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An exploratory study of the use of imagery by vocal professionals

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Material Information

Title:
An exploratory study of the use of imagery by vocal professionals applications of a sport psychology framework
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Bowes, Patricia Louise
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Music performance
Music education
Mental rehearsal
Singing performance
Functional equivalence
Dissertations, Academic -- Music Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the use of imagery in vocal professionals' efforts to achieve optimal performance based on research from sport psychology. The four Ws of imagery use: where, when, what, and why have been applied to this study from the fields of athletics (Munroe, Giacobbi, Hall, & Weinberg, 2000) and dance (Nordin & Cumming, 2005). These were adopted after many years of research in athletic performance excellence, with particular reference to the Analytic Framework of the Cognitive and Motivational Functions of Imagery (Paivio, 1985; Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998). This theoretical framework was combined with those of previous interview studies investigating professional musical performers in their use of imagery (Bellon, 2006; Carter, 1993; Trusheim, 1987) and provided a foundation for this study.Theories from psychology explaining the effects of imagery were also integrated, including functional equivalence and neuroimaging. An exploratory design was chosen to investigate the comprehensive nature of this inquiry using a purposeful sample (N = 15). A semi-structured interview based on the four Ws was conducted with 15 solo classical vocal professionals, 10 females (sopranos and mezzos) and 5 males (tenors and a baritone) ranging in age from late twenties to late sixties, residing in several major cities of the United States. Vocalists used imagery during practice, before performance, at home, traveling, and a range of other times. Imagery content was divided into types and characteristics. Vocalists' use of imagery types encompassed execution, metaphorical, context, body-related, musical sound, and character/role images.Imagery was employed to perfect vocal production and quality, embody the character's qualities and emotional aspects for performance, visualize metaphorical and anatomical images to achieve proper vocal execution, achieve goals, and communicate with the audience. Imagery characteristics of vocalists involved visual, auditory, and kinesthetic senses, using primarily internal and some external perspectives. These professionals' imagery abilities were deliberate, controllable, and positive. Similar to competitive athletes, solo vocal performers engaged in imagery for many cognitive and motivational functions. Vocalists replicated dancers in artistic, and healing functions of imagery use in preparing for and achieving optimal performance.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Patricia Louise Bowes.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 391 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002063195
oclc - 555969273
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0002994
usfldc handle - e14.2994
System ID:
SFS0027311:00001


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A n E xpl or a t o r y S t udy of t he U s e of I m a ge r y by V oc a l P r of e s s i ona l s : A ppl i c a t i ons of a S po r t P s yc hol ogy F r a m e w or k by P a t r i c i a L oui s e B ow e s A di s s e r t a t i on s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f u l f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of D oc t or of P hi l os oph y S c hool of M us i c C ol l e ge of T he A r t s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : C V i c t or F ung, P h. D S he i l a W oodw a r d, P h. D J a ne t M oor e E d. D C ons t a nc e H i ne s P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l J une 4, 2009 K e yw or ds : m us i c pe r f or m a nc e m us i c e duc a t i on, m e nt a l r e he a r s a l s i ngi ng pe r f or m a nc e f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e C opyr i ght 2009, P a t r i c i a L B ow e s

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D e di c a t i on T hi s di s s e r t a t i on i s de di c a t e d t o m y he a r t a nd j oy m y s on, D a vi d A l i s t a i r B ow e s I f u r t he r de di c a t e t h i s s t udy t o a l l t he c ur r e nt a nd f ut u r e ge ne r a t i ons of i m a gi na t i ve a nd c r e a t i ve pe r f or m e r s a r ound t he w or l d. I a m hope f u l t ha t t hi s i nve s t i ga t i on i n i m a ge r y he l ps t o l i ght you r w a y a nd gi ve s you g r e a t e r e a s e i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e

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A c know l e dge m e nt s I n t he e f f or t t o p r e pa r e t hi s doc um e nt i t i s m y pr i v i l e ge t o a c know l e dge t he a s s i s t a nc e of a num be r of pe opl e t o w hom I e xt e nd m y gr a t i t ude F i r s t a nd f or e m os t I a m de e pl y i nde bt e d t o m y C om m i t t e e C ha i r C V i c t or F ung f or h i s t i r e l e s s di l i ge nc e a nd i nt e gr i t y, w hos e di r e c t i on a nd s uppor t m a de di s s e r t a t i on pos s i bl e a nd s uc c e s s f ul T o t he m e m be r s of t hi s r e s e a r c h c om m i t t e e S he i l a W ood w a r d, J a ne t M oor e a nd C ons t a nc e H i ne s I o f f e r m y he a r t f e l t t ha nks f o r a l l your s uppor t gu i da nc e a nd out s t a ndi ng e f f or t T o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s of t hi s s t udy, w hos e i de nt i t i e s r e m a i n c onf i de nt i a l I t ha nk you f or a l l t he t i m e e f f or t a nd t hought f u l ne s s you s ha r e d w i t h m e t hr ough t he e nt i r e pr oc e s s a nd f i na l l y s uppor t i ng t he c om pl e t i on of t hi s r e s e a r c h. Y our c ont r i but i ons w e r e m os t va l ua bl e a nd I e s pe c i a l l y t ha nk you f or l i s t e ni ng t o your i nn e r voi c e a nd de ve l opi ng your i m a ge r y s o di l i ge nt l y a nd e xt e ns i ve l y. I a m t ha nkf ul t o t he r e s e a r c he r s w ho a s s i s t e d i n pe e r de br i e f i ngs a nd c odi ng t he t r a ns c r i pt i ons T o t he m a ny t hous a nds of s t ude nt s I ha ve t a ught ove r t he c our s e of m y l i f e t ha nk you f or he l pi ng m e be gi n t o l e a r n a nd unde r s t a nd i m a ge r y, c r e a t i vi t y e xc e l l e nc e a nd how a l l t he s e w or k i n l i f e a nd i n e duc a t i on. T o a l l m y m a ny t e a c he r s t hr ough t he ye a r s w ho ha ve t a ught m e t o be a be t t e r m us i c i a n, a r t i s t a c t or a nd t e a c he r T o m y m ot he r P a ul a B ow e s t ha nk yo u f or gr a c i ous l y e di t i ng one of t he e a r l y dr a f t s T o m y s on, D a vi d, w ho of f e r e d ki nd s uppor t e xc e l l e nt m e a l s a nd c ont i nuous e nc our a ge m e nt I e xt e nd s i nc e r e a ppr e c i a t i on. F i na l l y I a m de e pl y gr a t e f ul a nd i nde bt e d t o R ona l d T J e f f e r s f or hi s ki nd a nd ge ne r ous s uppor t de di c a t i on, a nd he l pf ul a s s i s t a nc e i n s e e i ng m e t hr ough a l l t he l e ve l s of t hi s e ve nt f ul pr oc e s s

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s L i s t of T a bl e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi L i s t of F i gur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi i i A bs t r a c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i x C ha pt e r 1 : I nt r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 R a t i ona l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 P ur pos e of t he S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 T he or e t i c a l F r a m e w or k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 W he r e I m a ge r y W a s U s e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 W he n I m a ge r y W a s U s e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 W ha t W a s B e i ng I m a gi ne d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 W hy I m a ge r y W a s U s e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 S i gni f i c a nc e of t he S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 D e f i ni t i ons of T e r m s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 D e l i m i t a t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 L i m i t a t i ons of t he S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 O r ga ni z a t i on of R e m a i ni ng C ha pt e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 C ha pt e r 2: L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 T he or i e s of I m a ge r y U s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 E a r l y D e ve l opm e nt s a nd T he or i e s of I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 P s yc hone ur om us c ul a r T he o r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 S ym bol i c L e a r ni ng T he o r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 C ogni t i ve B a s e d T he or i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 D ua l C ode T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 B i o I nf or m a t i ona l T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 T r i pl e C ode T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 P s yc hol ogi c a l S t a t e s T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 S e l f E f f i c a c y T he o r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 A t t e nt i on A r ous a l S e t T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 F unc t i ona l E qui va l e nc e T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 T he F our W s of I m a ge r y U s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 W he r e o r L oc a t i on of I m a ge r y U s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

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i i W he n or T i m e of I m a ge r y U s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 W ha t : C ont e nt of I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 W ha t : I m a ge r y T ype s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 E xe c ut i on I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 M e t a phor i c / A r t i s t i c I m a g e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 C ha r a c t e r / R ol e I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 C ont e xt i m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 B ody R e l a t e d I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 I r r e l e va nt i m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 W ha t : I m a ge r y C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 S e ns e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 P e r s pe c t i ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 A bi l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 D i r e c t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 D e l i be r a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 A m ount a nd D ur a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 W hy or R e a s ons f or I m a ge r y U s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 A na l yt i c F r a m e w or k o f I m a ge r y U s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 C ogni t i ve R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 M ot i va t i ona l R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 A r t i s t i c R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 H e a l t h R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 R e s e a r c h i n I m a ge r y U s e of M us i c a l P e r f or m e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 T r us he i m S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 C a r t e r S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 B e l l on S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 C onc l us i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 C ha pt e r 3: M e t hod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 R e s e a r c h D e s i gn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 S a m pl e S e l e c t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 M e a s ur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 I nt e r vi e w P r ot oc ol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 E t hi c a l C ons i de r a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 P r oc e dur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 T i m e l i ne f o r D a t a C ol l e c t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 D a t a A na l ys i s P r oc e dur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 L e g i t i m i z a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 T r us t w or t hi ne s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 R e s e a r c he r B i a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 F r e que nc y C ount s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 S um m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 C ha pt e r 4: R e s ul t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 P a r t i c i pa nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 I nt e r vi e w P r ot oc ol a nd P r oc e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

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i i i C odi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 W he r e D o V oc a l P r o f e s s i ona l s U s e I m a ge r y t o A c hi e ve O pt i m a l P e r f or m a nc e ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 W he n D o V oc a l P r o f e s s i ona l s U s e I m a ge r y t o A c h i e ve O pt i m a l P e r f or m a nc e ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 W ha t D o V oc a l P r o f e s s i ona l s U s e i n t he i r I m a ge r y t o A c hi e ve O pt i m a l P e r f or m a nc e ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 I m a ge r y T ype s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 E xe c ut i on I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 M e t a phor i c a l I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 C ont e xt I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 B ody R e l a t e d I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 M us i c a l S ound I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 C ha r a c t e r / R ol e I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 I m a ge r y C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 S e ns e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 P e r s pe c t i ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 I m a ge r y A bi l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 W hy D o V oc a l P r o f e s s i ona l s U s e i n t he i r I m a ge r y t o A c hi e ve O pt i m a l P e r f or m a nc e ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 C ogni t i ve R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 L e a r ni ng V oc a l S k i l l s a nd T e c hni que s ( C ogni t i ve S pe c i f i c ) . . 188 M e m or i z i ng a nd P l a nni ng ( C ogni t i ve G e ne r a l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 M ot i va t i ona l R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 G oa l A t t a i nm e nt ( M ot i va t i ona l S pe c i f i c ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 A r ous a l a nd E ne r gy ( M ot i va t i ona l G e ne r a l A r ous a l ) . . . . . . . 208 S e l f C onf i de nc e a nd M a s t e r y ( M ot i va t i ona l G e ne r a l M a s t e r y) 215 A r t i s t i c R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 V oc a l Q ua l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 A ppe a r a nc e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 C om m uni c a t i on w i t h A udi e nc e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 H e a l i ng R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 O ve r a l l H e a l t h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 V oc a l H e a l t h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 S um m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 C ha pt e r 5: S um m a r y of F i ndi ngs I m pl i c a t i ons a n d C onc l us i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 S um m a r y a nd I nt e r pr e t a t i on of S i gni f i c a nt F i ndi ng s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 W he r e V oc a l i s t s U s e d I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 W he n V oc a l i s t s U s e d I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 W ha t I m a ge r y T ype s V oc a l i s t s U s e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 E xe c ut i on I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 M e t a phor i c a l I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 C ont e xt I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 B ody R e l a t e d I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

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i v M us i c a l S ound I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 C ha r a c t e r / R ol e I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 W ha t I m a ge r y C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s V oc a l i s t s U s e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 S e ns e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 P e r s pe c t i ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 I m a ge r y A bi l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 W hy V oc a l i s t s U s e d i m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 C ogni t i ve R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 M ot i va t i ona l R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 A r t i s t i c R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 H e a l i ng R e a s ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 F our W s of I m a ge r y U s e F r a m e w or k f or S i nge r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 L i m i t a t i ons of t he S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 S a m pl e S i z e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 S a m pl e C onf i gur a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 I ns t r um e nt a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 P i l ot S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 I nt e r vi e w R e s pons e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 D a t a A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 R e s e a r c he r B i a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 I m pl i c a t i ons of t he S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 L oc a t i on a nd T i m e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 89 D e ve l opi ng M e nt a l C a pa c i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 M a t c hi ng I m a ge r y C ont e nt W i t h F unc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 M e nt a l P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 M e t a phor i c a l A nd A na t om i c a l I m a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 C ont e xt I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 G oa l A t t a i nm e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 M ode l i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 M us i c a l S ound I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 U s e of t he S e ns e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 B ody R e l a t e d I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 H e a l i ng I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 A r ous a l M odi f i c a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 S e l f E f f i c a c y a nd M a s t e r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 C om m uni c a t i on w i t h t he A udi e nc e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 U s i ng A dva nc e d T e c hnol ogy T o F a c i l i t a t e I m a ge r y D e ve l opm e nt . . . . 304 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e a r c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 R e pl i c a t i on of T hi s S t udy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 I m a ge r y i n t he P e r f or m a nc e P r oc e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 I m a ge r y f o r V oc a l P r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 A ppl i c a t i ons i n I m a ge r y T r a i ni ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 M us i c a l P e r f or m e r s U s e of I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 S e ns or y I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 C hi l dr e n s U s e O f I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

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v Q ua nt i t a t i ve S t udi e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 M us i c T e a c he r s I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 R e l a t i ons hi p of F l ow a nd I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 F unc t i ona l E qui va l e nc e of P e r f or m e r s I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 C r os s D i s c i pl i na r y S t udi e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 S um m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 R e f e r e nc e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 A ppe ndi c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 A ppe ndi x A P e r m i s s i on t o P ubl i s h I m a ge r y F r a m e w or k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 A ppe ndi x B I nt r oduc t or y L e t t e r a nd S c r i pt s : V oc a l P r of e s s i ona l s . . . . . . . . . 355 A ppe ndi x C I nt r oduc t or y L e t t e r a nd S c r i pt s : V oc a l P r of e s s or s . . . . . . . . . . . 357 A ppe ndi x D S i nge r s I nt e r vi e w G ui de . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 A ppe ndi x E D a nc e r s I nt e r vi e w G ui de . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 A ppe ndi x F P e r m i s s i on t o U s e t he D a nc e r s I nt e r vi e w G ui de . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 A ppe ndi x G R e s e a r c h P a r t i c i pa nt R e que s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 A ppe ndi x H C ons e nt S c r i pt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 A ppe ndi x I V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt S u r ve y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 A ppe ndi x J K e y of E m e r ge nt C ode s a nd C a t e gor i e s / T he m e s . . . . . . . . . . . 382 A bout t he A ut hor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E nd P a ge

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vi L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1 C om pa r i s on of P ot e nt i a l A r e a s of I m a ge r y U s e a m ong A t hl e t e s D a nc e r s I ns t r um e nt a l i s t s a nd S ol o V oc a l i s t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 T a bl e 2 M a j or t he or i e s e xpl a i ni ng t he e f f e c t s of i m a ge r y o n pe r f or m a nc e . . . . . . . . 46 T a bl e 3 A na l yt i c F r a m e w or k o f I m a ge r y E f f e c t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 T a bl e 4 M us i c a l M e nt a l P r a c t i c e S t udi e s C om pa r i s on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 T a bl e 5 M a j or I m a ge r y S t udi e s i n M us i c a l P e r f o r m a nc e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 T a bl e 6 P r opos e d F r a m e w or k f or V oc a l i s t s U s e of I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 T a bl e 7 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s D i r e c t l y A ddr e s s e d i n S i nge r s I nt e r vi e w G ui de . . . . 134 T a bl e 8 P a r t i c i pa nt s A ge a nd G e nde r D i s t r i but i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 T a bl e 9 P a r t i c i pa nt P s e udonym G e nde r V oi c e R a nge A g e R a nge a nd H i ghe s t D e gr e e of E duc a t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 T a bl e 10 P a r t i c i pa nt s S i ngi ng G e nr e F r e que nc i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 T a bl e 11 P a r t i c i pa nt s P r o f e s s i ona l S ol o S i ngi ng E xpe r i e nc e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 T a bl e 12 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s R e s pons e s t o W he r e T he y U s e d I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . 151 T a bl e 13 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s R e s pons e s t o W he n T he y U s e d I m a ge r y . . . . . . . . . . 154 T a bl e 14 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s I m a ge r y T ype s C a t e gor i e s a n d S ubc a t e gor i e s . . . . . 161 T a bl e 15 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s S pe c i f i c S e ns e I m a ge r y U s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 T a bl e 16 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s R a nk O r de r of S e ns e I m a ge r y U s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 T a bl e 17 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s I m a ge r y P e r s pe c t i ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 T a bl e 18 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s I m a ge r y A bi l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 T a bl e 19 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s C ogni t i ve R e a s ons f or I m a ge r y U s e C a t e gor i e s . . . . . 189

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vi i T a bl e 20 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s M ot i va t i ona l R e a s ons f or I m a g e r y U s e : C a t e gor i e s a nd S ubc a t e gor i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 T a bl e 21 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s A r t i s t i c R e a s ons f or I m a g e r y U s e C a t e gor i e s . . . . . . . 220 T a bl e 22 V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt s H e a l i ng R e a s ons f or I m a ge r y U s e C a t e gor i e s . . . . . . 243

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vi i i L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 1. F our W s of I m a ge r y U s e F r a m e w or k f or A t hl e t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 F i gur e 2. F our W s of I m a ge r y U s e F r a m e w or k f or D a nc e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 F i gur e 3. F our W s of I m a ge r y U s e F r a m e w or k f or S i nge r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

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i x A n E xpl or a t o r y S t udy of t he U s e of I m a ge r y by V oc a l P r of e s s i ona l s : A ppl i c a t i ons of a S po r t P s yc hol ogy F r a m e w or k P a t r i c i a L oui s e B ow e s A B S T R A C T T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i de nt i f y a nd de s c r i b e t he us e of i m a ge r y i n voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s e f f or t s t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e ba s e d on r e s e a r c h f r om s por t ps yc hol ogy. T he f our W s o f i m a ge r y us e : w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy ha ve be e n a ppl i e d t o t hi s s t udy f r om t he f i e l ds o f a t hl e t i c s ( M unr oe G i a c ob bi H a l l & W e i nbe r g 2000 ) a nd da nc e ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) T he s e w e r e a dopt e d a f t e r m a ny ye a r s of r e s e a r c h i n a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e w i t h pa r t i c ul a r r e f e r e nc e t o t he A na l yt i c F r a m e w or k of t he C ogni t i ve a nd M ot i va t i ona l F unc t i ons of I m a g e r y ( P a i vi o 1985; H a l l M a c k, P a i vi o & H a us e nbl a s 1998) T hi s t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k w a s c om bi ne d w i t h t hos e of pr e vi ous i nt e r vi e w s t udi e s i nve s t i ga t i ng pr of e s s i ona l m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s i n t he i r us e of i m a ge r y ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) a nd p r ovi de d a f ounda t i on f o r t hi s s t udy T he or i e s f r om ps yc hol ogy e xpl a i ni ng t he e f f e c t s o f i m a ge r y w e r e a l s o i nt e gr a t e d i nc l udi ng f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e a nd ne ur oi m a gi n g. A n e xpl o r a t or y de s i gn w a s c hos e n t o i nve s t i ga t e t he c om pr e he ns i ve na t ur e of t hi s i nqui r y us i ng a pur pos e f ul s a m pl e ( N = 15 ) A s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w ba s e d on t he f our W s w a s c onduc t e d w i t h 15 s ol o c l a s s i c a l voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s 10 f e m a l e s ( s opr a nos a nd m e z z os ) a nd 5 m a l e s ( t e no r s a nd a

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x ba r i t one ) r a ngi ng i n a ge f r om l a t e t w e nt i e s t o l a t e s i xt i e s r e s i di ng i n s e ve r a l m a j or c i t i e s of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s V oc a l i s t s us e d i m a ge r y du r i n g pr a c t i c e be f o r e pe r f or m a nc e a t hom e t r a ve l i ng a nd a r a nge o f ot he r t i m e s I m a ge r y c ont e nt w a s di vi de d i nt o t ype s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s V oc a l i s t s us e of i m a ge r y t ype s e nc om pa s s e d e xe c ut i on, m e t a phor i c a l c ont e xt body r e l a t e d, m us i c a l s ound, a nd c ha r a c t e r / r ol e i m a ge s I m a ge r y w a s e m pl oye d t o pe r f e c t voc a l pr oduc t i on a nd qua l i t y, e m body t h e c ha r a c t e r s qua l i t i e s a nd e m ot i ona l a s pe c t s f or pe r f or m a nc e vi s ua l i z e m e t a phor i c a l a n d a na t om i c a l i m a ge s t o a c hi e ve pr ope r voc a l e xe c ut i on, a c hi e ve goa l s a nd c om m uni c a t e w i t h t he a udi e nc e I m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of voc a l i s t s i nvol ve d vi s ua l a udi t o r y, a nd ki ne s t he t i c s e ns e s us i ng pr i m a r i l y i nt e r na l a nd s om e e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve s T he s e pr of e s s i ona l s i m a ge r y a bi l i t i e s w e r e de l i be r a t e c ont r ol l a bl e a nd pos i t i ve S i m i l a r t o c om pe t i t i ve a t hl e t e s s ol o voc a l pe r f or m e r s e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y f or m a ny c ogni t i ve a nd m ot i va t i ona l f unc t i ons V oc a l i s t s r e pl i c a t e d da nc e r s i n a r t i s t i c a n d he a l i ng f unc t i ons of i m a ge r y us e i n pr e pa r i ng f or a nd a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e

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1 C ha pt e r 1 I nt r oduc t i on P r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s r e qui r e e xc e pt i ona l c a pa bi l i t i e s t o c oor di na t e hi ghl y t e c hni c a l m us i c a l a nd a r t i s t i c s ki l l s i n t he i r pe r f or m a nc e s T e c hni c a l s ki l l s i nvol ve m a ny a s pe c t s of c or r e c t voc a l pr oduc t i on b r e a t h m a na ge m e nt a nd c ont r ol di c t i on a nd t e xt a r t i c ul a t i on, o f t e n i n m a ny di f f e r e nt l a ngua ge s S ki l l s i n m us i c r e qui r e t r a i ni ng i n t he or y, hi s t or y a nd s t yl e s a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i on A r t i s t i c s ki l l s i nvol ve t hos e i n a c t i ng, c r e a t i ve a nd a f f e c t i ve m e t hods of i nt e r pr e t a t i on ( C a l dw e l l & W a l l 2001; L e ye r l e 1986) O t he r a r e a s of e xpe r t i s e r e qui r e m e nt s i nc l ude e xt e ns i ve m e m or y c a pa bi l i t i e s a bi l i t y t o pe r f or m i n f r ont o f l i ve a udi e nc e s a nd be i ng phys i c a l l y a nd m e nt a l l y c om pe t e nt t o c ope w i t h t he s t r e s s e s of pe r f or m a nc e l i f e W hi l e t he s e s ki l l s r e q ui r e va r yi ng de gr e e s of c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s i ng, de ve l opi ng t he f ul l f a c ul t i e s o f t he m i n d i s of t e n ne gl e c t e d i n a r t s pe r f or m a nc e t r a i ni ng pr og r a m s ( C onnol l y, 2002; C onnol l y & W i l l i a m on, 2004; D a ym e 2006; K ohut 1992) H ow e ve r i n s por t s i m a ge r y a nd m e nt a l t r a i ni ng ha ve be e n gi ve n a pr om i ne nt pos i t i on w he n pr e pa r i ng a t hl e t e s t o a c hi e ve pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e I m a ge r y a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o e xe c ut i on a nd o ut c om e a s s um e di f f e r e nt m e a ni ngs f or a t hl e t i c a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s I n voc a l pe r f or m a nc e i m a ge r y i s o f t e n us e d a s a r e pr e s e nt a t i on of m e t a phor i c a l poe t i c a r t f ul pi c t u r e s f e e l i ngs or c onc e pt s t ha t f a c i l i t a t e s pe c i f i c pe r f or m a nc e r e qui r e m e nt s be t he y dr a m a t i c a r t i s t i c m e c ha ni c a l o r t e c hni c a l ( A ve r i no, 1989; F r e e d, 2000; M i l l e r 1996; M oor c r of t 2002 ; V e nna r d, 1968) V e nna r d ( 1967) de f i ne d i m a ge r y a s F i gur e s of s pe e c h t o e xpr e s s c onc e pt s w hi c h a r e di f f i c ul t t o

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2 unde r s t a nd l i t e r a l l y ( p 261 ) T he t w o m a j or r e a s ons t ha t t he voc a l p r of e s s i on ge ne r a l l y pr a c t i c e s i m a ge r y i n t hi s f or m c oul d be r e l a t e d t o v oc a l t r a i ni ng be i ng pr i m a r i l y a n o r a l t r a di t i on, a nd t he p r a c t i c e of s i ngi ng pr of e s s i ona l s w ho be c om e t e a c he r s pa s s i ng on t he i r ow n e xpe r i e nc e a nd und e r s t a ndi ng of t he voi c e ( F r e e d, 2000) T he f a c t t ha t s i ngi ng i s s t r ongl y ba s e d on e xpe r i e nc e a nd be ha vi or e m pha s i z i ng know i ng of t he body r a t he r t ha n know i ng i nt e l l e c t ua l l y a l s o r e i n f or c e s t he ne e d f or t hi s i m a ge r y. H ow e ve r ba s e d on s e ve r a l qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h s t udi e s i t m a y be de du c e d t ha t s i nge r s s e e m t o us e i m a ge r y i n a w i de va r i e t y of w a ys ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 19 93) i nc l ud i ng t hos e de t a i l e d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy l i t e r a t ur e ( e g. M or r i s S pi t t l e & W a t t 2005; M ur phy & M a r t i n, 2002) A r t i s t i c a nd m us i c a l pe r f o r m e r s m a y r e ga r d i m a ge r y di f f e r e nt l y f r om how i t i s de f i ne d i n t he f i e l d o f ps yc hol ogy ( R i c ha r ds on, 19 83; S he i kh, 1983) I n ps yc hol ogy, i m a ge r y i s di s t i ngui s he d f r o m pe r c e pt i on by how t he i ndi vi dua l r e s ponds t o e nvi r onm e nt a l e l e m e nt s e xpe r i e nc e d t hr ough one s s e ns e s a nd pos s i bl y f i l t e r e d t hr ough a num be r of pe r s ona l c ogni t i ve a nd a f f e c t i ve va r i a bl e s I m a ge r y i nc l ude s i nt e r na l e xpe r i e nc e s f r om m e m or y or f a nt a s y w he r e no out s i de s t i m ul us i s e vi de nt T hr oughout one s l i f e t i m e i m a ge r y c a n be c ons c i ous s ubc ons c i ous or unc ons c i ous a nd c a n t a ke t he f or m o f da ydr e a m i ng m e nt a l l y r unni ng t hr ough pa s t e xpe r i e nc e f ut ur e pl a nni ng a nd goa l f or m a t i on, a nd e ve n s pont a ne ous i nt ui t i ve f l a s he s T he f ol l ow i ng de f i ni t i on of i m a ge r y i s one of t he m os t w i de l y a c c e pt e d a nd o f t e n quot e d: M e nt al i m age r y r e f e r s t o ( 1) al l t hos e quas i s e ns or y or quas i pe r c e pt ual e x pe r i e nc e s of w hi c h ( 2) w e ar e s e l f c ons c i ous l y a w ar e and w hi c h ( 3) e x i s t f or us i n t he abs e nc e of t hos e s t i m ul us c ondi t i ons t hat ar e k now n t o pr oduc e t he i r ge nui ne s e ns or y or pe r c e pt ual c ount e r par t s and w hi c h ( 4) m ay be e x pe c t e d t o

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3 hav e di f f e r e nt c ons e que nc e s f r om t he i r s e ns or y or pe r c e pt ual c ount e r par t s [ e m pha s i s hi s ] ( R i c ha r ds on, 1969 pp 2 3) T hi s de f i ni t i on ha s be e n bor r ow e d a nd a da pt e d e xt e ns i ve l y i n s por t i m a ge r y l i t e r a t u r e P e r r y a nd M or r i s ( 1995 ) de s c r i be d m e nt a l i m a ge r y a s t he c e nt r a l pi l l a r of a ppl i e d s por t ps yc hol ogy ( p. 339) I n t hi s f i e l d i m a ge r y i s c ons i de r e d a ke y c om pone nt o f m e nt a l t r a i ni ng i n w hi c h a t hl e t e s c a n l e a r n t o us e i t s ys t e m a t i c a l l y t o a i d pe r f or m a nc e r e duc e a nxi e t y, i nc r e a s e c onf i de nc e e nha nc e e ndur a nc e s pe e d r e c ove r y f r o m i nj u r y o r he a vy e xe r c i s e a nd m uc h m or e ( M or r i s e t a l 2005 p 5 ) C onne c t i ng t he a ppl i c a t i ons a nd be ne f i t s of i m a ge r y i n s por t ps yc hol ogy w i t h i t s u s e by pr o f e s s i ona l s i nge r s m a y r e ve a l i m por t a nt s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd di f f e r e nc e s f a c i l i t a t i ng hi ghe r l e ve l s of pe r f or m a nc e s uc c e s s be yond t hos e a c hi e ve d by t r a di t i ona l t r a i ni ng m e t h ods I nc r e a s i ngl y ove r t he pa s t f e w de c a de s t he a t hl e t i c pr of e s s i on ha s r e c og ni z e d t ha t de ve l opi ng t he ps yc hol ogi c a l f a c ul t i e s pa r t i c ul a r l y i m a ge r y, a l l ow s t he a t hl e t e t o a c hi e ve out s t a ndi ng r e s ul t s w e l l be yond w hi c h ha ve be e n d e r i ve d f r om c onc e nt r a t i on on phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd s ki l l de ve l opm e nt ( G oul d, E kl und & J a c ks on, 1992) T he s e w e r e of t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s pe ak e x pe r i e nc e s ( M a s l ow 1968) or opt i m al e x pe r i e nc e s ( C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi 1990) t w o t e r m s t ha t ha ve o f t e n be e n us e d i nt e r c ha nge a bl y. T he i r m e a ni ngs ha ve be e n bl ur r e d i n s om e of t he l i t e r a t u r e ; how e ve r t he y a r e qui t e di f f e r e nt i n t he i r r e l a t i ons hi p t o pe r f o r m a nc e pr e pa r a t i on a nd o ut c om e D i s t i ngui s hi ng t he s e t w o t e r m s i s hi ghl y r e l e va nt t o t he pr e s e nt i nve s t i ga t i on a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o c ons c i ous l y c ont r ol l e d i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e M a s l ow ( 1954, 1968, 1970, 197 1) i ni t i a t e d t he ps yc hol ogi c a l s t udy of out s t a ndi ng hum a n e xpe r i e nc e i n hi s t he o r y of hi e r a r c hy of ne e ds t he pe nul t i m a t e o f w hi c h w a s s e l f

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4 a c t ua l i z a t i on a nd t he c or r e s pondi ng pe ak e x pe r i e n c e s A c c or di ng t o M a s l ow pe ak e x pe r i e nc e s a r e t hos e i nvol vi ng c ogn i t i ve a nd e m o t i ona l c ha nge s i nc l udi ng e gol e s s pe r c e pt i on, c om pl e t e a nd t ot a l a t t e nt i on w onde r a nd a w e di s or i e nt i ng t i m e a nd s pa c e w i t h a pos s i bl e t r a ns c e nde nc e of uni t y c ha r a c t e r i z e d by f e e l i ngs of bl i s s f ul j oy a nd i l l um i na t i on. M a s l ow s pe ak e x pe r i e n c e ha s t he c onnot a t i on t ha t t he r e i s one out s t a ndi ng oc c ur r e nc e i n a n i ndi v i dua l s l i f e r e pr e s e nt i ng t he c l i m a x of a n e nt i r e c a r e e r a t s om e gi ve n poi nt a nd a l l ot he r e xpe r i e nc e s e i t he r l e a d t o or oc c ur a f t e r t hi s B y c ont r a s t C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi ( 1990) de f i n e d opt i m al e x pe r i e nc e or f l ow be i ng i n t he z one o r i n t he gr oov e a s c ont r ol l a bl e a nd a t t a i na bl e out s t a ndi ng e xpe r i e nc e s C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi e xpl a i ne d: [ W ] e f e e l a s e ns e of e xhi l a r a t i on a de e p s e ns e of e nj oym e nt t ha t i s l ong c he r i s he d a nd t ha t be c om e s a l a ndm a r k i n m e m o r y f o r w ha t l i f e s houl d be l i ke . . T he be s t m om e nt s us ua l l y oc c ur w he n a pe r s on s body or m i nd i s s t r e t c he d t o i t s l i m i t s i n a vol unt a r y e f f o r t t o a c c om pl i s h s om e t hi ng di f f i c ul t a nd w or t hw hi l e O pt i m a l e xpe r i e nc e i s t hus s om e t hi ng t ha t w e m ak e ha ppe n [ e m pha s i s hi s ] ( p. 3) C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi c ont i nue d B e c a us e opt i m a l e xpe r i e nc e de pe nds on t he a bi l i t y t o c ont r ol w ha t ha ppe ns i n c ons c i ous ne s s m om e nt by m om e nt e a c h pe r s on ha s t o a c hi e ve i t on t he ba s i s of hi s ow n i ndi vi dua l e f f or t s a nd c r e a t i vi t y ( p 5) T he r e f or e t he t e r m pr e f e r r e d i n t hi s s t udy, opt i m al pe r f or m anc e de s c r i be d t he r e s ul t s of m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l e f f or t s of pe r f o r m e r s pa r t i c ul a r l y a t hl e t i c a r t i s t i c or m us i c a l i n c ha l l e ngi ng t he m s e l ve s t o c ont i nua l l y s t r i ve f or e xc e l l e nc e t hr oughout t he i r e nt i r e c a r e e r

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5 I m a ge r y pl a ys a n i m po r t a nt pa r t i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m al pe r f or m anc e a nd ha s be e n a r e c ogni z e d e l e m e nt i n voc a l i s t s e xpe r i e nc e T he o ut s t a ndi ng A m e r i c a n s opr a no, P hyl l i s C ur t i n, ga ve t h i s a c c ount of he r e xpe r i e nc e o f a n o pt i m a l pe r f or m anc e : W he n s i ngi ng i s r i gh t i t s t he m os t e xhi l a r a t i ng phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l e xpe r i e nc e i m a gi na bl e or be yond i m a gi na t i on. I t s t r a ns c e nde nt a l I t s a s i f I m not doi ng i t a t a l l I t s a l l ha ppe ni ng out t he r e a nd i t s a l l ha ppe ni ng i n m y pr oj e c t e d f e e l i ng a nd i m a gi na t i on on t ha t pa r t i c ul a r pi e c e ( c i t e d i n C a r t e r 1933 p 207 ) T hi s i s j us t one e xa m pl e of t he i nt e r m i ng l i ng of i m a gi na t i on a nd f l ow i n pe r f o r m a nc e w he n a l l t he phys i c a l m e nt a l a nd m us i c a l e l e m e nt s w e r e w or ki ng t oge t he r a nd s e e m e d t o l i f t t he i ndi v i dua l out of no r m a l c ons c i ous ne s s be yond t i m e i nt o a he i ght e ne d e xpe r i e nc e of t he p r e s e nt m om e nt I n t he e f f o r t t o unde r s t a nd t he m a ny c om pone nt s of opt i m al pe r f or m anc e s por t ps yc hol ogi s t s ha ve pur s ue d t hi s r e s e a r c h a r e a e xt e ns i ve l y ( G oul d, D i e f f e nba c h, & M of f e t t 2002; O r l i c k 199 0; O r l i c k & P a r r i ngt on, 1988) A l t hough i m a ge r y ha s be e n e m pi r i c a l l y i nve s t i ga t e d f or ove r one hundr e d ye a r s ( e g. B e t t s 1909 ; G a l t on, 1880, 1883 1907; J a m e s 1890; J a s t r ow 1892 ) e xt e ns i ve pr ogr e s s ha s be e n m a de ove r t he pa s t f or t y ye a r s t h r ough hundr e ds of s t udi e s i n s por t ps yc hol ogy ( e g. M or r i s e t a l 2005 ; M ur phy & M a r t i n, 2002 ; M ur phy, N or di n & C um m i ng, 2008; W e i nbe r g & G oul d, 2003) A s be ha vi or i s m s f a vor d i m i ni s he d, i m a ge r y s s i gni f i c a nc e a nd a ppl i c a t i ons be ga n t o b e i nve s t i ga t e d ( H ol t 1964) A ddi t i ona l l y, t he hum a n pot e nt i a l m ove m e nt o f t h e l a s t de c a de s of t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt u r y a nd t he popul a r i t y of a va r i e t y of pub l i c a t i ons f oc u s i ng on pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt ( G a l l w a y, 1974; M a l t z 1960; R a i por t 1 988) f ur t h e r s t i m ul a t e d gr ow i ng i nt e r e s t i n i m a ge r y a nd m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n a va r i e t y o f pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s

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6 A t hl e t e s us e of i m a ge r y a nd m e nt a l p r a c t i c e ha s b e e n a ppl i e d i n a l l f a c e t s of t r a i ni ng, pr a c t i c e c om pe t i t i on, a nd pe r f o r m a nc e a nd ha s be e n f ound t o f a c i l i t a t e a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e a nd i nc r e a s e s uc c e s s i n a va r i e t y o f s por t s a s r e por t e d i n s e ve r a l m e t a a na l ys e s ( D r i s ke l l C oope r & M or a n, 1994; F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983; H a l l 2001; H i ns ha w 1991) W hi l e t he m a i n f oc us of t hi s r e s e a r c h ha s be e n i n s t ud yi ng t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i m a ge r y ha s a l s o be e n a s s oc i a t e d w i t h c onf i de nc e e nha nc e m e nt ( C a l l ow H a r dy, & H a l l 1998; M or i t z H a l l M a r t i n & V a doc z 1996) r e duc t i on of a nxi e t y a nd s t r e s s ( V a doc z H a l l & M or i t z 1997) i m a ge r y a bi l i t y ( R odge r s H a l l & B uc khol z 1991) i m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve ( H a l e 1982 ; H a r r i s & R obi ns on, 1986; H a r dy & C a l l ow 1999) a nd ot he r ps yc hol ogi c a l s ki l l s ( C a l m e l s D A r r i pe L ongue f i l l e F our ni e r & S oul a r d, 200 3) T he body of t hi s r e s e a r c h i s s o e xt e ns i ve t ha t onl y t hos e s t udi e s di r e c t l y c ont r i but i ng t o unde r s t a ndi ng t he us e o f i m a ge r y i n s por t s a s i t s pe c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e s t o voc a l i s t s e xpe r i e nc e w a s c ons i de r e d i n t hi s s t udy. T he r e i s s ubs t a nt i a l a ne c dot a l e vi de nc e t ha t m e nt a l r e he a r s a l a nd i m a ge r y pr a c t i c e i s a m a j or pa r t of e l i t e a t hl e t e s da nc e r s m us i c i a ns a nd s i nge r s p r of e s s i ona l e nde a vor s F or e xa m pl e t he w or l d c l a s s pr of e s s i ona l gol f e r J a c k N i c kl a us de s c r i be d de t a i l s of hi s us e of i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng w or l d s t a t us i n gol f ( N i c kl a us & B ow de n, 1974) O ne of t he m or e c om pe l l i ng a ne c dot a l r e c or ds of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e w a s t ha t o f a C hi ne s e pr of e s s i ona l pi a ni s t A f t e r s i x br ut a l ye a r s of i m pr i s onm e nt t he s e c ond pl a c e w i nne r of t he 195 8 I nt e r na t i ona l T c ha i kovs ky P i a no C om pe t i t i on, L i u C hi K u ng e xpe r t l y pl a ye d a c onc e r t w i t h t he vi s i t i ng P hi l a de l phi a O r c he s t r a i n B e i j i ng, s ol e l y f r om m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c i ng t he pi a no a l l t hos e ye a r s ( K o r n, 1984) I n t he f i e l d of s i ngi ng t he l a t e I t a l i a n t e nor L uc i a no P a va r o t t i i de nt i f i e d m e nt a l

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7 i m a ge r y a s a n e xt r e m e l y i m por t a nt e l e m e nt of hi s s uc c e s s ( G nt e r 1992a ) A t hl e t e s a nd m us i c i a ns s e e m t o s ha r e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t he i r a ppl i c a t i ons of i m a ge r y t ha t e xt e nd be yond t he e f f e c t s of phys i c a l pr a c t i c e T he s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd c ont r a s t s of a t hl e t e s a nd m us i c a l pe r f o r m e r s a r e w or t hy of c ons i de r a t i on w i t h r e ga r d t o i m a ge r y us e F or a c o m pr e he ns i ve c om pa r i s on, s e e T a bl e 1 be l ow T he c om m on p r a c t i c e s of voc a l i s t s a nd a t hl e t e s i nc l ude : ( a ) us e a nd c om pl e t e r e l i a nc e of t he body i n pe r f o r m i ng; ( b) hi ghl y s pe c i a l i z e d t r a i ni n g a nd s ki l l i n c oor di na t i ng s pe c i f i c c ogni t i ve a nd m ot or be ha vi or s i n or de r t o a c hi e ve e ve n a m odi c um of s uc c e s s ( H a ys 2002) ; ( c ) t he r e qui r e m e nt o f f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on t o pe r f or m bot h phys i c a l l y a nd m e nt a l l y a t hi gh s t a nda r ds of e xc e l l e nc e of t e n be f o r e a de m a ndi ng a udi e nc e ; ( d) m e nt a l di s pos i t i on w hi c h c a n pos i t i v e l y or ne ga t i ve l y e f f e c t t he out c om e of a pe r f or m a nc e ( C ha pm a n, 2006; E m m ons & T ho m a s 1998) ; a nd ( e ) m e e t i ng t he c ha l l e nge of c om pe t i t i ve p r e s s ur e t o pe r f o r m unde r va r i ous c ondi t i ons e nvi r o nm e nt s a nd e xpe c t a t i ons ( B e l l on, 2006; G r e gg, H a l l & H a nt on 2007; K ohut 1992) T he s e r e qui r e m e nt s of bot h a t hl e t e a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s ugge s t t ha t m e nt a l pr e pa r a t i on i s no l e s s vi t a l t o s uc c e s s t ha n phys i c a l pr e pa r a t i on. T he r e a r e f i ve i de nt i f i e d di f f e r e nc e s t ha t s e t s i nge r s a pa r t f r om a t hl e t e s c onc e r ni ng t he a r e a s i n w hi c h i m a ge r y c oul d be a p pl i e d. F i r s t s i nge r s m us t c ont r ol f i ne m ot or m e c ha ni s m s of t he voc a l a ppa r a t us m os t of w hi c h a r e of t e n not e ve n vi s i bl e t o t he na ke d e ye S e c ond, s i nge r s a r e r e qui r e d t o de ve l op m uc h m or e di s c r e e t c ogni t i ve a nd a f f e c t i ve s ki l l s f or e xe c ut i ng e xpr e s s i ve a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m a nc e s t ha n a t hl e t e s s uc h a s ga i ni ng f a c i l i t y w i t h m e a ni ng a nd w or ds i n m a ny l a ngua ge s ( C a l dw e l l & W a l l 2001; E m m ons & T hom a s 1998; M oye r 1992) T h i r d, s i nge r s a r e r e qui r e d t o voc a l l y

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8 phys i c a l l y, a nd a r t i s t i c a l l y c om m un i c a t e di r e c t l y t o a n a udi e nc e F ou r t h, voc a l i s t s m us t e m pl oy c r e a t i ve a nd a r t i s t i c e xpr e s s i on t hr ough e m bodyi ng va r i ous qua l i t i e s of c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on, s uc h a s s ubt e xt e nga ge m e nt e m o t i ona l de xt e r i t y, a nd e xpe r t i s e i n dr a m a t i c hi s t or i c a l a nd c ul t u r a l s t yl e s ( L e hm a nn, 1945/ 1985; H a ys 2002) F i na l l y, s i nge r s m us t de ve l op m us i c a l t e c hni que by be c om i ng pr of i c i e nt i n voc a l pr oduc t i on a s w e l l a s t he r udi m e nt s o f m us i c s uc h a s r hyt hm pi t c h, ha r m ony a nd c om pos i t i on I l l us t r a t i ng t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n c l a s s i c a l s ol o voc a l i s t s a nd ot he r pe r f o r m i ng m us i c i a ns i s r e l e va nt t o t hi s s t udy i n r e ga r d t o i m a ge r y us e s M e m be r s of c hor us e ns e m bl e s a nd i ns t r um e nt a l gr oups s uc h a s s ym phoni e s a nd or c he s t r a s a r e r e qui r e d t o r e a d m us i c not a t i on w he n t he m us i c i s not m e m or i z e d a nd t o w a t c h t he c onduc t or w hi l e a voi di ng ove r t ga z i ng a t t he a udi e nc e U nl i ke m os t e ns e m bl e pe r f or m e r s t r a di t i ona l l y s i nge r s m us t m e m or i z e t he i r r e pe r t oi r e a nd c om m u n i c a t e m us i c a l l y us i ng t e xt o f t e n i n m a ny di f f e r e nt l a ngua ge s I ns t r um e nt a l i s t s m a y pe r f or m a s s ol oi s t s but t he y ge ne r a l l y do not di r e c t l y i nt e r a c t vi s ua l l y a nd a r e us ua l l y s e pa r a t e d f r om t he a udi e nc e by t he i r i ns t r um e nt s a nd s om e t i m e s by t he i r m us i c s t a nd s S ol o s i nge r s pa r t i c ul a r l y i n r e c i t a l a nd or a t or i o pe r f or m a nc e s a r e ge ne r a l l y t he onl y m us i c i a ns w ho pe r f or m di r e c t l y f a c i ng t he a udi e nc e w i t h no i ns t r um e nt c onduc t or o r ot he r p e r f or m e r s t o s e pa r a t e t he m f r om t he a udi e nc e ( C a r t e r 1993 ) T hi s i n t i m a t e a nd vul ne r a bl e pos i t i on r e qui r e s voc a l i s t s t o e m pl oy a hi gh de g r e e of m e nt a l s ki l l s i nc l udi ng c onc e nt r a t i on i n c ont r ol l i ng unw a nt e d i m a ge s t hought s s e l f c r i t i c i s m s a nd ot he r di s t r a c t i ons w hi l e m a i nt a i ni ng pos i t i ve s e l f c onf i de nc e body i m a ge a nd s e l f c ons c i ous ne s s M a ny of t he s e s ki l l s w hi c h s uc c e s s f ul voc a l i s t s m us t m a s t e r r e pr e s e nt r e qui r e m e nt s f or c ogni t i ve a nd a f f e c t i ve de ve l opm e nt

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9 a nd t r a i ni ng a l ong w i t h t e c hni c a l a nd a r t i s t i c f a c i l i t y i n be i ng a bl e t o pe r f or m t o de m a ndi ng a nd of t e n c r i t i c a l a udi e nc e s T a bl e 1 C om par i s on of P ot e nt i al A r e as of I m age r y U s e am ong A t hl e t e s D anc e r s I ns t r um e nt al i s t s and Sol o V oc al i s t s P e r f or m a nc e R e qui r e m e nt s A t hl e t e s D a nc e r s I ns t r um e nt a l M us i c i a n s S ol o V oc a l M us i c i a n s A r t i s t i c A f f e c t i v e / E x p r e s s i o n T r a i n i n g S p e c i f i c s p o r t s : F i g u r e s k a t i n g a r t i s t i c g y m n a s t i c s B o d i l y f a c i a l a r t i s t i c a n d a f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n M u s i c a l a r t i s t i c s o m e a f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n M u s i c a l a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n a f f e c t i v e v e r s a t i l i t y v e r b a l b o d i l y f a c i a l U s e o f S e n s o r y M o d a l i t y i n I m a g e r y K i n e s t h e t i c & v i s u a l K i n e s t h e t i c v i s u a l & a u r a l V i s u a l a u r a l k i n e s t h e t i c & s o m e t o u c h V i s u a l a u r a l k i n e s t h e t i c & s o m e t o u c h A u d i e n c e I n t e r a c t i o n N o t e s s e n t i a l f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e I n d i r e c t b u t e s s e n t i a l f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e I n d i r e c t b u t e s s e n t i a l f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e M o s t d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e A r o u s a l M a n a g e m e n t O p t i m a l l e v e l s o f a r o u s a l a r e t r a i n e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l a n d s p o r t P e r f o r m a n c e a n x i e t y o f t e n a m a j o r i s s u e B r e a t h i n g & f u l l p r e p a r a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e a n x i e t y o f t e n a m a j o r i s s u e B r e a t h i n g & f u l l p r e p a r a t i o n P e r f o r m a n c e a n x i e t y o f t e n a m a j o r i s s u e B r e a t h i n g & f u l l p r e p a r a t i o n H e a l t h & I n j u r y C o n c e r n s H i g h s t r e s s t r a i n i n g o v e r u s e s y n d r o m e H i g h s t r e s s t r a i n i n g i n j u r i e s R e p e t i t i v e s t r a i n i n j u r y f r o m o v e r u s e s y n d r o m e P h y s i c a l f a t i g u e v o c a l h e a l t h p r o b l e m s

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10 R at i onal e T he r a t i ona l e f or t hi s s t udy i nc l ude s s e ve r a l i m por t a nt e l e m e nt s : ( a ) t r a di t i ona l us e s of i m a ge r y i n voc a l pe da gogy a s c om pa r e d w i t h t hos e of ps yc hol ogy, ( b ) t e r m i nol ogy i s s ue s ( c ) m e nt a l a n d phys i c a l pr a c t i c e r e s e a r c h, ( d ) m e nt a l p r a c t i c e s t udi e s us i ng uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s ( e ) c or r e l a t i ng s por t ps yc hol ogy r e s e a r c h w i t h m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e ( f ) i m a ge r y us e i n a c hi e vi ng a r t i s t i c a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e a nd ( g) r e s e a r c he r s c a l l f o r e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s of i m a ge r y us e by voc a l pe r f or m e r s V oc a l i s t s unde r s t a ndi ng of t he f unc t i on o f i m a ge r y di f f e r s r a t he r e xt e ns i ve l y f r om t ha t of ps yc hol ogy. T r a di t i ona l l y i m a ge r y ha s be e n e m pl oye d i n l e a r ni ng a nd e xe c ut i ng m us i c a l s ki l l s i n m us i c a l s t u dy a nd pe r f o r m a nc e F or ye a r s voc a l pe da gogue s ha ve r e c ogni z e d t he va l ue of s pe c i f i c i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons i n s e c ur i ng s i ngi ng t e c hni que a nd a c hi e vi ng a r t i s t i c a nd e m ot i ona l l y s e ns i t i ve pe r f or m a nc e s ( B r ow e r & C ooke 1920/ 1996; F i e l ds 1947; L e hm a nn, 1960 ; L e ye r l e 1986; V e nna r d 1968; W a r e 1998 ) F or t he pa s t c e nt u r y, ge ne r a l a nd s por t ps yc hol ogi s t s ha ve e xa m i ne d i m a ge r y e xt e ns i ve l y i n w a ys t ha t e xt e nd be yond t he c onve nt i ona l us e s a s s um e d i n voc a l pe da gogy. A c c or di ng t o ps yc hol ogi s t s ( e g. S he e ha n, 1983; S i nge r 196 6) i m a ge r y i s a na t ur a l c ogni t i ve s ki l l t ha t ha s be e n w e l l e xpl oi t e d i n va r i ous pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s ( S he i kh, 1983; S he i kh & K or n, 1994) S e ve r a l voc a l pe da gogue s ( e g C l e ve l a nd, 1989a ; F i e l ds 1972; W a r e 1998) ha ve e m br a c e d t he ps yc hol ogi c a l c onc e pt s of m e nt a l i m a ge r y a nd i t s f unc t i on i n t r a i ni ng s i nge r s A c c or di ng t o G n t e r ( 1992a ) I t i s m y un de r s t a ndi ng t ha t i n a r t i s t i c s i ngi ng a nd, c ons e que nt l y i n voc a l pe da gogy, no s a t i s f a c t or y r e s ul t s c a n be obt a i ne d w i t hout m e nt a l c onc e pt s w i t hout t r a i ni ng m e nt a l a w a r e ne s s w i t h out t r a i ni ng t he e a r a nd w i t hou t t r a i ni ng t he a bi l i t y o f t he i m a gi na t i on ( p 46 ) I t c oul d be t ha t t he t i m e ha s c om e t o

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11 upda t e a nd e xt e nd voc a l i s t s c om pr e he ns i on a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of i m a ge r y i n w a ys t ha t r e f l e c t m or e c ur r e nt a nd r e s e a r c h s uppor t e d a ppl i c a t i ons f or t he pur pos e s of i m pr ovi ng pe r f or m a nc e out c om e a nd s uc c e s s U s e of i m a ge r y t e r m s be t w e e n s por t s a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e ne e ds t o be e xpl i c a t e d. T he l a ngua ge o f i m a ge r y i n t he s por t s c ont e xt f oc us e s on m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s a nd f unc t i ons i n r e l a t i on t o pe r f or m a nc e s uc h a s s ki l l l e a r ni ng a nd bui l di ng s t r a t e gy of e xe c ut i on, goa l or i e nt a t i on, a r ous a l a nd m a s t e r y ( H a l l M a c k, P a i vi o & H a us e nbl a s 1998; P a i vi o, 1985) w hi l e m us i c i m a ge r y a s s um e s m e t a phor i c a l a nd a r t i s t i c c ont e xt s i n s ki l l l e a r ni ng a nd a c qui s i t i on a nd i n voc a l l i t e r a t ur e i nt e r pr e t a t i on ( C a r t e r 1993: F i e l ds 1947; L e hm a nn, 1960) A s da nc e r e s e a r c he r s ha ve e m br a c e d t he s e s por t ba s e d i m a ge r y t e r m s m or e a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d, i nc l udi ng i m a ge r y t ype s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd a r t i s t i c qua l i t i e s ( N o r di n & C u m m i ng, 2005 ) L i nki ng t he s e t e r m s i n how t he y a r e us e d i n voc a l pe r f or m a nc e c oul d p r o vi de a f ounda t i on f or a ppl yi ng t he f i ndi ngs of i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n s por t ps yc hol ogy t o m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e I n t r a i ni ng i ndi vi dua l s f or a t hl e t i c or a r t i s t i c pe r f or m a nc e pr a c t i c e ha s be e n r e ga r de d a s pa r a m ount i n a c hi e vi ng s uc c e s s ( H a l l a m 1997; J r r ge ns e n & L e hm a nn, 1997) H ow e ve r e xc l us i ve or e xt e ns i ve phys i c a l pr a c t i c e of a s ki l l doe s not e ns ur e pr of i c i e nc y ( L a F os s e 1973) T he c ogni t i ve a s pe c t s of pe r f or m a nc e a r e of t e n ne gl e c t e d i n m a ny t r a i ni ng p r ogr a m s ( K ohu t 1992) R e s e a r c he r s a gr e e t ha t m os t m ot o r s ki l l s be gi n i n t he i ndi vi dua l a s a t houg ht ( F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983; O xe ndi ne 1969; R i c ha r ds on, 1969) a nd ope r a t e on a c ogni t i ve t o m ot or c ont i nuum ( F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983; R i c ha r ds on, 1967a ) W hi l e t he r e a r e m a ny a t hl e t i c s ki l l s t ha t a r e c ons i de r e d m or e m ot o r t ha n c ogni t i ve r e s e a r c he r s ha ve r e por t e d t ha t a ppr op r i a t e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd i m a ge r y us e

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12 ha ve f a c i l i t a t e d m ot or pe r f o r m a nc e ( D r i s ke l l e t a l 1994; F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983 ) S i ngi ng c oul d be c ons i de r e d m or e c ogni t i ve t ha n m ot or e s pe c i a l l y s i nc e t he i nt e r na l voc a l a ppa r a t us c a nnot di r e c t l y be s e e n a nd m os t o f t he s ki l l s i nvol ve d i n c oo r di na t i ng voc a l pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e a r e l a r ge l y c ont r ol l e d c ogni t i ve l y, a f f e c t i ve l y, a nd i nt e r na l l y. T he r e f o r e pe r ha ps e ve n m or e t ha n a t hl e t i c s s i nge r s c oul d be ne f i t f r om c ogni t i ve t r a i ni ng, s uc h a s i m a ge r y, a s a c om pone n t of t he i r p r a c t i c e a nd pe r f o r m a nc e S por t i m a ge r y r e s e a r c he r s M ur phy a nd J ow dy ( 19 92) a r gue d t ha t i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h ne e ds t o e xt e nd be yond a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e a nd s a i d, F ut ur e r e s e a r c h ne e ds t o be di r e c t e d t ow a r ds a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he r ol e s t ha t i m a ge r y pl a ys i n hum a n pe r f or m a nc e s o t ha t w e c a n he l p a l l pe r s ons t o opt i m a l l y ut i l i z e t he i r i nna t e c a pa c i t i e s ( p. 245 ) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e s t udi e s r e pr e s e nt i ng t he m a j o r i t y of i m a ge r y i nve s t i ga t i ons ha ve be e n pe r f or m e d p r i m a r i l y i n a c ont r ol l e d a nd s t e r i l e l a bor a t or y s e t t i ng us i ng t he e ve r pr e va l e nt a nd c onve ni e nt s ubj e c t pool of uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s ( c i t e d i n G r e gg e t a l 2008) I n t he s e s t udi e s pa r t i c i pa nt s c ont e nt a nd a l l r e l e va nt f a c t or s ha ve be e n r e m ove d f r o m t he na t ur a l e nvi r on m e nt m odi f yi ng t he be ha vi or a nd t he r e s ul t s C ons e que nt l y, Y u i l l e ( 19 85) a nd L i nda ue r ( 1983) ha ve r e c om m e nde d i n ve s t i ga t i ng hi ghl y e xpe r i e nc e d s ubj e c t s i n t he i r na t ur a l p r a c t i c e a nd pe r f o r m a nc e e nvi r onm e nt i n or de r t o ga i n a m or e c om pl e t e unde r s t a ndi ng of i m a ge r y us e T he s e r e s e a r c he r s s ugge s t t ha t uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s t oo o f t e n l a c k t he m a t ur i t y a nd unde r s t a ndi ng t ha t s e a s one d pr of e s s i ona l s ga i n a f t e r ye a r s o f m e e t i ng t he de m a nds of pe r f or m a nc e r e qui r e m e nt s I t w a s a l s o a s s um e d t ha t uni ve r s i t i e s a nd c ons e r va t or i e s of m us i c di d not t r a di t i ona l l y p r ovi de s t ude nt s w i t h ps yc hol o gi c a l s ki l l s i ns t r uc t i on, i nc l udi ng i m a ge r y, a l t hough t hi s t r e nd s e e m s t o be c ha ngi ng ( C a l dw e l l

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13 & W a l l 2001 ; C onnol l y, 2002; C onnol l y & W i l l i a m on, 2004; E m m ons & T hom a s 1998) M us i c i a ns t e a c he r s a nd c oa c he s m a y be u na w a r e of or unf a m i l i a r w i t h t he be ne f i t s t e c hni que s a nd s pe c i f i c a ppl i c a t i ons o f i m a ge r y a s us e d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy i n a t hl e t i c or a r t i s t i c pe r f o r m a nc e I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t p r of e s s i ona l s i nge r s w oul d ha ve a gr e a t e r unde r s t a ndi ng a nd know l e dge of i nc o r por a t i ng a ppr opr i a t e m e nt a l s ki l l s i n c l udi ng i m a ge r y, a f t e r ye a r s of m e e t i ng t he va r i o us c ha l l e nge s i nvol ve d i n t he hi ghl y t e c hni c a l a nd a r t i s t i c e nde a vor o f voc a l pe r f or m a n c e T he r e s ul t s of a s t udy s uc h a s t hi s c oul d pr ovi de s i ngi ng pe da gogue s a nd pr of e s s i ona l s w i t h a n unde r s t a ndi ng of ho w s i nge r s i m a ge r y us e di r e c t l y r e l a t e s t o t ha t of pr o f e s s i ona l a t hl e t e s a nd da nc e r s i n a c hi e vi ng o pt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e T oo of t e n hi ghl y gi f t e d, t a l e nt e d a nd e ve n t r a i ne d s i nge r s a ba ndon a pr of e s s i ona l c a r e e r be c a us e of s e e m i ngl y unm a na ge a bl e c ogni t i ve i s s ue s s uc h a s pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y, l a c k of a bi l i t y t o m e m or i z e a nd i ns ur m ount a bl e phys i c a l ps yc hol o gi c a l a nd a f f e c t i ve bl oc ks t ha t c oul d pos s i bl y be e a s i l y r e c t i f i e d us i ng a ppr op r i a t e i m a g e r y t e c hni que s a nd a ppl i c a t i ons ( C a l dw e l l & W a l l 2001; C ha pm a n, 20 06; E m m on s & T hom a s 1998; F r e ym ut h, 1999) I m a ge r y us e a s f ound i n s por t ps yc hol ogy r e s e a r c h, of f e r s t e c hni que s a nd s ki l l s w hi c h c oul d he l p s i nge r s ove r c om e s om e of t he w e l l kno w n ba r r i e r s t o pe r f o r m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e s uc h a s pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y, m e m or y l o s s or voc a l pr obl e m s A de t a i l e d i nqui r y i nt o t he va r i ous a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y us e of pr of e s s i ona l s i ng e r s m a y r e ve a l i f or how t hos e pr a c t i c e s c a n be i nc or por a t e d i n t r a i ni ng pr o f e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s T hi s know l e dge c oul d i nf or m voc a l pr a c t i c e a nd c ont r i but e t o m us i c pe r f or m a nc e r e s e a r c h. P r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s m a y a l r e a dy us e i m a ge r y t e c hni que s i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e i n w a ys t ha t a r e s i m i l a r t o t hos e e m pl oye d by t he i r e l i t e a t hl e t i c

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14 c ount e r pa r t s T e xt s i n m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e ha ve p r om ot e d t he de ve l opm e nt of i m a ge r y a nd m e nt a l a s pe c t s of a c hi e vi ng e xc e l l e nc e a s i t i s us e d i n s por t s ( G r e e n & G a l l w e y, 1986; F r e ym ut h 1999; K ohut 1992) O t he r r e c e nt publ i c a t i ons ha ve be e n he l pf ul i n pr ovi di ng a va r i e t y of us e f ul m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a ppl i c a t i ons i n a c hi e vi ng voc a l pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e ( C a l dw e l l & W a l l 2001 ; C ha pm a n, 20 06; E m m ons & T ho m a s 1989; R i s t a d, 1982) R e s e a r c he r s ha ve e xa m i ne d t he us e of i m a g e r y a nd m e nt a l p r a c t i c e i n a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s ( C a s t e l l a no, 1983; H a ys 2002 ; R os e nbe r g & T r us he i m 1989) S pe c i f i c a l l y i m a ge r y ha s be e n s t udi e d i n da nc e r s ( F i s h, H a l l C um m i ng, 2004; H a nr a ha n, & S a l m e l a 1990; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) m us i c i a ns ( C onnol l y, 2002; F r e e d 2000; G r e gg, C l a r k, & H a l l 200 8) br a s s pl a ye r s ( T r us he i m 198 7; R os s 1985a 1985b ) pi a n i s t s ( C of f m a n, 1987, 1988, 1990; L i m & L i ppm a n, 199 1; R ubi n R a bs on, 1941; S i s t e r he n, 2005) a nd s i nge r s ( B e l l on 2006; C a r t e r 1993) T hi s l i t e r a t ur e s t r ongl y s uppor t s t he l i nk be t w e e n s por t ps yc hol ogy i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h a nd i m a ge r y us e by voc a l p r of e s s i ona l s H ow e ve r r e l a t i ve l y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d di r e c t l y l i nk i ng t he s e t w o a r e a s A num be r o f r e s e a r c he r s ha ve c a l l e d f o r f ur t he r s t udy i nve s t i ga t i ng t he va r i ous a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e pa r t i c u l a r l y i n t he voc a l p r of e s s i on ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; C onnol l y 2002; M ur phy & J ow dy, 1992; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005; T r us he i m 1987 ) A f t e r i nve s t i ga t i ng i m a ge r y i n p r of e s s i ona l br a s s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s T r us he i m ( 1987 ) r e c om m e nde d i nve s t i ga t i on i n vo c a l i s t s a nd w r ot e : P e r ha ps s i nge r s ha ve t he m os t t o ga i n f r om t he i r i m a ge r y e xpe r i e nc e s V oc a l pr oduc t i on i s pe r ha ps t he m os t pe r s ona l i z e d a nd i n di vi dua l i z e d of a l l m us i c a l a ppr oa c he s V oc a l i s t s m us t r e l y on t he i r ow n phys i c a l s t r uc t ur e a nd i t s m a ni pul a t i on f or e ve r y a s pe c t of t he i r t one pr od uc t i on. ( p 344 )

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15 T he r e i s t he r e f or e ne e d f or a s t udy t o de t e r m i ne ho w pr of e s s i ona l voc a l pe r f o r m e r s us e i m a ge r y, t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h i t i s us e d s uc c e s s f ul l y by t he m a nd i t s r e l a t i ve va l ue i n t r a i ni ng pr o f e s s i ona l s I f t he us e of i m a ge r y c oul d pr ovi de t he s a m e e xc e l l e nt s uc c e s s i n voc a l pe r f or m a nc e a s ha s be e n doc um e nt e d i n a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e t he n i t be hoove s m us i c e duc a t or s a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y voc a l i ns t r uc t o r s t o e s pous e a nd t e a c h t he s e i m a ge r y pr a c t i c e s i n s pe c i f i c w a ys t ha t ha ve be e n e m pl oye d by s uc c e s s f ul pr of e s s i ona l s St at e m e nt of t he P r obl e m T he us e of i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e i n s por t s ha s be e n e xt e ns i ve l y r e s e a r c he d f or t he pa s t f i f t y ye a r s ( f o r a r e vi e w s e e M or r i s e t a l 2005) r e s ul t i ng i n w i de s pr e a d t r a i ni ng a nd di s s e m i na t i on o f t he va r i o us c om pone nt s a nd a s pe c t s of i t s a ppl i c a t i ons i n a c hi e vi ng a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e E l i t e a t hl e t e s a nd t hos e pe r f or m i ng a t hi ghe r c om pe t i t i ve l e ve l s w e r e f oun d t o us e i m a ge r y m or e t ha n novi c e s a nd t hos e w i t h l e s s s ki l l a nd e xpe r i e nc e ( B a r r & H a l l 1992; C a l m e l s e t a l 2003; D r i s ke l l e t a l 1994; F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983; H a l l R odge r s & B a r r 1990; H a l l e t a l 1998) A l t hough s e ve r a l e xpl or a t or y s t udi e s ha ve r e por t e d t he va r i ous a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y us e i n m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s ( B e l l on, 2006 ; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) f e w i nve s t i ga t i ons ha ve f oc us e d on t he r e c e nt f i ndi ngs i n i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l r e s ul t s i n s por t ps yc hol ogy i n r e l a t i on t o c l a s s i c a l s ol o s i ngi ng pr of e s s i ona l s ( G r e gg e t a l 2008; G r e gg, H a l l & N e de r hof f 2005; S i s t e r he n, 2005) R e s e a r c h a nd t e xt i n voc a l pe da gogy, w hi c h i nc l ud e m e nt a l t r a i ni ng a nd i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e a s d e s c r i be d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy, i s l i m i t e d a nd i s r a r e l y e m pi r i c a l l y s uppor t e d. C a r t e r ( 1993) s um m a r i z e d how voi c e t e a c he r s ha ve us e d i m a ge r y t o a s s i s t s i nge r s i n t he f ol l ow i n g:

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16 I m a ge r y us e d by t e a c he r s w a s e m pl oye d i n f i ve s pe c i f i c t e a c hi ng s i t ua t i ons : f i r s t t o t r a ns c e nd or c i r c um ve nt ve r ba l e xpl a na t i ons w i t h r e ga r d t o r hyt h m l i ne m a t c hi ng pi t c h, br e a t h c ont r o l a nd t one qua l i t y S e c ond, i m a ge r y w a s us e d t o a ddr e s s de f e c t i ve or i na de qua t e t e c hni que T hi r d i m a ge r y w a s e m pl oye d t o e nha nc e good t e c hni que F ou r t h, i m a ge r y w a s c a p a bl e of c onne c t i ng e xt e r i o r ki ne s t he t i c s e ns a t i on s a nd m ove m e nt s t o l e s s unde r s t o od i nt e r i or s e ns a t i ons of t he voc a l m e c ha ni s m A nd l a s t i m a ge r y he l pe d t he s i n ge r t o i de nt i f y m o r e c l os e l y w i t h t e xt ua l a nd m us i c a l m a t e r i a l t he r e by b r i ngi ng ne w f r e s hne s s a nd s pi r i t t o e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t a t i on of voc a l l i t e r a t u r e ( C a r t e r 1993 p 182 ) T he s e f unc t i ons of i m a ge r y i n t hi s c ont e xt ha ve be e n e m pl oye d f or m a ny ye a r s a nd r e m a i n va l i d a nd i m por t a nt T he f oc us ha s be e n p r i m a r i l y on voc a l t e c hni que a c qui s i t i on a nd s t r e ngt he ni ng a nd m us i c a l i nt e r p r e t a t i on f or pe r f or m a nc e H ow e ve r us e s a nd f unc t i ons of i m a ge r y i n t he s por t a nd da nc e a r e a s m a y be m or e pe r va s i ve a nd of f e r m o r e a dva nt a ge s t o pe r f or m e r s t ha n t he a bove de s c r i pt i o n. W hi l e voc a l pe r f or m e r s ha ve us e d i m a ge r y, pa r t i c ul a r l y m e t a phor s a nd a r t i s t i c a ppl i c a t i ons f or m a ny ye a r s ( A ve r i no 1989; C a r t e r 1993; F i e l ds 1945 ; L e hm a nn, 1945/ 1985 ) onl y r e c e nt l y ha s i m a ge r y, a s i t i s de f i ne d a nd us e d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy, be e n i nc l ude d i n voc a l pe r f or m a nc e l i t e r a t ur e ( C a l dw e l l & W a l l s 2001 ; D a ym e 2005, 2006; E m m ons & T ho m a s 1998; G nt e r 1992a 1 992 b; W i l l i a m on, 2004) I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s ha ve l e a r ne d t o us e i m a ge r y f or pe r f o r m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e a s a n e l e m e nt i nt r i ns i c t o t he na t ur e of s i ngi ng by t he i r ow n e f f or t s or by s om e s uppl e m e nt a r y m e t hod or t r a i ni ng. I f s i nge r s a l r e a dy u s e i m a ge r y a s de f i ne d i n s por t i n t he i r pr o f e s s i ona l e f f or t s t hi s c oul d ha ve s e r i ous i m p l i c a t i ons on voc a l t r a i ni ng a nd pe r f o r m a nc e

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17 pos s i bi l i t i e s U nde r s t a ndi ng s pe c i f i c de t a i l s of t he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e : w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy f r om r e s e a r c h i n s p or t ( M unr oe G i a c obbi H a l l W e i nbe r g, 2000) a nd da nc e ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) a s i t r e l a t e s t o v oc a l pe r f or m a nc e m a y be e s pe c i a l l y r e l e va nt t o s i nge r s s t r i vi ng t o be a bl e t o a c c e s s t he i r opt i m a l pe r f or m i ng a bi l i t i e s a nd a c hi e vi ng s uc c e s s i n a n e ndur i ng p r of e s s i ona l c a r e e r I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t p r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s us e of i m a ge r y ha s not be e n i de nt i f i e d i n t e r m s he r e t of o r e a c c e pt e d by t he voc a l pr of e s s i on or l i nke d t o w ha t ha s be e n c ons i de r e d i m a ge r y a nd i t s e m pl oym e nt a s s uc h i n a t hl e t i c s f or m a ny ye a r s I nc r e a s i ng unde r s t a ndi ng of p r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s us e s of i m a ge r y c oul d s e r ve s i nge r s i n a va r i e t y of w a ys i nc l udi ng t he s e s e ve n: ( a ) be gi n t o de t e r m i ne t he r e l e va nc e of s por t a nd da nc e i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h, a nd a ppl i c a t i ons t o t ha t o f s i ngi ng e xc e l l e nc e ( b) he l p t o c r e a t e a f ounda t i on o f unde r s t a ndi ng of t e r m s a nd us a ge ( c ) i de nt i f y s pe c i f i c c ont e nt a nd pur pos e s of i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e ( d) f a c i l i t a t e s pe c i f i c gui de l i ne s f or t r a i ni ng, ( e ) di r e c t e f f e c t i ve a ppl i c a t i ons a nd i nt e r ve nt i ons ( f ) gui de f ur t he r r e s e a r c h, a nd ( g) de ve l op a nd pr ovi d e a n i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k s pe c i f i c t o t he s e voc a l pe r f or m e r s T he r e s e a r c he r ha s f ound o nl y a pa uc i t y o f t he l i t e r a t ur e a va i l a bl e i n E ngl i s h pe r t a i ni ng t o t he s ys t e m a t i c s t udy of t he us e of i m a ge r y i n voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e e s pe c i a l l y t hos e c or r e l a t e d t o i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n s por t a nd da nc e I t w a s t he r e f or e be l i e ve d t ha t i nve s t i ga t i on i n t hi s f i e l d w oul d p r ovi de a n i m por t a nt c ont r i but i on t o t he voc a l pe r f or m a nc e p r of e s s i on. P ur pos e of t he St udy T h e pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e i m a ge r y us e i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e i n voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s R e s e a r c h f r om s por t ps yc hol ogy a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y t he

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18 f r a m e w or k o f t he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e : w he r e w he n, w hy a nd w hat ( M unr oe e t a l 2000; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) w a s us e d t o c om pa r e a nd c ont r a s t s i nge r s i m a ge r y e xpe r i e nc e s i n or de r t o c ont r i but e t o t he body o f k now l e dge of i m a ge r y i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e pr a c t i c e a nd de ve l opm e nt T hi s s t udy s ought t o b r i dge t he ga p be t w e e n m us i c pe r f or m a nc e r e s e a r c h, da nc e a nd s por t ps yc hol ogy i n t he us e s of m e nt a l i m a ge r y. Q ue s t i ons a ppl i e d i n t he s t udy w e r e ba s e d on ge ne r a l a nd s por t ps yc hol ogy, da nc e a nd m us i c i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h a s i t r e l a t e d t o voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e T he s t udy f oc us e d on s ol o s i nge r s f or t he i r e xt e ns i ve pr of e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e I t w a s a s s um e d t ha t t he s e voc a l i s t s w e r e m or e a de pt a t a ppl yi ng i m a ge r y i n t he i r a r t i s t i c e nde a vor s a nd pr of e s s i ona l e f f o r t s a nd w e r e m or e e xt e ns i ve l y de ve l ope d a nd gr ounde d i n t he pr a c t i c a l r e qui r e m e nt s of a voc a l c a r e e r t ha n novi c e s i nge r s i n a uni ve r s i t y t r a i ni ng pr ogr a m ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; Y ui l l e 1985) T he f our W s f r a m e w or k pr e vi ous l y a ppl i e d t o a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) a nd da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) a ddr e s s i ng w he r e ( l oc a t i on) w he n ( t i m e pe r i ods ) w hat ( c ont e nt a nd qua l i t i e s ) a nd w hy ( f unc t i ons ) o f i m a ge r y w e r e a dopt e d i n t hi s e xpl or a t or y s t udy f or voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s I t w a s h ypot he s i z e d t ha t s i m i l a r t he m e s a s t hos e f ound i n a t hl e t e s a nd da nc e r s w oul d e m e r ge i nc l udi ng us e s of i m a ge r y a s i t r e l a t e d t o t he f i ve a r e a s : s ki l l a c qui s i t i ons a nd r e f i ne m e nt s t r a t e gy of pe r f or m a nc e goa l or i e nt e d a c t i vi t i e s m ot i va t i ona l a r ous a l a nd m a s t e r y A ddi t i ona l l y, i t w a s t hought t ha t t he m e s of a r t i s t i c a nd he a l i ng i m a ge r y a s r e por t e d i n da nc e r e s e a r c h w oul d a l s o a ppe a r I t w a s f ur t he r t hought l i ke l y t ha t ne w s i gni f i c a nt t he m e s of i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons w oul d e m e r ge t ha t ha d not be e n i de nt i f i e d i n a dul t a t hl e t e s or da n c e r s w hi c h w e r e e xc l us i ve t o t he e xpe r i e nc e of s ol o voc a l pe r f or m e r s I t w a s a nt i c i p a t e d t ha t c om pi l a t i on o f t h i s

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19 i nf or m a t i on w oul d l e a d t o t he c r e a t i on of a f r a m e w or k of t he us e of i m a ge r y s pe c i f i c t o voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s F ur t he r m o r e t he r e s ul t s f r om t hi s s t udy c oul d ha ve i m pl i c a t i ons i n de ve l opi ng m ode l s f or t e a c hi ng i m a ge r y t o voc a l a nd i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons T he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy e m p l oye d t he f r a m e w or k of t he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e : w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy a nd a r e out l i ne d be l ow 1. T o w ha t e xt e nt do voc a l p r of e s s i ona l s us e i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e ? 2. W he r e do voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l s us e i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e ? 3. W he n do voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l s us e i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e ? 4. W ha t do voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l s us e i n t he i r i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e ? 5. W hy a nd f or w ha t pu r pos e do voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l s us e i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e ? E m pl oyi ng a n i nduc t i ve a nd de duc t i ve a ppr oa c h s e e m e d a ppr opr i a t e f o r t he s t udy f o r s e ve r a l r e a s ons ( P a t t on, 2002) D e duc t i ve a s pe c t s w e r e r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he f i ndi ngs of pr e vi ous s t udi e s i nve s t i ga t i ng i m a ge r y us e i nc or po r a t i ng t he a bove f r a m e w or k f or a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) a nd da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) a nd t he a na l yt i c a l f r a m e w or k o f t he c ogni t i ve a nd m ot i va t i ona l f unc t i ons of i m a ge r y ( P a i vi o 1985; H a l l e t a l 1998 ) T he a ut hor hypot he s i z e d t ha t s om e a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y us e by voc a l pe r f or m e r s w oul d be s i m i l a r t o t ha t of e l i t e a t hl e t e s da nc e r s a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987 ) w hi c h r e pr e s e nt e d t he de duc t i ve por t i on o f t he a na l ys e s A ddi t i ona l l y, i nduc t i ve a na l ys i s a l l ow e d f or t he po s s i bi l i t y of ne w c a t e gor i e s t o e m e r ge f r om t he da t a ( P a t t on, 2002) s i nc e ve r y l i t t l e w a s know n a bout how p r of e s s i ona l s i nge r s

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20 us e of i m a ge r y w a s r e l a t e d t o t he a bove que s t i ons a nd f r a m e w o r ks T he f ol l ow i ng t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k r e pr e s e nt e d s om e of t he m a j or de ve l opm e nt s a nd r e s e a r c h i n t he us e of i m a ge r y i n s por t ps yc hol ogy a nd r e l e va nt f i ndi ngs i n m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e s t udi e s T he or e t i c al F r am e w or k T he t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k of t h i s s t udy o f i m a ge r y i n voc a l pe r f or m a nc e ha s i t s r oot s i n hi s t or i c a l ps yc hol ogy t he or y, e xt e ns i ve s t udi e s i n s por t ps yc hol ogy, a nd t he l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h i n i m a ge r y us e by m us i c pr of e s s i ona l s E a r l y i m a ge r y t he or i e s e m e r ge d w i t h t he de ve l opm e nt o f t he s t udy of ps yc hol ogy ( e g. C a r pe nt e r 1874; G a l t on 1880 ) i nc l udi ng va r i ous t he or i e s o f ps yc hol ogy ( B a ndur a 1977; L a ng, 1979a ; N e i s s e r 1976 ) a nd t he m os t r e c e nt de ve l opm e nt s o f ne ur o i m a gi n g i n br a i n r e s e a r c h ( D e c e t y, 1996a 1996b; J e a nne r od, 1994) I m a ge r y i n s por t ps y c hol ogy be ga n be i ng i nve s t i ga t e d m or e r i gor ous l y i n t he pa s t t hr e e de c a de s a nd i nc l ude d v a r i ous e l e m e nt s s uc h a s c om pa r i ng t he e f f i c a c y of phys i c a l w i t h m e nt a l p r a c t i c e ( e g D r i s ke l l C oope r & M or a n, 1994) us e of i m a ge r y a bi l i t i e s ( H a l l 1998 ) i m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve s ( H a l e 1982; C a l l ow & H a r dy 2004) a nd us e of i m a ge r y by e l i t e a t hl e t e s ( O r l i c k, 1990) T he s e a nd t he m or e r e c e nt i nve s t i ga t i ons of i m a ge r y i n s por t s ge ne r a l l y f oc us e d on va r i ous a r e a s w hi c h p r ovi de d m a ny qua nt i t a t i ve a ns w e r s t o t he que s t i on s : w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy t hr ough a va r i e t y of m e t hods H ow e ve r i t be c a m e a ppa r e nt t ha t e xpl or i ng e l i t e pr of e s s i ona l s pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s of i m a ge r y p r ove d m or e va l u a bl e i n ga i ni ng i n de pt h unde r s t a ndi ng of va r i e t i e s of i t s pr a c t i c a l a ppl i c a t i on. T he f our W s of i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k w a s de ve l ope d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d t o ga t he r a m or e c om pl e t e s pe c t r um of t he us e of i m a ge r y by e l i t e a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) w hi c h a l s o s e r ve d t o c l a r i f y a nd c or r obor a t e t he pr e vi ous f i ndi ngs ga t he r e d i n qua nt i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h. S ubs e que nt l y, t hi s f r a m e w or k w a s

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21 us e d t o i nve s t i ga t e i m a ge r y by da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) w hi c h r e ve a l e d m or e r e l e va nt i nf or m a t i on of a r t i s t i c us e s of i m a ge r y t ha n t hos e f ound i n s por t s S e ve r a l s t udi e s pr ovi di ng i n de pt h i nt e r v i e w s of voc a l a nd i ns t r um e nt a l i m a ge r y us e w e r e a l s o r e l e va nt t o t hi s s t udy. N um e r ous t he or i e s ha ve a t t e m pt e d t o e xpl a i n i m a g e r y s e f f e c t s i n hu m a n pe r f or m a nc e O ne of t he e a r l i e s t t o de ve l op w a s t h e ps yc hone ur om us c ul a r t he or y, w hi c h r e s ul t e d f r om t he w or k of J a m e s ( 189 0) a nd J a c obs on ( 1927, 1929, 1930a 1930b, 1930c 1930d, 1931) pos i t e d t ha t m e nt a l i m a ge r y p r oduc e d m us c ul a r i nne r va t i on i n t he s pe c i f i c m us c l e s i nvol ve d i n t he i m a ge r y I n s ym bol i c l e a r ni ng t he or y, S a c ke t t ( 1934, 1935) a r gue d t ha t m e nt a l i m a ge r y f a c i l i t a t e d m e m or y i n c r e a t i ng s ym bol s f or l e a r ni ng, w hi c h f a c i l i t a t e d s ubs e que nt pe r f or m a nc e s P a i vi o s ( 197 1) dua l c odi ng t he or y pr opos e d t ha t t w o di f f e r e nt c ode s i n i m a ge r y t he ve r ba l a nd t he i m a ge a i de d m e m or y a nd f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r ni ng. I n t he bi o i nf o r m a t i on a l t he o r y, L a ng ( 19 77, 1979a 1979b) a r gue d t ha t i m a ge r y w a s c om pos e d of s t i m ul us a nd r e s pons e pr opos i t i o ns w hi c h e nha nc e d l e a r ni ng a nd pe r f or m a nc e I n t he s e l f e f f i c a c y t he o r y, B a ndur a ( 1977, 1997) pr opos e d t ha t i m a ge r y a s s i s t e d t he de ve l opm e nt of c onf i d e nc e a nd pos i t i v e be ha vi or i n t he i ndi vi dua l i m pr ovi ng pe r f or m a nc e S c hm i dt s ( 1982) a t t e nt i o n a r ous a l s e t t he or y put f o r w a r d t ha t i m a ge r y a s s i s t e d i n a c c e s s i ng s pe c i f i c opt i m a l l e ve l s of a t t e nt i on a nd a r ous a l i n pe r f or m a nc e pr e pa r a t i on A s a r e s ul t of t he r e c e nt t e c hnol ogi c a l a dva nc e s i n m e di c a l i m a gi ng, f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e t he or y he l d t ha t m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd t h e e xpe r i e nc e s of i m a ge s w e r e f unc t i ona l l y e qui va l e nt t o s pe c i f i c a s pe c t s of a c t ua l phys i c a l pr a c t i c e of t he s a m e a c t i vi t y ( D e c e t y, 1996a 199 6b; F a r a h, 1984 ; J e a nne r od, 1 994, 1995; K os s l yn, G a ni s &

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22 T hom ps on, 2001 ) M a ny of t he s e s t udi e s f ound t ha t a r e a s a nd pa t hw a ys of t he br a i n t ha t w e r e a c t i va t e d dur i ng i m a ge r y w e r e t he s a m e a s t h os e t ha t oc c ur r e d i n t he m e nt a l pr e pa r a t i on of a n i ndi vi dua l j us t pr i or t o e nga gi ng i n t ha t a c t T hi s f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h ha s pot e nt i a l l y m a ny i m pl i c a t i ons f or us i ng i m a ge r y f o r pr a c t i c e a nd pe r f or m a nc e pu r pos e s M a ny of t he s e t he or i e s a ddr e s s e d c e r t a i n a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y e f f e c t s i n pe r f or m a nc e how e ve r t he y m a y not ha ve a dd r e s s e d a l l t he i s s ue s i nvol ve d. M or e i m por t a nt l y, t he s e t he or i e s m a y va r y i n t he i r a ppl i c a t i on t o i m a ge r y us e by p r of e s s i ona l s i nge r s M unr oe a nd ot he r s ( 2000) f i r s t e xa m i ne d t he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e i n a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i ons : w he r e w he n w hat a nd w hy di d a t hl e t e s us e i m a ge r y. W he r e a nd w he n de a l t w i t h t he t i m e a nd pl a c e i n w hi c h t h e i ndi vi dua l s a c t ua l l y e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y. W hat w a s be i ng i m a ge d r e pr e s e nt e d t he c ont e nt a nd qua l i t i e s of i m a ge r y a nd t he r e a s ons a nd f unc t i ons of i m a ge r y us e w e r e a dd r e s s e d i n t he c a t e gor y of w hy S t ud i e s r e l e va nt t o t he va r i ous us e s of i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m i ng a r t i s t s a l s o a ddr e s s e d s om e of t he s e i s s ue s a nd i nc l ude d da nc e r s ( F i s h e t a l 2004; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005 ) m us i c i a ns ( B e l l on, 2006; R os s 1985a 1985b; T r us he i m 198 7) pi a ni s t s ( C of f m a n, 1990; S i s t e r he n, 2005) a nd s i nge r s ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993 ) W he r e I m age r y W as U s e d T he l oc a t i on, or w he r e i m a ge r y w a s pr e vi ous l y r e por t e d i n d i r e c t r e l a t i on t o a t hl e t e s pr a c t i c e a nd c om pe t i t i on s e t t i ngs ( W e i nbe r g & G ou l d 2003 ) A t hl e t e s s e e m e d t o us e i m a ge r y m os t i n di r e c t r e l a t i on t o c om pe t i t i on a nd l e s s i n pr a c t i c e ( H a l l e t a l 1990; S a l m on, H a l l & H a s l a m 1994) A t hl e t e s us e d i m a ge r y i n a l m os t a ny s e t t i ng, i nc l udi ng a t hom e w or k a nd s c hool ( S a l m on e t a l 1994) a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y i n be d a t

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23 ni ght ( H a l l e t a l 1990; H a l l & B uc khol z 1991 ) S om e a t hl e t e s r e por t e d us i ng m o r e i m a ge r y out s i de of pr a c t i c e or c om pe t i t i on s e t t i ngs ( S a l m on e t a l 1994 ) W he n I m age r y W as U s e d W i t h r e ga r d t o w he n i m a ge r y w a s be i ng us e d, s por t c om pe t i t or s w e r e f ound t o e nga ge i n i m a ge r y j us t pr i or t o c om pe t i t i on, l e s s dur i ng a nd f ol l ow i ng c om pe t i t i on or i n pr a c t i c e s e t t i ngs ( H a l l e t a l 1990; M unr oe H a l l S i m m s & W e i nbe r g, 1998 ) A t hl e t e s w e r e a l s o f ound t o us e i m a ge r y m o r e du r i ng pr a c t i c e t ha n be f or e ha nd o r a f t e r w a r ds ( S a l m on e t a l 1994) I m a ge r y us e i n r e l a t i on t o c o m pe t i t i on w a s r e ga r de d a s pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt w hi l e us i ng i m a ge r y i n t he c ont e xt o f pr a c t i c e w a s c ons i de r e d s ki l l l e a r ni ng ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) O ut s i de of t he s e t i m e s a t hl e t e s us e d i m a ge r y on br e a ks i n t he i r nor m a l da y ( S a l m on e t a l 1994) a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y a t ni ght j us t be f o r e s l e e pi ng ( H a l l e t a l 1990; H a l l & B uc khol z 1991 ) T he s e f i ndi ngs w e r e a l s o r e por t e d i n da nc e r s i m a ge r y ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) W hat W as B e i ng I m agi ne d T he c a t e gor y, w hat e nt a i l e d t he c ont e nt a nd qua l i t y of i m a gi ng. T r a di t i ona l l y i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h c onc e nt r a t e d on l a bo r a t or y s t udi e s c om pa r i ng t he e f f i c a c y of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o phys i c a l pr a c t i c e ( D r i s ke l l e t a l 1994; H i ns ha w 1991, F e l t z & L a nde r s 1993) O ve r t he ye a r s t he c ont e nt of a t hl e t e s i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h w a s e xpa nde d a nd i nc l ude d us e of t he s e ns e s s e s s i ons e f f e c t i ve ne s s c ont r ol l a bi l i t y, a nd na t ur e of i m a ge r y a s de f i ne d i n by M unr oe a nd ot he r s ( 2000) I n i nve s t i ga t i ng da nc e r s i m a ge r y us e N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005 ) i de nt i f i e d t w o m a j or t r a i t s : i m a ge r y t ype s a nd i m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s I m a ge r y t ype s e nc om pa s s e d e xe c ut i on, m e t a phor i c a l c ont e xt c ha r a c t e r a nd r ol e t hos e t ha t r e l a t e d t o t he body, a nd i r r e l e v a nt i m a ge s I m a ge r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

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24 de a l t w i t h qua l i t i e s of t he i m a ge i t s e l f a nd i nc l ude d t he va r i ous s e ns e s pe r s pe c t i ve a bi l i t y, di r e c t i on, de l i be r a t i on, a m ount a nd du r a t i o n. W hy I m age r y W as U s e d P a i vi o ( 1985) ge ne r a t e d t he a na l yt i c f r a m e w or k of f unc t i ons of i m a ge r y us e a nd i de nt i f i e d t w o m a i n r e a s ons t ha t a t hl e t e s us e of i m a ge r y, c ogni t i ve a nd m ot i va t i ona l T hi s m ode l w a s l a t e r e xt e nde d by H a l l a nd ot he r s ( 1998) r e s ul t i ng i n f i ve di s t i nc t c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) c ogni t i ve s pe c i f i c or s ki l l a nd t e c hni que bui l di ng; ( b) c ogni t i ve g e ne r a l or s t r a t e gy a ppl i c a t i ons ; ( c ) m o t i va t i ona l s pe c i f i c a s i n goa l a t t a i nm e nt ; ( d) m ot i va t i ona l ge ne r a l a r ous a l i n ps yc hi ng up o r c a l m i ng do w n of a r ous a l o r a f f e c t ; a nd ( e ) m ot i va t i ona l ge ne r a l m a s t e r y, s uc h a s be i ng m e n t a l l y t ough, ha vi ng s e l f c ont r ol or i n c ont r ol i n pe r f or m a nc e T hi s a na l yt i c f r a m e w or k w a s t he r e s ul t of ye a r s of de ve l opm e nt t hr ough num e r ous s t udi e s i n s por t s on i m a ge r y B a s e d on t hi s f r a m e w or k, s por t ps yc hol ogi s t s i nve s t i ga t e d t he us e of i m a ge r y i n va r i ous a t hl e t i c f i e l ds ( B a r r & H a l l 1992; H a l l e t a l 1990; R odge r s e t a l 1991) T hi s l e d t o t he de ve l opm e nt of t he S po r t I m a ge r y Q ue s t i onna i r e ( S I Q ) ( H a l l e t a l 1998; H a l l S t e ve ns & P a i vi o 2005 ) w hi l e va l i d a nd r e l i a bl e i n a s s e s s i ng a t hl e t e s us e of i m a ge r y w hi c h s e e m e d t o be i na de qua t e i n r e f l e c t i ng t he f ul l us e of i m a ge r y, i nc l udi ng m e t a phor a r t i s t i c he a l t h, a nd s pont a ne ous i m a ge s of da nc e r s ( F i s h e t a l 2004; M ons m a & O ve r by, 2004; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) or c l a s s i c a l m us i c i a ns ( G r e gg e t a l 2008) U s i ng t he S I Q or ot he r i m a ge r y i ns t r u m e nt s di d not s e e m t o be a bl e t o a de qua t e l y r e pr e s e nt t he e nt i r e pi c t ur e o f how s i nge r s us e i m a ge r y. G r e gg a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2008) a da pt e d t he S por t I m a ge r y Q ue s t i onna i r e ( S I Q ) ( H a l l e t a l 1998; H a l l e t a l 2005) f or us e w i t h m us i c i a ns r e s ul t i ng i n t he F unc t i ons of I m a ge r y i n M us i c Q u e s t i onna i r e ( F I M Q ) A l t hough us i ng

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25 t hi s i ns t r um e nt unc ove r e d m a ny s i m i l a r i t i e s be t w e e n i m a ge r y us e by m us i c i a ns a nd a t hl e t e s i t f a i l e d t o r e ve a l m a ny a s pe c t s of m us i c i a ns i m a ge r y, pa r t i c ul a r l y a udi t or y s e ns e i m a ge r y a nd m us i c a l a nd a r t i s t i c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd f unc t i ons T he r e f or e t he m o r e br oa dl y ba s e d e xpl or a t or y i nqui r y of t he f ou r W s o f i m a ge r y us e of M unr oe a nd ot he r s ( 2000) a nd N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) w a s c hos e n f or t he pur pos e of unde r s t a ndi ng t he us e of i m a ge r y by pr o f e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s S e ve r a l i nve s t i ga t i ons ha ve f oc us e d on m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s us e o f i m a ge r y i n e l i t e br a s s or c he s t r a l i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s ( T r us he i m 1 987) a nd t op voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l s ( C a r t e r 1993 ) A l t hough t he s e s t udi e s w e r e e x t e ns i ve a nd va l ua bl e t he s e r e s e a r c he r s us e d a r t i s t i c a nd c r e a t i ve f r a m e w or ks of i m a ge r y a nd i nc l ude d onl y m i ni m a l r e s e a r c h of i m a ge r y i n s por t ps yc hol ogy. B e l l on s ( 2006) s t udy e xa m i ne d t he c or r e l a t i ons of s pe c i f i c m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s a nd t he i r i nc or por a t i on of t he m a i n e l e m e nt s of s por t ps yc hol ogy, o f w hi c h i m a ge r y w a s a pa r t T he s e s t udi e s w e r e e xa m i ne d i ndi vi dua l l y w i t h r e ga r d t o t he i r r e l e va nc e t o i m a ge r y us e i n voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l s a nd i n r e l a t i on t o t he f ou r W s f r a m e w or k i n t he f ol l ow i ng c ha pt e r Si gni f i c anc e of t he S t udy I t w a s a nt i c i pa t e d t ha t t he pr e s e nt s t udy m i gh t pr o vi de i m por t a nt c ont r i but i ons t o t he l i t e r a t ur e on voc a l pe r f or m a nc e p r a c t i c e w i t h i m pl i c a t i ons a bout i t s a ppl i c a t i on i n voc a l pe da gogy. A s a n out g r ow t h of F r e ud s ps yc hoa na l ys i s a nd b e ha vi or i s m i n t he 1960s a nd 1970s M a s l ow s ( 1968, 1971) hum a ni s t i c ps yc hol ogy pr om ot e d t he t r e nd of hum a n pot e nt i a l m ove m e nt i n s por t a nd l a t e r a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s A f t e r de c a de s of r e s e a r c h a nd t r a i ni ng i n t he a ppl i c a t i ons o f i m a ge r y f or a c hi e vi ng pe r f o r m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e i n s por t s m us i c r e s e a r c he r s a s w e l l a s pe da gogue s ha d r e c e nt l y be gun t o r e c ogni z e t he

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26 pot e nt i a l f or s i m i l a r s uc c e s s i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e us i ng t he s e s i m i l a r c ogni t i ve m e t hods ( C a l dw e l l & W a l l 2001C onnol l y, 2002; C onnol l y & W i l l i a m on 2 004; D a ym e 2005) I nve s t i ga t or s a nd ps yc hol ogi s t s w ho ha d e x pe r i e nc e a nd unde r s t a ndi ng i n t he pos i t i ve e f f e c t s of i m a ge r y w e r e f ound t o be de m ons t r a t i ng a ne w t ha t pe opl e t u t or e d i n t he us e of i m a ge r y s ki l l s c a n pe r f o r m a t r e m a r ka bl e l e ve l s i n c om pa r i s on t o t hos e c om m on t o r ot e l e a r ni ng s i t ua t i ons ( S he e ha n, 197 2, p xi v) I t w a s s ugge s t e d t ha t by a ppl yi ng t he a dva nc e s a c hi e ve d i n t he r e s e a r c h of i m a ge r y i n s por t ps yc hol ogy ove r t he pa s t f or t y ye a r s ( M or r i s e t a l 2005; M ur phy e t a l 2008) s i nge r s us e s of i m a ge r y w oul d c om pa r e f a vor a bl y a nd t he r e f or e a ppr opr i a t e f i ndi ngs i n s por t s a nd da nc e r e s e a r c h c oul d be a ppl i e d i n voc a l pr ogr a m s a nd s i ngi ng pr a c t i c e s S e a s hor e ( 1939) r e c ogni z e d t he i m por t a nc e of i nc l udi ng a ppl i e d ps yc hol ogy a nd ot he r s c i e nc e s i n v oc a l pe r f or m a nc e I n a n e f f or t t o m e r ge s c i e nt i f i c i nnova t i on w i t h voi c e de ve l opm e nt he i nv i t e d voc a l pe da gogue s t o i nc or por a t e t he ne w de ve l opm e nt s i n s c i e nc e w i t h voc a l t r a i ni ng i n t he hope s o f e nha nc i ng t hi s a nc i e nt a r t H e s t a t e d: T he s c i e nc e of voi c e d r a w s upon m a ny f unda m e nt a l s c i e nc e s ; not a bl y phys i c s phys i ol ogy, a na t om y, a nt hr opol ogy ne ur ol ogy a nd ps yc hol ogy. . [ I ] t ha s be c om e t he f unc t i on o f ps yc hol ogy t o i nt e gr a t e t he s e ba s i c s c i e nt i f i c a ppr oa c he s i nt o a n a ppl i e d s c i e nc e w hi c h w e m a y c a l l t he ps yc hol ogy of voc a l a r t s ( p 340) O ve r t he ye a r s e xt e ns i ve r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d t o t hi s e nd ( D e ut s c h, 1999) W i t h t he e xc e pt i on of s e ve r a l s t udi e s ( B e l l on 2006; C a r t e r 1993; G r e gg e t a l 2008 ) t he r e s e a r c he r w a s onl y a w a r e of a pa uc i t y o f i nve s t i g a t i ons f oc us i ng on t he ps yc hol ogy o f i m a ge r y us e i n m us i c a l a nd s i ngi ng pe r f o r m a nc e I t w a s hope d t ha t t hi s s t udy w oul d he l p br i dge t he ga p of i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n s por t a nd da nc e w i t h m us i c a nd voc a l pe r f or m a nc e

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27 r e s e a r c h. I n e xa m i ni ng t he us e s of i m a ge r y i n s ol o voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s f i ndi ngs w e r e c om pa r e d w i t h t hos e i n s por t a nd da nc e t he r e s ul t s of w hi c h c oul d be a ppl i e d i n t he voc a l t r a i ni ng p r ogr a m s G e ne r a l l y, m us i c s t ude nt s ha ve be e n l e f t t o t he i r o w n de vi c e s a s t o how t o m e nt a l l y c ope w i t h t he m a ny c ha l l e nge s t he y ha d t o f a c e i n t he i r t r a i ni ng ( C ha pm a n, 2006; D a ym e 2006; E m m ons & T hom a s 1998; F r e ym ut h, 1999) A num be r of c ogni t i ve a s pe c t s of m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e m a y ha ve a di r e c t r e l a t i ons hi p t o s por t c onc e r ns s uc h a s l e a r ni ng a nd pe r f e c t i n g s ki l l s a nd s t r a t e gi e s s e t t i n g a nd a c hi e vi ng goa l s p r e ve nt i ng o r gr a ppl i ng w i t h a r ous a l pr obl e m s a nd pe r f o r m a nc e a nxi e t y. I t w a s s ugge s t e d t ha t i n i de nt i f yi ng a nd a na l yz i ng t he s pe c i a l m e nt a l s ki l l s a nd pr a c t i c e s of pr o f e s s i ona l m us i c i a ns a nd s i nge r s t e a c he r s pr of e s s or s a nd c o a c he s m a y be be t t e r pr e pa r e d t o t r a i n a nd e qui p t he i r s t ude nt s w i t h t he s ki l l s ne c e s s a r y f or opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e a s ha s be e n pr a c t i c e d i n s por t s t r a i n i ng f o r de c a de s I f i m a ge r y c oul d be us e d s uc c e s s f ul l y t o de a l w i t h t he nor m a l ps yc hol ogi c a l t e c hni c a l or a f f e c t i ve pr obl e m s t ha t a r i s e i n t he p r a c t i c e a nd pe r f or m a nc e o f s i ngi ng, m a ny m o r e t a l e nt e d m us i c i a ns a nd s i nge r s c oul d e nj oy a nd pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he pr of e s s i on i n w hi c h t he y m a y ha ve e xc e pt i ona l t a l e nt T he ga p i n voc a l r e s e a r c h of a ddr e s s i ng t he ps yc hol ogi c a l c ons i de r a t i ons r e l a t e d t o i m a ge r y us e of s i nge r s c oul d be gi n t o be f i l l e d a s s i s t i ng f ut ur e ge ne r a t i on s of pe r f o r m e r s i n a c hi e vi ng e xc e l l e nc e I t w a s a l s o pos s i bl e t ha t i m pl e m e nt i ng e a r l y t r a i ni ng i n i m a ge r y c oul d a s s i s t s i nge r s i n c opi ng w i t h pr e vi ous l y i ns ur m ount a bl e bl oc ks t ha t c oul d be a l l e vi a t e d a nd pos s i bl y e l i m i na t e d a l l t oge t he r W hi l e voc a l pe da gogue s ha ve be gun i nc l udi ng s o m e m e nt a l a s pe c t s of s i ngi ng i n t he i r t e xt s ( C a l dw e l l & W a l l 2001; C ha pm a n, 200 6; E m m ons & T ho m a s 1998;

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28 W i l l i a m on, 2004 ) e xpl or a t or y s t udi e s s uc h a s t hi s c oul d a dd t o t he gr ow i ng body o f r e s e a r c h on t he us e s of i m a ge r y i n m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s F e w i nve s t i ga t i ons ha ve be e n c onduc t e d on t he us e of i m a ge r y by voc a l i s t s ba s e d on i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n s por t ps yc hol ogy ( B e l l on 2006; G r e gg e t a l 2008; S t e dm a n, 1985) G a i ni ng a n unde r s t a ndi ng of pr o f e s s i ona l s i nge r s e xpe r i e nc e a nd us e of i m a ge r y c oul d a s s i s t voc a l t e a c he r s a nd s t ude nt s i n a ppl yi ng e f f e c t i ve p r a c t i c e s s ki l l s a nd c onc e pt s i n c r e a t i ve l y us i ng i m a ge r y t o r e a c h be yond s ki l l pr of i c i e nc y a nd a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e i n t he p r of e s s i ona l a r e na A s t udy s uc h a s t hi s c oul d c ont r i but e t o f a c i l i t a t i ng a nd unde r s t a ndi ng how i m a ge r y us e c a n e nha nc e voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e T he f i ndi ngs c oul d pos s i bl y e xt e nd i nt o ot he r f or m s of m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e a nd t r a i ni ng c ont r i but i ng t o t he body of l i t e r a t ur e i n i m a ge r y us e f or opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e A f ul l i n qui r y i nt o i m a ge r y us e s i n pr o f e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s c oul d be ne f i t t he body of know l e dge i n a l l t hr e e a r e a s : s por t da nc e a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e e s pe c i a l l y i n a ppl i e d f i e l ds a nd t r a i ni ng pr ogr a m s D e f i ni t i ons of T e r m s T he f ol l ow i ng i s a l i s t of t e r m s pe r t i ne nt t o t hi s s t udy a nd i s not m e a nt t o r e pr e s e nt ge ne r a l us e of i m a ge r y, s por t ps yc hol ogy m us i c a l or vo c a l pe r f or m a nc e T he t e r m s a nd t he i r de f i ni t i ons a r e l i s t e d i n a l pha be t i c a l or de r A udi at i on w a s a t e r m c oi ne d by G or don ( 1976 20 03a ) w ho r e j e c t e d t he l a be l of audi t or y i m age be c a us e of i t s c onnot a t i on w i t h t he vi s ua l s e ns e a nd l a c k of i t s a bi l i t y t o de s c r i be t he i nt e r na l p r oc e s s of m us i c c ogni t i on. H e de f i ne d audi at i on i n t he f ol l ow i ng w a y: A udi a t i on i s t o m us i c w ha t t hought i s t o l a ngua ge A udi a t i on t a ke s pl a c e w he n w e he a r a nd unde r s t a nd i n our m i nds m us i c t ha t w e ha ve j us t he a r d pe r f or m e d o r

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29 ha ve he a r d pe r f or m e d s om e t i m e i n t he pa s t . . W e a l s o a udi a t e w he n w e he a r a nd unde r s t a nd i n our m i nds m us i c t ha t w e m a y or m a y not ha ve he a r d but a r e r e a di ng i n not a t i on or a r e c om pos i ng o r i m p r ovi s i n g. W e m a y a udi a t e w hi l e w e a r e r e a di ng m us i c ( G or don 1999 p 41 ) A udi at i on w a s a l s o de f i ne d a s t he pr oc e s s of i n t e r n a l l y he a r i ng a nd unde r s t a ndi ng m us i c a l e l e m e nt s s uc h a s r hyt hm pi t c h a nd t ona l i t y i n s e que nc e s a nd pa t t e r ns ( G or don 1993) A udi a t i on di f f e r e d f r om i nne r he a r i ng or au r al i z i ng ( K a r pi ns ki 2000) p i t c h i nt e r nal i z at i on ( K l onos ki 2003) a nd audi t or y i m a ge r y i n t ha t i t de a l t w i t h e l e m e nt s a nd pa t t e r ns of m us i c a l s ounds t ha t ha d m e a ni ng a nd r e qui r e d unde r s t a ndi ng i n c ont e xt ( K l onos ki 2003) ( A udi t or y i m a ge r y i s f ur t he r de f i ne d l a t e r i n t he s e de f i ni t i o ns ) B ody i m age w a s i de nt i f i e d a s a n i ndi vi dua l s m e nt a l c onc e pt of t he e xt e r na l phys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e of t he i r body ( N or d i n & C um m i ng, 2005 ) S i nge r s bod y i m a ge c oul d di f f e r i n how t he y r e ga r de d t he m s e l ve s on or of f s t a ge ( C a r t e r 1993) C ogni t i v e ps y c hol o gy w a s de f i ne d a s t he s t udy of t he pr oc e s s w he r e by pe opl e t r a ns f or m e d, r e duc e d, e l a bor a t e d s t or e d, r e c ove r e d, a nd us e d s e ns or y i nput ( N e i s s e r 1976) G oal s w e r e i m a ge s of c onc e pt s s ki l l s or be ha vi or s t ha t w e r e c r e a t e d a nd he l d f o r f ut ur e a c hi e ve m e nt e x e m pl i f i e d i n t he c ha r ge [ b] e gi n w i t h t he e nd i n m i nd ( C ove y, 1989, p 95) G oa l s i n pe r f o r m a nc e or c om pe t i t i on w e r e s e pa r a t e d i nt o out c om e pe r f or m anc e a nd pr oc e s s o O ut c om e goa l s t ypi c a l l y f oc us on a c om pe t i t i ve r e s ul t of a n e ve nt s uc h a s w i nni ng a r a c e e a r ni ng a m e da l or s c or i ng m or e p oi nt s t ha n a n oppone nt

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30 ( W e i nbe r g & G oul d 1999 p 308 ) S i nge r s s e t goa l s a nd w or ke d f o r m a ny ye a r s s t r i vi ng t o w i n c ove t e d c om pe t i t i ons a nd r ol e s o P e r f or m anc e goa l s f oc us on a c hi e vi ng s t a nda r ds or pe r f o r m a nc e obj e c t i ve s i nde pe nde nt l y of ot he r c om pe t i t or s us ua l l y m a ki n g c om pa r i s ons w i t h one s ow n pr e vi ous pe r f o r m a nc e s ( W e i nbe r g & G oul d 1999, p 308) I ndi vi dua l s w e r e m or e a bl e t o c ont r ol t he a c hi e ve m e nt o f t he s e t ype s of goa l s t ha n out c om e goa l s F or voc a l i s t s t he s e goa l s m a y ha ve i nc l ude d pr e s e nt i ng a c ha r a c t e r i n ope r a i n a w a y m or e be l i e va bl e t o a n a udi e nc e or pol i s hi ng a pa r t i c ul a r voc a l s ki l l t hr oughout a c onc e r t o P r oc e s s goa l s f oc us on a c t i ons a n i ndi vi dua l m us t e nga ge i n du r i ng pe r f or m a nc e t o e xe c ut e o r pe r f or m w e l l ( W e i nbe r g & G oul d 1999 p 308 ) G a i ni ng be t t e r b r e a t h c ont r ol on a s pe c i f i c s e c t i on of a n a r i a w oul d be c ons i de r e d a s i nge r s pr oc e s s goa l I m age r y de r i ve d f r om s e ve r a l L a t i n t e r m s i m ago a l i ke ne s s i m i t ar i t o i m i t a t e i m agi ne r t o i m a gi ne t h i nk, a nd i m agi n at us t o pi c t ur e one s s e l f ( S ke a t 1943, p 282) F or m a ny ye a r s R i c ha r ds on s ( 1969 ) de f i ni t i on s e t t he s t a nda r d i n t he m a j or i t y of r e s e a r c h s t udi e s pa r t i c ul a r l y i n s por t p s yc hol ogy ( s e e de f i ni t i on i n I nt r oduc t i on) T he f o l l ow i ng r e p r e s e nt e d a c om pr e he ns i ve de f i ni t i on of i m a ge r y us e i n s por t ps yc hol ogy: I m a ge r y i s i nt r i gui ng f or i t s c l os e r e l a t i ons hi p t o p e r c e pt i on a nd a c t i on. I t i s s uc h a r i c h m e m or y s ys t e m m a t c hi ng t he c om pl e xi t y of i nf or m a t i on pr e s e nt e d by t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd c ont a i ne d i n t he e xe c ut i on of m o t or s ki l l s I m a ge s bi nd pe r s ona l t hought s a nd e m ot i ons t o e xpe r i e nc e . . I m a ge r y c a n be c r e a t i ve a l l ow i ng one t o

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31 e xpe r i e nc e a t t i t ude s a nd a c t i ons m e nt a l l y i n w a ys t ha t ha ve not ye t be e n e nc ount e r e d i n r e a l pe r f or m a nc e ( S i m ons 2000 p 92) I m a ge r y ha s ha d m a ny ot he r t e r m s s uc h a s pi c t ur e l i ke vi s ua l i m a gi na t i ons c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on, i de a t i ona l f unc t i oni ng i n t r os pe c t i on, i m a gi na r y pr a c t i c e i m pl i c i t pr a c t i c e c onc e pt ua l i z i ng pr a c t i c e s of a t r a i ni ng s y m bol i c r e he a r s a l vi s ua l i z a t i on, a nd m a ny ot he r s ( M ur phy & M a r t i n 2002) I m age r y abi l i t y w a s de f i ne d a s a n i ndi vi dua l s c a pa c i t y of f or m i ng vi vi d, c ont r ol l a bl e i m a ge s a nd r e t a i ni ng t he m f or s uf f i c i e nt t i m e t o e f f e c t t he de s i r e d i m a ge r y r e he a r s a l ( M or r i s 1997 p 37 ) A bi l i t y t o i m a gi n e a nd m a ni pul a t e i m a ge s c oul d be de ve l ope d ove r t i m e w i t h a n i ndi vi dua l s c ons c i ous e f f or t a nd s uppor t f r om a know l e dge a bl e gui de F or t he pu r pos e s of t hi s s t ud y, i m age r y abi l i t y a l s o i nc l ude d i m a ge r y c ont r ol l a bi l i t y d i r e c t i on, de l i be r a t i on a nd t he de gr e e o f vi vi dne s s o C ont r ol l abi l i t y r e f e r r e d t o t he c a pa c i t y o f t he i ndi vi dua l t o ge ne r a t e not onl y vi vi d but a l s o pe r s i s t e nt i m a ge s ye t pe r s i s t e nt onl y f o r t he t i m e t he y s houl d be us e d, t ha t i s bot h pe r s i s t e nt a nd i nt e r r up t a bl e [ s i c ] on r e que s t ( D e ni s 1985, p. 8S ) C ont r o l l a bi l i t y de a l t w i t h ho w e a s i l y a n i m a ge w a s m a ni pul a t e d by t he i n t e nt i ons of t he i ndi vi dua l o D i r e c t i on of i m a ge r y w a s w he t he r t he i m a ge w a s h e l pf ul a nd f a c i l i t a t i ve or hur t f ul a nd de bi l i t a t i ve t o t he pe r s on i m a gi ni ng ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) o D e l i be r at i on of i m a ge r y w a s de gr e e t o w hi c h t he i ndi vi dua l s pont a ne ous l y or pur pos e f ul l y c r e a t e d t he i m a ge ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005 )

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32 o V i v i dne s s c onnot e d c l a r i t y of de t a i l w hi c h ha s ha d i m pl i c a t i ons on i n t e r na l pr oc e s s i ng. V i vi d i m a ge r s l e a r ne d m or e t ha n poor i m a ge r s ( M a r ks 1977) M e nt al pr ac t i c e ( M P ) w a s a s pe c i f i c t ype of i m a ge r y w he r e i n t he pe r s on i m a gi ne d m ot or m ove m e nt s a nd c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s t hought a bout t he a c t i vi t y, pr a c t i c e d va r i ous a s pe c t s of a s ki l l bot h a t t he i ni t i a l s t a ge s of l e a r ni ng t hr ough t he e nd s t a ge s of pe r f or m a nc e w i t hout e xt e r na l or phys i c a l m ove m e nt ( D e ni s 1985 ) M e t aphor i c i m age r e f e r r e d t o t he t r a ns f e r e nc e o f w or d m e a ni ngs i n r e l a t i on t o i s s ue s c onc e pt s or e ve n s ki l l s t ha t c oul d not r e a di l y, f u l l y, or a c c ur a t e l y be de s c r i be d i n f a c t ua l t e r m s I t w a s de r i ve d f r o m t he G r e e k m e t aphe r e i n t o c a r r y ove r m e a ni ng a f i gur e of s pe e c h c ont a i ni ng a n i m p l i e d c om pa r i s on i n w hi c h a w o r d or phr a s e or di na r i l y a nd pr i m a r i l y us e d of one t hi ng i s a ppl i e d t o a not h e r ( G ur a l ni k 1982 p 893 ) I t a l s o c a m e f r om t he L a t i n w or d m e t aphor a m e a ni ng a t r a ns f e r r i ng o f a w o r d f r om i t s pr ope r s i gni f i c a t i on t o a not he r ( S ke a t 1943, p. 365) M e t aphor i c i m age w a s us e d e xt e ns i ve l y i n e f f e c t i ve e xpr e s s i on i n voc a l a nd i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c ( B a r t e n, 1992, 1998) A n e xa m pl e of t he us e of i m a ge r y i n voc a l pr oduc t i on w a s : T he pr oj e c t i on of i m a ge r y f a l l s unde r t w o ge ne r a l he a di ngs : m i m i c r y a nd s e ns ua l a w a r e ne s s I n t he f i r s t c a t e gor y, di r e c t i ve s s uc h a s i m i t a t e a s t e a m boa t w hi s t l e or pr oduc e a hoot y t one qua l i t y a r e of t e n us e f ul i n t he c onc e pt ua l i z a t i on of a pu r e f a l s e t t o ( R e i d, 1983 p 156 ) M or e t r a di t i ona l m e t a phor s us e d by s i nge r s i nc l ud e B r e a t he i n a s i f s m e l l i ng a r os e . . B r e a t he i n a s i f be gi nn i ng a ya w n . . B r e a t he i n a s i f dr i nk i ng a g l a s s of w a t e r ( M c K i nne y, 1994, p. 55 56)

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33 M ode l i ng w a s a l s o know n a s vi c a r i ous e xpe r i e nc e i de nt i f i e d i n B a ndur a s ( 1977 ) s oc i a l l e a r ni ng a nd s e l f e f f i c a c y t he or i e s a s one of t he c om pone nt s of s uc c e s s f ul pe r f or m a nc e e xpe c t a t i ons I t w a s r e f e r r e d t o a s : a pr oc e s s i n w hi c h obs e r ve r s c opy or r e pr oduc e be ha vi or s or a c t i ons de m ons t r a t e d by ot he r s T he i de a i s t ha t i m a gi n i ng one s e l f pe r f or m i ng a t a s k s uc c e s s f ul l y i s s i m i l a r t o obs e r vi ng s om e one e l s e pe r f or m t he s ki l l ( m ode l i ng, or ove r t l y pe r f o r m i ng t he s ki l l ( pa s t e xpe r i e nc e ) a nd t he r e f or e pr ovi de s r e i nf or c e m e nt a nd i nc r e a s e d e xpe c t a t i ons of s uc c e s s ( M or r i s e t a l p 48 ) M ot i v at i on r e f e r r e d t o t he hypot he t i c a l c ons t r uc t us e d t o de s c r i be t he i nt e r na l a nd/ or e xt e r na l f or c e s t ha t p r oduc e t he i ni t i a t i on, d i r e c t i on, i n t e ns i t y a nd pe r s i s t e nc e of be ha vi or ( V a l l e r a nd & T hi l l c i t e d i n S hor t e t a l 2006, p 54) M ot i va t i on i n t h i s s t udy i nc l ude d t he e ne r gy ga t he r e d t o i ns pi r e dr i ve a nd e nt hus i a s m t o a c c om pl i s h s om e a c t i on, t a s k, f e a t or pe r f or m a nc e O pt i m al e x pe r i e nc e a l s o know n a s f l ow w a s a t e r m c oi ne d by C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi ( 1990) t he s t a t e o f m i nd i n w hi c h pe opl e a r e s o i n vol ve d i n a n a c t i vi t y t ha t no t hi ng e l s e s e e m s t o m a t t e r ( p. 4) a nd be i ng i n t he z one or t he f e e l i ng of pe r f o r m a n c e e xc e l l e nc e ( s e e di s c us s i on i n I nt r oduc t i on e a r l i e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r ) P e r c e pt i on s t e m m e d f r om t he L a t i n pe r c i pi e r e t o t a ke hol d o f . t o be c om e a w a r e of t hr oug h s i ght he a r i ng, t ouc h, t a s t e o r s m e l l ( G ur a l ni k, 1984 p 1054) P e r c e pt i on i s t he l a r ge r pr oc e s s of m a ki ng m e a ni n gf ul s e ns e out of s e ns a t i on ( K l i nge r 1981, p 2) T hi s di f f e r e d f r om i m a gi na t i on i n w hi c h t he i ndi vi dua l w a s not r e s pondi ng di r e c t l y w i t h a ny one of t he s e ns e s t o s t i m ul i i n t he e nvi r onm e nt N e i s s e r ( 1972) a r gue d t ha t i m a ge r y l a y a t t he i n t e r s e c t i on of m e m or y a n d pe r c e pt i on ( p 233 )

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34 P e r s pe c t i v e i n i m a ge r y r e f e r r e d t o how t he i t e m or oc c ur r e nc e w a s be i ng e xpe r i e nc e d, t ha t i s e i t he r i nt e r na l l y o r e xt e r na l l y o I nt e r nal i m age r y w a s t he f i r s t pe r s on pe r s pe c t i ve ( D e ni s 1985 ) or i nvol ve m e nt i m a ge r y ( L a ne 1980 ) r e qui r i ng a n a ppr oxi m a t i on o f t he r e a l l i f e phe nom e nol ogy s uc h t ha t t he pe r s on a c t ua l l y i m a g i ne s be i ng i ns i de hi s / he r body a nd e xpe r i e nc i ng t hos e s e ns a t i ons w hi c h m i ght be e xpe c t e d i n t he a c t ua l s i t ua t i on ( M a hone y & A ve ne r 1977, p. 137) I m a gi ni ng t he e xpe r i e nc e f r om t he f i r s t pe r s on pe r s pe c t i ve w hi c h e na bl e s t he s i nge r t o r e pl i c a t e a pe r f or m a nc e of pr a c t i c e s i t ua t i on u t i l i z i ng ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y ( M oye r 1992) o E x t e r nal i m age r y i nvol ve d t he t hi r d pe r s on pe r s p e c t i ve ( D e ni s 1985) or s pe c t a t or i m a ge r y ( L a ne 1980) i n w hi c h a pe r s o n vi e w e d hi m s e l f / he r s e l f a s a n out s i de obs e r ve r a s i f w a t c hi ng a vi de o ( E ps t e i n, 1 980; H a l e 1982; M a hone y & A ve ne r 1977) P r of e s s i onal s i nge r / v oc al i s t f or t he pur pos e s of t h i s s t u dy, w a s a m a l e o r f e m a l e s i nge r t r a i ne d a t a uni ve r s i t y or c ons e r va t or y, w ho ha d e a r ne d a t l e a s t ha l f o f hi s l i ve l i hood by s i ngi ng s ol o i n publ i c T he s e pa r t i c ul a r s i nge r s ha d pe r f o r m e d pr of e s s i ona l l y i n va r yi ng ve nue s i nc l udi ng ope r a r e c i t a l c l a s s i c a l c onc e r t a nd c ha m be r w or ks f or a t l e a s t f our c ons e c ut i ve ye a r s Se l f t al k w a s a n i ndi vi dua l s i nt e r na l v e r ba l i z a t i o ns or s t a t e m e nt s a ddr e s s e d t o t he s e l f . . s e r vi ng a t l e a s t t w o f unc t i ons ; i ns t r uc t i ona l a nd m ot i va t i ona l ( H a r dy, 2005, p. 84) T he s e w e r e m e nt a l di r e c t i ons or c om m e nt s a s i nge r pr oc e s s e d i nt e r na l l y. Se ns e i m age r y w a s c a t e gor i z e d i nt o s i x di f f e r e nt di vi s i ons : ( a ) vi s ua l or s i ght ; ( b) a udi t or y, o r he a r i ng; ( c ) ki ne s t he t i c o r bodi l y f e e l i ng; ( d) t a c t i l e or f e e l i ng o f t ouc h; ( e )

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35 ol f a c t or y, or s m e l l a nd ( f ) gus t a t or y, or t a s t e T he t hr e e s e ns e s : vi s ua l a udi t or y, ki ne s t he t i c a nd c om bi ni ng s e ve r a l o f t he s e w e r e m os t r e por t e d i n m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e s t udi e s ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993 ; T r us he i m 198 7) a nd a r e f ur t he r de f i ne d he r e : o V i s ual i m age r y c onnot e d t he us e of t he s e ns e of s i ght t o s e e a s c e ne f r o m e i t he r t he i nt e r na l or e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve ( s e e pe r s pe c t i v e de f i ni t i on a bove ) I t i nc l ude d t he m ode o f vi s ua l r e p r e s e nt a t i on of obj e c t s a nd a c t i ons o A udi t or y i m age r y a l s o know n a s aur al i z at i on ( M a r t i n, 1952 ) r e pr e s e nt e d he a r i ng s ounds i nt e r na l l y w he n t he y w e r e not pr e s e nt i nc l udi ng a udi e nc e a ppl a us e e nvi r onm e nt a l s ounds a nd ot he r m us i c a l a nd nonm us i c a l s ounds I n m us i c a udi t or y i m a ge r y a s s um e d t he s e i nt e r na l s ounds t o be va r i ous a s pe c t s of m us i c a l pr oduc t i on s uc h a s t one r hyt h m a nd t i m b r e ( S e a s hor e 1938/ 1967) I n t he m us i c i a n, a udi t o r y i m a ge r y w a s m os t de ve l ope d w he n i t be c a m e audi at i on ( G or don 199 9) ( s e e t hi s de f i n i t i on a bove ) o K i ne s t he t i c i m age r y a l s o know n a s ki ne s t he t i c s i m ul a t i on ( H a c kf or d & M unz e r t 2005, pp. 4 5) w a s de r i ve d f r o m K i ne s t he s i a : G r e e k k i ne i n t o m ove a nd ae s t he s i s pe r c e pt i on; a n a w a r e ne s s of m ove m e nt t h r ough s e ns e i m pr e s s i on s c a us e d by c ha nge s i n t he i nt e r na l s t a t e of t he body ( R e i d, 1983, p. 169) A c c or di ng t o C a l l ow a nd W a t e r s ( 2005) ki ne s t he t i c m ode w a s : [ i ] m a ge r y i nvol vi ng t he s e ns a t i ons of how i t f e e l s t o pe r f o r m a n a c t i on, i nc l udi ng t he f or c e a nd e f f or t i nvol ve d i n m ove m e nt a nd ba l a nc e a nd s pa t i a l l oc a t i on ( e i t he r o f a body pa r t or pi e c e of s por t s

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36 e qui pm e nt ) ( pp 444 445 ) G nt he r ( 1992b) e xpa nde d t hi s de f i ni t i on a s ki ne s t he s i s i s a s e ns uous pe r c e pt i on of t e ns i on i n t he m us c l e s a nd of m ove m e nt i n m us c l e s a nd j oi nt s T he s e s e ns a t i ons a r e r e a l a nd w i t h a n a de qua t e s e ns i t i vi t y c a n c r e a t e a m e nt a l i m a ge w hi c h one c a n us e i n s i ngi ng ( p. 4 ) o C hr om e s t he s i a w a s a m ul t i s e ns or y i m a ge r e po r t e dl y e xpe r i e nc e d by m us i c i a ns I t w a s de f i ne d a s c ol or e d he a r i ng, a pa r t i c ul a r f o r m o f s yne s t he s i a i n w hi c h c ol or i m a ge s ( phot i s m s ) a r e e voke d by a udi t or y s t i m ul i ( P ol z e l l a & K una 1981, p. 165) Sk i l l s w e r e unde r s t ood on t he c ogni m ot or c ont i nuu m C ogni t i v e a nd m ot or s ki l l s w e r e t hought t o e xi s t on a c ont i nuum f r om c ogni t i v e m e nt a l or c ove r t t o m ot or phys i c a l or ove r t ( F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983; H i ns ha w 1991 ; R i c ha r ds on, 1967a ) o C ogni t i v e or i de at i onal ( S a c ke t t 1934) s k i l l s w e r e t he f unc t i on of m e nt a l i nf or m a t i on p r oc e s s i ng a nd or ga ni z a t i on. I t s t e m m e d f r om t he L a t i n t e r m c ogni t i o, f i nd i ng out a c qui s i t i ons of know l e dge ( S ke a t 1943 p 120 ) C ogni t i v e s ki l l s i nvol ve d t he c ove r t pr oc e s s of t hi n ki ng a nd c om pa r i ng a nd w e r e r e qui r e d i n p r oc e s s i ng pe r c e pt ua l a nd s ym bol i c t a s ks or t hos e w i t hout a ny phys i c a l m ove m e nt o M ot or s ki l l s i nvol ve d ove r t us e of f i ne or gr os s m us c ul a r or phys i c a l m ove m e nt C ogni t i on w a s t he a c t of c onc e i vi ng a n d pr oc e s s i ng t he s e ove r t a c t i ons

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37 D e l i m i t at i ons C r i t e r i a f or s e l e c t i on of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t ud y r e pr e s e nt e d c e r t a i n de l i m i t a t i ons ( s e e C ha pt e r 3) T he c r i t e r i a f o r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t hi s s t udy w e r e l i m i t e d t o s ol o voc a l c l a s s i c a l pe r f or m e r s w ho ha d a t l e a s t f o ur ye a r s of pr of e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e s i ngi ng c l a s s i c a l r e pe r t oi r e i n ope r a o r a t or i o c onc e r t r e c i t a l a nd a r t s ong T he s e w e r e m a l e a nd f e m a l e voc a l i s t s w ho s a ng i n m a j or m e t r opol i t a n a r e a s of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd r e pr e s e nt e d m a ny di f f e r e nt e xpe r i e nc e l e ve l s of s i ngi ng f r om e a r l y i n t he i r c a r e e r t o r e t i r e m e nt T he i r voi c e s r a nge d f r om s opr a no m e z z o, t e nor a nd ba r i t one P a r t i c i pa nt s f r om t h i s popul a t i on w e r e c hos e n be c a us e of t he i r e xt e ns i ve e xpe r i e nc e i n voc a l pe r f or m a nc e a nd t he i r w i l l i ngne s s t o s ha r e t he i r e x pe r i e nc e s of us i ng i m a ge r y i n t he i r pr of e s s i on. T he f i ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy w e r e not i n t e nde d t o be ge ne r a l i z e d t o a ny g r oup be yond t he pa r t i c i pa nt s of t he s t udy. L i m i t at i ons of t he St udy T he r e w e r e a num b e r o f t h r e a t s t o va l i di t y ne e di ng c l a r i f i c a t i on i n t hi s e xpl o r a t or y s t udy. S pe c i f i c a l l y, t he s e c ons i s t e d of ( a ) s a m pl i ng c ons i de r a t i ons ( b) t he l a c k of f or m a l a s s e s s m e nt of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n i m a ge r y a bi l i t y a n d e xpe r i e nc e l e ve l s ( c ) r e s pons e bi a s e s ( d ) i s s ue s of t e m por a l va l i di t y ( e ) t he e l us i ve a nd s ubj e c t i ve na t ur e of i m a ge r y a nd ( f ) r e s e a r c he r bi a s T he s e w e r e i ndi vi dua l l y a d dr e s s e d a nd s t e ps w e r e t a ke n t o m i ni m i z e e a c h t hr e a t S e l e c t i on of pa r t i c i pa nt s f or t hi s s t udy w a s pur pos e f ul a nd i nvol ve d s now ba l l s a m pl i ng of pr o f e s s i ona l s i nge r s f r om va r i ous a r e a s of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T hi s m e t hod w a s de e m e d m or e e f f e c t i ve t ha n r a ndom s a m pl i ng ( P a t t on, 2002) s i nc e t he popul a t i on o f a l l pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r s w a s not a va i l a bl e f o r s e l e c t i on i n t hi s s t udy ( O nw u e gbuz i e 2003 )

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38 T he s a m pl e s i z e w a s r e l a t i ve l y s m a l l a nd m a y not ha ve r e f l e c t e d how t he m a j or i t y of pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r s pr a c t i c e d a nd us e d i m a ge r y i n t he i r pr o f e s s i on. I n o r de r t o a ddr e s s t hi s l i m i t a t i on, s i nge r s w or ki ng i n m a j o r m e t r opol i t a n a r e a s of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s w e r e r e pr e s e nt e d. F ur t he r m or e bot h m a l e a nd f e m a l e v oc a l i s t s w i t h di f f e r e nt l e ve l s of e xpe r i e nc e a nd voi c e t ype s w e r e i nc l ude d a nd t he i r i de nt i t i e s w e r e ke pt c onf i de nt i a l E ve n s o, t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy w e r e l i m i t e d t o t h i s s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt a nd w e r e not ge ne r a l i z a bl e t o t he e nt i r e popul a t i on o f p r of e s s i ona l c l a s s i c a l s ol o s i nge r s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he r e w e r e no f o r m a l i ns t r um e nt s i m p l e m e nt e d t o a s s e s s pa r t i c i pa nt s a bi l i t y or pr e vi ous t r a i ni ng i n i m a ge r y ( M unr oe C ha ndl e r & H a l l 20 04 2005 ) I n a ddr e s s i ng t hi s l i m i t a t i on, s i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e a s ke d t o gi ve de t a i l s of t he i r e a r l y e xpe r i e nc e s a nd t r a i ni ng i n i m a ge r y. A ddi t i ona l l y pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i nvi t e d t o a s s e s s va r i ous a s pe c t s of t he i r i m a ge r y a bi l i t y i nc l ud i ng a c c ur a c y, v i v i dne s s t he i r a bi l i t y t o m a ni pul a t e t he i r i m a ge s a nd w he t he r t he i r i m a ge r y w a s he l pf ul o r hur t f ul T hi s s e l f r e por t e d i nf or m a t i on a l l ow e d t he r e s e a r c he r t o m or e t ho r oughl y a na l yz e a nd i nt e r p r e t t he da t a s e t E a r l y t r a i ni ng a nd e xpe r i e nc e s a s w e l l a s a bi l i t y l e ve l s o f t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s r e pr e s e nt e d f a c t or s t ha t c oul d ha ve i n f l ue nc e d i ndi vi dua l us e a nd f a c i l i t y of i m a ge r y pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he e f f or t t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e ( M a r t i n e t a l 199 9) A pos s i bl e i nt e r na l c r e di bi l i t y t hr e a t m a y ha ve be e n ob s e r va t i ona l bi a s w hi c h oc c ur s w he n t he r e s e a r c he r ha s obt a i ne d a n i ns uf f i c i e nt s a m pl i ng of be ha vi or s or w or ds f r om t he s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s ( O nw ue gbuz i e 2003) T hi s c oul d a l s o be due t o t he l i m i t a t i ons of t he num be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s c hos e n f o r t he s t udy o r i ns uf f i c i e nt t i m e of ga t he r i ng da t a dur i ng e a c h i nt e r vi e w R e vi s i ng a nd a da pt i ng a r e s pe c t e d i nt e r vi e w gui de

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39 us e d i n pr e vi ous s t udi e s of va r i ous popul a t i ons of a t hl e t i c s a nd da nc e f or a pp r opr i a t e us e w i t h s i nge r s a t t e m pt e d t o a ddr e s s t hi s l a t t e r t h r e a t I n a ddi t i on t he s ubj e c t s w e r e i nvi t e d t o c ont r i but e a ns w e r s a t a ny t i m e du r i ng t he i nt e r vi e w or a dd t o t he g i ve n que s t i on i n t he i r ow n w a y F u r t he r m or e i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons w e r e r e pe a t e d a nd r e w or de d t o a s s ur e c om pl e t e r e s pons e s f r om t he i nt e r vi e w e e s M e m be r c he c ki ng w a s a l s o us e d i n a ddr e s s i ng t hi s t hr e a t ( J ohns on & C hr i s t e ns e n, 2004) i n w h i c h e a c h t r a ns c r i be d i nt e r vi e w w a s s e nt t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt f or r e vi s i on a nd e di t i ng. R e s pons e bi a s e s oc c ur r e d w he n s ubj e c t s di s t or t t he i r a ns w e r s t o s e e m m or e f a vor a bl e t o ot he r i m po r t a nt pe opl e s uc h a s c ol l e a gue s t e a c he r s a nd r e s e a r c he r s ( V e l l a B r odr i c k & M a c R a e 2004) T he t w o m os t c om m o n r e s pons e bi a s e s w e r e a c qui e s c e n c e or t he t e nde nc y t o r e s pond i n a c e r t a i n di r e c t i on e i t he r ne ga t i ve or pos i t i ve a nd s oc i a l de s i r a bi l i t y w he r e s ubj e c t s a ns w e r e d i n w ha t t he y t hought t he y s houl d s a y i n or de r t o a ppe a r m or e f a vo r a bl y i n t he e ye s of pe e r s or o t he r pe opl e ( P a t t on 2002; V e l l a B r odr i c k & M a c R a e 2004) I t w a s pos s i bl e t ha t t he pa r t i c i p a nt s f or a ny num be r of r e a s ons di d not w a nt t o r e ve a l a l l pe r t i ne nt i n f or m a t i on r e ga r di ng t he i r us e o f i m a ge r y f or opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e H ow e ve r a n a t t e m pt w a s m a de t o m i ni m i z e t hi s e f f e c t t hr ough t he c onf i de nt i a l i t y of da t a c ol l e c t e d. M e nt a l i m a ge r y w a s a hi ghl y s ubj e c t i ve a nd di f f i c ul t b e ha vi or t o di r e c t l y obs e r ve de s c r i be a nd a na l yz e due t o i t s i nt e r na l a nd pr i va t e c ogni t i ve na t ur e ( M a c ka y, 1981) T he de pe nde nc y on s e l f r e por t m a y ha ve r e s ul t e d i n i na c c ur a c y due t o l a ps e s i n m e m or y r e c a l l l a c k o f unde r s t a ndi ng o f i m a ge r y t e r m s us e d i n t hi s s t udy a nd pos s i bl e di s c om f or t i n s e l f di s c l os ur e T he he a vy r e l i a nc e on a c c ur a c y of s e l f r e po r t m a de r e s ul t s s us pe c t how e ve r t hi s r e m a i ne d t he m os t r e l i a bl e m e t hod i n ga i ni ng a de s c r i pt i ve a nd i n de pt h

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40 unde r s t a ndi ng of i m a ge r y us e i n opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e P r ovi di ng i ni t i a l i m a ge r y de f i ni t i ons a s ki ng ope n e nde d que s t i ons pr obi ng f or f ur t he r r e s pons e s a nd us i ng que s t i ons t ha t c r os s r e f e r e nc e d e a c h s ubj e c t f or t w o di f f e r e nt di r e c t i ons w e r e e m pl oye d t o m i ni m i z e t h i s t hr e a t E ve r y e f f o r t w a s m a de t o a voi d l e a di ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt a nd t he r e s e a r c he r e nde a vor e d t o m a i nt a i n a ne ut r a l s t a nc e a nd a t t i t ude dur i ng t he i n t e r vi e w pr oc e s s A t t he c onc l us i on of t he i nt e r vi e w s t he s e s i nge r s w e r e a s ke d i f t he y ha d be e n l e d i n a ny w a y e i t he r by t he que s t i ons or i n a ny m a nne r of t he i nt e r vi e w e r M a i nt a i ni ng c onf i de nt i a l i t y a l s o a l l ow e d t he s ubj e c t s t o r e s pond m or e hone s t l y a nd a c c ur a t e l y. F ur t he r m or e pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s w e r e c om pa r e d w i t h ot he r s t udi e s of i m a ge r y us e i n a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) da nc e r s ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) voc a l i s t s ( C a r t e r 1993) a nd m us i c i a ns ( B e l l on, 2006; T r us he i m 19 87) A f ur t he r t hr e a t t o e xt e r na l va l i di t y i n t hi s s t udy w a s t e m por a l va l i di t y s i nc e t he r e s ul t s m a y not ha ve be e n f i xe d a c r os s t i m e a nd r e pr e s e nt e d a c r os s s e c t i on o f t he s pe c i f i c popul a t i on ( O nw ue gbuz i e 2003 ) T he t i m e of ye a r i n w hi c h t he i nt e r v i e w s w e r e c onduc t e d ( D e c e m be r 2008 t o F e br ua r y 2009) pr o duc e d a s na ps hot of pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s w or ki ng dur i ng a he i ght e ne d pe r f o r m a nc e s e a s on. S i nge r s m a y ha ve us e d i m a g e r y di f f e r e nt l y i n r e l a t i on t o t he t i m e o f ye a r a nd s e a s on. I n a n a t t e m pt t o m i ni m i z e t hi s pos s i bl e t hr e a t t he i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons w e r e s e nt i n a n e m a i l a t t a c hm e nt t o a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s pr i or t o t he i nt e r vi e w a ppoi nt m e nt i n o r de r t o a s s i s t t he m ga i ni ng f a m i l i a r i t y by pr e vi e w i ng t he de f i ni t i ons que s t i ons a nd p r ob e s A l l of t he i nt e r vi e w s w e r e s c he dul e d a t c onve ni e nt t i m e s de s i gna t e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s dur i ng pe r i ods w hi c h i n no w a y c onf l i c t e d w i t h voc a l i s t s hol i da y c onc e r t s c h e dul e s F ur t he r m o r e t hr oug h m e m be r c he c ki ng, pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gi ve n t he oppor t uni t y t o a m e nd t he i r t r a ns c r i be d i nt e r v i e w s i n

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41 a ny w a y t he y f e l t a ppr opr i a t e i n de s c r i bi ng t he i r us e of i m a ge r y T hi s pr ovi de d t i m e f or t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o c ont e m pl a t e t he i r r e s pons e s a nd gi ve a s c om pl e t e a nd a c c ur a t e a c c ount a s pos s i bl e A s a r e s ul t t he e xpl or a t or y de s i gn of t he s t udy a dde d t o t he e xi s t i ng body o f know l e dge i n t he us e of i m a ge r y i n p r of e s s i ona l voc a l pe r f or m a nc e T he na t ur e o f i nve s t i ga t i ng i m a ge r y i n pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s m a y ha ve pr e s e nt e d i nhe r e nt pr obl e m s w i t h va l i di t y T e r m i nol ogy of i m a ge r y a nd i t s de f i n i t i ons a s us e d i n t hi s s t udy w e r e not un i ve r s a l s i nc e s i nge r s r e ga r de d i m a ge r y di f f e r e nt l y f r om s por t ps yc hol ogi s t s I n a n e f f o r t t o a voi d c on f us i on, e xpl a na t i on of s om e of t he ba s i c t e r m s w a s gi ve n i n t he i nt r oduc t or y l e t t e r a nd e m be dde d i n t h e i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons F u r t he r m or e i t w a s pos s i bl e t ha t t he i nt e r vi e w f o r m a t a nd t he i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w w i t h e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt di d not a de qua t e l y c ove r t he va r i ous t opi c s of i nt e r e s t i n t he us e of i m a ge r y i n s i ngi ng. T he e xt e ns i ve r e vi e w of t he r e l e va nt l i t e r a t u r e a nd a pi l ot s t udy w e r e m a de t o di m i ni s h t hi s t hr e a t T he i nt e r vi e w gui de w a s ba s e d on s e ve r a l s t udi e s i n t he l i ne of r e s e a r c h ga i ni ng i nf or m a t i o n a s t o w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ; N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) T he pi l o t i nt e r v i e w w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d t o a r e gi ona l s i ngi ng pr of e s s i ona l t o de t e r m i ne s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kne s s e s l e a di ng t o m i ni m a l r e vi s i ons a nd r e w or di ngs of a ny a w kw a r d or c on f us i ng que s t i ons T hi s w a s a n i m por t a nt s t e p i n a s s ur i ng t he hi ghe s t c ont e nt r e l a t e d va l i di t y pos s i bl e f o r t he da t a c ol l e c t i on. T he t hr e a t o f r e s e a r c he r bi a s i s i nhe r e nt i n qua l i t a t i ve s t udy a nd w a s a voi de d w he r e ve r pos s i bl e i n or de r t o i nc r e a s e t he t r us t w or t hi ne s s of t hi s s t udy ( A nf a r a B r ow n & M a ngi one 2002; P a t t on, 2002) T hi s t ype o f bi a s ha ppe ns w he n t he r e s e a r c he r ha s pe r s ona l t hought s a bout t he que s t i ons a ns w e r s o r t he ove r a l l s ubj e c t of t he i nqu i r y t ha t m a y ha ve a n e i t he r c ons c i ous or s ubc ons c i ous e f f e c t on t he r e s pons e s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s

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42 ( O nw ue gbuz i e 2003) P e e r de br i e f i ng r i gor ous m e t hodol ogy, a nd a t t e nt i on t o de t a i l w e r e c onduc t e d a nd m a i nt a i ne d a s w e l l a s a voi di n g bi a s i n da t a c ol l e c t i on a na l ys i s a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i on i n or de r t o r e m a i n t r ue t o r e por t i ng t he r e s pons e s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s R i go r i n t hi s r e s e a r c h m a de t he r e s ul t s a nd c onc l us i ons a s va l i d a s pos s i bl e i n t hi s e xpl or a t o r y f or m a t T hi s i nve s t i ga t or ha s ha d c ons i de r a bl e t r a i ni ng a nd e xpe r i e nc e a s a p r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t a s w e l l a s pr i or know l e dge a nd e xpe r i e nc e i n i m a ge r y w hi c h m a y ha ve s e r ve d t o bi a s r e s pons e s i n t he i nt e r vi e w H ow e ve r i t w a s r e a s ona bl e t o e xpe c t t he r e s e a r c he r t o ha ve s om e know l e dge of t he s ubj e c t s he w a s i nve s t i ga t i ng ( P a t t on 2002 ) S ubj e c t i ve l y a na l yz i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t s c a n a l s o i nvi t e p r obl e m s i n ga t he r i ng i nt e r pr e t i ng, a nd r e po r t i ng t h i s i nf or m a t i on, of t e n l e a di ng t o i nve s t i ga t or bi a s F or t hi s r e a s on, de br i e f i ng w i t h pe e r s w a s c onduc t e d t h r ou ghout t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s i n a n e f f or t t o s t r e ngt he n t r us t w or t hi ne s s a nd va l i di t y of t hi s s t udy. A ddi t i ona l l y f our o t he r r e s e a r c he r s w i t h a dva nc e d de gr e e s i n m us i c e duc a t i on a nd t r a i ni ng i n r e s e a r c h m e t hods a s s i s t e d i n t he da t a a na l ys i s a nd i n c a t e gor i z i ng t he r e s ul t s of t he i nt e r vi e w s ( J ohns on & C hr i s t e ns e n, 2004) O r gani z at i on of R e m ai ni ng C hapt e r s C ha pt e r 2 i nc l ude s a n e xt e ns i ve l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w i n t he r e s e a r c h i nvol vi ng t he us e s of i m a ge r y i n t he a t hl e t i c a r t i s t i c a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s i nc l udi ng pe r t i ne nt t he or i e s s t udi e s a nd a ppl i c a t i ons T he f r a m e w or k of t he f our W s o f i m a ge r y us e : w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy a s pr opos e d i n a t hl e t e s ( M un r oe e t a l 2000) a nd da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) i s e xa m i ne d i n r e l a t i ons hi p t o m u s i c a l a nd voc a l pe r f or m e r s us e of i m a ge r y. C ha pt e r 3 pr ovi de s de t a i l s o f t he r e s e a r c h de s i gn, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s m e t hodol ogy da t a c ol l e c t i on pr oc e dur e s a nd m e t hods of a na l ys i s f or t hi s s t udy, i nc l udi ng

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43 l e gi t i m i z a t i on. T he r e s ul t s of t he da t a a na l ys e s a r e pr ovi de d i n C ha pt e r 4 a l ong w i t h t a bl e s a nd f i gur e s E m e r ge nt t he m e s a nd a r e a s of s i m i l a r i t y t o pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h a r e a l s o r e por t e d. T he s um m a r y of t he s t udy i s di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r 5 a s w e l l a s t he m e s i nt e r pr e t a t i ons a nd s i gni f i c a nt f i ndi ngs T he i m pl i c a t i ons f or m us i c a nd voc a l e duc a t i on a r e i nc l ude d, f ol l ow e d by l i m i t a t i ons o f t he s t udy a nd r e c om m e nda t i ons f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h.

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44 C ha pt e r 2 L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w T hi s c ha pt e r pr ov i de s s uppor t f o r unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he f ou r W s f r a m e w or k f o r voc a l i s t s us e of i m a ge r y by dr a w i ng upon t he l i t e r a t ur e pr i m a r i l y f r om s por t ps yc hol ogy ( e g. H a l l e t a l 1998 ; M a r t i n e t a l 1999 ; M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) a nd da nc e r e s e a r c h ( e g N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) T he pa uc i t y of i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n m us i c pe r f or m a nc e l i m i t e d t he a ut ho r s r e f e r e nc e s i n t hi s a r e a t o onl y a s m a l l num be r o f s t udi e s i nc l udi ng t hos e i n i ns t r um e nt a l b r a s s ( T r us he i m 1987) m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e ( B e l l on 2006 ) a nd s i ngi ng ( C a r t e r 1993) T he c ha pt e r be gi ns w i t h a r e vi e w of t he t he or i e s of i m a ge r y e f f e c t i ve ne s s on pe r f or m a nc e f r om ge ne r a l a nd s p or t ps yc hol ogy, w hi c h pr ovi de d t he gr oundw or k i n unde r s t a ndi ng t he v a r i ous a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h. T he n, e a c h que r y i n t he m a i n f r a m e w or k of t he f ou r W s : w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy i s e xa m i ne d i ndi vi dua l l y. R e s ul t s f r om t he m a j or s t udi e s f r om s por t s da nc e a nd m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e a r e a na l yz e d, c om pa r e d, a nd s ynt he s i z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o voc a l p r of e s s i ona l s us e of i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e T he c h a pt e r c onc l ude s w i t h a pr op os e d f r a m e w or k o f i m a ge r y s uppor t i ng t he c ur r e nt s t udy. T he or i e s of I m age r y E f f e c t i v e ne s s on P e r f or m anc e A num be r o f t he or i e s ha ve be e n de ve l ope d ove r t h e ye a r s t o e xpl a i n a nd unde r s t a nd t he unde r l yi ng m e c ha ni s m s of i m a ge r y a nd i t s e f f e c t s on pe r f o r m a nc e F ou r c a t e gor i e s of t he or i e s ha ve be e n i de nt i f i e d pr i m a r i l y i n s por t ps yc hol ogy a s t hos e r e l e va nt t o unde r s t a ndi ng t he w o r ki ngs of i m a ge r y a nd m e n t a l pr a c t i c e : ( a ) e a r l y de ve l opm e nt s

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45 a nd t he or i e s ( b ) c ogni t i ve ba s e d t he or i e s ( c ) ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e s t he or i e s a nd ( d ) f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e t he or y. T he e a r l y de ve l opm e nt s a nd t he or i e s i nc l ude d s e ve r a l hi s t or i c a l i nqui r i e s i nt o i m a ge r y ( C a r p e nt e r 1874, J a m e s 1890) t he ps yc hone ur om us c ul a r t he or y ( J a c obs on, 1930a 19 30b, 1930c 1930d, 1931) a nd s ym bol i c l e a r ni ng t he or y ( S a c ke t t 1934; 1935) T he f oc us of t he s e s t udi e s w a s i n t e s t i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m ot or s ki l l s C ogni t i ve ba s e d t h e or i e s i nc l ude d a f ounda t i on i n t he m e nt a l pr oc e s s e s i nvol ve d i n i m a ge r y. T he s e i nc l u de d P a i vi o s ( 1971 ) dua l c ode t he or y bi o i nf or m a t i ona l t he or y of L a ng ( 1977, 1979a 19 79b) a nd A hs e n s ( 1972, 1984) t r i pl e c ode t he or y. T he or i e s e m pha s i z i ng ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e s s uc h a s a r ous a l a nd m ot i va t i on, i nc l ude d t he B a ndur a s ( 1977 1982 1986 1997 ) s e l f e f f i c a c y t he or y a nd t he a t t e nt i on a r ous a l s e t t he or y of S c hm i dt ( 1982) T he t he or y o f f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e ( D e c e t y, 1996a 1996b; F a r a h, 1984; F i nke 1980 1985 19 89 ; F i nke & S he pha r d 1986; J e a nne r od, 1994, 1995 1999 2006 ) r e pr e s e nt e d t h e ne w e s t de ve l opm e nt s i n i m a ge r y t he or i e s a nd i nvol ve d ne ur oi m a gi ng. F unc t i ona l e q ui va l e nc e s t udi e s f ound t ha t i m a gi ni ng m ot or t a s ks s e e m e d t o r e pl i c a t e t he s a m e m e nt a l p a t t e r ns i nvo l ve d i n p r e pa r i ng t o e xe c ut e t he t a s k. A l t hough t hi s t he or y w a s r e l e va nt t o i m a g e r y i n pe r f or m e r s i t c oul d not be s uppor t e d or di s put e d i n t hi s s t udy. H ow e ve r i t di d of f e r e vi de nc e a nd unde r s t a ndi ng o f i m a ge r y us e be yond w ha t ha s be e n p r e s e nt e d i n pr i or s t udi e s F u r t he r de t a i l s o f t he s e t he or i e s w e r e br i e f l y out l i ne d t o pr ov i de a ba c kgr o und i n unde r s t a ndi ng t he m a j or e l e m e nt s a nd s uppor t i ng r e s e a r c h a s i de nt i f i e d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy ( s e e T a bl e 2)

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46 T a bl e 2 M aj or T he or i e s of E f f e c t s of I m age r y on P e r f or m an c e T he or y T he or i s t s C onc e pt s P s y c h o n e u r o m u s c u l a r T h e o r y C a r p e n t e r ( 1 8 7 4 ) J a m e s ( 1 8 9 0 ) J a c o b s o n ( 1 9 3 0 s ) I m a g e r y o f a m o t o r s k i l l p r o d u c e d m i n u t e m u s c u l a r i n n e r v a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o a c t u a l e x e c u t i o n M u s c u l a r m e m o r y p r o v i d e d f e e d b a c k o f t h a t a c t i o n i m p r o v i n g p e r f o r m a n c e S y m b o l i c L e a r n i n g T h e o r y S a c k e t t ( 1 9 3 4 1 9 3 5 ) I m a g e r y w a s e f f e c t i v e i n l e a r n i n g a n d r e h e a r s i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y c o g n i t i v e t a s k s t h r o u g h s y m b o l s r e p r e s e n t i n g t a s k s i n t h e b r a i n D u a l C o d i n g T h e o r y P a i v i o ( 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 6 ) I m a g e r y r e p r e s e n t e d d u a l c o d i n g m o d e s : i m a g i n a l a n d v e r b a l w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d t h e a c t i o n a n d m e m o r y B i o I n f o r m a t i o n a l T h e o r y L a n g ( 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 9 a 1 9 7 9 b ) I m a g e r y c o n s i s t e d o f s t i m u l u s ( t h e s c e n a r i o ) r e s p o n s e ( e m o t i o n a l a n d p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n s ) a n d m e a n i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s T r i p l e C o d e T h e o r y A h s e n ( 1 9 8 4 ) I m a g e r y w a s c o m p o s e d o f t h r e e e l e m e n t s : i m a g e ( I ) s o m a t i c r e s p o n s e ( S ) a n d m e a n i n g ( M ) S e l f E f f i c a c y T h e o r y B a n d u r a ( 1 9 6 9 1 9 7 7 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 6 ) I m a g e r y o f p e r f o r m a n c e e x c e l l e n c e i n c r e a s e d s e l f e f f i c a c y a n d s e l f e f f i c a c y b e l i e f s r e g u l a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e o u t c o m e s A t t e n t i o n A r o u s a l S e t T h e o r y S c h m i d t ( 1 9 8 2 ) A p p r o p r i a t e i m a g e r y a s s i s t e d p e r f o r m e r s t o a c h i e v e o p t i m a l l e v e l s o f a r o u s a l f o r p e r f o r m a n c e s u c c e s s F u n c t i o n a l E q u i v a l e n c e T h e o r y D e c e t y ( 1 9 9 6 ) J e a n n e r o d ( 1 9 9 4 ) F i n k e ( 1 9 8 0 ) I m a g e r y a n d p e r c e p t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c a c t i o n w e r e f u n c t i o n a l l y e q u i v a l e n t i n t h e s a m e n e u r a l s u b s t r a t e s a c t i o n w a s i n h i b i t e d i n i m a g e r y

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47 E ar l y D e v e l opm e nt s and T he or i e s of I m age r y V a r i ous a s pe c t s of m e nt a l i m a ge r y ha ve be e n i nve s t i ga t e d s i nc e t he e a r l y s t udy of ps yc hol ogy. E xa m i na t i on of t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c i ng a m ot or t a s k be ga n w i t h de ve l opm e nt of t he i de o m ot or pr i nc i pl e ( C a r pe nt e r 1874 ) i n w hi c h i m a ge s or i nt e nt i ons of m us c ul a r a c t i ons pr oduc e d s l i ght ne r ve i m pul s e s J a m e s ( 1890) a r gue d t ha t m e nt a l i m a ge s of a c t i ons w a s pr oduc e d i n s l i ght m us c ul a r di s c ha r ge s ge ne r a t e d i n t he r e l a t e d m us c l e s a nd f ur t he r pos t ul a t e d t ha t by i m a gi ni ng, one c oul d l e a r n t o pe r f o r m s ki l l s w i t hout ove r t pr a c t i c e W a s hbur n ( 1916) s uppor t e d t he a s s um pt i on t ha t m e nt a l r e pr e s e nt a t i ons unde r gi r de d m us c ul a r a c t i vi t y J a c obs on s ( 1930a 1930b 1930c 1930d 1931) s t udi e s w e r e a m ong t he e a r l i e s t t o f or m a l l y i nve s t i ga t e ne ur om us c ul a r e f f e c t s f r om m e nt a l a c t i vi t i e s A c c or di ng t o J a c obs on m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s pr oduc e d a s ub t hr e s hol d a r ous a l of t he no r m a l m o t or ou t put w hi c h w e r e s t r ong e nough t o ge ne r a t e s l i ght ne ur om us c ul a r or ki ne s t he t i c s e ns a t i ons C ont r a r y t o J a c obs on s f i ndi ngs S ha w ( 1938) r e por t e d t ha t e l e c t r o m yogr a phi c ( E M G ) a c t i vi t y du r i ng i m a ge r y w a s di s t r i but e d i n a va r i e t y of m us c l e gr oups not j us t t he one s i nvol ve d i n t he i m a ge r y. P s y c hone ur om u s c ul ar t he or y P s yc hone ur om us c ul a r t he or y w a s one of t he e a r l i e s t t he or i e s a ddr e s s i ng m e nt a l i m a ge r y, w hi c h s t a t e d t ha t m e nt a l p r a c t i c e e f f e c t s w e r e i nt e r ve ne d by m i nut e m us c ul a r m ove m e nt s s ubs e que nt l y r e f l e c t i ve of t he s a m e m us c ul a r a c t i vi t y a s t ha t p r oduc e d dur i ng a c t ua l ph ys i c a l m ot or a c t i vi t y T he s e m us c l e m ove m e nt s pr ovi de d ki ne s t he t i c f e e dba c k s o t ha t f ut ur e a dj us t m e nt s c oul d be m a de ( C or bi n, 197 2; R i c ha r ds on, 1967b ; S c hm i dt 1987 ; S t a r t & R i c ha r ds on, 1964 ) T hi s t he or y ha d be e n de ve l ope d t h r ough m a ny s t udi e s us i ng t he m os t i nnova t i ve i ns t r um e nt a t i on a va i l a bl e a t t he t i m e E ve n t hough i t e nj oye d popul a r i t y f o r de c a de s t he

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48 pos i t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a c t ua l m us c ul a r a c t i v i t y a nd i t s i m a gi ne d c ount e r pa r t ha s ye t t o be e s t a bl i s he d ( F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983; M ur p hy & M a r t i n 2002) Sy m bol i c l e ar ni ng t he or y S a c ke t t s ( 1934 1935 ) s ym bol i c l e a r ni ng t he o r y he l d t ha t s pe c i f i c r e pr e s e nt a t i ons of s ki l l s o r m e nt a l bl ue pr i nt s ( V e a l e y & W a l t e r 1993 ) w e r e s t or e d i n t he br a i n a s t he y w e r e a c qui r e d L e a r ni ng a t a s k r e s ul t e d i n f o r m i ng a r e pr e s e nt a t i on, c ode or s ym bol o f t ha t t a s k, w hi c h c oul d a i d l e a r ni ng r e c a l l a nd pe r f or m a nc e f a c i l i t a t i ng a ut om a t i c i t y of t he a c t i vi t y ( P a i vi o 198 5) S a c ke t t c onc l ude d t ha t m or e m e nt a l r e he a r s a l s i nc r e a s e d l e a r ni ng r e t e nt i on, but a f t e r a c e r t a i n a m ount of pr a c t i c e t he r e w e r e no f ur t he r ga i ns c r e a t i ng a ne ga t i ve a c c e l e r a t i on r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n r e he a r s a l s a nd r e t e nt i on. T he t he or y di d no t a ddr e s s h ow e l i t e a t hl e t e s or pe r f or m e r s e f f e c t i ve l y us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w he n t he s e m e nt a l bl ue pr i nt s w e r e a l r e a dy w e l l e s t a bl i s he d. F ur t he r m or e t he de s i gn o f t he s t udy m a y not ha ve r e pr e s e nt e d t he a c t ua l us e of i m a ge r y i n t he pr a c t i c e s of pe r f or m i ng a r t i s t s or a t hl e t e s Y ui l l e ( 1985 ) a r gue d t ha t r e s e a r c he r s w oul d be m or e a pt t o ge ne r a l i z e a nd b e ne f i t f r om t he s e e xpe r i m e nt s i f a c t ua l e xpe r t s w e r e e xa m i ne d i n t he va r i ous f i e l ds I m a ge r y s t udi e s f e l l ou t of f a vor f o r m a ny ye a r s i n t he e a r l y de c a de s of t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y. B ot h ps yc hone ur om us c ul a r a nd s ym bol i c l e a r ni ng t he or i e s l a c ke d t he a bi l i t y t o f ul l y e xpl a i n t he w i de va r i e t y o f a ppl i c a t i ons a nd a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y us e s uc h a s a f f e c t m ot i va t i on a nd c ogni t i on ( M ur phy, 1985 ) F ur t he r m o r e t he popul a r i t y of W a t s on s ( 1931) be ha vi or i s m s uppor t e d hi s de m a n d f or e m pi r i c a l a nd s c i e nt i f i c va l i da t i on of s uc h e l us i ve f or m s of hum a n f unc t i on s T he r e e m e r ge nc e of s c i e nt i f i c i nqui r y i nt o i m a ge r y w a s he r a l de d by H ol t s a r t i c l e R e t ur n o f t he O s t r a c i z e d ( 1964 ) w he r e by he pr ovi de d c om pe l l i ng e vi de nc e a nd c a l l e d f or r e ne w e d r e s e a r c h i n i m a ge r y.

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49 V a r i ous gr oups i n ps yc hol ogy be ga n t o e m br a c e a nd i nc l ude i m a ge r y i n t he i r c l i ni c a l pr a c t i c e s a nd r e s e a r c h, i nc l udi ng c ogni t i ve a nd ps y c hol ogi c a l s t a t e s t he or i s t s C ogni t i v e B as e d T he or i e s of I m age r y C ogni t i ve ps yc hol ogy ( N e i s s e r 1976) e nc om pa s s e d t he pr oc e s s e s w he r e by pe opl e t r a ns f or m e d, r e duc e d, e l a bor a t e d s t or e d, r e c ove r e d, a nd us e d s e ns or y i nput ( N e i s s e r 1976) M os t of t he w o r k i n i m a ge r y c onc e r ne d a c qui s i t i on, s t or a ge r e t r i e va l a nd us e of t hought know n a s i nf or m a t i on pr oc e s s i ng. T he r e w e r e t hr e e c ogni t i ve ba s e d t he or i e s o f i m a ge r y: ( a ) P a i vi o s ( 1971, 1986) dua l c ode t he o r y w hi c h i nc l ude d t he pi c t or a l a nd ve r ba l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he i m a ge ; ( b) bi o i n f or m a t i ona l t he or y ( L a ng 1977 1979a 1979b) w he r e i n i m a ge r y c ont a i ne d bot h a s t i m ul u s a r e s pons e pr opos i t i on, a nd i t s i nt r i ns i c m e a ni ng ( c ) A hs e n s ( 1984) t r i p l e c ode t h e or y, i n w hi c h t he ( I ) i m a ge ( S ) s om a t i c r e s pons e a nd ( M ) m e a ni ng of t he i m a ge w e r e ne c e s s a r y t o a f f e c t pe r f o r m a nc e T he s e c ogni t i ve ba s e d t he or i e s w e r e i nve s t i ga t e d f or t he i r r e l e va nc e t o i m a ge r y us e i n pe r f or m a nc e e xe c ut i on. D ual c ode t he or y I n dua l c ode t he o r y, P a i vi o s ( 1 971, 1986) t he or e t i c a l a s s um pt i ons f or i m a ge r y e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n m e m or y i nvol ve d pa r a l l e l p r oc e s s i ng of i nf or m a t i on i n t w o ba s i c c odi ng s ys t e m s ope r a t i ng i n c ogni t i ve f unc t i ons ve r ba l a nd pi c t or a l w hi c h ha ve be e n r e por t e d t o a i d i n m e m or y a nd r e t r i e va l T hi s t he or y w a s s uppor t e d by s e ve r a l s t udi e s i nc l udi ng t hos e of t h e c ur r e nt ne ur ops yc hol ogi c a l m ode l of f unc t i ona l l oc a l i z a t i on ( J e a nne r od, 1994) H a l l M oor e A nne t t a nd R odge r s ( 1997 ) i nve s t i ga t e d r e c a l l e d m ove m e nt pa t t e r ns us i ng i m a ge r y, a ve r ba l gui de a c om bi na t i on of bot h, or no p r a c t i c e c ont r ol R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he c om bi na t i on of i m a ge r y a nd ve r ba l gui de l e d t o t he m os t s uc c e s s f ul pa t t e r n r e c a l l A nn e t t ( 1986, 1994) e xt e nde d t he dua l

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50 c odi ng a ppr oa c h r e nde r i ng i t s pe c i f i c t o m ot o r a pp l i c a t i ons A nne t t de ve l ope d t he a c t i on l a ngua ge i m a gi na t i on ( A L I ) m ode l w he r e by t he t w o m e t ho ds a s s i s t i ng s ki l l a c qui s i t i on, ve r ba l or de m ons t r a t i on a nd w e r e l i nke d i n t he a c t i on l a ngua ge br i dge m a ki ng i t pos s i bl e t o a c t on ve r ba l i ns t r uc t i ons o r e nc ode a c t i ons i n l a ngua ge A hs e n ( 1984) c r i t i c i z e d t he dua l c odi ng t he or y f or be i ng a n a bs t r a c t l i ne a r m ode l ( p. 18) om i t t i ng t he f unc t i on a nd i m por t a nc e of m e a ni ng or s om a t i c e f f e c t I t c oul d be a r gue d t ha t a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f or m e r s us e d ve r ba l c odi ng i n a va r i e t y of w a ys t o l e a r n a n d m a s t e r s ki l l s how e ve r dua l c odi ng w oul d onl y a c c ount f or a l i m i t e d por t i on of a r t i s t i c pe r f or m a nc e e xpe r i e nc e pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he a r e a o f a f f e c t a nd e m ot i on B i o i nf or m at i onal t he or y L a ng ( 1977, 1979a 197 9b) de ve l ope d hi s bi o i nf or m a t i ona l t he o r y i n t he ps yc hophys i ol ogi c a l s t udi e s of phobi c a nd a nxi e t y pa t i e nt s A c c or di ng t o L a ng, i m a ge s w e r e or ga ni z e d i nt o a t w o ba s i c pr opos i t i ons : s t i m ul us a nd r e s pons e w i t h i t s r e l e va nt m e a ni ng c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s S t i m ul us pr opos i t i ons a r e t hos e de s c r i pt i ve de t a i l s w hi c h e s t a bl i s h t he c ont e xt a nd de s i gna t e s pe c i f i c s t i m ul i T he r e s p ons e pr opos i t i ons a r e t he t hi ngs t he s ubj e c t do e s i n t he s c e ne ( L a ng, 1979b, p. 19) L a ng r e c om m e nde d t ha t r e s pons e pr opos i t i on s c r i p t s i nc l ude a s m a ny s pe c i f i c de t a i l s of t he i nt e nde d e m ot i ona l a nd phys i c a l s t a t e s t o a c hi e ve t he m os t s i gni f i c a nt a nd de s i r e d be ha vi or a l a nd phys i ol ogi c a l c ha nge s I m a ge r y e f f e c t i ve ne s s w a s m os t s uppor t e d by how a pe r s on r e s ponde d t o s t i m ul i a s de m ons t r a t e d i n s t udi e s by L a ng a nd hi s c ol l e a g ue s L a ng, M e l a m e d, a nd H a r t ( 1970 ) c om pa r e d t he e m ot i ona l i m a ge r y, pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e ve r ba l l y i nvoke d by us e of s pe c i f i c s c r i pt s w i t h bi ol ogi c a l r e s pons e s t o f e a r i m a ge s us i ng t w o gr ou ps : t hos e w i t h a phobi a of l i ve s na ke s a nd t he ot he r t he s oc i a l phobi a of publ i c s pe a ki ng. L a ng f ound t he s oc i a l

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51 phobi a gr oups a r ous a l l e ve l e d of f w hi l e t he i m a ge s i n t he s na ke phobi a g r oup w e r e m uc h m or e vi vi d s how e d hi ghe s t i nc r e a s e s of he a r t r a t e a nd r e gi s t e r e d a t t he uppe r e nd of t he hi e r a r c hy. S t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a bl e t o ga i n m o r e c ont r ol of t he i r pe r f or m a nc e by m odi f yi ng t he i r r e s pons e s pr oduc i ng gr e a t e r c ha n ge i n be ha vi or S i m i l a r r e s ul t s oc c ur r e d i n a c r os s va l i da t i on s t udy w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s ha vi ng publ i c s pe a ki ng a nxi e t y a nd s pi de r phobi a s ( W e e r t s & L a ng 1978 ) I n de s e ns i t i z a t i on s t udi e s t r e a t i ng t he s e phobi c pa t i e nt s w i t h s t i m ul us a nd r e s po ns e pr opos i t i ons L a ng ( 19 79a ) s ubs e que nt l y f ound s uc c e s s f ul l y t r e a t e d phobi c pa t i e nt s r e por t e d l e s s f e a r r e a c t i ons t o i m a ge r y a nd c a l m e r he a r t r a t e s B udne y, M ur phy, a nd W ool f ol k ( 1994) s uppor t e d L a ng s t he or y t ha t i m a ge r y i ns t r uc t i ons i n w hi c h m or e r e s p ons e i t e m s w e r e i n c l ude d a nd pr oduc e d m o r e phys i ol ogi c a l r e s pons e s t ha n s t i m ul us onl y s c r i pt s T he us e of b i o i nf o r m a t i ona l t he o r y of i m a ge r y c oul d pr ove pa r t i c ul a r l y a ppl i c a bl e f or a ddr e s s i ng a r ous a l c onc e r ns of s i nge r s s i nc e t he y, l i ke publ i c s pe a ke r s pe r f or m be f or e a udi e nc e s M a ny voc a l i s t s ha ve s t r uggl e d w i t h c r i ppl i ng pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y a nd i na bi l i t y t o a c hi e ve pr ope r a r ous a l l e ve l s a ppr opr i a t e f o r pe r f or m a nc e on s t a ge I n c ont r o l l i ng i nne r t hought s e m ot i ons a nd i m a ge s by i nc l udi ng t he de s i r e d r e s pons e pr opos i t i ons voc a l pe r f or m e r s c oul d pos s i bl y m ove be yond t he i r f e a r s o r phobi a s i nt o m or e f r e e a nd e xpr e s s i ve de l i ve r y of t he i r a r t t o t he a udi e nc e H ow e ve r L a ng s t he or y m a y ha ve f a l l e n s hor t o f e xpl a i ni ng s om e of t he c ogni t i ve a nd m ot i va t i ona l f u nc t i ons of i m a ge r y a nd t he us e of l a ngua ge i n pr oc e s s i ng i nf or m a t i on i nt o a c t i on, pa r t i c ul a r l y i n hi ghl y s ki l l e d a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f o r m e r s T r i pl e c ode t he or y A hs e n s ( 1984) t r i pl e c ode t he or y, s i m i l a r t o L a ng s t he o r y, a l s o a ddr e s s e d i m a ge r y m or e i n t e r m s of t he e m ot i ona l e f f e c t i m a ge r y ha d on t he

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52 i ndi vi dua l A hs e n s ( 1984) t r i p l e c ode t he or y w a s de ve l ope d i n hi s r e s pons e c r i t i c i z i ng P a i vi o s ( 1971) dua l c ode t he or y. A hs e n di m i ni s he d t he i m po r t a nc e of t he ve r ba l c ont e nt a nd a r gue d t ha t t he s om a t i c e l e m e nt a nd m e a ni ng r e qui r e d r e pr e s e nt a t i on f o r i m a ge r y t o be e f f e c t i ve A l s o e m e r gi ng f r om hi s s t udi e s w i t h m e nt a l pa t i e nt s a nd phobi a s A hs e n ( 1972) i nc l ude d t hr e e m a i n c om pone nt s of h i s I S M i m a ge r y t he or y w hi c h w e r e : ( a ) t he i m a ge i t s e l f ( I ) i nt e r na l l y c ont a i ni ng a l l t he s e ns a t i ons of a c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e ; ( b) t he s om a t i c r e s pons e ( S ) w h i c h r e pr e s e nt e d t he ps yc h ophys i ol ogi c a l c ha nge s i nc l udi ng e m ot i ons e l i c i t e d by t he s pe c i f i c i m a ge ; a nd ( c ) m e a ni ng ( M ) w hi c h w a s s pe c i f i c t o t he i m a ge a nd t he i ndi vi dua l i nc l ud i ng t he i r hi s t or y e xpe r i e nc e a nd pr e vi ous c onc e pt i ons T hr e e c om pone nt s of t r i pl e c ode t he or y t he i m a ge t he s om a t i c r e s pons e a nd t he m e a ni ng ( I S M ) r e f l e c t e d i s s ue s a nd c onc e r ns f or v oc a l pr of e s s i ona l s m a ki ng i t a ppl i c a bl e i n m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e T h e c ogni t i ve t he o r i e s a ddr e s s i ng i m a ge r y i s s ue s s uc h a s ve r ba l c odi ng, i m a ge i t s e l f t he s pe c i f i c s om a t i c r e s pons e s t o i m a ge s a nd t he m e a ni ngs a ppl i e d t o t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s a s w e l l a s t he i r ve r ba l c onne c t i ons ne e de d t o be c ons i de r e d i n i m a ge r y us e i n s i nge r s A ppl i c a t i on of c ogni t i ve t he or i e s t o voc a l pe r f or m a nc e m a y ha ve p r ove n a ppr opr i a t e s i nc e i m a ge r y i n t hi s c ont e xt w a s hi ghl y i ndi vi dua l i z e d. T he i n t e r a c t i on be t w e e n t he s e i m a ge r y e l e m e nt s w a s i m por t a nt ho w e ve r t he y w e r e l i m i t e d i n ot he r de t a i l s of how i m a ge r y a f f e c t s pe r f or m a nc e M or e r e c e nt r e s e a r c h ha s e m e r ge d a ddr e s s i ng t he ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e s a nd how t he s e a f f e c t i m a ge r y pe r f or m a nc e P s y c hol ogi c al St at e s T he or i e s P s yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e s t he or i e s a ddr e s s e d t he i nt e r na l pr oc e s s e s i nvol ve d i n a r ous a l a nd c onf i de nc e w he n us i ng i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m a nc e I nf or m a t i on p r oc e s s i ng a ppr oa c h

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53 i nc l ude d t w o m a i n t he or i e s : ( a ) B a ndur a s ( 1977 ) s e l f e f f i c a c y t he or y w he r e i m a ge r y w a s pa r t l y s e e n a s t he pr oduc t of s oc i a l i n t e r a c t i on, a nd ( b) a t t e nt i on a r ous a l s e t t he o r y ( S c hm i dt 1982) w hi c h a dd r e s s e d t he opt i m a l l e ve l s of a r ous a l ne c e s s a r y f or s pe c i f i c a c t i vi t i e s Se l f e f f i c ac y t he or y B a ndur a s ( 1977 ) s e l f e f f i c a c y t he or y g r e w out o f s oc i a l l e a r ni ng t he or y a nd c ogni t i ve be ha vi or a l t he r a py, w hi c h de a l t w i t h ps yc hol ogy pa t i e nt s be l i e f s a nd unde r s t a ndi ngs i n i nf l ue nc i ng pr obl e m a t i c a f f e c t a nd be ha vi or S e l f e f f i c a c y t he or y he l d t ha t c ons c i ous l y di r e c t e d, t a s k s pe c i f i c i m a ge r y i nc r e a s e d e xpe c t a t i ons of s uc c e s s w hi c h f a c i l i t a t e d c onf i de nc e a nd pos i t i ve out c om e of t he a c t ua l pe r f o r m a nc e A s ubs t a nt i a l body of l i t e r a t ur e s how s t ha t e f f i c a c y b e l i e f s r e gul a t e hum a n f unc t i oni ng t hr ough f ou r m a j o r pr oc e s s e s [ i nc l udi ng] c ogni t i ve m ot i va t i ona l a f f e c t i ve a nd s e l e c t i ve pr oc e s s e s ( B a ndur a 1997, p. 116) B a ndur a ( 198 6) pos i t e d t ha t s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd s e l f e va l ua t i on c ogni t i on s uc h a s a t t a i ni ng goa l s a nd a c hi e vi ng s uc c e s s e nha nc e d i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on. F ur t he r m o r e a n i ndi vi dua l s pe r f or m a nc e a nd r e s ul t i ng c onf i de nt be l i e f s w e r e ba s e d on pe r s ona l e xpe c t a t i ons f r om pa s t pe r f or m a nc e s u c c e s s vi c a r i ous e xpe r i e nc e ( m ode l i ng) ve r ba l r e i nf or c e m e nt a nd e m ot i ona l a r ous a l ( M or r i s e t a l 2005 p. 48) I n m ode l i ng a not he r a s pe c t of s e l f e f f i c a c y t he or y t he l e a r ne r m a t c he d m o t or m ove m e nt a nd s ki l l s w i t h a n obs e r ve d s t a nda r d or r e pr e s e nt a t i ve F e e dba c k w a s r e qui r e d t o c he c k f or a c c ur a c y, c or r e c t i ons a nd r e f i ne m e nt of t he s e s ki l l s T hi s l e a r ni ng ha d a c ogni t i ve e f f e c t on t he i ndi vi dua l a s t o t he de gr e e of pr o f i c i e nc y t o w hi c h t he y w e r e c a pa bl e of pe r f o r m i ng t he s e m ove m e nt s B a ndur a e xpl a i ne d:

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54 W he n a pe r s on obs e r ve s a m ode l s be ha vi or but ot he r w i s e pe r f or m s no ove r t r e s pons e s he c a n a c qui r e t he m ode l e d r e s pons e s w hi l e t he y a r e oc c ur r i ng on l y i n c ogni t i ve r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l f or m s . a n i m agi nal a nd a v e r bal one A f t e r m ode l i ng s t i m ul i ha v e be e n c ode d i nt o i m a ge s or w or ds f or m e m or y r e pr e s e nt a t i on t he y f unc t i on a s m e di a t or s f o r s ubs e que nt r e s pons e r e t r i e va l a nd r e pr oduc t i on. ( 1997, p. 133) A t hl e t e s a nd pe r f or m e r s ha ve be ne f i t e d f r om t he p r a c t i c e of m ode l i ng f o r a l ong t i m e A t hl e t e s ha ve w a t c he d ot he r a t hl e t e s t o l e a r n how t o e xe c ut e t he i r s ki l l s j us t a s s i nge r s ha ve be e n e nc our a ge d t o l i s t e n t o e xc e l l e nt voc a l i s t s t o r e pl i c a t e a nd be i ns pi r e d by t he qua l i t y a nd pr a c t i c e s of ot he r e xc e l l e nt s i nge r s ( T o s i & G a l l i a r d, 1723/ 1968) B ot h a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f or m e r s a l s o l e a r ne d f r om o t he r s a nd by e xpe r i e nc e how t o r e gul a t e t he i r a r ous a l l e ve l s f or opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e A t t e nt i on ar ous al s e t t he or y A t t e nt i on a r ous a l s e t t he or y ( S c hm i dt 1 982) a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s a r ous a l or a c t i va t i on t he or y p r opos e d t ha t i m a ge r y a l l ow s f or a n opt i m a l s t a t e of a r ous a l f o r e a c h pe r f o r m e r a nd e a c h a c t i vi t y, w hi c h f a c i l i t a t e d pe r f o r m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e a nd s uc c e s s A t t e nt i on a r ous a l s e t t he or y a l s o pr opos e d t ha t i m a ge r y pr e pa r e d t he a t hl e t e ( a nd pe r f or m e r ) f or a c t i on t o e m body a pe r f e c t a r ous a l s t a t e w hi l e f oc us i ng a t t e nt i on on t a s k r e l e va nt c ue s r a t he r t ha n d i s t r a c t i ons ( M ur phy, W ool f ol k, & B udne y, 1988) L a nde r s ( 1980 ) r e po r t e d t ha t hi gh a r ous a l o r e m ot i ona l a c t i vi t y ha d t he pot e nt i a l of na r r ow i ng or de c r e a s i ng a t t e nt i ona l r a nge w hi l e l ow l e ve l s br oa de n a t t e nt i on. T h i s i nve r t e d U t he or y s t a t e d t ha t opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e s w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ode r a t e l e ve l s of a r ous a l w hi l e hi gh a nd l ow a r ous a l c oul d ha ve a de t e r i or a t i ng e f f e c t on pe r f or m a nc e

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55 E a c h one of t he s e t he or i e s : p s yc hone ur om us c ul a r t he or y, s ym bol i c l e a r n i ng t he or y, c ogni t i ve ba s e d t he or i e s a nd ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e s t he or i e s a ddr e s s e d s pe c i f i c a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y e f f e c t s on pe r f or m a nc e M os t o f t he s e t he or i e s e m e r ge d i n r e s pons e t o t he c ur r e nt i s s ue s pr e s e nt dur i ng t he t i m e i n w hi c h t he y w e r e a ddr e s s e d a nd of t e n de ve l ope d i n r e s pons e t o e a r l i e r t he or i e s F ur t he r m or e t he y w e r e t e s t e d a nd a na l yz e d i n t he be s t e m pi r i c a l m a nne r pos s i bl e a t t he t i m e F un c t i ona l e qui va l e nc e t he or y us e d t he m os t a dva nc e d t e c hnol ogy i n e xa m i ni ng t he w or ki ngs of i m a ge r y a va i l a bl e t o da t e F unc t i onal E qui v al e nc e T he or y M or e r e c e nt r e s e a r c h a nd de ve l opm e nt s us i ng hi gh l y t e c hni c a l e l e c t r oni c i m a gi ng c a pa c i t i e s e s pe c i a l l y t hos e f r om m e di c a l s c i e nc e ha ve t a ke n m e nt a l i m a ge r y out of i t s s ubj e c t i ve a nd t he r e f or e que s t i ona bl e c a t e gor y i nt o one of m or e e xt e ns i ve r i gor ous a nd s c i e nt i f i c i nve s t i ga t i on. T h i s r e pr e s e nt e d a de pa r t u r e f r om t he ps yc hol ogi c a l m ode l s a nd t he or i e s pr e vi ous l y de s i gne d a nd us e d t o e xpl a i n i m a ge r y f unc t i on. F unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e t he or y ( D e c e t y, 1996a 1996b 2002; F a r a h, 1984; F i nke 1980, 1985, 1989 ; F i nke & S he pha r d 1986 ; J e a nne r od, 1994 1995 2 006) pos t ul a t e d t ha t t he s a m e br a i n f unc t i ons i nvol ve d i n i m a ge r y w e r e f unc t i ona l l y e qui va l e nt i n t he br a i n a c t i vi t i e s o f t he pr e pa r a t i on of t ha t s a m e s ki l l o r a c t i vi t y e ve n t hou gh phys i c a l m ot or e xe c ut i on w a s us ua l l y bl oc ke d dur i ng i m a ge r y ( H ol m e s & C ol l i n s 2002) B ot h a c t i va t e d t he s a m e ne ur a l s ubs t r a t e s pa t hw a ys a nd pr oc e s s e s i n s pe c i f i c a r e a s of t he br a i n W hi l e m ot or pr e pa r a t i o n w a s a c t i va t e d be l ow t he l e ve l of c ons c i ous ne s s i m a ge r y o f t ha t a c t w a s c ons c i ous l y di r e c t e d i n t he s a m e a c t i on ( J e a nne r od, 1994) T hi s e f f e c t i ve l y pl a c e d i nt e nde d a c t i ons a nd s ki l l s on a c ove r t t o ove r t c on t i nuum ( J e a nne r od, 1994, 2006; K os s l yn, 1994; K os s l yn & K oe ni g, 1992) D e c e t y ( 1996b) r e vi e w e d s t udi e s i nvol vi ng

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56 m e nt a l c hr om a t i c a nd a ut onom i c r e s pons e s w hi l e i m a gi ng. H e c onc l ude d t ha t t he s t udi e s c onve r ge t o s uppor t t he not i on t ha t m ot o r i m a ge r y s ha r e s t he s a m e ne ur a l m e c ha ni s m s t ha t a r e i nvol ve d i n m ot o r c ont r ol o f a c t ua l a c t i ons ( p. 91) D ue t o t he r e c e nt de ve l opm e nt s i n ne ur oi m a gi ng, r e s e a r c he r s w e r e a bl e t o obj e c t i f y i m a ge r y a c t i vi t y, pos s i bl y r e s ol vi ng de c a de s of c ont r ove r s y ove r i t s e l us i ve a nd s ubj e c t i ve na t ur e pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he a r e a of m ot or pe r f or m a nc e H ol m e s a nd C ol l i ns ( 2002) ha ve i m pl e m e nt e d t he f i ndi ngs of f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e i nt o a ppl i c a t i ons of i m a ge r y t r a i ni ng f or us e i n s por t s pe r f or m a nc e T h e y ha ve f ound t ha t i m a ge r y a s a m ot or r e pr e s e nt a t i on c a n be us e d t o e xpl a i n t he m ul t i f a c e t e d a nd va r i a bl e m o t or be ha vi our [ s i c ] o f e l i t e s por t a t hl e t e s a nd t o de ve l o p a m e c ha ni s t i c e xpl a na t i on f o r t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of i m a ge r y ge ne r a l l y ( p. 123) T he y f ur t he r a r gue d t ha t : i f phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e c a n be s how n t o pos s e s s hi gh f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e t he n m a ny pr oc e dur e s t ha t a r e e f f i c a c i ous i n phys i c a l pr a c t i c e s houl d be r e l e va nt t o m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a s w e l l ( p. 124 ) H ol m e s a nd C ol l i ns c onc l ude d t ha t t he m os t e f f e c t i ve i m a ge r y r e f l e c t e d, a s c l os e l y a s pos s i bl e a l l t he c ogni t i ve m ot or s e ns or y, a nd a f f e c t i ve e l e m e nt s pr e s e nt i n t he p r e pa r a t i on a nd e xe c ut i on of t he gi v e n t a s k. S t udi e s s pe c i f i c t o br a i n f unc t i ons i n i m a ge s i nvol ve d i n a udi t or y pr oc e s s i ng, m us i c a l e xpr e s s i on, a nd obs e r va t i ona l l e a r ni ng w e r e pa r t i c ul a r l y r e l e va nt t o t h i s s t udy. U s i ng ne ur oi m a gi ng c a pa bi l i t i e s A l e m a n N i e uw e ns t e i n, B c ke r a nd de H a a n ( 2000 ) f ound t ha t a udi t o r y i m a ge r y w a s a s s oc i a t e d pos i t i ve l y w i t h a udi t or y a nd m us i c a l t r a i ni ng. M e i s t e r K r i ngs F o l t ys B or ooj e r d i M l l e r T ppe r & T h r on ( 2004) f ound s i m i l a r br a i n a c t i vi t y dur i ng i m a gi na r y a s i n a c t ua l m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e H a l pe r n a nd Z a t or r e ( 1999 ) obs e r ve d t ha t voc a l s ong pe r f o r m a nc e a c t i va t e d s pe c i f i c a r e a s of t he br a i n M or e r e c e nt l y

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57 D e c e t y ( 2006) f ound t ha t e m ot i ona l i m a ge r y a nd e m pa t hy r e f l e c t e d a c t ua l e xp r e s s i on of e m ot i on i n b r a i n a c t i vi t y I n s t udyi ng t he ne ur a l a c t i vi t y of hum a ns vi e w i ng a not he r i ndi vi dua l pe r f o r m i ng a c t i ons F a di ga F oga s s i P a ve s i a nd R i z z ol a t t i ( 1995 ) obs e r ve d i nc r e a s e d s t i m ul a t i on of t he s a m e pa r t s of t he m ot o r s ys t e m i n t he br a i n a s w he n s ubj e c t s bot h i m a gi ne d a nd pe r f or m e d t ha t m ot o r a c t i on S i m i l a r l y, C or c hi n, B a r t he l e m y, L e j e une R oux, a nd M a r t i ne a u ( 1998 ) f ound c ha ng e s i n e l e c t r oe nc e pha l ogr a phy ( E E G ) c a r t ogr a phy of bot h he m i s phe r e s of t he br a i n i n s ubj e c t s w a t c hi ng v i de os of a pe r s on e xe c ut i ng gym na s t i c m ove m e nt s K os s l yn a nd ot h e r s ( 2001) c onc l ude d t ha t m os t of t he ne ur a l pr oc e s s e s t ha t unde r l i e c ogni t i ve l i ke m oda l i t y pe r c e pt i on a r e a l s o us e d i n i m a ge r y; a nd i m a ge r y i n m a ny w a ys c a n s t a nd i n f or ( r e pr e s e nt i f y ou w i l l ) a pe r c e pt ua l s t i m ul us or s i t ua t i on ( p. 641) T he s e s t udi e s w e r e pa r t i c ul a r l y r e l e va nt t o t he i s s ue s of t r a i ni ng voc a l pe r f or m e r s i n how t he y l e a r n t o e m p l oy m ode l i ng obs e r va t i on, s ki l l a c qui s i t i on a nd t e c hni que a nd e m body a va r i e t y of a f f e c t i n por t r a yi ng di f f e r e nt c ha r a c t e r s a nd r ol e s A l l t he s e i m a ge r y t he or i e s ha d be e n de ve l ope d ove r m a ny de c a de s a nd s e e m e d t o f ol l ow ps yc hol ogi c a l i nnova t i ons a nd m e di c a l i m a gi ng i nve nt i ons i n a dd r e s s i ng i m a ge r y s e f f e c t s on c ogni t i ve a nd m ot o r pe r f or m a nc e ( s e e T a bl e 2) P s yc hone ur om us c ul a r t he or y a ddr e s s e d m us c ul a r a s pe c t s w hi l e s ym bol i c l e a r ni ng t he or y de a l t w i t h s pe c i f i c c odi ng i n t he b r a i n. T he c ogni t i ve ba s e d t he or i e s i nc l udi ng P a i vi o s ( 1971) dua l c odi ng t he or y L a ng s ( 1977 1979a 1 979b) bi o i n f or m a t i ona l t he or y a nd A hs e n s t r i pl e c ode t he or y a ddr e s s e d i nf or m a t i on pr oc e s s i ng. T he ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e t he or y of B a ndur a s ( 1977) s e l f e f f i c a c y t he or y de a l t w i t h e nvi r on m e nt a l a nd s oc i a l s t i m ul i a s i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h i m a ge r y de ve l opm e nt of s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd c on f i de nc e i n t he

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58 i ndi vi dua l S c hm i dt s ( 1982 ) a t t e nt i on a r ous a l s e t t he or y pos i t e d t ha t t he r e w e r e c e r t a i n a f f e c t i ve a nd a r ous a l s t a t e s w hi c h m a de opt i m a l p e r f or m a nc e a c hi e va bl e F unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e w a s ba s e d on ne ur a l i m a gi ng e vi de nc e t ha t i m a ge r y a n d m ot o r a c t i vi t y s ha r e t he s a m e c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s W i t h t he r e c e nt de ve l opm e nt s i n br a i n i m a gi ng, f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e s e e m e d t o pr ovi de t he m os t c om pr e he ns i ve e xpl a na t i on, t he r e s ul t s of w hi c h m a y i m pa c t t he r e l e va nc y of t he e a r l i e r t he or i e s H ow e ve r t he s e t he or i e s m a y ha ve be e n r e l e va nt t o t he f r a m e w or k of t he f ou r W s i n pr ovi d i ng a f ounda t i on f o r unde r s t a ndi ng i m a ge r y s e f f e c t s on pe r f or m a nc e T he F our W s o f I m age r y U s e T he f r a m e w or k of t he f our W s o f i m a ge r y us e : w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy f r om a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) a nd da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) pr ovi de d a ba s i s f or t hi s s t udy W he r e a nd w he n i m a ge r y w a s e xa m i ne d f i r s t f ol l ow e d by w hat pe r f or m e r s i m a gi ne i nc l udi ng i m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd t yp e s A di s c us s i on of t he pu r pos e s or w hy di f f e r e nt i m a ge r y c ont e nt w a s e m pl oye d f ol l o w e d. T he m a j or s t udi e s i nve s t i ga t i ng t he us e of i m a ge r y i n m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s w e r e e xa m i ne d a nd c om pa r e d w i t h r e l e va nt s por t a nd pe r f o r m a nc e i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h. T he f r a m e w or k of t he f our W s w a s i ni t i a l l y pr opos e d i n i m a ge r y of a t h l e t e s a nd i nc l ude d s i x l e ve l s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) a s s e e n i n F i gur e 1 L e ve l s one a nd t w o de pi c t e d w he r e a nd w he n r e s pe c t i ve l y, a nd t he t hi r d l e ve l r e ve a l e d a c onne c t i on of t he f unc t i on a nd c ont e nt of i m a ge r y i n a ns w e r i ng w hy a n d w hat a t hl e t e s us e d i m a ge r y. I n a da pt i ng t he f our W s f r a m e w or k f o r da nc e r s ( s e e F i gur e 2) N or d i n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005 ) e l i m i na t e d t he us e of l e ve l s a nd c r e a t e d a hi e r a r c hi c a l t r e e a nd s e pa r a t e d w hy a nd w hat

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59 F i gur e 1. F our W s of i m a ge r y us e f r a m e w or k f o r a t hl e t e s F r o m T h e F o u r W s o f I m a g e r y U s e : W h e r e W h e n W h y a n d W h a t b y K J M u n r o e P R G i a c o b b i J r C R H a l l a n d P W e i n b e r g 2 0 0 0 T h e S p o r t P s y c h o l o g i s t s 1 4 p 1 2 6 C o p y r i g h t 2 0 0 0 b y H u m a n K i n e t i c s R e p r i n t e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n ( s e e A p p e n d i x A )

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60 F i gur e 2. F our W s of i m a ge r y us e f r a m e w or k f o r d a nc e r s F r o m P r o f e s s i o n a l D a n c e r s D e s c r i b e T h e i r I m a g e r y : W h e r e W h e n W h a t W h y a n d H o w b y S M N o r d i n a n d J C u m m i n g 2 0 0 5 T h e S p o r t P s y c h o l o g i s t s 1 9 p 4 0 0 C o p y r i g h t 2 0 0 5 b y H u m a n K i n e t i c s R e p r i n t e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n ( s e e A p p e n d i x A )

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61 T he c a t e gor y o f w hat or c ont e nt w a s di vi de d be t w e e n i m a ge r y t ype s a nd i m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s I m a ge r y t ype s i nc l ude d i m a ge s of e xe c ut i on, m e t a phor s c ont e xt body r e l a t e d, a nd c ha r a c t e r / r ol e I n t he w h y c a t e gor y, c o gni t i ve a nd m ot i va t i ona l r e a s ons w e r e c a r r i e d ove r f r om t he s por t s f r a m e w or k ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) T hr e e a ddi t i ona l i m a ge r y r e a s ons c a t e gor i e s e m e r ge d f r om t he da nc e s t udy: ( a ) a r t i s t i c r e a s ons of c hor e ogr a phy m ove m e nt e nha nc e m e nt a nd a udi e nc e c om m uni c a t i on; ( b ) he a l i ng r e a s ons a nd ( c ) no r e a s on. T he s e a da pt a t i ons w e r e c ons i de r e d t o m or e a ppr opr i a t e l y a ppl y t o us e of i m a ge r y i n a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y t o t he voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s i n t hi s s t udy. T he r e f or e t he s e t w o f r a m e w or ks w e r e us e d i n t hi s s t udy t o a n a l yz e a nd c om pa r e t o t he i m a ge r y us e s of t he s e pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r s a nd t o a l l ow a ne w s i nge r s i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k t o e m e r ge f r om t he da t a a na l ys e s T he m a i n e l e m e nt s of t he t w o i m a ge r y f r a m e w or ks a r e a na l yz e d w hi c h a ns w e r e d t he q ue s t i ons : w he r e w he n w hat a nd w hy T hi s i s s e pa r a t e d i nt o t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i ons : ( a ) w he r e ; ( b) w he n ; ( c ) w hat i m a ge r y t ype s a nd i m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ; a nd ( d) w hy a nd t he c ogni t i ve m ot i va t i ona l a r t i s t i c a nd he a l i ng r e a s ons T he c ha pt e r e nds w i t h a r e vi e w o f t he r e l e va nt i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n m us i c pe r f or m a nc e W he r e or L oc at i ons of I m age r y U s e L oc a t i on, o r w he r e a t hl e t e s a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y w a s r e pr e s e nt e d i n f i ve c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) p r a c t i c e or r e he a r s a l ; ( b) pe r f or m a nc e or c om pe t i t i on ve nue ; ( c ) a t hom e ; ( d) i n t r a ns i t c om m ut i ng o r t r a ve l i ng; a nd ( e ) ot he r pl a c e s R e s e a r c he r s i ni t i a l l y r e por t e d t ha t a t h l e t e s us e d i m a ge r y pr i m a r i l y i n t r a i ni ng a nd pr a c t i c e a r e a s H ow e ve r m o r e r e c e nt s t udi e s f ound t ha t a t h l e t e s us e d m or e i m a ge r y on t he c om pe t i t i on f i e l d t ha n t r a i ni n g a r e a s ( B a r r & H a l l 1992; H a l l e t a l 1990) S a l m on a nd ot he r s ( 1994) r e por t e d a t hl e t e s e nga gi ng i n i m a ge r y out s i de of p r a c t i c e or c om pe t i t i on, i n

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62 t he hom e s c hool a nd a t w or k. D a nc e r s a nd m us i c i a ns i m a gi ne d i n a l l a r e a s of t he r e he a r s a l or pr a c t i c e s t udi o a nd t he pe r f or m i ng ve n ue s uc h a s t he dr e s s i ng r oom ba c ks t a ge a nd on s t a ge ( B e l l on, 2006; N or d i n & C um m i ng, 2005; T r us he i m 1987) T he y a l s o r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y w hi l e i n t r a ns i t o r c om m ut i ng on t he t r a i n d r i vi ng i n qui e t pl a c e s a nd a t ho m e e s pe c i a l l y i n be d. B ot h a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f or m e r s us e d i m a ge r y i n m a ny pl a c e s a nd s e t t i ngs pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e i n w hi c h t he y c oul d c onc e nt r a t e a nd m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e a nd p r e pa r e f o r t he pe r f or m a nc e T he s e va r i e d by t i m e pl a c e pe r s ona l pr e f e r e nc e s a nd i m a ge r y a bi l i t i e s W he n or T i m e s of I m age r y U s e A c c or di ng t o t he s t udi e s c i t e d be l ow t he s pe c i f i c t i m e s or w he n a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f or m e r s pa r t i c i pa t e d i n i m a ge r y c ons t i t ut e d t e n c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) pr a c t i c e o r r e he a r s a l ( b ) pe r f or m a nc e or c om pe t i t i on, ( c ) dur i ng qui e t t i m e s ( d ) i n t r a ns i t o r t r a ve l i ng, ( e ) c e r t a i n t ype s or s t yl e s of pe r f or m a nc e s ( f ) t i m e s of t he da y or ni gh t ( g) pe r i ods of t he s e a s on or ye a r ( h ) a nyt i m e or a l l t he t i m e ( i ) i n t i m e s of di f f i c ul t y, a nd ( j ) dur i ng i nj ur y or he a l t h pr obl e m s M a ny of t he s e c a t e gor i e s w e r e s i m i l a r t o t he l oc a t i on w he r e i m a ge r y w a s e m pl oye d, s i nc e t i m e s c hos e n by t he s e pe r f o r m e r s w e r e c onne c t e d w i t h t he i r s c he dul i ng r e qui r e m e nt s of r e he a r s a l s a nd pe r f or m a nc e s A t hl e t e s r e por t e dl y e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y p r i m a r i l y j us t pr i or t o c om pe t i ng t ha n dur i ng or a f t e r c om pe t i t i on ( B a r r & H a l l 1992; R odge r s e t a l 1991; W e i nbe r g, B ut t K ni ght B ur ke & J a c ks on, 2003; U nge r l e i de r & G ol di ng, 1992 ) O t he r r e s e a r c he r s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ; S a l m on e t a l 1992) f ound a t hl e t e s us i ng i m a ge r y m or e dur i ng pr a c t i c e t ha n be f or e or a f t e r t r a i ni ng s e s s i ons how e ve r i t w a s not know n how d i r e c t l y t hi s pr a c t i c e w a s c onne c t e d w i t h pe r f o r m a nc e O xe ndi ne ( 1969) pr opos e d t ha t e f f e c t i ve

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63 m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t e c hni q ue s m a y e na bl e l e a r ne r s t o pr a c t i c e a t t i m e s w he n t he y a r e not a bl e t o a c t i ve l y pe r f or m t he t a s ks ( p. 755) L a t e r r e s e a r c he r s ( W e i nbe r g & G oul d 2003; W hi t e & H a r dy 1998) r e por t e d t ha t a t hl e t e s a l s o u s e d i m a ge r y w he n t he y w e r e e xpe r i e nc i ng t ough or di f f i c ul t t i m e s unde r a l ot o f pr e s s ur e du r i ng s i c kne s s or i nj u r y, or f a t i gue w hi l e c onva l e s c i ng, o r w hi l e phys i c a l p r a c t i c e w a s not pos s i bl e O ut s i de of pr a c t i c e or c om pe t i t i on a t hl e t e s e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y dur i ng b r e a ks w hi l e a t w o r k or s c hool ( W e i nbe r g & G oul d 2003 ) A t hl e t e s a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s w e r e f ound t o us e i m a ge r y j us t pr i o r t o goi ng t o s l e e p ( B e l l on, 2006; H a l l e t a l 1990; M unr oe e t a l 2000; R odge r s e t a l 1991; T r us he i m 1987; W e i nbe r g & G oul d, 2003) M us i c i a n s a nd da nc e r s i m a gi ne d m or e du r i ng p r a c t i c e a nd r e he a r s a l s t ha n be f or e or a f t e r a nd m or e be f or e pe r f or m a nc e s t ha n dur i n g or a f t e r ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005; T r us he i m 1987) P e r f o r m e r s a l s o us e d m or e i m a ge r y w he n t he y ne e de d t o e nga ge i n or c om m un i c a t e w i t h a r t i s t i c e l e m e nt s or m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y. F or e xa m pl e da nc e r s i m a gi ne d m o r e i f m e t a phor s w e r e ne e de d i n a n e xpr e s s i ve pi e c e ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) a nd s i nge r s us e d m or e i m a ge r y dur i n g s ong r e c i t a l s t ha n ope r a t i c pe r f or m a nc e s ( C a r t e r 1993 ) B ot h da nc e r s a nd m us i c i a ns e nga ge d i n m e nt a l r e he a r s a l w he n t he y w e r e t i r e d, i nj ur e d, or i n a pl a c e w he r e t he y c oul d not ove r t l y r e he a r s e T he y a l s o us e d i m a ge r y e xt e ns i ve l y t o a l l e vi a t e pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y, f o r i ns t a nc e w he n t he y f e l t ne r vous a nxi ous o r di s t r a c t e d. F ur t he r m or e m us i c i a ns a nd da nc e r s i m a gi ne d m or e dur i ng t he t i m e of ye a r w h e n t he i r s c he dul e s w e r e he a vy w i t h r e he a r s a l s a nd pe r f or m a nc e s ( B e l l on, 2006 ; C a r t e r 1993; N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005; T r us he i m 1987 ) G e ne r a l l y, a t hl e t e s a nd a r t i s t i c p e r f or m e r s us e d i m a ge r y t hr oughout t he

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64 nor m a l da y, a nd s pe c i f i c a l l y w he n di f f e r e nt t ype s of i m a ge r y w e r e us e d t o f a c i l i t a t e pr a c t i c e or pe r f or m a nc e W hat : C ont e nt of I m age s I n t he i n i t i a l i nve s t i ga t i on o f t he f our W s of a t hl e t e s i m a ge r y c ont e nt M unr oe a nd he r c ol l e a gue s ( 2000) i de nt i f i e d s i x s pe c i f i c c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) s e s s i ons ( b) e f f e c t i ve ne s s ( c ) na t ur e of i m a ge r y, ( d) s ur r oundi n gs ( e ) t ype s of i m a ge r y, a nd ( f ) c ont r ol l a bi l i t y. S e s s i ons r e f e r r e d t o t he du r a t i on o f t he i m a ge r y e nga ge m e nt w hi c h w e r e di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o f i nd i ngs i n t he w he r e a nd w he n c a t e gor y. E f f e c t i ve ne s s i nvol ve d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e va l ua t i on of t he us e f ul ne s s of t he i r i m a ge r y pr a c t i c e s W he t he r t he i m a ge s w e r e pos i t i ve ne ga t i ve or t he de gr e e o f t he i r a c c ur a c y c om pr i s e d t he na t ur e of i m a ge r y. S ur r oundi ngs i nc l ude d t he ve nue of pr a c t i c e o r c o m pe t i t i on a nd t hos e i n a t t e nda nc e T ype s of i m a ge r y e nc om pa s s e d t he s pe c i f i c us e s of f ou r s e ns e s : ( a ) vi s i on, i nc l udi ng i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve a nd vi vi dne s s ; ( b) a udi t or y, or s ounds ; ( c ) ki ne s t he t i c or t he f e e l of t he m ove m e nt s ; a nd ( d) ol f a c t or y o r s m e l l s A t hl e t e s us e d t he ki ne s t he t i c a nd vi s i on s e ns e s t he m os t a nd i nvol ve d e xpe r i e nc e s of t he s pe c i f i c s por t o r ve nue o f c om pe t i t i on. I m a ge c ont r ol l a bi l i t y ha d t o do w i t h t he i ndi vi dua l s a bi l i t y t o m a ni pu l a t e t he i m a ge a nd t he s pe e d w i t h w hi c h t he i m a ge w a s e xe c ut e d. W hi l e a l l t he s e c a t e gor i e s a r e c r i t i c a l i n de s c r i bi ng a t hl e t e s i m a ge r y t he or g a ni z a t i on of t hi s w a s pr e f e r r e d i n N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) da nc e i m a ge r y i nve s t i ga t i on due t o i t s c l os e r a ppr oxi m a t i on t o t he a r t i s t i c e xpe r i e nc e s of t he p r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s i n t hi s s t udy. N o r di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) a da pt e d t he r e s ul t s f r om t he f r a m e w or k de r i ve d f r om a t h l e t e s i m a ge r y f i ndi ngs of M unr oe a nd he r c ol l e a gue s ( s e e F i gur e 1) a nd de t e r m i ne d t ha t da nc e r s i m a ge r y c ont e nt w a s di vi de d be t w e e n t ype s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s H e nc e f or t h i n t hi s

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65 c ha pt e r e a c h of t he i m po r t a nt f i ndi ngs f r om a t hl e t e s a nd r e l a t e d l i t e r a t ur e w a s r e por t e d a c c or di ng t o t he da nc e r s f r a m e w or k ( s e e F i gu r e 2 ) W hat : I m age r y T y pe s I m a ge r y t ype s w e r e t hos e o f c ont e nt or t he i m a ge i t s e l f I n i nve s t i ga t i ng da nc e r s i m a ge r y, N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) i de n t i f i e d s i x di f f e r e nt t ype s of i m a ge r y i nve s t i ga t e d w e r e : ( a ) e xe c ut i on ( b ) m e t a pho r i c a n d a r t i s t i c ( c ) c ont e xt ( d) body r e l a t e d, ( e ) c ha r a c t e r a nd r ol e a nd ( e ) i r r e l e va nt i m a ge s E a c h c ont e nt a r e a w a s e xa m i ne d i n de t a i l f or i t s us e i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l a t hl e t i c a r t i s t i c a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e E x e c ut i on i m age s T he i m a ge t ype s de s c r i be d a s e xe c ut i on i nc l ude d ( a ) s ki l l l e a r ni ng a nd t e c hni que ; ( b) s e que nc i ng, pl a nni ng, a nd s t r a t e gi e s ; a nd ( c ) goa l i m a ge r y S ki l l l e a r ni ng i m a ge s i nc l ude d s pe c i f i c i m a ge s i n m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c i ng a c t i ons a nd m e t hods f or pe r f or m a nc e M e nt a l pr a c t i c e s t udi e s i n s por t a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e a r e a ddr e s s e d i n t he s e c t i on on w hy l a t e r i n t hi s c ha pt e r M unr oe a nd ot he r s ( 2000) di s t i ngui s he d e xe c ut i on i m a ge s i n t w o di s t i nc t a r e a s : ( a ) s ki l l de ve l opm e nt i n t e c hni que l e a r ni ng a nd s ki l l bu i l di ng, a nd ( b ) pe r f or m a nc e e n ha nc e m e nt i nc l udi ng c or r e c t i ona l e f f or t s S ki l l i m a ge s w e r e ge ne r a l l y r e ga r de d a s i m a ge r y f unc t i ons i n t he w hy c a t e gor y a nd not a pa r t of c ont e nt H ow e ve r a t hl e t e s ha ve i l l us t r a t e d t he va l ue of be i ng a bl e t o vi s ua l i z e s pe c i f i c s ki l l s a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o phys i c a l e xe c ut i on of t ha t s ki l l M a c W i l ki ns w i nne r o f f our O l y m pi c gol d m e da l s de s c r i be d t hi s : B a s i c a l l y i t boi l s dow n t o t he f a c t t ha t i f you r e t r y i ng t o a c c om pl i s h s om e t hi ng, a pa r t i c ul a r a t hl e t i c m ove m e nt i f you c a n t vi s ua l i z e i t t he n i t s pu r e c ha nc e you w i l l be a bl e t o pe r f o r m t he m ove m e nt I f you v i s ua l i z e i t a nd c a n r e a l l y s e e i t .

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66 you ha ve a c l e a r t a r ge t t o a i m f or a nd a m uc h be t t e r c ha nc e of r e a l i z i ng t ha t t a r ge t ( c i t e d i n U nge r l e i de r & G ol di ng 1992 p 2 0) T hi s quot e unde r s c or e s t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n be i ng a bl e t o m e nt a l l y e xe c ut e s ki l l s a nd phys i c a l l y pe r f or m i ng t he m F or a t hl e t e s s ki l l i m a ge s de pe nde d upon t he t ype o f s por t i n w hi c h t he a t hl e t e w a s e nga ge d. S i m i l a r l y s pe c i f i c i m a ge s of i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c i a ns c oul d i nc l ude pl a yi ng a n i ns t r um e nt i n a c e r t a i n f a s hi on, e x e c ut i ng a c e r t a i n e m bouc hur e f or b r a s s pl a ye r s ( T r us he i m 1987) or hol di ng t he w r i s t i n a w a y t ha t f a c i l i t a t e d pl a yi ng a r pe ggi os on t he pi a no F o r s i nge r s i m a ge s of ope ni ng t he s i nus e s a nd t he t hr oa t t o a c hi e ve be t t e r r e s ona nc e or pe r f or m i ng oc t a ve l e a ps c or r e c t l y w oul d be c ons i de r e d s ki l l e xe c ut i on i m a ge s P l a nni ng a nd s e que nc i ng i m a ge s i n pe r f or m a nc e a l s o de a l t w i t h de ve l opm e nt a nd e xe c ut i on of s t r a t e gi e s a nd r ou t i ne s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000; N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) S t r a t e gi e s i n a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e i nc l ude d i m a ge s of r e he a r s i ng ga m e pl a ns i n f oot ba l l ( F e nke r & L a m bi ot t e 1987 ) s t r a t e gi e s i n w r e s t l i n g ( R us ha l l 1988) a nd r out i ne s s uc h a s t hos e i n f i gur e s ka t i ng a nd gym na s t i c s ( W hi t e & H a r dy, 1998 ) M unr oe a nd he r c ol l e a gue s ( 2000) r e por t e d s t r a t e gy a nd s e que nc e i m a ge r y i n t he c ogni t i ve a s pe c t s of t he w hy c a t e gor y a nd not a s a s e pa r a t e c ont e nt M us i c i a ns i m a gi ne d s t r a t e gi e s a nd pl a ns i n or ga ni z i ng t he i r pr a c t i c e a nd p r e pe r f o r m a nc e r out i ne s s pe c i f i c pe r f or m a nc e s e que nc e s s t r a t e gi e s of ha ndl i ng di f f i c ul t pa s s a ge s a nd w a ys of c opi ng w i t h di s t r a c t i ons ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993, T r us he i m 1987 ) R e s e a r c h i n i m a ge r y w i t h r e ga r d t o goa l a t t a i nm e n t ha s onl y r e c e nt l y e m e r ge d. S por t s r e s e a r c h i n goa l s e t t i ng a nd a c hi e ve m e nt i n vol ve d t hr e e di f f e r e nt t ype s of g oa l s : ( a ) out c om e ( b ) pe r f or m a nc e a nd ( c ) pr oc e s s goa l s ( W e i nbe r g & G oul d 1995 ) O ut c om e

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67 goa l s i n t hi s s t udy f oc us e d on t he f i na l r e s ul t o f t he e f f or t or e nde a vor P e r f o r m a nc e goa l s i nvol ve d t he pr oj e c t i on of e xc e e di ng one s ow n e f f or t s i n a pa r t i c ul a r s e t t i ng w i t hout r e ga r d t o o t he r c om pe t i t o r s P r oc e s s goa l s c ont a i ne d t he de s i r e d e f f e c t of i m pr ovi ng m or e s pe c i f i c pe r f or m a nc e f unc t i ons W e i nbe r g a nd G oul d ( 1995) s ugge s t e d t ha t a t hl e t e s f oc us i ng on pe r f o r m a nc e or pr oc e s s goa l s m or e r e a di l y a c hi e ve d pe r f o r m a nc e s uc c e s s W ool f ol k, M ur phy G ot t e s f e l d a nd A i t ke n ( 1985 ) f ound t ha t a t hl e t e s w ho i m a gi ne d t he out c om e of t he i r s pe c i f i c s por t a c t i vi t y j us t p r i or t o pe r f or m a nc e s ubs e que nt l y i nf l ue nc e d t ha t s a m e a c t i vi t y m or e t ha n m e nt a l r e he a r s a l R e p or t s of goa l i m a ge r y w e r e i nc l ude d a s m ot i va t i ona l a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y r e a s ons i n t he s t ud y by M unr oe a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2000) W oody ( 1999) pr opos e d t ha t e xpr e s s i ve pe r f o r m a n c e s r e qui r e d m e nt a l c onc e pt i ons of pe r f or m a nc e goa l s T he m or e c om pl e t e a nd de s c r i pt i ve l y de t a i l e d t he pe r f or m a nc e goa l s w e r e i n t he m i nd of t he pe r f or m e r t he m or e s uc c e s s f ul t he a c t ua l pe r f or m a nc e s e e m e d t o be J a c ks on a nd C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi ( 1999) s ugge s t e d t ha t pe r f or m e r s ke e p f oc us e d on t he i r goa l s by vi s ua l i z i ng a he a d of t i m e t he s pe c i f i c pe r f or m a nc e bot h i n pa r t s a nd a s a w hol e T hi s ga v e t he i ndi vi dua l a c l e a r bl ue p r i nt o f a l l t he c om pone nt s i nvol ve d i n i t s s uc c e s s f ul e xe c ut i o n. T he a ppl i c a t i on o f di f f e r e nt goa l s c or r e s ponde d t o t he va r y i ng r e qui r e m e nt s of t he s pe c i f i c t a s k. A r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s us e d goa l i m a ge s t o i m pr ove s ki l l a nd pe r f or m a nc e s i de nt i f y a nd e xe c ut e de s i r e d r ol e s t o pe r f or m a nd m e nt a l l y pr oj e c t f ut ur e s t a gi ngs ( C a r t e r 1993 ) P e r f or m a nc e goa l s w e r e f ound t o of t e n i nt e r m i ngl e w i t h out c om e goa l s f or a r t i s t i c pr of e s s i ona l s D a nc e r s u s e d goa l i m a ge s t o i m a gi n e be i ng t he be s t pe r f o r m di f f i c ul t s ki l l s a nd s e t l ong a nd s hor t t e r m goa l s ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) P r o f e s s i ona l s i nge r s e xpe c t e d a nd pr oj e c t e d pos i t i ve out c om e s r e gul a r l y s e t t i ng a c hi e va bl e a nd e f f e c t i ve

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68 goa l s ( C a r t e r 1993 ) T he f ol l ow i ng quot e e xe m pl i f i e d out c om e a nd pe r f or m a nc e goa l s m a de by t he w or l d r e now ne d t e no r L uc i a no P a va r ot t i e a r l y i n hi s i l l us t r i ous c a r e e r H e s t a t e d: W he n I be ga n t o s t udy, I m a de l i s t s of a l l t he r ol e s I w a nt e d t o s i ng, a nd t he a ge a t w hi c h I pl a nne d t o s i ng t he m A t t he t op I put R udol f o 22 I di d i t a t 26 E ve r yt hi ng ha s c om e l a t e r t ha n I p l a nne d, a nd I a m not s or r y I t hought t o r e t i r e m ys e l f a t 55, but f or now t he vo i c e f e e l s [ f i ne ] ( L uc i a no P a va r ot t i c i t e d i n C r ut c hf i e l d, 1985 ) P a va r ot t i w a s 50 w he n he ga ve t hi s i nt e r vi e w a nd w a s s t i l l s i ngi ng unt i l ve r y c l os e t o h i s de a t h a t 71. C hr i s t i ne H a r e l a f r e e l a nc e s i nge r ( B e l l on, 2006) de s c r i be d pr oc e s s goa l s i n e nde a vor i ng t o i m p r ove he r pe r f or m a nc e s S he s a i d: I a l s o ha ve obj e c t i ve s s uc h a s : I w oul d r e a l l y l i ke t hi s t i m e t o be a bl e t o s t a nd i n a pa r t i c ul a r w a y w hi l e s i ngi ng; o r a l s o: I w oul d l i k e f or m y voi c e t o s t a y i n a pa r t i c ul a r pl a c e i n m y body w hi l e s i ngi ng I c a n ha ve va r i ous obj e c t i ve s ba s e d on w he r e I a m a t w i t h m y i ns t r u m e nt [ vo i c e ] a t t he t i m e T h i s c om e s f r om t he f e e dba c k t ha t I go t f r om p r e vi ous pe r f o r m a nc e s a nd w ha t I w oul d l i ke t o i m pr ove ( p. 17 ) P r of e s s i ona l s i nge r s s e e m e d t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h va r i ous a s pe c t s a nd m e t hods of e m pl oyi ng out c om e pe r f or m a nc e a nd p r oc e s s goa l s t hr oughout t he i r c a r e e r s M e t aphor i c / ar t i s t i c i m age s M e t a phor i c a nd a r t i s t i c i m a ge r y w a s t r a di t i ona l l y us e d i n a r t i s t i c pe r f o r m a nc e a nd ha ve be e n i nc l ude d i n m o r e c ur r e nt i nve s t i ga t i ons i n s e ve r a l s por t s s uc h a s f i gur e s ka t i ng a nd a r t i s t i c g ym na s t i c s ( R ui z & H a ni n, 2004 ) R e c e nt s t udi e s ha ve r e ve a l e d t he s uc c e s s f ul us e of m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y i n a t hl e t e s

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69 r e gul a t i ng a f f e c t i n a c hi e vi ng f l ow s t a t e s ( H a ni n & S t a m bol va 2002; R ui z & H a ni n, 2004) N o r di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005 ) r e por t e d da nc e r s us i ng va r i ous ki nd s of m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y w i t h pe r f or m a nc e i nc l udi ng i m a ge s of c ol or ob j e c t s t ha t a r e not pr e s e nt a c t i ons t ha t c a nnot a c t ua l l y be pe r f or m e d t he e nvi r onm e nt a nd t he m e s ( p. 403) M us i c i a n s ha ve us e d m e t a phor i c a l a nd poe t i c i m a g e r y f or t e c hni c a l e xe c ut i on a nd e xpr e s s i ve i nt e r pr e t a t i on i n e xpr e s s i ve pe r f o r m a nc e s of a c om pos i t i on. O f t e n t he s t yl e a nd hi s t or i c ge nr e o f t he pi e c e ha ve di c t a t e d s pe c i f i c i m a ge r y a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i on C a r t e r ( 1993) r e por t e d s i nge r s us i ng m o r e i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m i ng r e c i t a l s t ha n or a t or i o or ope r a C onduc t or s w e r e know n t o s ha r e c e r t a i n m e t a phor s or poe t i c i m a ge s f o r i n t e r pr e t i ng phr a s e s m ove m e nt s a nd e nt i r e s ym phoni e s ( B a r t e n, 1992 1998; B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) C onduc t or s di r e c t or s a nd m us i c a l i ns t r uc t or s a l s o us e d a l l e gor i c a l a nd de s c r i pt i ve l a ngua ge a nd i m a ge r y, s t or y t e l l i ng, a nd ki ne s t he t i c a nd vi s ua l i m a ge r y t o he l p c r e a t e a c e r t a i n f e e l i ng o r i n t e nt i o n i n a p i e c e I n he r obs e r va t i ons of i ns t r um e nt a l c l a s s e s B a r t e n ( 1992, 1998 ) r e por t e d i ns t r uc t or s d e s c r i be d c ount l e s s va r i e t i e s of m e t a phor s a nd s i m i l e s t o e l i c i t a ppr opr i a t e m us i c a l e xpr e s s i on i n t he i r s t ude nt s pe r f or m a nc e s I ns t r um e nt a l i s t s a nd s i nge r s ha ve us e d a w i de r a nge of m e t a phor i c i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng a c ohe s i ve a r t i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i on of pi e c e o f m us i c I n t he c ont e xt of voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e i m a ge r y w a s o f t e n a s s um e d t o m e a n m e t a phor i c or p oe t i c i m a ge s r e l a t e d t o a f f e c t a nd a r t i s t i c e xpr e s s i on ( B e l l on, 2006 ; C a r t e r 1993; C of f i n 1987; L e ye r l e 1986; M i l l e r 1996 ) a s oppos e d t o t he de f i ni t i on of i m a ge r y us e d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy. P r of e s s i ona l s i nge r s i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) a nd B e l l on s ( 2006) s t udi e s e m pha s i z e d m e t a phor i c a l a nd a r t i s t i c us e of i m a ge r y i n a f f e c t i ng e xpr e s s i ve pe r f or m a nc e s a nd t o de s c r i be m e t hods t o pr oduc e di f f e r e nt voc a l s ounds a s i n

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70 P a va r ot t i i m a gi ni ng a n a i r pl a ne a s c e ndi ng a s he s a ng a r i s i ng s e r i e s of pi t c he s ( H i ne s 1982) W i t hi n t he voc a l pe da gogi c a l c om m uni t y t he r e ha d be e n m uc h c ont r ove r s y c onc e r ni ng t he a ppr opr i a t e us e of i m a ge r y i n t e a c hi ng voi c e ( T i t z e 1986) A c c or di ng t o V e nna r d ( 1971) i m a ge r y w a s of t e n a de s c r i pt i on a t e a c he r w oul d e m pl oy t o he l p s t ude nt s ga i n unde r s t a ndi ng of voc a l pr oduc t i on i f di r e c t e x pl a na t i on w a s i ne f f e c t i ve I t s phi l os ophy i s t ha t w hi l e t he phys i c a l de t a i l s a r e e i t he r unknow n or not di r e c t l y c ont r ol l a bl e t he e xpe r i e nc e of good t one p r oduc t i o n c a n be de s c r i be d i n f i gur e s o f s pe e c h w hi c h w i l l e na bl e t he s t ude nt t o g r a s p i t ( p 15 ) V e nna r d c a ut i one d t he s i ngi ng t e a c he r t o be c a r e f ul onl y t o us e i m a ge r y w i t h i de a s t ha t t h e s t ude nt s i nge r c oul d g r a s p e a s i l y t hr ough pa s t e xpe r i e nc e H e r e f e r r e d t o f l oa t t he t one on t he b r e a t h a nd don t r e a c h f o r hi gh not e s ; a ppr oa c h t he m f r om a bove a s s t a t e m e nt s t ha t ha d pa r t i c ul a r m e a ni ng onl y t o t hos e w ho ha ve e xpe r i e nc e d t he s e voc a l t e c hni que s O t he r pe da gogu e s ha ve a r gue d i n f a vor o f e m pl oyi ng a f ul l y i nt e gr a t e d a r t i s t i c a nd s c i e nt i f i c a ppr oa c h t o s i ngi ng t e a c hi ng. R e i d ( 1983) s t r ongl y c a ut i one d a ga i ns t t he us e of i m a ge r y i n f a vo r of a m o r e s c i e nt i f i c a ppr oa c h t o s i ngi ng. H e a r gue d: T o a c e r t a i n e xt e nt voc a l i ns t r uc t i on i s i m pos s i bl e w i t hout i m a ge r y, s i nc e e ve n t he m os t e l e m e nt a l s c a l e pa t t e r n m us t be c onc e pt ua l i z e d be f or e i t c a n be e xe c ut e d. H ow e ve r t he s uc c e s s f ul r e a l i z a t i on of a pr e c onc e pt [ s i c ] de pe nds upon a n a bi l i t y t o r e s pond, w hi c h i s a m a t t e r of ph ys i c a l c oor di na t i on. S i nc e t he s t ude nt ha s pr e s e nt e d hi m s e l f i n or de r t o ove r c om e obvi ous phys i c a l di s a bi l i t i e s t he us e of i m a ge r y c a nnot be c ons i de r e d pe r t i ne nt t o t he c e nt r a l i s s ue I m a ge r y,

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71 t he r e f or e i s not a n i m por t a nt f a c t or i n t he voi c e bu i l di ng pr oc e s s ( R e i d, 1983, p. 155) A l t hough R e i d w a s phi l os ophi c a l l y oppos e d t o i m a ge r y ( C a r t e r 1993, p. 183) he r e a l i z e d t ha t m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y w a s s om e t i m e s ne c e s s a r y i n t e a c hi ng but he l d t he c onvi c t i on t ha t s ubj e c t i ve us e s of i m a ge r y c oul d g o c ount e r t o t he m o r e s c i e nt i f i c a nd t he r e f or e m o r e t e c hni c a l a ppr oa c h o f voc a l t r a i ni n g. D a ym e ( 1982) a l s o a r gue d f o r a m or e i nt e gr a t e d a pp r oa c h, a nd s a i d, W he n a l l t he a va i l a bl e know l e dge of t he m e c ha ni c s a nd a r t i s t r y o f s i ngi ng i s us e d, t he n t he r e s ul t c a n o nl y b e a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng a nd e nj oym e nt of voc a l a r t i s t r y ( p. 3) F r e e d ( 2000) c om pa r e d m e t a pho r i c a l us e of i m a ge r y t e r m s i nc l ude d i n A m e r i c a n voc a l t e xt s f r om t he e a r l y pa r t o f t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y w i t h i t s m or e r e c e nt us a ge M a ny of t he s e t e r m s w e r e s t i l l e m pl oye d i n c ont e m por a r y pe da gogy a nd w e r e di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s ki l l a c qui s i t i on i n voi c e t r a i ni ng ( e g l e a r ni ng b r e a t h s uppor t ; a c hi e vi ng a nd e xe c ut i ng pr ope r s e ns a t i ons a nd pl a c e m e nt of t he voi c e ) S i n ge r s i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) s t udy r e por t e d us i ng s u c h i m a ge r y ( e g be l l ow s bounc i ng ba l l on a w a t e r f ount a i n s t r e t c hi ng a r ubbe r ba nd ) w hi c h w e r e us e d t o f a c i l i t a t e voc a l pr oduc t i on. F r e e d r e c om m e nde d t ha t i m a ge r y i n voc a l pe da gogy be c onne c t e d w i t h t he m or e gr ounde d phys i ol ogi c a l e xpe r i e nc e s G i ve n t he s ubj e c t i ve a nd a r t i s t i c de f i n i t i on of i m a ge r y, a dvi s i ng c a ut i on i n i t s us e w a s unde r s t a nda bl e N one t he l e s s m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y i n voc a l pe da gogy w a s of t e n r e qui r e d W hi l e t he da nge r s i n us i ng m e t a m or phi c i m a ge r y w e r e c l e a r i t s us e i n m us i c w a s w e l l e s t a bl i s he d a nd w a s not l i ke l y t o c ha nge due t o t he a bs t r a c t na t ur e of m us i c ( B a r t e n, 1998) H ow e ve r i m a ge r y a s i t ha s be e n us e d a nd i nve s t i ga t e d i n ps yc hol ogy a nd s por t

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72 ps yc hol ogy, of f e r s a m uc h br oa de r de f i ni t i on a nd e nc om pa s s e s m e nt a l a s pe c t s of m us i c a l a nd s i ngi ng de ve l opm e nt a s e xe m pl i f i e d i n t he w o r k of s e ve r a l pe da gogue s ( C a l dw e l l & W a l l 2001; F i e l ds 1972; W a r e 1998) H ow e ve r m us i c pe r f or m a nc e ha s r e m a i ne d a c r e a t i ve a r t i n w hi c h m e t a phor w a s va l i d, e s pe c i a l l y i n s i nge r s w ho c r e a t e d a nd i nt e r pr e t e d r ol e s a nd c ha r a c t e r s C har ac t e r / r ol e i m age s C ha r a c t e r a nd r ol e i m a ge s w e r e l i m i t e d t o dr a m a t i c e m ot i ona l a nd a r t i s t i c r e qui r e m e nt s i n da nc e m us i c a nd s i ngi ng. D a nc e r s a s w e l l a s s i nge r s i m a gi ne d t he be ha vi or s a nd e m ot i ons of t h e i r c ha r a c t e r s a s w e l l a s t he i r phys i c a l m ove m e nt s a nd a ppe a r a nc e ( C a r t e r 1993; C r a i g 1 992; H a nr a ha n & V e r ge e r 2000 ; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) T he s e w e r e r e l a t e d t o t he e xpe r i e nc e of c e r t a i n qua l i t i e s hum a n or non hum a n, f or i ns t a nc e a da nc e r r e c r e a t i ng t he s w a n i n Sw an L ak e E ve n i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s i n m us i c a l c om pos i t i ons ha ve ha d c e r t a i n r ol e s i n w hi c h t he y c r e a t e d c ha r a c t e r s s uc h a s t hos e i n P r oko f i e v s P e t e r and t he W ol f w he r e i n s pe c i f i c i ns t r um e nt s r e pr e s e nt e d t he di f f e r e nt c ha r a c t e r s i n t he s t or y. M a ny m us i c a l c om pos i t i ons s ugge s t e d s om e ki nd of a f f e c t i ve i de a l o r i m a ge f r om w hi c h t he pe r f or m e r c oul d e m body a nd pr e s e nt t he w or k. H ow e ve r i n s i ngi ng of t e n t he i n t e r a c t i on of m us i c w i t h t he t e xt m o r e s pe c i f i c a l l y s ugge s t e d i t s pl a c e m e nt a s t o how i t w a s t o be i nt e r p r e t e d a nd pe r f or m e d. O pe r a t i c s i nge r s r e c r e a t e d t he i r c ha r a c t e r s us i ng w or ds pr e s e nt e d voc a l l y, d r a m a t i c a l l y, m us i c a l l y, a s w e l l a s phys i c a l l y, m e nt a l l y a nd a f f e c t i ve l y ( B a r t e n, 1992; C a r t e r 1993; E m m ons & T hom a s 1998 2008 ) C r e a t i ng c ha r a c t e r s a nd r ol e s i n a r t s ong r e c i t a l s w a s c ons i de r e d m or e r i gor ous a nd di f f i c ul t t ha n t hos e i n ope r a o r or a t o r i o. S ongs f or r e c i t a l s r e qui r e a n e nt i r e s ubj e c t i ve w or l d t o be r e c r e a t e d m e nt a l l y d r a m a t i c a l l y, a nd e m ot i ona l l y f o r e a c h s ong i n or de r t o

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73 a c hi e ve a n e f f e c t i ve pe r f o r m a nc e ( B a r t e n, 1992; C a r t e r 1993 ; E m m ons & S onnt a g, 2002) L ot t e L e hm a n ( 1945 / 1985) i n M or e T han Si ngi ng, of f e r e d s ugge s t i ons f or i nt e r pr e t i ng l i e de r of m a ny c om pos e r s ( e g. B r a h m s a nd S c hum a nn) S he o f t e n i nc l ude d e nt i r e s c e na r i os pe r f or m e r s c oul d i m a gi ne i n r e c r e a t i ng t he s ong. F or e xa m pl e i n pe r f or m i ng G ut e N ac ht f r om D i e W i nt e r r e i s e by S c hube r t s he de s c r i be d t he s pe c i f i c s c e na r i o w he n s he s ugge s t e d: I m a gi ne t ha t you a r e t hi s m a n w ho i s on t he ve r ge of c om pl e t e di s i nt e gr a t i on I t i s a c ol d w i nt e r ni ght Y ou ha ve de c i de d t o l e a ve dur i ng t he ni ght f or i f you l e f t i n t he da yl i ght you m i ght s e e he r f r o m w hom you a r e f l e e i ng, a nd pe r ha ps i f you s houl d s e e he r a ga i n you w oul d w e a ke n a nd w oul d not f i nd t he s t r e ngt h t o go. B ut you c a n no l onge r be a r t he t or t u r e of be i ng ne a r he r Y ou w i l l l os e your m i nd i f you c a nnot e s c a pe f r om he r ( L e hm a nn 1945/ 1985 p 110) T he poe t a nd c om pos e r c r e a t e d a n e nt i r e dr a m a t i c w or l d i n t he s e l i e de r s ongs t he di c t a t e s of w hi c h he l pe d t he pe r f o r m e r t o br i ng t he c ha r a c t e r t o l i f e E ve n t hough L e hm a nn m a i nt a i ne d t ha t s pe c i f i c i m a ge s w e r e di c t a t e d i n t he t e xt of t he s e s ongs e l i t e s i nge r s i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) s t udy o f t e n f e l t i m a ge s w e r e pr i va t e a nd w e r e f l e xi bl e a c c or di ng t o s pe c i f i c ne e d. S om e s i nge r s c r e a t e d e nt i r e s t or i e s a nd s c e na r i os t o a c t out t he i m a ge s of t he i r s ongs M os t s i nge r s f e l t t ha t e m bodyi ng s ubt e xt or unde r l yi ng m e a ni ng, c a m e f r om t he t e xt o r s t or y of t he ope r a or s ong. F e e l i ng a ppr opr i a t e e m ot i ons a nd i m a gi ni ng pa s t pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s i n o r de r t o m or e c om pl e t e l y e m body t he c ha r a c t e r of t he s ong be s t a c c om pl i s he d t hi s T he d r a m a t i c s ki l l of i m a gi ni ng t he s ubt e xt a l l ow e d t he pe r f o r m e r t o unl oc k e m ot i ona l s i gni f i c a nc e a nd c om m uni c a t e t he i nt e nt i ons of t he c om pos e r a nd poe t t o t he a udi e nc e

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74 M a ny s i nge r s a c c ount s of t he i r l i ve s i n bi og r a phi e s de a l t w i t h t he i r e xpe r i e nc e of voc a l pr oduc t i on a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i on ( F e r r i e r 1955; H or ne & S c o r ve l l 1984) A ut obi ogr a phi e s s uc h a s L e hm a nn, ( 1945/ 1985) a nd F e r r i e r ( 1955 ) r e ve a l e d how t he s e s i nge r s br ought i nt ui t i on a nd i m a gi na t i on i nt o t he i r c ha r a c t e r s a nd r ol e s i n pe r f o r m a nc e s H i ne s ( 1982) i nt e r vi e w s of 40 i nt e r na t i ona l l y r e c o gni z e d m a l e a nd f e m a l e ope r a s i nge r s i l l us t r a t e d s om e e xpe r i e nc e s i n c r e a t i ng r ol e s f or m a ny ope r a s D e ve l opi ng s i nge r s c oul d us e t he s e a c c ount s a s m ode l s f or t he i r ow n w or k w i t h br i ngi ng c ha r a c t e r s t o l i f e on t he s t a ge bot h i n i m a gi na t i on a nd i n phys i c a l e xe c ut i on. C ont e x t i m age s B ot h a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f o r m e r s ha ve r e por t e d t he us e of c ont e xt i m a ge s i nvol vi ng t he e nvi r on m e nt ot he r pe op l e a nd s pe c i f i c s i t ua t i ons a nd ve nue s I m a ge r y c ont e xt ha s be e n r e c ogni z e d a s a n i m por t a nt e l e m e nt s i nc e t he be gi nni ng o f m e nt a l t r a i ni ng i n s por t s a s i n t hi s e xa m pl e : B e f or e t he 1976 S um m e r O l ym pi c s r e p r e s e nt a t i ve s f r om t he S ovi e t U ni on s hot pi c t ur e s o f t he O l ym pi c f a c i l i t i e s i n M ont r e a l T he s e pi c t ur e s w e r e r e t ur ne d t o t he S ovi e t U ni on a nd s t udi e d by t he a t hl e t e s A l t hough t he S ovi e t a t hl e t e s ha d not be e n t o M ont r e a l t he y us e d t he pi c t u r e s t o c r e a t e i m a ge s of t he m s e l ve s pe r f or m i ng i n t hos e f a c i l i t i e s C r e a t i ng t he s e t ype s of i m a ge s s e r ve d t o f a m i l i a r i z e t he a t hl e t e s w i t h t he O l ym p i c e nvi r onm e nt be f or e t he y a r r i ve d. ( V e a l e y, 1986, p. 211) T hi s t ype of i m a ge w a s r e po r t e d i n a t hl e t e s i m a ge r y a s va r i ous e l e m e nt s i n t he s ur r oundi ngs ( e g s ounds f r om s pe c t a t or s s m e l l o f t he g r a s s ) ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) i de nt i f i e d t hi s t ype a s a not he r c a t e gor y t ha t e m e r ge d f r om da nc e r s i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h. P r i or t o t hi s s por t i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o c ont e xt ha d

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75 r a r e l y be e n a s e pa r a t e s ubj e c t a n d w a s i nc or po r a t e d i n va r i ous s t udi e s s uc h a s t hos e on vi vi dne s s a nd m a ni pul a t i on of i m a ge s I n r e por t i ng c ont e xt i m a ge s of m us i c i a ns T r us he i m ( 1987) f ound br a s s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s i nc l udi ng de t a i l s of a udi t i ons r oo m s w i t h r e vi e w e r s a nd a c ous t i c a l qua l i t i e s of s pe c i f i c pe r f o r m a nc e s s pa c e s T he s e a nd t he m us i c i a ns i n B e l l on s ( 2006) a nd C a r t e r s ( 1993) s t udi e s de s c r i be d i m a ge s w i t h ot he r m us i c i a ns i n t he pe r f or m i ng s pa c e or ve nue i n f r on t of a n a udi e nc e F ur t he r m or e t he s e s i nge r s i m a gi ne d t he e nt i r e s c e na r i o s of s ongs t he y ha d c r e a t e d i n t he i r m i nds w hi l e m e nt a l l y a nd phys i c a l l y pe r f o r m i ng on s t a ge B ody r e l at e d i m age s A not he r i m a ge r y t ype c onc e r ne d t he di f f e r e nt body r e l a t e d i m a ge s i n w hi c h a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f o r m e r s e nga ge d, i nc l udi ng a na t om y, f e e l i ng, a ppe a r a nc e m us i c a l e xpr e s s i on, a nd he a l t h c onc e r ns ( C a r t e r 1993; H a nr a ha n & V e r ge e r 2000; M unr oe e t a l 2000; N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2 005) M uc h o f t he s por t r e s e a r c h of body r e l a t e d i m a ge r y ha s be e n i nc l ude d i n s t udi e s i nve s t i ga t i ng ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y, a nd i s e xa m i ne d i n t he c a t e gor y of s e ns e i m a ge r y l a t e r i n t hi s s e c t i on. T he body r e l a t e d c a t e gor y e m e r ge d f r om t he N o r di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) da nc e i m a ge r y s t udy. D a nc e r s of t e n e m pl oye d a num be r of body r e l a t e d i m a ge s P hys i c a l a nd e m ot i ona l f e e l i ngs w e r e c onne c t e d w i t h a r ous a l m us c ul a r t e ns i on, a nd a f f e c t i ve s e ns a t i on s S e ve r a l da nc e r s i m a gi ne d va r i ous a nd s pe c i f i c pa r t s of t he i r a na t om y f o r i ndi vi dua l pe r f o r m a nc e e xe c ut i on. D a nc e r s a l s o us e d i m a ge s of t he i r a ppe a r a nc e a nd t ha t of t he i r c ha r a c t e r s i n m o r e e f f e c t i ve l y r e l a t i ng t o t h e a udi e nc e ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) S i nge r s w ho us e d body r e l a t e d i m a ge r y s ha r e d s o m e of t he s a m e c onc e r ns a s da nc e r s a nd ha d s om e t ha t di f f e r e d C a r t e r ( 1993 ) di s c us s e d voc a l i s t s us e of i m a ge r y

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76 ba s e d on L e ye r l e s ( 1986 ) f i ve t he or e t i c a l c a t e gor i e s of or ga ni c i m a ge r y i n s i ngi ng. T he s e c ons i s t e d of pos t ur e r e s pi r a t i on, phona t i on, r e s ona t i on, a nd us e i n voc a l or ps yc hol ogi c a l pr obl e m a r e a s S i nc e G a r c i a I I de ve l ope d t he l a r yngos c ope i n 1854 ( G a r c i a & P a s c hke 1975) s i nge r s ha ve be e n a bl e t o s e e a n d unde r s t a nd t he a c t ua l a na t om y of t he l a r ynx. S ubs e que nt l y voc a l pe da gogue s ha ve a dvoc a t e d f or t he i nc r e a s e d i nc or por a t i on of voc a l a na t om i c a l i m a ge s w hi c h w e r e c ons i de r e d m or e s c i e nt i f i c t ha n m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y ( D a ym e 1982; L e ye r l e 19 86; M i l l e r 199 6; V e nna r d, 1968) M or e r e c e nt t e xt s ha ve i nc l ude d e xt e ns i ve l y de t a i l e d i l l us t r a t i ons of t he va r i ous a s pe c t s of voc a l a nd hum a n a na t om y a s i t r e l a t e s t o s i ngi ng ( C ha pm a n, 2006; M i l l e r 2004) S i nge r s i m a gi ne d t he i r e nt i r e phys i c a l body a nd v oc a l m e c ha ni s m or i nt e r i or pos t ur e i n c ont r ol l i ng t he voc a l s ound a nd phys i c a l l y c r e a t i ng t he i r c ha r a c t e r ( B e l l on, 2006) V oc a l i s t s w e r e f ound t o ha ve ha d i m a ge s a r i s e c onc e r ni ng t he i r a bi l i t y t o s i ng or not e s pe c i a l l y ha vi ng f e a r s of l os i ng t he i r voi c e ( S t e dm a n, 1985) D ue t o t he f a c t t ha t s i nge r s de pe nde d on t he he a l t h of t he i r body a s t he i r m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt t he y us e d m a ny di f f e r e nt body r e l a t e d i m a ge s ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993) T he us e of body r e l a t e d i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng m us i c a l s ound a nd e xpr e s s i on i s not ne w t o m us i c i a ns B r a s s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s ( T r us he i m 1987) a nd p r of e s s i ona l s i nge r s ( C a r t e r 1993 ) us e d ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y t o m e nt a l he a r i ng of p i t c he s a nd m us i c a l pa s s a ge s F ur t he r m or e one of t he s i nge r s i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) s t udy pr a c t i c e d p hys i c a l m ove m e nt s r e l a t e d t o t he r hyt hm of t he m us i c a s t he r e s ul t of t r a i ni ng i n D a l c r oz e E ur yt hm i c s ( J a que s D a l c r oz e 1920/ 1972 ) T hi s he l pe d t he voc a l i s t phys i c a l l y e xe c ut e a nd s ubs e que nt l y a ppl y t he us e of ki ne s t he t i c i m a g e r y t o s t r e ngt he n r hyt hm a nd c onne c t w i t h t he na t ur a l t e ns i on a nd e xpr e s s i on i n t he pa r t i c ul a r pi e c e of m us i c L e a r ni ng t he

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77 w or ds i n phys i c a l r hyt hm i c m ot i on a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d m e m or y f o r s e ve r a l of C a r t e r s s i nge r s S e ve r a l s t udi e s f oc us e d on t he us e of i m a ge r y i n a t hl e t i c i nj ur y I n a n i nve s t i ga t i on of t he c ogni t i ve a nd m o t i va t i ona l f un c t i ons of i m a ge r y S o r doni H a l l a nd F or w e l l ( 2000 ) de ve l ope d t he A t hl e t i c I nj ur y I m a g e r y Q ue s t i onna i r e ( A I I Q ) a nd f ound t ha t i nj ur e d a t hl e t e s e m pl oye d m ot i va t i ona l i m a ge r y t o f a c i l i t a t e r e ha bi l i t a t i on M a r a t hon r unne r s ol de r a t hl e t e s a nd t hos e w ho ha d be e n t o a s por t s phys i c i a n w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o m oni t or t he i r body f or pa i n a nd i nj ur y t ha n younge r a nd l e s s e duc a t e d a t hl e t e s ( U nge r l e i de r 1992) A t hl e t e s r e por t e d t ha t r e c ove r y f r om i nj ur y w a s e nha nc e d u s i ng pos i t i ve s e l f t a l k a nd i m a ge s of he a l i ng ( I e vl e va & O r l i c k, 1991) G r e e n ( 1992) s ugge s t e d pos s i bl e us e s of i m a ge r y t o f a c i l i t a t e t he m a ny s t a ge s of he a l i ng a t hl e t i c i nj ur y. S om e m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s a l s o us e d i m a ge r y i n he a l i ng t h e i r bodi e s a f t e r i nj ur y or c opi ng w i t h phys i ol ogi c a l ps yc hol ogi c a l a nd e m ot i ona l a s pe c t s of i nj ur y a nd i t s c ons e que nc e s ( T r us he i m 1987) P e r f or m e r s c ons i s t e nt l y us e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e of t he i r pa r t i c ul a r i ns t r um e nt or ge nr e t o c ont i nue a nd a ugm e nt phys i c a l pr a c t i c e dur i ng f a t i g ue a nd i nj ur y ( C a r t e r 1993 ; N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005; T r us he i m 1987) T he m i nd body pa r a di gm l i t e r a t ur e ha d s uppor t e d t he c onne c t i on of i m a ge r y w i t h ps yc hophys i c a l c ondi t i ons e s pe c i a l l y i n he a l i ng ( s e e S he i kh, 2003 f or a c om pr e he ns i ve r e vi e w ) E a r l y s t ud i e s w i t h c a nc e r pa t i e nt s us i ng i m a ge r y t o c om ba t c a nc e r r e por t e d pos i t i ve r e s ul t s of r e c ove r y a nd r e m i s s i on of t he di s e a s e ( S i m ont on, M a t t he w s S i m ont on, & S pa r ks 1971; S i m ont on, S i m ont on & C r e i ght o n, 1978) S t udi e s ( S c hw a r t z 1984; S c hw a r t z & K us s e k, 200 3) ha ve s ugge s t e d t ha t t he hum a n be i ng i s a c om pl e t e s ys t e m m a de up of a num be r of s ubs ys t e m s i nc l udi ng m i nd a nd body. T he s e pa r t s i n t e r a c t

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78 r e s ul t i ng i n ne w e m e r ge nt pr ope r t i e s w hi c h a r e f a c i l i t a t e d a nd a c hi e ve d i n t he us e of i m a ge r y t o r e c ove r a nd m a i nt a i n opt i m a l he a l t h. I r r e l e v ant i m age s I r r e l e va nt i m a ge s e m e r ge d i n t h e da nc e r e s e a r c h of N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) a nd w e r e no t di r e c t l y a ddr e s s e d i n t he s por t i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n H a l l a nd ot he r s ( 1998) a nd M unr oe a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 200 0) I r r e l e va nt i m a ge s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s t hos e t ype s t ha t s pont a ne ous l y a r os e t ha t m a y h a ve ha d not hi ng t o do w i t h pr a c t i c e o r pe r f or m a nc e M us i c i a ns a nd s i nge r w e r e r e por t e d t o ha ve i m a ge s t ha t w e r e no t w a nt e d a nd t ha t e m e r ge d s pont a ne ous l y ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) T he s e w e r e f ound i nt e r t w i ne d i n t he i m a ge s t he y r e por t e d O ne s i nge r i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) s t udy r e por t e d t he r e gul a r oc c ur r e nc e of s pont a ne ous i m a ge s w hi l e us i ng s e l f hypnos i s how e ve r t he s e i m a ge s di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o he r pe r f o r m a nc e a nd c oul d not be c ons i de r e d i r r e l e va nt T he s e i m a ge r y t ype s a s e s t a bl i s he d by N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) c om pr i s e d t he c ont e nt of i m a ge r y w i t h w hi c h pe r f or m e r s m o r e t ha n a t hl e t e s w e r e i nvol ve d. M os t of t he s e r e pr e s e nt e d t he ve hi c l e i n w hi c h a r t i s t i c e xpr e s s i on w a s a c hi e ve d i n c r e a t i ve pe r f or m a nc e T he ge ne r a l qua l i t i e s i n how a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f o r m e r s e nga ge i n i m a ge r y w i l l now be e xa m i ne d W hat : I m age r y C har ac t e r i s t i c s I m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i nc l ude d qua l i t i e s of i m a ge r y a s a m oda l i t y or a by pr oduc t r a t he r t ha n i m a ge r y t ype o r c ont e nt pr e vi o us l y di s c us s e d. A c c or di ng t o N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005 ) t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of i m a ge r y i nc l ude d s i x s pe c i f i c qua l i t i e s : ( a ) s e ns e s ( b) pe r s pe c t i ve ( c ) a bi l i t y ( d ) di r e c t i on, ( e ) de l i be r a t i on a nd ( f ) a m ount a nd dur a t i on.

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79 Se ns e s A c c or di ng t o R i c ha r ds on ( 1969) s e ns or y i m a ge r y di f f e r e d f r om pe r c e pt i on i n t ha t i m a ge r y w a s not de pe nde nt on e xpe r i e nc i ng out s i de s e ns or y e xpe r i e nc e but r e pl i c a t e d t he e xpe r i e nc e of t ha t s e ns or y i nf or m a t i on i n t he c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s ( R i c ha r ds on, 1969) S e ns e s us e d i n i m a g e r y w e r e t he s a m e a s t hos e i nvol ve d i n pe r c e pt i on a nd i nc l ude d s i x c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) vi s ua l ( b) a udi t or y ( c ) ki ne s t he t i c ( d) t a c t i l e ( e ) ol f a c t o r y, a nd ( f ) gus t a t or y I n s om e of t he e a r l i e s t s t udi e s of t he us e of s e ns e s G a l t on ( 1880 1883) s ur ve ye d vi s ua l i m a ge r y a bi l i t y a nd f ound i t m or e p r of oundl y de ve l ope d i n e ngi ne e r s w om e n, a nd s c hool boys t ha n s c i e nt i s t s I n a di a r y s t udy, K os s l yn, S e ge r P a ni a nd H i l l ge r ( 1990) f ound t ha t t w o t hi r ds o f i m a ge r y i n pe opl e s nor m a l l i f e w a s vi s u a l H ow e ve r t he us e of s pe c i f i c s e ns e s of t e n de pe nde d on t he i ndi vi dua l a nd t he i r c hos e n a c t i vi t i e s or e xpe r i e nc e s a s w e l l a s t he t ype of s por t a r t f or m o r m us i c t he va r i ous s ki l l s a nd r e qui r e m e nt s of t he a t hl e t e or pe r f o r m e r F o r e xa m pl e f i e l d a t hl e t e s us e d m or e vi s ua l i m a ge r y t ha n m a r a t hon r unne r s ( U nge r l e i de r & G o l di ng, 1992 ) w hi c h m a y be r e l a t e d t o t he vi s ua l c om pone nt s i n f i e l d a t hl e t i c s F ur t he r m o r e t he e xt e ns i ve phys i c a l r e qui r e m e nt s ove r t i m e f or l ong di s t a nc e a t hl e t e s m a y r e qui r e m or e ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y. T he s pe c i f i c s e ns or y m oda l i t y, or i t s c om bi na t i ons t ha t a t hl e t e s e m pl oye d i n va r i ous s por t s ha ve be e n e xa m i ne d i n a num be r of s t udi e s R e s ul t s of s por t s r e s e a r c h ha ve di f f e r e d a s t o w hi c h i m a ge r y s e ns e a t hl e t e s us e m or e vi s ua l o r ki ne s t h e t i c M ur phy a nd M a r t i n ( 2002) f ound a t hl e t e s pr e f e r r e d ki ne s t h e t i c t o vi s ua l i m a ge r y how e ve r ot he r s t udi e s r e por t e d a t hl e t e s w e r e be t t e r v i s ua l t ha n ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r s ( B a r r & H a l l 1992; G r e gg e t a l 2005 ; H a l l & M a r t i n 1997; M or a n, 2 004; M ur phy e t a l 2008 ) R ya n a nd S i m ons ( 1982) f ound t ha t be t t e r vi s ua l or ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r s s how e d m or e i m p r ove m e nt

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80 t ha n t hos e w i t h w e a k vi s ua l o r ki ne s t he t i c s ki l l s F ur t he r m or e s oc c e r pl a ye r s not onl y us e d vi s ua l a nd ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y e xt e ns i ve l y, b ut s om e a l s o r e por t e d us i ng a udi t or y i m a ge r y ( S a l m on e t a l 1994) M unr oe a nd ot he r s ( 2000) r e por t e d a t hl e t e s i n t he i r s t udy us e d vi s ua l ki ne s t he t i c a udi t or y a nd ol f a c t or y s e ns e i m a ge r y. S po r t ps yc hol ogi s t s ge ne r a l l y r e c om m e nde d t ha t a t hl e t e s us e a s m a ny s e ns e m od a l i t i e s a s pos s i bl e i n t he i r i m a ge r y t o i nc r e a s e e f f e c t i ve ne s s ( M or a n, 2004; M or r i s e t a l 2005; M ur phy e t a l 2008; V e a l e y & G r e e nl e a f 2001) A r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s us e d m ul t i pl e s e ns e i m a ge s i n w a ys s pe c i f i c t o r e qui r e m e nt s of t he i r a r t D a nc e r s i n N o r di n a nd C um m i ng s ( 20 05) s t udy r e po r t e d e xpe r i e nc i ng m u l t i s e ns or y i m a ge r y: ki ne s t he t i c vi s ua l a nd a ur a l E l i t e m us i c i a ns us e d t he s a m e t hr e e s e ns e m oda l i t i e s i n t he i r pr of e s s i on ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; H ol m e s 2005; M oye r 1992 ; R os s 1985; T r us he i m 1987) M a c P he r s on ( 1997) f ound m or e e xpe r i e nc e d m us i c i a ns w e r e a bl e t o c onne c t t he i r ki ne s t he t i c a nd a udi t o r y i m a ge w i t h pl a yi ng w he r e i n t he l i nk be t w e e n f i nge r s a nd s i nge r s w a s a ut om a t i c a nd s e e m e d t o oc c ur w i t hout a ny c ons c i ous e f f or t ( p. 70) I n he r i nt e r vi e w o f a s ol o c e l l i s t a nd gui t a r i s t H ol m e s ( 2005) r e por t e d t ha t i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s i m a gi ne d t he s ound, t he f e e l o f m us c l e s t he vi s ua l i m a ge of m ove m e nt a s w e l l a s t he a ppr opr i a t e a f f e c t a nd e xp r e s s i on i n pr e pa r i ng t he a c t ua l e xe c ut i on of m us i c R e c r e a t i ng t he ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng of t he pr o pe r br e a t h c ont r ol t oge t he r w i t h i m a gi ni ng t he pe r f e c t e m bouc hur e o f t he m out h f o r br a s s pl a ye r s ( T r us he i m 1987) o r pos i t i on of t he f i nge r s f or s t r i ng pl a ye r s ( H ol m e s 2001) a l s o pl a ye d a m a j or pa r t i n pr oduc i ng t he de s i r e d qua l i t y of s ound. A l t hough r e por t s o f a t hl e t e s e xpe r i e nc i ng s ounds i n i m a ge r y a r e l e s s f r e que nt t ha n ot he r s e ns e s t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he i r us e of a u di t or y i m a ge r y m us t be d i s t i ngui s he d

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81 f r om how a udi t or y i m a ge r y i s ge ne r a l l y e m pl oye d by pr of e s s i ona l m us i c i a ns A t hl e t e s he a r d t he s ounds of t he i r s por t i n t he i r i nne r he a r i n g, s uc h a s s pl a s hi ng of w a t e r i n t he pool f oo t s t e ps on t he t r a c k or c r ow ds c he e r i ng ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) M os t of t he a udi t or y i m a ge r y of m us i c i a ns i nvol ve d m us i c a l e l e m e n t s i nc l udi ng pi t c h, r hyt hm ha r m ony w hi c h r e qui r e d a h i gh de gr e e o f t r a i ni ng, unde r s t a ndi ng, a nd a w a r e ne s s of m us i c i n c ont e xt ( G o r don, 1999) w hi c h i s e xe m pl i f i e d i n t he s t udi e s t ha t f ol l ow R e s e a r c h i n a s s e s s i ng s e n s or y a bi l i t y i n i m a ge r y w i t h r e ga r d t o m us i c be ga n be i ng r e por t e d ove r a c e nt ur y a go. B e t t s ( 1909 ) i nve s t i ga t e d pi t c h a c c ur a c y a nd f ound t ha t s t ude nt m us i c i a ns w ho r e por t e d us i ng a udi t o r y i m a ge r y s c or e d hi ghe r t ha n t hos e w ho di d not I n a s ubs e que nt e xpe r i m e nt o f t he s a m e s t udy, B e t t s ( 1909) r e por t e d t ha t i n s i ght r e a di ng or he a r i ng a f a m i l i a r t une pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d ki ne s t he t i c a nd a udi t or y i m a ge s f or i nt e r na l l y pl a yi ng o r s i ngi ng a gi ve n c om pos i t i on I n c om pa r i ng t he a udi t or y i m a ge r y i n a dul t s a nd c hi l dr e n, A gne w ( 1922a ) f ound t ha t c hi l dr e n a n d m us i c i a ns s c or e d hi ghe r t ha n non m us i c a l a dul t s i n a udi t or y vi vi dne s s t e s t s S e a s hor e ( 1919) w o r ke d e xt e ns i ve l y i n t he a r e a of c ogni t i ve m us i c a s s e s s m e nt a nd a udi t or y i m a ge r y i n hi s 10 poi nt i nve nt or y o f m us i c a l t a l e nt S e a s hor e ( 1938/ 196 7) a nd l a t e r F a r ns w or t h ( 1958) r e c ogni z e d t ha t a udi t or y i m a ge r y i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h ki ne s t he t i c o r m ot or i m a ge r y w a s of t e n a c c om pa ni e d by vi s ua l i m a ge s S e a s hor e w r ot e T he m ot or i m a gi na l [ s i c ] t ype i s or di na r i l y a l s o w e l l de ve l ope d . t he m ot or t e nde nc y t o i m a ge t he t on e or e xe c ut e i t i n i nc e pt i ve m ove m e nt s i s hi ghl y de ve l ope d i n t he m us i c a l m i nd ( 1938/ 19 67, p 6) T he s e e a r l y s t udi e s s e r ve d t o s t r e ngt he n t he i nve s t i ga t i on of voc a l i s t s i m a ge r y us e a nd t he a bi l i t y i n m e nt a l l y e xpe r i e nc i ng m us i c t hr ough t he va r i ous s e n s e m od a l i t i e s

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82 I ns t r um e nt a l i s t s a nd s i nge r s r e por t e d f i r s t l e a r ni ng t he i r m us i c i nt e r na l l y pr i o r t o pl a yi ng or s i ngi ng a nd l a t e r c ont i nui ng m e nt a l r e h e a r s a l i n r e l e a r ni ng a nd pe r f e c t i ng pi e c e s ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; H ol m e s 200 1; M oye r 1992; T r us he i m 1987) J a m e s O l i n, a b r a s s pr of e s s i ona l i n T r us he i m s s t udy w a s quot e d a s s a yi ng, W ha t I t r y t o do i s t o vi s ua l i z e or a ur a l i z e [ s i c ] o r w ha t e ve r w ha t I w a nt t o he a r c om i ng out of m y ho r n. ( c i t e d i n T r us he i m 1987, p. 179) M a ny m us i c i a ns r e por t e d i nt e r na l l y he a r i ng t he i r l i ne of m us i c a s w e l l a s t hos e of ot he r s i n t he m us i c a l e ns e m bl e a nd of t e n e ve r y not e i n t he e nt i r e or c he s t r a ope r a o r c om pos i t i on ( C a r t e r 19 93; T r us he i m 1987) S i nge r s w ho w e r e t r a i ne d t o pl a y t he ke yboa r d r e por t e d i nt e r na l l y he a r i ng m or e of t he a c c om pa ni m e nt t ha n t hos e w ho ha d no ke yboa r d s ki l l s ( C a r t e r 1993) T hi s r e pr e s e nt e d e l e m e nt s of G or don s ( 1999) i de a o f audi a t i on, w hi c h t a ke s pl a c e w he n w e he a r a nd unde r s t a nd i n our m i nds m us i c t ha t w e ha ve j us t he a r d pe r f o r m e d or ha v e h e a r d pe r f or m e d s om e t i m e i n t he pa s t ( p. 41 ) A udi at i on w a s not j us t a hi gh l e ve l of a udi t or y i m a ge r y but one de ve l ope d t hr ough a f ounda t i on o f unde r s t a ndi ng m us i c a l s t r uc t ur e s a nd c ont e xt t he e xpe r i e nc e of w hi c h e l i t e s i nge r s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s a nd c o nduc t o r s s e e m t o s ha r e T hi s unde r s t a ndi ng o f i m a ge r y i n m us i c i a ns ha s be e n e xa m i ne d e xt e ns i ve l y ove r t he ye a r s ( e g A z z a r a 1999 ; L i pe r ot e 2006; R e ynol ds 1995 ) A s s i nge r s a nd m us i c i a ns de ve l ope d t he i r a r t t hr ou gh pl a yi ng, obs e r va t i ona l a nd l i s t e ni ng e xpe r i e nc e s t he y e ve nt ua l l y ga t he r e d a s t or e hous e of s ound i m a ge s i n t he i r m i nds ( F i e l ds 1972 ) T hi s s e e m e d t o be s uppor t e d i n r e c e nt r e s e a r c h i n ne ur oi m a gi ng, i n w hi c h br a i n a c t i vi t y of he a r i ng a nd i m a gi ni ng m us i c w a s f ound t o be s i m i l a r ( K os s l yn e t a l 2001 ; Z a t or r e & H a l pe r n 2005) I de a l voc a l o r i ns t r um e nt a l s ound w a s us e d t o gu i de s i ngi ng a nd pl a yi ng a nd be c a m e m o r e s ophi s t i c a t e d ove r t i m e a s i nf l ue nc e d by l i s t e ni ng

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83 a nd r e m e m be r i ng pa s t m ode l s o f ot he r s a nd one s ow n pe r f or m a nc e e xpe r i e nc e s ( C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) T he g r e a t vi ol i n m a s t e r t e a c he r D or ot hy D e L a y, e m pha s i z e d bui l di ng a w e l l di f f e r e nt i a t e d m e nt a l voc a bul a r y of s ounds ( c i t e d i n S t oc khol m 1975, p. 40) M us i c i a ns c om bi ne d a ur a l i m a ge s of t he i d e a l m us i c a l s ound w i t h t he r e qui r e d ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng ne c e s s a r y t o pr oduc e s pe c i f i c q ua l i t i e s of t i m b r e a nd e xpr e s s i on of t he not e s or phr a s e s ( B e l l on, 2006 ; T r us he i m 1987) T he pr a c t i c e of i nt e r na l l y he a r i ng t he s ound a nd r e pl i c a t i ng t ha t i de a l a udi t or y i m a ge on t he i ns t r u m e nt or i n t he voi c e r e pl i c a t e i n pe r f or m a nc e ha s be e n e xa m i ne d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e ( A ve r i no 1989; F i e l ds 1972 ; W a r e 1998) I n hi s t r e a t i s e on I de o K i ne t i c s B onpe ns i e r e ( 1953) pr om ot e d c onc e nt r a t i on on t he a udi t or y i m a ge t o a c hi e ve t he de s i r e d s ound w he r e i n one ne e d onl y i de a t e our e nd r e s ul t s i n a pr oc e s s of f l ow . w e i de a t e our a bs ol ut e unc onc e r n w i t h t he w a ys a nd m e a ns t o obt a i n t he m ( p 14) U nl i ke t r a di t i ona l pi a no pe da gogy B onpe ns i e r e pr om ot e d t he pr i m a r y us e of a udi t or y vi s ua l a nd ki ne s t he t i c i nt e nt i o n w hi l e a l l ow i ng t he body t o r e s pond t o t he vi vi dne s s of t he m e nt a l i m a ge H e i l l us t r a t e d t hi s i n t he f ol l ow i ng q uot e : N e ve r t hi nk of your m us i c i n t e r m s of e xe c ut i on ( o f w ha t you r ha nds a nd f i nge r s s houl d or a r e goi ng t o do) but i n t e r m s o f i nt e r pr e t i ve r e nde r i ng ( w ha t you w oul d e xpe c t i t t o s ound l i ke i f a pe r f or m e r f r om he a ve n w e r e e xe c ut i ng i t f or you ) ( p 69) B r a s s i ns t r um e nt a l pr of e s s i ona l s r e por t e d pe r f or m i ng a s a r e s ul t of c l e a r l y i m a gi ni ng t he i ndi vi dua l i de a m us i c a l s ound pr i or t o pl a yi ng ( T r u s he i m 1987) U s i ng a udi t or y a nd ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y s e r ve d t o f a c i l i t a t e pr ope r e xe c ut i on of m us i c a l s ound i n bot h i ns t r um e nt a l a nd voc a l p r oduc t i on.

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84 I n voc a l pe da gogy, A ve r i no ( 1989) s t a t e d t ha t [ i ] n or de r t o p r oduc e a s ong, t he s i nge r m us t ha ve i t c l e a r l y i n m i nd: p i t c h, r hyt hm m us i c a l f or m a nd t he e m ot i ona l c ont e nt of t he w or ds T he pe r f or m e r i s t he i m a gi na t i on ( e m pha s i s he r s p 40) F i e l ds ( 1972) a dvoc a t e d t ha t voc a l i s t s c r e a t e a c l e a r m e nt a l i de a l a udi t or y i m a ge of t he s ound t he y de s i r e d t o p r oduc e pr i o r t o i t s e xe c ut i on. I n p r oduc i ng t ha t a ur a l i m a ge G e r a l d i ne F a r r a r s s t a t e m e nt r e f l e c t e d t hi s i n t he f ol l ow i ng, [ W ] e l e a r n t o know t he s e ns a t i ons pr oduc e d i n m us c l e s of t hr oa t he a d, f a c e l i ps a nd ot he r pa r t s of t he a na t om y w hi c h vi br a t e i n a c e r t a i n m a nne r t o c o r r e c t t one pr oduc t i on. W e l e a r n t he f e e l i ng of t he t one ( c i t e d i n B r ow e r & C ooke 1996 p 53) L a m pe r t i c onc ur r e d w he n he s a i d: D o no t l i s t e n t o your s e l f s i ng! F e e l you r s e l f s i ng! W he n i nt e r na l c ondi t i ons a r e r i ght a nd r e a dy, t he s i ngi ng voi c e a ppe a r s not be f or e ( c i t e d i n B r ow n, 1931/ 1973, p 16 ) S i nc e t he body w a s c ons i de r e d t he s i nge r s i ns t r um e nt t he y w e r e not a bl e t o he a r t he i r ow n voi c e s a s ot he r s he a r t he m T he r e f o r e s i nge r s l e a r ne d e a r l y t o e qua t e t he de s i r e d t one i n a udi t or y i m a ge r y w i t h t he ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng of w ha t w a s r e qui r e d t o pr oduc e t ha t e xa c t s ound ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; S t e dm a n, 1985 ) F ur t he r m or e p i t c h a nd vow e l p r oduc t i on of t e n e l i c i t e d ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y by s i nge r s i n M oye r s ( 1992) s t udy. F or voc a l i s t s k i ne s t he t i c a udi t or y, a nd vi s ua l i m a ge r y w e r e c ons i de r e d t he m os t i m por t a nt s e ns e s us e d f or e xpr e s s i ve a nd a r t i s t i c p e r f or m a nc e ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; E m m ons & T ho m a s 1998, 2008) S i nge r s w e r e f ound t o us e ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y t o c ont r ol br e a t h, f e e l r hyt hm a nd phys i ol ogi c a l l y r e s pond w i t h e m ot i on a nd e xpr e s s i on i n por t r a yi ng a c ha r a c t e r i n a n a r i a o r s ong ( B e l l on, 2 006; C a r t e r 1993) T hos e w ho ha d e xpe r i e nc e d vi e w i ng t he i nt e r na l m e c ha ni s m s of t h e i r voi c e t hr oug h l a r ynge a l i m a ge bi of e e dba c k ( L I B ) w e r e a bl e t o c onne c t t he s e i m a g e s bot h vi s ua l l y a nd ki ne s t he t i c a l l y,

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85 i m a gi ni ng t he voc a l a na t om y i n p r e pa r i ng a nd s i ngi ng a va r i e t y of de s i r e d s ounds ( C l e ve l a nd, 1989a 1989b, 1989c ) W i t h t r a i ni ng a nd e xpe r i e nc e i m a ge r y us i ng a l l t he s e ns e s c a n be t r a i ne d a nd s t r e ngt he ne d, w hi c h ha s be e n c or r obor a t e d s i nc e i m a ge r y s e e m s t o be c om e m or e c om pl e x ove r t i m e ( C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) T he us e of s e ns or y i m a ge r y s e e m e d t o be e s s e nt i a l t o t he s i ng e r s a nd m us i c i a ns e xpr e s s i ve a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m a nc e H ow a t h l e t e s a nd pe r f or m e r s e xe c ut e d t he i r i m a ge s t hr ough t he s e ns e s i nc l udi ng pe r s pe c t i ve a nd va r i ous a bi l i t i e s i s be i ng a ddr e s s e d a s f ol l ow s P e r s pe c t i v e T he que s t i on of e f f i c a c y of t he us e o f i nt e r na l c om pa r e d w i t h e xt e r na l i m a ge r y w a s t e s t e d i n m a ny s t udi e s yi e l di ng a va r i e t y of r e s ul t s M a hone y a nd A ve ne r ( 1977) w e r e s om e of t he f i r s t r e s e a r c he r s t o i de nt i f y i m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve a s a n i m por t a nt e l e m e nt i n i m a ge r y us e f or t he pe r f or m e r L a ne ( 1980 ) de s c r i be d i nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve ( f i r s t pe r s on) a s one of i nv ol ve m e nt w hi l e t he e xt e r na l vi e w poi nt ( t hi r d pe r s on) w a s a s i f t he pe r s on w a s l ooki ng a t hi m s e l f i n a v i de o of a pe r f or m a nc e a s a s pe c t a t or I nt e r na l i m a ge r y w a s m or e h i ghl y c or r e l a t e d w i t h m ot or m ove m e nt t ha n e xt e r na l i m a ge r y ( H a l e 1992; H a r r i s & R ob i ns on, 1986 ) M or e s ki l l e d a t hl e t e s r e por t e d m or e f r e que nt us e of i nt e r na l t ha n e xt e r na l i m a ge r y ( M a hone y & A ve ne r 1977; R ot e l l a G a ns ne de r O j a l a & B i l l i ng, 1980) C onve r s e l y, s e ve r a l s t udi e s f ound no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l i m a ge r y ( B a r ne s 1982; H i ghl e n & B e nne t t 1979; M um f o r d & H a l l 1985) H ow e ve r i n H a l l a nd ot he r s ( 1990 ) e l i t e a nd novi c e a t hl e t e s r e por t e d e qua l us e of i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l i m a ge r y o f t e n s w i t c hi ng be t w e e n t he m I m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve e f f e c t i ve ne s s w a s a l s o c or r e l a t e d w i t h t ype s of s por t a nd pe r f or m a nc e t a s k r e qui r e m e nt s ( H a r dy, 1997) w i t h e xt e r na l i m a ge r y m or e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s por t s i n w hi c h f or m w a s e s s e nt i a l S e que nc e of a c t i ons w e r e

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86 i m pr ove d w i t h e xt e r na l i m a ge r y w hi l e i nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve s w e r e pr e f e r r e d i f t he r e w a s onl y a s i ngl e t a s k t o pe r f or m R e s ul t s of i m a ge r y b e ne f i t de pe nde d on t he a t hl e t e s ( a ) i m a ge r y a bi l i t y, ( b ) t he a bi l i t y t o i m a gi ne t he s ugge s t e d i m a ge a nd ( c ) t he t ype of t a s k ( T a yl or 1993) P e r f o r m a nc e s ki l l s w i t h a c onc e nt r a t i on on f o r m w e r e m or e a s s oc i a t e d a nd of t e n pe r f e c t e d w i t h e xt e r na l i m a ge r y, w hi l e u s i ng i nt e r na l i m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve s e e m e d m or e s uc c e s s f ul w i t h w r e s t l e r s or t e nni s pl a ye r s T he i nt e r m i ng l i ng of ki ne s t he t i c s e ns e s w i t h vi s ua l pe r s pe c t i ve i m a ge r y ha s be e n t he s ubj e c t of s om e c ont r ove r s y ( C a l l ow & H a r dy, 2004) I n a s t udy i nve s t i ga t i ng t he U S t r a c k a nd f i e l d pa r t i c i pa nt s of t he S e oul O l ym pi c s U nge r l e i de r a nd G ol di ng ( 1991 1992) f ound t ha t m or e s uc c e s s f ul a t hl e t e s us e d e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve a nd s t r onge r ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y. H a l e ( 1982) a r gue d t ha t t he ki ne s t he t i c s e ns e w a s m or e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h i nt e r na l i m a ge r y, w hi l e ot he r s ( W hi t e & H a r dy 1995; H a r dy & C a l l ow 1999) he l d t ha t ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y i nvol ve d bot h i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve s H a r dy ( 1997 ) a nd W hi t e a nd H a r dy ( 1995) p r opos e d t ha t di f f e r e nt t a s k r e qui r e m e nt s s e e m e d t o s ugge s t s pe c i f i c pe r s pe c t i ve s r e c om m e ndi ng t he us e of ki n e s t he t i c i m a ge r y i n c om bi na t i on w i t h bot h i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l i m a ge r y t o i nc r e a s e e f f e c t i ve ne s s F ut u r e s t udi e s i nve s t i ga t i ng t he s pe c i f i c br a i n f unc t i ons of vi s i on a nd m ot o r c e nt e r s m a y s he d m or e l i ght on t hi s s ubj e c t N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) f ound da nc e r s us i ng a c om bi na t i on of i nt e r na l i m a ge r y, s uc h a s i m a gi ni ng t he e m ot i ons o f a c ha r a c t e r a nd e xt e r na l i m a ge r y, pa r t i c ul a r l y i n r e ga r d t o t he i r c onc e r n w i t h bodi l y a ppe a r a nc e on s t a ge B e l l on ( 2006) r e por t e d s i nge r s us i ng i nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve e s pe c i a l l y r e ga r di ng t he m e c ha ni c s of voc a l pr oduc t i on, a nd e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve f o r pe r c e i vi ng t he i r a ppe a r a nc e i n r e l a t i on t o t he

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87 ha l l s t a ge a nd a udi e nc e S i nge r s a l s o r e por t e d c o m bi ni ng i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve s t o i m a gi ne t he e nt i r e ve nue i n w hi c h t he y w e r e pe r f o r m i ng, i nc l udi ng t he ha l l or a r e na s t a ge a udi e nc e a nd d r e s s i ng r oom s M us i c i a n s a s w e l l a s da nc e r s i m a gi ne d how t he y w oul d f e e l a nd l ook t o be i n a ne w c om p e t i t i on or pe r f or m a nc e s pa c e i n or de r t o f a m i l i a r i z e t he m s e l ve s w i t h i t s m a ny f e a t ur e s ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005; T r us he i m 1987) A l t hough C a r t e r ( 1993 ) di d no t di r e c t l y i de nt i f y t he di f f e r e nt vi s ua l i m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve s us e d by s i ng e r s i n he r s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i pt i ons s ugge s t e d e m pl oym e nt of bot h i n t e r na l a nd e xt e r na l i m a ge r y. C a l dw e l l a nd W a l l ( 2001) a nd E m m ons a nd T ho m a s ( 1998) r e c o m m e nde d t ha t s i nge r s l e a r n a nd be c om e pr of i c i e nt i n us i ng bot h i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r n a l i m a ge r y. I m a ge r y pe r c e pt i on a l s o w a s i nf l ue nc e d by va r i ous c a pa bi l i t i e s t o e nga ge i n t he i m a ge i t s e l f A bi l i t y O ne of t he va r i a bl e s i n i m a ge r y us e w a s t he a bi l i t y of t he i nd i vi dua l a nd t h e de gr e e t o w hi c h he or s he c oul d vi vi dl y pr oduc e m e nt a l i m a ge s I t w a s a l s o i m por t a nt t o di s c e r n w ha t t ype s of i m a ge r y t he pe r s on p r e f e r r e d t o e m pl oy, or t hos e w i t h w hi c h one w a s f a m i l i a r T he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of i m a ge r y w a s de pe nde nt on a num be r of f a c t or s : ( a ) s ki l l l e ve l ( b) pa s t t r a i ni ng a nd e xpe r i e nc e i n i m a ge r y, a nd ( c ) de gr e e t o w hi c h i m a ge r y w a s c ons c i ous l y di r e c t e d. T he t ype o f a t hl e t i c or a r t i s t i c s ki l l i n w hi c h one w a s e nga ge d t o pe r f or m m a y ha ve a l s o i nf l ue nc e d t hi s i m a ge r y a bi l i t y. F o r e xa m pl e be c a us e of e xt e ns i ve t r a i ni ng, m us i c i a ns t ypi c a l l y m a y ha ve h a d t he oppor t uni t y t o de ve l op m or e a udi t or y i m a ge r y a bi l i t y t ha n a t hl e t e s w ho m a y ha ve e xc e l l e d i n ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge s T ype s of i m a ge r y a bi l i t y i nc l ude d a l l t he va r i ous s e ns e m oda l i t i e s j us t a s t he y w e r e e xpe r i e nc e d i n r e a l l i f e T he di f f e r e nc e s i n t he de v e l opm e nt of m e nt a l us e c oul d ha ve be e n a r e s ul t of t he r e i n f or c e m e nt a nd f e e dba c k, o r l a c k of i t f or us i ng t he va r i ous t ype s

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88 of i m a ge r y T he de s i r e d out c om e f or w hi c h t he i m a ge r y w a s be i ng us e d m a y ha ve be e n de pe nde nt on t he i ndi vi dua l s a bi l i t y t o us e i m a ge r y ( A r i e t i 1976; M a r t i n e t a l 1999; M ur phy & M a r t i n, 2002; R i c ha r ds on, 1983 ) S e ve r a l i ns t r um e nt s ha ve be e n de vi s e d t o a s s e s s i m a ge r y a bi l i t y i n a t hl e t e s O ne of t he e a r l i e s t w a s B e t t s ( 19 09) s t udy D i s t r i but i o n and F unc t i ons of M e nt al I m age r y t he i ns t r um e nt of w hi c h w a s l a t e r s hor t e ne d by S h e e ha n ( 1972) a nd w i de l y us e d i n i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h. M a r ks ( 1973 ) c r e a t e d t he V i vi dn e s s of V i s ua l I m a ge r y Q ue s t i onna i r e or V V I Q T he t w o m os t popu l a r a n d us e f ul i n s por t w e r e V i vi dne s s of M ove m e nt I m a ge r y Q ue s t i onna i r e ( V M I Q ; I s a a c M a r ks & R us s e l l 1986) a nd t he r e vi s e d M ove m e nt I m a ge r y Q ue s t i onna i r e ( M I Q R ; H a l l & M a r t i n, 1997) T w o c r i t i c i s m s of t he s e i ns t r um e nt s i n a s s e s s i ng i m a ge r y a bi l i t y w e r e t ha t m uc h o f t he s uppor t c om e s f r om t he r e s e a r c h t e a m i n w hi c h t he s e t e s t s w e r e de ve l ope d, a nd t ha t t he s e s e l f r e por t e d t e s t s w e r e ha r d t o r e pl i c a t e w i t h s ubj e c t s of t e n r e por t e d pos i t i ve l y a t t he uppe r e nd of t he di s t r i but i on ( S om m e r 1980) T he e f f e c t s of i m a ge r y a bi l i t y di f f e r e nc e s ha ve be e n m os t e xa m i ne d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy r e s e a r c h, e s pe c i a l l y w i t h r e ga r d t o pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e I n l e a r n i ng a nd pe r f or m i ng m ot or s ki l l s good i m a ge r s of t e n ha d t h e a dva nt a ge ove r poor i m a ge r s ( G os s H a l l B uc kol z & F i s hbur ne 1986; I s a a c 1992) R odge r s a nd ot he r s ( 1991 ) r e po r t e d a t hl e t e s i m a ge r y a bi l i t y a s be i ng f a i r l y w e l l de ve l ope d. E l i t e a t hl e t e s us e d c l e a r a nd a c c ur a t e i m a ge r y a nd w e r e f ound t o be be t t e r i m a g e r s t ha n non e l i t e a t hl e t e s ( B a r r & H a l l 1992; O r l i c k & P a r r i ngt on, 1988; S a l m on e t a l 1994 ; U nge r l e i de r & G ol d i ng, 1992; V a doc z e t a l 1997 ) A t hl e t e s be t t e r i m a gi ne d s ki l l s i n w hi c h t he y ha d a l r e a dy ha d ga i ne d m a s t e r y a nd t he i r i m a ge r y a bi l i t i e s i nc r e a s e d t he m or e t he y w e r e us e d ( G r e gg e t

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89 a l 2005 ; R odge r s e t a l 1991; V a doc z e t a l 1997 ; U nge r l i e de r & G ol di ng 1991 ) a nd t he hi ghe r t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t ha t i m a ge r y be c a m e ( H a l l e t a l 1990; V a doc z e t a l 1997; V e a l e y, 1986; W e i nbe r g & G oul d, 2003) A t hl e t e s w i t h be t t e r i m a ge r y a bi l i t y i n vi vi dl y pr oduc i ng a nd c ont r ol l i ng i m a ge s w e r e t ho ught t o e nj oy s upe r i or pe r f or m a nc e s ( I s a a c 1992; R ya n & S i m ons 1982 ) R e s e a r c he r s a gr e e d t ha t i m a ge r y w a s a s ki l l t ha t c oul d be de ve l ope d ( H a l l 1998; H a l l & M a r t i n, 19 97; M or r i s e t a l 2005) a nd r e c e nt l y ha s be e n i nve s t i ga t e d m or e t hor oughl y us i ng a dva nc e d m e di c a l i m a gi ng t e c hni que s I nve s t i ga t i ons of a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s i m a ge r y a bi l i t y w e r e f e w i nde e d. A gne w s ( 1922a ) s t udy r e por t e d t ha t m us i c t e a c he r s a nd c hi l dr e n pos s e s s e d good a udi t or y i m a ge r y. M os t of t he da nc e r s i n N or di n a nd C um m i ng s ( 2005) i nve s t i ga t i on of f e r e d s e l f r e por t s of pos s e s s i ng t he a bi l i t y t o pr oduc e v i vi d, l i f e l i ke i m a ge s de pe ndi ng on t he t ype of i m a ge r y a nd t he s e ns e m oda l i t y us e d. S om e ha d di f f i c ul t y w i t h i m a ge r y i n de ve l opi ng or por t r a yi ng c ha r a c t e r s or c ont r ol l i ng i m a ge r y i nv ol vi ng i nj ur y or pa i n. A l l but one of t he br a s s m us i c i a ns i n T r us he i m s ( 1987) s t udy ha d no di f f i c ul t y i n c r e a t i ng a nd c ont r ol l i ng i m a ge s M a ny of t he s e pr o f e s s i ona l s ha d pe r f or m e d f or m a ny ye a r s a nd r e por t e d t ha t pa r t i c ul a r u s e s of i m a ge r y w e r e ge ne r a l l y qui t e vi vi d B ot h s i nge r s ( C a r t e r 1993) a nd m us i c i a ns ( B e l l on, 2006) r e por t e d ha vi n g f a c i l i t y w i t h i m a ge r y G e ne r a l l y a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s pos s e s s e d f a i r l y a de qua t e a bi l i t y i n i m a ge r y T he ne xt i m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c w a s t he di r e c t i on i n w hi c h i m a ge r y w a s us e d by a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f or m e r s D i r e c t i on. R e s e a r c h i n i m a ge r y di r e c t i on, a t e r m c oi ne d by S ho r t a nd o t he r s ( 2004) de a l t w i t h w he t he r t he i m a ge w a s f a c i l i t a t i ve or de bi l i t a t i ve I n one o f t he f i r s t e xpe r i m e nt s P ow e l l ( 197 3) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of us i ng pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve i m a ge r y i n 18 f e m a l e c l i ni c a l ps yc hol ogy s t ude nt s i n a da r t t hr ow i ng t a s k. W hi l e one gr o up

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90 pos i t i ve l y i m a gi ne d t he da r t s hi t t i ng i n t he c e nt e r o f t he t a r ge t w hi c h l e d t o hi ghe r s c or e s a not he r gr oup i m a gi ne d a ne ga t i ve pe r f or m a nc e o f m i s s i ng t he bul l s e ye w hi c h r e s ul t e d i n s i gni f i c a nt l y poo r e r s c or e s D e s pi t e t he l a c k of a c ont r ol g r oup, P ow e l l c onc l ude d t ha t pos i t i ve i m a ge r y c ont e nt c oul d be f a c i l i t a t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve i m a ge r y c oul d de bi l i t a t e pe r f or m a nc e A num be r of s ubs e que nt s t udi e s s uppor t e d P ow e l l s f i ndi ngs ( e g. G oul d, W e i nbe r g, & J a c ks on, 1980; S hor t e t a l 2004; W ool f ol k, P a r r i s h, & M ur phy, 1985 ) I n e xa m i ni ng pe r f or m a nc e e f f e c t s E ps t e i n ( 1980 ) a n d W ool f ol k, M ur phy a nd ot he r s ( 1985 ) f ound no e f f e c t on pe r f or m a nc e us i ng pos i t i ve i m a ge r y, w hi l e ne ga t i ve i m a ge r y de bi l i t a t e d pe r f or m a nc e T he r e f or e i t c oul d not be a s s um e d t ha t pos i t i ve i m a ge s w e r e f a c i l i t a t i ve or ne ga t i ve i m a ge s w e r e de bi l i t a t i ve ( S hor t e t a l 2004 ) F ur t he r r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o c l a r i f y t hi s di s t i nc t i on. N one t he l e s s pos i t i ve i m a ge r y w a s c or r e l a t e d w i t h s uc c e s s f ul out c om e s a nd ne ga t i ve i m a ge s w i t h poor e r pe r f o r m a nc e s i n a t hl e t e s ( H a l l e t a l 1990) i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c i a ns ( B e l l on, 2006; T r us he i m 1987) a nd vo c a l i s t s ( C a r t e r 1993) w i t h s om e e xc e pt i ons ( B e l l on, 2006) P os i t i ve l y i m a gi ng t he de s i r e d out c om e i m pr ove d a t hl e t i c a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m a nc e pa r t i c ul a r l y dur i ng c om pe t i t i on, w hi l e ne ga t i ve l y i m a gi ni ng t he t a s k s e e m e d t o be de t r i m e nt a l ( M unr oe e t a l 2000; W o ol f ol k, M u r phy e t a l 1985 ) P os i t i ve i m a ge r y w a s c or r e l a t e d w i t h i nc r e a s e d c onf i de nc e ( M or i t z e t a l 1996; T r us he i m 1987) a nd de c r e a s e d a nxi e t y ( V a doc z e t a l 1997 ) N ot a l l i m a ge r y w a s pos i t i ve S om e t i m e s t he ne ga t i ve i m a ge a s i n r e r unni ng m i s t a ke s ove r a nd o ve r c oul d de gr a de pe r f o r m a nc e i n a t hl e t i c s ( M ur phy e t a l 2008) da nc e ( N or d i n & C um m i ng, 2005 ) a nd m us i c ( B e l l on 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) S om e of t he s e i s s ue s w e r e c onne c t e d w i t h i m a ge r y de l i be r a t i on.

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91 D e l i be r at i on. D e l i be r a t i on i n i m a ge r y i nvol ve d t he i ndi vi dua l s a bi l i t y t o vol i t i ona l l y c ont r ol a nd c ons c i ous l y di r e c t i m a ge s A c c or di ng t o R i c ha r ds on ( 1983 1994) i m a ge r y f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r ni ng e s pe c i a l l y f o r a c qui r i ng pe r c e pt ua l m ot o r s ki l l s i f i t w a s vol unt a r y a nd c ont r ol l a bl e I m a ge r y de l i be r a t i on s e e m e d t o r a nge on a c ont i nuum f r om t hos e s pont a ne ous l y a ppe a r i ng t o t he one s t h a t w e r e f ul l y m a ni pul a t e d ( M ur phy e t a l 2008 ) T he a r e a of de l i be r a t i on w a s a l s o c onne c t e d w i t h w he t he r i m a ge r y w a s us e d e f f e c t i ve l y or pr oduc e d a dve r s e e f f e c t s T he r e w e r e a num be r o f de l i be r a t i on va r i a bl e s t ha t c oul d i m pa c t pe r f or m a nc e I m a gi ni ng i na ppr o pr i a t e a c t i on, s uc h a s t he ne ga t i ve e xa m pl e s pr e vi ous l y m e nt i one d, c oul d r e s ul t i n e xpe r i e nc i ng pe r f or m a nc e de t e r i or a t i on U s i ng t he w r ong i m a ge r y t ype f or a c e r t a i n ou t c om e c oul d ha ve pe r ha ps ne ga t i ve l y a f f e c t e d out c om e O t he r e l e m e nt s i nc l ude d p r e s e nc e of de bi l i t a t i ng a nxi e t y, di s t r a c t i on a nd l a c k of c ont r ol o f s pont a ne ous or c e r t a i n ki nds of i m a ge r y, a nd i m a ge s pr oduc i ng ove r c onf i de nc e a dve r s e l y a f f e c t i ng pe r f or m a nc e ( C a r t e r 1993; E m m ons & T hom a s 1999; R i s t a d, 1982) R e s e a r c he r s ha ve i nve s t i ga t e d va r i ous w a ys i n w hi c h a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f or m e r s c oul d ga i n be t t e r c ont r ol of t he i r i m a ge r y. C ont r ol l a bi l i t y w a s t he a bi l i t y t o c ons c i ous l y m a ni pul a t e i m a ge s ( R i c ha r ds on 19 94) a nd ha d be e n a s s e s s e d by s e ve r a l i ns t r um e nt s E a r l y ps yc hol ogi c a l i nve s t i ga t i ons i nt o c ont r ol l a bi l i t y a nd m a ni pul a t i on of i m a ge s f oc us e d on t he pr obl e m of m e nt a l r ot a t i on of a n obj e c t ( S he pa r d 1978; S he pa r d & M e t z l e r 1 971) M a ny ot he r s c a l e s of i m a ge r y a bi l i t y ha ve be e n de ve l ope d a nd i m pl e m e nt e d i n v a r i ous s e t t i ngs G or don s ( 1949) T e s t of V i s ua l I m a ge r y C ont r ol ( T V I C ) w a s de vi s e d t o a s s e s s c ont r ol t he a bi l i t y t o m a ni pul a t e or hol d i m a ge s i n t he m i nd M or e r e c e nt l y, V e l l a B r od r i c k a nd M a c R a e ( 2004) r e vi e w e d t he i m a ge r y a s s e s s m e nt i ns t r um e nt s us e d i n t he a t hl e t i c c ont e xt t he

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92 di s c us s i on of w hi c h w a s be yond t he s c ope of t h i s s t udy. H ow e ve r t he r e s ul t s w e r e pr om i s i ng f or va l i da t i ng i m a ge r y us e i n pe r f o r m e r s a nd s uppor t e d t he ne e d f or m or e r e s e a r c h i n t hi s a r e a I t c oul d be a s s um e d t ha t i m a ge r y p r a c t i c e i m pr ove d pe r f or m a nc e bu t r e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t t hi s w a s not a l w a ys t he c a s e I n a n e a r l y s t udy i nve s t i ga t i ng i m a ge r y c ont r ol C l a r k ( 1960) r e c ount e d a pa r t i c i pa nt s l a c k o f c ont r ol : [ O ] ne s ubj e c t r e po r t e d m e nt a l l y a t t e m pt i ng t o bou nc e t he ba l l pr e pa r a t o r y t o s hoot i ng onl y t o i m a gi ne t ha t i t w oul d not bounc e a nd s t uc k t o t he f l oor T hi s di s t ur be d hi m t o a poi nt w he r e he c oul d not s uc c e s s f ul l y vi s ua l i z e t he s hoot i ng t e c hni que ( p 567) C l a r k ( 1960) r e por t e d ga i ns i n s e l f c onf i de nc e a nd e r r or i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho l e a r ne d t o i nc r e a s e t he i r i m a ge r y a bi l i t y a nd c ont r ol A t hl e t e s w i t h be t t e r i m a ge r y a bi l i t y i n c ons c i ous l y pr oduc i ng a nd c ont r ol l i ng i m a ge s w e r e f ound t o e nj oy s upe r i or pe r f or m a nc e s ( I s a a c 1992 ) T o i l l us t r a t e t he i m por t a nc e of i ndi vi dua l m e a ni ng a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i on i n i m a ge r y us e M ur phy a nd M a r t i n ( 2002) o f f e r e d a n a c c ount of s e ve r a l s ka t e r s i m i t a t i ng t he i m a ge r y of a not he r s ka t e r w h o us e d a n i m a ge of a ba l l of l i ght t o f a c i l i t a t e hi s pe r f o r m a nc e U s i ng t hi s m ode l i m a ge pr oduc e d a va r i e t y of ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s i n t he ot he r young s ka t e r s hi ghl i ght i ng t he i ndi vi d ua l i s t i c na t ur e of i m a ge r y a nd t he ne e d t o m a t c h i m a ge r y t ype f o r i n t e nde d out c om e R e s e a r c h ha s i ndi c a t e d t ha t m os t pe r f or m e r s e xpe r i e nc e d s om e s pont a ne ous i m a ge r y; w he t he r i t i s us e d t o he l p t he pe r f or m e r o f t e n de pe nde d on e xpe r i e nc e a nd a bi l i t y. D a nc e r s a nd m us i c i a ns e xpe r i e nc e d s pont a ne ous i m a ge r y i nc l udi ng ne ga t i ve i nt r us i ve i m a ge s s uc h a s r e r unni ng a poor pe r f or m a nc e ( B e l l on, 2006; N or di n &

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93 C um m i ng, 2005; T r us he i m 1987) D a nc e r s r e por t e d a c t i ons or s e ns a t i ons t r i gge r i ng s pont a ne ous i m a ge r y. I t a ppe a r e d t ha t i m a ge s c oul d be c ont r ol l e d or unc ont r ol l e d a s w e l l a s de bi l i t a t i ve or f a c i l i t a t i ve F ur t he r va r i a bl e s s uc h a s a m ount a nd du r a t i on he l pe d t o i nc r e a s e our unde r s t a ndi ng of i m a ge r y us e i n pe r f o r m a nc e A m ount and dur at i on. A m ount a nd du r a t i on w e r e t w o w a ys i n w hi c h t i m e s pe nt e nga gi ng i n i m a ge r y ha s be e n e xa m i ne A m ount of i m a ge r y r e f e r r e d t o how of t e n i ndi vi dua l s e nga ge i n t he a c t ua l i m a ge r y s e s s i on. I m a ge r y dur a t i on w a s t he l e ngt h o f t i m e i t t ook f or t he i m a ge t o a ppe a r r e m a i n o r p r oc e e d, a nd f a de I t s e e m e d t o va r y by i ndi vi dua l s di f f e r e nt s por t s a nd pe r f or m a nc e t ype s s ki l l l e ve l of pe r f or m e r i m a ge r y t ype s a nd t i m e o f s e a s on ( M unr oe e t a l 1998) T he t ype o f e xe c ut i on i n w hi c h t he i ndi vi dua l w a s e nga ge d m a y ha ve de t e r m i ne d t he l e ngt h of t he i m a ge r y s e s s i on. F or i ns t a nc e i m a gi ng a ppl i c a t i on of a s i ngl e s ki l l w oul d ha ve onl y t a ke n a s hor t a m ount of t i m e w hi l e i m a gi ng a n e nt i r e pe r f or m a nc e of a r ol e i n a n ope r a w oul d ha ve t a ke n a m uc h l onge r t i m e pe r ha ps a s l ong a s i t w oul d ha ve t a ke n t o a c t ua l l y pe r f or m i t H a l l ( 2001) r e c om m e nde d m or e i m a ge r y pr a c t i c e f o r be s t r e s ul t s U nge r l e i de r a nd G ol di ng ( 1992) r e por t e d t ha t t he a m ount o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t i m e w a s di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t he a m ount i n w hi c h t r a c k a nd f i e l d a t hl e t e s e nga ge d i n t r a i ni ng O nl y a f e w s t udi e s ha ve e xa m i ne d t he a m ount ne c e s s a r y f or i m a ge r y e f f e c t i ve ne s s S hor t i m a ge r y s e s s i ons of one t o t h r e e m i nut e s w e r e f ound t o be m or e e f f e c t i ve t ha n l onge r one s of f i ve t o s e ve n m i nut e s f or ba s ke t ba l l pl a ye r s ( E t ni e r & L a nde r s 1996) I n t he i r m e t a a na l ys i s D r i s ke l l a n d ot he r s ( 1994 ) r e po r t e d t ha t t he l onge r one e nga ge s i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t he l e s s e f f e c t i ve a r e t he r e s ul t s T he y r e c om m e nde d t ha t

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94 i m a ge r y s e s s i ons a nd t r a i ni ng l a s t a bout 20 m i nut e s f or opt i m a l r e s ul t s M or e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d i n t hi s a r e a T he dur a t i on of s pe c i f i c i m a ge r y s e s s i ons w a s e xa m i ne d i n s e ve r a l s t udi e s I m a ge r y dur a t i on i nc l ude d t he a m oun t o f t i m e i t t o ok f or t he e m e r ge nc e of a n i m a ge t he t i m e i n w hi c h one w a s a c t ua l l y e nga ge d i n i m a gi n g, t he s pe e d of t he i m a ge r y, or how l ong i t s us e f ul ne s s l a s t e d ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 20 05) M a c ka y ( 1981 ) de m ons t r a t e d t ha t i m a ge r y r e f l e c t e d i n t e r na l c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s i ng a nd t he r e f or e i t c oul d be a s s um e d t ha t i m a ge r y di r e c t l y c or r e l a t e d t o one s r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h how pe r f or m a nc e w a s e xe c ut e d. I m a ge r y t i m e s w e r e hi ghl y c or r e l a t e d w i t h a c t ua l t i m e i t t ook t o e xe c ut e t ha t s ki l l i n s l a l om r a c e s ( M a c I nt yr e & M or a n 1996) a nd c a no e s l a l om ( H a l l & M a r t i n, 1997) E xpe r t s i m a ge r y of t he i r s pr i ngboa r d di ve s t i m e s w e r e c l os e s t t o a c t ua l t i m e s ( R e e d, 2002) w he r e a s di ve r s w i t h l e s s e xpe r i e nc e e m pl oy e d l onge r i m a ge r y dur a t i ons t ha n t hos e of t he i r a c t ua l di ve s S t udi e s f oc us i ng on t he a m ount a nd du r a t i on o f i m a ge r y us e i n a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s r e m a i ne d s pa r s e H ow e ve r N o r di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) C a r t e r ( 1993 ) a nd T r us he i m ( 1987) r e por t e d t ha t pe r f o r m e r s of t e n e nga ge d i n m e nt a l i m a ge r y, de pe ndi ng on t he t i m e of s e a s on, t ype of pe r f o r m a nc e r e qui r e m e nt s a nd t he i ndi vi dua l s e xpe r i e nc e O ne of t he i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s i n B e l l on s ( 2006) s t udy r e po r t e d up t o one t hi r d of hi s pr a c t i c e t i m e w a s s pe nt i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e I t w a s pos s i bl e t ha t t he m or e ye a r s i nvol ve d w i t h t he pe r f or m a nc e t he m or e t he i ndi vi dua l e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y a nd t he m o r e e f f e c t i ve m e nt a l pr a c t i c e be c a m e D ur a t i ons of i m a ge r y va r i e d f o r d i f f e r e nt pe r f or m e r s D a nc e r s r e por t e d us i ng s l ow a c t ua l a nd f a s t s pe e ds i n us i ng i m a ge r y e s pe c i a l l y i n r unni ng t hr ough r out i ne s o r m e m o r i z i ng s e que nc e s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005 ) T r us he i m ( 1987)

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95 r e por t e d br a s s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s us i ng a c om pr e s s e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i on. A s i nge r r e por t e d i m a gi ni ng i n r e a l t i m e t he s a m e a s a c t ua l pe r f or m a nc e ( B e l l on, 2006) I m a ge r y s pe e d s e e m e d t o va r y w i t h t he i ndi vi dua l ne e ds r e qui r e m e nt s of t he t a s k, a nd pe r s ona l pr e f e r e nc e s T he va r i ous a s pe c t s of w hy i m a ge r y w a s us e d by a t hl e t e s a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s w i l l now be e xa m i ne d. W hy or R e as ons f or I m age r y U s e I n e xa m i ni ng t he r e a s ons w hy a t hl e t e s a nd pe r f or m e r s us e d t he va r i ous t ype s of i m a ge r y, a num be r o f e m pi r i c a l de ve l opm e nt s c ha nge d how i m a ge r y us e a nd f unc t i on w e r e r e ga r de d. I t w a s o r i gi na l l y t houg ht t ha t a t hl e t e s us e d i m a ge r y f or s ki l l a c qui s i t i on a nd t r a i ni ng ( F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983) H ow e ve r m or e e vi de nc e s ur f a c e d t ha t i m a ge r y w a s a l s o be i ng us e d t o e nha nc e pe r f or m a nc e a nd m ot i v a t i on ( H a l l e t a l 1990; M unr oe e t a l 1998; P a i vi o, 1985; W e i nbe r g & G oul d, 2003) A t hl e t e s w e r e f ound t o us e bot h c ogni t i ve a nd m ot i va t i ona l i m a ge r y i n va r yi ng de gr e e s ( H a l l e t a l 1998; P a i vi o, 1985 ) de pe ndi ng on t he s por t t he i n di vi dua l a t hl e t e l e ve l o f c om pe t i t i on i n w hi c h t he y w e r e i nvol ve d, a nd t he t i m e of s e a s on ( C um m i ng & H a l l 2002a ; H a l l e t a l 1998; M unr oe e t a l 1998) F ur t he r m or e one i m a ge c oul d b e us e d f or s e ve r a l r e a s ons a s r e a di l y a s s e ve r a l t ype s of i m a ge r y c oul d be us e d f or a s i ngl e pur pos e ( C a l l o w & W a t e r s 2005 ; F i s h e t a l 2004; M ur phy e t a l 2008; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005 ; S hor t e t a l 2004; S hor t e t a l 2006 ) I n e xa m i ni ng t he pur pos e s da nc e r s us e d i m a ge r y, N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) a dde d a r t i s t i c a nd he a l i ng r e a s ons w hi c h w e r e de e m e d a ppr opr i a t e t o how s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y ( C a r t e r 1993 ) I nve s t i ga t i ng t he de ve l opm e nt s of i m a ge r y s t udy i n how i t e vol ve d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy a nd i t s a da p t a t i ons a nd c or r e l a t i o ns t o a r t i s t i c a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e he l p t o c l a r i f y t he m a i n que s t i ons i n t h i s s t udy.

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96 A nal y t i c f r am e w or k of i m age r y us e I n a na l yz i ng t he r e s e a r c h on w hy a t hl e t e s a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m e r s i m a gi ne d, a num be r of i m por t a nt de ve l opm e nt s t r a ns pi r e d. P a i vi o s ( 1985) a na l yt i c f r a m e w or k of i m a ge r y p r ovi de d a f ounda t i on f or unde r s t a ndi ng us e a nd pos i t e d t ha t i m a ge r y i n f l ue nc e d pe r f o r m a nc e i n bo t h c ogni t i ve a nd m ot i va t i ona l f unc t i ons bot h of w hi c h ope r a t e d a t a s pe c i f i c a nd ge ne r a l l e ve l T h i s 2 X 2 o r t hogona l m ode l c r e a t e d one di m e ns i on a s c ogni t i ve m ot i va t i on, a nd t he ot he r a s s pe c i f i c ge ne r a l T he r e s ul t i ng f our i m a ge r y a r e a s w e r e : ( a ) c ogni t i v e s pe c i f i c ( C S ) or s ki l l a c qui s i t i on, de ve l opm e nt a nd pe r f or m a nc e ; ( b ) c ogni t i ve ge ne r a l ( C G ) s t r a t e gi e s a nd r ou t i ne s ; ( c ) m ot i va t i ona l s pe c i f i c ( M S ) goa l or i e nt e d be ha vi o r ; a nd ( d ) m ot i va t i ona l ge ne r a l ( M G ) phys i ol ogi c a l a nd a f f e c t i ve a r ous a l L a t e r H a l l a n d ot he r s ( 1998 ) di vi de d m ot i va t i ona l ge ne r a l i nt o t w o di s t i nc t a r e a s r e s ul t i ng i n m ot i va t i ona l ge ne r a l a r ous a l ( M G A ) o r a r ous a l m odi f i c a t i on o r ps yc hi ng up a nd m o t i va t i o na l ge ne r a l m a s t e r y ( M G M ) or m e nt a l t oughne s s s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd c onc e nt r a t i on ( s e e T a bl e 3) T he m a j or c ont r i but i ons a nd f i ndi ngs of s t udi e s a ddr e s s i ng t he a na l yt i c f r a m e w or k of i m a ge r y us e i n s por t da nc e a nd m us i c i nc l udi ng c ogni t i ve m ot i va t i ona l a r t i s t i c a nd he a l i ng r e a s ons w e r e pe r t i ne nt t o w hy s i ngi ng pr o f e s s i ona l s us e i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e a nd w i l l now be e xa m i ne d. C ogni t i v e r e as ons G e ne r a l l y, i m a ge r y w a s of t e n u s e d t o s ol ve pr obl e m s unde r s t a nd c e r t a i n c ha l l e nge s or s i m pl y c ha nge c o nc e pt s a nd be l i e f s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005; M ur phy e t a l 2008) T he s e c ogni t i ve r e a s ons f or us i ng i m a ge r y e nc om pa s s e d f unc t i ons of bot h t he C S or s ki l l s a n d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd S G o r ga m e pl a ns s t r a t e gi e s a nd r out i ne s

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97 T a bl e 3 A nal y t i c F r am e w or k of I m age r y E f f e c t s C ogni t i ve M ot i va t i ona l S pe c i f i c S ki l l s ( C S ) ( e g. m ot o r s ki l l s t e c hni que ) G oa l or i e nt e d ( M S ) ( e g. i m a gi ni ng s c e na r i os a nd pe r f or m a nc e i n f ut ur e pr oj e c t i on) A r ous a l ( M G A ) ( e g. r e l a xa t i on, ps yc hi ng up a nd i nc r e a s i ng a r ous a l ) G e ne r a l S t r a t e gy ( C G ) ( e g. ga m e p l a ns s t r a t e gi e s r out i ne s s e que nc e s a nd pl a nni ng) M a s t e r y ( M G M ) ( e g. c onf i de nc e m e nt a l t oughne s s pos i t i vi s m f oc us a n d c onc e nt r a t i on) N o t e : A d a p t e d f r o m P a i v i o ( 1 9 8 5 ) a n d H a l l M a c k P a i v i o a n d H a u s e n b l a s ( 1 9 9 8 p 7 4 ) C ogni t i ve s pe c i f i c ( C S ) or m e nt a l p r a c t i c e ha d be e n t he m os t w i de l y r e s e a r c he d a r e a of i m a ge r y a nd w a s ge ne r a l l y unde r s t ood a s t he i nt e r na l l e a r ni ng p r a c t i c e a nd pe r f or m a nc e of bot h c ogni t i ve a nd m ot o r or phys i c a l s ki l l s ( D r i s ke l l e t a l 1994; F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983; H a l l e t a l 1990; H a l l S c hm i dt D ur a nd, & B uc kol z 1994; M a hone y & A ve ne r 1977) R e s ul t s of t he e xt e ns i ve vol um e of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s t udi e s w e r e s um m a r i z e d i n s e ve r a l m e t a a na l ys e s ( e g. D r i s ke l l e t a l 1994 ; F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983; H i ns ha w 1991; R i c ha r ds on, 1967a 1967b) A t h l e t e s us e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i m a ge r t o l e a r n s ki l l s t e c hni que s a nd a c t i ons i n or de r f o r t he m t o be c om e a ut om a t i c i n

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98 pe r f or m a nc e M e nt a l p r a c t i c e w a s f ound t o be m o r e e f f e c t i ve f o r novi c e s i n m or e c ogni t i ve t ha n phys i c a l t a s ks w hi l e e xpe r i e nc e d s ubj e c t s be ne f i t e d e qua l l y w e l l f r om m e nt a l pr a c t i c e r e ga r dl e s s of t a s k t ype ( D r i s ke l l e t a l 1994 p 488) G e n e r a l l y i t w a s a c c e pt e d t ha t t he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w e r e m ode r a t e d by a s e ve r a l f a c t or s : ( a ) t ype of t a s k, ( b) r e t e nt i on i n t e r va l o r dur a t i on of t i m e be t w e e n t r e a t m e nt a nd a s s e s s m e nt a nd ( c ) e xpe r i e nc e l e ve l s of t he s ubj e c t s W hi l e a f ul l a na l ys i s of t he m a ny s t udi e s i n m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s be yond t he s c ope of t h i s s t udy, t he f i n di ngs a s t he y di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o i m a ge r y us e i n p r of e s s i ona l pe r f or m e r s w e r e i nc l u de d he r e T he us e of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e ha d be e n e xpl or e d i n a nu m be r o f e xpe r i m e nt a l i nve s t i ga t i ons S t udi e s i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e c om pa r e d phys i c a l pr a c t i c e ( P P ) w i t h m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ( M P ) i n m e m or i z a t i on of s pe c i f i c m us i c a l e xc e r pt s T he s e i nc l ude d s t udi e s i n pi a no ( C of f m a n, 1987, 1 990; H i ghbe n & P a l m e r 2004; L i m & L i ppm a n, 1991; L o, 1976; R ubi n R a bs on, 1941 ) t r om bone ( R os s 1985a 1985b) c l a r i ne t ( C of f m a n 1987 ) gui t a r a nd voc a l pe r f or m a nc e ( T he i l e r & L i ppm a n, 1995) T he m a j or i t y of t he s e i nve s t i ga t i ons i nvol ve d pr i m a r i l y uni ve r s i t y s t ude nt s r a t he r t ha n pr of e s s i ona l c l a s s i c a l i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s or s i nge r s T a bl e 4 pr ovi de s a c om pa r i s on of s e ve n of t he s e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s t udi e s l i s t e d a l pha be t i c a l l y by a ut hor T he s e s t udi e s w e r e c onduc t e d i n t e s t i ng di f f e r e nt a ppl i c a t i ons o f phys i c a l pr a c t i c e ( P P ) a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ( M P ) i n m us i c pe r f o r m a nc e i nc l udi ng ge ne r a l i n f o r m a t i on on pa r t i c i pa nt s va r i a bl e s t a s ks a s s e s s m e nt s a nd r e s ul t s

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99 T a bl e 4 M us i c al M e nt al P r ac t i c e St udi e s C om par i s on* N o t e : M P : M e n t a l p r a c t i c e ; P P : p h y s i c a l p r a c t i c e S t u d y N E x p e r i e n c e L e v e l V a r i a b l e s C o n t r o l M u s i c a l T a s k P e r f o r m a n c e A s s e s s e d P o s t t e s t R e s u l t s Co ffm a n (1 9 8 7 ) s t u d y o n t h e p i a n o 8 0 : 4 0 m a l e 4 0 fe m a l e Co l l e g e m u s i c m a j o rs n o v i c e p i a n o p l a y e rs a ) P P b ) M P a l t e rn a t i n g w / P P Y e s s i g h t re a d i n g m o t i v a t i o n a l g ro u p 4 p a rt c h u rc h h y m n fo r c h i l d re n P e rfo rm a n c e t i m e d u ra t i o n p i t c h rh y t h m S e c o n d h a l f o f c o m p o s i t i o n (p re t e s t fi rs t h a l f) M P a l t e rn a t i n g w / P P s u p e ri o r H i g h b e n & P a l m e r (2 0 0 4 ) s t u d y o n t h e p i a n o 1 6 H a l f c o l l e g e m u s i c m a j o rs h a l f p i a n o p e rfo rm e rs fro m t h e c o m m u n i t y (m i n 6 y e a rs t ra i n i n g ) F e e d b a c k c o n d i t i o n s a ) n o rm a l b ) a u d i t o ry h e a ri n g o n l y c ) m o t o r h a n d s o n l y d ) c o v e rt n o m o v e m e n t o r s o u n d Y e s 4 p i e c e s : 2 m e a s u re s o f e a rl y Ba ro q u e s t y l e c o m p o s i t i o n s 2 m a j o r, 2 m i n o r. 2 p o s t t e s t s : A u d i t o ry a b i l i t y M o t o r a b i l i t y S u b j e c t s w / s t ro n g a u ra l s k i l l s w e re l e a s t a ffe c t e d b y m e m o ry t e s t w i t h fe e d b a c k re m o v e d L i m & L i p p m a n (1 9 9 1 ) s t u d y o n t h e p i a n o 7 Co l l e g e p i a n o m a j o rs (m i n 1 1 y e a rs fo rm a l t ra i n i n g ) a ) M P w i t h s c o re b ) M P w i t h s c o re a n d l i s t e n i n g c ) P P w i t h s c o re N o 6 1 6 m (2 5 3 7 s ) o f W e i n e r, F a u re H a y d n S c h u m a n n V a l e n t i & M e n d e l s s o h n N o t e a c c u ra c y rh y t h m i c a c c u ra c y p h ra s i n g & a rt i c u l a t i o n d y n a m i c s & m u s i c a l e x p re s s i o n 2 p o s t t e s t s P h y s i c a l p ra c t i c e w a s b e s t fo l l o w e d b y l i s t e n i n g t o a n a u ra l m o d e l

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100 T a bl e 4 ( c ont i nue d) N o t e : M P : M e n t a l p r a c t i c e ; P P : p h y s i c a l p r a c t i c e S t u d y N E x p e r i e n c e L e v e l V a r i a b l e s C o n t r o l M u s i c a l T a s k P e r f o r m a n c e A s s e s s e d P o s t t e s t R e s u l t s L o (1 9 7 6 ) P i a n o Co l l e g e c l a s s p i a n o s t u d e n t s a ) P P b ) M P Y e s (P P o n l y ) Rh y t h m m e l o d y h a rm o n y o f a fo u r p a rt h y m n Y e s m e m o ri z i n g 4 p a rt h y m n s P re a n d p o s t t e s t M P g ro u p i m p ro v e d m o re t h a n P P g ro u p Ro s s (1 9 8 5 ) s t u d y o n t h e g u i t a r 3 0 Co l l e g e m u s i c m a j o rs a ) P P w / M P b ) P P c ) M P w / s l i d e m o v e m e n t s d ) c o n t ro l Y e s E t u d e s Co rre c t n o t e s a n d rh y t h m P o s t t e s t Co m b i n a t i o n o f P P & M P s u p e ri o r Ru b i n Ra b s o n (1 9 4 1 ) s t u d y o n t h e p i a n o 9 3 g ro u p s o f 3 S k i l l e d p i a n i s t s (a g e s 2 1 2 5 y e a rs ) 5 m i n M P p re s t u d y G r. 1 M P P P M P P P ; G r. 2 M P P P M P ; G ro u p 3 P P P P N o n e Ch a l l e n g i n g e t u d e s fro m Z i p o l i P a s q u i n i G a l u p p i F re y Co h n a n y G a l a n d T o c h M e m o ry 2 w e e k s l a t e r & 7 m o n t h s l a t e r M P P P M P fa c i l i t a t e d l e a rn i n g a n d m e m o ry P P a n d M P re s u l t e d i n l e s s re t e n t i o n a n d m o re t ri a l s T h e i l e r & L i p p m a n (1 9 9 5 ) s t u d y o n t h e g u i t a r 7 g u i t a ri s t s 7 v o c a l i s t s Co l l e g e g u i t a r a n d v o i c e m a j o rs (a g e s 1 9 2 9 y e a rs ) (a ) a l l P P (b ) M P w / P P (c ) M P a u ra l m o d e l l i s t e n i n g w / P P (d ) c o n t ro l w / P P Co n t ro l m i x e d w i t h P P 4 1 7 t h C. G u i t a r D a n c e e x c e rp t s s i g h t s i n g i n g e x e rc i s e s fo r s i n g e rs P i t c h & rh y t h m a c c u ra c y a rt i c u l a t i o n & p h ra s i n g d y n a m i c s & e x p re s s i o n t e m p o t o n a l q u a l i t y 2 p o s t t e s t s w / s c o re 2 p o s t t e s t s fro m m e m o ry M P & c o n t i n u o u s P P m o s t e ffe c t i v e fo r g u i t a ri s t s

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101 O ne of t he f i r s t r e s e a r c he r s t o c onduc t m e nt a l p r a c t i c e s t udi e s i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e w a s R ubi n R a bs on ( 1941 ) w ho e xa m i ne d m e m or y o f c om p os i t i ons i n pi a no s t ude nt s us i ng c om bi ne d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ( M P ) a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e ( P P ) w i t h a l l phys i c a l pr a c t i c e R ubi n R a bs on e m pl oye d a na l yt i c a l pr e s t udy pr i o r t o t hr e e t r e a t m e nt s w hi c h i nc l ude d: ( a ) P P M P P P ; ( b ) P P t he n M P ; a nd ( c ) P P p l us e xt r a P P R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t s ubj e c t s w ho us e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n t he m i ddl e of l e a r ni ng ha d t he hi ghe r s c or e s f or m e m or y t ha n s ubj e c t s w ho pr a c t i c e d m e nt a l l y a f t e r l e a r ni ng. S c or e s f o r t hi s gr oup w e r e r e t a i ne d w e e ks l a t e r w hi l e t he o t he r g r oups s c or e s d e c l i ne d. O t he r r e s e a r c he r s m odi f i e d t h i s a na l yt i c a l pr e s t ud y m ode l i n e xa m i ni ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n pi a ni s t s L o ( 1976) r e por t e d M P gr oups m e m or i z e d f ou r pa r t hym n s i gni f i c a nt l y be t t e r t ha n t he P P onl y gr oup i n c l a s s pi a no s ubj e c t s C of f m a n ( 1988 ) f ound t h a t a l t e r na t i ng M P a nd P P w a s s upe r i or t o t he P P onl y or M P onl y g r oups i n t r i a l s of novi c e pi a ni s t s l e a r ni ng a c om pos i t i on. L i m a nd L i ppm a n ( 1991) e xa m i ne d s e ve n pi a no m a j or s m e nt a l p r a c t i c e e f f e c t s A f t e r 10 m i nut e s o f r e he a r s a l s c or e s w e r e h i ghe r i n t h e gr oup us i ng phys i c a l pr a c t i c e f ol l ow e d by l i s t e ni ng t o a n a u r a l m ode l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e I n e xa m i ni ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n gui t a r i s t s a nd voc a l i s t s T he i l e r a nd L i ppm a n s ( 1995) de s i gn i nc l ude d a c ont r ol a nd t h r e e t r e a t m e nt s : ( a ) P P onl y; ( b ) P P a nd M P ; a nd ( c ) a c om bi na t i on of P P M P a nd a n a ur a l m ode l F or gui t a r i s t s M P t r e a t m e nt w a s s upe r i or t o a l l ot he r s f o r pi t c h a c c ur a c y. T he r e s ul t s f or voc a l i s t s i n t hi s s t udy r e ve a l e d t ha t c om bi ni ng M P a nd P P w i t h a n a udi t or y m ode l w a s s upe r i or M e nt a l pr a c t i c e s t udi e s ha ve a l s o e xa m i ne d t he us e of m ove m e nt o r s i m ul a t e d pe r f or m a nc e a nd a ur a l a bi l i t y i n c onj unc t i on w i t h i m a ge r y. I n da nc e H a nr a ha n, T e t r e a u, a nd S a r r a z i n ( 1995) a l s o f ound t ha t M P e nha nc e d pe r f or m a nc e w he n m ove m e nt w a s

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102 i nc or por a t e d. R os s ( 1985a ) r e por t e d t ha t c om bi ni n g phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l p r a c t i c e w a s t he m os t e f f e c t i ve m e t hod o f m a s t e r i ng a m us i c a l t a s k, how e ve r t he i nc l us i on of m ove m e nt s i m ul a t i ng pr a c t i c e w i t h e i t he r m e nt a l or phys i c a l pr a c t i c e w a s not s i gni f i c a nt H i ghbe n a nd P a l m e r ( 2004) f oun d t ha t a ur a l a bi l i t y, m or e t h a n m ot or a bi l i t y s i gni f i c a nt l y a f f e c t e d t he m e m or y o f a ne w l y l e a r ne d pi e c e f or 16 pi a ni s t s H i ghbe n a nd P a l m e r s ugge s t e d f oc us on t he a ur a l i m a ge r a t he r t ha n t he ki ne s t he t i c a c t i vi t y of ha nd m ove m e nt s f a c i l i t a t e d be t t e r pe r f or m a nc e m e m o r y. G e ne r a l l y, t he r e s ul t s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e e xt e nde d t he f i ndi ngs i n s por t r e s e a r c h. T he e f f e c t s o f m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e e m e d t o be c om pa r a bl e t o t hos e of phys i c a l pr a c t i c e a l t hough phys i c a l pr a c t i c e s t i l l s e e m e d opt i m a l e s pe c i a l l y i n l e s s e xpe r i e nc e d m us i c i a ns C om bi ni ng M P w i t h P P w a s f ound t o be a s e f f e c t i ve i f not m or e e f f e c t i ve t ha n P P a l one N ovi c e s a s w e l l a s e xpe r i e nc e d m us i c i a ns s e e m e d t o be ne f i t s l i ght l y l e s s f r om M P t ha n t hos e w i t h i nt e r m e di a t e e xpe r i e nc e N ovi c e s l a c ke d t e c hni c a l s ki l l a nd e xpe r t s a c hi e ve d a c e i l i ng e f f e c t s i nc e t he y ha d l e s s t o l e a r n D a nc e r s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y i n l e a r ni ng t o c l a r i f y t he i r w or k, s t r e ngt he n m e m or y, c ha nge t he i r ha bi t s a nd s ol i di f y c or r e c t i o ns w hi c h r e l a t e d t o C S f unc t i ons I m a ge r y a i de d t he i r phys i c a l pr a c t i c e by m a ki ng i t m or e c onc e pt ua l l y c onc r e t e a nd s t r e a m l i ni ng t he i r r e he a r s a l ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) A r t i s t i c pe r f o r m e r s w e r e f ound t o of t e n us e i m a ge r y f o r l e a r ni ng a nd r e f i ni ng s ki l l s a nd t e c hni que s a nd m e m or i z a t i on i n or de r t o a ut om a t e s ki l l s a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i ons ( B e l l on 2006; C a r t e r 1993; N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005; T r us he i m 1987) pa r t i c ul a r l y f or s ol o pe r f or m a nc e s I n s por t s c ogni t i ve ge ne r a l ( C G ) f unc t i ons o f i m a ge r y of de ve l opm e nt a nd e xe c ut i on of s e que nc e s a n d s t r a t e gi e s i nc l ude d r e he a r s i ng ga m e pl a ns a nd r out i ne s

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103 ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ; M ur phy e t a l 2008 ) R e s e a r c he r s i nve s t i ga t e d va r i ous C G i m a ge r y i n t w o s i m i l a r w a ys : ( a ) r out i ne s s uc h a s t hos e i n a r t i s t i c gym na s t i c s ( W hi t e & H a r dy, 1998) a nd on t he pom m e l hor s e ( M a c e E a s t m a n, & C a r r ol l 1987) a nd ( b) s t r a t e gi e s a s f ound i n s l a l om c a noe r a c e s ( M a c I nt yr e & M or a n, 1996) f oot ba l l ( F e nke r & L a m b i ot t e 1987) a nd w r e s t l i ng ( R us ha l l 1988) R e s ul t s i n us i ng C G i m a ge r y w e r e r e por t e d t o be be ne f i c i a l t o or ga ni z a t i ona l pe r f or m a nc e R e l a t e d t o c ogni t i ve s pe c i f i c ( C G ) i m a ge r y f unc t i o ns da nc e r s i m a gi ne d e nt i r e pe r f or m a nc e s pl a nni ng or a da pt i ng t o di f f e r i ng va r i a bl e s s uc h a s s t a ge bl oc ki ng or f a m i l i a r i z i ng t he m s e l ve s w i t h pe r f or m a nc e s pa c e s a nd ve nue s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) M us i c i a ns r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y i n s t r a t e g i z i ng pr e pe r f or m a nc e r out i ne s or ga ni z i ng t he i r pr a c t i c e f o r be t t e r pe r f o r m a nc e e x e c ut i on a nd t o e xe c ut e c onduc t or s di r e c t i ons a nd pl a n r ou t i ne s ( B e l l on, 2006; T r us he i m 1987) T he y a l s o us e d i m a ge r y t o c oor di na t e di f f i c ul t a s pe c t s of pe r f o r m a nc e de a l w i t h t e c hni c a l a nd m us i c a l c ha l l e nge s a nd c ope w i t h pe r f or m a nc e di s t r a c t i ons a nd va r y i n g a c ous t i c a l e f f e c t s of di f f e r e nt pe r f or m a nc e ha l l s ( B e l l on 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r u s he i m 1987) F u r t he r m or e s i nge r s i m a gi ne d c oor di na t i ng de t a i l s o f e nt i r e pe r f o r m a nc e s f or e xa m pl e e nt r a nc e s m a na gi ng c os t um e s pr ops a nd s e t s a nd de a l i ng w i t h bl oc ki ng a nd ve nue c ons i de r a t i ons ( C a r t e r 1993) M ot i v at i onal r e as ons M ot i va t i ona l f unc t i ons o f i m a ge r y us e i nc l ude d t hr e e r e a s ons : ( a ) goa l s e t t i ng a nd a c hi e ve m e nt or m ot i v a t i ona l s pe c i f i c ( M S ) ; ( b) m odi f yi ng a nd c ont r ol l i ng a r ous a l i nc l ude d i n m ot i va t i ona l g e ne r a l a r ous a l ( M G A ) ; a nd ( c ) de ve l opi ng a nd m a i nt a i ni ng c on f i de nc e s e l f e f f i c a c y, m e nt a l s t r e ngt h a s i n m ot i va t i ona l ge ne r a l m a s t e r y ( M G M ) ( H a l l e t a l 1998)

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104 A t hl e t e s r e por t e d us i ng va r i ous t ype s o f i m a ge r y i n t he M S f unc t i on t o s e t a nd a c hi e ve goa l s s uc h a s i m pr ovi ng pe r f or m a nc e m a s t e r i ng s pe c i f i c s ki l l s ove r c om i ng c ha l l e nge s w i nni ng c om pe t i t i ons a nd m ot i va t i ng t he m s e l ve s t o s uc c e e d ( H a l l e t a l 1990; M ur phy e t a l 2008) O r l i c k a nd P a r r i ngt on ( 1988) i nt e r vi e w e d 75 C a na di a n 1984 O l ym pi a n a t hl e t e s i n t he i r pr a c t i c e s a nd r e po r t e d, T he be s t a t hl e t e s ha d c l e a r da i l y goa l s T he y kne w w ha t t he y w a nt e d t o a c c om pl i s h e a c h da y, e a c h w or kout e a c h s e que nc e or i nt e r va l T he y w e r e de t e r m i ne d t o a c c om pl i s h t he s e goa l s a nd f oc us e d f ul l y on doi ng s o ( p. 111 ) D a nc e r s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y t o a i d t he i r us e of goa l s ( M S ) a nd t o i nc r e a s e t he i r i nc e nt i ve t o c ont i nue pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he f a c e of di f f i c ul t y ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) T hi s w a s a l s o f ound i n s i nge r s w ho a l s o us e d i m a ge r y t o pr og r e s s i n t he i r goa l s o f ga i ni ng r ol e s w i nn i ng c om pe t i t i ons or j us t i m pr o vi ng c e r t a i n s ki l l s ( B e l l on 2006 C a r t e r 1993) T he goa l i m a ge r y m os t a s s oc i a t e d w i t h m ot i va t i on s e e m e d t o i nvol ve m a s t e r y ( L a c a i l l e W hi ppl e & K oe s t ne r 2005) w hi c h a l s o r e l a t e d t o pr e pa r a t i on a nd s t r e ngt he ni ng c onf i de nc e i n opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e M ot i va t i ona l ge ne r a l a r ous a l M G A w a s r e l a t e d t o c ont r ol l i ng a f f e c t i ve s t a t e s s t r e s s a nd c om pe t i t i ve a nxi e t y l e ve l s t ha t i s ps yc hi ng up a nd r e l a xa t i on or c a l m i ng dow n ( B a r r & H a l l 1992; M ons m a & O ve r by, 200 4; O r l i c k, 1990; S a l m on e t a l 1994; V a doc z e t a l 1997; W hi t e & H a r dy 1998 ) M unr oe a nd ot he r s ( 2000 ) i de nt i f i e d t h r e e e l e m e nt s of a r ous a l a nd s t r e s s i n m ot i va t i ona l i m a ge r y: ( a ) e xc i t e m e nt ( b) c ont r ol a nd ( c ) r e l a xa t i on A t hl e t e s a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f o r m e r s di f f e r e d i n a r ous a l r e qui r e m e nt s due t o phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pe r f o r m a nc e r e qui r e m e nt s

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105 E xt e ns i ve r e s e a r c h i n ge ne r a l ps yc hol ogy ha s be e n c onduc t e d i n t he us e of r e l a xa t i on a nd e f f e c t i ve s t r e s s t e c hni que s i n a r ous a l m odi f i c a t i on P r ogr e s s i ve M us c ul a r R e l a xa t i on ( P M R ) w a s a s c he m e i n w hi c h J a c obs on ( 1957) e m pl oye d i m a ge r y t e c hni que s t o s ys t e m a t i c a l l y t e ns e a nd t he n r e l a x e a c h m us c l e M e i c he nba um ( 1977, 1985 ) de ve l ope d s t r e s s i noc ul at i on t r ai ni ng ( S I T ) i n c ogni t i ve be ha vi or m odi f i c a t i on, i n w hi c h s ubj e c t s w e r e t a ught t o us e i m a ge r y a nd s e l f i ns t r u c t i on a nd s e l f t a l k di r e c t i ve s s uc h a s s t a y c a l m a nd e a s y d oe s i t I n e xt e ndi ng t he w or k of J a c obs on, S ui nn s ( 1986) V i s uo M ot or B e ha vi or R e he a r s a l ( V M B R ) w a s or i gi na l l y de ve l ope d f or s por t s a nd f oc us e d pr i m a r i l y on c r e a t i ng a r e l a xe d s t a t e i n w hi c h i m a g e r y c oul d be t t e r a f f e c t s pe c i f i c a r e a s of pe r f or m a nc e V a r i ous t e xt s f oc us e d on t he a ppl i c a t i ons a nd t e c hni que s of r e l a xa t i on i m a ge r y t o f a c i l i t a t e s uc c e s s f ul pe r f or m a nc e ( e g B e ns on, 19 87; G a w a i n, 1978 2002; H a r r i s 1986 ) P e r f or m e r s ha ve of t e n ha d t o c ont e nd w i t h s e e m i ngl y unc ont r ol l a bl e l e ve l s o f ne r vous t e n s i on, t he e f f o r t o f w hi c h ha s t e nde d t o i nc r e a s e ne ga t i ve e f f e c t s G r e e n a nd G a l w a y ( 1986) a nd R i s t a d ( 1982) ha ve r e c om m e nde d t ha t pe r f or m e r s a c c e pt t he s ym pt om s o f a nxi e t y by r e f r a m i ng t he c ont e xt of t he i r i ndi vi dua l m e a ni ng. S i nge r s i n C a r t e r s ( 1993 ) s t udy di f f e r e nt i a t e d be t w e e n pos i t i ve or a nt i c i pa t i o n a nd w or ki ng t e ns i on a nd ne ga t i ve a nxi e t y a nd unw a nt e d t e ns i on or t he s pont a ne ous e m e r ge nc e of l i t t l e de vi l s A ddi t i ona l l y, pe r f or m e r s us e d di f f e r e nt m e t hods of c om bi ni ng b r e a t hi ng t e c hni que s w i t h r e l a xa t i on i m a ge r y t o f a c i l i t a t e pe r f or m a nc e i n s po r t a nd m us i c ( B e l l on, 2006 ; C a r t e r 1993; H a r r i s 1986; S i s t e r he n, 2007 ) O pt i m a l a r ous a l l e ve l s i n pe r f or m a nc e va r i e d w i t h a t hl e t e s t ype of s por t a s w e l l a s s pe c i f i c t a s k r e qui r e m e nt s ( S c hm i dt 1982) A t h l e t e s us e d M G A i m a ge s t o c ont r ol

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106 e m ot i ons a nd s t r e s s l e ve l s pa r t i c ul a r l y p r i or t o pe r f or m a nc e ( H e c ke r & K a c z or 1988) ; M unr oe e t a l 1998 ) A t h l e t e s us e d m a ny t ype s of i m a ge r y t o c ha nge t he i r e m ot i ona l c ondi t i on, t he M G A f unc t i on pa r t i c ul a r l y t o r e l a x p s yc h up, a nd e ne r gi z e t he m s e l ve s t hus m odi f yi ng a r ous a l t o a ppr op r i a t e l y e xe c ut e pe r f or m a nc e s ( e g H a r r i s 1986; M ur phy e t a l 2008; O r l i c k 1990; O xe ndi ne 1980 ; V a doc z e t a l 1997 ) O xe ndi ne ( 1980) r e por t e d t ha t hi ghl y a nxi ous pa r t i c i pa nt s i n hi s s t udy w e r e s uc c e s s f ul i n l ow di f f i c ul t y t a s ks a nd l ow a nxi ous s ubj e c t s w e r e m or e s uc c e s s f ul i n hi gh di f f i c ul t y t a s ks T hi s w a s i l l us t r a t e d i n t he Y e r ke s D ods on L a w w hi c h s t a t e d, c om pl e x t a s ks a r e pe r f or m e d be t t e r w he n one s d r i ve i s l ow w hi l e s i m pl e t a s k s a r e pe r f or m e d be t t e r w he n dr i ve i s hi gh ( O xe ndi ne 1980 p 104) I n c ont r a s t t o t he hi gh l e ve l s of M G A i m a ge r y us e d by a t hl e t e s t o f a c i l i t a t e pe r f or m a nc e da nc e r s a nd m us i c i a ns r e qui r e d m uc h m o r e s ubdue d l e ve l s of a r ous a l ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 19 93; C um m i ng & N or di n 2005; S t e dm a n, 1985; T r us he i m 1987) M us i c i a ns ge ne r a l l y pe r f or m e d be t t e r w he n t he y w e r e r e l a xe d a nd c a l m e d, how e ve r m a ny be l i e ve d t ha t s om e a nxi e t y, o r a dr e na l i ne w a s be ne f i c i a l t o pe r f or m i ng opt i m a l l y. T he pr a c t i c e of r e l a xa t i on i n i m a ge r y ha s be e n t he s ubj e c t of s om e c ont r ove r s y. I t ha d l ong be e n a n a c c e pt e d pr a c t i c e t o r e qui r e r e l a x a t i on pr i or t o i m a ge r y e nga ge m e nt a s pr opos e d i n J a c obs on s ( 1957) P r ogr e s s i ve M us c ul a r R e l a xa t i on ( P M R ) a nd S ui nn ( 1976, 1986) V i s uo M ot or B e ha vi or R e he a r s a l ( V M B R ) L i t t l e e m pi r i c a l s uppor t f or t hi s di d not a f f e c t t he i ns i s t e nc e of s por t ps yc hol ogi s t s t o r e qui r e r e l a xa t i on be f o r e m ot o r i m a ge r y ( W e i nbe r g & G oul d 1999 ) H ow e ve r H ol m e s a nd C ol l i ns ( 2002) i n s uppor t i ng i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons t ha t c om pl i e d w i t h t he f i nd i ngs of f un c t i ona l e qui va l e nc e t he or y, a r gue d t ha t a r ous a l l e ve l s i n i m a ge r y s houl d r e f l e c t t he opt i m a l l e ve l s of t he pe r f o r m a nc e of t ha t

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107 s pe c i f i c t a s k. S i nc e pr e i m a ge r y r e l a xa t i on i nh i bi t e d s por t pe r f o r m a nc e w hi c h w a s s uppor t e d i n P e r r y a nd M or r i s ( 1995 ) a c t ua l a r ous a l a nd e m ot i ona l l e ve l s s houl d be e m be dde d i n t he i m a ge r y i n o r de r t o pr e c i s e l y r e pl i c a t e t he t a s k i n t he br a i n. T he e xt e ns i ve pe r s ona l e xpos ur e i n s ol o s i ngi ng pe r f or m a nc e be f o r e a n a udi e nc e c oul d m odul a t e a r ous a l a nd pe r f or m a nc e s uc c e s s E xt r e m e f e e l i ngs o f vul ne r a bi l i t y a nd s e l f c r i t i c i s m c oul d de t e r i o r a t e c onf i de nc e i nc r e a s e a r ous a l l e ve l s a nd de bi l i t a t e pe r f or m a nc e ( B e l l on, 2006; R i s t a d, 1982; S t e dm a n 1985) T he na t ur e of s i nge r s e m bodyi ng t he i ns t r um e nt of t e n p r e c l ude d pe r s ona l i de nt i f i c a t i on w i t h s i ngi ng a bi l i t y a nd t he a ppr ova l of t he a udi e nc e A s a r e s ul t s i nge r s m a y ha ve pe r c e i ve d or i m a gi ne d t he a udi e nc e r e ga r di ng t he m i n t he t hr e e pos s i bl e w a ys : ( a ) ne ga t i ve l y or w i t h hos t i l i t y, ( b) pos i t i ve l y a nd w i t h s uppor t f or t he s i nge r o r ( c ) a c c ur a t e l y r e s pondi ng t o e a c h m om e nt i n t he pe r f or m a nc e ( B e l l on, 2006 ; C a r t e r 1993) A l l t he s e f a c t or s a nd va r i a bl e s i m pa c t e d M G A i m a ge r y us e by s i nge r s M ot i v a t i ona l ge ne r a l m a s t e r y ( M G M ) i m a ge r y w a s e xa m i ne d f r e que nt l y i n s por t s l i t e r a t ur e ( e g. A bm a e t a l 2002; H a l l e t a l 1998; M unr oe e t a l 2000; W e i nbe r g & G oul d, 2003) a nd w a s r e l a t e d t o f i ve t he m e s : ( a ) be i ng m e nt a l l y t ough, ( b) f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on, ( c ) s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd c onf i de nc e ( d) be i ng pos i t i ve a nd ( e ) m ode l i n g M e nt a l t oughne s s i nvol ve d ha ndl i ng di f f i c ul t s i t ua t i ons a nd e l e m e nt s of a dve r s i t y us ua l l y j us t pr i or t o o r dur i ng pe r f or m a nc e F oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on de a l t w i t h t he m e nt a l a bi l i t y t o di r e c t l y c ont r o l i m a ge s t hought s a nd di s t r a c t i ons w hi c h c oul d a f f e c t opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e I n a s t udy i nve s t i ga t i ng qua l i t i e s a nd be ha vi or s of 235 C a na di a n O l ym pi c a t hl e t e s O r l i c k a nd P a r r i ngt on ( 1988 ) c onc l ude d t ha t :

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108 I n a l m os t a l l c a s e s t he be s t f oc us w a s one t ha t ke pt t he a t hl e t e c onne c t e d t o w ha t he or s he w a s doi ng ( hi s or he r j ob) I n c ont r a s t t h e w or s t f oc us w a s one i n w hi c h t he a t hl e t e w a s dw e l l i ng on f a c t or s ove r w hi c h he or s he ha d no di r e c t c ont r ol s uc h a s ot he r c om pe t i t or s f i na l out c om e o r ot he r di s t r a c t i ons ( p. 116) W he n di s t r a c t i ons w e r e a l l ow e d t o de bi l i t a t e pe r f o r m a nc e c onf i de nc e l e ve l s de c r e a s e d. T he r e f or e a bi l i t y t o c onc e nt r a t e a nd f oc us c oul d i nf l ue nc e s e l f c onf i de nc e a nd pe r c e pt i ons of m e nt a l t oughne s s of t he pe r f or m e r L e ve l s of c onc e nt r a t i on s e e m e d t o a f f e c t pe r f or m e r s i nvol ve m e nt i n t he i r p r e s e nt a t i ons ( F i e l ds 1972) D e bi l i t a t i ng di s t r a c t i o ns de c r e a s e d w he n pe r f or m e r s f oc us e d on t he s pe c i f i c t a s ks of t he pe r f o r m a nc e c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on, a nd c om m uni c a t i on w i t h t he a udi e nc e ( C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987 ) A c c or di ng t o C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi ( 1990) s us t a i ne d i nvol ve m e nt i n t he t a s k w a s di r e c t l y c or r e l a t e d i n t hos e i ndi vi dua l s w ho e xpe r i e nc e d opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e I n de s c r i bi ng a pe r f or m e r c om pl e t e l y i nvol ve d t hi s w a y i n a r o l e C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi ( 1990 ) s t a t e d: S e l f c ons c i ous ne s s w hi c h i s t he m os t c om m o n s o ur c e of di s t r a c t i on i s no t a pr obl e m f o r s uc h a pe r s on. I ns t e a d of w or r yi ng a b out how he i s doi ng, how he l ooks f r om t he out s i de he i s w hol e he a r t e dl y c om m i t t e d t o hi s goa l s I n s om e c a s e s i t i s t he de pt h of i nvol ve m e nt t ha t pus he s s e l f c ons c i ous ne s s out of a w a r e ne s s w hi l e s om e t i m e s i t i s t he ot he r w a y a r o und: i t i s t he ve r y l a c k of s e l f c ons c i ous ne s s t ha t m a ke s de e p i nvol ve m e nt pos s i bl e ( pp 211 212) T hi s de e p pe r s ona l c onne c t i on w i t h t he pe r f or m a n c e s e e m e d t o be r e gul a t e d by t he l e ve l of c onf i de nc e f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on of t he pe r f or m e r

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109 I m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o c on f i de nc e a nd s e l f e f f i c a c y w e r e i nvol ve d w i t h f e e l i ng s uc c e s s f ul pos i t i ve a nd up t o t he t a s k. S e l f e f f i c a c y t he or y ( B a ndur a 1977 1982 1997 ) pos i t e d t ha t m ot or pe r f o r m a nc e w a s e nha nc e d by i m a ge s of s uc c e s s f ul e xpe c t a t i ons B a ndur a ( 1997) s t a t e d t ha t [ e ] f f i c a c y be l i e f s a f f e c t t hought pa t t e r n t ha t c oul d e nha nc e or unde r m i ne pe r f o r m a nc e ( p. 116) H e f ur t he r pr op os e d t ha t s e l f e f f i c a c y w a s be l i e f i n one s ow n c a pa bi l i t i e s i n a c t i ng i n s pe c i f i c w a ys I n s por t r e s e a r c h, M G M i m a ge r y w a s c or r e l a t e d t o s e l f e f f i c a c y i n c om pe t i t i ve a t hl e t e s ( M i l l s e t a l 2000 2001 ; M or i t z e t a l 1996; V a doc z e t a l 1997; V e a l e y, 1986 ) a nd w a s a f a c t or di s t i ngui s hi ng e l i t e a nd l e s s s uc c e s s f ul pe r f or m e r s ( G oul d, W e i s s & W e i nbe r g 1981; W ool f ol k M ur phy, G ot t e s f e l d, & A i t ke n, 1985) E m pl oyi ng a nd m a i nt a i ni ng pos i t i ve i m a ge r y a nd ou t l ook w a s f ound t o f a c i l i t a t e a t hl e t i c pe r f or m a nc e ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) P os i t i ve s e l f t a l k a nd s t oppi ng ne ga t i ve t hought s w e r e a l s o us e d i n a c hi e vi ng c on f i de nc e ( G a m m a ge H a r dy & H a l l 2001; H a r dy, G a m m a ge & H a l l 2001 ) S po r t r e s e a r c he r s ( O r l i c k, 1990; R us ha l l 1988; S ui nn, 1972 1986 ) s uppor t e d t he us e of c onf i de nc e bui l di ng t e c hni que s i n i m a ge r y i n t he a ppl i e d a t hl e t i c f i e l ds A t hl e t e s w ho i m a gi ne d pe r f or m i ng i n a c onf i de nt m a nne r w e r e be t t e r a bl e t o de ve l op, m a i nt a i n a nd r e ga i n c onf i d e nc e ( M or i t z e t a l 1996) I n voc a l pe da gogy t e xt t he i de a of m e nt a l l y pe r c e i vi ng one s e l f a s s t r ong, c onf i de nt a nd m e nt a l l y f i t f o r t he t a s k o f pe r f or m i ng w a s not ne w I n r e f l e c t i ng s om e o f t he qua l i t i e s of M G M i m a ge r y t he r e now ne d voc a l t e a c he r V e nna r d ( 1971) r i gor ous l y s uppor t e d t he i de a of i nne r c om pos ur e a nd s e l f e f f i c a c y i n t he f ol l ow i ng de s c r i pt i on: T he f i r s t r e qui r e m e nt of t he s i nge r pe r s ona l i t y i s p oi s e H e m us t ha ve c onf i de nc e i n hi m s e l f T hi s i s w hy na t ur a l s i nge r s a r e of t e n i n s uf f e r a bl e e got i s t s T he y a r e not e got i s t i c a l be c a us e t he y s i ng w e l l ; on t he c ont r a r y, t he y c ont r ol t he i r voi c e s w e l l

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110 be c a us e t he y a r e s o s e l f c onf i de nt . . T hi s i s t he i r pr i c e l e s s a s s e t D a m pe n t he e xhi bi t i oni s t pl e a s ur e t he y t a ke i n t he i r voi c e s a nd you w i l l ha ve da m a ge d t he voi c e s t he m s e l ve s . . A not he r r e qui r e m e nt o f t he s i nge r pe r s ona l i t y, r e l a t e d t o poi s e i s pe r s e ve r a nc e P oi s e i s c our a ge f or t he c ha l l e nge a t ha nd; pe r s e ve r a nc e i s s t r e ngt h of c ha r a c t e r f or t he l ong pul l ( V e nna r d 1 971, pp 24 25 ) F or V e nna r d, s uc c e s s f ul s i ngi ng r e qui r e d a s t r ong s e ns e of s e l f c onf i de nc e e s pe c i a l l y i n r e ga r d t o voc a l c ont r ol a nd m e nt a l t ou ghne s s C a r t e r ( 1993) a nd B e l l on ( 2006) r e por t e d e l i t e s i nge r s us e d s t r ong, pos i t i ve s e l f i m a ge s a nd s e l f t a l k c ont i nua l l y i n r e he a r s i ng, a udi t i oni ng, a nd pe r f or m a nc e F u r t he r m or e t he y w e r e f ound t o be a de pt a t c ont r ol l i ng m e nt a l phys i c a l a nd e nvi r onm e nt a l d i s t r a c t i ons t h r ough f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on F i e l ds ( 1972) a dvoc a t e d t ha t t he j oy of s i ngi ng c ons i s t e d of a s e ns e of w e l l be i ng a nd e xhi l a r a t i on of s pi r i t t ha t c om e s f r om t he e xpe r i e n c e of be i ng f r e e f r om w o r r y or r e s t r a i nt of a ny ki nd ( pp. 9 10 ) S t e dm a n ( 1985) r e por t e d t h a t s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y f o r c onf i de nc e bui l di ng, pe r s ona l e nj oym e nt a nd be c o m i ng m or e pr of i c i e nt i n e xe c ut i ng t e c hni que s a nd e m bodyi ng qua l i t i e s ne c e s s a r y f or m a s t e r y. T he us e of m ode l i ng i de a l pe r f or m a nc e s w he r e by pe r f or m e r s l e a r ne d a ne w s ki l l or t e c h ni que by w a t c hi ng a n e xpe r t pe r f o r m e r a l s o r e l a t e d t o M G M i m a ge r y us e ( B a ndur a & J e f f e r i e s 1973) T he i m a ge o f t he i de a l pe r f or m a nc e s e r ve d t o m ot i va t e t he i ndi vi dua l t o pe r f or m be yond w ha t ha d be e n pr e vi ous l y c ons i de r e d pos s i bl e F e l t z ( 1984 ) a r gue d, j us t m e nt a l l y s e e i ng one s e l f s uc c e s s f ul l y pe r f or m i ng t he de s i r e d t a s k i s e nough t o c onvi nc e a n a t hl e t e t ha t he or s he ha s t he a bi l i t y t o s uc c e s s f ul l y e xe c ut e t he t a s k ( p. 193) R us ha l l ( 1988 ) e m pl oye d c ove r t m ode l i ng t o a s s i s t pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y c ondi t i ons i n a n e l i t e w r e s t l e r s t r e ngt he ni ng c onf i de nc e M us i c i a ns us e d m ode l i ng a nd r ol e pl a yi ng

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111 i n i m a gi ni ng how a n out s t a ndi ng pe r f or m e r w oul d e xe c ut e a s pe c i f i c pe r f or m a nc e t o i nc r e a s e t he i r m ot i va t i on a nd s e l f c onf i de nc e ( B e l l on, 2006; C a l dw e l l & W a l l 20 01; E m m ons & T hom a s 1999 ) S i nge r s m ode l e d pe r f o r m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e i n f r ont of a m i r r or f or i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k t o s e e how t he y w e r e phys i c a l l y pr oj e c t i ng t he c ha r a c t e r A r t i s t i c r e as ons A r t i s t i c r e a s ons a ddr e s s e d t he c r e a t i ve e xpr e s s i ve a nd i nt e r pr e t i v e a s pe c t s of m e a ni ng i n pe r f or m a nc e i nt e r pr e t a t i on. A l t hough a r t i s t i c i m a ge f unc t i ons w e r e r a r e l y a ddr e s s e d i n s por t r e s e a r c h t hi s w a s a n i m por t a nt a e s t he t i c a s pe c t i n f i gur e s ka t i ng, s ync hr oni z e d s w i m m i ng, a nd a r t i s t i c r out i ne s i n gym na s t i c f l oor e xe r c i s e s ( H a ys 2002; M ur phy e t a l 2008) L i ke w i s e da nc e r s us e d i m a ge r y t o e va l ua t e t he i r pe r f or m a nc e a nd t o c he c k e xt e r na l body a w a r e ne s s s uc h a s s t a ge bl oc ki ng, m us i c a l t i m i ng, a nd c oor di na t i on w i t h ot he r da nc e r s t o a c hi e ve a ppr opr i a t e a r t i s t i c i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m a nc e ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) I ns t r u m e nt a l a nd voc a l m us i c i a ns us e d i m a ge r y t o c r e a t e a r t i s t i c a l l y e xpr e s s i ve pe r f or m a n c e s a nd f ol l ow i ng c onduc t or s a r t i s t i c di r e c t i ons ( B e l l on, 2006 ; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) S i nge r s i m a gi ne d e nga gi ng i n a r t i s t i c e xp r e s s i vi t y, a s s um i ng t he c ha r a c t e r or r ol e a nd e f f e c t i ve l y c om m uni c a t i ng w i t h t he a udi e nc e ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993 ; S t e dm a n 1985) E l i t e voc a l i s t s i n C a r t e r s ( 1 993) i nve s t i ga t i on r e c ogni z e d t ha t t e c hni que a nd voc a l m a t e r i a l ha d t o be c om pl e t e l y s ol i d a nd a ut om a t i c i n or de r f or pos i t i ve i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he a udi e nc e t o oc c ur C a r t e r ( 1993) r e por t e d t ha t s i nge r s i n he r s t udy e xc ha nge d i m a gi na l i nt e r a c t i ons of e l e c t r i c i t y, vi b r a t i ons a nd l ove ( p 245 ) w i t h t he i r a udi e nc e s T he y a l s o r e s pon de d t o pos i t i ve nonve r ba l ki ne s t he t i c f e e dba c k f r om t he i r a udi e nc e s by f e e l i ng s t r e ngt he ne d c onf i de nc e a nd s e l f e f f i c a c y. A r t i s t i c pe r f o r m e r s us e d

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112 s pe c i f i c s e ns e i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng a ppr opr i a t e a r t i s t i c i m a ge s r e l e va nt t o t he de s i r e d pe r f or m a nc e H e al t h r e as ons D ue t o t he e xt e ns i ve phys i c a l r e qu i r e m e nt s i n bot h a t hl e t i c s a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m a nc e t he body w a s hi ghl y r e ga r de d a nd m a i nt a i ni ng e xc e l l e nt he a l t h w a s a pa r a m ount c onc e r n f or pe r f or m e r s I m a ge r y i n t h e pr oc e s s of m a i nt a i ni ng he a l t h ha d be e n t h e f oc us of m a ny s t udi e s ( S he i kh 2003; S he i kh & J or da n, 1983; S he i kh & K or n 1994) I m a ge r y us e i n i l l ne s s a nd he a l i ng w a s pop ul a r i z e d w i t h t he w or k o f S i m ont on a nd hi s c ol l e a gue s ( S i m ont on e t a l 1971; S i m ont on e t a l 1978 ) i n t he i r t r e a t i s e i n t he m e nt a l a ppl i c a t i ons f or t r e a t i ng di s e a s e e s pe c i a l l y c a nc e r a s pr e vi ous l y m e nt i one d. T hi s m e t hod of i m a ge r y us e i n r e ha bi l i t a t i ng i nj u r y a nd pa i n m a na ge m e nt ha s be e n a ppl i e d i n s por t s ( O r l i c k, 1990) G r e e n ( 1992) s ugge s t e d i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons f or f a c i l i t a t i n g s por t i nj ur y A t hl e t e s a nd pe r f or m e r s us e d i m a ge r y f o r he a l i ng pur pos e s i n s e ve r a l w a ys E l i t e gym na s t s i m a gi ne d t he i r r out i ne s t o f o r ge t t he i r pa i n a nd be c om e m or e i nvol ve d i n t he pe r f or m a nc e ( C a l m e l s e t a l 2003) A c c or di ng t o N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 20 05) da nc e r s us e d i m a ge r y f or f our di f f e r e nt he a l i ng r e a s ons : i nj ur y pr e ve nt i on a nd he a l i ng, pa i n m a na ge m e nt s pi r i t ua l he a l i ng a nd r e j uve na t i on. I m a ge r y w a s us e d a s a s ubs t i t ut e f or a c t ua l pr a c t i c e t o s a ve e ne r gy a nd r e s t t he body w h e n t he y w e r e t oo t i r e d t o pe r f or m D a nc e r s a l s o us e d i m a ge r y t o i m pr ove t he i nt e r na l a w a r e ne s s of t he i r body s uc h a s pos t ur e c oor di na t i on ba l a nc e a nd w e i ght di s t r i bu t i on ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) S i nge r s a nd i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s of t e n us e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w he n t he y w e r e s i c k o r ne e de d t o pr e s e r ve t he i r voi c e s a nd f i nge r s ( B e l l on, 2006) B r a s s m us i c i a ns us e d i m a ge r y dur i ng he a l t h r e c ove r y a nd r e c r e a t e d m e m or i e s of f o r m e r pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e ( T r us he i m

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113 1987) I nj ur y pr e ve nt i on, he a l i ng, a nd r e c ove r y w e r e a n i m po r t a nt a s pe c t r e p r e s e nt e d i n t he m a j or m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e s t udi e s i n i m a ge r y. R e s e ar c h i n I m age r y U s e of M us i c al P e r f or m e r s S e ve r a l e xt e ns i ve s t udi e s ha ve be e n c onduc t e d i n i nt e r vi e w i ng out s t a ndi ng m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s i n t he i r us e of i m a ge r y, w hi c h e xt e nde d be yond t hos e e l e m e nt s pr e vi ous l y m e nt i one d. T r us he i m ( 1987) i nve s t i ga t e d how pr of e s s i ona l or c he s t r a l b r a s s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s us e d i m a ge r y. U s i ng a s i m i l a r f r a m e w or k, C a r t e r ( 1993 ) e xa m i ne d t he us e of i m a ge r y i n e l i t e s i nge r s M os t r e c e nt l y, B e l l on ( 2006) i nt e r vi e w e d s e ve r a l di f f e r e nt ki nds of pe r f or m i ng m us i c i a ns i n t he i r us e of s por t ps yc hol ogy i nt e r ve nt i ons i nc l udi ng m e nt a l i m a ge r y. M a ny of t he s pe c i f i c f i ndi ngs f r o m t he s e s t udi e s ha ve pr e vi ous l y be e n r e por t e d i n t he va r i ous c a t e gor i e s how e ve r t he s e s t udi e s r e pr e s e nt e xt a nt r e s e a r c h m or e c l os e l y a ddr e s s i ng t he us e of i m a ge r y i n m us i c a l p e r f or m e r s e s pe c i a l l y s i nge r s a s pr e s e nt e d i n t he s por t ps yc hol ogy r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e T he s e t hr e e s t udi e s w i l l be a na l yz e d i ndi vi dua l l y i n r e ga r d t o t he i r r e l e va nc e t o t he pr e s e nt s t udy. T a bl e 5 s how s t he t h r e e m a j or i m a ge r y s t udi e s i n m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e t he pa r t i c i pa nt pe r f or m e r s ge ne r a l us e s of i m a ge r y a s t he y r e l a t e t o da nc e a nd s por t r e s e a r c h, a s w e l l a s t he f i ndi ngs o f e a c h s t udy. T r us he i m St udy I n one o f t he f i r s t e xt e ns i ve i nt e r v i e w s t udi e s on m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s us e o f i m a ge r y, T r us he i m ( 1987 ) i nve s t i ga t e d 26 t op b r a s s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s w ho w e r e m e m be r s of f i ve of t he m os t pr e s t i gi ous s ym phoni e s i n m a j o r c i t i e s of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s us i ng t he i i i F r a m e w or k r e pr e s e nt i ng t he i m a ge i m a gi ni ng, a nd i m a gi na t i on ( R os e nbe r g, 1987) T r us he i m ( 1987 ) i nt e r vi e w e d t he s e m us i c i a ns c onc e r ni ng t he i r us e of i m a ge r y i n t he va r i ous a s pe c t s of t r a i ni ng, r e he a r s a l a nd pe r f o r m a nc e T he s e e l i t e br a s s pl a ye r s r e por t e d

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114 T a bl e 5 M aj or I m age r y St udi e s i n M us i c al P e r f or m anc e R e s e a r c he r s P e r f or m e r s N S e ns e I m a ge r y M e t a phor i c / A r t i s t i c P e r s pe c t i ve F i ndi ngs T r u s h e i m ( 1 9 8 7 ) E l i t e O r c h e s t r a l B r a s s 2 6 A u d i t o r y v i s u a l k i n e s t h e t i c t a c t i l e A r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n c o n d u c t o r s i m a g e r y I n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s u s e i m a g e r y e x t e n s i v e l y C a r t e r ( 1 9 9 3 ) E l i t e S i n g e r s / T e a c h e r s 1 1 A u d i t o r y k i n e s t h e t i c v i s u a l A r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n c o m m u n i c a t i n g w / a u d i e n c e I n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l S i n g e r s u s e i m a g e r y a r t i s t i c a l l y a n d e x p r e s s i v e l y B e l l o n ( 2 0 0 6 ) S i n g e r s I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s C o n d u c t o r s 6 A u d i t o r y k i n e s t h e t i c v i s u a l A r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n I n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l P e r f o r m e r s u s e i m a g e r y v i s u a l i z a t i o n r e l a x a t i o n a n d e n e r g i z i n g e xt e ns i ve us e of m e t a phor i c a nd a r t i s t i c i m a ge r y T he y a l s o us e d i m a ge r y i n m ode l i ng ot he r r e ve r e d p l a ye r s a nd de ve l ope d a hi gh de gr e e of pr o f i c i e nc y i n a ur a l a nd ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y i n e xe c ut i ng t he i r m us i c a l s ki l l s a nd t a l e nt s T r us he i m d i d not c om pa r e hi s f i ndi ngs w i t h t hos e i n s por t r e s e a r c h, but i n hi s l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w he di d de vot e a p a ge t o i m a ge r y s t udi e s pr i m a r i l y f oc us e d on S ui nn s ( 198 3, 1986) V M B R t e c hni que s f or vi s ua l i z a t i on a nd r e l a xa t i on.

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115 T r us he i m r e por t e d t he s e m us i c i a ns a l s o us e d i m a ge r y i n w ha t c oul d be c ons i de r e d t he c ogni t i ve t ype s a nd f unc t i ons of s ki l l l e a r ni ng a nd a c q ui s i t i on, a s w e l l a s s t r a t e gi e s i n e xe c ut i ng pe r f or m a nc e r e qui r e m e nt s T he s e i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s r e gul a r l y us e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o s e c ur e pa s s a ge s a nd a ugm e nt phys i c a l r e he a r s a l of t e n i n va r i ous l oc a t i ons a nd w he n pl a yi ng t he i r i ns t r um e nt s w a s not a ppr op r i a t e T he s e pr o f e s s i ona l s a l s o e m pl oye d m ot i va t i ona l i m a ge r y t ype s a nd f unc t i ons t o r e gul a t e t he i r a r ous a l t o a ppr op r i a t e l e ve l s f or opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e F ur t he r m o r e t he br a s s pl a ye r s i n t he s t udy e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve va r i ous goa l s boos t c on f i de nc e a nd m a s t e r t he m e nt a l a nd e m ot i ona l r e qui r e m e nt s of pe r f or m a nc e T he s e m us i c i a ns us e d i m a ge r y i n a va r i e t y of a ppl i c a t i ons i nc l udi ng a r t i s t i c pur pos e s i n m us i c a l l y e xpr e s s i ng t he c om pos i t i ons a nd he a l i ng pu r pos e s w he n t he y w e r e r e c ove r i ng f r o m i l l ne s s r e f l e c t i ng da nc e r s i m a ge r y pur pos e s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) T he i r us e of i m a ge r y c om pa r e d qui t e f a vor a bl y t o t he r e s e a r c h i n i m a ge r y t ype s t i m e s l oc a t i ons a nd f unc t i ons a ddr e s s e d i n s por t a nd da nc e r e s e a r c h. T r us he i m s s t udy r a i s e d s e ve r a l c onc e r ns t ha t w e r e r e l e va nt t o t he pr e s e nt s t udy. A l t hough t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e pr e s e nt e d s om e of t he m os t pr e s t i gi ous pos i t i ons i n t he or c he s t r a s of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s t he s e s ubj e c t s w e r e a l l m a l e e ns e m bl e m us i c i a ns a nd t he i r i de nt i t i e s w e r e a l l r e ve a l e d i n t he s t ud y T he i r hi gh s t a ndi ng i n t he m us i c a l c om m uni t y c oul d ha ve i nf l ue nc e d t he i r r e s pons e s T he s e m us i c i a ns di d not pe r f or m r e gul a r l y a s s ol oi s t s w i t hout i ns t r um e nt s s t a ndi ng f a c e t o f a c e s i ngi ng t o a de m a ndi ng a udi e nc e a s i s t he nor m i n c l a s s i c a l s ol o voc a l pe r f or m a nc e F u r t he r m or e t he y w e r e not r e s pons i bl e f or m e m or i z i ng w or ds o r t e xt of t e n i n a not he r l a ngua ge t o s ongs a r i a s a nd e nt i r e r ol e s i n ope r a s r e pr e s e nt i ng voc a l s ki l l s t ha t r e qui r e ye a r s of de ve l opm e nt a nd r e f i ne m e nt M a ny

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116 of t he s e r e qui r e m e nt s a nd i s s ue s w e r e a ddr e s s e d i n t he C a r t e r ( 1993) s t udy of voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s C ar t e r St udy F ol l ow i ng T r us he i m s ( 1987) s t udy, C a r t e r ( 1993) us e d H or ow i t z s ( 1978) ps yc hol ogi c a l m ode l t o i nve s t i ga t e t he us e o f i m a g e r y i n 11 e l i t e voc a l i s t s U s i ng a m ode r a t e l y s c he dul e d i nt e r vi e w f o r m a t t opi c s i nc l ude d: c a r e e r pr e pa r a t i on t e a c he r s us e of i m a ge r y pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y i s s ue s m e nt a l r e he a r s a l a nd m e nt a l i m a ge r y i n voc a l pe da gogy. T he s e i s s ue s r e l a t e d t o t he p r e s e nt s t udy pe r ha ps m or e t ha n a ny ot he r m us i c i nve s t i ga t i on. T he r e s ul t s of t hi s c om pr e he ns i ve s t udy di r e c t l y a d dr e s s e d m a ny of t he a s pe c t s of us i ng i m a ge r y out s i de of t he c ont e xt of s por t ps yc hol ogy. V oc a l i s t s i n t he C a r t e r s t udy r e por t e d be i ng i nvol ve d w i t h i m a ge r y f r om a n e a r l y a ge a nd c ont i nue d t o us e va r i ous a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y i n t he i r p r of e s s i on. A num be r o f voc a l i s t s s t r e s s e d t he i m por t a nc e of a c qui r i ng a s t or e hous e of a u r a l i m a ge s t hr ougho ut l i f e be gi nni ng i n e a r l y c hi l dhood. M a ny of t he m l e a r ne d t o us e m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y f r om t he i r t e a c he r s e s pe c i a l l y i n de ve l opi ng pr ope r voc a l t e c hni que bui l di ng a nd br e a t h m a na ge m e nt di c t i on, a nd e xpr e s s i ve pe r f or m a nc e C onc e r ni ng s e ns e i m a ge r y, voc a l i s t s r e por t e d us i ng ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y m os t f r e que nt l y, f ol l ow e d by a udi t or y i m a ge r y, t he n vi s ua l i m a ge r y. I m a ge r y w a s us e d f or t e c hni que bui l di ng a s a n a i d i n i nt e r p r e t i ng voc a l l i t e r a t u r e I m a ge r y a s s i s t e d t he s e voc a l i s t s i n de ve l opi ng t he i r c ha r a c t e r s a nd r ol e s i n a f f e c t i ve e xpr e s s i on a nd e f f e c t i ve l y c om m uni c a t i ng w i t h t he a udi e nc e S i ng e r s us e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t o a ugm e nt phys i c a l pr a c t i c e dur i ng i nj u r y o r t i m e s w he n t he y c oul d not phys i c a l l y s i ng, f or e xa m pl e w he n t r a ve l i ng, a t ni ght o r j us t p r i or t o pe r f or m a n c e I m a ge r y us e a s s i s t e d t he s e voc a l i s t s

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117 i n r e i nf o r c i ng pos i t i ve be l i e f s c a l m i ng pe r f or m a nc e a n xi e t y, a nd f a c i l i t a t i ng pe r f or m a nc e pr e pa r a t i on, i nc l ud i ng i m a gi ni ng pe r f o r m i ng a ne w r ol e o r i n a ne w ve nue o r ope r a i n w hi c h t he y ha d ye t t o pe r f or m V a r i ous a s pe c t s of t he C a r t e r s t udy w e r e c a us e f or c onc e r n i n r e l a t i on t o t he pr e s e nt s t udy. T he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s t udy w e r e a l l l oc a t e d i n t he N e w Y or k a nd B os t on a r e a of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s I t i s not c e r t a i n t ha t t he i r us e of i m a ge r y w a s a r e s ul t of t he i r l oc a l i t y a nd pr oxi m i t y t o ot he r pe r f or m e r s w ho p r a c t i c e i m a ge r y i n t he i r p r of e s s i on. F ur t he r m or e m a ny of t he s e s i nge r s w e r e d i r e c t l y i nvol ve d i n t e a c hi ng ot he r voc a l i s t s w hi c h m a y ha ve f a c i l i t a t e d t he i r ow n us e a nd pr op e ns i t y t o us e i m a ge r y i n s i ngi ng. O ne of t he i nt e r vi e w e e s a n out s t a ndi ng s i nge r a l s o know n f or he r e xc e l l e nt us e o f i m a ge r y i n he r t e a c hi ng, ha d pr e vi ous l y t a ught ha d t w o o f t he ot he r pa r t i c i pa nt s E ve n t hough C a r t e r ( 1993) di d not c onne c t t he i m a ge r y us e s of voc a l i s t s t o t hos e i n s por t ps yc hol ogy, t he r e w e r e m a ny r e f e r e nc e s t ha t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t he us e s of i m a ge r y f ound i n da nc e r s ( N or d i n & C um m i ng, 2005) C a r t e r s i m a ge r y de f i n i t i ons w e r e m or e i n ke e pi ng w i t h voc a l pe da gogy t ha n t he m or e a t hl e t i c us e s s uc h a s t he i m a ge r y t ype s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd f unc t i ons de s c r i be d i n t hi s s t udy. B e l l on St udy B e l l on ( 2006) i nt e r vi e w e d s i x m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s f r om di f f e r e nt f i e l ds i n t he e f f or t t o c om pa r e t he i r m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s w i t h t he m a i n pr i nc i pl e s of s por t ps yc hol ogy, i nc l udi ng goa l s e t t i ng, pr e e ve nt r out i ne s vi s ua l i z a t i on, f oc us a r ous a l r e gul a t i on ( e ne r gy l e ve l s ) a nd opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e ( p. 1) A l t hough B e l l on ( 2006 ) us e d a ge ne r a l m ode l f r om s por t ps yc hol ogy t e xt s he r i nt e r vi e w s di d pr ovi de a w e a l t h of i nf o r m a t i on f or how pr of e s s i ona l m us i c a l pe r f o r m e r s us e s pe c i f i c t ype s of i m a ge r y a s de f i ne d i n s por t

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118 t e xt s S pe c i f i c s t udi e s i n s por t ps yc hol ogy r e s e a r c h w e r e not i nc l ude d. O nl y one s e c t i on i nve s t i ga t e d i m a ge r y a nd vi s ua l i z a t i on; how e ve r m a ny of t he i s s ue s i n t he s t udy de a l t w i t h t he m e nt a l a s pe c t of pr a c t i c e pr e pa r a t i on a nd pe r f or m a nc e B e l l on s r e s ul t s c onc l ude d t ha t a l l of t he m us i c i a n s i n he r s t udy us e d i m a ge r y i n w a ys t ha t m i r r or e d m uc h of c ont e nt a nd f unc t i ons of i m a ge r y us e d i n da nc e a nd a t hl e t i c s S om e of t he c r i t i c i s m o f t he B e l l on ( 2006 ) s t udy c onc e r ne d s a m pl i ng i s s ue s i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons a nd t e r m i nol ogy, a s t he y w e r e r e l a t e d t o t he pr e s e nt s t udy. T he s m a l l s a m pl e of s i x pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d t w o s i nge r s f r o m Q ue be c ( a r e t i r e d m e z z o s opr a no, a pa r t t i m e s i nge r a nd c hor a l c onduc t or ) t w o oboe i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s ( one f r om F r a nc e a nd t he ot he r f r om P ue r t o R i c o) a n i ns t r um e nt a l c ondu c t or a nd a c ol l a bor a t i ve p i a ni s t bot h of w hom w e r e pr of e s s or s a t A r i z ona S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y. O f t he t w o s i nge r s one ha d e nj oye d a s om e w ha t s hor t e ne d i nt e r na t i ona l c a r e e r a nd ha d j us t r e t i r e d f r om s i ngi ng, w hi l e t he ot he r w a s a pa r t t i m e pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t T hi s w a s a ve r y br oa d s a m pl e r a i s i ng que s t i ons of t he de g r e e t o w hi c h t he r e s ul t s w e r e ge ne r a l i z a bl e t o ot he r pe r f or m e r s pa r t i c ul a r l y pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r s S o m e of t he i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons m a y ha ve e l i c i t e d s pe c i f i c r e s ul t s t ha t c oul d be j udge d a s l e a di ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt r a t he r t ha n p r obi ng s pe c i f i c s ubj e c t i ve r e s pons e s F or e xa m pl e t he qu e s t i on w a s a s ke d, W ha t di s t r a c t s you m os t dur i ng o r be f o r e a pe r f or m a nc e ? ( p 3 ) T hi s que s t i on pr e s uppos e d t ha t t he i ndi vi dua l c oul d i ni t i a l l y be di s t r a c t e d dur i ng or be f or e a pe r f or m a nc e l e a vi ng l i t t l e r oom f or a n a l t e r na t i ve a f f e c t i ve e xpe r i e nc e F u r t he r m o r e B e l l on c ont i nua l l y r e f e r r e d t o i m a ge r y a s v i s ual i z at i on r a t he r t ha n di f f e r e nt i a t i ng be t w e e n t he va r i ous s e ns or y a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y: vi s ua l ki ne s t he t i c a udi t or y a nd m e t a phor i c a l t ype s or f unc t i ons of i m a ge s

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119 O ne of t he l i m i t a t i ons s ha r e d a m ong t he T r us he i m ( 1987) C a r t e r ( 1993) a nd B e l l on ( 2006) s t udi e s w a s t he us e of pr o f e s s i ona l s w hos e na m e s w e r e r e ve a l e d a nd of t e n hi ghl y r e c ogni z e d i n t he f i e l d S ha r i ng t he na m e s o f t hos e i ndi vi dua l s i nc l ude d i n a n i nt e r vi e w s t udy a l l ow e d f o r t he r i s k t ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w oul d s ha pe t he i r a ns w e r s i n or de r t o a ppe a r be t t e r t ha n w ha t t he y m a y s ha r e i f t he i r i de nt i t i e s r e m a i ne d c onf i de nt i a l T he T r us he i m ( 1987) C a r t e r ( 1993 ) a nd B e l l on ( 2 006) s t udi e s r e pr e s e nt e d t he pr i m a r y i nt e r vi e w i nve s t i ga t i ons of t he us e of i m a g e r y i n m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s w hi c h w e r e r e l e va nt t o t he pr e s e nt s t udy. T he y c oul d be c ons i de r e d pa r t o f a g r ow i ng body of r e s e a r c h i n us i ng i m a ge r y i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e B e l l on s ( 2006) s t udy w a s t he onl y r e s e a r c he r t o ba s e he r s t udy on t he p r i nc i pl e s of s p or t ps yc hol ogy a ppl i c a t i ons T he s e i nve s t i ga t or s di d not a t t e m pt t o c o r r e l a t e t he f i ndi n gs i n m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e w i t h t he t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k pr ovi d e d i n r e c e nt de ve l opm e nt s of i m a ge r y i n s por t ps yc hol ogy. T he r e f or e i t w a s w i t h c a ut i on t ha t t he f our W s of t he us e of i m a ge r y: w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy ( M unr oe e t a l 2000; N o r di n & C um m i ng 2005) w a s a ppl i e d t o t he s e s t udi e s I nf or m a t i on ga t he r e d on m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s i m a g e r y us e i n t he T r us he i m ( 1987) C a r t e r ( 1993) a nd B e l l on ( 2006) s t udi e s pr ov i de d pa r t of a s t r ong f ounda t i on f or t hi s s t udy. C onc l us i on T hi s c ha pt e r ha s pr ovi de d a n e xa m i na t i on o f t he t h e or i e s r e l e va nt t o i m a ge r y us e i n s por t da nc e m us i c a l a nd voc a l pe r f or m a nc e T he s e i nc l ude d t he e a r l y c ont r i bu t i ons a nd de ve l opm e nt of t he or i e s t he c ogni t i ve ba s e d t he or y, t he ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e s t he or y, a nd t he m or e r e c e nt de ve l opm e nt s i n t he t he or y of f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e T he body o f l i t e r a t ur e f oc us e d on i m por t a nt a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y us i ng t he f our W s f r a m e w or k: w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy f r om r e s e a r c h i n s por t s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) a nd da nc e ( N or di n &

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120 C um m i ng, 2005) A l s o i nc l ude d w e r e t he r e s ul t s f r om i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h w i t h pe r f o r m i ng m u s i c i a ns ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1998) O t he r r e l e va nt t he or i e s w e r e e xa m i ne d on t he e f f e c t s of i m a ge r y I n s ynt he s i z i ng t he t he or i e s of i m a ge r y t he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e i n s por t ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) a nd da nc e ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) a n d t he r e l a t e d m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e r e s e a r c h, t he r e s e a r c he r pr opos e d t he voc a l i s t s f our W s of i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k ( s e e T a bl e 6) T hi s f r a m e w or k w a s c r e a t e d t o gui de t he de ve l opm e nt of t hi s s t udy i n ga t he r i ng a nd r e por t i ng t he da t a f r o m t he s ol o pr of e s s i ona l s i nt e r vi e w s S pe c i f i c a l l y, i t w a s i nt e nde d t o a s s i s t i n c ons t r uc t i ng c ode s a nd t he m e s i n t he a na l ys e s of t he da t a a nd a s a n i ni t i a l s t e p i n c r e a t i ng t he voc a l i s t s i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k f o r t hi s s t udy

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121 T a bl e 6 P r opos e d V oc al i s t s F our W s of I m age r y F r am e w or k Q ue s t i on C a t e gor y S ubc a t e gor y P r a c t i c e A r e a s S i n g i n g P l a c e s S t a g e H o m e B e d O t h e r p l a c e s H o t e l s T r a n s i t C o m m u t i n g W h e r e ( p l a c e ) A n y w h e r e P r e D u r i n g P r a c t i c e P o s t P r e D u r i n g P e r f o r m a n c e P o s t A t H o m e T r a v e l i n g W h e n ( t i m e ) A n y t i m e / a l l t h e t i m e M e t a p h o r i c a l / A r t i s t i c C h a r a c t e r / R o l e I m a g e r y T y p e s B o d y R e l a t e d S e n s e s A b i l i t y D i r e c t i o n W h a t ( c o n t e n t ) I m a g e r y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A m o u n t & D u r a t i o n

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12 2 T a bl e 6 ( c ont i nue d) I n t he r e m a i ni ng c ha pt e r s t he r e s e a r c h de s i gn of t h i s s t udy i s pr e s e nt e d i n C ha pt e r T hr e e R e s ul t s of t he i nt e r vi e w s a nd t he s ubs e que nt c a t e gor i e s a nd s ubc a t e gor i e s a r e e xpl a i ne d i n C ha pt e r F ou r C ha pt e r F i ve i nc l ude s a di s c us s i on on t he f i ndi ngs i n r e l a t i on t o t he r e l e va nt r e s e a r c h. Q ue s t i on C a t e gor y S u bc a t e gor y L e a r n i n g I m p r o v i n g M e m o r i z i n g C o g n i t i v e P l a n n i n g S p e c i f i c ( g o a l s ) D r i v e M o t i v a t i o n a l T h o u g h t / f e e l i n g c h a n g e P i t c h / T o n a l A c c o m p a n i m e n t R h y t h m M u s i c a l S o u n d S t y l e A e s t h e t i c S t y l e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A r t i s t i c C o m m u n i c a t i n g w / a u d i e n c e H e a l t h M a i n t e n a n c e I n j u r y P r e v e n t i o n H e a l i n g R e c u p e r a t i o n W h y ( r e a s o n s ) I r r e l e v a n t S p o n t a n e o u s

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123 C ha pt e r 3 M e t hod T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e i m a ge r y us e i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e i n voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s R e s e a r c h f r om s por t ps yc hol ogy a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y t he f r a m e w or k o f t he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e : w he r e w he n, w hy a nd w hat ( M unr oe e t a l 2000; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) w e r e us e d t o c o m pa r e a nd c ont r a s t s i nge r s i m a ge r y e xpe r i e nc e s i n or de r t o c ont r i but e t o t he body o f k now l e dge of i m a ge r y i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e pr a c t i c e a nd de ve l opm e nt T he i nqui r y w a s a l s o ba s e d on i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n t he pr o f e s s i ona l pr a c t i c e of ot he r m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s s uc h a s br a s s pl a ye r s ( T r us he i m 1987) va r i ous m us i c i a ns ( B e l l on, 2006 ) a nd voc a l i s t s ( C a r t e r 1993 ) T hi s c ha pt e r de s c r i be s t he r e s e a r c h de s i gn, pa r t i c i pa nt s i ns t r um e nt a t i on, a nd p r oc e dur e s us e d i n t hi s T he c ha pt e r c onc l ude s w i t h a s um m a r y. R e s e ar c h D e s i gn A ba s i c i nt e r pr e t i ve qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h de s i gn w a s c hos e n f or t hi s s t udy s i nc e t he us e of i m a ge r y, a s de f i ne d by s por t ps yc hol ogy, i n pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s w a s a r e l a t i ve l y ne w a nd unde r s t udi e d a r e a of r e s e a r c h. P a t t on ( 20 02) r e c om m e nde d: I n ne w f i e l ds of s t udy w he r e l i t t l e w o r k ha s be e n done f e w de f i ni t i ve hypot he s e s e xi s t a nd l i t t l e w a s know n a bout t he na t u r e of t he phe nom e non, qua l i t a t i ve i nqui r y w a s a r e a s ona bl e be gi nni ng poi nt f or r e s e a r c h ( p. 193) T h i s r e s e a r c h a ppr oa c h a l l ow e d f o r one t o ga i n a n i n de pt h unde r s t a ndi ng o f how voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s us e d i m a ge r y i n t he i r pr of e s s i on. D a t a

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124 w e r e c ol l e c t e d t hr ough i nt e r vi e w s de s i gne d t o ga t h e r a br oa d a nd r i c h body o f i nf or m a t i on on i m a ge r y us e i n t he s e voc a l i s t s I n a qua l i t a t i ve s t udy s uc h a s t hi s i t w a s r e a s ona bl e t o e xpe c t t he r e s e a r c he r t o ha ve s om e ba c kgr ound a nd e xpe r i e nc e i n t he a r e a be i ng i nve s t i ga t e d, pa r t i c ul a r l y s i nc e t he r e s e a r c he r i s c ons i de r e d a n i ns t r um e nt i n qua l i t a t i ve s t udy. I n a n e f f or t t o ga i n r e f l e xi vi t y i n t he s t udy, i t w a s i m po r t a nt t o di s c l os e s pe c i f i c s of t he r e s e a r c he r s ba c kgr ound t o a l l ow t he r e a de r t o unde r s t a nd how t he r e s e a r c he r i nt e r a c t e d w i t h t he va r i ous pha s e s a nd a s pe c t s of t he s t udy ( P a t t on 20 02) T he r e s e a r c he r he l d unde r gr a dua t e a nd gr a dua t e de gr e e s i n a ppl i e d a r t t he a t r e a nd m us i c pa r t i c ul a r l y voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e S he a l s o pa r t i c i pa t e d i n a young a r t i s t s t r a i ni ng pr ogr a m i n a r e gi ona l ope r a c om pa ny a nd ha s pe r f or m e d i n ope r a t i c r ol e s c onc e r t s a nd r e c i t a l s pr of e s s i ona l l y. T he r e s e a r c he r ha s t a ught ge ne r a l a nd c hor a l m us i c i n pub l i c s c hool s a s w e l l a s i n a p r i va t e s t udi o t e a c hi ng voi c e a nd ot he r m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt s A dd i t i ona l l y, s he ha s be e n a n a vi d s por t e xe r c i s e r f or he r e nt i r e l i f e T h r ough t h i s t r a i ni ng a nd e xpe r i e nc e t he r e s e a r c he r w a s f a m i l i a r w i t h t he l a ngua ge a nd pr a c t i c e s of p r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s a s w e l l a s i m a ge r y. D ur i ng t he c our s e o f c onduc t i ng t hi s s t udy, s he w a s i n t he pr oc e s s of di s c ove r i ng t he r e l e va nc e of i m a ge r y i n s por t ps yc hol ogy. D e s pi t e t he pos s i bl e t hr e a t of bi a s t hi s ba c kgr ound m a de t h e r e s e a r c he r uni que l y qua l i f i e d t o c onduc t a na l yz e r e por t a nd di s c us s a s t udy s uc h a s t hi s Sam pl e Se l e c t i on P ur pos e f ul hom oge ne ous s a m pl i ng w a s t he m e t ho d us e d t o s e l e c t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s f or e xa m i ni ng i m a ge r y us e by pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s T he s a m pl e c ons i s t e d of 15 out of a

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125 t ot a l num be r o f 18 voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l s w ho w e r e i nvi t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e a nd m e t one of t he f ol l ow i ng c r i t e r i a : 1. S i nge r s w ho he l d a f our ye a r de gr e e i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e f r o m a n a c c r e di t e d uni ve r s i t y or c ons e r va t or y a nd ha d w or ke d a nd m a de t he m a j o r i t y of t he i r l i vi ng f or a t l e a s t f ou r c ons e c ut i ve ye a r s a s a pr o f e s s i ona l s ol o voc a l i s t 2. S i nge r s w i t hout a f our ye a r c ol l e ge de g r e e w ho ha d w or ke d a nd m a de t he m a j or i t y of t he i r l i vi ng f or a t l e a s t e i ght c ons e c ut i ve ye a r s a s a pr of e s s i on a l voc a l i s t I n e i t he r c a s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s ol o s i nge r s w ho h a d pr i m a r i l y s ung i n t he W e s t e r n c l a s s i c a l s i ngi ng t r a di t i on, i nc l udi ng w or k i n ope r a c onc e r t r e c i t a l a nd o r a t or i o T hi s popul a t i on of voc a l i s t s w a s c hos e n a s t he be s t s our c e f or p r ovi di n g i nf or m a t i on on t he us e of i m a ge r y by s i ngi ng p r of e s s i ona l s I nf or m a t i on r i c h c a s e s a r e t hos e f r o m w hi c h one c a n l e a r n a g r e a t de a l a bout i s s ue s of c e nt r a l i m por t a nc e t o t he pur pos e of t he r e s e a r c h ( P a t t on, 2002 p 46 ) I n or de r t o l oc a t e t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s s now ba l l o r c h a i n s a m pl i ng ( P a t t on 2002 ) w a s i ni t i a t e d by a s ki ng s i nge r s a nd pr o f e s s or s of v oc a l pe r f or m a nc e know n t o t he r e s e a r c he r t o i de nt i f y a nd s ugge s t ot he r s w ho f i t t h e c r i t e r i a o f t hi s s t udy a nd w e r e w i l l i ng t o pa r t i c i pa t e T he s e i nf o r m a t i on r i c h i ndi vi dua l s or ke y pe r s ons w e r e s a m pl e d f r o m di f f e r e nt pa r t s of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd ha d e xpe r i e nc e i n t he m a ny a r e a s of s ol o c l a s s i c a l r e pe r t oi r e pe r f or m a nc e T he y r e pr e s e nt e d va r i ous s t a ge s of t he i r c a r e e r be gi nn i ng w i t h a t l e a s t f our ye a r s o f e xpe r i e nc e a s a pr of e s s i ona l t o r e t i r e m e nt a ge B ot h m a l e s a nd f e m a l e s w e r e t a r ge t e d w i t h voi c e s i n t he m a j o r voc a l r e gi s t e r s : s opr a no, m e z z o, t e nor ba r i t one

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126 a nd ba s s I n c ont a c t i ng t he s e i ndi vi dua l s by e m a i l t he r e s e a r c he r i nvi t e d s i nge r s s he kne w t o pa r t i c i pa t e a nd a s ke d t he m t o s ugge s t ot he r s i nge r s w ho m i ght ha ve be e n i nt e r e s t e d i n be i ng i nt e r vi e w e d f or t he s t udy ( s e e A ppe ndi x B ) V oc a l p r of e s s or s a nd t e a c he r s pr e vi ous l y know n t o t he r e s e a r c he r i n A l a ba m a C a l i f or ni a M i c hi ga n, F l or i da N e w J e r s e y, N e w Y or k, M a s s a c hu s e t t s a nd P e nns yl va ni a w e r e a l s o e m a i l e d a nd a s ke d t o i de nt i f y a nd c ont a c t o t he r pot e nt i a l pa r t i c i pa nt s w h o ha d be e n or w e r e c ur r e nt l y pe r f or m i ng pr of e s s i ona l l y ( s e e A ppe ndi x C ) T he m i ni m um s a m pl e s i z e w a s de t e r m i ne d t o be a t l e a s t f i v e m a l e a nd t e n f e m a l e s i nge r s f r om va r yi ng voc a l r e gi s t e r s a nd f r om di f f e r e nt r e gi ons of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i n a n a t t e m pt t o i nc l ude s i nge r s not r e s t r i c t e d t o one or t w o c i t i e s S ol o c l a s s i c a l pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s w e r e c hos e n a s pa r t i c i pa nt s of t hi s s t ud y f or f i ve r e a s ons F i r s t t he s pe c i f i c r e qui r e m e nt s of t he pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r w e r e e xt e ns i ve a nd s i nge r s c oul d be ne f i t e xt e ns i ve l y f r om know l e dge a bout t he s pe c i f i c s of t he us e of i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e S e c ond, t he i n c r e a s i ng i nc i de nc e s of i n c l udi ng va r i ous a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y i n voc a l t e xt s ( e g. C a l dw e l l & W a l l 2001; C ha pm a n, 2006; D a ym e 2005; E m m ons & T hom a s 1998; W i l l i a m on, 2004) s ugge s t e d t he ne e d f or f ur t he r s c i e nt i f i c i nqui r y i n how pr o f e s s i ona l s i nge r s us e i m a ge r y. T hi r d t hi s r e s e a r c he r w a s a bl e t o us e he r t r a i ni ng a nd e xpe r t i s e i n s i ngi n g a nd i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n i nt e r vi e w i ng t he pr of e s s i ona l voc a l pa r t i c i pa nt s F our t h a n i ni t i a l s a m pl e of p r of e s s i ona l s i nge r s w a s a va i l a bl e t o t hi s r e s e a r c he r t h r ough pa s t e xpe r i e nc e a nd ne t w or k i n t he f i e l d. F i na l l y s i nc e m a ny of t he a t h l e t i c a nd m us i c s t udi e s i n i m a ge r y ha ve us e d t he e ve r pr e va l e nt a nd c onve ni e nt s ubj e c t pool of c ol l e ge s t ude nt s pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r s w i t h a m i ni m um of f our ye a r s of pr o f e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e w e r e c hos e n f or t he i r e xp e r t i s e i n t he i r f i e l d. Y ui l l e

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127 ( 1985) a s w e l l a s L i nda ue r ( 1983) c a l l e d f or m or e a ppr opr i a t e m e t hods of i nve s t i ga t i ng i m a ge r y s t udi e s t ha n t he hi ghl y c ont r ol l e d e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gns H e s t a t e d, W e ne e d t o di s c a r d e xpe r i m e nt a l m e t hodol ogy f or t he i nve s t i g a t i on of c ont e xt de pe nde nt pr oc e s s e s a nd r e pl a c e i t w i t h f i e l d ba s e d r e s e a r c h ( p. 146 ) H e a l s o c r i t i c i z e d t he us e of t he c onve ni e nt s a m pl i ng of unde r g r a dua t e s a nd r e c om m e nde d us i ng a s a m pl e on w hi c h t he i nqui r y f oc us e d. F or t he s e r e a s ons s i nge r s w hos e pr i m a r y s our c e o f i nc om e w a s s ol o c l a s s i c a l pr of e s s i ona l voc a l pe r f or m a nc e w e r e c ho s e n f or t hi s s t udy. M e as ur e s I nt e r v i e w P r ot oc ol T he s i nge r s i nt e r v i e w gui de ( s e e A ppe ndi x D ) w a s de ve l ope d f or us e i n t hi s s t udy. Q ue s t i ons i nc l ude d i n t he pr ot oc ol w e r e de s i gne d t o ga t he r i nf or m a t i on a bout w he r e a nd w he n s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y, w hat ki nds of i m a ge r y t he y e nga ge d i n a nd w hy or t he r e a s on t he y us e d i m a ge r y. U s i ng a n i nt e r vi e w gui de a ppr oa c h a s s ugge s t e d by P a t t on ( 2002) t hi s s e m i s t r uc t ur e d f or m a t a l l ow e d f or i nc l us i on o f i de a s r e l e va nt t o t he i nqui r y, i nt r oduc t i on of ne w c onc e pt s i n t he i nt e r vi e w a nd e xc l us i on of i t e m s not ge r m a ne t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpe r i e nc e of i m a ge r y F u r t he r m or e s pe c i f i c p r obe s w e r e a ppl i e d, w he r e a ppr op r i a t e a s a f ol l ow up t o r e s po ns e s by t he i ndi vi dua l i nt e r vi e w e e T he N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) da nc e r s i nt e r vi e w gui de ( s e e A ppe ndi x E ) f r om t he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e s t udy s e r ve d a s a ba s i s f or ga i ni ng i n f or m a t i on a nd a l l ow i ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o s ha r e t he i r t hought s a n d e xpe r t i s e a bout t he i r us e of i m a ge r y i n voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e i n or de r t o a ddr e s s t he s pe c i f i c qua l i t i e s a nd c onc e r ns of pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s T he da nc e r s i nt e r vi e w gui d e w a s a da pt e d w i t h pe r m i s s i on ( s e e A ppe ndi x F ) t o r e f l e c t t he f i ndi ngs i n t he m us i c l i t e r a t ur e a nd w ha t t he r e s e a r c he r a s a

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128 pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r c ons i de r e d pe r t i ne nt t o e l i c i t i n g i m a ge r y r e s pons e s f r om t he pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s A da pt a t i ons a l s o i nc l ude d pe r s ona l i z i ng t he i nt e r vi e w gui de f or t hi s r e s e a r c h a nd a ddi ng a w o r ki ng de f i n i t i on o f op t i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e I n or de r t o a voi d t he a s s um pt i on t ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt us e d i m a ge r y i n t he f i r s t s e c t i on of t he pr o t oc ol i m a ge r y w a s de f i ne d a nd de s c r i be d. T he f i r s t que s t i on a s ke d of t he pa r t i c i pa nt w a s i f he or s he e ve r e nga ge d i n t hi s t ype o f i m a ge r y. I f t he pa r t i c i pa nt a f f i r m e d t ha t i m a ge r y w a s us e d, t he i nt e r vi e w c ont i nue d. A ddi t i ona l l y, a ne w c a t e gor y w a s a dde d t o t he W hy s e c t i on c a l l e d Y our Sound s i nc e i t w a s a s s um e d t ha t m us i c i a ns m i ght i m a gi ne m us i c a l s ounds or us e i m a ge r y t o r e c r e a t e voc a l s ounds ( A ve r i no, 19 89; C a r t e r 1993; F i e l ds 1972; H i ne s 1982; M i l l e r 1996; T r us he i m 1987) T he s i nge r s i nt e r v i e w pr ot oc ol w a s pi l ot t e s t e d w i t h a pr o f e s s i ona l s i nge r w ho m e t t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or pa r t i c i pa t i on O nl y m i ni m a l s ugge s t i ons t o i nc l ude s e ve r a l a ppr opr i a t e pr obe s w e r e m a de T he i nt e r vi e w gui d e w a s r e vi s e d ba s e d on t he s e s ugge s t i ons T he r e f or e t he i ns t r um e nt p r ot oc ol w a s t he n a dm i ni s t e r e d i n t he a c t ua l i nt e r vi e w s w i t h t he c hos e n pa r t i c i pa nt s T he us e of t he s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de a s s i s t e d i n a ddr e s s i ng m or e hol i s t i c a l l y t he s ubj e c t i ve na t ur e of i m a ge r y ( L i nda ue r 1983) E t hi c al C ons i de r at i ons U pon r e c e i vi ng a ppr ova l f r om t he I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) t he r e s e a r c he r c ont a c t e d i de nt i f i e d voc a l i s t s by e m a i l a nd i nvi t e d t he m t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. E m a i l c or r e s ponde nc e w a s c hos e n f or c onve ni e nc e i n t he r e c r u i t m e nt p r oc e s s due t o l ogi s t i c s t i m e a nd f i na nc i a l c ons i de r a t i ons V o c a l pe r f or m a nc e pr o f e s s or s w e r e s e nt a n e m a i l a nd l e t t e r by t he r e s e a r c he r r e que s t i ng t he m t o s ugge s t e l i gi bl e pa r t i c i pa nt s f or t he s t udy ( s e e A ppe ndi x C ) E i ght e e n e l i gi bl e voc a l i s t s w e r e s e nt a l e t t e r o f i nvi t a t i on t o

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129 pa r t i c i pa t e ( s e e A ppe ndi x B ) I nc l ude d i n t he s e do c um e nt s w a s a n e xpl a na t i on of t he pur pos e a nd r a t i ona l e o f t he s t udy t he ge ne r a l de f i ni t i on of i m a ge r y, t he i n t e nde d us e of t he da t a t he i nt e nt i on a nd pur pos e of r e c or di ng t he i nt e r vi e w a nd t he de t a i l s o f c onf i de nt i a l i t y of t he i r i de nt i t y ( s e e A ppe ndi x G ) T he r e s pons e r a t e r e s ul t i ng f r om t he i ni t i a l 18 i nv i t a t i ons t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy i nc l ude d 1 5 s i nge r s V oc a l i s t s w ho w e r e i nt e r e s t e d i n pa r t i c i pa t i ng w e r e i nf or m e d of t he pr oc e dur e s a nd r e qui r e m e nt s of t he s t udy by be i ng r e a d t he C o ns e nt S c r i pt ( s e e A ppe ndi x H ) i n a pr e l i m i na r y t e l e phone c onve r s a t i on T hi s i nc l ude d t he i nvi t a t i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e t he pur pos e of t he s t udy de s c r i pt i on of p r oc e dur e s i nt e nt of t he r e s e a r c he r t o r e c or d a nd t r a ns c r i be ve r ba t i m t he i nvi t a t i on t o r e vi e w a nd e d i t t he i r t r a ns c r i pt i ons i nc l udi ng a t i m e l i ne f or r e t u r n, a nd t he r i s ks i nc onve ni e nc e s a nd be ne f i t s of be i ng i nvol ve d i n t he s t udy. I n or de r t o ga i n m or e c a ndi d a nd a c c ur a t e r e s pons e s of i m a ge r y us e by t he s e voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s t he i r i de nt i t i e s w e r e not r e ve a l e d. T hi s w a s a r t i c ul a t e d i n t he s t a t e m e nt of c onf i de nt i a l i t y a nd s i nge r s w e r e a l s o i nf or m e d t ha t t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on w a s c om pl e t e l y vol unt a r y. T he pa r t i c i pa nt s a gr e e d t o t he t e r m s i n t he C ons e nt S c r i pt t he c ondi t i ons o f t he r e qui r e m e nt s of t he s t udy, t o be r e c or de d, a nd t o a l l ow t he i r r e c or de d r e s pons e s t o be us e d f or t hi s a nd pos s i bl y f ut u r e r e s e a r c h. P r o c e dur e s I n or de r t o f a m i l i a r i z e pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h t he s t udy, t he i m a ge r y t e r m s a s us e d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy a nd t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or pa r t i c i p a t i on w e r e de s c r i be d i n a n a t t a c he d l e t t e r t o bo t h pot e nt i a l pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e pr of e s s or s ( s e e A ppe ndi x G ) T he f ol l ow i ng de f i ni t i on of i m a ge r y w a s p r ovi de d by e m a i l t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s :

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130 I m a ge r y i s a n e xpe r i e nc e t ha t m i m i c s r e a l e xpe r i e n c e W e c a n be a w a r e o f s e e i ng a n i m a ge f e e l i ng m ove m e nt s a s a n i m a ge or e xpe r i e nc i ng a n i m a ge o f s m e l l t a s t e or s ounds w i t hout e xpe r i e nc i ng t he r e a l t hi ng. S om e t i m e s pe opl e f i nd t ha t i t he l ps t o c l os e t he i r e ye s I t di f f e r s f r om dr e a m s i n t ha t w e a r e a w a ke a nd c ons c i ous w he n w e f or m a n i m a ge ( W hi t e & H a r d y, 1998 p 389) T he pa r t i c i pa nt s unde r s t ood t he r e qui r e m e nt s t ha t t he y ha d t o be e a r ni ng a t l e a s t ha l f o f t he i r i nc om e f r om voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e e nga ge m e nt s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e nt a c opy o f t he C ons e nt S c r i pt ( A ppe ndi x H ) a nd t he S i nge r s I nt e r vi e w G ui de ( A ppe ndi x D ) N e xt a c onve ni e nt t i m e a nd da t e f or t he s ubs e que n t t e l e phone pr e i nt e r vi e w w a s s c he dul e d. T he r e s e a r c he r c onduc t e d a p r e i nt e r vi e w t e l e phone c onve r s a t i on w i t h e a c h of t he s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s dur i ng w hi c h t i m e t he C ons e nt S c r i pt ( s e e A ppe ndi x H ) w a s r e a d t o t he m P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a bl e t o c l a r i f y a ny c onc e r n s w i t h t he pr oc e dur e of t he i nqui r y, l ogi s t i c s of t he t e l e phone i n t e r vi e w t he i nt e nt i on t o r e c or d t he di s c us s i on, a nd t he de f i ni t i on of i m a ge r y a s i t r e l a t e s t o s por t ps yc hol o gy. T he a c t ua l t e l e phone i nt e r vi e w w a s s c he dul e d a t a n a ppoi nt e d t i m e c onve ni e nt f or t he pa r t i c i pa nt A t t he de s i gna t e d t i m e t he i nt e r vi e w w a s c onduc t e d a nd di g i t a l l y t a pe d us i ng t he Z oom H 2 H a ndy R e c or de r a nd a t e l e phone e qui ppe d w i t h a s pe a ke r phone T he t e l e phone i nt e r vi e w be ga n w i t h a s t a t e m e nt of t he pur pos e of t he s t udy ve r ba l ve r i f i c a t i on of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s na m e a nd a g r e e m e nt t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy a nd i nt e r vi e w a nd t he W hi t e a nd H a r dy ( 1998) i m a ge r y de f i ni t i on ( s e e a bove ) T he i nt e r vi e w c om m e nc e d a nd t he l e ngt h f or e a c h s e s s i on l a s t e d be t w e e n 40 a nd 150 m i nut e s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o a ns w e r que s t i ons i n t he i nt e r vi e w pr ot oc ol ( s e e A ppe ndi x D ) w hi c h a ddr e s s e d e a c h of t he f ou r W s t ha t i s w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy t he y us e d

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131 i m a ge r y w e r e t he n s pe c i f i c a l l y di s c us s e d. P r obe s w e r e us e d t o ga i n unde r s t a ndi ng of i m a ge r y a s de f i ne d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy a nd r e por t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987 ) U pon c om pl e t i on of t he t e l e phone i nt e r vi e w e a c h c onve r s a t i on w a s t r a ns c r i be d ve r ba t i m a nd t he doc um e nt w a s s e nt vi a a n e m a i l a t t a c hm e nt t o e a c h r e s pe c t i ve pa r t i c i pa nt f or r e vi e w a ddi t i ons ve r i f i c a t i on a nd va l i da t i on a s a pr oc e dur e o f m e m be r c he c ki ng ( J ohns on & C hr i s t e ns e n, 2004) E a c h vo c a l i s t w a s gi ve n t he oppor t uni t y t o s c r ut i ni z e hi s or he r ow n i nt e r vi e w f o r a c c ur a c y a n d c l a r i t y. P a r t i c i p a nt s w e r e a s ke d t o r e t ur n t he i r c om m e nt s a nd a ny c ha nge s w i t hi n s e ve n da ys of r e c e i pt of t he doc um e nt I f t he r e w a s no r e s pons e by t ha t da t e t he r e s e a r c he r s e nt a s e c ond e m a i l a nd w he n ne c e s s a r y, t e l e phone d t he pa r t i c i pa nt t o ve r i f y r e c e i pt of t he i nt e r vi e w t r a ns c r i pt i on a nd t o r e que s t a r e s pons e A s e c ond da t e w a s of f e r e d a nd i f t he r e w a s no r e s pons e t he i nt e r vi e w w a s a s s um e d t o be a c c ur a t e A l l of t he p a r t i c i pa nt s m a de m i nor r e vi s i ons a nd m os t r e que s t e d t ha t s upe r f l uous w or ds l i ke u m a nd you kn ow be r e m ove d T he s e s ugge s t i ons w e r e honor e d. A l ong w i t h t he f i na l c opy of t he t r a ns c r i pt i on e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w a s s e nt vi a e m a i l t he voc a l pa r t i c i pa nt s ur ve y ( s e e A ppe ndi x I ) r e que s t i ng i nf or m a t i on on pa r t i c i pa nt s de m ogr a phi c s e duc a t i on, a nd e xpe r i e n c e i n t he f i e l d. A l l s i nge r s c om pl e t e d a nd r e t ur ne d t hi s s ur ve y a nd t he r e s ul t s w e r e a l s o s ubm i t t e d f o r a na l ys i s T i m e l i ne f or D at a C ol l e c t i on P r os pe c t i ve pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd voc a l t e a c he r s a nd p r of e s s or s w e r e s e nt i ni t i a l e m a i l i nvi t a t i ons t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy i n e a r l y D e c e m be r 2008. A w e e k l a t e r a s e c ond i nvi t a t i on w a s s e nt t o a ny pe r s on w ho di d not r e s pond t o t he f i r s t i nvi t a t i on. P r e i nt e r vi e w

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132 t e l e phone c a l l s w e r e m a de t o t he voc a l i s t s w ho ha d m e t t he pa r t i c i pa t i on c r i t e r i a by m i d D e c e m be r 2008. A l l i nt e r vi e w s t ook pl a c e be t w e e n t he m i ddl e of D e c e m be r 2008 t o e a r l y J a nua r y 2009. I nt e r vi e w s w e r e t he n t r a ns c r i b e d a nd e m a i l e d t o e a c h r e s pe c t i ve pa r t i c i pa nt f or m e m be r c he c ki ng be t w e e n e a r l y J a nua r y a nd t he m i ddl e of F e br ua r y 2009. D at a A nal y s i s P r oc e dur e s U pon c om pl e t i on of t he t e l e phone i nt e r vi e w s a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s ve r i f i c a t i on of t he t r a ns c r i pt i ons da t a a na l ys i s be ga n. T he pi l ot pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r vi e w w a s a l s o i nc l ude d i n t he body of i nt e r vi e w s D ur i ng t he c our s e of l i s t e ni ng c a r e f ul l y t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s i n t he e a r l i e r i nt e r v i e w s m or e pr obe s w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he r e m a i ni ng i nt e r vi e w s T r a ns c r i pt i on r e s pons e s w e r e c ode d m a nua l l y. E a c h un i t o f m e a ni ng, w he t he r i t w a s a w or d a ph r a s e or a n e nt i r e c hunk of t e xt w a s c ode d us i ng a pr i or i c a t e gor i e s de r i ve d f r om t he i n t e r vi e w pr o t oc ol t ha t w a s ba s e d on t he p r e vi ous r e s e a r c h i n t he f ou r W s of i m a ge r y us e a nd t he l i t e r a t ur e E a c h c ode w a s c ol or c ode d a nd e nt e r e d i n t he r i ght m a r gi n of e a c h i nt e r vi e w quo t e U ni t s o f m e a ni ng f i t i nt o m a j or t he m e s a nd ne w c a t e gor i e s a nd s ubc a t e gor i e s e m e r ge d w he r e t he y w e r e not a bl e t o be i nc l ude d i n t he a pr i or i s e t S i m i l a r c ode s w e r e t he n c a t e gor i z e d t og e t he r t o i de nt i f y ne w t he m e s E a c h o f t he s e e nt r i e s w a s t he n c a t e gor i z e d, s ubc a t e gor i z e d, a nd c ount e d f o r ut i l i z a t i on f r e que nc y ( K va l e 1996; K va l e & B r i nk m a nn, 2009 ; L e e c h & O nw ue gbuz i e 2007) B ot h de duc t i ve a nd i nduc t i ve a ppr oa c he s ( P a t t on 2002) w e r e us e d. D e duc t i ve a na l ys e s c onnot e d t ha t w hi c h w a s pr e vi ous l y know n i n a n a r e a of i nqui r y r e p r e s e nt e d he r e by t he p r e s c r i be d c onc e pt ua l f r a m e w or k of t h e f our W s of i m a ge r y us e : w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy i n a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 20 00) a nd da nc e r s ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) c ogni t i ve a nd m ot i va t i ona l f unc t i ons o f i m a ge r y ( P a i vi o 1985; H a l l 1998) a nd

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133 t he a r t i s t i c a nd he a l i ng r e a s ons ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) I nduc t i ve a na l ys i s a nd r e a s oni ng w a s e m pl oye d t o a c c om m oda t e ne w i nf or m a t i on ga t he r e d f r om pa r t i c i pa nt i nt e r vi e w s a nd a l l ow e d f o r ne w c a t e gor i e s t o e m e r ge f r om t he da t a T hi s e xpl o r a t or y m e t hod w a s us e d f or t h i s s t udy r a t he r t ha n t e s t i ng a pr opos e d hypot he s i s P r i m a r y da t a s our c e s f or t he s i nge r s i nt e r v i e w gui de f or e a c h of t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons i s s how n i n T a bl e 7 H ow e ve r t he i n t r i n s i c na t ur e of i m a ge r y c r e a t e d a c ha l l e nge i n s e pa r a t i ng t he s pe c i f i c uni t s o f m e a ni ng pr ovi de d i n t he i n t e r vi e w quot e s P a r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w e r e not onl y f ound i n t he i r di r e c t a ns w e r s t o t he que s t i ons pos e d dur i ng t he i nt e r vi e w but w e r e i nt r i c a t e l y i nt e r w ove n t hr oughout t he i nt e r vi e w a s P a t t on ( 2 002) s t a t e d, t he r e l e va nt da t a w on t be f ound i n t he s a m e pl a c e i n e a c h i nt e r vi e w ( p 440 ) O f t e n t he p a r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s i nc l ude d i nf or m a t i on r e l a t i ng t o m a ny t he m e s not onl y t hos e di r e c t l y a ddr e s s i ng t he p r opos e d que s t i ons T he r e f or e e a c h t r a ns c r i pt i on w a s a na l yz e d l i ne by l i ne r e ve a l i ng un i t s of m e a ni ng r a ngi ng f r om s i ngl e w or ds t o e nt i r e pa r a g r a phs L e gi t i m i z at i on T he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s i t s e l f s e r ve d t o s e c ur e e f f or t s t o l e gi t i m i z e t he f i ndi ngs o f t hi s s t udy. V a l i di t y w a s s t r e ngt he ne d by us i ng t he s e e xpe r t pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s pe c i f i c f i e l d, t he pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s w ho w e r e c hos e n due t o t he i r f i r s t ha nd know l e dge e xpe r i e nc e a nd unde r s t a ndi ng of how s i nge r s c a n e f f e c t i ve l y us e i m a ge r y f or a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e C ons ul t i ng w i t h e xp e r t s w h o pos s e s s c onc e pt ua l a nd pr a c t i c a l e xpe r i e nc e i n t he f i e l d of i nve s t i ga t i on i s a n i de a l m e t hod f or e ns ur i ng s a t i s f a c t or y f a c e a nd c ont e nt va l i di t y ( V e l l a B r odr i c k & M a c R a e 2004, p 124) I nt e r na l va l i d i t y w a s e nha nc e d by pr ovi di ng a c om pl e t e de s c r i pt i on o f p a r t i c i pa nt s pr oc e dur e s a nd a na l ys e s

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134 T a bl e 7 R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons as D i r e c t l y A ddr e s s e d i n Si nge r s I nt e r v i e w G ui de R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on S i nge r s I nt e r vi e w G ui de Q ue s t i ons W he r e do voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s us e i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e ? 4 0 ) W h e r e d o y o u u s e i m a g e r y ? W he n do voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s us e i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e ? 3 9 ) W h e n d o y o u u s e i m a g e r y ? W ha t do voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s us e i n t he i r i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e ? 2 7 ) D e s c r i b e a n y o t h e r r e a s o n s t h a t y o u h a v e f o r u s i n g i m a g e r y t o a c h i e v e o p t i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o n e s w e h a v e m e n t i o n e d ? 2 9 ) T o w h a t e x t e n t d o y o u u s e i m a g e r y r e l a t i n g t o v i s i o n ? 3 0 ) T o w h a t e x t e n t d o y o u u s e i m a g e r y r e l a t i n g t o s o u n d a n d h e a r i n g ? 3 1 ) T o w h a t e x t e n t d o y o u u s e i m a g e r y r e l a t i n g t o s m e l l ? 3 2 ) T o w h a t e x t e n t d o y o u u s e i m a g e r y r e l a t i n g t o t a s t e ? 3 3 ) T o w h a t e x t e n t d o y o u u s e i m a g e r y r e l a t i n g t o t o u c h ? 3 4 ) T o w h a t e x t e n t d o y o u u s e i m a g e r y r e l a t i n g t o k i n e s t h e s i a ? 3 5 ) D e s c r i b e a n y o t h e r k i n d s o f s e n s a t i o n s t h a t y o u f e e l i n y o u r i m a g e r y ? 3 6 ) W h i c h o f t h e a b o v e w o u l d b e t h e p r i m a r y s e n s e s y o u u s e i n y o u r i m a g e r y ? 3 7 ) D e s c r i b e y o u r a b i l i t y t o u s e i m a g e r y t o a c h i e v e o p t i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e ? 3 8 ) T o w h a t e x t e n t i s y o u r i m a g e r y f a c i l i t a t i v e d e b i l i t a t i v e o r b o t h ? N o t e : I n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s t a k e n f r o m t h e S i n g e r s I n t e r v i e w G u i d e ( s e e A p p e n d i x D )

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135 T a bl e 7 ( c ont i nue d) R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on S i nge r s I nt e r vi e w G ui de Q ue s t i ons W hy a nd f or w ha t pur pos e do voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s us e i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e ? 1 5 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e t h a t i s b a s e d o n s k i l l l e a r n i n g a n d e x e c u t i o n ? 1 6 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e r e l a t i n g t o s e q u e n c e s ? 1 7 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e r e l a t i n g t o s t r a t e g i e s ? 1 8 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e r e l a t i n g t o a r o u s a l a n d a n x i e t y ? 1 9 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e r e l a t i n g t o s e l f c o n f i d e n c e a n d m a s t e r y ? 2 0 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e r e l a t i n g t o g o a l s ? 2 1 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e r e l a t i n g t o m e t a p h o r s ? 2 2 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e r e l a t i n g t o c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t ? 2 3 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e r e l a t i n g t o e m o t i o n s ? 2 4 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e r e l a t i n g t o e n e r g y ? 2 5 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e b a s e d o n a p p e a r a n c e ? 2 6 ) D e s c r i b e a n y i m a g e r y y o u u s e b a s e d o n y o u r s o u n d ? 2 8 ) D e s c r i b e a n y o t h e r r e a s o n s t h a t y o u h a v e f o r u s i n g i m a g e r y t o a c h i e v e o p t i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o n e s w e h a v e m e n t i o n e d ? N o t e : I n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s t a k e n f r o m t h e S i n g e r s I n t e r v i e w G u i d e ( s e e A p p e n d i x D ) us e d i n t hi s s t udy, a s w e l l a s a l l ow i ng f o r a c c ur a t e c om pa r i s ons t o ot he r s t ud i e s a nd pa r t i c i pa nt s M e m be r c he c ki ng ( J ohns on & C hr i s t e ns e n, 2004) w a s c onduc t e d by s e ndi ng a t r a ns c r i be d c opy of t he i n t e r vi e w t o e a c h pa r t i c i p a nt f or r e vi e w T he s e s i nge r s w e r e t ol d t ha t t he y c oul d c ha nge a dd, or c l a r i f y a nyt hi ng i n t he i nt e r vi e w t he y f e l t w a s unc l e a r om i t t e d, o r uni nt e nde d. I n or de r t o pr ovi de t he r e a de r w i t h a m or e c om pl e t e unde r s t a ndi ng of t he pr oc e s s e s of t he r e s ul t s a nd o f f e r a n oppor t uni t y t o m a ke i ndi vi dua l c onc l us i ons e xa m pl e s of quot e s w e r e pr ovi de d t o i l l us t r a t e c a t e gor i e s a nd gr oupi ngs

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136 F ur t he r m or e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d a t t he e nd of e a c h i nt e r vi e w i f t he y ha d be e n l e d i n a ny w a y dur i ng t he c our s e of t he i nt e r vi e w T r us t w or t hi ne s s M e nt a l i m a ge r y w a s di f f i c ul t t o obj e c t i ve l y m e a s ur e be c a us e i t w a s not a n ove r t l y obs e r va bl e be ha vi or S i nge r s m i ght no t ha ve r e ve a l e d a l l of t he pe r t i ne nt i nf o r m a t i on t he y e xpe r i e nc e d i nt e r na l l y c onc e r ni ng i m a ge r y T hi s c oul d be due t o a num be r of r e a s ons i nc l udi ng t he s e : ( a ) t he r e m a y ha ve be e n a l a c k of a gr e e m e nt i n t he de f i ni t i ons a nd us e s of i m a ge r y t e r m i nol ogy be t w e e n a t hl e t e s a nd voc a l i s t s ( b) i t w a s pos s i bl e t ha t t he s e s ubj e c t i ve e xpe r i e nc e s w e r e pr e s e nt i n voc a l i s t s but t he y ha d not pr e vi ous l y be e n r e qui r e d t o ve r ba l i z e or a na l yz e t he m or ( c ) t hi s i n t e r na l pr oc e s s of i m a ge r y us e m a y ha v e be e n t oo pe r s ona l a nd t he voc a l i s t m a y not ha ve be e n c om pl e t e l y c om f or t a bl e w i t h c onve r s i ng a bout t hi s t opi c T he s e i s s ue s w e r e a ddr e s s e d be gi nni ng w i t h t he i ni t i a l s t a ge s of c ont a c t w i t h t he pot e nt i a l pa r t i c i pa nt T he W hi t e a nd H a r dy ( 1998) i m a ge r y de f i n i t i on w a s gi ve n t o br i dge a ny l a t e nt ga ps i n t he us e of t h i s t e r m be t w e e n s por t s a nd m us i c T he pr e l i m i na r y t e l e phone c onve r s a t i on w a s i nt e nde d t o a l l e vi a t e a ny of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c onc e r ns ga i n r a ppor t w i t h t he r e s e a r c he r a nd f a c i l i t a t e unde r s t a ndi ng of t he i m a ge r y s ubj e c t i n ge ne r a l R e s e ar c he r B i as A n i m por t a nt c onc e r n i n t hi s s t udy t hr oughout t he i nt e r vi e w s a nd t he a na l ys i s w a s t he t hr e a t of r e s e a r c he r bi a s I t w a s r e a s ona bl e t o e xpe c t i nve s t i ga t or s of qua l i t a t i ve s t udi e s t o ha ve s om e de gr e e of e xpe r t i s e i n t he a r e a of i nqui r y ( P a t t on, 2002) A l t hough t hi s r e s e a r c he r t r a i ne d i n bot h s i ngi ng a nd i m a ge r y, w a s a ne c e s s a r y a s pe c t of t hi s s t udy, he r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he i nt e r vi e w s a l s o pos e d t he t h r e a t of r e s e a r c he r bi a s A nu m be r o f

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137 e l e m e nt s w e r e put i n p l a c e t o c ont r ol f o r t hi s po t e nt i a l pr obl e m A s r e c om m e nde d by M i l e s a nd H ube r m a n ( 1994) de t a i l e d r e c or ds of t h e pr oc e s s t o c ol l e c t a nd i nt e r p r e t da t a w e r e m a i nt a i ne d. I n or de r t o s t r e ngt he n a ut he nt i c i t y a nd t r us t w or t hi ne s s pe e r de br i e f i ng w a s c onduc t e d t hr oughout a l l s t a ge s of t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s P e e r de br i e f i ng w a s de f i ne d a s e xpos i ng one s e l f t o a di s i nt e r e s t e d pe e r i n a m a nne r pa r a l l e l i ng a n a na l yt i c s e s s i on a nd f or t he pur pos e of e xpl or i ng a s pe c t s of t he i nq ui r y t ha t m i ght ot he r w i s e r e m a i n onl y i m pl i c i t w i t hi n a n i nqui r e r s m i nd ( L i nc ol n & G u ba 1985, p. 308) T he s e s t a ge s of t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s i nc l ude d t he de s i gn of t he s t udy, c hoos i ng a nd a da pt i ng t he i nt e r v i e w pr ot oc ol i nt e r vi e w i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s c odi ng i s s ue s m e t hods of r e por t i ng, a nd di s c us s i on of t he r e s ul t s T hi s w a s done t o he l p unc ove r t he r e s e a r c he r s pe r s ona l a s s um pt i ons bi a s e s a nd pe r s pe c t i ve s t ha t m a y ha ve t hr e a t e ne d t he c r e d i bi l i t y of t he s t udy. D ur i ng t he c our s e o f c onduc t i ng t he i nt e r vi e w s t h e i nve s t i ga t or a s s um e d a ne ut r a l s t a nc e a nd a l l ow e d t he i nt e r vi e w e e t o a ns w e r f r e e l y f r om hi s or he r e xpe r i e nc e L e a di ng que s t i ons w e r e a voi de d w he r e ve r pos s i bl e a nd e a c h of t he i m a ge r y i s s ue s w e r e pr e s e nt e d i n a s ba l a nc e d a m e t hod a s pos s i bl e Q ue s t i ons i n t he f or m of p r obe s e nc our a ge d voc a l i s t s t o e l a bor a t e on t he i r a ns w e r s a nd br i ng i n r e s pons e s not pr e vi ous l y e xpe c t e d on t he s ubj e c t of i m a ge r y us e i n a c hi e vi ng o pt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e A l t hough qua l i t a t i ve t e c hni que s of t hi s na t ur e c oul d not be c om pl e t e l y f r e e of bi a s t he r e s e a r c he r e nd e a vor e d t o e m pl oy m e t hods a s de s c r i be d a bove t o c ont r ol f or s uc h bi a s F r e que nc y C ount s F r e que nc y c ount s c oul d be m i s l e a di ng but w e r e i n c l ude d i n t he r e s ul t s f or t he pur pos e of c l a r i t y i n unde r s t a ndi ng t he r e s ul t s of t h e i nt e r vi e w s I n us i ng qua l i t a t i ve t e c hni que s f r e que nc y c ount s c oul d be m i s unde r s t ood f or a num be r of r e a s ons i nc l udi ng

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138 t he s m a l l s a m pl i ng, t he pe r s ona l na t ur e o f i m a ge r y e xpe r i e nc e or qua l i t y a nd s pe c i f i c s of t he i nt e r vi e w pr ot oc ol w hi c h s e r ve d t o e l i c i t c e r t a i n r e s pons e s S om e t i m e s r a r e e xpe r i e nc e s w e r e r e ve a l i ng a nd c r e a t e d m or e unde r s t a ndi ng of t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t he r e f or e a c a t e gor y w a s c r e a t e d e ve n i f one s i nge r onl y m e nt i one d i t onc e I ni t i a l c ode s w e r e c he c ke d a nd r e c ode d r e pe a t e dl y i n or de r t ha t t he r e s pons e s w e r e c a t e gor i z e d a s e f f e c t i ve l y a s pos s i bl e i n t he e f f or t t o ve r i f y c odi n g r e l i a bi l i t y I t w a s i m por t a nt t o not e how e ve r t ha t f r e que nc y w a s not ne c e s s a r i l y a n i nd i c a t or of i m por t a nc e ( G a m m a ge e t a l 2001; M unr oe e t a l 2000) Sum m ar y T hi s c ha pt e r pr e s e nt e d t he de s i gn o f t hi s e xpl o r a t o r y s t udy of m e nt a l i m a ge r y us e i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e i n s ol o voc a l p r o f e s s i ona l s T he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e t a ke n f r om s por t ps yc hol ogy r e s e a r c h w a s e m p l oye d t o ga i n i nf or m a t i on i n a t hl e t i c s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) da nc e ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) a nd i m a ge r y f i ndi ngs f r om t he l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w e s pe c i a l l y m us i c pe r f o r m a nc e s t udi e s i n i m a ge r y ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) T he i nt e r vi e w gui de w a s b or r ow e d a nd a da pt e d t o be a ppr op r i a t e f or voc a l p r of e s s i ona l s P r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s vol u nt e e r e d f or t he s t udy a nd w e r e i nt e r vi e w e d t hr ough r e c or de d t e l e phone c onve r s a t i on. T he s e i nt e r vi e w s w e r e t r a ns c r i be d ve r ba t i m a nd a na l yz e d t hr ough t he f r a m e w or ks of pr e vi ous f our W s i nve s t i ga t i ons ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ; N or di n & C um m i n g, 2005) P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e de s c r i be d, t he i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s w a s gi ve n, a nd da t a a na l ys e s w e r e e xpl a i ne d. T he de t a i l s of t he r e s ul t s of t he i nve s t i ga t i on a r e di s c us s e d i n C ha pt e r F our T he s e r e s ul t s a r e di s c us s e d i n r e l a t i on t o t he r e s ul t s a nd f i ndi ngs of pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h i n C ha pt e r F i ve i nc l ud i ng i m pl i c a t i ons f or m us i c e duc a t i on a nd r e c om m e nda t i ons f o r f u r t he r r e s e a r c h.

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139 C ha pt e r 4 R e s ul t s R e s ul t s of t hi s e xpl or a t or y s t udy w e r e ba s e d on t he i nt e r vi e w s of 15 pr o f e s s i ona l s i nge r s a s de s c r i be d i n t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r I n t hi s c ha pt e r t he ba c kgr ounds of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e pr e s e nt e d f i r s t t he i nt e r vi e w p r ot o c ol a nd pr oc e s s i s di s c us s e d, f ol l ow e d by r e s ul t s f or e a c h of t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons ba s e d on t he f r a m e w or k of t he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e A na l ys i s of t he da t a i s p r e s e nt e d f or e a c h of t he m a j or que s t i ons w he r e w he n w hat a nd w hy T he c ha pt e r i s c onc l ude d w i t h a s um m a r y. P ar t i c i pant s A t ot a l of 15 p r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s 10 f e m a l e s ( 66 7% ) a nd f i ve m a l e s ( 33 3% ) w e r e i nt e r vi e w e d f o r t hi s s t udy P a r t i c i pa nt s a ge s r a nge d f r om t he l a t e t w e nt i e s t o t he l a t e s i xt i e s a nd w e r e r e por t e d i n f i ve ye a r g r oupi ng s S um m a r y da t a on s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s a ge a nd ge nde r a r e r e po r t e d i n T a bl e 8. T he m a j or i t y of pa r t i c i pa nt s ( n = 11 ) w e r e be t w e e n 30 45 ye a r s ol d 67 % ( n = 10 ) w e r e f e m a l e a nd 33% ( n = 5) w e r e m a l e I n or de r t o pr ovi de a m or e de t a i l e d a c c ount of e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt T a bl e 9 de t a i l s e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r vi e w o r de r ps e udonym a ge voi c e t ype a nd hi ghe s t e duc a t i ona l de gr e e e a r ne d. P s e udonym s w e r e c hos e n w i t h f i r s t l e t t e r s i n a l pha be t i c a l o r de r a c c or di ng t o t he i r ge nde r a nd t he or de r of t he i r i nt e r vi e w F or e xa m pl e t he m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt w ho w a s t he s e ve nt h i nt e r vi e w e e w a s gi ve n t he r a ndo m na m e G e r al d, w hi c h be ga n w i t h t he l e t t e r G t he s e ve nt h l e t t e r of t he E ng l i s h a l pha be t T he t hi r t e e nt h i nt e r vi e w e e w a s f e m a l e a nd a r bi t r a r i l y gi ve n t he na m e M on i que s i nc e t he l e t t e r M w a s t hi r t e e nt h i n t he a l pha be t

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140 T a bl e 8 P ar t i c i pant s A ge and G e nde r D i s t r i but i on A ge R a nge ( i n ye a r s ) F e m a l e ( n = 10 ) M a l e ( n = 5 ) T ot a l ( N = 15) n % n % n % 25 30 1 6. 7 1 6. 7 30 35 4 26. 7 4 35 40 2 13. 3 2 13. 3 4 26. 6 40 45 3 2 3 20 45 50 1 6. 7 1 6. 7 65 70 2 13. 3 2 13. 3 T O T A L 10 66. 7 5 33. 3 15 100 N = 15 P a r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d s e ve n s opr a nos ( a ve r a ge a ge = 37. 4) t h r e e m e z z o s opr a nos ( a ve r a ge a ge = 55. 8 ) f our t e nor s ( a ve r a ge a ge = 4 0) a nd one ba r i t one ( a ge = 42) O f t he 15 pa r t i c i pa nt s 13 he l d a m a s t e r s de gr e e or hi ghe r i nc l ud i ng a t e no r a nd ba r i t one w i t h doc t or a t e s P a r t i c i pa nt s r e s i de d i n va r i ous a r e a s of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i nc l udi ng C a l i f or ni a F l or i da M a r yl a nd, N e w J e r s e y, N e w Y or k, a nd P e nns yl va ni a P a r t i c ul a r i nf or m a t i on on e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt s c ur r e nt r e s i de nc e r e m a i ne d ge ne r a l a nd c onf i de nt i a l i n o r de r t o obs c ur e t he s i nge r s i de nt i t y. F ur t he r m or e i t w a s no t c ons i de r e d pe r t i ne nt t o t hi s s t udy s i nc e m a ny t r a ve l e d f a r di s t a nc e s t o t he i r pr of e s s i ona l e n ga ge m e nt s

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141 T a bl e 9 P ar t i c i pant s P s e udony m G e nde r V oi c e T y pe A g e R ange and H i ghe s t D e gr e e O r de r of I nt e r vi e w P s e udonym G e nde r V oi c e T ype A ge ( i n ye a r s ) H i ghe s t D e gr e e E a r ne d 1 A nna F e m a l e S opr a no 35 40 B a c he l or s 2 B a r r y M a l e T e nor 40 45 B a c he l or s 3 C a t he r i ne F e m a l e S opr a no 30 35 M a s t e r s 4 D or i ne F e m a l e S opr a no 30 35 M a s t e r s 5 E l oi s e F e m a l e S opr a no 35 40 M a s t e r s 6 F r a nc i ne F e m a l e M e z z o 30 35 M a s t e r s 7 G e r a l d M a l e T e nor 35 40 P os t G r a dua t e 8 H a r r i e t F e m a l e S opr a no 30 35 M a s t e r s 9 I va n M a l e T e nor 35 40 M a s t e r s 10 J os e phi ne F e m a l e S opr a no 45 50 P os t G r a dua t e 11 K a r e n F e m a l e M e z z o 65 70 P os t G r a dua t e 12 L oui s M a l e T e nor 40 45 D oc t or a t e 13 M oni qu e F e m a l e M e z z o 65 70 M a s t e r s 14 N i c hol a s M a l e B a r i t one 40 45 D oc t or a t e 15 O phe l i a F e m a l e S opr a no 25 30 M a s t e r s N = 15 S i nge r s r e por t e d t he voc a l pe r f or m a nc e ge nr e i n o r de r of t he i r m os t f r e que nt s e c ond m os t f r e que nt a nd t hi r d m os t f r e que nt l y pe r f or m e d s i ngi ng ge nr e s ( s e e T a bl e 10) T hi r t e e n pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d t ha t t he i r m os t f r e qu e nt ge nr e w a s ope r a one r e por t e d

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142 or a t or i o, a nd one r e por t e d a n e qua l di s t r i but i on a m ong or a t or i o r e c i t a l a r t s ong, e a r l y m us i c l i t ur gi c a l m us i c a nd c onc e r t s i ngi ng. T he s e c ond m os t f r e que nt ge n r e i de nt i f i e d w a s r e c i t a l a nd c i t e d by s e ve n s i nge r s f ol l ow e d by or a t or i o a nd c onc e r t t ype s P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t s of t he i r t hi r d ge nr e va r i e d w i d e l y a m ong ot he r f or m s o f c onc e r t s a nd r e c i t a l s T he r e w e r e a va r i e t y o f l e ve l s of pr o f e s s i ona l voc a l e xpe r i e nc e a m ong s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s a l l o f w hom ha d pe r f o r m e d r e gi ona l l y T he r e w e r e f our s i nge r s w ho ha d pe r f or m e d i n onl y one r e gi on of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd, f o r t he pu r pos e s of t hi s s t udy, w e r e c ons i de r e d r e gi ona l s i nge r s E i ght of t he s e pr of e s s i ona l s w i t h e xpe r i e nc e i n t w o or m or e U ni t e d S t a t e s r e gi ons w e r e gi ve n t he c l a s s i f i c a t i on of na t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e T he r e w e r e t e n voc a l i s t s w ho ha d be e n e nga ge d t o s i ng o ut s i de t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd w e r e c ons i de r e d i nt e r na t i ona l l y e xpe r i e nc e d. H ow e ve r t hr e e s i nge r s r e por t e d s i ngi ng i n a s i ngl e r e gi on of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a s w e l l a s a not he r c ount r y a nd w e r e a l s o c ons i de r e d i nt e r na t i ona l s i nge r s Y e a r s of e xpe r i e nc e w e r e g i v e n a l ong w i t h t he l oc a t i ons i n w hi c h t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d s ung, r a ngi ng f r o m s i x t o ov e r 40 ye a r s o f t ot a l pr of e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e ( s e e T a bl e 11) T he a ve r a ge t ot a l ye a r s of pr o f e s s i ona l s ol o s i ngi ng e xpe r i e nc e w a s 18. 6 ye a r s

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143 T a bl e 10 P ar t i c i pant s Si ngi ng G e nr e F r e que nc i e s S i ngi ng G e nr e F r e que nc i e s O r de r of I nt e r vi e w P s e udonym M os t F r e que nt S e c ond M os t F r e que nt T hi r d M os t F r e que nt 1 A nna O pe r a O r a t or i o R e c i t a l 2 B a r r y O pe r a R e c i t a l L i t ur gi c a l 3 C a t he r i ne O pe r a R e c i t a l C hor a l 4 D or i ne O pe r a A r t S ong L i t ur gi c a l 5 E l oi s e O pe r a R e c i t a l A r t S ong 6 F r a nc i ne O pe r a C o nc e r t L i t ur gi c a l 7 G e r a l d O pe r a L i t ur gi c a l O r a t or i o 8 H a r r i e t O pe r a R e c i t a l C onc e r t 9 I va n O pe r a R e c i t a l O r a t or i o 10 J os e phi ne O pe r a R e c i t a l E a r l y M us i c L i t ur gi c a l 11 K a r e n O pe r a O r a t or i o E M 12 L oui s O r a t or i o O pe r a E a r l y M us i c 13 M oni que O r a t or i o, R e c i t a l A r t S ong E a r l y M us i c L i t ur g i c a l C onc e r t E qua l l y 14 N i c hol a s O pe r a R e c i t a l O r a t or i o 15 O phe l i a O pe r a A r t S ong R e c i t a l N = 15

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144 T a bl e 11 P ar t i c i pant s P r of e s s i onal Sol o Si ngi ng E x pe r i e nc e Y e a r s o f E x p e r i e n c e L o c a t i o n E x p e r i e n c e O r d e r o f I n t e r v i e w P s e u d o n y m R e g i o n a l N a t i o n a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e g i o n s N a t i o n s a n d W o r l d A r e a s 1 A n n a 1 0 4 0 N E M W S W 0 2 B a r r y 1 5 1 5 1 5 A l l b u t S W C N E U 3 C a t h e r i n e 6 0 6 N E U K 4 D o r i n e 7 0 0 S E 0 5 E l o i s e 1 3 0 0 S E 0 6 F r a n c i n e 1 8 6 0 A l l 0 7 G e r a l d 1 4 8 9 A l l b u t M A U K E U A F 8 H a r r i e t 6 1 0 5 A l l b u t N W M A C A U K E U A U 9 I v a n 1 5 1 5 1 0 A l l b u t M A C N C A A S U K E U R U I R 1 0 J o s e p h i n e 2 5 3 0 N E M W 0 1 1 K a r e n 4 0 + 4 0 + 4 0 + A l l C N C A S A U K E U A F 1 2 L o u i s 2 0 1 5 1 0 M W C N 1 3 M o n i q u e 4 0 + 1 1 3 5 A l l C N C A U K E U A U A F 1 4 N i c h o l a s 1 0 0 2 M W A S 1 5 O p h e l i a 8 0 3 M A A S N = 15 N o t e : N E : N o r t h e a s t ; S E : S o u t h e a s t ; S : S o u t h ; M W : M i d w e s t ; S W : S o u t h w e s t ; N W : N o r t h w e s t ; M A : M i d A t l a n t i c ; C N : C a n a d a ; C A : C e n t r a l A m e r i c a ; S A : S o u t h A m e r i c a ; A S : A s i a ; U K : U n i t e d K i n g d o m ; E U : E u r o p e ; A U : A u s t r a l i a ; A F : A f r i c a ; R U : R u s s i a ; I R : I s r a e l

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145 I nt e r v i e w P r ot oc ol and P r oc e s s T he s i nge r s i nt e r v i e w pr ot oc ol ( s e e A ppe ndi x D ) pr ove d t o be a va l ua bl e t ool i n ga t he r i ng bot h b r e a t h a nd de pt h of r e s pons e s f r om t he s e s i nge r s T he ope n e nde d f or m a t of t he que s t i ons a l l ow e d f o r p r obi ng a s w a s de e m e d a ppr opr i a t e f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt T he s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de w a s s e nt t o s t udy pa r t i c i p a nt s pr i or t o t he i n t e r vi e w s w hi c h he l pe d t he s i nge r s t o unde r s t a nd i m a ge r y t e r m s a n d be m e nt a l l y p r e pa r e d t o r e s pond t o t he a ns w e r s dur i ng t he t e l e phone i nt e r vi e w s I n a ddi t i on t o t he c ha nge s t ha t w e r e m a de t o t he o r i gi na l N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) da nc e r s i nt e r vi e w gui de ( s e e A ppe ndi x E ) a f e w t e r m s r e qui r e d c l a r i f i c a t i on dur i ng t he i nt e r vi e w s t o m a i nt a i n a c om m on l a ngu a ge i n c onf us i on i n c onc e pt s s uc h a s di s t i ngui s hi ng m e a ni ngs of t e r m s T he s e w e r e not unc ove r e d dur i ng t he pi l ot t e s t F o r e xa m pl e a m i s unde r s t a ndi ng r e l a t i ve t o t he que s t i on of t i m e s w he n s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y oc c ur r e d i n di f f e r e n t i a t i ng be t w e e n br e a ks a nd hol i da ys S i nge r s w e r e pe r p l e xe d by t he w or d hol i da y i n t he f ou r t h p r obe of que s t i on 39 r e ga r di ng w he n s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y, T o w ha t e xt e nt doe s you r i m a ge r y us e di f f e r be t w e e n r e he a r s a l pe r f o r m a nc e a nd hol i da y pe r i ods ? S i n c e t he he i ght of m os t voc a l i s t s pe r f or m a nc e s e a s on w a s dur i ng t he C hr i s t m a s a nd N e w Y e a r s hol i da ys t he w or d hol i da y w a s c ha nge d t o br e a k m e a ni ng t he pe r i od du r i ng t he ye a r w he n p r of e s s i ona l s ha d t i m e of f a nd w e r e not e nga ge d i n pr a c t i c e s r e he a r s a l s or pe r f or m a nc e s M os t of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y dur i ng br e a ks onl y m i ni m a l l y i f a ny a t a l l H ow e ve r i n t he s por t ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) a nd da nc e ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) s t udi e s br e a ks m e a nt qui e t pe r i ods t h r oughout t he da y, w hi c h c on t r a s t e d w i t h how t hi s i s s ue w a s a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy. T he m e a ni ngs of

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146 t he t e r m s t a c t i l e or t ouc h a nd ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng ha d t o be e xpl a i ne d t o m a ny of t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s s i nc e t he y w e r e not a c c us t om e d t o us i ng t he w or d ki ne s t he t i c t o de s c r i be f e e l i ngs a nd m ove m e nt s i ns i de t he i r b ody S i nge r s w e r e a l s o s om e w ha t uns ur e a s t o how t o a ns w e r t he s e que nc e s a nd s t r a t e gi e s que s t i ons ( I t e m s 16 a nd 17 ) A ddi ng a s i ngl e pr obi ng que s t i on on pl a nni ng s e e m e d t o h a ve pr ovi de d m or e c l a r i t y f or t he s e s i nge r s T he s e c ha nge s s houl d be a ddr e s s e d a nd r e s ol ve d i n f ut ur e us e s of t he s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de A l t hough t he f i r s t t hr e e s e c t i ons of t he s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de ge ne r a t e d r e s pons e s a bout s i nge r s ba c kgr ound, t he s e r e s pons e s di d not pr ove t o be c r i t i c a l t o a ns w e r i ng t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons of w he r e w he n w hat a nd w hy s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y U pon r e vi e w i ng t he t r a ns c r i pt s i t w a s f ound t ha t s i nge r s pe r s ona l i nf o r m a t i on w a s not c onc i s e e nough t o be i nc l ude d i n t hi s s t udy. T he r e f or e i n t he e f f or t t o a c c ur a t e l y a nd e f f i c i e nt l y r e po r t t he de m ogr a phi c s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t he voc a l pa r t i c i pa nt s s ur ve y w a s de s i gne d ( s e e A ppe ndi x I ) a nd a dm i ni s t e r e d t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a l ong w i t h t he i r t r a ns c r i pt i ons T hi s gr e a t l y a i de d i n m a i nt a i ni ng c o nf i de nt i a l l y a nd m o r e ge ne r a l l y a nd a c c ur a t e l y r e por t i ng t he de m ogr a phi c s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy. S e ve r a l di f f e r e nt a s pe c t s of t he i n t e r vi e w pr oc e s s i t s e l f he l pe d s ha pe t hi s s t udy. T he r e s e a r c he r w a s a n e xpe r i e nc e d voc a l p r of e s s i ona l w a s a s t ude nt of i m a ge r y a nd ha d t r a i ni ng i n c onduc t i ng i nt e r vi e w s A s t he i nt e r vi e w s pr ogr e s s e d, t he r e s e a r c he r be c a m e m or e f a m i l i a r w i t h t he pr oc e s s a nd f u r t he r r e f i ne d t he i nt e r vi e w i ng t e c hni que w i t h e a c h s ubs e que nt pa r t i c i pa nt S l i ght c ha nge s w e r e m a de i n t e r m i nol ogy of t he pr obe s a nd s i nge r s a ns w e r s m or e r e f l e c t e d t he i nt e nt i ons f o r w hi c h t he gui de w a s us e d. G e ne r a l l y t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a r t i c ul a t e a nd w i l l i ng t o s ha r e t he i r know l e dge a nd e xpe r i e nc e A

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147 num be r of t he m ha d p r i or e xpe r i e nc e be i ng i n t e r vi e w e d f or r a di o, t e l e vi s i on, a nd ne w s pa pe r a nd w e r e c om f o r t a bl e w i t h t he pr oc e s s T he i nt e r vi e w e r ge ne r a l l y t ook a ne ut r a l s t a nc e a nd r e f r a i ne d f r o m of f e r i ng t oo m uc h di r e c t i on s o t ha t s i nge r s r e s pons e s c oul d m or e c l e a r l y r e f l e c t t he i r i ndi vi dua l e xpe r t i s e i n i m a ge r y T he na t ur e o f t he r e s pons e s of pa r t i c i pa nt s t o t he i nt e r vi e w a nd t he s pe c i f i c que s t i ons va r i e d w i de l y. T he dur a t i on of t he i nt e r v i e w s l a s t e d be t w e e n 40 a nd 150 m i nut e s S e ve r a l s i nge r s w e r e m or e ve r ba l a nd s ha r e d a w e a l t h o f i n f or m a t i on r e ga r dl e s s of m y e f f or t s t o i nvi t e t he m t o be m o r e c onc i s e w hi l e ot he r voc a l i s t s a ns w e r e d m or e t o t he poi nt a nd ne e de d c ont i nuous pr om pt i ng S i m i l a r l y, pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s r a nge d f r om e xt e ns i ve l y de t a i l e d, i ns i ght f ul a nd r i c h t o s o m e t ha t w e r e m o r e pe r f unc t or y o r l e s s f oc us e d. T he qua l i t y of r e s pons e s de pe nde d on t he de gr e e t o w hi c h t he i nt e r vi e w e e s t a ye d on t opi c a nd a ns w e r e d t he s pe c i f i c gi ve n qu e s t i on. S e ve r a l o f t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t e a c he r s a nd a ns w e r e d i n t he f or m of w ha t t h e y w oul d s ha r e t he i r r e s pons e s w i t h t he i r s t ude nt s M o s t of t he s e r e s pons e s w e r e not i n c l ude d s i nc e i t w a s not c e r t a i n i f t he a ns w e r s c om pr i s e d t ha t i nt e r vi e w e e s pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s of i m a ge r y. A ddi t i ona l l y quot e s t ha t w e r e di f f i c ul t t o unde r s t a nd a nd unc l e a r w e r e a l s o om i t t e d i n t he a na l ys e s i f a f t e r m a ki ng a c onc e r t e d e f f o r t t hr ough e m a i l i ng a nd t e l e phoni ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt t he r e s e a r c he r f a i l e d t o ga i n c l a r i t y O ve r a l l t he e xt e ns i ve br e a dt h a nd de pt h of t he s e voc a l i s t s a ns w e r s c ont r i but e d t o t he g r ow i ng s t or e hous e of know l e dge a nd unde r s t a ndi ng of i m a ge r y i n p r of e s s i ona l s ol o s i ngi ng pe r f or m a nc e C odi ng A s de s c r i be d i n C ha pt e r 3, t r a ns c r i pt i ons w e r e i ni t i a l l y a na l yz e d us i ng t he pr e de t e r m i ne d c a t e gor i e s a nd s ubc a t e gor i e s de r i ve d f r om t he f our W s f r a m e w or k, t he

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148 s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de a nd t he r e l a t e d l i t e r a t ur e D a t a w e r e s e gm e nt e d i nt o uni t s o f m e a ni ng, w hi c h r a nge d f r om a s i ngl e w o r d t o c hun ks of t e xt c ont a i ni ng one i t e m of i nf or m a t i on. T he s e w e r e i ni t i a l l y c ode d us i ng t he a pr i or i c a t e gor i e s a nd s ubc a t e gor i e s I n t he c a s e w he r e a m e a ni ng uni t di d n ot f i t i nt o t he p r e de t e r m i ne d c ode s a ne w c a t e gor y or s ubc a t e gor y w a s c r e a t e d a s a ppr opr i a t e T he f i na l da t a a na l ys e s i nc l ude d s i x m a i n t he m e s : ( a ) w he r e ( b ) w he n, ( c ) i m a ge r y t ype s ( d ) s e ns e i m a ge r y, ( e ) i m a ge r y a bi l i t y, a nd ( f ) i m a ge r y us e ( s e e A ppe nd i x J ) E a c h m e a ni ng uni t w a s l a be l e d by t he m e c a t e gor y a nd s ubc a t e gor y. F o r e xa m pl e a t he m a t i c c ode of S I : K I : V P i ndi c a t e d S e ns e I m a ge r y: K i ne s t he t i c : V oc a l P r oduc t i on. T hi s r e p r e s e nt e d t he i m a ge r y t ype of ki ne s t he t i c s e ns or y i m a ge r y r e s pons e t a ke n f r om i nt e r vi e w que s t i on 34 T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o ki ne s t he s i a ? a nd i nvol vi ng i m a ge s of voc a l p r odu c t i on. A not he r e xa m pl e of t he c odi ng w a s I U : V S : M O i ndi c a t i ng I m a ge r y U s e : V oc a l S ound: M ode l i ng, r e pr e s e nt i ng t he i m a ge r y t ype of voc a l s ound f r om que s t i on 26, D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e ba s e d on your s ound? a nd t he us e o f m ode l i ng T he c om pl e t e l i s t of t he m e s a nd c ode s a r e pr ovi de d i n A ppe ndi x J W he n i t a ppe a r e d t ha t t he c ode s w e r e be gi nni ng t o be or ga ni z e d c ohe s i ve l y, f our o t he r r e s e a r c he r s t r a i ne d i n c odi ng qua l i t a t i ve da t a c he c k c ode d ( M i l e s & H ube r m a n, 1994, p 64) one o f t he t r a ns c r i pt i ons t o e s t a bl i s h i nt e r c ode r a gr e e m e nt I t be c a m e a ppa r e nt t ha t t he f i r s t t h r e e s e c t i ons of t he s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de di d pr ovi de s uf f i c i e nt c ont e nt f or unde r s t a ndi ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ba c kgr o unds but di d not a de qua t e l y a ddr e s s t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons i n t hi s s t udy. I ni t i a l l y t he i n t e r c ode r a gr e e m e nt w a s 78 a nd w a s de e m e d s a t i s f a c t or y but c oul d be i m pr ove d. T he t h e m e s a nd c ode s w e r e a ga i n a na l yz e d

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149 a nd r e vi e w e d, r e ve a l i ng s e ve r a l r e dunda nc i e s w hi c h r e s ul t e d i n f ur t he r c ons ol i da t i on of t he c ode s T he s a m e t r a ns c r i pt w i t hout t he r e s pons e s t o t he f i r s t t hr e e s e c t i ons w a s a na l yz e d by t he f our r e s e a r c he r s r e s ul t i ng i n a n i nt e r c ode r a gr e e m e nt o f 83, w hi c h w a s f ound m or e a c c e pt a bl e f or t hi s s t udy. T he m e s a nd c ode s t ha t ha d e m e r ge d f r om t he f i r s t c odi ng w e r e us e d t o a na l yz e t he t r a ns c r i pt s a s e c ond t i m e a nd e a c h m e a ni ng uni t w a s pl a c e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s na m e a nd c ode ( by c ol o r ) i nt o e a c h c e l l o f a n E xc e l doc u m e nt A t t he e nd o f t he s e c ond a na l ys i s a l l da t a w e r e a na l yz e d a nd r e dunda nt c a t e gor i e s a nd c ode s w e r e c ol l a ps e d i nt o c ode s t ha t r e pr e s e nt e d t he f i ndi ngs a s e f f i c i e nt l y a s pos s i bl e A not he r a na l ys i s w a s e m pl oye d t o s c our e a c h t r a ns c r i pt f o r a ny r e m a i ni n g m e a ni ng uni t t ha t c oul d c or r e s pond t o t he i ndi vi dua l c ode s T r a ns c r i pt i ons w e r e s a ve d i n W or d doc um e nt s a nd ke y w or ds w e r e e nt e r e d t o f i nd quot e s us i ng va r i ous de s c r i pt i ve w or ds c onne c t e d t o t ha t c ode F o r e xa m pl e i n l ook i ng f o r t h e a l l t he quot e s f or t he t h e m e of a r ous a l s pe c i f i c w o r ds s uc h a s ne r ve s pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y, s t a ge f r i ght a nd a f r a i d w e r e us e d t o s e a r c h t he e nt i r e doc um e nt a nd l oc a t e e ve r y quot e w hi c h ha d a nyt hi ng t o do w i t h a r ous a l T hi s a c t i on w a s pe r f o r m e d i n e ve r y t r a ns c r i pt a nd a l l c o de s ( s e e i n A ppe ndi x J ) A l l t he c ode d quot e s w e r e t r a ns f e r r e d i nt o t he i r ow n W or d doc um e nt s a nd a na l yz e d a nd c om pa r e d t o ot he r c ode d da t a i n t ha t c a t e gor y f or e m e r gi ng t he m e s a nd pa t t e r ns T he s e t he m e s a nd c ode s w e r e c o m pa r e d w i t h t hos e of t he f ou r W s f r a m e w or ks f or a f i na l c he c k be f o r e c onf i r m a t i on. T he s e da t a w e r e i nt e r pr e t e d a nd a f r a m e w or k e m e r ge d, w hi c h c ons t i t ut e d f ur t he r de duc t i ve a na l ys e s pr oc e s s e s ( S t r a us s & C or bi n, 1998) Q uot e s i n a l l c ode d c a t e gor i e s w e r e a na l yz e d by f r e que nc y a nd ge ne r a l e m e r g i ng pa t t e r ns

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150 F r e que nc y c ount s w e r e r e por t e d a c c or di ng t o t he n um be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho r e s ponde d i n t he s e c a t e gor i e s r a t he r t ha n t he num b e r of t i m e s t he s i nge r m e nt i one d t he i t e m T hi s w a s pr i m a r i l y due t o t he s e m i s t r uc t u r e d na t ur e of t he i n t e r vi e w gui de a nd t he r e pe t i t i ve na t ur e o f s om e of t he que s t i ons T hi s w a s e xe m pl i f i e d by t he r e s e a r c he r s s t a t e m e nt gi ve n a t t he be gi nni ng of t he i nt e r v i e w A l s o, do not w o r r y i f s om e que s t i ons s e e m r e pe t i t i ve T h i s i s pa r t l y t o m a ke s ur e t ha t I a m c ove r i ng a l l a s pe c t s of your s i ngi ng i m a ge r y a nd not l e a vi ng a nyt hi ng out a nd pa r t l y u s e f ul t o obt a i n quo t e s f or l a t e r a na l ys e s ( s e e A ppe ndi x D ) S i nc e s o m a ny s i nge r s of f e r e d a ns w e r s t o que s t i ons i n s e ve r a l w a ys a t t i m e s r e ve a l i ng r e pl i c a t i ons i t w a s de e m e d t ha t r e por t i ng f r e que nc y c ount s by pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s m or e a ppr op r i a t e f or t h i s s t udy. I n r e por t i ng t he r e s ul t s of t he i nt e r vi e w s i t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t f i r s t know i ng w he r e a nd w he n s i nge r s e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y pr ovi de d a be t t e r un de r s t a ndi ng of w hat w a s i m a gi ne d a nd w hy i m a ge s w e r e us e d. A n a t t e m pt w a s m a de t o s e pa r a t e w hat o r t he c ont e nt of i m a ge r y f r om w hy o r t he pu r pos e H o w e ve r pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s w e r e s o i nt e gr a t e d i n t he c ont e nt a nd pu r pos e s of t he i r i m a ge r y t ha t i t p r e s e nt e d c e r t a i n c ha l l e nge s i n r e por t i ng t he s e f i ndi ngs I t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t t he c ohe s i ve na t ur e of t h i s i nf or m a t i on be m a i nt a i ne d a s m uc h a s pos s i bl e T he r e f or e w he r e w he n a nd w hat i m a ge r y w a s r e por t e d f i r s t a nd t he s e c t i on on w hy of f e r e d a m o r e c o m pl e t e a nd i nt e g r a t e d de s c r i pt i on of how t he s e s i nge r s i nc or po r a t e d i m a ge r y i n t he i r pr of e s s i on. W ha t f ol l ow s i s t he r e por t of t he a na l ys e s of t he voc a l pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s a s or ga ni z e d unde r t he f ou r m a j or t he m e s of t he f ou r W s o f i m a ge r y us e : w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy

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151 W he r e D o V oc al P r of e s s i onal s U s e I m age r y t o A c hi e v e O pt i m al P e r f or m anc e ? R e s ul t s of w he r e s i nge r s us e i m a ge r y a r e f ol l ow e d by w he n i m a ge r y w a s us e d V oc a l i s t s r e por t s of w he r e o r t he l oc a t i on of i m a g e r y e nga ge m e nt w a s s e pa r a t e d i nt o f our c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) ge ne r a l l oc a t i ons ( b ) hom e ( c ) ot he r pl a c e s a nd ( d) i n pr a c t i c e or pe r f or m a nc e s e t t i ngs R e s pons e s a r e gi ve n he r e a c c or di ng t o t he di vi s i ons t ha t e m e r ge d w hi c h r e s ul t e d i n a num be r o f s ubc a t e gor i e s w i t hi n e a c h c a t e gor y a s s how n i n T a bl e 12. T a bl e 12 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s R e s pons e s t o W he r e T he y U s e d I m age r y C a t e gor y S ubc a t e gor i e s N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s S t a ge ( A udi t i ons & P e r f o r m a nc e s ) 15 S t udi o/ P r a c t i c e S pa c e 6 R e he a r s a l S pa c e 4 A t t he pi a no 2 P r a c t i c e / R e he a r s a l / P e r f or m a nc e S e t t i ngs D r e s s i ng R oom 2 B e d 13 H om e A t H om e ( B a t hr oom & K i t c he n) 9 A l one 7 A nyw he r e / E ve r yw he r e 6 G e ne r a l Q ui e t / R e l a xi ng P l a c e s 5 C om m ut i ng/ D r i vi ng 8 O t he r P l a c e s E xe r c i s i ng/ O ut s i de 6

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152 R e s ul t s of t he s i nge r s r e s pons e s i n t he w he r e c a t e gor y, f r om t he m os t f r e que nt t o t he f e w e s t w e r e : ( a ) p r a c t i c e / r e he a r s a l / pe r f or m a nc e s e t t i ngs ( b) hom e ( c ) ge ne r a l a nd ( d) ot he r pl a c e s A l l of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y on s t a ge f or a udi t i ons a nd pe r f or m a nc e s f ol l ow e d by s i x w ho i m a gi n e d i n t h e pr a c t i c e or s t udi o s pa c e F our voc a l i s t s us e d i m a ge r y i n t he r e he a r s a l s pa c e t w o a t t he pi a no, a nd t w o i n t he dr e s s i ng r oom R e f e r r i ng t o t he p l a c e s s he us e d i m a ge r y, F r a nc i ne s a i d, I us e i t i n t he pr a c t i c e r oom I us e i t i n t he r e he a r s a l ha l l a nd I us e i t m os t s pe c i f i c a l l y i n t he w i ngs be f or e a pe r f or m a nc e o r t he ha l l w a ys be f or e a n a udi t i on. T he hom e w a s t he ne xt m os t f r e que nt l y na m e d s pa c e w i t h 13 s pe c i f i c a l l y i m a gi ni ng i n be d a nd ni ne na m i ng va r i ous a r e a s i n t he hom e F or e xa m pl e D or i ne s a i d, I m us ua l l y i n t h e c om f or t of m y ow n be d o r on m y c ouc h w he r e I c a n s t r e t c h out a nd r e l a x. I l i ke t o b e l yi ng dow n a nd I t r y t o ge t m ys e l f a s c om f or t a bl e a s pos s i bl e I n t he ge ne r a l c a t e gor y l e s s t ha n ha l f of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c hos e be i ng a l one a n yw he r e o r e ve r yw he r e a nd i n qui e t or r e l a xi ng pl a c e s O t he r pl a c e s i nc l ude d e i ght pr e f e r r i ng c om m ut i ng a nd dr i vi ng a nd s i x e i t he r out s i de o r e xe r c i s i ng. I t w a s s i gni f i c a nt t ha t a l l o f t he voc a l i s t s c ons i de r e d us i ng i m a ge r y a t a udi t i ons t o be a s i m por t a nt a s a t pe r f or m a nc e s F or t he younge r s i nge r s a udi t i oni ng w a s m e nt i one d m or e f r e que nt l y t ha n t he ol de r m or e e xpe r i e nc e d pr of e s s i ona l s B e i ng s uc c e s s f ul i n a udi t i ons a l l ow e d t he s i nge r t o a c t ua l l y pe r f or m s i nc e r ol e s w e r e s o f e w a nd m a ny pe r f or m e r s vi e f or t he s e i n t hi s f or m a t T he r e f or e w i t h r e ga r d t o pr o f e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s us e of i m a ge r y, a udi t i oni ng ha d t o be a s e pa r a t e i n c l us i on i n t he pe r f or m a nc e c a t e gor y. T he s e s ol o s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y i n t he pe r f o r m a nc e s e t t i ng w he r e t he y w e r e a l r e a dy s e t t o pr a c t i c e o r pe r f or m O ut s i de of t he s e s e t t i ngs voc a l i s t s e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y w he r e ve r i t w a s c onve ni e nt f or t he m t o pr oc e s s t he i r t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs i n i m a ge r y, a s

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153 e vi de nc e d by t he hi gh nu m be r o f r e s pons e s f or be i ng a l one a t hom e i n be d a nd c om m ut i ng a nd dr i vi ng ( s e e T a bl e 12) T he i r pa r t i c ul a r pe r f or m a nc e r e qui r e m e nt s a nd l i vi ng s i t ua t i ons a nd e nvi r onm e nt s m a y ha ve i nf l u e nc e d t he s e r e s ul t s F ur t he r m o r e s om e s i nge r s r e por t e d i m a gi ni ng i n m a ny di f f e r e nt pl a c e s pa r t i c ul a r l y t hos e w ho s e e m e d t o e nj oy m or e e nga ge m e nt a nd e xpe r i e nc e i n t hi s m e nt a l pr a c t i c e W he n D o V oc al P r of e s s i onal s U s e I m age r y t o A c h i e v e O pt i m al P e r f or m anc e ? R e s pons e s gi vi ng t he t i m e pe r i ods w he n i m a ge r y w a s us e d r e s ul t e d i n s i x s ubc a t e gor i e s : ( a ) pr a c t i c e ( b) r e he a r s a l ( c ) pe r f or m a nc e ( d) pe r f o r m a nc e s e a s on, ( e ) br e a ks a nd ( f ) o t he r t i m e s T he s e a r e p r e s e nt e d i n t hi s pa r t i c ul a r o r de r by w he n t he s e s i nge r s r e por t e d t he i r us e of i m a ge r y be gi nni ng w i t h t he pr i m a r y a nd s pe c i f i c t i m e pe r i ods of p r a c t i c i ng, t h r ough pe r f or m a nc e a nd e n di ng w i t h b r e a k pe r i ods a nd t i m e s not di r e c t l y i nvol ve d i n s i ngi ng. T a bl e 13 pr e s e nt s a s u m m a r y of voc a l pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s t o w he n t he y us e d i m a ge r y. W i t h r e ga r d t o us i ng i m a ge r y a r ound pr a c t i c e t i m e s a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d e nga gi ng i n i m a ge r y dur i ng p r a c t i c e t w o s i nge r s u s e d i t be f or e a nd t h r e e s i nge r s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y t o a s s i s t i n r e t r os pe c t i on of w ha t t he y di d a nd t o de c i de w ha t t o do i n t he f ut ur e O phe l i a i de nt i f i e d t he c yc l i c a l na t ur e of w ha t w a s c ons i de r e d a f t e r pr a c t i c e a nd t he ne xt be f o r e p r a c t i c e t i m e s S he e x pl a i ne d t ha t a f t e r w a r ds you a r e s t udyi ng a nd i m a gi ng w ha t ha ppe ne d a nd you r e m e m be r w ha t ha ppe ne d a nd you r e l e a r ni ng f r o m t hos e t hi ngs a nd i m pr ovi ng B ut i f y ou t hi nk a bout i t t he a f t e r w a r d i s r e a l l y j us t t he be gi nni ng of t he p r a c t i c e U pon f ur t he r i nve s t i ga t i on, t hi s di s t i nc t i on he l d s om e w e i ght O phe l i a a nd C a t he r i ne e xpr e s s e d t he de s i r e t o us e m o r e of t hi s t ype o f

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154 T a bl e 13 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s R e s pons e s t o W he n T he y U s e d I m age r y G e ne r a l T i m e S pe c i f i c T i m e N um be r of P a r t i c i p a nt s B e f or e 4 D ur i ng 15 ( 6 i n t he l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s ) ( 4 a f t e r l e a r ni ng m us i c ) P r a c t i c e A f t e r 4 R e he a r s a l D ur i ng 9 ( 2 s om e ) B e f or e 15 D ur i ng 9 ( 5 s om e ) P e r f or m a nc e A f t e r 6 P e r f or m a nc e S e a s on B e f or e 6 D ur i ng 15 3 us e d i m a ge r y 5 us e d l e s s i m a ge r y B r e a ks D ur i ng 7 no i m a ge r y us e d N i ght 11 ( 6 goi ng t o s l e e p) Q ui e t T i m e s 8 ( 2 du r i ng t e di ous t a s ks ) A l l t he T i m e 8 O t he r T i m e s D a y 5 ( 3 w a ki ng up)

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155 i m a ge r y dur i ng t he i ni t i a l s t a ge s of p r a c t i c e O phe l i a m us e d, i t be hoove s m e t o ha ve t he i m a ge r y be f or e be c a us e t he n i t t r a ns f e r s na t ur a l l y t o t he pr a c t i c e S i x s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y du r i ng t he pr oc e s s of l e a r ni ng t he m a t e r i a l a nd f ou r us e d i t a f t e r m os t of t he ba s i c not e s a nd m us i c w e r e s e c ur e d, a s i l l us t r a t e d by F r a nc i ne s r e s pons e S he s a i d: T he onl y t i m e I w oul dn t [ us e i m a ge r y ] i s w he n I m be i ng ve r y ve r y ve r y t e c hni c a l a nd I m l e a r ni ng a pi e c e or I m j us t l e a r n i ng ba s i c pl unki ng of not e s . B ut e ve n i n m y ow n pr i va t e s t udi o w or k onc e a pi e c e ha s got t e n t o a c e r t a i n l e ve l w he r e I ne e d t o s t a r t m a ki ng m or e out o f i t t ha n j u s t l e a r ni ng t he not e s a nd l e a r ni ng t he r hy t hm s t ha t s w he n I s t a r t t o us e i m a ge r y. L oui s a l s o e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y a f t e r t he r udi m e nt s of t he pi e c e w e r e l e a r ne d. H e s t a t e d: D ur i ng t he p r e pa r a t i on p r oc e s s f or m us i c a l l i t e r a t u r e t ha t I m pr e pa r i ng, dur i ng t he l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s i n pa r t i c ul a r a f t e r a ba s i c know l e dge of m us i c i s a l r e a dy t he r e B ut I ne e d t o hone t ha t know l e dge i nt o a m o r e de t a i l e d m a s t e r y o f t he m us i c G e ne r a l l y, a l l voc a l i s t s e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y du r i ng pr a c t i c e i n r e l a t i on t o t he l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s w hi c h c ons i de r a bl y out w e i ghe d t he r e s pons e s gi ve n f or be f o r e or a f t e r pr a c t i c e R e ga r di ng t i m e s t he s e s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y, a di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n pr a c t i c e a nd r e he a r s a l a r os e a s a n i s s ue pa r t i c ul a r t o t he c l a s s i c a l voc a l pr o f e s s i on. F or s ol o s i nge r s pr a c t i c e w a s us ua l l y c onduc t e d a l one a t va r i ous t i m e s m os t c onve ni e nt f or t he i ndi vi dua l R e he a r s a l s w e r e m or e f o r m a l e ve nt s s c he dul e d a n d or ga ni z e d f o r t he pur pos e of s t a gi ng a n ope r a or r e c i t a l us ua l l y i nvol vi ng ot he r s i nge r s m us i c i a ns a nd pos s i bl y di r e c t or s a nd c oa c he s de pe ndi ng on t he s i ngi ng ge nr e a nd pe r f o r m a nc e ve nue S i nge r s w e r e r e qui r e d

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156 t o s how up a nd pa r t i c i pa t e ha vi ng a l r e a dy m e m or i z e d t he i r r ol e s a nd a r i a s J os e phi ne e xpl a i ne d: I pr e pa r e m ys e l f out s i d e of r e he a r s a l a nd t he n I c om e t he r e a nd j us t r e he a r s e w i t h t he ot he r m us i c i a ns S o i t s r e a l l y a l ot o f i ns t a nt m us i c S o i t s not a l ot o f w o r k. W e r e e xpe c t e d t o do a l ot of w or k on our ow n, a nd c om e pr e pa r e d. L oui s r e s pons e a l s o i l l us t r a t e d t hi s w he n he s a i d, I m m uc h m or e l i ke l y t o us e i m a ge r y or vi s ua l i z a t i on i n a dva nc e of a r e he a r s a l t ha n I a m t o us e i t dur i ng t he r e he a r s a l i t s e l f N i c hol a s di f f e r e nt i a t e d hi s r e he a r s a l a nd pr a c t i c e e f f or t s w he n he s a i d, i f I m i n r e he a r s a l i n a s how a nd t r yi ng t o s t udy a s e c ond o r t hi r d s how a t t he s a m e t i m e t he n i t s t r i c ky ba l a nc e t o s t a y r e s t e d e nough t o a c c om pl i s h e ve r yt hi ng. H e w a s i n r e he a r s a l s f or one ope r a w hi l e l e a r ni ng a nd p r a c t i c i ng ot he r r ol e s D i f f e r e nt i a t i ng p r a c t i c e r e he a r s a l a nd pe r f or m a nc e pe r i ods w a s i m por t a nt w he n e xa m i ni ng pr o f e s s i ona l s i nge r s i m a ge r y us e F or t he pu r pos e s of t hi s s t udy be f or e pe r f or m a nc e r e f e r r e d t o pe r i ods f ol l ow i ng t he c om pl e t i on of a l l p r a c t i c e s a nd r e he a r s a l s A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d i m a ge r y j us t pr i or t o pe r f or m i ng T hr e e s i nge r s e nga ge d i n p r e pe r f o r m a nc e r out i ne s of e xt e ns i ve i m a ge r y a nd qui e t t i m e on t he da y o f t he pe r f o r m a nc e t o m e nt a l l y pr e pa r e f or op t i m a l pe r f or m a nc e t ha t e ve ni ng, a s A nna a pt l y de s c r i be d: T he da y i t a l l c om e s t oge t he r i nt o one t hi ng a nd, w he n I put m y m a ke up a nd ha i r on, I l l t a ke t hr e e hou r s i f I c a n i f I ha ve i t i f I ha v e t he t i m e I l l t r y t o do a n hou r t o t hr e e hou r s . . I m r e a l l y j us t f oc us e d on t he e n t i r e t y of t he pe r f or m a nc e N i c hol a s va l ue of hi s e xt e ns i ve pr e pe r f or m a nc e ( or pr e a udi t i on) i m a ge r y t i m e w a s r e f l e c t e d i n t he f ol l ow i ng quot e I f e e l t ha t g i vi ng m ys e l f e nough t i m e t o a c hi e ve f oc us

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157 be f or e a n a udi t i on or pe r f or m a nc e i s a l m os t m or e i m por t a nt t ha n a nyt hi ng e l s e on a pe r f or m a nc e or a udi t i on da y U s e of i m a ge r y i n r e l a t i on t o pe r f or m a nc e s a nd a u di t i ons r e pr e s e nt e d a gr e a t por t i on of w he n s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y a nd bot h of t he s e t ype s of pe r f or m a nc e s s houl d be i nc l ude d i n f ut u r e r e s e a r c h. V oc a l i s t s r e s pons e s f or us i ng i m a ge r y dur i ng pe r f or m a nc e s va r i e d. N i ne s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y dur i ng pe r f or m a nc e ; f i ve r e por t e d a s i gni f i c a nt l y di m i ni s he d a m ount w hi l e on s t a ge a nd s i x a f t e r pe r f o r m a nc e A s a n e xa m pl e C a t he r i ne s a i d, D ur i ng a pe r f or m a nc e I onl y e m pl oy i m a ge r y i f I f a l l out o f c ha r a c t e r a nd ne e d t o ge t ba c k i n. W he n I 'm a c t ua l l y pe r f or m i ng i t i s di s t r a c t i ng t o b e t hi nki ng a bout pe r f or m i ng, i t 's be t t e r t o j us t do i t M os t of t he i m a ge r y t ha t s i nge r s us e d i n pe r f or m a nc e w a s s e t be f or e ha nd a nd w a s i nt e nde d t o r e nde r a ut om a t i c i t y t o t he i r e x e c ut i on a nd por t r a ya l s on s t a ge F r a nc i ne f ur t he r i l l us t r a t e d I m a w a r e t ha t I m us i ng i t w he n I m pe r f o r m i ng, but I m s o i nvol ve d i n t he pe r f or m a nc e t ha t I don t ne c e s s a r i l y r e m e m be r us i ng i t I j us t r e m e m be r m a ki ng t he c ons c i ous de c i s i on be f or e ha nd t o do i t C onve r s e l y, t w o voc a l i s t s r e po r t e d us i ng no i m a ge r y du r i ng pe r f or m a nc e i nc l udi ng B a r r y, w ho s a i d, I don t us e i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m a nc e I us e i m a ge r y i n r e he a r s a l s o w he n p e r f or m a nc e c om e s w ha t e ve r c om e s out c om e s out H a r r i e t e xpl a i ne d s om e of t he r e a s ons w hy s he us e d l e s s i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m a nc e S he s a i d f o r e xa m pl e I us e i t a l l be f or e ha nd, s o t ha t by t he t i m e I m on s t a ge I m onl y a c t i ng i n t ha t c ha r a c t e r S i x pa r t i c i pa nt s r e po r t e d us i ng i m a ge r y t o a l e s s e r e xt e nt a f t e r pe r f or m i ng pr i m a r i l y us e i t a s a l e a r ni ng t ool f or f ut u r e pr e s e nt a t i ons A nna s t a t e d:

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158 [ U ] s ua l l y I gi ve m ys e l f a t l e a s t f our or f i ve da ys be f or e I s t a r t t o t a ke a pa r t t he pe r f or m a nc e a nd r e w or k i n, ne xt t i m e I m goi ng t o do t hi s i t s gonna f e e l l i ke t hi s a nd i t s gonna be l i ke t hi s e xpe r i e nc e F e w pa r t i c i p a nt s a r t i c ul a t e d t hi s t ype of r e t r os pe c t i on a nd i nt e nt i on t o c ha nge be ha vi or f or t he f ut ur e pe r f o r m a nc e s I m a ge r y e nga ge m e nt a f t e r pe r f o r m a nc e w a s m or e c om m on i n t he r e s pons e s of s i nge r s s uc h a s M oni que w ho r e pe a t e dl y pe r f or m e d t he s a m e r ol e s a nd c onc e r t s dur i ng t he s i ngi ng s e a s on. V oc a l i s t s us e d i m a ge r y di f f e r e nt l y t hr oughout t he ye a r A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y du r i ng t he pe r f o r m a nc e s e a s on w he t he r i t w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pr a c t i c e r e he a r s a l or pe r f or m a nc e T he s i x pa r t i c i pa nt s w h o r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y t o pr e pa r e f or t he ne xt s e a s on a l s o r e por t e d us i ng s om e i m a ge r y dur i ng br e a ks S e ve n s i nge r s s a i d t he y t ook a r e s t f r om i m a ge r y w hi l e on e xt e nde d va c a t i ons f i ve us e d l e s s i m a ge r y, a nd t h r e e r e por t e d i nc or po r a t i ng i t m or e F o r e xa m pl e L oui s s a i d, I m i ght u t i l i z e i t i n a nt i c i pa t i on of t he ne xt s e c t i on of t he r e he a r s a l S t i l l s om e c on f us i on r e m a i ne d a s t o w he t he r t he s e br e a ks w e r e r e s t pe r i ods t h r oughout t he da y, be t w e e n pr a c t i c e a nd pe r f o r m i ng or dur i ng a n e xt e nde d va c a t i on s uc h a s t he s um m e r S i nge r s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y e xt e ns i ve l y a t t i m e s out s i de of pr a c t i c e r e he a r s a l a nd pe r f or m a nc e E i ght pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y a t a nyt i m e or m os t o f t he t i m e f i ve pr e f e r r e d t he da y a nd o f t hos e t hr e e i m a gi ne d upon w a ki ng up i n t he m or ni ng N i ght pr ove d t o be a m or e f a vor a bl e t i m e f or 11 pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l udi ng s e ve n w ho s pe c i f i e d us i ng i m a ge r y be f or e goi ng t o s l e e p. O ne s i nge r ha d no pr e f e r e nc e be t w e e n da y a nd ni ght E nga gi ng i n i m a ge r y r e qui r e d qui e t t i m e s f or s e ve n pa r t i c i pa nt s e s pe c i a l l y E l oi s e w ho s a i d, I m by m ys e l f a nd t he r e s l i ke n ot hi ng goi ng on a nd I c a n j us t do i t i n

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159 m y m i nd, w i t h no t hi ng t o i nt e r f e r e K a r e n a nd O p he l i a de s c r i be d us i ng i m a ge r y w hi l e e nga ge d i n t e di ous t a s ks s uc h a s c l e a ni ng or w a s hi ng di s he s T o s um m a r i z e t h e f i ndi ngs o f w he r e a nd w he n a l l s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y i n s t a ge a nd pr a c t i c e a r e a s dur i ng p r a c t i c e j us t pr i or pe r f o r m a nc e a nd dur i ng t he pe r f or m a nc e s e a s on. M a ny pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d i m a ge r y m or e du r i ng r e he a r s a l a nd pe r f o r m a nc e t ha n be f or e a nd a f t e r A t ot he r t i m e s t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d i m a ge r y a t hom e i n be d a t ni ght a nd dur i ng qui e t pe r i ods out s i de e xe r c i s i ng, a nd d ur i ng t r a ve l T he s e r e s ul t s ha ve he l pe d t o l a y t he f ounda t i on o f w hat i m a ge r y s i nge r s us e a nd l a t e r w hy t he y us e i t W hat D o V oc al P r of e s s i onal s U s e i n T he i r I m age r y t o A c hi e v e O pt i m al P e r f or m anc e ? I n a na l yz i ng t he s e r e s pons e s t he f r a m e w or k e s t a bl i s he d i n da nc e r e s e a r c h of t he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e ( N or di n & C um m i ng 200 5) w a s us e d t o di f f e r e nt i a t e i m a ge r y t ype s f r om i m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s I m a ge r y t ype s w e r e a l l t hos e r e s pons e s t ha t t he s i nge r qua l i f i e d a s a n i m a ge I m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s e nc om pa s s e d t he w a y i n w hi c h t he s e i m a ge s w e r e e xpe r i e nc e d, s uc h a s t hr ough t he s e ns e s pe r s pe c t i ve a nd va r i ous a s pe c t s of t he i r a bi l i t y t o i m a gi ne M os t of t e n pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s r e pr e s e nt e d s pe c i f i c de t a i l s of t he i m a ge r y t ype c ha r a c t e r i s t i c a nd pur pos e of i m a ge r y a s a n i nt e gr a t e d e xpe r i e nc e I t w a s c ha l l e ngi ng t o e xt r a c t t he s i nge r s i m a ge r y c ont e nt f r om i t s i nt e nde d pu r pos e F ur t he r m or e t he s a m e i m a ge c oul d be us e d f or a v a r i e t y of r e a s ons a nd m a ny di f f e r e nt i m a ge s w e r e us e d f or a s i ngl e pur pos e E ve n du r i n g t he i nt e r vi e w s pa r t i c i pa nt s poi nt e d t hi s out I va n c l e a r l y i l l us t r a t e d hi s di f f i c ul t y i n a n a l yz i ng hi s ow n i m a ge r y pr a c t i c e s w he n he s a i d, I t s ha r d t o s e pa r a t e i t ou t w he n I t h i nk a bout i t m i ni m a l l y be c a us e w he n I a m vi s ua l i z i ng, i t s a l l t he s e t hi ngs c om bi ne d I n ot he r w or ds t he y r e a l l t oge t he r f or

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160 m e E xc e s s i ve l y di s s e c t i ng t hi s i nf or m a t i on m a y ha ve r e f l e c t e d t oo m uc h of a n a t om i s t i c a ppr oa c h t o a na l yz i ng t he ve r y na t ur a l a nd hol i s t i c hum a n f unc t i on t ha t i s i m a ge r y a s e xpe r i e nc e d by t he s e pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s T he r e f or e i m a ge r y t ype s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e por t e d a s c onc i s e l y a nd e f f i c i e nt l y a s pos s i bl e i n or de r t o pr ovi de a c l e a r f ounda t i on of t he va r i ous qua l i t i e s of i m a ge s t he s e s i nge r s us e d. T he s e c t i on i n t h i s c ha pt e r on w hy pr ovi de s a m or e c om p r e he ns i ve pi c t ur e of t he i n t r i c a c i e s of t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s i m a ge r y. I m age r y T y pe s I m a ge r y t ype s a r e r e por t e d i n c a t e gor i e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he s i nge r s r e s pons e s a nd i nc l ude d t he c ont e nt o f t he i m a ge i t s e l f T he i r r e s pons e s w e r e or ga ni z e d i nt o s i x pr e de t e r m i ne d s ubc a t e gor i e s t ha t w e r e a da pt e d f r om d a nc e r s i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) I n t he or i gi na l f our W s of i m a ge r y us e f r a m e w or k f o r da nc e r s ( s e e F i gur e 2) t he l a s t c a t e gor y w a s i r r e l e va nt i m a ge s w hi c h r e pr e s e nt e d a n i m a ge r y t ype t ha t w a s not f ound i n t he s i nge r s r e s pons e s H ow e ve r t he c a t e gor y of m us i c al s ound w a s a dde d t o t he t ype s of i m a ge r y s i nge r s de s c r i be d i n t he i r i nt e r vi e w s T he r e s ul t i ng s i x c a t e gor i e s of i m a ge r y t ype s i nc l ude d : ( a ) e xe c ut i o n, ( b ) m e t a phor i c a l ( c ) c ont e xt ( d) body r e l a t e d, ( e ) m us i c a l s ound, a nd ( f ) c ha r a c t e r / r ol e i m a ge s T a bl e 14 pr ov i de s a s um m a r y of t he c a t e gor i e s de s c r i pt i ons a n d num b e r of pa r t i c i pa nt s E x e c ut i on i m age s E xe c ut i on i m a ge s f or s i nge r s w e r e di vi de d i nt o t hr e e s e c t i ons : ( a ) s ki l l l e a r ni ng a nd t e c hni que ( b ) s e que nc e s a nd pl a nni ng, a nd ( c ) goa l i m a ge s A l l s i nge r s r e por t e d a n a bunda nc e of i m a ge s of s ki l l l e a r ni ng a nd t e c hni que s a nd t he i r r e s pons e s r e s ul t e d i n f i ve s ubc a t e gor i e s : ( a ) voc a l pr oduc t i on, ( b) t e xt a nd ph r a s e s ( c ) pa ge not a t i on, a nd ( e ) br e a t h c ont r ol I m a ge s of vo c a l pr oduc t i on a nd t e c hni que w e r e de s c r i be d i n a l l s i nge r s i n t e r vi e w s F o r e xa m pl e i n m a i nt a i ni ng c ons i s t e nc y t hr ough he r

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161 T a bl e 14 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s I m age r y T y pe s C at e gor i e s and Subc at e gor i e s I m a ge r y T ype s C a t e gor i e s S ubc a t e gor i e s N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s V o c a l P r o d u c t i o n 1 5 T e x t & P h r a s e s 1 4 P a g e N o t a t i o n 1 0 S k i l l L e a r n i n g & T e c h n i q u e B r e a t h C o n t r o l 6 P h r a s i n g & P a t t e r n s 5 P l a n n i n g S o n g s & A r i a s 8 S o n g C y c l e s & R e c i t a l s 6 S e q u e n c e s & P l a n n i n g C r e a t i n g S t o r i e s 3 O u t c o m e 1 5 P e r f o r m a n c e 1 1 E x e c u t i o n G o a l I m a g e s P r o c e s s 1 5 I m a g i n a r y A c t i o n s 1 3 O b j e c t s N o t P r e s e n t 1 2 M e t a p h o r i c a l V o c a l P r o d u c t i o n C o l o r s ( H u e & T i m b r e ) 9 S t a g e S c e n a r i o s 1 5 S o n g S c e n a r i o s 6 D i s t a n t P l a c e s 1 E n v i r o n m e n t s H o m e 1 A u d i t i o n P a n e l i s t s 4 O t h e r P e o p l e 3 I m a g i n a r y P e o p l e N o n h u m a n 4 C o n t e x t A u d i e n c e I m a g e s F a v o r a b l e i m a g e s 9

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162 T a bl e 14 ( c ont i nue d) I m a ge r y T ype s C a t e gor i e s S ubc a t e gor i e s N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s B r e a t h C o n t r o l 1 3 C a l m I m a g e s 4 A r o u s a l N e r v e s & T e n s i o n 4 A p p e a r a n c e L o o k i n g G o o d O n S t a g e 1 1 V o c a l P r o d u c t i o n 1 0 B o d y F e e l i n g & M o v e m e n t 6 P o s t u r e & A l i g n m e n t 6 B o d y R e l a t e d K i n e s t h e t i c H e a l t h 6 M e l o d y 1 4 A c c o m p a n i m e n t 1 4 M u s i c a l S o u n d s P i t c h 1 0 M o d e l i n g E x p e r t S i n g e r s 1 0 I d e a l S o u n d s 7 M u s i c a l S o u n d V o c a l S o u n d s O n e s O w n V o i c e 4 E m o t i o n s o f C h a r a c t e r s 1 5 E m o t i o n s P a s t E x p e r i e n c e s 6 A c t i o n & M o v e m e n t 1 2 B e h a v i o r s A c t i n g o u t R o l e s 4 C o s t u m e s & C h a r a c t e r 4 C h a r a c t e r / R o l e A p p e a r a n c e G e n d e r C h a n g e 1

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163 voc a l r e gi s t e r s M oni que s a i d, I s e e m y s ound a s a s t e a dy f l ow i ng t hi ng e ve n f r om t op t o bot t om E l oi s e de s c r i be d he r i m a ge s of he r e f f o r t s t o e s t a bl i s h c ont i nui t y t hr ough he r r e gi s t e r s S he of f e r e d, i n o r de r t o s i ng s c a l e s t ha t go up a nd dow n I i m a gi ne t he oppos i t e di r e c t i on a nd t he oppos i t e f l ow of e ne r gy I n s e c ur i ng a not he r t ype o f voc a l t e c hni que O phe l i a i m a gi ne d a s of t pa l a t e l i f t a nd m a ybe f l a t t e ni ng of t he t ongue t o pr oduc e m or e voc a l r e s ona nc e S i ngi ng t e xt a nd w or ds of one l a ngua ge o r a not he r ha ve be e n c ons i de r e d a ba s i c r e qui r e m e nt of voc a l pe r f or m a nc e F our t e e n pa r t i c i pa nt s of f e r e d r e s pons e s i n w hi c h t he i r i m a ge r y i nc l ude d w or ds t e xt or phr a s e s w hi c h e m e r ge d i n t he i nt e r vi e w s a s a n i m a ge r y e l e m e nt s pe c i f i c t o s i nge r s F r a nc i ne a pt l y i l l us t r a t e d t hi s i n t he f ol l ow i ng quot e : I s e e t he w or ds W he n I s t udy j us t t he l a ngua ge I s e e t he I P A of t he pr onunc i a t i on of t he w o r ds A nd m os t i m por t a nt l y w i t h t he l a ngu a ge s t ha t I don t s pe a k f l ue nt l y I s e e a l s o i n m y he a d, t he E ngl i s h t r a ns l a t i on. S o a s I m s i ngi ng i n G e r m a n I w i l l a c t ua l l y s e e i n m y he a d, t he E ngl i s h w or ds I t he l p s m e E xpe r i e nc e of w or ds t e xt a nd phr a s e s i n vi s ua l i m a ge r y e m e r ge d na t ur a l l y f r o m t he da t a a nd s e e m e d a ppr opr i a t e s i nc e t he s e e l e m e nt s w e r e a n i nt e gr a l pa r t of s i ngi ng t r a i n i ng f o r pe r f or m a nc e T e n s i nge r s r e por t e d ot he r us e s of vi s ua l i m a ge s w i t h r e ga r d t o pe r f or m a nc e pa r t i c ul a r l y pa ge not a t i on i n r e l a t i on t o m e m or i z i n g a nd e xe c ut i ng s ongs K a r e n ha d a n a c ut e a bi l i t y i n v i s ua l i z i ng t he s c or e S he s t a t e d, I s e e t ha t a l l t he t i m e I c oul d t e l l you w ha t s i de of t he pa ge s om e t hi ng s on. I don t ha ve a phot ogr a phi c m e m or y bu t i t s a l m os t l i ke t ha t B a r r y a nd F r a nc i ne r e por t e d ha vi ng a phot ogr a phi c m e m or y a nd pa ge

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164 not a t i on i m a ge s w e r e e a s y f or t he m t o r e c r e a t e R e ga r di ng hi s e xpe r i e nc e of m e nt a l l y s e e i ng t he s c or e N i c hol a s s a i d, W he n I m m e m o r i z i ng, a l i t t l e bi t I t r y t o ge t be yond t ha t s oon, a s qui c k a s I c a n, s o t ha t I don t ha ve t o t hi nk a bout t ha t a nd c a n c onc e nt r a t e on ot he r t hi ngs I va n a l s o ha d r e m e m be r e d hi s i m a ge s of not a t i on a nd de s c r i be d, t he r e s a s e ns e of t he m us i c t he s he e t hove r i ng i n f r ont i n m y c ons c i ous ne s s T he n t ha t di s a ppe a r s P a ge not a t i on i m a ge s of t e n s ubs i de d w he n t he m us i c be c a m e m or e i nt e r na l i z e d. M e nt a l l y r e a di ng f r om a s c or e w a s s o m e t i m e s ne c e s s a r y i n c e r t a i n i ns t a nc e s O phe l i a s a i d s he us e d not a t i on i m a ge r y i f I do ha ve a di f f i c ul t pa s s a ge w he r e t hi s c a de nz a f or i ns t a nc e ha s a l ot o f t e c hni c a l l y c ha l l e ngi ng a s pe c t s I w oul d s e e ye s t he m us i c not a t i on i n f r ont of m e M oni que a nd F r a nc i ne m e nt a l l y i m a gi ne d t he s c or e pa r t i c ul a r l y w hi l e s i ngi ng m ode r n c l a s s i c a l m us i c F r a nc i ne s a i d: [ W ] i t h c on t e m por a r y m us i c ve r y s pe c i f i c a l l y w he n i t s s om e t hi ng t ha t m a y be a t ona l i t doe s n t e ve n m a ke s e ns e ha r m oni c a l l y, a ga i n, I s e e t he s c or e I s e e t he s c or e i n m y he a d, a nd I know e xa c t l y w he r e t ha t C i s c om pa r e d t o t he G c om pa r e d t o t he A P a ge not a t i on i m a ge s w e r e c onne c t e d t o pe r f o r m i n g t he s ong a nd he l pe d s i nge r s t o a c c ur a t e l y m e m or i z e t he not e s a nd p hr a s e s of t he m us i c S i x s i nge r s i m a gi ne d b r e a t hi ng t e c hni que s r e l a t e d t o voc a l pr oduc t i on ( e g B a r r y: i m a gi ne t he pa t h of your br e a t h ) W hi l e p e r f or m i ng a l ong phr a s e A nna w oul d i m a gi ne i nha l i ng a t t he s a m e t i m e s he w a s s i ngi ng. T he s e t e c hni que s a nd br e a t hi ng i m a ge s r a nge d f r om s pe c i f i c a na t om i c a l r e pl i c a t i o n t o i ndi vi dua l l y c r e a t e d m e t a phor s E ve r y s i nge r r e por t e d m e nt a l l y r e he a r s i ng a nd s i l e nt l y s i ng i ng t he s ongs a nd r ol e s M a ny of t he i r i m a ge s di r e c t l y r e f l e c t e d or w e r e r e l a t e d t o a l l t he s ki l l s t he y

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165 pr a c t i c e d phys i c a l l y. D i f f e r e nc e s a ppe a r e d i n t he d e gr e e t o w hi c h t he y f oc us e d on voc a l pr oduc t i on, w o r ds b r e a t h, o r va r i ous c om bi na t i ons of t he s e m us i c a l e l e m e nt s a nd m a y ha ve be e n a s s oc i a t e d w i t h l e ve l s of t r a i ni ng a nd e x pe r i e nc e A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s ga ve e xa m pl e s of i m a ge s of s e que nc e a nd pl a nni ng i nvol ve d i n l e a r ni ng or pe r f or m i ng m us i c r a ngi ng f r om a s i m pl e phr a s e t o a n e nt i r e r e c i t a l or r ol e T he s e t y pe s of i m a ge s c om pr i s e d f ou r s e c t i ons : ( a ) phr a s i ng a nd pa t t e r ns ( b ) pl a nni ng s ongs a nd a r i a s ( c ) s e que nc e s of s ong c yc l e s a nd r e c i t a l s a nd ( d) c r e a t i ng s t or i e s F i ve voc a l i s t s i m a gi ne d phr a s e s a nd di s t i nc t s e c t i ons e s pe c i a l l y w hi l e l e a r ni ng r e pe r t oi r e s uc h a s J os e phi ne w ho s a i d, I s e e t he pa t t e r ns i n t he m us i c E i ght pa r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d i m a ge s of pl a nni ng t h r ough t he e xe c ut i on of t he i r s ongs a nd a r i a s C a t he r i ne i l l us t r a t e d t hi s by s a yi ng, I i m a gi ne m ys e l f s i ngi ng t h r ough a n e nt i r e pi e c e voc a l l y a nd s i ngi ng e ve r yt hi ng c or r e c t l y F or s i x s i nge r s s e que nc i ng i m a ge r y w a s i nt e gr a t e d i nt o t he i r r e c i t a l a r r a nge m e nt a nd pr ogr e s s i on t hr ough s ong c yc l e s N i c hol a s c r e a t e d s pe c i f i c i de a s a bout how e a c h pi e c e i s goi ng t o go L i ke w i s e J os e phi ne i m a gi ne d t he s ha pe of t he m us i c a nd w ha t e a c h s ong w a s i n t he pr ogr a m T hr e e s i nge r s r e por t e d c r e a t i ng s t or i e s t ha t l i nke d t he di f f e r e nt s ongs i n t he i r r e c i t a l s t oge t he r i n a c ohe s i ve m a nne r E l oi s e s a i d s he ha d t o c om e up w i t h s om e ki nd of a s t or y t ha t m a ke s s e ns e i n or de r t o s e que nc e t hr ough t he m S i nge r s us e d e l e m e nt s na t ur a l l y i nt r i ns i c i n m us i c a s w e l l a s t hos e r e l a t e d t o t he c om pos i t i ons t o c r e a t e pl a nni ng a nd s e que nc e i m a ge s i n pe r f o r m a nc e pr e pa r a t i on I m a ge r y of goa l s r e por t e d by t he s e s i nge r s pr i m a r i l y c ons i s t e d of t hr e e di s t i nc t ki nds : ( a ) out c om e goa l s ( b ) pe r f or m a nc e goa l s a nd ( c ) pr oc e s s goa l s T he s e i m a ge s r a nge d f r om voc a l i s t s w ho i m a gi ne d s i ngi ng i n a r ol e i n a f a m ous ope r a hous e t o e xe c ut i ng t he pe r f e c t hi gh not e

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166 O ut c om e goa l i m a ge s w e r e r e por t e d i n 14 pa r t i c i p a nt s a nd r a nge d f r o m s pe c i f i c c l e a r l y i m a gi ne d goa l s t o t hos e m or e ge ne r a l S pe c i f i c out c om e goa l s i nc l ude d i m a ge s t ha t w e r e s om e t i m e s c om pe t i t i ve t he r e s ul t s of be i ng c hos e n f r om a n a udi t i on, pe r f or m i ng a de s i r e d r o l e o r s i ngi ng on a c e r t a i n l e ve l or i n a f a m ous ve nue F o r i ns t a nc e i m a ge s i nvol ve d vi s ua l i z i ng t he f i na l r e s u l t s of a c om pe t i t i on, a s w he n I va n i m a gi ne d hi m s e l f w i t h t he a w a r d i n ha nd. C a t he r i ne a nd ot he r s i m a gi ne d de t a i l s of a s pe c i f i c r ol e a nd a c t ua l l y be i ng e nga ge d t o pe r f or m i t a s a r e s ul t of t he a udi t i on C a t he r i ne s t a t e d, I i m a gi ne m ys e l f i n t he c os t um e a nd i n t he s how I 'm a udi t i oni ng f or i m a gi ni ng a l r e a dy ha vi ng got t e n t he gi g a nd pe r f or m i ng i t on s t a ge F r a nc i ne or ga ni z e d a r out i ne f or i m a gi ni ng t he out c om e f o r pe r f or m i n g i n di f f e r e nt ve nue s S he s a i d: I n or de r t o a c c om pl i s h s uc c e s s f ul l y s i ngi ng f or t he m a nd ge t t i ng t he j ob w ha t I ve done i s go i nt o t he hous e [ t he a t r e ] s e e a s how t he r e a nd i m a gi ne m ys e l f on t ha t s t a ge s o put t i ng m ys e l f on t he ot he r s i de a l r e a dy be f or e t he y e ve n gi ve m e t he oppor t uni t y S a yi ng I a l r e a dy go t t he j ob, I a l r e a dy ha ve gone t hr ough r e he a r s a l s I a l r e a dy a c c om pl i s he d e ve r yt hi ng O t he r s pe c i f i c out c om e goa l s i nc l ude d i m a ge s of p e r f or m i ng i n p r e s t i gi ous ve nue s s uc h a s t he M e t r opol i t a n O pe r a F or e xa m pl e N i c hol a s s t a t e d, t he M E T i s one of t he pl a c e s I m hopi ng t o s i ng be f or e I m done a nd s o I ve us e d t ha t a l i t t l e bi t t o i m a gi ne m ys e l f s i ngi ng t he r e G e ne r a l ou t c om e goa l s w e r e l e s s f o c us e d a nd w e r e e vi de nt i n s i x quot e s T o i l l us t r a t e G e r a l d ha d goa l s of s i ngi ng a t i nt e r n a t i ona l pe r f or m i ng ve nue s a nd be i ng l i ke ot he r hi gh l y s ought a f t e r pe r f o r m e r s a nd J os e phi ne w a nt e d t o s i ng on t he ne xt l e ve l of t he bus i ne s s on a hi ghe r l e ve l of t he bus i n e s s T he s e voc a l i s t s us e d out c om e go a l s f r om ve r y s pe c i f i c a nd c l e a r t o f a i r l y ge ne r a l i m a ge s

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167 P e r f or m a nc e goa l s pr i m a r i l y de a l t w i t h s i nge r s a c hi e vi ng s t a nda r ds of e xc e l l e nc e i n t he i r ow n on s t a ge pe r f or m a nc e s w hi c h w a s de s c r i be d i n 11 pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s T he s e goa l i m a ge s i nc l ude d a de s i r e t o e xpe r i e nc e ge ne r a l pos i t i ve a f f e c t a s e xpr e s s e d by E l oi s e w ho w a nt e d t o r e a l l y e nj oyi ng w ha t I m d oi ng, a nd t he s om e w ha t m or e s pe c i f i c i nt e nt i on e xpr e s s e d by G e r a l d of m a ki ng m y voc a l t e c hni que be t t e r O phe l i a c onc e nt r a t e d on t he i m m e di a t e m o m e nt w i t h t he a s s um pt i on t ha t he r e f f or t s c oul d l e a d t o be t t e r oppor t uni t i e s S he s t a t e d, I t r y t o f oc us on t he t a s k a t ha nd, a nd t he t a s ks a t ha nd a l w a ys l e a d t o t he bi gge r goa l S he a l s o e xpr e s s e d c ont i nue d i nt e r e s t e d i n ge t t i ng be t t e r a nd be t t e r a n d be t t e r I t s s om e t hi ng I l l ne ve r be a bl e t o a t t a i n. O phe l i a s pe r f or m a nc e goa l s w e r e m o r e ge ne r a l a s c om pa r e d t o L oui s goa l s w hi c h w e r e m or e a r t i s t i c a nd c om bi ne d pe r f or m a nc e a nd out c om e g oa l s a s he i l l us t r a t e d: I w a nt t o gi ve t he a bs ol ut e be s t a r t i s t i c pe r f o r m a nc e t ha t I c a n. A nd w he n I do t ha t r e ga r dl e s s of w ha t s t a ge I m on or w ha t r ol e i t i s i n, t ha t s w he n I f e e l l i ke I m t he m os t a c c om pl i s he d voc a l l y t ha t I c a n be N i c hol a s i m a gi ne d e xe c ut i ng hi s i de a l a udi t i on a n d s a i d, I w i l l i m a gi ne i t a l l I l l pi c t ur e t he s c e ne us ua l l y a he a d of t i m e T hi s t ype of goa l w or k i nc l ude d a l l t hr e e t ype s of goa l s out c om e pe r f or m a nc e a nd pr oc e s s R e s ul t s f or pr oc e s s goa l i m a ge s of l e a r ni ng or i m p r ovi ng s pe c i f i c pe r f or m a nc e s ki l l s w e r e s o f r e que nt i n t hi s s t u dy a nd s e e m e d t o be a n i nt r i ns i c a s pe c t of s i nge r s i m a ge r y c ont e nt T he s e r a nge d f r om s e c ur i ng t e c hni que s i n voc a l pr oduc t i on a c hi e vi ng a c e r t a i n s ound qua l i t y, e m bodyi ng t he c ha r a c t e r a nd e m ot i on of a r ol e a nd i m a gi ni ng t he body t o ha ve a c e r t a i n a ppe a r a nc e i n t he e f f o r t t o a c hi e ve a ut om a t i c i t y, o r ha bi t i n t he de s i r e d s ki l l or t e c hni que T he s pe c i f i c f i ndi ngs a r e not r e por t e d he r e s i nc e t he y w e r e

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168 f ound t o pe r va de ne a r l y e ve r y a s pe c t of t he i m a ge r y t he s e pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s us e d a nd a r e i nc l ude d i n m a ny ot he r s e c t i ons of t hi s c ha pt e r M e t aphor i c al i m age s S i nge r s o f f e r e d a pl e t hor a o f m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge s pr i m a r i l y r e l a t i ng t o voc a l pr oduc t i on W hi l e m os t of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d s om e ki nd of m e t a phor i n t he i r i m a ge r y, a l l w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h a num be r o f m e t a phor s us e d i n t r a di t i ona l voc a l t r a i ni ng. R e s pons e s of m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge s r e l a t e d t o voc a l p r oduc t i on i nc l ude d t hr e e c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) i m a gi na r y a c t i ons ( b) ob j e c t s not pr e s e nt a nd ( c ) c ol or s T he s e r e pr e s e nt e d c a t e gor i e s a da pt e d f r om da nc e r s f r a m e w or k of i m a ge r y ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) T hi r t e e n pa r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d m e t a phor i c a l i m a gi na r y a c t i ons r e pr e s e nt i ng voc a l pr oduc t i on a nd t e c hni que s uc h a s r e gul a t i ng t he br e a t h a nd voc a l pl a c e m e nt G e r a l d c ont r ol l e d hi s br e a t h by us i ng t he i m a ge of v e r y g e nt l y, ge nt l y ge nt l y bl ow i ng a s pe c of dus t F or voc a l s uppor t J os e phi ne i m a gi ne d t ha t he r voi c e i s a s he l f I t hi nk of pu t t i ng t hos e not e s on a s he l f F r a nc i ne s i m a ge r y of he r voc a l pr oduc t i on w a s l i ke c a t c hi ng t he ba s e ba l l be hi nd m y he a d. R e l a t e d t o e nl a r gi ng t he t hr oa t f o r s i ngi ng, E l oi s e s a i d, I m a gi ne t ha t you r e a s e a l a nd you r e goi ng t o s w a l l ow t he f i s h w hol e S om e of t he s e s i nge r s us e d m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge s c ons i s t e nt l y i n t he i r voc a l pr oduc t i on T w e l ve s i nge r s de s c r i be d obj e c t s t ha t w e r e not p r e s e nt c ons t i t ut i ng t he w i de s t va r i e t y of m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge s a l l of w hi c h r e l a t e d t o voc a l t e c hni que a nd pr oduc t i on E xa m pl e s of s om e obj e c t i m a ge s w e r e pot a t o s a c ks i n t he ba c k ( B a r r y) a c onve yor be l t ( M oni que ) a nd a s t r i ng of s pa gh e t t i ( H a r r i e t ) M a ny of t he s e s i nge r s r e por t e d us i ng t he s a m e i m a ge s w hi c h m a y ha ve r e pr e s e nt e d t hos e ge ne r a l l y a c c e pt e d i n voc a l pe da gogy ( e g. s m e l l i ng a r os e ; f i r e pl a c e be l l o w s ) M a ny s i nge r s c r e a t e d t he i r ow n

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169 m e t a phor s s uc h a s E l oi s e s i m a ge o f a c r e s c e nt m oon, w hi c h i s be hi nd you e m br a c i ng you. S om e o f t he s e i m a ge s w e r e us e d i n pl a c e of a c t ua l m e c ha ni c a l pr oc e s s e s of t he voi c e M or e e xa m pl e s of t he s e i m a ge s a nd t he s pe c i f i c a ppl i c a t i ons w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he s e c t i on on voc a l pr oduc t i on i n t hi s c ha pt e r F or ni ne o f t he s e voc a l i s t s i m a ge r y of c ol or r e pr e s e nt e d vi s ua l hue s a nd s ha de s pr i m a r i l y r e l a t i ng t o t he t i m br e o r t he qua l i t y o f vo c a l s ound. A nna e xpe r i e nc e d t he v i s ua l a s pe c t of c ol or i n r e l a t i on t o pa r t s of m us i c S he s a i d, I l l s e e c ol or s di f f e r e nt not e s ha ve di f f e r e nt c ol o r s a nd di f f e r e nt ph r a s e s ha ve di f f e r e n t c ol or s r e ds or gr e e ns or b l ue s I va n pr ovi de d t he r i c he s t c ol or i m a ge r y de s c r i pt i on. H e s a i d: A pa s s i ona t e l i ne w i l l i nva r i a bl y f or m e ha ve r e d di s h t i nt A pa s s i ona t e l i ne w i t h a n a s c e ndi ng l i ne t ow a r ds t he t op w i l l be t ha t pa s s i ona t e r e d t ha t goe s t o a br i ght e r c ol o r a l m os t a l w a ys t ow a r ds . gol d, a v e r y br i ght gol d, f o r t he u ppe r pa r t of t he voi c e N o m a t t e r w ha t i t i s no m a t t e r i f i t s bl ue t ha t I m e nvi s i oni ng, i t a l w a ys goe s t o gol d on t op r e d t o go l d on t op. T he t op i s a l w a ys t he s a m e c ol or U nl e s s I us i ng s om e t hi ng l i ke a f i l l e v oc e s ot t o v o c e pi ani s s i ni up t op, t he n i t s a s i l ve r T hi s e xa m pl e c oul d a r gua bl y be de s c r i be d a s c hr o m e s t he s i a i n w hi c h t he vi s ua l c ol or s m i x w i t h s ound i n i m a ge r y C onve r s e l y, ot he r s i ng e r s r e ga r de d c ol or i m a ge s a s t hos e r e l a t i ng t o t he e m ot i ona l e xp r e s s i on i n t he voi c e N i c hol a s i l l us t r a t e d t hi s by s a yi ng, I l l l ook t o pl a c e or l ook t o w or k i n c e r t a i n m e na c i ng c ol or s i n a m e na c i ng s i t ua t i on I n e i t he r c a s e c ol or i m a ge s f or t he s e s i nge r s de s c r i be d a s pe c t r um of voc a l qua l i t i e s t he y c oul d a ppl y i n t he i r s i ngi ng

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170 C ont e x t i m age s V oc a l i s t s i m a ge r y e nc om pa s s e d s pe c i f i c c ont e xt s a nd i nc l ude d t hr e e di f f e r e nt c a t e gor i c a l a s pe c t s : ( a ) e nv i r onm e nt s ( b) i m a gi na r y pe opl e a nd ( c ) a udi e nc e s A l l 15 s i nge r s i m a gi ne d va r i ous e nvi r o nm e nt s w hi c h w e r e c l a s s i f i e d i nt o f our s ubc a t e gor i e s : ( a ) be i ng on s t a ge o r i n t he t he a t r e ( b) t he s c e ne of a s ong, ( c ) di s t a nt pl a c e s a nd ( d) hom e V oc a l i s t s de s c r i be d va r i ous s c e na r i os of t he m s e l ve s pe r f or m i ng on a s t a ge F or e xa m pl e C a t he r i ne s a i d, I w oul d j us t i m a gi ne be i ng on s t a ge t a ki ng a c ur t a i n c a l l H a r r i e t i m a gi ne d s i ngi ng t o a n a udi e nc e m e m be r i n t he l a s t r ow of t he t he a t r e M oni que w a s one of s i x s i nge r s w ho c r e a t e d he r ow n a r t i s t i c e nvi r onm e nt i n he r m i nd w he n s he pe r f o r m e d. S he s a i d, I t r y t o put m ys e l f i n t he s c e ne of t he pi c t u r e t ha t t ha t s ong i s pa i nt i ng. S o i n m y m i nd I s e e t he s un; I s e e t he w a t e r ; I s e e t he m ount a i ns T he y r e a l l a r ound m e K a r e n i m a gi ne d be i ng i n a f a r a w a y l a nd. I va n de s c r i be d i m a ge s of hi s ol d a ge w i t h hi s gr a ndc hi l dr e n s ur r oundi ng hi m a t hom e i n f r ont o f a f i r e pl a c e S e ve r a l di f f e r e nt ki nds of i m a gi na r y pe opl e a ppe a r e d i n s e ve n pa r t i c i pa nt s i m a ge s T he s e i nc l ude d a udi t i on pa ne l i s t s a nd pe opl e w ho w e r e di r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t he pr oduc t i on s uc h a s ot he r c ha r a c t e r s i n a s c e ne t he di r e c t or or i ns t r um e nt a l m us i c i a ns O t he r s i nge r s i m a gi ne d pa ne l i s t s pr e s e nt i n t he i r a udi t i ons F our pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d non hum a ns s uc h a s a nge l s a nd de vi l s F r a nc i ne i m a gi ne d a n a nge l on one s houl de r a nd a de vi l on t he ot he r A t t i m e s j us t pr i o r t o pe r f o r m i ng, M oni que r e po r t e d c ont e ndi ng w i t h i m a ge s of S a t a n w he n s he w a s f e e l i ng ne r v ous N i ne voc a l i s t s i m a gi ne d i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h t he a udi e nc e M os t of t he s e s i nge r s r e ga r de d t he a udi e nc e m e m be r s f a vor a bl y, a s K a r e n c a m e t o r e a l i z e S he s a i d, I a c t ua l l y i m a gi ne d a n a udi e nc e r e a l l y not t ha t f r i ght e ni ng O t he r i m a ge s i nvol ve d s ha r i ng s om e t hi ng w i t h t he a udi e nc e E l oi s e w oul d pi c t ur e t he a udi e nc e a nd t r y t o i m a gi ne w ha t

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171 t he y r e hopi ng f or a nd J os e phi ne i m a gi ne d he r v oi c e w a s r e a c hi ng t ha t l a s t s e a t not j us t t he pe opl e i n t he ve r y f r ont O t he r a udi e nc e i m a ge s a r e r e por t e d i n t he A r t i s t i c R e a s on s s e c t i on of t hi s c ha pt e r B ody r e l at e d i m age s B ody r e l a t e d i m a ge s c om pr i s e d s i nge r s c onc e r ns w i t h f e e l i ng or s e e i ng t he i r phys i c a l body a nd w a s c l a s s i f i e d i nt o f our c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) a r ous a l ( b) a ppe a r a nc e a nd ( c ) ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge s W i t h r e ga r d t o t he body, f e e l i ngs a nd i m a ge s of a r ous a l w e r e t he m os t f r e que nt w i t h 13 voc a l i s t s s ha r i ng t he i r i m a ge s of br e a t h c ont r ol f e e l i ngs of c a l m a nd s pe c i f i c a r e a s of phy s i c a l t e ns i on. B r e a t h i m a ge s i n r e l a t i on t o c a l m i ng t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs w e r e m os t c om m on i n r e gul a t i ng a r ous a l G e r a l d i m a gi ne d t he f e e l i ng o f t he br e a t h c a l m l y m ovi ng t hr ough m y body w hi l e J os e phi ne us e d t he i m a ge r y of s e e i ng t he br e a t h c om i ng i n a nd out of m y body. F our s i nge r s e xpe r i e nc e d c a l m ne s s t hr oughout t he i r body i nc l u di ng D or i ne w ho i m a gi ne d t hi s f e e l i ng of pe a c e pe a c e f ul ne s s a nd c a l m ne s s t ha t s t a r t s a t t he t op of m y he a d a nd goe s dow n m y body F our s i nge r s m e nt i one d i m a ge s o f f e e l i ng ne r vous ne s s a nd t e ns i on t ha t a s s i s t e d t he m i n e xe c ut i ng t he i r pe r f or m a nc e s E l e ve n pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d a ppe a r a nc e i m a ge s w hi c h w a s not s ur pr i s i ng s i nc e m uc h of t he i r pr of e s s i ona l l i ve s i nvol ve d pe r f or m i ng i n f r ont of a n a udi e nc e A ppe a r a nc e i n t hi s c a t e gor y pr i m a r i l y i nc l ude d i m a ge s f o r s t a ge pe r f o r m a nc e out s i de of a ppe a r a nc e i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m i ng i n c ha r a c t e r i n a n ope r a J os e phi ne us e d t he i m a ge r y of l ooki ng be a ut i f ul a nd a ppe a l i ng t o t he a udi e nc e A nna s a i d, s om e t i m e s I l l l ook i n t he m i r r or t o s e e w ha t I m doi ng r i gh t t he n, a nd t he n t o c r e a t e w ha t I w a nt i t t o l ook l i ke i n m y he a d i ns t e a d. L oui s s t a t e d, [ I ] vi s ua l i z e m ys e l f l ooki ng t he w a y t ha t I w a nt t o G e ne r a l l y a ppe a r a nc e

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172 i m a ge r y w a s us e d t o c r e a t e a t l e a s t t he i l l us i on o f a ppr opr i a t e vi s ua l p r e s e nt a t i on f or pe r f or m a nc e S i nge r s r e s pons e s va r i e d i n t he l e ve l of de t a i l t he y i m a gi ne d t he i r a ppe a r a nc e t o be on s t a ge S e ve r a l he l d a m or e ge ne r a l i m a ge i n t he i r m i nds a s t o w ha t t he y w a nt e d t o l ook l i ke on s t a ge ( e g J os e phi ne l ooki ng be a ut i f ul a nd a ppe a l i ng t o t he a udi e nc e . . l ooki ng l i ke a pr i nc e s s O phe l i a : poi s e d, t r yi ng t o be a s i n c ont r ol e ve n t hough you c om pl e t e l y f e e l out of c ont r ol ) H a r r i e t pr opos e d, I gue s s t he r e s a s t a nda r d t ha t I e xpe c t of m ys e l f w he n on s t a ge Y e s I e xpe c t t o h a ve a f i ni s he d pr oduc t O t he r s i nge r s a ppe a r a nc e i m a ge r y w a s e xt e ns i ve l y de t a i l e d. F or e xa m pl e K a r e n i l l us t r a t e d: I know how I w i l l w a l k on s t a ge how I w i l l l ook how I w i l l hol d m y ha nds w ho a m I how do I w a nt t o p r e s e nt m ys e l f how I go o n, how I l ook w he n I go on how I e ve n ho l d m y body w he n I go on. E a c h de t a i l c onc e r ni ng he r a ppe a r a nc e w a s f ul l y pl a nne d a nd vi vi dl y i m a gi ne d. R e por t s of ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge s i nc l ude d t hos e of ( a ) voc a l pr oduc t i on ( b) body f e e l i ng a nd m ove m e nt ( c ) pos t ur e a nd a l i gnm e nt a nd ( d) he a l t h. T e n r e s pons e s i n voc a l pr oduc t i on i m a ge s i nvol ve d s pe c i f i c m e c ha ni s m s i n t he body. C a t he r i ne a nd I va n p r ovi de d t he be s t e xa m pl e s of t he s e i m a ge s C a t he r i ne i m a gi ne d t he f e e l i ng o f w he r e i n your body t he r e s ona nc e [ of t he s ound] w i l l s t r i ke or w he r e i t w i l l vi br a t e I va n us e d i m a ge r y t o e xpe r i e nc e t he e a s e t he vi br a t o t he bl ood f l ow t he vi b r a t i ons of t he t one w he n m y body i s s uppor t i ng t he t one w ha t t ha t f e e l s l i ke i n m y body. A l ong w i t h t he s i x voc a l i s t s w ho m e nt i one d body m ove m e nt J os e phi ne f e l t i t w a s i m por t a nt t o i m a gi ne your s e l f a s a young c hi l d o r a s a ba by l a m b o r s o m e t hi ng t o ge t your body t o m ove a c e r t a i n w a y. S i x s i nge r s de s c r i be d i m a ge s of pos t ur e a nd a l i gnm e nt w hi c h e i t he r

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173 r e pr e s e nt e d opt i m a l qua l i t i e s or t hos e r e pr e s e nt i ng t he phys i c a l c ha r a c t e r de pi c t e d i n a s ong or a r i a S i x pa r t i c i pa nt s r e po r t e d he a l t h i m a ge s D ur i ng pe r i ods of s i c kne s s B a r r y i m a gi ne d t he t i m e s w he n I w a s pe r f e c t l y he a l t hy. B e f or e e ve n va gue s ym pt om s of i l l ne s s s e t i n, G e r a l d w oul d t e l l h i m s e l f t ha t I m h e a l t hy, s o t ha t m y body f unc t i ons a t i t s opt i m a l l e ve l I m a ge s r e l a t i ng t o t he body s e e m e d t o be a n i nt r i ns i c pa r t o f pe r f or m i ng a s a s i nge r M us i c al s ound i m age s S i nge r s r e por t e d he a r i ng b ot h m us i c a l a nd voc a l s ound i m a ge s i n r e l a t i on t o pr a c t i c e a nd pe r f or m a nc e A l l s i nge r s e nga ge d i n s i l e nt m us i c a l pr a c t i c e a nd m e nt a l l y he a r d va r i ous s ounds i n t he i r he a d r e l a t e d t o voc a l a nd m us i c a l pr oduc t i on. M us i c a l a udi t or y i m a ge s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d i nt o t h r e e s ubc a t e gor i e s : ( a ) pi t c h, ( b) m e l ody a nd ( c ) a c c om pa ni m e nt T e n s i nge r s m e nt a l l y he a r d t he s pe c i f i c p i t c h j us t pr i or t o i ni t i a t i ng t ha t s ound i n t he i r voi c e M oni que i l l us t r a t e d t hi s pe r f e c t l y w he n s he s a i d: I a l w a ys br e a t he i n t he not e I m a bout t o s i ng. . s o t ha t t he not e i s e xi s t i ng be f or e I a c t ua l l y s i ng i t s o t ha t I m r i ght i n t he m i ddl e of t he not e . . I c a n t t e l l you how t ha t he l ps you m e nt a l l y T he r e s no s e a r c hi ng f or i t you s e e you ve pi nne d i t be f o r e you e ve n s t a r t E xa c t pi t c he s w e r e i m a gi ne d i n t he be gi nn i ng of p hr a s e s i n a ppr oa c hi ng a h i gh not e a s w e l l a s not e s t hr oughout t he a r i a F our t e e n pa r t i c i p a nt s m e nt i one d he a r i ng t he m e l ody i n t he i r he a ds j us t be f or e s i ngi ng t he l i ne or dur i ng m e nt a l pr a c t i c e J os e phi ne i m a gi ne d he a r i ng a pa s s a ge i n m y he a d be f o r e I w oul d s i ng i t A l l but one pa r t i c i pa nt r e por t e d he a r i ng t he a c c om pa ni m e nt e s pe c i a l l y t he m us i c a l i nt e r va l s t ha t oc c ur r e d be t w e e n t he i r vo c a l phr a s e s D ur i ng s i l e nt p r a c t i c e D or i ne s a i d s he w a s he a r i ng t he pi a no, i m a gi ni ng

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174 t he a c c om pa ni m e nt f r om s t a r t t o f i ni s h. G e r a l d s t a t e d, I do i m a gi ne t he a c c om pa ni m e nt [ a nd] he a r t he i nt e r l ude s H a r r i e t r e por t e d m e nt a l l y he a r i ng a not he r i ns t r um e nt s pa r t t ha t pl a ys i n s or t of due t w i t h m e w hi l e I m s i ngi ng m y l i ne S om e s i nge r s m e nt i one d be i ng a bl e t o m e nt a l l y he a r s e ve r a l m us i c a l e l e m e n t s s i m ul t a ne ous l y. N i c hol a s s a i d, I w i l l he a r ba s i c a l l y e ve r yt hi ng goi ng on i n m y he a d S o I l l he a r m y l i ne a n d he a r t he t e xt a nd he a r t he o r c he s t r a I t s e e m e d t ha t t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d s ound i m a ge s t o a s s i s t t he m i n s i l e nt a nd voc a l pr a c t i c e a nd pe r f or m a nc e P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge s of voc a l s ounds w hi c h w e r e di vi de d i nt o t he s ubc a t e gor i e s of ( a ) m ode l i ng s ounds of e xpe r t s i n ge r s ( b) i de a l s ounds a nd ( c ) he a r i ng one s ow n s i ngi ng voi c e A nna w a s one of 10 voc a l i s t s w ho us e d s ound m ode l i ng i n he r i m a ge r y, w hi c h s he de ve l ope d by [ w ] a t c hi ng ot he r s i nge r s a nd l i s t e ni ng t o t he i r m us i c e s pe c i a l l y on e s t ha t a r e s i m i l a r t o you. L i ke w i s e E l oi s e s a i d, I ha ve s or t o f i m i t a t e d or i m a gi ne d pe r f or m a nc e s t ha t I ve s e e n ot he r pe opl e do. S e ve r a l of t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d t he na m e s of f a m ous voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l s t he y us e d a s i ns pi r a t i on f or t he i r i m a ge s I de a l s ound i m a ge s w e r e pos s i bl y a c ul m i na t i on of w ha t t ha t pa r t i c ul a r s i nge r ha d s e e n, he a r d, a nd e xpe r i e nc e d t hr oughout t he y e a r s a s a pr of e s s i ona l S e ve n s i nge r s r e por t e d us i ng t he s e i m a ge s i nc l udi ng K a r e n w ho s t a t e d, I know t he s ound t ha t I w a nt t o m a ke F ou r s i nge r s he a r d t he i r ow n voi c e i n s i l e nt pr a c t i c e a nd a nt i c i pa t e d a n i de a l pr oduc t i on of t ha t s pe c i f i c s ound. T he s e s ound i m a ge s pr ovi de d a n i de a l a nd a ppr opr i a t e s t a nda r d t ha t t he s e pe r f or m e r s s t r ove t o a c hi e ve or a c c om pl i s he d s uc c e s s f ul l y. C h ar ac t e r / r ol e i m age s A not he r i m por t a nt a s pe c t of i m a ge r y f or t he s i ngi ng pr of e s s i ona l w a s t he e l e m e nt of a c t i ng F r om t he p a r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s c ha r a c t e r a nd r ol e i m a ge s i nc l ude d ( a ) e m ot i ons ( b) be ha vi or s a nd ( c ) a ppe a r a nc e

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175 E m ot i ona l i m a ge s e m e r ge d a s be i ng vi t a l t o br i ngi ng a c ha r a c t e r s ong, o r r o l e t o l i f e f o r a l l t he s e pr of e s s i ona l s S e ve r a l of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpr e s s e d t he i r c onvi c t i on t ha t e m ot i ona l i m a ge r y ga ve t he m m ot i va t i on f o r t he b e ha vi or of t he c ha r a c t e r E l i c i t i ng t he c or r e c t e m ot i ona l i m a ge w a s c r i t i c a l i n pr ovi di ng a n a ppr opr i a t e f r a m e w or k f or how t he c ha r a c t e r or s t or y of t he s ong pr og r e s s e d i n pe r f or m a nc e I va n s a i d, t he m ood c ha nge s ye a h, t he m om e nt be f or e t he c ha nge ha ppe ns S i x of t he s i nge r s r e por t e d us i ng t he i r ow n m e m or i e s of pa s t e xpe r i e nc e s t o c r e a t e t he a ppr op r i a t e e m ot i ons i n a pe r f or m a nc e I n r e c r e a t i ng a s or r ow f u l f e e l i ng f or a pa r t i c ul a r r ol e B a r r y s a i d he a c c om pl i s he d t hi s by goi ng t o t ha t pl a c e a nd br i ngi ng ba c k i m a ge s of a s a dde r t i m e I n or de r t o m a i nt a i n t he a bi l i t y t o s i ng i n t i m e s o f g r e a t e m ot i on du r i ng a n a r i a J os e phi ne w oul d s i m pl y t ouc h on m e m or i e s t o be a bl e t o b r i ng you t o t ha t pl a c e t ha t you ne e d t o be a bl e t o po r t r a y t he s ong. S pe c i f i c a nd a pp r opr i a t e e m ot i ona l i m a ge r y w a s de e m e d c r i t i c a l t o pe r f o r m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e a nd s e r ve d a s i nt e r na l gui de a nd m o t i va t i on f or m ove m e nt o f t he c ha r a c t e r F our t e e n voc a l i s t s r e por t e d i m a gi ni ng t he be ha vi or of t he c ha r a c t e r w hi c h i nc l ude d 12 i m a ge s of m ot i va t i on f or a c t i on a nd f o ur i m a ge s of phys i c a l l y s t a gi ng t he s pe c i f i c c ha r a c t e r s a nd r ol e s N i c hol a s a l l ow e d hi s i m a ge s t o na t ur a l l y de ve l op by s e t t i ng m ys e l f w i t hi n t he t e xt of t he pl o t of t he op e r a a nd l e t t i ng t he m ot i va t i on of t he c ha r a c t e r a nd ge t t i ng i de a s t ha t t he c ha r a c t e r w oul d be ha vi ng, s ha pe t he phr a s e s A nna s a i d, I do s om e of t hi s vi s ua l i z a t i on w he r e I l l go t hr ough a nd go I w a nt t hi s t o l ook l i ke t hi s e s pe c i a l l y i f you r e dyi ng or you r e a ngr y a s pa r t of t he r e qui r e m e nt s of s t a gi ng. S om e o f t he s e s i nge r s e m pl oye d m ove m e nt a nd be ha vi or i m a ge s i n s pe c i f i c r ol e s I n por t r a yi ng M i m i i n L a B ohe m e J os e phi ne r e c a l l e d, I w oul d be us i ng a l o t . c ons t a nt l y ha vi ng i m a ge s goi ng t hr ough m y br a i n a t t he s a m e t i m e I w a s s i ngi ng, of

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176 s om e one w ho w a s w ounde d, a nd phys i c a l l y c r i ppl e d a nd di s a bl e d t o po r t r a y t ha t t ype o f c ha r a c t e r F or s t a gi ng C ar m e n F r a nc i ne c onj u r e d i m a ge s of be i ng i n S pa i n m a ny ye a r s a go a nd de s c r i be d, I m a gi ne t ha t you a r e di ggi ng t hr ough t he e a r t h you r e i n S e vi l l e . . W ha t doe s t he f l oor f e e l l i ke unde r ne a t h you r [ s i c ] f e e t ? T hi s i m a ge r y i nc l ude d s e ns or y a nd c ont e xt de t a i l s he l pe d r e c r e a t e t he c ha r a c t e r s e xpe r i e nc e i n t he s c e ne A ppe a r a nc e i n t hi s c a t e gor y e nc om pa s s e d e xt e r na l a s pe c t s of t he c ha r a c t e r t he c os t um e s m a ke up, a nd hi s t or i c a l a nd c ul t ur a l s e t t i ngs a s di c t a t e d by t he c om pos e r o r t he pr oduc t i on. F our s i nge r s de s c r i be d t he i r i m a ge r y o f a ppe a r a nc e i nc l udi ng E l oi s e w ho be s t i l l us t r a t e d t he s e de t a i l s S he s a i d: I i m a gi ne m ys e l f i n t he c os t um e a nd on t he s e t a n d i n t he c a s t l e or w ha t e ve r i t w a s t he m a ns i on, o r i n t he c oun t r y hom e o r w he r e ve r a nd w ha t w a s I w e a r i ng w ha t w a s m y ha i r a nd w ha t w e r e t he j e w e l s I n a c t i ng out r ol e s s i nge r s of t e n ne e de d t o i m a gi ne a c ha nge i n t he i r phys i que f or pr e s e nt a t i on on s t a ge B e i ng a m e z z o, F r a nc i ne ha d t o a ppe a r t o c ha nge ge nde r s w hi c h s he a pt l y di d t hr ou gh he r a ppe a r a nc e i m a ge r y. I m a ge r y t ype s de s c r i be d he r e r e pr e s e nt e d t he c ont e nt t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e po r t e d us i ng i n t he i r pr of e s s i ona l e f f o r t s T he f o l l ow i ng s e c t i ons de s c r i be s om e of t he i m a ge r y qua l i t i e s t he s e voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s e xpe r i e nc e d t he i r i m a ge s I m age r y C har ac t e r i s t i c s P a r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s r e l a t i ve t o i m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w a s c ode d us i ng f i ve s ubc a t e gor i e s f r om N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005: ( a ) s e ns e i m a ge r y, ( b ) pe r s pe c t i ve ( c ) a bi l i t y, ( d) d i r e c t i on a nd de l i be r a t i on, a nd ( e ) a m o unt a nd dur a t i on

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177 Se ns e s S i x c a t e gor i e s of i m a ge r y i nvol vi ng t he s e ns e s e m e r ge d i n t he a na l ys i s : ( a ) s i ght o r vi s ua l ( b) s ound or a udi t or y ( c ) ki ne s t he t i c or f e e l i ng, ( d) t ouc h or t a c t i l e ( e ) s m e l l or ol f a c t o r y, a nd ( f ) t a s t e or gus t a t or y D ur i n g t he i nt e r vi e w s s i nge r s w e r e gi ve n t he oppor t uni t y t o de s c r i be t he s pe c i f i c e xt e nt of t h e i r us e s of e a c h of t he s e ns e s A l l s i nge r s r e por t e d us i ng vi s i on, a udi t or y a nd ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y i n t he i r a r t i s t i c e nde a vor s T he s e ns e s of t ouc h, s m e l l a nd t a s t e w e r e us e d t o a m uc h l e s s e xt e nt i n pr a c t i c e a nd pe r f or m a nc e P a r t i c i pa nt s s pe c i f i c r e s pons e s t o e a c h of t he s e ns e s i nvol vi ng s om e I m age r y T y pe s ( a ddr e s s e d i n t he pr e vi ous s e c t i on) a r e gi ve n i n T a bl e 15 A l l 15 s i nge r s r e po r t e d us i ng vi s ua l i m a g e r y w i t h s i x w ho s a i d t he y us e d i t a g r e a t de a l B a r r y a nd F r a nc i ne e a c h s t a t e d t he y ha d a ph ot ogr a phi c m e m or y a nd K a r e n de c l a r e d t ha t s he w a s a vi s ua l l e a r ne r T he s e ns e of s i ght w a s us e d pr i m a r i l y i n vi s ua l i z i ng s c e na r i os voc a l pr oduc t i on a nd t e c hni qu e a nd pa ge not a t i on A udi t or y i m a ge r y w a s e m pl oye d by a l l t he voc a l i s t s t o i m a g i ne he a r i ng va r i ous a s pe c t s of t he i r voc a l pr oduc t i on, t he m us i c a nd t he t e xt i nvol ve d i n t he i r s i l e nt pr a c t i c e a nd pe r f or m a nc e K i ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y i nc l ude d f e e l i ng t he i nt e r na l t e c hni c a l phys i c a l a nd e m ot i ona l a s pe c t s of s i ngi ng a nd a c t i ng S pe c i f i c i m a ge s us i ng t he s e t hr e e s e ns e s w e r e de s c r i be d i n t he pr e vi ous l y s e c t i on on i m a ge r y t yp e s T a c t i l e a nd ki ne s t he t i c s e ns e s ha d be e n c onf us e d i n s e ve n of t he i nt e r vi e w e e s r e s pon s e s w hi c h m a y ha ve or i gi na t e d f r om s i m pl e t e r m i nol ogy di f f e r e nc e s F or e xa m pl e L oui s de c l a r e d, I do e xpe r i e nc e t he m us i c i n a ve r y t a c t i l e vi s c e r a l k i nd of w a y. E ve n t hough t a c t i l e r e f e r s t o t ouc h a nd vi s c e r a l c onnot e s de e pe r f e e l i ngs t he a s s um pt i on c oul d r e a s ona bl y be m a de t ha t he w a s r e f e r r i ng t o t he i nt e r na l voc a l m e c ha ni s m a nd pe r ha ps not t he e pi de r m i s o f t he ne c k a nd j a w T h i s w a s l a t e r c onf i r m e d i n a s ubs e que nt

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178 T a bl e 15 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s Spe c i f i c Se ns e I m age r y U s e S e ns e C a t e gor i e s N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s V i s ua l 15 ( 6 a gr e a t de a l ) S c e na r i o 14 ( 6 i m a gi ne d e xe c ut i ng t he a r i a ) V oc a l P r oduc t i on 13 ( 8 a na t om i c a l 8 m e t a phor i c a l ) S i ght / V i s ua l P a ge N ot a t i on 13 S ound 15 W or ds / T e xt / P hr a s e 14 P i t c h 10 M e l ody 14 A c c om pa ni m e nt 14 S i l e nt S i ngi ng 15 S ound/ A udi t or y V oc a l P r oduc t i on 15 K i ne s t he t i c 15 C ha r a c t e r / E m ot i on 14 V oc a l P r oduc t i on 15 B ody C he c k 10 P i t c h P r e pa r a t i on 3 K i ne s t he t i c A ut om a t i c i t y 2

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179 T a bl e 15 ( c ont i nue d) S e ns e C a t e gor i e s N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s T ouc h 4 ye s 5 s om e 4 not m uc h, 2 none C ha r a c t e r B a s e d 8 F ut ur e P e r f or m a nc e 2 T ouc h/ T a c t i l e C om m uni c a t i on w i t h A udi e nc e 2 S m e l l 2 ye s *, 4 s om e 8 not m uc h, 1 none C ha r a c t e r / E m ot i on 7 ( 4 e m ot i on i n c ha r a c t e r ) V oc a l P r oduc t i on 3 S m e l l / O l f a c t or y V e nue 3 T a s t e 2 ye s *, 5 s om e 7 not m uc h, 1 none T e xt ba s e d 9 T a s t e / G us t a t or y V oc a l P r oduc t i on 3 N ot e : *B ot h w e r e c ooks t e l e phone c onve r s a t i on w i t h L oui s i n w hi c h he c l a r i f i e d t ha t he di d i m a gi ne ki ne s t he t i c a l l y i n s i ngi ng a nd t a c t i l e s e ns e i m a ge r y w a s us e d m o r e i n t he phys i c a l a c t of voc a l i z i ng a nd s e c ur i ng t e c hni que F ur t he r m o r e w he n t he t e r m s ki ne s t he t i c a nd t a c t i l e w e r e e xpl a i ne d a s de f i ne d i n t hi s s t udy, a l l s e ve n s i nge r s a gr e e d t he y m e a nt t he ki ne s t he t i c s e ns e a nd not t ouc h.

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180 T he s e ns e of t ouc h w a s us ua l l y e m pl oye d i n i m a ge r y w he n i t s us e w a s di c t a t e d i n t he t e xt of a s ong o r t he a c t i on of a c ha r a c t e r F or e xa m pl e L oui s w a s one of t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho us e d t he t a c t i l e s e ns e i n i m a gi ni n g f ut ur e a udi t i ons a nd pe r f or m a nc e s : I f I know t ha t I m goi ng t o be w e a r i ng a c e r t a i n s ui t f or a n a udi t i on I t r y t o f e e l . w ha t i t w i l l be l i ke t o be s t a ndi ng up i n t ha t s ui t A m I go i ng t o pl a c e m y ha nds on t he pi a no du r i ng a r e c i t a l a nd i f s o, w ha t w i l l t ha t pi a no f e e l l i ke ? I f I m goi ng t o ha ve a w i g on dur i ng a n op e r a t i c pe r f or m a nc e how w i l l t ha t c ons t r i c t m y s c a l p? S m e l l a nd t a s t e i m a ge r y w a s e m pl oye d t he l e a s t w i t h r oughl y ha l f o f t he s i nge r s r e por t i ng t ha t t he y di d not us e i t ve r y of t e n. O nl y t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s s e e m e d t o e nj oy t a s t e a nd s m e l l i m a ge s a nd r e f e r e nc e d t he i r e xt e ns i ve c o oki ng e xpe r i e nc e O t he r w i s e t he s e voc a l i s t s r e por t e d us i ng s m e l l s a nd t a s t e s i n c ont e x t of t he s ong or r ol e U s i ng ol f a c t or y i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m i ng i n t he ope r a L a B ohe m e I v a n w oul d i m a gi ne w ha t k i nd of pe r f um e M i m i w oul d w e a r W ha t k i nd of c ol ogne doe s R udol pho put on w he n he s ge t t i ng r e a dy t o go out ? G e r a l d us e d t he s e ns e of s m e l l t o a s s i s t hi m i n po r t r a yi ng hi s c ha r a c t e r i n s pe c i f i c s e t t i ngs H e s a i d: I n s om e ope r a s you f i nd your s e l f i n pa r t i c ul a r s c e ne s w he r e you r e e i t he r i n a dunge on or you r e on t he ga l l ow s or s om e pl a c e a nd w he r e pe opl e a r e dyi ng a r ound you, s o t ha t i m a gi ni ng t he s m e l l of de a t h, o r w ha t e ve r t ha t gi ve s a f e a r r e s pons e a nd a n hone s t one S i nge r s a l s o us e d s m e l l i m a ge r y i n a s s oc i a t i on w i t h t he odor of s pe c i f i c ve nue s T a s t e i m a ge r y w a s s om e t i m e s c onne c t e d w i t h t e xt a r t i c ul a t i on a nd c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on. A s a n i l l us t r a t i on E l oi s e s a i d, Y ou ve got t o m a ke t hi s yu m m y. .

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181 l i ke f e l i c e m i f a [ f r o m M us e t t a s W a l t z i n L a B ohe m e ] i t s l i ke i t s got t o be yu m m i e r e a c h t i m e you s a y i t S o I t hi nk o f da r ke r a nd da r k e r c hoc ol a t e a s I go up. T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d t ouc h, a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y s m e l l a nd t a s t e t he l e a s t of a l l t he s e ns e s but t he s e s e ns e s r e m a i ne d a va i l a bl e f or us e i n i m a ge r y t o m o r e s pe c i f i c a l l y e m body t he c ha r a c t e r a nd e nha nc e pe r f or m a nc e H ow e ve r c onc e r ni ng pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t i ng us i ng no s pe c i f i c s e ns e i m a ge r y, t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d no t a c t i l e one s i nge r ne ve r us e d s m e l l a nd a not he r s i nge r di d not us e t a s t e F r om t he a bove a c c ount s voc a l i s t s us e d t h e i r s e ns e s e xt e ns i ve l y f or i m a ge r y i n t he i r pr o f e s s i ona l e nde a vor s I n ga t he r i ng i nf o r m a t i on on r a t i ng s e ns e i m a ge r y pr e f e r e nc e of us e s i nge r s w e r e a s ke d t he i nt e r vi e w que s t i on 3 6, W hi c h of t he a bove w oul d be t he pr i m a r y s e ns e s you us e i n your i m a ge r y? S ubs e qu e nt pr obe s dur i ng t he i nt e r v i e w i nvi t e d voc a l i s t s t o r a t e t he s e c ond a nd t hi r d s e ns e t he y us e d i n i m a ge r y I va n a nd M oni que f e l t t he s e ns e s of vi s i on, he a r i ng, a nd ki ne s t he s i a he l d e qua l a nd t opm os t i m po r t a nc e T he f i na l r e s ul t s of t he s e ns e i m a ge r y r a t i ng by t he r e m a i ni ng 13 pa r t i c i pa nt s r e ve a l e d vi s i on t o be f i r s t w i t h s e ve n vot e s a udi t or y s e c ond w i t h e i ght a nd ki ne s t he s i a t hi r d w i t h s i x ( s e e T a bl e 16) S e ve r a l m e nt i one d t ouc h us ua l l y a s t he t hi r d c hoi c e but l a t e r c ha nge d i t t o ki ne s t he s i a T a s t e w a s us e d s l i ght l y m or e t ha n s m e l l a nd m os t l y e m pl oye d by t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho e nj oye d c ooki ng. T he r e f or e by a ve r y s m a l l m a r gi n i n t he f i r s t t hr e e t he r a nk or de r of s e ns e s us e d i n i m a ge r y by t he s e pr of e s s i ona l s ol oi s t s f r om t he m os t t o t he l e a s t w a s : ( a ) vi s i on, ( b ) a udi t o r y, ( c ) ki ne s t he s i a ( d ) t a c t i l e ( e ) t a s t e a nd ( f ) s m e l l

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182 T a bl e 16 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s R ank O r de r of Se ns e I m age r y U s e S e ns e P r i m a r y S e c onda r y T hi r d V i s i on/ S i ght 7 3 3 S ound/ A udi t or y 1 8 4 K i ne s t he s i a / F e e l i ng 5 2 6 T O T A L 13 13 13 N o t e : T w o p a r t i c i p a n t s c h o o s e s o u n d k i n e s t h e t i c a n d v i s i o n t o g e t h e r a s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t P e r s pe c t i v e C a pa bi l i t i e s of vi s ua l i m a ge r y a l s o i n vol ve d t he us e of i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve s S i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy f a vo r e d i nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve how e ve r s e ve r a l us e d e xt e r na l w i t h s om e e m pl oyi ng bot h a s s e e n i n T a bl e 17 I nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve r e por t e d by 14 s i nge r s w a s s e e i ng t hi ngs f r om t he f i r s t pe r s on poi nt of vi e w N i c hol a s s t a t e d, I m a l w a ys pi c t ur i ng i t f r om m y pe r s pe c t i ve be c a us e I ne ve r s e e m ys e l f i n t he s c e ne C onve r s e l y, f i ve pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d t he e xt e r na l o r t he t hi r d pe r s on vi e w poi nt a s w a s t he pr e f e r e nc e of G e r a l d w ho s a i d, I d s e e m e w a t c hi ng f r om t he a udi e nc e I va n w a s one of t hr e e s i nge r s w ho w e r e a bl e t o s w i t c h be t w e e n i nne r a nd out e r pe r s pe c t i ve but ga ve m or e w e i ght t o t he i nt e r na l H e s a i d: I t f l i ps f r om t he i nne r e ye t o t he out e r e ye ba c k a n d f or t h . . [ I ] f I m s t uc k w i t h j us t t he out e r e ye t he n I m not a s c om pl e t e a s I c o ul d be . . W ha t s m os t pow e r f ul i s t he i nne r e ye I f I c a n ge t i nt o t he i nne r e ye of w ha t w ha t I a m i ni t i a l s e e i ng, t he n I know I m on t r a c k. . T ha t s w he n I know i t s r e a l I f I c a n do t ha t t r a ns i t i on i n m y vi s ua l i z a t i on.

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183 A nna s om e t i m e s us e d e xt e r na l t o ge t t he pe r s pe c t i ve t he a udi e nc e A ga i n t he s e vi s ua l pe r s pe c t i ve i m a ge s w e r e us e d f or va r i ous r e a s ons a nd de pe nde d on i ndi vi dua l a bi l i t i e s a nd s ki l l s T a bl e 17 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s I m age r y P e r s pe c t i v e P e r s pe c t i ve N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s I nt e r na l 14 E xt e r na l 5 S w i t c hi ng 3 I m age r y a bi l i t y A not he r pr e de t e r m i ne d c a t e gor y of i m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s w a s i m a ge r y a bi l i t y, or how w e l l t he s i nge r s w e r e a bl e t o c r e a t e t he i r i m a ge s T he s e da t a w e r e c l a s s i f i e d i nt o t hr e e s ubc a t e gor i e s : ( a ) a bi l i t y, a c c ur a c y, a nd l e ve l of de t a i l ; ( b ) de l i be r a t i on a nd di r e c t i on; ( c ) a m ount a nd dur a t i on T he f r e que nc y o f r e s ul t s of t he va r i ous c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of voc a l i s t s i m a ge r y a bi l i t y c a n be s e e n i n T a bl e 18. W he n s i nge r s w e r e a s ke d a bout t he i r i m a ge r y a bi l i t y a nd de gr e e o f a c c ur a c y s e pa r a t e l y, t he r e s ponds w e r e i de nt i c a l T w e l ve s i n ge r s s a i d i t w a s good w hi l e t hr e e ot he r s r a t e d t he i r s a s f a i r R e ga r di ng vi vi dne s s 10 voc a l i s t s r e por t e d ha vi ng ve r y vi vi d i m a ge s a nd f i ve f e l t t ha t t he i r s w e r e f a i r l y v i vi d. F our s i nge r s de s c r i be d t he i r i m a ge s a s be i ng ve r y a c c ur a t e w i t h L oui s a ddi ng, r i ght dow n t o t he l a s t l e ve l of m i nut i a S om e f e l t t ha t t he i r i m a ge s c oul d be i m p r ove d.

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184 T a bl e 18 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s I m age r y A bi l i t y C ha r a c t e r i s t i c N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s A bi l i t y 12 G ood 3 F a i r A c c ur a c y 12 V e r y a c c ur a t e 3 f a i r V i vi dne s s 10 V e r y vi vi d 5 F a i r M a ni pul a t e 11 W e l l 4 F a i r H e l pf ul 10 ( 5 no a ns w e r ) H ur t f ul 2 N ot hur t f ul 8 a t t i m e s ( 5 no a ns w e r ) D e t a i l 4 V e r y vi vi d ( 11 no a ns w e r ) N e e d f or I m pr ove m e nt 3 Y e s ( 12 no a ns w e r ) D e l i be r a t i on i nvol ve d w he t he r t he i m a ge a ppe a r e d s pont a ne ous l y or de l i be r a t e l y a nd t he de gr e e t o w hi c h i t w a s c ont r ol l e d o r m a ni p ul a t e d. S i nge r s r a t e d t he i r i m a ge r y de l i be r a t i on a s be i ng pr i m a r i l y c ont r ol l e d, w i t h 11 pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t i ng t ha t t he y w e r e a bl e t o e a s i l y m a ni pul a t e t he i r i m a ge s a nd f our r a t i ng t he i r a bi l i t y t o do t hi s a s f a i r S om e s i nge r s r e a l i z e d t ha t phys i c a l pr a c t i c e w a s a pr e r e qui s i t e t o i m a gi ni ng a s e xe m pl i f i e d by N i c hol a s w ho s a i d, I f ound t ha t pr oba bl y j us t be c a us e I ha ve a l ot of pr a c t i c e on t he s t a ge t hi ngs now t ha t I c a n i m a gi ne I m a ge r y w a s good. S om e e xc e pt i ons a nd pr obl e m s i n m a ni pul a t i ng i m a ge s i nc l ude d M oni que s l i t t l e S a t a n, w hi c h a ppe a r e d t o he r s pont a ne ous l y a nd c oul d ha ve de bi l i t a t e d he r pe r f o r m a nc e i f s he ha d not e xe r c i s e d c ont r ol ove r i t p r i or t o w a l ki ng out on s t a ge

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185 D i r e c t i on de a l t w i t h hur t f u l ( de bi l i t a t i ve ) o r he l p f u l ( f a c i l i t a t i ve ) i m a ge s I n r e s pons e t o i m a ge r y di r e c t i on 10 s i nge r s r e por t e d t ha t t he i r i m a ge s w e r e ge ne r a l l y m o r e he l pf ul a nd f a c i l i t a t i ve t ha n hu r t f ul H ow e ve r e i gh t f e l t t ha t s om e t i m e s t he i r i m a ge r y c oul d be ha r m f ul or de bi l i t a t i ve O phe l i a i l l us t r a t e d: I t s hur t f ul i f you don t c ont r ol i t . . I f you a r e di s c ove r i ng t e c hni que a nd you f i nd t he w r ong i m a ge a nd i t doe s n t he l p you a nd y ou c ont i nue t o us e i t ove r a nd ove r a ga i n, t he n ye s i t c a n be hur t f ul a s w e l l A t t i m e s A nna s i m a ge s w e r e not he l pf ul a s s he s t a t e d, i f I don t do a good j ob [ i m a gi ng] i t c a n be de s t r uc t i ve S i nge r s r e po r t e d t hi s oc c ur r i ng e s pe c i a l l y w he n t he i r i m a ge s w e r e not a ppr opr i a t e t o t he i r s pe c i f i c ne e ds C a t he r i ne f ound t ha t s om e t i m e s t he y r e not he l p f ul be c a us e t he y r e r e a l l y not t he r i ght i m a ge F r a nc i ne di s c ove r e d, I f i t s hur t f u l i t s be c a us e I ve c hos e n t o do s om e t hi ng t ha t s uns uc c e s s f ul a nd t he n, a ga i n, I ha ve t o m a ke a n a dj us t m e nt S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s di s c ove r e d pr obl e m s w he n t he y di d not t a ke t he t i m e t o i m a gi ne c l e a r l y s uc h a s O phe l i a di s c ove r i ng he r bl i nd s pot s on s t a ge w he r e s he ha d i na dve r t e nt l y om i t t e d s pe c i f i c i m a ge r y i n he r pe r f or m a nc e pr e pa r a t i on. R e ga r di ng a m ount a nd dur a t i on, t he f o r m e r de a l t w i t h t he t i m e gi ve n t o e nga ge i n i m a ge r y, w hi l e t he l a t t e r i nvol ve d how l ong t he i m a ge a ppe a r e d, r e m a i ne d a nd pr oc e e de d, a nd f a de d. A l t hough no que s t i on s pe c i f i c a l l y c e nt e r e d on e i t he r a m ount o r dur a t i on of t he i m a ge i t s e l f a f e w pa r t i c i pa nt s of f e r e d gl i m ps e s of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s i n t hi s r e ga r d. A m ount o f t i m e i n i m a ge r y s e s s i ons s e e m e d t o va r y w i t h t he i ndi vi dua l f r om ve r y qui c k f l a s he s ( G e r a l d) t o c ons c i ous l y pr a c t i c i ng i m a ge r y a l l ni ght l ong i n pr e pa r i ng

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186 f or a n upc om i ng r o l e ( E l oi s e ) R e ga r di ng dur a t i on L oui s de s c r i be d us i ng hi gh s pe e d i m a ge r y i n p r a c t i c e a nd m e m or i z i ng : I go t h r ough t he r e c i t a l ve r y qui c kl y a nd ve r y f r a nt i c a l l y i n m y m i nd i n a n a t t e m pt t o m a ke s ur e t ha t I c a n r e c a l l t he t e xt r i ght t o t he f or e f r ont o f m y m i nd ve r y qui c kl y. I t s a m e m o r y dr i l l t o m a ke s ur e t ha t I ha v e t he t e xt m e m o r i z e d r e a l l y but I a m t hi nki ng t he not e s a nd t he pi t c he s a l l t he w a y t hr ough. O f t e nt i m e s w ha t I l l do i n t hi s t ype o f pr a c t i c e i s e l i m i na t e a ny r e s t s or s e c t i ons w he r e I m not s i ngi ng. I t w i l l l i t e r a l l y be pr a c t i c i ng j us t m y s i ngi ng r e s pons i bi l i t y. A nd I l l do i t a s qui c kl y a s I c a n a nd I l l m ove f r om one s e c t i on t o t he ne xt i m m e di a t e l y w i t hout br e a k. T hi s de t a i l e d e xa m pl e of hi gh s pe e d, or c om pr e s s e d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e s e e m e d t o he l p s ol i di f y t he s ong i n m e m or y f or L oui s J us t pr i o r t o a udi t i ons N i c hol a s t r i e d, i n hi s w or ds t o vi s ua l i z e pr e t t y m uc h e ve r yt h i ng t ha t h a ppe ns f or a bout 10 m i nut e s D o r i ne s pe nt 15 m i nut e s i m a gi ni ng he r pe r f or m a nc e s f r o m s t a r t t o f i ni s h. I nf o r m a t i on on i m a ge r y a m ount a nd dur a t i on i n voc a l pe r f or m a nc e s e e m e d t o de pe nd on t he ne e d of t he i ndi vi dua l a nd t he i r f a c i l i t y w i t h i m a ge r y s ki l l s A s a r e s ul t of pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t he s e i nt e r vi e w s s e ve r a l s i nge r s unde r s t a ndi ng of i m a ge r y c ha nge d pa r t i c ul a r l y w i t h r e ga r d t o t he us e s of t he i r s e ns e s a nd a bi l i t i e s G e r a l d r e f l e c t e d t hi s w he n he s a i d, m y f i r s t c r i t i c i s m I w oul d m a ke i s t ha t I ne e d t o m a ke m y vi s ua l i z a t i on m or e s pe c i f i c m o r e de t a i l e d. I n e va l ua t i ng he r i m a ge r y s t r e ngt hs a nd w e a kne s s e s a s a r e s ul t of a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i ons E l oi s e r e a l i z e d t ha t s he c oul d s hi f t he r us e of s e ns e i m a ge r y a nd i nc l ude t hos e t ha t w e r e l e s s de ve l ope d. S he s a i d, I t hi nk I ve s t a c ke d a l i t t l e bi t t oo m uc h i n t he ki ne s t he t i c a nd I s houl d be m or e a w a r e of t he

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187 e m ot i ona l I t hi nk I s hou l d t hi nk a bout t a s t e s m e l l a nd t ouc h, w hi c h I ve s a i d I don t l i ke a nd e xpe r i m e nt w i t h t hos e C a t he r i ne s r e t r o s pe c t i on a l s o r e ve a l e d he r de s i r e f o r i m pr ove m e nt w he n s he de c l a r e d: I a m not a m a s t e r I f e e l a l i t t l e bi t l a z y a t i t a l l L i ke I s a i d, you r e br i ngi ng up a l l t he s e t hi ngs t ha t I c oul d be doi ng T hi s i s s o c ool I t hi nk I go t o a c om f or t l e ve l a nd t he n don t pus h i t be c a us e I don t ne c e s s a r i l y t a ke t he t i m e . . I m c ons t a nt l y a w a r e t ha t t he i m a ge r y i s a good w a y t o go, but i n pr a c t i c e i t doe s not a l w a ys pl a y out a s w e l l a s I w oul d hope B ut t ha t c oul d be be c a us e I m not ve r y c ons i s t e nt i n m y us e . . S o f i nd t he a c c ur a t e a nd t he n r e i nf or c e i t by r e pe t i t i on a nd I don t t hi nk I do e nough r e pe t i t i on C a t he r i ne a nd s om e of t he ot he r s i nge r s r e f l e c t e d a be l i e f t ha t t he r e m a y be a l i nk be t w e e n t he s pe c i f i c i t y a nd c l a r i t y of t he i m a ge a n d pe r f or m a nc e ou t c om e F u r t he r m o r e i t be c a m e a ppa r e nt t o m a ny of t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s t h a t i m a ge r y a bi l i t y c oul d be c ont i nua l l y de ve l ope d a nd s t r e ngt he ne d a nd t ha t i t w a s a pow e r f ul t oo l i n t he i r que s t f or pe r f o r m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e R e s ul t s of s i nge r s r e a s ons f or us i ng i m a ge r y c ont e nt a nd a bi l i t y w i l l now be di s c us s e d. W hy D o P r of e s s i onal V oc al i s t s U s e I m age r y t o A c hi e v e O pt i m al P e r f or m anc e ? R e s pons e s r e ga r di ng w hy or t he r e a s ons f or w hi c h i m a ge r y w a s us e d, w e r e s i m i l a r a nd a t t i m e s qui t e di f f e r e nt c om pa r e d t o a t hl e t i c a nd da nc e i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h. S i nge r s i m a ge r y f unc t i ons s e e m e d t o ge ne r a l l y r e f l e c t a s pe c t s of t he a t hl e t i c f r a m e w or ks of P a i vi o ( 1985) H a l l a nd a s s oc i a t e s ( 1998) M unr oe a nd ot he r s ( 2000 ) a nd pe r ha ps m or e s pe c i f i c a l l y t hos e of da nc e i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) I n a na l yz i ng t he da t a e m e r g i ng c a t e gor i e s w e r e c ons t a nt l y c om pa r e d w i t h t hos e f ound i n

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188 t he s por t a nd da nc e f r a m e w or ks V oc a l pr of e s s i ona l s r e a s ons f or us i ng i m a ge r y w e r e c l a s s i f i e d i nt o f our c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) c ogni t i ve ( b) m ot i va t i ona l ( c ) a r t i s t i c a nd ( d) he a l i ng. M a ny of t he s e r e a s ons w e r e pr e s e nt e d i n pr e vi ous s e c t i ons t o a l l ow t he r e a de r t o unde r s t a nd t he de t a i l s of how t he c ont e nt of i m a ge s i nt e r a c t e d i nt r i ns i c a l l y w i t h t he pur pos e s f or w hi c h t he y w e r e be i ng us e d i n t he s e p r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s e xpe r i e nc e s A ddi t i ona l l y, pa r t i c i pa nt r e s pons e s w e r e i nt e r c ha n ge a bl e a c r os s di f f e r e nt que s t i ons w hi c h c r e a t e d c e r t a i n c ha l l e n ge s i n r e por t i ng t he s e r e s ul t s C ogni t i v e R e as ons T he c ogni t i ve r e a s ons f or us i ng i m a ge r y a ddr e s s e d t he f unc t i ons o f t hi nk i ng t hr ough or pl a nni ng ou t be ha vi or s T he s e w e r e di v i de d be t w e e n c ogni t i ve s pe c i f i c ( C S ) w hi c h i nc l ude d s ki l l l e a r ni ng a nd e xe c ut i on, a nd c ogni t i ve ge ne r a l ( C G ) r e l a t i ng t o s e que nc i ng a nd s t r a t e gi e s or i gi na l l y p r opos e d by P a i vi o ( 1985) T a bl e 19 i nc l ude d s pe c i f i c c a t e gor i e s a nd s ubc a t e gor i e s of s i nge r s c ogni t i ve r e a s ons f or us i ng i m a ge r y. L e ar ni ng v oc al t e c hni que s and s k i l l s ( c og ni t i v e s p e c i f i c ) C ogni t i ve r e a s ons f or s i nge r s us e of i m a ge r y w e r e t hos e i n w hi c h s i nge r s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge s f o r t he pur pos e s of l e a r ni ng, de ve l opi ng, s t r e ngt he ni ng, a nd c or r e c t i ng s ki l l s R e s ul t s f r om t he i nt e r vi e w s w e r e e xc e pt i ona l l y f r e que nt r e ga r d i ng a c qui r i ng pr o f i c i e nc y i n voc a l pr oduc t i on a nd qua l i t y a nd r e s ul t e d i n t w o di s t i nc t s ubc a t e gor i e s of voc a l pr oduc t i on a nd m e t a phor s i n voc a l pr oduc t i on. T he s e quot e s pr i m a r i l y i nvol ve d c ha ngi ng or s e c ur i ng voc a l t e c hni que a nd w e r e t he r e f or e i nc l ude d i n t h e c ogni t i ve c a t e gor y.

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189 T a bl e 19 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s C ogni t i v e R e as ons f or I m age r y U s e C at e gor i e s and Subc at e gor i e s C ogni t i ve R e a s ons C a t e gor i e s S ubc a t e gor i e s N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s T e c h n i q u e 1 0 E a s e & C o m f o r t 9 B r e a t h S u p p o r t 7 K i n e s t h e t i c 6 A u d i a t i o n 2 N o t e D u r a t i o n 2 V o c a l P r o d u c t i o n P r o j e c t i o n 2 B r e a t h 1 1 T h r o a t O p e n i n g 6 H i g h N o t e s 3 V o c a l R e g i s t e r s 2 R e s o n a n c e 2 C h a n g i n g Q u a l i t y 2 C o g n i t i v e S p e c i f i c ( C S ) M e t a p h o r s i n V o c a l P r o d u c t i o n V o c a l L i n e 4 L e a r n i n g 6 L e a r n i n g & M e m o r i z i n g M e m o r i z i n g 7 S e q u e n c i n g S o n g s & A r i a s 5 R e c i t a l s 1 0 P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g S t o r i e s 2 M o v e m e n t s 7 S t a g i n g M o t i v a t i o n 2 M e m o r i z i n g & P l a n n i n g C o g n i t i v e G e n e r a l ( C G ) C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n C l a r i t y o f R o l e 6

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190 V oc a l pr oduc t i on i nvol ve d s pe c i f i c a s pe c t s of us i ng i m a ge r y di r e c t l y i nvol ve d w i t h pr oduc i ng, e xt e ndi ng, or pr oj e c t i ng t he s ound. E a c h of t he 15 s i nge r s o f f e r e d s e ve r a l r e s pons e s i n voc a l pr oduc t i on i s s ue s r e s ul t i ng i n s e ve n s ubc a t e gor i e s : ( a ) voc a l t e c hni que ( b) e a s e a nd c om f or t of pr oduc i ng s ound, ( c ) br e a t h s uppor t ( d) ki ne s t he t i c c onne c t i on, ( e ) a udi a t i on, ( f ) e xt e ndi ng not e dur a t i on, a nd ( g) pr oj e c t i on. S pe c i f i c a s pe c t s of voc a l t e c hni que a ppe a r e d i n t e n of t he r e s pons e s S om e s i nge r s s uc h a s C a t he r i ne us e d t e c hni que i m a ge s i n w a r m ups t o he l p m e p r oduc e pr ope r voc a l t e c hni que E l oi s e i l l us t r a t e d he r e xpe r i e nc e of t hi s a nd s a i d t ha t : i n or de r t o s i ng s c a l e s t ha t go up a nd dow n I i m a g i ne t he oppos i t e di r e c t i on a nd t he oppos i t e f l ow o f e ne r gy . . i n o r de r t o s i ng f r om l ow t o hi gh, I m gonna s i nk dow n a nd out t h r ough m y body. I m a ge r y t o ke e p t he voi c e g r ounde d i n t he hi gh not e s a nd l i f t e d i n t he l ow one s a s s i s t e d t hi s s i nge r i n m a i nt a i ni ng c ont i nui t y of s ound e xe c ut i on t hr oughout t he r e gi s t e r s O t he r s i nge r s w e r e a l s o c onc e r ne d w i t h ga i ni ng s ki l l s i n s i ngi ng i n s pe c i f i c r e gi s t e r s F or e xa m pl e N i c hol a s w a s l ooki ng t o pr oduc e a l i t t l e m or e f oc us a nd r i ng i n t he uppe r pa r t of m y vo i c e I n pr oduc i ng a voc a l s ound pa r t i c ul a r t o m e z z os K a r e n s a i d, I n or de r t o do t ha t w hi s t l e r a nge I j us t s e e t he s e i m a gi na r y f ol ds goi ng a l m os t t oge t he r I t j us t pops r i ght i nt o m y m i nd. I m a ge r y f or voc a l pl a c e m e nt c onc e r ne d t he m us c l e s of t he voc a l a ppa r a t us pr oduc i ng t one s i n a s pe c i f i c w a y, a s I va n i l l us t r a t e d. H e s a i d, I c a n a nt i c i pa t e w ha t t he voi c e i s goi ng t o f e e l l i ke i n i t s op t i m a l c ondi t i ons r e l a t e d t o t he s e que nc e of m us i c t ha t I w a nt t o s i ng C onve r s e l y, s e ve r a l voc a l i s t s f ound t ha t ove r t he ye a r s t he y t e nde d, a s L oui s s t a t e d, t o r e l y m or e on m e c ha ni c s a nd m or e on t he s c i e nc e of voc a l t e c hni que r a t he r t ha n on s e ns a t i on. I ns t e a d of ki n e s t he t i c f e e l i ng, L ou i s pr e f e r r e d m or e

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191 i nf or m e d t e c hni c a l i m a ge r y f o r s i ngi ng. I t s e e m e d t ha t a s voc a l s ki l l de ve l ope d, i m a ge r y pr e f e r e nc e s c ha nge d. T he s e t w o e l e m e nt s of voc a l s ki l l a nd i m a ge r y i nt e r a c t e d a nd g r e w dur i ng t he c ou r s e of a voc a l i s t s c a r e e r I n pr oduc i ng voc a l s ound, n i ne pa r t i c i pa nt s m e nt i o ne d us i ng i m a ge r y t o f e e l e a s e or c om f or t i n va r i ous a r e a s of t he body a nd pa r t i c ul a r pa r t s of t he voc a l a ppa r a t us I n s pe c i f i c a l l y s t r i vi ng f or r e l a xa t i on i n t he ne c k a nd j a w O phe l i a m a i nt a i ne d, you s houl d ne ve r t hi nk a bout ha vi ng a vo i c e box, ha vi ng a ne c k a t a l l T o t hi s e nd, G e r a l d w a nt e d t o e xpe r i e nc e t he s ound of t he pa s s a ge be i ng e a s y, t he i m a ge of f r e e dom a nd f r e e f l ow I m a g e r y w a s pa r t i c ul a r l y us e f ul i n c r e a t i ng t he f e e l i ng of e f f or t l e s s ne s s of s i ngi ng. L oui s e xpl a i ne d, I do t r y f or a ge nt l e e a s y s ound, bu t of t e nt i m e s i t s di f f i c ul t t o i nt e r p r e t m e c ha ni c a l l y. I ns t e a d you j us t do i t s e ns or i l y [ s i c ] a nd you t r y t o e xpe r i e nc e a l i t t l e ge nt l e r e a s i e r s t yl e o f s i ngi ng. T he s e s i nge r s be l i e ve d t ha t c r e a t i ng t he i m a ge of s i ngi ng e a s e pr oduc e d t he pr ope r voc a l s ounds a nd a c om f or t a bl e f e e l i ng i n t he i r bodi e s I m a ge r y f o r s ki l l l e a r ni ng a l s o i nvol ve d t he de ve l o pm e nt a nd m a i nt e na n c e of br e a t h s uppor t f o r s e ve n pa r t i c i pa nt s F our s i nge r s t a l ke d a bout br e a t h s uppor t by i m a gi ni ng t he i r br e a t h de e pe ni ng w hi l e t he y s a ng a n a s c e ndi ng voc a l l i ne G e r a l d i l l us t r a t e d hi s us e of i m a ge r y t o ga i n m o r e br e a t h s uppor t H e s t a t e d, I w oul d go ba c k t o br e a t hi ng a nd vi s ua l i z a t i on. W he n I a m t a ki ng a br e a t h or us i ng a br e a t h, i m a gi ni ng t he a i r f i l l i ng pl a c e s w he r e oxyge n r e a l l y doe s n t go b ut you w a nt t o f i nd e xpa ns i on. T hi s e xa m pl e a l s o i nc or por a t e d G e r a l d s k i ne s t he t i c us e of i m a ge r y i n ga i ni ng m o r e c ont r ol i n voc a l pr oduc t i on. K i ne s t he t i c a l l y i m a gi ni ng i n voc a l e xe c ut i on a r os e f or s i x pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho de s c r i be d a phys i ol ogi c a l f e e l i ng of pr oduc i ng t he i de a l s ound i m a ge A nna e xe m pl i f i e d

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192 t hi s a pt l y, a nd s a i d, I t s a c om bi na t i on of t he f e e l i ng a nd w ha t s ounds you r e goi ng f or . . Y ou ge t t ha t e xa c t t hi ng i n your he a d a nd t he n y ou br e a t he i nt o w ha t you r e a l r e a dy i m a gi ni ng. M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, E l o i s e i m a gi ne d pa r t s of he r body i n c r e a t i ng a s t r ong s ound, s a yi ng: I t hi nk of t ha t t hr ough m y ba c k, a nd a w e i ght t r a i n e r body, I i m a gi ne a ve r y s t r ong body. . I c r e a t e t hi s huge i ns t r um e nt i n m y m i nd a nd t he n i n m y bo dy, j us t a c t ua l l y f e e l t he m us c l e s a nd ga uge t he m w i t h t he de pt hs of t he voi c e w hi c h i s w ha t c a r r i e s N i c hol a s t r i e d t o i m a gi ne t he f e e l i ng of s ound be i n g w e l l gr ounde d f r om de e p i n m y body. F r a nc i ne e xpe r i e nc e d t hi s de e p pl a c e m e nt i n e xe c ut i ng l ow e r not e s w he n s he s a i d, w ha t I f e e l i s a r e l a xe d l e t t i ng m ys e l f go a nd l e t t i ng t he s ound j us t d r op i n t he m i dd l e of m y body. . S o I ha ve t ha t i m a ge e ve r y s i ngl e t i m e I go i nt o m y c he s t voi c e V oc a l pr oduc t i on f o r t he s e s i nge r s w a s r oot e d m o r e de e pl y i n t he i r e nt i r e body t ha n j us t t he voc a l a ppa r a t us of t he he a d ne c k, a nd uppe r t or s o. R e ga r di ng i nt e gr a t i on o f bot h opt i m a l voc a l pr odu c t i on a nd body a w a r e ne s s O phe l i a w a s one of t w o w ho m e nt i one d ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y i n r e l a t i on t o ga i ni ng a ut om a t i c i t y a nd f o r m i ng p r ope r ha bi t s f or pe r f o r m a nc e S he s a i d: [ A ] l ot of i t c om e s w i t h doi ng i t a ga i n a nd a ga i n a n d j us t ge t t i ng i t i nt o t he body a nd g e t t i ng t ha t ki ne s t he t i c m e m or y, s o t ha t w he n i t c om e s dow n t o pe r f or m a nc e hone s t t o G od, you r e not t hi nki ng a bout i t be c a us e you ha ve s o m a ny o t he r t hi ngs t o t hi nk a bout t ha t you w a nt i t t o j us t be r ot e m e m or y. B ut t he r e a r e oc c a s i ona l l y t hos e s pot s t h a t a r e ve r y di f f i c ul t a nd e ve n i n pe r f o r m a nc e you ne e d t o t hi nk a bout i t w he n you ha ve t o f oc us on t he ki ne s t he t i c m e m or y.

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193 K i ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y i n l e a r ni ng t hr ough t he body s e e m e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t he m ove m e nt s a nd s ki l l s be c om i ng m or e a ut om a t i c a nd ha bi t ua l T he l a s t t hr e e e l e m e nt s i n t hi s s e c t i on on voc a l pr o duc t i on w e r e a udi a t i on, e xt e ndi ng not e dur a t i ons a nd pr o j e c t i ng t he s ound E l oi s e he a r d t he s ound s he w a nt e d t o m a ke be f or e s he s a ng i t S he s a i d, I t w a s t o a udi a t e s o t o he a r i t l i s t e n t o i t m e nt a l l y s o t o s pe a k, be f or e you t r y t o a c t ua l l y m a ke t he s ound I m a ge r y i n a udi a t i on of t e n i m pr ove d pi t c h a c c ur a c y a nd pr ope r m e nt a l a nd ph ys i c a l pr e pa r a t i on t o p r oduc e t he s ound i n t he s pe c i f i c c ont e xt of t he m us i c E xt e ndi ng not e dur a t i ons be ga n w i t h b r e a t h c ont r ol a nd m e nt a l t hought p r oc e s s e s i n pr e pa r i ng t ha t s ound. O phe l i a de s c r i be d us i ng i m a ge r y t o he l p l e a r n t h i s t e c hni que S he s a i d, i f I ha ve t o s i ng a hi gh C of 16 be a t s t he n I w oul d j us t ke e p t hi nki ng of a n i m a ge t ha t w oul d l e ngt he n t he not e A nna us e d i m a ge r y s l i ght l y di f f e r e nt l y t o a c hi e ve t he s a m e e f f e c t : [ E ] ve n i f you ha ve a no t e t ha t you ne e d t o hol d. . i f you i m a gi ne w hi l e you r e s i ngi ng t ha t you r e br e a t hi ng i n a t t he s a m e t i m e s o you a c t ua l l y a r e br e a t hi ng i n a t t he s a m e t i m e . . i t r e s t r uc t ur e s your body w i t h out out us i ng va l ua bl e e ne r gy a nd voi c e N ot onl y do s i nge r s ha ve t o f i nd w a ys t o hol d e xt e ns i ve l y l ong not e s but t he y ha ve t o m a ke t he i r s ound c a r r y t hr o ugh a l a r ge t he a t r e o r v e nue w i t hout t he us e of m i c r ophone J os e phi ne m e nt i one d s i ngi ng t o t he ol d l a dy i n t h e ba c k r ow a s a m e nt a l i m a ge t o he l p he r voi c e c a r r y a l l t he w a y t hr ough t he t he a t r e D o r i ne w oul d e nvi s i on a s m a l l poi nt on t he w a l l a nd I s i ng t o t ha t poi n t S he i m a gi ne d t he s ound t ouc hi ng or goi ng be yond t ha t c hos e n poi nt i n t he ba c k of t he t he a t r e S i nge r s us e d di f f e r e nt ki nds of i m a ge r y t o f i nd be t t e r w a ys of p r oduc i ng t he i r s ound. T he s e a c c ount s i nc l ude d m a ny i ns t a nc e s of

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194 i m a ge r y us e i n i m p r ovi ng va r i ous a s pe c t s of voc a l s ki l l a nd t e c hni que T hi s ne xt s e c t i on e xa m i ne s m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y i n t he t e c hni c a l a s pe c t s of s i ngi ng. A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s ga ve a c c ount s of us i ng m e t a phor s i n c onne c t i on w i t h voc a l pr oduc t i on. A l t hough s e ve r a l s i nge r s pr e f e r r e d not t o us e m e t a phor s t he y w e r e a l l f a m i l i a r w i t h t he m a nd how t he y w e r e us e d i n a c hi e vi ng pr ope r voc a l t e c hni que M e t a phor s w e r e c onne c t e d w i t h voc a l pr oduc t i on i n s e ve n di s t i nc t a r e a s : ( a ) s uppor t i nc l udi ng br e a t h, ( b) t hr oa t ope ni ng, ( c ) e xe c ut i on of hi gh no t e s d) s i ngi ng t h r ough t he voc a l r e gi s t e r s ( e ) c r e a t i ng r e s ona nc e ( f ) c ha ngi n g s ound qua l i t y, a nd ( g ) c onne c t i ng t he voc a l l i ne S uppor t i ng voc a l s ound w a s de pe nde nt on br e a t h c ont r ol i n di a phr a gm a t i c br e a t hi ng a nd w a s vi t a l f or c l a s s i c a l s i ngi ng. M e t a phor s w e r e pl e nt i f ul i n t hi s a r e a a nd w e r e r e por t e d by 11 s i nge r s ( e g G e r a l d: s m e l l i ng a r os e f o r i nha l a t i on F r a nc i ne a s t e e l r od c om i ng out of m y f e e t a nd goi ng a l l t he w a y t hr ough t he c or e o f t he e a r t h ) I n or de r t o r e l i e ve m us c ul a r t e ns i on, A nna i m a gi ne d m a ki ng e ve r yt hi ng r e a l l y r e l a xe d [ l i ke ] a puppe t y ou r e a dum m y on t op w he r e e ve r yt hi ng w oul d be ha ppe ni ng unde r ne a t h l i ke t he a nc hor E l oi s e c r e a t e d t he i m a ge of a t h r e e di m e ns i ona l pyr a m i d t ha t goe s out f r om m y body, out be hi nd m e ve r y w i de . . Y our voi c e goe s e f f o r t l e s s l y t hr ough t he pe a ks of t h e py r a m i d be c a us e i t ha s s u c h w i de w onde r f ul s uppor t a t t he ba s e M a ny s i nge r s m e nt i one d t ha t us i ng m e t a pho r s gr e a t l y a i de d i n e s t a bl i s hi ng s uppor t a nd c ont r ol l i ng t he br e a t h, how e ve r a s t he y de ve l ope d a s s i nge r s t he s e s ki l l s be c a m e m or e a ut om a t i c a nd m a ny be ga n t o pr e f e r a na t om i c a l i m a ge s of t he a c t ua l voc a l m e c ha ni s m

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195 I n c l a s s i c a l s i ngi ng t r a i ni ng, one of t he f i r s t t e c hni que s m os t s t ude nt s w e r e t a ught w a s t o l i f t t he s of t pa l a t e i n t he ba c k of t he t h r oa t t o c r e a t e m or e s pa c e i n s i ngi ng. I t w a s m os t e a s i l y a c c om pl i s he d by m a i nt a i ni ng t he f e e l i ng of a ya w n dur i ng s i ngi ng. S i x s i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy m e nt i one d va r i ous m e t a phor s t o he l p t he m a c hi e ve t ha t c ont i nuous f e e l i ng ( e g N i c hol a s : e gg i n t he ba c k of m y t hr o a t D or i ne : pl um i n t he m out h L oui s : i m a gi ne I ha ve a c a pi t ol I i n t he ba c k o f t he t hr oa t ) I n or de r t o s e c ur e hi gh not e s a nd t o ke e p t he s ound l i ght a nd pl e a s a nt t hr e e s opr a nos us e d m e t a phor s D or i ne pr ov i de d a vi vi d e xa m pl e of t hi s S he s t a t e d: [ W ] he n I ve t a ke n a de e p e nough br e a t h, or i f I m goi ng f or hi ghe r not e s t he n I w a nt m y br e a t h t o s t a y s t r ong be ne a t h m e . . I pr e t e nd t ha t I m s l i di ng dow n a ba ni s t e r m ovi ng d ow n phys i c a l l y w hi l e t he voi c e i s m ovi ng up, a nd i t he l ps t o de e pe n, i t he l ps m y br e a t h t o s t a y de e p. T hi s i de a of s i ngi ng hi gh w hi l e t hi nki ng l ow w a s r e pe a t e d s e ve r a l t i m e s T o a c hi e ve a m or e de l i c a t e s ound, J os e phi ne f e l t t ha t t he m e t a phor of bi r ds ong w a s t he pe r f e c t i m a ge r y f or a s opr a no, hi gh s ounds l i ke s om e t hi n g t ha t s pr e t t y a nd e a s y a nd f l oa t i ng. J os e phi ne i m a gi ne d s uppor t e d hi gh not e s w he n s h e s poke of pl a c i ng t he not e s on a s he l f a s pr e vi ous l y quot e d. T he i m a ge o f a s he l f he l pe d he r t hi nk o f he r hi gh not e s a s ha vi ng a pl a c e t o r e s t r a t he r t ha n m e nt a l l y pus hi ng he r s oun d hi ghe r S i nge r s c ons i s t e nt l y f ound m e t a phor s t o c r e a t e t he s ound t he y ne e de d. R e ga r dl e s s of t he voc a l c a t e gor y, s i nge r s voi c e s w e r e c ons i de r e d t o ha ve voc a l r e gi s t e r s t ha t w e r e de l i ne a t e d by br e a ks i n s e pa r a t i ng t he hi gh m i ddl e a nd l ow pa r t s o f t he i r voi c e S i nge r s ne e de d t o de ve l op a nd m a i nt a i n c ons i s t e nc y t hr ough t he s e a r e a s or r i s k c r a c ki ng, or a voc a l s hi f t i n pa s s i ng f r om o ne r e gi s t e r t o a not he r T w o s i nge r s

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196 m e nt i one d m e t a phor s f or c ont e ndi ng w i t h t hi s G e r a l d f e l t t he voi c e na r r ow i ng t ha t s or t of f e e l i ng t ha t m y voi c e r e gi s t e r s bl e nd t he r e I n o r de r t o s uc c e s s f ul l y de a l w i t h t hi s F r a nc i ne de s c r i be d he r m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge s a s i f t he y w e r e : a t hr e a d o f c he s t a t hr e a d o f he a d. S o w ha t w e r e c ons t a nt l y t r yi ng t o a c c om pl i s h a s s i nge r s i s m a ki ng our voi c e c ons i s t e nt f r om l ow t o hi gh a nd a l l t he w a y t hr ough t he m i ddl e . but i t s ne ve r 100% j us t s t r a i ght c he s t t he r e s a l w a ys a t hr e a d of he a d i n t ha t A nd t he n a s you go up t hr ou gh t he m i ddl e how doe s t ha t s hi f t on e ve r y not e a s you go up i nt o t he hi gh r e gi s t e r S o i f you v i s ua l i z e a di a l you ha ve a hi gh l e ve l of c he s t a nd a l ow l e ve l of h e a d, a nd t he n i t s l ow l y a nd gr a dua l l y s hi f t s up unt i l t he hi gh r e gi s t e r s w he r e y ou ha ve a hi gh l e ve l of he a d a nd a l ow l e ve l of c he s t C ons i s t e nc y t hr ough t he voc a l r e gi s t e r s w a s f a c i l i t a t e d w i t h m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y a s w e l l a s ot he r a s pe c t s of t he voi c e p r oduc t i on. A f t e r a n e xt e ns i ve t r a i n i ng w a s a c hi e ve d i n s e c ur i n g a f ounda t i on of voc a l pr oduc t i on, t he s e s i nge r s a l s o c onc e nt r a t e d on s ha pi ng t he qua l i t y of t he i r s ound a s w a s e xpr e s s e d i n ni ne of t he t r a ns c r i pt i ons F our s i nge r s m e nt i one d t he c onne c t i on of hum a n s ound c a pa bi l i t i e s s uc h a s a s i gh, a gr unt a gr oa n, or a ya w n w i t h pr ovi d i ng a va r i e t y of voc a l pos s i bi l i t i e s a nd e xt e ndi ng t he qua l i t y of t he i r s ound. T hi s w a s be s t e xe m pl i f i e d i n E l o i s e s a c c ount w he n s he i l l us t r a t e d t he f ol l ow i ng : T he m os t nut t y m e t a phor ha s t o do w i t h di f f e r e nt n oi s e s t ha t w e na t ur a l l y m a ke B ut t he y r e s o w a c ky, l i ke you r c ons c i ous i nt e l l e c t doe s n t gi ve you pe r m i s s i on t o m a ke t he s e noi s e s . . S e e w e ha ve t he e nt i r e o r c he s t r a l f a m i l y o f i ns t r um e nt s r i ght i n our bodi e s i n our voi c e s W he e w o r qua c k, w a a a [ s he de m ons t r a t e d t he

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197 s ounds ] be c a us e you r e r e a l l y hot I m e a n i t s l i ke t he r e s a w hol e bunc h o f r e a l l y c r a z y pe opl e i ns i de of you t ha t ne e d t o m a ke a l l of t he s e di f f e r e nt noi s e s a nd t he y l i ve i n di f f e r e nt pa r t s of your body. I n he r i nt e r vi e w E l oi s e p r ovi de d a de t a i l e d e xpl a na t i on of e a c h o f t he s e s pe c i f i c i m a ge r y s ounds r e pr e s e nt i ng a l l t he f a m i l i e s of t he or c he s t r a H ow e ve r due t o s pa c e c ons i de r a t i ons t he s e a r e not gi ve n he r e A l t hough s om e of t he s e s i nge r s ha d e xt e ns i ve f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h voc a l s ound va r i e t i e s i t di d no t a p pe a r a s ge ne r a l know l e dge i n m a ny of t he s i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy. T hi s a s pe c t of s i ngi ng c ou l d be f u r t he r i nve s t i ga t e d. S i m i l a r t o i m a g i ni ng t he va r i e t y of voc a l pos s i bi l i t i e s H a r r i e t us e d m e t a phor s t o c r e a t e m or e r e s ona nc e i n he r voi c e S he s a i d, I i m a gi ne d t ha t t he s pa c e t ha t one c r e a t e s i n t he c a vi t y, t he he a d, i s s or t of s ha pe d l i ke a c one a nd t ha t t he voi c e f unc t i ons w i t hi n t he r e s ona nc e of t he voi c e i s w i t hi n t ha t c one H a r r i e t a l s o us e d t he i m a ge of he r r i bs a c t i ng l i ke f i r e pl a c e be l l ow s t o i nc r e a s e de e pe r r e s ona nc e i n he r t o r s o. F r a nc i ne a c hi e ve d m or e voc a l r e s ona nc e i n he r he a d w he n s he i m a gi n e d w ha t i t f e e l s l i ke bi t i ng i nt o a bi g j ui c y a ppl e T he s e m e t a phor s s e e m e d t o c onne c t w i t h ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng t o f a c i l i t a t e s pe c i f i c voc a l pr oduc t i on. I n pe r f o r m i ng a n a r i a o r s ong, s ol oi s t s i m a gi ne d c o nne c t i ng t he e nt i r e l i ne of t he m us i c a nd t e xt i n pe r f or m a nc e F ou r s i nge r s ga ve m a ny e xa m pl e s of us i ng m e t a phor s t o he l p t he m s t a y c onne c t e d t hr oughout t he s ong ( e g A nna : l i ke t he t r a i n i s a l r e a dy r unni ng a nd you j us t ne e d t o ge t on t he t r a i n; D or i ne : ha ngi ng e a c h not e on t he c l ot he s l i ne ; M oni que : m y c onve yor be l t a c ons t a nt f l ow i ng l i ne ) M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, B a r r y us e d a m e t a phor t a ke n f r o m na t ur e t o he l p c ont r ol t he voi c e w he n t he m e l ody l i ne de s c e nde d:

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198 A l ot of t i m e s s i nge r s c r a s h, a nd t he y ge t l a z y w he n t he y de s c e nd i nt o a l i ne a nd t he s ound w i l l go f l a t A nd w ha t I a l w a ys s a y i s t he m e t a phor of a bi r d l a ndi ng on a s m a l l br a nc h. Y ou c a n t j us t c r a s h on t he br a nc h, you ha ve t o ge nt l y l a nd on i t w i t hout c r a c ki ng i t U s i ng va r i ous m e t a phor s t he s e s i nge r s w e r e a bl e t o c r e a t e a s m oot h a nd c ont i nuous l i ne t hr oughout t he s ong. T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e e xc e pt i ona l l y a de pt a t us i ng m e t a phor s i n i m a ge r y f or de ve l opi ng a nd pe r f e c t i ng e xt e ns i ve v oc a l t e c hni que I m a ge r y us e d f or t he pur pos e of s e que nc i ng a nd m e m or i z i ng m us i c a l e l e m e nt s f or pe r f or m a nc e f ol l ow s M e m or i z i ng and pl anni ng ( c og ni t i v e ge ne r al ) T he c ogni t i ve ge ne r a l ( C G ) f unc t i on of i m a ge r y us e w a s f ound i n r e s pons e s a n d r e s ul t e d i n f i ve s e c t i ons : ( a ) l e a r ni ng a nd m e m or i z i ng r e pe r t oi r e ( b ) s e que nc e i n s ong o r a r i a ( c ) pr og r a m pl a nni ng ( d) s e que nc e f or s t a gi ng, a nd ( e ) s t r a t e gy f or c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on. L e a r ni ng a nd m e m o r i z i ng s ongs a r i a s a nd r ol e s w a s a s ki l l voc a l i s t s de ve l ope d a nd pe r f e c t e d t hr oughout t he i r pr o f e s s i on. S i x s i ng e r s de s c r i be d va r i ous us e s of i m a ge r y i n t he pr oc e s s of l e a r ni ng t he r udi m e nt s of a s ong. G e r a l d e xp l a i ne d t ha t he w oul d m e nt a l l y s i ng t hr ough w i t h a l l t he c or r e c t w or ds c or r e c t r hyt hm hi gh not e s i n pl a c e e ve r yt hi ng i s t he r e voi c e t a ppe d i n t he w a y I w a nt i t t o, ge s t ur e s w he r e t he y ne e d t o be C a t he r i ne i m a gi ne d he r s e l f s i ngi ng t h r ough a n e n t i r e p i e c e voc a l l y a nd s i ngi ng e ve r yt hi ng c or r e c t l y D or i ne e m pha s i z e d ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng w he n l e a r ni ng ne w m us i c a nd s a i d, i f t he r e a r e pa s s a ge s t ha t a r e di f f i c ul t or I m not doi ng i t c or r e c t l y, I j us t ke e p doi ng i t unt i l t he f e e l i ng i s t he r e I va n a l s o us e d r e pe t i t i on by m e nt a l l y s i ngi ng t he s ong ove r a nd ove r a ga i n unt i l i t be c om e s r e a l l y c l e a r a nd t he n a s I s t a r t t o s i ng. I t r a c e i n e f f e c t t ha t i m a ge r y. I f ol l ow i t A nd I do t ha t f or m os t a l l m y m us i c L oui s p r e f e r r e d

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199 bot h phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l p r a c t i c e t o f ul l y m e m o r i z e a nd e m body t he a r i a H e s a i d, s ub voc a l or t r yi ng t o l e a r n l i t e r a t ur e w i t hout r e a l l y s i n gi ng i t I f i nd t a ke s a l ot m or e t i m e a nd pr a c t i c e t o a de qua t e l y p r e pa r e M e nt a l l y r e he a r s i ng t he s ong s e r ve d t o r e i nf or c e a l l t he e l e m e nt s of t he s ong r e nde r i ng t he m a ut om a t i c i n t he m i nds a nd voi c e s of t he s e s i nge r s F or s e ve n pa r t i c i pa nt s m e m or i z a t i on w a s e a s i e r w he n a s ong t he y ha d t o l e a r n w a s gr oupe d i n s e que nc e s a nd pa t t e r ns T w o s i nge r s vi s ua l i z e d t he s e m us i c a l pa t t e r ns on t he pa ge t o he l p t he m r e m e m be r t he s ong O t he r s u s e d m ove m e nt s t o a s s i s t t he m i n m e m or y, a s H a r r i e t w a s quot e d a s s a yi ng, I c a n i m a gi ne m ys e l f w a l ki ng t h r ough s t a gi ng. I c a n s e e m ys e l f on s t a ge goi ng t hr ough s t a gi ng out s i de of m e a c t ua l l y doi ng i t I us e t ha t t o m e m or i z e t hi ngs L oui s r a n t hr ough t h e m us i c ve r y qui c kl y t o t e s t w he t he r he c oul d r e c a l l t he t e xt r i ght t o t he f o r e f r ont of m y m i nd ve r y qui c kl y W he n s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y i n s e que nc e s t o f r a m e t he i r s ongs m e m or i z a t i on c a m e m or e e a s i l y. E l e m e nt s i n s ongs a nd a r i a s w e r e i m a gi ne d i n or de r e d s e que nc e s i n or de r t o gi ve opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e s a s f ound i n f i ve r e s pons e s J os e phi ne t hought i t w a s ne c e s s a r y t o a nt i c i pa t e w ha t s c om i ng up ne xt a nd how m uc h e ne r gy, a nd how m uc h voc a l pow e r a nd br e a t h, a nd a l l t ha t i t r e qui r e s i n o r de r t o pr op e r l y pe r f o r m t he s ong. S i nge r s s pe c i f i c a l l y pl a nne d out how t he s ong w a s t o be e xe c ut e d. H a r r i e t de m ons t r a t e d t hi s by s a yi ng, I l l m a r k s pa c e s w he r e I l l gi ve a l i t t l e l e s s i nt e ns i t y. I l l gi ve m ys e l f a l i t t l e bi t of a b r e a k he r e I va n f ound i t w a s i m por t a nt t o a nt i c i pa t e w ha t t he voi c e i s goi ng t o f e e l l i ke i n i t s op t i m a l c ondi t i ons r e l a t e d t o t he s e que nc e of m us i c t ha t I w a nt t o s i ng. T w o s i nge r s m e nt i one d s e que nc i ng i n t e r m s of pa c i ng, e s pe c i a l l y i f t he s ong w a s l ong. F or t h e s e a r i a s O phe l i a f ound t ha t t he r e s a s e que nc e t ha t s f ol l ow e d [ t ha t a l l ow e d he r ] t o

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200 go ba c k t o p r e vi ous i m a ge s or m oods or c ol o r s [ w i t hi n t he s ong] t ha t . dr a w s t he a udi e nc e i n. I n or de r t o ke e p t he s ong i nt e r e s t i ng a nd m a ke i t a ppe a l i ng t o t he l i s t e ne r t he s e s i nge r s i m a gi ne d s e que nt i a l r udi m e nt s t o de l i ve r a c ohe s i ve a nd i nt e r e s t i ng a r i a F or s i nge r s w ho w e r e i nvol ve d i n gi vi ng c onc e r t s one of t he m os t obvi ous a ppl i c a t i ons of i m a ge r y i n s e que nc i ng w a s i n pl a n ni ng r e c i t a l p r ogr a m s T e n s i nge r s r e por t e d m e nt a l l y pr e pa r i ng t he s e pe r f or m a nc e s a n d e l a bor a t e d on t he de t a i l s I n t he c a s e of s ong c yc l e s w he r e t he c om pos e r ha s pr ovi de d t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n e a c h s ong, K a r e n de s c r i be d he r t r e a t m e nt of t hi s by s a yi ng: E a c h pi e c e ha d i t s ow n m ood, a nd s o you w oul d d o one a nd t he ne xt one Y ou w oul d ha ve t o p r e pa r e i n be t w e e n. Y ou go t i n t he m om e nt i t w a s a l m os t l i ke ope r a be c a us e you w e nt i nt o t h i s ne xt c ha r a c t e r a n d t he w hol e m ood a nd c ha r a c t e r a nd e ve r yt hi ng . . B ut t ha t s or t of i m a g e r y ha d t o ha p pe n ve r y qu i c kl y be c a us e of c our s e you s t oppe d t he one p i e c e a nd t he n you w e r e i n a not he r c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on f or t he ne xt one I n pr a c t i c i ng s ong c yc l e s D or i ne s a i d s he pi c t ur e d t he w hol e t hi ng f r om s t a r t t o f i ni s h. . s i ngi ng e a c h pi e c e t h r ough, a nd t he n s i ngi ng i n m y he a d a nd m a ki ng s ur e e a c h pi e c e w a s c or r e c t I n t hi s c a s e s e que nc e i m a ge r y f a c i l i t a t e d m e m or i z i ng t he e nt i r e s ong c yc l e S om e r e c i t a l s r e qui r e d t he voc a l i s t t o c hoos e t he s e que nc e a nd c r e a t e s om e e l e m e nt t o l i nk t he s e s ongs t oge t he r i n a l ogi c a l pr ogr e s s i on. F r a nc i ne s a i d s he ha d t o c om e up w i t h s om e ki nd of a s t or y t ha t m a ke s s e ns e i n or de r t o s e que nc e t hr ough t he m F or M oni que pl a nni ng he r pr ogr a m s w a s ve r y s pe c i f i c a l l y a r r a nge d, a s s he i l l us t r a t e d: [ Y ] ou bui l d your pr ogr a m s o t ha t you pa c e your s e l f by w ha t you r e s i ngi ng. . I pl a n m y pr og r a m s o t ha t e s pe c i a l l y m y s ol o r e c i t a l s t ha t w ha t e ve r I m s i ngi ng

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201 f i r s t i s r e a l l y pr e t t y e a s y t o s i ng s o t ha t I c a n ge t ov e r m y ne r ve s T he n t he pr ogr a m bui l ds f r om t he r e a nd t he bi gge s t pi e c e b e i ng j us t be f or e t he i nt e r va l [ i nt e r m i s s i on] A nd t he n you c om e ba c k a f t e r t he i nt e r va l A nd I a l w a ys e nd m y r e c i t a l s w i t h s om e t hi ng a m us i ng, s om e t hi ng l i ght S o I gue s s i t bui l ds t o a c e r t a i n he i ght a nd t he n I go dow n a ga i n. C onne c t i ng one s ong t o a n ot he r a nd c r e a t i ng t he e nt i r e r e c i t a l t o be a s C a t he r i ne de s c r i be d, a n or ga ni c w hol e t ook p l a nni ng a nd t he a bi l i t y t o i m a gi ne t he e f f e c t o f w ha t e ve r e l e m e nt t he s i nge r c hos e S e que nc e s i n s t a gi ng i nvol ve d m e nt a l l y o r ga ni z i ng t he phys i c a l m ove m e nt s t ha t ha d t o be s ync hr oni z e d p r e c i s e l y w i t h t he m us i c S e ve n pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y f or s e que nc i ng pe r f or m a nc e m ove m e nt O phe l i a e xpl a i ne d t ha t you ha ve t o pr e pa r e a he a d of t i m e w he r e you r e s i ngi ng on s t a ge a nd pr e pa r e your s i ngi ng a he a d of t i m e t o ge t a l l o f t hos e a l i gne d c o r r e c t l y s o you ge t t he r i gh t e f f e c t L ou i s i l l us t r a t e d hi s i m a ge r y of s t a gi ng w he n he s a i d, i t w i l l i nc l ude e ve r yt hi ng f r om bl oc ki ng t o t e xt t o pi t c h, t o m y pa r t i c ul a r voc a l a ppr oa c h t hr ough t o t he m us i c H e w a s a bl e t o i nc l ude m a ny a s pe c t s of hi s pe r f or m i ng e xpe r i e nc e i n i m a g e r y. S om e s i nge r s ha d t o phys i c a l l y pr a c t i c e t he s t a gi ng pr i o r t o i m a gi ni ng i t L oui s d i s c ove r e d t ha t be c a us e I ha ve a l ot of pr a c t i c e on t he s t a ge t hi ngs now t ha t I c a n i m a gi n e i m a ge r y w a s good H a r r i e t a l s o pr ovi de d a n e xc e l l e nt e xa m pl e o f t hi s i n t he f ol l ow i ng quot e : I ha ve t o s e e t hi ngs I phys i c a l l y d i d f o r t hi ngs t o p hys i c a l l y w or k i n m y body be f or e I c a n i m a gi ne m ys e l f w a l ki ng t h r ough s t a gi ng. [ T he n] I c a n s e e m ys e l f on s t a ge goi ng t hr ough s t a gi ng ou t s i de of m e a c t ua l l y doi ng i t I us e t ha t t o m e m or i z e

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202 t hi ngs T ha t a nd t he s e que nc e of t he s c e ne . t he o r de r of s t a gi ng f o r a s c e ne or t he ope r a i t s e l f T he s e s i nge r s c onne c t e d t he s e s e que nc e s w i t h t he phys i c a l a s pe c t of pe r f or m i ng S t a gi ng s e que nc i ng a l s o w a s c onne c t e d w i t h t he s u bt e xt a nd m ot i va t i on of t he c ha r a c t e r of s ong. F or e xa m pl e F r a nc i ne f ound t ha t t he m om e nt t o m om e nt r e a l i t y i s ve r y m uc h a ga i n a bout W hy a m I doi ng t h i s ? a nd t he s ubt e xt w ha t s not be i ng s a i d . t he m ot i va t i o n . e ve r y s i ngl e m om e nt ha s t o be j us t i f i e d. F or I va n s t a gi ng a nd m e m or y w a s ve r y e a s y: I r a r e l y ha ve t o w r i t e m y s t a gi ng i n t he book be c a us e w ha t I do i s t ha t w he n I go t hr ough s om e t hi ng, i m m e di a t e l y, I a m r e pl a yi ng i t i n m y he a d ove r a nd ove r a ga i n T he di r e c t i ons w he r e I w a s goi ng, w hy I w a s goi ng, e ve r yt hi ng t he m us i c I w a s goi ng on T he s e que nc e s i n m ove m e nt a nd m us i c i n s t a gi ng w e r e de e pl y c onne c t e d f or t he s e s i nge r s a nd f ur t he r a s s i s t e d t he m i n m e m or y of bot h s t a gi ng a nd s i ngi ng t he s ong or a r i a I n pe r f o r m i ng a r ol e i n ope r a s t r a t e gi e s w e r e us e d t o he l p t he s i nge r e m body t he c ha r a c t e r S i x s i nge r s m e nt i one d m ot i va t i on a nd c l a r i f yi ng t he unde r l yi ng r e a s ons f or a c t i ng out t he r ol e M oni que s a i d, I t r y t o f i nd out w ho m y c ha r a c t e r i s A nd t h e r e f o r e m y c ha r a c t e r i s t he m ot i va t i on f or vi r t ua l l y e ve r yt h i ng I do i n a n ope r a T he r e w e r e s e ve r a l w a ys t ha t s i nge r s s ugge s t e d i n or de r t o a c c om pl i s h t hi s O ne w a s t h r ough unde r s t a ndi ng t he s t r a t e gi e s of how t o f e e l e m ot i o ns N i c hol a s e xpl a i ne d, onc e I ha ve m us i c l e a r ne d, or a r ol e l e a r ne d, t he n I w i l l pl ot ou t a n e m ot i ona l pa t h t hr ough t he a r i a or t he r ol e a nd t hi nk of di f f e r e nt e m ot i ona l di r e c t i on s I w oul d l i ke t o t a ke i t B a r r y e l a bor a t e d, t he ba s i c pr e m i s e s f or a c t i ng i s W ha t do I w a nt t o a c hi e v e ? o r H ow do I

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203 w a nt t o m a ke you f e e l ? a s t he ot he r pe r s on. . T hos e a r e s t r a t e gi e s t ha t you e xpe r i m e nt w i t h dur i ng t he r e he a r s a l pr oc e s s E l oi s e e l oque nt l y pr e s e nt e d r e a s ons s ubt e xt w a s vi t a l f or he r a c t i ng: I t r e a l l y doe s ha ve t o be i nt e r na l i z e d. L i ke w a l ki ng f or a r ol e I ha ve t o be a bl e t o f e e l t he m ot i va t i on W hy a m I doi ng t hi s w a l ki ng? W hy i s t hi s phys i c a l t hi ng ne c e s s a r y? W ha t i s i t e xpr e s s i ng? A nd I ha ve t o f e e l i t a nd t he n m y body i s goi ng t o r e s pond. . S o t ha t i t doe s n t i nt e r r up t t he f l ow of t he s t or y a nd t he e m ot i on I t a c t ua l l y s uppor t s i t a nd c ont r i but e s t o i t F or E l oi s e a nd m a ny ot he r s us i ng i m a ge r y i n unde r s t a ndi ng a nd w or ki ng out t he s t r a t e gi e s f or t he c ha r a c t e r w a s e s s e nt i a l i n f e e l i ng or e m bodyi ng t he e s s e nc e of t he c ha r a c t e r T he s e e xa m pl e s r e pr e s e nt e d t he va r i e t y of c ogni t i v e us e s of i m a ge r y p r ovi de d by t he s i nge r s r e s pons e s T he y i nc l ude d e xe c ut i on of s ki l l s e que nc i ng a nd s t r a t e gy a nd s e e m e d t o be a n e s s e nt i a l e l e m e nt i n voc a l i s t s e f f or t s t o a c hi e ve t he i r de s i r e d obj e c t i ve s i n pe r f or m a nc e T he r e s pons e s of t he m ot i va t i ona l f unc t i ons of voc a l i s t s i m a ge r y i s now pr ovi de d. M ot i v at i onal R e as ons M ot i va t i on r e a s ons f or us i ng i m a ge r y w e r e t h r e e f ol d: ( a ) m ot i va t i ona l s pe c i f i c ( M S ) i n goa l s e t t i ng a nd a t t a i nm e nt ; ( b ) m o t i va t i on a l ge ne r a l a r ous a l ( M G A ) i n r e gul a t i ng a r ous a l a nxi e t y a nd e ne r gy; a nd ( c ) m o t i va t i ona l ge ne r a l m a s t e r y ( M G M ) f or s e l f c onf i de nc e a nd m a s t e r y ( P a i vi o, 1985; H a l l e t a l 1998 ) C a t e gor i e s a nd s ubc a t e gor i e s of f i ndi ngs i n m ot i va t i ona l r e a s ons c a n be f ound i n T a bl e 20.

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204 T a bl e 20 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s M ot i v at i onal R e as ons f or I m a ge r y U s e : C at e gor i e s and Subc at e gor i e s M ot i va t i ona l R e a s ons C a t e gor i e s S ubc a t e gor i e s N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s L ong t e r m 13 S hor t t e r m 11 M ot i va t i ona l S pe c i f i c ( M S ) G oa l A t t a i nm e nt O t he r I s s ue s 5 C a l m i ng 15 B r e a t hi ng 14 B ody C onc e r ns 6 F oc us & C onc e nt r a t i on 13 P r e pa r a t i on 10 S e l f t a l k 10 M ot i va t i ona l G e ne r a l A r ous a l ( M G A ) A r ous a l / E ne r gy P s yc hi ng U p 13 S e l f E f f i c a c y 8 S uc c e s s f ul I m a ge s 9 C onf i de nc e S e l f t a l k 9 M a s t e r y 5 M ot i va t i ona l G e ne r a l M a s t e r y ( M G M ) M a s t e r y F i xi ng P r ob l e m s 7

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205 G oal at t ai nm e nt ( m ot i v at i onal s pe c i f i c ) T he m ot i v a t i ona l s pe c i f i c ( M S ) i m a ge r y r e a s ons i nc l ude d i de nt i f yi ng goa l s i n or de r t o i ns pi r e t he s i nge r t o c ont i nue t o s t r i ve t o a c hi e ve i de a l s or s pe c i f i c r ol e s T hi s pur pos e f or u s i ng i m a ge r y i n pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s r e s ul t e d i n t hr e e c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) l ong t e r m ( b) s hor t t e r m a nd ( c ) ot he r i s s ue s r e ga r di ng m ot i va t i on i n goa l i m a ge r y T he di s c us s i on of i m a ge r y c ont e nt g oa l s of out c om e pe r f or m a nc e a nd pr oc e s s ha s pr e vi ous l y be e n pr o vi de d. F ur t he r c onc e r ns i nvol ve d di s t i ngui s hi ng goa l i m a ge r y f r om da ydr e a m i ng a n d r e l a t i ve va l ue a nd s uc c e s s of goa l a t t a i nm e nt D i f f e r e nc e s a r os e be t w e e n l ong t e r m a nd s hor t t e r m goa l s f or m a ny pa r t i c i pa nt s T hi r t e e n s i nge r s ha d l ong t e r m goa l s m os t l y r e pl i c a t i ng t hos e a l r e a dy de s c r i be d i n out c om e goa l s w hi c h i ns pi r e d t he m t o i m pr ove L oui s e nt e r t a i ne d a ge ne r a l l ong t e r m out l i ne of goa l s t o m ot i va t e hi m i n hi s f ut ur e pl a ns : I do t e nd t o t r y t o goa l s e t f or m ys e l f a nd t e l l m ys e l f w he r e I w oul d l i ke t o be . . I f I ha ve a f i ve o r a t e n ye a r a c c om pl i s hm e nt t ha t I w oul d l i ke I do m a ke a not e o f t ha t goa l a nd I do r e c ogni z e t ha t t ha t s s om e t hi ng t ha t I w a nt t o a c hi e ve . . E l e ve n s i nge r s i m a gi ne d a t t a i ni ng t he i r de s i r e d r ol e s i n s uc c e s s i on a nd r e l i e d m or e on a s t e p by s t e p pr oc e s s a s i n a c hi e vi ng a gi ve n s e r i e s of s hor t t e r m goa l s I va n w oul d br e a k dow n t he l ong t e r m goa l s a nd a s ke d hi m s e l f H ow di d I a r r i ve a t t hi s goa l ? T ha t s w ha t I d i d oka y. H ow di d I a r r i ve a t t ha t pl a c e ? . j us t ki nd of c om e l i ke t ha t i n r e ve r s e or de r f or m e I n c ont r a s t s e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d c onc e r ns a bout t he us e f ul ne s s a nd be ne f i t i n i m a gi ni ng s hor t t e r m goa l s t o he l p i ns pi r e t he m H a r r i e t s t a t e d, t he m i nut i a i s not s om e t hi ng t ha t I e ve r i m a gi ne I don t i m a gi ne m e i n r e he a r s a l s or c oa c hi ng a c e r t a i n

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206 r ol e A c t ua l l y I s or t of s ki p ove r a l l of t ha t i n m y i m a ge r y. S i m i l a r t o t hi s s e nt i m e nt C a t he r i ne s a i d, a l l t he s t e ps be t w e e n m y one ye a r goa l a nd t ha t a r e r i di c ul ous l y uni m a gi na bl e f or m e E l oi s e a l s o be c a m e f r us t r a t e d w i t h s hor t t e r m goa l s a nd s a i d, I f ound i t m or e di s c our a gi ng t o s e e m y pr oj e c t e d t i m e l i ne ge t i nt e r r upt e d by t hi ngs be yond m y c ont r ol T he r e f or e t he s e s i nge r s pr e f e r r e d a br oa de r a pp r oa c h t o goa l s i n i m a ge r y. O t he r i s s ue s a nd c onc e r ns w i t h i m a ge r y e m e r ge d i n goa l s c ha ngi ng ove r t he ye a r s a nd how goa l s w e r e a f f e c t e d by pa r e nt i ng c hi l dr e n. E l oi s e a nd ot he r pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpe r i e nc e d m a r ke d c ha nge s i n t he i r w or k i n goa l a t t a i nm e nt i m a ge r y a s t he y pr ogr e s s e d i n t he i r c a r e e r s a nd be c a m e m or e a c c om pl i s he d. I n de s c r i bi ng he r e xpe r i e nc e of f i na l l y be i ng i nvi t e d t o j oi n a r e now ne d pr o f e s s i ona l s i ngi ng or ga ni z a t i on a f t e r ye a r s of a udi t i oni ng f or t he m M oni que s a i d: I c a m e ba c k a nd s a ng f or t he m d i dn t c a r e a nym or e got s t r a i ght i n . be c a us e I di dn t c a r e s o m uc h a nym or e . . B ut i t w a s a w on de r f ul f e e l i ng ge t t i ng i nt o t he [ c om pa ny] t ha t I d s o de s pe r a t e l y w a nt e d t o be i n. B ut onc e I w e nt t o t he f i r s t r e he a r s a l I t hought a s I l i s t e ne d t o t he m I t hought I ve m ove d be yond t hi s F r a nc i ne a gr e e d, goa l s c ha nge a s you s t a r t t o be c om e a w a r e T he de c i s i on t o r a i s e c hi l dr e n w a s a m a j or c ons i de r a t i on i n how t w o s i n ge r s a l l ow e d t he m s e l ve s t o i m a gi ne a c hi e vi ng t he i r goa l s I va n f e l t I t s di f f i c ul t a s a f a t he r a nd a hus ba nd, be c a us e you ha ve t o c ons i de r your ki ds you a f f e c t your ki ds a s w e l l J os e phi ne w ho a l s o ha d c hi l dr e n w a nt e d t o pr ogr e s s i n he r c a r e e r but ha d m a de t h e c hoi c e not t o be a w a y f r om t he m f or s i x w e e ks or e i ght A s a r e s u l t s he w a s s a t i s f i e d w i t h r e gi ona l e nga ge m e nt s B ot h s i nge r s ha d t o m a ke a dj us t m e nt s i n t he i r c a r e e r s goa l s a nd c ons e que nt l y i n t he i r i m a ge r y

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207 C onc e r ni ng goa l i m a ge r y, s om e of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o c om m e nt e d on t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n goa l i m a ge r y a nd da y dr e a m i ng t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of i m a ge r y a nd t he be ne f i t s of r e f i ni ng a nd i nc r e a s i ng goa l i m a ge r y I n de s c r i bi ng hi s e xpe r i e nc e of i m a gi ni ng a s pe c i f i c goa l I va n s a i d, I t s not s o m uc h a w i s hf ul s e ns e of O h, I w i s h t h i s m i ght ha ppe n. B ut I a l l ow m ys e l f t o c om pl e t e l y f e e l i t a s i f i t s r e a l I n a na l yz i ng he r us e of i m a ge r y t o s e c ur e a pa r t i c ul a r r ol e w hi c h s h e f i na l l y w on a f t e r ye a r s of e f f or t M oni que c a m e t o r e a l i z e t ha t i m a gi ni ng i t i s l i ke t hi s e xpr e s s i on: S e e i t be i t Y ou s e e your s e l f i n i t A nd I t hi nk I w a s l ongi ng t o be i n i t but not s e e i ng m ys e l f i n i t M oni c a di s t i ngui s he d t ha t goa l a t t a i nm e nt i nvo l ve d s pe c i f i c i t y i n i m a ge r y; l ongi ng f or s om e t hi ng be ge t s c ont i nui ng t he f e e l i ng of l ongi ng, w hi l e s e e i ng a nd e m bodyi ng t he goa l he l p m a ni f e s t t ha t i m a ge T he s e s i nge r s va r i e d a s t o t he i r e f f o r t s a nd a ppl i c a t i ons i n goa l i m a ge r y, but ge ne r a l l y f e l t t ha t t he m o r e c l e a r l y t h e goa l s w e r e i m a gi ne d, t he be t t e r t he i r c ha nc e s w e r e of e xpe r i e nc i ng t ha t i m a ge S e ve r a l s i nge r s e l a bor a t e d on t he s uc c e s s e s t he y ha d e xpe r i e nc e d w i t h c l e a r l y a nd e l a bor a t e l y i m a gi ni ng goa l out c om e s f unc t i oni ng m ot i va t i ona l l y. F r a nc i ne s e c ur e d s e ve r a l of he r r ol e s us i ng t hi s m e t hod w he r e i n s he s a i d, t he y o f f e r e d m e a c ont r a c t i n t he a udi t i on, be c a us e I ha d a l r e a dy gone t hr oug h t h e w hol e pr oc e s s i n m y b r a i n o f ha vi ng a l r e a dy pe r f o r m e d i t F r a nc i ne s i m a ge r y w a s a s t hough s he w a s a c t ua l l y a c t i ng i n t ha t r ol e c onvi nc i ng he r s e l f i t w a s a pr e s e nt r e a l i t y. L i ke w i s e H a r r i e t ga ve a n a c c ount of a c hi e vi ng t w o di f f e r e nt r ol e s S he s t a t e d, m a ybe a ye a r a go I s a i d . I w a nt e d t o be s i ngi ng T r a vi a t a a nd L uc i a A nd I i m a gi ne d m ys e l f i n t ha t r ol e a nd I c a n i m a gi ne m ys e l f on s t a ge a nd I ha d i t A s a r e s ul t o f hi s ye a r s of s uc c e s s w i t h goa l i m a ge r y, B a r r y s ugge s t e d:

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208 [ T ] he m or e s pe c i f i c you c a n be t he m o r e I us e t he w or d, vi s ua l i z a t i on, t he m or e you c a n vi s ua l i z e w ha t t he a c t ua l e nd pr oduc t i s a nd a r t i c ul a t e i t w r i t e i t dow n, s a y i t ge t r e a l l y i t out of you r body on t o s om e t hi n g c onc r e t e a pi e c e of pa pe r t he n, i t be c om e s i t m a t e r i a l i z e s i t s e l f m uc h m or e e a s i l y. F or t he s e voc a l i s t s goa l i m a ge r y w a s a vi t a l pa r t o f t he i r m ot i va t i on a nd t he i r pr of e s s i ona l s uc c e s s A s a r e s ul t of t he s e a c c om pl i s hm e nt s t he y i nc r e a s e d t he i r goa l i m a ge r y, how e ve r i t w a s not c l e a r how t he y i ni t i a l l y be g a n a nd de ve l ope d t hi s T hi s de s i r e t o e nga ge i n m or e goa l i m a ge r y e m e r g e d i n t hr e e of t he s i nge r s I n c ons i de r i ng us i ng i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve hi s goa l t o s i ng a t t he M E T N i c hol a s s a i d, I ve us e d t ha t a l i t t l e bi t t o i m a gi ne m ys e l f s i ngi ng t he r e . . I ha v e n t r e a l l y got t e n i nt o a ny de t a i l i nt o i t ye t a l t hough i t c oul d pos s i bl y be he l p f ul I t s m o r e of ge ne r a l i z e d i de a a t t hi s poi nt W he n a s ke d i f s he i m a gi ne d a c hi e vi ng he r goa l s C a t he r i ne r e pl i e d, I don t t hi nk I ve e ve r a c t ua l l y done i t but i t s ounds l i ke a good i de a t o i m a gi ne m ys e l f i n t he pos i t i on I w a nt t o be i n. S om e s i nge r s w ho s ha r e d l e s s e xpe r i e nc e w i t h i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng t he i r goa l s di d not f e e l a s s t r ongl y a bout us i ng goa l i m a ge r y a s a t ool o f m ot i va t i on. A l l t he s e s i nge r s us e d goa l i m a g e r y t o m ot i va t e t h e m s e l ve s i n t he i r pr of e s s i on but va l ue d goa l w or k d i f f e r e nt l y T hos e w ho s pe nt a g r e a t de a l of t i m e e nga ge d i n i m a gi ni ng t he i r de s i r e d r e s ul t s di d s o be c a us e t he y w e r e c onv i nc e d of i t s e f f e c t i ve ne s s O t he r s i m a gi ne d w i t h m uc h l e s s i nt e nt a nd hope f or r e s ul t s I n a ny c a s e goa l i m a ge r y w a s us e d a s a t ool t o he l p t he s e s i nge r s m ove t ow a r ds opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e A r ous al and e ne r gy ( m ot i v at i onal ge ne r al ar ous al ) M ot i va t i ona l ge ne r a l a r ous a l ( M G A ) i m a ge r y c om pr i s e d t he s e c ond r e a s on or p ur pos e f or w hi c h voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l s

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209 us e d i m a ge r y. S i nge r s r e s pons e s de s c r i bi ng t hi s i m a ge r y f unc t i on r e s ul t e d i n t he s ol e c a t e gor y of e f f or t s t o c a l m a nxi e t y or t e ns i on a nd e ne r gy f or ps yc hi ng up, f o r w hi c h t he s a m e i m a ge s c oul d a c hi e ve opt i m a l a r ous a l l e ve l s f or pe r f or m a nc e I m a ge r y m e t hods t o r e gul a t e a r ous a l a nd e ne r gy t o m a i nt a i n a ppr op r i a t e l e ve l s f o r s i ngi ng r e ve a l e d s e ve n s ubc a t e gor i e s w hi c h w e r e ( a ) c a l m i ng e f f or t s ( b ) m a na gi ng t he br e a t h, ( c ) c opi ng w i t h body c onc e r ns ( d ) f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on, ( e ) p r e pa r a t i on, ( f ) s e l f t a l k, a nd ( g) ps yc hi ng up. T he a bi l i t y f o r a s i nge r t o c a l m a nxi e t y a nd a r ous a l l e ve l s a nd c ont r ol ne r ve s w a s r e ga r de d a s e s s e nt i a l i n pe r f or m i ng e xc e l l e nc e A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d us i ng i m a ge r y f o r c a l m i ng, w hi c h t he y p r a c t i c e d m os t pa r t i c ul a r l y be f or e a nd dur i ng pe r f o r m a nc e a nd va l ue d h i ghl y i n pe r f o r m a nc e M a na gi ng br e a t hi ng w a s c ons i de r e d a vi t a l e l e m e n t i n c a l m i ng ne r ve s a nd a nxi e t y. H i gh a r ous a l l e ve l s of t e n s e ve r e l y di m i n i s he d a s i nge r s a bi l i t y t o b r e a t h. I n de s c r i bi ng how he r b r e a t h w a s a f f e c t e d du r i ng t i m e s of i nt e ns e pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y, M oni que s a i d, i t s ve r y hur t f ul a nd i t a f f e c t s m y br e a t hi ng ba dl y. O ne of t he pr i m a r y m e t hods f our t e e n of t he s e s i nge r s s ugge s t e d t o a c hi e ve c a l m ne s s w a s ga i ni ng pr ope r br e a t h c ont r ol N i ne s i nge r s us e d t he i r br e a t h t o s p e c i f i c a l l y c a l m dow n ( e g. H a r r i e t : a l ot of s t r e s s a nd a nxi e t y a nd t hi ngs l i ke t ha t c a n be ha r ne s s e d w he n you j us t ge t a hol d of your br e a t h ) S e ve r a l m e nt i one d t he phys i ol ogi c a l be ne f i t s of s l ow r e l a xe d br e a t h i ng. N i c hol a s s a i d, I m b r e a t hi ng s l ow l y a nd I ve f oun d t ha t t ha t he l ps c ont r ol o r he l ps m e c ont r ol m y a dr e na l i n a nd m y he a r t r a t e a l i t t l e bi t T hr e e s i nge r s w e r e r e l uc t a nt t o a t t r i but e t he c a l m i ng e f f e c t s of br e a t hi ng t o i m a ge r y. F o r e xa m pl e G e r a l d s t a t e d t ha t us i ng a nd m ovi ng t he a i r t h r ough m y body t o c a l m dow n. I m not s ur e i f t ha t s a s m uc h a n i m a ge a s a na t ur a l phe nom e non. I m a ge r y m i gh t ha ve be e n i ns t r um e nt a l i n c a us i ng

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210 t he phys i c a l body t o b r e a t h i n a w a y t ha t c a l m s ne r ve s e s pe c i a l l y w he n t ha t w a s t he pe r f or m e r s i nt e nt i on. L e a r ni ng t o c ont r ol b r e a t hi n g w a s pos s i bl y a r e s ul t of e xt e ns i ve pr a c t i c e t o m a ke t hi s s ki l l a ut om a t i c a nd f ul l y a c c e s s i bl e t o t he pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t A ddi ng t o t he be ne f i t s of good b r e a t hi ng, O phe l i a s a i d, I f I c a n t br e a t he f ul l y t he n I don t f e e l l i ke t he pe r f or m a nc e w oul d be a s s a t i s f a c t or y f or m e or t he a udi e nc e S i nge r s a l s o s ha r e d t he i r us e o f i m a ge r y i n de a l i ng w i t h phys i ol ogi c a l c onc e r ns a nd t he e f f e c t s of ne r vous ne s s O ve r t he ye a r s s i x pa r t i c i pa nt s di s c ove r e d w a ys t o us e t he i r ne r ve s f o r i m p r ovi ng t he i r pe r f or m a nc e s E l oi s e r e f r a m e d he r e xpe r i e nc e of a nxi e t y a nd s a i d, I t s no t s o m uc h ne r ve s a s a dr e na l i n. C ha ngi ng t he w a y a s i nge r r e ga r de d ne r ve s s e e m e d t o f a c i l i t a t e c a l m e r f e e l i ngs dur i ng pe r f or m a nc e s I va n s a i d, [ I ] s t oppe d r e s i s t i ng a ga i ns t t he ne r ve s a nd s t a r t e d e m br a c i ng t he m . . a nd j us t unde r s t a nd t ha t t hi s i s s om e t hi ng m y body di d f o r w ha t e ve r r e a s on a nd I di dn t v i e w i t a s a ne ga t i ve T w o s i nge r s i de nt i f i e d s pe c i f i c bodi l y r e a c t i ons t o s t r e s s t he y e ve nt ua l l y a c c e pt e d a nd f ound w a ys t o c ope w i t h i t E l oi s e w oul d l oc a t e t he a r e a of t e ns i on i n he r body a nd f e e l i t r e l a x. S he s a i d, i m a gi ne a f i s t a nd t ha t s t he t e ns i on, a nd t e ns i on i s not ba d. I t s j us t i n t he f i s t s o t ha t t he ha nd i s ope n a nd t he e ne r gy c a n f l o w P hys i c a l m a ni f e s t a t i ons of ne r vous ne s s a nd s t a ge f r i ght w e r e of t e n a l l e vi a t e d or r e s ol ve d by m e nt a l l y i m a gi ni ng t he i r s ol ut i ons C ont e ndi ng w i t h t he de bi l i t a t i ng e f f e c t s of pe r f o r m a nc e a nxi e t y w a s s om e t i m e s ove r w he l m i ng e s pe c i a l l y c o ns i de r i ng t he e nor m ou s s t r e s s s i nge r s ha d t o e ndur e K a r e n i l l us t r a t e d t hi s c l e a r l y i n t he f ol l ow i ng quo t e : [ I ] m a ge r y s a ve d m y l i f e i n s t a ge f r i ght . . t hi s pa r t i c ul a r s e a s on, a nd I t hi nk i t w a s c oupl e d w i t h ge t t i ng m y gr a dua t e de gr e e a nd I a c t ua l l y ha d a ba by t ha t I w a s

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211 nur s i ng a t t he s a m e t i m e a nd I t hi nk I di d ha ve a l i t t l e bi t o f p r e s s ur e on m e I t hi nk t he c om bi na t i on of a l l t ha t pr oba bl y e nt e r e d i nt o i t . . I de c i de d t ha t I w oul d us e t he i m a ge r y t o ba c k dow n t he a nxi e t y. . i t w a s j us t a m a t t e r of vi s ua l i z i ng t he w or s t a nd how I c oul d pul l i t o f f A nd i t w a s j us t t ha t e xi t doo r t ha t I ne ve r ha d t o us e O f t e n pe r f o r m e r s w e r e a bl e t o r e gul a t e a r ous a l w h e n t he y c oul d i de nt i f y s pe c i f i c m e nt a l t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs t ha t c a us e f e a r a nd t hos e t ha t c a l m e d t he m M a i nt a i ni ng f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on w a s a not he r m e t hod of i m a ge r y us e d by 13 s i nge r s t o f e e l t he i de a l l e ve l s of a r ous a l dur i ng pe r f or m a nc e S pe c i f i c a l l y, e i gh t s i nge r s m e nt i one d f oc us i ng on t he t a s k a t ha nd. S om e de ve l ope d s ki l l s t o de a l w i t h t he i r t hought s w onde r i ng dur i ng s i ngi ng by p r a c t i c i ng c onc e nt r a t i on e xe r c i s e s S t a yi ng pos i t i ve a nd not e nt e r t a i ni ng a ny ne ga t i ve t hought s w a s a s ol ut i on f or f ou r s i nge r s J os e phi ne s ugge s t e d: [ I ] f you f e e l ne r vous a bout a pe r f o r m a nc e . . f oc us onl y o n t he i m a ge of t he m us i c t o f oc us onl y on t he pi c t ur e of t he m us i c of w ha t you r e s i ngi ng not t o a l l ow ot he r t hought s t o c om e i n t o your he a d. . a nd s hut dow n a l l t he t hought s t ha t a r e ne ga t i ve w hi l e you r e pe r f or m i ng. A nna a nd E l oi s e f e l t t ha t t hough t s of c onne c t i ng w i t h t he a udi e nc e he l pe d he r t o m or e c om pl e t e l y f oc us on he r pe r f o r m a nc e E l oi s e de s c r i be d he r e xpe r i e nc e i n t he f ol l ow i ng e xc e r pt : I pi c t ur e t he a udi e nc e a nd t r y t o i m a gi ne w ha t t he y r e hopi ng f or A nd w he n I r e m e m be r t ha t t he y c a m e f o r s om e t hi ng good a nd t o f e e l good a nd t ha t t he y r e not t he r e t o pi c k m e a pa r t t he n I c a l m dow n be c a us e t he n I f e e l l i ke t he y r e on m y t e a m

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212 C onc e nt r a t i ng a nd f oc us i ng w e r e be s t p r a c t i c e d i n r e he a r s a l s o c ont r ol l i ng m e nt a l t hought s c oul d be e a s i l y a c hi e ve d on s t a ge O bvi ous l y, a s i nge r p r e pa r e d by l e a r ni ng a l l t he a s pe c t s of e xe c ut i ng s ongs how e ve r t he y a l s o us e d i m a ge r y t o v i s ua l i z e t he p e r f e c t pe r f o r m a nc e m e nt a l l y pl a n i t s e xe c ut i on, a nd i m a gi ne t e c hni c a l e xc e l l e nc e T e n s i nge r s c i t e d t he i m po r t a nc e of s uf f i c i e nt l y pr e pa r i ng r ol e s a nd a r i a s pr i or t o pe r f o r m i ng t o a l l e vi a t e pe r f o r m a nc e a nxi e t y. L oui s r e s pons e c l e a r l y e xe m pl i f i e d t hi s w he n he s a i d, I t hi nk I a m m or e c a l m be c a us e of m y a dva nc e d pr e pa r a t i on, m e nt a l l y. F i ve s i nge r s e xpr e s s e d t he i m por t a nc e of vi s ua l i z i ng t he pe r f e c t pe r f or m a nc e t o c a l m t he i r n e r ve s I va n i l l us t r a t e d t he di f f e r e nc e i n pr e pa r e dne s s be t w e e n r ol e s he kne w a nd one s he d i d not by s a yi ng: I f I a m no t a bl e t o vi s ua l i z e c l e a r l y w ha t I w a nt t h e n w ha t ha ppe ns i s t ha t i ne vi t a bl y m y ne r ve s w i l l i nc r e a s e a l i t t l e bi t I l l f e e l a l i t t l e uns e t t l e d. N e w r o l e s a r e t hi s w a y f o r m e . . I f f or pi e c e s t ha t I r e pe a t a nd I know I j us t know t o t he poi nt t ha t I c a n j us t he a r i t I c a n f e e l i t f e e l m ys e l f s i ngi ng i t s e e e ve r y pr oduc t i on de t a i l a nd s t a gi ng, t he n t he l e ve l o f s t r e s s de c r e a s e s gr e a t l y. S i x s i nge r s f e l t m or e s e c ur e w he n t he y m e nt a l l y p l a nne d t he de t a i l s of a pe r f o r m a nc e F o r e xa m pl e K a r e n de c l a r e d, I don t l i ke s ur pr i s e s s o I p r e t t y m uc h ha ve i n m y m i nd e ve r yt hi ng t ha t I m g oi ng t o do. I m a gi ni ng a s m a ny de t a i l s a s pos s i bl e i n t he e nt i r e pe r f or m a nc e c a l m e d pe r f or m e r s m i nds a nd a l l ow e d t he m t o c onc e nt r a t e on e xe c ut i ng t he s ong. S i m i l a r t o a t hl e t i c c om pe t i t o r s 10 voc a l i s t s us e d s e l f t a l k i n c a l m i ng ne r ve s a nd a dj us t i ng t he i r a nxi e t y, or m ot i va t i ona l dr i ve F our s i nge r s us e d s e l f t a l k i n a l l e vi a t i ng s e l f doubt F o r e xa m pl e j us t be f o r e s t e ppi ng on s t a ge M oni que he a r d:

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213 a l i t t l e S a t a n i ns i de m e A s I m br e a t hi ng f or t he n e xt l i ne s a yi ng, Y ou r e goi ng t o f or ge t t hi s l i ne . A nd a s t he c ur t a i n ope ne d, t hi s de vi l i n m e s a i d, O h, w ha t s your f i r s t l i ne ? A nd a t l e a s t I ha d t i m e t o s a y, G o a w a y, j us t r e l a x. T hi s l i ne w i l l c om e A nd i t d i d. L oui s r e c ogni z e d hi s a nxi e t y a nd w oul d m e nt a l l y r e s pond w i t h s e l f t a l k w he n he s a i d, I pi c t ur e m ys e l f on s t a ge I pi c t ur e m ys e l f ne r vous I pi c t ur e m ys e l f r e a dy t o gi ve t he pe r f or m a nc e B ut t he n I f ol l ow t hr ough a nd s a y t h a t e ve n t hough I a m ne r vous or a ppr e he ns i ve I w i l l pe r f o r m w e l l a nyw a y. O t he r s i nge r s r e pe a t e d phr a s e s t o s t r e ngt he n t he i r m ot i va t i on s uc h a s E l oi s e w ho c ont i nua l l y s a i d t o he r s e l f a dr e na l i n i s f a nt a s t i c e ne r gy, i t s f l ow i ng t hr ough you, you r e a l i on a n d you r e a bout t o go on s t a ge a nd pos s e s s t he s t a ge a nd ow n i t S i m i l a r l y B a r r y s a i d, i f I m ne r vous be c a us e I m not a t 100% a nd I l l c l os e m y e ye s a nd s a y a m a nt r a i f y ou w i l l t ha t a l l ow s m e t o r e l i e ve s om e of t he s t r e s s S e l f t a l k w a s a not he r f or m of i m a ge r y t he s e s i nge r s us e d t o s uc c e s s f ul l y c a l m t he m w he n t he y e xpe r i e nc e d di f f e r e nt f o r m s of pe r f o r m a nc e a nxi e t y. W i t h r e ga r d t o i m a ge r y us e i n c a l m i ng a r ous a l t he ot he r e l e m e nt s e m e r gi ng f r om t he i nt e r vi e w s i nvol ve d g r oundi ng, m e di t a t i on, t ho ught s of f a m i l y f l ow a nd ba l a nc i ng e ne r gy. A nna s a i d, I l l t r y t o i m a gi ne m y f e e t gr o w i ng i nt o t he gr ound t o r e l a x a nd s t a bi l i z e he r ne r ve s T w o pe r f o r m e r s p r a c t i c e d m e di t a t i on a nd one e nt e r t a i ne d w a r m t hought s of f a m i l y f o r f e e l i ng pe a c e f ul a nd r e a dy t o go on s t a ge A not he r t w o s i nge r s i m a gi ne d be i ng i n a f l ow w i t h t he a udi e nc e ( e g A nna t ha t f l ow t ha t c om e s t h r oug h m e a nd ba c k out t o t he m a nd t ha t i nf i ni t y t hi ng ) T he s e pe r f or m e r s s t r ove t o a c hi e ve t he pr ope r ba l a nc e be t w e e n hi gh a nd l ow e ne r gy E l oi s e e xpl a i ne d:

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214 [ I ] f I m t oo hype r a ga i n, i f I j us t t hi nk a bout t ha t f l ow f o r s om e r e a s on t ha t s a ba l a nc i ng t hi ng. I t ki nd of w or ks i n bot h di r e c t i ons I f i t s f r e ne t i c or i f i t s s t oppe d up, i f I j us t ki nd of l e t i t ke e p i t f l ow i ng s t e a di l y, t he n i t e i t he r c a l m s dow n w ha t s t oo hype r or i t e ne r gi z e s w ha t s c om a t os e S i nge r s s e e m e d t o f i nd t he i r i ndi vi dua l ba l a nc e f o r opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e w hi c h us ua l l y r e qui r e d c a l m i ng. A t c e r t a i n t i m e s pe r f or m e r s ne e de d t o i nc r e a s e t he i r e ne r gy a nd ps yc he up a s 13 pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d. E l oi s e i l l us t r a t e d t he ne e d f o r f e e l i ng m or e m o t i va t i on a nd he r r e m e dy i n t he f ol l ow i ng quot e S h e s t a t e d: [ W ] he n I ha ve t o pe r f or m a nd I f e e l ki nd o f l ow e ne r gy or m a ybe e ve n dow n e m ot i ona l l y . you ge t i t f l ow i ng a nd t o f r e e up a ny ne ga t i ve f e e l i ngs s o t ha t t he y l l go a w a y, be c a us e you j us t c a n t pe r f o r m w i t h ne ga t i vi t y. . [ I t ] i s l i ke w a t e r f a l l s or r i ve r s f l ow i ng a nd i t s j us t t hi s c l e a ni ng, t hi s c l e a n f l ow T o ps yc he up, A nna t hought a bout t he e f f or t s t he a udi e nc e e xpe nde d t o a t t e nd t he t he a t r e T w o s i nge r s w e r e m ot i va t e d by t he pr i vi l e ge t he y f e l t by be i ng a bl e t o s i ng. F r a nc i ne w oul d t e l l he r s e l f I ge t t o do t h i s t hi s i s a t r e a t t hi s i s a pr i vi l e ge M a ny pe opl e w or k t he i r e nt i r e l i ve s t o be a bl e t o do t hi s E l oi s e w oul d s a y, T hi s i s w ha t I l ove t o do. I ge t t o do w ha t I l ove t o do w hi c h m a ke s m e ha ppy. G e r a l d c r e a t e d t he m e t a phor of t he e ne r gy of a vol c a no e r upt i on t o f e e l m or e e ne r gy f or pe r f or m i ng C onve r s e l y, t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s di d not t hi nk t he y us e d i m a ge r y t o ps yc he up, us i ng p r i m a r i l y phys i c a l a c t i vi t y t o a c hi e ve t hi s A s a n e xa m pl e L oui s de c l a r e d:

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215 I don t t hi nk t ha t t ha t s a n i m a ge r y or v i s ua l i z a t i on i s s ue I t h i nk t ha t s j us t a phys i c a l i s s ue Y ou j us t ha ve t o ge t t o t he pr a c t i c e r oom w he n you ne e d t o, w he t he r you w a nt t o or not Y ou j us t do i t F or t he s e s i nge r s ps yc hi ng up w a s ga i ne d by de di c a t i on or r i gor ous phys i c a l a c t i vi t y U s i ng i m a ge r y t o c ont r ol ne r ve s r e l a x, a nd c a l m d ow n w e r e m or e c r i t i c a l t ha n e m pl oyi ng t hos e t o i nc r e a s e e ne r gy t o pe r f or m on s t a ge T hi s m a y ha ve be e n a di s t i nc t di f f e r e nc e f r om how a r ous a l a nd e ne r gy w e r e r e ga r de d i n t he m or e phys i c a l a c t i vi t i e s i nvol ve d i n s por t a nd da nc e I t i s a l s o pos s i bl e t ha t t oo m uc h e ne r gy e s pe c i a l l y a ggr e s s i ve e ne r gy c oul d ha ve a dve r s e l y a f f e c t e d t he i nt r i c a c i e s of voc a l pe r f or m a nc e f o r t he s e s i nge r s Se l f c onf i de nc e and m as t e r y ( m ot i v at i onal ge ne r al m as t e r y ) T he s e l f c on f i de nc e a nd m a s t e r y i m a ge r y c a t e gor y i nc l ude d m a na gi ng di f f i c ul t i e s s t a yi ng pos i t i ve a nd m a s t e r i ng s i t ua t i ons A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge s of c onf i de nc e a nd m a s t e r y, r e s ul t i ng i n f i ve s ubc a t e gor i e s ( a ) s e l f e f f i c a c y f e e l i ngs ( b) s uc c e s s f ul i m a ge ( c ) s e l f t a l k, ( d ) m a s t e r y a nd ( e ) f i xi ng p r obl e m s I m a ge r y t o ga i n a nd m a i nt a i n c onf i de nc e w a s i m p or t a nt t o a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd w a s s e pa r a t e d be t w e e n i m a ge s of s e l f e f f i c a c y ( e i g ht s i nge r s ) a nd i m a gi ni ng s uc c e s s f ul out c om e s ( ni ne s i nge r s ) C onf i de nt i m a ge s of s e l f e f f i c a c y w e r e pr i m a r i l y f e e l i ngs of be i ng s t r ong a nd s e l f a s s ur e d. S e ve r a l m e nt i one d s uc h i m a ge s a s ge t t i ng a di va a t t i t ude l i ke I j us t know I l ook good on s t a ge ( E l oi s e ) J os e phi ne pr e f e r r e d t o us e t he m ode l i ng m e t hod, a nd s ugg e s t e d, i m a gi ne you r s e l f a s [ be i n g s om e one ] . you r e a l l y l ook up t o W ho do you s e e a s ve r y s uc c e s s f ul a nd a ve r y goo d pe r f or m e r ? T hi s he l pe d he r e m body t he a ppe a r a nc e a nd f e e l i ngs of t he s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd c onf i de nc e s he w a nt e d t o po r t r a y on

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216 s t a ge O t he r s i nge r s c om bi ne d c onf i de nt i m a ge s w i t h s uc c e s s f ul l y i m a gi ni ng a pe r f or m a nc e F or e xa m pl e K a r e n of f e r e d I c e r t a i nl y i m a gi ne m ys e l f a s a w i nne r I i m a gi ne w ha t I c oul d do t o m a ke t he pe r f o r m a nc e be t t e r I gue s s or t o m a ke i t r e a l l y, r e a l l y good. O t h e r s i nge r s s uc h a s A nna be l i e ve d I f I c oul d i m a gi ne t hr ough t he w hol e t hi ng w i t hout s i ngi ng I f e l t m or e s e c ur e R e a l i z i ng t he i m po r t a nc e of d i r e c t i ng he r ow n i m a ge r y, F r a nc i ne r e f l e c t e d: I t hi nk t ha t goe s ba c k t o de f i ni t e l y i m a gi ni ng a s uc c e s s f ul out c om e a s oppos e d t o a n uns uc c e s s f ul out c om e A nd t ha t s a ha r d t hi ng t o do be c a us e I ve be c om e m or e a nd m or e a w a r e how w e do s ubc ons c i ous l y pr oj e c t t o pe opl e ou r ow n i ns e c ur i t i e s A nd i f w e r e not ke e pi ng t ha t s t uf f i n c he c k, you r e a l l y c a n c onve y a l l of your f e a r s a s oppos e d t o a l l o f your c onf i de nc e s M a ny s i nge r s r e c ogni z e d t he va l ue i n m a ki ng s ur e t he i r i m a ge r y a nd t hought s o f f ut u r e pe r f or m a nc e s r e f l e c t e d e xc e l l e nc e A not he r m ot i va t i ona l m e t hod of a c hi e vi ng c onf i de nc e a nd m a s t e r y i n s i nge r s w a s s e l f t a l k. N i ne s i nge r s r e s pons e s r e ve a l e d t he us e of s e l f t a l k i n pe r f or m i ng s ongs a nd ge ne r a l f e e l i ngs of c on f i de nc e T hr e e s i nge r s r e po r t e d us i ng s e l f t a l k t o e xe c ut e s ongs s uc c e s s f ul l y. G e r a l d w oul d m e nt a l l y s a y, T hi s i s goi ng t o be f i ne t hi s i s goi ng I m goi ng t o be s uc c e s s f ul I m go i ng t o s i ng e ve r yt hi n g c or r e c t l y. I m goi ng t o r e m e m be r m y w or ds a nd i t s goi ng t o be g r e a t I n s i ngi ng c ha l l e ngi ng pa s s a ge s M oni que s a i d: [ W ] he n t he r e s s om e t hi ng ve r y di f f i c ul t c om i ng up a ve r y hi gh not e or di f f i c ul t pas s agi o not e or s om e t hi ng l i ke t ha t I w oul d s a y, I c a n do a l l t h i ngs t hr ough C hr i s t O r I w oul d c ut out t he C hr i s t pa r t a nd s a y I c a n do a l l t h i ngs s o t ha t I

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217 s a w t ha t i m m e di a t e l y j us t be f o r e I w a s goi ng t o s i ng i t a nd i t j us t s or t of gi r de d m y l oi ns S e l f t a l k, r e l i gi ous l y or i e nt e d o r ot he r w i s e w a s us e d t o s e c ur e not e s t ha t w e r e pot e nt i a l l y t r oubl e s om e f or t hi s s i nge r w hi c h a l s o s t r e ngt he n f e e l i ngs of s e l f e f f i c a c y i n m a s t e r i ng i t s e xe c ut i on. S e l f t a l k w a s a l s o us e d by s i x s i nge r s t o i ns t i l l ge ne r a l f e e l i ngs of c onf i de nc e E xa m pl e s of t he s e i nc l ude d s uc h r e pe t i t i ve a f f i r m a t i ons s uc h a s you a r e a w onde r f ul s i nge r Y ou a r e a be a ut i f ul ( A nna ) J us t be f or e s t e ppi ng on s t a ge t o pe r f o r m M oni que de c l a r e d t o he r s e l f I A M t he Q ue e n! T hi s he l pe d s t r e ngt he n he r s e l f c onf i de nc e a nd f a c i l i t a t e d pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e R e l a t e d t o c onf i de nc e w e r e f e e l i ngs o f m a s t e r y i n s i ngi ng pe r f or m a nc e e s pe c i a l l y w he n s i ngi ng w a s e xc e pt i ona l l y c ha l l e ngi ng or w h e n pr obl e m s a ppe a r e d or pe r s i s t e d. F i ve s i nge r s de s c r i be d us i ng m ot i va t i ona l i m a ge r y f or m a s t e r y i n m o r e ge ne r a l t e r m s N i c hol a s s t a t e d, I us e i m a ge r y t o . m a s t e r t he e l e m e nt s t ha t a r e w i t hi n m y c ont r ol t he one s t ha t I ha ve r e s pons i bi l i t y f or K a r e n e xpa nde d t hi s i de a by s a yi ng: B e i ng f oc us e d, t hi nki ng t hr ou gh w ha t I m goi ng t o do a nd how I m goi ng t o do i t a nd a l l f r om know i ng t ha t I c a n do i t A l l r i ght I ha ve done i t I m c a pa bl e of doi ng i t a nd t he onl y r e a s on I w on t do i t i s t ha t I do m ys e l f i n S o i n or de r not t o do m ys e l f i n, t he n I know I ha ve t o be r i ght on t op of m y ga m e F e e l i ng c om pl e t e l y c om pe t e nt a nd c l e a r l y pr a c t i c i ng t he pe r f o r m a nc e he l pe d he r t o t r a ns l a t e t he s e i m a ge s t o t he s t a ge S e ve n s i nge r s us e d m a s t e r y i m a ge s s pe c i f i c a l l y t o pr e pa r e f or di f f i c ul t i e s or t o f i x pr obl e m s t ha t a r os e w hi l e pe r f or m i ng. M a s t e r y i m a ge r y f or de a l i ng w i t h di f f i c ul t i e s i nc l ude d voc a l e xe c ut i on, m a na gi ng c ha nge a nd p r i or p r e pa r a t i on. I n c l a s s i c a l s i ngi ng, i t

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218 w a s c om m on f or s i nge r s t o s w i t c h f r om one voi c e t ype t o a not he r dur i ng t he c our s e of t he i r c a r e e r due t o phys i ol ogi c a l c ha nge s E xe c ut i n g hi ghe r o r l ow e r not e s t ha n w ha t t he s i nge r w a s a c c us t om e d t o c oul d pr e s e nt pr obl e m s a s I va n i l l us t r a t e d: I ha d s w i t c he d f r om ba r i t one t o t e nor . a nyt hi ng t ha t a ny not e a bove t he s t a f f f r e a ke d m e out . . I s t a r t e d r e a l l y vi s ua l i z i ng s pe c i f i c a l l y be i ng m o r e c onf i de nt a nd a ppr oa c hi ng i t w i t h c onf i de nc e a nd not be i ng s o e i t he r a pol oge t i c or f e a r f u l or c onc e r ne d a bout i t S o a s I a ppr oa c he d t hos e not e s . t he n I w a s vi s ua l i z i ng s pe c i f i c a l l y j us t t he c onf i de nc e of t he s ound. . [ i n ] m y a pp r oa c h t o t hos e pi t c he s I va n us e d i m a ge r y t o r e m e dy t hi s pa r t i c ul a r pr obl e m a nd w a s a bl e t o ga i n m a s t e r y. S i nge r s of t e n ha d t o r e vi s e m e t hods of e xe c ut i ng t he s ong a nd c r a f t m or e a ppr opr i a t e w a ys a s A nna r e l a t e d, i t s e a s i e r t o g o, O ka y I know t ha t I ha ve t ha t i s s ue a nd t o w o r k t h r ough i t I t s a l m os t l i ke a r e kni t t i ng of t he f a br i c i n your he a d. P a r t of m a s t e r i ng t he voi c e w a s r e c ogni z i ng w he n a t e c hni que w a s no l onge r a ppr opr i a t e A nna r e a l i z e d t hi s a nd us e d i m a ge r y t o r e pa t t e r n he r s ki l l s f or t he ne xt pe r f or m a nc e S i m i l a r l y, L ou i s f e l t t ha t pr e pa r a t i on w a s vi t a l i n m a s t e r y a nd s a i d: J us t t he pur e a dva nc e d r e pe t i t i on of goi ng t hr ough t he e ve nt m e nt a l l y. I f i nd t ha t i n t he m om e nt of pe r f or m a nc e i f one ha s not a nt i c i pa t e d t ha t m om e nt pr ope r l y i t s ve r y c ha l l e ngi ng t o c a l m t he s i t ua t i on, or t o ge t a m e nt a l g r a s p ove r w ha t you r e goi ng t hr ough T ha t w or k ha s t o be done be f or e you a r r i ve t he r e A t t he m om e nt of pe r f or m a nc e i t s a l m os t t oo l a t e f or m e a nyw a y. I m a ge r y us e d f o r m a s t e r y a s s i s t e d t he s e s i nge r s i n bui l di ng s t r ong be l i e f s a nd s e l f e f f i c a c y t ha t t he y w e r e c a pa bl e a nd pr e pa r e d f or t h e t a s k of s i ngi ng a nd ove r c om i ng a ny di f f i c ul t y t ha t a r os e i n t he pr oc e s s

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219 A r t i s t i c R e as ons T he c a t e gor y o f a r t i s t i c r e a s ons w a s bor r o w e d f r o m t he f ou r W s f r a m e w or k o f N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) i n da nc e i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h a nd w a s f ound t o be a ppr op r i a t e i n r e por t i ng voc a l i s t s i nt e r vi e w r e s pons e s A r t i s t i c r e a s ons f or us i ng i m a ge r y i n opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e i n t hi s s t udy e m e r ge d s l i ght l y di f f e r e nt l y t ha n t hos e of da nc e F or t he s e s i nge r s pr e pa r i ng t o pe r f o r m a s ong or r ol e w a s c o ns i de r e d pr i m a r i l y a r t i s t i c w he n t he i r i m a ge r y e xt e nde d be yond t he t e c hni c a l or c ogni t i v e a nd m ot i va t i ona l f unc t i ons T he s e r e s ul t e d i n f ou r i m a ge r y c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) v oc a l qua l i t y, ( b ) a ppe a r a nc e ( c ) c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt ( d ) f l ow a nd ( e ) c om m uni c a t i on w i t h t he a udi e nc e A r t i s t i c r e a s ons f or s i nge r s t o us e i m a ge r y, t he c a t e gor i e s de t a i l s a nd f r e que nc y of r e s pons e s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 21 V oc al qual i t y A c hi e vi n g opt i m um voc a l qua l i t y w a s one of t he p r i m a r y a r t i s t i c r e a s ons voc a l i s t s us e d i m a ge r y. A l l s i nge r s m e nt i o ne d i m a ge r y of s om e i de a l qua l i t y of how t he y w a nt e d t he i r s ound t o be he a r d. I m a ge r y i n s i nge r s voc a l qua l i t y r e s ul t e d i n f our s e c t i ons : ( a ) c ol or ( b ) m ode l i ng ( c ) i de a l s ound, a nd ( d) s ound c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s E l e ve n s i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy r e por t e d e xpe r i e nc i ng voc a l qua l i t y c om bi ni ng t he t w o s e ns e s of s e e i ng vi s ua l c ol or s a nd he a r i ng t one s a nd ph r a s e s T he s e ha d be e n di vi de d i nt o t w o c ont e xt s vi s ua l c ol or a nd c ol or a s t i m br e o r e m ot i on of di f f e r e nt voc a l s ounds T w o r e s ponde r s s poke pr i m a r i l y o f t he vi s ua l a s pe c t of c ol or a s i t r e l a t e s t o t one s I n s t r i v i ng t o pr oduc e t he m os t a c c ur a t e pi t c h, A nna r e po r t e d t ha t f or he r di f f e r e nt not e s ha ve di f f e r e nt c ol o r s a nd di f f e r e nt ph r a s e s ha ve di f f e r e n t c ol or s r e ds or gr e e ns or b l ue s

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220 T a bl e 21 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s A r t i s t i c R e as ons f or I m age r y U s e C at e gor i e s A r t i s t i c R e a s ons C a t e gor i e s N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s C o l o r 1 1 M o d e l i n g 1 1 I d e a l S o u n d 9 V o c a l Q u a l i t y S o u n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 6 L o o k O n S t a g e 1 5 P o s t u r e 1 0 A p p e a r a n c e F i t n e s s 1 0 M o d e l i n g 1 4 H i s t o r y & C u l t u r e 1 4 A p p e a r a n c e 1 2 P a s t E x p e r i e n c e s 8 C h a r a c t e r D e v e l o p m e n t P r e p a r a t i o n M e t a p h o r s 2 B e i n g i n C h a r a c t e r 1 5 E m o t i o n 1 5 K i n e s t h e t i c 8 S o u n d 6 C h a r a c t e r D e v e l o p m e n t S t a g i n g Z o n e 4 I d e a s & E m o t i o n s 5 I n t i m a t e F e e l i n g s 3 F l o w i n g E n e r g y 3 C o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h A u d i e n c e S p i r i t u a l I n t e r a c t i o n 4

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221 E l oi s e de s c r i be d he r e xpe r i e nc e o f voc a l qua l i t y i n c ol or i m a ge r y w he n s he s a i d, you v e got your c he s t voi c e or your l ow voi c e i s r e d, a nd you r hi gh voi c e i s ye l l ow a nd t he y ne e d t o m i x s o you ha ve a l l t he s e di f f e r e nt be a ut i f ul or a nge s c ons t a nt l y goi ng on. T he i m a ge of ye l l ow o r gol d i n t he hi ghe r t one s w a s a l s o f ound i n r e s pons e s f r om I va n, w hos e quot e w a s i nc l ude d i n t he p r e vi ous s e c t i on on s e ns e i m a ge r y. T he s e s i nge r s us e d vi s ua l c ol or i m a ge r y t o e xe c ut e t he p r e c i s e voc a l q ua l i t y a nd t one i n t he m us i c a l c ont e xt S i x pa r t i c i pa nt s r e l a t e d c ol or i n t e r m s o f t i m br e a n d t he e m ot i ona l a s pe c t s of e xpr e s s i ng a s ong a s i n D or i ne s e xpe r i e nc e : I do us e i m a ge r y i n t e r m s of c ol or r e l a t i ng c ol or o r i m a ge s t o t one S om e s ongs r e qui r e di f f e r e nt t i m br e t ha n ot he r s ongs or a di f f e r e nt qua l i t y t o t he vo i c e t ha n ot he r s ongs f o r e xa m pl e w i t h s ongs t ha t a r e m or e m e l a nc hol y or m o r e s ul t r y or m or e pa s s i ona t e or m or e s a d, I l l e nvi s i on t hi ngs l i ke ve l ve t or c hoc ol a t e or s om e t hi ng r i c h. D e s c r i pt i ve t e r m s c om bi ni ng s ound a nd c ol or ha ve of t e n be e n us e d i n voc a l pe da gogy t o m ode r a t e voc a l qua l i t y i n a c hi e vi ng a r t i s t i c va r i e t y i n s i ngi ng. M ode l i ng t he s ound of o t he r m o r e e xpe r i e nc e d s i n ge r s w a s a t ool 11 s i nge r s s a i d t he y us e d t o i m pr o ve t he i r ow n s ound qua l i t y S e ve r a l voc a l i s t s r e c a l l e d t he s ounds of s pe c i f i c s i nge r s t ha t i ns pi r e d t he m F or e xa m pl e B a r r y s a i d: [ I ] f I he a r s om e t hi ng t ha t t ot a l l y i ns pi r e s m e t o que s t i on m y t e c hni que . I a c t ua l l y t r y a nd i m a gi ne w ha t t he i r t ongue i s doi ng or w ha t t he i r body i s doi ng o r w ha t t he s ound t ha t t he y c r e a t e d a nd t r y a nd r e c r e a t e t ha t i n m y ow n pr a c t i c e s A nna w oul d i m a gi ne r e pl i c a t i ng t he ki ne s t he t i c p r oduc t i on of a n i de a l s i nge r s s ound, a s de s c r i be d i n t he f ol l ow i ng quot e :

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222 I c a n l i s t e n t o J oa n S ut he r l a nd a nd I f e e l w he r e t he vi br a t i on i s I m n ot e ve n hone s t l y s ur e i f t he vi br a t i on r e a l l y i s oc c ur r i ng or w e r e j us t doi ng i m a ge r y f or i t but you ha ve t he poi nt s on you r he a d w he r e you f e e l t ha t buz z a nd s o w he n I l i s t e n t o pe opl e I pu t t ha t i nt o m y body. C a t he r i ne s t r uggl e d w i t h m ode l i ng be c a us e s he us e d t he m e nt a l i m a ge of a s i nge r s voi c e t ha t w a s i na ppr opr i a t e i n t ha t i t di d not m a t c h he r ow n i ns t r um e nt S he s a i d, I ha ve ot he r pe opl e s voi c e s i n m y he a d. I ha ve J e s s ye N or m a n s s ound i n m y he a d [ but ] nope you ha ve a B a r ba r a B onne y s ound, a nd m a ke s ur e t ha t you don t t r y t o s i ng l i ke T os c a O phe l i a r e c a l l e d, I ve r un i nt o a l ot of p r obl e m s b y t r yi ng t o c opy ot he r s T he s e s i nge r s m a y ha ve t r i e d t o r e pl i c a t e t he voc a l qua l i t y of e xpe r t s i nge r s w i t h e xt e ns i ve e xpe r i e nc e a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s di f f e r i ng f r om t he na t ur a l a bi l i t i e s of t he i r ow n voi c e F our s i nge r s m e nt i one d t ha t m ode l i ng w a s s om e t hi ng t he y di d m or e w he n t he y w e r e younge r but a s t he y be c a m e m or e s e c ur e a nd f ound t he i r ow n voi c e t he ne e d f or m ode l i ng di m i ni s he d. N i ne of t he s e s i nge r s r e t a i ne d a n i de a l i m a ge i n t he i r m i nd of a s ound qua l i t y t he y a i m e d t o r e c r e a t e i n t he i r ow n voi c e s T hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s s poke of i nvoki ng a w i de va r i e t y of hum a n voc a l c a pa bi l i t i e s i n t he i r s i ngi ng, a s r e f l e c t e d by J os e phi ne w ho s a i d, t he hum a n voi c e m i m i c s s o m a ny d i f f e r e nt s ounds a nd ha s s uc h c a pa c i t y t o do s o. E l oi s e de s c r i be d a n a r r a y of s ounds t ha t m i m i c ke d a l l t he f a m i l i e s of t he or c he s t r a t ha t s he i m a gi ne d e m a na t i ng f r o m va r i ous pa r t s of he r bod y. S e ve r a l s i nge r s f e l t t he i r s ound qua l i t y w a s di r e c t l y l i nke d t o i t s m e nt a l or i gi ns O phe l i a e nde a vor e d t o c r e a t e a n i m a ge of w ha t you w a nt t o c om e out how you w a nt i t t o s ound. B a r r y s voc a l e f f or t s w e r e de t e r m i ne d or m odi f i e d m or e by i nt e r na l c hoi c e s t ha n by a ppl yi ng m e c ha ni c a l e f f or t s a s he a pt l y i l l us t r a t e d:

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223 [ Y ou] don t do a s ound, you do t he i m a ge . . Y ou l e t your m i nd go t o s om e w he r e you don t a c t ua l l y a f f e c t t he s ound di r e c t l y. T he r e s s om e t hi ng e l s e i n t he s ound t ha t c om e s of f na t ur a l a s c ons e que nc e s t o t ha t t hought I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t B a r r y ha d m a ny of t he t e c hni que s s ol i dl y i nc or por a t e d i n hi s s i ngi ng a nd now c onc e nt r a t e d on e xe c ut i ng s pe c i f i c voc a l qua l i t i e s S i nge r s us e d t he i r i m a ge r y t o a f f e c t a nd c ha nge t he qua l i t y of t he i r voc a l s ounds i n a va r i e t y of w a ys O t he r a r t i s t i c r e a s ons s i nge r s m e nt i one d i n t he i r i m a ge r y c onc e r ne d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of s ound a nd m a i nt a i ni ng or c ha ngi ng i ndi vi dua l voc a l qua l i t i e s a s r e por t e d i n ni ne r e s pons e s S i x s i nge r s o f f e r e d i l l u s t r a t i ons of i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve gr e a t e r de pt h a nd r i c hne s s i n t he i r s ound. H ow e ve r M oni que f e l t t ha t a s i nge r s i ndi v i dua l voc a l qua l i t y w a s m e a nt t o be c ons i s t e nt G e r a l d c onc ur r e d, I us ua l l y don t t hi nk o f t he s ound c ha ngi ng f r om a r i a t o a r i a T he s ound i s a l w a ys t h e s a m e F or m a ny s i nge r s voc a l de ve l opm e nt i nvol ve d f i ndi ng your i ndi vi dua l s ound, w hi c h s om e c ons i de r e d a s uni que a s your t hum bpr i n t N ot w i t hs t a ndi ng, t h r e e s i nge r s ha d t o c ope w i t h c ha nge s i n t he i r voc a l qua l i t y a s a r e s ul t of ge t t i ng ol de r J os e phi ne s a i d, I s t a r t e d out w i t h a ve r y l i ke l i ght s w e e t s ound. A nd i t s gr ow n a s I ve gr ow n o l de r A nd i t s be c om e w a r m e r a nd r i c he r A nd I ve ha d t o t r y t o f i gur e out how t o m a na ge c ha nge i n m y s ound. N ot onl y di d t he s ound qua l i t y c ha nge f or N i c hol a s a s he m a t ur e d but he ha d t o c ha nge hi s voc a l qua l i t y f or c e r t a i n s ongs H e r e c a l l e d, I ve got t o r e w or k i t j us t a l i t t l e bi t s o I m l ooki ng f or a l i t t l e m or e f oc us a nd r i ng i n t he uppe r pa r t of m y vo i c e M on i que s hi f t e d he r voi c e qua l i t y a s ne e de d f or t he pr oduc t i on. S he f e l t i t de pe nds on w ha t I m s i ngi ng. . I ha ve a f l e xi bl e voi c e a nd I c a n s i ng s t r a i ght o r I c a n s i ng c ur l y, a s I c a l l i t de pe ndi ng on w ha t t he

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224 c onduc t or w a nt s I w i l l do i t T he r e s e e m s t o be c e r t a i n qua l i t i e s of t he voi c e t ha t a r e m a i nt a i ne d, ot he r s t ha t c a n be c ons c i ous l y a l t e r e d, a nd s om e t ha t c ha nge w i t h a ge I m a ge r y m a i nt a i ne d a pr i m a r y r ol e i n t he i nt e nt i on s of t he s e s i nge r s t o m a ni pul a t e voc a l qua l i t y, w hi c h m a y be a c ons e que nc e of e xt e ns i ve hi ghl y t e c hni c a l e xpe r i e nc e i n s i ngi ng, a s m a ny of t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d. A ppe ar anc e A l l t he pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d i m a ge r y t o c ha nge a nd i m pr ove t he i r a ppe a r a nc e w hi c h i s ha r dl y s ur pr i s i ng gi ve n t ha t v oc a l pr of e s s i ona l s us ua l l y gi ve l i ve pe r f or m a nc e s on a s t a ge w he r e t he y a r e f ul l y v i s i bl e t o t he a udi e nc e R e s ul t s f r om t h i s c a t e gor y r e ve a l e d t hr e e s ubc a t e gor i e s of ( a ) l ook o n s t a ge ( b) pos t ur e a nd ( c ) f i t ne s s c onc e r ns L oo k on s t a ge c om p r i s e d how t he voc a l i s t i m a gi ne d t he a udi e nc e vi e w e d hi m or he r i n pe r f or m a nc e a nd w a s c i t e d i n a l l of t he r e s p onde r s T hi s i nvo l ve d t he ne e d f or a f e e dba c k m e c ha ni s m l e ve l of i m a ge r y de t a i l a nd pr e f e r r e d pe r s pe c t i ve I n or de r f or s i nge r s t o know how t he y a ppe a r e d on s t a ge s om e s or t of f e e dba c k s ys t e m w a s r e qui r e d, s uc h a s a t e a c he r c oa c h, di r e c t or m i r r or or vi de o. A nna i l l us t r a t e d t h i s by s a yi ng: [ S ] om e t i m e s I l l l ook i n t he m i r r or t o s e e w ha t I m doi ng r i ght t he n a nd t he n t o c r e a t e w h a t I w a nt i t t o l ook l i ke i n m y he a d i ns t e a d. . B ut i f t he r e s a f oc us t oo m uc h on t he e xt e r na l you w i l l l ook c ont r i ve d. . or you ne e d t o ge t t he f e e dba c k f r om t he di r e c t or o r you ne e d s om e body t o be you r e ye s W he n ot he r pe opl e a r e not a va i l a bl e t o gi ve f e e dba c k, s i nge r s ha d t o r e l y on e xpe r i e nc e a m i r r or o r vi de o O phe l i a one of t he younge r pa r t i c i pa nt s s a i d, t he onl y w a y you ge t good a t t hi s i s p r a c t i c e be c a us e how you m e a n t o p or t r a y your s e l f m a y not be how you r e a c t ua l l y pe r c e i ve d. I n or de r f or s om e pe r f o r m e r s t o be t t e r i m a gi ne how t he a udi e nc e

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225 vi e w e d t he m s e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s s pe c i f i c a l l y m e nt i one d us i ng e xt e r na l vi s ua l i m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve t o ga i n i nf o r m a t i on on t he i r a ppe a r a nc e H a r r i e t s t a t e d, I c a n s e e m ys e l f I gue s s f r om t he a u di e nc e pe r s pe c t i ve I l l i m a gi ne c e r t a i n ge s t ur e s a nd t hi ngs l i ke t ha t A nd I l l de c i de w ha t r e a ds be t t e r t o t he a udi e nc e v e r s us ot he r s A l i gni ng t he i de a l a ppe a r a nc e i n i m a ge r y w i t h t he a c t ua l l ook on s t a g e w a s t he goa l f o r s i nge r s w ho w a nt e d t o por t r a y t he m s e l ve s i n a c e r t a i n w a y. S i nge r s i m a gi ne d t he i r pos t ur e i n how t he y a ppe a r e d t o hol d t he i r body t he pos i t i on of t he i r he a d, s houl de r s c he s t a nd a r m s a s 10 of t he s e s i nge r s m e nt i one d. T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d be i ng i ns pi r e d by i m a ge s of m e t a ph or s s t e r e ot ypi c a l pe opl e a nd e l e m e nt s f r om s pe c i a l t r a i ni ng t o a c hi e ve t he i r opt i m a l pos t ur e I n l e a r ni ng t o hol d he r body e r e c t but r e l a xe d i n s i ngi ng, D o r i ne e xpl a i ne d, m y t e a c he r us e d t o s a y, P r e t e nd you r e on a pol e a pos t o t he I t a l i a ns s a y, t ha t you r body i s on a pol e i t s houl d a c t s t r a i ght U s i ng a di f f e r e nt m e t a phor D or i ne i m a gi ne d a s t r i ng c om i ng out o f t he t op o f m y he a d he l pi ng m e s t a nd up s t r a i ght t o i m a gi ne he r pos t ur e m or e a l i gne d. S om e s i nge r s i m a gi ne d t he m s e l ve s r e s e m bl i ng pe o pl e w i t h e xc e l l e nt pos t ur e K a r e n i m a gi ne d a l w a ys l ooki ng r e f i ne d. . a nd i t w oul d i nc l ude he a d up a nd c on f i de nt a nd m or e i n t he ki nd of r e ga l c a t e gor y w he n s he pe r f or m e d. L i ke w i s e M oni que e nvi s i one d, I A M t he Q ue e n! N ow you c a nnot s a y t ha t s e nt e n c e w i t hout hol di ng your he a d up hi gh, t hr ow i ng your c he s t out T hi s w or k e d pa r t i c ul a r l y w e l l w he n s he s a ng c onc e r t a nd or a t or i o pe r f o r m a nc e s A s a boy I va n s gr a ndm ot he r e nc our a ge d hi m t o s t a nd pr oudl y. S he t ol d hi m Y ou ha ve t o s t a nd l i ke a bul l f i ght e r i n t he r i ng, w hi c h w a s a n e ndur i ng i m a ge f or hi m e ve n t o t he pr e s e nt E v e n us i ng t he i m a ge o f a s t e r e ot ypi c a l pe r s on he l pe d t he s e s i nge r s s t a nd i n t he w a y t he y f e l t be s t f or pr ope r voc a l pr oduc t i on

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226 a nd a ppe a r a nc e on s t a ge P os t ur e w a s l e a r ne d i n t h e e a r l y s t a ge s of l i f e a nd i f de ve l ope d i nc or r e c t l y, s i nge r s be ne f i t e d f r om r e t r a i ni ng t o s t a nd pr ope r l y O ne s i nge r f ound gr e a t a s s i s t a nc e i n t hi s t ype of t r a i ni ng O phe l i a s ha r e d, I t hi nk t he m os t he l pf ul i m a ge r y t ha t a c oa c h ga ve m e r e c e nt l y ha d t o do w i t h a l i gnm e nt o f t he body . i n t ha t you ne e d opt i m um pos t ur e P a r t of a c hi e vi ng e xc e l l e nt pos t ur e f or t he s e s i nge r s w a s i n s t a yi ng phys i c a l l y f i t F i t ne s s f or 10 of t he s e s i ngi ng p r of e s s i ona l s w a s a n i m por t a nt e l e m e nt i n s t a ge pr e s e nt a t i on. M oni que r e c ogni z e d t hi s a nd s a i d, S i ngi ng i s a n e xt r e m e l y a t hl e t i c pu r s ui t be c a us e you r e us i ng your s t om a c h, a nd your ba c k a nd you r b r e a t hi ng m e c ha ni s m a nd you c a n t ha ve t e ns i on i n your ne c k or your j a w S e ve r a l of t he s e r e s pons e s r e f l e c t e d t he i r opi ni on t ha t t hi s w a s m o r e a phys i c a l m a t t e r of j us t e xe r c i s i ng t ha n a n i m a ge r y i s s ue C a t he r i ne i l l us t r a t e d, I d l i ke t o l os e s om e gi r t h, but I go e xe r c i s e . . I don t s i t a r ound a nd s a y, I w i s h I l ooke d be t t e r I e i t he r m a ke m ys e l f l ook be t t e r o r don t w or r y a bout i t O t he r s r e c ogni z e d t ha t i m a ge r y c oul d be us e d t o s ha pe how t he y a ppe a r e d on s t a ge H a r r i e t m e nt a l l y m a i nt a i ne d he r i de a l body i m a ge : I f I m not f e e l i ng 100% i n s ha pe o r f e e l l i ke I ne e d t o l oos e f i ve or t e n va ni t y pounds he r e or t he r e I w i l l i m a gi n e m ys e l f i n t he phys i c a l c ondi t i on t ha t I w a nt t o be i n or de r t o ge t ba c k i n s ha pe ne xt r ol e . . t ha t s m y of s or t of s t a yi ng i n s ha pe or pr e pa r i ng t ha t w a y phys i c a l l y f or a r o l e I l l us e t ha t . t o m a ni f e s t how I w or k out a nd w ha t I ne e d t o do i n o r de r t o ge t t o t ha t I u s e i t a s m y bui l di ng bl oc k t o ge t ba c k i n s ha pe phys i c a l l y.

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227 H a r r i e t us e d i m a ge r y t o he l p he r i de nt i f y w ha t ki n d of body s he w a nt e d pe r s ona l l y a nd f or pe r f or m a nc e s T hi s i m a ge r y a l s o i ns pi r e d he r t o a c hi e ve i t t h r ough e xe r c i s e a nd he a l t hy ha bi t s S i nge r s us e d a ppe a r a nc e i m a ge r y t o p r oj e c t a nd m a i nt a i n a n i de a l l ook f or s t a ge pr e s e nt a t i ons V oc a l i s t s a ppe a r a nc e a t t i t ude s a nd ge s t ur e s pos t ur e f i t ne s s a nd body i m a ge a l l c om pr i s e t he e l e m e nt s of how a n a udi e n c e pe r c e i ve s hi m or he r w hi l e pe r f or m i ng T hi s ne xt s e c t i on e nc om pa s s e s s i nge r s us e of i m a ge r y i n de ve l opi ng t he c ha r a c t e r f or pe r f or m a nc e C har ac t e r de v e l opm e nt A l l of t he voc a l pa r t i c i pa n t s m e nt i one d c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt a s a s i gni f i c a nt c om pone nt o f t he i r i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e C ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt w a s of t e n a p r oc e s s t ha t e xt e nde d f r om t he e a r l y s t a ge s of l e a r ni ng t he r o l e pa s t t he l a s t pe r f or m a nc e e s pe c i a l l y w he n s i nge r s r e pe a t e d t he i r r ol e s t hr oughout t he i r c a r e e r F or t hi s r e a s on, c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt w a s di vi de d be t w e e n c ha r a c t e r pr e pa r a t i on a nd c ha r a c t e r s t a gi ng. C ha r a c t e r pr e pa r a t i on r e pr e s e nt e d ga t he r i ng t he c om pone nt s f or e m bodyi ng t he r ol e o r qua l i t i e s of a s ong t o be pe r f or m e d. C ha r a c t e r s t a gi ng i nvol ve d e l e m e nt s of t he a c t ua l pe r f o r m a n c e of a r ol e A l l s i nge r s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y i n va r i ous a s pe c t s of c ha r a c t e r p r e pa r a t i on. S i nge r s ha d t o p r e pa r e t he c ha r a c t e r or a r t i s t i c qua l i t y of t he i r r e pe r t oi r e w he t he r i t w a s a n e nt i r e r ol e i n a n ope r a o r a s i ngl e s ong pr e s e nt a t i on. R e s pons e s f or pr e pa r i ng t he c ha r a c t e r r e ve a l e d f i ve s ub c a t e gor i e s : ( a ) m ode l i n g, ( b ) a ppe a r a nc e ( c ) hi s t or y a nd c ul t ur e ( d) pa s t e xpe r i e nc e s a nd ( e ) m e t a phor s F or 14 s i nge r s t he us e o f m ode l i ng o r obs e r vi ng e xe m pl a r y pe r f o r m e r s w ho ha d s uc c e s s f ul l y pe r f or m e d t he i r r o l e s f a c i l i t a t e d c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt a nd pr e pa r a t i on

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228 M ode l i ng us e f or t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s r a nge d f r o m c a t c hi ng gl i m ps e s a s i ns pi r a t i on ( H a r r i e t ) t o p r e t e ndi ng t o be t ha t m ode l pe r f or m e r e nt i r e l y ( e g A nna : w he n you r e up t he r e you a c t ua l l y pi c t ur e t ha t you r e t ha t pe r s on. . you a c t ua l l y e m body t ha t pe r s on ) O phe l i a a l s o r e por t e d, I m gui l t y of w a t c hi ng a m ovi e a nd l i ki ng a c ha r a c t e r a nd i de nt i f yi ng w i t h t ha t c ha r a c t e r a nd t he n ha vi ng i t r ubbi ng of f on m e T he n I m a c t i ng l i ke t ha t a c t or or s om e t hi ng i n c e r t a i n s i t ua t i ons S he a nd ot he r s c a ut i one d t ha t m ode l i ng us e s houl d be l i m i t e d. E l o i s e w a s i ns pi r e d by a not he r p r of e s s i ona l s pr e s e nt a t i on a nd ki nd of t r i e d t o f e e l i t a nd i nt e r na l i z e i t i n m ys e l f a nd t he n m a ke i t m y ow n. F r a nc i ne a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d t hi s by s a yi ng, I t hi nk o f t he t hi ngs t ha t t he y di d s uc c e s s f ul l y a nd I t r y a nd us e t he m . [ T hi s ] he l pe d m e l e a r n a nd unde r s t a nd s t y l i s t i c a l l y, how t o a ppr oa c h t hi ngs a nd unde r s t a nd w ha t t he r e s ul t i s t ha t pe opl e a r e l ooki n g f or M ode l i ng a l s o s e r ve d s i nge r s i n e l i c i t i ng i m a ge s a nd i nt e nt i ons o f t e n us e d by pe r f o r m e r s of gr e a t e r e xpe r i e nc e a s L oui s e xpl a i ne d, I don t t r y t o m i m i c t ha t but I c e r t a i nl y r e s pe c t t he a r t i s t r y a nd t he pe r f or m a nc e i nvol ve m e nt t ha t t he y c r e a t e I t he n t r y t o c r e a t e s o m e t hi ng t ha t i s j us t a s t ha t s i gni f i c a nt i n m y ow n s i ngi ng. S i nc e s i ngi ng w a s c ons i de r e d pr i m a r i l y a pr of e s s i on ha nde d dow n f r om ge ne r a t i on t o ge ne r a t i on m ode l i ng c ont i nue d t o be a vi a bl e i m a ge r y m e t hod t o us e i n gr a s pi ng c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on i n t he v oc a l r e pe r t oi r e a s r e pr e s e nt e d i n t he s e s i nge r s r e s pons e s I n t he c ha r a c t e r pr e pa r a t i on s t a ge s i nge r s of t e n be ga n by r e s e a r c hi ng t he hi s t or i c a l a nd c ul t ur a l ba c kgr ound of t he ope r a or s ong. T h i s r e pr e s e nt e d a m a j or pa r t of c r e a t i ng a f ounda t i on f or unde r s t a ndi ng t he c ha r a c t e r f or 14 s i nge r s A nna s a c c ount de f i ne d s om e of t he de t a i l s a nd r e a s ons s he us e d i n i m a ge r y o f t he c ha r a c t e r Y ou do a l ot of hi s t or y w or k on w he r e . t he c l ot hi ng t he y w or e i n t he 1800s or t he 1600s a nd

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229 how t ha t a f f e c t s you a s a pe r s o n. A nd i t a l l he l ps c r e a t e t hi s w hol e l i vi ng c ha r a c t e r B e i ng t hor ough i n he r r e s e a r c h w a s ke y t o s uc c e s s f ul r e nde r i ng t he c ha r a c t e r a c c or di ng t o D or i ne w ho a dde d, I ha ve t o do t he r e s e a r c h be f o r e I c a n c r e a t e t he i m a ge s t o go w i t h i t T hi s pr a c t i c e a l s o he l pe d E l oi s e t o i m a gi ne m ys e l f t he r e a nd i n a l l ki nds of di f f e r e nt r ol e s . . w ha t m ot i va t e d t he m a nd t o f e e l t he c ul t ur e D e t a i l s of t he hi s t or y a nd c ul t ur e he l pe d t he s i nge r t o r e c r e a t e t he c ha r a c t e r i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r e nvi r onm e nt C r e a t i ng t he m e nt a l i m a ge of t he c ha r a c t e r s a ppe a r a nc e w a s a na t ur a l e l e m e nt a nd be ne f i t of r e s e a r c hi ng t he hi s t o r y a nd c ul t u r e F or 12 s i nge r s di f f e r e nc e s r e ga r di ng s t a ge pr e s e nt a t i on a l s o a r os e i n r e l a t i on t o t he ve nu e i n w hi c h t he s i nge r w a s pe r f o r m i ng ( e g ope r a t i c c onc e r t or a udi t i on) T he s e voc a l i s t s i m a gi ne d t he i r c ha r a c t e r s phys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e s w i t h va r yi ng de gr e e s of de t a i l a nd i n va r i ous s e t t i ngs A f t e r doi ng pr e l i m i na r y r e s e a r c h, C a t he r i ne w oul d, i n he r w o r ds : [ I ] m a gi ne w ha t e a c h c ha r a c t e r l ooks l i ke a s m e w ha t c ol or ha i r I ha ve how l ong m y ha i r i s w ha t t y pe of m a ke up I w e a r how m uc h m a ke up I w e a r w ha t ki nd o f c l ot he s I ha ve how I w a l k, how I s t a nd. . I i m a gi ne m ys e l f i n t he c os t um e W he n K a r e n pe r f or m e d on t he c onc e r t s t a ge s he h a d a l r e a d y s e c ur e d how s he w a nt e d t o e xe c ut e t hi s S he de s c r i be d t hi s p r oc e s s : I ha ve t o i m a gi ne f i r s t w ha t t ha t c ha r a c t e r w oul d l o ok l i ke . . I s or t of de c i de w ho I w a nt t o be a t t ha t t i m e how I w a nt t o l ook t o t he a udi e nc e D o I w a nt t o be s om e body ve r y r e ga l or w ha t a nd a l ot of i t i s t he m us i c t ha t I m doi ng K a r e n t ook t i m e t o c a r e f ul l y c r a f t t he i m a ge a nd a p pe a r a nc e a ppr opr i a t e t o e a c h c ha r a c t e r

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230 S i nc e m e z z os of t e n pe r f o r m a s bot h m a l e a nd f e m a l e F r a nc i ne ha d t o us e i m a ge r y t o qui c kl y c ha nge be t w e e n t he ge nde r s du r i ng a udi t i ons a s s he de s c r i be d: I f I m w e a r i ng a d r e s s a nd I m s i ngi ng a boy I ha v e t o m a ke a m e nt a l i m a ge o f t ha t f a c t t ha t oka y, now I m a boy A nd how doe s t ha t a f f e c t t he w a y t ha t I s t a nd, i n t he w a y t ha t m y a r m s e xpr e s s t he m s e l ve s . . i m a gi ni ng t ha t I m w e a r i ng a s ui t or ve r y s pe c i f i c a l l y, i m a gi ni ng t ha t I a m i n a r m or [ t o s i ng C a e s a r ] . W he r e a s D or a be l l a i f I m i n a d r e s s t ha t pr e t t y m uc h he l ps m e do D or a be l l a I n e m bodyi ng t he c ha r a c t e r o f t he s ong s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y t o r e c r e a t e t he l ook a nd e xt e r na l f e e l i ng t o e nha nc e t he pr e s e nt a t i on. A ppe a r a nc e i m a ge r y a l s o de pe nde d on t he t ype of pe r f or m a nc e a nd w he t he r i t w a s ope r a t i c c onc e r t or a n a udi t i on E i ght s i nge r s r e po r t e d us i ng t he i r ow n pa s t e xpe r i e nc e s t o e l i c i t e m ot i o ns a nd f e e l i ngs i n pr e pa r i ng t he i r r ol e s a nd s ongs G e r a l d us e d hi s pa s t e xpe r i e nc e s t o c onne c t w i t h w ha t t he c ha r a c t e r ha s e xpe r i e nc e d or s om e t hi ng t ha t w oul d e l i c i t t he r e s pons e t ha t I a m t r yi ng t o ge t a nd r e l i vi ng t ha t i n ot he r w or ds I m t r yi ng t o c a pt ur e t ha t f e e l i ng D or i ne c onc ur r e d, a ddi ng t ha t us i ng he r ow n e xpe r i e nc e s of t e n pr ovi de d a m uc h m or e be l i e va bl e pe r f or m a nc e f o r t he a udi e nc e W he n p a s t e xpe r i e nc e s w e r e not s uf f i c i e nt s i nge r s us e d t hos e of ot he r pe opl e t he y kne w o r ha d s e e n s om e w he r e T he m os t i m por t a nt e l e m e nt of e m pl oyi ng i m a ge s of t he s e e xpe r i e nc e s w a s t he c onne c t i on w i t h i t s a c c om pa nyi ng e m ot i on a nd a ppr op r i a t e ne s s t o r e c r e a t i ng t ha t c ha r a c t e r O nl y t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s m e nt i one d us i ng m e t a phor s i n c r e a t i ng t he i r c ha r a c t e r T he s e i m a ge s w e r e s pe c i f i c t o s om e of t he r ol e s t h e s e t w o s i nge r s ha d pe r f or m e d i n t he pa s t I n pe r f or m i ng t he r ol e of M i m i i n L a B ohe m e J os e phi ne us e d i m a ge r y of a w ounde d a ni m a l a w ounde d bi r d o r . s om e one w ho w a s w ounde d, a nd phys i c a l l y

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231 c r i ppl e d a nd di s a bl e d t o he l p he r m or e c om pl e t e l y por t r a y t hi s c ha r a c t e r H a r r i e t de s c r i be d, G i l da i n R i gol e t t o . a s a t r a ppe d bi r d t ha t w a nt s t o f l y. . B ut t he n s he s i n a c a ge a nd he r hous e i s t he c a ge t ha t he r f a t he r ke e ps he r i n. B ot h of t he s e e xa m pl e s r e p r e s e nt s i m pl e a c t i ng m e t a phor s t o he l p t he s i nge r f e e l t he c onf l i c t s i n t he c ha r a c t e r s I de a l l y, w he n a l l t he ne c e s s a r y e l e m e nt s of c ha r a c t e r pr e pa r a t i on w e r e i nc or por a t e d, t he pe r f o r m e r w a s r e a dy f or s t a gi ng r e he a r s a l s C ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt i n s t a gi ng i nvol ve s a s pe c t s of us i ng i m a ge r y t o br i ng t he c ha r a c t e r t o l i f e w hi l e pe r f o r m i ng be f or e a n a udi e nc e T he f i ve s ub c a t e gor i e s e m e r gi ng f r om t he i nt e r vi e w s w e r e : ( a ) be i ng i n c ha r a c t e r ( b) e m ot i on, ( c ) ki ne s t he t i c ( d) s ound, a nd ( e ) be i ng i n t he z one A l l s i nge r s m e nt i one d t ha t t he y i m a gi ne d be i ng i n c ha r a c t e r a nd pe r f o r m i ng i n w a ys t ha t e nc om pa s s e d a l l dr a m a t i c a s pe c t s of hum a n be ha vi or I n t r yi ng t o m a ke t he c ha r a c t e r m or e r e a l t o hi m N i c hol a s us e d i m a ge r y i n, a s he s a i d: [ S ] e t t i ng m ys e l f w i t hi n t he t e xt of t he pl ot of t he o pe r a a nd l e t t i ng t he m ot i va t i on of t he c ha r a c t e r a nd ge t t i ng i de a s t ha t t he c ha r a c t e r w oul d be ha vi ng. . pi c t ur i ng m ys e l f i n t he s c e ne no t ne c e s s a r i l y i n t h e ope r a t i c s t a ge but t r yi ng t o i m a gi ne i f i t w e r e r e a l l i f e how t he c ha r a c t e r w oul d be s e e i ng, a nd f e e l i ng. S om e s i nge r s w e nt t o g r e a t e xt e nt s t o c r e a t e a l l t he de t a i l s of t he c ha r a c t e r i n t he i r i m a gi na t i on, a s A nna i l l us t r a t e d: Y ou ha ve t o go t hr ough a nd do you r w hol e hi s t or y of t ha t c ha r a c t e r S o you ve i m a gi ne d . e v e r y t hi ng t ha t l e d up t o w ho t he y a r e t oda y. Y ou a l r e a dy ha ve t ha t i m pl a nt e d i n you r he a d, a nd you w a l k out w i t h a l l t he ba gga ge l oa de d up on your s houl de r s s o t ha t you ha ve i t s a l m os t l i ke a r s e na l r e a dy t o us e a t a ny m i nut e

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232 ba s e d on t he ki nds of e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t you r e gonn a w a l k t hr ough w i t h t hi s c ha r a c t e r now f r o m t ha t poi nt on M oni que s c ha r a c t e r i z a t i ons c e nt e r e d m or e on a r t i s t i c a nd s c e ni c i m a ge s : I t hi nk ve r y de e pl y a bout e a c h pi e c e I s i ng. . i t s m y a c t i ng, I t r y t o pu t m ys e l f i n t he s c e ne of t he pi c t ur e t ha t t ha t s ong i s pa i nt i ng . . s o [ I be c om e ] t ha t pe r s on, i nvol ve d i n t hos e e m ot i ons t he l os t l ove t he w ha t e ve r I a m t ha t pe r s on. F or t he s e s i nge r s i m a gi ni ng be i ng i n c ha r a c t e r i nc l ude d c hoos i ng m e t hods t ha t be s t s ui t e d t he i r pe r s ona l pr e f e r e nc e s A l l t he s e voc a l i s t s m e nt i one d t he i m por t a nc e of r e c r e a t i ng t he e m ot i on t o b r i ng t he c ha r a c t e r of a s ong or r ol e t o l i f e pa r t i c ul a r l y i n pe r f or m a nc e Y ou a l w a ys ha ve t o go ba c k t o t he f ounda t i on w hi c h i s t he e m ot i ona l hum a n e xpe r i e nc e ( A nna ) T hi s w a s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n a quot e by B a r r y, w ho s a i d, your goa l a s a n a r t i s t i s t o l i ve t he m om e nt a nd . t he e m ot i on o f you r c ha r a c t e r D or i ne c on s i de r e d e m ot i on t o be c r i t i c a l t o pe r f or m a nc e be c a us e Y ou c a n t c onve y t ha t t o a n a udi e nc e unl e s s I t hi nk you ve f e l t t ha t e m ot i on. T he i nne r m ot i va t i on of a c ha r a c t e r w a s de pi c t e d i n how t he pe r f or m e r r e c r e a t e d t he e m ot i ons A c c or di ng t o N i c hol a s e m ot i ons c ha nge d t hr oughout t he a r i a o r t he e nt i r e ope r a a nd t hi s he l pe d h i m m o r e e f f e c t i ve l y de l i ve r t he pr ope r i nt e nt t o t he a udi e nc e H e s t a t e d, I t hi nk o f t he e m ot i ona l c ha n ge s a s I m m a ne uve r i ng a r ound t he e m ot i ona l pa t hw a y of t he c ha r a c t e r T he bi gge r a n d s t r onge r I c a n hi t e a c h e m ot i ona l c ha nge t he m or e e f f e c t i ve I t hi nk i t s goi ng t o be E m ot i on a l i m a ge r y i n r e c r e a t i ng a r ol e w a s c ons i de r e d c r i t i c a l t o pe r f or m a nc e a nd c om m u ni c a t i ng w i t h t he a udi e nc e F ur t he r m or e a l l t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e c ogni z e d t he na t ur a l c onne c t i on be t w e e n e m ot i on a nd s i ngi ng, not j us t i n c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt i n r ol e s f or ope r a A s J os e phi ne put i t I t s

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233 ha r d t o s e pa r a t e e m ot i on a nd s i ngi ng be c a us e . s i ngi ng i s e m ot i on . . s e t t o w or ds a nd m us i c . . i t s j us t or ga ni z e d e m ot i on T he s e s i nge r s f e l t e m ot i ona l i m a ge r y w a s i ns e pa r a bl e f r om p r ope r de l i ve r y of e ve r y s ong. A l t hough e m ot i on c e r t a i nl y w a s c ons i de r e d vi t a l i n c r e a t i ng t he p r ope r m ood, ni ne s i nge r s ha d s pe c i f i c w or ds of c a ut i on i n a ppl y i ng e xc e s s i ve f e e l i ng i n pe r f o r m a nc e M a ny s i nge r s r e c a l l e d s pe c i f i c e xpe r i e nc e s t ha t t a ught t he m t o be c a r e f ul not t o pour t o o m uc h pa s s i on i nt o t he i r pe r f or m a nc e s I n a r e c e nt a udi t i on t ha t he de s c r i be d, B a r r y s a i d he a l l ow e d i t t o ge t t oo e m ot i ona l i e [ s i c ] c r os s t he l i ne Y ou c a n c r os s t he l i ne w he r e e s pe c i a l l y voc a l t e c hni que w i s e you ge t v e r k l e m pt I f you ge t v e r k l e m pt a s a s i nge r you r e de a d i n t he w a t e r F r a nc i ne ha d t o a dj us t h e r e m ot i ons s o s he c oul d t e c hni c a l l y e xe c ut e c e r t a i n s ongs S he s t a t e d, i f your e m ot i on s ge t i n t he w a y, you w on t be s uc c e s s f ul a t i t S o I ha d t o l e a r n how t o a da pt i t a n d m a ke i t s t i l l f unc t i ona l but not a l l ow i t t o ove r w he l m m e I n i l l us t r a t i ng t he i m por t a nc e of ba l a nc i ng e m ot i ons i n s i ngi ng pe r f or m a nc e F r a nc i ne s a i d: I l l o f t e n c om pa r e m ys e l f w i t h a f i gu r e s ka t e r A f i gur e s ka t e r ha s t o c ons t a nt l y be r e m i ndi ng t he m s e l ve s [ s i c ] t e c hn i c a l l y, o f w ha t t h e i r body ne e ds t o be doi ng i n or de r t o a c c om pl i s h t ha t t r i pl e a xe l be c a us e i f t he y don t do t ha t t he y w i l l f a l l a nd ki l l t he m s e l ve s M oni que r e c ogni z e d t he da nge r s of be i ng ove r c om e w i t h e m ot i on i n s i ngi ng a nd s a i d: [ Y ] ou m us t n t be t he e m ot i on, be c a us e i t w i l l t e a r your voi c e a pa r t but you m us t be a s pe c t a t or of t he e m ot i on S t a nd a s i de be c a us e i f s om e one i s c r yi ng out i n a gony, i f you di d t ha t you w oul d l oos e your voi c e . . W he r e you c r y i s w he r e you s i ng f r om

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234 T he s i nge r s w i t h m o r e e xpe r i e nc e w e r e a bl e t o f i n d t he pr ope r ba l a nc e be t w e e n e xpr e s s i ng t he e m ot i on of t he s ong a nd m a i nt a i n t e c hni c a l e xc e l l e nc e A l ong w i t h e m ot i on e i ght s i nge r s c onne c t e d t hi s t o a bodi l y f e e l i ng i n or de r t o gr ound t he e xpe r i e nc e phys i c a l l y i n c ha r a c t e r i z i ng a s ong or r ol e M a ny of t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s f e l t t he ne e d t o f e e l qua l i t i e s of t he c ha r a c t e r i n t he i r body I n di s c ove r i ng t he va r i ous a s pe c t s of he r c ha r a c t e r K a r e n i nc o r por a t e d t he ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng w he n s he s a i d: I gue s s i t s vi s ua l f i r s t t he n how t ha t vi s ua l f i t s i nt o t he a udi t or y pa r t of i t a nd t he n j us t m ove m e nt s o f c our s e a ny ki nd of m ove m e nt s W oul d t he y be s l ow w oul d t he y be f a s t I f you r e he a vy you r e go i ng t o be pr oba bl y s l ow e r I j us t ha ve t o i m a gi ne t he body, I gue s s a nd t he pe r s on, t oo. O t he r s m e nt i one d t he i m po r t a nc e of phys i c a l l y s t a gi ng t he c ha r a c t e r f i r s t i n or de r t o m or e c om pl e t e l y i m a gi ne t he c ha r a c t e r s m ove m e nt s N i c hol a s s ha r e d a r e c e nt e xpe r i e nc e of t hi s w he n he w a s pe r f or m i ng. H e de s c r i be d s t a gi ng a s pe c i f i c s c e ne : [ I n] A B ar be r of Se v i l l e . t he r e s a c om pl i c a t e d s ha vi ng s c e ne t ha t ha ppe ns ve r y qui c k a nd . I pr a c t i c e d i m a ge r y w i t h i t but i f I h a dn t done [ t ha t ] p r oba bl y t he phys i c a l t i m i ng of i t t he n a c t ua l l y t he phys i c a l m o ve m e nt s w e r e m or e i m po r t a nt t ha n t he i m a ge r y of t ha t pa r t i c ul a r t hi ng B a r r y a l s o us e d m ove m e nt s a nd be ha vi or s of a s pe c i f i c m a n he ha d s e e n on t he s t r e e t H e s a i d, I c a n us e t ha t t o c r e a t e m y c ha r a c t e r a nd us e t he body l a ngua ge t he f a c i a l e xpr e s s i ons or t he w a y s om e body s a ys s om e t hi n g i n c r e a t i ng t he de t a i l s of a c t i ng out t he r ol e U s i ng i m a ge r y t o unde r s t a ndi ng t he c ha r a c t e r ki ne s t he t i c a l l y a s s i s t e d t he s e s i nge r s t o m or e s uc c e s s f ul l y e m body t he i r s ongs a nd r ol e s

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235 S i nge r s ha d t he oppo r t uni t y t o c hoos e f r o m a va r i e t y of s ound qua l i t i e s t o be s t r e pr e s e nt t he i ndi vi dua l a r i a a nd c ha r a c t e r I n c r e a t i ng t he a ppr op r i a t e s ound f o r a r ough c ha r a c t e r s he por t r a ye d, K a r e n s a i d, H e r voi c e w o ul d ha ve t o p r oj e c t he r body. T he body w a s e a s y e nough t o pa d, but he r voi c e w oul d ha ve t o pr oj e c t t ha t body a nd t he c r ude ne s s a nd s o f or t h I ha d t o j us t r e a l l y f e e l t he he a vi ne s s T hi s pr a c t i c e di d not a l w a ys di s pl a y t he be s t qua l i t i e s of he r s i ngi ng voi c e but w a s ne c e s s a r y t o be t t e r de pi c t t ha t pa r t i c ul a r c ha r a c t e r a s K a r e n f ur t he r e xpl a i ne d: [ I n] t h e s e w onde r f ul r ol e s i n ope r a you r e be i ng j u dge d on j us t how w onde r f ul you a r e i n s i ngi ng. B ut r e a l l y, i n m a ny c a s e s you s houl d be i n ki nd o f a c ha r a c t e r on t ha t I t w oul dn t ne c e s s a r i l y be t he m os t r e f i ne d s i ngi ng t ha t you w oul d do i f t he c ha r a c t e r w a s [ s i c ] not t ha t t ype A nna c onc ur r e d, by s a yi ng, you w a nt a c ha r a c t e r t o c om e t hr ough S ound i m a ge r y w a s us e d t o por t r a y t he s pe c i f i c qua l i t i e s r e qui r e d i n e a c h c ha r a c t e r A l t hough t he e xpe r i e nc e of be i ng i n t he z one o r t h e f e e l i ng of f l ow i n pe r f or m a nc e onl y a ppe a r e d i n a f our s i nge r s r e s po ns e s e ve n t hough i t w a s not i nc l ude d a s a s e pa r a t e que s t i on i n t he i nt e r v i e w gui de F l ow i s w or t hy of i nc l ud i ng he r e s i nc e i t i s pa r t of w ha t w oul d be c ons i de r e d a n opt i m a l pe r f o r m i ng e xpe r i e nc e F or t he s e s i nge r s be i ng i n t he z one di d not e m e r ge a s a r e a s on or s e pa r a t e pur pos e a s i t ha d f or a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) but a s a n e xpe r i e nc e t ha t c ul m i na t e d a f t e r a l l s e pa r a t e c om pone nt s of s i ngi ng t he c ha r a c t e r w e r e i nc o r por a t e d. T he s e w e r e s pe c i f i c t i m e s w he n a s i ng e r pe r f or m e d a s ong, a l l t he e f f or t f a de d a w a y a nd t he pr e s e nt e xpe r i e nc e be c a m e a l l e nc om pa s s i ng, i nvol vi ng di f f e r e nt ki nds of i m a ge r y. L ou i s e xpe r i e nc e d t hi s e a r l y i n hi s c a r e e r H e r e c ount e d:

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236 I w a s s i ngi ng a c e r t a i n pa s s a ge t ha t I d be e n s t r ugg l i ng w i t h m a ybe i n l e s s ons or w e e ks pr i or t o a nd i t w a s r e a l l y w or ki ng A nd I s a ng s e ve r a l m i nut e s i n s or t of a gr oove w he r e I w a s j us t s i ngi ng p r e t t y e f f or t l e s s l y a nd i t w a s w or ki ng S he [ hi s t e a c he r ] s a i d t ha t s he c oul d e qua t e t ha t m a ybe t o a ba s ke t ba l l pl a ye r i n t he m i ddl e of t he ga m e t ha t j us t got i nt o t he z one A nd t he ba s ke t l ooks w i de S he s a i d s om e t i m e s i n your s i ngi ng, t he ba s ke t w i l l l ook w i de a nd you know t ha t i t s w or ki ng. Y ou c a n j us t s or t of a c c om pl i s h t hi ngs t h a t you m i ght not a t ot he r t i m e s be a bl e t o do T hi s e xa m pl e s how e d t ha t e xpe r i e nc i ng f l ow w a s pos s i bl e i n a s m a l l s pa n of t i m e a f t e r w or ki ng on a s pe c i f i c s ki l l or t e c hni que i n a s ong. O t he r s i nge r s r e c ount e d f e e l i ng f l ow du r i ng pe r f or m a nc e s N i c hol a s de s c r i be d t hi s a nd s a i d, w he n I ve r e a l l y n a i l e d s om e t hi ng, i n m y m i nd i t w i l l m a ke m e l a ugh, i t m i ght m a ke m e c r y a l i t t l e bi t but I m a y f e e l i n m y w hol e body. W hi l e a c t i ng out he r c ha r a c t e r O phe l i a s e xpe r i e nc e of be i ng i n t he z on e w a s a l s o qui t e poi gna nt w he n s he s a i d, t he r e s a m a gi c a l m o m e nt on s t a ge w he r e t h e r e s no a udi e nc e t he r e s no pe r f or m e r t he r e s j us t t he m us i c A nd i n or de r t o g e t t he r e I r e a l l y t hi nk you ha ve t o m ove be yond t hi s w hol e t h i ng [ r e l i gi ous c onvi c t i o n] B e i ng i n t he z one t o O phe l i a w a s a n e xpe r i e nc e t ha t t r a ns c e nde d a ny r e l i gi ous be l i e f s a nd t ook pl a c e w he n s he w a s c l e a r l y s i ngi ng a s t ha t c ha r a c t e r H a r r i e t a l s o f e l t t h i s f l ow f e e l i ng w he n s he f ul l y i m m e r s e d he r s e l f i n t he c ha r a c t e r S he r e c a l l e d, w he n I s t a r t a pe r f or m a nc e m y s e l f c he c ks out j us t I ge t i nt o t he z one a nd I m j us t t ha t c ha r a c t e r . . c a us e i t s no l onge r a bout m e a nd I m i n m y c ha r a c t e r I t c oul d ha ve be e n t ha t a l l t h e i m a ge r y us e d t o s e c ur e t e c hni que s s ki l l e m ot i on a nd t he ki ne s t he t i c a s pe c t s of por t r a yi ng t he c ha r a c t e r he l p m a de t he s e

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237 e l e m e nt s s o a ut om a t i c t ha t t he s i nge r c oul d j us t e nj oy be i ng t ha t c ha r a c t e r T hi s m a y be pa r t of w ha t c ons t i t ut e d t he e xpe r i e nc e of s i nge r s b e i ng i n t he z one o r i n f l ow C om m uni c at i on w i t h t he audi e nc e A l l but one of t he 15 pa r t i c i pa nt s s ha r e d t hought s of i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h t he a udi e nc e i n t he i r i m a ge r y. T hi s e m e r ge d a s a s e pa r a t e c a t e gor y unde r a r t i s t i c r e a s ons V oc a l i s t s us e d i m a ge r y t o c om m uni c a t e s pe c i f i c i de a s t o t he a udi e nc e i n f ou r s pe c i f i c a r e a s w hi c h c ons i s t e d of : ( a ) c om m uni c a t i ng i de a s a nd e m ot i on s ( b) s ha r i ng i nt i m a t e f e e l i ngs ( c ) f l ow i ng e ne r gy, a nd ( d ) s pi r i t ua l i nt e r a c t i on. S om e i m a ge s w e r e us e d i n he l pi ng t he a udi e nc e t o unde r s t a nd t he m e a ni ng of w ha t w a s be i ng pe r f or m e d T he e f f or t t o s ha r e s pe c i f i c e l e m e nt s of t he c om pos i t i on w i t h t he a udi e nc e w a s i m por t a nt t o H a r r i e t w ho s a i d, I w i l l t a ke s pe c i f i c m om e nt s a nd e s pe c i a l l y w i t h t e xt or s om e t hi ng t ha t ne e ds t o be c om m uni c a t e d. . I i nt e nd f or c e r t a i n t hi ngs t o be c onve ye d t o t he a udi e nc e O t he r s i ng e r s f e l t i t w a s i m por t a nt f or t he a udi e nc e t o unde r s t a nd a nd a ppr e c i a t e t he i r ge nui n e por t r a ya l o f t he c ha r a c t e r L oui s e xpl a i ne d, I m l ooki ng t o c om m uni c a t e a ut he nt i c i t y. I m l ooki ng f or t he m t o e xpe r i e nc e m y s i nc e r e t hought a nd c onne c t i on t o t he m us i c i n a w a y t ha t e xpr e s s e s r e a l i t y r a t he r t ha n s om e t hi ng t ha t s e e m s c ont r i ve d or a r t i f i c i a l T hr e e s i nge r s m e nt i one d c om m uni c a t i ng e m ot i ons a nd f e e l i ngs t o t he a udi e nc e D or i ne f e l t t ha t a s a s i nge r one o f he r be s t a s s e t s w a s he r pa s s i on. B a r r y a l s o f e l t t ha t a m a j or e l e m e nt i n s i ngi ng w a s c onve yi ng e m ot i on t hr ough hi s s i ngi ng. H e of f e r e d, your goa l a s a n a r t i s t i s t o l i ve t he m om e nt a nd . t he e m ot i on of y our c ha r a c t e r S ha r i ng e m ot i on w i t h a n a udi e nc e w a s a c c om pl i s he d us i ng i m a ge r y i n a num be r o f w a ys A nna i l l us t r a t e d he r pa r t i c ul a r m e t ho d: [ W ] e r e i ns t i l l i ng e m ot i on a nd f e e l i ng i nt o o t he r p e opl e a nd i n doi ng t ha t t he y a r e ge t t i ng vi s ua l s t i m ul a t i on t oo, t he y r e ge t t i ng i m a ge r y. W e r e i m pl a nt i ng

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238 i m a ge r y i nt o t he m by t he w a y t ha t w e r e s i ngi ng S o w e ne e d t o s t a r t w i t h our ow n. T he s e s s i nge r s c om m uni c a t e d t he i r i de a s a nd e m ot i ona l f e e l i ngs w i t h t he a udi e nc e t hr ough t he ve hi c l e s of t he i r s ongs F or s om e s i nge r s t he i de a of t ouc hi ng t he a udi e nc e w e nt be yond t he phys i c a l t a c t i l e s e ns e a nd r e pr e s e nt e d t he i m a ge of c onne c t i ng w i t h t he a udi e n c e I t i s i nc l ude d he r e be c a us e J os e phi ne a nd O phe l i a di r e c t l y a ns w e r e d t he 33 rd que s t i on i n t he i nt e r vi e w gui de T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i n g t o t ouc h? us i ng t h i s m e a ni ng. W hi l e pe r f or m i ng J os e phi ne i nt e nde d t o m e nt a l l y c ont a c t a l l t he m e m be r s of t he a udi e nc e S he s a i d s he w oul d us e t he i m a ge of w hi l e you r e s t a n di ng on s t a ge t o t ouc h o r r e a c h t he pe r s on i n t he l a s t r ow S he f e l t s he c oul d t ouc h t h e a udi e nc e w i t h he r voc a l s ound or a n i nne r f e e l i ng o r t hough t F or O phe l i a t ouc hi ng t he a udi e nc e c onc e r ne d s ha pi ng t he voi c e i n a w a y t ha t de e pl y i m pa c t e d t he m e m be r s of t he a udi e nc e S he i l l us t r a t e d: [ I ] t s a bout t he i nt i m a c y a nd us i ng your voi c e t o t o uc h pe opl e bot h i n a f e e l i ng but a l s o phys i c a l l y ge t t i ng t he voi c e t o r e a c h t he m i n a w a y. . Y ou c a n t t ouc h s om e one j us t by s i ngi ng l oud a l l t he t i m e Y ou ha v e t o s ha pe t hi ngs a nd i n or de r t o do t ha t how you t ouc h pe opl e t hr ough t he s ha pi ng of t he phr a s e O phe l i a us e d a c om bi na t i on of s e ns or y i m a ge r i e s t o a c hi e ve t hi s i nt i m a t e a nd m ul t i f a c e t e d m e t hod of c om m uni c a t i ng w i t h he r a udi e n c e T hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e s e ns i t i ve t o t h e i r pe r s ona l i nt e r a c t i on w i t h t he a udi e nc e T he s e s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y t o s ha r e de e p f e e l i ngs of i nt i m a c y w i t h t he a udi e nc e D or i ne f e l t ke e nl y a w a r e o f he r vul ne r a b i l i t y i n pe r f or m i ng a s a s i nge r w he n s he s t a t e d:

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239 [ T ] he r e s not hi ng be t w e e n t he a udi e nc e a nd t he s i n ge r W i t h i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s i t s l i ke t he y r e a bl e t o be hi di ng. T he y c a n hi de be hi n d a n i ns t r um e nt B ut w he n I m on s t a ge t he r e i s not hi ng. I m c om pl e t e l y e xpos e d. M y he a r t i s c om pl e t e l y e xpos e d t o t ha t a udi e nc e A nd I m ba r i ng m y s oul t o t he m M y c he s t i s e xpos e d, be c a us e i n a c t ua l i t y, t he r e s not hi ng be t w e e n m e a nd t he m a nd s o i t s a s i f m y he a r t s e xpos e d. T he y r e s e e i ng m y he a r t S o I ne e d t o gi ve t o t he m a nd t o l e t t he m f e e l w ha t I f e e l t oo S he us e d he r s e ns e of f e e l i ng e xpos e d a s a n oppor t uni t y t o s ha r e he r i nne r m os t f e e l i ngs I va n a nd J os e phi ne ha d i m a ge s of good f e e l i ngs go i ng out i nt o t he a udi e nc e t ha t he l pe d t he m a c hi e ve gr e a t e r c onne c t i on w i t h t he i r l i s t e ne r s I va n s i m a ge w a s i nt i m a c y t ha t i nvol ve d he a l i ng e ne r gy he s ha r e d w i t h hi s a u di e nc e H e de s c r i be d: [ I t s ] a s e ns e of t hi s ge t s i nt o a l i t t l e bi t o f m e t a ph ys i c a l t hi ng, but i f s ound, i n s om e w a ys [ ha d] a n a bi l i t y t o c a r e s s t he l i s t e ne r i n a w a y, e ne r ge t i c a l l y. A nd s o I w oul d t hi nk i t i s m uc h l i ke he a l i ng, t ha t w a y. . j u s t pe a c e c a l m i nvi t a t i on t o pa r t i c i pa t e N ot goi ng a t t he m but i nv i t i ng pa r t i c i p a t i on. . I t s a n i nvi t a t i on f o r t he m t o c om e s ha r i ng i n t he e m br a c e . . I t s not g oi ng out t o e m br a c e t he m but r a t he r j us t ope ni ng a r m s t o l e t t he m m e e t s om e w he r e i n t he m i ddl e T hi s e nde a r i ng i m a ge he l pe d I va n gi ve hi m t he f e e l i ng of dr a w i ng hi s a udi e nc e m o r e de e pl y i nt o hi s pe r f or m a nc e J os e phi ne s i m a ge r y a l s o he l pe d he r s ha r e good f e e l i ngs a nd a s e ns e of be i ng c onve ye d t o a not he r pl a c e t oge t he r w i t h t he a udi e nc e S he r e l a t e d: I t r y t o i m a gi ne t ha t w ha t I m doi ng i s gi vi ng t he m s o m uc h j oy a nd ha ppi ne s s . I do i m a gi ne j us t l i ke a bl a nke t I gue s s a bl a nke t of j oy o r bl i s s r e a c hi ng out ove r t he a udi e nc e w hi l e I m s i ngi ng. I t s s or t o f s om e t hi ng, I gue s s I f e e l t r a ns por t e d

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240 t o a pl a c e t o a d i f f e r e nt pl a c e i n be t w e e n I m s a yi ng I f e e l t r a ns por t e d t ha t s be t w e e n m e a nd t he a udi e nc e A nd I j us t don t f e e l on t he s t a ge I f e e l s om e w he r e be t w e e n m e a nd t he m D or i ne I va n, a nd J os e phi ne i m a gi ne d of f e r i ng a d e e p c onne c t i on a nd s e ns e of i nt i m a c y t o t he a udi e nc e T hr e e s i nge r s i m a gi ne d a c ons t a nt f l ow o f pos i t i ve e ne r gy be t w e e n t he m s e l ve s a nd t he i r a udi e nc e D ur i ng he r pe r f or m a nc e s D or i ne i m a gi ne d t he f ol l ow i ng: [ T ] a ki ng a l l of t he good e ne r gy t ha t t he s e pe opl e a r e s e ndi ng m e out of t he gr ound . t hr ough m y f e e t a nd t he n I m goi ng t o pul l i t u p t hr ough m y body a nd gi ve i t ba c k t o t he m S o, i t s j us t a c i r c l e of good ne s s I m a gi ni ng t ha t t he a udi e nc e ga ve ba c k e ne r gy w a s i m por t a nt t o t he s e s i nge r s A nna a l s o e nvi s i one d be i ng i nvol ve d i n t hi s c ons t a nt c yc l e of f l ow i ng e ne r gy i n s t a t i ng: [ T he ] i nf i ni t y s ym bol i s s uc h a p r e c i s e vi s ua l i z a t i on f or m e f o r w ha t ha ppe ns be t w e e n you a nd t he a udi e nc e . be c a us e you ha v e t o ha ve t w o w hol e s ol i d ha l ve s i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h e a c h ot he r Y ou c a n t ha ve a w i m py s i de I t j us t w on t f l ow ba c k. . I be l i e ve t ha t i f I m m o r e ope n t o t h e a udi e nc e a nd t o be i ng w i t h t he m a nd t he l ove t ha t goe s ba c k a nd f or t h . . i t g e t s m e out of i t be i ng a bout m e E l oi s e a l s o w a s i ns pi r e d by he r m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y of c ont i nuous c yc l i c a l a c t i vi t y w i t h t he a udi e nc e : I i m a gi ne how oc e a n w a ve s a c t ua l l y r ol l unde r a ga i ns t t he oc e a n f l oor a nd t ha t s w hy t he n t he w a t e r pe a ks on t op . . i t s t he c i r c ul a r t hi ng t ha t ke e ps i t s j us t r ol l i ng. T ha t s how I s e e w ha t s goi ng on be t w e e n m e a nd t he a udi e nc e I t s t hi s r ol l i ng w a ve o f e ne r gy a nd m ut ua l l ove a nd w e a l l w a nt e a c h ot he r t o ha ve a

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241 good t i m e T he y r e s uppor t i ng m e a nd I m gi vi ng t he m s om e t hi ng i n r e t ur n or vi s a ve r s a I t s l i ke you c a n t e ve n t e l l w he r e i t s t a r t s a nd e nds T ha t s w ha t I l ove I j us t l i ke t ha t uns poke n c onve r s a t i on. A nd t ha t s w ha t m a ke s m e w a nt t o pe r f or m a l l t he t i m e D ur i ng pe r f o r m a nc e t he s e s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y w i t h t hi s i nt e nt i on of be i ng a pa r t of f l ow i ng goodne s s w i t h t he a udi e nc e w hi c h i ns pi r e d t he m t o pe r f o r m be t t e r a nd m o r e m e a ni ngf ul l y. F our pa r t i c i pa nt s i l l us t r a t e d t he i r c om m uni c a t i on t o t he a udi e nc e a s s pi r i t ua l s ha r i ng. I n di s c us s i ng he r m ot i va t i on f or s i ngi ng, M oni que s a i d s he i m a gi ne d he r s e l f a s : [ A ] c ha nne l a nd t he e ne r gy c om e s t h r ough m e a nd out t o t he a udi e nc e . . I w a nt t o be a bl e s s i ng. . A nd t ha t s you r pur pos e a s a s i nge r t oo t ha t t ha t a udi e nc e l e a ve s f e e l i ng be t t e r t ha n w he n t he y c a m e i n I va n a l s o f e l t t ha t t he s pi r i t ua l a s pe c t w a s a vi t a l i n gr e di e nt i n s i ngi ng H e s a i d, w ha t w e ul t i m a t e l y ge t t o s ha r e i s l ove a nd w e m us t be w i l l i ng t o ope n our s e l ve s t o s ha r i ng t ha t l ove a nd t a ki ng pa r t i n l ove A nd t he a r t a s a w ho l e i s a n u l t i m a t e di m e ns i on o f s pi r i t ua l i t y. A l ong w i t h t h i s i de a E l oi s e i m a gi ne d : pi c t ur i ng G od f i l l i ng up t he s pa c e . be t w e e n t he a udi e nc e a nd t he s t a ge a nd a l l t he s pa c e l e f t i n t he a i r t o t he c e i l i ng . w i t h l ove w i t h a c a pi t a l L l i ke a n a c t i ve c ons c i ous m i ndf ul l ove t ha t s a l i ve a nd e m br a c i n g a l l of us J os e phi ne f e l t a de e p s pi r i t ua l s e ns e of r e s pons i bi l i t y t o he r a udi e nc e : I r e a l l y do f e e l l i ke I m pa s t or i ng [ s i c ] t o pe opl e w he n I m s i ngi ng. I r e a l l y do f e e l a s pi r i t ua l c onne c t i on. I f e e l l i ke a l ot of t i m e s I f e e l l i ke a r e a l s pi r i t ua l l e a de r w hi l e I m s i ngi ng t o pe opl e t ha t I r e a l l y a m f e e di n g t he i r s oul s w i t h m y s i ngi ng

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242 A nd t ha t s a c t ua l l y one o f t he bi gge s t pa r t s of w ha t s gr a t i f yi ng w ha t s i ngi ng I do r i ght no w . . A nd I ge t t ha t ba c k f r om t he m a nd I f e e l l i ke I m g i vi ng i t t o t he m a s w e l l T o t he s e pe r f o r m e r s s pi r i t ua l i nt e r a c t i on a s w e l l a s r e s pondi ng t o t he i r ne e d t o pr ovi de s om e t hi ng ve r y pr e c i ous w a s i nt r i ns i c t o t he i r s i ngi ng a nd c om m uni c a t i on w i t h t he i r a udi e nc e F or t he s e s i nge r s i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h t he a udi e nc e i nv ol ve d t he i nt r i ns i c r e a s ons w hy t he y be c a m e pe r f or m e r s t he e l e m e nt s t he y a c t ua l l y i m a gi ne d c om m uni c a t i ng t o a nd w i t h t he a udi e nc e f e e l i ng a s e ns e of i nt i m a c y w i t h e a c h a udi e nc e m e m be r i m a gi ni ng a f l ow of e ne r gy w i t h t he m a nd s pi r i t ua l c om pone nt s T h i s e m e r ge d a s a s i gni f i c a nt a nd s e pa r a t e t he m e of w hy s i nge r s us e i m a ge r y i n t he i r s i ngi ng. H e al i ng R e as ons H e a l i ng r e a s ons f or us i ng i m a ge r y w e r e c i t e d i n 13 s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w s T he s e r e s ul t s i nc l ude d t he t w o m a i n i s s ue s of ove r a l l he a l t h a nd he a l i ng one s e l f a nd m o r e s pe c i f i c a l l y, voc a l he a l t h. T a bl e 22 s how s s i nge r s he a l i ng r e a s ons f or i m a ge r y us e i nc l udi ng c a t e gor i e s a nd num be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s O v e r al l he al t h. M a i nt a i ni ng opt i m a l he a l t h w a s vi t a l t o a s i nge r s pe r f or m a nc e s i nc e t he body w a s t he e xc l us i ve i ns t r um e nt us e d i n voc a l s i ngi ng. T hi r t e e n pa r t i c i pa nt s us e d i m a ge r y i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r he a l t h a nd s e l f he a l i ng. T hi s c a t e gor y i nc l ude d: ( a ) s i m pl e m e nt a l pr oc e s s e s i n s t a yi ng pos i t i ve ( b ) bo dy c he c ki ng s ys t e m s a nd ( c ) us i ng a l t e r na t i ve he a l i ng m e t hods t o a c hi e ve hol i s t i c ba l a nc e F r a nc i ne s a i d, s om e t i m e s w he n you r e f a t i gue d or w he n i t s j us t not ha ppe ni ng yo u ne e d t o t he n r e l y on i m a ge r y

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243 T a bl e 22 V oc al P ar t i c i pant s H e al i ng R e as ons f or I m age r y U s e C at e gor i e s H e a l i ng R e a s ons C a t e gor i e s N um be r of P a r t i c i pa nt s H e a l i ng one s e l f 13 B ody C he c ki ng 10 O ve r a l l H e a l t h A l t e r na t i ve M e t hods 2 C hr oni c I l l ne s s e s 3 V oc a l H e a l t h S i l e nt P r a c t i c e 4 G e r a l d s a i d: I don t w a i t t o ge t s i c k t o he a l m ys e l f f e e l i ng w ha t m y voi c e f e e l s l i ke w he n I a m he a l t hy, be f or e I e ve n ge t t o t ha t pl a c e t e l l i ng m ys e l f t ha t I m he a l t hy, s o t ha t m y body f unc t i ons a t i t s opt i m a l l e ve l T hi s a l s o e xe m pl i f i e d G e r a l d s us e of i m a ge r y i n s e l f t a l k a nd t he m e m or y of pr e vi ous f i t ne s s t o m a i nt a i n good he a l t h f o r s i ngi ng. T he r e w e r e t e n pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho m e nt i one d t he us e of ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y t o c he c k phys i c a l c ondi t i ons a nd a l i gnm e nt i n t he bo dy f or i de a l s i ngi ng a nd pe r f o r m i ng. B a r r y e m pl oye d a m e t hod of c he c k i ng hi s body f or f unc t i oni ng e xc e l l e nc e i n s i ngi ng, a s he i l l us t r a t e d i n t he f ol l ow i ng quot e : [ B ] y t he t i m e you ge t t o t he pe r f o r m a nc e l e ve l yo u go t hr ough a nd i de nt i f y you r s t i c ky pa r t s t he pa r t s of you t ha t a r e l oc ki ng up, or phys i c a l l y not ope r a t i ng a t a

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244 pe a k l e ve l S o i n pe r f or m a nc e you do ha ve t o go b a c k t o s om e of t he r e l a xa t i on t e c hni que s S i nge r s s pe nt t i m e a nd e f f or t t o m a ke s ur e t he i r bo di e s a nd i t s va r i ous pa r t s w e r e he a l t hy a nd a c t i ve i n f a c i l i t a t i ng pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e O phe l i a s poke a bou t t r a i ni ng i n t hi s s pe c i f i c a r e a a nd s a i d, I a c t ua l l y r e a d a book r e c e nt l y a nd t ha t i m a ge r y i s f oc us e d on, i n t ha t you ne e d you r pos t ur e op t i m um . . I t s c a l l e d t he E gos c ue M e t hod. T hi s w a s pa r t of a t r a i ni ng p r ogr a m he r voc a l c oa c h ha d p r ovi de d i n u s i ng i m a ge r y f o r good pos t ur e S i m i l a r t o r e l a xa t i on a nd pos t ur e t e c hni que s w e r e t w o a l t e r na t i ve he a l i ng m oda l i t i e s t ha t a ppe a r e d i n t he i nt e r vi e w s C a t he r i ne a nd I va n m e nt i one d us i ng R e i ki or e ne r gy w or k, a nd t h r e e ot he r s i nge r s us e d c hak r ah ba l a nc i ng t e c hni que s or E a s t I ndi a n he a l i ng, t o s t a y he a l t hy a s I va n i l l us t r a t e d: I ha ve us e d a l ot of t ha t w he n I ve be e n s i c k. I c on ne c t t o M ot he r G a i a c l e a r out t he c hak r ahs di r e c t l y t o t he c or e of t he e a r t h. . F i r s t i t s a l w a ys t he e a r t h f o r m e a nd t he n out r e a c hi ng t o t he c e nt e r of t he uni v e r s e A l w a ys t w o poi nt s t hough. A l w a ys c onne c t i ng t o t he c e nt e r of s om e t h i ng, t he c e nt e r of e a r t h a s a gr oundi ng c or d a nd t he n t o t he c e nt e r o f w ha t I w oul d i m a ge t he c e nt e r of t he uni ve r s e l ooks l i ke T he s e m e di t a t i on t e c hni que s w e r e c om pl e t e l y i m m e r s e d i n i m a ge r y us e a nd t he s e pe r f or m e r s s e e m e d t o f i nd va l ue i n t he r e s ul t s V oc al he al t h. S e ve n s i nge r s i nc l ude d r e s pons e s s p e c i f i c t o voc a l he a l t h i n t he i r i m a ge r y. T hr e e s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y t o c ont e nd w i t h s i ngi ng du r i ng bout s w i t h i l l ne s s e s F our voc a l i s t s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y t o pr a c t i c e w hi l e t he i r voi c e s r e s t e d due t o f a t i gue

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245 a nd s i c kne s s K a r e n a nd I va n ha d t o c ont e nd w i t h pe r i odi c s ym pt om s of c ol ds o r a l l e r gi e s a nd f ound i m a ge r y us e f ul i n i de nt i f yi ng a nd i m p l e m e nt i ng e a s e i n br e a t hi ng a nd s i ngi ng. S e ve r a l s i nge r s a l s o us e d i m a ge r y a s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o s i ngi ng w he n t he i r voi c e s c oul d not phys i c a l l y s i ng. B e i ng a bl e t o us e i m a ge r y t o pr a c t i c e be yond w ha t t he voi c e c oul d phys i c a l l y s i ng w a s a c ons i de r e d a n a dde d a s s e t F or e xa m pl e L oui s us e d i m a ge r y i n t hi s w a y a nd s a i d, i f I a m not w e l l or t he voi c e i s not he a l t hy, t he n I l l us e i m a ge r y a s a n a l t e r na t i ve t o r e a l s i ngi ng, be c a us e t he i ns t r um e nt m i ght no t be f unc t i oni ng p r ope r l y s o I c a n t phys i c a l l y s i ng A nna a l s o us e d s uppl e m e nt m e nt a l pr a c t i c e a nd e xpr e s s e d: A nd t he gr e a t t hi ng a bout i t i s you c oul d do i t w i t h out r ui ni ng your voi c e be c a us e you c a n t s i ng a l l da y. Y ou j us t c a n t S o you ha ve t o be a bl e t o ke e p you r m ou t h s hut a nd do t hi s w or k I t s i m pe r a t i ve t ha t you do i t o r you l l w r e c k your vo i c e T he s e voc a l i s t s c ons i de r e d s i l e nt s i ngi ng a gr e a t a s s e t t o c ont i nui ng p r a c t i c e w he n i t w a s not a dvi s a bl e t o voc a l i z e F a t i gue or l a c k of r e s t m e nt i one d by s e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s pa r t i c ul a r l y da m a gi ng t o voc a l qua l i t y A f t e r t r a ve l i ng e xt e ns i v e l y t o pe r f or m s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y t o i nc r e a s e f e e l i ngs of he a l t h a s N i c hol a s i l l us t r a t e d: [ G ] e t t i ng e nough r e s t T ha t s us ua l l y t he bi gge s t d e t e r m i na t i on of w he t he r I f e e l t ha t m y voi c e i s he a l t hy or not . . I i m a gi ne d m ys e l f w ha t S he r r i l l M i l ne s a r e t i r e d ba r i t one [ w oul d do] . I m s ur e he w a s i n s i t ua t i ons w he r e he w a s s t i l l t i r e d a nd ha d t o pe r f or m . . t o hi s opt i m a l be s t i n t r yi ng t o ke e p m y e ne r gy a bout m e a nd do t he be s t I c oul d do . . S om e t i m e s you ve j us t got t o m a ke t he m os t out of w ha t you ha ve a nd m a ke i t t hr ough no t pus h voc a l l y, but e ndur a nc e w i s e i t s m or e a m a t t e r o f ke e pi ng you r s e l f f oc us e d.

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246 N i c hol a s us e of m ode l i ng i m a ge r y i ns pi r e d hi m t o c ont i nue w i t h h i s pe r f or m i ng ove r s e e s e nga ge m e nt S e ve r a l ot he r s i nge r s c a ut i one d a ga i n s t pus hi ng t he voi c e dur i ng c r i t i c a l t i m e s of s t r e s s a nd i l l ne s s P r e ve nt i ng a nd t r e a t i ng s i c kne s s a nd f a t i gue c oul d be f a c i l i t a t e d by s pe c i f i c a ppl i c a t i ons of i m a ge r y a s t h e s e voc a l i s t s a t t e s t e d. Sum m ar y T hi s c ha pt e r i nc l ude d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r vi e w p r ot oc ol i s s ue s de s c r i pt i on, c a t e gor i z a t i on, a nd a na l ys e s of t he da t a t a ke n f r om t he 15 voc a l i s t s i nt e r vi e w s I n a ns w e r i ng t he f ou r W s que s t i ons of w he r e w he n w hat a nd w hy a f ul l de s c r i pt i on of s i nge r s us e o f i m a ge r y e m e r ge d. T h e s e voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s w e r e f ound t o us e i m a ge r y a r ound t he pe r f o r m a nc e ve nue s a t ho m e a nd ot he r pl a c e s T i m e s i nc l ude d pr i m a r i l y du r i ng p r a c t i c e p r i or t o pe r f or m a nc e i n be d a t ni ght a nd c om m ut i ng a nd dr i vi ng C ont e nt of voc a l i s t s i m a ge r y i nc l ude d t yp e s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s T ype s of i m a ge r y s i nge r s us e d w e r e s e ns e s a nd a bi l i t i e s I m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i nc l ude d voc a l e xe c ut i on, m e t a phor i c a l body r e l a t e d m us i c a l s ou nd, a nd c ha r a c t e r i m a ge s R e a s ons w hy or pu r pos e s s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y i nc l ude d c ogni t i ve m ot i va t i ona l a r t i s t i c a nd he a l i ng r e a s ons A udi e nc e i nt e r a c t i ons e m e r ge d a s a n a ddi t i ona l a r t i s t i c r e a s on f or us i ng i m a ge r y i n t he s e pe r f or m e r s O t he r f i ndi ngs r e ve a l e d s pe c i f i c us e s e xc l us i ve t o s ol o s i ngi ng pr of e s s i ona l s E m e r ge nt t he m e s of i m a ge r y us e s w e r e of t e n c ons i s t e nt w i t h t hos e f ound i n s por t a nd da nc e r e s e a r c h. M a ny of t he t he m e s r e f l e c t e d m or e da nc e i m a ge r y us e s t ha n t hos e o f s por t S e ve r a l t he m e s e m e r ge d a s e xc l us i ve t o s ol o s i ngi ng pr of e s s i ona l s I n C ha pt e r 5 t he s e c om m ona l i t i e s a nd di f f e r e nc e s w a r r a nt f ur t h e r di s c us s i on i n r e l a t i on t o t he f i ndi ngs f r om s por t a nd da nc e r e s e a r c h a nd r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e A s i nge r s f r a m e w or k f or t he f our

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247 W s of i m a ge r y i s pr e s e nt e d, a s w e l l a s l i m i t a t i ons i m p l i c a t i ons a nd s ugge s t i ons f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h.

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248 C ha pt e r 5 S um m a r y of F i ndi ngs I m pl i c a t i ons a nd C onc l us i o ns T hi s c ha pt e r pr ov i de s a s um m a r y of t he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy, i nt e r p r e t a t i on o f t he f i ndi ngs a s r e l a t e d t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons a nd c o m pa r e s t he r e s ul t s t o t he f our W s f r a m e w or k o f i m a ge r y us e i n s por t ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) da nc e ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) a nd r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h. B a s e d on t he a na l ys e s of t he da t a a ne w f our W s f r a m e w or k of i m a ge r y us e f or s i nge r s i s pr opos e d. L i m i t a t i ons a r e r e vi e w e d a nd i m pl i c a t i ons of t he f i ndi ngs e xa m i ne d. S ugge s t i ons f o r f ur t he r r e s e a r c h a r e a l s o of f e r e d. Sum m ar y and I nt e r pr e t at i on of Si gni f i c ant F i ndi ng s I n t hi s s t udy, t he da t a o f w he r e a nd w he n pr o f e s s i ona l s ol o s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y, w hat t he y i m a gi ne d, a nd w hy t he y us e d i m a ge r y w e r e ga t he r e d, a na l yz e d, a nd r e po r t e d. I n a na l yz i ng t he r e s ul t s of t he s t udy, m a ny s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd c ont r a s t s w i t h s por t da nc e a nd r e l a t e d m us i c i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h w e r e i de nt i f i e d a n d ne w c a t e gor i e s a nd f i ndi ngs e m e r ge d. S ubs e que nt l y a c onc e pt ua l f r a m e w or k w a s c r e a t e d. A di s c us s i on of e a c h of t he s e que s t i ons i s pr e s e nt e d i ndi vi dua l l y a nd t he r e s ul t i ng s i nge r s i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k i s of f e r e d. W he r e V oc al i s t s U s e d I m age r y F i ndi ngs of t he r e s ul t s r e ga r di ng w he r e voc a l i s t s i m a ge r y w a s c a r r i e d out i nc l ude d pr a c t i c e a nd s t a ge a r e a s a t hom e ou t s i de a nd a nyw he r e w hi c h r e pl i c a t e d f i ndi ngs i n da nc e ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) a nd m us i c i a ns ( C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m ) A l l 15 voc a l p r of e s s i ona l s i n t hi s s t udy r e po r t e d us i ng i t i n pr a c t i c e a nd e ve n m or e i n

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249 pe r f or m a nc e ve nue s T hi s s uppor t e d r e po r t s of a t hl e t e s us i ng i m a ge r y m or e i n c om pe t i t i on f or pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt t ha n l e a r ni ng s i t ua t i ons i n p r a c t i c e ( B a r r & H a l l 1992; H a l l e t a l 1990; M unr oe e t a l 2000) O ut s i de of t he i r f or m a l t r a i ni ng a nd s t a ge s e t t i ngs r e por t e dl y e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y a t ho m e a nd pr i m a r i l y i n be d, c om m ut i ng, i n pl a c e s w he r e t he y w e r e a l one e xe r c i s i ng, or a nyw he r e T he s e f i nd i ngs w e r e a l s o r e por t e d s t udi e s i nc l udi ng da nc e ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) m us i c ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987 ) a nd s por t s ( S a l m on e t a l 1994; M unr oe e t a l 2000) W he n V oc al i s t s U s e d I m age r y R e ga r di ng t i m e s or w he n, s i nge r s r e por t e dl y e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y dur i ng pr a c t i c e a nd e ve n m or e p r i or t o pe r f or m a nc e w hi c h w a s s i m i l a r t o t he f i nd i ngs i n a t hl e t i c s ( B a r r & H a l l 1992; R odge r s e t a l 1991 ; M unr oe e t a l 2 000) a nd da nc e ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) H ow e ve r t he s i nge r s r e s pons e s r e ve a l e d a c ons i de r a bl e di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n pr a c t i c e a nd r e he a r s a l f or m us i c a l pe r f o r m e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o t i m e s of i m a ge r y us e O t he r pe r f or m a nc e s t udi e s m e nt i one d t hi s di s t i nc t i on ( C a r t e r 1993; N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2000; T r us he i m 1987 ) pa r t i c ul a r l y t he i m por t a nc e of a u di t i ons a nd r e he a r s a l s on f ut u r e c a r e e r s I n t h i s i nve s t i ga t i on, a s w e l l a s C a r t e r s ( 1 993) voc a l pr a c t i c e w a s i de nt i f i e d a s a pr i va t e t i m e o f s t udy a nd s i ngi ng i n a s t udi o o r pr i va t e s pa c e w he r e a s a r e he a r s a l w a s a f or m a l s e s s i on t o pr e pa r e a n e nt i r e e ns e m bl e f or a n upc om i ng pe r f or m a nc e f o r w hi c h s i nge r s w e r e e xpe c t e d t o be pr e pa r e d W h i l e a l l vo c a l i s t s r e gul a r l y e nga ge d i n i m a ge r y dur i ng pr a c t i c e f e w e r pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d i m a gi n i ng dur i ng r e he a r s a l s T hi s di s t i nc t i on e m e r ge d a s a ne w c ons i de r a t i on w i t h r e ga r d t o bot h w he r e a nd w he n s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y a nd s houl d be c ons i de r e d i n f u t ur e s t udi e s w i t h r e ga r d t o pe r f or m a nc e pr e pa r a t i on.

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25 0 S om e c onf us i on r e ga r di ng br e a ks a nd hol i da ys a r o s e dur i ng t he i nt e r vi e w s a s a r e s ul t of t he s pe c i f i c w or d hol i da y i n t he s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de w hi c h r e qui r e d i m m e di a t e c l a r i f i c a t i on. S i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy pe r f o r m e d m or e dur i ng t he hol i da ys ( i e C hr i s t m a s a nd N e w Y e a r s ) t ha n a t a ny ot he r t i m e of t he ye a r T he w or d br e a k w a s s ubs t i t ut e d, m e a ni ng a n e xt e nde d pe r i od of t i m e ( s uc h a s da ys or w e e ks ) a w a y f r om w or k. P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d us i ng l i t t l e i f a ny i m a g e r y dur i ng t hi s t i m e C onve r s e l y, M unr oe a nd ot he r s ( 2000 ) r e po r t e d br e a k r e s ul t s o nl y w i t h r e ga r d t o r e s t pe r i ods t hr oughout t he da y r a t he r t ha n e xt e nde d t i m e of f w or k. O t he r t i m e s w he n voc a l i s t s us e d i m a ge r y w e r e dur i ng qui e t t i m e s w he n t he y c oul d t hi nk o r w he n t he r e w e r e f e w di s t r a c t i ons b r e a ks t hr oughout t he da y c om m ut i ng a nd dr i vi ng, a ny o r a l l t he t i m e a nd e s pe c i a l l y i n b e d a t ni ght j us t pr i o r t o s l e e pi ng. T hi s w a s s i m i l a r t o w ha t w a s f ound i n m a ny s t udi e s i n s por t ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ; S a l m on e t a l 1994 ) a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f or m a nc e ( B e l l on 2006; C a r t e r 1993; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005; T r us he i m 1987) W hat I m age r y T y pe s V oc al i s t s U s e d T he r e s ul t s of w hat s i nge r s i m a gi ne d w e r e di vi de d be t w e e n i m a ge r y t ype s or c ont e nt of t he i m a ge a nd i m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i n how t he y p r oduc e d t he i m a ge s G e ne r a l l y, s i nge r s us e of i m a ge r y s e e m e d t o r e f l e c t m or e o f t he e l e m e nt s r e por t e d i n da nc e ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) a nd s om e w ha t l e s s of t hos e i n s por t ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) T he s i x i m a ge r y t ype s w e r e c a t e gor i z e d a s : ( a ) e xe c ut i on, ( b) m e t a phor i c a l ( c ) c ont e xt ( d ) body r e l a t e d, ( e ) m us i c a l s ound, a nd ( f ) c ha r a c t e r / r ol e a s a da pt e d f r om t he da nc e i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k of N or di n a nd C um m i n g ( 2005) T he s e r e pr e s e nt e d t he

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251 s i gni f i c a nt a r e a s of s i nge r s i m a ge r y c ont e nt w hi l e t he c a t e gor y o f m us i c a l s ounds e m e r ge d f r om t he r e s pons e s E x e c ut i on i m age s E xe c ut i on i m a ge s i nvol ve d t he t e c hni c a l a s pe c t s of s i ngi ng, i nc l udi ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd pl a nni ng f or p r a c t i c i ng a n d pe r f or m i ng, a s w e l l a s goa l i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd a t t a i nm e nt S k i l l l e a r ni ng e nc om pa s s e d voc a l pr oduc t i on, br e a t h s uppor t t e xt a nd d i c t i on. S i nge r s e xt e ns i ve l y e nga ge d i n a l l k i nds of i m a ge s s uc h a s r a i s i ng t he uvul a w i t h a ya w n, l i f t i ng t he pa l a t e a n d m a i nt a i ni ng p r ope r pos i t i oni ng of t he m out h a nd t h r oa t f o r pr o pe r s i ngi ng. T he y de s c r i be d m a ny i m a ge s of e xpa ndi ng t he r i bs ba c k, a nd l ow e r i ng t he di a phr a gm f o r br e a t h c ont r ol a nd s uppor t T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o i m a gi ne d t e xt a nd di c t i on e xe c ut i on a s w e l l a s ph r a s i ng w or ds of t he s ong. T he s e i m a ge s w e r e c ons i s t e nt w i t h t hos e of ot he r s i nge r s ( B e l l on 2006; G r e gg, 1998) pa r t i c ul a r l y i n bui l di ng voc a l t e c hni que i n e l i t e p r of e s s i ona l s ( C a r t e r 1993 ) T he s e f i ndi ngs a l s o s uppor t t he i de a of V e nna r d ( 1968 ) a nd A r i e t i ( 1976) t ha t m us i c a l s ound a nd w or ds f us e d i n s ong t hr ough i m a ge r y T he i nt e r m i ngl i ng w i t h s ki l l l e a r ni ng of l a ngua ge a nd m ot or be ha vi or pr ovi de d s om e s uppor t f or A nne t t s ( 1986 1994 ) d ua l c odi ng i n m ot or a ppl i c a t i ons a c t i on l a ngua ge i m a gi na t i on ( A L I ) i m a ge r y m ode l F u r t he r m or e r e pl i c a t i ng t he e xa c t m ot or be ha vi or i n i m a ge r y r e f l e c t e d t he pr e pa r a t i o n a nd e xe c ut i on of t ha t t a s k c oul d s uppor t s om e of t he f i ndi ngs o f f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e ( D e c e t y, 1996b; H a l pe r n & Z a t or r e 1999; H ol m e s & C ol l i ns 2002; J e a nne r od 1994; M e i s t e r e t a l 2004) P a r t i c i pa nt s us e d s e que nc e a nd s t r a t e gy i m a ge s i n s ongs e nt i r e c onc e r t s r e c i t a l s a nd ope r a t i c r ol e s I m a ge s of s t r a t e gi e s a nd s e que nc e s w e r e c onne c t e d w i t h pr oc e s s e s of l e a r ni ng a nd e xe c ut i ng m us i c a l r e qui r e m e nt s of pe r f or m a nc e w hi c h w e r e a l s o i m a ge s of ot h e r voc a l i s t s ( C a r t e r 1993) T he s i x pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho ha d t o pl a n t he i r ow n r e c i t a l s

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252 us e d s e que nc e a nd s t r a t e gy i m a ge r y t o de ve l op a c ohe s i ve pr ogr a m w hi c h w a s s i m i l a r t o f i ndi ngs i n s por t s ( F e nke r & L a m bi o t t e 1987 ; R us ha l l 1988; W hi t e & H a r dy, 1998) F ur t he r m or e t h r e e s i nge r s c r e a t e d s t or i e s t o c onne c t s ongs t he y s a ng i n t he i r ow n c onc e r t s T hi s us e of s t or i e s a nd pl a ns i n i m a ge r y a l s o a ppe a r e d i n s e ve r a l of t he m us i c i a ns i n t he B e l l on ( 2006 ) C a r t e r ( 1993 ) a nd T r us he i m ( 1987 ) s t udi e s T he s e voc a l i s t s i m a gi ne d s t r a t e gi e s a nd pl a ns i n or ga ni z i ng t he i r p r a c t i c e a nd pr e pe r f or m a nc e r out i ne s s pe c i f i c pe r f o r m a nc e s e que nc e s m e t hods of ha ndl i ng di f f i c ul t pa s s a ge s a nd w a ys of c opi ng w i t h di s t r a c t i ons w hi c h r e f l e c t e d t h e r e s ul t s of m us i c i a ns us e of i m a ge r y i n ot he r s t udi e s ( B e l l on 2006; C a r t e r 1993, T r us he i m 1987) S i nge r s a l s o us e d s e que nc e i m a ge r y t o f a c i l i t a t e m e m or y of s ongs a nd phr a s e s w hi c h s e e m s t o s uppor t S a c ke t t s ( 1934, 1935 ) m e nt a l b l ue pr i nt s w hi c h w e r e c om pl e t e c onc e pt s s t or e d i n t he b r a i n. A l l s i nge r s us e d goa l i m a ge s w hi c h pr i m a r i l y c om pr i s e d out c om e a nd pr oc e s s w i t h l e s s pe r f or m a nc e t ype s a s de s c r i be d i n W e i nb e r g a nd G oul d ( 1995) T he s e r e s ul t s w e r e s i m i l a r t o ot he r m us i c pe r f or m e r s i m a ge r y ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993 ; T r us he i m 1987) P a r t i c i pa nt s i m a gi ne d out c om e goa l s of pe r f or m i ng s uc c e s s f ul l y i n a udi t i ons a nd pe r f or m a nc e s a nd s i ngl e s ongs a r i a s a nd e nt i r e r ol e s i n ope r a T hi s s uppor t e d t he s t udy by W ool f ol k, M ur phy, G ot t e s f e l d, a nd A i t ke n ( 198 5) w ho f ound t ha t a t hl e t e s w ho i m a gi ne d t he i r de s i r e d out c om e s ubs e que nt l y i nf l u e nc e d t ha t s a m e a c t i vi t y. S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d t he i r di s c ove r y t ha t a m bi guo us da ydr e a m s yi e l de d uni nt e nde d r e s ul t s w hi l e c ons c i ous l y di r e c t e d a nd de t a i l e d goa l i m a ge r y m o r e c ons i s t e nt l y a f f e c t e d s pe c i f i c a l l y de s i r e d out c om e s T hi s i s s ue w a s a ddr e s s e d i n U nge r l e i de r a nd G ol di ng ( 1991) i n t he d r e a m s a nd goa l s of O l ym pi c a t hl e t e s

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253 T he voc a l i s t s a l s o i m a gi ne d va r i ous pr oc e s s goa l s s uc h a s a c c ur a t e l y e xe c ut i ng s ounds phr a s e s pr ope r b r e a t h s uppor t a nd ot he r s ki l l s w hi c h w e r e a l s o f ound i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) s t udy. I t s e e m e d t ha t p r oc e s s goa l s w e r e us e d w he n s i nge r s ne e de d t o i nc or por a t e va r i ous s ki l l s i nt o be c om i ng a ut om a t i c or ha bi t ua l a s e xa m i ne d i n F i e l ds ( 1972) T he f a c t t ha t s i nge r s di s c us s e d how goa l s e vo l ve d ove r t he ye a r s f ur t he r s uppor t s how i m a ge s c ha nge a s w e l l J a c ks on a nd C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi ( 1999) r e c om m e nde d e m pl oyi ng goa l i m a ge s of w hol e a nd pa r t s f or a c hi e vi ng pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e W hi l e a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) a nd da nc e r s ( C um m i ng & N or di n 2005) w e r e f ound t o us e a l l t he s e goa l i m a ge s t he y us e d m or e pe r f or m a nc e goa l s t ha n s i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy. M e t aphor i c al i m age s A l l t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s ha r e d d e s c r i pt i ons of m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge s i n r e l a t i on t o voc a l p r oduc t i on, t he f i nd i ngs of w hi c h w e r e s i m i l a r t o t hos e us e d by s i nge r s i n s t udi e s by B e l l on ( 2006) a nd C a r t e r ( 1993) a nd t o a l e s s e r e xt e nt i n br a s s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s ( T r us he i m 1987) J us t a s s om e a t hl e t e s us e d m e t a phor s t o he l p e nha nc e pe r f or m a nc e i n di f f e r e nt s por t s ( R ui z & H a ni n, 20 04) s i n ge r s a nd da nc e r s us e d m e t a phor s t o l e a r n a nd s e c ur e voc a l t e c hni que a nd e nha nc e pe r f or m a nc e pa r t i c ul a r l y i n c r e a t i ng c ha r a c t e r s a nd r ol e s ( C a r t e r 1993; H a nr a h a n & V e r ge e r 2000; N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) S pe c i f i c a l l y, s i nge r s r e por t e d i m a ge r y of obj e c t s n ot pr e s e nt a nd i m a gi na r y a c t i ons w hi c h w a s s i m i l a r t o da nc e r s m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y ( H a nr a ha n & V e r ge e r 2000; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005; V e r ge e r & H a n r a ha n, 1998 ) M e t a phor i c i m a ge s of a c t i ons ( e g be l l ow s ope ni ng a nd c l os i ng; ba l l ba l a nc i ng on a f oun t a i n ; s t r e t c hi ng a r ubbe r ba nd) us e d t o f a c i l i t a t e voc a l pr oduc t i on i n t hi s s t udy w e r e s i m i l a r t o t hos e i n t he l i t e r a t ur e ( F i e l ds 1947; F r e e d 2000; L e hm a n, 1945/ 1985; W a r e 1992 ) J us t

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254 a s i n C a r t e r s ( 1993 ) s t udy, pa r t i c i pa nt s f e l t t ha t us i ng m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge s di m i n i s he d t he ne e d f or e l a bor a t e e xpl a na t i ons of voc a l m e c ha ni c s S i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e di vi de d a s t o t he i r pr e f e r e nc e of m e t a phor i c o r t e c hni c a l a nd a na t om i c i m a ge s r e ga r di ng voc a l pr o duc t i on. S om e s i nge r s f e l t t ha t m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge s he l pe d i n a c hi e vi ng c om f or t a nd e a s e i n s ound pr oduc t i on w i t hout r e qui r i ng e xt e ns i ve t e c hni c a l unde r s t a ndi ng. O t he r s i nge r s e m pl oye d m or e m e t a phor i c i m a ge r y w he n t he y w e r e younge r a nd w he n t he y g a i ne d a be t t e r unde r s t a ndi ng of t he voc a l m e c ha ni s m t he y be ga n t o a l s o i nc or por a t e a na t om i c a l i m a ge r y. A s s i nge r s c ont i nue d s t udyi ng t he voi c e ove r t he ye a r s t he y b e c a m e m or e f a m i l i a r w i t h t he a na t om i c a l w or ki ngs a nd w e r e a bl e t o a c c ur a t e l y v i s ua l i z e t he m a s a dvoc a t e d by va r i ous voi c e pe da gogue s ( D a ym e 1982, 2005; R e i d 198 3; V e nna r d, 1968) S i m i l a r l y, s i nge r s i n C l e ve l a nd s ( 1 989a ) s t udy pr e f e r r e d a na t om i c a l t o m e t a phor i c i m a ge s a s a r e s ul t of vi e w i ng t he i r ow n voi c e s t hr ough l a r ynge a l i m a ge bi of e e dba c k ( L I B ) m e di c a l i m a gi ng s ys t e m T w o s opr a nos a nd a l l t he m e n i n t he s t udy w e r e f a m i l i a r but i ndi f f e r e nt t o m e t a phor s a nd pr e f e r r e d a m o r e s c i e nt i f i c t e c hni c a l a ppr oa c h t o i m a ge r y i n voc a l pr oduc t i on. S i nge r s i n t he s t udy va r i e d i n t he i r c ho i c e s of w he t he r t o us e m e t a phor i c a l or a na t om i c a l i m a ge r y a nd t he i r pr e f e r e nc e s of t e n c h a nge d ove r t i m e us ua l l y i n f a vor of a na t om i c a l i m a ge r y. W he t he r i m a ge s w e r e m e t a ph or i c a l t e c hni c a l or a na t om i c a l t he y ha d t o s e r ve t he i nt e nde d f unc t i on a s ha s be e n s ugge s t e d i n pr e vi ous s t udi e s ( C a r t e r 1993: F r e e d, 2000; M oor c r of t 2002; W a r e 1 998 ) S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s a s s oc i a t e d c ol or s w i t h s ounds pa r t i c ul a r l y i n voc a l pr oduc t i on w he r e by di f f e r e nt c ol or s w e r e a t t a c he d t o di f f e r e nt s ounds ( L e hm a nn 1945/ 1985) W hi l e s om e s i nge r s us e d va r i ous c ol o r s t o r e p r e s e nt di f f e r e nt t i m br e s o f

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255 voc a l qua l i t i e s s e ve r a l voc a l i s t s de s c r i be d ve r y s p e c i f i c a ppl i c a t i ons of vi s ua l c ol o r w i t h s pe c i f i c s ounds A f e w s i nge r s w e r e ve r y e xpl i c i t i n i l l us t r a t i ng t he c onne c t i on of vi s ua l c ol or w i t h t one s a nd phr a s e s w hi c h w a s a t ype of m ul t i s e ns or y i m a ge r y know n a s c h r om e s t he s i a ( P ol z e l l a & K una 1981) T r us he i m ( 1987) a l s o r e por t e d b r a s s pr of e s s i ona l s w ho s a w di f f e r e nt c ol or s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he i de a l s ounds t he y a i m e d t o pr oduc e on t he i r i ns t r um e nt s C onve r s e l y, da nc e r s c ol or i m a ge s w e r e m or e o f t e n c onne c t e d w i t h t h e m ove m e nt i n t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e s r a t he r t ha n m us i c a l s ound ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) M or e r e s e a r c h c oul d be c onduc t e d i n t hi s a r e a C ont e x t i m age s S i nge r s us e of c ont e xt i m a ge s i nc l ude d s c e na r i os of t he e nvi r onm e nt or ve nue t he a udi e nc e a nd i m a gi na r y p e opl e i nc l udi ng a udi t i oni ng pa ne l i s t s a nd f r i e nds f or w hom t he y w e r e pe r f or m i ng. A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s i m a gi ne d pe r f or m i ng on s t a ge s f o r a udi e nc e s or s pe c i f i c pe opl e a nd i nc l ude d de t a i l s of t he ve nue w hi c h w e r e r e f l e c t e d ot he r m us i c i a n s i m a ge r y ( B e l l on, 2 006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) T hi s f i nd i ng w a s s i m i l a r t o s por t a nd da nc e i n t ha t t he s i nge r s w e r e i m a gi ni ng t he ve nue s i n w hi c h t he y ge ne r a l l y or s pe c i f i c a l l y pe r f or m e d ( M unr oe e t a l 2000; N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) T he s e c ont e xt i m a ge s f a c i l i t a t e d pe r f or m a nc e be s t w he n t he y w e r e a s de t a i l e d a s t he a c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e e m pl oyi ng m ul t i s e ns or y a s pe c t s pr ovi di ng f u r t he r s uppor t f or t he f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e t he or y ( H ol m e s & C ol l i ns 2002 ) O ne s i nge r a pt l y de s c r i be d t hi s i n he r a c c ount of i m a gi ni ng a p r e vi o us l y unf a m i l i a r t he a t r e i n w hi c h s he ha d hope d t o s i ng. T h i s i m a ge r y m e t hod of t he S o vi e t U ni on s e l i t e a t hl e t i c t r a i ne r s us i ng phot ogr a phs of t he M ont r e a l O l ym pi c f a c i l i t y t o f a m i l i a r i z e a t hl e t e s w i t h t h i s ne w ve nue ha d be e n de s c r i be d i n V e a l e y ( 1986 ) a nd R a i por t ( 1988)

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256 F ur t he r m or e s i nge r s i n t hi s a nd C a r t e r s ( 1993) s t udy i m a gi ne d t he de t a i l s o f m e nt a l l y c r e a t e d s c e na r i os t he y de vi s e d f or t he s e t t i ngs of r e c i t a l s ongs a nd a r i a s S om e t i m e s s i nge r s a r gue d t ha t t he i m a ge s ne e de d t o s uppor t c e r t a i n s ongs w e r e i m be dde d i n t he t e xt or t he m us i c a s i n L e hm a nn s ( 1945/ 1985) a r gum e nt f o r t he t r a di t i on of c r e a t i ng t he r i ght i m a ge f o r pe r f or m i ng a s pe c i f i c s ong. C onve r s e l y, s i nge r s s a i d t ha t t he c ont e nt o f t he i m a ge w a s i m m a t e r i a l a s l ong a s i t p r oduc e d t he r i ght e f f e c t i n de l i ve r i ng t he s ong, w hi c h r e f l e c t e d t he vi e w s of t he s i nge r s i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) s t udy w ho s uppor t e d t he us e of p r i va t e i m a ge s B ody r e l at e d i m age s V oc a l i s t s i m a ge s r e l a t i ng t o t he body c onc e r ne d r e gul a t i ng a r ous a l a nd ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ngs pa r t i c ul a r t o pe r f or m a nc e T hi r t e e n s i nge r s m e nt i one d a r ous a l i m a ge s di r e c t l y de a l i ng w i t h t he s pe c i f i c p a r t s of t he i r body m os t a f f e c t e d by ne r ve s T hi s w a s of t e n r e l a t e d t o r e l a xi ng t he body f oc us i ng a t t e nt i on i n a r e a s of t e ns i on, a nd de e pe ni ng t he br e a t hi ng a s m e nt i one d by s i ng e r s i n ot he r s t udi e s ( B e l l on, 2005; C a r t e r 1993) K i ne s t he t i c i m a ge s a l s o i nc l ude d phys i c a l pos t ur e a l i gnm e nt a ppe a r a nc e a nd he a l t h, w hi c h s e e m e d t o r e f l e c t voc a l i s t s r e c ogni t i on t ha t t he i r bodi e s w e r e a s i gni f i c a nt c onc e r n i n s i ngi ng opt i m a l l y. T hi s w a s r e por t e d i n t he i m a ge r y of e l i t e s i nge r s ( C a r t e r 1993) a nd da nc e r s ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) a n d voc a l t e xt s ( A ve r i no 1989; W a r e 1998) P a r t i c i pa nt s us e d t he m i r r or a nd ot he r m e t h ods f or di r e c t f e e dba c k on t he l ook of t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e s s o t ha t t he i r i de a l a ppe a r a nc e s body pos i t i ons a nd m ove m e nt c oul d be gr ounde d i n t he i r ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y, a s f ound i n C a r t e r s s i nge r s ( 1993 ) S i nc e s i nge r s pe r f or m e d w i t h t he i r f ul l body vi s i bl e t o t h e a udi e nc e i t w a s unde r s t a nda bl e t ha t a ppe a r a nc e i m a ge s w e r e r e por t e d i n 11 s i nge r s r e s pons e s

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257 S i nge r s body r e l a t e d i m a ge s a l s o e nc om pa s s e d t he phys i c a l l y i m a gi ne d f e e l i ngs of how t he y pr oduc e d, e xe c ut e d, a nd m e m o r i z e d v oc a l s ound a nd i n c ha r a c t e r i z i ng t he s ong or r ol e w hi c h w a s c ons i s t e nt i n s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w s i n ot he r s t udi e s ( C a r t e r 1993; H i ne s 1982; M oye r 1992) T hi s l e nds s uppor t f or A hs e n s ( 1984) t r i p l e c ode t he or y i m a ge s om a t i c r e s pons e a nd m e a ni ng ( I S M ) a l l m us t be r oot e d i n t he body P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e ke e n l y a w a r e of t he i r phys i c a l bodi e s i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r voc a l m e c ha ni s m a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o phys i c a l pos t ur e a nd a l i gnm e nt f o r s i ngi ng opt i m a l l y. S i nge r s i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) s t udy a l s o r e po r t e d e m p l oyi ng t he s e body r e l a t e d i m a ge s T he s e f i ndi ngs a l s o s up por t L e ye r l e s ( 1986 ) f i ve t he or e t i c a l c a t e gor i e s of o r ga ni c i m a ge r y i n s i ngi ng w hi c h c ons i s t e d of pos t ur e r e s pi r a t i on, phona t i on, r e s ona t i on, a nd us e i n voc a l or ps yc hol ogi c a l pr obl e m a r e a s T he i de a l s ounds s i nge r s i nt e nde d t o m a ke w e r e di r e c t l y c onne c t e d w i t h t he phys i c a l pos i t i on s a nd ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ngs us e d t o s e c ur e t hos e t one s e s pe c i a l l y s i nc e s i nge r s a r gue d t ha t t he y c oul d no t t r us t t he i r e a r s i n a c hi e vi ng pr ope r s ound. T hi s p r ovi de s s om e s uppor t f o r t he i de a of s e c ur i ng s ound i n a na t om i c a l f e e l i ng r a t he r t ha n he a r i ng i t t hr ough t h e e a r s ( C a r t e r 1993; G e r a l d i ne F a r r a r c i t e d i n B r ow e r & C ooke 1996; L a m pe r t i c i t e d i n B r ow n, 1931/ 1973) S e ve r a l s i nge r s m e nt i one d e m pl oyi ng vi s ua l a na t om i c a l i m a ge s a s w e l l a s f e e l i ngs of t he voc a l m e c ha ni s m i n c onn e c t i on w i t h s i ngi ng pr oduc t i on. T hi s s t r e ngt he ns t he a r gum e nt i n s uppor t of us i ng a na t om i c a l i m a ge s ove r m e t a pho r i c a l i m a ge r y f o r voc a l p r oduc t i on pur pos e s ( L e ye r l e 19 86; M i l l e r 1996; V e nna r d, 1 968) B odi l y m ove m e nt a nd ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y w a s a l s o us e d t o f a c i l i t a t e m e m or y r hyt hm i c e xpr e s s i on, a nd dyna m i c s of m us i c w hi c h w a s a l s o f ound i n t he l i t e r a t ur e ( C a r t e r 1993 ; J a que s D a l c r oz e 1920/ 1972; L a ba n 1975 1984) T hi s s uppor t e d t he

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258 a r gum e nt f or i nc l udi ng s i m ul a t e d m ove m e nt w i t h m ot or i m a ge r y f or i nc r e a s i ng pe r f or m a nc e e xe c ut i on i n a t hl e t i c s ( H ol m e s & C ol l i ns 2002) da nc e ( H a n r a ha n e t a l 1995) a nd pi a no ( H i ghbe n & P a l m e r 2004 ) S oun d pr oduc t i on w a s i nt r i ns i c a l l y c onne c t e d t o t he ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng of w he r e voc a l i z a t i on or i gi na t e d i n t he body a s w a s a l s o f ound i n C a r t e r ( 1993 ) T r us he i m ( 1987) r e po r t e d t ha t b r a s s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s e xpe r i e nc e d s ounds ki ne s t he t i c a l l y i n t he i r e m bouc hur e a nd t hr oughou t t he i r body a s w e l l M us i c al s ound i m age s A m a j o r c a t e gor y t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he i nt e r v i e w s w a s i m a ge s of m us i c a l s ound. T hi s e xt e nde d be yond he a r i ng s ounds i n r e l a t i on t o i m a gi ne d ve nue s a nd t hos e s pe c i f i c t o t he i r pe r f or m a nc e a c t i vi t i e s r e por t e d by a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) a s w e l l a s s om e s i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy. M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, m us i c a l s ounds w e r e r e por t e d i n da nc e r s i m a ge r y ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) a nd w e r e a m a j or i m a ge r y e l e m e nt of a l l voc a l i s t s i n t hi s s t udy. A l l t he s i nge r s r e por t e d he a r i ng i nt e r na l l y t he i r be gi nni ng pi t c he s a nd 14 o f t he 15 pa r t i c i pa nt s s a i d t he y he a r d t he a c c om pa ni m e nt w hi l e pr a c t i c i ng e i t he r s i l e nt l y or out l oud A udi t o r y i m a ge s of m us i c a l a c c om pa ni m e nt w e r e a l s o f ound i n C a r t e r s ( 1993 ) s t udy, pa r t i c ul a r l y f o r s i nge r s t ha t ha d ke yboa r d t r a i ni ng. P a r t i c i pa nt s a l s o m e nt i one d m e nt a l l y s e e i ng t he no t e s on t he pa ge i n f r ont of t he m a s di d s i nge r s i n C a r t e r s ( 1993 ) s t udy. G or don s ( 1976, 1999, 2003a ) m us i c l e a r ni ng t he or y e xt e ns i ve l y de s c r i be d t he phe nom e na of he a r i ng m us i c a l s ounds a nd e l e m e nt s i nt e r na l l y, or a udi a t i ng, i n m us i c a l de ve l opm e nt O t he r m us i c a l s ounds i n i m a g e r y e nc om pa s s e d m ode l i ng e xpe r t voc a l i s t s a nd de ve l opi ng a n i nt e r na l i de a l s ound i m a ge T e n s i nge r s us e d m ode l i ng of ot he r out s t a ndi ng s i nge r s t o a c hi e ve pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e P e r f e c t i ng t he a r t of s i ngi ng by

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259 obs e r vi ng e xpe r t s ha s be e n pr om ot e d i n voc a l pe da gogy i n a nu m be r o f s our c e s ( F i e l ds 1992; G nt e r 1992a 1992b; T os i & G a l l i a r d, 172 3/ 1968; W a r e 1998) T hi s l e nt s uppor t t o t he obs e r va t i ona l s t udi e s of F a di ga a nd o t he r s ( 1 995) i n ne u r oi m a gi ng a nd f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e S e ve n of t he voc a l i s t s he a r d i de a l s ounds i n t he i r h e a d t o he l p t he m pr oduc e e xc e l l e nc e i n voc a l qua l i t y, a n e l e m e nt t ha t a l s o a p pe a r e d i n ot he r m us i c s t udi e s ( B e l l on, 2006; B onpe ns i e r e 1953; C a r t e r 1993 ; H i ne s 198 2; T r us he i m 1987) M i l l e r ( 1996 ) a nd ot he r s ( A ve r i no, 1989; D e L a y c i t e d i n S t oc khol m 1975; F i e l ds 1972 ; W a r e 1998) s uppor t e d t he pr a c t i c e of de ve l opi ng a s t or e hous e of s t r ong i de a l s ounds i n w hi c h s i nge r s c oul d c om pa r e a nd a l i gn w i t h t he i r ow n pe r s ona l v oc a l s ounds D ur i ng s i l e nt p r a c t i c e f our s i nge r s s a i d t he y he a r d t he i de a l s ound of t he i r ow n voi c e s r a t he r t ha n t hos e of ot he r out s t a ndi ng pr of e s s i ona l s G i ve n t he i r e xt e ns i ve m us i c a l t r a i ni ng a nd pe r f or m a nc e e xpe r i e nc e i t w a s not s ur pr i s i ng t ha t a l l t he s e s i ng e r s ha d de ve l ope d t hi s f a c ul t y T hi s c onne c t i on be t w e e n i de a l s ound i m a ge s a nd voc a l e xe c ut i on m a y pr ovi de s uppor t f o r f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e s t udi e s i n ne ur oi m a gi ng i n w hi c h br a i n a c t i vi t y of he a r i ng a nd i m a gi ni ng m us i c w a s f ound t o be s i m i l a r ( K os s l yn e t a l 2001; Z a t or r e & H a l pe r n, 2 005) M us i c a l s ounds e m e r ge d a s a di s t i nc t c a t e gor y i n t hi s s t udy s i nc e s i nge r s i m a ge r y c ont e nt i n t hi s a r e a w a s s o e xt e ns i ve a nd di ve r s e a nd di f f e r e d m a r ke dl y f r om t he e nvi r onm e nt a l a nd s por t s pe c i f i c s ound i m a ge s m o s t a t hl e t e s r e por t e d ( M unr oe e t a l 2000; S a l m on e t a l 1994 ) C har ac t e r / r ol e i m age s S i nge r s i m a ge s of c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt i nc l ude d be ha vi or e m ot i ons a nd a ppe a r a nc e w hi c h a l s o f o l l ow e d t he i m a ge r y c ont e nt c a t e gor y s e t by N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) T he s e i m a ge s r e f l e c t e d voc a l p r of e s s i ona l s

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260 r e qui r e m e nt s m ove m e nt s a nd e f f o r t s i n d r a m a t i c s f r om pe r f o r m i ng a s i m pl e a r i a t o a n e nt i r e r ol e i n ope r a A l l t he i nt e r vi e w e e s e xpr e s s e d t he i de a t ha t c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on, e m ot i on, a nd m e m or i e s of pa s t e xpe r i e nc e s w e r e e s s e nt i a l e l e m e nt s t o e xpr e s s i ve s i ngi ng ( C r a i g, 19 92; E m m ons & S onn t a g, 2002 ; L e hm a n, 1945/ 1985 ) V oc a l i s t s c ha r a c t e r a nd r ol e i m a ge s w e r e m uc h m or e de t a i l e d a nd s pe c i f i c t o a c t i ng t ha n w ha t da nc e r s r e por t e d i n t hi s c a t e gor y ( H a nr a ha n & V e r ge e r 2000; N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) S i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy a nd t h os e i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) be ga n m e t hodol ogi c a l l y r e c r e a t i ng t he i r i ndi vi dua l c ha r a c t e r s w i t h t he w or ds o f t he s ong, t he m e l ody a nd r hyt hm t he c ont e xt a nd ba c kgr ound, e m ot i on a nd i de nt i f i c a t i on o f pa s t pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s i n t he e f f o r t t o e m body t he c ha r a c t e r o r s ong. T hi s s uppor t e d t he m e t hods s ugge s t e d i n a num be r of voc a l t e xt s ( B a r t e n, 1992 ; E m m ons & T hom a s 19 98, 2008 E m m ons & S onnt a g 2002; L ot t e L e hm a n 1945/ 1985; W a r e 1998) T hi s a l s o c onc ur r e d w i t h L a ng s ( 1977 1979a 1979b) bi o i n f or m a t i ona l t he o r y of e f f e c t i ve i m a ge r y, i nc l ud i ng s pe c i f i c de t a i l s of s t i m ul us r e s pons e a nd m e a ni ng p r opos i t i ons a s r e l a t e d t o bot h t he i ndi vi dua l s i nge r a nd t he c ha r a c t e r be i ng po r t r a ye d. W hat I m age r y C har ac t e r i s t i c s V oc al i s t s U s e d I m a ge r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s r e pr e s e nt e d qua l i t i e s of s e ns e pe r s pe c t i ve a bi l i t y de l i be r a t i on a nd di r e c t i on, a nd a m ount a nd dur a t i o n. T he s e voc a l i s t s r e s pons e s r e f l e c t e d m a ny s i m i l a r i t i e s of a t hl e t e s a nd da nc e r s us e of s e ns e i m a ge r y a nd ge ne r a l a bi l i t i e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ; N or di n & C um m i n g, 2005; W hi t e & H a r dy 1995) M unr oe a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2000) c a t e gor i z e d s e ns e i m a ge r y a s i m a ge r y t ype s H ow e ve r t he di s t i nc t i on w a s m a de be t w e e n s pe c i f i c c ont e nt c a t e gor i e s of i m a ge r y ( a s de t a i l e d a bove ) a nd f unc t i on i n t he s ubs e que nt da nc e i m a ge r y i nve s t i g a t i on of N o r di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005 )

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261 T he s e i nve s t i ga t or s r e l e ga t e d s e ns e i m a ge r y a s a c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of i m a ge r y a nd m or e a ve hi c l e by w hi c h pe r f or m e r s e xpe r i e nc e d c e r t a i n i m a ge s w hi c h m or e c l os e l y r e pr e s e nt e d t he f i ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy. Se ns e s T he r e s ul t s of t he s e s i nge r s r a nki ng of t he i r s e ns e i m a ge r y pr a c t i c e s ( f r om hi ghe s t t o l ow e s t ) w e r e vi s ua l i m a ge r y a udi t or y i m a ge r y a nd ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y, w hi c h a c c ur a t e l y r e f l e c t e d B e t t s ( 1909) r e s ul t s ga t he r e d e xa c t l y one hundr e d ye a r s a go i n hi s vi vi dne s s s t udi e s of m us i c i a ns ( e g 93% v i s i on, 88% s ound, a nd 83% ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y) O t he r m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s w e r e r e por t e d t o us e t he s a m e t hr e e s e ns e m oda l i t i e s i n t he i r pr of e s s i on ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1 993; H o l m e s 2005; M oye r 1992; R os s 1985; T r us he i m 1987 ) H ow e ve r C a r t e r s ( 1993 ) r a nki n g di f f e r e d i n t ha t e l i t e s i nge r s us e ki ne s t he t i c f ol l ow e d by a ur a l t he n vi s ua l s e ns e i m a ge r y. T he us e of t he s e t hr e e m a i n s e ns e s w e r e a l s o di s c us s e d i n S e a s hor e ( 1938/ 1967 ) a nd F a r ns w or t h ( 1958 ) w ho r e c ogni z e d t ha t m us i c i a ns e xpe r i e nc e d ki ne s t he t i c a nd vi s ua l i m a ge s i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h a udi t or y i m a ge r y A t hl e t e s ha ve a c know l e dge d t he r e c i pr oc a l na t ur e of ki ne s t he t i c a nd vi s ua l i m a ge r y i nt e r s pe r s e d w i t h a udi t o r y e nvi r on m e nt a l a nd s por t s pe c i f i c i m a ge s i nc l udi ng ol f a c t or y, gus t a t or y ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ; S a l m on e t a l 1994) a nd t a c t i l e s e ns e s ( V e a l e y & G r e e nl e a f 2006) S i m i l a r t o da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) s i nge r s a udi t or y a bi l i t i e s w e r e c e nt e r e d on m us i c a l e l e m e nt s r a t he r t ha n e nvi r onm e nt a l s ound i m a ge s a s w a s f ound i n a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) V oc a l i s t s i n t hi s s t udy i nc l ude d t ouc h a nd t o a l e s s e r e xt e nt s m e l l a nd t a s t e t he r e por t s o f w hi c h a ppe a r e d pr i m a r i l y w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho e nj oye d c ooki ng. T he us e o f t he s e t hr e e s e ns e s w a s a l s o l i m i t e d t o t h e di c t a t e s of t he t e xt a nd c ha r a c t e r o f t he s ong T he i nc l us i on of a l l t he s e va r i e d s e ns e s or w ha t V e a l e y

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262 a nd G r e e nl e a f ( 2006) t e r m e d t he pol y s e ns or y e xpe r i e nc e s e r ve d t o s t r e ngt he n t he r e c om m e nda t i on t ha t a t hl e t e s ( a nd pe r f or m e r s ) us e a s m a ny s e ns e m od a l i t i e s a s pos s i bl e i n t he i r i m a ge r y t o i nc r e a s e e f f e c t i ve ne s s ( M or a n, 2004; M or r i s e t a l 2005; M ur phy e t a l 2008; V e a l e y & G r e e nl e a f 2001) T he di f f e r e nc e i n t e r m i nol ogy be t w e e n t he s e ns e s of t ouc h o r t a c t i l e a nd ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng w a s t he s our c e of s om e c onf us i on f or s e ve n of t he s e s i nge r s W he n a s ke d t o r a t e t he i r t hr e e p r i m a r y s e ns e s i n i m a ge r y, m a ny i nc l ude d t ouc h H ow e ve r w he n t he de f i ni t i ons of bot h t a c t i l e a nd ki ne s t he t i c s e ns e s w e r e gi ve n, t he y a l l c ha nge d t he i r a ns w e r s t o ki ne s t he s i a F r om s ubs e que nt c onve r s a t i ons w i t h voc a l s i nge r s a nd p r of e s s or s t he t e r m ki ne s t he s i a w a s not a s c om m on i n voi c e t r a i ni ng a s t ouc h o r t a c t i l e i n r e f e r r i ng t o t he f e e l i ng i n t he body ( W a r e 1998 ) T a c t i l e i m a ge r y w a s not i nc l ude d i n t he f our W s f r a m e w or k f or a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) bu t t o uc h di d e m e r ge i n da nc e r s i m a ge r y ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) B r a s s pr of e s s i ona l s i n T r us he i m s ( 1987) s t udy di d e m pl oy t a c t i l e i m a ge r y t o a m ode r a t e de gr e e w hi c h w a s r e l a t e d t o m a ni pul a t i on of t he i r i ns t r um e nt s T hi s di f f e r e nc e i n us e of t a c t i l e a nd ki ne s t he t i c t e r m s s houl d be c ons i de r e d f or a ny r e f e r e nc e t o bodi l y f e e l i ng c onc e r ni ng s e ns e i m a ge r y us e by s i nge r s a nd pos s i bl y i n ot he r m us i c i a ns a s w e l l P e r s pe c t i v e T he us e of pe r s pe c t i ve i n i m a ge r y c onne c t e d s i nge r s e m pl oym e nt of t he vi s ua l s e ns e w i t h t he i r p r e f e r e nc e a nd a bi l i t y V oc a l i s t s pr i m a r i l y us e d i nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve be l i e vi ng i t t o be t he m os t va l ua bl e a s ha d be e n r e por t e d i n s por t s t udi e s ( e g. L a ne 1980; M a hone y & A ve ne r 1977; R ot e l l a e t a l 1980 ) I m a ge r y i n i n t e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve w a s he l pf ul f or unde r s t a ndi ng t he f e e l i ng of a c t ua l l y pe r f or m i ng, w hi c h s uppor t e d f i ndi ngs t ha t i nt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve w a s m or e hi ghl y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m ot or

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263 m ove m e nt t ha n e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve ( H a l e 1992; H a r r i s & R obi ns on, 1986 ) S i nge r s us e of e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve a l l ow e d t he pe r f o r m e r t o c o m pr e he nd t he a udi e nc e s vi e w poi nt a s a l s o r e por t e d by da nc e r s ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) H ow e ve r U nge r l e i de r a nd G ol di ng ( 1991) a nd H ol m e s a nd C ol l i ns ( 2002) f o und t ha t m o r e s uc c e s s f ul a t hl e t e s us e d e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve E a r l i e r s t udi e s ha d r e ve a l e d n o s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l i m a ge r y ( B a r ne s 1982; H i ghl e n & B e nne t t 1979; M um f or d & H a l l 1985 ) M or e r e c e nt l y s por t r e s e a r c he r s ( H a r dy, 1997; M or a n 2004: W hi t e & H a r dy 1995) ha ve a r gue d t ha t i m a ge r y p e r s pe c t i ve pr e f e r e nc e s r e l i e d on t he ne e ds of t he i ndi vi dua l s a nd t ype of s por t s i n w hi c h t he y pe r f o r m e d. A n i nt e r na l vi e w poi nt w a s f ound t o be m o r e us e f ul f or pe r c e pt i on i n e xe c ut i on a nd e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve w a s us e d m or e f or s ki l l s i nvol vi ng f or m ( H a r dy 1997) F i ve s i nge r s vi s ua l i z e d e xt e r na l l y, a nd s om e s w i t c he d be t w e e n i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l a s w a s pr e f e r r e d by s om e a t hl e t e s ( G oul d, W e i nbe r g, & J a c ks on, 19 80; J ow dy, M ur phy, & D ur t s c hi 1989) O ne of t he t e nor s i n t hi s s t udy, a s w e l l a s a s i nge r i n B e l l on s ( 2006 ) s t udy, t hought t ha t us i ng bo t h pe r s pe c t i ve s w e r e r e qui r e d i n de t e r m i ni ng t he s uc c e s s of t he out c om e B ot h e xe c ut i on a nd f or m w e r e i nc o r por a t e d i n voc a l pe r f or m a nc e i m a ge r y s t r e ngt he ni ng t he a r gum e nt f or us i ng e a c h pe r s pe c t i ve a ppr opr i a t e l y f or t he s pe c i f i c ne e ds of t he pe r f o r m e r s a s pr e vi ous l y a dvoc a t e d ( e g. C a l dw e l l & W a l l 2001; E m m ons & T hom a s 1998; H ol m e s & C ol l i ns 2002 ) A n une xpe c t e d f i ndi ng t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he s e s i nge r s i n t e r vi e w s w a s t he i s s ue of pe r s pe c t i ve i n a udi t o r y i m a ge r y of m us i c a l s ounds P r e vi ous l y, pe r s pe c t i ve ha d onl y be e n c ons i de r e d t o be a qua l i t y of vi s ua l i m a ge r y i n s t udi e s of a t hl e t e s ( H a l e 1982; H a r dy & C a l l ow 1999; M unr oe e t a l 200 0; W hi t e & H a r dy, 19 95 ) a nd da nc e r s ( N o r di n

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264 & C um m i ng, 2005) S i nge r s r e por t e d he a r i ng t he i r ow n voc a l s ounds i nt e r na l l y e s pe c i a l l y w he n i t w a s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ngs T he y a l s o de s c r i be d m e nt a l l y he a r i ng t he m s e l ve s f r om a n e xt e r na l pe r s pe c t i ve a s i n l i s t e ni ng t o t he m s e l ve s s i ngi ng on s t a ge f r om t he a udi e nc e s poi nt of vi e w A s i nge r i m a gi ni ng a not he r voc a l i s t e xe c ut i ng a s ong, a s i n m ode l i ng c oul d be c ons i de r e d e xt e r na l a udi t or y i m a ge r y a s oppos e d t o w he n t he s i nge r i m a gi ne d be i ng i n t he a c t of pr oduc i ng v oc a l s ound. B a ndur a ( 1977 ) a r gue d t ha t w he n i ndi vi dua l s i nt e r na l i z e d t he m ode l e d be h a vi or a s t he i r ow n, pe r f or m a nc e o f t he de s i r e d be ha vi or w a s e nha nc e d. F ur t he r m or e t he i nt e r na l he a r i ng o f i ns t r um e nt a l a c c om pa ni m e nt e s pe c i a l l y dur i ng m e nt a l r e he a r s a l i m pl i e d t ha t i t w a s a n e xt e r na l e m a na t i on of m us i c a l s ounds out s i de of t he m s e l ve s T hi s i s di s t i nc t l y a n e xt e r na l he a r i ng pe r s pe c t i ve s i nc e ot he r pe opl e pl a ye d t he s e i ns t r u m e nt s a nd t he s e w e r e not voc a l s ounds e xpe r i e nc e d i nt e r na l l y by a s i nge r V oc a l i s t s i m a g i ni ng t he m s e l ve s s i ngi ng a r i a s w hi l e i nt e r na l l y he a r i ng i ns t r um e nt a l a c c om pa ni m e nt s c oul d be c ons i de r e d t o e m pl oy bot h i nt e r na l a nd e xt e r na l a udi t or y pe r s pe c t i ve M or e i n ve s t i ga t i on i s ne e de d t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t s of e a c h pe r s pe c t i ve on pe r f or m a nc e out c om e a nd i t s c or r e l a t i on w i t h a bi l i t y a nd e xpe r t i s e of t he pe r f or m e r I m age r y abi l i t y I m a ge r y a bi l i t i e s e nc om pa s s e d t he de gr e e of a c c ur a c y, vi vi dne s s de l i be r a t i on, a bi l i t y t o m a ni pul a t e a nd c ont r ol i m a ge s a nd a m ount a nd dur a t i on o f i m a ge r y e nga ge m e nt T he pa r t i c i pa nt s a s s e s s m e nt of t he i r i ndi v i dua l i m a ge r y a bi l i t i e s w a s ge ne r a l l y f a vor a bl e i n a c c ur a c y, vi vi dne s s a n d be i ng a bl e t o m a ni pul a t e t he i m a ge s E l i t e a t hl e t e s w e r e a l s o f ound t o ha ve c l e a r a nd a c c ur a t e i m a ge s ( B a r r & H a l l 1992; I s a a c 1992; O r l i c k & P a r r i ngt on 1988; S a l m on e t a l 1994 ; U nge r l e i de r & G ol d i ng, 1991; V a doc z e t a l 1997 ) S om e s i nge r s s a i d t he i r i m a ge s w e r e e xt r e m e l y v i vi d a nd

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265 a c c ur a t e w hi l e a f e w ot he r s f e l t t he y ne e de d i m pr o ve m e nt ( e g N i c hol a s r e por t e d t ha t s om e of hi s i m a ge s w e r e ve i l e d ) A t hl e t e s a l s o r e por t e d t ha t t he i r i m a ge s w e r e c ont r ol l a bl e ( W e i nbe r g & G oul d 2003; V e a l e y & W a l t e r 1993) how e ve r M unr oe a nd ot he r s ( 2000) a r gue d t ha t t hi s w a s not i m po r t a nt i n t he a t hl e t e s t he y i nt e r vi e w e d. M or e e xpe r i e nc e d s i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy s a i d t ha t t he i m a g e s t he y us e d w e r e a c c ur a t e s i nc e t he y ha d be c om e a c c us t om e d t o t he m T he f i ndi ngs s ug ge s t e d t ha t s i nge r s w e r e a w a r e t ha t t he y c oul d i m pr ove t he i r i m a ge r y a c c ur a c y, vi vi dn e s s a nd l e a r n t o c ont r ol t he i r i m a ge s m or e di r e c t l y A t h l e t e s ha d i m pr ove d t he i r i m a ge r y a bi l i t i e s a f t e r a 16 w e e k t r a i ni ng pr ogr a m ( R odge r s e t a l 1991 ) s ugge s t i ng t ha t t he s e a bi l i t i e s w e r e m odi f i a bl e a nd t r a i na bl e M or e r e s e a r c h r e ga r di ng i m a ge r y a bi l i t y pe r t a i ni ng t o m us i c i a ns i s ne e de d. I t w a s i nt e r e s t i ng t o not e t ha t t hos e s i nge r s i n t he s t udy t ha t r e por t e d hi gh s e l f a s s e s s m e nt i n i m a ge r y a bi l i t y, a c c ur a c y, vi v i dne s s a nd de t a i l a l s o s ha r e d a num be r o f i ns t a nc e s i n w hi c h t he i r i m a ge s w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s uc c e s s f ul out c om e s s uc h a s ge t t i ng a n a w a r d or a r ol e i n a n ope r a F r a nc i ne a nd I va n i m a gi ne d a l l t he a s pe c t s of s i ngi ng i n a n a udi t i on a nd t he s pe c i f i c pa r t t he y i nt e nde d t o pe r f or m a nd w e r e s ubs e que nt l y gi ve n t he a ppoi nt m e nt I va n e ve n dr e w h i m s e l f w i t h t he a w a r d i n ha nd O t he r s i nge r s w hos e i m a ge r y w a s l e s s a c c ur a t e or de t a i l e d of t e n r e f l e c t e d t ha t t he y w a nt e d t o i nc r e a s e t he i r pr a c t i c e a nd ge t be t t e r a t t he de t a i l s T hos e pa r t i c i p a nt s w ho de vot e d a s i gni f i c a nt a m ount of t i m e i n de ve l opi ng t he i r i m a ge r y us e d i t m or e a nd r e por t e d m or e s uc c e s s f ul r e s ul t s a s w a s r e f l e c t e d i n i m a ge r y of a t hl e t e s ( V a doc z e t a l 1997) I t w a s pr e vi ous l y r e po r t e d i n s por t i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h t ha t m or e pr of i c i e nt i m a ge r s e nj oye d m or e be ne f i t s i n pe r f or m a nc e a nd s ki l l l e a r ni ng ( G os s e t a l 1986; I s a a c 1992) S i m i l a r l y a t hl e t e s r e por t e d t ha t t he m or e e xpe r i e nc e t he y ga i ne d i n i m a ge r y, t he hi ghe r t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of

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266 t ha t i m a ge r y be c a m e ( H a l l e t a l 1990; V a doc z e t a l 1997 ; V e a l e y, 1986; W e i nbe r g & G oul d, 2003) M a r t i n a nd ot he r s ( 1999) de t e r m i ne d t ha t t he s e a bi l i t i e s c oul d m ode r a t e t he va r i ous out c om e s t o w hi c h i m a ge r y ha d be e n a ppl i e d. I m a ge r y di r e c t i on i n a s s e s s i ng w he t he r i m a ge s f a c i l i t a t e d or de bi l i t a t e d pe r f or m a nc e a s de f i ne d by S hor t a nd ot he r s ( 2004 ) w a s a l s o a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy G e ne r a l l y, s i nge r s r e por t e d t ha t t he i r i m a ge s w e r e pos i t i ve a nd he l pf ul a s f ound i n s por t s i nve s t i ga t i ons ( G oul d e t a l 1980; H a l l e t a l 1990 ; P ow e l l 1973; S hor t e t a l 2004 ; W ool f ol k, P a r r i s h e t a l 1985 ) M os t pa r t i c i pa nt s pos i t i ve l y i m a gi ne d t he out c om e s of t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e s w hi c h t he y r e por t e d yi e l de d be ne f i c i a l e f f e c t s S e ve r a l s i nge r s gr a ppl e d w i t h ne ga t i ve i m a ge r y pr i or t o pe r f or m a n c e a nd f e l t t he i r c onf i de nc e a nd e xe c ut i on w a s i n da nge r of de t e r i or a t i ng T hi s s up por t e d t he p r e vi ous f i ndi ngs t ha t pos i t i ve l y i m a gi ni ng t he d e s i r e d out c om e i m p r ove d a t hl e t i c a nd a r t i s t i c pe r f o r m a nc e pa r t i c ul a r l y dur i ng c om pe t i t i on w hi l e ne ga t i ve l y i m a gi ni ng t he t a s k s e e m e d t o be de t r i m e nt a l ( M unr oe e t a l 2000; W ool f ol k M ur p hy e t a l 1985 ) S om e pa r t i c i pa nt s i nc l ude d t he c a ve a t t ha t t he de gr e e t o w hi c h i m a ge r y w a s he l pf ul o r hu r t f ul de pe nde d on t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of t he i m a ge t o t he t a s k, w hi c h w a s de s c r i be d i n pe r f o r m a nc e s t udi e s of m us i c i a ns ( E m m ons & T hom a s 1999; R i s t a d, 1 982) a nd a t hl e t e s ( M ur phy & M a r t i n 2002) I f t he i m a ge w a s de bi l i t a t i ng i n s om e w a y, t he y s i m pl y a dj us t e d t he i m a ge S i nge r s i m a ge r y of t he i r pe r f or m a nc e s w a s ge ne r a l l y c ont r ol l e d a nd di r e c t e d t o a pos i t i ve a nd de s i r a bl e out c om e T he s e r a nge d on a c ont i nuum of s pont a ne ous l y a r i s i ng i m a ge s t o t hos e f ul l y c ont r ol l e d, a s de s c r i be d i n M ur phy a nd ot he r s ( 2008) P a r t i c i pa nt s w ho e nj oye d gr e a t e r a bi l i t y t o c ont r ol t he i r i m a ge s r e por t e d g r e a t e r pos i t i ve e f f e c t s on

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267 t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e s w hi c h s uppor t e d t he f i ndi n gs o f a t hl e t e s i m a ge r y us e ( C l a r k, 1960; I s a a c 1992; M a c ka y, 198 1) A m ount dur a t i on, a nd s pe e d of i m a ge e nga ge m e nt va r i e d w i de l y a m ong t he voc a l i s t s I m a ge r y s e s s i ons l a s t e d be t w e e n f l e e t i ng s e c onds a nd a l l ni ght m e nt a l r e he a r s a l s F r e que nc y of i m a ge r y p r a c t i c e va r i e d b y i ndi vi dua l m e nt a l a s w e l l a s voc a l e xpe r i e nc e T hos e s i nge r s w ho ha d l e a r ne d t o us e i m a ge r y e a r l y i n l i f e m or e r e gul a r l y e m pl oye d i m a ge r y i n t he i r pr of e s s i ona l pur s ui t s P r of e s s i ona l s i nge r s a nd i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s r e por t e d us i ng a s i gni f i c a nt por t i on of t he i r pr a c t i c e t i m e i n m e nt a l i m a ge r y ( B e l l on, 200 6; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) P a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d t he i r i m a ge s a s bot h r e pl i c a t i ng a nd e xc e e di ng t he a c t ua l e xe c ut i on t i m e s e s pe c i a l l y w i t h r e ga r d t o s e c ur i ng m e m or i z a t i on of t he m a t e r i a l T hi s s uppor t e d t he f i ndi ngs of ot he r m us i c i a ns c om pr e s s e d m e nt a l r e he a r s a l ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) w hi l e da nc e r s e nga ge d i n s l ow a c t ua l a nd a c c e l e r a t e d i m a ge r y s pe e ds t o a i d m e m or y f or r out i ne s a nd s e que nc e s ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005 ) S i nge r s br i e f l y m e nt i one d m e nt a l l y s l ow i ng dow n i m a ge s w he n t he y w e r e e nga ge d i n t he e a r l y s t a ge s of l e a r ni ng a s ki l l pi e c e or s e c t i on o f m us i c H ow e ve r m os t i m a ge r y t ook pl a c e i n r e a l t i m e w hi c h c oul d be a t t r i but e d t o t he t e m po r a l na t ur e of t he m us i c a l a c t i vi t y a nd t he i m por t a nc e of m a t c hi ng t he s pe e d of i m a ge r y t o t he a c t ua l t i m i ng of t he m ot or s ki l l a s ne ur a l e qui va l e nt s ( H ol m e s & C ol l i ns 2002 ) S por t r e s e a r c he r s ge ne r a l l y ha ve a gr e e d t ha t r e a l t i m e w a s s upe r i or t o s l ow m ot i on i m a ge r y ( H ol m e s & C ol l i ns 2002; G oul d e t a l 2002; M or a n, 2004; R e e d, 2002)

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268 W hy V oc al i s t s U s e d i m age r y T he pur pos e s f or w hi c h s ol o p r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s us e d i m a ge r y w e r e s i m i l a r t o t hos e r e a s ons i n s por t a nd da nc e w hi l e ot he r t he m e s e m e r ge d f r om t he da t a T he c ogni t i ve a nd m ot i va t i ona l r e a s ons a s f ound i n a t h l e t i c s ( P a i vi o, 1 985 ; H a l l e t a l 1998 ; M unr oe e t a l 2000) w e r e s uppor t e d a s w a s t he a r t i s t i c a nd he a l i ng pur pos e s a s r e ve a l e d i n i m a ge r y o f da nc e r s ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) W i t hi n t he s e c a t e gor i e s a ddi t i ona l r e a s ons e m e r ge d f or s i nge r s w hi c h w e r e s pe c i f i c t o t he i r p r of e s s i on. C ogni t i v e r e as ons T he s e voc a l i s t s us e d i m a ge r y f or c ogni t i ve s pe c i f i c ( C S ) pur pos e s i n m a ny a s pe c t s of voc a l pr oduc t i on i nc l udi ng t e c hni que e f f or t s t o s i ng e a s i l y a nd c om f or t a bl y, s uppor t i ng t he br e a t h a nd us i ng t he body a nd voc a l m e c ha ni s m t o pr oduc e t he de s i r e d s ounds w hi c h w a s a l s o f ound i n ot he r m us i c i a ns e xpe r i e nc e s ( C a r t e r 1993 ; T r us he i m 198 7) I m a ge r y f unc t i ons of bui l di ng a nd s t r e ngt he ni ng s ki l l ha ve be e n r e c ogni z e d i n m a ny s t udi e s ( e g. F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983; D r i s ke l l e t a l 19 94; H a l l e t a l 1990; H a l l e t a l 1994; M a hone y & A v e ne r 1977 ) P ur pos e s of us i ng i m a ge r y f or s ki l l l e a r ni ng a nd t e c hni que de ve l opm e nt di f f e r e d i n voc a l i s t s ba s e d s om e w ha t on t e c hni c a l e xpe r t i s e s pe c i f i c pe r f o r m i ng r e qui r e m e nt s ye a r s of s i ngi ng e xpe r i e nc e a nd l e ve l of i m a ge r y a bi l i t y ( D r i s ke l l e t a l 1994 ) F or e xa m pl e younge r s i nge r s r e por t e d us i ng m or e i m a ge r y t o ga i n br e a t h s uppor t a nd l i f t i ng t he pa l a t e t ha n m or e m a t u r e s i nge r s w ho, i t c oul d be a s s um e d, ha d a l r e a dy m a de t he s e t e c hni que s a i nt r i ns i c pa r t of t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e be ha vi or T hi s l e nt s uppor t t o t h e a r gum e nt of F i e l ds ( 19 72) a nd M a r ks ( 1977) t ha t c ons c i ous us e of i m a ge r y w a s us e d t o r e nde r m ot or a c t i on a ut om a t i c I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t t he m or e e xpe r i e nc e d s i nge r s no l ong e r ne e de d t o us e i m a ge r y f or a c qui r i ng

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269 s ki l l s t ha t t he y ha d a l r e a dy i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he i r pe r f or m a nc e be ha vi or w hi c h s uppor t s t he H ol m e s a nd C ol l i ns ( 2002) a s s e r t i on t ha t s ki l l i m a ge r y us e s c ha nge d ove r t i m e A l l s i nge r s i n t he s t udy r e por t e d m e nt a l l y p r a c t i c i ng pe r f or m a nc e s pa r t i c ul a r l y a f t e r l e a r ni ng t he r ud i m e nt s of t he m us i c a l c om pos i t i on. S i nge r s c om bi ne d m e nt a l w i t h phys i c a l pr a c t i c e i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e T hi s s uppor t e d t he f i ndi ng t ha t c om bi ni ng m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l p r a c t i c e f a c i l i t a t e d pe r f or m a nc e s uc c e s s i n s t udi e s s uc h a s pi a no ( C of f m a n 1987 1990; H i ghbe n & P a l m e r 2 004; L i m & L i ppm a n, 1991; L o 1976; R ubi n R a bs on, 1941) voi c e T he i l e r & L i ppm a n 1 995) va r i ous i ns t r um e nt s ( C of f m a n, 1987; R os s 1985a 1985b; T he i l e r & L i ppm a n 19 95) a nd da nc e ( H a n r a ha n, T e t r e a u & S a r r a z i n, 1995 ) S i m i l a r f i ndi ngs w e r e r e po r t e d i n t he s por t s l i t e r a t ur e ( D r i s ke l l e t a l 1994; F e l t z & L a nde r s 1983; H i ns ha w 1991; R i c ha r ds on, 1967a 1967b) S i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy us e d t he c ogni t i ve ge ne r a l ( C G ) f unc t i ons o f i m a ge r y s t r a t e gy a nd s e que nc e i n w a ys t ha t w e r e s om e w ha t di f f e r e nt t ha n w ha t ha d be e n de s c r i be d i n s por t s T hos e s i nge r s w ho ha d pl a nne d a nd pe r f o r m e d m a ny r e c i t a l s r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y t o p r a c t i c e s t r a t e gy a nd s e que nc e a n d t o c a r e f ul l y pr oj e c t t he pr ope r a r t i s t i c e xpe r i e nc e t he y i nt e nde d t o pr ovi de f or t he i r a udi e nc e s V oc a l i s t s i n t hi s s t udy a nd i n C a r t e r ( 1993) a nd i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s i n T r us he i m ( 1993) r e por t e d s i m i l a r us e s of i m a ge r y, pa r t i c ul a r l y t o e xe c ut e c onduc t or s di r e c t i ons a nd pl a n r out i ne s U s i ng i m a g e r y i n pl a nni ng a nd s t r a t e gi z i ng w a s a l s o f ound i n a t hl e t e s ( F e nke r & L a m bi ot t e 1987; M a c I nt yr e & M or a n, 1996; M unr oe e t a l 2000; M ur phy e t a l 2008; R ot e l l a e t a l 1980; R us ha l l 1988) a nd da nc e r s ( F i s h e t a l 2004) V oc a l i s t s w e r e c onc e r ne d m or e w i t h f i ndi ng s t r a t e gi e s t o c ont e nd w i t h di f f i c ul t i e s i n pe r f or m a nc e a s ha d be e n f ound i n ot he r m us i c i a ns ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) gym na s t s a nd f i gu r e s ka t e r s

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270 ( W hi t e & H a r dy 1998 ) O pe r a t i c s i nge r s a l s o m e n t i one d us i ng m or e i m a ge r y f or s e que nc i ng a nd s t a gi ng t ha n c onc e r t voc a l i s t s w ho s om e t i m e s c r e a t e d i ndi vi dua l i z e d s t or i e s t o c onne c t t he i r r e c i t a l s ongs S i nge r s i n C a r t e r ( 1993 ) a nd or c he s t r a l br a s s pr of e s s i ona l s i n T r us he i m ( 1987) a l s o i m a gi ne d s t or i e s i n t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e s T hos e s i nge r s pr i m a r i l y i nvol ve d i n ope r a t i c pe r f or m a nc e i n t hi s s t udy us e d i m a ge r y of s e que nc i ng m e m or i z a t i on of a s ong o r r ol e D a nc e r s l i ke a t hl e t e s i n a r t i s t i c s por t s a l s o us e d i m a ge r y i n s e que nc i ng t o a s s i s t i n m e m or i z a t i on ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) T he s e f i ndi ngs s uppor t e d S a c ke t t s ( 1934 1 935) s ym bol i c l e a r ni ng t he or y of c r e a t i ng r e pr e s e nt a t i ons f or m e m or y t a s k. S i nge r s c ons t a nt i nt e r a c t i on w i t h m e m or i z a t i on of t e xt a l s o p r ovi de d s om e s uppor t f or P a i vi o s ( 1986) dua l c odi ng s i nc e t hi s t ype of s i ngi ng i n vol ve d bot h pi c t or i a l a nd ve r ba l i m a ge r y. M ot i v at i onal r e as ons P a r t i c i pa nt s us e d e xt e ns i ve i m a ge r y f or t he m ot i va t i on s pe c i f i c ( M S ) f unc t i on of goa l i de nt i f i c a t i on, s e t t i ng, a nd a t t a i nm e nt w hi c h r e f l e c t e d f i ndi ngs i n s t udi e s i n i m a ge r y i n s por t ( H a l l e t a l 1998; M unr oe e t a l 2000) a nd da nc e ( F i s h e t a l 2004; M ons m a & O ve r by 2004 ; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005 ) T he s e s i nge r s r e s pons e s r e f l e c t e d goa l m ot i va t i on, w hi c h va r i e d by t he t ype o f r e pe r t oi r e t he y w e r e s i ngi ng, ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e a s pr of e s s i ona l s pe r c e i ve d l e ve l of m a s t e r ( L a c a i l l e e t a l 2005) a nd s e l f e f f i c a c y be l i e f s ( B a ndur a 1982) V oc a l i s t s c om bi ne d out c om e a nd pr oc e s s goa l s i n i m a gi ni ng a va r i e t y of de s i r e d r e s ul t s f r om e xe c ut i ng t he i de a l s ounds t he y i nt e nde d t o p r oduc e t o a s pi r i ng t o s e c ur e a di f f i c ul t ope r a t i c r ol e P a r t i c i pa nt s w ho ha d a hi gh de gr e e of s uc c e s s w i t h goa l i m a ge r y us e d i t m o r e of t e n a nd i n m or e de t a i l pr ovi di ng i nc r e a s e d m ot i va t i on i n t he i r p r of e s s i ona l e nde a vor s S e ve r a l s i nge r s m e nt i one d t he i r goa l s ha d c ha nge d ove r t he ye a r s pa r t i c ul a r l y w i t h r e ga r d t o t he

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271 de ve l opm e nt of t he i r voc a l t e c hni que a nd a s a r e s u l t of a c hi e vi ng pa s t goa l s T hi s s e e m e d t o i m pl y t ha t s i nge r s ha d a f a i r l y hi gh r e ga r d f or t h e e f f e c t s t he i r i m a ge r y ha d on t he i r pr of e s s i ona l e f f or t s R e ga r dl e s s of t he s i nge r s va r yi ng l e ve l s of us e a nd unde r s t a ndi ng of i t s e f f e c t s goa l i m a ge r y f o r m o t i va t i ona l r e a s ons s e e m e d t o be a n i n t r i ns i c pa r t of s i nge r s e f f or t s t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e T he m ot i va t i ona l ge ne r a l a r ous a l ( M G A ) i m a ge r y f unc t i on o f m odi f yi ng a r ous a l a nd e ne r gy i n t he s e s i nge r s w a s c l os e l y r e l a t e d t o r e por t s of da nc e r s ( H a nr a ha n & V e r ge e r 2000; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005; V e r ge e r & H a n r a ha n, 1998 ) a t hl e t e s ( H a l l e t a l 1998 ; M unr oe e t a l 2000; P a i vi o, 1985; W hi t e & H a r dy 1998 ) a nd ot he r m us i c i a ns ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) S i n ge r s e f f or t s of us i ng i m a ge r y t o m a i nt a i n a ppr opr i a t e l e ve l s of a r ous a l t o a c hi e ve o pt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e va r i e d by pa r t i c i pa nt s i ndi vi dua l ne e ds a nd s pe c i f i c pe r f or m a nc e r e qui r e m e nt s T he m a j or i t y of t he r e s pons e s f oc us e d on e f f o r t s t o c a l m s t a t e s of a r ous a l pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he younge r l e s s e xpe r i e nc e d s i nge r s N i ne s i nge r s a dj us t e d t he i r ne r vous f e e l i ngs by us i ng i m a ge r y t o f oc us on br e a t h m a na ge m e nt w hi c h w a s s i m i l a r t o ot he r m us i c i a ns i m a ge r y ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993 ; T r us he i m 1987) e s pe c i a l l y i n l ow e r i ng t he i r he a r t r a t e s a s f ound i n a t hl e t e s ( H e c ke r & K a c z or 1988) S i nge r s r e por t e d us i ng a l t e r na t i ve r e l a xa t i on t e c hni que s s uc h a s m e di t a t i o n a nd c r e a t i ve vi s ua l i z a t i on ( B e ns on, 1987; G a w a i n, 1978 2002; H a r r i s 1986) O t he r m e t hods of us i ng i m a ge r y t o c a l m ne r ve s i nc l ude d pr i or pr e pa r a t i on f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on. T e n pa r t i c i pa nt s m e nt i one d t he i m por t a nc e of t hor ough pr i o r p r e pa r a t i on a nd t he know l e dge t ha t t he y w e r e f ul l y r e a dy t o pe r f or m w hi c h he l pe d t o a l l e vi a t e t he i r a nxi e t y. M us i c i a ns i n t he s t udi e s of T r us he i m ( 1987 ) C a r t e r ( 1993) a nd B e l l on ( 2006 ) a l s o m e nt i one d t he di r e c t c or r e l a t i on

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272 be t w e e n e xt e ns i ve pr e pa r a t i on a nd l e ve l o f a nxi e t y i n t he i r pe r f or m a nc e s T h i s c or r e s ponde d w i t h t he f i ndi ngs i n F i s h a nd c ol l e a g ue s ( 2004) t ha t da nc e r s us e d c ogni t i ve s pe c i f i c i m a ge r y of s t r e ngt he ni ng s ki l l l e ve l t o a l l e vi a t e a nxi e t y. T hi r t e e n s i nge r s ga ve a c c ount s of f oc us i ng a nd c onc e nt r a t i ng on t he t a s k a t ha nd t o c a l m t he i r ne r ve s w hi c h a l s o s uppor t e d L a nde r s ( 1980 ) a nd M ur phy W ool f ol k, a nd B udne y ( 1988) w ho f ound t ha t f oc us i ng on t a s k r e l e va nt c ue s he l pe d a t hl e t e s a c hi e ve t he pr ope r a r ous a l l e ve l s f or t he a c t i ons t he y pe r f o r m e d. V oc a l i s t s de s c r i be d a c c e pt i ng t he i r ne r vous c ondi t i ons a s a na t ur a l pa r t of be i ng a pe r f or m e r a nd us i ng t hi s e ne r gy t o be ne f i t t he m i n pe r f or m a nc e S i nge r s i n C a r t e r s ( 1993) i nve s t i ga t i on d i s t i ngui s he d be t w e e n t he pos i t i ve f e e l i ngs of a nt i c i pa t i on a nd w or ki ng t e ns i on a nd t he ne ga t i ve unw a nt e d t e ns i o n w i t h w hi c h t he y ha d t o l e a r n t o c ont e nd. P a r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d s pont a ne ous l y a ppe a r i ng ne ga t i ve i m a ge s of de vi l s t ha t s om e t i m e s c a us e d di s t r a c t i on, a nxi e t y, a nd ne r vou s t e ns i on. L e a r ni ng t o r e f r a m e t he s e f e e l i ngs ha d be e n pr e vi ous l y pr o m ot e d i n va r i ous pe r f or m a nc e t e xt s ( e g. D a ym e 2005; E m m ons & T hom a s 1998; G r e e n, 2002; G r e e n & G a l l w a y, 1986; L e ye r l e 1986; R i s t a d, 1982) a s w e l l a s s t udi e s i n da nc e ( F i s h e t a l 2004) a nd s por t ( M unr oe e t a l 2000; V a doc z e t a l 1997) S e ve r a l s i nge r s r e por t e d us e d a s i m i l a r w a ys o f c a l m i ng t he i r f e a r s by va r i ous m e t hods f ound i n ge ne r a l ps yc hol ogy, i nc l udi ng de a l i ng w i t h s t r e s s w i t h s e l f t a l k ( M e i c he nba um 1977, 1985) a nd r e s pons e pr o pos i t i ons a s f ound i n bi o i nf o r m a t i ona l t he or y of L a ng a nd hi s c ol l e a gue s ( L a ng 1977 19 79a 1979b; L a ng, M e l a m e d, & H a r t 1970 ) T hi r t e e n pa r t i c i pa nt s e s pe c i a l l y t hos e w i t h m o r e y e a r s of e xpe r i e nc e de s c r i be d e m pl oyi ng i m a ge r y t o ps yc he t he m s e l ve s up f or pe r f or m a nc e s T r us he i m ( 1987 ) r e por t e d

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273 s i m i l a r r e s pons e s i n hi s ol de r b r a s s pr of e s s i ona l s H i ghe r l e ve l s of e ne r gy w e r e r e qui r e d w he n m or e phys i c a l m ove m e nt s w e r e i nvo l ve d a s i n s por t a nd da nc e ( H a r r i s 1986; L a nde r s 1980; M ur phy e t a l 2008; O r l i c k, 1990; O xe ndi ne 1980; V a doc z e t a l 1997 ) S c hm i dt s ( 1982) t he or y of a t t e nt i on a r ous a l s e t w a s s uppor t e d i n t ha t e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt i de nt i f i e d a nd e m bodi e d t he opt i m a l a r ous a l s t a t e f or e a c h s pe c i f i c pe r f o r m a nc e A c hi e vi ng opt i m a l l e ve l s i n i m a ge r y f or t he gi ve n t a s k s uppor t e d H ol m e s a nd C ol l i ns ( 2002) pos i t i on t ha t i m a ge r y s houl d i nc l ude t he s p e c i f i c a f f e c t i ve r e s pons e s a nd a r ous a l l e ve l s us e d i n t he de s i r e d pe r f or m a nc e M o s t s i nge r s a gr e e d t ha t t he y r e qui r e d a c e r t a i n de gr e e of a r ous a l or c a l m r e a di ne s s w hi c h pr e c l ude d e ne r gy l e ve l s a bove r e l a xa t i on, i n or de r t o s uc c e s s f ul l y pe r f or m T he Y e r ke s D ods on L a w s t a t i ng t ha t t a s ks w i t h m or e c om pl e xi t y or di f f i c ul t y r e qui r e d l ow e r l e ve l s of dr i ve or a r ous a l w a s s uppor t e d ( O xe ndi ne 1980 ) T hi s w e nt c ount e r t o t he a s s e r t i ons of J a c obs on ( 1957) a nd S ui nn s V M B R r e s e a r c h ( 1976, 1980a 1980b 198 0c 1983, 1992) bot h o f w hom m a i nt a i ne d t ha t pr e r e l a xa t i on i m a ge r y f a c i l i t a t e d i t s e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n pe r f or m a nc e M a t c hi ng a r ous a l l e ve l s a nd e m ot i ona l a f f e c t i n i m a ge r y w i t h pr e pa r a t i on a nd e xe c ut i on of pe r f o r m a nc e l e nt s uppor t t o t he f unc t i ona l e qui v a l e nc e t he or y ( H ol m e s & C ol l i ns 2002; J e a nne r od, 1994) M ot i va t i ona l ge ne r a l m a s t e r y ( M G M ) r e a s ons of i m a ge r y us e i n t he s e s i nge r s i nc l ude d t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs o f s e l f c onf i de nc e a nd m a s t e r y. S pe c i f i c a l l y t he f i ndi ngs i nc l ude d ( a ) be i ng m e nt a l l y t ough a nd pos i t i ve ( b ) f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on, ( c ) s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd c onf i de nc e a nd ( d ) m ode l i ng V oc a l i s t s m e nt a l t oughne s s a nd e f f or t s t o be pos i t i ve w a s e xe m pl i f i e d i n t he w a y m a ny of t he m ha ndl e d di s t r a c t i ons a nd r e s ol ve t o p ul l t hr ough di f f i c ul t s i t ua t i ons T he s e

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274 i s s ue s w e r e of t e n c onne c t e d w i t h m a i nt a i ni ng p r op e r a r ous a l l e ve l s pa r t i c ul a r l y j us t pr i or t o pe r f or m a nc e S i nge r s us e d s e l f t a l k t o r e e s t a bl i s h a nd m a i nt a i n f e e l i ngs of h i gh c onf i de nc e a nd be i ng c om pe t e nt t o pe r f o r m ( G a m m a ge H a r dy, & H a l l 2001; H a r dy G a m m a ge & H a l l 2001) N e ga t i ve t hought s t oppi ng m e t hods be i ng pos i t i ve a nd m a i nt a i ni ng pos i t i ve s e l f i m a ge s a nd e xpe c t a t i ons he l pe d t o s t i f l e i nne r j udge s a nd c ount e r a c t ne ga t i ve s e l f c r i t i c i s m t ha t unde r m i ne d c onf i de nc e a nd pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e ( E m m o ns & T hom a s 1998; K ohut 199 2; R i s t a d, 1982) T hi s gr a ppl i ng w i t h s e l f c onf i de nc e w a s r e por t e d i n pa r t i c i pa nt s of a w i de r a nge of pr of e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e a f i ndi ng t ha t s uppor t e d t hos e of ot he r s t udi e s ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) M a ny s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y t o c onf i de nt l y m ot i va t e t he m s e l ve s by pr a c t i c i ng f oc us a nd c onc e nt r a t i on on t he t a s k a t ha nd S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s e ve n m e nt i one d t ha t t he y c onc e nt r a t e d s ol e l y t hos e e l e m e nt s ove r w hi c h t he y ha d c ont r ol a nd w hi c h c oul d r e a di l y c ha nge D e bi l i t a t i ng di s t r a c t i ons de c r e a s e d w he n pe r f or m e r s f oc us e d on t he s pe c i f i c t a s ks of t he pe r f o r m a nc e c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on a nd c om m uni c a t i on w i t h t he a udi e nc e ( C a r t e r 1993 ; T r us he i m 198 7) O r l i c k a nd P a r r i ng t on ( 1988) f ound t ha t O l ym pi a ns be s t f oc us w a s a c hi e ve d by c onc e nt r a t i ng on f a c t or s w i t hi n t he i r c ont r ol F i e l ds ( 1972) f ound t ha t c onc e nt r a t i on l e ve l s a f f e c t e d pe r f or m e r s i nvo l ve m e nt i n t he i r pr e s e nt a t i ons C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi ( 1990) obs e r ve d t ha t s us t a i ne d t a s k i nvol ve m e nt di r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e e xpe r i e nc e P a r t i c i pa nt s r e gul a r l y us e d i m a ge r y t o f e e l hi gh l e v e l s of s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd c onf i de nc e a s a m e t hod of m ot i va t i on i n t he i r p r of e s s i on. I t a ppe a r e d t ha t t he s e voc a l i s t s w e r e w e l l a w a r e t ha t t he i r be l i e f s a nd pa t t e r ns o f s e l f a s s e s s m e nt gr e a t l y a f f e c t e d t he

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275 s uc c e s s of t he i r pe r f or m a nc e s a s s t a t e d i n B a ndur a ( 1997) F u r t he r m o r e s i nge r s w ho ha d e nj oye d s uc c e s s ove r a l onge r pe r i od o f t i m e a l s o h a d i nc r e a s e d s e l f e f f i c a c y c onc e r ni ng t he i r ow n e xpe c t a t i ons t o c ont i nue pe r f o r m i ng t ha n t hos e w i t h l e s s e xpe r i e nc e w hi c h w a s a l s o r e por t e d by o t he r m us i c i a ns ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; a nd T r us he i m 1987) F e e l i ngs a nd i m a ge s of e nj oym e nt m a s t e r y o f t e c h ni que a nd pe r f or m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e s e e m e d t o unde r gi r d how t he s e voc a l i s t s r e ga r de d t h e i r pr of e s s i ona l a bi l i t i e s a nd e f f or t s w hi c h r e f l e c t e d t he i de a s of f e r e d by va r i ous pe da g ogue s ( F i e l ds 1972; S t e dm a n, 1985; V e nna r d, 1971) a nd s por t r e s e a r c he r s ( C a l l ow & H a r dy, 2001; M a r t i n e t a l 1999; M i l l s e t a l 2000 2001 ; M or i t z e t a l 1996; V a d oc z e t a l 1997; V e a l e y, 1986) H i gh s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd s t r ong c on f i de nc e be l i e f s a nd i m a ge s w e r e f a c t or s t ha t di s t i ngui s he d e l i t e f r om l e s s s uc c e s s f ul a t hl e t e s ( G oul d e t a 1981; W ool f ol k, M ur phy e t a l 1985) a nd a l l ow e d f or m or e f a c i l i t y i n de ve l opi ng m a i nt a i ni n g, a nd r e ga i ni ng c onf i de nc e ( M or i t z e t a l 1996 ) M a ny of t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d m ode l i ng e xp e r t pe r f o r m e r s a s a m e t hod of m ot i va t i on e s pe c i a l l y i n e s t a bl i s hi ng f e e l i ngs of s e l f e f f i c a c y ( B a ndur a & J e f f e r i e s 1973) S i nge r s de s c r i be d t h e de ve l opm e nt of m ode l i ng f r o m obs e r vi ng e l i t e voc a l i s t s t o i m a gi ni ng t he m s e l ve s a s t hough t he y pe r f or m e d a s e xpe r t s t o f i na l l y e m bodyi ng t he s e de s i r e d s ki l l s a s a n a ut om a t i c ha bi t s a s i l l us t r a t e d i n B a ndur a ( 1977 1986 1997) a nd F i e l ds ( 1972) F e l t z ( 1 984) ha d m a i nt a i ne d t ha t m e nt a l r e he a r s a l of s uc c e s s f ul l y pe r f or m i ng a t a s k s e r ve d t o m ot i va t e a nd s t r e ngt he n a t hl e t e s be l i e f s i n t he i r a bi l i t i e s A r t i s t i c r e as ons I n c r e a t i ng t he f our W s i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k f o r da nc e r s N o r di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005 ) i nc l ude d t he c ogni t i ve a nd m ot i va t i ona l r e a s ons ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) a nd i de nt i f i e d t w o ne w c a t e gor i e s of i m a ge r y r e a s ons : a r t i s t i c a nd he a l i ng.

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276 V oc a l i s t s i m a ge r y f or a r t i s t i c pu r pos e s di f f e r e d f r om da nc e r s due t o t he na t ur e of t he a r t a nd i nc l ude d voc a l qua l i t y a ppe a r a nc e c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt a nd c om m uni c a t i on w i t h t he a udi e nc e W hi l e t he s e c a t e gor i e s ha d be e n di s c us s e d pr e vi ous l y i n i m a ge r y t ype s t he y a r e a ddr e s s e d he r e be c a us e s i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y f or ot he r pur pos e s a s w e l l a s t he s pe c i f i c i m a ge i t s e l f A s r e s e a r c he r s ha d e s t a bl i s he d, one i m a ge c oul d be us e d f or s e ve r a l r e a s ons a s r e a di l y a s s e ve r a l t ype s of i m a ge r y c oul d be us e d f or a s i ngl e pu r pos e ( C a l l ow & W a t e r s 2005; F i s h e t a l 2004; M ur phy e t a l 2 008; N or di n & C um m i ng 2005; S hor t e t a l 2004 ; S hor t e t a l 2006) A l l 15 s i nge r s i m a gi ne d t o a r t i s t i c a l l y i m pr ove t he i r voc a l qua l i t y w hi c h e nc om pa s s e d c ha nge s i n t he i r c ol or or t i m br e m od e l i ng, he a r i ng a n i de a l s ound, a nd i nc r e a s i ng de pt h a nd r i c hne s s V oc a l i s t s of t e n i m a gi ne d c e r t a i n c ol or s w hi c h w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h s pe c i f i c s ounds a nd phr a s e s T hi s us e of i m a ge r y w a s ve r y s i m i l a r t o t hos e s i nge r s w ho he l d a n i de a l s ound i n t he i r m i n ds t o m a t c h i n voc a l i z i ng. M a ny m e nt i one d t hi s i n t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve a c e r t a i n de pt h a nd r i c hne s s t o t he i r voi c e T w o s i nge r s f e l t t ha t e a c h i ndi v i dua l ha d t he i r ow n s ound, how e ve r t he y a l s o a dm i t t e d i t s om e t i m e s t ook ye a r s of t r a i ni ng t o a c hi e ve t hi s T he s e c onc e r ns w e r e a l s o di s c us s e d i n t he ot he r m us i c i m a ge r y s t udi e s ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987 ) S i nge r s r e c ogni z e d t he ne e d t o c ont i nua l l y de ve l op a s a p r of e s s i ona l r e ga r dl e s s of e xpe r i e nc e l e ve l s a nd r e l i e d on i m a ge r y m or e a s a r e s ul t of t h e i r e ve r de ve l opi ng ba c kgr ound E l e ve n s i nge r s us e d m ode l i ng t o a c hi e ve m a s t e r y o f di f f e r e nt a s pe c t s of voc a l pr oduc t i on. P a r t i c i pa nt s us e d i m a ge r y o f t e c hni que s voc a l s ound qua l i t i e s a nd pe r f or m a nc e pr a c t i c e s t he y ha d obs e r ve d i n e xpe r t s i nge r s t o a f f e c t m o r e s uc c e s s f ul be ha vi or s a nd f e e l i ngs of m a s t e r y. T he s e w e r e e l e m e nt s i nc l ude d i n B a ndur a s s e l f

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277 e f f i c a c y t he or y ( 1977, 1986, 1997) a s w e l l a s voc a l pe da gogue s ( T os i & G a l l i a r d, 1723/ 1968; W a r e 1998) M us i c a l pe r f or m e r s i n ot he r s t udi e s a l s o m e nt i one d m a ny di f f e r e nt a s pe c t s of m ode l i ng us e i n s ol i di f yi ng, de ve l opi ng, a nd pe r f e c t i ng t he i r m us i c a l e f f or t s a nd p r oduc t i on ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; a nd T r us he i m 1987 ) S i nge r s a l s o us e d i m a ge r y t o a f f e c t t he i r a ppe a r a nc e on s t a ge T e n s i nge r s de s c r i be d i m a ge s t o a c hi e ve a nd m a i nt a i n a ppr op r i a t e pos t ur e a nd e xe c ut e s t a gi ng i n c onne c t i on w i t h t he c ha r a c t e r or a s o ng. S e ve r a l s i nge r s w ho pe r f or m e d s pe c i f i c s ongs i n r e c i t a l s m e nt i one d us i ng i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve t he r i g ht s t a ge m ove m e nt a nd ge s t ur e s w hi c h m or e r e f l e c t e d how a ppe a r a nc e i m a ge r y i n da nc e r s w a s e m pl oye d ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) A t h l e t e s i n s ync hr oni z e d s w i m m i ng, a r t i s t i c gym na s t i c s a nd f i gu r e s ka t i ng a l s o r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y t o s e c ur e t he i r a r t i s t i c a ppe a r a nc e a nd f or m i n t he i r pa r t i c ul a r s por t s ( H a ys 2002; M ur phy e t a l 2008) P r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s r e c ogni z e d t he i m por t a nc e of t he i r ons t a ge i m a ge a s pe r c e i ve d by t he a udi e nc e a s a vi t a l e l e m e nt i n t he i r s uc c e s s ( L e hm a nn, 1945/ 1985 ) C ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt e m e r ge d i n t he i nt e r vi e w s i n t w o di s t i nc t a r e a s of pr e pa r a t i on a nd s t a gi ng. F or c ha r a c t e r p r e pa r a t i on, voc a l i s t s i m a gi ne d t he ba c kgr ounds hi s t or y, c ul t u r e a nd a ppe a r a nc e of t he i r c ha r a c t e r s ( E m m ons & S onnt a g, 2002; L e hm a nn, 1945/ 1985) A l l but one pa r t i c i pa nt r e c a l l e d be i ng i ns pi r e d by e i t he r l i ve o r r e c or de d i m a ge s of ot he r pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r s pe r f or m i ng i n t he r ol e s a nd c ha r a c t e r s t he s e pa r t i c i p a nt s w e r e e nga ge d t o pl a y E i ght s i nge r s us e d i m a ge s of t he i r ow n pa s t e xpe r i e nc e s t o pr e pa r e t he i r por t r a ya l s C ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt i n s t a gi ng i nc l ude d i m a ge r y pur pos e s t o e nga ge i n e m ot i on, t he body, voc a l s ound, a nd be i ng f ul l y i n t he c ha r a c t e r A l l s i nge r s us e d va r i ous

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278 i m a ge s f or f e e l i ng t he e m ot i ons a nd be i ng i n c ha r a c t e r w hi c h r e f l e c t e d ot he r s i nge r s a c c ount s ( A ve r i no, 1989; C a r t e r 1993; H i ne s 198 2) A hs e n ( 1984 ) unde r s c or e d t he i m por t a nc e of i nc l udi ng e m ot i on i n h i s t r i pl e c ode t he or y, I S M i m a ge s om a t i c r e s pons e a nd m e a ni ng. S i m i l a r l y L a ng s ( 1977 1979a 197 9b) e m pha s i s on e m ot i on w a s i nc or por a t e d i n hi s bi o i n f or m a t i ona l t he or y o f s t i m ul us r e s pons e a nd m e a ni ng pr opos i t i ons P a r t i c i pa nt s a l s o us e d e m ot i on a nd i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on t hr ough voc a l p r oduc t i on a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i on a s ha d be e n di s c us s e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e ( F e r r i e r 1955; H i ne s 1982; H or ne & S c o r ve l l 19 84) A dd r e s s i ng a nd i nc or por a t i ng t he s e c ha r a c t e r e l e m e nt s w e r e a l s o c ons i s t e nt w i t h how C r a i g ( 1993 ) L e hm a nn ( 1 945/ 1985) a nd E m m ons a nd S onn t a g ( 2002 ) s ug ge s t e d voc a l i s t s pr e pa r e a nd i m a gi ne t he m s e l ve s i n e m bodyi ng a s ong. B r a s s pl a ye r s a l s o r e por t e d c r e a t i ng i m a ge s of c ha r a c t e r i z i ng e l e m e nt s i n t he s ym phoni c w o r ks t h e y pe r f or m e d ( T r us he i m 1987 ) S e ve r a l i s s ue s a r os e f or s om e s i nge r s c onc e r ni ng b e i ng i n t he z one or i n f l ow ( C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi 1990) M unr oe a nd ot he r s ( 200 0) c a t e gor i z e d f l ow a s one of t he m ot i va t i ona l f unc t i ons o f i m a ge r y i n a t hl e t e s F l o w w a s not i nc l ude d i n i m a ge r y f or da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) S i m i l a r t o B e l l on s ( 2006) m us i c i a ns s i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy r e por t e d e i t he r be i ng i n t he z one a s a r e s ul t a nd r e qui r e m e nt of t he i r p r of e s s i on or onl y r a r e l y a c hi e vi ng t he e xpe r i e nc e o f f l ow O t he r s de s c r i be d be i ng i n a m a gi c a l m om e nt w he r e not hi ng e l s e e xi s t e d but t he m us i c or f e e l i ng a r e s pons i bi l i t y a s a pe r f or m e r t o be i n t he z one a s m uc h a s pos s i bl e i n o r de r t o be ne f i t t he a udi e nc e F ur t he r m or e t he f l ow s t a t e s e e m e d t o be a n e xpe r i e nc e t ha t ha ppe ne d a s a r e s ul t of pr ope r pr e pa r a t i on, r e f l e c t i n g B e l l on s ( 2006 ) f i ndi ngs t ha t be i ng i n t h e z one w a s s ynonym ous w i t h pr of e s s i ona l i s m P a r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s of t e n r e f l e c t e d t ha t be i ng i n t he z one w a s

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279 t a nt a m ount t o e m bodyi ng t he c ha r a c t e r i n t he pe r f or m a nc e T hi s i de a s uppor t e d C a r t e r s ( 1993) f i ndi ng t ha t e l i t e voc a l i s t s a c hi e ve d f l ow a s a r e s ul t of s ur pa s s i ng t he e xpe r i e nc e of s ynt he s i z e d t e xt m us i c a nd c ha r a c t e r M or e r e s e a r c h i s ne e de d t o f i nd how i m a ge r y a nd be i ng i n f l ow i nt e r a c t f o r pe r f or m e r s A not he r a r t i s t i c r e a s on f or us i ng i m a ge r y w a s t he va r i e t y of r e ga r d t he s e s i nge r s he l d f or t he a udi e nc e a s i ni t i a l l y c a t e gor i z e d i n da nc e r s i m a ge r y ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005) N o r di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005 ) i de nt i f i e d m a ny of t he pr e vi ous l y m e nt i one d a r t i s t i c r e a s ons a s pa r t of da nc e r s m ot i va t i on i n c om m uni c a t i ng w i t h t he a udi e nc e H ow e ve r s i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy di s t i ngui s he d m os t of t hos e a r t i s t i c r e a s ons s e pa r a t e l y f r om t he i r s pe c i f i c i nt e nt i ons t o c om m uni c a t e m o r e di r e c t l y w i t h t he a udi e nc e t ha n ha d be e n i de nt i f i e d i n da nc e r s i m a ge r y. P a r t i c i pa nt s f ur t he r r e c ogni z e d t ha t m a s t e r y of t e c hni que m us i c a nd e m bodyi ng t he c ha r a c t e r w a s a p r e r e qu i s i t e f or m e nt a l l y e nga gi ng w i t h t he a udi e nc e T he r e f or e t he a udi e nc e c om m uni c a t i on c a t e gor y w a s r e de f i ne d f o r t h i s s t udy a nd i nc l ude d: ( a ) s ha r i ng m us i c a l i nt e nt ( b) f l ow o f e ne r gy, ( c ) s ha r i ng l ove a nd j oy ( d ) s pi r i t ua l e nga ge m e nt a nd ( e ) s pi r i t ua l r e s pons i bi l i t y. T he s e f i ndi ngs s uppor t e d a nd e xt e nde d C a r t e r s ( 1993) r e por t s o f e l i t e voc a l i s t s i nt e r a c t i ng w i t h t he i r a udi e nc e w i t h f e e l i ngs of f l ow v i br a t i ons a nd l ove S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s f oc us e d on t he a udi e nc e m e m be r s t o f e e l e nga ge d a nd s uppor t e d i n t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e s w hi c h w a s a na l og ous t o t he ot he r voc a l i s t s m e nt a l r e ga r d f o r t he a udi e nc e ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 199 3) M os t s i nge r s i m a gi ne d w a ys o f c om m uni c a t i n g w i t h t he a udi e nc e r a ngi ng f r o m m a ki ng s ur e t he a udi e nc e unde r s t ood t he i nt e nt i ons of t he c om pos e r a nd t he t e xt t o e nga gi ng m e m be r s of t he a udi e nc e i n a f l ow of e ne r gy, t he f i ndi ngs of w hi c h w e r e c ons i s t e nt w i t h ot he r pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s ( C a r t e r

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280 1993 ) S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s i m a gi ne d t he a udi e nc e f e e l i ng t he i r l ove a nd j oy w hi l e ot he r s s ha r e d a m or e s pi r i t ua l e nga ge m e nt w i t h t hos e i n t he t he a t r e T he r e a s ons f or s pe c i f i c a udi e nc e i nt e r a c t i on w e r e of t e n t i e d t o s i nge r s pur pos e f or w hi c h t he y i ni t i a l l y be c a m e pr of e s s i ona l pe r f or m e r s S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s s poke of f e e l i ng s pi r i t ua l l y r e s pons i bl e f or be i ng a be ne f i c i a l o r he a l i ng f or c e f or t he i r a udi e n c e I t w a s pos s i bl e t ha t pr e s e nt i ng s ongs di r e c t l y f a c i ng t he a udi e nc e a s ha s be e n t he t r a di t i on i n c l a s s i c a l s i ngi ng, c oul d ha ve i ns pi r e d c e r t a i n voc a l i s t s t o f e e l t hi s f o r t he p e opl e t ha t c a m e t o s e e t he m pe r f o r m F ur t he r m or e m a ny of t he s e s i nge r s w e r e w e l l e xp e r i e nc e d i n l i t u r gi c a l a nd o r a t or i o pe r f or m a nc e s w hi c h p r e c l ude d a s pi r i t ua l or r e l i gi ous c ont e x t T he s e f i nd i ngs w e r e not a ddr e s s e d a s s uc h i n i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s or a t hl e t e s i m a ge r y a nd w e r e f a r m o r e pe r s ona l l y di r e c t e d t ha n a udi e nc e c om m uni c a t i on i m a ge r y of da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) T he s e s pe c i f i c r e s ul t s a l s o e l a bor a t e d a nd e xt e nde d t he f i n di ngs of C a r t e r ( 1993 ) a nd unde r s c or e d t he i m por t a nc e o f a udi e nc e i nt e r a c t i o ns i n t he s e pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r s H e al i ng r e as ons H e a l i ng r e a s ons f or us i ng i m a ge r y by t he s e voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l s va r i e d i n t he i nt e r vi e w s a nd r e f l e c t e d s om e of t he f i ndi ngs i n da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) M os t s i nge r s he a l i ng i m a ge s f o c us e d on e f f or t s t o m a i nt a i n good phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l he a l t h t o be a bl e t o opt i m a l l y pe r f or m T e n s i nge r s de s c r i be d s om e ki nd of m e t hod t o c he c k t he i r phys i c a l body t he a l i gnm e nt a nd s t a t us o f t he voc a l a ppa r a t us pr i or t o a nd du r i ng pe r f or m a nc e a s f oun d i n ot he r m us i c i a ns ( C a r t e r 1993; T r udhe i m 1993) S o m e pa r t i c i pa nt s m a i nt a i ne d he a l t h by i m m e di a t e l y r e s pondi ng t o i ni t i a l s ym pt om s of s i c kne s s or dur i ng i l l ne s s a nd i nj ur y by e nga gi ng i n he a l t hy i m a ge s a nd f e e l i ngs w hi c h r e pl i c a t e d i m a ge r y of ot he r m u s i c i a ns ( T r us he i m 1987) a nd a t hl e t e s ( C a l m e l s e t a l 2003; O r l i c k, 1990) S i nge r s a l s o u s e d i m a ge r y i n he a l i ng m e t hods s uc h

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281 a s R e i ki a nd ot he r vi s ua l i z a t i on t e c hni que s t o m a i n t a i n he a l t h ( G a w a i n, 1978, 2002; S he i kh, 2003; S he i kh & J or da n, 1983; S he i kh & K or n, 1994; S i m on t on e t a l 1971 ; S i m ont on e t a l 1978) S i nge r s of t e n e m pl oye d m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w he n t he y w e r e s i c k or ne e de d t o pr e s e r ve t he i r voi c e s a s w a s a l s o f ound i n i m a ge r y us e s by m us i c i a ns ( B e l l on, 2006; C a r t e r 1993; T r us he i m 1987) a nd da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2005) V oc a l i s t s i n t hi s s t udy r e por t e d us i ng i m a ge r y t o c ont e nd w i t h ha vi ng t o s i ng w hi l e t he y w e r e e xc e s s i ve l y t i r e d, dur i ng t i m e s of i l l ne s s a nd out br e a ks of c h r oni c ph ys i c a l a i l m e nt s N i c hol a s us e d m ode l i ng i n r e c a l l i ng how a not he r f a m ous s i nge r w oul d ha ve de a l t w i t h t he s a m e s t r e s s he e xpe r i e nc e d. S i c kne s s a nd f a t i gue w e r e a l s o t i m e s w he n t he s e pr of e s s i ona l s pr a c t i c e d m e nt a l l y i n s i l e nc e t o pr e s e r ve t he i r voi c e s w hi c h w a s a l s o r e por t e d i n B e l l on ( 2006) C a r t e r ( 1993) a nd T r us he i m ( 1987) T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s s e e m e d t o be c ons c i ous l y c onne c t e d t o how t he i r bodi e s a nd voi c e s w e r e f e e l i ng a nd r e s ponde d r e a di l y w i t h i m a ge r y t o m a i nt a i n opt i m a l he a l t h f or pe r f o r m a nc e e xc e l l e nc e F our W s of I m age r y U s e F r am e w or k f or Si nge r s T he s i nge r s f ou r W s of i m a ge r y us e f r a m e w or k w a s de s i gne d a s a r e s ul t of a na l yz i ng t he r e s pons e s of t he i nt e r vi e w s de duc t i v e l y f r om i m a ge r y r e s e a r c h i n s por t da nc e m us i c a nd i nduc t i ve l y f r om t he m e s a n d c a t e gor i e s t ha t e m e r ge d di r e c t l y f r om t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i nt e r vi e w s F i gur e 3 gi ve s t he de t a i l s of t hi s f r a m e w or k i nc l udi ng w he r e w he n w hat a nd w hy s i nge r s i m a gi ne w hi c h w a s a da pt e d pr i m a r i l y f r o m t he f r a m e w or ks s how n i n F i gur e 1 of a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) a nd F i gur e 2 o f da nc e r s ( N o r di n & C um m i ng, 2005)

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282 F i gur e 3 F our W s of I m a ge r y U s e F r a m e w or k f or S i nge r s W ha t W hy I m a ge r y T ype s I m a ge r y C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s H e a l i ng R e a s ons A r t i s t i c R e a s ons C o gni t i ve R e a s ons M ot i va t i ona l R e a s ons E xe c ut i on I m a ge s M e t a phor i c a l I m a ge s C ont e xt I m a ge s B ody r e l a t e d I m a ge s M us i c a l S ound I m a ge s C ha r a c t e r / R ol e I m a ge s S e ns e s P e r s pe c t i ve A bi l i t y/ A c c ur a c y/ D e t a i l D e l i be r a t i on / D i r e c t i on A m ount / D ur a t i on V oc a l P r oduc t i on M e t a phor s i n V oc a l P r oduc t i on M e m or i z i ng/ P l a nni ng O ve r a l l H e a l t h V oc a l H e a l t h G oa l A t t a i nm e nt A r ous a l / E ne r gy M a s t e r y/ C onf i de nc e V oc a l Q ua l i t y A ppe a r a nc e C ha r a c t e r P r e pa r a t i on C ha r a c t e r S t a gi ng C om m uni c a t i on w i t h A udi e nc e S i nge r s I m a ge r y W he r e W he n P r a c t i c e / P e r f or m a nc e S e t t i ngs G e ne r a l L oc a t i ons A t H om e O t he r P l a c e s P r a c t i c e R e he a r s a l P e r f or m a nc e P e r f or m a nc e S e a s on B r e a ks O t he r T i m e s

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283 T hi s pr opos e d s i nge r s f r a m e w or k di f f e r s f r om t h e f our W s of i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k f or a t hl e t e s ( F i gur e 1) a nd da nc e r s ( F i g ur e 2) i n a nu m be r o f i m po r t a nt w a ys T he l a nds c a pe of t he da nc e f r a m e w or k ha s be e n m a i nt a i ne d i n f a vor of t he l e ve l s pr e s e nt e d i n t he a t hl e t i c f r a m e w or k s i nc e a f ul l e r d e s c r i pt i on of s i nge r s i m a ge r y us e c oul d be r e pr e s e nt e d. S i nge r s a s w e l l a s da nc e r s f r a m e w or ks e xt e nde d t he a r e a s of w he r e a nd w he n i m a ge r y w a s us e d. F u r t he r m or e i n t he d a nc e r s f r a m e w or k c ont e nt a r e a s w e r e m or e f ul l y r e pr e s e nt e d t o i nc l ude s pe c i f i c i m a ge t y pe s a nd c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s t ha t w e r e a l s o pr e s e nt i n s i nge r s i m a ge r y A ddi t i ons t o t he da nc e f r a m e w or k i nc l ude d voc a l p r oduc t i on, m us i c a l s ounds a nd a n e xt e nde d a r e a of c om m uni c a t i on w i t h t he a udi e nc e T he f our W s of i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k f or s i nge r s i s o f f e r e d he r e f or s e ve r a l r e a s ons I t i s hope d t ha t t he s i nge r s f r a m e w or k w oul d be u s e d a s a gui de i n f u t ur e s t udi e s of i m a ge r y us e i n voc a l i s t s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s a nd ot he r m us i c i a ns I t c oul d a l s o be us e d t o i nf or m s t ude nt s a nd p r of e s s i ona l s i n pos s i bl e w a ys t he y c oul d d e ve l op a nd e m pl oy t he i r ow n i m a ge r y i n t he i r a r t i s t i c e nde a vor s F ur t he r m o r e t e a c he r s a nd voc a l p r of e s s or s c oul d us e t hi s f r a m e w or k t o t r a i n s i nge r s a nd pos s i bl y m us i c i a ns t o i nc or por a t e a nd de ve l op i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons i n t he i r p r a c t i c e a nd pe r f o r m a nc e I t i s f ur t he r hope d t ha t f ut u r e r e s e a r c h a nd a ppl i c a t i ons w oul d s e r ve t o i m pr ove t hi s f r a m e w or k i n a ny w a y t ha t w oul d m or e pe r f e c t l y r e f l e c t s i nge r s us e of i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e L i m i t at i ons of t he St udy S e ve r a l l i m i t a t i ons e m e r ge d a s a r e s ul t o f t he e xpl or a t or y na t ur e a nd de s i gn of t hi s i nve s t i ga t i on a nd w e r e w or t hy of c ons i de r a t i on. S e ve n l i m i t a t i ons w e r e c a us e f o r c onc e r n a nd i nc l ude d: ( a ) s a m pl e s i z e ( b ) s a m pl e c onf i gu r a t i on, ( c ) i ns t r um e nt a t i on ( d) p i l ot s t udy, ( e ) i nt e r vi e w r e s p ons e s ( f ) da t a a na l ys i s a n d ( g) r e s e a r c he r bi a s

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284 Sam pl e Si z e T he f i r s t l i m i t a t i on c onc e r ne d t hr e a t s due t o s a m pl e s i z e T he s m a l l num be r o f pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s a m pl e r e s t r i c t e d t he a bi l i t y t o g e ne r a l i z e t o t he e nt i r e c l a s s i c a l s ol o voc a l pr of e s s i ona l po pul a t i on i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s H ow e ve r e xt e ns i ve e f f or t w a s m a de t o s e c ur e t he w i de s t r a nge o f p r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s t ha t qua l i f i e d f o r pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd i nc l ude d s ol oi s t s r e s i di ng t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s P r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s a nd t e a c he r s a nd pr o f e s s or s of voi c e w e r e i nvi t e d t o r e c om m e nd qua l i f i e d s i nge r s t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. G e ne r a l i z a bi l t y w a s s a c r i f i c e d i n or de r t o ga i n a n i n de pt h a nd a r i c h da t a s e t f r om hi gh l y qua l i f i e d a nd e xpe r i e nc e d pr of e s s i ona l s I t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t t hi s popul a t i on pr ovi de d t he m os t c om pl e t e r e s pons e s t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w hi c h a l l ow e d t he r e s ul t s of s t udy t o c ont r i but e t o t he g r o w i ng body of r e s e a r c h i n t he us e of i m a ge r y i n voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s Sam pl e C onf i gur at i on A not he r l i m i t a t i on w a s t he s a m pl e c onf i gur a t i on. T he us e of s now ba l l s a m pl i ng l i m i t e d t he ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y t o t hos e s i nge r s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t h i s s t udy. T he e xpl or a t or y a nd i n de pt h de s i gn o f t he s t udy l i m i t e d t he num be r of pa r t i c i pa nt s t ha t c oul d be i nc l ude d i n t he i nt e r vi e w s S now ba l l s a m pl i ng a l s o w a s l i m i t e d t o t hos e s i nge r s w ho w e r e know n t o t he r e s e a r c he r or r e c om m e nde d by ot he r voc a l i s t s a nd s i ngi ng t e a c he r s a nd pr of e s s or s w ho t he r e s e a r c he r kne w D ue t o t h e r e s e a r c he r s pr i or e xpe r i e nc e i n ope r a a nd l i t ur g i c a l s i ngi ng, m a ny of t he vo c a l i s t s w e r e i nvol ve d i n t he s e pe r f or m a nc e a r e a s w hi c h pos s i bl y l i m i t e d r e pr e s e nt a t i on f or o t h e r t ype s of s ol o c l a s s i c a l voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s i n t hi s s t udy.

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285 W hi l e ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y i s not pos s i bl e w i t h t hi s s m a l l s a m pl e a t t e m pt s a br oa de r r e pr e s e nt a t i on w e r e m a de t hr ough a s a m pl e s e l e c t i on t ha t i nc l ude d ( a ) m a l e a nd f e m a l e s i nge r s ( b) a w i de r a nge of a ge s ( c ) a w i de r a nge of pr o f e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e ( d) a va r i e t y of voc a l t ype s ( e ) va r i e d ge ogr a phi c a l l oc a t i ons a c r os s t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a nd ( e ) a n e xt e ns i ve va r i e t y of c l a s s i c a l s i ngi ng ge nr e s T w o t hi r ds of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e f e m a l e w i t h s opr a nos a ve r a ge a ge of 37. 4 m e z z o s a ve r a ge a ge of 58 5. O f t he f i ve m e n, f ou r w e r e t e nor s w hos e a ve r a ge a ge w a s 40 a nd one w a s a ba r i t one S op r a nos r e pr e s e nt e d t h e l e a s t e xpe r i e nc e w i t h m e z z os t he m os t i nc l udi ng t w o w ho ha d ove r 40 ye a r s of pr o f e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e e a c h. I n s pi t e o f m a ny e f f or t s t o pe r s ona l l y i nv i t e ba s s s i nge r s t o pa r t i c i pa t e none r e s ponde d. A l s o m i s s i ng w e r e s i nge r s r e pr e s e nt i ng t he M i dw e s t a nd N or t hw e s t r e gi ons of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he l i m i t i ng f a c t or s of t he s a m pl e popul a t i ons m a y ha ve i nf l ue nc e d t he r e s ul t s T he w i de va r i e t y of c l a s s i c a l s i nge r s ge nr e s e r ve d t o r e p r e s e nt a br oa d r a nge of t he ge ne r a l e m pl oym e nt op t i ons f or pr o f e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s how e ve r i t r e ve a l e d a n e ve n br oa de r us e of i m a ge r y a nd di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t h e s i nge r s T he r e w a s a l s o a hi gh num be r of s i nge r s w ho pe r f o r m e d p r i m a r i l y i n ope r a t i c r ol e s w hi c h m a y not r e pr e s e nt t he e nt i r e pr o f e s s i on of c l a s s i c a l s ol o s i nge r s w ho s a n g ot he r s t yl e s s uc h a s c onc e r t s r e c i t a l s a nd or a t o r i os U s ua l l y t he a c t i ng r e qui r e m e nt s of s t a gi ng a nd phys i c a l m ove m e nt i n ope r a w e r e no t t he s a m e a s c onc e r t s i ngi ng. T he s e i s s ue s m a y ha ve i nf l ue nc e d t he f i ndi ngs of i m a ge r y c ont e nt a nd f unc t i on f or t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s I ns t r um e nt at i on T he t hi r d l i m i t a t i on w a s t he t h r e a t of i ns t r um e nt a t i on ( O nw ue gbuz i e 2003 ) T he s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de w a s t he i ni t i a l i ns t r um e nt us e d t o c ol l e c t da t a f o r t hi s s t udy T hi s

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286 i nt e r vi e w pr ot oc ol w a s bor r ow e d f r om t he da nc e r s i nt e r vi e w gui de of N or di n a nd C um m i ng ( 2005) E a c h i t e m i n t hi s gui de w a s s c r ut i ni z e d a nd a da pt e d f o r t he pu r pos e s of t hi s s t udy us i ng r e l a t e d l i t e r a t ur e a nd m us i c r e s e a r c h pe r t i ne nt t o t he us e of i m a ge r y i n voc a l pe r f or m e r s O t he r e f f or t s t o c ont r o l f o r t h i s t hr e a t i nc l ude d t he us e o f m e m be r c he c ki ng ( J ohns on & C hr i s t e ns e n, 2004) w he r e by pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e e a c h s e nt t he i r t r a ns c r i be d i nt e r vi e w s f or e di t i ng or i nc l ud i ng a ny pe r t i ne nt i nf o r m a t i on. F ur t he r m or e s e ve r a l m us i c r e s e a r c he r s a na l yz e d t he i nt e r vi e w p r ot oc ol f o r a ppr op r i a t e ne s s i n us e by voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s A l t hough e f f or t s w e r e m a de t o c r e a t e a gui de m os t a ppr opr i a t e t o ga t he r i ng da t a f r om s ol o s i ngi ng pr of e s s i ona l s s e ve r a l i s s ue s a r os e dur i ng t he i nt e r v i e w pr oc e s s T e r m i nol ogy c onc e r ns i nc l udi n g di f f e r e nt i a t i ng be t w e e n s uc h t e r m s a s hol i da ys a nd br e a ks t a c t i l e a nd ki ne s t he s i a a nd s e que nc i ng a nd pl a nni ng, c a us e d s om e c onf us i on f or a f e w of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s I n a ddi t i on t he f i r s t t hr e e s e c t i ons of t he s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de i nc l ude d i nqui r i e s t ha t ga t he r e d l e s s r e l e va nt da t a r e l a t i ve t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons T he s e t hr e e s e c t i ons pr ove d i na de qua t e i n a c qui r i n g ne c e s s a r y de m ogr a phi c a nd de s c r i pt i ve da t a on t he pa r t i c i pa nt s T he r e f or e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ur ve y i ns t r um e nt ha d t o be de s i gne d a nd i m p l e m e nt e d, w hi c h p r ove d a de qua t e f or ga t he r i ng t hi s i nf or m a t i on P i l ot St udy T he f our t h l i m i t a t i on a ddr e s s e d t hr e a t s i n t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on of t he pi l ot s t udy. I t be c a m e a ppa r e nt dur i ng t he c our s e of t he s t udy t ha t t he us e of onl y one pa r t i c i pa nt f or t he pi l ot s t udy w a s not s uf f i c i e nt t o i de nt i f y a nd c l a r i f y s e ve r a l t e r m i nol ogy c onc e r ns i n t he s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de I nt e r vi e w i ng m or e pi l ot s t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s w oul d a l s o ha ve c l a r i f i e d t he i nc l us i on of a pp r opr i a t e p r obe s i n t he pr ot oc ol que s t i ons I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t

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287 i nc l udi ng m or e pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he pi l ot s t udy w oul d ha ve pr e ve nt e d t he s e pr obl e m s a nd gi ve n t he r e s e a r c he r f u r t he r p r a c t i c e i n t he i nt e r vi e w pr oc e s s I nt e r v i e w R e s pons e s T he f i f t h l i m i t a t i on i nvol ve d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s p ons e s dur i ng t he i nt e r v i e w T he s e s e l f r e por t a nd pe r s ona l i nt r os pe c t i on r e s pons e s w e r e s ubj e c t i ve a t be s t but r e pr e s e nt e d a vi a bl e m e t hod i n a n e xpl o r a t or y s t ud y s uc h a s t hi s I n or de r t o c ont r ol f or t hi s t hr e a t t he i de nt i t i e s of t he i ndi vi dua l pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e ke pt c onf i de nt i a l I nt e r vi e w e e s w e r e gi ve n ps e udonym s f or r e por t i ng pur pos e s a nd a ny pe r s ona l i nf or m a t i on, w hi c h c oul d ha ve i de nt i f i e d t he m w a s om i t t e d. T hi s he l pe d e ns ur e t ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d not hi ng t o l os e or ga i n by f a l s i f yi n g or i n f l a t i ng t he i r a ns w e r s I t w a s a l s o a s s um e d t ha t t he r e s pons e s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s hone s t c a ndi d, a nd f o r t hr i ght a s c oul d be e xpe c t e d i n de s c r i bi ng t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h i m a ge r y, s i nc e t he y ha d no r e a s on t o pr ot e c t t he i r r e put a t i on. F ur t he r m o r e i n r e por t i n g t he de m ogr a phi c s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s onl y e nough ge ne r a l i n f or m a t i on w a s pr ovi de d t o a l l ow t he r e a de r t o unde r s t a nd ba s i c ba c kgr ound a nd e xpe r i e nc e of e a c h i ndi vi dua l bu t not e nough t o s pe c i f i c a l l y i de nt i f y hi m or he r D at a A nal y s i s I n t he s i xt h l i m i t a t i on c onc e r ni ng t h e da t a a na l ys e s m e t hods w e r e us e d t o r e duc e t hr e a t s of bi a s I n c odi ng f our r e s e a r c he r s w i t h a d va nc e d de gr e e s i n m us i c r e s e a r c h a nd t r a i ni ng i n da t a a na l ys i s w e r e e m pl oye d i n c odi ng one of t he t r a ns c r i pt i ons w hi c h r e s ul t e d i n a n i nt e r c ode r a g r e e m e nt of 83 F u r t he r m or e pe e r de br i e f i ng ( L i nc ol n & G uba 1985) w a s c onduc t e d i n or de r t o e xpos e t he r e s e a r c he r s i m pl i c i t m e nt a l a s s um pt i ons s o t ha t da t a c odi ng m or e a de qua t e l y r e f l e c t e d t he t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k, t he

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288 r e l a t e d l i t e r a t ur e a nd t he r e s pons e s of t h e pa r t i c i pa nt s I n t he e f f o r t t o a l l ow t he r e a de r t o unde r s t a nd t he r e s e a r c he r s c odi ng pr oc e s s s pe c i f i c de s c r i pt i ve quot e s f r om t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e pr ovi de d i n t he r e s ul t s s e c t i on of t hi s s t udy. R e s e ar c h B i as T he f i na l t hr e a t o f r e s e a r c he r bi a s w a s a m a j or c on s i de r a t i on e ve n t hough t he r e s e a r c he r w a s c ons i de r e d a n i ns t r um e nt i n t hi s e x pl or a t or y s t udy. T he r e s e a r c he r s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h i m a ge r y a nd t he voc a l pr of e s s i on of f e r e d a un i que unde r s t a ndi ng t o t he s e t w o f i e l ds T hi s ba c kgr ound a s s i s t e d t he i nve s t i ga t or i n unde r s t a ndi ng a nd i nt e r p r e t i ng t he da t a i n e xpl a i ni ng t he m e a ni ng of t he i r quot e s i nvol vi ng t he e xpe r i e nc e s s pe c i f i c t o t he voc a l pr of e s s i on a nd i m a ge r y H ow e ve r t he r e s e a r c he r s pr i or e xpe r i e nc e m a y ha ve c r e a t e d c e r t a i n e xpe c t a t i ons a nd i nf l ue n c e d t he di r e c t i on a nd i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w s I n t he e f f or t t o m a i nt a i n obj e c t i vi t y a nd r e duc e bi a s t he r e s e a r c he r di vul ge d he r t r a i ni ng a nd r e l a t e d e xpe r i e nc e t o a not he r r e s e a r c he r t hr oughout t he c ou r s e of t hi s s t udy. F ur t he r m or e pe e r de br i e f i ngs w e r e c onduc t e d t hr oughout a l l s t a ge s of t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s ( L i nc ol n & G uba 1985 ) A ddi t i ona l l y, a t t he e nd of e a c h i nt e r vi e w t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d i f t he y w e r e i n f l ue nc e d i n a ny w a y. O nl y one r e s ponde d pos i t i ve l y a nd of f e r e d s ugge s t i ons t o a l l e vi a t e t hi s pr obl e m i n f ut ur e i nt e r vi e w s T hi s pa r t i c i pa nt f e l t t ha t s he w a s be i ng p r obe d t o a ns w e r i n a w a y t ha t s om e t i m e s c onf us e d he r a nd s ugge s t e d t ha t I c oul d pa t i e nt l y w a i t s l i ght l y l o nge r f or t he a ns w e r s T hi s c ha nge w a s i m m e di a t e l y i m pl e m e nt e d w i t h t he r e m a i ni ng t e n i nt e r vi e w s S ubs e que nt l y, a l l ot he r pa r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d t ha t t he y ha d not be e n i n f l ue n c e d i n t he i r i nt e r vi e w s M a ny voc a l i s t s r e c a l l e d t ha t t he i n t e r vi e w e r he l pe d t o c l a r i f y c onc e pt s a nd pr ovi de d i de a s t o he l p t he m i de nt i f y a nd r e m e m b e r w ha t s pe c i f i c i m a ge r y t he y us e d.

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289 I m pl i c at i ons of t he St udy S i nc e t he r e w e r e no know n m ode l s of i m a ge r y us e t ha t ha ve c onne c t e d s por t ps yc hol ogy a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e pa r t i c ul a r l y i n voi c e t h i s s t udy r e pr e s e nt e d a uni que a nd nove l a ppr oa c h. S i nc e t h e s e pe r f or m e r s f ound i m a ge r y t o be us e f ul a nd e f f e c t i ve i t c oul d be a s s um e d t ha t ot he r s i nge r s a n d m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s m a y a l r e a dy be e m pl oyi ng m a ny of t he s a m e t e c hni que s i n t he i r a r t i s t i c e nde a vor s e ve n i f t he i r i m a ge r y us e w a s not s pe c i f i c a l l y i de nt i f i e d a s t hos e pr a c t i c e s i de nt i f i e d i n s por t ps yc hol ogy r e s e a r c h. T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy ha ve s e r ve d t o d i s t i ngui s h t he s e voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s us e of i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e a s t he y r e l a t e t o t he f i nd i ngs of s por t ps yc hol ogy i m a ge r y. I m pl i c a t i ons f or voc a l a nd m us i c e duc a t i on on a l l l e ve l s pr i va t e a nd c l a s s m us i c i ns t r uc t i on, a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i on a r e di s c us s e d. T he s e a r e a s i nc l ude d: ( a ) l oc a t i on a nd t i m e s ( b) de ve l opi ng m e nt a l c a pa c i t i e s ( c ) m a t c hi ng i m a ge r y c ont e nt w i t h f unc t i on, ( d) m e nt a l pr a c t i c e ( e ) m e t a phor i c a l a nd a na t om i c a l i m a ge s ( f ) c ont e xt i m a ge r y, ( g) goa l a t t a i nm e nt ( h ) m ode l i ng ( i ) m us i c a l s ound i m a ge r y, ( j ) us e of t he s e ns e s ( k) body r e l a t e d i m a ge r y, ( l ) he a l i ng i m a ge r y, ( m ) a r ous a l m odi f i c a t i on ( n) s e l f e f f i c a c y a nd m a s t e r y, ( o) c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt ( p) c om m uni c a t i on w i t h t he a udi e nc e a nd ( l ) us i ng a dva nc e d t e c hnol ogy t o f a c i l i t a t e i m a ge r y de ve l opm e nt L oc at i on and T i m e s P a r t i c i pa nt s r e po r t e d us i ng i m a ge r y m os t pr i or t o pe r f or m a nc e s a nd dur i ng pr a c t i c e t he f i n di ng o f w hi c h w a s r e ve a l e d i n a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000 ) a nd da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) O t he r pl a c e s a nd t i m e s i nc l ude d be i ng a t hom e t r a ve l i ng a nd c om m ut i ng, e xe r c i s i ng, a nd a ny t i m e o r pl a c e B e c om i ng c om f or t a bl e w i t h us i ng i m a ge r y i n a va r i e t y o f s e t t i ngs i s s om e t hi ng t ha t c oul d be t r a i ne d i n s t ude nt a nd

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290 pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r s a s a w a y t o us e i m a ge r y i n a u gm e nt i ng pr a c t i c e a nd de ve l opi ng c onc e nt r a t i on a nd f oc us T he m o r e voc a l pa r t i c i pa nt s c oul d c onc e nt r a t e t he l onge r t he y w e r e m ot i va t e d t o e n ga ge i n i m a ge r y H ow e ve r s i nge r s va r i e d i n t he i r i m a ge r y t i m e s f r om f l a s he s t o hour s of m e nt a l e nga ge m e nt I t w o ul d be a dvi s a bl e t ha t i n t r a i ni ng i m a ge r y t i m e s s houl d be gi n w i t h s hor t dur a t i ons a nd i n qui e t pl a c e s t he n pr oc e e di ng t o i nc r e a s e d t i m e l e ngt h s a nd l e ve l s of di s t r a c t i ons a s i ndi c a t e d by t he s e s i nge r s r e s pons e s U l t i m a t e l y, w i t h pr a c t i c e di r e c t e d, s uc c e s s f ul a nd e f f e c t i ve i m a ge r y w oul d t a ke pl a c e i n a w i de r a nge of t i m e s a nd s e t t i ngs D e v e l opi ng M e nt al C apac i t i e s I t i s ge ne r a l l y a c know l e dg e d t ha t i m a ge r y a bi l i t y a ppe a r s a s e a r l y a s i nf a nc y a nd i s a s ki l l t ha t c a n be t a ught a nd de ve l ope d ( A r i e t i 1976) P a r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy ha ve de s c r i be d t he de ve l opm e nt of t he i r i m a ge r y f r om m e m or i e s of pl a yi ng c r e a t i ve l y a s ve r y young c hi l dr e n. V a l ui ng a nd i nc or por a t i ng t hi s i m por t a nt s ki l l c oul d be gi n i n e a r l y c hi l dhood m us i c a l a nd pr e s c hool pr og r a m s a nd po s s i bl y pr ovi de i nnum e r a bl e be ne f i t s i n t he a c a de m i c a nd c r e a t i ve l i f e of t he i ndi vi dua l r e g a r dl e s s of t he i r p r of e s s i on. S i nge r s a nd pe r f or m i ng m us i c i a ns i n t r a i ni ng pr ogr a m s o f a l l l e ve l s i nc l udi ng t he pr i va t e s t udi o, t he ge ne r a l m us i c c l a s s r oom a nd unde r g r a dua t e a nd g r a dua t e pr i va t e a nd g r oup c l a s s e s i n c ons e r va t or i e s or uni ve r s i t i e s c oul d be ne f i t f r o m i n s t r uc t i on a nd de ve l opm e nt of m e nt a l i m a ge r y s ki l l s P r of e s s i ona l m us i c a l pe r f or m i ng s k i l l s w oul d be i nc om pl e t e w i t h out m e nt a l t r a i ni ng a nd de ve l opm e nt T hi s i s a s t r ong i m pl i c a t i on f or a hol i s t i c a pp r oa c h t o voc a l a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e t r a i ni ng ( C ha pm a n, 2006; K ohut 1992) U nde r s t a ndi ng t he a c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e s a nd de ve l opm e nt of p r of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he i r us e of i m a ge r y, c oul d s e r ve t o gui de voc a l pe da gogy, j us t a s s por t

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291 ps yc hol ogy r e s e a r c h ha s pos i t i ve l y i nf l ue nc e d a t hl e t i c t r a i ni ng p r ogr a m s ( M a r t i n e t a l 1999, M or r i s e t a l 2005 ) E ve n t hough s i ngi ng t r a i ni ng i s c ons i de r e d t o be a n or a l t r a di t i on, t e a c he r s w i t h m i ni m u m voc a l e xpe r i e nc e c ont i nue t o t e a c h voc a l i s t s w hi c h m a y i m pa c t how i m a ge r y i s i nc or po r a t e d i nt o t he i r e duc a t i ona l pr a c t i c e s I t i s pos s i bl e t ha t t e a c he r s w i t h or w i t hout pr of e s s i ona l s i ngi ng e xpe r i e nc e m a y ha ve pr e c onc e i ve d opi ni ons c onc e r ni ng i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons a nd c oul d i na dve r t e nt l y om i t s om e a s pe c t s of m e nt a l t r a i ni ng v i t a l t o t he pe r f or m a nc e s uc c e s s of t he i r s t ude nt s W hi l e i t m a y be i de a l f or a l l voi c e t e a c he r s t o be s uc c e s s f ul voc a l i s t s t e a c he r s s houl d a t l e a s t be know l e dge a bl e i n a s m a ny a s pe c t s of s i ngi ng pe r f or m a nc e a s pos s i bl e S por t ps yc hol ogi s t s a nd c oa c he s m a y not ha ve be e n t op a t hl e t e s but t he y s e e k t o pr ovi de t he t ool s t o e qui p e l i t e s por t c om pe t i t or s w i t h e xc e l l e nt m e nt a l s ki l l s a nd t e c hni que s S i ngi ng t e a c he r s m a y g r e a t l y be ne f i t not onl y t he m s e l ve s a s e duc a t or s but t he f u t ur e s uc c e s s of t he i r s t ude nt s i f t he y l e a r ne d t he va r i ous a ppl i c a t i ons of i m a ge r y t o m us i c a l a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y voc a l pe r f or m a nc e de ve l opm e nt a nd e xc e l l e nc e E ve n t hough onl y a f e w s t ude nt s m a y r e a c h pr of e s s i ona l s t a t us a l l s t ude nt s de s e r ve t he be s t t r a i ni ng a va i l a bl e i nc l udi ng t hos e i n m e nt a l s ki l l s F or t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s i m a ge r y w a s us e d i n c ogni t i ve f unc t i ons f or l e a r ni ng a nd s e c ur i ng voc a l t e c hni que a nd e xe c ut i on, m ot i va t i o na l r e a s ons of m a i nt a i ni ng a r ous a l a nd e ne r gy ba l a nc e a nd a r t i s t i c pur pos e s of de ve l opi n g t he c ha r a c t e r a nd e m ot i ona l e l e m e nt s of a s ong o r r o l e I t w a s a l s o us e d t o a ugm e nt pr a c t i c e t hr ough m e nt a l r e he a r s a l c he c k a nd r e s ol ve e xe c ut i on pr obl e m s ge ne r a t e a r t i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i on, s us t a i n opt i m a l he a l t h f or pe r f or m i ng a nd m uc h m or e G i ve n t he s e f i ndi ngs i t i s pos s i bl e t ha t ot he r m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s m i gh t us e s i m i l a r i m a ge r y c ont e nt a nd pur pos e s i n t he i r a r t i s t i c pr oc e s s e s W hi l e m a ny m us i c pe da gogue s ha ve r e c ogni z e d t h a t de ve l opi ng t he m e nt a l s i de of

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292 pe r f or m a nc e i s i nt r i ns i c t o t r a i ni ng ( C a l dw e l l & W a l l 2001; C ha pm a n, 2006; E m m ons & T hom a s 1998; W a r e 1991 ) c ur r e nt m e t hods of g ui da nc e t r a i ni ng a nd e duc a t i on i n t hi s a r e a m a y be i ns uf f i c i e nt a nd m a y not be a ddr e s s e d i n w a ys t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e M at c hi ng I m age r y C ont e nt w i t h F unc t i on S por t ps yc hol ogi s t s ha ve r e c ogni z e d f o r ye a r s t ha t m e nt a l t r a i ni ng w a s vi t a l t o a t hl e t i c s uc c e s s ( H a l l 2001; M or r i s 2005) V oc a l t e a c he r s c oul d be gui de d by r e s e a r c h s uc h a s t hi s t o pr ovi de a l l t he i r s t ude nt s w i t h e xc e l l e nt a nd t hor ough pr e pa r a t i on T he m a j or c om pone nt s f unc t i ons a nd pur pos e s of i m a ge r y, a s i de nt i f i e d i n t he pr opos e d s i nge r s i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k, c oul d a l l ow voc a l i s t s a nd pe r f o r m e r s t o l e a r n t o s ys t e m a t i c a l l y c onne c t a nd a ppl y a ppr opr i a t e i m a g e r y t o t he i r i nt e nde d pur pos e I f i m a ge r y c om pone nt s w e r e br ought out dur i ng t r a i n i ng by t he a s s i s t a nc e of a s t ut e voc a l t e a c he r s s i nge r s c oul d l e a r n t o c ons c i ous l y di r e c t t he i r us e of i m a ge r y, w hi c h m a y a l l ow f or m o r e a ut onom y a nd na t ur a l de ve l opm e nt i n vo c a l de ve l opm e nt G i ve n t he e xt e ns i ve s ki l l s a nd t e c hni que s t he s i nge r m us t l e a r n t r a i ni n g i n i m a ge r y c oul d f a c i l i t a t e bui l di ng s e c ur i ng, a nd r e f i ni ng t he s e e f f o r t s F ur t he r m o r e t he t e a c he r c oul d us e a va r i e t y of m e t hods i n he l pi ng t he s t ude nt l e a r n t o i nt e gr a t e m e nt a l l y a nd phys i c a l l y, m a ny of t he ot he r s ki l l s i nvol ve d i n be i ng a pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r T he us e of s of t w a r e gr a phi c vi de o, a nd a udi o m e di a a nd t he I nt e r ne t a nd c a n a l l a s s i s t i n bui l di ng t he r e pe r t oi r e of s e ns or y a nd t e c hni c a l i m a ge r y upon w hi c h t he s i nge r c oul d de ve l op a c a r e e r M e nt al P r ac t i c e M a ny of t he s e s i nge r s s a i d t ha t t he y i n i t i a l l y us e d a nd de ve l ope d t he i r i m a ge r y i n m e nt a l r e he a r s a l pr i m a r i l y dur i ng qui e t t i m e s w he n t he r e w e r e m i ni m a l di s t r a c t i ons

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293 w hi c h s e r ve d t o a ugm e nt t he i r phys i c a l pr a c t i c e e f f or t s I m p l e m e nt i ng a p r ogr a m t o de ve l op m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n ge ne r a l a nd p r i va t e m us i c pr ogr a m s w oul d r e qui r e s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng a s w e l l a s pe r i ods o f s i l e nc e i n a nd out s i de t he c l a s s r oom or s t udi o t o a l l ow s t ude nt s t o i m a gi ne r e c r e a t i ng a nd pr a c t i c i ng t he pi e c e m e nt a l l y i n be t w e e n t he i r phys i c a l pr a c t i c e s e s s i on s M i xi ng m e nt a l a nd phys i c a l pr a c t i c e w a s f ound t o be i de a l f or m e m or i z a t i on a nd s uc c e s s f ul pr a c t i c e i n a nu m be r of m us i c s t udi e s ( C of f m a n 1987 1990; H i ghbe n & P a l m e r 2004; L i m & L i ppm a n, 1991; R os s 1985a 1985b; R ubi n R a bs on, 1941 ) M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, m e nt a l r e he a r s a l w a s m os t e f f e c t i ve a f t e r t he r udi m e nt s of t he m us i c ha d be e n l e a r ne d, t he n phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l pr a c t i c e w a s a l t e r na t e d f o r be s t e f f e c t T oo o f t e n m us i c t e a c he r s f e e l c om pe l l e d t o gi ve t he i r s t ude nt s a s m uc h t a ngi bl e a nd a c t i ve m a t e r i a l a s pos s i bl e T e a c he r s c oul d a s s i s t s t ude nt s a nd c hi l dr e n i n t he i r ow n s e l f di s c ove r y by s e ns i t i ve l y c a l l i ng m or e a t t e nt i on t o t he i r s t ude nt s t hought pr oc e s s e s f e e l i ngs a nd m e nt a l i m a ge s t hr oughout t he m us i c l e a r ni ng pr oc e s s M e t aphor i c al and A nat om i c al I m age s W he t he r s i nge r s us e m e t a phor i c a l or a na t om i c a l i m a ge s i n t he i r a r t i s t i c pr oc e s s s e e m e d t o de pe nd on pe r s ona l pr e f e r e nc e a nd e xpe r i e nc e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t he a na t om i c a l f e a t ur e s of t he voc a l m e c ha ni s m a nd t he r e qui r e m e nt s of t he s pe c i f i c t a s k. R e ga r di ng voc a l pr oduc t i on, m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge r y w a s us e d t o s e c ur e t e c hni que a nd e xe c ut e a r t i s t i c i nt e r pr e t a t i on i n qua l i t i e s of s i ngi ng. T he s e m e t a ph or s w e r e a l s o f ound t o f a c i l i t a t e l e a r ni ng f or s om e s i nge r s w i t h l e s s know l e dge or f a m i l i a r i t y of t he voc a l a na t om y. I n he r e xpe r i e nc e a s a voc a l pe r f or m e r a nd a t e a c he r one pa r t i c i p a nt i n t hi s s t udy f ound t ha t m a ny young s i nge r s r e ga r de d t he i r voi c e s a s s om e w ha t m a gi c a l a nd r e s ponde d t o m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge s i n a c hi e vi ng be t t e r voc a l qua l i t y a nd a dva nc i ng t he i r t e c hni que

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294 H ow e ve r a s voc a l i s t s m a t ur e d a nd ga i ne d m or e e x pe r i e nc e a nd und e r s t a ndi ng, t he y of t e n a c qui r e d know l e dge of t he i nt r i c a c i e s of t he voc a l m e c ha ni s m i n e xe c ut i ng t he i r s ound. A na t om i c a l i m a ge r y a s s i s t e d s i nge r s t o c onne c t t h e ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ngs of m a ni pul a t i ng t he voi c e w i t h i m a ge s of t he c o r r e s pondi ng m us c l e s T hi s f i ndi ng w a s c ons i s t e nt w i t h s i nge r s r e s pons e s i n C a r t e r ( 1993) I f a s t ude nt w a s gi ve n t he m e c ha ni c a l e xpl a na t i ons t oo s oon, i t s om e t i m e s c a us e d c onf us i on a nd unne c e s s a r y t e ns i on pos s i bl y r e s ul t i ng i n voc a l i nj ur y. S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he pr e s e nt s t u dy r e por t e d t ha t s i m i l a r e xpe r i e nc e s c a us e d t he m t o s e e k a not he r t e a c he r O t he r s i nge r s r e s ponde d t o t he t e c hni c a l a s pe c t s of t he voc a l pr oduc t i on pr e f e r r i ng t o know e xa c t l y h ow t he i r voc a l m e c ha ni s m ope r a t e d s o t he y c oul d l e a r n t o unde r s t a nd i t s f unc t i ons a nd m a ni pul a t e i t m o r e pr e c i s e l y. F or t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s e s pe c i a l l y t hos e w i t h t he m os t e xpe r i e nc e t hi s know l e dge ba s e gr e w ove r t i m e a nd be c a m e qui t e e xt e ns i ve w hi c h w a s r e f l e c t e d i n s e ve r a l s t udi e s of voc a l pe da gogue s ( C l e ve l a nd, 1989a 1989b 1989c ; V e n na r d, 1958 1961 1968 1971 ) T he r e f or e voc a l t e a c he r s s houl d be know l e dge a bl e i n a va r i e t y of m e t a phor i c a l i m a ge s a s w e l l a s pos s e s s a s t r ong ba c kgr ound i n t he a na t om y of voc a l m e c ha ni c s P r ovi di ng g r a phi c a nd vi de o i m a ge s of voc a l a na t om y c oul d f a c i l i t a t e gr e a t e r unde r s t a ndi ng i n s i nge r s w ho p r e f e r r e d t he s e i m a ge s I n t a ki ng i t a s t e p f ur t he r a l l ow i ng s i nge r s t o s e e t he i r ow n voc a l m e c ha ni s m by us i ng a f l e xi bl e f i br os c ope or a l a r ynge a l i m a ge bi of e e dba c k ( L I B ) m e di c a l i m a gi ng s ys t e m ( C l e ve l a nd, 199 8a 1998b) t o s e e t he voc a l f ol ds c oul d g r e a t l y e nha nc e t he i r a na t om i c a l unde r s t a ndi ng. V oc a l i s t s ne e ds a nd pr e f e r e nc e s c ha nge d t hr oughout t he i r de ve l opm e nt pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he i r i m a ge r y us e T he r e f or e w i t h s e ns i t i vi t y a nd f l e xi bi l i t y t e a c he r s s houl d c o nt i nue de ve l opi ng t he i r ow n know l e dge a nd unde r s t a ndi ng of t he voi c e a nd he l p s t ude nt s l e a r n how i m a ge r y c a n be s t

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295 be e m pl oye d. T he s e r e s ul t s poi nt t o t he be ne f i t s t e a c he r s c oul d ga i n f r o m a f ul l know l e dge of voc a l a na t om y a s w e l l a s a n e xt e ns i ve c ol l e c t i on of m e t a phor s t o s ha r e w i t h t he i r s t ude nt s a s ne e ds a r i s e T e a c he r s know l e dge of w he n a nd how t o a ppl y m e t a phor i c a l a nd a na t om i c a l i m a ge s c oul d s i gni f i c a nt l y e nha nc e t r a i ni ng o f voc a l s t ude nt s T hi s hi ghl i ght s t he ne c e s s i t y of t he t e a c h e r t o put a s i de pe r s ona l pr e f e r e nc e r e ga r di ng t he us e s of i m a ge r y i n f a vor of m e e t i ng t he i ndi vi dua l i m a ge r y ne e ds of e a c h s i nge r C ont e x t I m age r y S e ve r a l r e por t e d he a r i ng e nvi r on m e nt a l s ounds of t he pe r f or m a nc e ve nue A l l t he s e s i nge r s i m a gi ne d t he m s e l ve s i n f ut ur e pe r f or m a nc e s c e na r i os f r om upc om i ng a udi t i ons t o t he i r m os t c ove t e d dr e a m of s i ngi ng a t f a m ous ve nue s s uc h a s t he M e t r opol i t a n O pe r a H ous e M a ny pa r t i c i pa nt s s ha r e d t he i r e xt e ns i ve l y de t a i l e d i m a ge s of t he i r f ut u r e pe r f or m a nc e s i nc l udi ng t he i r a f f e c t i ve r e a c t i on s t o t he e xpe r i e nc e a nd t he us e s of m a ny of t he i r s e ns e s w hi c h he l pe d t he m pr e pa r e f or t he a c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e s T hi s m e t hod of i m a ge r y w a s f ound t o be a vi t a l e l e m e nt i n f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e w hi c h l i nke d i m a gi ne d t a s ks w i t h t he s a m e e xe c ut e d m ot or a c t i vi t y ( D e c e t y 1996a 1996b, 2002; H ol m e s & C ol l i ns 2002) R e s e a r c hi ng t he v e nue by a t t e ndi ng, a c qui r i ng pi c t u r e s or vi e w i ng vi de o of t he t he a t r e i n w hi c h t he s i nge r pl a nne d t o pe r f o r m a l l ow e d pe r s ona l i m a ge r y t o be m or e p r e c i s e t hus a i de d pe r f o r m a nc e out c om e V oc a l i s t s a s w e l l a s t e a c he r s i n a pr i va t e o r g r oup s i ngi ng c l a s s e s c oul d e a s i l y i m pl e m e nt t he i nc l us i on of vi s ua l m e di a i n i m a ge r y of va r i ous t he a t r e s a r ound t he w or l d e s pe c i a l l y s i nc e i nf or m a t i on i s s o r e a di l y a va i l a bl e on t he I nt e r ne t

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296 G oal A t t ai nm e nt A n i m por t a nt a r e a of i m a ge r y us e t ha t t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s s t r e s s e d w a s t he i r e f f o r t s t o i de nt i f y c l a r i f y, a nd a t t a i n goa l s T he s e out c om e goa l s w e r e a l s o m i xe d w i t h pe r f or m a nc e a nd p r oc e s s goa l s ( W e i nbe r g & G oul d, 1999) a nd w e r e i m a gi ne d w i t h a s m uc h de t a i l a nd a c c ur a c y a s t he i ndi vi dua l s i nge r w a s a bl e S om e pa r t i c i pa nt s m e nt i one d m a ki ng l i s t s w r i t i ng dow n de t a i l s dr a w i ng pi c t ur e s a nd c l e a r l y i de nt i f yi ng t he pa r t i c ul a r s of w ha t t he y w a nt e d t o a c c om pl i s h. S e v e r a l s i nge r s c ont i nua l l y he l d i n m i nd t h e l ong t e r m ove r a l l vi s i on of t he i r goa l s w hi l e ot he r s w e r e m or e i n t e r e s t e d i n e nj oyi ng a nd a r t i s t i c a l l y c r a f t i ng e a c h pe r f o r m a nc e T e a c he r s c oul d he l p s t ude nt s by e nc our a gi ng t he m s pe c i f i c a l l y i de nt i f y de s c r i be i l l us t r a t e a nd vi vi dl y i m a gi ne t he i r i m m e di a t e a nd f a r r e a c hi ng goa l s S t ude nt s c oul d be a s s i s t e d i n de ve l opi ng t he i r ow n out c om e pe r f or m a nc e a nd pr oc e s s goa l s i n t he i r m us i c a l e f f or t s a s w e l l a s w a ys t o us e i m a ge r y t o a c c om pl i s h t he m A l l ow i ng s t ude nt s t o i nt e r na l i z e t he m us i c by pr ovi di ng t i m e a nd t r a i ni ng i n i m a ge r y, a nd gi vi ng s t ude nt s oppor t uni t i e s t o di r e c t t he i r ow n e duc a t i ona l a nd pe r s ona l goa l s c oul d s i gni f i c a nt l y i nc r e a s e l e a r ni n g a nd unde r s t a ndi ng a s w e l l a s de ve l op a l i f e l ong s ki l l a nd pe r s ona l a ut onom y. T hi s c oul d pr ovi de t he oppor t uni t y f o r t he s i nge r t o s ha r e t he r e s pons i bi l i t y f or t he i r de ve l opm e nt a n d e ve nt ua l l y a s s um e t he f ul l c ons c i ous di r e c t i on a nd pr ogr e s s of t he i r c a r e e r M ode l i ng V oc a l pr of e s s i ona l s i n t hi s s t udy r e c a l l e d w a t c hi ng l i s t e ni ng t o a nd be i ng i ns pi r e d by out s t a ndi ng s i nge r s T he s e m ode l s pr o vi de d i de a l i m a ge s i n s ound, a ppe a r a nc e m ove m e nt a nd c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on f o r t h e s i nge r s t o e m ul a t e i n t he i r ow n pe r f or m a nc e s w hi c h s uppor t e d B a ndur a s s e l f e f f i c a c y t he or y ( B a ndur a 1977, 1986,

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297 1997; B a ndur a & J e f f e r i e s 19 73) P r ovi di ng e xc e l l e nt m ode l s i n va r i ous c a pa c i t i e s f or s i nge r s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s c hor us ge ne r a l m us i c a n d young c hi l dr e n c oul d pos i t i ve l y i nf l ue nc e t he i r voc a l a nd m us i c a l de ve l opm e nt F u r t he r m or e t he p r a c t i c e of l i s t e ni ng t o e xc e l l e nt m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e s s e r ve s t o bui l d a s t r ong s t or e hous e of m us i c a l s ounds O f t e n m us i c pr ogr a m s ha ve e m pha s i z e d pl a yi ng a nd phys i c a l i nvol ve m e nt w i t h pe r f or m a nc e how e ve r t he s e r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t w a t c hi ng a nd he a r i ng e xe m pl a r y m ode l s of pe r f o r m a nc e s c oul d s e r ve t o gu i de a g r o w i ng m us i c i a n i n w a ys t ha t w oul d f a r e xc e e d c ons t a nt phys i c a l pr a c t i c e E m pl oyi ng e xpe r t m ode l s a s t e a c he r s a nd e duc a t or s m a y s i gni f i c a nt l y a f f e c t t he pr og r e s s of t he s t ude nt i n a va r i e t y of f i e l ds M us i c al Sound I m age r y A not he r i m por t a nt f i ndi ng t ha t e m e r ge d i n t he s e i nt e r vi e w s w a s t ha t s i nge r s m e nt a l l y he a r d a w i de va r i e t y o f s ounds i n t he i r i m a ge r y. A l l s i nge r s m e nt a l l y pr a c t i c e d s ongs a nd r ol e s he a r i ng va r i ous e l e m e nt s s uc h a s t he f i r s t a t t a c k, pi t c h, t one qua l i t y, t e xt phr a s e s e nt i r e s on g, a nd va r i ous pa r t s o f t he a c c om pa ni m e nt O ve r t he ye a r s m a ny ha d de ve l ope d a n e ve r y e vol vi ng i de a l s ound i m a ge w hi c h s e r ve d t o gui de voc a l pr oduc t i on T hi s i ndi vi dua l i z e d s ound i m a ge de ve l ope d a s t he voc a l i s t gr e w a s a pr of e s s i ona l a nd i nc or por a t e d t he s t or e hous e of m us i c a l s ound qua l i t i e s t he y ha d he a r d a nd e xpe r i e nc e d ove r t he ye a r s B ui l di ng t hi s pe r s ona l i z e d voc a l or m us i c a l s ound c a n be pr ovi de d be gi nni ng i n i n f a nc y a nd e ve n p r i or t o be i ng bor n ( e g. W oodw a r d, 1992) a nd c ont i nue t hr oughout c hi l dho od a dul t hood a nd t he e nt i r e l i f e t i m e A s t he s e s i nge r s pr a c t i c e d a udi t or y i m a ge r y i n m us i c t he y be c a m e m o r e a c c om pl i s he d i n m e nt a l l y he a r i ng m or e m us i c a l c o m pone nt s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s m us i c a l e xpe r i e nc e s r e pr e s e nt e d i m i t a t i ona l a s pe c t s of a udi a t i on ( G or don 2007 ) w hi c h i nvol ve d

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298 r e c a l l i ng a nd pe r f o r m i ng f a m i l i a r m us i c f r om m e m or y ( p 15 ) W hi l e m os t s i nge r s r e por t e d m e nt a l l y he a r i ng t he m e l ody a nd a c c om p a ni m e nt e s pe c i a l l y w i t h r e ga r d t o m e m or i z a t i on, ve r y f e w m e nt i one d a t t e ndi ng t o t h e m us i c a l e l e m e nt s of r hyt h m t ona l i t y, or c ont e xt E ve n t hough i t c oul d not be a s s um e d t h a t t he s e w e r e not a pa r t o f t he i r a udi t or y i m a ge r y t he f a c t t ha t t he s e m us i c a l i m a ge s w e r e om i t t e d m a y be c a us e f or c onc e r n. N o s i nge r m e nt i one d he a r i ng a ny a l t e r a t i on of t he s e phr a s e s or m e l odi e s s uc h a s he a r i ng m us i c a l c om pos i t i ons i n di f f e r e nt t ona l i t i e s or r hyt h m s w hi c h w oul d ha ve pr ovi de d e vi de nc e f or m or e de ve l ope d a udi a t i on a bi l i t i e s a s de f i ne d by G o r don ( 1999 2007) H ow e ve r l e a r ni ng a nd a ppl yi ng f ur t he r t r a i ni ng i n a udi a t i on c oul d p r ovi de f a c i l i t y i n m e m or i z a t i on s ki l l s pi t c h a nd voc a l pr oduc t i on de e pe r unde r s t a ndi ng of m us i c a l c ont e xt s ki l l i n i m pr ov i s a t i on a s w e l l a s c om pos i t i on, a nd ot he r t e c hni que s us e d t o de ve l op a udi t or y a bi l i t i e s i n m us i c T hi s ha s be e n e xe m pl i f i e d i n a num be r o f t e xt s on m us i c l e a r ni ng ( A z a r r a 1992 1999; G r unow 2 001 ; L i pe r ot e 2006; R e ynol ds V a l e r i o B ol t on, T a gga r t & G or don 1998 ) A not he r voc a l pr oduc t i on i s s ue w hi c h e m e r ge d f r om t he i nt e r v i e w s w a s s i nge r s i na bi l i t y t o t r us t t he i r voc a l s ounds a nd t he r e f or e t he i r a udi t or y i m a ge s pr e f e r r i ng t o ki ne s t he t i c a l l y f e e l t he pl a c e m e nt f o r e a c h t one S e ve r a l of t he m pur pos e f ul l y de c l a r e d t ha t t he y di d not he a r m us i c a l s ounds i nt e r na l l y a s a r e s ul t of t he i r t e a c he r s pr e ve nt i ng t he m f r om de ve l opi ng a ny r e l i a nc e on t he i r i nt e r na l a udi t or y i m a ge s T hi s de pe nde nc e on t he ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng of t he c om pone nt s t o pr odu c e s pe c i f i c s ounds s e e m e d t o s uppl a nt t he i r us e a nd de ve l opm e nt o f i nt e r na l i z e d m us i c a l s ound i m a ge s a pr a c t i c e w hi c h ha d be e n s uppor t e d i n t he pe da gogi c t e xt s ( e g F a r r a r c i t e d i n B r ow e r & C ooke 1996; L a m pe r t i c i t e d i n B r ow n 1931/ 1973 ) W i t h t he e xt e ns i ve w or k done i n a udi a t i on a nd

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299 m us i c l e a r ni ng t he or y of G o r don ( 1976, 1999, 200 3z 2003b, 2007) he a vi l y de pe ndi ng on bodi l y f e e l i ng i n voc a l pr oduc t i on m i ght s e e m c ount e r i nt ui t i ve t o t he na t ur a l de ve l opm e nt of a m us i c i a n, a nd pa r t i c ul a r l y a pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r W hi l e t he va r i e t y of a c ous t i c s i n va r i ous ve nue s m a y unde r m i ne a voc a l i s t s c onf i de nc e i n pr oduc i ng c or r e c t i nt ona t i on, de ve l opi n g m us i c a l a udi t or y i m a ge r y a bi l i t y w oul d s e e m t o t a ke pr e c e de nc e I f t e a c he r s of voi c e w oul d a l l ow t he i r s t ude nt s t o c onne c t bot h a ur a l l y a nd ki ne s t he t i c a l l y t o t he s ounds t he y ne e d t o pr oduc e pe r ha ps t hi s w oul d f ur t he r but t r e s s s i nge r s s ki l l c onf i de nc e a nd s e l f r e l i a nc e i n t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e e xpe r i e nc e s w hi l e a l l ow i ng a ur a l i m a ge r y s ki l l s t o de ve l op na t ur a l l y. U s e of t he Se ns e s S i nge r s i m a ge r y pr i m a r i l y i nvol ve d s i ght a udi t o r y, a nd ki ne s t he t i c s e ns e s w hi c h w e r e c ons i de r e d t o be i nt r i ns i c t o voc a l pe r f o r m a n c e T hi s ha s s i gni f i c a nt i m pl i c a t i ons f o r m us i c e duc a t i on pr ogr a m s of a l l ki nds t o s t r e ngt he n us e of t he s e s e ns e s i n i m a ge r y. T r a di t i ona l m us i c pr ogr a m s ha ve o f t e n f oc us e d on m us i c l i t e r a c y, w hi c h de ve l ope d c e r t a i n a s pe c t s of s i ght a s i t r e l a t e d t o v oc a l a nd i n s t r um e nt a l s ound. H ol m e s a nd C ol l i ns ( 2002) ha ve a c know l e dge d t ha t l e a r ni ng us ua l l y be gi ns w i t h vi s ua l or a udi t or y i m a ge r y ( i n t he c a s e of m us i c a l t r a i ni ng ) a nd t he n t he ki ne s t he t i c s e ns e w a s s ub s e que nt l y i nc or por a t e d. P r ogr a m s t ha t i nc or por a t e d s i ngi ng, pl a yi ng, a nd m ove m e nt ha ve he l pe d i nc or por a t e m or e ki ne s t he t i c a c t i vi t y i n m us i c a l de ve l opm e nt O r f f ( W a r ne r 1991) L a ba n ( 1975, 1984) a nd D a l c r oz e ( J a que s D a l c r oz e 1920/ 1972; J os e ph, 1982) ha d l ong r e c ogni z e d t he ne c e s s i t y of de ve l opi ng ki ne s t he t i c a bi l i t i e s i n m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e E l e m e nt a r y m us i c m e t hods s uc h a s O r f f S c hl w e r k, K od l y D a l c r oz e ( s e e C hoks y, A br a m s on, G i l l e s pi e W oods & Y or k 2001; L a ndi s & C a r t e r 1972) a nd m us i c l e a r ni ng

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300 t he or y ( G or don 2007 ; R e ynol ds e t a l 1998 ) ha ve i nc or por a t e d di f f e r e nt a s pe c t s of vi s ua l a udi t or y, a nd ki ne s t he t i c s e ns e s i n t he i r pr o gr a m s D e ve l opi ng t he s e s e ns e s i n i m a ge r y c oul d be i nc or por a t e d i n t o a l l ge ne r a l m us i c pr ogr a m s a s w e l l a s p r i va t e i ns t r uc t i on. M us i c e duc a t i on t e xt s e r i e s w oul d be ne f i t c h i l dr e n s m us i c de ve l opm e nt i f t he y i nc or por a t e d i m a ge r y t r a i n i ng i n de ve l opi ng t he s e t hr e e s e ns e s i n m us i c pl a y a nd pe r f or m a nc e T hi s w oul d a l s o r e qui r e t he ge ne r a l m us i c t e a c he r t o unde r s t a nd how t o i m pl e m e nt s pe c i f i c s t r a t e gi e s i n va l ui ng i m a ge r y, d i r e c t i ng s pe c i f i c m e nt a l t a s ks a nd pr ovi di ng t i m e t o a c t i ve l y e nga ge i n i m a ge r y B ody R e l at e d I m age r y A s i gni f i c a nt f i ndi ng i nc l ude d pa r t i c i pa nt s e xt e ns i ve de s c r i pt i ons of t he i r us e of body r e l a t e d i m a ge r y T he i r i m a ge s of t he e f f e c t s of t he i r f e e l i ngs a nd e xpe r i e nc e s ha d on t he i r phys i c a l body w e r e r e m a r ka bl e T he s e s i nge r s w e r e s e ns i t i ve t o t he m a ny i nt r i c a c i e s of t he voc a l a na t om y a s w e l l a s how t he y a ppe a r e d on s t a ge w he t he r i t w a s how t he y w or e t he i r c os t um e s t he pos i t i on a nd a l i gnm e nt of t he i r body o r how t he i r m ove m e nt s a f f e c t e d t he be l i e va bi l i t y of t he i r c ha r a c t e r S e ve r a l of t he s i nge r s m e nt i one d r e qui r i ng f e e dba c k i n t he s e a r e a s s o t he y c oul d i nc o r por a t e t he c or r e s pondi ng ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ngs i n or de r t o r e pr oduc e t he s e e f f e c t s a t w i l l T hi s w a s a c c om pl i s he d by s ol i c i t i ng t he r e s pons e s of a s e ns i t i ve f r i e nd or t e a c he r a s w e l l a s obs e r vi ng vi de o r e c or d i ngs of t he i r pr a c t i c e s a nd pe r f or m a nc e s T he s e s ki l l s i n c or r e l a t i ng phys i c a l a ppe a r a nc e be ha vi or a nd m ove m e nt w i t h k i ne s t he t i c i m a ge s gr e w ove r t i m e a nd w i t h c ont i nue d e xpe r i e nc e P r ovi di ng t he s e t ype s of pe r f o r m a nc e e xpe r i e nc e a nd oppor t uni t i e s f or f e e dba c k i n a voc a l t r a i ni ng p r ogr a m c oul d a s s i s t i n bui l di ng a s t or e hous e of ki ne s t he t i c m e m or i e s a nd i m a ge s t o be us e d a ppr opr i a t e l y f or s pe c i f i c pe r f o r m a nc e pur pos e s T hi s w oul d bu i l d

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301 a ut onom y a nd e f f e c t i ve s e l f gove r ni ng be ha vi o r a l a nd pe r f or m a nc e t e c hni que s s o ne c e s s a r y i n a pr o f e s s i ona l s i ngi ng c a r e e r H e al i ng I m age r y H e a l i ng i m a ge s i nc l ude d bot h t he ove r a l l he a l t h of t he body a nd a t t i m e s m or e i m por t a nt l y, t he voc a l m e c ha ni s m P a r t i c i pa nt s r e ve a l e d us i ng i m a ge r y t o a s s i s t t he m dur i ng t i m e s o f i l l ne s s f a t i gue a nd e xha us t i on. I m a ge s of opt i m a l he a l t h he l pe d t he s e s i nge r s a ve r t i l l ne s s a nd t a ke t he ne c e s s a r y pr e c a ut i ons s o t ha t i m m i ne nt s i c kne s s w o ul d not t a ke r oot i n t he i r body M a ny us e d m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t o a ugm e nt phys i c a l pr a c t i c e dur i ng t i m e s w he n s i ngi ng w a s not pos s i bl e or a dvi s a bl e O t he r s i nge r s i m a gi ne d t he r e l e a s e of a l l unne c e s s a r y t e ns i on, pa r t i c ul a r l y i n t he f a c e ne c k, a nd t h r oa t s o t ha t i nj u r y t o t he voc a l m e c ha ni s m c oul d be a voi de d. T he s e i m a ge r y pr a c t i c e s c oul d be t a ught t o t e a c he r s a s w e l l a s de ve l opi ng a nd pr of e s s i ona l m u s i c i a ns P a r t i c ul a r i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons c oul d be m a de s o t ha t s i nge r s c oul d m a i nt a i n e xc e l l e nt he a l t h a nd r e c ove r qui c kl y f r om i l l ne s s or i nj ur y A s r e c om m e nde d i n t he s por t l i t e r a t ur e ( M or r i s e t a l 2005) t he s i nge r or m us i c i a n w oul d ne e d t o ha ve c l e a r a nd a c c ur a t e m e nt a l p i c t ur e s of t he he a l t hy s t a t e of t he s pe c i f i c or a f f e c t e d a r e a of t he body. A na t om i c a l pi c t ur e s or vi de os of t he a c t ua l m ove m e nt of t ha t pa r t of t he b ody c oul d a s s i s t i n i m a ge r y p r a c t i c e s A r ous al M odi f i c at i on T he s e voc a l i s t s us e d i m a ge r y e xt e ns i ve l y t o he l p c a l m e ne r gi z e a nd ul t i m a t e l y ba l a nc e t he i r a r ous a l l e ve l s M os t of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s f e l t a l e r t a nd r e a dy t o pe r f or m on s t a ge a nd ha d a l l e vi a t e d m os t of t he i r pr obl e m s w i t h s t a ge f r i ght a nd m a i nt a i ne d a c om f or t a bl e a nd e nj oya bl e l e ve l of a r ous a l i n pe r f o r m i ng. T he va r i ous m e t hods t he s e s i nge r s us e d t o a c hi e ve t he pr ope r e ne r gy ba l a nc e f or opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e c oul d be

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302 i nc or por a t e d i nt o voc a l t r a i ni ng I m a gi ni ng t he e a s e a nd c ont r ol of b r e a t h, c a l m i ng a nxi e t y, f e e l i ng r e l e a s e of unw a nt e d t e ns i on i n t he body, or br us hi ng t he de vi l o f f a s houl de r w e r e a l l e m pl oye d t o a l i gn t he m e nt a l a nd e m ot i o na l t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs f o r opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e M us i c s t ude nt s of a l l a ge s ha ve ha d t o c ope w i t h a dj us t i ng a r ous a l l e ve l s w he n t he y pe r f or m T he s e i s s ue s c oul d be a ddr e s s e d a nd r e s ol ve d w i t h pr ope r a nd a ppr opr i a t e a ppl i c a t i ons of i m a ge r y, a s put f or t h i n S c hm i dt s ( 1982) a t t e nt i on a r ous a l s e t t he or y. T he he l p of a s e ns i t i ve t e a c he r know l e dge a bl e i n a r ous a l i m a ge r y c oul d e a s i l y a l l e vi a t e t he s e f e a r s T e a c he r s c oul d o f f e r t he i r s t ude nt s a va r i e t y of i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons f r om w hi c h t o c hoos e t o he l p e ve r y i ndi vi dua l t he y t a ught l e a r n t o e m body t he opt i m a l a r ous a l l e ve l s f or e a c h pa r t i c ul a r pe r f or m a nc e Se l f E f f i c ac y and M as t e r y T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s a l l de s c r i be d f e e l i ngs of c onf i de nc e m a s t e r y, a nd hi gh l e ve l s of s e l f e f f i c a c y. T he pr oc e s s us ua l l y be ga n w i t h s i nge r s f oc us i ng, c onc e nt r a t i ng, a nd c ont r ol l i ng a t t e nt i on t o t he s pe c i f i c pe r f o r m a nc e t a s k a nd di m i ni s hi ng di s t r a c t i ons T he us e of t hought s t oppi ng a nd pos i t i ve s e l f t a l k a l s o gr e a t l y c ont r i but e d t o s t r e ngt he ni ng t he i r c onf i de nc e e s pe c i a l l y dur i ng a udi t i ons r e he a r s a l s a nd pe r f o r m a nc e s M or e s uc c e s s f ul e xpe r i e nc e s s e e m e d t o i nc r e a s e f e e l i ngs of s e l f e f f i c a c y ( B a ndur a 1997) w hi c h a l s o pos i t i ve l y a f f e c t e d f u t ur e pe r f or m a nc e s P r ovi di ng de ve l opi ng s i nge r s w i t h a udi t i on a nd pe r f o r m a nc e s i m ul a t i ons c oul d h e l p t he m de ve l op t he s ki l l s i n c onc e nt r a t i on, t he us e o f s e l f t a l k t o m a i n t a i n c onf i de nc e a nd bui l d s e l f e f f i c a c i ous f e e l i ngs r e l a t e d t o t he a c t ua l e xpe r i e nc e s of pe r f or m a nc e T e a c he r s c oul d a l s o a s s i s t s t ude nt s i n w a ys t o de a l w i t h ne ga t i ve s e l f c r i t i c i s m a nd us e i m a ge r y t o s t r e ngt he n t he i r

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303 s e l f i m a ge t hought s a nd f e e l i ngs t ha t f a c i l i t a t e op t i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e s e a r l y i n t he i r t r a i ni ng. C har ac t e r D e v e l opm e nt F ur t he r i m pl i c a t i ons f or de ve l opi ng t he m a ny a s pe c t s of i m a ge r y a r e di r e c t l y i nvol ve d w i t h c ha r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt P a r t i c i pa nt s us e d i m a ge r y t o voc a l l y phys i c a l l y, a nd a r t i s t i c a l l y e m body t he c ha r a c t e r of t he r ol e or s ong. P r e c i s e l y i m a gi ni ng t he de s i r e d s ound qua l i t y, a ppe a r a nc e h i s t or i c a l a nd c ul t u r a l b a c kgr ound, a nd phys i c a l ge s t ur e s a nd m ove m e nt of t he c ha r a c t e r w a s c r i t i c a l t o a c hi e vi n g opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e f or t he s e pr of e s s i ona l s A l l s i nge r s hi ghl y va l ue d r e c r e a t i ng t he e m ot i on of t he s ong o r c ha r a c t e r pa r t i c ul a r l y by us i ng m e m or i e s of pa s t e xpe r i e nc e s a s de s c r i be d i n C r a i g ( 1993) M or e e f f or t i n i nc or po r a t i ng t he s e i m a ge r y e l e m e nt s i n v oc a l t r a i ni ng c oul d be m a de L e a r ni ng pr ope r voc a l t e c hni que r e pr e s e nt s onl y a s m a l l pa r t of t he r e qui r e d s ki l l s t o be c om e a pr of e s s i ona l O f t e n t he s e a c t i ng e s s e nt i a l s a r e l e f t f or s i nge r s t o l e a r n m uc h l a t e r i n t h e i r t r a i ni ng. S e ve r a l pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d t r a i ni ng i n a c t i ng s pe c i f i c a l l y i n M e t hod A c t i ng ( S t a ni s l a vs ky; 1961; S t r a s be r g & M or phos 1987) a nd f ound t ha t t he i r a bi l i t i e s t o e m body t he i r c ha r a c t e r s i nc r e a s e d a nd de e pe ne d i m m e ns e l y, r e s ul t i ng i n m or e e xp r e s s i ve voc a l pe r f or m a nc e s S i nge r s a s w e l l a s voi c e t e a c h e r s c oul d gr e a t l y be ne f i t f r om t r a i ni ng a nd e xpe r i e nc e i n a c t i ng a nd dr a m a t i c s T he s oone r young s i nge r s i nc o r por a t e t he s e m e nt a l s e ns or y, a nd e m ot i ona l c om pone nt s i n t he i r pe r f o r m a nc e t he m or e a de pt a t e m bodyi ng t he m t he y c oul d be c om e w hi c h c oul d pos i t i ve l y i nf l ue nc e t he i r w or k on s t a ge a nd pos s i bl y t he c our s e of t he i r c a r e e r

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304 C om m uni c at i on w i t h t he A ud i e nc e S i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e ve r y a r t i c ul a t e a nd s om e w ha t pa s s i ona t e a bout t he i r i m a ge r y of c o m m uni c a t i ng w i t h t he a udi e nc e T hi s s e e m e d t o be m o r e pr onounc e d i n pr of e s s i ona l s w i t h m or e e xpe r i e nc e on s t a ge t ha n t hos e w i t h l e s s I t a ppe a r e d t ha t voc a l i s t s w e r e a bl e t o e nga ge i n t h i s t ype of i m a ge r y w he n t he y ha d a c hi e ve d a c e r t a i n de gr e e of a ut om a t i c i t y w i t h voc a l t e c hni que t he m us i c t o be pe r f o r m e d, a nd a l e ve l of pe r s ona l c om f or t i n be i ng i n f r ont o f a l i ve a udi e nc e T he s e i m a ge s va r i e d by t he de g r e e of i nt e r a c t i on w i t h w hi c h t he s i nge r s w e r e c om f o r t a bl e t he i r c r e a t i ve i m a ge s a nd t he qua l i t y of c om m uni c a t i on i n w hi c h t he y s a w t he m s e l ve s e nga gi ng. S e ve r a l m e nt i one d ve r y pe r s ona l i n t i m a t e a nd de e pl y s pi r i t ua l i m a ge s w hi c h di r e c t l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h t he i r ow n unde r s t a ndi ng of w hy t he y ha d be c om e pr of e s s i ona l s i nge r s T hi s w a s a n i nt e r a c t i on t ha t s e e m e d t o de ve l op ove r t i m e a nd w a s e xt r e m e l y i ndi vi dua l i z e d. H ow e ve r i t c oul d be a n a r e a of i m a ge r y voc a l i s t s c oul d de ve l op e i t he r o n t he i r ow n or w i t h t he a s s i s t a nc e of a c a r i ng a nd s e ns i t i ve t e a c he r s i nc e t he s e i m a ge s a r e r e l a t i ve l y pe r s ona l T he s e i m a ge s c a n e vol ve a nd m a t ur e t o a s i gni f i c a nt l e ve l w hi c h c ou l d pos i t i ve l y e nga ge t he s i nge r i n a r i c he r e xpe r i e nc e of s i ngi ng on s t a ge pr om ot i ng f ur t he r opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e s U s i ng A dv anc e d T e c hnol ogy t o F ac i l i t at e I m age r y D e v e l opm e nt S i nge r s r e gul a r l y r e por t e d t he be ne f i t s t he y ha d l o ng e nj oye d i n us i ng i m a ge r y i n t he i r pr o f e s s i on, e m pl oyi ng di f f e r e nt ki nds of i m a g e r y f or m a ny pu r pos e s B y us i ng a dva nc e d t e c hnol ogy, s uc h a s t he f l e xi bl e f i br os c o pe or t he l a r ynge a l i m a ge b i of e e dba c k ( L I B ) m e di c a l i m a gi ng s ys t e m s i nge r s c oul d vi e w t he i r ow n voc a l m e c ha ni s m w hi c h c oul d a s s i s t t he m i n c l e a r l y i m a gi ni ng t he he a l t hy s t a t e of t he i r voi c e I t c oul d a l s o f a c i l i t a t e unde r s t a ndi ng t he m e c ha ni s m s i nvol ve d i n i de a l s ound pr oduc t i on a s C l e ve l a nd

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305 ( 1989a ) f ound i n h i s s i nge r s F u r t he r m or e t e a c he r s c oul d i nc or por a t e I nt e r ne t gr a phi c a udi o, a nd vi de o i m a ge s i n p r ovi di ng e xc e l l e nt m o de l s a nd e xa m pl e s of e l i t e s i nge r s f or s t ude nt s t o e m ul a t e T he r e c e nt a ddi t i on of w e bs i t e s s uc h a s w w w yout ube c om a nd w w w e xpe r t vi l l a ge c om on t he I n t e r ne t ha s pr ov i d e d a w e a l t h of e xa m pl e s i n s i ngi ng a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e t ha t ha s he r e t o f or e no t be e n a va i l a bl e I n bui l di ng i de a l i m a ge s of s ound, e xe c ut i on, a nd va r i e t y o f i m a ge s f o r pe r f or m e r s t hi s c oul d be a pot e nt i a l gol d m i ne a nd t he us e of good m ode l s f r om i t c oul d be s t r ongl y e nc our a ge d. W i t h t he gui da nc e of know l e dge a bl e voc a l i ns t r uc t or s t he s t ude nt s i nge r s w oul d us e m ode l i ng i n t he e f f or t t o f i nd t he gr e a t qua l i t i e s of t he i r ow n vo i c e s a nd a voi d t he a dve r s e e f f e c t s of m i m i c ki ng i na ppr op r i a t e m ode l s B y unde r s t a ndi ng t he s pe c i f i c s of voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s us e of i m a ge r y c ont e nt a nd pur pos e s i nge r s t e a c he r s voc a l pr of e s s or s a nd m us i c e duc a t or s of a l l ki nds c oul d a s s i s t t he i r s t ude nt s i n i nc or po r a t i ng t he a ppr opr i a t e a ppl i c a t i ons of i m a ge r y i n t he i r s t ude nt s e duc a t i on, t r a i ni ng p r a c t i c e a nd pe r f or m a nc e T he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s ha ve pr ovi de d e vi de nc e t ha t i m a ge r y us e by a t hl e t e s a nd da nc e r s c om pa r e s qui t e f a vor a bl y t o how voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s ha ve us e d i m a ge r y, e ve n i f t he t e r m i nol ogy a nd s e m a nt i c s m a y di f f e r T e a c he r s s t ude nt s a nd pr o f e s s i ona l s c oul d unde r s t a nd a nd a ppr opr i a t e l y us e t he t ype s c ont e nt a nd f unc t i ons of i m a ge r y i n a ddr e s s i ng voc a l m us i c a l a nd pe r f or m a nc e i s s ue s a nd r e qui r e m e nt T he s e f i nd i ngs c oul d be i m p l e m e nt e d i n voc a l p r ogr a m s i ns t r um e nt a l a nd e ns e m bl e gr oups ge ne r a l m us i c e duc a t i on, a nd e ve n e a r l y c hi l dhood m us i c T he r e f o r e t he l i nk be t w e e n i m a ge r y us e i n a t hl e t i c s a nd voc a l pe r f or m e r s a s e xe m pl i f i e d i n t h i s s t udy a nd t he pr opos e d s i nge r s i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k, pr ovi de s a ba s i s upon w hi c h t o bu i l d t hi s t r a i ni ng a nd m e t hods of i m pl e m e nt a t i on.

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306 R e c om m e ndat i ons f or F ur t he r R e s e ar c h T hi s s t udy pr ovi de d e vi de nc e t ha t e xt e ns i ve f ut u r e r e s e a r c h i n t he a r e a o f i m a ge r y i n pe r f or m a nc e i s w a r r a nt e d. S pe c i f i c i de a s f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h i nc l ude d ni ne a r e a s : ( a ) r e pl i c a t i on of t hi s s t udy, ( b) i m a ge r y i n t he pe r f or m a nc e pr oc e s s ( c ) i m a ge r y f o r voc a l pr oduc t i on, ( d) a ppl i c a t i ons i n i m a ge r y t r a i ni ng ( e ) m us i c a l pe r f o r m e r s us e o f i m a ge r y ( f ) s e ns or y i m a ge r y, ( g) c hi l dr e n s us e o f i m a ge r y ( h) qua nt i t a t i ve s t udi e s ( i ) m us i c t e a c he r s i m a ge r y, ( j ) r e l a t i ons hi p of f l ow a nd i m a ge r y, ( k) f unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e of pe r f or m e r s i m a ge r y, a nd ( l ) c r os s di s c i pl i na r y s t udi e s R e pl i c at i on of t he St udy R e c om m e nda t i ons f or r e pl i c a t i ng t h i s s t udy w oul d i nvol ve s hor t e ni ng t he f i r s t t hr e e s e c t i ons of t he s i nge r s i nt e r vi e w gui de a s w e l l a s a ddi ng t he c ha nge s m e nt i one d pr e vi ous l y i n t hi s a nd t he pr e vi ous c ha pt e r I t m a y be a dvi s a bl e t o na r r ow t he f i e l d of pa r t i c i pa nt s t o a pe r i m e t e r l i m i t i ng t he ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e ge nr e o f s i ngi ng, or voi c e c l a s s i f i c a t i on. F ut ur e s t udi e s c oul d a l s o be de s i gne d t o c om pa r e i m a ge r y o f one voc a l or i ns t r um e nt a l gr oup w i t h a not he r pe r ha ps ol de r pr o f e s s i ona l s w i t h younge r ba s s e s w i t h t e nor s m e z z os w i t h s opr a nos c onc e r t pe r f o r m e r s w i t h ope r a s i nge r s o r s t r i ng w i t h w oodw i nd s ol oi s t s t o i de nt i f y di f f e r e nc e s a nd c om m ona l i t i e s i n t he i r us e of i m a ge r y. I t m a y pr ove a dva nt a ge ous t o l i m i t t he i nt e r vi e w t o a s pe c i f i c a r e a of i m a ge r y us e by s pe c i f i c popul a t i ons T hi s m a y a l l ow f or a l a r ge r s a m pl e a nd m or e i n de pt h da t a m a y e m e r ge pr ovi di ng a m o r e c om pl e t e unde r s t a ndi ng of i m a ge r y us e s t o e m e r ge A c qui r i ng s ki l l i n i nt e r v i e w i ng a nd ps yc hol ogy of i m a ge r y i s r e c om m e nde d. R e s e a r c he r s de di c a t e d t o unc ove r i ng de e p f e e l i ngs a nd i m a ge s t ha t a r e s om e t i m e s onl y ba r e l y c ons c i ous a r e ne e de d f or t hi s t ype of r e s e a r c h.

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307 I m age r y i n t he P e r f or m anc e P r oc e s s S e ve r a l s i nge r s de s c r i be d i m a ge r y us e i n t he i r l e a r ni ng s e que nc e s a nd pr oc e s s e s R e s e a r c he r s c oul d e xa m i ne i ndi vi dua l voc a l i s t s or i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s i n t he m e t hods of i m a ge r y t he y e m pl oy i n t he pe r f o r m a nc e pr oc e s s be gi nni ng w i t h f i r s t l e a r ni ng a pi e c e t o f or m a l p r e s e nt a t i on on s t a ge F u r t he r m or e voc a l i s t s i n t hi s s t udy r e po r t e d us i ng i m a ge r y pr i m a r i l y du r i ng p r a c t i c e s a nd j us t pr i o r t o pe r f o r m a nc e s I nve s t i ga t i ng t he di f f e r e nc e s i n how m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s us e i m a ge r y be f o r e du r i n g, a nd a f t e r p r a c t i c e s e s s i ons f or m a l r e he a r s a l s a nd pe r f or m a nc e s c oul d r e ve a l i m por t a nt f i ndi ngs t ha t a s s i s t m us i c i a ns i n a c hi e vi ng e xc e l l e nc e S i ng e r s i m a ge r y e xpe r i e nc e c oul d be i nve s t i ga t e d by a l l ow i ng t he m t o j ou r na l e i t he r i n w r i t i ng o r by a udi o o r vi d e o r e c or di ng t he i r t hought s a nd i m a ge s a s t he y pr ogr e s s f r om i ni t i a l pr a c t i c e t hr ough t he l a s t pe r f or m a nc e w hi c h w a s s i m i l a r t o K os s l yn a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 1990) s t udy. I m age r y f or V oc al P r oduc t i on T he i s s ue of us i ng m e t a pho r s a nd a na t om i c a l i m a g e r y i n voc a l pr oduc t i on c oul d be i nve s t i ga t e d. M or e de t a i l s a nd us e s of m e t a phor s c oul d be c om pi l e d a l ong w i t h i t s i nt e nde d pur pos e e xt e ndi ng t he w or k of B a r t e n ( 1 992, 1998) F i e l ds ( 1945) a nd F r e e d ( 2000) S t udi e s i nve s t i ga t i ng r e a s ons a nd va r i a bl e s f or us i ng m e t a phor a nd a na t om y i n voc a l pr oduc t i on c oul d pr ovi de unde r s t a ndi ng i n m a t c hi ng t he t ype o f i m a ge w i t h t he ne e ds of t he s i nge r F ur t he r i nve s t i ga t i on i s a l s o ne e de d t o a s how t o m os t a ppr opr i a t e l y t r a i n s i nge r s i n voc a l m e c ha ni c s a nd a na t om y ( C ha pm a n, 2006; V e nna r d, 1968 ) a nd a ppl y t hi s know l e dge i n t he i r i m a ge r y t h r ough t he s e ns e s of vi s i on, he a r i ng a nd ki ne s t he t i c f e e l i ng. K now l e dge a nd i m a ge r y r e s ul t i ng f r om s i nge r s t r a i n i ng i n a na t om y a nd t he i r pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e s of vi e w i ng t he i r ow n voc a l m e c ha ni s m t hr ough a f l e xi bl e

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308 f i br os c ope a nd a l a r ynge a l i m a ge bi of e e dba c k ( L I B ) m e di c a l i m a gi ng s ys t e m c oul d a l s o be i nve s t i ga t e d, e xt e ndi ng C l e ve l a nd s ( 1 989a 19 89b) s t udi e s A ppl i c at i ons i n I m age r y T r ai ni ng T r a i ni ng p r ogr a m s i n i m a ge r y i n t e r ve nt i ons c oul d be de s i gne d, us i ng t he s i nge r s i m a ge r y f r a m e w or k f or di f f e r e nt m us i c a l pe r f o r m e r s a nd t e s t e d f or e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n pe r f or m a nc e e xpe r i e nc e s C ha nge s i n i m a ge r y us e ove r t i m e a s a r e s ul t of t r a i ni ng ha ve be e n i nve s t i ga t e d i n a t hl e t i c s ( M a r t i n e t a l 1999 ) a nd c oul d be a ppl i e d a nd r e s e a r c he d i n s pe c i f i c popul a t i ons of m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s S pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng p r ogr a m s f o r i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons c oul d be de vi s e d a nd s t udi e d i n va r i ou s m us i c a l t e a c he r s a nd pe r f or m e r s s uc h a s s ol o i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s s m a l l a nd l a r ge e ns e m bl e gr oups c ho r us a nd ba nd, a nd m a ny m or e e xt e ndi ng t he w or k o f C onnol l y a nd W i l l i a m on ( 2004) S t udi e s c oul d a l s o be pl a nne d i n or de r t ha t i m a ge r y us e m a t c h t he m us i c a l ne e ds of t he pe r f or m e r s a nd be s ubs e que nt l y t e s t e d f or pe r c e i ve d e f f e c t i ve ne s s R e s ul t s of t he s e i nve s t i ga t i ons c oul d be c om pa r e d w i t h t hos e i n s por t a nd da nc e M us i c al P e r f or m e r s U s e of I m age r y T he f our W s of i m a ge r y us e c oul d b e e xpl or e d i n s i nge r s a nd i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s i n a va r i e t y of m us i c a l pe r f or m i ng ge nr e s ( e g. bl ue s p opul a r hi p hop, a nd r a p a r t i s t s ) I m a ge r y i n m us i c i a ns i n di f f e r e nt c ul t ur a l s e t t i ngs w i t hi n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s c oul d be e xa m i ne d a nd c om pa r e d w i t h ot he r pe r f or m e r s F u r t he r m or e i m a ge r y of i m pr ovi s i ng m us i c i a ns e s pe c i a l l y j a z z a r t i s t s c oul d be e xa m i n e d a nd a l s o c om pa r e d w i t h i m a ge r y us e d by m us i c i a ns t ha t m e m or i z e d or r e a d m us i c i n pe r f or m a nc e I m a ge r y of m us i c i a ns i n ot he r c ul t u r e s c oul d be i nve s t i ga t e d o n t he i r ow n t e r m s a nd c om pa r e d w i t h t hos e t ha t a r e c om m on i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s

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309 Se ns or y I m age r y A pot e nt i a l l y r i c h s our c e of i nf o r m a t i on on i m a ge r y r e s i de s i n f ut u r e i nve s t i ga t i on of t he va r i ous s e ns e s S i nge r s i n t hi s s t udy r e por t e d pr i m a r i l y us i ng vi s i o n, he a r i ng a nd ki ne s t he s i a i n i m a ge r y. H ow e ve r i nve s t i ga t i ons of ot he r m us i c a l pe r f or m e r s m a y r e ve a l di f f e r e nc e s a s w e r e r e por t e d by T r us he i m ( 1987) F ur t he r m or e i m a ge r y i n s pe c i f i c s e ns e s c oul d be s t udi e d. K i ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y i n a v a r i e t y of popul a t i o ns c oul d be t r a i ne d t hr ough m ove m e nt a ppl i c a t i ons a s de ve l ope d by v a r i ous e xpe r t s ( e g D a l c r oz e L a ba n, G or don, a nd O r f f ) a nd c om pa r e d w i t h ot he r a ppl i c a t i ons or a c ont r ol g r oup. T he s e ns e of s i ght t hr ough di f f e r e nt s ki l l s s uc h a s vi s ua l i z i ng t h e m us i c a l s c or e or i nt e r na l i m a ge s of a ke yboa r d c oul d be s t udi e d a s t o how i t i s us e d i n d e ve l opm e nt a nd t r a i ni ng i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e F ur t he r s t udi e s c oul d i nc l ude t he i nt e r a c t i on of i m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve i n s e ns e i m a ge r y, pa r t i c ul a r l y i n a udi t o r y i m a ge r y C ont i nue d s t udi e s i n a udi t or y i m a ge r y a nd a udi a t i on r e s e a r c h c oul d e xt e nd t he w or k of G or don ( 1999 2003b 2007 ) a nd h i s c ol l e a gue s ( A z a r r a 1992, 1999 ; G r unow 2001; L i pe r ot e 2006; R e ynol ds e t a l 1998 ) T he i nt e r a c t i on of di f f e r e nt s e ns e i m a ge r y s uc h a s c hr o m e s t he s i a ( P ol z e l l a & K una 1981) c oul d a l s o be i nve s t i ga t e d a s w e l l a s m a ny o t he r s e ns or y i nt e r a c t i ons C hi l dr e n s U s e of I m age r y I nve s t i ga t i ng c hi l dr e n s us e of i m a ge r y c oul d i nc l u de a w i de a r r a y of va r i a bl e s H ow i m a ge r y i s de ve l ope d, nur t u r e d, a nd u s e d i n c hi l dr e n i n a va r i e t y of a ge g r oups c oul d pr ovi de a w e a l t h of i nf or m a t i on. T hi s c oul d e xt e nd be yond t he m us i c s e t t i ng, i nt o i m a gi na r y pl a y, c r e a t i ve e nde a vor s s uc h a s f i ne a r t dr a m a t i c s a nd m ove m e nt e xt e ndi ng P i a ge t s ( 1962) w or k. T he i r us e of t h e di f f e r e nt s e ns e s i n i m a ge r y c oul d a l s o be s t udi e d l ongi t udi na l l y i n t he s e a r e a s T he us e of i m a ge r y i n t he ge ne r a l e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ng c oul d

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310 i nf or m t e a c he r s a s t o how t o va l ue a nd de ve l op i m a ge r y i n a va r i e t y of a c a de m i c a ppl i c a t i ons Q uant i t at i v e St udi e s M us i c i a n s i m a ge r y us e c oul d be a s s e s s e d qua nt i t a t i ve l y i n a va r i e t y o f w a ys T he F unc t i ons of I m a ge r y i n M us i c Q ue s t i onna i r e ( F I M Q ) ( G r e gg e t a l 2008) a da pt e d f r om t he S por t I m a ge r y Q ue s t i onna i r e ( S I Q ) ( H a l l e t a l 1998; H a l l e t a l 2005 ) c oul d c o nt i nue t o be i m pr ove d t o be t t e r r e pr e s e nt va r i ous pe r f or m i ng m us i c i a n s i m a ge r y a ppl i c a t i ons S he e ha n s ( 1972) s hor t e ne d a da pt a t i o n of B e t t s ( 1909) vi vi dne s s t e s t s c oul d be a da pt e d a nd a dm i ni s t e r e d t o s i nge r s t e a c he r s a nd ot he r m us i c i a ns O t he r i m a ge r y s ur ve ys a nd i ns t r um e nt s c oul d be de s i gne d t o ga i n a m or e c om pl e t e unde r s t a ndi ng of i m a ge r y us e s a nd a bi l i t i e s i n s i ng e r s a nd i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s S pe c i f i c t e r m i nol ogy w oul d ha ve t o be c a r e f ul l y c hos e n by us i ng a va r i e t y o f t e r m s ( e g vi s ua l i z e i m a gi ne a ud i a t e f e e l a nd t h i nk a bout ) pr ovi di ng de f i ni t i ons a nd e xa m pl e s s o t ha t m us i c pa r t i c i pa nt s w oul d e a s i l y g r a s p e a c h m e a ni ng. M a ni pul a t i on c he c ks t o ve r i f y t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i m a gi ni ng w ha t t he y pr of e s s e d t o i m a gi ne o r w ha t t he y w e r e di r e c t e d t o i m a gi ne w oul d ha ve t o be i m p l e m e nt e d. I m a ge r y t r e a t m e nt s a nd pr ot oc ol w oul d ne e d t o be c l e a r l y de s c r i be d i n or de r t o f a c i l i t a t e r e pl i c a t i on a nd c om pa r i s ons t o r e l a t e d s t udi e s ( M or r i s e t a l 2005) F i nd i ngs c oul d be c om pa r e d a m ong m us i c i a ns s uc h a s s ol oi s t s w i t h e ns e m bl e m e m be r s c onduc t or s w i t h or c he s t r a m e m be r s a nd s t ude nt s w i t h pr of e s s i ona l s M us i c T e ac he r s I m age r y M us i c t e a c he r s know l e dge a nd a ppl i c a t i ons of i m a ge r y i n t he di f f e r e nt e duc a t i ona l s e t t i ngs c oul d be i nve s t i ga t e d. P r i va t e a nd ge ne r a l m us i c e du c a t or s c oul d be

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311 s ur ve ye d a s t o t he i r va l ue f or i m a ge r y a nd how t he y s pe c i f i c a l l y us e m e nt a l pr a c t i c e t e c hni que s i n a udi a t i on, a nd ki ne s t he s i a i n t he i r pr ogr a m s U nde r s t a ndi ng a nd i m pl e m e nt a t i on of i m a ge r y s ki l l s c oul d be a s s e s s e d i n voc a l p r of e s s or s T r a i ni ng pr ogr a m s f or t e a c he r s a nd pr o f e s s or s i n us i ng i m a g e r y a nd i t s c onne c t i ons t o s por t a nd da nc e c oul d be de vi s e d, i m pl e m e nt e d, i m p r ove d, a nd r e por t e d. R e l at i ons hi p of F l ow and I m age r y E xt e nde d a r e a s of i nve s t i ga t i on c oul d i nc l ude s e ve r a l i s s ue s t ha t e m e r ge d f r o m s i nge r s r e s pons e s F l ow e xpe r i e nc e s i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e e s pe c i a l l y i n r e l a t i on t o i m a ge r y us e c oul d be e xa m i ne d. M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, r e s e a r c he r s c oul d i nt e r vi e w pe r f or m e r s i n t he i r a c t ua l da i l y i m a ge r y e xpe r i e nc e s t he pr a c t i c e of w hi c h w a s e m pl oye d by C s i ks z e nt m i ha l yi ( 1990) T hi s c oul d be done b y a w r i t t e n or r e c or de d j ou r na l of i m a ge r y dur i ng t he i r nor m a l da ys a s a pr of e s s i ona l or j us t t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s r e l a t i ng t o pr a c t i c i ng a nd pe r f o r m i ng T hought s a nd i m a ge s o f a udi e nc e i nt e r a c t i ons c oul d be a na l yz e d m or e c l os e l y, e s pe c i a l l y i n r e l a t i on t o pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y a nd s pe c i f i c pe r f or m a nc e pr a c t i c e s V oc a l i s t s pe r s ona l r e a s ons a nd pur pos e s i n be c om i ng a pr of e s s i ona l i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r pe r f or m a nc e i m a ge r y c oul d a l s o be a t opi c f or a r e s e a r c h s t udy. P e r f o r m e r s s pi r i t ua l i m a ge r y a nd e xpe r i e nc e s i n r e l a t i on t o f l ow i s a l s o w or t hy of f ut ur e i nve s t i ga t i on. F unc t i onal E qui v al e nc e of P e r f or m e r s I m age r y T he da t a s ugge s t t ha t s i nge r s w e r e ge ne r a l l y c onvi nc e d of t he us e f ul ne s s of i m a ge r y i n be ne f i t i ng m a ny a s pe c t s of t he i r w o r k. T he s e voc a l i s t s a l s o f ound i m a ge r y t o be i nt r i ns i c a l l y c onne c t e d t o t he i r phys i c a l t e c hni c a l a nd a r t i s t i c e xe c ut i on. T he r e c e nt de ve l opm e nt s i n m e di c a l i m a gi ng ha ve e nor m ous pot e nt i a l t o f ur t he r t he s t udi e s of

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312 i m a ge r y a nd pe r f or m a nc e F unc t i ona l e qui va l e nc e s t udi e s ( D e c e t y, 1996a 1996b; F i nke 1989; J e a nne r od, 1994, 1995 2006) c oul d be c onduc t e d i n m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e i n f ur t he r i ng pr e vi ous s t udi e s i n t hi s a r e a ( e g A l e m e n e t a l 2000 M e i s t e r e t a l 2004; H a l pe r n & Z a t o r r e 1999 ) F or i ns t a nc e s i nge r s i m a ge s a nd t hought s c oul d be m a ppe d us i ng f M R I t e c hni que s a nd c om pa r e d w i t h t hos e p r oduc e d pr i or a nd dur i ng t he a c t ua l e xe c ut i on, i n va r i ous a s pe c t s of pe r f or m a nc e a nd p r a c t i c e T he r e s ul t s of t he s e s t udi e s c oul d c ont r i bu t e t o t hi s g r ow i ng body of r e s e a r c h i n w a ys t ha t w oul d l e nd e ve n m or e c r e di bi l i t y t o pr e vi ous i m a ge r y s t udi e s C r os s D i s c i pl i nar y St udi e s T he f i ndi ngs i n t hi s i nve s t i ga t i on of voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s i m a ge r y us e s e e m t o s uppor t c r os s i ng t he l i ne s of m us i c a l a nd a r t i s t i c p e r f or m a nc e a nd s por t r e s e a r c h. S i nge r s us e d i m a ge r y i n w a ys s i m i l a r t o t hos e o f a t hl e t e s ( M unr oe e t a l 2000) a nd da nc e r s ( N or di n & C um m i ng, 2005) I n t hi s s t udy m us i c r e s e a r c h w a s gui de d s uc c e s s f ul l y by f i ndi ngs i n da nc e a nd s por t ps yc hol og y. C onne c t i ons t o m a ny ot he r a r e a s e m e r ge d i n t he da t a a s pe r t i ne nt t o s i nge r s e f f o r t s t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e S e ve r a l voc a l i s t s ha d s pe c i f i c t r a i ni ng i n a c t i ng i n w hi c h t he y us e d i m a g e r y t o c r e a t e i nt e nt i ons a nd e m ot i ons of t he i r c ha r a c t e r O t he r pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t r a i ne d i n vi s ua l a r t a nd m e nt i one d d r a w i ng a nd c r e a t i ng s pe c i f i c gr a phi c i m a ge s t ha t w e r e c r e a t e d i nt e r na l l y. S i ngi ng a s i n ot he r pr of e s s i ons w a s not a n e nt i t y unt o i t s e l f e s pe c i a l l y w i t h r e ga r d t o i m a ge r y us e but i nt e r a c t e d w i t h ot he r s ki l l s c hos e n, de ve l ope d, or p r e vi ous l y e xpe r i e nc e d by t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s T he r e f or e i t i s r e a s ona bl e t o s ugge s t t ha t di f f e r e nt a r e a s c oul d be r e s e a r c he d a nd c om pa r e d a s t o t he i r us e s of i m a ge r y a nd e f f e c t s on pe r f o r m a nc e F o r e xa m pl e s por t s r e s e a r c h i n ki ne s t he t i c i m a ge r y c oul d a s s i s t s i nge r s i n body r e l a t e d i m a ge r y; a r t i s t i c

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313 a ppl i c a t i ons f or he a l i ng pu r pos e s i n t he he a l t h pr of e s s i ons c oul d i nf or m pe r f o r m e r s pe r ha ps a s e f f e c t i ve l y a s a t hl e t i c a nd m us i c a l pe r f o r m e r s he a l i ng a nd a r ous a l i m a ge r y c oul d p r ovi de i n f or m a t i on t o t he m e di c a l a nd ps yc hol ogy c om m uni t y. T he pos s i bi l i t i e s i n c or r e l a t i ng t he s e s e e m i ngl y di ve r s e a r e a s c oul d be qui t e pr om i s i ng i n r e ve a l i ng i m por t a nt a s pe c t s he r e t of or e uni de nt i f i e d i n i m a ge r y a nd pe r f or m a nc e r e s e a r c h. Sum m ar y T hi s c ha pt e r ha s pr e s e nt e d t he f i ndi ngs of w he r e w he n w hat a nd w hy 15 s ol o voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s us e d i m a ge r y ba s e d on t he f ou r W s f r a m e w or k f r om s por t a nd da nc e T he r e s ul t s i n e a c h o f t he s e a r e a s w e r e s um m a r i z e d a nd di s c us s e d. L i m i t a t i ons i nc l ude d s a m pl i ng of t he popu l a t i on, ge ne r a l i z a t i on, r e s e a r c he r bi a s t e r m i nol ogy c onc e r ns s e l f r e por t r e s pons e s a nd c onf i de nt i a l i t y. I m pl i c a t i ons of t hi s s t udy c ons i s t e d of i s s ue s i nvol vi ng voc a l pe r f or m e r s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s voc a l pe da gogy, i m a ge r y c ont e nt a nd pur pos e s g oa l a t t a i nm e nt a r ous a l m odi f i c a t i on, c h a r a c t e r de ve l opm e nt i m a ge r y t r a i ni ng, a nd ot he r i s s ue s of i m a ge r y i n m us i c t r a i ni ng a nd p e r f or m a nc e R e c om m e nda t i ons f o r f ur t he r r e s e a r c h w e r e c om pr i s e d of r e pl i c a t i ng t hi s s t udy, i m a ge r y o f s i nge r s i ns t r um e nt a l i s t s pe r f or m e r s of o t he r ge nr e s o f m us i c w a ys t o e xt e nd i m a ge r y i nve s t i ga t i ons a nd c r os s di s c i pl i na r y s t udi e s E xpl or i ng t he i m a ge r y us e d by s ol o voc a l i s t s s e r ve d t o br oa de n t he f i nd i ngs a nd t he da t a pool p r ovi di ng f ur t he r unde r s t a ndi ng of pe r f or m a nc e i m a ge r y T he s e s i nge r s w e r e a r t i c ul a t e a nd w i l l i ng pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd c ont r i but e d t o t he g r ow i ng l i nk i n c onne c t i ng s por t ps yc hol ogy a nd m us i c a l pe r f o r m a nc e T he s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e r e m a r ka bl e a nd s e r ve t o e nc our a ge m or e of s uc h r e s e a r c h.

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314 T he r e s e a r c he r hope s t h a t t h i s s t udy w i l l be a s t i m ul us f or f ur t he r c r os s di s c i pl i na r y r e s e a r c h a m ong m us i c s por t da nc e p s yc hol ogy a nd m or e S ha r i ng t he e xt e ns i ve be ne f i t s i n t hi s a r e a ha s pot e nt i a l a dva nt a ge f or a l l t he s e f i e l ds F ur t he r qua l i t a t i ve a nd qua nt i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h i n i m a ge r y i n vol vi ng m us i c a l a nd ot he r t ype s of pe r f or m a nc e w oul d i nvol ve a ppl i e d a nd t he or e t i c a l f i e l ds of s t udy a nd c ont i nue t o a dd t o t he gr ow i ng body of know l e dge i n i m a ge r y us e i n pe r f or m a nc e

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315 R e f e r e nc e s A bm a C F r y, M L i Y & R e l ye a G ( 2002) D i f f e r e nc e s i n i m a ge r y c ont e nt a nd i m a ge r y a bi l i t y be t w e e n h i gh a nd l ow c onf i de nt t r a c k a nd f i e l d a t hl e t e s J our nal of A ppl i e d Spor t P s y c hol ogy 14 67 75. A gne w M ( 1922a ) A c om pa r i s on o f t he a udi t or y i m a ge s of m us i c i a ns ps yc hol ogi s t s a nd c h i l dr e n. P s y c hol ogi c al M onogr aphs 31 268 278. A hs e n, A ( 1972) E i de t i c par e nt s t e s t and anal y s i s N e w Y or k: B r a ndon H ous e A hs e n, A ( 1984) T he t r i pl e c ode m ode l f or i m a ge r y a nd ps yc hophys i ol ogy. J our nal of M e nt al I m age r y 8 15 42. A l e m a n, A N i e uw e ns t e i n, M R B c ke r K B E & de H a a n, E H F ( 2000) M us i c t r a i ni ng a nd m e nt a l i m a ge r y a bi l i t y. N e ur ops y c hol ogi a, 38 1664 1668. A nf a r a V A B r ow n, K M & M a ngi one T L 2 002) Q ua l i t a t i ve a na l ys i s on s t a ge : M a ki ng t he r e s e a r c h pr oc e s s m or e pu bl i c E duc at i onal R e s e ar c he r 31 ( 7) 28 38 A nne t t J ( 1986) O n know i ng how t o do t hi ngs I n H H e ue r & C F r om m ( E ds ) G e ne r at i on and m odul at i on of ac t i on pat t e r n ( pp. 187 200) B e r l i n: S pr i nge r A nne t t J ( 1994) T he l e a r ni ng of m ot or s ki l l s : S p or t s s c i e nc e a nd e r gonom i c s pe r s pe c t i ve s E r gonom i c s 37 ( 1) 5 16 A r i e t i S ( 1976) C r e at i v i t y : T he m agi c s y nt he s i s N e w Y or k: B a s i c B ooks A ve r i no, S ( 1989) T he pr i nc i pal s and ar t of s i ngi ng. A a r hus D e nm a r k: F o r l a ge t I nt e nt i on.

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316 A z z a r a C D ( 1992 ) A udi a t i on ba s e d i m pr ov i s a t i on t e c hni que s a nd e l e m e nt a r y i ns t r um e nt a l s t ude nt s m us i c a c hi e ve m e nt J our nal of R e s e ar c h i n M us i c E duc at i on, 41 ( 4) 328 342. A z z a r a C D ( 1999 ) A n a ur a l a ppr oa c h t o i m pr ov i s a t i on. M us i c E duc at or s J our nal 86 ( 3) 21 25 B a ndur a A ( 1977) Soc i al L e ar ni ng T he or y E ngl e w ood C l i f f s N J : P r e nt i c e H a l l B a ndur a A ( 1982 ) S e l f e f f i c a c y m e c ha ni s m i n hu m a n a ge nc y. A m e r i c an P s y c hol ogi s t 37 122 147 B a ndur a A ( 1986) Soc i al f oundat i on of t hough t a nd ac t i on: A s oc i al c ogni t i v e t he or y E ngl e w ood C l i f f s N J : P r e nt i c e H a l l B a ndur a A ( 1997) Se l f e f f i c ac y : t he e x e r c i s e of c ont r ol N e w Y or k: W H F r e e m a n. B a ndur a A & J e f f e r i e s R W ( 1973 ) R ol e of s y m bol i c c odi ng a nd r e he a r s a l pr oc e s s e s i n obs e r va t i ona l l e a r ni ng J our nal of P e r s onal i t y a nd Soc i al P s y c hol ogy 26, 122 130. B a r ne s P R ( 1982 ) I nt e r na l vs e xt e r na l i m a ge r y a s a m e nt a l pr e pa r a t i on w he n a ppl i e d by i nt e r m e di a t e l e a gue bow l e r s P h D di s s e r t a t i on, U ni ve r s i t y of N or t h T e xa s U ni t e d S t a t e s T e xa s R e t r i e ve d F e br ua r y 11, 2 00 8, f r om P r oQ ue s t D i gi t a l D i s s e r t a t i ons da t a ba s e ( P ubl i c a t i on N o. A A T 821 7613) B a r r K & H a l l C ( 1992 ) T he us e of i m a ge r y by r ow e r s I nt e r nat i onal J our nal Spor t P s y c hol ogy 23, 243 261. B a r t e n, S S ( 1992) T he l a ngua ge of m us i c a l i ns t r uc t i on. J ou r nal of A e s t he t i c E duc at i on 26 ( 2) 53 61 B a r t e n, S S ( 1998) S pe a ki ng o f m us i c : T he us e o f m ot or a f f e c t i ve m e t a phor s i n m us i c

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328 H a l l C R R odge r s W & B a r r K ( 1990) T he u s e of i m a ge r y by a t hl e t e s i n s e l e c t e d s por t s T he Spor t P s y c hol ogi s t 4, 1 10 H a l l C R S c hm i dt D D ur a nd, M & B uc kol t z E ( 1994) I m a ge r y a nd m ot or s ki l l s a c qui s i t i on. I n A A S he i kh & E R K or n ( E ds ) I m age r y i n s por t s and phy s i c al pe r f or m anc e ( pp. 121 134 ) A m i t yvi l l e N Y : B a y w ood. H a l l C R S t e ve ns D E & P a i vi o, A ( 2005 ) Sp or t s I m age r y Q ue s t i onnai r e : T e s t M anue l M or ga nt ow n W V : F i t ne s s I nf or m a t i on T e c hnol ogy. H a l l a m S ( 1997 ) W ha t do w e know a bout pr a c t i c i ng? T ow a r d a m ode l s ynt he s i z i ng t he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e I n H J or ge ns e n, & A C L e hm a nn ( E ds ) D oe s pr ac t i c e m ak e pe r f e c t ? C ur r e nt t he or y and r e s e a r c h on i ns t r um e nt al m us i c pr ac t i c e ( pp. 179 231) O s l o, N or w a y: N or ge s M us i c kkh r gs kol e H a l pe r n, A R & Z a t or r e R J ( 1999 ) W he n t ha t t une r uns t hr ough your he a d: A P E T i nve s t i ga t i on of a udi t or y i m a ge r y f or f a m i l i a r m e l o di e s C e r e br al C or t e x 9, 697 704. H a ni n, Y L & S t a m bul ova N B ( 2002 ) M e t a phor i c de s c r i pt i on of pe r f o r m a nc e s t a t e s : A n a ppl i c a t i on of t he I Z O F m ode l T he Spor t P s y c hol ogi s t 16 ( 4 ) 396 415. H a nr a ha n, C & S a l m e l a J H ( 1990 ) D a nc e i m a ge s : D o t he y r e a l l y w or k o r a r e w e j us t i m a gi ni ng t hi ngs ? J our nal of P hy s i c al E duc at i on R e c r e at i on, and D anc e 61, 18 21. H a nr a ha n, C T e r t r e a u, B & S a r r a z i n, C ( 1995) U s e of i m a ge r y w hi l e pe r f o r m i ng da nc e m ove m e nt I nt e r nat i onal J our nal of Spor t P s y c hol ogy 26, 18 30 H a nr a ha n, C & V e r ge e r I ( 2000 ) M ul t i pl e us e s of m e nt a l i m a ge r y by pr of e s s i ona l m ode r n da nc e r s I m ag i nat i on, C ogni t i on and P e r s onal i t y 20 321 255.

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330 H i ghl e n, P & B e nne t t B ( 1979 ) P s yc hol ogi c a l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of s uc c e s s f ul a nd non s uc c e s s f ul e l i t e w r e s t l e r s J our nal of Spor t P s y c hol ogy 1, 123 137 H i ne s J ( 1982 ) G r e at s i n ge r s on gr e at s i ngi ng. G a r de n C i t y, N J : D oubl e da y H i ns ha w K E ( 1991) T he e f f e c t s of m e nt a l pr a c t i c e on m ot or s ki l l pe r f or m a nc e : C r i t i c a l e va l ua t i on a nd m e t a a na l ys i s I m agi nat i on C ogni t i on and P e r s onal i t y 11 ( 1) 3 35 H ol m e s P ( 2005) I m a gi na t i on i n pr a c t i c e : a s t udy of t he i nt e gr a t e d r ol e s of i nt e r pr e t a t i on, i m a ge r y a nd t e c hni que i n t he l e a r ni ng a nd m e m or i z a t i on pr oc e s s e s of t w o e xpe r i e nc e d s ol o pe r f or m e r s B r i t i s h J our nal of M us i c E duc at i on 22 217 235. H ol m e s P S & C ol l i ns D ( 2002) F unc t i ona l e q ui va l e nc e s ol ut i ons f or pr ob l e m s w i t h m ot or i m a ge r y I n I M C oc ke r i l l ( E d ) Sol ut i ons i n s por t ps y c hol ogy ( pp. 120 140) L ondon: M or ga n H ol t R R ( 1964) I m a ge r y: T he r e t u r n of t he os t r a c i z e d. A m e r i c an P s y c hol ogi s t 19 254 264. H or n, T S ( 2008 ) A dv anc e s i n s por t ps y c hol ogy C ha m pa i gn, I L : H um a n K i ne t i c s H or ne M & S c ove l l J ( 1983) M ar i l y n H or ne m y l i f e N e w Y or k: A t he ne um H or ow i t z M J ( 1978) I m age f or m at i on and c ogn i t i on. N e w Y o r k: A ppl e t on C e nt ur y C r of t s I e vl e va L & O r l i c k T ( 1991) M e nt a l l i nks t o e n ha nc e d he a l i ng. Spor t P s y c hol ogi s t 5 ( 1) 25 40 I s a a c A R ( 1992 ) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e : D oe s i t w o r k i n t he f i e l d T he Spor t P s y c hol ogi s t 6, 192 198.

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342 P ow e l l G ( 1973 ) N e ga t i ve a nd pos i t i ve m e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n m ot or s ki l l a c qui s i t i on. P e r c e pt ual and M ot or Sk i l l s 37, 312. R a i por t G ( 1988 ) R e d go l d: P e ak pe r f or m anc e t e c hni que s of t he R us s i an and E as t G e r m an O l y m pi c v i c t or s L os A nge l e s : J P T a r c h e r R e e d, C L ( 2002) C hr onom e t r i c c om pa r i s ons of i m a ge r y t o a c t i on: V i s ua l i z i ng ve r s us phys i c a l l y pe r f or m i ng s pr i ngboa r d di ve s M e m or y and C ogni t i on, 30 ( 8) 1169 1178. R e i d, C L ( 1983) A d i c t i onar y of v oc al t e r m i nol o gy : A n anal y s i s N e w Y or k: J os e ph P a t e l s on M us i c H ous e R e ynol ds A M ( 1995) A n i nve s t i ga t i on of t he m ove m e nt r e s pons e s pe r f or m e d by c hi l dr e n 18 m ont hs t o t h r e e ye a r s of a ge a nd t he i r c a r e gi ve r s t o r hyt hm c ha nt s i n dupl e a nd t r i pl e m e t e r s D i s s e r t at i on A bs t r ac t s I nt e r nat i onal 56 ( 04 ) 186. ( A A T N o. 9527531) R e ynol ds A M V a l e r i o W H B ol t on B M T a gga r t C C & G or don, E E ( 1998) M us i c pl ay C hi c a go: G I A R i c ha r ds on, A ( 1967a ) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e : A r e vi e w a nd di s c us s i on. P a r t 1 R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 38, 95 107 R i c ha r ds on, A ( 1967b) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e : A r e vi e w a nd di s c us s i on. P a r t 2 R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 38, 264 273 R i c ha r ds on, A ( 1969) M e nt al I m age r y H i l l s da l e N J : E r l ba um R i c ha r ds on, A ( 1983) I m a ge r y: D e f i ni t i on a nd t y pe s I n A A S he i kh ( E d ) I m age r y : C ur r e nt t he or y r e s e ar c h, and appl i c at i on ( pp 3 4 2) N e w Y o r k: J ohn W i l e y & S ons

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348 S ui nn, R M ( 1980b) P s yc hol ogy a nd s por t s pe r f o r m a nc e : P r i nc i pl e s a nd a ppl i c a t i ons R e s e a r c h of I m a ge r y i n S por t s P s yc hol ogy. I n R M S ui nn ( E d ) P s y c hol ogy i n s por t s : M e t hods and appl i c at i ons ( pp 25 26) M i n ne a pol i s : B ur ge s s S ui nn, R M ( 1980c ) P s y c hol ogy i n s por t s : M e t ho ds and appl i c at i ons N e w Y o r k: M a c m i l l a n. S ui nn, R M ( 1983) I m a ge r y i n s por t s I n A A S he i kh ( E d ) I m age r y : C ur r e nt t he or y r e s e a r c h, and appl i c at i on ( pp. 507 534) N e w Y or k: W i l e y. S ui nn, R M ( 1986) Se v e n s t e ps t o pe ak pe r f or m anc e : T he m e nt al t r ai ni ng m anual f or at hl e t e s T or ont o : H ube r S ui nn, R M ( 1992 ) V i s ua l i z a t i on i n s por t s I n A A S he i kh & E R K or n ( E ds ) I m age r y i n s p or t s and phy s i c al pe r f or m anc e ( pp. 5 07 534) A m ni t yvi l l e N Y : B a yw ood. S ui nn, R M ( 1996) I m a ge r y r e he a r s a l : A t ool f or c l i ni c a l pr a c t i c e P s y c hot he r apy i n P r i v at e P r ac t i c e 15 ( 3 ) 27 31 S ui nn, R M ( 1997 ) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e i n s por t ps yc hol ogy: W he r e h a ve w e be e n w he r e do w e go? C l i ni c al P s y c hol ogy 4 189 207 S ui nn, R M ( 2001 ) I m a ge r y I n R S i nge r M M ur phy, & L K T e nna nt ( E ds ) H andbook of r e s e ar c h on s por t ps y c hol ogy ( 2 n d e d. pp 496 510 ) N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n. T a gga r t C C B ol t on B M R e ynol ds A M V a l e r i o, W H & G or don E E ( 2000) J um p r i ght i n: T he m us i c C ur r i c ul um C hi c a go: G I A T a yl or R ( 1993) I m age r y : I t s r ol e i n m e nt al r e he ar s al t o i m pr ov e s por t s pe r f o r m anc e : R e s e ar c h R e por t N o. 27. E di nbu r gh, E H : T he S c ot t i s h S por t s C ounc i l C a l e doni a

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349 H ous e T he i l e r A M & L i ppm a n, L G ( 1995 ) E f f e c t s o f m e nt a l p r a c t i c e a nd m ode l i ng on gui t a r a nd voc a l pe r f or m a nc e J our nal of G e ne r al P s y c hol ogy 122 ( 4) 329 343. T i t z e I ( 1986) S t a nda r di z a t i on i n voi c e r e s e a r c h. T he N A T S J our nal 42 ( 2 ) 30 31. T os i P F & G a l l i a r d, J E ( 1968 ) O bs e r v at i ons on t he f l or i d s ong. N e w Y or k: J ohns on R e pr i nt ( O r i gi na l l y publ i s he d i n B ol ogna 1723 ) T r us he i m W H ( 1987 ) M e nt a l i m a ge r y a nd m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e : A n i nqui r y i nt o i m a ge r y us e by e m i ne nt or c he s t r a l br a s s pl a ye r s i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s E d D di s s e r t a t i on, R ut ge r s T he S t a t e U ni ve r s i t y o f N e w J e r s e y N e w B r uns w i c k, U ni t e d S t a t e s N e w J e r s e y. R e t r i e ve d F e br ua r y 1 1, 2008 f r om P r oQ ue s t D i gi t a l D i s s e r t a t i ons da t a ba s e ( P ubl i c a t i on N o. A A T 880 8237) U nge r l e i de r S & G ol di ng, J M ( 1991 ) M e nt a l pr a c t i c e a m ong O l ym pi c a t hl e t e s P e r c e pt ual and M ot or Sk i l l s 72, 1007 1017 U nge r l e i de r S & G ol di ng, J M ( 1992 ) B e y ond s t r e ngt h: P s y c hol ogi c al pr of i l e s of O l y m pi c at hl e t e s D ubuque I A : W m C B r ow n V a doc z E H a l l C & M or i t z S ( 1997) T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n c om pe t i t i ve a nxi e t y a nd i m a ge r y us e J our nal of A pp l i e d Spor t s P s y c hol ogy 9, 241 253 V e a l e y, R S ( 1986) I m a ge r y t r a i ni ng f o r pe r f or m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt I n J M W i l l i a m s ( E d. ) A ppl i e d s por t ps y c hol ogy : P e r s onal gr ow t h f or pe ak pe r f or m anc e ( pp. 209 232) M ount a i n V i e w C A : M a yf i e l d V e a l e y, R S & G r e e nl e a f C A ( 2001 ) S e e i ng i s be l i e vi ng: U nde r s t a ndi ng a nd us i ng i m a ge r y i n s por t I n J M W i l l i a m s ( E d ) A ppl i e d s por t ps y c hol ogy : P e r s onal

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350 gr ow t h t o pe ak pe r f or m anc e ( 4 t h e d. pp. 247 272 ) M ount a i n V i e w C A : M a yf i e l d. V e a l e y, R S & G r e e nl e a f C A ( 2006 ) S e e i ng i s be l i e vi ng: U nde r s t a ndi ng a nd us i ng i m a ge r y i n s por t I n J M W i l l i a m s ( E d ) A ppl i e d s por t ps y c hol ogy : P e r s onal gr ow t h t o pe ak pe r f or m anc e ( 5 t h e d. pp. 306 343 ) M ount a i n V i e w C A : M a yf i e l d. V e a l e y, R S W a l t e r S M ( 1993) I m a ge r y t r a i ni ng f or pe r f o r m a nc e e nha nc e m e nt a nd pe r s ona l de ve l opm e nt I n J M W i l l i a m s ( E d ) A pp l i e d s por t ps y c hol ogy : P e r s onal gr ow t h t o pe ak pe r f or m anc e ( 2 n d e d. pp 200 224) M ount a i n V i e w C A : M a yf i e l d. V e l l a B r odr i c k, D A & M a c R a e K ( 2004) A r e vi e w of m e nt a l i m a ge r y s c a l e s c om m onl y us e d i n s por t i ng c ont e xt s J our nal of M e nt al I m age r y 28 ( 3 ) 121 147 V e nna r d, W ( 1958) P hi l os ophi e s of voc a l pe da go gy. A m e r i c an M us i c T e ac he r M a y J une M ay / J une 4 5. V e nna r d, W ( 1961) S i nge r s a nd s c i e nc e Se l e c t e d A r t i c l e s f r om t he w r i t i ngs of W i l l i am V e nnar d. U S A : N A T S V e nna r d, W ( 1968) S i ngi ng: T he m e c hani s m and t he t e c hni c N e w Y or k : C a r l F i s he r V e nna r d, W ( 1971) Se l e c t e d A r t i c l e s f r om t he w r i t i ngs of W i l l i am V e nnar d ( G ur ne e R T ( E d ) U S A : N A T S V e r ge e r I & H a nr a ha n, C ( 1998 ) W ha t m ode r n da nc e r s do t o pr e pa r e : C ont e nt a nd obj e c t i ve s of pr e pe r f o r m a nc e r out i ne s A V A N T E 4 ( 2) 47 71 W a r e C ( 1998) B as i c s of v oc al pe dagogy : T he f o undat i ons and pr oc e s s of s i ngi ng. B os t on: M c G r a w H i l l

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351 W a r ne r B ( 1991 ) O r f f Sc hul w e r k : A ppl i c at i ons f or t he c l as s r oom E ngl e w ood C l i f f s N J : P r e nt i c e H a l l W a s hbur n, M F ( 1916) M ov e m e nt a nd m e nt al i m age r y B os t on: H ought on M i f f l i n W a t s on, J B ( 1913) P s y c hol ogy as t he be hav i or i s t s e e s i t L a nc a s t e r P A : P s yc hol ogi c a l R e vi e w C om pa ny W e e r t s T C & L a ng, P J ( 1978) P s yc hophys i ol ogy of f e a r i m a ge r y: D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n f oc a l phobi a a nd s oc i a l pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y. J our nal of C ons ul t i ng and C l i ni c al P s y c hol ogy 46 ( 5 ) 1157 1159 W e i nbe r g, R B ut t J K ni ght B B ur ke K L & J a c ks on, A ( 2003) T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he us e a nd e f f e c t i ve ne s s of i m a ge r y: a n e xpl or a t or y i nve s t i ga t i on. J our nal of A ppl i e d Spor t P s y c hol ogy 15 26 40. W e i nbe r g, R S & G oul d, D G ( 1995) F oundat i ons of s por t and e x e r c i s e ps y c hol ogy C ha m pa i gn, I L : H um a n K i ne t i c s W e i nbe r g, R S & G oul d, D G ( 1999) F oundat i ons of s por t and e x e r c i s e ps y c hol ogy ( 2 n d e d. ) C ha m pa i gn, I L : H um a n K i ne t i c s W e i nbe r g, R S & G oul d, D G ( 2003) F oundat i ons of s por t and e x e r c i s e ps y c hol ogy ( 3 rd e d. ) C ha m pa i gn, I L : H um a n K i ne t i c s W hi t e A & H a r dy L ( 1995 ) U s e of di f f e r e nt i m a ge r y pe r s pe c t i ve s on t he l e a r ni ng a nd pe r f or m a nc e of di f f e r e nt m ot o r s ki l l s B r i t i s h J our nal of P s y c hol ogy 86, 169 180 W hi t e A & H a r dy L ( 1998 ) A n i n de pt h a na l ys i s of t he us e s of i m a ge r y by hi gh l e ve l s l a l om c a noe i s t s a nd a r t i s t i c gym na s t s T he Spor t P s y c hol ogi s t 12, 387 403. W i l l i a m on, A ( 2004 ) M us i c al e x c e l l e nc e N e w Y or k: O xf o r d.

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352 W oodw a r d, S ( 1992 ) I nt r a ut e r i ne R hyt hm a nd B l ue s ? B r i t i s h J our nal of O bs t e t r i c s and G y nae c ol ogy 99, 787 790. W oody, R H ( 1999) T he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n a d va nc e d m us i c i a ns e xpl i c i t pl a nni ng a nd t h e i r e xpr e s s i ve pe r f o r m a nc e of dyna m i c va r i a t i ons i n a n a ur a l m ode l i ng t a s k. J our nal of R e s e ar c h i n M us i c E duc at i on, 47, 331 342. W ool f ol k, R L M ur phy, S M G ot t e s f e l d, D & A i t ke n, D ( 1985 ) M e nt a l r e he a r s a l of m ot or t a s k a c t i vi t y a nd m e nt a l de pi c t i on of t a s k ou t c om e on m ot or s ki l l pe r f or m a nc e J our nal o f Spor t P s y c hol ogy 7, 191 197. W ool f ol k, R L P a r r i s h, M W & M ur phy, S M ( 1985) T he e f f e c t s of pos i t i ve a nd ne ga t i ve i m a ge r y on m ot or s ki l l pe r f o r m a nc e C og ni t i v e T he r apy and R e s e ar c h, 9 ( 3) 335 341 Y ui l l e J C ( 1985) A l a bo r a t or y ba s e d e xpe r i m e n t a l m e t hodol ogy i s i na pp r opr i a t e f or t he s t udy of m e nt a l i m a ge r y J our nal of M e nt al I m age r y 9 ( 2) 137 150 Z a t or r e R J & H a l pe r n A R ( 2005 ) M e nt a l c onc e r t s : M us i c a l i m a ge r y a nd a udi t or y c or t e x N e ur on, V ol um e 47, I s s ue 1 ( 7) 9 12.

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353 A ppe ndi c e s

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354 A p pe ndi x A P e r m i s s i on t o P ubl i s h I m a ge r y F r a m e w or ks

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355 A ppe ndi x B I nt r oduc t or y L e t t e r a nd S c r i pt s : V oc a l P r of e s s i ona l s P a t r i c i a L B ow e s 6712 S a nds c a pe L a ne T e m pl e T e r r a c e F L 33617 813 985 1199, c e l l 561 523 2223 pa t bow e s a r t s @ ya hoo. c om D e c e m be r 1, 2008 D e a r V oc a l P r of e s s i ona l I a m a c a ndi da t e f or t he P h D de gr e e i n m us i c e du c a t i on a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da T a m pa I a m c ur r e nt l y be gi nni ng f i e l d w or k on m y di s s e r t a t i on, t i t l e d: A n E x pl or at or y St ud y of t he U s e of I m age r y by V oc al P r of e s s i onal s : A ppl i c at i ons of a Spor t P s y c hol ogy F r am e w or k Y ou w e r e hi ghl y r e c om m e nde d by ______ a s ha vi ng t he s e qua l i f i c a t i ons I a m l ook i ng f o r m a l e a nd f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s i n a l l voc a l r e gi s t e r s f r om m a j o r c i t i e s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s w ho ( a ) hol d a f ou r ye a r de gr e e i n voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e a nd ( b) ha ve be e n w o r ki ng f or a t l e a s t f ou r ye a r s m a ki ng a t l e a s t ha l f t he i r i nc om e a s a s ol o voc a l pr of e s s i ona l or ( c ) i f t he y ha ve no pe r f or m a nc e de gr e e t he y ha ve e i ght ye a r s m a ki ng a t l e a s t ha l f t he i r i nc om e a s a s ol o voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l I n or de r t o i de nt i f y voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s w ho m i ght w i s h t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n m y s t udy I a m r e s pe c t f ul l y r e que s t i ng your a s s i s t a nc e I ha ve c ont a c t e d you be c a us e you a r e a r e c ogni z e d voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l c ur r e nt l y w or ki ng i n t he f i e l d I f you de c i de t o pa r t i c i pa t e w e w i l l s e t up a n i ni t i a l t e l e phone c onve r s a t i on t o ge t t o know a l i t t l e a bout e a c h ot he r t he pur pos e of t he s t udy, i m a ge r y de f i ni t i ons e xpe c t a t i ons of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nonym i t y a nd ps e udonym s i n t e r vi e w pr oc e dur e s i n t e nt i on t o di gi t a l l y t a pe a nd t r a ns c r i be ve r ba t i m t he i nt e r v i e w pr oc e dur e s t o c he c k t he w r i t t e n t r a ns c r i pt i ons a nd us e s of t he r e s ul t s a nd da t a T he a c t ua l t e l e phone i nt e r vi e w i t s e l f w i l l l a s t be t w e e n 30 t o 75 m i nut e s a t a t i m e a nd t e l e phone num be r c onve ni e nt t o you.

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356 A ppe ndi x B ( c ont i nue d) T he r e a r e a f e w pot e nt i a l be ne f i t s t o you a nd m e m be r s of t he voc a l pr of e s s i on. Y ou m a y l e a r n m or e a bout your us e of i m a ge r y i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e Y our r e s pons e s m a y a l s o be of pos s i bl e be ne f i t t o o t he r s i nge r s vo i c e t e a c he r s a nd m us i c e duc a t i on i n ge ne r a l U nf or t una t e l y, t he r e i s no pa y f o r you r t i m e T he t e l e phone c a l l f or t he i nt e r vi e w s houl d be f r e e f or you s i nc e I w i l l c a l l you A l l na m e s l oc a t i ons a nd i de nt i f yi ng r e f e r e nc e s w i l l r e m a i n a nonym ous i n o r de r t o e ns ur e your m os t c a ndi d a nd hone s t r e s pons e s I s i nc e r e l y hope you de c i de t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy, a nd t ha t i t w i l l be a r e w a r di ng e xpe r i e nc e f o r you A s s oon a s you ha v e a c ha nc e pl e a s e s e nd m e a n e m a i l ( pa t bow e s a r t s @ ya hoo. c om ) a nd l e t m e know w he t he r you de c i de t o pa r t i c i pa t e F ur t he r m or e i f you a r e a bl e t o s ugge s t pos s i bl e pa r t i c i pa nt s f or m y di s s e r t a t i on s t udy w ho m e e t t he a bove c r i t e r i a pl e a s e s e nd a n e m a i l t o m e t ha t i nc l ude s t he na m e s of s i nge r s you r e c om m e nd, a nd e i t he r t he i r e m a i l a nd / or t e l e phone num be r s w he r e t he y c a n be r e a c he d. I f you w oul d l i ke m or e i nf or m a t i on a bout m y s t ud y, pl e a s e t a ke a l ook a t t he a t t a c he d i nf or m a t i on s he e t I f you ha ve a ddi t i ona l l y que s t i o ns or c onc e r ns pl e a s e f e e l f r e e t o e m a i l m e a t t he a bove a ddr e s s T ha nk you f or you r ki nd c ons i de r a t i on. I l ook f or w a r d t o he a r i ng f r om you s oon. S i nc e r e l y, P a t r i c i a L B ow e s

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357 A ppe ndi x C I nt r oduc t or y L e t t e r a nd S c r i pt s : P a r t i c i pa nt s : V oc a l P r of e s s or s P a t r i c i a L B ow e s 6712 S a nds c a pe L a ne T e m pl e T e r r a c e F L 33617 813 985 1199, c e l l 561 523 2223 pa t bow e s a r t s @ ya hoo. c om D e c e m be r 1, 2008 D e a r V oc a l P r of e s s or I a m a c a ndi da t e f or t he P h D de gr e e i n m us i c e du c a t i on a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da T a m pa I a m c ur r e nt l y be gi nni ng f i e l d w or k on m y di s s e r t a t i on, t i t l e d A n E x pl or at or y St udy of t he U s e of I m age r y by V oc al P r of e s s i onal s : A ppl i c at i ons of a Spor t P s y c hol ogy F r a m e w or k I n or de r t o i de nt i f y voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s w ho m i ght w i s h t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n m y s t udy I a m r e s pe c t f ul l y r e que s t i ng your a s s i s t a nc e I ha ve c ont a c t e d you be c a us e you a r e a r e c ogni z e d t e a c he r of s uc c e s s f ul voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s w ho a r e c ur r e nt l y w or ki ng i n t he f i e l d. I a m l ook i ng f o r m a l e a nd f e m a l e pa r t i c i pa nt s i n a l l voc a l r e gi s t e r s f r om m a j o r c i t i e s t hr oughout t he U ni t e d S t a t e s w ho ( a ) hol d a f ou r ye a r de gr e e i n voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e a nd ( b) ha ve be e n w o r ki ng f or a t l e a s t f ou r ye a r s m a ki ng a t l e a s t ha l f t he i r i nc om e a s a s ol o voc a l pr of e s s i ona l or ( c ) i f t he y ha ve no pe r f or m a nc e de gr e e t he y ha ve e i ght ye a r s m a ki ng a t l e a s t ha l f t he i r i nc om e a s a s ol o voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l I s i nc e r e l y hope t ha t you a r e w i l l i ng a nd a bl e t o a s s i s t m e i n i de nt i f yi ng pos s i bl e pa r t i c i pa nt s f or m y di s s e r t a t i on s t udy. I a m a s ki ng you t o t a ke a f e w m om e nt s t o t hi nk of s i nge r s w ho m e e t t he a bove c r i t e r i a T he n, pl e a s e s e nd a n e m a i l t o m e ( pa t bow e s a r t s @ ya hoo. c om ) t ha t i nc l ude s t he na m e s of s i nge r s you r e c om m e nd, a nd e i t he r t he i r e m a i l a nd/ or t e l e phone num be r s w he r e t he y c a n be r e a c he d.

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358 A ppe ndi x C ( c ont i nue d) I f you w oul d l i ke m or e i nf or m a t i on a bout m y s t ud y, pl e a s e t a ke a l ook a t t he a t t a c he d i nf or m a t i on s he e t I f you ha ve a ddi t i on a l l y que s t i o ns or c onc e r ns pl e a s e f e e l f r e e t o e m a i l m e a t t he a bove a ddr e s s T ha nk you f or you r ki nd c ons i de r a t i on. I l ook f or w a r d t o he a r i ng f r om you s oon. S i nc e r e l y, P a t r i c i a L B ow e s P h. D C a ndi da t e S c hool of M us i c C ol l e ge of V i s ua l a nd P e r f or m i ng A r t s U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da T a m pa F L 33620

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359 A ppe ndi x D S i n ge r s I n t e r vi e w G u i d e A n E xpl or a t o r y S t udy of t he U s e of I m a ge r y by V oc a l P r of e s s i ona l s : A ppl i c a t i ons of a S po r t P s yc hol ogy F r a m e w or k T he F our W s of S i ngi ng I m a ge r y S ubj e c t num be r : __ _____ N a m e : _______________________________ A ge : ________________ D a t e : ________________________________ T i m e be ga n: __________ T i m e e nde d: __________________________ S e c t i on 1: I n t r od u c t i o n ( n ot r e c or d e d ) H e l l o, I a m P a t r i c i a B ow e s f r om t he S c hool of M us i c a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f S out h F l o r i da T ha nk you f or a g r e e i ng t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s i nt e r v i e w Y our a nonym i t y i s s e c ur e d a s w e ha ve a l r e a dy a gr e e d. I n t hi s p r oj e c t I a m t a l ki ng t o s i nge r s a bout w he r e w he n s i nge r s us e i m a ge r y, o f w ha t t he i r i m a ge r y c ons i s t s a nd w hy t he y us e i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e O pt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s t he f l ow s t a t e be i ng i n t he z one or i n t he gr oo ve I t i s a s t a t e t ha t you a s a n e xpe r i e nc e d pr of e s s i ona l w or k t ow a r d a nd c a n c ont r o l i n w hi c h a l l e l e m e nt s f a l l i nt o pl a c e a nd i t j us t f e e l s r i ght I t i s di f f e r e nt f r om pe a k pe r f o r m a nc e w hi c h i s a n out s t a ndi ng, unf o r ge t t a bl e o f t e n a pe nul t i m a t e or onc e i n a l i f e t i m e e xpe r i e nc e D o y ou ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e ? F or t he s a ke of c l a r i t y I a m goi ng t o de f i ne i m a ge r y t o you: I m age r y i s an e x pe r i e nc e t hat m i m i c s r e al e x pe r i e nc e W e c an be aw ar e of [ he a r i ng m us i c i ns i de our he a d] s e e i ng an i m age f e e l i ng m ov e m e nt s as an i m age or e x pe r i e nc i ng an i m age of s m e l l t as t e or s ounds w i t ho ut e x pe r i e nc i ng t he r e al t hi ng. I t di f f e r s f r om dr e am s i n t hat w e ar e aw ak e and c ons c i ous w he n w e f or m an i m age ( W hi t e a nd H a r dy 1998) I m a ge r y i s not s i m pl y t a l ki ng t o you r s e l f a nd i t i s not j us t w a t c hi ng de m ons t r a t i ons by ot he r pe opl e A l ot of t he t i m e i t i s s e e i ng, he a r i ng, a nd f e e l i ng as i f you w e r e doi ng s om e t hi ng e l s e I m a ge r y c a n be done w hi l e pe r f or m i ng a n a r i a or dur i ng a c onc e r t a nd i n a n a ppr opr i a t e s e t t i ng, but j us t a s w e l l w hi l e be i ng i n a c om pl e t e l y di f f e r e nt e nvi r onm e nt a nd be i ng c om pl e t e l y s t i l l D o you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout w ha t I m e a n w i t h i m a ge r y? I s t hi s s i m i l a r t o how you w oul d de f i ne i m a ge r y?

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360 A ppe ndi x D ( c ont i nue d) A s w e go t hr ough t he i nt e r v i e w I ha ve de f i ni t i ons a nd e xa m pl e s of t he va r i ous ki nds of i m a ge r y a va i l a bl e s o pl e a s e a s k i f you a r e not qui t e c l e a r a bout w ha t I a m a s ki ng f o r A l s o, do not w or r y i f s om e que s t i ons s e e m r e pe t i t i ve T hi s i s pa r t l y t o m a ke s ur e t ha t I a m c ove r i ng a l l a s pe c t s of your s i ngi ng i m a ge r y a n d not l e a vi ng a nyt h i ng out a nd pa r t l y us e f ul t o ob t a i n quo t e s f or l a t e r a na l ys e s S e c t i on 2 : I mag e r y e xp e r i e n c e T hi s s e c t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w f oc us e s on s om e of y our e xpe r i e nc e w i t h i m a ge r y. 1) D o you e ve r e nga ge i n t hi s t ype of i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e ? ( i f ye s go on t o #2 I f no a s k: I s t he r e e ve r a t i m e w h e n you s e e or he a r your s e l f or s om e body e l s e s i ngi ng a s ong or a r i a i n yo ur m i nd ? I f ye s c ont i nue t o # 2 I f no, s a y t ha nk you a nd t e r m i na t e t he i n t e r vi e w ) 2) W ha t ki nd of i m a ge r y do you r e m e m be r us i ng w he n you f i r s t be ga n? i V i s ua l s oun d, f e e l i ng? 3) W hy di d you f i r s t be gi n us i ng i m a ge r y? i i e f o r w ha t pu r pos e ? 4) H ow di d you f i r s t l e a r n t o us e i m a ge r y? i H ow di d you de ve l op t hi s s ki l l ? i i W ho t a ught you? i i i D i d i t c om e na t u r a l l y? 5) D e s c r i be how your us e of i m a ge r y ha s de ve l ope d ove r your s i ngi ng c a r e e r ? i i e i s i t di f f e r e nt now i n a ny w a y f r o m w ha t i t w a s t o s t a r t w i t h? S e c t i on 3 : S i n g i n g e xp e r i e n c e T hi s s e c t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w f oc us e s on your ba c k gr ound i n s i ngi ng 6) H ow ol d w e r e you w he n you f i r s t be ga n s i ngi ng? i t ype s of s i ngi ng i i w ha t a t t r a c t e d y ou t o s i ngi ng? 7) H ow m a ny t i m e s pe r w e e k di d you s i ng t he n? i t ype s of s ong 8) D e s c r i be w ha t t ype ( s ) of s i ngi ng you a r e i nvol ve d i n now ? 9) H ow m a ny t i m e s pe r w e e k do you s i ng now ? i i f s e ve r a l ki nds how of t e n f or e a c h?

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361 A ppe ndi x D ( c ont i nue d) 10) D i d your t e a c he r e v e r us e i m a ge r y w i t h you i n c o nne c t i on w i t h your t r a i ni ng i n a c hi e vi ng opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e ? ( I f ye s go on t o # 11. I f no go on t o S e c t i on 4, # 15. ) 11) D e s c r i be w ha t ki nds of i m a ge r y your s i ngi ng t e a c h e r i nvol ve d i n t he l e s s ons w he n you w e r e younge r ? i E l a bor a t i on p r obe : 1. e g. s ugge s t i ng you c oul d i m a gi ne a n a r i a i n your h e a d? 2. W he n w a s t hi s ? / H ow ol d w e r e you t he n? 3. W ha t di d t hi s i m a ge r y i nvol ve ? 12) W ha t ki nds of i m a ge r y do you r s i ngi ng t e a c he r s / c oa c he s i nvol ve i n your l e s s ons / r e he a r s a l s now ? i W ha t doe s t hi s i m a ge r y i nvol ve ( c ont e nt ) ? i i H ow of t e n doe s t hi s oc c ur ? 13) W ha t ki nds of i m a ge r y do your t e a c he r s / c oa c he s e nc our a ge you t o us e you r s e l f out s i de of l e s s ons / r e he a r s a l s ? i D e s c r i be s om e of t ha t i m a ge r y t ha t t he y e nc our a ge ? i i T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e w ha t t he y r e c om m e nd ? 14) W he r e e l s e di d you l e a r n t o us e i m a ge r y i n voc a l p e r f or m a nc e ? i D i d you r e a d books c ol l a bor a t e w i t h pe e r s or s ugge s t e d by a t e a c he r ? Se c ti o n 4 : W h y I m a ge r y us e f or opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e c a n s e r ve di f f e r e nt f unc t i ons f or s i nge r s a nd i n t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i ons I w i l l be a s ki ng you t o e l a bor a t e on t he r e a s ons w hy you us e i m a ge r y. 15) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e t ha t i s ba s e d on s k i l l l e ar n i n g a n d e xe c u t i o n ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on t e c hni c a l i ns t r uc t i on a nd do i ng t hi ngs c or r e c t l y? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng a c e r t a i n a r i a p e r f or m e d pe r f e c t l y i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 16) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e r e l a t i ng t o s e q u e n c e s ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on s e c t i ons of a pr og r a m m e o r a w hol e pe r f or m a nc e ?

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362 A ppe ndi x D ( c ont i nue d) i i e g. i m a gi ni ng a s t a ge e nt r y goi ng e xa c t l y a c c or di n g t o pl a n a nd pr a c t i c e i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 17) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e r e l a t i ng t o s t r at e gi e s ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on how t o do t hi ngs or de r a nd pl a nni ng? ( l i ke a ga m e pl a n i n s por t e nt r a nc e s bl oc ki ng, e xi t s ? ) i i e g. i m a gi ni ng f oc us i ng on t e c hni que f o r t he f i r s t h a l f of a s t a ge e n t r y, a nd t he n f oc us i ng on f o r m ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 18) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e r e l a t i ng t o ar ou s al an d an xi e t y ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on s t r e s s ne r vous ne s s s t a ge f r i ght e t c ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng t he e xc i t e m e nt a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pe r f or m i ng, i m a gi ni ng ha ndl i ng you r pe r f or m a nc e a nxi e t y o r s t a ge f r i ght ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 19) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e r e l a t i ng t o s e l f c on f i d e n c e an d m as t e r y ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on be i ng i n c ont r ol be i ng f oc us e d, a nd/ or w or ki ng s uc c e s s f ul l y t hr ough di f f i c ul t s i t ua t i ons ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng f e e l i ng r e a l l y c on f i de nt w he n w a l ki ng ont o t he s t a ge ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 20) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e r e l a t i ng t o goal s ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d o n w ha t i t w i l l be l i ke t o w or k t ow ar d your goa l s ? i i H ow do you b r e a k dow n l a r ge a nd s m a l l goa l s ? i i i e g. i m a gi ni ng w or ki ng ha r d a nd t he p r oc e s s t ha t w i l l t a ke you t o w he r e you w a nt t o go? i v. e l a bor a t i on pr obe s :

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363 A ppe ndi x D ( c ont i nue d) 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on w ha t i t w i l l be l i ke t o r e ac h your goa l s ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng gr e a t a ppl a us e f r om t he a udi e nc e f o r your s ol o pe r f or m a nc e a nd/ o r how i t w oul d f e e l t o ge t a c c e p t e d t o a c e r t a i n c om pa ny/ or c he s t r a or l i ke w i s e ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 21) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e ba s e d on m e t ap h or s ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on s ym bol i s m a nd i m a gi ni ng be i ng s om e t hi ng e l s e ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng be i ng f i l l e d w i t h a c ol o r r i s i ng l i ke a bi r d, s i ngi ng i n a n ol d c a t he dr a l s oundi ng l i ke a c e r t a i n m us i c a l i ns t r um e nt ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 22) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e f or c h ar ac t e r d e ve l op m e n t ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on be i ng s om e body e l s e a nd i d e nt i f yi ng your s e l f w i t h you r r ol e ? i i e g. l i vi ng i n t he e r a or pl a c e ( t i m e s t yl e or c ount r y) i n w hi c h a pe r f or m a nc e i s s e t ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 23) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e ba s e d on e m ot i on s ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on e m ot i ons s uc h a s ha ppi ne s s s a dne s s m e l a nc hol y, e xhi l a r a t i on? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng be i ng r e a l l y e xc i t e d? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt )

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364 A ppe ndi x D ( c ont i nue d) 24) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e ba s e d on e n e r gy ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on f e e l i ng e ne r gi z e d a nd ps yc he d up? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng be i ng r e a l l y e ne r ge t i c or c a l m i ng do w n? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 25) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e ba s e d on a p p e ar an c e ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on how you l ook t o o t he r s you r body i m a ge pos t ur e f i t ne s s he a l t h e t c ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng l ooki ng how you w oul d i de a l l y l i ke t o l ook? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 26) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e ba s e d on yo u r s ou n d ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on how you s ound t o ot he r s yo ur voc a l i m a ge f i t ne s s he a l t h, qua l i t y e t c ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng s oundi ng how you w oul d i de a l l y l i k e t o s ound? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 27) D e s c r i be a ny ot h e r k i n d s of i m a ge r y you us e t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e w hi c h a r e di f f e r e nt f r om t he one s w e ha ve m e nt i on e d? i e g. he a l i ng s pi r i t ua l i m a ge r y? i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt 28) D e s c r i be a ny ot h e r r e as on s t ha t you ha ve f or us i ng i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f or m a nc e t ha t a r e d i f f e r e nt f r o m t he one s w e h a ve m e nt i one d? i e g. m o t i va t i ng you r s e l f t o s i ng? i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt )

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365 A ppe ndi x D ( c ont i nue d) S e c t i on 5 : W h at T hi s s e c t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w f oc us e s on w ha t s e ns e s you i nvol ve i n your i m a ge r y f o r opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e A s you know you ha ve t he f i ve s e ns e s of vi s i on, he a r i ng, s m e l l t a s t e a nd t ouc h. A ddi t i ona l l y, you c a n e xpe r i e nc e ki na e s t he t i c i m a ge r y, a nd t he e m ot i on ba s e d i m a ge r y w e t a l ke d a bout e a r l i e r 29) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o vi s i on ? i W ha t pe r s pe c t i ve doe s t ha t i m a ge r y t a ke ? a i e i s i t I nt e r na l / E x t e r na l / S w i t c hi ng? 30) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o s ou n d an d h e ar i n g ? 31) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o s m e l l ? 32) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o t as t e ? 33) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o t ou c h ? i i e i m a gi ni ng w ha t i t f e e l s l i ke t o be t ouc he d, e g. w he n a pa r t ne r t ouc he s you or t he t e a c he r c or r e c t s you 34) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o k i n ae s t h e s i a ? i i e a w a r e ne s s of you r body pos i t i on i n s pa c e i i e g. know i ng how you r body f e e l s w he n s i ngi ng a hi gh not e 35) D e s c r i be a ny ot he r ki nds of s e ns a t i ons t ha t you f e e l i n you r i m a ge r y? i e g. he a t or o t he r t e m pe r a t u r e c ha nge s ? P a i n? B ody I m a ge ? 36) W hi c h of t he a bove w oul d be t he pr i m a r y s e ns e s you us e i n your i m a ge r y? i W hi c h w oul d be not s o i m por t a nt / by pr oduc t s ? S e c t i on 6 : W h at c on t i n u e d : I ma ge r y d e tai l s T hi s s e c t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w r e l a t e s t o s om e of t he de t a i l s of you r i m a ge r y us e 37) D e s c r i be your ab i l i t y t o us e i m a ge r y t o a c hi e ve op t i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e ? i i e how good do you t h i nk you a r e a t i m a gi ng? D i f f e r e nt s e ns e i m a ge r y a bi l i t i e s i i E l a bor a t i on p r obe s : 1. how a c c ur a t e a r e your i m a ge s ? 2. how vi vi d a r e t he y? 3. t o w ha t e xt e nt a r e you a bl e t o m a ni pul a t e your i m a ge s a s you w i s h?

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366 A ppe ndi x D ( c ont i nue d) 38) T o w ha t e xt e nt i s your i m a ge r y f ac i l i t a t i ve d e b i l i t at i ve or b o t h ? i i e i s your i m a ge r y he l pf u l or hur t f ul t o you? E xa m pl e s ? i i E l a bor a t i on p r obe : i s t hi s a l w a ys t he c a s e or doe s i t va r y? S e c t i on 7 : W h e n an d W h e r e T hi s s e c t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w r e l a t e s t o pl a c e s a nd t i m e s you us e i m a ge r y. 39) Wh e n do you us e i m a ge r y? i E l a bor a t i on p r obe s : 1. T i m e of da y o r ni ght 2. I n r e l a t i on t o p r a c t i c e ( be f or e / du r i ng/ a f t e r ) 3. I n r e l a t i on t o pe r f or m a nc e ( be f or e / dur i ng / a f t e r ) 4. I n r e l a t i on t o pe r f or m a nc e s e a s on ( be f or e / du r i ng/ a f t e r ) 5. T o w ha t e xt e nt doe s your i m a ge r y us e di f f e r be t w e e n r e he a r s a l pe r f or m a nc e a nd hol i da y pe r i ods ? 40) Wh e r e do you us e i m a ge r y? i i e w he r e a r e you nor m a l l y w he n you a r e i m a gi ng ? i i W he r e do you us ua l l y p r a c t i c e i m a ge r y, w he r e i s y our f a vor i t e pl a c e ? S e c t i on 8 : C on c l u s i on s O k, t hi s j us t a bout w r a ps up t he i nt e r vi e w H ow e v e r be f o r e w e f i ni s h, l e t m e a s k you a f e w f i na l que s t i ons : 41) H ow di d you t hi nk t he i nt e r vi e w w e nt ? 42) D i d I l e a d you or i nf l ue nc e your r e s pons e s i n a ny w a y? 43) D o you t hi nk w e f a i l e d t o di s c us s a ny i m por t a nt f a c t or s ? i W ha t a r e t he y? 44) D o you ha ve a ny c om m e nt s o r s ugge s t i ons a bout t he i nt e r vi e w i t s e l f ? T H A N K Y O U s o m uc h f o r he l pi ng out by pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s i nt e r vi e w

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367 A ppe ndi x E D a nc e r s I nt e r vi e w G ui de ( N or di n & C um m i ng 2 005) T he F our W s of D a nc e I m a ge r y S ubj e c t num be r : _______ N a m e : _______________________________ A ge : __ ______________ D a t e : ________________________________ T i m e be ga n: __________ T i m e e nde d: __________________________ S e c t i on 1: I nt r odu c t i o n (no t re c or de d ) H e l l o, I a m S a nna N or di n f r om t he S c hool of S por t a nd E xe r c i s e S c i e nc e s a t T he U ni ve r s i t y of B i r m i ngha m T ha nk you f o r a gr e e i n g t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t h i s i nt e r vi e w I n t hi s pr oj e c t I a m t a l ki ng t o da nc e r s a bout w hy, w he n a nd w he r e da nc e r s us e i m a ge r y, a nd w ha t t he i r i m a ge r y c ons i s t s of F i r s t o f a l l I a m go i ng t o de f i ne i m a ge r y t o you: I m age r y i s an e x pe r i e nc e t hat m i m i c s r e al e x pe r i e nc e W e c an be aw ar e of s e e i ng an i m age f e e l i ng m ov e m e nt s as an i m age or e x pe r i e nc i ng an i m age of s m e l l t as t e or s ounds w i t hout e x pe r i e nc i ng t he r e al t hi ng. I t di f f e r s f r om dr e am s i n t hat w e ar e aw ak e and c ons c i ous w he n w e f or m an i m age ( W hi t e a nd H a r dy 1998) I m a ge r y i s not s i m pl y t a l ki ng t o you r s e l f a nd i t i s not j us t w a t c hi ng de m ons t r a t i ons by ot he r pe opl e A l ot of t he t i m e i t i s s e e i ng a nd f e e l i ng as i f you w e r e doi ng s om e t hi ng e l s e I m a ge r y c a n be done w hi l s t pe r f or m i ng a m o ve m e nt a nd i n a n a ppr opr i a t e s e t t i ng but j us t a s w e l l w hi l s t be i ng i n a c om pl e t e l y di f f e r e nt e nvi r onm e nt a nd be i ng c om pl e t e l y s t i l l D o you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout w ha t I m e a n w i t h i m a ge r y? I s t hi s s i m i l a r t o how you r w oul d de f i ne i m a ge r y? A s w e go t hr ough t he i nt e r v i e w I ha ve de f i ni t i ons a nd e xa m pl e s of t he va r i ous ki nds of i m a ge r y a va i l a bl e s o pl e a s e a s k i f you a r e not qui t e c l e a r a bout w ha t I a m a s ki ng f o r A l s o, do not w or r y i f s om e que s t i ons s e e m r e pe t i t i ve T hi s i s pa r t l y t o m a ke s ur e t ha t I a m c ove r i ng a l l a s pe c t s of your da nc e i m a ge r y a nd not l e a vi ng a nyt h i ng out a nd pa r t l y us e f ul t o obt a i n quo t e s f or l a t e r a na l ys e s

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368 A ppe ndi x E ( c ont i nue d) S e c t i on 2: I m a g e ry e xp e ri e n c e T hi s s e c t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w f oc us e s on s om e of y our e xp e r i e nc e w i t h i m a ge r y. 1) W hy di d you f i r s t be gi n us i ng i m a ge r y? i i e f o r w ha t pu r pos e ? 2) H ow di d you f i r s t l e a r n t o us e i m a ge r y? i H ow di d you de ve l op t hi s s ki l l ? i i W ho t a ught you? i i i D i d i t c om e na t u r a l l y? 3) D e s c r i be how your us e of i m a ge r y ha s de ve l ope d ove r your d a nc i ng c a r e e r ? i i e i s i t di f f e r e nt i n a ny w a y f r om w ha t i t w a s t o s t a r t w i t h? S e c t i on 3: D a n c e e xp e r i e n c e T hi s s e c t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w f oc us e s on your ba c k gr ound i n da nc e 4) H ow ol d w e r e you w he n you f i r s t be ga n da nc i ng? i t ype s of da nc e 5) H ow m a ny t i m e s pe r w e e k di d you da nc e t he n? i t ype s of da nc e 6) D e s c r i be w ha t t ype ( s ) of da nc e you a r e i nvol ve d i n now ? 7) H ow m a ny t i m e s pe r w e e k do you da nc e now ? i i f s e ve r a l ki nds how of t e n f or e a c h? 8) D e s c r i be w ha t ki nds of i m a ge r y your da nc e t e a c he r i nvol ve d i n t he l e s s ons w he n you w e r e younge r ? i E l a bor a t i on p r obe : e g s ugge s t i ng you c oul d i m a gi ne a da nc e r out i ne i n your he a d? i W he n w a s t hi s ? / H ow ol d w e r e you t he n? i i W ha t di d t hi s i m a ge r y i nvol ve ? i i i W a s t hi s a r e gul a r oc c ur r e nc e ? 9) W ha t ki nds of i m a ge r y do you r da nc e t e a c he r s / c ho r e ogr a phe r s i nvol ve i n your c l a s s e s / r e he a r s a l s now ? i W ha t doe s t hi s i m a ge r y i nvol ve ( c ont e nt ) ? i i H ow of t e n doe s t hi s oc c ur ? 10) W ha t ki nds of i m a ge r y do your t e a c he r s / c hor e ogr a phe r s e nc our a ge you t o us e your s e l f out s i de o f c l a s s e s / r e he a r s a l s ?

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369 A ppe ndi x E ( c ont i nue d) i D e s c r i be s om e of t ha t i m a ge r y t ha t t he y e nc our a ge ? i i T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e w ha t t he y r e c om m e nd? S e c t i on 4: Wh y I m a ge r y c a n s e r ve di f f e r e nt f unc t i ons f o r da nc e r s a nd i n t he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i ons I w i l l be a s ki ng you t o e l a bor a t e on t he r e a s ons w hy you us e i m a ge r y. 11) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e t ha t i s ba s e d on s ki l l l e a r ni ng a nd e xe c ut i on? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on t e c hni c a l i ns t r uc t i on a nd do i ng t hi ngs c or r e c t l y? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng a doub l e pi r oue t t e pe r f o r m e d pe r f e c t l y. i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 12) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e r e l a t i ng t o s e que nc e s ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on s e c t i ons of a pr og r a m m e o r a w hol e pe r f or m a nc e ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng a s t a ge e n t r y goi ng e xa c t l y a c c or di n g t o pl a n a nd pr a c t i c e i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 13) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e r e l a t i ng t o s t r a t e gi e s ? i v. i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on how t o do t hi ngs or de r a nd pl a nni ng? ( l i ke a ga m e pl a n i n s por t ? ) v. e g. i m a gi ni ng f oc us i ng on t e c hni que f o r t he f i r s t h a l f of a s t a ge e nt r y, a nd t he n f oc us i ng on f o r m ? vi e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 14) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e r e l a t i ng t o a r ous a l a nd a nxi e t y? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on s t r e s s ne r vous ne s s s t a ge f r i g ht e t c ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng t he e xc i t e m e nt a s s oc i a t e d w i t h pe r f or m i ng, i m a gi ni ng ha ndl i ng you r s t a ge f r i ght ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt )

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370 A ppe ndi x E ( c ont i nue d) 15) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e r e l a t i ng t o s e l f c onf i de nc e a nd m a s t e r y? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on be i ng i n c ont r ol be i ng f oc us e d, a nd/ or w or ki ng s uc c e s s f ul l y t hr ough di f f i c ul t s i t ua t i ons ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng f e e l i ng r e a l l y c on f i de nt w he n w a l ki ng ont o t he s t a ge ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 16) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e r e l a t i ng t o goa l s ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on w ha t i t w i l l be l i ke t o w or k t ow ar d your goa l s ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng w or ki ng ha r d a nd t he p r oc e s s t ha t w i l l t a ke you t o w he r e you w a nt t o ge t ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) vi i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on w ha t i t w i l l be l i ke t o r e ac h your goa l s ? vi i i e g. i m a gi ni ng gr e a t a ppl a us e f r om t he a udi e nc e f o r your s ol o pe r f or m a nc e a nd/ o r how i t w oul d f e e l t o ge t a c c e p t e d t o a c e r t a i n a c a de m y/ s c hool or l i ke w i s e ? i x. e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 17) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e ba s e d on m e t a phor s ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on s ym bol i s m a nd i m a gi ni ng be i ng s om e t hi ng e l s e ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng be i ng f i l l e d w i t h a c ol ou r m ovi ng t hr ough w a t e r hol di ng a be a c h ba l l s t r e t c hi ng l i ke e l a s t i c j um p i n g ove r a hu r dl e ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 18) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e f or c ha r a c t e r de ve l o pm e nt ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on be i ng s om e bod y e l s e a nd i d e nt i f yi ng your s e l f w i t h you r r ol e ? i i e g. l i vi ng i n t he e r a or pl a c e a pe r f o r m a nc e i s s e t ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s :

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371 A ppe ndi x E ( c ont i nue d) 3. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 4. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 19) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e ba s e d on e m ot i ons ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on e m ot i ons s uc h a s ha ppi ne s s s a dne s s m e l a nc hol y, e xhi l a r a t i on? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng be i ng r e a l l y e xc i t e d? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 20) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e ba s e d on e ne r gy? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on f e e l i ng e ne r gi z e d a nd ps yc he d up? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng be i ng r e a l l y e ne r ge t i c ? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 21) D e s c r i be a ny i m a ge r y you us e ba s e d on a ppe a r a nc e ? i i e i m a ge r y ba s e d on how you l ook t o o t he r s you r body i m a ge f i t ne s s he a l t h e t c ? i i e g. i m a gi ni ng l ook i ng how you w oul d i de a l l y l i ke t o l ook? i i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 22) D e s c r i be a ny ot he r ki nds of i m a ge r y you us e t ha t i s di f f e r e nt f r om t he o ne s w e ha ve m e nt i one d? i e g. he a l i ng i m a ge r y? i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. D e s c r i be your r e a s ons f or us i ng i t ? ( i e w ha t a r e y ou t r yi ng t o a c hi e ve ) ? ( f unc t i on ) 2. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt ) 23) D e s c r i be a ny ot he r r e a s ons t ha t you ha ve f or us i ng i m a ge r y, t ha t a r e di f f e r e nt f r om t he one s w e ha ve m e nt i one d? i e g. m o t i va t i ng you r s e l f t o go da nc i ng? i i e l a bor a t i on pr obe s : 1. W ha t doe s i t c ons i s t of ? ( c ont e nt )

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372 A ppe ndi x E ( c ont i nue d) S e c t i on 5: Wha t T hi s s e c t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w f oc us e s on w ha t s e ns e s you i nvol ve i n your i m a ge r y. A s you know you ha ve t he f i ve s e ns e s of vi s i on, he a r i ng s m e l l t a s t e a nd t ouc h. A ddi t i ona l l y you c a n e xpe r i e nc e ki na e s t he t i c i m a ge r y, a nd t he e m ot i on ba s e d i m a ge r y w e t a l ke d a bout e a r l i e r 24) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o vi s i on? i i W ha t pe r s pe c t i ve doe s t ha t i m a ge r y t a ke ? 1. i e i s i t I nt e r na l / E x t e r na l / S w i t c hi ng? 31) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o s ound a nd he a r i ng? 32) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o s m e l l ? 33) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o t a s t e ? 34) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o t ouc h? i i e i m a gi ni ng w ha t i t f e e l s l i ke t o be t ouc he d, e g. w he n a pa r t ne r l i f t s you o r t he t e a c he r c or r e c t s you 35) T o w ha t e xt e nt do you us e i m a ge r y r e l a t i ng t o ki na e s t he s i a ? i i e a w a r e ne s s of you r body pos i t i on i n s pa c e i i e g. know i ng how you r body f e e l s w he n s t a ndi ng i n a n a r a be s que 36) D e s c r i be a ny ot he r ki nds of s e ns a t i ons t ha t you f e e l i n you r i m a ge r y? i e g. he a t or o t he r t e m pe r a t u r e c ha nge s ? P a i n? 37) W hi c h of t he a bove w oul d be you r p r i m a r y s e ns e s i n your i m a ge r y ? i W hi c h w oul d be not s o i m por t a nt / by pr oduc t s ? i i S e c t i on 6: Wha t c o nt i nu e d : I m a g e r y d e t a i l s T hi s s e c t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w r e l a t e s t o s om e of t he de t a i l s of you r i m a ge r y us e 38) D e s c r i be your a bi l i t y t o us e i m a ge r y? i i e how good do you t h i nk you a r e a t i m a gi ng? i i E l a bor a t i on p r obe s : 1. how a c c ur a t e a r e your i m a ge s ? 2. how vi vi d a r e t he y? 3. t o w ha t e xt e nt a r e you a bl e t o m a ni pul a t e your i m a ge s a s you w i s h? 39) T o w ha t e xt e nt i s your i m a ge r y f a c i l i t a t i ve de bi l i t a t i ve or bot h? i i e i s your i m a ge r y he l pf u l or hur t f ul t o y ou? E l a bor a t i on p r obe : i s t hi s a l w a ys t he c a s e or doe s i t va r y?

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373 A ppe ndi x E ( c ont i nue d) S e c t i on 7: W h e r e a n d W he n T hi s s e c t i on of t he i nt e r vi e w r e l a t e s t o pl a c e s a nd t i m e s you us e i m a ge r y. 40) W he r e do you us e i m a ge r y? i i e w he r e a r e you nor m a l l y w he n you a r e i m a gi ng ? 41) W he n do you us e i m a ge r y? i E l a bor a t i on p r obe s : 1. T i m e of da y 2. I n r e l a t i on t o p r a c t i c e ( be f or e / du r i ng/ a f t e r ) 3. I n r e l a t i on t o pe r f or m a nc e ( be f or e / dur i ng / a f t e r ) 4. T o w ha t e xt e nt doe s your i m a ge r y us e di f f e r be t w e e n r e he a r s a l pe r f or m a nc e a nd hol i da y pe r i ods ? S e c t i on 8: Con c l us i o ns O k, t hi s j us t a bout w r a ps up t he i nt e r vi e w H ow e v e r be f o r e w e f i ni s h, l e t m e a s k you a c oupl e of f i na l que s t i ons : 42) H ow di d you t hi nk t he i nt e r vi e w w e nt ? 43) D i d I l e a d you or i nf l ue nc e your r e s pons e s i n a ny w a y? 44) D o you t hi nk w e f a i l e d t o di s c us s a ny i m por t a nt f a c t or s ? i W ha t a r e t he y? 45) D o you ha ve a ny c om m e nt s o r s ugge s t i ons a bout t he i nt e r vi e w i t s e l f ? T H A N K Y O U s o m uc h f or he l pi ng out by pa r t i c i p a t i ng i n t hi s i nt e r vi e w

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374 A ppe ndi x F P e r m i s s i on t o U s e t he D a nc e r s I nt e r vi e w G ui de

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375 A ppe ndi x G R e s e a r c h P a r t i c i pa nt R e que s t R E S E A R C H S T U D Y P A R T I C I P A N T S N E E D E D S t u dy T i t l e : A n E x pl or at or y St udy of V oc al P r of e s s i onal s U s e of I m age r y : A ppl i c at i ons of a Spor t P s y c hol ogy F r am e w or k R e s e a r c h e r : P a t r i c i a L B ow e s P h. D C a ndi da t e i n M us i c E duc a t i on, U ni ve r s i t y o f S out h F l or i da 813 985 1199, C e l l : 561 523 2223 pa t bow e s a r t s @ ya hoo. c om R e s e a r c h e r Q u al i f i c at i on s : P h. D C a ndi da t e i n M us i c E duc a t i on, U ni ve r s i t y o f S out h F l or i da B a c he l or s a nd M a s t e r s D e gr e e s i n M us i c i n V oi c e B a c he l or s a nd M a s t e r D e gr e e s i n A r t a nd D r a m a P r of e s s i ona l e xpe r i e nc e a s s ol o voc a l i s t s 10 ye a r s t e a c hi ng uni ve r s i t y c l a s s e s i n a r t s a nd m u s i c 11 ye a r s e xpe r i e nc e a s a r t s e duc a t or i n publ i c a nd pr i va t e K 12 s c hool s F l o r i da T e a c he r C e r t i f i c a t i on: M us i c A r t a nd D r a m a t o 2013 P u r pos e of t h e S t u dy : T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s t o i nve s t i ga t e a nd e xpl a i n t he f ou r W s : w he r e w he n, w hat a nd w hy of i m a ge r y us e t o a c hi e ve opt i m a l pe r f o r m a nc e s i n voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s f r om a s por t ps yc hol ogy f r a m e w or k P ar t i c i pan t s : T he pa r t i c i pa nt s m us t : ( a ) hol d a f ou r ye a r de gr e e i n voc a l pe r f o r m a nc e a nd ( b) ha ve be e n w o r ki ng f or a t l e a s t f ou r ye a r s m a ki ng a t l e a s t ha l f t he i r i nc om e a s a s ol o voc a l pr of e s s i ona l or ( c ) i f t he y ha ve no pe r f o r m a nc e de gr e e t he y ha ve e i ght ye a r s m a ki ng a t l e a s t ha l f t he i r i nc om e a s a s ol o voc a l pr o f e s s i ona l

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376 A ppe ndi x G ( c ont i nue d) R e s pon s i bi l i t i e s of P ar t i c i pan t s : S t udy pa r t i c i pa nt s w i l l c om pl e t e a nd s i gn t he a gr e e m e nt t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t h i s s t udy. A n i ni t i a l t e l e phone di s c us s i on w i l l c l a r i f y t he pu r pos e of t he s t udy, i nt e nt i on o f pa r t i c i pa nt s a nonym i t y, i nt e nt i on t o di gi t a l l y r e c or d a nd t r a ns c r i be ve r ba t i m t he i nt e r vi e w s a nd t he us e of t he i r r e s pons e s P a r t i c i pa nt s w i l l pa r t i c i pa t e i n a t e l e phone i nt e r v i e w l a s t i ng f r om 30 t o 75 m i nut e s A f t e r t he i nt e r vi e w s a r e t r a ns c r i b e d us i ng a ps e udonym t he y w i l l be s e nt t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt f or c l a r i f i c a t i on or a ny c ha n ge s t he y w oul d l i ke t o m a ke w i t hi n f i ve bus i ne s s da y s U pon r e c e i vi ng t he r e s pons e s t he r e s ul t s w i l l be c a t e gor i z e d a c c or di ng t o t he f r a m e w or k of t he f ou r W s of i m a ge r y us e P a r t i c i pa nt s c a n r e que s t a c opy of t he f i na l c opy of t he r e s ul t s upon c om pl e t i on of t he s t udy.

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377 A ppe ndi x H C ons e nt S c r i pt A n E xpl or a t o r y S t udy of t he U s e of I m a ge r y by V oc a l P r of e s s i ona l s : A ppl i c a t i ons of a S po r t P s yc hol ogy F r a m e w or k P a t r i c i a B ow e s C ons e nt S c r i pt t o be r e a d ove r t he t e l e phone t o pa r t i c i pa nt s I n vi t at i on t o P ar t i c i p at e H e l l o, m y na m e i s P a t r i c i a B ow e s a nd I a m a P h D c a ndi da t e i n M us i c E duc a t i on a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da c onduc t i ng a di s s e r t a t i on s t udy on t he us e of i m a ge r y by voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s Y ou a r e i nv i t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e be c a us e you ha ve be e n w or ki ng a s a pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t f or a t l e a s t 4 ye a r s w i t h a m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e de gr e e or 8 ye a r s w i t hout t he de gr e e a nd you m a ke a t l e a s t ha l f your i nc om e i n t hi s m a nne r P u r p os e T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy i s 1. T o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he que s t i ons w he r e w he n, w ha t a nd w hy of i m a ge r y us e by pr of e s s i ona l voc a l i s t s 2. T o l i nk t he us e of i m a ge r y i n s por t ps yc ho l ogy r e s e a r c h t o t he us e o f i m a ge r y by voc a l pr of e s s i ona l s D e s c r i p t i on of P r oc e d u r e s Y ou w i l l be i nt e r vi e w e d by t e l e phone i n a n ope n e nde d i nt e r vi e w t ha t w i l l t a ke pl a c e be t w e e n 30 a nd 75 m i nut e s a nd w i t h your pe r m i s s i on, i t w i l l be a udi o t a pe d. T he i nt e r vi e w w i l l t a ke pl a c e a t a n a g r e e d upon t i m e a n d da t e a nd t he i nt e r vi e w e r w i l l c a l l you s o a s t o i nc ur no t e l e phone c ha r ge s t o you. I t i s up t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt t o c ove r a ny c ha r ge s f or t he i r ow n i nc om i ng c a l l s i f a ny P l e a s e m a ke s ur e t ha t you s e t up a t i m e w he n you c a n c onc e nt r a t e a nd w i l l not be i nt e r r upt e d f or t he dur a t i on of t hi s i nt e r vi e w U pon c om pl e t i on of t r a ns c r i bi ng t he i nt e r vi e w ve r ba t i m you w i l l be e m a i l e d a c opy f or your r e vi s i on a nd a ppr ova l Y ou w i l l be gi ve n 5 bu s i ne s s da y s t o r e t ur n t hi s doc um e nt U pon your a gr e e m e nt t he doc um e nt w i l l be i nc l ud e d i n t he da t a f or t he s t udy. R i s k s an d I n c on ve n i e n c e s T he r e a r e m i ni m a l r i s ks a t t a c he d t o t hi s s t udy. Y o ur i nt e r vi e w w i l l be ke pt c onf i de nt i a l : a va i l a bl e onl y t o t he r e s e a r c h t e a m f o r a na l ys i s p ur pos e s I f t he l e ngt h of t he i n t e r vi e w i s i nc onve ni e nt f or you yo u m a y s t op t he i nt e r v i e w a t a ny t i m e w i t hout a ny c ons e que nc e t o you.

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37 8 A ppe ndi x H ( c ont i nue d) B e n e f i t s A l t hough t he r e i s no di r e c t be ne f i t t o you f or pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n t hi s s t udy, I f e e l your pa r t i c i pa t i on w i l l l i ke l y be ne f i t voc a l t e a c he r s s t u de nt s a nd pr of e s s i ona l s Y ou m a y e ve n l e a r n s om e t hi ng a bout you r ow n us e of i m a ge r y t h a t you di dn t know be f or e U pon c om pl e t i on of t he s t udy, e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w i l l be e m a i l e d a l i nk t o a w e bs i t e w he r e t he y c a n r e a d a nd/ or dow nl oa d t he s t udy f or your us e C on f i d e n t i al i t y I nt e r vi e w t a pe s w i l l be l oc ke d i n a s a f e pl a c e O nl y t he r e s e a r c h t e a m w i l l l i s t e n a nd t r a ns c r i be t he i nf o r m a t i on you gi ve t o us I nt e r vi e w r e s pons e s w i l l not be l i nke d t o your na m e a ddr e s s e m a i l or t e l e phone num be r a nd t he r e f or e t he r e w i l l be no f ol l ow up s e s s i ons Y ou s houl d know t ha t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) m a y i ns pe c t s t udy r e c or ds a s pa r t of i t s a udi t i ng p r ogr a m but t he s e r e vi e w s onl y f oc us on t he r e s e a r c he r s a nd t he s t udy, not on your r e s pons e s or i nvol ve m e nt T he I R B i s a c om m i t t e e t ha t r e vi e w s r e s e a r c h s t udi e s t o m a ke s ur e t ha t t he y a r e s a f e a nd t ha t t he r i ght s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e pr ot e c t e d. V ol u n t ar y P ar t i c i p at i o n P a r t i c i pa t i on i s vol unt a r y. Y ou do not ha ve t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy i f you do not w a nt t o. I f you a gr e e t o be i n t hi s s t udy but l a t e r c ha ng e your m i nd you m a y w i t hd r a w a t a ny t i m e T he r e a r e no c ons e que nc e s of a ny ki nd i f yo u de c i de you do not w a nt t o pa r t i c i p a t e Q u e s t i o n s I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout t hi s s t udy I w i l l be ha ppy t o a ns w e r t he m now I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons i n t he f u t ur e pl e a s e c ont a c t m e P a t r i c i a B ow e s a t 561 523 2223. I f you ha ve a ny que s t i ons a bout your r i ght s a s a r e s e a r c h pa r t i c i pa n t you m a y c ont a c t our I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d a t 813 974 5638 C on s e n t N ow t ha t you ha ve be e n gi ve n t he de t a i l s o f t h i s s t udy, I ne e d t o a s k you f o r you r ve r ba l a gr e e m e nt t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy D o you unde r s t a nd w ha t i s r e qui r e d of you? D o y ou unde r s t a nd your r i gh t s ? D o you unde r s t a nd t ha t you w i l l be a udi o t a pe d a n d your i de nt i t y w i l l be ke pt c onf i de nt i a l ? D o you unde r s t a nd t ha t your r e s pons e s m a y be us e d i n t he s t udy a nd t ha t di r e c t quot e s m a y be gi ve n a nonym ous l y? D o you unde r s t a nd t ha t yo u w i l l be e m a i l e d t he t r a ns c r i be d i nt e r vi e w f o r your r e vi e w ? D o you a gr e e t o r e t ur n t he r e vi s i ons i n 5 bus i ne s s da ys f r om da t e s e nt ? D o you a gr e e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s i nt e r vi e w s t udy ?

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379 A ppe ndi x H ( c ont i nue d) G r e a t T ha nk you s o m uc h W he n w oul d be a goo d t i m e f or t he t e l e phone i nt e r vi e w w hi c h s houl d l a s t be t w e e n 30 a nd 75 m i nut e s ? _____ t i m e ______ da t e W ha t num be r w oul d you l i ke m e t o c a l l ? _______ ______________________________ A nd m a y I ha ve your e m a i l a ddr e s s pl e a s e ? _____ ___________________________ __ T ha t s gr e a t s o I w i l l c a l l you a t ______ ( t i m e ) on _______ ( da t e ) a t __________________________ ( phone num be r ) I w i l l e m a i l you t hi s i nf o r m a t i on s o you c a n ve r i f y i t I f t he r e a r e a ny que s t i ons or c onf l i c t s you w i l l be a bl e t o t e l l m e a nd w e w i l l a d j us t i nt e r vi e w t i m e a c c or di ngl y. I j us t w a nt t o t ha nk you f o r t a ki ng t he t i m e t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy.

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380 A ppe ndi x I V oc a l P a r t i c i pa nt S u r ve y V O C A L P A R TI C I P A N T S U R V EY N A M E : ___________________ P l e a s e a ns w e r t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons by c he c ki ng or c om pl e t i ng t he a ppr opr i a t e s pa c e s P e r s on al I n f or m at i on 1. G e nde r : ___ M a l e ___F e m a l e 2. V oi c e pa r t ( r a nge ) : ___S op r a no, ___M e z z o, ___C ount e r T e nor ___ T e nor ___B a r i t one ___B a s s ot he r ( pl e a s e s pe c i f y) ____ ______________ 3. A ge ( c he c k one ) : ___25 30, ___ 30 35, ___35 40, ___40 45, ___45 50, ___50 55 ___55 60, ___65 70, ___70 75 ___75 80, ___80+ E d u c at i on al I n f or m a t i on 4. U nde r gr a dua t e de gr e e i n m us i c a l pe r f or m a nc e : __ _ye s ___no 5. U nde r gr a dua t e de gr e e i n m us i c ot he r t ha n pe r f o r m a nc e : ___ye s ___no a G r a dua t e de gr e e : ___no, __ ye s : __ i n M us i c __ i n a not he r a r e a 6. H i ghe s t de gr e e e a r ne d? __4 ye a r de g r e e __gr a dua t e de gr e e _pos t gr a dua t e _doc t or a t e P r of e s s i on al S ol o S i n gi n g E xp e r i e n c e 7. N um be r of ye a r s of r e gi ona l e xpe r i e nc e i n C l a s s i c a l s ol o s i ngi ng: ___ a R e gi on: __ _N or t he a s t ___S out he a s t ___ S out h, __M i dw e s t ___S out hw e s t ___N or t hw e s t ___M i d A t l a nt i c ot he r _________ _________________ 8. N um be r of ye a r s of na t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e i n C l a s s i c a l s ol o s i ngi ng: ______

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381 A ppe ndi x I ( c ont i nue d) 9. N um be r of ye a r s of i n t e r na t i ona l e xpe r i e nc e i n C l a s s i c a l s ol o s i ngi ng: ______ a N a t i ons : __C a na da __C e nt r a l A m e r i c a __ S out h A m e r i c a __A s i a __ E ngl a nd, __E ur ope __I ndone s i a __A us t r a l i a __A f r i c a __ R us s i a ______________ot he r 10. T ot a l num be r of ye a r s of e xpe r i e nc e i n C l a s s i c a l s ol o s i ngi n g: ______ 11. T ype s of m us i c p r i m a r i l y ( m os t o f t e n) pe r f or m e d: __O pe r a __O r a t or i o, __R e c i t a l __C onc e r t __A r t S ong, __E a r l y M us i c ___ L i t ur g i c a l _____ot he r ( pl e a s e s pe c i f y) 12. T ype s of m us i c s e c onda r i l y pe r f or m e d: __O pe r a _O r a t or i o, __R e c i t a l __C onc e r t __ A r t S ong __ E a r l y M us i c ___ L i t ur g i c a l _____ ot he r ( pl e a s e s pe c i f y) 13. T ype s of m us i c pe r f or m e d t hi r dl y: __O pe r a __O r a t or i o, __R e c i t a l __C onc e r t __A r t S ong __ E a r l y M us i c ___ L i t ur g i c a l _____ ot he r ( pl e a s e s pe c i f y) 14. I a m now r e t i r e d: ___ye s ___no

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382 A ppe ndi x J K e y of E m e r ge nt C ode s a nd C a t e gor i e s / T he m e s C od e C at e gor i e s / T h e m e s WR Wh e r e W R : G R : A L W he r e : G e ne r a l : A l one W R : G R : Q P W he r e : G e ne r a l : Q ui e t / R e l a xe d P l a c e W R : G R : E V W he r e : G e ne r a l : E ve r yw he r e / A nyw he r e W R : H O W he r e : H om e W R : H O : B D W he r e : B e d W R : O H : E C W he r e : O ut s i de H om e : E xe r c i s i ng/ O ut s i de W R : O H : C M W he r e : O ut s i de H om e : C om m ut i ng & D r i v i ng W R : P P : S J W he r e : S t udi o W R : P P : D R W he r e : D r e s s i ng R oom W R : P P : R S W he r e : R e he a r s a l S pa c e WN Wh e n W N : P R : B F W he n: P r a c t i c e : B e f or e W N : P R : D U W he n: P r a c t i c e : D ur i ng W N : P R : A F W he n: P r a c t i c e : A f t e r W N : P R : R H W he n: R e he a r s a l : D ur i ng W N : P F : B F W he n: P e r f or m a nc e : B e f o r e

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383 A ppe ndi x J ( c ont i nue d) C od e C at e gor i e s / T h e m e s W N : P F : D U W he n: P e r f or m a nc e : D u r i ng W N : P F : A F W he n: P e r f or m a nc e : A f t e r W N : P S : B F W he n: P e r f or m a n c e S e a s on: B e f or e W N : P S : D U W he n: P e r f or m a nc e S e a s on: D ur i ng W N : B K W he n: B r e a ks W N : D F W he n: D i f f e r e nc e s W N : A T W he n: A l l t he T i m e W N : D A W he n: D a y W N : D A : W U W he n: D a y: W a ki ng U p W N : N T W he n: N i ght W N : N T : G S W he n: N i ght : G oi ng t o S l e e p W N : Q T W he n: Q ui e t T i m e s W N : T T W he n: T e di ous T a s ks WT Wh at I T I m age r y T yp e I T : E X I m a ge r y T ype : E xe c ut i on I T : E X : S K I m a ge r y T ype : E xe c ut i on: S ki l l s a nd T e c hni que s I T : E X : S Q I m a ge r y T ype : E xe c ut i on: S e que nc e s a nd P l a nni ng I T : E X : S C I m a ge r y T ype : E xe c ut i on: S c e na r i os I T : E X : G L I m a ge r y T ype : E xe c ut i on: G oa l s

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384 A ppe ndi x J ( c ont i nue d) C od e C at e gor i e s / T h e m e s I T : M T I m a ge r y T ype : M e t a phor I T : M T : C O I m a ge r y T ype : M e t a phor : C ol or s I T : M T : O P I m a ge r y T ype : M e t a phor : O bj e c t s not P r e s e nt I T : M T : I M I m a ge r y T ype : M e t a phor : I m a gi na r y A c t i ons I T : C X I m a ge r y T ype : C ont e xt I T : C X : A D I m a ge r y T ype : C ont e xt : A udi e nc e I T : C X : O P I m a ge r y T ype : C ont e xt : I m a gi na r y P e opl e I T : C X : E T I m a ge r y T ype : C ont e xt : E nvi r onm e nt s I T : B D I m a ge r y T ype : B ody/ R e l a t e d I T : B D : A A I m a ge r y T ype : B ody/ R e l a t e d: A r ous a l I T : B D : A P I m a ge r y T ype : B ody/ R e l a t e d: A ppe a r a nc e I T : B D : K N I m a ge r y T ype : B ody/ R e l a t e d: K i ne s t he t i c F e e l i ngs I T : B D : V P I m a ge r y T ype : B ody/ R e l a t e d: V oc a l P r oduc t i on I T : V S I m a ge r y T ype : M us i c a l S ound I T : M S : M O I m a ge r y T ype : M us i c a l S ound: M ode l i ng I T : M S : I S I m a ge r y T ype : M us i c a l S ound: I de a l S ound I T : M S : O V I m a ge r y T ype : M us i c a l S ound: O w n V oi c e I T : C R I m a ge r y T ype : C ha r a c t e r / R ol e I T : C R : A P I m a ge r y T ype : C ha r a c t e r / R ol e : A ppe a r a nc e I T : C R : B H I m a ge r y T ype : C ha r a c t e r / R ol e : B e ha vi or s

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385 A ppe ndi x J ( c ont i nue d) C o d e C at e gor i e s / T h e m e s I T : C R : E M I m a ge r y T ype : C ha r a c t e r / R ol e : E m o t i ons I T : E X I m a ge r y T ype : E xe c ut i on I T : E X : S K I m a ge r y T ype : E xe c ut i on: S ki l l s a nd T e c hni que s I T : E X : S Q I m a ge r y T ype : E xe c ut i on: S e que nc e s a nd P l a nni ng I T : E X : S C I m a ge r y T ype : E xe c ut i on: S c e na r i os I T : E X : G L I m a ge r y T ype : E xe c ut i on: G oa l s I T : M T I m a ge r y T ype : M e t a phor I T : M T : C O I m a ge r y T ype : M e t a phor : C ol or s I T : M T : O P I m a ge r y T ype : M e t a phor : O bj e c t s not P r e s e nt I T : M T : I M I m a ge r y T ype : M e t a phor : I m a gi na r y A c t i ons I m age r y C h ar ac t e r i s t i c s S I S e ns e I m a ge r y S I : V I S e ns e I m a ge r y: V i s i on/ S i ght S I : V I : S E S e ns e I m a ge r y: V i s i on: S c e na r i o S I : V I : V P S e ns e I m a ge r y: V i s i on: V oc a l P r oduc t i on S I : V I : I N S e ns e I m a ge r y: V i s i on: P e r s pe c t i ve : I nt e r na l S I : V I : E X S e ns e I m a ge r y: V i s i on: P e r s pe c t i ve : E xt e r na l S I : V I : P N S e ns e I m a ge r y: V i s i on: P a ge N ot a t i on S I : S O S e ns e I m a ge r y: S ound/ A udi t o r y S I : S O : W D S e ns e I m a ge r y: S ound: W or ds / T e xt / P hr a s e

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386 A ppe ndi x J ( c ont i nue d) C od e C at e gor i e s / T h e m e s S I : S O : P I S e ns e I m a ge r y: S ound: P i t c h S I : S O : M L S e ns e I m a ge r y: S ound: M e l od y S I : S O : A M S e ns e I m a ge r y: S ound: A c c om pa ni m e nt S I : S O : S S S e ns e I m a ge r y: S ound: S i l e nt S i ngi ng S I : S O : K N S e ns e I m a ge r y: S ound: V oc a l P r oduc t i on / K i ne s t he t i c S I : K N S e ns e I m a ge r y: K i ne s t he s i a S I : K N : E M S e ns e I m a ge r y: K i ne s t he s i a : C ha r a c t e r / E m ot i on S I : K N : V P S e ns e I m a ge r y: K i ne s t he s i a : V oc a l P r oduc t i on S I : K N : B O S e ns e I m a ge r y: K i ne s t he s i a : B ody C he c k S I : K N : A U S e ns e I m a ge r y: K i ne s t he s i a : A ut om a t i c i t y S I : T C S e ns e I m a ge r y: T ouc h/ T a c t i l e S I : T C : C B S e ns e I m a ge r y: T ouc h: C ha r a c t e r B a s e d S I : T C : F P S e ns e I m a ge r y: T o uc h: F ut ur e P e r f or m a nc e S I : T C : C A S e ns e I m a ge r y: T ouc h: C om m uni c a t i on w i t h A udi e nc e S I : S M S e ns e I m a ge r y: S m e l l / O l f a c t or y S I : S M : C B S e ns e I m a ge r y: S m e l l : C ha r a c t e r B a s e d S I : S M : V P S e ns e I m a ge r y: S m e l l : V oc a l P r oduc t i on S I : S M : V E S e ns e I m a ge r y: S m e l l : V e nue S I : T A S e ns e I m a ge r y: T a s t e / G us t a t or y S I : T A : T B S e ns e I m a ge r y: T a s t e : T e xt B a s e d

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387 A ppe ndi x J ( c ont i nue d) C od e C at e gor i e s / T h e m e s S I : T A : V P S e ns e I m a ge r y: T a s t e : V oc a l P r oduc t i on S I : P M S e ns e I m a ge r y: P r i m a r y S I : S N S e ns e I m a ge r y: S e c onda r y S I : T R S e ns e I m a ge r y: T h i r dl y S I : T E S e ns e I m a ge r y: T h r e e E qua l l y ( S O V I K N ) I A I m a ge r y A bi l i t y I A : A Y I m a ge r y A bi l i t y: A c c ur a c y I A : V V I m a ge r y A bi l i t y: V i vi dne s s I A : M N I m a ge r y A bi l i t y: M a ni pul a t e I A : H P I m a ge r y A bi l i t y: H e l pf ul I A : H T I m a ge r y A bi l i t y: H ur t f ul I A : D N I m a ge r y A bi l i t y: D ur a t i on I A : D T I m a ge r y A bi l i t y: D e t a i l I A : N I I m a ge r y A bi l i t y: N e e d f o r I m pr ove m e nt WY Wh y I U I m a ge r y U s e I U : S L I m a ge r y U s e : S ki l l L e a r ni ng / E xe c ut i on I U : S L : V P I m a ge r y U s e : S ki l l L e a r ni ng / E xe c ut i on: V oc a l P r o duc t i on I U : S L : V P : M T I m a g e r y U s e : S ki l l L e a r ni ng / E xe c ut i on: V oc a l P r o duc t i on: M e t a phor I U : Y S I m a ge r y U s e : Y our S ound

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388 A ppe ndi x J ( c ont i nue d) C od e C at e gor i e s / T h e m e s I U : Y S : C O I m a ge r y U s e : Y our S ound: C ol o r I U : Y S : M O I m a ge r y U s e : Y our S ound: M ode l i ng I U : Y S : V P I m a ge r y U s e : Y our S o und: V oc a l P r oduc t i on I U : Y S : V Q I m a ge r y U s e : Y our S ound: V oc a l Q ua l i t y I U : S Q I m a ge r y U s e : S e que nc e s I U : S Q : L P I m a ge r y U s e : S e que nc e s : L e a r ni ng P r oc e s s I U : S Q : P F I m a ge r y U s e : S e que nc e s : P e r f or m a nc e I U : S Q : S Y I m a ge r y U s e : S e que nc e s : S t or y I U : S G I m a ge r y U s e : S t r a t e gi e s I U : S G : P F I m a ge r y U s e : S t r a t e gi e s : P e r f or m a nc e I U : G L I m a ge r y U s e : G oa l s I U : G L : D D I m a ge r y U s e : G oa l s : D i f f e r e nt t ha n D r e a m i ng I U : G L : L T I m a ge r y U s e : G oa l s : L ong T e r m I U : G L : S H I m a ge r y U s e : G oa l s : S hor t T e r m I U : G L : O T I m a ge r y U s e : G oa l s : O ut c om e I U : G L : P R I m a ge r y U s e : G oa l s : P e r f o r m a nc e I U : G L : M O I m a ge r y U s e : G oa l s : M ode l i ng I U : G L : P V I m a ge r y U s e : G oa l s : P e r s pe c t i ve I U : G L : F R I m a ge r y U s e : G oa l s : F r us t r a t i on I U : G L : G N I m a ge r y U s e : G oa l s : G e ne r a l

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389 A ppe ndi x J ( c ont i nue d) C od e C at e gor i e s / T h e m e s I U : A A I m a ge r y U s e : A r ous a l / A nxi e t y I U : A A : B R I m a ge r y U s e : A r ous a l / A nxi e t y: B r e a t hi ng I U : A A : F C I m a ge r y U s e : A r ous a l / A nxi e t y: F oc us / C onc e nt r a t i on I U : A A : P A I m a ge r y U s e : A r ous a l / A nxi e t y: P e r f or m a nc e A nxi e t y I U : A A : P P I m a ge r y U s e : A r ous a l / A nxi e t y: P r a c t i c e P r e pa r a t i o n I U : A A : S T I m a ge r y U s e : A r ous a l / A nxi e t y: S e l f T a l k I U : E N I m a ge r y U s e : E ne r gy I U : E N : C L I m a ge r y U s e : E ne r gy : C a l m i ng D ow n I U : E N : P U I m a ge r y U s e : E ne r gy : P s yc hi ng U p I U : M A I m a ge r y U s e : M a s t e r y I U : M A : F P I m a ge r y U s e : M a s t e r y: F i xi ng P r obl e m s I U : M T I m a ge r y U s e : M e t a phor s I U : M T : V P I m a ge r y U s e : M e t a phor s : V oc a l P r oduc t i on I U : M T : N H I m a ge r y U s e : M e t a phor s : N ot H e l pf ul I U : C D I m a ge r y U s e : C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt I U : C D : A P I m a ge r y U s e : C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt : A ppe a r a nc e I U : C D : B C I m a ge r y U s e : C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt : B e i ng i n C ha r a c t e r I U : C D : E M I m a ge r y U s e : C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt : E m ot i on I U : C D : H C I m a ge r y U s e : C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt : H i s t or y/ C ul t ur e I U : C D : K N I m a ge r y U s e : C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt : K i ne s t he t i c

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390 A ppe ndi x J ( c ont i nue d) C od e C at e gor i e s / T h e m e s I U : C D : S O I m a ge r y U s e : C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt : S ound I U : C D : M T I m a ge r y U s e : C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt : M e t a phor I U : C D : M O I m a ge r y U s e : C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt : M ode l i ng I U : C D : P E I m a ge r y U s e : C ha r a c t e r D e ve l opm e nt : P a s t E xpe r i e nc e s I U : E M I m a ge r y U s e : E m o t i on I U : E M : N H I m a ge r y U s e : E m o t i on: N ot H e l pf ul / F i ne L i ne I U : A P I m a ge r y U s e : A ppe a r a nc e I U : A P : L O I m a ge r y U s e : A ppe a r a nc e : L ook O n s t a ge I U : A P : P O I m a ge r y U s e : A ppe a r a nc e : P os t ur e I U : A P : F I I m a ge r y U s e : A ppe a r a nc e : F i t ne s s I U : H E I m a ge r y U s e : H e a l t h I U : V H I m a ge r y U s e : V oc a l H e a l t h I U : E P I m a ge r y U s e : E xt r a P r a c t i c e I U : O B I m a ge r y U s e : O pt i m i z e B e s t P e r f or m a nc e I U : Q C I m a ge r y U s e : Q ua l i t y C he c k I U : C A I m a ge r y U s e : C om m uni c a t i ng w / A udi e nc e I U : S P I m a ge r y U s e : S i ngi ng P ur pos e I U : S R I m a ge r y U s e : S pi r i t ua l I U : U F I m a ge r y U s e : U s e f ul ne s s I U : T M I m a ge r y U s e : T e r m i nol ogy C onf l i c t

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391 A ppe ndi x J ( c ont i nue d) C od e C at e gor i e s / T h e m e s R I R e vi e w of I n t e r vi e w R I : H W R e vi e w of I nt e r vi e w : H ow i t W e nt R I : H W : L S R e vi e w of I nt e r vi e w : H ow i t W e nt : L e a r ne d S om e t hi ng R I : I F R e vi e w of I n t e r vi e w : I nf l ue nc e R I : I F : W E R e vi e w of I nt e r vi e w : I nf l ue nc e : W i t h E xc e pt i ons R I : F D R e vi e w of I nt e r vi e w : F a c t or s not D i s c us s e d R I : C M R e vi e w of I nt e r vi e w : C om m e nt s or S ugge s t i ons R I : L A : C I R e vi e w of I nt e r vi e w : L a s t A ddi t i ons : C ont i nue d I n t e r e s t

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A bout t he A ut hor P a t r i c i a B ow e s ha s t a ught m us i c a nd a r t on t he c ol l e ge l e ve l f or ove r 10 ye a r s i n uni ve r s i t i e s a r ound S out h F l or i da D r B ow e s ha s t r a i ne d p r e s e r vi c e m us i c t e a c he r s i ns t r uc t e d E l e m e nt a r y M us i c M e t hods a nd W or l d M us i c E ns e m bl e c l a s s e s a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da a nd t he U ni ve r s i t y o f T a m pa I n a ddi t i on D r B ow e s ha s t a ught ge ne r a l a nd c hor a l m us i c f i ne a r t s a nd d r a m a f r om K 12 f or ove r t e n ye a r s i n F l or i da publ i c a nd pr i va t e s c hool s D r B ow e s hol ds a B A i n T he a t r e f r om I ndi a na U ni ve r s i t y, a B F A i n F i ne A r t a B M i n M us i c a n M A T i n M us i c f r om F l o r i da A t l a nt i c U ni ve r s i t y, a nd a n M F A i n T he a t r e f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of A r i z ona D r B ow e s ha s pr e s e nt e d l e c t ur e s a nd w or ks hops r e gi ona l l y a s w e l l a s i nt e r na t i ona l l y S he ha s s ung pr of e s s i ona l l y i n N e w Y or k C i t y a nd S out h F l or i d a i n W e s t e r n C l a s s i c a l a nd J a z z ge nr e s i n a va r i e t y of ve nue s f o r t he pa s t t w e nt y ye a r s


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An exploratory study of the use of imagery by vocal professionals :
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by Patricia Louise Bowes.
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Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
520
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the use of imagery in vocal professionals' efforts to achieve optimal performance based on research from sport psychology. The four Ws of imagery use: where, when, what, and why have been applied to this study from the fields of athletics (Munroe, Giacobbi, Hall, & Weinberg, 2000) and dance (Nordin & Cumming, 2005). These were adopted after many years of research in athletic performance excellence, with particular reference to the Analytic Framework of the Cognitive and Motivational Functions of Imagery (Paivio, 1985; Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998). This theoretical framework was combined with those of previous interview studies investigating professional musical performers in their use of imagery (Bellon, 2006; Carter, 1993; Trusheim, 1987) and provided a foundation for this study.Theories from psychology explaining the effects of imagery were also integrated, including functional equivalence and neuroimaging. An exploratory design was chosen to investigate the comprehensive nature of this inquiry using a purposeful sample (N = 15). A semi-structured interview based on the four Ws was conducted with 15 solo classical vocal professionals, 10 females (sopranos and mezzos) and 5 males (tenors and a baritone) ranging in age from late twenties to late sixties, residing in several major cities of the United States. Vocalists used imagery during practice, before performance, at home, traveling, and a range of other times. Imagery content was divided into types and characteristics. Vocalists' use of imagery types encompassed execution, metaphorical, context, body-related, musical sound, and character/role images.Imagery was employed to perfect vocal production and quality, embody the character's qualities and emotional aspects for performance, visualize metaphorical and anatomical images to achieve proper vocal execution, achieve goals, and communicate with the audience. Imagery characteristics of vocalists involved visual, auditory, and kinesthetic senses, using primarily internal and some external perspectives. These professionals' imagery abilities were deliberate, controllable, and positive. Similar to competitive athletes, solo vocal performers engaged in imagery for many cognitive and motivational functions. Vocalists replicated dancers in artistic, and healing functions of imagery use in preparing for and achieving optimal performance.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
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Advisor: C. Victor Fung, Ph.D.
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Music performance
Music education
Mental rehearsal
Singing performance
Functional equivalence
0 690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Music Education
Doctoral.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.2994