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Framework for self sustaining eco-village
h [electronic resource] /
by Eric Holtgard.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 46 pages.
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: Why are modern American cities fundamentally dependant on outsourced resources and dirty power? Why can't modern cities support themselves and their inhabitants without relying on resources from half way across the world? Even within the city itself, community neighborhoods are disconnected and bisected by massive expanses of life endangering highways. Why can't we wake up and open our eyes to the urban reality we are creating for future generations. Future cities must look past immediate gain and focus on long term sustainability rather than compiling L.E.E.D. points or making a selfish profit. Sustainable Infrastructure is the first step towards freeing the city from its dependant clutches on foreign resources. Transportation of people, power, water, and communications must be steadfast and sustainable if the community is to be the same.Infrastructure as stated here, however is not limited to roads and power plants but consists of ecological functions, communal functions, and individual building supply systems as well. Self sustaining eco-villages are a feasible alternative to uncontrolled sprawl because they cap growth, nurture community, and deal with utilities and waste responsibly. Power, water, waste, and food must be generated responsibly and sustained as much as possible by the community itself and give back to the system what it can to further future growth responsibly. The public right of way of the I-4 corridor will be utilized for housing a self sustaining transport system for people and utilities that can reconnect cities and help supply their individual systems while taking advantage of cities strengths and weaknesses through possible utility sharing. The I-4 corridor runs East-West across the state of Florida and connects both coastlines through Tampa, Orlando, and Daytona.Orlampa lies in the near center of Tampa and Orlando and has solar, agricultural, and ground water harvesting potentials that make it the ideal site for new self sustaining communities and a central station providing responsible access for the proposed U.S.F. polytechnic campus. These self sustaining eco-villages will sprout off the high speed rail line without interrupting direct major city transport. A variety of themed sub cities connected via sustainable transit that are capped at responsible horizontal sprawl and grown vertically will be possible while allowing for ecological corridors and public park spaces between and linking developments.
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Advisor: Shannon Bassett, MAUD
x Architecture and Community Design
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Framework for Self Sustaining Eco Village by Eric Holtgard A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Shannon Basset, MAUD Trent Green, M.Arch Mark Weston, M.Arch Date of Approval: March 24 2009 Keywords: Sustainability, Agricultural Urbanism, Community Pedestrian, Transit Copyright 2009, Eric Holtgard
Note to Reader Note to reader: The original of this document contains color that is n ecessary for understanding the data. The original dissertation is on file w ith the USF library in Tampa, Florida.
i Table of C ontents List of Figures ................................ ..................... ii Abstract ................................ .............................. iv Expanded P roject Concepts ................................ 1 Case S tudies ................................ ....................... 2 Dongtan: Eco City ................................ ..... 4 Masdar: U.A.E. ................................ ......... 5 Auroville: India ................................ .......... 8 Freiberg: Germany ................................ .... 9 P arameters ................................ ........................ 11 Site A nalysis ................................ ...................... 1 3 Preliminary concepts ................................ ......... 14 Project G raphics ................................ ................ 17 Conclusion ................................ ........................ 44 References ................................ ........................ 46
ii List of Figures Figure 1 : Pollution Renderin g ................................ iii Figure 2 : Initial project poster ................................ 2 Figure 3 : Case study presentation board ................ 3 Figure 4 : Masdar transport rendering ..................... 6 Figure 5 : Masdar city rendering .............................. 7 Figure 6 : Worker cleaning panel in Freiburg ......... 10 Figure 7 : Solar powered residential units ............. 11 Figure 8 : Site selection presentation board .......... 14 Figure 9 : Presentation banner .............................. 18 Figure 10 : Preliminary satellite city ....................... 19 Figure 1 1 : Preliminary diagrams .......................... 19 Figure 1 2 : Preliminary rail connection .................. 20 Figure 13 : Power harvesting transport system ..... 21 Figure 14 : Phasing of proposed rail connection ... 22 Figure 15 : Regional plan of satellite villages ........ 23 Figure 16 : Preliminary rail connection far ............. 24 Figure 17 : Preliminary rail connection close ......... 24 Figure 18 : Taxonomy of typologies ...................... 25 Figure 19 : Phase 1 ................................ ............... 26 Figure 20 : Phase 2 ................................ ............... 26 Figure 21 : Phase 3 ................................ ............... 27 Figure 22 : Phase 4 ................................ ............... 27 Figure 23 : Phase 5 ................................ ............... 28 Figure 24 : Phase 6 ................................ ............... 28 Figure 25 : Kit of parts presentation board ............ 29 Figure 26 : Sustainable Systems ........................... 30 Figure 27 : Rail connection diagram ...................... 31 Figure 28 : Service road and entry ........................ 32 Figure 29 : Water systems diagram ...................... 33 Figure 30 : Electrical connectivity diagram ............ 34 Figure 31 : Phasing of program spaces ................ 35
iii Figure 32 : Terracing of green roofs ...................... 35 Figure 33 : Cross section ................................ ....... 36 Figure 34 : R esidential typologies .......................... 37 Figure 35 : Context plan ................................ ........ 38 Figure 36 : Ground plan ................................ ......... 39 Figure 37 : Detailed plan of entry boulevard .......... 40 Figure 38 : Detailed plan of ecological corridor ...... 41 Figure 39 : Perspective looking North East ........... 42 Figure 40 : Perspective looking South West .......... 43 Figure 41 : Interconnected ecological corridors ..... 44
iv Framework for Self Sustaining Eco Village Eric Holtgard ABSTRACT Why are modern American cities fundamentally dependant on outsourced resources and dirty power? inhabitants without relying on resources from half way across the world? Even within the city itself, comm unity neighborhoods are disconnected and bisected by massive expanses of life endangering to the urban reality we are creating for future generations. Future cities must look past immediate gain and focus on long term sustainability rather than compiling L.E.E.D. points or making a selfish profit. Sustainable Infrastructure is the first step towards freeing the city from its dependant clutches on foreign resources. Transportation of people, power, water, and communications must be steadfast and sustainable if the community is to be the same. Infrastructure as stated here, ho wever is not limited to roads and power plants but consists of ecological functions, communal functions, and individual building supply systems as well Self sustaining eco villages are a feasible alternative to uncontrolled sprawl because they cap growth nurture community, and deal with utilities and Figure 1 Pollution Rendering (current.com)
v waste responsibly. Power, water, waste, and food must be generated responsibly and sustained as much as possible by the community itself and give back to the system what it can to further future growth respo nsibly. The public right of way of the I 4 corridor will be utilized for housing a self sustaining transport system for people and utilities that can reconnect cities and help supply their individual systems while taking advantage of cities strengths and w eaknesses through possible utility sharing. The I 4 corridor runs East West across the state of Florida and connects both coastlines through Tampa, Orlando, and Daytona. Orlampa lies in the near center of Tampa and Orlando and has solar, agricultural, a nd ground water harvesting potentials that make it the ideal site for new self sustaining communities and a central station providing responsible access for the proposed U.S.F. polytechnic campus. These self sustaining eco villages will sprout off the high speed rail line without interrupting direct major city transport. A variety of themed sub cities connected via sustainable transit that are capped at responsible horizontal sprawl and grown vertically will be possible while allowing for ecological corrido rs and public park spaces between and linking developments.
1 Expanded Project Concepts The s elf sustaining transport system is a s olar wind, and geothermal powered rail erected within the public right of way of the I 4 corridor for producing and transporting energy, water, and communications across the state. The r ail branches off in opp ortune locations determined by G.I.S data to form themed self sustaining satell ite villages that are fundamentally interconnected through the green infrastructural system Power, water, food, and supplies will be produced and interlinked throughout the various communities forming an efficient sustainable system. Variable and interc hangeable eco village modules will plug in and help feed sustainable systems A f ocus on regional issues of the system and its integral needs and functions is important. Give n the differing locations each module will produce and provide different commodi ties for the system such as clean water in the ground water prone areas an d agriculture centered modules for cultivating the land. Other modules will focus on research and development, green manufacturing, and leisure. The t hemed self sustaining satellite villages are walk able modules with a central sustainably powered rail connection. Power generation, water harvesting, food production and waste management are self contained with in the integrated systems of each deve lopment module All built structures within each village devote 25% of buildable footprint to shared public spaces and a connectiv e tissue of parks and greenways link s each public space throughout the development. Furthermore, pedestrians have complete r ight of way and vehicular paths take a secondary and service driven approach.
2 Case Studies Case study and Multi method approaches to research and Design and Simulation research are the primary methodologies employed in this thesis dissertation. There have been numerous attempts and proposals of ideal societies in the past but new technologies and an increasing need for change are currently stirring a drastic redevelopment of the ci ty as we know it. These new developments in carbon neutral design and technologies will be a pivotal resource in designing cities of the future and thus will be used as the main focus of research. Figure 2 Initial project poster
3 Figure 3 Case study presentation board
4 Dongtan: Eco City city, which will be sustainable not just environmentally, but also socially, economically and culturally. The aim of the design team, Arup, is to create a development with low energy consumption that is as close to carbon neutral as possible. The site for this innovative strategy is located on the third largest island in China at the mouth of the Yangtze River. It is appropriately placed adj acent to a wetland of global importance and the urban area will occupy just one third of the site with the remaining land retained for agriculture and used to create a city (Arup.com) Dongtan will produce its own energy from a variety of sustainable sources including wind, solar, bio fuel and recycled city waste. To reduce greenhouse emissions throughout the lifecycle of the city, clean technologies such as hydrogen fuel cells will p ower public transportation systems. Other strategies insure farmland within the Dongtan site will use organ (Arup.com) The full range of services provided by the design team is true testament to the holistic and multi disc iplinary approach necessary for completing such a daunting task. These services include urban design, cultural planning, renewable energy process impleme ntation, and social development not to mention, sustainable building design and economic business planning. These factors will be integral to my design approach and the strategies proposed herein will serve as fundamental stepping stones for pursuing the intricate issues relative to a t ruly sustainable future.
5 Masdar: U.A.E. Masdar will be developed in phases centered on two plazas. The first stage includes construction of a 60 megawatt photovoltaic power plant that will supply electricity for constructing the rest of the city. This will be followed by a 130 acre main square. Foster finished the initial phase of master planning this spring. Designers estimate that it will take 10 years to build out the entire city, but the phased 2009, with 30 percent of the student population housed on site. Its students will be encouraged to participate in the development of the city while working on graduate degrees in sustainability. Masdar city located in the U.A.E. also claims to city but plans to reach its goals in a far different way than Dongtan, as it is located in the middle of a desert and not on a coastal marshland. While Dongtan was on the drawing board first it seems the one that is completed first will have claim to the title of first carbon neutral city given that is the lofty goal for both of these pioneering projects. As stated previously, while the outcomes may be the same, the means by which they reach their goals are drastically different, mostly due to climate. Figure 4 Masdar transport rendering ( www.masdaruae.com )
6 Where Dongtan uses bio mass and w ind energy as its main source of renewable resources Masdar will rely heavily on solar power via and extensive photovoltaic array to be constructed prior to construction of the city. This power will provide the energy needed to build the city while mainta ining carbon neutrality throughout the process. In addition to solar power, wind turbines will be employed, as well as waste to energy plants. Similar in scale to Dongtan Masdar's buildings will only be up to five stories high, and built on narrow streets no more than 10 feet wide, with rooftops covered with solar generators and street level "solar canopies" providing shade. Masdar City is supposed to be a multi level design, with light rail on the uppermost level moving people in and out of the city and connecting back to Abu Dhabi while pedestrians roam freely at ground level and personal rapid transit vehicles running witho ut the use of gas rush back and forth at mid level. The design of Masdar by Foster and Partners adheres to the ten sustainable city concepts provided by the WWF or World Wildlife Fund. These ten guiding principles are: zero carbon, zero waste, sustainab le transport, local and sustainable materials, local and sustainable food, sustainable water, natural habitats and wildlife, culture and heritage, equity and fair trade, and health and happiness (oneplanetliving.org). Masdar is to be a walled city which provides dual functions. First, the walls are meant to prevent the hot desert winds from penetrating the narrow streets of the city while allowing the cooler northern winds to Figure 5 Masdar city rendering ( www.masdaruae.com )
7 enter and cool the city. Secondly, the site for the proposed city is located a djacent to Abu Dhabi International airport which, while providing ease of access, poses a major noise problem for the inhabitants. Thus the wall on the East side of the city facing the airport will be raised to create a buffer for the noise emitted from t he planes during takeoff and landing (oneplanetliving.org). In addition to a sustainable design strategy for its buildings, Masdar City will be the home of the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, which supporters hope will attract some of the be st academics from the around the world. Also envisioned are research and development facilities from multinational companies and start ups in the clean technology area. Masdar Institute is a graduate level scientific engineering institution focused on ed ucation research in the core energy and sustainability technology themes of the Masdar Initiative. Extensive collaboration with other leading international scientific centers via the Masdar Research Network will further broaden the experiences of student s, faculty and staff, as well as firmly securing the Institute's position within the global scientific community. The Masdar Research Network is a unique collaborative research framework between the Masdar Institute and leading global scientific research institutions (masdaruae.com). While these projects may sound too good to be true both Masdar and Dongtan have been wrought with controversies primarily due to site selection. The complaint is that Dongtan is encroaching on a bird haven and Masdar is to be built on a fresh water free s trip of desert near the Abu Dhabi airport with daytime temperatures of up to 50 degrees Celsius on site. Nevertheless, the benefits and visions of these projects far surpass the menial disputes from ever present skeptics and these inventive projects will set the standard for all sustainable development in the future.
8 Auroville: India Auroville, India is another example of a sustainable city in the making. While not nearly as technologically advanced as Dongtan and Masdar plan to be it is still a step in the right direction when it comes to sustainability. However, Auroville has a rather unique outlook on itself and is seemingly more dystopian in the sense of its rules and regulations. nobody in parti cular, Auroville belongs to humanity as bit contradictory. This especially true when examining where men and women of all countries are able to live in peace and progressive harmony above all creeds, all politics and all nationalities. The purpose of Auroville is to realize human unity" (Auroville.org). Aside from the ritualistic nature of the fou nding, the place seems to be a legitimate example of a sustainable community. To explore this further, Auroville will be visited and investigated in person to understand how the city functions and how the architecture relates to the ideals of human unity and sustainability. An independent study will be produced on the interconnection of the natural and built environments because in Auroville they make no clear distinction between what is manmade and nature. Auroville is broken into zones of use based on a radial design organization with spaces titled peace area near the center and industrial, cultural, and residential zones radiating outward towards a green belt at the perimeter. Auroville will not be studied for its radical ideals but rather for its in teresting integration with nature and the sustainable practices at work.
9 Freiberg: Germany Figure 6 Worker cleaning panel in Freiburg ( www.guardian.co.uk ) Freiburg Germany is one of the most sustainable cities in the world. A majority of the houses and built structures employ massive solar arrays on their roofs which provide more power than they use. The excess energy is fed back throughout a continuous interconnec ted electricity grid. The excess power that residents use can even be sold back for a profit. The city also employs phase change materials in the ground for heating and cooling during extreme temperatures. However, most buildings are passively designed to limiting the need for active systems and to retain constant interior temperatures through sustainable means. Radiant heating and cooling is used instead of HVAC systems as it requires less energy for operation. The residents of the city play a maj or role in the success of the scheme. Many residents ride bicycles to and from work instead of driving and the streets are relatively car free. Recycling is a high priority for the residents of Freiburg and composting is used for food waste. The structu res employ green roofs and interesting public spaces throughout the dense urban fabric of the city and some housing
10 communities are shared through a concept known as cohousing. The German government actually helps immensely in the process of producing sustainable cities by making laws that require all new buildings to achieve a set standard of utility efficiency. The government also helps by heavily subsidizing sustainable ener gies such as solar and wind which brings down the cost and makes the technologies affordable for a greater number of residents. Figure 7 Solar powered residential units ( www.guardian.co.uk )
11 Parameters The electric rail is contained within the public right of way of the 1 4 corridor High speed transit connecting Tampa and Orlando is unobstructed but interconnected with branching satellite developments Development modules cap building growth at ultural systems can bleed out through the land Excess power and water can be fed back into existing infrastructure systems and vehicular connections into and out of the modules is fast and efficient without disrupting the pedestrian right of way within the development limits Eliminate dependency on external energy source but remain connected for excess energy sharing Electric power production for rail achieved through expansive solar array above rail line, geothermal root system, and wind generated b y passenger cars and passing winds Compact growth of satellite villages relieves uncontrolled sprawl Sense of community promoted by dense tightly knit neighborhoods and centralized commercial districts for all living necessities Establish natural ecologic al processes and water catchment through ecological corridors and lakes for water retention Twenty five percent of commercial and residential building sites allocated for natural public spaces All roof surfaces must be utilized with water catchment, solar panels, wind turbines, and roof gardens
12 Terracing of building heights stepping back from central ecological spine with tallest buildings at the perimeter Boulevard vehicular access for processional entry with parking, retail, and civic adjacencies Servic e access for loading and unloading goods, trash removal and parking access Cisterns for grey water storage located underground on all buildings Low lying geothermal grid underneath building but above cisterns for HVAC on every building except parking stru ctures Connective tissue of power, water, and sewer grids linking developments beneath system of pedestrian path s
13 Site Analysis The site for this project was chosen through an arduous process involving a variety of factors. Proximity to local resources, climate, culture, and need were merged with an understanding of possible future events such as sea level rise and natural disaster s to find a safe and abundant site for a truly sustainable development. If you build a L.E.E.D. platinum city near the coastline and it gets creamed Ground water reserves, agricultural possi bilities, and bio re mediation of chemical dump site along with the adjacency of the new U.S.F. polytechnic campus are the main driving forces for this site selection. Figure 8 Site selection presentation board
14 Preliminary C oncepts Self sustaining societies are societies which can sustain themselves with power, water, waste and food. These are very prominent in past times before the onset of globalization. Towns in the past were depended on themselves for survival and were not receiving and shipping goods across the world. Current cities can learn many things from the past because this technique saves on transportation cost and the large amounts of energy associated with transporting goods and services. Green infrastructure is utilized as a concept that the utilities are provided through sustainable practices such as solar, wind and geo thermal technologies. This concept includes water and waste management as well as ecological concerns associated with mitigating flooding a nd pollution. Environmental determinism is included here as the notion that the ecological systems come first in the design process and determine the way in which buildings are organized. Environmental systems become form determinants of buildings and e stablish a variety of natural spaces within the built environment. Buildings are terraced back with garden roofs from the central ecological spine allowing for views towards the natural and expanding garden spaces in the vertical plane. Twenty five perce nt of the each building site is also reserved for natural public spaces that are interconnected with ecological corridors throughout the village. Some building sites near the water are reserved in their entirety for public parks and natural ecological spa ces Agricultural urbanism and the notion of e dible landscapes are great ways for realizing responsible and beneficial usage of the natural spaces within the urban context. All residential units
15 within the eco village have private front gardens t hat provide a sense of ownership and rear garden patios with window planters along the exterior of the south and west sides for shade, vibrancy and food. Public and private garden spaces provide healthy and locally grown food and cleanse the environment a round them through a process of Bio remediation Bio remediation is also used on the North West portion of the site that is a contaminated emulsified solvents dump site. The site is capped and filled with organic material and plant life that cleanses it over time while providing a recreational park space on the surfac e. The eco village is a t ransit oriented development designed within a walkable radius around a central transit stop. The rail can transport goods and service because the rail connects and stops within light manufacturing and storage buildings. The villa ge also employs two boulevards with parallel parking for shopping and visitors. Two service and utilities road are used for deliveries, trash and light manufacturing access. Parking is located at the threshold of the village within the walkable urban rad ius. Smart growth is achieved by capping growth at a green buffer zone of dense natural foliage that limits the horizontal sprawl of the development and allows for a more communal approach of development. Growth occurs vertically and public spaces are carved out of the building envelopes for light, air and public parks. Power harvesting is accomplished through the incorporation of multiple sustainable systems that are interlinked and shared throughout the village. A large solar and wind array radiat es outward from the south of the development and a series of wind and solar collectors are dispersed throughout the village and linked by an electrical grid beneath the pedestrian path. Individual buildings also participate in this system with solar and w ind harvesting on the roofs for
16 power as well as geo thermal under the ground for air conditioning. The buildings take energy out and put energy back in the system on a continuous basis and excess energy is stored and saved for future use. Waste manage ment is divided up in quadrants and links underground along the same path as the power and water grids. Imhoff tanks are used for filtering the sewage in a natural way and are incorporated in parks at four exterior locations in the village. The tanks do not smell and have an interesting feature of natural plants that remediate the waste. Grey water reclamation is provided for via water catchment areas on fifty percent of the roofs on all buildings in the village. This water is piped and cleaned on the gr ound floor and stored in cisterns underground. Excess runoff water is controlled and filtered through a series of linked water catchment paths that become ecological corridors with natural plant systems and culminate at the lowest portion of the site form ing a lake.
17 Project Graphics Figure 9 Presentation banner
18 Figure 10 Preliminary satellite city presentation board Figure 11 Preliminary diagrams present. board
19 Figure 12 Preliminary rail connection presentation board
20 Figure 13 Power harvesting transport system presentation board
21 Figure 14 Phasing of proposed rail connection
22 Figure 15 Regional plan of satellite villages
23 Figure 16 Preliminary rail connection far Figure 17 Preliminary rail connection close
24 Figure 18 Taxonomy of typologies presentation board
25 Figure 20 Phase 2 Figure 19 Phase 1
26 Figure 21 Phase 3 Figure 22 Phase 4
27 Figure 24 Phase 6 Figure 23 Phase 5
28 Figure 25 Kit of parts presentation board
29 Figure 26 Sustainable Systems presentation board
30 Figure 4 Rail connection diagram Figure 27 Rail connection diagram
31 Figure 28 Service road and entry boulevard diagram
32 Figure 29 Water systems diagram
33 Figure 30 Electrical connectivity diagram
34 Figure 31 Phasing of program spaces Figure 32 Terracing of green roofs
35 Figure 33 Cross section of entire eco village
36 Figure 34 Presentation board of residential typolo gies
37 Figure 35 Context plan showing future development
38 Figure 36 Ground plan of entire eco village
39 Figure 5 Detailed plan of entry boulevard
40 Figure 6 Detailed plan of ecological corridor
41 Figure 39 Perspective looking North East
42 Figure 40 Perspective looking South West
43 Figure 41 Interconnected ecological corridors
44 Conclusion The main focus of the final design effort was directed at the organization and implementation of one main eco village which can be reproduced in different ways with the same kit of parts. The site development begins with reestablishing the wetlands condition of the area s past by directing and containing the water flow of the site. An inversion of natural park space as the main public place holders is established by ecological corridors that bisect the development and allow for water reclamation and a natural cleansing process via certain plant life incorporated in the system. This system connects a remediation park located over an emulsified solvent dump site to the north with an irrigated agricultural field to the south through a dense ecological park space in the center. T he next step in the process begins with the implementation of access roads and a green buffer zone around the perimeter of the site that acts as a buffer for noise and a growth boundary for the buildings in the village. This encourages dense community gro wth upwards and instead of outwards which mitigates sprawl and uncontrolled growth. Service roads for trucks bringing in goods and services are linked with light manufacturing buildings and retail spaces while boulevards are created for a processional ent ry into the site flanked by parking retail and public buildings. However these roads do not cut off pedestrian paths through the site and stop before the central green corridor allowing ecological systems and pedestrians the right of way instead of the ca r. Further, a grid of pedestrian paths which divide the site into individual plots of land for buildings and or park spaces forms the connective tissue of the village. This path also houses utility access including water, power, and sewage linking individ ual buildings in the village with a greater overall system. The
45 power and water for this system is generated mostly by the buildings themselves. The buildings are equipped with solar panels, wind turbines, and geothermal systems that generate power and share it with the overall system. Grey water systems are also employed on the roofs for reclamation of grey water for usage in toilets and watering plants. This water is stored in cisterns located under the buildings and is not shared amongst the system. Sewage is handled via a system of Imhoff tanks that filter the waste through a series of natural processes of settling and sedimentation along wit h anaerobic digestion requiring no power. This system is separated in quadrants of development with multiple tanks incorporated in park spaces near the exterior of the village. Clean water for drinking and bathing is produced by the buildings as well thr ough the implementation of atmospheric water generators located at the tops of the buildings. This water is shared throughout the entire village and linked in the same way as the electrical grid This eco village is self sustaining in the sense that it pr ovides its own power, water, food and jobs while naturally cleansing waste, remediating a chemical dump site and re establishing wetlands within an urban environment. The village provides power through sustainable means, provides ample land for food produ ction, generates clean water from atmospheric water harvesting, disposes of waste through natural process, cleanses the land through bio remediation, and provides jobs in commercial, civic, light manufacturing, and research and development areas. The vill age is a walkable community that provides everything needed for modern life in a compact location and connects back with the new polytechnic university through a series of pedestrian bridges that bring student and professor life throughout the self sustain ing village.
46 List of References "10 Guiding Principles." One Planet Living 26 Apr. 2008 . Alison, Jan e, Neil Spiller, Marie Brayer, and Frederick Migayrou, eds. Future City: Experiment and Utopia in Architecture New York: Thames and Hudson, 2007. Blake, Peter. No Place Like Utopia New York: Alfred a. Knopf, Inc., 1993. "Dongtan Eco City." Arup 23 Apr. 2008 . "Greetings f rom Auroville." Auroville a Universal City in the Making 25 Apr. 2008 . Purvis, Andrew. "Freiburg Germany: Is this the Greenest City in the World." 25 Mar. 2008. 21 Feb. 2009 . "The Masdar Initiative." Masdar 26 Apr. 2008 .