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The impact of wearable weights on the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to treadmill walking

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Title:
The impact of wearable weights on the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to treadmill walking
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English
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Fallon, Kristine M
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University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Exercise
Oxygen consumption
Heart rate
Body Togs®
Energy expenditure
Dissertations, Academic -- Physical Education and Exercise Science -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Summary:
ABSTRACT: The growing public health burden associated with insufficient physical activity has resulted in the development of numerous health initiatives and products aimed at stabilizing and reversing the negative trends reported in epidemiological literature. A relatively novel product that has only recently made its way to the market are wearable weights called Body Togs®. These products are designed to be worn on the lower legs and arms along with regular clothing as a means to increase caloric expenditure. However, no research to date has tested the efficacy of this product. PURPOSE: Compare the physiological responses within bouts of aerobic exercise that vary on intensity and the presence of wearable weights. METHODS: Seventeen (11 female, 6 male, mean age = 24 years ± 5.92) healthy volunteers were tested for aerobic fitness on a treadmill to determine VO2 max (mean = 42.68 ml x kg-1 x min-1).Participants then completed eight 30-minute walking trials on a treadmill while oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored while walking at different speeds and with varying combination of upper and lower body wearable weights. The design included two intensities (slow walking and brisk walking) and four conditions (no weights, arm weights, leg weights, and arm and leg weights) for a total of eight experimental trials. RESULTS: Data were analyzed using ANOVA and pair-wise comparisons. Analyses revealed that VO2 was significantly lower without the wearable weights in comparison to wearing both upper and lower weights in the slow walk trial (P < 0.001; ES = 0.69) and also during the brisk walk trial (P < 0.001; ES = 0.62). HR was significantly higher during the brisk walk trials with togs on both the arms and legs (P=0.029, ES=0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that exercising while using wearable weights increases energy expenditure and has minimal impact on HR.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This finding suggests that physical activity associated with daily living could be enhanced through the wearing of the Body Tog® weights that can be worn under clothing. Additionally, wearing the togs during exercise increases energy cost of walking, therefore allowing for possible weight loss applications.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Kristine M. Fallon.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 42 pages.

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usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002975
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The Impact of Wearable Weights on the Card iovascular and Metabolic Responses to Treadmill Walking by Kristine M. Fallon A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Physical Edu cation and Exercise Science College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Bill Campbell, Ph.D. Marcus Kilpatrick, Ph.D. Candi Ashley, Ph.D. John Ferron, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 6, 2009 Keywords: exercise, oxygen consumption, h eart rate, Body Togs, energy expenditure Copyright 2009, Kristine M. Fallon

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i Table of Contents List of Tables iii List of Figures iv Abstract v Chapter One Introduction 1 Rationale 4 Purpose 5 Hypotheses 7 Chapter Two Literature Review 10 Chapter Three Methodology 18 Participants 18 Lab trials 19 Screening (visit 1) 19 Maximal exercise test (visit 2) 19 Workload establishment and familiarization (visit 3) 20 Experimental exercise trials (visit 4-11) 21 Protocol description 23 Repeated Trials 23 Instrumentation 24 Research design and data analysis 24 Inclusion/exclusion criteria 24 Chapter Four Results 25 Graded exercise test 25 VO2 Data 26 Main and interaction effects 26 Individual hypotheses 26 Heart rate data 30 Main and interaction effects 30 Individual hypotheses 30

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ii Chapter Five Discussion 35 References 41

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iii List of Tables Table 1 Participant Demographics 18 Table 2 Description of Laboratory Visits 19 Table 3 Experimental Trial Conditions 22 Table 4 Example of Balanced Tog/Speed Sequences 22 Table 5 Maximal Treadmill Test Data 25 Table 6 VO2 Data: Descriptive Statistics 29 Table 7 Follow-up Comparisons (VO2) 29 Table 8 HR Data: Descriptive Statistics 33 Table 9 Follow-up Comparisons (HR) 33

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iv List of Figures Figure 1 VO2 Responses to Exercise 30 Figure 2 Heart Rate Responses to Exercise 34

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v The Impact of Wearable Weights on the Ca rdiovascular and Metabolic Responses to Treadmill Walking Kristine M. Fallon ABSTRACT The growing public health burden associat ed with insufficient physical activity has resulted in the development of numerous health initiatives and products aimed at stabilizing and reversing the negative trends reported in epidemio logical literature. A relatively novel product that has only recently made its way to the market are wearable weights called Body Togs. These products ar e designed to be worn on the lower legs and arms along with regular clothing as a means to increase caloric expenditure. However, no research to date has tested th e efficacy of this product. PURPOSE: Compare the physiological response s within bouts of aerobic exercise that vary on in tensity and the presence of wearable weights. METHODS: Seventeen (11 female, 6 male, mean age = 24 years 5.92) healthy volunteers were tested for aerobic fitness on a treadmill to determine VO2 max (mean = 42.68 ml x kg-1 x mi n-1). Participants then completed eight 30-minute walking trials on a treadmill whil e oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored while walking at differe nt speeds and with varying combination of upper and lower body wearable weights. Th e design included two intensities (slow walking and brisk walking) and four conditions (no weights, arm we ights, leg weights, and arm and leg weights) for a total of eight experimental trials. RESULTS: Data were

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vi analyzed using ANOVA and pair-wise compar isons. Analyses revealed that VO2 was significantly lower without the wearable we ights in comparison to wearing both upper and lower weights in the slow walk trial (P < 0.001; ES = 0.69) and also during the brisk walk trial (P < 0.001; ES = 0.62). HR was signifi cantly higher during th e brisk walk trials with togs on both the arms and legs (P=0.029, ES=0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that exercising while using wearable weights incr eases energy expenditure and has minimal impact on HR. PRACTICAL APPL ICATIONS: This finding suggests that physical activity associated with daily livi ng could be enhanced through the wearing of the Body Tog weights that can be worn under clothing. Additionally, wearing the togs during exercise increases ener gy cost of walking, therefore allowing for possible weight loss applications.

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction “For all health professionals, the ch allenge is to leverage our professional credibility to enroll increasi ng numbers of participants in physical activity programs that are designed to overcome barriers to long-term adherenc e, using effective behavioral management and environmental chan ge strategies, so that many more individuals will realize the benefits prov ided by a physically active lifestyle.” ACSM, 2007 _______________________________________________ The human body is designed for activity a nd it should naturally be part of our everyday life. Because of a more modern and demanding lifestyle, physical activity has declined, becoming less important than other activities such as work, family, or social responsibilities. Technology and economic incentives have discouraged many individuals from regular exercise in numerous ways, making sedentary behavior a hard habit to break. As declared in the 2007 Center for Dis ease Control and American College of Sports Medicine physical activ ity recommendations, “physical activity remains a pressing public health issue.” Amounts of physical activity participation seen in adults today have continuously been on the decline, and are ex tremely well below those outlined by health professionals. In data from 2005, it was stated that less than half of U.S. Adults, approximately 49.1%, met the ACSM recommenda tions for physical activity (Haskell et al., 2007). Many feel as though they do not have sufficient time to exercise, or have

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2 trouble adhering to a satisfactor y exercise regimen. It shoul d also be noted that many adults have misinterpreted th ese recommendations, either be lieving that health benefits are only gained through vigorous effort, or that light activity will suffice. Presently, the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion states that at leas t sixty percent of U.S. adults do not engage in the proper amount of physical activity that is sugge sted for each day. Additionally, twenty-five percent of adults today are not active at all. In an article by Mo ckdad et al. 2004, it was shown that in the year 2000 poor diet accomp anied with physical in activity was one of the three highest risk factors for premature mo rbidity. This fact elicited a major need for new preventable mechanisms that will begi n to lessen the health care burden in our country. Additionally, in the year 2005 the top causes of death were reported as follows: heart disease, cancer and st roke (Kung, 2005). Physical activ ity can significantly prevent and lower the risk factors for many chronic diseases, and a majority of the causes of premature morbidity listed above. To encourage increased participation in physical activity among Americans of all ages, a public health recommendation is issued every few years outlining the type and amount of physical activity n eeded for health promotion a nd disease prevention (Pate et al., 1995). A time barrier is presently one of th e biggest obstacles for sedentary adults to overcome. Many individuals are not willing to put in the time to obtain health benefits and fitness results. The conseque nce of this fact has led our country to become one of the most inactive nations in the world. Efforts to begin to increase participation rates in physical activity are reflected by changes to the current ACSM exercise reco mmendations and guidelines. The American

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3 College of Sports Medicine guidelines released in 2007 state that “all healthy adults ages 18 to 65 years need moderate-intensity aerob ic physical activity for a minimum of 30 minutes on five days each week, or vigorous-i ntensity aerobic activity for a minimum of 20 minutes on three days each week” (Haskell et al., 2007). Additionally, in an effort to become more liberal, the American College of Sports Medicine has stated in these guidelines that moderate amounts of physical activity can even be achieved in smaller increments while still having th e ability to elicit health benefits. For example, some individuals may exercise for only ten minute segments, and do so three different times a day. It is understood that in a busy societ y most can find it intimidating, or possibly discouraging, having to commit to thirty minutes of exercise each day. The new guidelines give a more comprehensive recomm endation geared toward public health, and may be more inviting in terms of f itting exercise into our daily lives. When comparing the ACSM exercise reco mmendations from the year 1995 to the ones recently given in 2007, a very important element was introduced; muscular strength and endurance. Although the 1995 guidelines mentioned the importance of muscular strength and endurance exercises, they faile d to make exact recommendations. Muscular strength has been shown through a great deal of research to be a large factor in staying healthy and slowing the aging pr ocess. These activities are now fully a part of the 2007 ACSM exercise guidelines, and experts st ress that individuals should perform 8-10 strength-training exercises and 8-12 repetiti ons of each exercise, two times each week (Haskell et al., 2007) What’s more convincing is how the ACSM guidelines have shifted to focus not only on traditional exercise moda lities, but also to include activ ities of daily living. So in

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4 essence, the guidelines are still consiste nt with recommending a specific amount of caloric expenditure each day, but the manner in which this can be achieved has become more flexible. Rationale Regular physical activity is associated with various health benefits. Active individuals can lower their risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, co lon cancer and diabetes by being active for thir ty minutes a day. Exercise al so helps maintain a healthy weight while reducing body fat and incr easing lean muscle. Along with these improvements come stronger bones, muscles and joints. In addition, regular exercise can decrease anxiety and depression whil e improving mood (Pate et al., 1995). Though these health benefits suggest that exercise should be part of every person’s daily routine, many Americans do not adhere to the published recommendations. According to data from NHANES in 2006, a pproximately 66 percent of adults over twenty years of age are overweight. Of that 66 percent, 32 percent are obese. Physical inactivity is a main risk factor for this di sease, and growing numbers of obesity pose a large threat to the already elev ated health care costs in this country. In order to lessen the burden of overweight and obese people in our society, new methods and ideas about physical activity need to be implemented to aid in health and fitness promotion. Working towards developing more innovative methods to produce an increased level of energy expenditure in a moderate amount of time is needed to promote and enhance the level of physical activity seen in adults today. Individuals who do not exercise thirty minutes per day or who do not exercise at all can pot entially benefit from

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5 the addition of external resist ance during an exercise bout. A dding external weight to an exercise session could increase energy expendi ture and oxygen consumption, leading to a better, more efficient workout in a shorter amount of time. Additio nally, adding external weight may also give the user more adequa te exercise while they go about their daily living activities. Body Togs are wearable weights constr ucted to be worn comfortably during activity. These weights are worn on the lower portions of the arms and legs, and together add approximately seven and a half pounds of additional load to the extremities. The reason why Body Togs differ from traditional hand or wrist weights used in exercise research is their practicality and safe design. They have a unique ability to distribute the same weight used in hand or wrist weights over a greater space, which allows for a flat and flexible product that can be hidden and worn directly under clothes. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the general efficacy of Body Togs in a controlled laboratory environment with met hods that are represen tative of what is considered realistic activity for the general public. This research was done to determine the impact of wearable weights (Body Togs ) on cardiovascular and metabolic responses such as oxygen consumption and heart rate wh ile engaging in “slow” and “brisk” walking exercise for thirty minutes. The ability to improve the cardiovascul ar, musculoskeletal, and respiratory response to aerobic exercise is directly related to the freque ncy, intensity and duration of the program (Evans et al., 1994). Because of the increase in sedentary behavior in

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6 Americans today, our research will explor e a new, innovative way to increase oxygen consumption and heart rate, in a limited amount of time. Total calori c expenditure may be a factor that is most crucial for achieving the necessary preventative health benefits that come from exercising. By wearing Body T ogs during daily activity, adults may be more successful in reaching the recommended amounts of physical activity needed to gain health benefits. The present research study examin ed the heart rate and oxygen consumption during a “slow” walking speed exer cise trials in an effort to observe any changes in cardiovascular or metabolic res ponse while wearing Body Togs. The “slow” speed of our exercise trials attempted to portray the common walki ng intensity and speed of most casual lifestyle activ ities. It may be possible that the simple addition of Body Togs to activities of daily living could help individuals in achieving the recommended amounts of energy expenditure needed each day. This study also examined the heart rate and oxygen consumption during “brisk” walking exercise to determine if there was a greater cardiovascular or metabolic response while wearing Body Togs at this speed. It ma y be possible that by adding the togs as a compliment to a regular exerci se bout, adults could potentially increase the intensity and caloric expenditure of their workout in th e same amount of time. Though the additional caloric cost from the Body Togs may be mini mal, if the exertion level is comparable and time does not increase, burning fifty extra calories each day may have the possibility of leading to substantial body composition and fitness level changes over time.

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7 Hypotheses The following null hypotheses were consid ered throughout this research study: No togs compared to arms only H0 1 – Heart rate during the “slow” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the arms. H0 2 – Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the arms. H0 3 – VO2 during the “slow” walk with no B ody Togs will be equal to VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the arms. H0 4 – VO2 during the “brisk” walk with no B ody Togs will be equal to VO2 during the “brisk” walk with B ody Togs on the arms. No togs compared to legs only H0 5 – Heart rate during the “slow” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the legs. H0 6Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the legs. H0 7 – VO2 during the “slow” walk with no B ody Togs will be equal to VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the legs. H0 8VO2 during the “brisk” walk with no B ody Togs will be equal to VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the legs.

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8 No togs compared to both togs H0 9– Heart rate during the “slow” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs. H0 10Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs. H0 11– VO2 during the “slow” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to V02 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs. H0 12 – VO2 during the “brisk” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs. Both togs compared to arms only H0 13 – Heart rate during the “slow” walk w ith Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to heart rate during the “slo w” walk with Body Togs on the arms only. H0 14Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to heart rate du ring the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the arms only. H0 15 – VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the arms only H0 16VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body T ogs on both the arms and legs will be equal to VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the arms only

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9 Both togs compared to legs only H0 17 – Heart rate during the “slow” walk w ith Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to heart rate during the “slo w” walk with Body Togs on the legs only. H0 18Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to heart rate du ring the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the legs only. H0 19 – VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the legs only. H0 20VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body T ogs on both the arms and legs will be equal to VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the legs only. Arms only compared to legs only H0 21 – Heart rate during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the arms will be equal to heart rate during the “slow” wa lk with Body Togs on the legs. H0 22Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs the arms will be equal to heart rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the legs. H0 23 – VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the arms will be equal to VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the legs. H0 24VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs the arms will be equal to VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the legs.

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10 Chapter 2 Review of Literature In prior research studies th at focused on the topic of a dding external weight to the body during exercise, most hypothesized that the addition of wearable weights will affect the physiological responses of the body during exerci se (i.e., increase oxygen consumption and heart rate levels). It has been acknowledged by health professi onals that walking can be a satisfying modality of exercise for all ages and fitn ess levels. However, for some individuals, increasing walking speed and intensity can be difficult. Without the proper intensity levels being achieved, simply walking may not truly produce the res ponses necessary to lower the risk for chronic health problems. In a study by Lind and McNicol (1968) participants were instructed to carry additi onal weight while exerci sing. Results elicited the idea that holding 10kg and carrying 80kg on th e shoulder lead to a fatigue state while blood pressure and heart rate increased. Due to the absence of equipment, oxygen consumption and energy cost were not directly observed (Lind & McNicol, 1968). Long before the invention of products like Body Togs, simple wrist or hand weights were used in an effort to improve one’s general fitness capacity and enhance a workout session. Engels et al (1998) investigated the eff ects of exercise training with and without wrist weights on an individua l’s functional capacities and mood states. Twenty-three senior citizens were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups: wrist

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11 weights and no weights. For ten weeks, the participants took pa rt in a low-impact, aerobic dance exercise class that also combined muscular fitness, flexibility and balance exercises. This was done for one hour, three times each week. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, balance, skin fold measurements, and psychological mood states were assessed. Increases in peak oxygen uptake, muscular stre ngth, and psychological mood states were observed, but no other fitne ss components were affected by the variable of adding wrist weights. Additionally, rese archers found that ther e were no significant differences between the group who exercise d with weights and the group who used no weights. The present observat ions indicate that the use of light wrist weights has no beneficial or unfavorable effects on the afor ementioned fitness components (Engels et al., 1998). Other ideas arose to compare the two different populations of both young and elderly. In a study done by Engels and colle agues (1995), 16 healt hy individuals were examined to determine the physiological respon ses, if any, to steady-rate walking with additional weight carried at shoul der level. Each individual participated in two separate treadmill bouts, with and without additional shoulder weights (4.54 kg). The researchers found a small increase in oxygen uptake, but no significant changes in heart rate, respiratory exchange rate, or blood pressure. Therefore, the findings of this particular study show that effectiveness of using wei ghts during exercise to increase the body’s physiological responses is minor (Engels et al., 1995). Graves et al. (1987) cond ucted a study where twelve untrained men completed three sub-max treadmill tests and two maxima l treadmill tests with three pound hand held weights. Heart rate, respiratory exchange rate, oxygen uptake, blood pressure, ventilation

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12 and perceived exertion rate were all found to be significantly great er when using hand weights during exercise. Overall, this study found that three pound hand weights can increase physiological responses to exerci se. Using hand weights during exercise has usually been prescribed to those who do not run, but prefer to walk and reap similar fitness and health benefi ts (Graves et al., 1987). Increasing the energy cost of walking ma y allow individuals to obtain greater benefits than those achieved fr om their routine exercise sess ions. This is made apparent through a second study done by Graves et al. (1988) which is one of only a few that compared the physiological responses of adde d weight at different locations on the body. This study assessed oxygen uptake, blood pressu re, and heart rate outcomes when using hand weights, wrist weights and ankle weights during exercise. Twelve males participated in three separate treadmill tests, each time with weights placed on the ankle, wrist, or hand. Participants were only include d if they were considered “sedentary” or had an aerobic capacity less than 50 ml/kg/ min. The authors reported that oxygen uptake and heart rates during usage of the hand we ights and wrist wei ghts was significantly greater than with the ankle weights. Surprisingly, there was approximately one MET of increase in energy cost during exercise with hand weights and wrist weights when arm swing was exaggerated. Overall, exercise intensity (expressed in terms of HRmax reserve) increased from 60.4% with no weights to 70.9%, 70.2%, and 66.3% with hand, wrist and ankle weights, respectively. To summarize, there were some differences in the physiological responses to exercise with weight s, but it was specific to the location of the particular added weight. With one MET of increase in energy cost, a projected 14.3%

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13 increase in energy expenditure was observed when compared with the control group, and occurred without changes in exer tion ratings (Graves et al., 1988). Claremont and Hall (1988) elaborated on the Graves (1988) investigation and compared the physiological and mechanical responses during running exercise with commercially sold hand and ankle weights, e ssentially loading the extremities. A small sample size which included five males and three females ran for thirty minutes on a treadmill at a self-selected pace. Each was assigned to randomized conditions consisting of hand weights, ankle weights, and bot h hand and ankle weights totaling 0.98kg for females and 2.7kg for males. The major objectiv e was to assess the effects of extremity loading upon caloric expenditure and biomechanics. One main question sought out in this study was to determine in fact how large of extremity loading is required in order to significantly increase energy cost during running. As hypot hesized, highest rates of energy expenditure and heart rate were obtai ned during the exercise trial with both hand and ankle weights. Energy expenditure increas es of 5 to 10% were observed for every 1 kg of weight added. Overall, the weights allo wed individuals to burn an extra 58 calories per hour of running. Because running with a dditional weights may cause discomfort, it would appear that with the minor responses to extremity loading, a be tter alternative for runners might be to increase intensity by increasing speeds or incline (Claremont & Hall, 1988). A similar study done by Martin (1985) looked solely at exercise when loading the lower extremities in specific areas such as the thighs and feet. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of lower extremity loading on heart rate and oxygen consumption, along with the effect on the many mechanical aspects of running. Fifteen

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14 highly trained distance runners completed this study and participated in approximately three treadmill tests at a runni ng speed of 12 km/hr. Five load conditions were used, including 0.50 kg and 1.00 kg weights added to e ither the feet or th ighs, and a control group with no weights (Martin, 1985). Resu lts illustrated that VO2 and heart rate increased along with load on both the feet and the thighs. This is consistent with other research in stating that the hi ghest physiological responses ar e seen when the most weight is added to the body. Furthermore, oxygen cons umption was effected significantly more when load was added to the feet, when compar ed to loading of the thighs. Also, increases in oxygen consumption witnessed during foot loading were almost twice as great as during thigh loading. Interestingly, the results suggested that the influen ce of loading on heart rate levels is not as significant as that on oxygen consumption. Wh ile heart rate did increase with foot loading, the changes were minor. On the other hand, these minor changes found in heart rate still provide evidence of th e body’s physiological response produced because of loading on the extremities. This study also concluded that during loading, the increase of biomechanical demand on the lower extremitie s is directly related to the increase of physiological responses such as heart ra te and oxygen consum ption (Martin, 1985). Owens, Ahmed, and Moffatt (1989), looked at the physiological differences when exercising with dissimilar amounts of weight during two different modalities; walking and running. Ten males were asked to carry different sizes of ha nd-held weights (0.45, 1.36, 2.27 kg) when walking and running on a treadmill. Findings showed that walking with hand held weights did not signifi cantly increase the participant’s oxygen

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15 consumption. However, when running a nd carrying hand-held weights, oxygen consumption increased when using the heaviest load of weights ( Owens et al, 1989). Evans et al. (1994) recruite d nineteen males and females between the ages of 60 and 70 that were previously physically active and determined the physiological responses of older adults to walking with added weights. Each individual completed treadmill testing with the following conditions: no weight, 1.36 kg hand weights, and 2.27 kg hand weights. Participants walked at two specifi c speeds: one that wa s chosen by them, and one that was held at a constant intensity dependent upon their target heart rate, as calculated using the Karvonen formula. During th ese exercise trials the participants were encouraged to keep their elbows at a 90 degree angle, while using normal arm movements and a light grip. There was a si gnificant difference in means for the oxygen consumption and heart rate of those who wa lked at a constant speed while carrying weights. Hand weights of at least 1.36 kg were required to increase the oxygen consumption of older adults. Even though this increase was s hown to be minor, it represented an 18.9% increase when compared to the control group. Furthermore, when these older adults were walking at a consta nt heart rate, similar energy expenditure was observed across all exercise conditions. However, one advantage of walking at a target heart rate is that adults can decrease speed but increase intensity by adding more weight (Evans et al., 1994). This study shows that the use of hand-held weights may increase the metabolic responses during constant speed of walking exercise in elderly adults, thus introducing the idea that the use of Body T ogs may be beneficial to the elderly. It has become increasingly important for us as fitness profe ssionals to put an emphasis on activities that can maximize energy expenditure. The addition of overload to

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16 a basic walking program can be a desirable way to increase intensity and energy cost. Most research that focuses on overloading the body during aerobic exercise usually includes wrist, hand, or ankle weights. Plac ing weights in these areas have, up until now, been the safest and most effective way to increase the intensity of walking exercise. However, Rogers et al. (1995) evaluated card iorespiratory parameters during submaximal walking exercise while using Exerstriders. Ex erstriding is known as a modified form of walking, incorporating specially designed walk ing sticks. Use of these instruments has been shown in previous research to increas e upper body muscular endurance, but to date there is only limited data on what their overa ll effect is on energy expenditure levels during walking exercise (Rogers et Al., 1995). A group of ten females participated in two randomly assigned treadmill trials, walking with and without Exerstriders. The average weight of each of the Exer strider poles was 13-14 ounces. Findings showed that using these tools while walking elicited a cardi orespiratory response and caused energy expenditure to significantly increase. Researchers found th at oxygen consumption, heart rate, and respiratory exchange rate we re all significantly greater when using Exerstriders. Furthermore, ca loric expenditure was also si gnificantly greater in those using the Exerstrider poles (Rogers et al., 1995 ). The overall conclu sions of this study provide the means to increase energy and cal oric expenditure duri ng exercise, therefore enhancing the health and fitness bene fits of a common walking program. In summary, the addition of weight to regular exercise poses positive benefits, and lacks any threats to a healthy individual’s physical fitness status. The above literature parallels the present research project, whic h focuses on assessing a new wearable weight product called Body Togs. The research team will attempt to determine if the togs can

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17 significantly increase hear t rate response and oxygen consumption during walking exercise.

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18 Chapter 3 Methodology Participants: Seventeen men and women ranging from 2045 years were recruited. The average age, height, weight and body mass index of the participants was 24.2 years, 66 inches, 73kg, and 25.04 BMI, respectively. The average “Slow” speed was 2.6mph and the average “Brisk” walking speed was 3.5mph (T able 1). The self-selected slow speeds elicited an average exercise intensity of 27% of VO2 max. Additionally, the self-selected brisk speeds resulted in an average exer cise intensity of 36% of VO2 max. Each participant provided informed consent documents prior to involvement. All participants then completed a health status questionna ire and a physical exam administered by a sports medicine physician in accordance with st andard guidelines. Participants for this study were recruited through word-of-mouth co mmunication with curr ent University of South Florida Exercise Science students a nd other healthy individuals in the USF community. Table 1: Participant De mographics (n = 17) Minimum Maximum Mean SD Age 20 45 24.23 5.92 Height (inch.) 60 73 66.94 3.51 Weight (lbs.) 106 246 161.0 37.8 BMI 18.82 36.40 25.04 4.12 Slow speed 2.0 3.2 2.62 0.36 Brisk speed 2.9 4.0 3.46 0.30

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19 Lab Trials: Each participant was required to visit th e Health and Exercise Science Laboratory eleven times. A brief description of each labo ratory visit is provide d in the table below. Each laboratory visit required approximatel y one hour and each trial was separated by a minimum of 24 hours. On average, each partic ipant completed all elev en trials within a three week time period. Table 2: Description of Laboratory Visits Visit Description 1 Screening to include a physical ex am, informed consent, and resting assessments 2 Maximal treadmill test 3 Workload establishment and familia rization with treadmill and Body Togs 4-11 Experimental exercise trials Screening (Visit 1): Each participant was screened for particip ation based on established criteria from ACSM’s Exercise Testing and Prescription The screenings included a comprehensive health history, pre-participat ion physical exam administer ed by a physician, completion of the informed consent document, and assessm ent of resting heart rate, weight, height, and blood pressure. Maximal Exercise Testing (Visit 2): Each participant completed a graded exercise maximal treadmill test that included measurements of heart rate, blood pressure perceived exertion, and metabolic gas exchange. The “Health and Exercise Science (HES )” protocol used for this test consists

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20 of a starting speed of 3.0mph on the treadmill with speed increases of 0.5 every minute afterward. Heart rate and RPE were recorded every minute; blood pressure was recorded every three minutes. When participants reac hed a speed of 7.0 (females) or 8.0 (males) on the treadmill, the incline was then increas ed by 2% every minute thereafter, with no additional increases in speed. Participants were encouraged to go until maximal effort and exhaustion was achieved Workload Establishment and Familiarization (Visit 3): Each participant was asked to walk on the treadmill to determine the exercise intensities for subsequent ex ercise trials. One workload corresponded to a “slow walk” which is designed to replicate walking that is associated with activities of daily living. The second workload corresponded to a “brisk walk” which is designed to replicate walking that is purposeful and associated with fitness. Workload establishment of the two separate speeds lasted approximately 30 mi nutes with 15 minutes designated to each walking speed. Collectively, the two workloads were self-selected and are intended to reflect public health recommendations re lated to lifestyle physical activity. Familiarization with the togs included instru ction on proper size, lo cation, and fit for the legs and arms. It should be noted that all t og sizes small to extra-large weighed the same, approximately 7.5 pounds. The purpose of this portion of the trial was to provide exposure to the togs prior to the experimental manipulation to limit the perceptual impact of wearing a novel device. Following worklo ad establishment and familiarization, the participants were informed about the exer tion assessment scale that was to be used throughout the research study. Borg’s 6-20 rating of percei ved exertion scale (RPE) was

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21 explained in full detail to each participant, and the participants were then required to initial that they unders tood the tool clearly. Workload establishment and familiarization were determined via the following script to be delivered by the research team. Prior to slow walking speed selection: “Please select a speed that represents a “Slow” walk. This should be a walk that is associated with activities of daily living. It is important fo r you to keep in mind that you will have to maintain this speed for 30 minut es during all exercise trials. We ask that you refrain from using the handles located on either side of the treadmill. These are for emergency use only.” At 7 minutes 30 seconds: “Do you still believe that this is a slow walk?” If part icipant desires to reduce or increase the previously selected speed they ma y do so at this time. Otherwise this will be the “slow walk” speed that will be mainta ined throughout the entire research study. Prior to brisk walking speed selection: “Please select a speed that represents a “Brisk” walk. This should be a walk that is purposeful and associated with fitness. It is important for you to keep in mind that you will have to maintain this speed for 30 minut es during all exercise trials. We ask that you refrain from using the handles located on either side of the treadmill. These are for emergency use only.” At fifteen minutes: “Do you still believe that this is a brisk wa lk?” If participant desires to reduce or increase the previously selected speed they ma y do so at this time. Otherwise this will be the “brisk walk” speed that will be main tained throughout the entire research study. Experimental Exercise Trials (Visits 4-11): The eight experimental trials allowed for both exercise intensities to be tested across four equipment conditions. The two exer cise intensities examined were the “slow

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22 walk” and “brisk walk” which were expected to produce metabolic responses in the 2040% and 40-60% of maximal oxygen consump tion, respectively. The four equipment conditions included: no togs, leg and arm togs, arm togs only, and leg togs only (see Table 3). All participants were placed in one of eight possibl e balanced sequences relative to tog condition and speed for each expe rimental trial. Table 4 describes the eight conditional sequences which correspond to the eight experimental trials of each participant. Each experimental exercise tria l lasted for an estimated 30 minutes in an effort to replicate the duration recomme nded by current physical activity guidelines. Heart rate was measured every six minutes along with perceived exertion (RPE). Oxygen consumption was measured from minute 24 to minute 29. It should be noted that from minute 24 through minute 29, exertion and heart rate were not assessed. At 29 minutes and 45 seconds the last measures of exertion an d heart rate were recorded by the research team. Exertion was assessed again immediatel y after the completion of exercise and ten minutes post exercise. Table 3: Experiment al Trial Conditions Togs None Arm & Leg Leg Only Arm Only Intensity Slow Walk Brisk Walk Table 4: Example of Balanced Tog/Speed Sequences Speed Togs 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 SLOW None 5 4 7 2 3 6 1 8 Both 3 6 5 4 1 8 7 2 Legs 7 2 1 8 5 4 3 6 Arms 1 8 3 6 7 2 5 4 BRISK None 2 7 4 5 6 3 8 1 Both 8 1 6 3 4 5 2 7 Legs 4 5 8 1 2 7 6 3 Arms 6 3 2 7 8 1 4 5

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23 Protocol Description: Prior to each exercise trial, the meta bolic cart was properly calibrated by the research team. A Polar™ heart rate m onitor was supplied for each participant upon arrival to the laboratory. A warm-up of 30 s econds preceded every exercise trial at a speed of 2.5mph on the treadmill. At the c onclusion of the warm-up, the speed was adjusted to either the “slow” or “brisk” wa lking pace as previously determined, and was dependent upon what condition the participan t was assigned for that day. Every six minutes heart rate and rate of perceived ex ertion for the legs, chest/breathing, and overall were assessed. At minute 24 of the exerci se trial the VO2 mask was placed on the participant. Expired metabolic gases were collected from minute 24 to minute 29. At minute 29, the VO2 mask was removed and at 29 minutes and 45 seconds a final rating heart rate and perceived exertion of the le gs, chest/breathing, and overall was recorded. At 30 minutes a 30 second cool down at 2.5m ph on the treadmill transpired. Once the treadmill was stopped by the research team, im mediate post exercise perceived exertion was taken and again ten minutes afterwards. Repeated Trials: Approximately eight participants from th e study were required to return to the laboratory to repeat one or more experiment al exercise trials. This was due to a few inconsistencies with the meta bolic machine and oxygen consum ption values. In total, the research team completed fourteen re-trials with no participants having more than two trials to repeat. It should be noted that the data obtained du ring these repeated trials was what was used in the comp leted statistical analysis.

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24 Instrumentation: Variables of interest during exercise in clude: heart rate a nd oxygen consumption. Heart rate (HR) was measured using a Polar heart rate monitor (Polar, USA). Oxygen consumption was measured by way of ope n circuit spirometry (VacuMed) on an industrial treadmill (Trackmaster RS-232). Research Design and Data Analysis : The research design utilized a 2 (inten sity: slow walk and vigorous walk) x 4 (conditions: no togs, arm and leg togs, leg togs only, arm togs only) repeated measures ANOVA (see table 2). Each participant served as their own control. Main and interaction effects were followed by depende nt t-tests. Criterion for significance for all tests was set at p < 0.05. Effect sizes were calculated by subtracting mean one from mean two and dividing by the average the two stan dard deviations involved (Cohen’s d ). Each p-value was reported precisely with the thought that the large amount of comparisons done in the study posed an increased risk for type 1 errors. Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria : All participants were required to be categorized as low risk according to ACSM’s 2007 Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription which requires absence of cardiovascular, metabolic, and pulmonary dise ase or related sympto ms. Physical activity or fitness status and body mass index were not utilized as inclusi on/exclusion criteria. The design instead allowed any range of activity and weight status.

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25 Chapter 4 Results Graded Exercise Testing: Each participant was required to complete a graded exercise test prior to the experimental Body Tog trials, using the Health and Exercise Science (HES) protocol. The average maximal oxygen consumption achieved was approximately 42.7 ml/kg/min (see table 3). The average maximal heart rate reached during the graded exercise test was 186 (186.00 11.67), which is above the protocol of 90% of age predicted max (220-age). The average respiratory exchange ratio wa s 1.19 (1.189 0.088) which is above the 1.15 criterion for maximal effort. The maximal rate of perceived exertion seen during the test was approximately 19 (18.65 0.786) on Borg’s 620 scale, which also met the criterion for maximal effort. Collectively, the data collect ed during the graded ex ercise test for this research study suggests that exhaustion did occur and VO2 max was achieved (table 5). Table 5: Maximal Treadmill Test Data (n = 17) Minimum Maximum Mean SD Max VO2 (ml/kg/min) 32.00 51.70 42.68 6.62 Max HR 163 204 186.00 11.67 Max RER 1.02 1.35 1.19 0.88 Max RPE 17 20 18.64 0.79

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26 VO2 Data Main and Interaction Effects There was a significant main effect wh en comparing speeds (slow vs. brisk walking) irrespective of tog conditions (p<0.001) There was also a significant main effect when comparing tog conditions irresp ective of speeds on the treadmill (p<0.001) Furthermore, when analyzing VO2 data, there was no significant interaction effect regarding speed and togs (p=.554). Figure 1 displays the oxygen consumption observed for each speed and tog condition. Individual Hypotheses As previously mentioned in chapter one, twenty-four null hypotheses were tested in the present experiment. H0 3 states that “VO2 during the “slow” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the arms.” The results showed there was no significant di fference between these conditions (p=0.546) and therefore we will accept the null hypothesi s (i.e., fail to reject) that there is no difference. Additionally, H0 4 states that “VO2 during the “brisk” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to VO2 during the “bri sk” walk with Body Togs on the arms.” Results indicated no significant differen ce between these conditions (p=0.569) and therefore we accept the null hypothesis (i.e., fail to reject) that there is no difference. H0 7 states that “VO2 during the “slow” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the legs.” A significant difference was found via the results of this present st udy (p=0.008), and therefor e we will reject the null hypothesis. Wearing togs on the legs during a slow walk (M=12.0, ES=0.33) elicited a greater VO2 response than wearing no togs during a slow walk (M=11.48).

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27 Furthermore, H0 8 states that “VO2 during the “brisk” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to VO2 during the “bri sk” walk with Body Togs on the legs.” A significant difference was found between these conditions (p=0.007) and therefore we will reject H08. Wearing togs on the legs during a brisk walk (M=16.52, ES=0.43) elicited a greater VO2 response than when wearing no togs (M=15.47). H0 11 states that “VO2 during the “slow” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to V02 during the “slow” walk with B ody Togs on both the arms and legs.” A significant difference was found in the resu lts of the present study (p<0.001), and therefore we reject H0 11. Wearing togs on both the arms and legs during a slow walk (M=12.59, ES=0.69) elicited a greater VO2 response than when wearing no togs (M=11.48). In addition, H0 12 states that “VO2 during the “brisk” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to VO2 during the “bri sk” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs.” A significant difference was found (p<0.001) and therefore we reject the null hypothesis of H0 12. Wearing togs on both the arms and legs during a brisk walk (M=16.90, ES=0.62) elicited a greater VO2 resp onse than when wearing no togs during a brisk walk (M=15.47). H0 15 states that “VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the arms only.” A significant difference was found (p< 0.001) and therefore we reject the null hypothesis. Wearing togs on both the arms and legs during a slow walk (M=12.59, ES=0.58) elicited a greater VO2 response th an when wearing togs on the arms only (M=11.64). Additionally, H0 16 states that “VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be e qual to VO2 during the “brisk” walk with

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28 Body Togs on the arms only.” The results found a significant difference (p=0.002) and therefore we reject the null hypothesis. Weari ng togs on the arms and legs during a brisk walk (M=16.90, ES=0.50) elicited a greater VO2 response than wearing togs on the arms only (M=15.68). H0 19 states that “VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the legs only.” A significant difference was found in th e results (p=0.007) and therefore we will reject the null hypothesis. Wear ing togs on both the arms and legs during a slow walk (M=12.59, ES=0.37) elicited a greater VO2 respons e than wearing togs on the legs only (M=12.02). Furthermore, H0 20 states that “VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be e qual to VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the legs only.” No significant difference was found in the results of the present study (p=0.211) and theref ore we will accept the null (i.e., fail to reject) that there is no difference. H0 23 states that “VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the arms will be equal to VO2 during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the legs.” Results found that there is not a significan t difference between these condi tions (p=0.215), and therefore we will accept the null hypothesis (i.e., fail to reject) that there is no difference. Lastly, H0 24 states that “VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs the arms will be equal to VO2 during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the legs.” A significant difference was found for this combination (p=0.002) and ther efore we will reject the null hypothesis. Wearing togs on the legs during a brisk wa lk (M=16.53, ES=0.33) elicited a greater VO2

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29 response than wearing togs on the arms onl y (M=15.68). Tables 6 and 7 contain the group averages and follow-up test results for the oxygen consumption da ta, respectively. Table 6: VO2 Data: Descriptive statistics (n = 17) Condition Mean SD Slow-none 11.48 1.66 Slow-arms 11.64 1.72 Slow-legs 12.01 1.57 Slow-both 12.59 1.54 Brisk-none 15.47 2.33 Brisk-arms 15.68 2.52 Brisk-legs 16.52 2.58 Brisk-both 16.90 2.29 Table 7: Follow-up Comparisons (VO2) Variable 1 Variable 2 P-value Effect Size Brisk-none Brisk-both <0.001 0.62 Brisk-none Brisk-arms 0.569 0.09 Brisk-none Brisk-legs 0.007 0.43 Brisk-both Brisk-arms 0.002 0.50 Brisk-both Brisk-legs 0.211 0.16 Brisk-arms Brisk-legs 0.002 0.33 Slow-none Slow-both <0.001 0.69 Slow-none Slow-arms 0.546 0.09 Slow-none Slow-legs 0.008 0.33 Slow both Slow-arms <0.001 0.58 Slow-both Slow-legs 0.007 0.37 Slow-arms Slow-legs 0.215 0.23

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30 Figure 1. VO2 Responses to Exercise10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 NoneArmsLegsBoth Tog ConditionsVO2 (ml/kg/min) Slow Brisk Heart rate data: Main and Interaction effects There was a significant main effect when comparing speeds irrespective of tog conditions (p<0.001) in relation to heart ra te response. Conversely, no significant main effect was found when comparing tog conditi ons irrespective of speeds on the treadmill (p=0.89). Furthermore, when analyzing HR data, there was no significant interaction effect regarding speed and togs (p=.473). Figure 2 di splays the heart rates observed for each speed and tog condition. Individual Hypothesis H0 1 stated that “Heart rate during the “s low” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the arms.” The results of the present study indicate that there was no significant differe nce between these two heart

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31 rate variables (p=0.670), and therefore, we will accept the null hypothesis (i.e., fail to reject) that there is no difference. Also, H0 2 stated that “Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to he art rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the arms.” The results of the study ag ain indicated that th ere was no significant difference between these two heart rate vari ables (p=0.543), and therefore we accept the null hypothesis (i.e., fail to reject ) that there is no difference. H0 5 stated that “Heart rate during the “s low” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the legs.” The results indicate there is no signifi cant difference between the heart rates of these variables (p=0.060), and therefore we will accept the null h ypothesis (i.e. fail to reject) that there is no difference. H0 6 states that “Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “bri sk” walk with Body Togs on the legs.” The results of the present study i ndicate there is not a significa nt difference between no togs and togs on the legs during the brisk walk ing speed (p=0.233) and therefore we will accept the null hypothesis (i.e., fail to re ject) that there is no difference. H0 9 states that “Heart rate during the “s low” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs.” The results of the present study indicated no significant differences (p=0.892) and therefore we will accept the null hypothesis (i.e., fail to reject) that there is no difference. Additionally, H0 10 states that “Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with no Body Togs will be equal to heart rate during the “brisk ” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs.” The results of the study showed a significant difference (p=0.029) and we will reject the null hypothesis. Wear ing togs on both the arms and legs during a brisk walk

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32 (M=118.12, ES=0.31) elicited a greater heart ra te response than when wearing no togs (M=114.29) H0 13 states that “Heart rate during the “s low” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to heart rate during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the arms only.” The results of the study show no significant difference between heart rate during these two conditions (p=0.663), theref ore we will accept the null hypothesis (i.e., fail to reject) that there is no difference. Additionally, H0 14 states that “Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on both the ar ms and legs will be equal to heart rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on th e arms only.” The results show there was no significant difference found (p=0.255) and therefore we will ac cept the null hypothesis (i.e., fail to reject) th at there is no difference. H0 17 states that “Heart rate during the “s low” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to heart rate during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the legs only.” The results showed no significant difference between heart rate during these conditions (p=0.154) therefore we will accept th e null hypothesis (i.e., fail to reject) that there is no difference. Furthermore, H0 18 states that “Heart rate during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on both the arms and legs will be equal to heart ra te during the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the legs only.” The results show no significant difference (p=0.630) therefore we will also accept the null hypothesis (i.e., fail to reject) that there is no difference. H0 21 states that “Heart rate during the “slo w” walk with Body Togs on the arms will be equal to heart rate during the “slow” walk with Body Togs on the legs.” Results showed no significant difference was found (p =0.062) and therefore we will accept the

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33 null hypothesis (i.e., fail to reject) that th ere is no difference. The final hypothesis regarding heart rate states that “Heart rate during the “b risk” walk with Body Togs on the arms will be equal to heart rate duri ng the “brisk” walk with Body Togs on the legs.” Results from the present study i ndicate no significant difference was found (p=0.615) and therefore we will accept the null h ypothesis (i.e., fail to reject) that there is no difference. Tables 8 and 9 contain the group averages and follow-up test results for the heart rate data, respectively. Table 8: HR Data: Descrip tive statistics (n = 17) Condition Mean SD Slow-none 99.76 11.24 Slow-arms 99.12 11.40 Slow-legs 103.53 9.57 Slow-both 100.06 13.70 Brisk-none 114.29 12.37 Brisk-arms 115.47 9.72 Brisk-legs 116.82 16.89 Brisk-both 118.12 12.28 Table 9: Follow-up Comp arisons (Heart Rate) Variable 1 Variable 2 P-value Effect Size Brisk-none Brisk-both 0.029 0.31 Brisk-none Brisk-arms 0.543 0.11 Brisk-none Brisk-legs 0.233 0.17 Brisk-both Brisk-arms 0.255 0.24 Brisk-both Brisk-legs 0.630 0.09 Brisk-arms Brisk-legs 0.615 0.10 Slow-none Slow-both 0.892 0.02 Slow-none Slow-arms 0.670 0.06 Slow-none Slow-legs 0.060 0.36 Slow both Slow-arms 0.663 0.07 Slow-both Slow-legs 0.154 0.30 Slow-arms Slow-legs 0.062 0.42

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34 Figure 2. Heart Rate Responses to Exercise90 93 96 99 102 105 108 111 114 117 120 123 126 129 NoneArmsLegsBoth Tog ConditionsHR (bpm)) Slow Brisk

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35 Chapter 5 Discussion The present experiment was designed to examine the cardiovascular and metabolic responses of walking with a nove l type of wearable weight called Body Togs. These particular devices are worn on the forearms and lower legs, which decreases the resistance arm. Because of th eir practical design, Body Togs fit around the arms and legs without the need to be carried, making them ideal for use during exercise. Together, arm and leg Body Togs collectively add a bout 7.5 extra pounds of resistance in a sleek, flexible fashion, allo wing for a comfortable fit underneath clothes. It should also be noted that Body Togs come in various different sizes to fit all types of statures, but regardless, total weight of the togs remains constant. Variables measured in the present study included heart rate and oxygen consumption, which were investigated across tw o intensities (slow and brisk) with four different combinations of Body Togs (Tab le 3). The research design included eight balanced experimental trials which incorpor ated walking for thirty minutes at a selfselected slow or brisk speed with either no togs, arms only, legs onl y, or both arm and leg togs. Results showed a significant increas e in oxygen consumption while wearing Body Togs during exercise. Wearing these additi onal weights while walking elicited a linear rise in oxygen consumption, and more speci fically, the largest responses were seen during trials with Body Togs on both the arms and legs. An approximate 10% increase

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36 in energy cost was seen during the “slow” walk when both sets of togs were added to the body. While walking without togs at a “slow” speed, 126 total calories were burned over thirty minutes. With the addition of togs on both the arms and legs, about 13 extra calories were burned throughout the walking tr ial. Furthermore, a 10% increase in energy cost was also seen when adding arm a nd leg togs during the “brisk” trials. When walking at a “brisk” speed with no togs participants burne d on average about 169 calories. When arm and leg Body Togs were added, it resulted in an average of 16 more calories burned over thirty minutes. Conversely, heart rate did not significantly increase wh ile wearing Body Togs. A linear pattern in heart rate only resulte d during the brisk walk ing trials, but the increases were minimal and non-significant. Beca use the scale from resting heart rate to maximal heart rate only increases three-fo ld, but resting oxygen consumption can have increases of up to fifteen-fold, significant ch anges in heart rate are more difficult to detect. Though heart rate is frequently used to measure exercise stress levels, it is not commonly used to measure the effects of additi onal resistance added to exercise (Martin, 1985). According to a study done by Martin (1985), heart rate was consistent with changes in oxygen consumption but was a less sensitive measure of the influence of adding wearable weights. The present st udy found a similar result, and although the changes seen in heart rate were minimal, they still provide evidence of the metabolic adjustments produced by the addition of B ody Togs. It is unknown at this time why significant increases in heart rate were not s een, but the considerable energy cost increase from Body Togs is more vital to sede ntary individuals working to improve body composition.

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37 There have been a small number of other studies, similar to the present one, which examined the cardiovascular and metabolic responses of wearing additional weights during exercise. Engels et al (1995) studied a similar samp le size while carrying 4.54 kg (9.98 lbs) at the shoulder leve l. Researchers found small changes in oxygen consumption and only minor changes in heart rate when a dditional weight was car ried during exercise. Overall, the present Body Togs study s upports these findings as we discovered a significant increase in oxygen consumption whil e wearing togs but onl y slight changes in heart rate. Graves et al (1987) examined th e metabolic responses of exercising with a combined six pounds of hand-held weights. Re sults reported significa nt differences in both oxygen consumption and heart rate while carrying the additional weights. Though our study shows increases in both variables, only oxygen consumption was significantly different when wearing Body Togs. Grav es et al. (1988) focused on the metabolic responses of wearing 1.36kg (2.99 lbs) hand, wrist and ankle weights during exercise. The results showed significant increases in heart rate and oxygen consumption, reporting that exercising with the hand weights or wr ist weights increased the energy cost of walking more than the ankle weights. Overa ll, a 14.3% (approximately 1 MET) increase was seen in total energy expenditure. Though exercising with Body Togs did not have as immense an impact on cardiovascular or meta bolic responses as th e Graves study (1988), the results of the study pose a similar trend. Our findings show higher oxygen consump tion during trials when both the arm and leg togs were worn as opposed to not w earing any additional resistance. Claremont and Hall (1988) also reported that the highest rate of energy expenditure was observed during trials with wearable weights on both the hand and a nkles, however this study used

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38 running as a modality, which may have produced higher responses than walking. Martin (1985) also reported that oxygen consumption an d heart rate were highest during trials with the most external resistance added. Th eir participants used running as a modality and weights of 0.50 or 1.00 kg were added during the exercise trials. Though the last two studies differ in methods, the findings by Ma rtin (1995) and Clarem ont and Hall (1988) were consistent with ours which report th at heart rate level was not influenced as significantly as oxygen consumption. Additionall y, all the abovementioned studies are in agreement that adding external weights during exercise can lead to increases in these metabolic responses. The outcome of this study has many valuable implications for exercise prescription. It seems apparent that addi ng wearable weights to an exercise session increases oxygen consumption which leads to an increase in caloric expenditure. This response is ultimately the goal of most ove rweight individuals. With obesity and physical inactivity levels continuing to ri se in our country, Body Togs can provide a means for previously sedentary indivi duals to achieve the recommended energy expenditure each day. Since the present study observed that oxygen consumption increased even during the “Slow” walki ng speed, individuals can wear the togs underneath their clothes while going about thei r daily activities, st ill continuing to burn more calories. Body Togs can also give more options to those individuals with physical limitations who desire a more intense workout. Both the present and past research shows that using this type of product will allow i ndividuals to increase their energy cost while walking. Therefore, those individuals who cannot participate in othe r modalities such as running can still achieve the a ppropriate intensity recommen ded by health professionals.

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39 Taken as a whole, the results of the pr esent study support many previous findings that exercising with additional resistance added to the extremities produces a greater metabolic response. Though the responses fr om Body Togs may only represent small changes, it is still a practical application in a society that is growing more sedentary with each passing day. An article written by James O. Hill (2009) suggested that one way to address the current obesity epidemic is to promote small changes in both diet and physical activity to prevent further weight ga in. Body Togs can help to implement these small but vital changes. There has continuously been a lack of success seen from most overweight individuals, mostly due to the di scouragement they experience from the amount of maintenance required to stay healt hy and fit. Small changes such as what was observed while wearing Body Togs during exercise can be more easily achieved, leading to higher self-efficacy in the exerciser. Over time, even small changes can have a major impact on regulation and maintenance of body composition. As stated in the article by James O. Hill (2009), regardless of someone’s weight, further weight gain can be prevented by making small increases in physical activity. Therefore, a useful application of this research study is that Body Togs can provide minimal but significant increases in metabolic responses during exercise, hopefully allowing overweight sedentary individuals to begin to make small cha nges in their daily energy expenditure. One obvious limitation of this study is that we are solely looking at a low-risk healthy population of adults ages 20-45, therefore the findings cannot be generalized to other groups such as the elderly, adolescen t or hypertensive. Additionally, the Body Togs product is designed to implicate sm all changes for those individuals who are sedentary, and may not provide a large metabo lic response due to the little amount of

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40 weight that they add. Therefore, the meta bolic machine used in the present study may have had difficulty in consis tently reporting such a sensitive amount of change in oxygen consumption. Recommendations for future research include e xperimenting with individuals of different fitne ss levels and also testing the product on overweight or obese participants. Furthermore, it may be necessary to test this product during a more intense exercise modality such as running or cycli ng to see if Body Togs can improve fitness levels when used as a compliment to a regular exercise session. In summary, the metabolic responses of wearing external resistance during walking exercise significantly increased duri ng trials with both the arm and leg Body Togs worn. Wearing the togs on the arms and legs burns an additional 13 and 16 calories over the 30 minute se ssion, eliciting an approxi mate 10% improvement over exercise sessions when no togs were wo rn. Cardiovascular responses were not significantly increased by wearing the togs, but an important and si gnificant increase in oxygen consumption and caloric expenditure did occur at both the slow and brisk speeds, making Body Togs a practical and useful tool to implement into th e fitness industry.

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41 References Cited American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Gu idelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2006. Claremont, A & Hall, S (1988). Effects of extremity loading upon energy expenditure and running mechanics. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 20(2) 167-71. Engels, HJ, Smith, CR, & Wirth, JC (1995). Metabolic and hemodynamic responses to walking with shoulder-worn exercise we ights: a brief report. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine (5)3 171-4. Engels, H.J., Drouin, J, Zhu, W., & Kazmierski, J.F. (1998). Effects of low-im pact, moderate-intensity exercise training with and with out wrist weights on functional cap acities and mood states in older adults. Gerontology 44 239-44. Evans, B.W., Potteiger, J.A., Bray, M.C., & Tuttle, J.L. (199 4). Metabolic and hemodynamic responses to walking with hand weights in older individuals. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 26(8) 1047-52. Graves, JE, Pollock, ML, Montain, SJ, Jackson, AS, & O'Keefe, JM (1987). The effect of hand-held weights on the physiological responses to walking exercises. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (19)3 260-5. Graves, JE, Martin, AD, Miltenberger LA, & Pollock, ML (1988). Physiological responses to walking with hand weights, wrist weights and ankle weights. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise 20(3) 265-71. Haskell, W, Lee, I, Pate, R, Powell, K Blair, S, & Franklin, B (2007). Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American college of sports medicine and the American heart association. Hill, J. (2009).Can a sma ll-changes approach help address the obesity epidemic? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89 477-84. Kung, HC (2005). Deaths: final data for 2005. Retrieved September 1, 2008, from National Vital Statistics Report Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr56/nvsr56_10.pdf Lind, AR, & McNicol, GW (1968). Cardiovascular responses to holding and carrying weights by hand and by shoulder harness. Journal of Applied Physiology 25 261-267.

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42 Martin, PE (1985).Mechanical and physiological responses to lower extremity loading during running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 17(4) 427-33. Mokdad, AH, Marks, JS, Stroup, DF, & Gerberding, JL (2004). Actual causes of death in the united states, 2000. JAMA 291 1238-45. Owens, S.G., al-Ahmed, A., & Moffatt, R.J. (1989). Physiological effects of walking and running with hand-held weights.. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 29(4) 384-387. Pate, R.R., Pratt, M, Blair, S.N. Haskell, W.L., Macera, C.A., & Bo uchard, C (1995). Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the cent ers for disease control and prevention and the American college of sports medicine. 273(5) 402-07. Pollock, Michael L. (1998).The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardio-respiratory and muscular fitness and flexibility in healthy adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 30 6. Rogers, C.D., VanHeest, J.L., & Schachter, C.L. (1995). Energy expenditure during sub maximal walking with exerstriders. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise 27(4) 607-611 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (April 2006). Prevalence of overweight among adults, United States 2003-2004. Retrieved September 1, 20 08, from National Center for Health Statistics Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/overweight/overwght_adult_03. html


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Fallon, Kristine M.
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The impact of wearable weights on the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to treadmill walking
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[Tampa, Fla] :
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ABSTRACT: The growing public health burden associated with insufficient physical activity has resulted in the development of numerous health initiatives and products aimed at stabilizing and reversing the negative trends reported in epidemiological literature. A relatively novel product that has only recently made its way to the market are wearable weights called Body Togs. These products are designed to be worn on the lower legs and arms along with regular clothing as a means to increase caloric expenditure. However, no research to date has tested the efficacy of this product. PURPOSE: Compare the physiological responses within bouts of aerobic exercise that vary on intensity and the presence of wearable weights. METHODS: Seventeen (11 female, 6 male, mean age = 24 years 5.92) healthy volunteers were tested for aerobic fitness on a treadmill to determine VO2 max (mean = 42.68 ml x kg-1 x min-1).Participants then completed eight 30-minute walking trials on a treadmill while oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored while walking at different speeds and with varying combination of upper and lower body wearable weights. The design included two intensities (slow walking and brisk walking) and four conditions (no weights, arm weights, leg weights, and arm and leg weights) for a total of eight experimental trials. RESULTS: Data were analyzed using ANOVA and pair-wise comparisons. Analyses revealed that VO2 was significantly lower without the wearable weights in comparison to wearing both upper and lower weights in the slow walk trial (P < 0.001; ES = 0.69) and also during the brisk walk trial (P < 0.001; ES = 0.62). HR was significantly higher during the brisk walk trials with togs on both the arms and legs (P=0.029, ES=0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that exercising while using wearable weights increases energy expenditure and has minimal impact on HR.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This finding suggests that physical activity associated with daily living could be enhanced through the wearing of the Body Tog weights that can be worn under clothing. Additionally, wearing the togs during exercise increases energy cost of walking, therefore allowing for possible weight loss applications.
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Heart rate
Body Togs
Energy expenditure
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t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
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