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Developing feminist activist pedagogy

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Title:
Developing feminist activist pedagogy a case study approach in the women's studies department at the University of South Florida
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Tessier, Stacy
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Syllabi
Classroom
Theory
Politics
Self-reflectivity
Dissertations, Academic -- Women's Studies -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: In this thesis, I examine the relationship between activism and the two introductory-level Women's Studies classes, Introduction to Women's Studies and Issues in Feminism, and the social justice mission of the Women's Studies department. These two classes are the pillars for the program and are often the first classes that draw students into the program. I propose that the Women's Studies department does promote social justice through the curriculum and there are ways that the department could do more to facilitate activism in the classroom and beyond the classroom. The Women's Studies department at the University of South Florida is one of the longest freestanding Women's Studies departments. The department was established in 1970 and as an academic field is a child of the idealism and activism of the feminist movement. I believe that Women's Studies as an academic discipline has a responsibility to promote social justice because of its parentage. A case study approach enables me to see how activism manifests in a very specific location and provides real-life examples that can then be applied and adapted to other programs. I conducted two different analyses of the department: a syllabus review and in-depth interviews with instructors. The intention of the syllabus review was to see how the classes present on paper. The interviews allowed me to examine what actually occurred in the classroom. I was able to provide a snapshot of the call to activism, the manifestations of activism, and the facilitation of activism, which enabled me to theorize new ways to incorporate activism into not only introductory-level classes, but to all Women's Studies classes.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Stacy Tessier.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 55 pages.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002029622
oclc - 436997572
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002947
usfldc handle - e14.2947
System ID:
SFS0027264:00001


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ABSTRACT: In this thesis, I examine the relationship between activism and the two introductory-level Women's Studies classes, Introduction to Women's Studies and Issues in Feminism, and the social justice mission of the Women's Studies department. These two classes are the pillars for the program and are often the first classes that draw students into the program. I propose that the Women's Studies department does promote social justice through the curriculum and there are ways that the department could do more to facilitate activism in the classroom and beyond the classroom. The Women's Studies department at the University of South Florida is one of the longest freestanding Women's Studies departments. The department was established in 1970 and as an academic field is a child of the idealism and activism of the feminist movement. I believe that Women's Studies as an academic discipline has a responsibility to promote social justice because of its parentage. A case study approach enables me to see how activism manifests in a very specific location and provides real-life examples that can then be applied and adapted to other programs. I conducted two different analyses of the department: a syllabus review and in-depth interviews with instructors. The intention of the syllabus review was to see how the classes present on paper. The interviews allowed me to examine what actually occurred in the classroom. I was able to provide a snapshot of the call to activism, the manifestations of activism, and the facilitation of activism, which enabled me to theorize new ways to incorporate activism into not only introductory-level classes, but to all Women's Studies classes.
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Developing Feminist Activist Pedagogy: A Case Study Approach in the Women's Studies Department at the University of South Florida by Stacy Tessier A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Women's Studies College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Kim M. Vaz Ph.D. Linda E. Lucas, Ph.D. Gurleen Grewal, Ph.D. Date of Approval: March 23, 2009 Keywords: syllabi, classroom, theory, politics, self reflectivity Copyright 2009 Stacy Tessier

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Dedication continue to stay strong in the face of uncertainty.

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Acknowledgements Special thanks to my mom for always allowing me to be myself and for her endless support through this long journey. To Rich, thank you for being my rock. To Leisa, thank you for bei ng the life preserver when I felt lost at sea; you have been more of a friend to challenging me and inspiring me; you provided a home to me and made me feel like I belong ed to something important. To my students, thank you for allowing me to psuh my boundaries and yours. To Marilyn, who started me on this journey, a big thanks for your energy and spirit. To Kim, Linda, and Gurleen, I could not have completed this journey w ithout all of your support and guidance.

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i Table of Contents Abstract i ii Chapter One: Introduction 1 Chapter Two: Literature Review 5 5 Feminist Activist 7 Feminist Pedagogy 9 Chapter Three: Methods and Data Analysis 13 Feminist Methodology 13 Data Analysis 16 Chapter Four: Results 19 21 Issues in Feminism 29 Interviews 34 The Call to Activism 35 Manifestations of Activism 36 The Facilitation of Activism 39 Chapter Five: Discussion 4 2 References 46 Appendi ces Appendix A: List of Texts by Title 51 Appendix B: List of Syllabi 5 3

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ii List of Tables Introducti 53 Issues in Fe minism Syllabi 55

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iii Studies Department at the University of South Florida Stacy Tessier ABSTRACT In this thesis, I examine the relationship between activism and the two introductory two classes are the pillars for the program and are often the first classes that draw students into the program social justice through the curriculum and there are ways that the department could do more to facilitate activism in the classroom and beyond the classroom. University of South Florida is one of the 1970 and as an academic field is a child of the idealism and activism of the feminist an academic discipline has a responsibility to promote social justice because of its parentage. A case study approach enables me to see how activism manifests in a very specific location and provides real life examples that can then be applied and adapted to other programs. I conducted two different analyses of the department: a syllabus review and in depth interviews with instructors. The intention of the syllabus review was to see how the classes present on paper. The interviews allowed me to examine what actually

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iv occurred in the classroom. I was able to provide a snapshot of the call to activism, the manifestations of activism, and the facilitation of activism, which enabled me to theorize new ways to incor porate activism into not only introductory level classes, but to all

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1 Chapter One: Introduction Activism to me at the most basic level means taking action for change in order to achieve social justice and it has been a part of m y life since I was a child living in New England. My earliest action was a boycott against the celebration of Thanksgiving in second grade after learning from a friend the experiences of how her indigenous ancestors were actually treated by the colonists, which did not coincide with the lesson being taught by my teacher. That experience made a lasting impression on me, and shaped my conceptions of social justice. The extent of my activism has waxed and waned over the years and the issues that have taken pre cedence over my time have gone through phases, especially in relation to current world events, but I continue to be moved to action through knowledge, just as in elementary school. My introduction to feminism occurred at the college level, where my exposur e to feminism occurred through my activities with other activist organizations. I began to see the ways that the issues that I am passionate about, such as, but note limited to, the destruction of the environment, animal rights, and indigenous rights, are all feminist issues. Feminists argue that women and nature are often devalued and exploited by men, and women are often expected to be closer to nature and animals. Indigenous women face multiple oppressions due not only to their gender, but to their race as well. It was seeing understanding of how feminism connected to activism.

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2 the feminist movement (Boxer 1998, 163). My previous activist involvement influenced University of South Florida 1 would encourage students to take part in activism, whether it is visible, suc h as holding protests, marches, and walkouts, or more subtle, such as boycotts and letter writing campaigns. The way that I conceptualized activism as direct action for the purpose of change, was not explicitly encouraged as class content on any syllabus some classes extra credit could be earned for attending campus and community events. When I did not see such activism in the curriculum, it prompted me to ask deeper questions a classes present feminist activism, a concern that I carry with me into my graduate work es, I began to think deeply about feminist pedagogy. I began to question what sets feminist pedagogy apart from other types of pedagogy. The more I learned about pedagogy and the more experience I gained in the classroom, the more I began to view feminist pedagogy as not only a form of activism for the instructor, but as an avenue for students to engage in feminist activism. The relationship of feminist pedagogy and activism interests me on three levels: as an activist, as a student, and as a teacher. As an activist 2 I think that the academy is an 1 From this point forward, when I refer to the University of South Florida, I am referring specifically to the Tampa campus, which is the main campus of the university. 2 I consider myself an activist not only because I belong to activist organizations, but also because I am involved in activism independently. I am active within the feminist movement, the environmental movement, the animal rights movement, human rights and indigenous rights movements, labor rights movements, peace and anti war movements, and more.

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3 environment that provides students with opportunities to expand their ways of thinking, and disciplines that advocate for social change are important vehicles for students to engage in activism. I argue that it is not enough to read texts or watch videos about activists and activist movements; students should be encouraged to act. As a student, I am always looking for inspiration as much as I am seeking knowledge because both are components of an education. Since e ntering college, much of my activism has been spurred by what I have learned in the classroom, even if the relation to activism was indirect. As a teacher, I would like to be the spark that ignites change. I know that as a teacher I potentially have consid erable influence on the ways that students think, not only about the curriculum, but about life in general, although I am aware of, as Scanlon (1993, learned to the wor at least make students aware of the ways that activism can be incorporated into their lives, if they choose, from local actions to statewide, nation wide, or world wide actions. The mo st important goal is helping students to recognize that changes can be small and still be effective and that the change is not going to be immediate. It is also important to note that it is not student engagement that is the goal, but that the student has changed. Studies Department was an independent department with a chair, three other tenured professors, as well as one tenure track professor and one visiting pr ofessor. As I conclude the writing process in the spring of 2009, the Department has changed due to the One professor has retired; one has accepted a position at another university, and two have

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4 sought positions with other departments within the university. This is important, because the Department constantly feels threatened because of the critical work p roduced in the Department. I do not know how the Department will be composed after the conclusion of the semester, but that does not detract from the usefulness of the research to the Department. In fact, the research is urgent because of the threat to the Department. As bell hooks (1994) argues, critical theory is necessary for liberatory act ivism. This research provides tools

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5 Chapte r 2: Literature Review collective action of feminist scholars and students in the early 1970s, inspired by the feminist movement of the 1960s, where the writings of feminist activists provided the 1998). The so educated; the so on the right for women to criticize knowledge, the right to create knowledge, and the right to be educators However, this relationship between academics and activism is slippery because of the ies programs expand, the both feminist activism and feminist culture continues. choose is an

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6 there are 652 programs at colle ges and universities in the United States. According to the 3 granting B.A. degrees at 184 colleges and universities and there are currently more than 40 and universities expand their p rograms and new journals are published. diversity [is] at the center of inquiry (Enns and Forrest 2005, 16). The academic feminist commitment to activism manifests through the selection of faculty, the construction of curricula, and the encouragement of stud ent participation in internships, community based on research whose questions reflect contemporary feminist concerns, and in pedagogy that draws students into parti 183). South Florida 4 was also established in 1970, making it one of the oldest in the country. 3 Studies faculty may hold appointments in other departments. 4 Most of the information in this paragraph comes from the department website, http://www.cas.usf.edu/womens_studies/department_overview.html and from info rmal interviews with

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7 The program began after an ad hoc committee focused on the status of women demanded the program (Kim Vaz, personal communicati on, March 23 2009). The Department began granting B.A. degrees in 1987 and M.A. degrees ten years later. The Department gained independent status in 1991. The Department currently has one full time professor, an interim chair, three visiting professors, an d an extremely uncertain future The mission statement 5 of the Department states: graduate education and research for social justice. We seek to connect our work as academics with the social a nd political world outside of the university ... We seek to empower students through a feminist critique of social, cultural, and institutional structures that enables them to think more critically about their own lives and that inspires them to work as a This excerpt demonstrates that social justice and action are integral to the academic intentions of the department. I am asking the question of whether this mission is being accomplished. Feminist activism I came to this project with my own conceptions of activism. As I began to research, I realized that my definition was anything but simple. Defining activism became the most difficult part of my research because I constantly had to reexamine my conceptions of activis m. 5 This was the mission statement at the time of my research. This mission statement was recently modified, but the department continues to advocate a social justice mission. The mission statement was given to me by one of the founders of the program.

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8 t centers on not only issues about gender, but also the way that gender is inter connected to key aspects of life, including marginalized identities and material realities resulting from those identities. The goal of feminist activism is to improve the sit uation of people that transformation of patriarchy, or a more limited goal of policy 1995, 629). Rather than reveal to my interviewees my own definition of feminist activism, I am allowing each of the interviewed women to define feminist activism in her own terms. Allowing self (Reinharz 1992, 6). During the interview process when I was asked what I meant by feminist activism, I gave the question back. As a feminist activist and researcher, it is not my intention to make the interviewees fit my conception of activism but to constantly reexamine and redefine my conception of feminist activism based on interviewees (Armstead 1995, 628). indoctrinate. It is sufficient t hat it empowers students with the passion to learn and to

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9 Feminist pedagogy Just as there are many feminisms, there are many feminist pedagogies. One basic principle of feminist pedagogy is that it identify six tenets that are prominent among feminist pedagogies. The first is that feminist pedagogy evolves from feminist transformation, consciousness eminist pedagogy is concerned for women intersections of the categories of race class, and gender for analyzing experiences and institutions. Fifth, feminist pedagogy addresses sexism and heterosexism in society. Finally, feminist pedagogy explores honestly issues of sexuality and aids students in developing language to discuss sexu alities. Enns and Forrest (2005) recognize four principles that define feminist pedagogy: power, holistic learning and integrating dichotomies, diversity, and social change. For of energy, personal experience with rational analysis and make connections between objective textbook learning, self awareness, and personal growth. Multiple and intersecti ng forms of privilege and oppression are recognized by feminist educators, and in response

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10 nally, The view of feminist pedagogy as consciousness raising is sometimes viewed as the co re of feminist pedagogy. Consciousness raising has four components: sharing experiences and listening nonjudgmentally to others; expressing feelings about these experiences; analyzing these feelings and experiences for antioppressive theory development; an d acting to challenge and end oppression (Fisher 1998). In this view, personal experience becomes invaluable to learning. Reinharz (1995, 220 1) conceives of consciousness time for th e purpose of discussing personal experiences without professional leadership. In these meetings, women attempt to articulate a political analysis that will facilitate Knowledge is not something that can be imparted upon people; knowledge must be students can actively learn rather than passively receive (Parry 1996, Robertson 1993). Furthermore, the knowledge is not neutral; it exists within a social and political cont ext (Robertson 1993). Dialogue is often central in active learning; dialogue between the teacher and the student as well as dialogue between students and between knowledge and experience (Wright 1998). This dialogue is crucial in allowing students to relat e course material to their own lives and to the lives of others (Boxer 1998). hooks (1994, 86) says,

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11 whether they occur for the student or the teacher. In the feminist classroom, the teacher and the student bring their own subjectivities and identiti identity to knowledge of how to work towards changing and transforming the oppressive reflection is one avenue for analyzing the relationship between i dentity and knowledge. Journaling is one tool that encourages self 88). Feminist educ ators to reflect on their own identity and pedagogy also use journals. Other tools for encouraging personal revelation are autobiographical essays, oral histories, visual presentations with film, videotapes, or slides, and role playing (Boxer 1993, 8). Feminist pedagogy not only challenges what is talked about in the classr oom, but also challenges the structure of the classroom. Feminist teachers disrupt hierarchical classrooms, in which the instructor stands at the front of the room and students sit at desks or tables in rows in front of the instructor, by physically changi ng the classroom, whether by re arranging the desks from rows into circles or semi circles or by refusing to stand behind a podium. The physical changes to the classroom allow for shifts in power

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12 and Boatwright 2005, 123). The feminist classroom as a collaborative space confronts the conception of learning as what Paulo Friere calls the banking system, where students are passive consumers that memorize information, regurg itate it, and store it for use later (hooks 1994). Choosing to work against the banking system, hooks argues, is inherently political. (hooks 1994, 12). I believe the classr oom IS the most radical space of possibility within has to some degree been in va teacher to open a dialogue with the students; it is a space for the students to participate in an open dialogue. In the radical space of the feminist classroom, the boundaries between the teacher an d student often blur; a feminist activist pedagogy demands such a blurring of boundaries.

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13 Chapter 3: Methods and Data Analysis Feminist Methodology potentia 1991, 12). interested in the relationship between feminist activism in the introductory level Wo level classes at the Feminism. I chose these two classes because they attract majors and non majors and they are the two foundational courses for the program. I have two main questions: What is i t justice mission of the Department? If it is the case that the instructors could be doing more, what else could be done to accomplish the social justice mission? To a research methods are methods used in research projects by people who identify Armstead (1995) identifie s three ideals of feminist research: to democratize the relations

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14 between the researcher and the researched; to build knowledge for women; and to galvanize women toward political action in their own interests. Cook and Fonow (1986) outline five basic princ iples of feminist methodology: continuing and reflexively attending to the significance of gender as a basic feature of all social life; consciousness raising as central to methodology and as a general orientation; challenging norms of objectivity; concern for the ethical implications of feminist research and recognition that women have been exploited as objects of knowledge; and emphasis on empowerment of women and the transformation of patriarchal social institutions through research. Feminist research is for women rather than about women (Neilson 1990), and the categories of analysis broaden beyond gender to include identity and the intersectionality of identities. As a self identified feminist researching feminist activism and feminist pedagogy, I am emp loying a feminist research methodology, or rather, multiple methodologies, also known as triangulation (Reinharz 1992, Cook and Fonow 1986). Neilson (1990) argues that feminist inquiry should include empirical, interpretive, and critical components. Reinha rz (1992, 204) points out that a multiple methods approach is useful for long argue that the circum stances of the researcher may change and employing multiple methods enables the researcher to build on existing research without having to discard it. In addition, since I am researching one specific department, a multiple methodology allows the research t o continue regardless of the composition of the department. I am not only the researcher, but I am a participant in my own research. I constantly engage in self

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15 critically, and explore analyt 1991, 2). I view this research as action oriented, as a process rather than as a quest for the truth (Reinharz 1992, Fonow and Cook 1991, Armstead 1995, Gatenby and Humphries 2000). Furthermore, as (2000, 89) outline three components of participatory action research: a commitment to liberationist moveme nts; a commitment to honouring the lived experiences and my research as an activist a nd as a researcher. There are three ways that personal experience is employed by feminist researchers. The first method is when the researcher starts with personal experience, analyzes it, and does not collect other data. The second method also starts w ith personal experience, but the researcher is troubled by the experience and collects other data to in the process, recognizing that she or he is part of the group bein g studied and uses that identification to deepen the study (Reinharz 1992). I follow the second method as far as and collecting data from other teachers about their pe dagogical methods. research that will be useful to them; to do otherwise is to expect them to participate in and contribute their labors to a study that benefits only the research 17). This research allows the interviewees to reflect on their own pedagogy. In addition,

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16 their experiences become part of the larger research on feminist pedagogy. Data Analysis First, I conducted a literature review of historical a nd contemporary views of pedagogy with a focus on feminist pedagogy. The literature is written not only by feminist researchers, but also by education researchers who identify as feminists. This literature will ground my own perspectives on what is meant b y feminist pedagogy. Second, I conducted a textual analysis of syllabi. At two different points in time, I collected syllabi from the introductory University of South Florida over the past 20 years in order to examine how activism is included in this analysis. I conducted analyses at two different times: the first was in 2006 and the second was in 2009. faculty and graduate teaching assistants about their experiences teaching the introductory d women thirty minutes, and each interview was tape recorded and transcribed. The interviewees were known to me before the interview process, which eliminated some of the power differentials often found in the interview process when the interviewer is distanced from the interviewee and the research, such as the interviewee

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17 that this previous relationship may have influenced the responses by the interviewees to mai 101). The traditional role of researcher involves being a mechanical instrument of data collection, having specialized conversation in which one person asks the questions an d another gives the answers, the characterization of the interviewee as passive, and reducing interviews to a question asking and rapport promoting role (Oakley 1981). In following tradition, I collected data and asked specific questions; by allowing inter viewees to deviate from the questions, I recognized them as active participants in the research process. The interviewees were given the opportunity to disclose their real names in this research or to be identified with a pseudonym; all chose to be recogn ized by name. I did not gather any demographic information of my interviewees; I only asked three direct and specific questions about their pedagogy: how they interpreted the call to activism; how activism is incorporated in the classroom; and the institut ional support or constraint of (Reinharz 1992). As a researcher, I recognize th

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18 The purpose of the interviews was not to learn about the participants themselve s, (Kumashiro 2002, 18). In other words, I was more interested in the experiences in the classroom than in learning about the person in the classroom. A picture of how feminis t complete without the personal experiences of the women who teach the classes. My interest is in how the women conceptualize their own pedagogy; I present their experien ces as they tell them, not how I interpret them. research may be utilized by anyone interested in using feminist pedagogy as a tool of liberation. This research provides an ex ample of how activism operates on one campus of one university, but the experiences of the feminist instructors are in no way unique to this one location.

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19 Chapter 4: Results Department is required to submit her or his syllabus to the Department for archiving; many are submitted in hard copy, although more recently they are submitted electronically as wel l. The Department has experienced two major moves since 1999, which means that many physical copies of syllabi and other archival records were potentially lost in the shuffle. I conducted two different textual analyses of available syllabi from courses en title included syllabi I collected from the Department office manager in the Fall of 2006 and syllabi I collected directly from instructors in the Spring of 2005, was conduct ed in the fall semester of 2006 and included 14 syllabi from Fall 2000 through Fall 2006; the second analysis, which included syllabi that were discovered by a new Department office manager in Fall 2008 and syllabi that I collected after soliciting instruc tors, was conducted in the spring semester of 2009 and included 49 syllabi from Spring 1990 to Fall 2008. In addition, I revisited the first set of syllabi, taking into account information gathered during the interviews. The purpose of the analysis is to e xamine how each instructor is presenting feminist activism in each course on paper. The syllabi for the Spring and the Fall semesters are both set up for 16 weeks: 15 weeks of class and the last week for the final exam. There are three different Summer ses sions offered every year:

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20 The length of the semester helps to give context for the structure of the course. In the first level of analysis, I read the syllabi, first ex amining the required and recommended texts assigned for the course and the written course description and objectives to see what voices and perspectives were guiding the course. I then looked for d objectives, in the course requirements, or in the course outline. Finally, I looked for what I perceived to be visible feminist activist requirements in the course description and/or the objectives and assignments/activities, such as attending activist e vents either on or off campus or performing community service. In this stage, I used my own understanding of feminist activism, which I define as confronting and taking action against oppression, in identifying activism in the curricula. In the second ana lysis, I revisited the first 14 syllabi after conducting my interviews and examined an additional 49 syllabi. Building upon the earlier analysis of both the keyword of activism and my perception of activism, I expanded my own definitions and perceptions, i ncorporating the definitions and perceptions of activism provided from each of the instructors that I interviewed. I expanded my keyword search, instances of activism cited by the instructors that did not necessarily meet my previous definitions or perceptions. In the first analysis, I was limited by my own definitions and biases of what con stitutes feminist activism, so this second analysis allowed me to create a bigger picture of the feminist activism that occurs in the classroom. In the second

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21 analysis, I focused more on the course outline than on the course descriptions and objectives bec ause the interviews allowed for discussions of what actually occurred in the classroom; the interviews made visible what was not previously visible. I also took note of specific instances of feminist activism that were mentioned in the interviews that did not appear on the syllabus. I had nine syllabi, including the syllabus from my own course, ranging from the Spring of 2000 to the Fall of 2006. All syllabi were from either the Spring or Fall semesters. It is important to note that all nine of these syllabi were from graduate teaching assistants. This is an important point for two reasons: the first is that each graduate teaching assistant may teach a particular course only once or twice in her 6 career as a graduate studen reading the syllabus alone whether this is a first semester instructor or a more experienced instructor. The drawback of a first semester syllabus is that the instructor does not have t he benefit of self reflection that is so critical to feminist pedagogy (Boxer 1998). The second reason is that many graduate teaching assistants model their syllabi on the syllabi of other graduate teaching assistants. In this level of analysis, I noticed particular phrases and assignments were identical verbatim among several of the syllabi. content from other instructors. 6 department, all of the syllabi I reviewed at this point were from females. I feel it is impo rtant to use read male) pronouns.

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22 The first thing I looked for in this level of anal ysis was the required and recommended texts for the class. Although many instructors did supplement required texts with electronic reserve readings, which are electronic documents that students can access through the University of South Florida library web site and are often expected to print out to bring to class, all instructors did assign physical texts for the course. The number of assigned texts ranged from two to seven, with 3.6 being the mean and four being the mode, appearing on four syllabi. Among t he nine syllabi, there were several texts that were common to several instructors, although because of the time span of the syllabi, different editions of the book were used. The text that was a requirement on the most syllabi, six, including my own, was W by Susan M. Shaw and Janet Lee, which is an introductory second most common text was The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World by Joni Seager (previously published as The State of Women in t he World Atlas ), which appeared on five syllabi. This book is a reference book that provides specific topical information about women all over the world. The book features a map for each topic, with color coded graphs, charts, and other information. Six di fferent instructors used novels as texts, although no two syllabi had specific novels in common. Two other texts each appeared on two syllabi: Women, Images, and Realities by Amy Kesselman, Lily D. McNair, and Nancy Schniedewind and Witches, Midwives and N urses: A History of Women Healers by Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre English. There were twelve other texts represented on the syllabi, including one magazine. The range of titles and types of texts used, as well as the supplemental readings on reserve, dem integrate a broad range of voices in the classroom.

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23 The course description and objectives varied for each syllabus, but there are ex periences and lives, and how those experiences are situated historically, politically, and culturally, often through texts written by or about women. Another objective is to look at the way gender shapes women (and men, although this is explicitly mentione d on only one syllabus), as well as how gender, race, class, and sexuality are socially constructed. One syllabus states the importance of deciphering values and how those values are description and objectives: the first one encourages students to develop feminist foundations for and useful methods of activism; the second one encourages students to escription and objectives are useful for determining when instructors explicitly include activism and social change as integral to the course. syllabi, and all were located n as one of the topics during week 14; also during week 14 one instructor had the topic of content into two units wit h activism the central theme for the second unit of the semester, which was from week six forward. Although not specifically listed as activism, one Activism was not specif ically mentioned as a topic or unit for the remaining four syllabi. In the final part of this analysis, I looked for assignments and activities that I interpreted to be activist in nature, because as Enns and Forrest (2005, 15) argue,

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24 utilized ongoing self reflective journaling as a student assignment. As discussed in the previous chapter, the use of journals is a feminist pedagogical tool to encourage students to relate personal experience to the course material. I perceive this to be a form of activism because students are often required to confront and challenge topics that test their personal values and beliefs. Journals were required on a weekly basis, but length req uirements, quantity requirements, and collection requirements varied across the syllabi. Another activity that invites students to confront their personal values and beliefs an option for one other instructor. The Liberating Act is an assignment where the student must push her or his personal boundaries or beliefs in a self chosen act. Each instructor had different requirements for this act, but all instructors did require tha t the student write a paper about her or his experiences performing the act. Activism appeared as an extra credit opportunity for two of the instructors, allowing students who engaged in feminist activism outside of the classroom to write a short paper about their experiences. Other ways that activism appeared as an assignment or a ctivity included an instructor who had students choose four of the activities provided in the Shaw and Lee text to perform throughout the semester and write a short paper about each activity. One instructor assigned a creative expression identity project, which A Spring 2005). The self reflection and the exploration required for th is

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25 project make it both feminist and activist One instructor assigned a media analysis project. Finally, one instructor required students to engage in at least three hours of feminist activism outside of the classroom, although students were able to choos e how approval. By analyzing these nine syllabi, it is apparent that activism is present in the texts of many classes; understanding or performing activism is an explicit course objective for many classes; and activism is present in every class through projects and activities. Even when not explicitly mentioned, activism is taking place in the course discussions and the projects and activities. After conducting my intervie ws, I performed another analysis. I had 29 syllabi from Spring 1990 through Fall 2008. In this group of syllabi, I had three syllabi for summer courses, two for session B and one for session C. Furthermore, one summer B syllabus was for an online class. Th e majority of these syllabi were from professors, and several professors taught the course in multiple semesters with only minor changes in the structure and content of their syllabi. As with the first analysis, the first thing I looked for were the text s for the class. Only one instructor assigned a course packet instead of a text or texts, and 18 other syllabi supplemented a text or texts with reserved readings (either Electronic Reserves or library reserves depending on the year the course was taught) or course packets. There were 41 different texts assigned across the syllabi. Assigned texts ranged from one to six, with two being the mean and four being the mode, appearing on eight syllabi. There were four different texts that appeared on six syllabi: Issues in Feminism by Sheila Ruth, an

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26 introductory Women, Images and Realities by Amy Kesselman, Lily D. McNair, and Nancy Schniedewind, also an introductory level a novel b y Sheri S. Tepper; and the pamphlet Witches, Midwives and Nurses: A History of Women Healers by Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre English. Other common texts include WAC Stats: The Facts About Women by Andrea Blum and Jule Harrison, which was present on five syllabi; Race, Class and Gender by Margaret L. Anderson and Patricia Hill Collins appeared on four syllabi; and on three syllabi each were by Susan M. Shaw and Janet Lee, The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World by Joni Seag er, and by Gwyn Kirk and Margo Okazawa Rey. Three other texts, by Jo Whitehorse Cochran, Donna Langston, and Carolyn Woodward, Women, Race and Class by Angela Davis, and Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions by Gloria Steinam each appeared on two syllabi. There were 29 other texts represented, including three magazines and one film. There was a greater variety of texts in this second set of syllabi, which demo nstrates a greater variety of voices. The course description and objectives for the syllabi varied, and there were 11 syllabi that had none listed. One common objective was to provide a feminist analysis and critique of the status, roles, experiences, pr oblems, and lives of women, in the US and internationally, both currently and in the past. Several of the syllabi specifically mentioned changing the lives of women, changing the lives of students, or changing society as an extension of this critique. One instructor stated that a goal of the course was

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27 udies was another common objective. One unknown) as an objective. as topics on 16 syllabi included on the syllab appeared in week 14 for one instruc instructor; the topic for week 14 for Activism was represented on the syllabi in other ways as well. Weekly journals were a requirement for ten syllabi, and one syll abus listed journals as an optional activity. One instructor deviated from the practice of journals as self reflective and instead required students to write entries as letters to the editor of local newspapers or magazines

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28 based on current articles. Other projects and papers that were required include reaction essays for three syllabi; the use of a listserv or bulletin board created specifically for the course was required on three different syllabi; the presentation of objects representing appeared on two syllabi; a Liberating Act was required by one instructor in two different semesters; an oral history report for one instructor and an autobiography webs project, and a women and work project, each required for one instructor; a discussion starter folio for one instructor and presentation of readings for another instructor; a gr oup instructor; a film response for one instructor; and finally, survey work for one instructor. Two different instructors created activism in the classroom by allowing th e students to choose the content topics for the last weeks of the class. One instructor included in the syllabus directions for a closing ritual, which was to occur in the last fifteen minutes of each class period. This closing ritual was a space for eac h student to speak in class. Students had the option of passing on their turn to speak, but everyone was responsible for listening to what each student had to say. This ritual is feminist because it actively engages each student and it is activist because it gives every student in the classroom a voice. Revisiting the first nine syllabi, activism became apparent in other ways than previously determined. The discussion format of the class opens the space for activism. Active participation was a graded requ irement for a total of 30 of the 38 collected syllabi. In addition, listening was specifically listed as a requirement on six of the syllabi. One

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29 Spring 1997, Fall 1999) The presence of activism became more apparent with this second analysis. Expanding the keywords allowed me to recognize more activist topics on the course outline. The activities and projects challenged students to participate in feminist analyses of t hemselves and the world. Issues in Feminism I had five syllabi from the Fall of 2000 to the Fall of 2005. Four of the syllabi were from graduate teaching assistants, including two from consecutive semesters by the same instructor, and one syllabus was f rom an adjunct professor who had recently graduated from the department. One specific point of relevance here is that unlike instructors each semester, Issues in Femin ism is usually offered as one section and by only one instructor, and is not available every semester. It is also important to note that Issues in Feminism is intended to be the second part, or the follow up, to Introduction to s no prerequisite for the course, so it may be the first There are significantly fewer assigned texts represented on the five syllabi, mental readings were available through Electronic Reserve. Two instructors did not require any textbooks for their courses. One instructor had the same two assigned texts for each semester she taught: Listen Up!: Voices from the Next Feminist Generation by Barbara

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30 Findlen, an anthology of short essays written by feminists that identify with the third wave, and Race, Class, and Gender in the United States by Paula S. Rothenberg, an introductory by Joan H. Rollins, another introductory level Nickel and Dimed by Barbara Ehrenrei personal undercover experience of minimum wage jobs in America. There were no other texts assigned. These texts reflected more personal experiences rather than authoritative textbooks. The course description and objectives among the Issue s in Feminism syllabi, although worded quite differently, were much more similar than among the Introduction syllabus. One instructor focuses on key concepts and issues re levant to the contemporary approach; and finally, one instructor, among several que stions, asks how individuals and groups encourage social change to eradicate gender discrimination, racism, classism, heterosexism, etc. Among course activities and assignments, three of the instructors include ongoing self reflexive journaling and the fourth refers to weekly writing assi gnments, and although not specifically labeled as journaling, these do require some self reflection from

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31 the student. Two of the instructors assign a Liberating Act. One additional assignment that is activist in nature is what one instructor refers to as t which students are expected to find an object, such as an audio or film clip, a newspaper article, or even an excerpt from a book that demonstrates feminism(s) in action. The purpose of this assignment is to make students aware t hat feminism is not something that occurred only in history, but that feminist acts continue to happen in the present (S.Q., Fall 2005). For the Issues in Feminism class, the presence of activism appears more in the activities and assignments and in the course objectives than in the outline of the course or the texts. The Feminist Artifact project in particular is an example of how students are encouraged to identity current expressions of feminism. There were fewer texts assigned than in Introduction to demonstrates how the Issues in Feminism class has a narrower, more topic specific I had 19 syllabi from Summer 1992 through Spring 2006, wh ich included syllabi from five Summer courses. The majority of the syllabi were from professors, and the same instructors often taught multiple semesters of the class. The wording of the syllabi was more similar with this group of syllabi than with any of the other groups analyzed, which again can be contributed to the shared pedagogy that occurs frequently within There were 20 different texts represented among the syllabi, and eight different syllabi supplemented the texts with reserved r eadings. Assigned texts ranged from one to seven, with 2.65 being the mean and two being the mode, appearing on eight syllabi. The

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32 To Be Real: Telling the Truth and Changing the Face of Feminism Yours in Struggle: Thr ee Feminist Perspectives on Anti Semitism and Racism by Elly Bulkin, Surface Tension: Love, Sex and Politics Between Lesbians and Straight Women by Meg Daly, Debating Sexual Correctness: Pornography, Sexual Harassment, Date Rape, and the Politics of Sexual Equality by Adele Stan, and Lives, Multicultural Perspectives by Gwyn Kirk and Margo Okazawa Rey each appeared on four syllabi. Three different syllabi included All American Woman by Johnetta B. Cole and each of the following appeared on two sylla bi: by Virginia Wolfe, by Lisa Albrecht and Rose M. Brewer, Race, Class and Gender by Margaret L. Anderson and Patricia Hill Collins, and Race Class and Gender in the United States by Pa ula S. Rothenberg. Six other texts each appeared once on the syllabi. Again, there was less reliance on standard textbooks and more inclusion of personal narratives. The course description and objectives for the syllabi were very similar, and there were f our that had none listed. Feminist proposals of social transformation/change and examining the issue of political activism appeared as an objective on 12 syllabi. To and act ivist skills was an objective for one instructor for two different semesters. One Fall contemporary society by feminists but also point to possible alternatives for the future

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33 d as a topic on only four syllabi, but representations of activism appeared on nine more syllabi. One instructor titled the last taken from the Kirk and Okazawa Rey text. One instructor held a mock conference for her final class meetings in three dif the title of the last class meetings for two different instructors. Another instructor titled Activism was represented on the syllabi through projects and papers. Again, weekly journaling was a common assignment, appearing on 12 syllabi. Two syllabi required a Liberating Act, two required a current event summary, and two required participation in an online bulletin board. Other projects that each appeared once include a in the requirement of media evaluation project; a group reflection paper; and finally, a film response. One instructor encouraged the boycott of Nike for the labor day h oliday, although it was not a requirement.

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34 Revisiting the first five syllabi, it became apparent that one syllabi that had previously been determined to have no assigned texts actually included films as texts. The films were shown in class; therefore, th e students were not responsible for purchasing them. Other omissions of manifestations of activism include a current event summary assigned by one instructor and a media evaluation by another. Active participation was a requirement for all of the first fiv e syllabi and for nine of the second set of syllabi. Activism was explicitly stated as a course objective for more than half of the syllabi in this second analysis. Active participation and the projects and papers are the key ways that feminist occurs in the Issues in Feminism course. Interviews Between December 2006 and September 2007, I conducted interviews with current faculty members and graduate students who have taught either Introduction to program began. Each interviewee was asked the same three questions, but conversations that extended beyond those three questions were not discouraged. The interviews were brief, with each interview conducted in less than thirty minutes. The responses were organized and analyzed by question, although many of the themes and responses overlapped. Each interviewee agreed to have her first name and status used in this paper. I interviewed one professor, Marilyn, who began teaching at the University of South Fl orida in 1972 and retired after the Spring 2008 semester. The remaining three

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35 department the longest and has taught both introductory level classes. Clare taught Introduc introductory level classes several times before she graduated in the Spring of 2008. The three interview questions were: 1. This implies that we engage and encourage students in engage in some form o f activism? 2. What are some of the practical ways that you incorporate activism in the classroom? What about outside of the classroom? 3. Some educational settings are more or less amenable to encourage and facilitate social change. How has the University of South Florida facilitated or constrained your ability to create activism? The Call to Activism studies class is a form of activism. One of the self bureauc racy of the university. The founders had to fight for classes and fight for a on consciousness raising, about turning on and opening up changes in students own lives, such as roles and identities. Marilyn notes that current students are more familiar with femin

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36 culture, and critically discuss issues that, at time[s], these young people have never Another way that the introductory wer the call to activism is by creating a place and space where students, both majors and non majors, are allowed and encouraged to find their own voices. Clare emphasizes that these classes allow students to be less afraid to participate and advocate in c lass discussions than they do in other classes. Leisa finds it especially important to reach out to non majors who oppression and speak out against it. The call to activism entails providing the option of getting students involved in the community or on campus by attending talks and events and writing about them. One option available to students from the beginning of the program was to volunteer at places such as the Spring, the local domestic violence shelter. Oftentimes students are given credit or extra credit for taking initiative and doing feminist work, even when not explicitly required by the instructor. Manifestations of Activism Activism occurs both inside and out side of the classroom. At the most basic level, several instructors pointed out that the choice of course readings and topics are examples The reading lists for the recent a nd current introductory courses include many marginalized voices that are invisible in other classes, voices of people that have historically been oppressed. These voices include, but are not limited to, women of color,

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37 lesbians, transgendered persons, tra nssexuals, and women involved with sex work. Although many instructors push students to go out in the community to perform service to the advantage of women or participate in campus events, many of the instructors bring the community into the classroom i n the form of guest speakers and guest panels, such as sexual orientation panels. A sexual orientation panel is a panel composed of students and community members of varying sexual orientations that allow students to ask them personal questions in order to break down stereotypes and misconceptions about sexual orientation. As Leisa explains, these speakers allow students and the lived experiences of actual people. Le isa further notes that the speakers also of certain films in the classroom, or the encouragement of viewing certain films outside of the classroom, is another way to co promote activism in the classroom by examining the personal views that people hold and allow[ing] them time to deconstruct and re One way to get students to work through their views is t hrough group discussions of readings and issues. Group discussions facilitate the sharing of personal experiences. The emphasis on personal experience is a classic tenet of feminism, as noted by the ies classrooms are often the first place that students are made to feel that their personal experiences can contribute to academic discourse, mainly because personal experiences are not necessarily valued in they become activists for [are] issues that personally affect them through personal

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38 that she teaches on HIV/AIDS because of how many people in her family have been affected by the disease. The use of journals is a common practice among the introductory Studies classes. Journals allow students to respond to readings, issues, activities, and anything else from th e classroom. It is a one on one dialogue between the student and the instructor, and many of the instructors interviewed noted the time and effort spent reading and responding to these journals. As students work through their own ideas by journaling, they have the opportunity to examine where their beliefs come from, and potentially come to the realization that these beliefs can and may change. Leisa explains to her students that they should not assume where they stand on an issue. She emphasizes that teach ing is activism when it allows students to realize that they can change and that they can do things like the people that they are reading about or meeting as guest speakers. Students are also encouraged to critically examine their ideas through writing r esearch papers. Jodi assigns research papers to her students and grades students on their ability to analyze the subject fully. Students are obligated to move beyond their own personal opinions and look at the bigger picture. Clare encourages her student s to use the Internet to do further research beyond the readings. In particular, Clare has students look at organizations that are involved in the issues that they are reading. For example, when discussing women in the workplace, Clare had students researc h unions, such as the AFL CIO. This is another instance of allowing students to put actual faces to what they are reading, and allows for the realization that this work continues, that it is not something relegated to the history

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39 books. One form of activ ism that Leisa is especially passionate about in her classroom is Leisa helps students stay informed of election issues so that they can become educated voters. By p roviding the information, Leisa allows her students to make their own decisions about whether to vote and how to vote. After taking the introductory to careers and degrees that they may not have chosen be fore taking the classes. Marilyn work. The fact that students do continue with important feminist work demonstrates the The Facilitation of Activism Marilyn points out, gives faculty and students a distinctive level of freedom, although with limits from the university. All of the graduate students tha t I interviewed agreed that the department provides both encouragement and support for activism. Leisa notes that the support 7 the department provides to the Feminist Student Alliance (FSA), an on campus feminist group, is proof that the department cares a bout activism. Clare notes that she has never had a problem with department, stating that she does what she does in the she is doing until she is asked to stop. 7 The department supports the FSA by providing them with office space, with a meeting space, with use of the copy machine, and by advertising their events throughout the department, including allowing the FSA to distribute flyers through the department mailboxes.

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40 Althou gh the department is a great source of encouragement and support, the University of South Florida as a whole is not necessarily as encouraging. Clare notes that encouraging activism is not squelched, but it is not really promoted by the university. Jodi ec Studies department is very encouraging for activism. However, I am not necessarily sure One way that act the lack of financial resources. The Department is small and struggling, and runs on a very tight budget. The resources the Department does provide to students is aimed at student scholarship. The Marilyn laments that there just are not enough resources to support student activism financially, and laments that the lack of resources prevents more connections to the community. This has not stopped faculty members from providing money out of their own pockets to help student activists, such as when members of the abortion law. Leisa noted that informing students of the South Dakota trip by inviting the participants to speak in her classroom allowed her students to realize that they too can do things to change policy. Another way that activism is hindered is by choosing not to disclose politics unless related specifically to the readings or activities. All instructors face the challenge of how much to disclose to their students; for feminist instructors, self disclosure is a component of feminist pedagogy. Jodi feels comfortable sharing her experiences with HIV/AIDS because she feels that putting a face to AIDS activism is beneficial to

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41 position within the university, and it demonstrates one of the costs of activism.

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42 Chapter 5: Discussion I began this research with two bas ic questions: what are the instructors in the to accomplish the social justice mission of the department and what more could be done to accomplish that mission. I utilized a text based analysis of syllabi and conducted inte rviews with faculty and graduate teaching Department and utilizing the resources around me, by including my own syllabus as part of the analysis, and by continually enga ging with my own conceptions of feminist activism as well as examining the way the research has influence my own pedagogy. I learned that activism does not always appear in specific terminology, and that activism need not be physical or visible. After this research, I feel that my pedagogy has improved by creating a more open classroom dialogue and allowing students to determine their own level of activism. Analyzing the syllabi enabled me to explore the ways that activism is said to be occurring within t he two introductory level classes. Activism was apparent in specific ways, by mention of as course topics, objectives, or in projects, and it was also alluded to in the structure of the courses. I analyzed a total of 53 syllabi from Introduction to Studies and Issues in Feminism from 1990 through 2008. There were 34 different instructors, from 15 professors, 14 graduate students, and the status of the remaining five being unknown. There were 87 total texts across the syllabi, including ten

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43 different th change, and locating the feminist movement both historically and in contemporary times. The assignment of self reflective journals was present on 34 syllabi, and the Liberating A ct was present on 11 syllabi. Other assignments that required self reflection and feminist analysis occurred on the majority of the syllabi. The four interviews made visible what was not apparent from reading the syllabi by demonstrating the experiences in the classroom. The use of guest speakers and panels, the extra work that takes place online and outside of the classroom, and the nature of the classroom discussions open the possibilities for feminist activism. The syllabi present what is supposed to o ccur in the classroom; interviews allow a deeper conversation about how activities and discussions play out in the space of the classroom. Researchers, and in particular feminist researchers, face obstacles such as limits to access, records, peoples, or years that it has taken me to write this thesis, I have faced many obstacles, getting around many, but still being limited by access. The discovery of additional syllabi was one way to overcome the shortage of interviews conducted. A multiple methodology allowed for a shift in my research to accommodate the additional syllabi and expand the scope of the analysis The syllabus analysis set the stage for expectations of where activism occurs in the classroom; the interviews highlighted the actors in the production of feminist

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44 activism. Feminist activism is present in the introductory at the University of South Florida, both on paper and in praxis. Feminist activist pedagogy is present in the textbooks, articles, magazines, and films assigned to each class. Feminist activist pedagogy is present in the course objectives and descriptions in the two courses. Feminist activist pedagogy is present in the assigned papers, projects, and activities, from journals to analytical projects. Finally, feminist activist pedagogy is present through the instructors that link feminist activism to the cour se materials. whether explicitly stating activism as an objective or simply alluding to activism, instructors have a responsibility to guide students when they choose their f eminist activist pursuits. Instructors should provide resources to students whenever possible, such as by distributing information about topics that interest students and events in which students can participate at the level of their choosing. Journals a re an excellent tool for self reflectivity, as are autobiographical projects. Other classroom activities that are self reflective include in class writing responses to course material, especially when classroom discussion become polarizes by sensitive mate rial and short response papers to current events, which can be in the form of a letter to the editor. Feminist instructors should encourage students to examine their beliefs in order to foster personal change and growth. As students become more reliant on the Internet, feminist instructors can use the Internet to their advantage. Allowing students to research feminist organizations is one way for instructors to use the Internet. Another way to use the Internet is to allow

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45 students to blog about course topi cs and discussions on one of the many free blog sites discussion boards and listservs to allow for discussion beyond the space of the classroom. The two introduct ory Florida are offered each semester, but the more it can be offered, the more of an impact the courses can have. The courses are upper level, which attracts students at all levels of their educatio n, but the sooner students enroll in these courses, the more likely they are to Studies courses. ical that devalues liberal arts education in general and identity based curricula specifically is a egacy of the feminist movement, linking past and current feminist struggles for students that may be autonomous Departments and programs highlights the need for a femin ist activist pedagogy.

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46 References Armstead, Cathleen. 1995. Writing Contradictions: Feminist Research and Feminist Writing. 18, 5&6. 627 36. Boxer, Marilyn Jacoby. 1998. Studies in America Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press. Cohee, Gail E. et al. 1998. The Feminist Teacher Anthology: Pedagogies and Classroom Strategies New York and London: Teachers C ollege Press. Issues in Epistemology and Methodology in Feminist Sociological Research. Social Inquiry 56:1. 2 29. Cuomo, Chris. 1996. Toward Thoughtful Ecofeminist Activi sm. In Ecological Feminist Philosophies e d. Karen J. Warren. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. 42 51. Devault, Marjorie L. Strategies for Interviewing and Analysis. Social Problems 37:1. 96 116. Dever, Maryanne. 1999. Notes on Feminist Pedagogy in the Brave New (Corporate) World. 6. 219 225.

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47 Enns, Carol yn Zerbe and Linda M. Forrest. 2005. Toward Defining and Intergrating Multicultural and Feminist Pedagogies. In Teaching and Social Justice: Integrating Multicultural and Feminist Theories in the Classroom e d. Carolyn Zerbe Enns and Ada L. Sinacore. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 3 24. Enns, Carolyn Zerbe and Ada L. Sinacore. 2005. Teaching and Social Justice: Integrating Multicultural and Feminist Theories in the Classroom Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. -. 2005. Second Wave Feminisms and Their Relationship to Pedagogy. In Teaching and S ocial Justice: Integrating Multicultural and Feminist Theories in the Classroom e d. Carolyn Zerbe Enns and Ada L. Sinacore. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 25 40. Fisher, Bernice Malka. 1998. Enhancing Feminist Pedagogy: Multimedia Workshops on In The Feminist Teacher Anthology: Pedagogies and Classroom Strategies e d. Gail E. Cohee et al. New York and London : Teachers College Press. 98 113. Fonow, Mar y Margaret and Judith A. Cook. 199 1. Back to the Future: A Look at the Second Wave of Feminist Epistemology and Methodology. In Beyond Methodology e d. Mary Margaret Fonow and Judith A. Cook. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. 1 15. Gatenby, Bev and Maria Humphries. 2000. Femin ist Participatory Action Research: Methodological and Ethical Issues. 23, 1. 89 105.

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48 hooks, bell. 1994. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York and London: Routledge. Kumashiro, Kevin K 2002. Troubling Education: "Queer" Activism and Anti Oppressive Pedagogy. New York and London: RoutledgeFalmer. Nielsen, Joyce McCarl. 1 990. Introduction. In Feminist Research Methods: Exemplary Readings in the Social Sciences e d. Joyce McCarl Nielson Boulder, San Francisco, and London : Westview Press. 1 37. Oakley, Ann. 1981. Interviewing Wom en: a Contradiction in Terms, In Doing Feminist Research e d. Helen Roberts. London: R outledge & Kegan Paul Books. 30 61. Parry, Shirley C. 1996. Feminist Pedagogy and Techniques for the Changing Classroom. 3&4. 45 53. Reinharz, Shulamit. 1992. Feminist Methods in Social Research New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Robertson, Lyn. 1993. Feminist teacher Education: Applying Feminist Pedagogies to the Preparation of New Teachers. Feminist Teacher 8:1. 11 5. Scanlon, Jennifer. 1993. Keeping Our Activist Selves Alive in the Classroom: Feminist Pedagogy and Political A ctivism. Feminist Teacher 7, 2. 8 14. Sinacore, Ada L. and Karyn J. Boatwright. 2005. The Feminist Classroom: Feminist Strategies and Student Responses. In Teaching and Social Justice: Integrating Multicultural and Feminist Theories in the Classroom e d. Carolyn Zerbe Enns and Ada L. Sinacore. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 109 24.

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49 Sinacore, Ada L. and Carolyn Zerbe Enns. 2005. Diversity Feminisms: Postmodern, Women of Color, Antiracist, Lesbian, Third Wave, and Global Perspe ctives. In Teaching and Social Justice: Integrating Multicultural and Feminist Theories in the Classroom e d. Carolyn Zerbe Enns and Ada L. Sinacore. Washington, DC: America n Psychological Association. 41 68. Wrig ht, Janet. 1998. Lesbian Instructor Comes Out: The Personal is Pedagogy. In The Feminist Teacher Anthology: Pedagogies and Classroom Strategies e d. Gail E. Cohee et al. New York and London : Teachers College Press. 191 207.

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50 Appendices

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51 Appendix A List of Texts by Title Addams Family Values All American Woman by Johnetta B. Cole Bastard Out of Carolina by Dorothy Allison The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison Body Outlaws: Rewriting the Rules of Beauty and Body Image by Ophira Ed ut The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls by Joan Jacobs Brumberg by Lisa Albrecht and Rose M. Brewer Bust Magazine by J ean Kilbourne Caught in Crisis: Women and the U.S. Economy Today by Teresa Amott by Jo Whitehorse Cochran, Donna Langston, and Carolyn Woodward by Daisy Hernandez and Bushra Rehman Conflicts in Feminism by Marianne Hirsch and Evelyn Fox Keller Wally Lamb and the Women of York Correctional Institution (Testimonies from our Imprisoned Sisters) by Wally Lamb Debating Sexu al Correctness: Pornography, Sexual Harassment, Date Rape, and the Politics of Sexual Equality by Adele Stan Feminism is for Everybody by bell hooks Feminist Fatale: Voices from the Twentysomething Generation by Paula Kamen Feminist Frontiers by Leila Rupp and Verta Taylor Feminist Theory: A Reader by Wendy Kolmer and Francis Bartowski Fraternity Gang Rape by Peggy Reeves Sanday Free Spirits by Kate Mehuran and Gary Percesepe by Sheri S. Tepper Gender Race and Class in the Media by Gail Dines and Jean M. Humez Glamour Magazine Grassroots: A Field Guide for Feminist Activism by Jennifer Baumgardner and Amy Richards The God of Small Things by Arundhati Roy by Margaret Atwood Herland by Charlotte Perkins Gilman Homo phobia: A Weapon of Sexism by Suzanne Pharr The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros Immigrant Women by Maxine Schwartz Seller by Inderpal Grewal and Caren Kaplan Issues in Feminism by Sheila Ruth

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52 Listen Up!: Voices from the Next Feminist Generation by Barbara Findlen The Meaning of Difference: American Constructions of Race, Sex, and Gender, Social Class, and Sexual Orientation by Karen Rosenblum and Toni Michelle Travis MS. Magazine N ickel and Dimed by Barbara Ehrenreich No Turning Back by Estelle B. Freedman Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions by Gloria Steinam The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World by Joni Seager by Renae Bredin Race, Class and Gend er by Margaret L. Anderson and Patricia Hill Collins Race, Class, and Gender in the United States by Paula S. Rothenberg Race ing Justice, En gendering Power by Toni Morrison Race, Gender and Work: A Multicultural Economic History of Women in the United S tates by Teresa Amott and Julie Matthaei by Renate D. Klein and Deborah Lynn Steinberg by Virginia Wolfe Skin Deep: Women Writing on Color, Culture, and Identity by Elena Featherstone A Small Place by Jamaica Kincaid Surface Tension: Love, Sex and Politics Between Lesbians and Straight Women by Meg Daly Thinking About Women: Sociological Perspectives on Sex a nd Gender by Margaret L. Anderson this bridge called my back by gloria anzaldua and cherrie moraga To Be Real: Telling the Truth and Changing the Face of Feminism by Rebecca Walker Two or Three Things I Know for Sure by Dorothy Allison WAC Stats: The Fact s About Women by Andrea Blum and Jule Harrison When Chickenheads Come Home to Roost: A Hip Hop Feminist Breaks it Down by Joan Morgan Wicked by Gregory Maguire Witches, Midwives and Nurses: A History of Women Healers by Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre Engl ish Women: A Feminist Perspective by Jo Freeman Women, Images, and Realities by Amy Kesselman, Lily D. McNair, and Nancy Schniedewind by Virginia Sapico Women in the Global Factory by Barbara Ehrenreich and Annette Fuentes Women, Race and Class by Angela Davis by Joan H. Rollins by Gwyn Kirk and Margo Okazawa Rey Studies by Hunter by Susan M. Shaw and Janet Lee A World Full of Women by Marth Ward Yours in Struggle: Three Feminist Perspectives on Anti Semitism and Racism by Elly Bulkin

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53 Appendix B List of Syllabi Table B Term Course Semester I 1990 WST 3010 Dr. J. O. Spring 1990 WST 3010 Dr. B. R C. Fall 1991 WST 3010 Dr. L. M. Spring 1992 WST 3010 Dr. K. V. Spring 1994 WST 3010 Dr. K. V. Fall 1995 WST 3010 001 Dr. G. G. Fall 1995 WST 3010 L. S. Spring 1996 WST 3010 L. S. Summer B 1996 WST 3010 Dr. K. V. Fall 1996 WST 3010 Dr. R. W. Fall 1996 WST 3010 Dr. C. D. Spring 1997 WST 3010 Dr. R. W. Spring 1997 WST 3010 Dr. C. D. Fall 1997 WST 3010 L. S. Spring 1998 WST 3010 003, 002 A. S. Fall 1998 WST 3010 001 Dr. C. E. Spring 1999 WST 3010 001 G. C. Fall 1999 WST 3010 003 Dr. C. D. Fall 1999 WST 3010 901 G. C. Spring 2000 WST 3010 001 E. T. Summer B 2003 WST 3015 Online Dr. K. V. Fall 2003 WST 3015 006 L. D. Fall 2003 WST 3015 005 A. B. Fall 2004 WST 3015 003 T. W. Spring 2005 WST 3015 001 C. O. Spring 2005 WST 3015 003 E. A.

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54 Fall 2005 WST 3015 901 C. W. Fall 2005 WST 3015 C. K. Fall 2005 WST 3015 001 S. T. Spring 2006 WST 3015 Dr. O. S. Spring 2006 WST 3015 901 Dr. C. E. Spring 2006 WST 3015 004 Dr. J. W. H. Fall 2006 WST 3015 L. C. Fall 2007 WST 3015 L. C. Fall 2008 WST 3015 001 Dr. G. L. Spring, year unknown WST 3015 Dr. D. S. Fall, year unknown WST 3010 901 A. S. Summer C, year unknown WST 3010 Dr. C. D.

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55 Table B 2: Issues in Feminism Term Course Summer C 1992 WST 3011 Dr. J. O. Semester I 1993 WST 3011 Dr. J. O. Semester I 1994 WST 3011 Dr. J. O. Semester II 1995 WST 3011 Dr. J. O. Fall 1995 WST 3011 Dr. L. M B. Fall 1996 WST 3011 L. S. Fall 1997 WST 3011 L. S. Fall 1998 WST 3011 Dr. I. B. Summer B 1999 WST 3011 Dr. I. B. Spring 2000 WST 3011 901 K. E. Summer A 2000 WST 3011 K. E. Fall 2000 WST 3311 901 K. E. Spring 2001 WST 3311 001 K. E. Fall 2001 WST 3011 Dr. I. B. Spring 2002 WST 3311 001 J. S. Spring 2002 WST 3311 C. C. Fall 2003 WST 3311 Dr. I. B. Spring 2004 WST 3311 J. N. Summer C 2004 WST 3311 J. N. Summer 2004 WST 3311 002 M. G. Fall 2004 WST 3311 001 Dr. S. C. Fall 2005 WST 3311 001 S. Q. Spring 2006 WST 3311 001 Dr. J. W. H. Unknown WST 3011 Dr. J. O. Unknown WST 3011 001 C. P. E.