h A s i a t he i m pe ndi ng c om m i t m e nt o f U ni t e d S t a t e s t r oops i n va r i ous ho t s pot s a r ound t he gl obe gl oba l he a l t h i s s ue s a nd s e r i ous vi ol a t i ons of t he r i ght s of w om e n a nd c hi l d r e n. I n o t he r i ns t a nc e s young pe opl e l e a r n a bout t he i r w or l d a nd ot he r pe opl e s t hr ough t he m e di a T he s e m e di a out l e t s a r e of t e n di s t or t e d, pr e s e nt i na c c ur a t e i nf or m a t i on a nd a r e bi a s e d i nt e r pr e t a t i ons ( H a nve y, 1976) T he r e i s l i t t l e doubt t ha t w e w a nt our s t ude nt s t o k now a bout t he w o r l d out s i de t he i r ow n c om m uni t i e s W e a r e e xpos e d da i l y t o v i s ua l i m a ge s i nc l ude d i n m e di a c ove r a ge of w or l d e ve nt s T e c hnol ogy br i ngs t he w or l d t o us a nd a l l ow s us t o t r a ve l

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51 be yond ge ogr a phi c bounda r i e s t o e nc ount e r di ve r s e pe r s pe c t i ve s T he i m pl i c a t i ons f or s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t or s a r e c l e a r ; ye t on l y a ha ndf ul of s t a t e s a nd s c hool di s t r i c t s ha ve gr a dua t i on r e qui r e m e nt s t ha t i n c l ude gl oba l e duc a t i on ( H ol l ow a y, 2001) E duc a t or s m us t e xpl or e how our na t i on i s c ha ngi ng i n t he f a c e of g l oba l f or c e s a nd w ha t ki nd of c i t i z e nr y i s de s i r e d. S t ude nt s ne e d t o e xpl o r e how t he na t i on s t a t e c a n c a l l pe opl e t o pa t r i ot i c dut y a nd p r ot e c t di s s e nt a t t he s a m e t i m e ( W i l l i ns ky, 2002 ) T he a bi l i t y t o t hi nk c r i t i c a l l y a nd pa r t i c i pa t e a s a c i t i z e n of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd t he w or l d r e qui r e s t ha t s t ude nt s m a ke de c i s i ons ba s e d on m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s ( G a r i i 2000) S oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s m us t pr ovi de s t ude nt s w i t h t he t ool s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t w i l l e na bl e t he m t o c ons t r uc t m e a ni ng a nd c r i t i c a l l y e xa m i ne t he i r r ol e s i n t he w or l d ( D i a z 2004) I n a c hi e vi ng t hi s goa l t he s c ope a nd pur pos e of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on m us t s hi f t t o i nc l ude gl oba l pe r s p e c t i ve s ( K i r kw ood, 2002) S t ude nt s m a y be a w a r e t ha t e ve nt s pe opl e a nd i de a s out s i de t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ha ve a n e f f e c t on t he dom e s t i c w e l l be i ng of t he na t i on. G l oba l t e c hnol ogi e s m a ke s t ud e nt s a w a r e of w or l d e ve nt s a nd pus h f or w a r d t he ne e d t o unde r s t a n d t he m ( B i c km o r e 2 002) A s w e w a t c h our na t i on de a l w i t h r e c e nt gl oba l c ha l l e nge s s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s t he m s e l ve s s t r uggl e w i t h c r e a t i ng m e a ni ngf ul e xpe r i e nc e s f or t he i r s t ude nt s s o t ha t t h e y a r e be t t e r a bl e t o unde r s t a nd t he r ol e a nd r e s pons i bi l i t i e s of gl oba l c i t i z e ns hi p ( A ve r y, 2004 ) P r opone nt s o f m ul t i c ul t ur a l e duc a t i on ha ve l ong ur ge d us t o i nc l ude t he voi c e s a nd e xpe r i e nc e s of i ndi vi dua l s hi s t or i c a l l y om i t t e d f r om t he t r a di t i ona l s oc i a l s t ud i e s na r r a t i ve ( C or nbl e t h 1997 ) T he pos t 9/ 11 w o r l d w e l i ve i n i s a r e a l i t y c he c k f or m a ny s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s I m m e di a t e l y f o l l ow i ng t he t e r r o r i s t a t t a c ks on t he U ni t e d S t a t e s our s t ude nt s a nd c om m uni t i e s pl a c e d a n e nor m ous c ha l l e nge on s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s t o he l p c a l m

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52 f e a r s a nd a s s i s t i n a ns w e r i ng que s t i ons t ha t pr oba b l y bl i nd s i de d m a ny A m e r i c a ns w ho f e l t i ns ul a t e d f r om w or l d e ve nt s I n f a c t s om e t e a c he r s f e l t s o ove r w he l m e d a nd i l l pr e pa r e d t ha t t he y a c t ua l l y i gnor e d or a voi d a ny di s c us s i on of 9/ 11 i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s T e a c he r s s c hool di s t r i c t s a nd C ol l e ge s of e duc a t i on s t r uggl e d t o a ns w e r t he que s t i ons I s our c ur r i c ul u m a nd pe da gogy pr ovi di ng s t ude nt s w i t h oppor t uni t i e s a nd ne c e s s a r y e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t w i l l he l p t he m unde r s t a nd t he b i g pi c t ur e of our i nt e r r e l a t e d w o r l d? A r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t u r e r e ga r di ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd gl oba l e duc a t i on i ndi c a t e s w e ha ve a l ong w a y t o go i n r e a l i z i ng t he s e goa l s A dv oc a t e s of us i ng m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s i n t he s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s r oom be i t m ul t i c ul t u r a l or gl oba l ha ve f ought f o r t he i nc l us i on of voi c e s a nd i ndi vi dua l e xpe r i e nc e s pr e vi ous l y s i l e nc e d, m a r gi na l i z e d, or om i t t e d, i nt o our t e xt books a nd c ur r i c ul a T he s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y f or ha ndl i ng m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s a r e t he s a m e s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y f or s ur vi va l i n t oda y s w or l d ( B e ns on, 2002 ) T he y a l s o a dvoc a t e t he us e of m ul t i p l e pe r s pe c t i ve s c r a f t i ng e xpe r i e nt i a l l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s pr obl e m s ol vi ng, a nd r ol e pl a yi ng, i n o r de r t ha t s t u de nt s unde r s t a nd t he i r ow n pos i t i ons i n t he w or l d T hi s w i l l ul t i m a t e l y pr e pa r e t he m t o l i ve i n a w o r l d w he r e our i nt e r c onne c t e dne s s r e qui r e s a r e vi s i on of ou r de f i n i t i on of c i t i z e ns hi p t o i nc l ude pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he gl oba l c om m un i t y. C or nbl e t h ( 1997) a l e r t s us t o t he b r oa de ni ng s c ope of t he hi s t or y t ha t i s t a ught i n our s c hool s a nd e nc our a ge s a br a i de d hi s t or y ( p. 35 9) t ha t i nc or por a t e s m ul t i p l e hi s t or i e s c ul t u r e s e xpe r i e nc e s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s G l oba l f or c e s ha ve t r a ns f or m e d t he w o r l d w e l i ve i n ye t s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul a i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s ha ve c ha nge d ve r y l i t t l e T e a c he r s f e e l unknow l e dge a bl e a bout a nd unpr e pa r e d t o t e a c h a bout gl oba l i s s ue s a nd t opi c s R e s e a r c h i n t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i ons r e ve a l s t ha t our c ol l e ge s of e duc a t i on a r e i na de qua t e l y pr e pa r i ng s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s t o

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53 i nc or por a t e gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i nt o s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um G a ps i n t he l i t e r a t ur e on gl oba l e duc a t i on r e ve a l l i m i t e d f oc us on gl oba l e d uc a t i on a s r e f l e c t e d i n s t a t e a nd l oc a l gr a dua t i on r e qui r e m e nt s T he s a m e ba r r i e r s i de nt i f i e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e t hi r t y ye a r s a go a r e l a r ge l y t he s a m e ba r r i e r s de s c r i be d i n t he c ur r e nt b ody of l i t e r a t ur e W ha t ha s c ha nge d i s t he a va i l a bi l i t y of t e a c hi ng r e s our c e s a nd pr og r a m t ha t t e a c he r s c a n e l e c t t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n. I t i s c r uc i a l t ha t t e a c he r e duc a t or s s t udy how t e a c he r s m a ke m e a ni ng a nd us e of t he s e pr ogr a m s

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54 C ha pt e r 3 M e t hods I nt r oduc t i on T hi s s t udy e m pl oye d a qua l i t a t i ve a ppr oa c h i n or d e r t o p r ovi de a de t a i l e d a c c ount of t he e xpe r i e nc e s of hi gh s c hool s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s e xpe r i e nc e s a s a f unc t i on of t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r oj e c t T he goa l of t hi s s t udy w a s t o pr ovi de a r i c h c om pe l l i ng a c c ount of t he e xpe r i e nc e s of hi gh s c hool s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s s o t ha t ot he r s c a n be t t e r und e r s t a nd t he i s s ue s r e f l e c t e d i n t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s T he pow e r o f t he qua l i t a t i ve s t udy i s t he di s c ove r y of how t he r e s ponde nt s e e s t he w or l d ( M c C r a c ke n, 1988) T he pr i m a r y m e t hod of ga t he r i ng da t a w a s t he hou r l ong i nt e r vi e w I n t hi s c ha pt e r I w i l l e xpl a i n t he s a m pl i ng pr oc e dur e s a nd c r i t e r i a t he i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s e t hi c a l c ons i de r a t i ons a nd da t a a na l ys i s pr oc e dur e s R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 1. I n w ha t w a ys do t e a c he r s r e por t us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um uni t s ? 2. W ha t c om pone nt s of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom c ur r i c u l um pr ogr a m do pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t m os t i nf l ue nt i a l on t he i r t e a c hi ng pr a c t i c e s a s a w hol e ? 3. H ow doe s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n T he U N A U S A s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r oj e c t i nf l ue nc e how pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c h s oc i a l s t u di e s ? 4. W ha t a r e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he c ha l l e nge s i n t e a c hi ng a gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um ?

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55 5. H ow do s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s pe r c e i ve t he y ne got i a t e c ha l l e nge s i n t e a c hi ng gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c u r r i c ul um ? 6. D o pe r c e pt i ons of pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s e xpe r i e nc e s di f f e r ba s e d on t he na t ur e of how t he y us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um u ni t s ? R e s e a r c h D e s i gn A c a s e s t udy w a s c onduc t e d i n or de r t o ga i n i n s i ght i nt o t he c ur r i c ul a r a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s e s of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s w ho e l e c t t o ut i l i z e a nd pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um A c a s e s t udy i s a n e m pi r i c a l i nqui r y t ha t i nve s t i ga t e s a c ont e m por a r y phe nom e non w i t hi n i t s r e a l l i f e c ont e xt ( Y i n, 2003) T he e xpl or a t o r y na t u r e of t hi s s t udy e na bl e d m e t o c onduc t a n i n de pt h s t udy a nd a na l ys i s of how pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um p r oj e c t m a ke m e a ni ng of a nd unde r s t a nd t he i n f l ue nc e of t he i r p a r t i c i pa t i on on t he i r t e a c hi ng. T he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons f oc us e d on how t e a c he r s us e t he c ur r i c ul um uni t s how t he y na vi ga t e c ha l l e nge s i n t he us e of t he c ur r i c ul um a nd t he i n f l ue nc e t he y pe r c e i ve i t m a y ha ve on t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons W hi l e t he s c op e of t hi s s t udy a ppe a r s t o be phe nom e nol ogi c a l pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e bounde d by p a r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s pe c i f i c pr ogr a m c ont e xt a nd ove r a s pe c i f i c pe r i od of t i m e T he r e f or e a c a s e s t udy a ppr oa c h w a s us e d i n or de r t o pr ovi de a n i n de pt h s t udy of s oc i a l s t ud i e s t e a c he r s pe r c e i ve d e xpe r i e nc e s U ni que ne s s of W e s t C e nt r a l F l or i da W e s t C e nt r a l F l or i da i s un i que i n t ha t t he s ur r ound i ng c i t i e s s ha r e a w e a l t h o f e c onom i c s oc i a l a nd c ul t ur a l i ns t i t ut i ons T he por t of T a m pa i s hom e t o a vi br a nt a nd di ve r s e t r a f f i c ba s e t ha t a c c om m oda t e s c a r goe s s hi ps a nd c r ui s e pa s s e nge r s I t s s t r a t e gi c l oc a t i on pr ovi de s t he m os t di r e c t r out e t o M e xi c o, L a t i n A m e r i c a a nd t he C a r i bbe a n.

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56 T a m pa a nd S t P e t e r s bur g a r e a l s o hom e t o m a j or l e a gue hoc ke y, ba s e ba l l a nd f oo t ba l l t e a m s C ul t ur a l a t t r a c t i ons i nc l ude t he S a l va dor D a l i M us e um t he H ol oc a us t M us e um m us e um s of a r t s c i e nc e a nd i ndus t r y, a s w e l l a s t h e T a m pa B a y P e r f or m i ng A r t s C e nt e r hom e of t he F l or i da O r c he s t r a T he a r e a a l s o i s ho m e t o t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da one o f t he na t i on s t op 63 publ i c r e s e a r c h uni ve r s i t i e s H L e e M of f i t t C a nc e r C e nt e r & R e s e a r c h I ns t i t ut e t he U ni ve r s i t y o f T a m pa E c ke r d C ol l e ge a nd a w e b of c om m uni t y c ol l e ge s t ha t s e r ve t he W e s t C e nt r a l F l o r i da a r e a E a c h c ount y i n t he s t a t e of F l or i da ope r a t e s i t s ow n s c hool di s t r i c t G l obal C l as s r oom s i s a c t i ve i n t he s c hool di s t r i c t s of H i l l s bor ough, P i ne l l a s a nd P a s c o c ount i e s c om pos e d of T a m pa S t P e t e r s bur g C l e a r w a t e r a nd t he P i ne l l a s c ount y c os t a l c om m uni t y t ow ns hi ps P a r t i c i pa nt s f or t hi s S t udy: A pur pos i ve c r i t e r i on s a m pl i ng s c he m e w a s e m pl oye d f or t he pur pos e of qua l i t y a s s ur a nc e ( M i l e s & H ube r m a n, 1994) T hi s a l l ow e d m e t o s e l e c t pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t w oul d pr ovi de t he m os t i nf or m a t i on f o r t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons s t udi e d. T he popul a t i on o f h i gh s c hool s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s i n t he t hr e e W e s t C e nt r a l s c hool di s t r i c t s t ha t w e r e a c t i ve l y pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s P r oj e c t a t t he t i m e o f t hi s s t udy w a s 31. T he c r i t e r i a f or i de nt i f y i ng t he s e t e a c he r s i nc l u de d ha vi ng a m i ni m um of t w o ye a r s i nvol ve m e nt w i t h G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m T hi s e ns ur e d t he y ha d t he oppo r t uni t y t o a t t e nd pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt w or ks hops us e t h e c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s a nd r e s our c e s a nd pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he a nnua l c ul m i na t i ng m ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c onf e r e nc e P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i de nt i f i e d w i t h t he a s s i s t a nc e of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ons ul t a nt f or t he G r e a t e r W e s t C e nt r a l F l or i da A r e a a nd t he l oc a l c ur r i c ul u m t r a i ne r s e m pl oye d by U N A U S A

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57 G l oba l C l a s s r oom s T oge t he r w e i de nt i f i e d 20 hi g h s c hool t e a c he r s t h a t f i t t he c r i t e r i a f or t hi s s t udy M y goa l i n pa r t i c i pa nt s e l e c t i on w a s t ha t t he nu m b e r of pa r t i c i pa nt s r e f l e c t s pr opor t i ona l l y t he popul a t i on of pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c h e r s f r om e a c h pa r t i c i pa t i ng di s t r i c t A t t he t i m e of t hi s s t udy, f i f t e e n hi gh s c hool t e a c he r s f r om H i l l s bor ough C ount y, t w e l ve f r om P i ne l l a s C ount y, a nd f i ve t e a c he r s f r om P a s c o C ount y pa r t i c i pa t e i n G l oba l C l a s s r oom s T hi s l e d m e t o s e l e c t 5 t e a c he r s f r o m H i l l s bor ough C ount y, 3 f r om P i ne l l a s C ount y, a nd 2 f r om P a s c o C ount y. P a r t of t he s e l e c t i on pr oc e s s i nvol ve d c hoos i ng t e a c he r s t ha t r e pr e s e nt e d t he w i de s t r a nge o f e xpe r i e nc e s F or e xa m pl e 2 pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e ve t e r a n t e a c he r s w i t h ove r 25 ye a r s o f e xpe r i e nc e 4 ha d be t w e e n 10 a nd 20 ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e a nd 4 ha d l e s s t ha n 10 ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e I a l s o e l i m i na t e d s om e t e a c he r s f r om t he pot e nt i a l pool of pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t t a ught a t t he s a m e s c hool W i t h t he s e c ons i de r a t i ons I de c i de d on 10 pa r t i c i pa nt s w hom I be l i e ve r e p r e s e nt t he w i de s t r a nge o f e xpe r i e nc e s f r om t he popul a t i on of U N A U S A G l o ba l C l a s s r oom s t e a c he r s A c c or di ng t o K va l e a nd B r i nkm a nn ( 2009 ) t he num be r of s ubj e c t s ne c e s s a r y de pe nds on t he pur pos e of a s t udy. T hi s goa l of t hi s s t udy i s t o e xpl or e t he e xpe r i e nc e s of pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he U N A U SA G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m T he num b e r of pa r t i c i pa nt s s e l e c t e d yi e l de d a m pl e da t a i n a ns w e r i ng m y r e s e a r c h que s t i ons W he r e a s t he r e i s no de f i ni t i ve r ul e r e ga r di ng s a m pl e s i z e i n qua l i t a t i ve s t udi e s t he r e s e a r c he r be l i e ve s t ha t t hi r t y pe r c e nt i s a s uf f i c i e nt num be r t o r e f l e c t t he r a nge of t he popul a t i on unde r i nve s t i ga t i on ( S e i dm a n 2006) I t w a s e xpe c t e d t ha t t he i r t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he y us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um w i l l va r y. I s e nt a l e t t e r of i nvi t a t i on t o a l l 10 t e a c he r s vi a e l e c t r oni c e m a i l c om m uni c a t i on a nd ove r a pe r i od of t w o w e e ks r e c e i ve d a c c e pt a nc e

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58 f r om a l l 10 t e a c he r s T he goa l w a s t o i nt e r vi e w a l l 10 pa r t i c i pa nt s o r unt i l da t a s a t ur a t i on oc c ur r e d ( L i nc ol n & G uba 1985 ) T hi s p r ovi de d f or a r a nge of va r i a t i ons pr e s e nt i n t he popul a t i on w hos e e x pe r i e nc e s t hi s s t udy s e e ks t o unde r s t a nd t he r e by s uppor t i ng t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ve ne s s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s P e r m i s s i on t o c onduc t t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy a nd ga i n a c c e s s t o t he s a m pl e w a s s ought f r om U N A U S A N a t i ona l V i c e P r e s i de nt f or E duc a t i on a nd t he c ons ul t a nt f o r t he T a m pa B a y a r e a s c hool di s t r i c t s I t i s a l s o not e d t ha t t he r e s e a r c he r i s a s t a t e c e r t i f i e d s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r e m pl oye d i n t he s a m e w e s t c e nt r a l publ i c s c hool di s t r i c t a nd s e r ve s a s a l e a d t e a c he r f or U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s E a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w a s gi ve n a t e n dol l a r P a ne r a B r e a d gi f t c a r d a s c o m pe ns a t i on f or hi s o r he r t i m e a nd pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy. I nt e r vi e w P r oc e s s T he r e s e a r c he r w a s t he s ol e i ns t r um e nt of da t a c ol l e c t i on, a nd t he hour l ong i nt e r vi e w w a s t he m e t hod us e d T he hour l ong i nt e r vi e w a pow e r f ul qua l i t a t i ve t ool s e r ve d bot h de s c r i pt i ve a nd a na l yt i c a l pu r pos e s ( M c C r a c ke n, 1988) T he i nt e r vi e w que s t i onna i r e i nc l ude s bot h bi ogr a phi c a l que s t i ons i n a ddi t i on t o que s t i ons de s i gne d t o a r r i ve a t a ns w e r s t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons A p i l ot t e s t of t he i n t e r vi e w pr oc e dur e s a nd que s t i ons w a s c onduc t e d f or t he pur pos e o f a ddr e s s i ng a m bi guous a nd s c he dul i ng s uf f i c i e nt t i m e t o c om pl e t e t he i nt e r vi e w s T hr e e o f m y c ol l e a gue s a l l c e r t i f i e d s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s e n r ol l e d i n gr a dua t e c our s e w or k a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da a gr e e d t o s i t f or t he p i l ot i nt e r vi e w s P r i or t o t he a c t ua l i nt e r vi e w s a n e m a i l a nd phone e xc ha nge oc c ur r e d i n o r de r t o e s t a bl i s h m e e t i ng t i m e s a nd l oc a t i ons O ne a nd one ha l f hour i nt e r vi e w s e s s i ons w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s c he dul e d a t pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pe c t i ve

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59 s c hool s i t e s or i n a f e w i ns t a nc e s a l oc a l c of f e e s hop s ugge s t e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s C a r e f ul a t t e nt i on w a s pa i d t o s i t ua t e t he i nt e r vi e w i n a qui e t l oc a t i on s o a s t o be f r e e f r om di s t r a c t i ons T he s a m e i nt e r v i e w pr ot oc ol w a s us e d f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt T he na t ur e o f t he i nt e r vi e w s w a s s e m i s t r uc t ur e d. A l t hough t he s a m e i nt e r vi e w s c r i pt ( A ppe ndi x B ) w a s us e d f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt a ddi t i ona l que s t i ons a nd i s s ue s di d a r i s e a s e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt r e por t e d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s i n us i ng t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um I obt a i ne d pe r m i s s i on t o a udi o t a pe t he i nt e r vi e w s a s w e l l a s pe r m i s s i on t o ha ve a t hi r d pa r t y c onduc t a udi o t r a ns c r i pt i on w he n ne e de d. R e c or di ng e qui pm e nt w a s t e s t e d a nd ba t t e r i e s r e pl a c e d pr i or t o e a c h i nt e r vi e w A ba c kup r e c or di ng de vi c e w a s a va i l a bl e i n t he e ve nt o f e qui pm e nt f a i l ur e I a l s o t ook not e s dur i ng t he i nt e r vi e w pa yi ng c a r e f ul a t t e nt i on not t o di s r upt t he f l ow o f t he i nt e r vi e w T he s e not a t i ons e na bl e d m e t o c om e ba c k t o a pa r t i c ul a r que s t i on o r r e s pons e i n or de r t o pr obe de e pe r i nt o a pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s M y not a t i ons a l s o e na bl e d m e t o r e c or d obs e r va t i ons m y t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs a s w e l l a s de c i s i ons m a de dur i ng t he c ou r s e of t he s t udy. T he s e not e s w e r e e s pe c i a l l y he l pf ul dur i ng t he da t a a na l ys i s s t a ge of t he s t udy. A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s a gr e e d t o be a udi o t a pe d s o t he r e w a s no ne e d t o m a ke a r r a nge m e nt s t o ha nd r e c or d i nt e r v i e w r e s pons e s I nt e r vi e w s t ook pl a c e ove r a pe r i od of 3 m ont hs M e m be r c he c ki ng w a s c a r r i e d ou t t hr ou ghout t he da t a t r a ns c r i pt i on a nd a na l ys i s s t a ge s A udi ot a pe s w e r e t r a ns c r i be d a ppr o xi m a t e l y e ve r y t w o t o t h r e e i nt e r vi e w s a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e pr ovi de d t r a ns c r i pt i ons of t h e i r i nt e r vi e w s F ol l ow up phone c onve r s a t i ons a nd e m a i l w a s us e d f or t he pu r pos e of c l a r i f yi ng a nd c onf i r m i ng t he da t a

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60 E t hi c a l N a t ur e o f D a t a C ol l e c t i on P e r m i s s i on t o c onduc t t he s t udy w a s s ought f r om t he I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) a nd a ppr ova l w a s gr a nt e d on J ul y 11 2008 D a t a c ol l e c t e d di d not i nvol ve r i s k t o a ny of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy. P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e pr e s e nt e d w i t h a n i nv i t a t i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e a nd i n f or m e d c ons e nt of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s c ol l e c t e d pr i or t o t he i nt e r vi e w T he i nf o r m e d c ons e nt i nc l ude d a s t a t e m e nt o f t he pur pos e of t he r e s e a r c h, how i t w oul d be c onduc t e d, a t i m e l i ne of t he s t udy, pot e nt i a l r i s ks pa r t i c i pa nt r i ght s be ne f i t s c onf i de nt i a l i t y of da t a how t he r e s e a r c he r i nt e nde d t o di s s e m i na t e t he r e s ul t s of t he r e s e a r c h, a nd r e s e a r c he r c ont a c t i n f or m a t i on ( A pp e ndi x A ) P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i nf or m e d t ha t t he y c oul d w i t hdr a w f r om t he s t udy a t a ny t i m e P s e udonym s w e r e us e d i n r e por t i ng da t a t o pr ot e c t t he i de nt i t y of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s T he na t ur e of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e s e a r c he r a nd pa r t i c i pa nt ha d no know n o r i n t e nt i ona l e l e m e nt s t ha t m i ght r e s ul t i n f or c e d pa r t i c i pa t i on D a t a A na l ys i s F or t he pr oc e s s of r e duc i ng a nd o r ga ni z i ng t he da t a I i de nt i f i e d a nd c a t e gor i z e d pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd r e s pons e s F ol l ow i ng t he a udi o t r a ns c r i pt i on a nd da t a ve r i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s da t a a na l ys i s of e a c h i nt e r vi e w be ga n. I nt e r vi e w r e s pons e s w e r e gr oupe d a c c or di ng t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons A s I r e a d t he t e xt of t he i nt e r vi e w s I i de nt i f i e d phr a s e s or pa s s a ge s of i nt e r e s t us i ng hi ghl i ght e r c o l or c odi ng s ys t e m de ve l ope d t o c or r e s pond t o H a nve y s f i ve di m e ns i ons o f gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s C a t e gor i e s w e r e c ons t r uc t e d t o or ga ni z e or s or t pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on ( A ppe ndi x C ) A f t e r s or t i ng pa s s a ge s of i nt e r e s t by r e s e a r c h q ue s t i on, I c ode d pa s s a ge s f i r s t by di m e ns i ons of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s by i de n t i f yi ng p a s s a ge s t ha t s uppor t a pa r t i c ul a r

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61 di m e ns i on. N e xt I l ooke d f o r i ns t a nc e s w he r e pa r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d pl a nni ng or de c i s i on m a ki ng i n r e s pondi ng t o t he i n t e r vi e w qu e s t i ons a nd c ode d t he s e a s T D or t e a c he r de c i s i on. T he o r i gi ns of t he c a t e gor i e s w e r e de r i ve d f r om a c om bi na t i on of pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s t he t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k of H a nve y ( 1976) r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e on t e a c he r de c i s i on m a ki ng ( C l a r k & Y i nge r 1979; C l a r k & L a m pe r t 1986; a nd W e s t e r m a n, 1991) a nd t he r e s e a r c he r s i nt e r p r e t a t i on of p a r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s F or e xa m pl e t he l i t e r a t ur e r e ve a l e d s e ve r a l c ha l l e nge s t o t e a c hi ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve I n or de r t o e l i c i t pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i on W ha t a r e t he c ha l l e nge s i n t e a c hi ng gl oba l l y o r i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um ? s e ve r a l que s t i ons i n t he i nt e r vi e w s c r i pt di r e c t l y c or r e s ponde d t o t he c ha l l e nge s i de nt i f i e d by t he l i t e r a t u r e L i ke w i s e r e s e a r c h i n t e a c he r pl a nni ng a nd t e a c hi ng a s s e r t t ha t de c i s i on m a ki ng i s pr e s e nt i n e ve r y a s pe c t of a t e a c he r s pr of e s s i ona l l i f e ( W e s t e r m a n, 1991) S pe c i f i c c a t e gor i e s i nc l ude a l l oc a t i ng i ns t r uc t i ona l t i m e c ol l a bor a t i on, m a ki ng i nt e r a c t i v e de c i s i ons r a nge of i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s i nt e r pr e t i ng c l a s s r oom e ve nt s a nd r a t i o na l e f or i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons D ur i ng t hi s i t e r a t i ve pr oc e s s c a t e gor i e s w e r e t e nt a t i ve T hi s e na bl e d m e t o c ol l a ps e a nd t o e xpa nd c a t e gor i e s a s t he da t a un f ol de d dur i ng t he t r a ns c r i pt i on pr oc e s s t he r e by c ons t r uc t i ng c a t e gor i e s a nd c ode s a s t he y de ve l op f r om t he e xpe r i e nc e of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a s t he y t ol d a bout t he m i n t he i n t e r vi e w A c ons t a nt c om pa r i s on a na l ys i s w a s us e d t o c ode a nd c a t e gor i z e r e s pons e s f r om t he t e a c he r i nt e r vi e w s ( M i l e s & H ube r m a n, 1994) I t he n s ought t he m a t i c c onne c t i ons w i t hi n a nd a m ong pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd r e s pons e s T o i nc r e a s e t he t r us t w or t hi ne s s of m y f i ndi ngs I s ought t he e xpe r t r e vi e w of m y di s s e r t a t i on c om m i t t e e m e m be r s a nd a f e l l ow doc t or a l pr ogr a m c ohor t m e m be r w hos e f i e l d i s a l s o gl oba l e duc a t i on. S e l e c t e d e xc e r pt s w e r e c hos e n t o i l l us t r a t e t he e m e r gi ng

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62 t he m e s T r a ns c r i pt i ons a r e a va i l a bl e a nd a s uf f i c i e nt a udi t t r a i l w i l l a s s i s t i n ve r i f i c a t i on pr oc e dur e s I t he n de ve l ope d na m e s f o r t he c a t e gor i e s a nd t he m e s ( C ons t a s 1992) T hr oughout t he da t a c ol l e c t i on a nd a na l ys i s s t a ge of t hi s s t udy, m e m be r c he c ki ng w a s c onduc t e d t o a s c e r t a i n w he t he r t he c ode s r e p r e s e nt t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s t a t e m e nt s A pr o f i l e of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i s pr ovi de d w hi c h w i l l e na bl e m e t o pl a c e t he pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s i n c ont e xt a nd a l s o t o r e f l e c t t he i r pa r t i c ul a r s t a t e o f c ons c i ous ne s s ( S e i dm a n, 2006) T he da t a a na l ys i s w a s bot h e xpl or a t or y a nd c on f i r m a t o r y, s e e ki ng t o e xpa nd on e xi s t i ng know l e dge a bout s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons a nd t he i m pl i c a t i ons f or t e a c he r e duc a t i on a nd p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt

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63 C ha pt e r 4 R e s ul t s I nt r oduc t i on O ve r a s pa n of s e ve r a l m ont hs I c onduc t e d hou r l ong i nt e r vi e w s w i t h t e n pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um p r ogr a m I n f or m a l da t a a na l ys i s be ga n w i t h t he f i r s t i nt e r vi e w a s I m a de n ot a t i ons dur i ng t he i nt e r vi e w p r oc e s s T he s e not a t i ons w e r e he l pf ul bot h i n t he i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s a nd dur i ng t he de ve l opm e nt of c ode s a nd c a t e gor i e s dur i ng da t a a na l ys i s pr oc e dur e s c odi ng a nd c a t e gor i z i ng. T he s e i nt e r vi e w s w e r e f ol l ow e d by t e l e phone a nd e m a i l c onve r s a t i ons i n w hi c h I a l s o t ook not e s T he s e no t e s t a ke n be f or e du r i ng a nd a f t e r e a c h i nt e r vi e w pr ove d he l pf ul i n f o r m a l da t a a na l ys i s pr oc e s s F or m a l da t a a na l ys i s be ga n w i t h t he f i r s t i nt e r v i e w t r a ns c r i pt i on T he pr oc e s s of c ol or c odi ng a nd num be r i ng pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s de t a i l e d i n C ha pt e r 3 i nvol ve d a num be r of de c i s i ons i nvol vi ng t he da t a t ha t s pe c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e s t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons I t w a s ne c e s s a r y t o i de nt i f y da t a t ha t s pe c i f i c a l l y a ddr e s s e d t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a nd t he da t a t ha t m a y be i m por t a nt but t ha t di d not a ddr e s s t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons i n t hi s s t udy. T he m e s be ga n t o e m e r ge t h a t e na bl e d m e t o be gi n t o i de nt i f y s or t a nd c a t e gor i z e e ns ui ng f l ow o f pa r t i c i pa nt da t a A t t he c onc l us i on of t he da t a a na l ys i s s i x t he m e s e m e r ge d. T he s e t he m e s w e r e : ( 1) t he t e a c he r s pe r c e i ve d i nf l u e nc e of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s on s t ude nt i nt e r e s t a nd e nga ge m e nt ( 2) c ont e nt e xpe r t i s e a nd c on f i de nc e ( 3) c ha l l e nge s t o t e a c hi ng gl oba l

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64 pe r s pe c t i ve s s t e m m i ng f r om s t ude nt s ( 4) c ha l l e ng e s t o t e a c hi ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s s t e m m i ng f r om t he s c hool e nvi r onm e nt ( 5 ) i nnova t i ve pe da gogy a nd l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s a nd ( 6) pr oj e c t s a nd a dvoc a c y di m e ns i ons t ha t e vo l ve d f r om t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s e xpe r i e nc e s P a r t i c i pa nt s B i ogr a phi c a l D a t a T he t e n pa r t i c i pa n t s i n t hi s s t ud y c ur r e n t l y t e a c h i n t hr e e s c hoo l d i s t r i c t s i n W e s t C e n t r a l F l or i d a T he s e s c hoo l d i s t r i c t s i n c l ud e H i l l s bor ou g h C oun t y P a s c o C oun t y a nd P i n e l l a s C oun t y A t t he t i m e of t hi s s t ud y e a c h pa r t i c i pa n t t a u g ht hi g h s c hoo l s oc i a l s t udi e s a nd a l l r e s i d e d i n t he T a m pa B a y a r e a I n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t he i d e n t i t y of t he p a r t i c i pa n t s I c h a n g e d t he pa r t i c i pa n t s na m e s a n d t he s p e c i f i c s c hoo l s a r e no t m e n t i on e d b y na m e I n o r d e r t o g i v e t he r e a d e r a b e t t e r unde r s t a ndi n g of t he pa r t i c i pa n t s a nd t he i r e xpe r i e n c e s a s G l ob a l C l a s s r oom s t e a c h e r s bi o g r a phi c a l d e t a i l s a r e pr ovi de d E t hno g r a phi c i n f or m a t i on w a s a l s o ob t a i n e d pr i or t o t he i n t e r v i e w s e s s i on s vi a a b r i e f ba c k g r ound qu e s t i onna i r e O f t he s i x f e m a l e pa r t i c i p a n t s i n t hi s s t ud y t w o i d e n t i f i e d t he i r e t hni c i t y a s w hi t e on e a s G r e e k A m e r i c a n on e a s A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, on e a s H i s p a ni c a nd on e c hos e no t t o r e s p o nd. O f t he f ou r m a l e pa r t i c i pa n t s i n t hi s s t ud y one i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f a s N a t i ve A m e r i c a n on e a s w hi t e a nd t w o c hos e no t r e s p o nd. E t hno g r a phi c d a t a w a s no t u s e d i n t he a n a l y s i s of t he d a t a A s um m a r y o f P a r t i c i pa n t da t a i s p r ovi d e d i n F i g u r e 1. A nna a P a s c o C ount y t e a c he r ha s be e n t e a c hi ng s oc i a l s t udi e s f or 15 ye a r s S he t e a c he s A dva nc e d P l a c e m e nt W or l d H i s t or y, W or l d H i s t or y, a nd G ove r n m e nt a nd i s t he s pons or

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65 of he r s c hool s m ul t i c ul t ur a l da nc e c l u b M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons C l ub, a nd ha s be e n a G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r f or 5 ye a r s E l i s e a P i ne l l a s C ount y t e a c he r ha s be e n t e a c hi ng f or 6 ye a r s a t he r c ur r e nt hi gh s c hool S he t e a c he s a c our s e c a l l e d G l oba l S t udi e s a nd ha s be e n a G l oba l C l a s s r oom s t e a c he r f or 4 ye a r s E l i s e a l ong w i t h a c ol l e a gue i n t he E ngl i s h de pa r t m e nt i s a c o a dvi s or t o he r s c hool s M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons C l ub. G l e nda a P a s c o C ount y t e a c he r ha s be e n t e a c hi ng a t ot a l o f 34 ye a r s 22 i n he r pr e s e nt pos i t i on. S he i s a l s o s oc i a l s t udi e s de pa r t m e nt c ha i r G l e nda ha s be e n a G l oba l C l a s s r oom s t e a c he r f or 5 ye a r s S he ha s a l s o w on num e r ous di s t r i c t s t a t e a nd na t i ona l a w a r ds i n t he f i e l d of e c onom i c s gl oba l i s s ue s a nd i nnova t i ve t e a c hi ng. G l e nda a l ong w i t h a c o l l e a gue i s t he a dvi s or t o he r s c hool s M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons C l ub. G e or ge a H i l l s bor ough C ount y t e a c he r ha s be e n t e a c hi ng f or 4 ye a r s H e t e a c he s A dva nc e d P l a c e m e nt U ni t e d S t a t e s H i s t or y, A m e r i c a n G ove r nm e nt a nd i s t he a dvi s or f or hi s s c hool s M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons C l ub. G e or ge pa r t i c i pa t e d i n M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons w he n he w a s i n hi gh s c hool J oe a H i l l s bor ough C ount y t e a c he r ha s be e n t e a c h i ng f or 13 ye a r s H e t e a c he s W or l d H i s t or y a nd L a w S t udi e s H i s t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e i nc l ude s e l e m e nt a r y a nd m i ddl e s c hool gr a de s H e ha s s pe nt t he pa s t 5 ye a r s a s a hi gh s c hool s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r W hi l e he doe s not us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um i n t he c our s e s he t e a c he s he i s c o a dvi s or

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66 t o hi s s c hool s M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c l ub, a nd ha s a s s i s t e d i n pr e pa r i ng s t ude nt s f or c onf e r e nc e s f or t he pa s t 4 ye a r s L i nda a P i ne l l a s C ount y t e a c he r ha s be e n t e a c hi n g f or 33 ye a r s S he t e a c he s i n a n I nt e r na t i ona l B a c c a l a ur e a t e S c hool L i nda t e a c he s W or l d H i s t or y S he a l s o s e r ve s on t he boa r d of di r e c t or s f o r F l or i da H i gh S c hool M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons a nd ha s be e n a G l oba l C l a s s r oom s L e a d T e a c he r s i nc e t he pr ogr a m be ga n i n W e s t C e nt r a l F l or i da 6 ye a r s a go. R i c k, a H i l l s bor ough C ount y t e a c he r ha s be e n t e a c hi ng f or 6 ye a r s H e c u r r e nt l y t e a c he s i n a m a gna t e s c hool s c hool of c hoi c e f o r he a l t h o c c upa t i ons a nd a r c hi t e c t ur e R i c k t e a c he s A dva nc e d P l a c e m e nt W or l d H i s t or y. H e a l s o i s t he a dvi s or t o hi s s c hool s M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c l ub. S t e pha ni e a H i l l s bor ough C ount y t e a c he r i s i n he r 4t h ye a r of t e a c hi ng. S he t e a c he s a t a n i nt e r na t i ona l m a gna t e s c hool o f c hoi c e S t e pha n i e t e a c he s A dva nc e d P l a c e m e nt H um a n G e ogr a phy, a nd W or l d C ul t u r a l G e ogr a ph y. S he i s t he a dvi s or t o he r s c hool s M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c l ub. S a br i na a H i l l s bor ough C ount y t e a c he r i s i n h e r 1 7t h ye a r of t e a c hi ng. S he t a ught 14 o f t hos e ye a r s t e a c hi ng 6t h a nd 7t h gr a de ge ogr a phy S a br i na ha s be e n i n he r c ur r e nt pos i t i on f or 3 ye a r s a nd t e a c he s A dva nc e d P l a c e m e nt U ni t e d S t a t e s H i s t or y.

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67 T om a P i ne l l a s C ount y t e a c he r ha s be e n t e a c hi ng f or 17 ye a r s H e c ur r e nt l y t e a c he s 9 t h gr a de gove r nm e nt a nd ge ogr a phy a t a m a gna t e s c hool s c hool of c hoi c e w i t h a f oc us on c a r e e r e xpl or a t i ons T om ha s be e n a G l oba l C l a s s r oom s t e a c he r f or 5 ye a r s H e a nd a c ol l e a gue a r e t he a dvi s or s t o t he i r s c hool s M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons C l ub.

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68 T a bl e 1. S um m a r y of P a r t i c i pa nt D a t a N a m e S c hool D i s t r i c t S ubj e c t s T a ught Y e a r s of E xpe r i e nc e A nna P a s c o A P W or l d H i s t or y 17 W or l d H i s t or y G ove r nm e nt E l i s e P i ne l l a s G l oba l S t udi e s 6 W om e n s S t udi e s G l e nda P a s c o W or l d H i s t or y 33 G e or ge H i l l s bor ough A P U S H i s t or y 8 G ove r nm e nt J oe H i l l s bor ough W or l d H i s t or y 10 L a w S t udi e s L i nda P i ne l l a s W or l d H i s t or y 33 R i c k H i l l s bor ough A P W or l d H i s t or y 6 G ove r nm e nt S t e pha ni e H i l l s bor ough W or l d C ul t ur a l G e og r a phy 3 S a br i na H i l l s bor ough A P U S H i s t or y 17 T om P i ne l l a s G ove r nm e nt / G e ogr a phy 17 P a r t i c i pa nt s U s e of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um M a t e r i a l s I t i s i m po r t a nt t o unde r s t a nd how e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt us e s t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um w i t h r e s pe c t t o how t he y pl a n a nd t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s F o r e a s e i n unde r s t a ndi ng how G l oba l C l a s s r oom s m i ght be us e d, T a bl e 2 r e p r e s e nt s how

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69 pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy r e por t t he i r us e G l oba l C l a s s r oom s m a t e r i a l s : i nf us e t he l e s s ons f r om t he c ur r i c ul um bi nde r s e i t he r i n t he i r e nt i r e t y or s e l e c t e d c om pone nt s of a l e s s on i n t he c our s e s t he y t e a c h, pa r t i c i pa nt s f oc us on t he s k i l l bui l di ng e xe r c i s e s i nc l ude d i n t he m a t e r i a l s pa r t i c i pa nt s us e r e s our c e s pr i m a r i l y t o i n c r e a s e t he i r ow n know l e dge of gl oba l i s s ue s pa r t i c i pa nt s us e t he m a t e r i a l s t o pr e pa r e t he i r s t ude nt s a nd or c l ub m e m be r s f or M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c onf e r e nc e s i n a n e xt r a c ur r i c ul a r m a nne r a nd or pa r t i c i pa nt s us e t he c ur r i c ul um t o be t t e r f a c i l i t a t e r ol e pl a y a nd s i m ul a t i on pe da gogy.

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70 T a bl e 2. P a r t i c i pa nt s R e por t e d U s e of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um M a t e r i a l s A nna I nf us e s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s l e s s on s i nt o he r e xi s t i n g w or l d hi s t o r y c our s e pr e pa r e s s t ude nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n c onf e r e n c e s us e s s ki l l bui l di ng e xe r c i s e s us e s r ol e pl a y a nd s i m ul a t i ons i n he r c l a s s e s E l i s e U s e s t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s l e s s ons a s a pr i m a r y r e s our c e f or he r G l oba l S t udi e s c our s e F oc us e s on s ki l l bui l di ng c om pone nt s pr e pa r e s s t ude nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n c on f e r e nc e s us e s r ol e pl a y a nd s i m ul a t i ons i n he r c l a s s e s G l e nda I nf us e s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s l e s s on s i n w or l d hi s t or y c our s e w or ks w i t h c ol l e a gue s t o e ns ur e a l l 9 t h g r a de s t ude nt s a r e e xpo s e d t o t he c ur r i c ul um F oc us e s on t he s ki l l bui l di ng e xe r c i s e s pr e pa r e s s t ude nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n c onf e r e nc e s G e or ge F oc us e s on t he s ki l l bui l di ng e xe r c i s e s i n t he c our s e he t e a c he s pr e pa r e s s t ude nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n c on f e r e nc e s us e s s e l e c t e d s i m ul a t i ons a s a M ode l U N C l ub a c t i vi t y J oe P r i m a r i l y t o s uppor t t he p r e pa r a t i on of s t ude nt s i n t he M ode l U N C l ub t o pr e pa r e f or c on f e r e nc e s L i nda I nf us e s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s l e s s on s i nt o he r e xi s t i n g w or l d hi s t o r y c our s e pr e pa r e s s t ude nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n c onf e r e n c e s us e s s ki l l bui l di ng e xe r c i s e s us e s r ol e pl a y a nd s i m ul a t i ons i n he r c l a s s e s f oc us e s on r e s e a r c h s ki l l s R i c k F oc us e s on t he s ki l l bui l di ng e xe r c i s e s pr e pa r e s s t ude nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n c onf e r e nc e s i nf us e s s e l e c t e d c om pone nt s of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um i nt o t he c ou r s e s he t e a c he s us e s r ol e pl a y a nd s i m ul a t i ons i n hi s c l a s s e s S t e pha ni e U s e s de ba t e a nd s i m ul a t i on s ki l l s t o i m pr ove he r u s e of de ba t e s a nd r ol e pl a y s i m ul a t i ons i n he r c l a s s pr e pa r e s s t ude nt s i n t he M ode l U N C l ub f or C onf e r e nc e s S a br i na F oc us e s on t he s ki l l bui l di ng e xe r c i s e s pr e pa r e s s t ude nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n c onf e r e nc e s T om I nf us e s t he c ur r i c ul um i nt o h i s gove r nm e nt a nd ge ogr a phy c our s e f oc us e s on s ki l l bui l di ng, us e s r ol e pl a y a nd s i m ul a t i ons pr e pa r e s s t ude nt s i n hi s c l a s s e s a nd M ode l U N C l ub t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n c onf e r e nc e s

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71 P a r t i c i pa n t s S c hoo l a nd D i s t r i c t D a t a H i l l s bor ou g h C oun t y S c hoo l D i s t r i c t H i l l s bor ou g h C oun t y h a s a l a nd a r e a of ove r 2000 s qua r e m i l e s a nd ha s a popul a t i on of 1, 157, 738 r e s i de nt s a nd a m e di a n hous e hol d i nc om e of $44, 850 ( Q ui c k F a c t s C e ns us 2006) W i t h i n H i l l s bor ough C ount y a r e t hr e e i nc or por a t e d c i t i e s : T a m pa T e m pl e T e r r a c e a nd P l a nt C i t y T he H i l l s bor ough C ount y S c hool D i s t r i c t i s t he 10 t h l a r ge s t i n t he na t i on a nd t he t hi r d l a r ge s t i n t he s t a t e o f F l o r i da w i t h a ppr oxi m a t e l y 191, 353 s t ude nt s 13, 000 t e a c he r s a nd 63 m i ddl e a nd hi gh s c hool s I t i s e t hni c a l l y di v e r s e w i t h 27. 68 pe r c e nt H i s pa ni c 21 pe r c e nt A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, 41. 72 pe r c e nt w hi t e 3 pe r c e nt A s i a n, a nd ne a r l y 6 pe r c e nt m ul t i r a c i a l s t ude nt popul a t i on I t i s t he l a r g e s t of t he t hr e e s c hoo l d i s t r i c t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t hi s s t ud y P a s c o C oun t y S c hoo l D i s t r i c t P a s c o C oun t y l i e s j us t nor t h of H i l l s bor ou g h C ount y I t i s a r ur a l a r e a w i t h a l a nd a r e a o f 745 s qua r e m i l e s I t s p o p ul a t i on e s t i m a t e i s 450, 171 r e s i d e n t s ( Q ui c k F a c t s C e ns u s 2006) P a s c o C o un t y i s t he s m a l l e s t of t he c oun t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t hi s s t ud y T he m e d i a n hous e ho l d i n c o m e f or P a s c o C oun t y i s $38, 065 a c c or d i n g t o a 2004 c e ns u s T he P a s c o C oun t y S c hoo l d i s t r i c t w i t h a n e n r o l l m e n t of 193, 757 s t ude n t s i t i s t he l e a s t di v e r s e of t he s c h ool d i s t r i c t s r e pr e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t ud y T he s c hoo l d i s t r i c t r e p or t s 81. 9 pe r c e n t a r e w hi t e 4 6 pe r c e n t a r e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, 11. 6 pe r c e nt a r e H i s pa ni c 1 7 p e r c e n t A s i a n, a nd 3 pe r c e n t A m e r i c a n I nd i a n. I n a dd i t i on t o t r a di t i on s c hool s t he d i s t r i c t a l s o of f e r s a nu m b e r o f o t he r e du c a t i on a l p r o g r a m s a nd s e r v i c e s i n c l ud i n g T i t l e I

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72 a nd M i g r a n t E du c a t i on, D r o p o u t P r e v e n t i on P r o g r a m s E S O L P r o g r a m s a nd R O T C ( P a s c o C oun t y S c hoo l s n. d. ) P i n e l l a s C oun t y S c hoo l D i s t r i c t P i n e l l a s C oun t y c ove r s on l y 280 s qua r e m i l e s a nd i s s m a l l i n l a nd s i z e bu t i s s e c ond t o H i l l s bor ou g h C oun t y i n p o p ul a t i on w i t h 924, 413 r e s i d e nt s ( Q ui c k F a c t s C e ns u s 2006) T he m e d i a n hous e ho l d i n c o m e f o r t he s e r e s i d e nt s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y $38, 547. ( U S C e ns u s B ur e a u : F l o r i d a Q ui c k F a c t s 2 004) T he P i ne l l a s C ount y s c hool di s t r i c t i s t he s e ve nt h l a r ge s t s c hool di s t r i c t i n t he s t a t e of F l or i da a nd 25t h l a r ge s t di s t r i c t i n t he U S O f t he s t ude n t p o p ul a t i on, 68 4 p e r c e n t a r e w hi t e 19 7 pe r c e n t a r e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 8 2 pe r c e n t a r e H i s p a ni c 3. 5 p e r c e n t a r e A s i a n a nd 3 pe r c e nt a r e A m e r i c a n I nd i a n. R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s T he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t ha t gui de d t hi s s t udy, a nd s ubs e que nt l y s ha pe d t he da t a t ha t I ga t he r e d f r o m pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e : 1. I n w ha t w a ys do t e a c he r s r e por t us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um uni t s ? 2. W ha t c om pone nt s of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom c ur r i c u l um pr ogr a m do pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t m os t i nf l ue nt i a l on t he i r t e a c hi ng pr a c t i c e s a s a w hol e ? 3. H ow doe s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n T he U N A U S A s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r oj e c t i nf l ue nc e how pa r t i c i p a nt s t e a c h s oc i a l s t u di e s ? 4. W ha t a r e t he c ha l l e nge s i n t e a c hi ng a gl oba l l y o r i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um ? 5. H ow do s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s ne got i a t e c ha l l e nge s i n t e a c hi ng gl oba l l y o r i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um ?

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73 6. D o pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s e xpe r i e nc e s di f f e r ba s e d on t he na t u r e o f how t he y us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um uni t s ? S i x t he m e s e m e r ge d f r om t he da t a T he m e 1: T e a c he r s pe r c e i ve d i nf l ue nc e of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s on s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt I t w a s c l e a r a f t e r t he f i r s t f e w i nt e r vi e w s t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s s ha r e d a r e m a r ka bl e de s i r e t o e nga ge t he i r s t ude nt s w i t h t he s t udy o f gl oba l i s s ue s I a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o t e l l m e w hy t he y c hos e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n G l oba l C l a s s r oom s G l e nda s e ns ui ng r e s pons e be s t c a pt ur e s t he s e nt i m e nt of t he m a j or i t y of pa r t i c i pa n t s i n t hi s s t udy w he n s he e xpl a i ne d w hy s he us e s t he pr ogr a m N um be r one t he k i ds ge t e x c i t e d and t he y e nj oy i t N um be r t w o, I s e e i t as a gr e at v e hi c l e f or c r i t i c al t hi nk i ng. N um be r t hr e e be c aus e s o m any pe opl e ar e s o f r us t r at e d and s o c e nt e r e d on F C A T ( F l or i da C om pr e he n s i v e E x am i nat i on t hat al l s t ude nt s m us t pas t i n or de r t o gr aduat e ) t he y c an t s e e be y ond j us t F C A T t hat i t gi v e s t he c hi l d, s t ude nt s a c hanc e t o be c r e at i v e and I f i nd t hat w h e n I f i r s t s t ar t k i ds ar e s o l ac k i ng i n t hat c r e at i v e be c aus e t he y r e s o us e d t o gi v i ng t hat c ook i e c ut t e r r e s pon s e T he y r e s t i l l c ook i e c ut t e r r e s pons e t he r e Y ou hav e t o t hi nk on y our f e e t t o t ak e and ans w e r t he s e que s t i o ns and w he n a c ount r y c om e s up and s ay s s om e t hi ng t o y ou, y ou got t o t hi nk on y our f e e t So w hy do I do i t ? B e c aus e num be r one I s e e a v al ue i n i t and I s e e a v al ue f or m y s t ude nt s w hi c h i s m or e i m por t ant ( I nt e r vi e w G l e nda 8/ 11/ 08) S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s s poke c a ndi dl y a bout c ha ngi ng t he i r a pp r oa c h t o t r a di t i ona l s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e s by be gi nni ng w i t h c ont e m po r a r y i s s ue s F or t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s

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74 m a ki ng t he s t udy of s oc i a l s t udi e s r e l e va nt e nga gi ng, a nd s t ude nt c e nt e r e d i s i m por t a nt F or ove r t w e nt y ye a r s L i nda be ga n he r w or l d hi s t o r y c our s e w i t h t he s t udy of a nc i e nt r i ve r va l l e y c i v i l i z a t i ons A f t e r m a ny y e a r s of us i n g G l oba l C l a s s r oom s a nd e xpe r i m e nt i ng how be s t t o us e t he c ont e nt s of t he c ur r i c ul um s he e xpl a i ne d t ha t s he now s t a r t s t he c our s e of f w i t h t he c ha pt e r a t t he e nd o f t he t e xt book e nt i t l e d G l oba l I nt e r de pe nde nc e F r om t hi s poi nt s he i nt r oduc e s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s l e s s on f r om t he P e a c e K e e pi ng B i nde r on t he C ha r t e r of t he U ni t e d N a t i ons A f t e r a da y or t w o of voc a bul a r y a c t i vi t i e s de s i gne d t o f a c i l i t a t e s t ude nt s r e a di ng c om p r e he ns i on of o f f i c i a l U ni t e d N a t i ons doc um e nt s s he pr e s e nt s one of t h e r ol e pl a y s c e na r i os on I ndi a a nd P a ki s t a n. I c an t i m agi ne how bor i ng m y hi s t or y c l as s e s s t a r t e d of f al l t hos e y e ar s I hav e be e n doi ng m ode l U ni t e d N at i ons f or c l os e t o t w e nt y y e ar s now and i t w as n t unt i l about t hr e e y e ar s ago I de c i de d w e w oul d s t ar t of f t he y e ar w i t h c ur r e nt gl obal t opi c s W e c ov e r e d bas i c c onc e pt s of gl obal i z at i on. St ude nt s l ov e d i t T he y r e al l y pe r k up w he n y ou t al k about t he i r l i v e s t oday and t he w or l d t oday T he y w ant t o k now T he y be c am e t r ul y i nt e r e s t e d i n e x pl or e t he pr obl e m s be t w e e n I ndi a and P ak i s t an and f or t hat m at t e r due t o t he nuc l e ar nat ur e of t he di s put e t he r e s t of t he w or l d. I t be c am e a nat ur al j um pi ng of f poi nt f or t he s t udy of w or l d hi s t or y ( L i nda i nt e r vi e w 8/ 17/ 08) L i ke L i nda A nna e xpl a i ne d t ha t a f t e r m a ny ye a r s of t r yi ng di f f e r e nt s t r a t e gi e s of i nf us i ng t he c ur r i c ul um he r e a nd t he r e s he t oo f ound us i ng t he c ur r i c ul um a t t he s t a r t of t he ye a r m a de he r c l a s s m or e i nt e r e s t i ng f or he r s t ude nt s

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75 I s t ar t e d out us i ng i t f i r s t i n m y gov e r nm e nt c l as s I t w as ni nt h gr ade r s and I w oul d do i t e v e r y F r i day k i nd of s e par at e t h e n I i nf us e d i t i nt o w or l d hi s t or y and I had s t ar t e d i nf us i ng i t i n t he be gi nni ng of t he y e ar L at e r on, I s t ar t e d t o us e i t s ol e l y i n t he be gi nni ng. I w oul d s t ar t w or l d hi s t or y as c ont e m por a r y h i s t or y w i t h t he gl obal c l as s r oom c u r r i c ul um So w e w oul d s t ar t w i t h pr e s e nt day i s s ue t hat w as on t he age nda f or t he U N and t he n w e l l ge t i nt o t he i s s ue s and t he n w e go b ac k i nt o hi s t or y and s t ar t bac k w ar d s f r om t he pr e s e nt but w e s t ar t w i t h gl obal c l as s r oom c ur r i c ul um I f ound s t ude nt s ge t r e al l y i nt o t he c l a s s I s t ar t e d t o do t hat he r e i n w or l d hi s t or y honor s I m t e m pt e d t o do i t w i t h m y w or l d hi s t or y A P c l as s and I m hopi ng t hi s s um m e r I c an s or t of r e v am p t he w ay I t e ac h i t s o I c an br i ng t he c ur r e nt i s s ue s us i ng, t he gl oba l c l as s r oom c ur r i c ul um t o ge t t he m hook e d ( A nna I n t e r vi e w 8/ 15/ 08 ) T he i nc r e a s e i n e nga ge m e nt e xpr e s s e d by t he s e de c i s i ons s how t ha t t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e not onl y a w a r e o f t he i m por t a nc e o f r e l e va nc y t o s t ude nt s l i ve s but a r e pr e pa r e d t o a l t e r t he w a y i n w hi c h t he y t e a c h t he i r c our s e s i n c a pi t a l i z e on s t ude nt i nt e r e s t a nd e nga ge m e nt R i c k a l s o e xpr e s s e d s uc h s a t i s f a c t i on a s he de s c r i be d hi s s t ude nt s i nc r e a s e d e nga ge m e nt i n us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul u m H e a l s o c om m e nt e d on t he c r os s c ul t ur a l a w a r e ne s s di m e ns i on t ha t H a nve y ( 1976) be l i e ve d w a s one of t he m os t di f f i c ul t di m e ns i ons t o a t t a i n i n t e a c hi ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s A s R i c k e xpl a i ne d hi s us e of ne i ghbor hood r e s our c e s t hi s di m e ns i on i s c l e a r l y of pa r t i c ul a r i m por t a nt f o r hi m a s a s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r

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76 I hav e s t ude nt s f r om di f f e r e nt e nds of t he s pe c t r um and t he y c om e t oge t he r as a t e am t o ac hi e v e t hi s c om m on goal ; and a l ot o f t i m e s t he y ar e r e pr e s e nt i ng c ount r i e s and be l i e f s w hi c h ar e t he t ot al oppos i t e of w hat t he y be l i e v e i n and t ha t s w he n i t ge t s r e al l y i nt e r e s t i ng be c aus e t he y hav e t o r e pr e s e nt s om e t hi ng t hat t he y don t pe r s onal l y b e l i e v e i n, but t he y hav e ac qui r e d an unde r s t andi ng of O r y ou hav e pe opl e f r om a c ount r y and t he y c an r e pr e s e nt m or e ac c u r at e l y t he w ay i t s houl d be r e pr e s e nt e d. N ow at m y s c hool w e hav e m any M us l i m s t ude nt s and f or t he m t o r e pr e s e nt and t o gi v e a v oi c e t o t he s e M i ddl e E as t e r n c ount r i e s w ho ar e us ual l y r e pr e s e nt e d by s om e one f r om a pur e l y w e s t e r n bac k gr ound gi v e s t he s e s i m ul at i ons an e nt i r e l y di f f e r e nt f e e l So f ar t he s e s t ude nt s and e s pe c i al l y I us e t he M us l i m s t ude nt s as an e x am pl e be c aus e a l ot of t i m e s pos t 9/ 11 t he y ar e not gi v e n t he oppor t uni t y t o e x pr e s s w hat t he y t hi nk and w hat t he y f e e l or t al k about I s l am i n a pos i t i v e m anne r a nd f or t he m t o di s c us s t he s e i de as i n a publ i c f or m at or w i t h j us t t he i r f e l l ow c l as s m at e s i t r e al l y e duc at e s e v e r y one ( R i c k, i nt e r vi e w 9/ 8 / 08) D ur i ng t he c our s e o f t he i nt e r vi e w p r oc e s s e i ght o f t he t e n pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a di l y vol unt e e r e d a ne c d ot a l da t a de s c r i bi ng e xt r a or d i na r y m i l e s t one s i n s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt or e nga ge m e nt T he s e t e a c he r s w e r e f e r ve nt a bout va l i da t i ng t he i m pa c t of t h i s ki nd o f i ns t r uc t i on on t he i r pa r t i c ul a r s t ude nt s a c hi e ve m e nt a nd t he i r t hi nki ng a bout t he pa r t i c ul a r t opi c t he y w e r e s t udyi ng T e a c he r s de s c r i be t hi s phe nom e non a s s e e i ng l i ght bul bs t ur ni ng on t o de s c r i be s t ude nt e nl i ght e nm e n t G e or ge e xpl a i ne d

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77 I t hi nk i t i s an e y e ope ne r t o s e e t he k i ds ge t i t T he k i ds s t r uggl e i n m y c l as s r oom L ot s of k i ds s t r uggl e and t he y c an t f i gur e out w hy A nd t he y ge t i t f r om t hat pe r s pe c t i v e and t he n s ur e e nough s om e body s ay s oh, now I k now w hy ; w hi c h i s di f f e r e nt be c aus e I unde r s t and t he pe r s pe c t i v e t hat t he y r e c om i ng f r o m ( G e or ge i nt e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 08 ) O f a l l t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy, G l e nda i s pe r h a ps t he gr oup e xpe r t i n us i ng c om pone nt s of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um i n ode r t o c r e a t e i nnova t i ve l e s s ons a nd pr oj e c t s f or he r s t ude nt s G l e nda o f f e r e d num e r ous e xa m pl e s t ha t s he a t t r i but e d t o he r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m I n f a c t t he da y I i nt e r vi e w e d he r s he e xpl a i ne d t ha t he r c l a s s e s w e r e i n t he m i ddl e of a h i s t or i c a l s i m ul a t i on of W or l d W a r I T he gl obal c l as s r oom s pr ogr am t o m e al t hough t he m ode l U N I t hi nk i s a bi g par t of t he pr ogr am I t hi nk i t s m or e i m por t ant t hat t he s t ude nt s l e ar n t o v i e w pr obl e m s f r om e y e s ot he r t han t he U ni t e d St at e s t o v i e w t he m t hr ough t he e y e s of anot he r c ount r y of anot h e r c ul t ur e H ow do t he y l ook at t he e nv i r onm e nt ? H ow do t he y l ook at w ar ? H ow do t he y l ook at s us t ai nabl e de v e l opm e nt ? A nd I t hi nk t hat s t he m ai n pur pos e of t he pr ogr am and t hat s how I us e t he pr ogr am i s t e ac hi ng t he m l e t t i ng t he m t ak e on t he pe r s ona of anot he r c ount r y I t s b e e n i nt e r e s t i ng. Si nc e w e v e be e n doi ng t hi s pr ogr am I v e no t i c e d a c hange i n t he i r v i e w poi nt P e r haps i t s about w hat s goi ng on i n t he w or d t od ay but no l onge r i s t he i r f i r s t r e s pon s e w he n any k i nd of s i t uat i on i s nuk e e m T he y no

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78 l onge r do t hat T he y r e w i l l i ng t o s i t dow n and t al k about i t and l ook at t h e ot he r s i de So I t hi nk t ha t s s om e t hi ng. ( G l e nd a i nt e r vi e w 8/ 11/ 08 ) T he m e 2: C ont e nt e xpe r t i s e a nd c onf i de nc e T he a bunda nc e of a ne c dot a l i n f or m a t i on de s c r i bi n g s t ude nt i nt e r e s t a nd e nga ge m e nt f r om t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s ove r w he l m i ng. A s t e a c he r s de s c r i be d how t he y ha ve pe r s ona l l y c ha nge d w ha t a nd how t he y go a b out t e a c hi ng t he i r c our s e s t he y di d s o w i t h a s e ns e of c onf i de nc e T he y a ppe a r e d s ur e of t he i r de c i s i ons W he n I a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o t e l l m e a bout t he pr oc e s s of ga i ni ng t he know l e dge ne c e s s a r y t o f e e l c onf i de nt a bout t e a c hi ng a gl oba l i z e d c ur r i c ul um t he y e xpl a i n t ha t a t f i r s t t he y f e l t unpr e pa r e d, a nd l i ke t he y d i dn t know w ha t t he y w e r e doi ng. M a ny ha d r e s e r va t i ons s t r uggl e d w i t h t he i r ow n l a c k of g l oba l know l e dge a nd pe da gogy of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d t ha t di f f e r e nt c om pone nt s of t he pr og r a m i nc r e a s e d t he i r gl oba l know l e dge r e s e a r c h s ki l l s w r i t i ng s ki l l s a nd pe da gogi c a l e xpe r t i s e A nna c onf e s s e d t ha t one of t he bi gge s t c ha l l e nge s w a s he r ow n l a c k of kno w l e dge M y f i s t c hal l e nge w as l e ar ni ng i t m y s e l f T hat w as pr obabl y t he har de s t par t I t hi nk t hat s w hy I s t i l l go t o t he w or k s hops be c aus e e v e r y w or k s hop I go t o I l e ar n s om e t hi ng a l i t t l e bi t be t t e r and t he n I unde r s t and i t So af t e r s i x y e ar s of u s i ng gl obal c l as s r oom s i t s j us t s t ar t i ng t o c l i c k and s o I m al w ay s am az e d at s e e i ng w he n i t c l i c k s w i t h t he k i ds s o f as t I t hi nk i t t ook m e f i v e y e ar s t o do t hi s ( A nna i nt e r v i e w 8/ 13 / 08) J oe a c know l e dge hi s r e a l i z a t i on of hi s ow n l i m i t e d know l e dge a s he w or ke d t o pr e pa r e s t ude nt s f or a M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c onf e r e nc e

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79 I t hought I k ne w a l ot abou t t he w or l d, but w he n w e s t ar t e d ge t t i ng r e ady f or t he s e c onf e r e nc e s and k i ds w oul d as k m e que s t i ons about s ay about nuc l e ar t r e at i e s or i nt e r nat i onal c onv e nt i ons and w hy s om e c ount r i e s agr e e d and ot he r s di dn t I r e al i z e d, w ow I don t k now t he ans w e r s t o t he i r que s t i ons So, l i k e m y s t ude nt s m y r e s e ar c h s k i l l s and k now l e dge of t he s e r e al l y c om pl e x gl obal pr obl e m s i m pr ov e d ( J oe i nt e r vi e w 10/ 12/ 08 ) G e or g e de s c r i be d t he e xpe r i e nc e of l e a r ni ng t he c o nt e nt r i ght a l ong s i de hi s s t ude nt s w he n t he y us e d t he I ndi a / P a ki s t a n s i m ul a t i on a s a c ul m i na t i ng a c t i vi t y i n hi s c l a s s I w as l e ar ni ng as m uc h about P ak i s t an, I ndi a be c aus e t hat s a s i m ul at i on I di d, e v e n k n ow i ng di f f e r e nt c ount r i e s pos i t i ons I m e an i t t ook m e aw hi l e t o f i gur e out ok ay w ho s i t t i ng ar ound t h i s t abl e r e al l y k now s t hat c ount r y i s goi ng t o f ol l ow t hat c ount r y s l e ad or t hi s c ount r y w ant s t o f ol l ow t he U S s l e ad and, y ou k now and s om e t i m e s y ou hav e t o al m os t s pe l l i t out f or t he s t ude nt s and e v e n t hat s not ne c e s s a r i l y t he e as i e s t t hi ng t o f i nd i n pr i nt s om e pl ac e I had t o go bac k and l e ar n. I t w as n t an ar e a I t hi nk I s t udi e d s pe c i f i c al l y w he n I w as ge t t i n g m y de gr e e but I handl e d i t I t s j us t y ou hav e t o go bac k and l e ar n w i t h t he s t ude nt s T hi s r e al l y ne v e r bot he r e d m e I don t m i nd goi ng bac k and l e ar ni ng. ( G e or ge i nt e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 08 ) W ha t G e or ge e xpl a i ne d i s t ypi c a l o f t he s e pa r t i c i p a nt s T he y e l e c t t o pr e s e nt m a t e r i a l t ha t i s c ha l l e ngi ng t o t he i r s t ude nt s but t h a t i s a l s o c ha l l e ngi ng t o t he m s e l ve s P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy c l e a r l y pos s e s s a pe r s ona l a nd pr of e s s i ona l

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80 di s pos i t i on t ha t de m ons t r a t e s c ont i nuous i m pr ove m e nt a nd r e f l e c t i on of be s t pr a c t i c e s P a r t i c i pa nt s r e a di l y a dm i t a nd r e f l e c t on t he i r ga ps i n c ont e nt or e xpe r i e nc e i n or de r t ha t t he y t r a ns f e r t hi s l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s t o t he i r s t ude nt s S a br i na e c hoe d t hi s a s s he e xpl a i ne d I t s de f i ni t e l y m ade m e m or e aw ar e of t he w or l d o ut s i de of m y ow n c i t y and t he U S and al s o j us t w ant i ng and de s i r i ng t o s e e t he s t ude nt s unde r s t and ot he r s not f r om a j udgm e nt al pe r s pe c t i v e but f r om a pe r s pe c t i v e of t he r e s our c e s t hat t he y hav e Som e of t he de c i s i ons t hat t he y m ak e ar e di f f e r e nt f r om t he one s t hat w e w oul d m ak e So i t s m ade m e s e ns i t i v e t o unde r s t andi ng and i t m ak e s m e de s i r e t o he l p m y s t ude nt s t o be c om e s e ns i t i v e t o t hat r e al i z at i on t hat not e v e r y one t hi nk s t he w ay w e do. ( S a br i na i nt e r vi e w 8/ 25/ 08) T om e xpr e s s e d a s i m i l a r e xpe r i e nc e w he n I a s ke d hi m a bout hi s ow n know l e dge of gl oba l i s s ue s a nd t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul u m H e r e a di l y a dm i t t e d t ha t i t t ook a w hi l e t o m a s t e r t e a c hi ng t he s ki l l s i nvol ve d i n t he w r i t i ng a s s i gnm e nt s i m be dde d i n G l oba l C l a s s r oom s I l l t e l l y ou t he har de s t par t f or m e w as w hat t he h ar de s t par t i s f or t he s t ude nt s i s how t o ge t y our he ad ar ound w r i t i ng a pos i t i on pape r and onc e I f i nal l y got t hat par t i t w as l i k e ok ay w e l l now I c an t e ac h t hi s N ow I got i t y ou k now I t t ook a f e w t i m e s t o go t hr ough and f i gur e out t hi ngs ( T om I nt e r vi e w 8 / 29/ 08) G e or ge r e f l e c t e d on t he c ha nge he m a de a s he be ga n t o us e gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i n hi s t e a c hi ng.

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81 B e c aus e I k now t hat be f or e I r e al l y s t ar t e d t e ac hi n g w i t h a g l obal pe r s pe c t i v e I m w as v e r y r i gi d i n m y t i m e l i ne W e v e got t o ge t t o t hi s poi nt by t hi s day and i t s got t o be done and l e t s m ov e on. So I m a v e r y or gani z e d pe r s on w he n i t c om e s t o t hat I m e an I v e got i t a l l w r i t t e n on c al e ndar s and i t s got t o be done W hat I v e s t ar t e d t o do s i nc e I v e r e al l y t ak e n on t hi s s t anc e ; w hi c h s t ar t e d w he n I m ov e d t o H i l l s bor ough C ount y I do i t i n pe nc i l now A nd I pur pos e l y l e av e s om e day s t hat don t hav e any t hi ng s o I c an al w ay s m ov e t hi ngs ov e r y ou k n ow B e c aus e t o m e t he i r t hi r s t f or k now l e dge i s m or e i m por t ant t han w hat I m m andat e d t o t e ac h. U l t i m at e l y t he i r t h i r s t f or k now l e dge i s w hat dr i v e s m y c l as s r oom i ns t r uc t i on. I hav e t o l i s t e n t o w hat t he y r e s ay i ng. I f t he y r e r e al l y i nt e r e s t e d i n s om e t hi ng I c an t pus h i t unde r t he c a r pe t be c aus e i f I do I j us t l os t t he m and I don t w ant t o l os e t he m I w an t t o m ak e s ur e t he y s t ay e ngage d i n w hat I m t al k i ng about ( G e or ge I nt e r v i e w 9/ 24/ 08) T he m e 3: C ha l l e nge s t o t e a c hi ng g l oba l pe r s pe c t i v e s s t e m m i ng f r om s c hool e nvi r onm e nt S c hool e nvi r onm e nt i nc l ude d c ur r i c ul um a dm i ni s t r a t i on, c ol l e a gue p a r e nt o r di s t r i c t s uppor t a nd t e a c hi ng r e s our c e s T i m e s e e m e d t o be t he num be r one c ha l l e nge pa r t i c i pa nt s i de nt i f i e d. W he n a s ke d t o i de nt i f y c ha l l e nge s t o us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um ne a r l y a l l of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s ponde d i ni t i a l l y w i t h one w o r d : t i m e A t f i r s t I unde r s t ood t hi s t o m e a n pl a nni ng t i m e but a s I w oul d c om e t o unde r s t a nd, w ha t m a ny of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a l l y m e a nt w a s t i m e w i t hi n t h e s c ope of a pa r t i c ul a r c our s e t o us e G l oba l C l a s s r oom s i n t he s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s T hi s que s t i on, w he t he r gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s or t opi c s a r e be t t e r i n f us e d, or t a ught a s a n a ddi t i v e t o a n e xi s t i ng c u r r i c ul um i s a

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82 de c i s i on t ha t c onf r ont s t e a c he r s a s t he y pl a n t he i r s oc i a l s t udi e s l e s s ons I n t he s c ope of t hi s s t udy, I f ound t he l onge r pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d G l o ba l C l a s s r oom s t he l e s s l i ke l y t he y s a w i t a s s om e t hi ng e xt r a or a dde d. T he y ha ve t r a ns c e nde d t he f or m a l o r i nf o r m a l c ur r i c ul um a nd t r a ns f o r m e d or i nf us e d t he gl oba l c l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um i nt o t he c our s e s t he y t e a c h. T om e xpl a i ne d hi s f r us t r a t i on on t he m a t t e r of t i m e : T i m e i s al w ay s a f ac t or I f i nal l y de c i de d t hi s t i m e c om i ng up t h i s ne w y e ar t hat I m pr e t t y m uc h goi ng t o s t ar t t he c our s e w i t h t hi s be c aus e t r adi t i onal l y I v e w ai t e d t i l l t he l as t t w o or t hr e e w e e k s and t he n i t s l i k e I m ge t t i ng s t u c k w i t h t he f ac t t hat I don t hav e an y m or e day s I v e got t o do t hi ngs di f f e r e nt l y I l l j us t t ur n ar ound and i nt e gr at e i t i n t he c our s e e ar l i e r ( T om i nt e r vi e w on 8/ 29/ 08 ) G l e nda a l s o br ought up t hi s s a m e i s s ue of t i m e w i t hi n t he s pe c i f i c c our s e T i m e c an r e al l y be a pr obl e m be c aus e y ou v e got t o i n or de r t o do i t c or r e c t l y and s pe nd s om e t i m e on i t I m do i ng t hi s at t he be gi nni ng of t he y e ar I us e i t as a v e hi c l e t o t e ac h t he k i ds how t o d o s i m ul at i ons and t hos e t y pe s of t hi ngs So y ou hav e t o c ut t hi ngs and an d r e al l y j us t c r unc h ot he r t hi ngs al ong t he w ay So I t hi nk t hat s t he bi gge s t obs t ac l e ( G l e nda i nt e r vi e w 8/ 11/ 09 ) S t e pha ni e a f i r s t ye a r t e a c he r w he n s he w a s r e qui r e d t o us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m a t t he i nt e r na t i ona l m a gne t s c hool s he t e a c he s r e a di l y e xpr e s s e d t ha t i t s e e m e d l i ke s o m uc h m a t e r i a l t o a l r e a dy put on t op of w ha t w e a l r e a dy ha ve t o t e a c h. ( i nt e r vi e w 8/ 20/ 08)

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83 W he n de s c r i bi ng how t he y na vi ga t e c ha l l e nge s t o t he us e of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s t hos e w i t h t he m os t t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e ga ve a ns w e r s t ha t on t he s ur f a c e s e e m s i m pl e a nd c l e a r T o a l e s s e xpe r i e nc e d t e a c he r na vi ga t i n g t he s e bounda r i e s c a n be a da unt i ng t a s k. I f ound t ha t m os t pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e pr oa c t i ve i n i nf or m i ng t he i r s t ude nt s a nd pa r e nt s a bout t he c ont e nt o f t he i r c our s e s S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s l i s t G l oba l C l a s s r oom s i n t he i r c our s e s yl l a bi P a vi ng t he w a y f o r t he i nc l us i on of c ont e nt t ha t i s not t r a di t i ona l l y a pa r t o f a s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s r e qui r e s c onf i de nc e a nd e xpe r t i s e on t he pa r t of t he t e a c he r t o a voi d s om e c ha l l e nge s A nna s e xpl a na t i on of how s he d e a l s w i t h s t ude nt r e s i s t a nc e F i r s t I i gnor e t he ne gat i v e c om m e nt w hy do w e hav e t o do t hi s T he n, I s t ar t of f s t r ai ght aw ay w i t h t he I nd i a P ak i s t an s i m ul at i on f r om t he pe ac e k e e pi ng c ur r i c ul um A l l t he m at e r i al s ar e t he r e t h e pr obl e m i s l ai d out f or t he m t he r e s e ar c h on e ac h c ount r y i s al r e ady pr ov i de d, pl ac ar ds ar e i nc l ude d s o al l t he y hav e t o do i s ac t t he par t an d go w i t h i t . and t he y l ov e i t s o t he y w ant t o do m or e onl y now t he y ha v e t o l e ar n t he pr oc e s s and do t he r e s e ar c h. ( A nna i nt e r vi e w 8/ 13/ 08) P a r t i c i pa nt s of t e ne d r e f e r r e d t o s om e t hi ng t ha t t he y l e a r ne d i n t he pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt c om pone nt of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s t ha t i s i nf l ue nc i a l i n how t he y de a l w i t h a va r i e t y of c ha l l e nge s t ha t c om e up du r i ng t he c our s e of us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s T he pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt da ys r a nge f r o m 4 t o 5 S a t ur da y m or ni ngs a nd a r e a n opt i ona l c om pone nt of t he pr ogr a m A c c or di ng t o L i nda w ho ha s be e n w i t h t he pr ogr a m t he l onge s t t he y a r e w e l l a t t e nde d. L i nda e xpl a i ne d G l obal C l as s r oom s nat i onal c ur r i c ul um w r i t e r s d e s i gne d a t e m pl at e t he s e pr of e s s i onal de v e l opm e nt day s f or bot h e x pe r i e nc e d G l obal C l as s r oom s

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84 t e ac he r s and t e ac he r s ne w t o t he pr ogr am T he y a r e c onduc t e d by t he l oc al c ons ul t ant t w o t e ac he r t r ai ne r s and al l ow f or l oc al t e ac he r s t o s e r v e as f ac i l i t at or s bas e d on t he ne e ds par t i c i pat i ng t e ac h e r s T he y s e nd out e m ai l s as k i ng par t i c i pant s w hat t he y w oul d l i k e t he pr of e s s i onal de v e l opm e nt day t o l ook l i k e T he y hav e c hange d ov e r t he y e ar s as m o r e t e ac he r s ar e e x pe r i e nc e d, and c an s har e m or e of w hat w or k s f or t he i r c l as s e s and s c hool s ( L i nda phone c onve r s a t i on, 9/ 28/ 08) P a r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i pt i ons of t he s e da ys i nc l ude d pr ogr a m ove r vi e w t he a c qui s i t i on o f r e s e a r c h s ki l l s a nd t ool s a nd he l pi ng t he m ove r c om e s pe c i f i c i s s ue s w i t h us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s T he p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt da ys pr ovi de d t e a c he r s w i t h a f o r um t o ne t w or k s ha r e t e a c hi ng i de a s i m p l e m e nt a t i on m ode l s c ont e nt a nd r e s e a r c h s uppor t a nd t o t r ou b l e s hoot t he ve r y t ype s of c ha l l e nge s gl oba l e duc a t or s e nc ount e r i n t e a c hi ng s oc i a l s t udi e s G l e nda A nna T o m L i nda a nd E l i s e w e r e qui c k t o r e por t t ha t t he y ha r dl y m i s s a pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt da y. N e t w or k i ng w he n t he s t ude nt s ar e at t he c onf e r e nc e i t s r e al l y t al k i ng t o ot he r t e ac he r s and w hat t he y do and e x pos e t he i r k i ds t o, and how t he y t e ac h G l obal C l as s r oom s w hat t he y do i n t he i r c l ubs and e v e n t al k i ng about t he i r ow n pe r s onal i nt e r e s t i n gl obal i s s ue s i s t he be s t t hi ng. ( A nna I nt e r vi e w 8 / 13/ 08) L i nda a l s o i nc l ude d t he i de a of ne t w or ki ng i n he r d e s c r i pt i on of t he pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt da ys I e xpl or e d t hi s i de a w i t h he r i n a phone c onve r s a t i on. A l ot of t he w or k s hops w e at t e nd, w e hav e t i m e t o k i nd of s oc i al i z e c onne c t w i t h t e ac he r s f r om ot he r s c hool s s om e w ho t e ac h t he s am e s ubj e c t s but i t i s

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85 us ual l y ov e r t he c of f e e br e ak or dur i ng t he bat hr oom br e ak y ou k now s o t i m e t o s har e i de as t r oubl e s hoot . i s r e al l y s hor t W i t h G l obal C l as s r oom s t hat t i m e i s bui l t i nt o t he t r ai ni ng I t al s o gi v e s m e t he c onf i de nc e and I m us t s ay s om e t i m e s I am f l a t t e r e d w he n a t e ac he r t e l l s m e t hat t he y t r i e d w hat I t ol d t he m and w ow i t r e al l y w or k e d out Som e t i m e s w he n y ou ar e doi ng s om e t hi ng di f f e r e nt f r om ot he r t e ac he r s y ou ne e d t hat s uppor t t ha t w hat y ou ar e doi ng has v al ue t o ot he r s ( A nna phone c onve r s a t i on, 10/ 2/ 08) T om a l s o e xpr e s s e d hi s pl e a s ur e t ha t w he n du r i ng a pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt da y t r a i ni ng, t e a c he r s t ur n t o hi m f or a dvi c e I r e c or de d i n m y not e s t ha t t hi s s e e m e d i m por t a nt i n v a l i da t i ng T om s p r of e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e H e t ook pl e a s ur e i n r e por t i ng t ha t he f e e l s a bl e t o a s s i s t ne w t e a c he r s t o t he p r ogr a m a t t he s e pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt s e s s i ons I don t w ant t o s ound i m m ode s t but at t hi s poi nt I m al m os t f e e l i ng l i k e I go and I m s har i ng m y e x pe r t i s e now ( T om I nt e r vi e w 9/ / 08) P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy ove r w he l m i ng r e por t e d t he va l ue of ongo i ng pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt A l t hough e xpe r i e nc e d now t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be t he pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt c om pone nt of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s a s e s s e nt i a l t o t he i r c ont e nt a nd pe da gogi c a l e xpe r t i s e W he n a s ke d a bout t he s upp or t t he r e c e i ve d f r om a dm i ni s t r a t or s t he c ons e ns us w a s pos i t i ve ye t qui t e pa s s i ve T w o pa r t i c i pa nt s S t e pha ni e a nd E l i s e w e r e a ppr oa c he d by t he i r pr i nc i pa l a nd a s ke d t o i m pl e m e nt t he pr og r a m S t e pha ni e r e po r t e d t ha t s he w a s ba s i c a l l y c oe r c e d i nt o us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s by he r a s s i s t a nt pr i nc i pa l f or c ur r i c ul um a nd t he U N A U SA G l oba l C l a s s r oom s l oc a l c ons ul t a nt

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86 I t w as bas i c al l y pus he d on m e i n m y f i r s t y e ar of t e ac hi ng, and I w as s t r e s s e d out m y f i r s t y e ar I w as ov e r w he l m e d and t he G l obal C l as s r oom s c ons ul t ant m ade m e f e e l l i k e I w as t he di s gr ac e of t he c ount y be c aus e I di d not i m pl e m e nt t he m ode l U N i nt o m y c ur r i c ul um I w as de v as t at e d. T he ne x t y e ar w he n I f i gur e d out w hat I w as doi ng, t he n I us e d i t as a c l ub. T op s t ude nt s f r om e ac h c l as s f or m e d our c l ub. T he y r e j uni or s now ne x t y e ar t he y l l be s e ni or s s o e ac h y e ar w e ge t be t t e r I hav e gone t o t hr e e c onf e r e nc e s now ( S t e pha ni e i nt e r vi e w 8/ 20/ 08) W hi l e S t e pha ni e s e xpe r i e nc e w a s uni que a m ong t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy i n t ha t he r i m pr e s s i on of t he p r ogr a m w a s ne ga t i ve i n t he be g i nni ng, s he c ont i nue s t o us e t he pr ogr a m f o r he r s c hool s a f t e r s c hool M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c l ub. W hi l e m os t pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d be i ng s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he l e ve l of s uppor t f r om t he i r s c hool a dm i ni s t r a t i on, a f e w di d e xpr e s s di s a ppoi nt m e nt i n t hi s a r e a R i c k e xpl a i ne d hi s di s a ppoi nt m e nt i n a dm i ni s t r a t i ve s uppor t a s w e l l a s c ol l e a gue s s us pi c i ons I w oul d de f i ni t e l y s ay t hat t he r e i s a l ac k of s uppor t f r om t he t op dow n. W e had a gl obal s t ude nt c l as s r oom and t hat c l as s i s ac t ual l y di s s ol v e d, e v e n t hough t he r e w as pl e nt y of i nt e r e s t i n i t and t he n, of c our s e on t he l ow e r l e v e l s j us t f r om t he ot he r t e ac he r s t he r e i s a v e r y an t i U N v i be A l s o, i n t he G l obal St udi e s P r ogr am e v e n how I u s e t he c ur r i c ul um i n W or l d H i s t or y w he n I do pr oj e c t s and I hav e pape r s as s i gne d, t he ot he r t e ac he r s he ar about i t and t he y al w ay s que s t i on m e on w hat ar e m y m ot i v e s I m e an i s i t pat r i ot i c i s i t ant i A m e r i c an, w hi c h of c our s e I don t be l i e v e i t i s ant i A m e r i c an. ( R i c k i nt e r v i e w 9/ 8/ 0 8)

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87 G e or ge a l s o e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he f i r s t c ha l l e nge f or h i s s t ude nt s i n us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s or a ny gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um p r ogr a m i s t ha t t he r e i s no c ou r s e de di c a t e d t o gl oba l t opi c s I m e an I t hi nk i n m y s t ude nt s t he f i r s t gr e at obs t ac l e i s t hat w e c an t hav e a c l as s de di c at e d t o G l obal St udi e s ( G e or ge i nt e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 08) R i c k a l s o voi c e d hi s r e gr e t t ha t a t hi s s c hool t he y h a d of f e r e d a n e l e c t i ve c l a s s f or gl oba l s t udi e s but due t o s c he dul i ng c onf l i c t s t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on de c i de d t o c ut t he c our s e I w as r e al l y di s appoi nt e d w he n t he y t ook aw ay t he gl obal s t udi e s c our s e I t i s a gr e at c our s e and s t ude nt s w e r e r e al l y e x c i t e d t o t ak e t he c our s e ( R i c k, i n t e r vi e w 9/ 8/ 08) A not he r f a c t or t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s i de nt i f i e d a s a c ha l l e nge w a s t he e xi s t e nc e of e nd of ye a r di s t r i c t e xa m s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e s I a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s i n H i l l s bor ough C ount y how t he s e e xa m s i m pa c t t he i r us e of t he G l oba l C l a s s r o om s c ur r i c ul um l e s s ons I t w a s a ppa r e nt t ha t t e a c he r s f e l t a n obl i ga t i on t o p r e pa r e t he i r s t ude nt s f or t he s e e xa m s a nd t ha t i t di r e c t l y c ha l l e nge s t he i r de s i r e t o us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s m a t e r i a l s Y ou k now I w ant m y k i ds t o do w e l l on t he e x am f or t he m and I hav e t o adm i t t ha t w i t h t he m e r i t pay pr ogr am t i e d t o how t he s e k i ds do, I don t w ant t o c he at m y s e l f ( J oe i nt e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 09) G e or ge a l s o c a l l e d i nt o que s t i on t he c ont e nt of t he e nd of ye a r e xa m I w oul d l ov e t o ge t r i d of t he s e e x am s but I k now t he y ar e n t goi ng aw ay A t l e as t i f w e ar e goi ng t o t e s t t he s e k i ds i t s houl d i nc l ude i m por t ant s k i l l s t hat ar e de f i ni t e l y us e f ul ( G e or ge 9/ 24/ 08)

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88 I a l s o a s ke d P i ne l l a s a nd P a s c o C ount y pa r t i c i pa nt s t o w ha t e xt e nt e nd of ye a r e xa m s w oul d i nf l ue nc e w ha t t he y t e a c h. A nn a nd G l e nda bot h c onf i r m e d t ha t P a s c o C ount y ha d a nnounc e d t ha t t he di s t r i c t w a s goi ng t o i nt r oduc e e nd of ye a r e xa m s f o r a l l s ubj e c t s f or t he ne xt s c hool ye a r I k now i t s c om i ng w e w e r e t ol d t ha t our di s t r i c t w as goi ng t o us e H i l l s bor oug h s e x am s I m not s ur e how t he e x am w i l l c hange t he w ay I t e ac h. I f i nd i t r e al l y har d t o l e t go o f s om e t hi ng I t hi nk i s s o i m por t ant I k now I l l f i nd a w ay t o c ont i nue w hat I m doi ng I l l j us t hav e a good e x am r e v i e w s e s s i on ( A nna i nt e r vi e w 8/ 13/ 08) L i nda one of t he t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h t he m os t e x pe r i e nc e e xpl a i ne d t ha t i n he r c a r e e r e nd of ye a r e xa m s ha ve c om e a nd gone Y e s i n t he be gi nni ng of m y c ar e e r I w as r e al l y ne r v ous about m ak i ng s ur e s t ude nt s w e r e pr e par e d, and I t hought i f t he y d i dn t do w e l l on t he e x am i t w as a r e f l e c t i on on m e P l us I d i dn t k now m uc h e i t he r j us t one c hapt e r ahe ad of t he s t ude nt s M y di s t r i c t doe s n t hav e e x am s and I hope w e don t I t hi nk i t r e al l y s t unt s a ne w t e ac he r s f l e x i bi l i t y t o m ak e i m por t ant de c i s i on ab out w hat and how t o t e ac h. T he y t e nd t o t e ac h j us t w hat i s on t he c ur r i c ul um gui de or e x am ( I nt e r vi e w L i nda 8/ 17/ 08) T he m a j or i t y of pa r t i c i pa nt s r e po r t e d pos i t i ve s upp or t f r om c ol l e a gue s a nd t he i r a dm i ni s t r a t i on. T he r e de s c r i pt i on of s uppor t w a s o f t e n de s c r i be d a s pa s s i ve A dm i ni s t r a t i ve s uppor t a l m os t a l w a ys m e a nt t ha t p e r m i s s i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e w a s gr a nt e d a nd w he n r e l e va nt c ongr a t ul a t i ons f o r a j ob w e l l d one gi ve n. I n f a c t s e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s

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89 c onf i de d t ha t t he i r c ol l e a gue s w e r e s uppor t i ve be c a us e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s vol unt e e r e d t o us e t he pr ogr a m a nd t he y w e r e s om e w ha t r e l i e ve d t ha t t he y di d not ha ve t o pa r t i c i pa t e I n a f e w i ns t a nc e s pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he y ha v e be e n que s t i one d on t he i r us e of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s G e or ge e xpl a i ne d t ha t he ha s be e n c ha l l e nge d on a f e w oc c a s i ons a s t o t he r i gor o f t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s T he r e ar e c ol l e ague s t hat I hav e t hat que s t i on w hy ; w hy k i ds c om e out o f m y c l as s r oom and t he y s ay i t s t oo har d, i t s r i gor ous l i k e w e r e c ons t ant l y w or k i ng, and w e ne v e r ha v e a dow n day A nd, y ou k now I hav e c ol l e ague s t hat ar e t he ol d f i l e c abi ne t t e ac he r t hat has t he i r w or k s h e e t s or gani z e d day by day or t he k i nd of t e ac he r t hat pops i n t he v i de o and t hat s t he l e s s on. A nd t he y l l s ay y ou k now y ou k now y our k i ds ar e c om pl ai ni ng and y ou k now t hi s i s happe ni ng; y ou k now i t s no t f ai r t hat y our k i ds ar e al w ay s w or k i ng and; t he y k i nd o f l i k e t ak e up f or t he k i ds B u t t he k i ds ar e n t t he one s w ho m os t l y ar e c om pl ai ni ng about i t I t s al m os t l i k e ; I don t w ant t o s ay t he y r e dow ni n g t he k i ds bu t t he y r e k i nd of k e e pi ng t he e x pe c t at i on of t he s e k i ds be l ow t he i r s i ns t e ad of m ak i ng t he m e x c e l ( G e or ge I nt e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 08) R i c k a l s o e xpr e s s e d a s i m i l a r pe r s pe c t i ve a s he e xpa nde d on t he c ha l l e nge s t ha t he e nc ount e r e d. H e e xpl a i ne d t he i m por t a nc e o f w ha t he c a l l e d t e a c he r r e s pons i bi l i t y. T hi s k i nd of b l e nds i nt o a t e ac he r r e s pons i bi l i t y be c aus e i f t e ac he r s don t s uppor t t hos e i de as w he n t he s t ude nt s r e por t t o m e t he y hav e al r e ady be e n t aught t hat t he U S s houl dn t be i ng doi n g t hi s al on e or t he y s houl dn t i gnor e t he i nt e r nat i onal pr obl e m s and t he n I hav e t o t r y t o c ount e r ac t t hat

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90 w i t hout s how i ng di s r e s pe c t t o m y c ol l e ague s r e gar dl e s s of t he i s s ue s w hi c h i s har d. W e ar e t a l k i ng about 30 y e ar v e t e r an t e ac he r s and y ou hav e a 5 y e ar t e ac he r s om e t i m e s i t s be t t e r t o s t i c k t o y our s e l f and be qui e t be c aus e t hat i s no t goi ng t o c hange ( R i c k, i nt e r vi e w 9/ 8/ 08 ) W he n a s ke d how pa r t i c i pa nt s de a l w i t h t he s e c ha l l e nge s m a ny r e por t ve r y pr a c t i c a l a ppr oa c he s A nd at t he adm i ni s t r at i v e l e v e l t he r e i s r e al l y not m uc h y ou c an do. Y ou j us t l ook f or s y m pat he t i c pe opl e Y ou l ook f or pe o pl e w ho ar e s uppor t i v e l uc k i l y as f ar as I m c onc e r ne d pe opl e l i k e t hos e w ho s uppor t t he pr ogr am at t he di s t r i c t l e v e l i t c an he l p m e t o put a l i t t l e m or e pr e s s ur e on t he adm i ni s t r at or s ( R i c k, i nt e r vi e w 9/ 8/ 08 ) G e or ge ha d a n i nt e r e s t i ng pe r s pe c t i ve on how t o d e a l w i t h l a c k of c ol l e gi a l s uppor t Y ou k now hone s t l y y ou k now as m uc h as I don t l i k e i t w e r e l i t t l e i s l ands al l unt o our s e l v e s and I w ant m y i s l and t o s uc c e e d and be good f or t he k i ds of t he w or l d. T he r e f or e I w ant t o gi v e t he m e v e r y s k i l l I c an i n m y i s l and s o t he y c an do t hat H ope f ul l y on y our i s l and y ou r e doi ng t he s am e t hi ng. A nd i f y ou he l p w i t h t ha t I m m or e t h an w i l l i ng t o he l p y ou o ut t o ge t y our i s l and w he r e m y i s l and i s A nd i f m y i s l and i s doi ng s om e t hi ng w r ong and y ou r e doi ng be t t e r I m goi ng t o c om e t o y ou and I w ant t o ge t t ha t he l p t oo. I w ant t hat c ol l abor at i o n s o t hat w e r e not j us t t he s e l i t t l e i s l ands of f by t he m s e l v e s but w e r e a c hai n of i s l ands t hat ar e l i nk e d t oge t he r A nd w e c om e t o w or k and w e w or k t oge t he r I m e an

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91 t he r e ar e c hal l e nge s t hat ot he r pe opl e w i l l s ay oh w hat e v e r ( G e or ge i nt e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 08 ) T he m e 4: C ha l l e nge s t o t e a c hi ng w i t h a g l oba l pe r s pe c t i v e s s t e m m i ng f r om s t ude nt s T hi s t he m e e m e r ge d a s t e a c he r s de s c r i be d how s t u de nt s r e s pond t o t he i r f i r s t e xpos ur e t o t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um A s pa r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d t he i r s t ude nt s l a c k of gl oba l know l e dge i t w a s n t s o m uc h t he c h a l l e nge of no t know i ng t he t opi c unde r i nve s t i ga t i on, w hi c h w a s e xpe c t e d, but m or e t he l a c k of s ki l l s i n how t o go a bout di s s e c t i ng a gl oba l pr obl e m T he c ha l l e nge be c om e s m or e a bout how t he w or l d w or ks i n r e l a t i on t o t he a pa r t i c ul a r gl oba l pr obl e m U s i ng t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m a c c or di ng t o t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s he l ps s t ude nt s s e e how t he y a r e c onne c t e d t o pe opl e a nd pl a c e s a c r os s t he pl a ne t a nd how pl a c e s a c r os s t he pl a ne t a r e i m pa c t e d by t he i r c hoi c e s I n ge t t i ng s t ude nt s i nv ol v e d t he r e ar e l ot s of c hal l e nge s be c aus e by t he t i m e I ge t t he m t he y ar e al r e ady be t w e e n 13 and 1 6 y e ar s ol d, and a l ot of t he m hav e n t be e n t aught how any t hi ng e l s e w or k s any w he r e e l s e i n t he w or l d af f e c t s t he m So t he c hal l e nge of t r y i ng t o e x pl ai n t o t he m pe r s ay w hy t he pr i c e of t e a i n C hi na i s i m por t ant t o t he m now and t r y i ng t o m ak e t hos e k i nds of c onne c t i ons B ut t ha t c hal l e nge t o m e i s t he i nt e r e s t i ng par t be c aus e f r om e v e r y t hi ng f r om e c onom i c s t o gov e r nm e nt t o w or l d hi s t or y y ou ar e s how i ng how t he pr i c e of t e a i n C hi na af f e c t s t he pr i c e of y our t e nni s s hoe s y ou bought and w he n t he y ac t ual l y s e e t hat happe n t he n t he w or l d m ay be a l e s s on t o t he m ( R i c k, i nt e r vi e w 9 / 8/ 08) S t e pha ni e e xpl a i ne d one of he r bi gge s t c ha l l e nge s i s he r s t ude nt s l a c k of know l e dge a bout t he w or l d I n pa r t i c ul a r s he not e s t he l a c k of a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve

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92 I t r y t o ope n t he i r e y e s be c aus e t he y r e v e r y y oung and v e r y i gnor ant and not t hat t ha t s bad, but f or t he m t o r e al i z e t hat t he r e ar e ot he r w ay s of l ook i ng at t he w or l d ( S t e pha ni e i nt e r vi e w 8/ 20/ 08 ) I n a ddi t i on t o l a c k of a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve G e or ge e xpl a i ne d t ha t e ve n w he n s t ude nt s a r e hi ghl y e nga ge d a nd i nt e r e s t e d i n a gl oba l pr obl e m t he y l a c k ba s i c r e s e a r c h s ki l l s t ha t a r e ne c e s s a r y t o f i nd i nf o r m a t i on on a t opi c unde r s t a n d t he di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i v e s a nd c om m uni c a t e i nt e l l i ge nt l y on t he t opi c G e or ge e x pl a i ne d, M y k i ds c om e i n w i t h no s k i l l s and I hav e t o t e ac h t he m f r om gr ound l e v e l up t he s k i l l s r at he r t han y ou c om e i n w i t h an e nt r y l e v e l s k i l l and I m j us t goi ng t o bui l d upon i t T he y r e c om i ng i n w i t h r e al l y no l i k e r e s e ar c h s k i l l s T he i r r e s e ar c h i s t e r r i bl e be c au s e t he y don t k now ; t he y r e j us t c an t ge t t he s k i l l bas e dow n. I t s l i k e y ou k now I hav e a bl ank s t one y ou k now and y ou r e c ar v i ng a s t at ut e out of i t I v e g ot t o c ar v e t he e nt i r e s t at ue i ns t e ad of j us t w or k i ng on t he f i ne de t ai l s of t hat s t at ue ( G e or ge i nt e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 08) F or m a ny o f t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s c ount e r i ng s t ude nt que s t i ons a bout w hy t he y T he y ha ve t o l e a r n t hi s s t uf f i s a l s o a c ha l l e nge S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s a dm i t t e d t he y ha d be e n a s ke d t ha t que s t i on m a ny t i m e s a nd ha d de ve l ope d a c a nne d r e s pons e G e or ge a nd A nna s ha r e d t he i r r e s pons e s I t i s a c hal l e nge y ou k now w he n t he y que s t i on, y o u k now w hy ar e w e l e ar ni ng t hi s ? W hy do w e hav e t o do t h i s and ar e w e goi n g t o do i t aga i n? A nd I hav e a c anne d ans w e r t o t hat and i t s al w ay s y ou k now w e l l y ou w ant t o be a w e l l r ounde d pe r s on. A nd a w e l l r oun de d pe r s on w he n t he y

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93 hav e a que s t i on about s om e t hi ng t he y us ual l y k no w how t o go f i nd t he ans w e r s t o t hos e que s t i ons So i f y ou r e al l y ne e d t o k now how t o f i nd t hos e ans w e r s I m goi ng t o t e ac h y ou how t o f i nd t hos e ans w e r s I t doe s n t m at t e r t hat w e r e l ook i ng up y ou k now t h e R om an C ol i s e um ( G e or ge i nt e r v i e w 9/ 24/ 08) P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e of t e n e xpl i c i t a bout t he i m po r t a n c e of ha vi ng know l e dge a nd s ki l l s t ha t a r e ne c e s s a r y i n a gl oba l i z e d s oc i e t y. T he y c om m u ni c a t e d t hi s r a t i ona l i n a f r a nk a nd c onf i de nt m a nne r O f t e n t he i r e xpl a na t i ons m e r ge d know l e dge a bout t he w or l d, a nd s pe c i f i c s ki l l s t ha t a r e ne c e s s a r y f or c i t i z e ns hi p i n a gl oba l s oc i e t y. I n m y i nt e r vi e w w i t h G e or ge he c ont i nue d t o s t r e s s t hi s va l ue f o r hi s s t u de nt s t o ge t t he s k i l l ba s e i s i m por t a nt i n l i f e Y ou ne e d t o ha ve t ha t s ki l l ( G e or ge i nt e r vi e w 9 / 24/ 08 ) I ne vi t a bl y, t e a c hi ng w i t h a g l oba l pe r s pe c t i ve i nvo l ve s t e a c hi ng a bout c ont r ove r s i a l i s s ue s I a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o r e f l e c t on t he i r e xpe r i e nc e i n t hi s a r e a of t e a c hi ng s oc i a l s t udi e s G e or ge e xpl a i ne d t ha t w i t h hi s s t ude nt s he t a ke s o n t he s e i s s ue s be c a u s e he s e e s i t a s a n oppor t uni t y t o br oa c h m i s c onc e pt i ons a nd c ha l l e nge s t ude nt s w ho a r e qui c k t o s t e r e ot ype G e or ge e xpl a i ne d t ha t on oc c a s i on s t ude nt s br i ng up t opi c s or pe r s pe c t i ve s not c om m onl y he l d i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s W he n w e br oac h t hos e s ubj e c t s I gue s s t he f i r s t t h i ng I do i s a bac k gr ound of t he c ul t ur e and s ay now t hi s i s n t a ny t hi ng t hat w e e v e r w oul d hav e t hought about doi ng he r e or t hi s i s n t a t opi c t hat c om e s up i n our c ul t ur e be c aus e w e r e agai ns t i t and t he n gi v e t he bac k gr ound of w hy t hat t opi c i s i m por t ant t o t ha t c ul t ur e A nd t he n w e s t ar t l ook i ng at i t as

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94 w hy ar e w e agai ns t i t and t ur n i t ar ound and c an y ou t e l l m e w hat s w r ong w i t h i t ? C an y ou t e l l m e w hat s r i ght about i t f r om our pe r s pe c t i v e f r om t he i r pe r s pe c t i v e ? M y opi ni on i s t hat t hos e t o pi c s ne e d t o be t al k e d about but t he y ne e d t o be t al k e d abou t w i t hi n; y ou hav e t o be c ar e f ul be c aus e i f y ou don t ; i f y ou j us t c har ge i nt o t he t op i c y ou k now t he k i ds ar e goi ng t o be l i k e i t be c aus e i t i s hot but t he poi nt i s t o s t e e r t he s t ude nt s t o i nv e s t i gat e not j udge t he y ge t v e r y j udgm e nt al T he y do hav e v e r y qui c k j udgm e nt s about t hi ngs t hat ar e di f f e r e nt and t he n I hav e n t done any t hi ng t o he l p t he m ge t an unde r s t andi ng of an i s s ue I s a y w e c an l ook at t hi s c ul t ur e and w e r e goi ng t o t a l k about t h i s f or a l i t t l e bi t and t he n l e ad i nt o t he t opi c I n s t e ps ( G e or ge I n t e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 08) E l i s e e xpl a i ne d t ha t c onf r ont i ng c ont r ove r s y s houl d be a pa r t of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on i f s t ude nt s a r e t o be pr e pa r e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a de m oc r a t i c s oc i e t y. S he i s e xpl i c i t a bout he r r a t i ona l e f or i nc l udi ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i nt o he r c l a s s r oom a nd p r oa c t i ve a bout i nc l udi ng c ont r ove r s i a l t opi c s a s s he e xpl a i ns I t e l l t he m f r om t he s t ar t t he y ar e gl obal c i t i z e ns and i t i s our r e s pon s i bi l i t y t o k now how t he w or l d w or k s I as k t he k i ds i f t he y r e gl obal c i t i z e ns and a f e w r ai s e t he i r hands W e l oo k at t hi ngs l i k e w hat t he y e at f r om t he gr oc e r y s t or e t he i r e l e c t r oni c s and t he i r c l ot he s T he y be gi n t o r e al i z e t hat w hat happe ns i n one ar e a of t he w or l d has an e f f e c t on t he m and w hat t he y do c an e f f e c t pl ac e s ar ound t he w or l d. ( E l i s e i nt e r vi e w 9/ 4/ 08 )

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95 T he m e 5: I nnova t i ve pe da gogy a nd l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s I t w a s i nt e r e s t i ng t o he a r e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt t e l l a bout t he di f f e r e nt w a ys t he y us e e l e m e nt s of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um O v e r w he l m i ngl y, t he s i m ul a t i on a nd r ol e pl a y c om pone nt w a s by f a r t he m os t va l ua bl e pa r t of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s f or t he s t ude nt s a c c or di ngl y t o pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy. I nc r e a s e t he i r pe da gogi c a l c om pe t e nc y a nd c onf i de nc e i n us i ng s i m u l a t i ons de ba t e s a nd r ol e pl a ys w a s t he i nf l ue nc e m os t pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d. T he m os t us e f ul t ool I w oul d s ay i s t he de bat e t e c h ni que s be c aus e I ne v e r r e al l y t ook a c our s e on de bat i ng s o t hat ac t ual l y h e l pe d m e t o t e ac h m y s t ude nt s how t o de bat e pr ope r l y ( S t e pha ni e i nt e r v i e w 8/ 20/ 08) P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d t ha t t he s i m ul a t i on c om pone n t of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s i nc r e a s e d t he i r ow n know l e dge a bout how t o pl a n i ns t r uc t i on on a pa r t i c ul a r i s s ue T he y e xpl a i ne d t ha t i s i m pos s i bl e f or a t e a c he r t o know e ve r yt h i ng a bout a t opi c H ow e ve r ha vi ng a c ons i s t e nt a ppr oa c h t o i ns t r uc t i on w he n de a l i ng w i t h c ont e nt t ha t m i ght be out s i de of a t e a c he r s c om f or t z one i s va l ua bl e I t i s t he s t ude nt s t ha t a c t ua l l y be c om e t he e xpe r t t hr ough t he i r r e s e a r c h, a s t he t e a c h e r be c om e s i ns t r um e nt a l a t f a c i l i t a t i ng t hi s h i ghe r or de r of i ns t r uc t i on O f t e n t he t e a c he r ha s t o t a ke a s t e p ba c k a nd l e t s t ude nt s a ppl y w ha t t he y ha ve l e a ne d i n t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s t o t he p r o bl e m t ha t t he y a r e t r y i ng t o r e s ol ve i n t he s i m ul a t i on a c t i v i t y. E s s e nt i a l l y, t he t e a c he r l e a ve s t he c om f or t of t he t e xt book a nd c ur r i c ul um gui de a nd e m ba r ks on a j ou r ne y w hos e di r e c t i on c a n be unc e r t a i n, a nd w he r e t he r e m a y not be a de f i ni t i ve e nd. W he n a s ke d w hi c h of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s i nf l ue nc e d h i s pe da gogy, R i c k e xpl a i ne d,

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96 D e f i ni t e l y t he s i m ul at i on, be c aus e t he n I am i n l e s s c ont r ol of w hat i s goi ng t o happe n but t hat i s not a bad t hi ng be c aus e w he n y ou hav e s t ude nt s r e pr e s e nt i ng c ount r i e s t hat t he y k now not hi ng about or t ha t t he y ar e ac t ual l y oppos e d t o f or w hat e v e r r e as on but t he y hav e t o r e pr e s e nt i t t r ut hf ul l y y ou gai n di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i v e s on w hat y ou t hought y ou m ay hav e k now n about t hat c ount r y I k now t hat m y l e c t ur e s c hange d be c aus e m y s t ude nt s pr e s e nt e d i de as t o m e t hat I m ay not h av e s e e n ( R i c k, i nt e r vi e w 9/ 8/ 08 ) G l e nda a l s o e xpl a i ne d how s he c ont i nue s t o c r a f t s i m ul a t i on a c t i vi t i e s i n he r c l a s s e s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s be c a m e a t e m pl a t e f or he r t o us e i n m a ny o f he r l e s s ons O ne of t he t hi ngs t hat I s aw i s t hat t he k i ds r e al l y l i k e d t he ac t i v i t y t r ul y l i k e doi ng t he s i m ul at i on A nd I m v e r y bi g on s i m ul at i ons i n m y c l as s r oo m T he y r e al l y l i k e d i t and t he y w ant e d m o r e So w hat I s t ar t e d doi ng i s t ak i ng m y y e ar l ong r e s e ar c h pr oj e c t s and bas i ng t he m ar ound t he gl obal c l as s r oom s pr og r am i nc or por at i ng a l ot of t he i de as par t i c ul ar l y f r om t he s us t ai nabl e de v e l opm e nt uni t ( G l e nda i n t e r vi e w 8/ 11/ 09 ) T he m e 6: P r oj e c t s a nd a dvoc a c y di m e ns i ons t ha t e vol ve d f r om t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s e xpe r i e nc e S e ve r a l of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy ope nl y c ha l l e nge d t he i r s t ude nt s t o t a ke a c t i on on a gl oba l i s s ue S o m e e nc our a ge m e m be r s hi p i n gl oba l o r ga ni z a t i ons ot he r e nc our a ge a c t i vi s m on be ha l f o f a g l oba l pr obl e m vi a t he i r M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons C l ub,

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97 or di r e c t l y i n t he c l a s s e s t he y t e a c h. S t e pha ni e t ol d a bout a p r oj e c t he r c l ub i ni t i a t e d i n or de r t o r a i s e a w a r e ne s s a nd f unds on be ha l f of c hi l d s ol di e r s i n A f r i c a M y s c hool has a gl obal f e s t i v al e ac h y e ar T hi s y e ar m y s t ude nt s de v e l ope d a pr oj e c t about c hi l d s ol di e r s and m ade pos t e r s and put t he m al l ov e r s c hool T he y w e r e al l t he r e af t e r s c hool as k i ng w hat c an w e do and I w as l i k e oh, w ow ( S t e pha ni e i nt e r vi e w 8/ 2 0/ 08) S a br i na de s c r i be d t he a p r oj e c t t ha t s t ude nt s c onduc t e d a s a pa r t o f t he a dopt a m i ne f i e l d pr og r a m M y s c hool j us t s t ar t e d an I n t e r nat i onal B ac c al aur e at e P r ogr am ( I B ) Som e of t he s t ude nt s ar e i n our M ode l U ni t e d N at i ons C l ub. L as t y e ar as par t of r e qui r e d c om m uni t y s e r v i c e I B St ude nt s s e l e c t e d a U ni t e d N at i ons pr ogr am T he y e x pande d t he pr o gr am t o i nc l ude t he w hol e s c hool and c om m uni t y T he y d i d a bi g di nne r and m ade e v e r y one aw ar e t he l andm i ne i s s ue s and t he n t he y ac t ual l y r ai s e d m one y t ook donat i ons and c ont r i but e d i t f or t he r e m ov al l andm i ne s ( S a br i na i n t e r vi e w 8/ 25/ 08) M a ny of t he pr og r a m s or a c t i vi t i e s pa r t i c i pa nt s di s c us s e d c a m e a bout e i t he r f r om a di r e c t r e f e r e nc e i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um du r i ng a p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt da y, or by t e a c he r s t he m s e l ve s a s t he y i nc r e a s e d t he i r o w n know l e dge of g l oba l i s s ue s c onf r ont i ng t he w or l d t oda y. G l e nda a l s o e xpl a i ne d s e ve r a l pr ogr a m s s he e nc our a ge s he r s t ude nt s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n. T he s e k i ds ar e s o i nt e r e s t e d i n t he w or l d ar ound t he m W e di d t he r i c e pr ogr am be f or e t he y e v e n be c am e popul ar W e di d t he hun ge r s i t e pr ogr am be f or e t hat U N D ay at our s c hool i s a bi g e v e nt W e m ak e but t ons f or e v e r y t e ac he r W e ge t

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98 i nv ol v e d i n P i n W he e l s f or P e ac e and w e hav e t he ar t s t ude nt s w or k w i t h an e l e m e nt ar y s c hool t o m ak e pi nw he e l s W e t al k abo ut pe ac e W e hav e al l k i nds of di s pl ay s W e hav e our ow n di s pl ay c as e t he r e at t he s c hool t hat t he k i ds hav e done W e c onduc t e d t he pa pe r c l i p c am pai gn, w hi c h i s a bi g one i n our c om m uni t y T he k i ds ac t ual l y go out i n t he c om m u ni t y A m i ddl e s c hool t e ac he r w ho f ound out t hat dur i ng t he H ol oc aus t t i m e t he N az i s c am e i nt o N or w ay and m andat e d t hat y o u c oul d hav e no s i gn of nat i ona l i s m s t ar t e d t he pape r c l i p c am pai gn So w hat t he y di d i s t he i r but t ons hav e t he i r k i ng s e m bl e m on t he m T he y had t o t ak e t he m of f T he y s t ar t e d us i ng pape r c l i ps a N or w e gi an i nv e nt e d pape r c l i ps So pe opl e s t ar t e d w e ar i ng pa pe r c l i ps I t got t o t he poi nt w he r e t he N az i s t ol d t he m i f y ou w e r e w e ar i ng a p ape r c l i p, y ou w oul d be k i l l e d T he k i ng c am e out i n pape r c l i ps W hat c oul d t he y do at t hat poi nt i n t i m e ? So t he pape r c l i ps t ak e on t he s i gni f i c anc e of s t andi ng up f or w hat i s r i ght ant i pr e j udi c e and ant i bul l y i ng, t hi s t y pe of t hi ng. So w e t i e d t hat i n w i t h our U ni t y D ay t hat w e di d and our k i ds di d a pr e s e nt at i on an d w e go ar ound and w e i nt e r v i e w t e ac he r s and w e hav e al l t he s e pe opl e w i t h pape r c l i ps ar e e v e r y w he r e t o c hur c he s t he k i ds t ak e t he m t o c hur c he s I m e an, y ou go ar ound D ade C i t y dur i ng i t w as l as t w e e k Y ou go ar ound t ow n a nd y ou w i l l f i nd pe opl e al l ov e r t he pl ac e w i t h pape r c l i ps on. T hat s j us t t he y v e got t e n i n. T he ne x t y e ar t he U ni t e d N at i o ns i s doi ng t he R e d H and P r ogr am ( G l e nda i nt e r vi e w 8/ 11/ 08) E vi de nc e of H a nve y s D i m e ns i ons H a nve y s f i ve di m e ns i ons of a n a t t a i na bl e gl oba l p e r s pe c t i ve w e r e us e d a s a n a na l yt i c a l t ool i n w hi c h t o v i e w pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s T hr oughout t he i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s

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99 s ubs e que nt c om m uni c a t i ons w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd a s I s i f t e d t h r ough pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s I l ooke d f o r r e p r e s e nt a t i on of H a nve y s f i ve di m e ns i ons of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve I f ound a f a i r l y ba l a nc e d r e p r e s e nt a t i on of H a nve y s di m e ns i ons of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s t hr oughout i ndi vi dua l pa r t i c i pa nt t r a ns c r i pt i ons A f t e r c odi ng a nd c a t e gor i z i ng pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s s i x t he m e s e m e r ge S e l e c t e d pa s s a ge s w e r e c hos e n t o s uppor t e a c h t he m e a nd I a ga i n a na l yz e d pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s s e l e c t e d t o s uppor t e a c h t he m e a nd l ook f or c onne c t i ons t o H a nve y s f i ve di m e ns i ons of gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve P e r s pe c t i ve C ons c i ous n e s s a ppe a r s i n e a c h of t he s i x t he m e s t h a t e m e r ge f r om t he da t a i n t hi s s t udy. S t a t e of t he P l a ne t A w a r e ne s s w a s e vi de nt i n t he m e 1, 4 a nd 5 C r os s c ul t ur a l A w a r e ne s s t he di m e ns i on H a nve y e xpl a i ne d w a s di f f i c ul t t o d e ve l op, a ppe a r e d i n t he m e s 3, 4 a nd 6. K now l e dge of G l oba l D yna m i c s a ppe a r s i n t he m e s 1, 4, a nd 6 A w a r e ne s s of H um a n C hoi c e s w a s m os t e vi de nt i n t he m e 1 a nd 6. S a m pl e s of s uppor t i ng pa s s a ge s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 3 T he us e f ul ne s s of H a nve y s m ode l w r i t t e n m or e t ha n t hr e e de c a de s a go, w a s a n i nva l ua bl e l e ns i n e xpl or i ng a nd a na l yz i ng t he da t a c ol l e c t e d i n t hi s s t udy T he br oa d s c ope of H a nve y s di m e ns i ons a l l ow e d m e gr e a t e r f l e xi bi l i t y i n t he da t a a na l ys i s s t a ge T he hour l ong i nt e r vi e w a l l ow e d f or a r i c h de s c r i pt i ve a c c ount pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i m pa c t on t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons I n a ny gi ve n i nt e r vi e w a pa r t i c i pa nt c oul d m ove f r om de s c r i pt i ons of t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons t o s t ude nt r e a c t i ons o r a l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t y t ha t w a s unr e l a t e d t o G l oba l C l a s s r oom s m a t e r i a l s H a nve y s f r a m e w or k pr ovi de d bot h a s ubs t a nt i ve a nd pe r c e pt ua l l e ns f r o m w hi c h t o a na l yz e pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s T he qua l i t a t i ve de s i gn of t hi s s t udy a l l o w e d f or t he e xt r a pol a t i on of i n de pt h e xpl or a t i on pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h t he G l o ba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m F o r e xa m pl e

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100 of t e n I f ound pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s br i dge d m or e t ha n one di m e ns i on. S om e r e s pons e s de s c r i be d how t he c ur r i c ul um w a s us e d, a nd o t he r s r e ve a l e d how pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he pr ogr a m c ha nge d t he i r a ppr oa c h t o t e a c hi ng. I t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t s i nc e t he publ i c a t i on of H a nve y s ( A t t a i nabl e G l obal P e r s pe c t i v e gl oba l e duc a t i on s c hol a r s ha ve e xpa nde d on H a nve y s w or k by de ve l opi ng gl oba l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s di s pos i t i ons i ndi c a t or s of gl oba l a w a r e ne s s a nd a ddi t i ona l c r i t e r i a by w hi c h t o vi e w gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s gl oba l e duc a t i on, gl oba l e duc a t or s a nd gl oba l e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s ( B e c ke r 19 73, 1980; C a s e 1993; M e r r yf i e l d 1996 1997 2001) I f o und H a n ve y s f r a m e w or k m or e t ha n a de qua t e f or t he pur pos e s of t hi s e xpl o r a t or y s t udy. M y not e s t a ke n dur i ng t he i nt e r vi e w s c l e a r l y de m ons t r a t e t hi s I n t he m a r gi ns of t he i nt e r vi e w s c r i pt I ha ve c l e a r not a t i ons o f H a nve y s di m e ns i ons a s pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pon de d. F or e xa m pl e w he n G e or ge E l i s e a nd S a br i na e xpr e s s t he s e s t ude nt s j us t ha ve t o r e a l i z e t he i r vi e w s a r e n t t he onl y vi e w s out t he r e I w a s m ove t o w r i t e pe r s pe c t i ve c ons c i ous ne s s i n t he m a r gi n o f m y i nt e r vi e w s c r i pt T he br oa d na t ur e o f H a nve y s w or k e na bl e d m e t o s or t a nd c a t e gor i z e pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s a c c or di ngl y. I n t he r a nge of pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e S t e pha ni e pr ovi de d i nf o r m a t i on t ha t di d not f i t t he H a nve y m ode l H e r ne ga t i ve c om m e nt s a nd e xpe r i e nc e w i t h he r i ni t i a l i nvol ve m e nt i n t he G l ob a l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m by he r ow n a c c ount s w a s be c a us e a s a f i r s t ye a r t e a c he r s he w a s f or c e d t o us e t he c u r r i c u l um a nd pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he pr ogr a m by he r s i t e a dm i ni s t r a t or W hi l e H a nve y s m ode l pr ov i de s a f r a m e w or k f or s c hool s a nd t e a c he r s t o a s pi r e t o a c hi e ve t he r e i s not m e nt i on or pr e s c r i pt i on of how t he di m e ns i ons s houl d be us e d i n t e r m s o f c ur r i c ul um I n S t e pha ni e s c a s e s he de t e s t e d t he m e t hod i n w hi c h t he pr ogr a m w a s f or c e d on he r de s pi t e he r p os i t i ve c om m e nt s on t he a dva nt a ge s s he ga i ne d a s a ne w t e a c he r T hi s uni que e xpe r i e nc e pe r ha ps ha s i m pl i c a t i ons w i t h r e ga r d

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101 t o c ur r i c ul um m a nda t e s a nd di r e c t i ve s s ugge s t i ng t ha t f or c i ng or c oe r c i ng c ur r i c ul um r e f or m w i t hout a de qua t e t e a c he r e duc a t i on a nd s uppor t c a n ha ve ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s

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102 T a bl e 3. A na l y s i s of H a nve y s D i m e ns i ons a c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt R e s pons e s H a nve y D i m e ns i on S a m pl e S uppor t i ng P a s s a ge P e r s pe c t i ve C ons c i ous ne s s be i ng a w a r e a nd r e s pe c t f ul of ot he r poi n t s of v i e w T he y ar e r e pr e s e nt i ng c ount r i e s and be l i e f s w hi c h ar e t he t ot al oppos i t e of w hat t he y be l i e v e i n and t hat s w he n i t ge t s r e al l y i nt e r e s t i ng be c aus e t he y hav e t o r e pr e s e nt s om e t hi ng t hat t he y don t pe r s onal l y be l i e v e i n, but t he y hav e t o ac qui r e an unde r s t andi ng of ( R i c k, i nt e r vi e w 9 / 8/ 08) I t hi nk i t i s i m por t ant t hat s t ude nt s l e ar n t o v i e w pr obl e m s f r om e y e s ot he r t han t he U ni t e d St at e s t o v i e w t he m t hr ough t he e y e s of anot he r c ount r y of anot he r c ul t ur e ( G l e nda i nt e r vi e w 8/ 11/ 09 ) S t a t e of t he P l a ne t A w a r e ne s s be i ng c ons c i ous of w or l d c ondi t i ons T hi s y e ar m y s t ude nt s de v e l ope d a pr oj e c t about c hi l d s ol di e r s A f t e r l e ar ni ng about t hi s i s s ue t he y w e r e al l as k i ng, w hat c an w e do? ( S t e pha ni e i nt e r vi e w 8 / 20/ 08) C r os s C ul t ur a l A w a r e ne s s be i ng a bl e t o s e e how ot he r s s e e us P e r haps i t s about w hat s goi ng on i n t he w or d t oday but no l onge r i s t he i r f i r s t r e s pon s e w he n any k i nd of s i t uat i on i s nuk e e m ( G l e nda i nt e r vi e w 8/ 11/ 09) H um a n C hoi c e unde r s t a ndi ng t ha t w e m a ke c hoi c e s or c a n m a ke c hoi c e s a nd t ha t t hos e c hoi c e s a f f e c t ot he r pe opl e T hi s pr ogr am has m ade m y s t ude nt s and m e aw ar e t hat s om e de c i s i ons t hat t he y [ ot he r pe opl e and c ount r i e s ] m ak e ar e di f f e r e nt f r om t he one s t hat w e w oul d m ak e ( S a br i na 8/ 25/ 08 ) G l oba l D yna m i c s r e c ogni z i ng t ha t e ve nt s a r e i nt e r c onne c t e d W e l ook at t hi ngs l i k e w hat t he y e at f r om t he gr oc e r y s t or e t he i r e l e c t r oni c s and t he i r c l ot he s T he y be gi n t o r e al i z e t hat w hat happe ns i n one ar e a of t he w or l d has an e f f e c t on t he m and w hat t he y do c an e f f e c t pl ac e s ar ound t he w or l d. ( E l i s e i nt e r vi e w 9/ 4/ 08 )

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103 T e a c he r D e c i s i on m a ki ng a nd pl a nni ng I n or de r t o r e ve a l t he i m pa c t on pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e i ve d i nf l ue nc e on de c i s i on m a ki ng, pl a nni ng a nd t e a c hi ng, pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o e xpl a i n t he i r t hought s a nd i de a s on how a nd w hy t he y us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um U nde r s t a ndi ng t he t hi nki ng pr oc e s s a s pa r t i c i pa nt s us e G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s r e ve a l s t he i m por t a nt dom a i n of t e a c he r pl a nni ng a nd de c i s i on m a ki ng. T he da t a on t e a c he r de c i s i on m a ki ng a nd pl a nni ng s how e d t ha t a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy de m ons t r a t e d t he a bi l i t y t o t r a ns c e nd f or m a l c ur r i c ul um w i l l i ngne s s a nd c onf i de nc e i n a l l oc a t i ng i ns t r uc t i ona l t i m e a nd a n i nc r e a s e d r a nge of i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s S a m pl e s uppor t i ng pa s s a ge s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 4 O f t he s i x t he m e s t ha t e m e r g e d, t hr e e ha ve i m por t a nt r e l e va nc e t o i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i on m a ki ng. T he m e one c onf i de nc e a nd c ont e nt know l e dge T he m e i nnova t i ve pe da gogy, a nd t he m e p r oj e c t s a nd l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s t ha t s t e m f r om pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m A s C l a r k & L a m pe r t ( 1986 ) e xpl a i n, a t e a c he r c a n m a ke a n i nf i ni t e num be r of de c i s i ons i n t he c o ur s e of pl a nni ng a nd t e a c hi ng. O ne i m por t a nt de c i s i on t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t h i s s t udy m a de w a s t he i r c ont i nue d pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m r e ga r dl e s s of t he c our s e s t he y t e a c h. P a r t i c i pa nt e xpl a na t i ons of t he s e de c i s i ons a r e bot h pe r s ona l a nd pr of e s s i ona l A nna r e por t e d us i ng t he c ur r i c ul um w he n s he t a ught gove r n m e nt i n H i l l s bor ough c ount y, t he n i n he r w or l d hi s t or y c l a s s e s w he n s he t a ught i n P a s c o c ount y. H e r r a t i ona l e c e nt e r e d on t ha t f a c t t ha t s t ude nt s w e r e e nga ge d a nd i nt e r e s t e d w he n s he m a de c onne c t i ons t o t he i r l i ve s G l e nda de s c r i be d a s i m i l a r r a t i ona l e a nd ha s de ve l ope d a r e pe r t oi r e of l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s a nd

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104 pr oj e c t s s t e m m i ng f r om t he G l o ba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m T hi s a bi l i t y t o t r a ns c e nd t he t r a di t i ona l de l i ve r y of c or e s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e s i s e nha nc e d by pa r t i c i pa nt c onf i de nc e a nd c ont e nt know l e dge ga i ne d by t he i r i nvol ve m e nt i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m S t e pha ni e de s pi t e be i ng c oe r c e d i n t o i m pl e m e nt i n g t he pr og r a m c ont i nue s t o pa r t i c i pa t e by pr e pa r i ng s t ude nt s e a c h ye a r f or t he c onf e r e nc e H e r m ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons C l ub or ga ni z e d a r ol e pl a y a nd c onduc t e d a f undr a i s e r t o r a i s e a w a r e ne s s of t he pl i ght of c hi l d s ol di e r s i n N or t he r n U ga nda W he n a s ke d w hy s he doe s i t s he r e s ponde d, I do i t f or t he ki ds W he n I t ol d t he m I m i ght not be a bl e t o c ont i nue a s t he i r a dvi s or t he y be gge d m e T he y a r e r e a l l y i n t o i t I do i t f o r t he m ( S t e pha ni e i nt e r vi e w 8/ 20/ 08 ) J oe w ho t e a c he s i n H i l l s bor ough C ount y a nd i s a c o a dvi s or t o a M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons C l ub, e xpl a i ne d hi s pe r s ona l r e a s ons f or c ont i nui ng w i t h t he pr og r a m I j us t l i ke l e a r ni ng a bout gl oba l e ve nt s m ys e l f E ve r y ye a r t h e ki ds w or k on di f f e r e nt i s s ue s on t he U ni t e d N a t i ons a ge nda s o e ve r y ye a r I r e a l l y ge t t o know a bout f or e i gn d i r e c t i nve s t m e nt or pe a c e ke e pi ng, or e nvi r onm e nt a l t r e a t i e s ( J oe i nt e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 08 ) J oe c onf i de d t ha t he doe s not us e t he c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s i n hi s c l a s s e s be c a us e t he c ount y c ur r i c ul um doe s not l e a ve r oom H e a dm i t t e d t ha t he f e e l s l i ke a m o r e gl oba l l y a w a r e s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r be c a us e of hi s i nvol ve m e nt i n pr e pa r i ng s t ude nt s f o r t he M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c onf e r e nc e s a nd t ha t he ha s i nc or p or a t e d r ol e pl a y s i m ul a t i on a nd de ba t e i nt o hi s l a w s t udi e s c our s e s m uc h m or e e f f e c t i ve l y due t o t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s t r a i ni ng. T he s e e xa m pl e s de m ons t r a t e a r a nge o f i n f l ue nc e pa r t i c i pa t i on ha s on t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s

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105 T a bl e 4. A na l ys i s of T e a c he r D e c i s i on M a ki ng a c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt R e s pons e s T e a c he r P l a nni ng a nd D e c i s i on M a ki ng D om a i n S a m pl e S uppor t i ng P a s s a ge A bi l i t y t o t r a ns c e nd f or m a l c ur r i c ul um I f i nd m y s e l f s e ar c hi ng f or w ay s t o i nc or por at e m or e gl obal ac t i v i t i e s ac t i v i t i e s and pr oj e c t s t hat c onne c t m y s t ude nt s w i t h s t ude nt s f r om ac r os s t he gl obe ( G l e nda i nt e r vi e w 8/ 11/ 08 ) A l l oc a t i ng I ns t r uc t i ona l T i m e I us e s i m ul at i on as an i ns t r uc t i onal s t r at e gy I t s t i m e c ons um i ng, but l as t i ng w e l l w or t h i t T he i nv e s t m e nt i n t i m e w he n y ou f i r s t us e a M ode l U ni t e d N at i ons appr oac h i s w or t h i t b e c aus e t he s t ude nt s l e ar n t he pr oc e dur e and t he n y ou c an adapt i t t o j us t about any t opi c ( A nna i nt e r vi e w 8/ 13/ 08 ) I nc r e a s e d r a nge of i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s I hav e c r e at e d t hr e e y e ar l ong hi s t or y pr oj e c t s us i ng v ar i ous s t r at e gi e s f r om G l obal C l as s r oom s ( G l e nda i nt e r vi e w 8/ 11/ 08) I t e ac h t he m t he bas i c s of how t o r un a s i m ul at i on and t he n t he y c an us e t hi s s am e f or m at t o handl e al m os t any s i t uat i on t he y e nc ount e r ( E l i s e i nt e r vi e w 9/ 4/ 08) T he s k i l l s t hat ar e par t of t he M ode l U ni t e d N at i ons a c t i v i t y c an be e as i l y i nf us e d i nt o any s oc i al s t udi e s c l as s E v e n w he n I t e ac h A P U S. H i s t or y I us e di f f e r e nt ac t i v i t i e s f r om t he c ur r i c ul um bi nde r s T he s k i l l s t hat t he y r e c e i v e ar e pr i c e l e s s f or t he r e s t of t he i r ac ade m i c and pos t ac ade m i c l i v e s ( G e o r ge i nt e r vi e w 9 / 24/ 08)

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106 P a r t i c i pa nt s S um m a r y T hough t s I a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s t o r e f l e c t on t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s P r ogr a m a nd t o s um m a r i z e t he i m pa c t t he y be l i e ve i t ha s on t he i r t e a c hi ng. T he i r c om m e nt s i l l us t r a t e a nd s uppor t t he c onc e pt of gl oba l c i t i z e ns hi p, e m pha s i z e t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n l oc a l a nd gl oba l i n t e a c hi ng s o c i a l s t udi e s t he c om m ona l i t i e s of t he hum a n c ondi t i on a c r os s t he gl obe a nd t he ut i l i t y o f t he s ki l l s t ha t a r e r e qui r e d of s t ude nt s i n t oda y s w or l d M a ny o f t he s e r e m a r ks f ur t he r s how t he i nf l ue nc e o f pa r t i c i pa t i on i n G l oba l C l a s s r oom s on pa r t i c i pa nt s a bi l i t y t o c r e a t e ow ne r s hi p of t he l e s s ons a nd a c t i vi t i e s i n t he pr og r a m ut i l i z e p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt t o s e r ve t he i r ne e ds i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e s t he y t e a c he r a dd t o t he i r c ont e nt know l e d ge a nd e xpe r t i s e a nd bui l d c onf i de nc e i n t e a c hi ng a bout gl oba l i s s ue s t hr ough e f f e c t i ve pe d a gogi c a l t r a i ni ng a nd pr a c t i c e A nna W e ar e s o i nt e r c onne c t e d t oday t hat t he y ne e d t o s e e our s t ude nt s ; t hat w hat t h e y t hi nk about ot he r pe opl e how t he y f e e l about ot he r T he i m pac t i s t hat t he i r l e ar ni ng s k i l l s c an m ak e t he m be t t e r gl obal c i t i z e ns i n t he w or l d t oday be c aus e w e r e not a w or l d t hat i s bas e d upon one c ount r y doi ng t he i r ow n t hi ng. W e hav e s uc h a gl obal s oc i e t y w he n t he y go out e v e n i n t o t he w or k f or c e t he y ne e d t o l e ar n t hat y ou k now di v e r s i t y ; y ou v e got t o be unde r s t andi ng and t ol e r ant of al l pe opl e y ou k now w he t he r w e agr e e w i t h t he m or not E l i s e A t f i r s t I w as appr e he ns i v e about t e ac hi ng M ode l U N i n m y c l as s r oom I f e l t i t w as m or e pr oc e du r e t he n s ubs t anc e and ge ar e d t o ol de r s t ude nt s r at he r t han 9 t h gr ade r s T he P r of e s s i onal T r ai ni ng D ay s w e r e i nv al uabl e i n t e r m s of bot h i nf or m at i on and s uppor t

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107 O nc e I de c i de d t o go ahe ad and j us t do i t I f ound t he l e s s ons and r e s ou r c e s t o be f l e x i bl e and adapt abl e t o m y t e ac hi ng m e t hods T hi s i s m y 4 t h y e ar t e ac hi ng M ode l U N at l e as t 12 t i m e s e ac h y e ar t o 9 t h gr ade r s and e ac h t i m e and e ac h c l as s i s di f f e r e nt I hav e us e d t he I ndi a P ak i s t an s c e nar i o an d e ac h c l as s c om e s up w i t h di f f e r e nt s ol ut i ons I us e ol de r s t ude nt s w ho hav e be e n t hr ough t he pr ogr am t o c o m e i n and r un t he s c e nar i o. I i nv i t e ot he r s t af f m e m be r s t o c om e i n and w at c h. I hav e t ak e n t he 10 L e s s ons and m ade t he m m y ow n by s how i ng t he s t ud e nt s t hat w hat goe s on a gl obal s c al e c an be t r ans l at e d t o a l oc al s c al e he r e on c am pus I n f ac t I w i l l not t e ac h a l e s s on t h at doe s not a r e al l i f e c or r e l at i on. I l i k e n t e ac hi ng M ode l U N t o an ups i de dow n f unn e l I ns t e ad of t ak i ng a gr e at de al of i nf or m at i on and c onde ns i ng dow n i nt o t he f unne l f or t he s t ude nt s t o d i ge s t and r e t ai n, I t e ac h t he m t he bas i c s of how t o r un a s i m ul at i on a nd t he n t he y c an us e t hi s s am e f or m at t o handl e al m os t any s i t uat i on t he y e nc ount e r W he n w e f i ni s h t he s i m ul at i on, t he s t u de nt s w ant m or e T he y w ant t o t ac k l e ot he r pr obl e m s i n t he w or l d. I t i s t he n t hat I f e e l I hav e done m y j ob! I do r e l y on t he i r f e e dbac k t o c ont i n uous l y f i ne t une e ac h l e s s on t o m ak e t he gr e at e s t i m pac t G l e nda I hav e us e d t he pr ogr am i n a v ar i e t y of w a y s B ot h m y f e l l ow s pons or and I hav e not e d t hat t he s t ude nt s pi c k up and us e t e r m s t hr oughout t he y e ar i f ot he r s be c om e a l i t t l e l oud, y ou he ar t he w or d de c or um us e d by a s t ud e nt T he y us e poi n t of pe r s onal pr i v i l e ge i f t he y c an not he ar al l unpr om pt e d. T he s t ude nt s or gani z e c l as s di s c u s s i on s and or de r i m pos e d by t he s t ude nt s not t he t e ac he r St ude nt s hav e t ak e n ow ne r s hi p of t he i r l e ar ni ng.

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108 I c r e at e d t hr e e s e par at e y e ar l o ng r e s e a r c h pr oj e c t s bas e d on t he M ode l U N e x pe r i e nc e c api t al i z i ng on t he i n t e r e s t s t ude nt s hav e I f i nd m y s e l f s e ar c hi ng f or w ay s t o i nc or por at e m or e gl obal ac t i v i t i e s ac t i v i t i e s and pr oj e c t s t hat c onne c t m y s t ude nt s w i t h s t ude nt s f r om ac r os s t h e gl obe T oday w e had our f i r s t i n s c hool C l ub m e e t i ng w i t h 80 s i gne d i n s t ude nt s W ho or gani z e d pr oj e c t s and s pok e on f or e i gn i s s ue s T hi s i s a t e s t i m ony t o t he pow e r of t he G l obal C l as s r oom pr ogr am G e or ge T he pr ogr am he l ps m e t o s how di v e r s i t y and c hange on a gl obal s c al e t o m y s t ude nt s T he s k i l l s t hat t he y r e c e i v e ar e pr i c e l e s s f or t he r e s t of t he i r ac ade m i c and pos t ac ade m i c l i v e s O v e r al l t he pr ogr am w hi c h w e us e m os t l y af t e r s c hool i n a c l ub s e t t i ng he l ps m y s t ude nt s t o unde r s t and t hat pe opl e al l ov e r t he w or l d ar e de al i ng w i t h s i m i l ar pr obl e m s and s i t uat i ons t hat hav e oc c ur r e d or ar e oc c ur r i ng r i ght i n t he i r bac k y ar ds J oe T he M ode l U N pr ogr am i s e x c e l l e nt as an i ns t r uc t i onal t ool I t de v e l ops s t ude nt s abi l i t i e s t o s pe ak e x t e m por ane ous l y w r i t e e f f e c t i v e l y t hi nk qu i c k l y and r e s e ar c h a v ar i e t y of gl obal t op i c s S t ude nt s l e ar n how t o put t he m s e l v e s i n t he r ol e of ot he r c ul t ur e s and t ak e on di v e r s e pe r s ona s T he y l e ar n t o de bat e an d t he n e v e nt ual l y c om pr om i s e on i s s ue s t o de v e l op pr obl e m s ol v i ng r e s ol ut i ons F or m y s e l f I hav e l e ar ne d m uc h about t he w or k i ngs of t he U ni t e d N at i ons e s pe c i al l y how i s s ue s ar e de bat e d and r e s ol ut i ons ar e w r i t t e n. L i nda I had us e d M ode l U N as a t e ac hi ng t ool l ong be f or e t he G l obal C l as s r oom s pr ogr am e x i s t e d be c au s e i t not onl y i nt r oduc e s s t ude nt s t o i s s ue s c r i t i c al f or unde r s t andi ng

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109 i n t oday s gl obal s oc i e t y but r e qui r e s t he m t o par t i c i pat e i n t he l e ar ni ng pr oc e s s as w e l l T he G l obal C l as s r oom s c ur r i c ul um m ade t he pr oc e s s m or e ac c e s s i bl e f or al l s t ude nt s and e as i e r f or m e t o i nt r oduc e M ode l U N t o m or e s t ude nt s and t e ac he r s w ho had pr e v i ous l y t hought i t on l y f or t he "s m ar t k i ds or t hat i t w oul d t ak e t oo m uc h "e x t r a" w or k f or t he t e ac he r I t has at t i m e s r e qui r e d m e t o s t r e t c h m y boundar i e s and i nc r e as e m y ow n k now l e dge A f or m e r M U N s t ude nt v ol unt e e r e d at an N G O i n N e w Y or k w hi l e a s t ude nt at C ol um bi a; anot he r c hange d he r m aj or and s pe nt t i m e i n Z i m babw e J us t y e s t e r day one t al k e d about hi s goal s t o m ay be w or k f or t he W or l d B ank one day R i c k I s t i l l w onde r how w e c an ar gue f or m e ani ng f ul r e l e v ant s oc i al s t udi e s e duc at i on i n t hi s c ount r y w i t hout i nf us i ng gl obal pe r s pe c t i v e s I hav e al w ay s w ant e d t o i nc l ude t he pe r s pe c t i v e s of ot he r s i n m y hi s t or y c l as s e s T he G l obal C l as s r oom s c u r r i c ul um has e nabl e d m e t o us e t he U ni t e d N at i ons as s y s t e m at i c w ay t o do t hi s T he m at e r i al s ar e hi gh qual i t y y ou c an t ak e t he w hol e t hi ng or b i t s and pi e c e s j us t do t he s i m ul at i on or us e t he r e s ou r c e s y ou c an us e i t i n y our c l as s or j us t t o i nc r e as e y ou r ow n k now l e dge about gl obal i s s ue s S t e pha ni e M y f i r s t i m pr e s s i on w as aw f ul I w as ba s i c al l y f or c e d by m y adm i ni s t r at i on t o i m pl e m e nt t he G l obal C l as s r oom s pr ogr am be c au s e no one e l s e i n m y de par t m e nt w oul d do i t and I w as a f i r s t y e ar t e ac he r I c ont i nue t o p ar t i c i pat e i n t hi s pr ogr am f or t he k i ds T he y be g m e t o do i t M y c ur r i c ul um i s al r e ady gl obal i z e d. I t e ac h A dv anc e d P l ac e m e nt H um an G e ogr aphy s o w he n I t ol d m y s t ude nt s t hat I w as not goi ng t o do G l oba l C l as s r oom s any m or e t he y be gge d m e pl e as e j us t do i t one m or e y e ar s o I do i t f or t he m

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110 S a br i na T he G l obal C l as s r oom s M ode l U ni t e d N at i ons pr ogr am e x pande d m y t hi nk i ng on t he r e l e v anc e of gl obal i s m i n t e ac hi ng s oc i al s t udi e s W he n I w as i nt r oduc e d t o t he pr ogr am at a H i l l s bor ough C ount y P r of e s s i onal St udy D ay I w as i n t he pr oc e s s of c r e at i ng an onl i ne l e s s on on t he U ni t e d N at i ons t hat i nt r oduc e d t he s t ude nt s t o ot he r nat i ons us i ng M ode l U ni t e d N at i ons A c t i v i t i e s I w as be c om i ng v e r y f r us t r at e d be c aus e t he onl i ne pr ogr am w oul d de l e t e m y w or k af t e r 30 day s of no t l oggi ng on t o m y l e s s on. I w as i n aw e t hat a c ur r i c ul um s i m i l ar t o w hat I had be e n t r y i ng t o c r e at e f r om s c r at c h f or m y s i x t h gr ade G e ogr aphy s t ude nt s w a s al r e ady i n e x i s t e nc e I c annot e m phas i z e how m uc h t i m e t hi s pr ogr am has s av e d m e i n r e s e ar c h and c r e at i ng ac t i v i t i e s M y s t ude nt s ar e be t t e r r e s e a r c he r s and c om m uni c at or s f r om e x pe r i e nc e s w i t h M ode l U N T om T he y ge t i t M y s t ude nt s be gi n t o r e al l y unde r s t and t hat i t s not t he i r ow n l i t t l e pi e c e of t he w or l d he r e A nd a l ot of t he m y ou k now t h e y l l c om e bac k and s ay w e l l I r e al l y don t t hi nk t he U N doe s w hat i t s s uppos e d t o. W e l l f i ne y ou k now a l ot of pe opl e t hi nk t hat t he U N w hat i t s s uppos e d t o, but t he y at l e as t hav e an unde r s t andi ng of how i t w or k s and w hat i t s s uppos e d t o do y e ah Y e a r af t e r y e ar at t he e nd of t he y e ar I am al w ay s s ur pr i s e d at t he gr ow t h i n m y s t ude nt s i n t e r e s t i n how t hi ngs w or k out t he r e Si nc e I hav e t he m i n 9 t h gr ade i t m e ans e v e n m or e w he n t he y pop i n m y door a t w o y e ar s l at e r and s ay M r T di d y ou he ar t hat t he I C C j us t i s s ue d an i ndi c t m e nt f or t he Sudane s e P r e s i de nt ? be c aus e t he y w e r e on t he H um an R i g ht s C om m i s s i on i n 9 t h gr ade and w or k e d on t he H um an R i ght s at r oc i t i e s i n D ar f ur C an y o u i m agi ne t he y ar e s t i l l f ol l ow i ng t he i s s ue T e l l m e t hi s i s no t a s oc i al s t udi e s t e ac he r s dr e am

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111 C ha pt e r 5 D i s c us s i on P ur pos e of t he S t udy T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o ga i n a de e pe r und e r s t a ndi ng of t he de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s e s of s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c h e r s i n or de r t o s he d l i ght on how pa r t i c i pa t i on i n a gl oba l l y o r i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um p r oj e c t i nf l ue nc e s how pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s T he de c i s i on t o s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m i s m a de ba s e d on a num be r of r e a s ons : t he pr ogr a m ha s be e n i n pl a c e f o r f our ye a r s ; W e s t C e nt r a l F l or i da s c hool di s t r i c t s o f f i c i a l l y s uppor t t he us e of t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um ; a nd t he r e s e a r c he r ha s a c c e s s t o t he a ppr oxi m a t e l y 3 5 pa r t i c i pa t i ng hi gh s c hool t e a c he r s A l oc a l c ons ul t a nt a nd t e a m o f t r a i ne r s a l s o pr ovi de c ont i n ui ng pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt a nd s uppor t B y i nve s t i ga t i ng t he s e t e a c he r s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um a nd t he n a s c e r t a i ni ng t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t hi s pa r t i c i pa t i on i nf l ue nc e s t he a c t ua l i z e d c ur r i c ul um i t i s hope d t ha t a de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c hi ng i n t he c ont e xt of gl oba l i z a t i on w i l l i nf o r m t e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s s c hool di s t r i c t s a nd c ur r i c ul um w r i t e r s M e t hod a nd S um m a r y o f t he D a t a T hi s s t udy e m pl oye d a qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h de s i gn. T he goa l of t hi s s t u dy w a s t o pr ovi de a r i c h, c om pe l l i ng a c c ount of t he e xpe r i e n c e s of hi gh s c hool s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s s o t ha t ot he r s c a n be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he i s s ue s r e f l e c t e d i n t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s T he

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112 pow e r of t he qua l i t a t i ve s t udy i s t he di s c ove r y o f h ow t he r e s ponde nt s e e s t he w or l d ( M c C r a c ke n, 1988) T he p r i m a r y m e t hod of ga t he r i ng da t a w a s t he hour l ong i n t e r vi e w A c a s e s t udy w a s c onduc t e d i n or de r t o ga i n i ns i ght i nt o t he c ur r i c ul a r a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i on m a ki ng pr oc e s s e s of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s w ho e l e c t t o ut i l i z e a nd pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um A pu r pos i ve c r i t e r i on s a m pl i ng s c he m e w a s e m pl oye d f or t he pur pos e of qua l i t y a s s ur a nc e ( M i l e s & H ube r m a n, 1994) T hi s a l l ow e d m e t o s e l e c t pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho w oul d pr ovi de t he m os t i nf or m a t i on f or t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons s t udi e d. T he c r i t e r i a f or s e l e c t i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s i s de t a i l e d i n C ha pt e r t h r e e T he r e s e a r c he r of t hi s s t udy f oc us e d on t he e xpe r i e nc e s of t e n hi gh s c hool s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r ogr a m i n t hr e e W e s t C e nt r a l F l or i da S c hool D i s t r i c t s D a t a a na l ys i s of pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s t o i nt e r vi e w s c r i pt w a s gui de d by t he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons : 1. I n w ha t w a ys do t e a c he r s r e por t us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um uni t s ? 2. W ha t c om pone nt s of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom c ur r i c u l um pr ogr a m do pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t a s m os t i n f l ue nt i a l on t he i r t e a c hi ng pr a c t i c e s a s a w hol e ? 3. H ow doe s pa r t i c i pa t i on i n T he U N A U S A s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r oj e c t i nf l ue nc e how pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c h s oc i a l s t u di e s ? 4. W ha t a r e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he c ha l l e nge s i n t e a c hi ng a gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um ? 5. H ow do s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s pe r c e i ve t he y ne got i a t e c ha l l e nge s i n t e a c hi ng gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c u r r i c ul um ?

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113 6. D o pe r c e pt i ons of pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s e xpe r i e nc e s di f f e r ba s e d on t he na t ur e of how t he y us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um u ni t s ? P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e l e c t e d us i ng a pur pos i ve c r i t e r i on s a m pl i ng s c he m e T h i s a l l ow e d m e t o s e l e c t pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t c oul d pr ovi de t he m os t i n f or m a t i on f or t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons s t udi e d. T he num be r of hi gh s c hool t e a c he r s a c t i ve l y pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s P r oj e c t a t t he t i m e of t hi s s t udy w a s 31. T he num be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s r e f l e c t e d pr opor t i ona l l y t he popul a t i on o f pa r t i c i pa t i ng t e a c he r s f r om t hr e e s c hool di s t r i c t s : H i l l s bor ough, P i ne l l a s a nd P a s c o c ount i e s P a r t i c i pa nt D a t a T he t e n pa r t i c i pa n t s i n t hi s s t ud y c ur r e n t l y t e a c h i n t hr e e s c hoo l d i s t r i c t s i n W e s t C e n t r a l F l or i d a T he s e s c hoo l d i s t r i c t s i n c l ud e H i l l s bor ou g h C oun t y P a s c o C oun t y a nd P i n e l l a s C oun t y A t t he t i m e of t hi s s t ud y e a c h pa r t i c i pa n t t a u g ht hi g h s c hoo l s oc i a l s t udi e s a nd a l l r e s i d e d i n t he T a m pa B a y a r e a I n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t he i d e n t i t y of t he p a r t i c i pa n t s I c h a n g e d t he pa r t i c i pa n t s na m e s a n d t he s p e c i f i c s c hoo l s a r e no t m e n t i on e d b y na m e I n o r d e r t o g i v e t he r e a d e r a b e t t e r unde r s t a ndi n g of t he pa r t i c i pa n t s a nd t he i r e xpe r i e n c e s a s G l ob a l C l a s s r oom s t e a c h e r s bi o g r a phi c a l d e t a i l s a r e pr ovi de d E t hno g r a phi c i n f or m a t i on w a s a l s o ob t a i n e d pr i or t o t he i n t e r v i e w s e s s i on s vi a a b r i e f ba c k g r ound qu e s t i onna i r e O f t he s i x f e m a l e pa r t i c i p a n t s i n t hi s s t ud y t w o i d e n t i f i e d t he i r e t hni c i t y a s w hi t e on e a s G r e e k A m e r i c a n on e a s A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, on e a s H i s p a ni c a nd on e c hos e no t t o r e s p o nd. O f t he f ou r m a l e pa r t i c i pa n t s i n t hi s s t ud y one i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f a s N a t i ve A m e r i c a n on e a s w hi t e a nd t w o c hos e no t r e s p o nd. E t hno g r a phi c d a t a w a s no t u s e d i n t he a n a l y s i s of t he d a t a A s um m a r y of P a r t i c i pa n t da t a i s p r ovi d e d i n

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114 F i g u r e 1. A na l ys i s of t he da t a f ol l ow e d. S i x t he m e s e m e r ge d: ( 1) t he t e a c he r s pe r c e i ve d i n f l ue nc e of G l oba l C l a s s r oom s on s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt ( 2 ) c ont e nt e xpe r t i s e a nd c onf i de nc e ( 3 ) c ha l l e nge s t o t e a c hi ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s s t e m m i ng f r om s t ude nt s ( 4 ) c ha l l e nge s t o t e a c hi ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s s t e m m i ng f r om s c hool e nvi r onm e nt a nd ( 5) i nnova t i ve pe da gogy, a nd ( 6) pr oj e c t s a nd l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s t ha t e vol ve d f r om t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s e xpe r i e nc e s I n or de r t o r e f l e c t m e a ni ng f ul l y on t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e i ve d i n f l ue nc e of t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l S c hool s P r o gr a m on how t he y t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s I w i l l r e l a t e pa r t i c i pa nt pe r c e pt i ons w i t h r e l e va nt r e s e a r c h a nd l i t e r a t ur e i n t he f i e l d of gl oba l e duc a t i on. I w i l l a l s o e xpl or e how t he e m e r gi ng t he m e s i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy r e l a t e t o t he l i t e r a t ur e i n t e a c he r de c i s i on m a ki ng a nd t e a c hi ng. S t ude nt I nt e r e s t a nd E nga ge m e nt P e da gogy i n gl oba l e duc a t i on of t e n i nvol ve s pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd a c t i on ( M e r r yf i e l d & K a s a i 2004) R ol e pl a yi ng s i m ul a t i ons a nd ge ne r a l pr obl e m s ol vi ng m ode l s w he n us e d i n s oc i a l s t udi e s l e s s ons pr ove t o be pow e r f ul l y e nga gi ng a ppr oa c he s M a ny of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy c a pi t a l i z e on t he i r s t ude nt s i nt e r e s t i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s s i m ul a t i ons a s a w a y t o c a pt ur e t he i r s t ude nt s i nt e r e s t i n t he s t udy of t he i r t r a di t i ona l c ur r i c ul um C r uz & M ur t hy ( 2006) e xpl a i ne d t ha t r ol e pl a y f os t e r s s t ude nt s i nhe r e nt i nt e r e s t i n hi s t or i c a l e ve nt s a nd t he pe opl e w ho e xpe r i e nc e t he m T he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy ove r w he l m i ngl y r e po r t e d i nc r e a s e d s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt a nd i nt e r e s t i n t he i r c l a s s e s T hi s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t ha t a num be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho i nf us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um i nt o t he i r s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e s pur pos e f ul l y be gi n t he ye a r w i t h

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115 one of t he s i m ul a t i on a c t i vi t i e s F r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve of t e a c he r pl a nni ng a nd t hi nk i ng a bout i ns t r uc t i on, t he de pa r t ur e f r o m t he t r a di t i ona l s c ope a nd s e que nc e of a s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e s how s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t r e s e a r c he r s a t t r i but e t o e xpe r t t e a c he r s F or e xa m pl e pa r t i c i pa nt s of t e n r e por t e d t ha t t he y r e a l i z e d how e xc i t e d a nd e nga ge d s t ude nt s be c a m e w he n gi ve n a r ol e t o pl a y w i t hi n a gi ve n s i m ul a t i on or r ol e pl a y T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s pr a c t i c e w ha t t he r e s e a r c h i de nt i f i e s a s i nt e r a c t i ve de c i s i on m a ki ng ( C l a r k & L a m pe r t 1986 ) T hi s a l l ow s t he t e a c he r t o us e m a ny t ype s of i n f or m a t i on s uc h a s know l e dge of t he ove r a l l c ur r i c ul um s ubj e c t m a t t e r a nd s t ude nt s i nt e r e s t t o dr i ve t he i r l e s s on goa l s ( W e s t e r m a n, 1991) C l a r k a nd L a m pe r t ( 1986 ) a s s e r t t ha t t e a c he r s i nt e r a c t i ve de c i s i on m a ki ng i n c l a s s r oom s m a n i f e s t hi gh l e ve l s of on t a s k be ha vi or P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy de s c r i be d i nc r e a s e d s t ude nt i nt e r e s t a nd e nga ge m e nt i n t he i r r e s pe c t i ve c l a s s e s F or e xa m pl e A nna m a de a de c i s i on on how s he be gi ns he r w or l d hi s t or y c l a s s be c a us e s he s a w he r s t ude nt s e ne r gi z e d w he n t he y s t udi e d a c ont e m por a r y gl oba l pr obl e m a t t he s t a r t of t he c our s e L i nda e xp l a i ne d t ha t s he be gi ns he r w o r l d hi s t or y c our s e w i t h c ha pt e r t hi r t y i n he r w or l d hi s t or y t e xt book, e nt i t l e d G l oba l T r a ns f or m a t i ons be c a us e i t r e a l l y e xpl a i ns t he na t ur e of t he gl oba l s oc i e t y w e l i ve i n t oda y ( phone c onve r s a t i on, 10/ 6/ 08) S he e xpl a i ne d t o m e t ha t t he f i r s t t i m e s he di d t hi s one of he r s t ude nt s c a l l e d out f i na l l y w e ge t t o r e a d t he e nd of a hi s t or y book, w e ne ve r ge t t o t he e nd o f a h i s t or y book ( s t ude nt c o m m e nt pa r a phr a s e d by L i nda phone c onve r s a t i on, 10/ 9/ 08 ) P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy s how c ont i nuous r e f l e c t i v e pr a c t i c e s a s t he y us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s m a t e r i a l s T he y ha ve e xpl i c i t e xpe c t a t i ons f or t he i r s t ude nt s a nd c ha l l e nge t he m s e l ve s t o t e a c h l e s s ons t ha t f a c i l i t a t e t he s e e xpe c t a t i ons M e r r yf i e l d ( 1998)

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116 i de nt i f i e d s pe c i f i c i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons gl oba l e duc a t or s m a ke r e ga r di ng pl a nni ng a nd t e a c hi ng. T he f i ndi ngs i n t hi s s t udy c onf i r m M e r r y f i e l d s obs e r va t i ons i n t he a r e a s t ha t i nc l ud e e m pha s i z i ng s ki l l s i n hi ghe r or de r t hi nki ng a nd r e s e a r c h, l i nki ng gl oba l c ont e nt t o t he l oc a l c om m uni t y a nd i de nt i f yi ng va r yi ng poi n t s of vi e w O ne f a c t or be c a m e e vi de nt a s I r e vi e w e d t he f i ndi n gs of t hi s s t udy. P a r t i c i pa nt s c ons i s t e nt l y de s c r i be t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on a s a pr ogr e s s i on. A t f i r s t I di dn t know m uc h a bout c onduc t i ng a de ba t e now I us e t he M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons pr oc e dur e s t o do a ny t opi c or p r obl e m w e w a nt t o de ba t e ( R i c k, i nt e r v i e w 9/ 8/ 08) I m not a f r a i d a nym or e a bout t e l l i ng t he ki ds I ha ve n t a c l ue but w he r e d o you t hi nk w e s houl d go t o f i nd t ha t i nf or m a t i on. I c a n m ode l t he t hi nki ng pr oc e s s out l oud f or t he m ( G e or ge i n t e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 08) P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy r e por t e d t ha t pr o c e s s a nd pr oc e dur e i s i m por t a nt i n bui l di ng know l e dge a nd t he y, l i ke t he i r s t ude nt s pr a c t i c e t he pr oc e s s C ont e nt know l e dge a l s o ha s a pl a c e i n t he s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s r oom R e s e a r c h ha s w e l l e s t a bl i s he d t ha t i n t e r m s o f know l e dge a bout t he w or l d, A m e r i c a n s t ude nt s ha ve m uc h t o l e a r n ( D i a z 2004; H e yl & M c C a r t hy, 200 3) I n p r e pa r i ng s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s how c ont e nt know l e dge i n t he s ubj e c t a r e a s i s a c qui r e d ha s pot e nt i a l f or p r e pa r i ng c ol l e ge s t ude nt s f or t he i r r ol e a s c i t i z e ns i n a gl oba l s oc i e t y a nd a s pr os pe c t i ve s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s w ho w i l l i n t u r n be p r e pa r e d t o pa s s t he s e s ki l l s on t o t he i r s t ude nt s C ont e nt e xpe r t i s e a nd c onf i de nc e O ne of t he b i gge s t c ha l l e nge s f or t e a c he r s i s i na de qua t e t e a c he r know l e dge of t he s ubj e c t m a t t e r ( S m i t h, 2002) H e yl a nd M c C a r t hy ( 2003) s t udi e d 690 un i ve r s i t y s t ude nt s w ho ha ve be e n l i c e ns e d t o t e a c h K 12 e duc a t i on i n or de r t o de t e r m i ne i f t he r e i s a n i nt e r na t i ona l di m e ns i on i n t he na t i on s c ol l e ge s a nd uni ve r s i t i e s T he i r f i ndi ngs r e ve a l a

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117 s m a l l pe r c e nt a ge of s t ude nt s e nga gi ng i n a c t i vi t i e s t ha t a r e i de nt i f i e d a s i nt e r na t i ona l i n na t ur e I n f a c t L a m y ( 2007 ) a r gue d t ha t one i m por t a nt w a y of pr e pa r i ng s t ude nt s f or t he i r f ut ur e r o l e a s c i t i z e ns i n a g l oba l s oc i e t y i s t o i nt e g r a t e a c t i ve l e a r ni ng e xe r c i s e s i nt o c ol l e ge l e ve l i nt e r na t i ona l r e l a t i ons c our s e s by c on duc t i ng c a s e s t udi e s a nd pr o bl e m ba s e d l e a r ni ng s c e na r i os T hi s m a ke s s e ns e s i nc e m os t s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on pr ogr a m s r e qui r e t he i r s t ude nt s t o t a ke c our s e s i n h i s t or y, gove r nm e nt e c onom i c s i nt e r na t i ona l r e l a t i ons e t c T hi s w oul d i m pr ove pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h a l e a r ne r c e nt e r e d phi l os ophy of t e a c hi ng t ha t i nc l ud e s pr a c t i c i ng c r i t i c a l a na l yt i c a l a nd e va l ua t i ve s ki l l s H a a ke ns on, S a vukova a nd M a s on ( 1999) out l i ne t hr e e s t e ps i n pr e pa r i ng pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s t o t e a c h w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve P r e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s m us t ga i n know l e dge of t he w o r l d a nd pe r c e pt i ona l unde r s t a ndi ng; t he y m us t be e xpos e d t o i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s a nd pe r s ona l l y c om m i t t e d t o gl oba l i z i ng t he i r t e a c hi ng a ppr oa c he s S oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r c a ndi da t e s s houl d e nc ount e r m ul t i p l e pe r s pe c t i ve s a s w e l l a s a s s i gnm e nt s t ha t r e qui r e t he m t o c ons t r uc t hi s t or i c a l na r r a t i ve s us i ng pr i m a r y a nd s e c onda r y s our c e s ( B oha n & D a vi s 1998) T hi s i s not ne w i n t he a r e a of gl oba l e duc a t i on. S t e m m i ng f r om t he w e l l d oc um e nt e d de f i c i e nc i e s i n pr e pa r i ng f ut ur e t e a c he r s t o t e a c h i n a gl oba l a ge m a ny c ont e m por a r y s c hol a r s ha ve pr e s c r i be d r e m e di e s f or a ddr e s s i ng t he s e de f i c i e nc i e s S om e of t he s e r e m e di e s i nc l ude r e f or m i n c r e de nt i a l i ng s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s e xpa nde d op por t uni t i e s f or s t udy or t r a ve l a br oa d, a nd s pe c i f i c a nd de l i be r a t e c our s e w or k bot h w i t hi n c ol l e ge s of e duc a t i on a nd t he c ol l e ge s t ha t pr ovi de c ont e nt e xpe r t i s e c om bi ne d w i t h r e l e va nt pe da gogi c a l t r a i ni ng ( K i r kw ood, 2006; L a m y, 2007 ; M c C a r t hy & H e yl 2003 ; M e r r y f i e l d & W i l s on, 2004 ) U nt i l a di a l og t ha t

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118 pr om ot e s t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng f or t he pu r pos e of pr e pa r i ng s t ude nt s t o t e a c h i n a gl oba l a ge i s a r t i c ul a t e d w i t hi n t he w a l l s of t he uni ve r s i t y, i n a t r a ns di s c i pl i na r y f a s hi on, s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s w i l l c ont i nue t o be p r e pa r e d i n m u c h t he s a m e w a y a s t he y ha ve i n t he pa s t T h i s of c ou r s e t a ke s pr oa c t i ve e duc a t i ona l l e a de r s hi p, s om e t hi ng I f ound l a c ki ng i n w or l d of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy. O ne que s t i on I a s ke d pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s w ha t i f a ny, i m pa c t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he gl oba l s c hool s pr ogr a m ha d on i ndi vi dua l c ont e nt know l e dge M os t r e s pons e s e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he pr og r a m s uppor t e d t he i r ow n i nt e r e s t i n gl oba l i s s ue s F or e xa m pl e I l i ke l e a r ni ng a bout pe opl e a nd pl a c e s di f f e r e nt f r om m ys e l f ( S a br i na phone c onve r s a t i on, 9/ 24/ 08) I nde e d, m a ny pa r t i c i pa nt s t o l d m e t he y a r e c ur r e nt l y e nr ol l e d i n gr a dua t e c our s e s ha vi ng t o do w i t h gl oba l o r i nt e r na t i ona l t o pi c s a t t e nd w or ks hops r e l a t e d t o gl oba l t opi c s or ha ve pa r t i c i pa t e d i n s um m e r s t udy pr ogr a m s i nvo l v i ng t r a ve l or s t udy. A l l a c know l e dge d pa r t i c i pa t i on i n G l oba l C l a s s r oom s i nc r e a s e d t he i r gl oba l know l e dge I w a s i nt e r e s t e d i f t hi s i nc r e a s e i n know l e dge l e d t o gr e a t e r c onf i de nc e i n t e a c hi ng a bout gl oba l i s s ue s C onf i de nc e i n t e a c hi ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve a ppe a r s t o be c l os e l y r e l a t e d w i t h bui l di ng pe da gogi c a l c om pe t e nc e F o r e xa m pl e m a ny pa r t i c i pa nt s s ha r e d t he i r i ne xpe r i e nc e i n c ons t r uc t i ng or f a c i l i t a t i ng r ol e pl a ys a nd s i m ul a t i ons T he y ove r w he l m i ngl y a t t r i but e d t he i r i nc r e a s e i n t hi s a r e a w i t h t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s l e s s ons a nd t he M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c onf e r e nc e p r e pa r a t i on. P a r t i c i pa nt s a c know l e dge d t he r i s ky na t u r e of c onduc t i ng a r ol e pl a y o r s i m ul a t i on a nd a l a c k o f p r oc e dur a l know l e dge i n c onduc t i ng a de ba t e P a r t i c i pa nt a c c ount s of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he kno w l e dge t he y ga i ne d i n us i ng t he

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119 l e s s ons a l l ow s t he m t o us e t he s e s ki l l s a s a t e m pl a t e f or ot he r t op i c s t he y c ove r i n t he i r c our s e s T he c ont e nt a nd pe da gogi c a l be ne f i t s of pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m do not c om e w i t hout c ha l l e nge s I m pl e m e nt i ng a ny c ur r i c ul a r p r ogr a m o r m a t e r i a l s t ha t a r e not r e qui r e d or pa r t of t he t r a di t i ona l s c ope a nd s e que nc e of s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e s i s a de l i be r a t e c hoi c e on t he pa r t of t he t e a c he r I pr e s s e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy on w hy t he y c ont i nue t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m s a nd pr e s e nt gl oba l c ont e nt a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t a r e not a pa r t of t he t r a di t i ona l c ur r i c ul um t he y t e a c h. G e o r ge be s t e xpl a i ne d ve r y pa s s i ona t e l y, how c a n you not gi ve n t he s t a t e of t he w or l d t oda y? I c oul d do c u r r e nt e ve nt s but t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s gi ve s m e t he t e a c he r a c t i vi t i e s t ha t ge t s t ude nt s t o pr a c t i c e t he s ki l l s t he y ne e d t o pr obl e m s ol ve by c ons i de r i ng a m ul t i t ude o f pe r s pe c t i ve s I t s not j u s t M ode l U N i t i s t he s ki l l s t ha t t he s e s t ude nt s w i l l ne e d ( G e or ge i nt e r vi e w 9/ 24/ 08 ) C ha l l e nge s t o t e a c hi ng w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve T he m os t obvi o us di f f e r e nc e a m ong t he c ha l l e nge s i de nt i f i e d by pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s m a i nl y i nf l ue nc e d by w he t he r o r not t he r e w a s a di s t r i c t w i de a s s e s s m e nt f or s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e s O f t he t hr e e d i s t r i c t s r e pr e s e nt e d i n t hi s s t udy, H i l l s bor ough C ount y w a s t he onl y one w i t h s t a nda r di z e d di s t r i c t a s s e s s m e nt s i n e ve r y s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e I t w a s not s ur pr i s i ng t ha t of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy, P a s c o a nd P i ne l l a s t e a c he r s w e r e m or e e a s i l y a bl e t o i nf us e G l oba l C l a s s r oom s i n t he i r c o ur s e s i n a ddi t i on t o t he i r M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c l ub. H i l l s bor ough t e a c he r s e xpr e s s e d gr e a t di f f i c ul t y i n i nf us i ng t he c ur r i c ul um a nd m os t c hos e t o us e s e l e c t e d s ki l l s a c t i vi t i e s f r o m t he c ur r i c ul um r a t he r t ha n t he l e s s ons a nd s i m ul a t i ons T he y e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he r e qui r e d di s t r i c t e nd of c ou r s e e xa m s i nhi bi t e d

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120 t he i r a bi l i t y t o us e t he c ur r i c ul um i n t he i r c l a s s r oom s T he y f e l t r e s pons i bl e t o t e a c h t he m a t e r i a l t ha t i s on t he e xa m s s o t ha t t he i r s t ude nt s w oul d be pr e pa r e d. P a s c o a nd P i ne l l a s t e a c he r s do not ha ve e nd o f c our s e di s t r i c t e xa m s a nd di d not r e por t t hi s a s a c ha l l e nge P a r t i c i pa nt s f r om P i ne l l a s a nd P a s c o c ount i e s ha d c onc e r ns a bout e nd of ye a r e xa m s L i nda a nd A nn bot h a dm i t t e d t ha t a t t he poi nt t he y a r e i n t he i r c a r e e r s e xa m s w oul d ha ve m i ni m a l i m pa c t on t he i r t e a c hi ng. L i nda d i d m a ke t he poi nt t ha t ha vi ng a c ount y e xa m m i ght i n f l ue nc e w ha t a nd how ne w t e a c he r s w oul d t e a c h. T hi s w a s not t he c a s e f or H i l l s bor ough pa r t i c i pa nt s T he y r e por t e d c onc e r n ove r pr e pa r i ng s t ude nt s f or t he di s t r i c t e xa m s F or t h i s r e a s on, H i l l s bor ough pa r t i c i pa nt s m a i nl y r e por t e d us i ng t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s l e s s ons a nd s i m ul a t i ons i n or de r t o pr e pa r e t he i r s t ude nt s f o r M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons C onf e r e nc e s T he y di d how e ve r m a i nt a i n t ha t t he s ki l l s a nd a c t i vi t i e s ha ve c a r r i e d ove r t o t he i r t e a c hi ng. F o r e xa m pl e S t e ph a ni e e xpl a i ne d t ha t s he ha d l i t t l e e xpe r i e nc e i n how t o s t r uc t ur e a de ba t e T he p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt t r a i ni ng a nd pr a c t i c e i n pr e pa r i ng he r s t ude nt s f or a c onf e r e nc e ga ve he r t he s ki l l s t o be t t e r u t i l i z e f or m a l de ba t e i n he r c l a s s e s I nnova t i v e pe da gogy a nd l e a r ni ng a c t i vi t i e s O ne c ha l l e nge i de nt i f i e d by M e t z ge r ( 1988) i n t e a c hi ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s w a s pe da gogi c a l c om pe t e nc y. P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy c onf i r m e d t he ut i l i t y of t he pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt t r a i ni ng i n t hi s a r e a t o t h e e xt e nt t ha t t he y be c a m e c om f or t a bl e w i t h a da pt i ng t he s t r a t e gi e s t o va r i ous i s s ue s t ha t m a y a r i s e i n a s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s r oom T e a c hi ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s c a n be r i s ky, c ha l l e n gi ng, unpr e di c t a bl e a nd ye t i nc r e di bl y e nga gi ng f or bo t h t e a c he r a nd s t ude nt T he unp r e di c t a bl e di r e c t i on of c l a s s di s c us s i on s or t he c ont r ove r s i a l na t ur e o f t opi c s c a n be a c ha l l e nge t o e ve n t he m os t e xpe r i e nc e d

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121 t e a c he r O f t e n pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he y ha d di f f i c ul t y unde r s t a ndi ng t he c om pl e xi t y of a n i s s ue a nd t hi s i n t ur n m a de t he m f i nd pr a c t i c a l e f f i c i e nt w a ys t o br e a k i t dow n f or t he i r s t ude nt s T he s e i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i o ns de m ons t r a t e t he w i l l i ngne s s of t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s t o s ha pe i ns t r uc t i on a s i t r e l a t e s t o t he i r s t ude nt s T hi s qua l i t y s how s w ha t m a ny i n t he f i e l d of gl oba l e duc a t i on de s c r i b e a s a c om m i t m e nt t o t e a c h a bout c om pl i c a t e d i s s ue s t ha t of t e n ha ve m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s i n or de r f or s t ude nt s t o be t t e r a ppr e c i a t e di ve r s i t y of w or l d v i e w s I n t hi s s t udy, pa r t i c i pa nt s of t e n e xpr e s s e d how t he y ha ve a da pt e d l e s s ons f r om t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um t o us e w i t h ot he r c our s e s t he y t e a c h. T h r ough t he pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt t r a i ni ng da ys pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he y s ha r e d i de a s c ha l l e nge s a nd s t r a t e gi e s f o r de a l i ng w i t h c ha l l e nge s t ha t i m pr ove d t he i r pe da gogy. T om r e a di l y a dm i t t e d t h a t w he n he s t a r t e d t he pr ogr a m I di dn t know w ha t I w a s doi ng ( i nt e r vi e w 9/ 8/ 08) s pe c i f i c a l l y, t he l e s s ons t ha t i nvol ve us i ng r e s e a r c h t o w r i t e pos i t i on s t a t e m e nt s on a pa r t i c ul a r p r obl e m f r om a poi nt o f vi e w of t e n di f f e r e nt f r om t he i r ow n B ut I w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t w e w e r e go i ng t o l e a r n t h i s t oge t he r N ow a f t e r s ha r i ng t hi s f r us t r a t i on w i t h o t he r G l oba l C l a s s r oom s t e a c he r s I a m a n e xpe r t a t t e a c hi ng t he pr oc e s s ( T om i nt e r vi e w 9/ 8/ 08) P r oj e c t s a nd a dvoc a c y di m e ns i ons G l oba l e duc a t or s pe r c e i ve t he m s e l ve s a s c ha nge a ge nt s ; t he y r e a l i z e t he s oc i a l i z i ng pow e r of t he s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s r oom a nd t he y be l i e ve t ha t a n unde r s t a ndi ng of m ul t i pl e pe r s pe c t i ve s w i l l he l p s t ude nt s de ve l o p e m pa t hy a nd a de s i r e t o he l p ot he r s ( K i r kw ood 2002; M e r r yf i e l d 1998 ) T he r e s e a r c h i n gl oba l e duc a t i on f i nds t ha t t e a c he r s w ho a r e a c t i ve i n gl oba l e duc a t i on l i ke t he pa r t i c i p a nt s i n t hi s s t udy, us ua l l y a r e a c t i ve i n pol i c y or i e nt e d i nt e r e s t g r oups ( e g. A m ne s t y i nt e r na t i ona l H e i f e r I n t e r na t i ona l S i e r r a

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122 C l ub) a nd a r e m or e l i ke l y t o ha ve r e a d a bout or s t udi e d a bout i nt e r na t i ona l i s s ue s ( L a m y, 1991) P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy a l l a r e m e m be r s i n t he U N A U S A a nd by vi r t ue of t he m e m be r s hi p r e c e i ve ne w s l e t t e r s i nvi t a t i ons pr ogr a m s a nd s c hol a r l y j our na l s i n t he a r e a of gl oba l i s s ue s N e a r l y ha l f of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy ha ve a t t e nde d l oc a l U N A U S A T a m pa B a y C ha pt e r p r ogr a m s w i t h f e a t ur e d gue s t s pe a ke r s on one or m o r e gl oba l i s s ue s T he s e s a m e t e a c he r s a l s o r e por t e d t ha t t he y e nc our a ge t he i r s t ude nt s t o be c om e m e m be r s i n s om e of t he or ga ni z a t i ons m e nt i one d a bove M a ny o f t he s e or ga ni z a t i ons i nvol ve s oc i a l j us t i c e i s s ue s t ha t hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s c a n ge t i nvol ve d i n S t e pha ni e r e por t e d t ha t he r s t ude nt s he l d a f undr a i s e r a nd pr o gr a m on t he t opi c o f c hi l d s ol di e r s L i ke w i s e G l e nda m e nt i one d s e ve r a l a w a r e ne s s c a m pa i gns t ha t he r M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons c l ub c onduc t s ye a r l y. A nna E l i s e a nd G l e nda a c t i ve l y pr om ot e s t ude nt a c t i vi s m i n t he w a y of s pe c i f i c f und r a i s e r s or a w a r e ne s s of a gl ob a l i s s ue c a m pa i gn. H a a ke ns on, S a va kova & M a s on ( 1999) a s s e r t t ha t gl oba l pe da gogy i s r e f o r m or i e nt e d. T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t e a c he r s a nd t h e i r i nvol ve m e nt i n pr o f e s s i ona l or ga ni z a t i ons i s a n a r e a t ha t w a r r a nt s i nve s t i ga t i on I n a m o r e r e c e nt s t udy F us s K i r kw ood ( 2006) i nve s t i ga t e d t he gl oba l m i nde dne s s of 644 pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s e nr ol l e d i n a r e qui r e d s oc i a l s t udi e s m e t hods c our s e a t one of f i ve F l or i da publ i c uni ve r s i t i e s A l ong w i t h ot he r i ndi c a t or s l i ke a ge i nt e r na t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s he not e d t ha t m e m be r s hi p i n pr of e s s i ona l or ga ni z a t i ons w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d t o w or l dm i nde dne s s R e s e a r c h i n t e a c he r pl a nni ng r e ve a l s a di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n t he novi c e a nd e xpe r t t e a c he r ( W e s t e r m a n, 1991) O ne a t t r i but e o f e xpe r t t e a c he r s i s t he i r a bi l i t y t o i nt e r a c t w i t h t he c ur r i c ul um i e us e t he c ur r i c ul um f r a m e w or k f or a c our s e a s t he f ounda t i on f or bui l di ng l e s s ons t ha t a r e uni que l y s ui t e d f or t he i r c l a s s e s R i c k, G l e nda a nd G e or ge

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123 e xpl a i ne d how t he y s t a r t e d us i ng G l oba l C l a s s r oom s a nd t ha t a s t he y be c a m e m or e pr of i c i e nt w i t h c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s t he y be c a m e m or e c om f or t a bl e w i t h a da pt i ng t he l e s s ons s om e t i m e s r e i nve nt i ng t he c ur r i c ul um a nd i nf us i ng c om pone nt s t o s e r ve t he c our s e s t he y t a ught T he s e t e a c he r s h a ve i de nt i f i e d c ont e nt pe da gogy f r om t he gl oba l c l a s s r oom c ur r i c ul um r e s our c e s a nd m a de t he m no t onl y t r a ns f e r a bl e t o a l l ki nds of c r e a t i ve pr oj e c t s but pr om ot e d s t ude nt a c t i vi s m i n s oc i a l j us t i c e a nd or gl oba l i s s ue s R e c om m e nda t i ons f or T e a c he r E duc a t i on I t i s qui t e e a s y t o poi nt a f i nge r a t c ol l e ge s of e duc a t i on a s f a i l i ng t o pr e pa r e pr os pe c t i ve t e a c he r c a ndi da t e s w i t h know l e dge a nd s ki l l s ne e d t o t e a c h w i t h a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve T he r e a r e how e ve r f a c t or s t ha t r e m a i n out of t he c ont r ol o f t e a c he r p r e pa r a t i on pr og r a m s F or e xa m pl e t e a c he r c r e de nt i a l i ng i s ve r y m uc h i n t he s c ope of t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on pr og r a m s a nd s t a t e l i c e ns i ng pr oc e dur e s W hi l e t he s c ope of t hi s s t udy di d not i nc l ude pa r t i c i pa nt s t r a ve l a br oa d e x pe r i e nc e s or l i ngui s t i c a bi l i t i e s gl oba l e duc a t i on r e s e a r c he r s poi nt t o t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s uc h pe r s ona l i ndi c a t or s a nd a gl oba l m i nds e t K i r kw ood ( 2006 ) e nc our a ge s s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s t o r e qui r e s t udy a br oa d a nd s e c ond l a ngua ge a c qui s i t i on a s a w a y t o pr om ot e g l oba l m i nde dne s s I t i s c l e a r t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy r e por t e d t h a t t he y ga i ne d c ont e nt know l e dge t hr ough t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l S c hool s P r ogr a m P a r t i c i pa nt s a l s o r e por t e d t he i r i n i t i a l a ppr e he ns i on a s t he y f i r s t s t a r t e d t he p r ogr a m E a c h pa r t i c i pa nt c hr oni c l e d hi s o r he r a w a ke ni ng w i t h r e ga r d t o how t he U ni t e d N a t i ons w or ks c onduc t i ng r e s e a r c h on gl oba l i s s ue s how t o w r i t e a pos i t i on pa pe r on a n i s s ue a nd f i na l l y, how t o a ddr e s s pr obl e m s w i t h c ount r i e s t h a t m a y not s ha r e t he s a m e w or l d vi e w

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124 T hi s l e a r ni ng c u r ve oc c ur r e d i n bot h gl oba l know l e dge a nd s ki l l s f or t e a c hi ng a bout t he w or l d. S uc c e s s f ul pr of e s s i ona l s e nga ge i n c ont i nuous i m pr ove m e nt t o be t t e r r e f i ne t he i r s ki l l s a nd know l e dge T e a c hi ng i s no e xc e pt i on. I t s e e m s i m por t a nt t he n, t o bu i l d r e l a t i ons hi ps w i t h t he c ol l e ge s t ha t p r ovi de pr e s e r vi c e a nd i n s e r vi c e t e a c he r s w i t h va l ua bl e c ont e nt e xpe r t i s e W hi l e i t i s ou t s i de of t he r e a l m of c ol l e ge s of e duc a t i on, L a m y s ( 2007) r e c om m e nda t i ons f or i n f us i ng a c t i ve l e a r ni ng s t r a t e gi e s i nvol vi ng c a s e s t udi e s a nd c oop e r a t i ve pr obl e m s ol vi ng a c t i vi t i e s i nt o t r a di t i ona l l e c t ur e c l a s s e s hol ds pr om i s e of c ol l a bo r a t i ve t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on m ode l s R e c om m e nda t i ons f or S c hool D i s t r i c t s T he l i t e r a t u r e i n g l oba l e duc a t i on p r om ot e s c i t i z e ns h i p t ha t i nc l ude s m e m be r s hi p i n t he w or l d a s w e l l a s t he l oc a l na t i on s t a t e a nd c om m uni t y. T he c onc e pt o f gl oba l c i t i z e ns hi p i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n s oc i a l s t udi e s pr o f e s s i ona l s t a nda r ds I t i s t he r e f or e t he r e s pons i bi l i t y of s c hool di s t r i c t s t o de ve l op a c l e a r vi s i on a nd m i s s i on s t a t e m e nt f or s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um t ha t t a ke s i nt o c ons i de r a t i on t he s ki l l s a nd c om pe t e nc i e s s t ude nt s w i l l ne e d t o s uc c e e d i n a gl oba l s oc i e t y. I t i s i m po r t a nt t ha t s c hool di s t r i c t s pr ovi de a c ur r i c ul um f r a m e w or k t ha t r e f l e c t s a g l oba l vi s i on. H i l l s bor ough C ount y ha s c ur r i c ul um gui de s w i t h de t a i l e d l e a r n i ng obj e c t i ve s a nd t e a c hi ng poi nt s a l i gne d w i t h t he s t a t e a nd na t i ona l s t a nda r ds i n s oc i a l s t udi e s P i ne l l a s a nd P a s c o C ount i e s ha ve l oos e l y pr e s c r i be d c ur r i c ul um f r a m e w or ks R e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r or not t he r e i s a hi ghl y de t a i l e d c ur r i c ul um gui de or a l oos e c ur r i c ul um f r a m e w or k, i t i s i m por t a nt t ha t s c hool di s t r i c t s i nc or por a t e gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s s ki l l s a nd c om pe t e nc i e s ur ge nt l y c a l l e d f or by t he g l oba l e duc a t i on c om m uni t y.

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125 I n a ddi t i on t o c ur r i c ul um gui de s m a nda t e d a s s e s s m e nt s pl a y a n i m por t a nt r ol e i n t he i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s F or e xa m pl e H i l l s bor ough C ount y r e qui r e s e nd of ye a r di s t r i c t e xa m s i n e a c h hi gh s c hool s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e P i ne l l a s a nd P a s c o c ount y pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he i r di s t r i c t s c ur r e nt l y do not r e qui r e s uc h e xa m s but a r e e xpe c t e d t o ha ve di s t r i c t a s s e s s m e n t s i n t he ne a r f ut ur e I n a n e r a of hi gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng t he r e i s a s a yi ng, i f i t i s on t he t e s t t e a c he r s w i l l t e a c h i t I n P a s c o a nd P i ne l l a s c ount i e s pa r t i c i pa nt s a nt i c i pa t e d t ha t r e qui r e d s oc i a l s t udi e s e xa m s f or e a c h c our s e w e r e i m m i ne nt T he r e f or e i t i s r e c om m e nde d t ha t i f s c hool di s t r i c t s r e qui r e a s s e s s m e nt s t he y s houl d r e f l e c t t he t e a c hi ng a nd l e a r ni ng of c om p e t e nc i e s out l i ne d i n t he c ur r i c ul um gui de R e c ogni z i ng t ha t t he t e a c he r i s t he i ns t r uc t i ona l ga t e ke e pe r t ha t m a ke s c r i t i c a l de c i s i ons a bout w ha t a nd how t o t e a c h s oc i a l s s t udi e s pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt i s e s s e nt i a l I t i s i m po r t a nt t ha t s c hool di s t r i c t s r e a l i g n pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt pr og r a m s t o he l p t e a c he r s ga i n pe da gogi c a l c ont e nt know l e dge t ha t w i l l e na bl e t he m t o t e a c h a bout gl oba l i s s ue s P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy c onf i r m e d t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt i nc l ude d i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m T e a c he r e duc a t i on a nd t r a i ni ng w a s c ont i nuous a nd r e s pons i ve t o t he ne e ds of t he t e a c he r s i n t he pr oc e s s of us i ng t he c ur r i c ul um m a t e r i a l s S c hool di s t r i c t s m us t a l s o t a ke i nt o c ons i de r a t i on t he i m por t a nc e o f pe da gogi c a l know l e dge a nd c ont e nt t r a i ni ng f o r t h os e t e a c he r s t ha t c a m e t o t he c l a s s r oom by m e a ns of a l t e r na t i ve c e r t i f i c a t i on pr ogr a m s P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy a l l r e po r t e d t ha t t he y ha d t he s uppor t of t he i r di s t r i c t a nd s c hool s i t e a dm i ni s t r a t or s I di s c ove r e d t hr oughout t he i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s t hi s m e a nt t ha t a dm i ni s t r a t or s s i m pl y gr a nt e d pe r m i s s i on, or a t t he ve r y l e a s t di d not s e t up obs t a c l e s

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126 a nd ba s i c a l l y l e t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s do w a nt t he y w a nt e d t o do T hi s ki nd o f s uppor t i s pa s s i ve S i m pl y gi vi ng or de nyi ng pe r m i s s i on f o r a t e a c he r t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a pr og r a m l i ke G l oba l C l a s s r oom s i s not a dm i n i s t r a t i ve l e a de r s hi p t ha t pr oa c t i ve l y de ve l ops a s t r ong gl oba l c ur r i c ul um I t i s r e c om m e nde d t ha t s c hool di s t r i c t s e nc our a ge a nd de ve l op pr oa c t i ve l e a de r s hi p m e a s ur e s t o be t t e r e duc a t e c ur r i c ul um s upe r vi s or s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t or s a t t he s c hool s i t e on t he va l ue of gl oba l l y or i e nt e d p r ogr a m s a va i l a bl e t o s c hool s a nd t e a c he r s T hi s ha s i m pl i c a t i ons f o r pr o f e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of s c hool a dm i ni s t r a t or s C ur r i c ul u m l e a de r s a nd de ve l ope r s ha ve a r e s pons i bi l i t y t o e nc our a ge a nd r e c ogni z e e xc e l l e nc e i n t e a c hi ng. A dm i ni s t r a t o r s c a n publ i c i z e a nd pr om o t e de di c a t e d t e a c he r s w ho e l e c t t o br i ng gl oba l l y r e l e ve nt c ont e nt a nd i nnova t i ve t e a c hi ng pr a c t i c e s i nt o t he i r c l a s s r oom s R e c om m e nda t i ons f o r F ut ur e R e s e a r c h M a ny s t udi e s i n t he f i e l d o f gl oba l e duc a t i on e xpl o r e how e xpos ur e t o gl oba l l y or i e nt e d c ur r i c ul um i nc r e a s e s s t ude nt s a nd t e a c he r s know l e dge a nd a w a r e ne s s a bout t he w or l d. P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy r e por t e d i nc r e a s e d s t ude nt e nga ge m e n t a nd i nt e r e s t w he n t he y us e d t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s m a t e r i a l s i n t he i r s oc i a l s t udi e s c l a s s r oom s I t i s e a s y t o a s s um e t ha t i nt e r e s t a nd e nga ge m e nt w oul d r e s ul t i n i nc r e a s e d s t ude nt know l e dge a nd a w a r e ne s s of t he w or l d F ut u r e s t udi e s s houl d c e nt e r on i nve s t i ga t i ons t ha t e xpl o r e c r i t i c a l t hi nki ng s ki l l s pr obl e m s ol vi ng s t r a t e gi e s t ha t i nvol ve m ul t i p l e pe r s pe c t i ve s P r om i ne nt gl oba l e duc a t or s e nc our a ge t he e va l ua t i on of t e a c he r e duc a t i on r e qui r e m e nt s f or c r e de nt i a l s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s a nd a r e va m pi ng o f t e a c he r p r e pa r a t i on pr ogr a m s ( K i r kw ood 2005; M e r r yf i e l d, 2004; C oga n, 2006) H e yl a nd M c C a r t hy ( 2006) a nd L a m y ( 2007) a r gue t ha t c ou r s e s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c ont e nt a da pt t o m e e t t he de m a nds

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127 of a gl oba l s oc i e t y f r om t he pe r s pe c t i ve o f gl oba l c i t i z e ns hi p. C ons i d e r i ng t he r a pi d pa c e of c ha nge i n how s t ude nt s a c qui r e know l e dge a bou t t he w or l d t he r e i s a ne e d f or a m o r e r e c e nt c om pa r a t i ve s t udy of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s a nd s oc i a l s t udi e s c r e de nt i a l l i ng r e qui r e m e nt s a c r os s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s D oc u m e nt i ng a nd c om pa r i ng t e a c he r e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s m a y s e r ve t o a c c e l e r a t e c ha nge i n t e a c he r e duc a t i on. P r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt w a s a n i m por t a nt c om po ne nt a c c or di ng t o t he t e a c he r s i n t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s P r og r a m O ne c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of t he p r of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt c om pone nt w a s t ha t i t w a s c ont i nuous ba s e d on t h e ne e ds of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a s t he y us e t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um a nd m os t i m po r t a nt i nt e r a c t i ve T hi s m e a ns i t of f e r e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t he oppo r t uni t y t o s ha r e a nd t o l e a d pr of e s s i ona l d e ve l opm e nt c om pone nt s ba s e d on t he i r r e l a t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s P a r t i c i pa nt s e xpl a i ne d t hi s phe nom e non a s a s or t of c om pl i m e nt o r va l i da t i on of t he i r e xpe r t i s e T he y s e e m e d f l a t t e r e d by t he f a c t t ha t ne w e r t e a c he r s t o t he pr ogr a m r e l i e d on t he m f or t he i r i ns i gh t a nd e xpe r t i s e a nd w e l c om e d t he m e nt or i ng oppor t uni t y C i vi c e nga ge m e nt a nd e npow e r m e nt i s a goa l of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s W e l i ve i n a n a ge w he r e a t e c hnol ogy a nd c om m uni c a t i on r e vol ut i on ha s c onne c t e d t he l oc a l vot i ng boo t h w i t h t he gl oba l s ys t e m C l e a r l y a n i n f or m e d c i t i z e nr y i s i m pe r a t i ve f or a num be r of r e a s ons I n f us i ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i nt o t he c ur r i c ul um i s one w a y t o r e a c h t hi s goa l C onc l us i ons a nd I m pl i c a t i ons T he i m por t a nc e o f unde r s t a ndi ng t he pr oc e s s e s t ha t unde r l i e i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons i s e s s e nt i a l i n he l pi ng t e a c he r s unde r s t a n d t he i r p r a c t i c e ( C l a r k & Y i nge r 1977) U nde r s t a ndi ng t he p r a c t i c e of t e a c hi ng m a y i nf or m t e a c he r e duc a t i on, t he

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128 pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt of t e a c he r s a nd t he goa l s of s oc i a l s t udi e s e d uc a t i on. G i ve n t he pow e r f ul f o r c e s of gl oba l i z a t i on t he r e i s a n u r ge nt ne e d t o m a ke c ha nge s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um a nd i n t he pr e pa r a t i on of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s U nde r s t a ndi ng t he e xpe r i e nc e s of t e a c he r s w ho e l e c t t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n gl oba l l y or i e nt e d pr ogr a m s i s vi t a l i n pr e pa r i ng s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s I t i s a l s o us e f ul i n a ppr a i s i ng t he c ont e nt a r e a e duc a t i on t ha t i s pa r t of t he s e c onda r y e duc a t i on t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on pr og r a m s N ot e ve r y pr os pe c t i ve s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r t a ke s t he s a m e c ont e nt a r e a c our s e s G l oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd c om pe t e nc i e s m a y not be i m be dde d i n t he pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s a c a de m i c t r a i ni ng unl e s s t he y e l e c t t o t a ke a s pe c i f i c c our s e T he c r e de nt i a l i ng of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s ne e ds s e r i ous c ons i de r a t i on. T e a c he r p r e pa r a t i on a nd i ns e r vi c e t r a i ni ng ne e d t o be r e s pons i ve t o t he ne e d t o de ve l op a n e m e r g i ng c a dr e o f t e a c he r s w ho a r e be c om i ng i nc r e a s i ngl y a w a r e o f t he ne e d t o i n f us e gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s i nt o t he s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um P r of e s s i ona l s t a nda r ds ha ve l ong c a l l e d f o r s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c hi ng f or gl oba l c i t i z e ns hi p, e c onom i c a nd pol i t i c a l s t a ke hol de r s c a l l f o r s oc i a l s t udi e s c ur r i c ul um t o i nc l ude gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s a nd pr os pe c t i ve t e a c he r s a nd pr e s e r vi c e t e a c he r s de m ons t r a t e i nc r e a s i ng gl oba l m i n de dne s s a nd a w a r e n e s s of t he ne e d t o pr ovi de t he i r s t ude nt s w i t h know l e dge a bout t he w or l d f r om a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve W ha t t e a c he r s do i n a c l a s s r oom t he a c t ua l i z e d c u r r i c ul um i s of t e n t he r e s ul t of a t e a c he r ne got i a t i ng f or m a l c ur r i c ul um w i t h t he i nd i vi dua l t e a c he r s i nt e nde d obj e c t i ve s r e s ul t i ng i n w ha t a c t ua l l y t r a ns pi r e s i n a gi ve n c l a s s r oom T he a c t ua l i z e d c ur r i c ul um i s i nf l ue nc e d by t e a c he r s know l e dge be l i e f s a nd pr i or e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t s e r ve a s a m e di a t i ng l e ns t ha t s ha pe t he i r i ns t r uc t i ona l de c i s i ons i n t he c l a s s r oom ( K i r kw ood, 2001) T he qua l i t a t i ve de s i gn o f t hi s s t udy e na bl e d m e t o c a pt ur e s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s

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129 t e a c he r s e xpe r i e nc e s a s t he y e l e c t t o t e a c h a bout t he w or l d us i ng t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s P r ogr a m T he t e a c he r s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t hi s s t udy e m body c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of be s t pr a c t i c e s i n s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on. T he y a r e pr of e s s i ona l s de di c a t e d t o c ont i nuous i m pr ove m e nt i n t he f i e l d of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on. T he c a ndor by w hi c h t he y s ha r e d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s i n us i ng t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m w i l l undoubt e dl y a dd t o t he know l e dge i n t e a c he r e duc a t i on a nd e na bl e gl oba l e duc a t or s t o de ve l op m or e e f f e c t i ve pr ogr a m s i n pr e pa r i ng s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s t o t e a c h i n a g l oba l s oc i e t y. E duc a t i on i s by f a r t he m os t hope f ul a nd p r om i s i n g e nde a vor of t he hum a n r a c e T he r e i s not hi ng m or e c r i t i c a l t ha n unde r s t a ndi ng w ha t t e a c he r s do e ve r y da y a s t he y pr e pa r e ge ne r a t i ons t o be c om e know l e dge a bl e e m pow e r e d, e m pa t he t i c c om pa s s i ona t e pe a c e l ovi ng c i t i z e ns of t he w o r l d.

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130 R e f e r e nc e s A nde r s on, C ; B r uc e M ; & P ode m s ki R ( 1991) D e ve l opi ng a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve : S t r a t e gi e s f or t e a c he r e duc a t i on. J our nal o f T e ac he r E duc at i on 42( 1) 20 27. A nde r s on, L ( 1982 ) W hy s houl d A m e r i c a n E duc a t i on be gl oba l i z e d? I t s a nons e ns i c a l que s t i on. T he or y i nt o P r ac t i c e 21( 3 ) 155 161. A nde r s on, L ( 1991 ) A r a t i ona l e f o r gl oba l e duc a t i on. Y e ar book A s s oc i at i on f or Supe r v i s i on and C ur r i c ul um D e v e l opm e nt 13 34. A u, W & A ppl e M ( 2004) I nt e r r upt i ng gl oba l i z a t i on a s a n e duc a t i ona l pr a c t i c e E duc at i onal P ol i c y 18 ( 5) 784 793. A ve r y, P ( 2004) S oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r e duc a t i on i n a n e r a o f gl oba l i z a t i on I n S A A dl e r ( E d ) C r i t i c al I s s ue s i n Soc i al St udi e s T e ac h e r E duc at i on ( 37 57) G r e e nw i c h, C onne c t i c ut : I nf o r m a t i on A ge P ubl i s hi ng. A ve r y, P ; T r yge s t a d, J ; & S e dr o S ( 1991) S t ude nt s ge opol i t i c a l pe r s pe c t i ve s Soc i al E duc at i on, 55( 5) 320 25. B a c on, N & K i s c hne r G ( 2002) S ha pi ng gl oba l c l a s s r oom s E duc at i onal L e ade r s hi p 60( 2) 48 51. B a l l D & M c D i a m i d, G W ( 1990 ) T he s ubj e c t m a t t e r pr e pa r a t i on o f t e a c he r s I n W R H ous t on ( E d. ) H andbook o f r e s e ar c h on t e ac he r e duc at i on N e w Y or k : M a c m i l l a n, 113 132.

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131 B a r be r B ( 1995) J i had v s M c W or l d: H ow gl oba l i s m and t r i bal i s m ar e r e s hapi ng t he w or l d N e w Y or k: R a ndom H ous e B e c ke r J M ( 1973 ) E duc at i on f or a g l obal s oc i e t y B l oom i ngt on, I N : P hi D e l t a K a ppa E duc a t i ona l F ounda t i on. B e c ke r J M ( 1982 ) G oa l s f or gl oba l e duc a t i on T he or y i nt o P r ac t i c e 21( 3 ) 228 233 B e c ke r J M ( 1980) N e e de d: A gl oba l c ont e xt f or l oc a l a c t i ons N at i onal A s s oc i at i on of Se c ondar y Sc hool P r i nc i pal s 64( 439) 27 31. B e c ke r J M ( 1989) T r e nds : i nt e r na t i ona l e duc a t i on; T he s t a t e s go gl oba l E duc at i onal L e ade r s hi p 47( 1) 89 90 B e n t e z H ( 2001) D oe s i t r e a l l y m a t t e r how w e t e a c h? T he s oc i a l i z i ng e f f e c t s of a gl oba l i z e d U S hi s t or y c ur r i c ul um T he or y and R e s e ar c h i n Soc i al E duc at i on 29( 2) 290 307 B e ns on, V ( 2002 ) S hi f t i ng pa r a di gm s a nd pe da gogy w i t h nonf i c t i on: A c a l l t o a r m s f o r s ur vi va l i n t he t w e nt y f i r s t c e nt ur y. T he N e w E ngl a nd R e adi ng A s s oc i at i on 38( 2 ) 1 6. B e r m de z P & C r uz B ( 1997 ) L at i n A m e r i c a an d t he C ar i bbe an i n t he 21 s t c e nt ur y : A r e s ou r c e gui de f or F l or i da t e ac he r s M i a m i : F l o r i d a F l or i da C a r i bbe a n I ns t i t ut e L a t i n A m e r i c a n a nd C a r i bbe a n C e nt e r F l or i da I nt e r na t i ona l U ni ve r s i t y. B i c km or e K ( 2002) C onf l i c t s gl oba l a nd l oc a l : A n e l e m e nt a r y a ppr oa c h. Soc i al E duc at i on 66( 4) 235 8. B oha n, C & D a vi s J r O L ( 1998 ) H i s t or i c a l c on s t r uc t i ons : H ow s oc i a l s t udi e s s t ude nt t e a c he r s hi s t or i c a l t hi nki ng i s r e f l e c t e d i n t he i r w r i t i ng of hi s t or y. T he or y and R e s e ar c h i n Soc i al E duc at i on 26 ( 2) 173 197

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132 B r uc e M ; P ode m s ki R ; & A nde r s on, C ( 1991) D e ve l opi ng a gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve : s t r a t e gi e s f or t e a c he r e duc a t i on p r ogr a m s J our nal of T e ac he r E duc at i on 42 ( 1) 21 7. B ur a c k, J ( 2004) T he s t ude nt t he w or l d a nd t he gl oba l e duc a t i on i de ol ogy. I n J L e m i ng, L E l l i ngt on, & K P or t e r ( E ds ) W he r e D i d Soc i al St udi e s G o W r ong? W a s hi ngt on: F or dha m F ounda t i on r e t r i e ve d A ug 29, 2006 f r om ht t p: / / w w w e de xc e l l e nc e ne t / i ns t i t ut e / publ i c a t i on/ publ i c a t i on. c f m ? i d= 317 C a s e R ( 1993) K e y e l e m e nt s o f a g l oba l pe r s pe c t i ve Soc i al E duc at i on, 57( 6 ) 318 25 C l a r k, C ( 1988) A s ki ng t he r i ght que s t i ons a bout t e a c he r pr e pa r a t i on: C ont r i bu t i ons of r e s e a r c h on t e a c he r t hi nki ng E duc at i onal R e s e ar c he r 17( 2) 5 12 C l a r k, C & L a m pe r t M ( 1986) T he s t udy of t e a c he r t hi nki ng: I m pl i c a t i ons f or t e a c he r e duc a t i on. J our nal of T e ac he r E duc at i on 37 ( 5) 2 7 31. C l a r k, C & Y i nge r ( 1977 ) R e s e a r c h on t e a c he r t h i nki ng. C ur r i c ul um I nqui r y 7 ( 4) 279 304. C oga n, J ( 2006 ) Sc hool i ng f or t he f ut ur e i n t he U ni t e d St at e s of A m e r i c a: E duc at i onal pol i c y at t he c r os s r oads I nt e r na t i ona l J our na l o f E duc a t i ona l R e s e a r c h, 41( 7 8) 474 583. C ol l i ns H ( 1990) S t r e ngt he ni ng t he i nt e r na t i ona l c ur r i c ul um : T he pr i nc i pa l s r ol e N at i onal A s s oc i at i on of Se c ondar y Sc hool P r i nc i pal s ( N A SSP ) B u l l e t i n 74( 522) 80 84. C ons t a s M A ( 199 2) Q ua l i t a t i ve a na l ys i s a s a pu bl i c e ve nt : T he doc um e nt a t i on of c a t e gor y de ve l opm e nt p r oc e dur e s A m e r i c an E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h J our nal 29 ( 2) 253 266

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133 C or nbl e t h, C ( 1997) B i r ds of a f e a t he r : P e opl e ( s ) c ul t ur e ( s ) a nd s c hool hi s t or y. T he or y and R e s e ar c h i n Soc i al E duc at i on 25( 6) 357 362. C r uz B ( 1990) T he e f f e c t s of a s oc i al s t udi e s t e ac he r t r ai ni ng pr ogr am e m phas i z i ng gl obal e duc at i on on t he t e ac hi ng be hav i or s of s e c o ndar y l e v e l pr e s e r v i c e t e ac he r s U npubl i s he d di s s e r t at i on. M i a m i : F l o r i d a I nt e r na t i ona l U ni ve r s i t y. C r uz B & M ur t hy S ( 2006) B r e a t hi ng l i f e i n t o h i s t or y: U s i ng r ol e p l a yi ng t o e nga ge s t ude nt s Soc i al St udi e s and t he Y oung L e ar ne r 19 ( 1) 4 8. D a r l i ng H a m m ond, L ; W i s e A ; & K l e i n S ( 199 9) A l i c e ns e t o t e ac h. R ai s i ng s t andar ds f or t e ac hi ng. S a n F r a nc i s c o: J os s e y B a s s I nc D a vi s S & D a vi s J ( 2007 ) M ak i ng t he c as e f or s oc i al s t udi e s I t s our r e s pons i bi l i t y P a pe r pr e s e nt e d a t T he S oc i a l S c i e nc e E duc a t i on C ons or t i um of t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l f or S oc i a l S t udi e s C onve nt i on. S a n D i e go C A D e l a nt y, G ( 2000) C i t i z e ns hi p i n a gl obal age P h i l a de l phi a : O pe n U n i ve r s i t y. D e w e y, J ( 1976 1983) T he M i ddl e W or k s 1899 1924, 15 V ol um e s S out he r n I l l i noi s C a r bonda l e : U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s D i a z C ( 2004) T he r ol e of gl obal pe r s pe c t i v e s i n t e ac he r pr e par at i on. P a pe r pr e s e nt e d a t t he C ol l e ge U ni ve r s i t y F a c ul t y ( C U F A ) A s s e m bl y of t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l f or t he S oc i a l S t udi e s C onf e r e nc e B a l t i m or e M a r yl a n d. D unn, R E ( 1999) C ont e ndi ng de f i ni t i ons of w or l d hi s t or y w hi c h one s houl d w e c hoos e f or t he c l a s s r oom ? T he A m e r i c a n F or um f or G l oba l E duc a t i on. R e t r i e ve d O c t obe r 5, 2004 f r om ht t p: / / w w w gl obal e d. or g/ i s s ue s / 151/ D unn, R E ( 2002) G r ow i ng good c i t i z e ns w i t h a w or l d c e nt e r e d c ur r i c ul um E duc at i onal L e ade r s hi p 60 ( 2) 10 13

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143 A P P E N D I C E S

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144 A P P E N D I X A K e l l y M i l i z i an o D oc t or al C an di dat e S o c i a l S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n P h o n e 8 1 3 4 5 3 5 0 0 3 J une 19, 2008 D e a r G l oba l C l a s s r oom s T e a c he r ; I a m i nv i t i ng you t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n a r e s e a r c h s t udy. T he pu r pos e of t h i s i nqui r y i s t o ga i n i ns i ght i nt o t he i nf l ue nc e of pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um pr og r a m on s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c hi ng. T hi s s t udy i s be i ng c onduc t e d a s pa r t of t he pr oc e s s f or t he c om pl e t i on of m y doc t or a l di s s e r t a t i on. Y ou r pa r t i c i pa t i on i s c r i t i c a l i n t he e f f o r t s t o de ve l op e xpa nd t he know l e dge ba s e of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r e duc a t i on a nd pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt oppor t un i t i e s Y our pa r t i c i pa t i on w i l l i nvo l ve a 1 t o 1 1/ 2 hou r a udi o t a pe d i nt e r vi e w f ol l ow e d by phone a nd e m a i l c or r e s ponde nc e f or t he pu r pos e of ve r i f y i ng i nt e r vi e w t r a ns c r i pt i ons Y ou a r e f r e e t o w i t hd r a w a t a nyt i m e dur i ng t he c o ur s e of t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. T r a ns c r i pt i ons of t he i nt e r vi e w s a s w e l l a s t he f i nd i ngs of t hi s s t udy w i l l be m a de a va i l a bl e t o ve r i f y a c c ur a c y. R e s e a r c h f i ndi ng w i l l be m a de a va i l a bl e a t your r e que s t P s e udonym s w i l l be us e d t o p r ot e c t t he c on f i de nt i a l i t y. I f you a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy, p l e a s e c ont a c t m e a t ke l l y. m i l i z i a no@ s dhc k12. f l us or 813 453 5003 Y our pa r t i c i pa t i on i s ge nui ne l y a ppr e c i a t e d. S i nc e r e l y, K e l l y M i l i z i a no. D oc t or a l C a ndi da t e S oc i a l S c i e nc e E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da

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145 K e l l y M i l i z i an o D oc t or al C an di dat e S o c i a l S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n E D U 3 0 8 B P H : 8 1 3 4 5 3 5 0 0 3 4202 E a s t F ow l e r A ve / T a m pa / F l or i da / 33620 5650 A P P E N D I X B I n fo r m e d C o n s e n t F o r m T i t l e of s t u d y: T e a c hi ng S oc i a l S t udi e s i n a n A ge of G l oba l i z a t i on: A C a s e S t udy o f S e c onda r y S oc i a l S t udi e s T e a c he r s P a r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um P r ogr a m P r i n c i p al i n ve s t i gat or : K e l l y R M i l i z i a no I n s t i t u t e : U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on, D e pa r t m e nt of S e c onda r y E duc a t i on B ac k gr ou n d i n f or m a t i on : T he l i t e r a t ur e i n t he f i e l d of s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on ha s be e n pr i m a r i l y f oc us e d on pr oduc i ng c i t i z e ns c a pa bl e of s us t a i ni ng a de m oc r a t i c f o r m o f gove r nm e nt T oda y, gl oba l i z a t i on f o r c e s pr e s e nt c ha l l e nge s t o s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s i n t ha t t he know l e dg e a nd s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y t o be a n e n ga ge d e l e c t or a t e m us t i nc l ude t he gl oba l s phe r e T e a c he r e duc a t i on a nd K 12 e duc a t i on m us t r i s e t o m e e t t he s e c ha l l e nge s D ue t o t e c hnol ogi c a l a dva nc e s t oda y s s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s ha ve gl oba l i s s ue s a t t he i r f i nge r t i ps M a ny t e a c he r s pa r t i c i pa t e i n p r ogr a m s t ha t a r e de s i gne d t o p r om ot e t e a c hi ng gl oba l pe r s pe c t i ve s T he r e i s a n i nt e r e s t i n how pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s e pr ogr a m s i nf l ue nc e s how t e a c he r s t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s P u r p os e of t h i s r e s e ar c h s t u d y T he pur pos e of t hi s i nqui r y i s t o ga i n i ns i ght i nt o t he i nf l ue nc e of pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s C ur r i c ul um p r ogr a m on s e c onda r y s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c hi ng. Y our pa r t i c i pa t i on i s c r i t i c a l i n t he e f f or t s t o de ve l op e xpa nd t he know l e dge ba s e of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r e duc a t i on a nd pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt oppor t uni t i e s P r oc e d u r e s Y our pa r t i c i pa t i on w i l l i nvo l ve a 1 t o 1 1/ 2 hou r a udi o t a pe d i nt e r vi e w f o l l ow e d by phone a nd e m a i l c or r e s ponde nc e f or t he pur pos e o f ve r i f y i ng i nt e r v i e w t r a ns c r i pt i ons A udi o t a p e s r e s e a r c he r not e s a nd t a pe t r a ns c r i pt i o ns w i l l be ke pt i n a f i l e c a bi ne t a t t he pe r s ona l r e s i de nc e t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or f or a m i ni m um of 3 ye a r s

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146 P os s i b l e r i s k s or b e n e f i t s T he r e i s no r i s k i nvol ve d i n t h i s s t udy e xc e pt your va l ua bl e t i m e T he r e i s no di r e c t be ne f i t t o you a l s o. H ow e ve r t he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy m a y he l p us t o f o r m ul a t e gui de l i ne s f or t e a c hi ng a nd t r a i ni ng of s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r s R i gh t of r e f u s al t o p ar t i c i p at e a n d w i t h d r aw al Y ou s houl d onl y t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy i f you w a nt t o vol unt e e r Y ou s houl d no t f e e l t ha t t he r e i s a ny pr e s s ur e t o t a ke pa r t i n t he s t udy, t o pl e a s e t he i nve s t i ga t or or t he r e s e a r c h s t a f f Y ou a r e f r e e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s r e s e a r c h or w i t hdr a w a t a ny t i m e T he r e w i l l be no pe na l t y or l os s of be ne f i t s yo u a r e e nt i t l e d t o r e c e i ve i f you s t op t a ki ng pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. Y ou m a y a l s o r e f us e t o a ns w e r s om e o r a l l t he que s t i ons i f you don t f e e l c om f or t a bl e w i t h t hos e que s t i ons C on f i d e n t i al i t y T he i nf o r m a t i on p r ovi de d by you w i l l r e m a i n c on f i de nt i a l H ow e ve r t he da t a m a y be s e e n by E t hi c a l r e vi e w c om m i t t e e a nd m a y be pu bl i s he d i n j ou r na l a nd e l s e w he r e w i t hout gi vi ng your na m e or di s c l os i ng your i de nt i t y. B y l a w a nyone w ho l ooks a t your r e c or ds m us t ke e p t he m c om pl e t e l y c onf i de nt i a l T he onl y pe opl e w ho w i l l be a l l ow e d t o s e e t he s e r e c or ds a r e i ndi vi dua l s w ho p r ovi de ove r s i ght on t hi s s t udy m a y ne e d t o l ook a t your r e c or ds T hi s i s done t o m a ke s ur e t ha t t he r e s e a r c he r i s c onduc t i ng t he s t udy i n t he r i ght w a y. T he y a l s o ne e d t o m a ke s ur e t ha t w e a r e p r ot e c t i ng your r i ght s a nd you r s a f e t y. T he s e i nc l ude t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) a nd t he s t a f f t ha t w or k f or t he I R B O t he r i ndi vi dua l s w ho w or k f or U S F t ha t pr ovi de ot he r k i nds of ove r s i ght m a y a l s o ne e d t o l ook a t y our r e c or ds I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons c onc e r ns or c om pl a i nt s a bout t hi s s t udy, c a l l K e l l y M i l i z i a no a t 813 453 5003 I f you ha ve que s t i ons a bout your r i ght s a s a pa r t i c i pa nt i n t hi s s t udy, ge ne r a l que s t i ons or ha ve c om pl a i nt s c onc e r ns or i s s ue s you w a nt t o di s c us s w i t h s om e one out s i de t he r e s e a r c h, c a l l t he D i vi s i on of R e s e a r c h I nt e gr i t y a n d C om pl i a nc e of t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da a t ( 813) 974 9343. I f you ha ve que s t i ons a bout your r i ght s a s a pe r s on t a ki ng pa r t i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy you m a y c o nt a c t t he F l o r i da D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( D O H I R B ) a t ( 866) 433 2775 ( t ol l f r e e i n F l or i da ) o r 850 245 45 85.

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147 A vai l ab l e S ou r c e s of I n f or m at i o n I f you ha ve f ur t he r que s t i ons you m a y c ont a c t t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or K e l l y R M i l i z i a no a t 813 453 5003 or e m a i l K e l l y m i l i z i a n o@ s dhc k12. f l us C on s e n t t o T ak e P ar t i n t h i s R e s e ar c h S t u d y I t i s up t o you t o de c i de w he t he r you w a nt t o t a ke pa r t i n t hi s s t udy. I f you w a nt t o t a ke p a r t pl e a s e s i gn t he f or m i f t he f ol l ow i ng s t a t e m e nt s a r e t r ue I f r e e l y gi ve m y c on s e n t t o t a k e p ar t i n t h i s s t u d y. I unde r s t a nd t ha t by s i gni ng t hi s f or m I a m a gr e e i ng t o t a ke pa r t i n r e s e a r c h. I ha ve r e c e i ve d a c opy o f t hi s f or m t o t a ke w i t h m e ______ S i gna t ur e of P e r s on T a ki ng P a r t i n S t udy D a t e P r i nt e d N a m e o f P e r s on T a ki ng P a r t i n S t udy S t at e m e n t of P e r s on O b t ai n i n g I n f or m e d C on s e n t I ha ve c a r e f ul l y e xpl a i ne d t o t he pe r s on t a ki ng pa r t i n t he s t udy w ha t he o r s he c a n e xpe c t I he r e by c e r t i f y t ha t w he n t hi s pe r s on s i gns t hi s f or m t o t he be s t of m y know l e dge he or s he unde r s t a nds : W ha t t he s t udy i s a bout W ha t pr oc e dur e s / i nt e r ve nt i ons / i nve s t i ga t i ona l dr u gs or de vi c e s w i l l be us e d. W ha t t he pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s m i ght be W ha t t he know n r i s ks m i ght be S i gna t ur e of P e r s on O bt a i ni ng I nf o r m e d C ons e nt D a t e P r i nt e d N a m e o f P e r s on O bt a i n i ng I n f or m e d C ons e nt

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148 A P P E N D I X C A C as e S t u d y of T h e I n f l u e n c e o f P ar t i c i p at i o n i n t h e U N A U S A s G l o b al C l as s r oom s C u r r i c u l u m P r ogr am on S e c on d ar y S oc i al S t u d i e s T e ac h i n g K e l l y R M i l i z i an o U n i ve r s i t y of S o u t h F l or i d a T am p a I n t e r vi e w S c r i p t P ar t i c i p an t N am e ______________________________________ S c h ool _______________________ D i s t r i c t _______________________ D at e __________________________ L oc at i on of i n t e r vi e w ______________________ ________________ S t ar t t i m e _____________ E n d t i m e ______________ I n t e r vi e w s c r i p t : H ow m a ny ye a r s ha ve you be e n t e a c hi ng? H ow l ong ha ve you be e n i n you r c ur r e nt pos i t i on? T e l l m e a bout your ow n e duc a t i on k 12, uni ve r s i t y t e a c he r p r e pa r a t i on, a nd pos t gr a dua t e w or k? W hy di d you de c i de t o t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s ? W ha t do you be l i e ve i s t he pur pos e / goa l o f s oc i a l s t udi e s e duc a t i on? C a n you t e l l m e a bout t he s c hool you t e a c h a t now ? H ow di d you i ni t i a l l y be c om e i nvol ve d i n t he U N A U S A s G l oba l C ur r i c ul um P r ogr a m ? I n your ow n w or ds c a n you de s c r i be t he U N A U S A s G l oba l C l a s s r oom s P r ogr a m D o you pa r t i c i pa t e i n ot he r gl oba l l y or i e nt e d p r ogr a m s ? D e s c r i be D o a ny of your c ol l e a gue s pa r t i c i pa t e / us e t he G l o ba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um ? I f ye s do you c ol l a bor a t e / pl a n t oge t he r ? W ha t e na bl e s you/ pr e ve nt s you f r o m c ol l a bor a t i ng?

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149 R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on I n w h at w ay s do t e ac h e r s r e por t u s i n g G l obal C l a s s r oom s C u r r i c u l u m u n i t s ? H ow di d you i ni t i a l l y us e t he c ur r i c ul um ? C a n you de s c r i be w ha t m a y ha ve i n f l ue nc e d your de c i s i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n G l oba l C l a s s r oom s ? W hy di d you de c i de t o us e t he c u r r i c ul um ? H ow do you de t e r m i ne how you us e t he c ur r i c ul u m ? H a ve you us e d t he c ur r i c ul u m i n di f f e r e nt c our s e s you t e a c h? C a n you de s c r i be t he di f f e r e nt w a ys you ha ve us e d t he c ur r i c ul um ? W hi c h s oc i a l s t udi e s c our s e s ha ve you us e d t he c ur r i c ul um i n? C a n you de s c r i be your de c i s i on t o us e t he c ur r i c ul um i n t he m a nne r you c ur r e nt l y us e i t H a ve you c ha nge d t he w a y you us e t he c ur r i c ul um ? D o you pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt c om pone nt of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s P r ogr a m ? H a ve you ut i l i z e d t he t e a c he r t r a i ne r s t ha t a r e a s s i gne d t o your s c hool ? R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on W h at c om pon e n t s of t h e G l obal C l as s r oom c u r r i c u l u m pr ogr am do par t i c i pan t s r e por t m os t i n f l u e n t i a l t h e i r t e ac h i n g pr ac t i c e s as a w h o l e ? O f your pa r t i c i pa t i on i n G l oba l C l a s s r oom s w ha t ha s i nf l ue nc e d you t he m os t i n t he t e a c hi ng of s oc i a l s t udi e s ? D e s c r i be a nd pr ovi de e xa m pl e s

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150 R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on H o w doe s par t i c i pat i on i n T h e U N A U S A s G l ob al C l as s r oom s C u r r i c u l u m P r oj e c t i n f l u e n c e h ow par t i c i pan t s t e ac h s oc i al s t u di e s ? T o w ha t e xt e nt a r e you a bl e t o a ppl y w ha t you l e a r ne d f r om us i ng c l a s s r oom s t o your c l a s s r oom pr a c t i c e ? P l e a s e de s c r i be or pr ovi de a n e xa m pl e W hi c h c om pone nt s of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s pr ogr a m a r e t he m os t us e f ul t o you a s a s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r ? W hi c h c om pone nt s of t he c u r r i c ul um do you us e t he l e a s t or not a t a l l ? C a n you e xpl a i n? W ha t i m pa c t do you be l i e ve G l oba l C l a s s r oom ha s on how you t e a c h s oc i a l s t udi e s ? R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on W h at ar e t h e c h al l e n ge s i n t e ac h i n g a gl obal l y or i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m ? C a n you de s c r i be a ny obs t a c l e s di f f i c ul t i e s or c ha l l e nge s you e nc ount e r i n us i ng t he gl oba l c l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um ? I s your s c hool a dm i ni s t r a t i on s uppor t i ve o f t hi s c ur r i c ul um pr og r a m ? A r e your c ol l e a gue s s uppor t i ve ? A r e you r e qui r e d t o f ol l ow a m a nda t e d c ount y/ s t a t e c ur r i c ul um gu i de ? D oe s your di s t r i c t ha ve s t a nda r di z e d/ r e qui r e s e m e s t e r / f i na l e xa m s f o r t he c our s e s you t e a c h? D oe s t he m a nda t e d c ur r i c ul um a l l ow f o r t he i nt e gr a t i on of gl oba l c l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um ?

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151 R e s e ar c h Q u e s t i on H ow do s oc i al s t u di e s t e ac h e r s n e got i at e c h al l e n g e s i n t e ac h i n g g l obal l y or i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m ? H ow do you ove r c om e / de a l w i t h t he s e c ha l l e nge s of i nt e gr a t i ng t he gl oba l c l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um ?

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152 A P P E N D I X D P ar t i c i p an t I n f or m a t i on S h e e t N a m e M a i l i ng A ddr e s s Y our e t hni c i t y _________________________ H ow m a ny ye a r s ha ve you be e n t e a c hi ng? ______ ____ a t your c ur r e nt j ob ______ H ow m a ny ye a r s ha ve you be e n a pa r t i c i pa nt i n t h e U N A U S A G l oba l C l a s s r oom s c ur r i c ul um p r oj e c t ? __________ I w oul d l i ke t o w r i t e a de s c r i pt i on of how t e a c he r s us e of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s va r i e s P l e a s e c he c k a l l t ha t a ppl y S i m ul a t i ons / s c e na r i os f r om t he c u r r i c ul um _____ R e s e a r c h t ool s / r e s our c e s _____ S e l e c t e d a c t i vi t i e s f r om t he c ur r i c ul um w or kbooks _____ A t t e nd t he c onf e r e nc e s _____ H a ve a t t e nde d pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt _____ U t i l i z e d t he U ni ve r s i t y t r a i ne r s a t l e a s t onc e _____ I w oul d l i ke t o gi ve you t he oppor t uni t y t o r e c or d a ny t hought s on t he us e or va l ue of t he G l oba l C l a s s r oom s M ode l U ni t e d N a t i ons pr ogr a m you m a y no t ha ve ha d t he c ha nc e t o e xpr e s s Y ou c a n w r i t e a s l i t t l e or m uc h a s you l i k e I e s pe c i a l l y w oul d l i ke you t o r e f l e c t on how i t m a y or m a y not i m pa c t y ou r ow n know l e dge a nd e xpe r t i s e a s a s oc i a l s t udi e s t e a c he r T ype or w r i t e you r r e s pons e :

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153 A bout t he A ut hor K e l l y R M i l i z i a no r e c e i ve d he r B a c he l or of S c i e n c e de gr e e i n S oc i a l S t udi e s E duc a t i on f r om N e w Y or k U ni ve r s i t y i n 1986 S he r e c e i ve d a M a s t e r s i n E duc a t i ona l L e a de r s hi p f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da i n 1999. H e r t w e nt y t w o ye a r s of t e a c hi ng i nc l ude N e w Y or k C i t y P ubl i c S c hool s A m e r i c a n C om m uni t y S c hool s o f A t he ns G r e e c e a nd he r c ur r e nt pos i t i on t e a c hi ng hi gh s oc i a l s t udi e s t he H i l l s bor ough C ount y P ubl i c S c hool S ys t e m K e l l y i s a n a c t i ve m e m be r of t he F l o r i da C ounc i l f or t he S oc i a l S t udi e s ( F C S S ) t he N a t i ona l C ounc i l f o r t he S oc i a l S t ud i e s ( N C S S ) t he I nt e r na t i ona l A s s e m bl y ( I A ) a nd t he C ol l e ge of U ni ve r s i t y F a c ul t y A s s oc i a t i on ( C U F A ) S he s e r ve s on t he boa r d of di r e c t or s f or t he U ni t e d N a t i ons A s s oc i a t i on of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s of A m e r i c a s T a m pa B a y C ha pt e r K e l l y i s f l ue nt i n G r e e k a nd I t a l i a n, a nd e nj oys t r a ve l i ng w i t h he r hus ba nd a nd t w o c hi l dr e n


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(OCoLC)436936283
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FHM
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FHMM
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LB1601 (Online)
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Miliziano, Kelly R.
0 245
Teaching social studies in an age of globalization :
b a case study of secondary social studies teachers' participation in the UNA-USA's Global Classrooms curriculum program
h [electronic resource] /
by Kelly R. Miliziano.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
2009.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 153 pages.
Includes vita.
502
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
520
ABSTRACT: The researcher found few studies that explore decisions of social studies teachers as they plan what and how to teach their classes. Over a century, social studies educators have adapted and responded to political, social, and economic changes. From educating immigrants a century earlier to addressing contemporary cross-border issues, social studies educators inherit unique challenges in today's increasingly globalized world. In addition to these external forces, constraints are placed on teachers which prescribe what content must be included in an already crowded curriculum. This qualitative approach using a case study provides a better understanding of the influence a globally oriented program has on participants' teaching social studies by investigating how participation in UNA-USA Global Classrooms program influenced how social studies teachers teach social studies.The goal was to provide a rich, compelling account of experiences of high school social studies teachers so that others can understand the issues reflected in their experiences better. The primary method of gathering data was the hour-long interview, in a case study approach. Analysis resulted in six themes: (1) teachers' perceived influence of Global Classrooms on student interest and engagement, (2) content expertise and confidence, (3) challenges to teaching global perspectives stemming from students, (4) challenges to teaching global perspectives stemming from school environment (5) innovative pedagogy and learning activities, and (6) projects and advocacy dimensions evolved from Global Classrooms experiences. Participants' unique experiences underscore the importance of studying the influence of globally oriented curriculum programs on social studies instruction.Implications include (1) teacher preparation and inservice training needs to be responsive to the need to develop an emerging cadre of teachers who are becoming increasingly aware of the need to infuse global perspectives into the social studies curriculum, (2) it is important that school districts realign professional development programs to help teachers gain content knowledge and expertise on global issues (3) participants in this study confirm that globally oriented programs such as the UNAUSA Global Classrooms Curriculum enable teachers to build pedagogical content expertise in teaching about global issues, and (4) as pedagogical knowledge improved, participants became more adept at reinventing the curriculum and infusing components to serve the courses they taught.
538
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
590
Co-advisor: Brbara C. Cruz, Ed.D.
Co-advisor: Howard Johnston, Ph.D.
653
Curricular decision-making
Global education
Global perspectives
Secondary education
Teacher education
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Secondary Education
Doctoral.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.2925