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School work environment :
b transition from education to practice
h [electronic resource] /
by Shane Ross.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 111 pages.
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: Learning how to learn as opposed to obtaining the experience to practice any field of professionalism creates a great disconnect between education and careers. Many educational programs do not have the curriculum or a building to transition students into a work atmosphere. When the design of a building and its program creates an environment that bridges the gap between school and work, the psychology and standard of an average graduate greatly increases. Students learn from being taught and personal experience. There are programs that require an internship or similar practice as a mandatory factor of the degree. Apprenticeships connect the taught education with the experience of real work. However, there is still a separation that could be reconnected if a building could define the boundaries for the transition. Creating a building that will reconnect school style learning and apprentice-style learning will establish a space of discovery between the two.Researching programs' curriculum, continuing education requirements, and analyzing a specific education program and career that can benefit from the design for multiple program elements will allow a thorough exploration. Interviews will be performed with students whose degrees require work experience to help understand how a building can promote learning. In conjunction with these personal experiences evaluated through curriculum, a separate analysis will determine how various building design approaches have been explored. Understanding how existing buildings affect the facilitation of learning in the design of schools and training centers will help understand how the design of these buildings directly reinforces learning. It is most important to understand how the architecture will explicitly make the connection between learning and work, and how it will enhance the notion of discovery through education.After exploring various programs, it was found that a fire academy in conjunction with a training facility and station would create challenging situations to apply the theory that the building itself can facilitate a better learning environment. This profession requires extensive classroom learning and physical training experience. Combining a variety of program components for the academy, training, station, and housing, the building will be a dynamic collaboration of education, practice, and living.
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Advisor: Daniel S. Powers, M.Arch.
x Architecture and Community Design
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
School Work Environment: Transition from Education to Practice by Shane Ross the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Daniel Powers, M. Arch. Theodore Trent Green, M. Arch. Ron Shipp Chief, Tampa Fire Academy Date of Approval: April 7, 2009 Keywords: Fire Academy, Fire Training, Learning, Vocational, Education Copyright 2009, Shane Ross
Dedication This thesis is dedicated to Fred and Audean Ross, my parents. Without their love and support none of this would have been possible. Thank you so much for pushing me to do my best and believing in me.
Acknowledgements I would like to thank my friends and family for their support, without them none of this would have been possible. My committee members, Trent Green and Ron Shipp, for sitting on my reviews and giving constructive criticism that would only improve my project. To Kartrina Korte, my love, without her my life and project would not be the same. To three supportive friends whose help was greatly appreciated, Kuebler Perry, Justin Onorati, and John Stinson. Most importantly my chair Dan Powers, without his encouragement and expectations, this design would not be what it is today.
i List of Tables ii i List of Figures i v Abstract vii i Introduction 1 Design Implications 8 Curriculum 9 Case Studies 1 1 Boulder Fire Training Center 1 2 Shrewsbury Fire Headquarters 1 5 Nantucket Public Safety Facility 1 7 Training Facility Visits 2 1 Hillsborough Community College Fire Academy 2 2 Tampa Fire Academy 2 3 Interviews 2 4 Jay J. ODriscoll HCC Fire Academy 2 5 Charlie Brush-Standards Supervisor 2 8 Chief Ronnie Shipp Tampa Fire Academy 3 0 Program: Fire Academy and Station 3 2 Administration Building 3 4 Site: Selection and Analysis 3 7 Site 1 3 9 Site 2 4 0 Site 3 4 1 Site Study Model 4 2 Facility Comparison 4 5 4 9 Preliminary Models (1-6) 5 0 Parti Model No. 2 5 2 Parti Model No. 3+4 5 3 Parti Model No. 5 5 4 Parti Model No. 6 5 5 Table of Contents
ii Advanced Models (7-9) 5 6 Parti Model No. 7 5 7 Parti Model No. 8 5 8 Parti Model No. 9 5 9 Program Diagrams 6 0 Initial Study Models 6 4 Advanced Study Models 6 5 Advanced Study Model No. 1 6 6 Advanced Study Model No. 2 6 7 Advanced Study Model No. 3 6 8 Building Diagrams 6 9 Schematic Design 7 4 Plans 7 4 Sections 7 7 Detailed Sections 8 0 Perspectives 8 4 Final Model 9 7 Conclusion 10 6 References 11 0
iii List of Tables 1 0 1 0 Table. 3. Program 3 6
iv Fig. 1. Boulder Fire Training Center Perspective 1 2 Fig. 2. Boulder Site Plan 1 3 Fig. 3. Boulder Floor Plan 1 3 Fig. 4. Boulder Diagrams 1 4 Fig. 5. Boulder Context Plan 1 4 Fig. 6. Shrewsbury Elevation 1 5 Fig. 7. Shrewsbury First Floor 1 6 Fig. 8. Shrewsbury Diagrams 1 6 Fig. 9. Shrewsbury Second Floor 1 6 Fig. 10. Nantucket Elevation 1 7 Fig. 11. Nantucket Site Analysis 1 8 Fig. 12. Nantucket Site Plan 1 8 Fig. 13. Nantucket Lower Floor 1 9 Fig. 15. Nantucket Main Floor 1 9 Fig. 14. Nantucket Diagrams 1 9 Fig. 16. Nantucket Upper Floor 1 9 Fig. 17. Boulder Plan Analysis 2 0 Fig. 19. Shrewsbury Plan Analysis 2 0 Fig. 18. Nantucket Plan Analysis 2 0 Fig. 20. Tampa Fire Training 2 1 Fig. 21. HCC Fire Training 2 1 Fig. 22. HCC Fire Training Facility 2 2 Fig. 23. HCC Drill Tower 2 2 Fig. 24. Tampa Fire Apparatus Bay 2 3 Fig. 25. Tampa Fire Building 2 3 Fig. 26. Administration Building 3 4 Fig. 27. Fire Training Classroom 3 4 Fig. 28. Overall Site Analysis 3 8 Fig. 29. Site 1 Aerial A 3 9 Fig. 30. Site 1 Aerial B 3 9 Fig. 31. Site 1 Aerial C 3 9 List of Figures
v Fig. 32. Site 2 Aerial A 4 0 Fig. 33. Site 2 Aerial B 4 0 Fig. 34. Site 2 Aerial C 4 0 Fig. 35. Site 3 Aerial A 4 1 Fig. 36. Site 3 Aerial B 4 1 Fig. 37. Site 3 Aerial C 4 1 Fig. 38. Site Study Model 4 2 Fig. 39. Site Study Model 4 2 Fig. 40. Panoramic of South View 4 3 Fig. 41. Site Pictures 4 4 Fig. 42. California Fire Academy on Tampa Site 4 6 Fig. 43. Florida Fire Academy on Tampa Site 4 6 Fig. 44. Mississippi Fire Academy on Tampa Site 4 7 Fig. 45. New York Fire Academy on Tampa Site 4 7 Fig. 46. Tampa Fire Academy on Tampa Site 4 8 Fig. 47. Conceptual Model 5 1 Fig. 48. Conceptual Model 5 1 Fig. 49. Conceptual Model 5 1 Fig. 50. Parti Model No. 2 5 2 Fig. 51. Parti Model No. 2 5 2 Fig. 52. Parti Model No. 3 5 3 Fig. 53. Parti Model No. 4 5 3 Fig. 54. Parti Model No. 5 5 4 Fig. 55. Parti Model No. 5 5 4 Fig. 56. Parti Model No. 6 5 5 Fig. 57. Parti Model No. 6 5 5 Fig. 58. Parti Model No. 7 5 7 Fig. 59. Parti Model No. 7 5 7 Fig. 60. Parti Model No. 8 5 8 Fig. 61. Parti Model No. 8 5 8 Fig. 62. Parti Model No. 9 5 9
vi Fig. 63. Parti Model No. 9 5 9 Fig. 64. Program Diagram 1 6 0 Fig. 65. Program Diagram 2 6 0 Fig. 66. Program Diagram 3 6 1 Fig. 67. Program Diagram 4 6 1 Fig. 68. Program Diagram 5 6 2 Fig. 69. Program Diagram 6 6 2 Fig. 70. Program Diagram 7 6 3 Fig. 71. Program Diagram 8 6 3 Fig. 72. Initial Study Model 2 6 4 Fig. 73. Initial Study Model 2 6 4 Fig. 74. Initial Study Model 1 6 4 Fig. 75. Advanced Study Model 1 6 6 Fig. 76. Advanced Study Model 1 6 6 Fig. 77. Advanced Study Model 2 6 7 Fig. 78. Advanced Study Model 2 6 7 Fig. 79. Advanced Study Model 3 6 8 Fig. 80. Advanced Study Model 3 6 8 Fig. 81. Access Diagram 6 9 Fig. 82. Circulation Diagram 6 9 Fig. 83. Colored Walls Diagram 7 0 Fig. 84. Flexibility Diagram 7 0 Fig. 85. Courtyard Diagram 7 1 Fig. 86. Indoor/Outdoor Diagram 7 1 Fig. 87. Emergency Route Diagram 7 2 Fig. 88. Zoning Diagram 7 2 Fig. 89. Shared/Private Space Diagram 7 3 Fig. 90. Building Material Diagram 7 3 Fig. 91. First Floor 7 5 Fig. 92. Second and Third Floor 7 6 Fig. 93. Dorm Longitudinal Section A 7 8
vii Fig. 94. Dorm Cross Section B 7 8 Fig. 95. Class Cross Section C 7 9 Fig. 96. Class Longitudinal Section D 7 9 Fig. 97. Dorm Detail Cross Section E 8 1 Fig. 98. Class Detail Cross Section F 8 2 Fig. 99. Marina Cross Section G 8 3 Fig. 100. Context Birdseye Perspective 8 5 Fig. 101. Entry and Plaza 8 6 Fig. 102. Dorm Hallway 8 7 Fig. 103. Main Entry 8 8 Fig. 104. Apparatus Bay 8 9 Fig. 105. Flex Classrooms 9 0 Fig. 106. Courtyard 9 1 Fig. 107. Observation Tower 9 2 Fig. 108. Outside Classrooms 9 3 Fig. 109. Classroom 9 4 Fig. 110. Gathering Space 9 5 Fig. 111. Site Birdseye Perspective 9 6 Fig. 112. View from Southeast 9 8 Fig. 113. View from Northeast 9 9 Fig. 114. Tower and Courtyard 10 0 Fig. 115. Gathering Space 10 0 Fig. 116. Classroom and Dorm Roofs 10 1 Fig. 117. View from East 10 2 Fig. 118. Tower 10 2 Fig. 119. View from North 10 3 Fig. 120. Roof Terrace and Lounge 10 3 Fig. 121. North Birdseye 10 4 Fig. 122. South Birdseye 10 4 Fig. 123. View from Southwest 10 5
viii Learning how to learn as opposed to obtaining the a great disconnect between education and careers. Many educational programs do not have the curriculum or a building to transition students into a work atmosphere. When the design of a building and its program creates an environment that bridges the gap between school and work, the psychology and standard of an average graduate greatly increases. Students learn from being taught and personal experience. There are programs that require an internship or similar practice as a mandatory factor of the degree. Apprenticeships connect the taught education with the experience of real work. However, there is still a separation boundaries for the transition. Creating a building that will reconnect school style learning and apprentice-style learning will establish a space of discovery between the two. Researching programs curriculum, continuing multiple program elements will allow a thorough exploration. Interviews will be performed with students whose degrees require work experience to help understand how a building can promote learning. In conjunction with these personal experiences evaluated through curriculum, a separate analysis will determine how various building design approaches have been explored. Understanding how existing buildings affect the facilitation of learning in the design of schools and training centers will help understand how the design of these buildings directly reinforces learning. It is most important to understand how the architecture will explicitly make the connection between learning and work, and how it will enhance the notion of discovery through education. After exploring various programs, it was found that a would create challenging situations to apply the theory that the building itself can facilitate a better learning environment. This profession requires extensive classroom learning and physical training experience. Combining a variety of program components for the academy, training, station, and housing, the building will be a dynamic collaboration of education, practice, and living. School Work Environment: Transition from Education to Practice Shane Ross Abstract
1 Introduction When we talk about learning, we really mean two quite different things, the process of discovery and of mastering what one discovers. All children are naturally driven to create an accurate picture of the world and, with the help of adults to use that picture to make predictions, formulate explanations, imagine alternatives and design plans. Call it guided discovery. Alison Gopnik a Professor of Psychology at the University of California at Berkley These two different types of learning can be compared to the way a student learns from being taught and learns from personal experience. While this statement was directed toward the psychology of children, adults learn most effectively from the same elementary methods that allow one to learn from experience. There are programs, mostly in higher education, that require an internship or similar work experience as a mandatory factor of the degree. Boston Architectural College is the most well known design college that integrates classroom learning and practicebased learning into a students education and is required for a degree. Apprenticeships connect formal education with the experience of real work. They have been around since the late Middle Ages. A master craftsman would employ a young person as an inexpensive laborer in exchange for formal training in the desired craft. Learning is like eating or sleeping. A person must do it himself; it cant be delegated. (Dale 1972, 52) However, there is still a separation that could for the transition. Creating a building that will bridge the Many educational programs do not have the curriculum or a building to transition students into their future work environments. Most schools and colleges make third of their careers that must be retained for the remaining two thirds. This information is given with the single-minded objective to graduate from school rather than to enhance their lifelong education. When the design of a building and its program can create an environment that bridges the gap between school and work, the psychology and standard of an average graduate would greatly increase. Teachers and physical environment than they often realize, at any rate consciously. (Seaborne 1971, 1)
2 gap between school-style learning and apprentice-style learning will establish a space of discovery between the two methods. One reason for our ineffective use of available excellence is that we have seen the school, home, and community as separate institutions, not as interrelated systems for learning. We need to bring all our educational resources under the umbrella of the learning community. We need to build a system of education where everyone is in school and school is everywhere. In a learning community, all its members have learned how to learn and have developed a taste for learning (Dale 1972, 18). Existing programs current curriculum and careers with continuing education requirements will be researched and compared. The conclusion of that research will lead the design of a building with multiple program elements that will allow a thorough exploration of learning and work environments. To strengthen this thesis, correlational Interviews and surveys will be conducted with students and professionals whose degrees require work experience. Interviews and surveys were chosen because they can cover an extensive amount of information from demographic characteristics, to behavioral habits, to opinions or attitudes on variety of topics, across a large number of people in a limited amount of time. (Groat and Wang 2002, 219) These interviews and surveys will include such questions as; how do
3 you prefer to learn? What do you not like about your current learning environment? What do you like about your current learning environment? Do you believe that there is a gap gap and what can be done to reconnect the two practices? How can the facility of learning strengthen the students ability to learn? How do you feel a building can bridge the gap between school-style learning versus apprentice-style learning? Question like these will be asked to help understand how they learn in school as opposed to how they prefer to learn and how they believe the environment affects their learning. Case study research will be used to understand existing buildings affect on the facilitation of learning in the design of trade schools, professional schools, training centers, academies. The analysis of these case studies will help understand how the architecture of these buildings directly reinforces learning. It is most important to understand how the architecture will directly make the connection between types of learning and enhance the notion of discovery. Philosophers, in the early 1900s, were seeking to replicate the ordered diversity of the real world, through an enriched educational curriculum. Administration with the school community, the selection of subject matter, methods of learning, teaching and disciplines, reinforced the idea that there was one reality rather than a duality between school and home life. (Dudek 2000, 19)
4 we must make each one of our schools an embryonic the life of the larger society, and permeated throughout with the spirit of art, history and science. John Dewey Philosopher of Education In looking at some of these facilities and evaluating their success, it is understood that in order to create a good learning environment certain criteria must be met such as proportion, materials, furnishing, lighting, color, acoustics, and thermal comfort. Classrooms must have a focal point and a relationship to supporting and access spaces such as; lobbies, preparation, and corridors. Flexible and exterior spaces in these facilities allow the students to be free. a thing exclusively made for one purpose, suppresses the individual because it tells him exactly how it is to be used. If the object provokes a person to determine in what way he wants to use it, will strengthen his self identity. Merely the act of discovery elicits greater awareness. Therefore a form must be interpretable in the sense that it must be conditioned to play a changing role. Herman Hertzberger Dutch Architect history of school design during the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth century. On the one hand, the urge to impose discipline and control through a resolute set of
5 spaces; on the other, the emerging desire to encourage individual creativity by the production of buildings which themselves up to the surrounding context, its gardens and external areas, which themselves became a fundamental part of the autonomous isolation, became the educational buildings of the 1980s. (Dudek 2000, 5) It is a great drain on the energy of a teacher to continually try to work with a bad teaching environment. It also has to be recognized that some schools are basically of such bad design that no amount of improvisation will enable the staff to teach the students in the best possible way. (Seaborne 1971, 1) This in turns affects the students ability to learn. The physical environment refers to the complexity that constitutes any physical setting in which men live, interact, and engage in activities for either brief or extended periods. (David and Wright 1975, 16) The physical environment that has been given the most thought is the built environment. These spaces are the most emphasized because the need to determine those dimensions which actually foster, shape, and underlie the complex human activities that go on in these settings. We are referring to when, how, and where people read, talk, eat, work, act as a 1975, 16) To help understand how the design in a school environment affects man, we look at cases studies that have been observed and utilized. In the case studies above the schools have gathering spaces that allow people to interact and converse with others. This interaction increases the
6 psychology and standards of inhabitants. Circulation is laid out in these building along nodes and landmarks that are places where people interact. It is important that there are a variety of spaces which allow the inhabitant to determine their experiences. It is possible to design environments within which the child will be neither frustrated nor hurt, yet free to develop spontaneously and fully without trespassing on others. I have learned to undertake reform of the environment and not to try to reform man. If we design the environment properly, it will permit child and man to develop safely and to behave logically. Buckminster Fuller, Designer-Architect-Scientist-Philosopher program that requires both classroom and hands on learning must be chosen. After researching various programs, it was facility and an active station would create challenging situations to apply the theory that the building can become the environment and facilitate a better learning experience. physical training experience. Within the design of the spaces for these two different learning strategies, classroom
7 Hillsborough Community College attracts over two-thousand degree (A.S.) in Fire Science Technology is a 60 college credit hour curriculum and 450 program hours meeting Monday through Friday from 8:00am to 5:30pm. Five of the nineteen community to enhance their learning. Combining a variety of program components for the academy, training, station, and housing, the building will be a dynamic collaboration of education, practice, and living.
8 Design Implications This thesis will need to explore and understand how the facility will evolve and what makes it different from the current facilities. What does the architecture do for the what is the circulation? How are they different from what the current facilities do? Understanding how a connection can design conditions. How does this building include new testing facilities for the future of building materials and construction? It is important to understand how combining these various program elements can create a better learning environment. How does the facility relate to real life experiences and how can it bring them in? How does the facility interact with the public and the community? How do the professional interact with the students?
9 The minimum curriculum requirements for training collectively hereinafter as the Minimum Standards Course. The school or employing agency is permitted to and is encouraged to, offer additional training above that training For this thesis it is important to look into the Building Construction and Fire Prevention and Public Education construction; construction materials and building collapse. It is a goal of this thesis to explore more building construction types and look at future building materials and construction methods. It is also important to understand how the building itself can demonstrate some of these new technologies and construction methods. The Fire Prevention and Public Education focuses on procedures; report writing; school drill procedures, and programs and functions held with in the complex. Curriculum
10 Table. 1. Table. 2.
11 Case Studies These case studies were chosen to research facilities and public safety facility. It was important to understand how these facilities deal with the interaction between professionals and students and their interaction with the how the circulation works because of the urgency to get in and out of the building in the time of an emergency. The facilities were reviewed to determine what program is required and analysis their spatial organization. The site of each facility was also examined to aid in the site selection process for this thesis. It is important to know where these facilities are located and their surrounding context.
12 Boulder Fire Training Center Boulder Fire Training Center Perspective Fig. 1.
13 The Boulder Fire Training Center is a two-story structure with attached bays for storage and placement of apparatus equipment. The educational/administration garage/storage spaces. The building will house different site is located on the water to allow for marine access and training, and water supply. But is distant from the city of Boulder. However, it has direct access to the nearby major highway. The site is a circular arrangement to promote unity between the professionals and the students. The classrooms are on the opposite side of the training area which creates a disconnect between the two styles of learning. The drill tower is located away from the main building and could be used as Educational areas: 1 100 seat main auditorium, with vehicle access for training and presentation purposes 4 small classrooms, 25-30 students per room 1 computer lab 1 library, with audiovisual, professional literature and computer access 1 public meeting place, a way to bring the community in. Boulder Site Plan Fig. 2. Boulder Floor Plan Fig. 3.
14 0 50 100 200 300 NORTH Potential Emergency Access to Highway Highway 119 51st Street Proposed Entrance Road to Fire Training Center Proposed Relocated Boat Storage Proposed Fire Training Center Site Six Mile Reservoir Boulder Reservoir Modified Existing Reservoir Road Existing Reservoir Road Context Map Boulder Diagrams Fig. 4. Boulder Context Plan Fig. 5.
15 Shrewsbury Fire Headquarters Shrewsbury Fire Headquarters, in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, is a two-story, 17,000 square foot facility emergency management. The facility houses administration spatial organization is very tight and doesnt allow space for interaction. The classroom is placed in the corner of the facility separated from the workplace and doesnt allow designated public gathering space community involvement. private space. There is one direct egress path through the building which demonstrates the importance of established emergency procedures. Shrewsbury Elevation Fig. 6.
16 Shrewsbury First Floor Fig. 7. Shrewsbury Diagrams Fig. 8. Shrewsbury Second Floor Fig. 9.
17 Nantucket Public Safety Facility Nantucket Elevation Fig. 10.
18 The Nantucket Public Safety Facility will be a 60,000 square foot, three-story structure with attached bays. The of the facility is located in the center of a residential area, and encourages community involvement. There is direct road access on the Northwest edge of the site to allow for quick emergency response out of the quadruple pull through two axes of the building that intersect at a shared corner more private spaces including residential program for the the police. This facility successfully creates a space for both departments and the public to interact. Nantucket Site Analysis Fig. 11. Nantucket Site Plan Fig. 12.
19 Nantucket Lower Floor Fig. 13. Nantucket Diagrams Fig. 14. Nantucket Main Floor Fig. 15. Nantucket Upper Floor Fig. 16.
20 The three case studies have their similarities and differences; when compared, the common design decision have strengths and weaknesses. All have simple circulation to allow quick and easy means to get in and out of the facilities in the event of an emergency. All but the academy treat the apparatus bay as an appendage and not an integral part of the building. They are multi-level with administration, and main communal spaces on the second. How can you privacy? The facilities are small in the classroom areas and need more technology facilities for the future. Boulder Plan Analysis Fig. 17. Nantucket Plan Analysis Fig. 18. Shrewsbury Plan Analysis Fig. 19.
21 Training Facility Visits It was important to visit Hillsborough Community College and the city of Tampas Fire Academies, to help understand how the facilities work and function. After interviewing instructors and students and a tour of the facilities, an assessment of their suggestions to enhance their environment for learning would start to form the initial program for the project. What they would like to have? What would improve the facility? How can the architecture Tampa Fire Training Fig. 20. HCC Fire Training Fig. 21.
22 Hillsborough Community College Fire Academy HCCs Fire Academy is an adaptive reuse of an existing warehouse complex shared with their police training program. They added a drill tower and props to allow for ample training. The facility has two portable classrooms, an Their biggest complaint is the lack of program including locker rooms and classrooms. They would like to have more props but lack of funding permits that. Overall it is a small facility HCC Fire Training Facility Fig. 22. HCC Drill Tower Fig. 23.
23 Tampa Fire Academy Tampa Fire Academy was built in the 1970s and still in use today by both Tampa Fire and Police departments. It trains annually 580 uniform and forty plus nonuniform. The facility is has an O shaped plan and organization with a courtyard in the center. The facility houses twelve classrooms, a gym. Their outdoor training consists of a drill tower, smoke building, driving range, and various props. They would like to have separate sex locker rooms with closed showers, a helipad, larger kitchen, and more props. The program layout can improve the facility by turning the thirty-two student classrooms into two large forty student classrooms that can open up to hold eighty. It is important for the facility to be and technologies. Tampa Fire Apparatus Bay Fig. 24. Tampa Fire Building Fig. 25.
24 Interviews Interviews and surveys will be performed with students and professionals whose degrees require work experience. Interviews and surveys were chosen because they can cover an extensive amount of information from demographic characteristics, to behavioral habits, to opinions or attitudes on variety of topics, across a large number of people in a limited amount of time. (Groat and Wang 2002, 219) Question will be asked to help understand how they learn in school as opposed to how they prefer to learn and how they believe the environment affects their learning.
25 Jay J. ODriscoll HCC Fire Academy Do you believe that there is a gap between school and work? done to reconnect the two practices? I would say that a gap does exist between school and work. It is interesting that you have inquired on this topic at the time not only here at HCC, but at the State level as well. We are the end of May, as the State is handing down an arguably radical change in the entire curriculum. The reason for the State changing the curriculum was due to the gap that you refer to. It was believed that we were teaching our to think on their own. The problem is the State is pushing the pendulum from one extreme to the other. Instead of through a series of methodical skills, the State will now remove the many proven skill sets and replace them with what could be considered a get the job done employing any means necessary. These complaints allegedly came from Fire Chiefs across the state. The concern was they must now retrain these cadets and show them how we do it here at my department. Every department should train their newly hired employee to the standard operating procedures who possesses the minimum skills, knowledge, and physical would help reconnect the classroom to the street would be
26 some kind of intern program or ride along opportunity for these cadets to actually go out to different departments and experience what the profession is all about. How can the facility of learning strengthen the students ability to learn? number of people than an entire academy class. However if the class room building was designed to look like a station, student would begin to learn some of the important things that are not part of the curriculum. Such things as station pride, respecting the station, and station life in general. Include a kitchen and dining area so the cadets could eat in any medium, but a vital part of building the esprit de the cadet takes pride in the facility, they will take ownership of it as well. With a sense of ownership comes motivation to do the best they can. Some training centers actually require that the cadets live on campus and stay in a dormitory. They will wake the cadets up in the middle of the night to perform some type of evolution; by doing this it brings realism to the training. Another thought would be to actually have a small city built on campus (within reason). This would again bring a real approach to the learning process. When a student can read about it, talk about it, and then do it, they have a far better chance of understanding and retaining the skill. How do you feel a building can bridge the gap between school-style learning versus apprentice-style learning? must master a certain basic set of subordinate skills prior to advancing to even the apprentice level. An individual working as an apprentice has a master over them at all no negative results. This skill is performed under very safe high level of intensity under the most adverse conditions; therefore this is not the occupation to receive on the job training to learn the entry level position. In fact the State of Florida has adopted the National Fire Protection Association training centers and their requirements, and 1403 deals with Do you believe that there is a gap between school and work? done to reconnect the two practices? The gap is between knowledge and skill required by standard, statute and rule and the street application in real world. The trend currently is create an absolute safe environment to train in. The value of that trend is more liability than reality as we operate in a marginally safe at best.
27 How can the facility of learning strengthen the students ability to learn? Teach, preach and enforce self-initiative and responsibility. Do not spoon feed. Demand excellence, high performance best effort at all times. In many ways, the learning facility must deprogram and retrain the individual for self reliance, responsibility and core values. In my research I noticed that they are making many classes available online, do you feel that this takes away from the students interaction and ultimately their education? Yes and no. I support blended learning or traditional brick and mortar based upon the students ability to absorb in either environment.
28 Charlie Brush-Standards Supervisor Florida State Fire College What type of facility would be best for this thesis or is needed currently? Would this be a county, regional, or state facility? The most successful are educationally based because they are more isolated from politics and the winds of governmental change. is the schedule? You go through training before you often to retrain? Ideally the model center would be self contained, housing the students and exposing them to shift like cycles. As to the training, it is varied ideally it would be: 1. Expose them to knowledge, demonstrate the knowledge, impart skill based upon the knowledge, apply the knowledge and skill. 2. Repeat adding new components. 3. When you stop learning, it is time to retire! How large are the outdoor training areas and which ones are needed? The more the better! For a class act, a minimum of 50 acres. The quintessential facility is TAMU which is over 500 acres. My square feet for the apparatus bay is just a guess. I was wondering how big it would need to be and how many vehicles it would hold?
29 What ever is big, add 25% a double deep, drive through with support facilities and 3 bays would be 8,000 sf Does a training facility need to be next to a body of water or is it a good idea? Nice but not essential. What new technologies would or new approaches toward training should me accommodated in this facility? VR technology, full chem / burn lab to show rather than discuss, dirty classrooms (for students in bunker gear) Engine cab mock ups for driver training, communications lab. If the project had an unlimited budget what would the best facility include? Highly skilled, motivated and vetted instructors / educators Where is a good site for this facility? I was thinking around Channelside or south Ybor in the industrial area. No where near populated areas. Tampa FD has a good location but is space limited. Hillsboroughs new facility is okay but will quickly shrink when PD and EMS programs move in. How many students are enrolled a semester or term? Here we have between 30 40 students per class, normally two classes going on during the semester. How many dorms are there? How many students stay there? are all good friends, about 105 is comfortable. How are the rooms set up? How many bunks per room? How large are the spaces? Each room has 2 -3 desks and holds 2-4 folks; each room as bath, w/shower; rooms are probably 15X 15 total.
30 Chief Ronnie Shipp Tampa Fire Academy How large are is the drill tower and burn building? Tower is minimum 2 stories for repelling and the building is minimum 2 stories and minimum 400s.f. burn area. What would improve the learning at the facility? Night classes so people can work full time. A versatile layout that would allow for comfortablity. A day care that would act as a transition area for max two hour child care and possible full time. Professors that are subject matter experts. How many classrooms does this academy have? 12 classrooms shared with the police and dog training area. What would you like at this academy? The facility is in need of more props. How many people do you train a year? We train 580 uniform and 40 nonuniform students a year. If you could build a new facility, what would you add? I would add more technologies, no 32 student classrooms, two large classes 40 each that opens up and sits 80, a helipad, and closed showers for both male and female locker rooms.
31 How man dorms would you have if the facility included a station? You would need one bed for each position, so a total of 1620 beds. The facility would also need a large kitchen with a refrigerator for each shift.
32 Program: Fire Academy and Station
33 and well trained. A proper environment for obtaining this knowledge and training is equally important. This facility and enhances the communitys well-being through better The need for twenty-four hour emergency response requires the program of this facility to allow for nonstop occupancy, and with that requires nonstop security. require space to eat, sleep and interact. The layout will have to allow for ease of circulation and be laid out for quick response and faculty space will be intersected by a shared space that will allow for interaction between the two. The facility will have designated space that interacts with the community because of its integral effect on learning and knowledge. The program will need to include new facilities that can adopt construction. It will facilitate a space where new building materials and construction can be tested to improve the case studies shown, it is important to understand how the bay can be integrated with the facility with the possibility to be used as a learning space. The location and interrelationship of spaces for this building will improve the psychology and standard of an average graduate.
34 Administration Building and clerical personnel, a conference room, auditorium, classrooms of various types for different classes and technologies, a library, kitchen and cafeteria, dorms, and emergency care facility. The administration building is the main focus of the thesis understanding how the architecture of this facility can improve the learning environment and strengthen the relationship between school and work. Administration Building Fig. 26. Fire Training Classroom Fig. 27.
35 The exterior training facilities are important to the ladder equipment, and repelling. The burn building is used facilities are a driving range and various props to train for all different scenarios.
36 Program Table. 3.
37 Site: Selection and Analysis Hillsborough Community College offers a Fire Science degree and recently moved into a new facility. HCCs EMS and Police programs are scheduled to share the new three programs. Tampa Fire Academys facility was built in the nineteen-seventies and lacks space for expansion. The site selection was based on the idea of creating a new facility that would house both HCC and Tampas Fire Academies. Three large sites were chosen between the current facilities that address the required distance from residential zoning due to the training processes. It was important to identify site needed to be located near major highways and streets.
1 2 3 Overall Site Analysis Fig. 28.
39 Site 1 Site 1 441,502 sqft: 10.14 acres Site 1 has an existing warehouse and silos on the eastern edge. The site has access to major vehicular circulation routes. The Crosstown Expressway and Adamo Drive are to the North, Channelside Drive to the West, and 14th Street intersects the site. It has an existing grouping of trees in the Northwest corner, and water access on the South and East ends of the site. This sites location has potential but is not large enough to house the facility and its needs. Site 1 Aerial A Fig. 29. Site 1 Aerial B Fig. 30. Site 1 Aerial C Fig. 31.
40 Site 2 Site 2 843,461 sqft: 19.36 acres Site 2 has two existing warehouses one in the Northwest the other in the Southeast. A set of silos sit on the North edge. The Crosstown Expressway and Adamo Drive are to the North, 19th street to the East, Penny Avenue on the North edge and a service road on the South. There is an existing group of trees in the Southwest and water access on the West end with a small inlet in the Southwest. This site was chosen for this thesis because it meets all the criteria needed to design a Fire Academy, Training, and Station. Site 2 Aerial A Fig. 32. Site 2 Aerial B Fig. 33. Site 2 Aerial C Fig. 34.
41 Site 3 Site 3 907,811 sqft: 20.84 acres Site 3 is the largest of the three. The site has one small industrial building in the middle of it. It was not chosen due to its lack of vehicular circulation. The Crosstown Expressway and Adamo Drive are far North, Flagler Street on the North edge and a service road on the South that connects to Hemlock Street. There is one major way out the East edge against the rail lines, and water on the West end. Site 3 Aerial A Fig. 35. Site 3 Aerial B Fig. 36. Site 3 Aerial C Fig. 37.
42 Site Study Model This model was intended to help understand the site and its context. The site is indicated by the orange square. The metal bar connects HCC to the Tampa Fire Academy, connecting student to professional. The white is connecting site. The orange circle represents the mile radius maximum for emergency response. Site Study Model Fig. 38. Site Study Model Fig. 39.
43 Panoramic of South View Fig. 40.
44 Site Pictures Fig. 41.
45 Facility Comparison Plans of training facilities from sites in California, Florida, Mississippi, New York, and Tampa, were placed on the site to analyze the outdoor training areas and how they connect to the administration building. Californias facility takes an L shape with the administration building on the street edge and proceeds to wrap the outdoor areas around the building in the same form with the drill tower in the center. Florida Fire Academys administration building is a U shape and creates a courtyard on the inside, the courtyard is the beginning of a strong linear axis which continues through the site and the outdoor training. The training areas branch off from this axis. Mississippi is a very large campus and vastly spread out, all their facilities branch off of a radial path that is used for truck training and access. This massive space creates a great disconnect between the training and the classroom. New York is composed of eleven buildings in a diagonal parti connecting the street to the water. The administration building is parallel to the outdoor training to allow for ease of circulation and views to the training. Tampa is a small facility building is an O shape to create a courtyard in the center for interaction. Its outdoor training areas are separated from the building by outdoor portable classrooms. The outdoor training area is placed on a large concrete square distant from the administration building breaking any connection between the two. The analysis determined that using the outdoor training areas to wrap the facility, would create a stronger connection visually and allow for interactive experiences.
46 California Fire Academy on Tampa Site Fig. 42. Florida Fire Academy on Tampa Site Fig. 43.
47 Mississippi Fire Academy on Tampa Site Fig. 44. New York Fire Academy on Tampa Site Fig. 45.
48 Tampa Fire Academy on Tampa Site Fig. 46.
49 24 Hour Facility: Number of Students: -Max 60 at one time -60 night -60 day -120 on site Faculty:Student Ratio: -1:8 normal -1:5 high risk Marine: -40 plus -partner with coast guard -4 to 5 people Fire Station: -14 people per shift -3 different shifts alternating daily -clerical -operations Outdoor Training: -minimum 150 from each -never two props at same time -if did 300 skip over a prop -gas less smoke -smoke building has ability to launch smoke high -airport TIA -small craft training
50 Preliminary Models (1-6) For a facility of this nature, the emphasis must be placed on the faculty-student relationship. The facility has to be organized to house individual spaces for both students and professionals which can then intersect in a shared space. Public perception and opportunities for public engagement are also critical. The facility will be nestled among the sites existing silos, which will be used to retain water for training stations throughout the site, and physical training exercises, including repelling and closed-quarters drills within. The design should create a link between the water around the site and the water in the silos, enabling the shared spaces and classrooms to open up and create views to the outdoor training areas. In the following models, the wood represents the communal spaces, white for student spaces, and gray for faculty spaces.
51 to organize the three different spaces: student, faculty, and communal and how to create a connection between them. The wood is tapered toward the faculty side to demonstrate how the communal space would start to thin out as it got closer to the private faculty areas. The student area wraps the communal space and overlaps the faculty area, to show the spatial relationships that might be achieved. At the juncture, the communal space opens up and can be interpreted as a large space for interaction, either a courtyard or possibly the apparatus bay. The space above created by the three to the other program components. The dorms would be located on a second level to create a sense of privacy but maintain adjacency to the apparatus bay. Conceptual Model Fig. 47. Conceptual Model Fig. 48. Conceptual Model Fig. 49.
52 Parti Model No. 2 Analysis was started by identifying the major vehicular circulation to the site shown with wood. The administration building is placed in the Northeast corner of the site on the street and creates the beginning of an axis that leads to the water. The axis is interrupted by a gray mass that represents the training areas control tower, which is a focal point and house and another possible communal space. The training grounds are shown in red and are in the Northwest corner, opposite that is the outdoor communal space in orange in the Southeast. Parti Model No. 2 Fig. 50. Parti Model No. 2 Fig. 51.
53 Parti Model No. 3+4 Models three and four were done to explore how the building can be placed on the site and how that would effect the layout of the exterior spaces. Model two shows the building on the East edge of the site, using the West half for outdoor training. The silos on the site will be used for outdoor training area and were determined to be addressed in the design. Model four uses the building as a datum line dividing the training areas from the public areas. The diagonal building allows for views out to both the private and public areas, and creates a connection between the two. Parti Model No. 3 Fig. 52. Parti Model No. 4 Fig. 53.
54 Parti Model No. 5 using the idea of a diagonal datum and creating a focal point in the center. The faculty and student spaces wrap the communal space and overlap in the center to create and open courtyard. The outdoor training area is in the Northwest corner parallel to the building with openings directed towards training to create views and encourage interaction. The public space is adjacent to the communal space along the street edge to visually and actively invite the community into the facility. Parti Model No. 5 Fig. 54. Parti Model No. 5 Fig. 55.
55 Parti Model No. 6 Placing the facility in the Northeast corner of the site, in an L shape, similar to the California Fire Academy allows the building to enclose the public space and to be wrapped by the outdoor training areas. This allows the building to be the connector between the two. The L shape houses the communal space in the center to act as a hinge between the student and faculty spaces. However, this parti lacks interaction with the water which is a vital part of the facility. Parti Model No. 6 Fig. 56. Parti Model No. 6 Fig. 57.
56 Advanced Models (7-9) The next three models are further developed, focusing on the scale of the spaces and the required spacing between outdoor training areas. These models focus on how to incorporate the massive silos into the design concept, using the silos as an area for training and water storage. The designs are laid out so the building form divides the site into two halves. One side incorporating outdoor drills that use reclaimed water and the other side containing drill areas without water or that use gas. Because of the strong axis between the silos and the waters edge.
57 Parti Model No. 7 Model seven relates to the earlier design ideas using the diagonal parti. The facility follows the angle of the current silos and hinges toward the water. The building is a long linear model with public and faculty areas to the North and the student areas to the South. The communal space is pulled away from the silos to create a shaded outdoor public space. The facility contains a park space along the water that upon approach opens up into an outdoor public space that allows for connection to the outdoor training. The classrooms of the facility would also allow views to the outside. Parti Model No. 7 Fig. 58. Parti Model No. 7 Fig. 59.
58 Parti Model No. 8 Model eight follows the diagonal of the silos and wraps them to allow for public space within the relief between the facility. The public space wraps the front of the building to the street edge to allow for community involvement. The communal spaces are on the inside facing the silos and opening up to the public space. The northern communal space will act as the dorms, the silos will block the noise from the interstate and they will have direct access to the outdoor public space. The boat house and communal space sit on the waters edge and create an outdoor public space between it and the facility. This path allows for views and connectivity to the outdoor training areas. The outdoor training areas are on the same diagonal to allow for ease of circulation and views. Parti Model No. 8 Fig. 60. Parti Model No. 8 Fig. 61.
59 Parti Model No. 9 This design follows the similar ideas of model seven but has been rotated ninety degrees counter clockwise. The dorms and faculty areas have moved to the waters edge to create privacy and interaction with the water. The student area opens up to the silos community public area and has views to both outdoor training areas. Between the faculty and student buildings is an outdoor courtyard that acts as a gathering space and a connection between the two training areas through views and circulation. The facility is pulled away from the street which creates a disconnect with the community. Parti Model No. 9 Fig. 62. Parti Model No. 9 Fig. 63.
60 Program Diagrams The program of the facility was developed and evolved to create a better learning environment. Through evolution center of the design, using it as a transition point between the two legs of the main facility. The dorms are placed on the between them and the interstate. The classrooms are placed are located in the center, adjacent to the classrooms to encourage student faculty interaction. The communal spaces place of meeting. The facilities circulation wraps the outside and joins at the center at the main vertical circulation. Program Diagram 1 Fig. 64. Program Diagram 2 Fig. 65.
61 Program Diagram 3 Fig. 66. Program Diagram 4 Fig. 67.
62 Program Diagram 6 Fig. 69. Program Diagram 5 Fig. 68.
63 Program Diagram 7 Fig. 70. Program Diagram 8 Fig. 71.
64 Initial Study Models These two models were designed by applying the results of the program diagram analysis. They were designed to help understand how the program diagrams appear in in different types of wood, was designed to understand the relationships of the different spaces in three dimensions. The second model begins at a larger scale and starts to breakdown the large program spaces into individual spaces. Shown in orange, the outdoor public spaces were beginning to be developed between the main facility and the marina and underneath the dorms, outside of the cafeteria. These models start to look at the connection between the building and the site and how to respond to the strong presence and height of the silos. Vehicular circulation is addressed to bring the existing roads into the facility for emergency vehicles. Initial Study Model 2 Fig. 72. Initial Study Model 2 Fig. 73. Initial Study Model 1 Fig. 74.
65 Advanced Study Models
66 Advanced Study Model No. 1 Evolving from the initial study models, Model One begins to articulate the program spaces more thoroughly and starts to look at the space around the building, and it addresses how one can circulate through and around them. The chipboard represents grass, white, pavement, and the corrugated cardboard, the water on the site. The model the dorms and classrooms to allow for interaction between the students and faculty. This model brings the observation tower into the program on the Southwest corner of the main facility to allow for maximum views to the outdoor training areas to the West and South. Advanced Study Model 1 Fig. 75. Advanced Study Model 1 Fig. 76.
67 Advanced Study Model No. 2 of the second level. The roof of the dorms changes heights connected by angled roof planes to articulate the repetition and create dynamic ceiling angles and living spaces. The roof then opens up over the apparatus bay and outdoor courtyard outside the classrooms and student lounge to give shelter to the large common spaces. The roof of the class rooms begins to slope up to meet the observation tower to inside the classrooms to have stadium seating and allow for from the exterior to help the user understand the program within the space. The roof of the marina creates the same experience by angling the roof which covers the docks. Advanced Study Model 2 Fig. 77. Advanced Study Model 2 Fig. 78.
68 Advanced Study Model No. 3 Model Three is a section model through the cafeteria This model was constructed to help determine how the structure would hold up the large span of the dorms. Because understand building materials, it was important to expose the structure so that it could be seen and understood by the user of the space. the dorms and continue out onto the terrace to denote individual seating areas to divide the large grand seating. Advanced Study Model 3 Fig. 79. Advanced Study Model 3 Fig. 80.
69 Building Diagrams During the design of the study models, building diagrams were created to help understand how the facility works and creates a better learning environment. Multiple ideas were explored and diagramed to explain access, outdoor, emergency route, zoning, public/private, and building materials. Access Diagram Fig. 81. Circulation Diagram Fig. 82.
70 Colored Walls Diagram Fig. 83. Flexibility Diagram Fig. 84.
71 Courtyard Diagram Fig. 85. Indoor/Outdoor Diagram Fig. 86.
72 Emergency Route Diagram Fig. 87. Zoning Diagram Fig. 88.
73 Shared/Private Space Diagram Fig. 89. Building Material Diagram Fig. 90.
74 Schematic Design: Plans
75 First Floor Fig. 91.
76 Second and Third Floor Fig. 92.
78 Dorm Longitudinal Section A Fig. 93. Dorm Cross Section B Fig. 94.
79 Class Cross Section C Fig. 95. Class Longitudinal Section D Fig. 96.
80 Detailed Sections The next section drawings begin to show more detail in the design of the project. Each section shows a major building construction type located within the facility. It is important to include these four major building construction methods (masonry, steel, concrete, and heavy timber) to help the students understand and encourage observation of the different materials so they are aware of the materials qualities. The students should be familiar with the various construction methods properties for a better understanding of the buildings they may need to navigate through in the
81 Dorm Detail Cross Section E Fig. 97.
82 Class Detail Cross Section F Fig. 98.
83 Marina Cross Section G Fig. 99.
85 Context Birdseye Perspective Fig. 100.
86 Entry and Plaza Fig. 101.
87 Dorm Hallway Fig. 102.
88 Main Entry Fig. 103.
89 Apparatus Bay Fig. 104.
90 Flex Classrooms Fig. 105.
91 Courtyard Fig. 106.
92 Observation Tower Fig. 107.
93 Outside Classrooms Fig. 108.
94 Classroom Fig. 109.
95 Gathering Space Fig. 110.
96 Site Birdseye Perspective Fig. 111.
97 Final Model
98 View from Southeast Fig. 112.
99 View from Northeast Fig. 113.
100 Tower and Courtyard Fig. 114. Gathering Space Fig. 115.
101 Classroom and Dorm Roofs Fig. 116.
102 View from East Fig. 117. Tower Fig. 118.
103 View from North Fig. 119. Roof Terrace and Lounge Fig. 120.
104 North Birdseye Fig. 121. South Birdseye Fig. 122.
105 View from Southwest Fig. 123.
106 Conclusion During research it was understood that there are two styles of learning: hands-on training and classroom education. criteria must be met including personal interaction, color, create spaces outside of the classroom to allow for interaction between students and superiors. Most learning environments lighting. The facility needs to present color and light into these environments to give character and life to the spaces. teaching and learning that require different sizes and space When the design of a building creates an environment with these characteristics, the psychology and learning ability of an average graduate greatly increases. was chosen because of its vocational approach to learning. Merging the students and professionals can better prepare students for their careers. The program for this facility was designed with spaces that would allow for ample interaction between students, professors, and professionals. In order to transition through the program spaces, and create moments of interaction, circulation must be purposefully designed to connect communal spaces. The circulation of the facility is primarily exterior and is eight feet wide in most places, thus not only being a path, the outdoor training. The interior hallways for the students
107 and professionals advising are activated by large overhead skylights that allow light to cut through the space. To access the dorms, students must cross over catwalks above the apparatus bay, which exposes the students to the energy required to respond to an emergency call. By interweaving the circulation, used at different levels within the program, this creates spaces along the path for interaction. Upon approach to the building from the primary parking lot, one enters an open-air lobby in the center of the structure. This space connects the vertical and horizontal spaces. The cafeteria is accessed from this junction point through the apparatus bay and opens up to a large outdoor covered patio where students, professionals, and faculty can gather and converse about their experiences in all phases and the student lounge, is a large open space with stepped seating is provided where students can talk or study before attending classes or socially inhabit as an alternative space to their dorms. The facility also includes a large plaza, between the marine house and the main administration building, which can be used for larger planned events or outdoor learning. The program required a twenty acre site to allow for outdoor training and props that must be 150 feet apart. The training areas to west of the facility are props from which water can be recycled for future training exercises. The
108 training areas to the south contain smoke and gas drills whose water cannot be recycled. The outdoor training areas can be viewed from the observation tower, outdoor balconies, and classrooms. Upon circulating to and from these communal and training spaces, a student would notice the different building materials and structural systems within the facility. The facility is comprised of four major building construction types: and the heavy timber for the marina. It is important that the facility to be comprised of multiple building materials to help the students understand the different materials qualities. The students should be familiar with the various systems properties for a better understanding of the buildings they may need to navigate through in future emergencies. With these different materials and systems, a variety of In this facility there are multiple classroom for the accommodation of different course requirements. Some of the classrooms in the facility include a large become two large classrooms, two stadium seating style classrooms, one group style learning classroom, and one classroom with desks that can be stored to allow for training exercises or possible CPR courses. The classrooms have large windows that allow light to enter into the spaces.
109 of the apparatus bay. Circulation through the apparatus bay connects the primary vertical circulation and gathering space to the residential program component. Thirty dormitory rooms, accommodating 104 students and respond to the repetition of the sites existing silos. Each dorm room consists of a living space, a bathroom, two bedrooms, and four beds. The residential program contains two interior and two exterior shared spaces, and the second terrace on the east side overlooking the green space. The on the northwest shaded by the tall silos. The design of this facility allows for the architecture the gap between school and work. The facility creates spaces for interaction between the students, faculty, and the professionals, brings life to the classroom, and provides an example for future facilities of this type.
110 References Bareither, Harlan D., and Jerry L. Schillinger. 1968. University Space Planning. London: University of Illinois Press. Bryan, John L. National Fire Academy : A Study of the Relationship of the National Fire Academy to the Fire-Related Education Programs in Colleges and Universities. Washington: Dept. of Commerce, Natl Fire-Prevention and Control Administration, Natl Fire Academy, 1977. Cable, Carole. Recent Trends in Fire Station Design : A Bibliography. Monticello, Ill: ; Vance Bibliographies, 1982. Dale, Edgar. 1972. Building a Learning Environment. Bloomington: Phi Delta Kappa Inc. David, Thomas G., and Benjamin D. Wright. 1975. Learning Environments. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Dudek, Mark. 2000. Architecture of Schools: the New Learning Environments. Oxford: Architectural Press. Gratz, David B. Fire Department Management: Scope and Method. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Glencoe Press, 1972. Groat, Linda, and David Wang. 2002. Architectural Research Methods. John Wiley & Sons.
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