USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Public service television policy and national development in Morocco

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Public service television policy and national development in Morocco
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Zaid, Bouziane
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Comparative media systems
Development communication
Critical media studies
Broadcasting policy
Arab media
Dissertations, Academic -- Communication -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: Like many developing countries, and for many years, Morocco has sought the help of television to disseminate development ideas to its citizens. The Moroccan government has recently given policy considerations to regulate the use of television and radio airwaves as important outside sources for promoting its development objectives. The newly assigned importance of television in Moroccan developmental policies makes a study on the relationship between television and development interesting and crucial. This study investigates the extent to which the Moroccan public service television meets the challenges of effectively contributing to the development objectives of the nation. It focuses on the two government-owned public service television stations, Radiodiffusion et Television Marocaine (RTM) and Soread 2M.Based on initial observations, the general hypothesis is that television programming decisions in the two public television stations are influenced by the elite class that wants more entertainment and has less need for educational programs than their rural and urban-poor counterparts. Concerning methodology, the study uses three main areas in critical media studies: content analysis, production analysis, and audience analysis. The study conducted a quantitative and a qualitative content analysis of a sample of Moroccan produced programs to examine the developmental themes addressed by the two public service television stations. Concerning the production study, the study carried out a critical assessment of the current choices undertaken by the TV producers in the two public service television stations through conducting in-depth interviews with media executives. The third important area is audience reception.Addressing this area helps tackle these research questions from both 'sides' of the screen, examining the issues from the perspectives of both the broadcasters and the audience. The audience reception study assesses the opinions of television viewers on the quality of Moroccan produced programs and their perceptions on the public service provided by the two TV stations. The audience study uses focus groups as a standalone data-gathering strategy. Finally, the study offers a list of recommendations for the use of TV for development.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Bouziane Zaid.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 349 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002063908
oclc - 558588026
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0003019
usfldc handle - e14.3019
System ID:
SFS0027336:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

Public Service Television Policy and National Development in Morocco b y Bouziane Zaid A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Communication College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Co Major Professor: Fred Steier, Ph.D. Co Major Professor: Mark Neumann, Ph. D Garnet Butchart, Ph.D. Stephen Turner, Ph.D. Date of Approval: June 5, 2009 Keywords: Comparative m edia system s development communication, critical media studies, broadcasting policy, Arab media Copyright 2009, Bouziane Zaid

PAGE 2

Dedication I dedicate this dissertation to my mother and father who wanted me to get a doctorate more than I did and to my wife Houda and son Ali.

PAGE 3

Acknowledgments I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Mark Neumann for his inspiration, support and encouragement throughout my graduate studies. I am forever indebted to his support He gave willingly and abundantly of his time even when he was away pursuing his ow n work i n Northern Arizona University. More importantly, I am very grateful for his friendship and compassion; m y appreciation and admiration for him know no bounds. I am very grateful for the remarkable support and guidance of my committee, Dr. Fred Steie r, Dr. Steve Turner, and Dr. Garnet Butchart. I would like to thank them for their valuable feedback and insights regarding the contents and methodologies of this dissertation. As t his dissertation grew out of many years of study under the tutelage of th e finest teachers and scholars Derina Holtzhausen, Liz Bird, Humphrey Regis, Ken Cissna, David Payne, and Eric Eisenberg I also would like to thank my graduate studies friends and colleagues Daniel Makagon, Eric Shouse, Linda Vangelis, and Shane Moreman. I am also very grateful for the support of my friends and colleagues at A l Akhawayn University in Ifrane. I thank Dr. Mohamed Ibahrine who gave so much of his time to read my drafts and to provide m e with solid feedback. I want to thank Dr. Abdelkrim Marzouk who guided me through the quantitative content analysis, and Dr.

PAGE 4

Connel l Monette (Jamaludine) for his feedback on some key chapters. I also would like to thank Dr. Najia El Alami, Dr. Naceur Amak hmakh and Professor Mohamed Dahbi, Dean of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences for their support and encouragements. Many thanks to all the participants in the focus groups for their energy, thoughtfulness and generosity. Their acute contributions enriched this dissertation in many ways. Many thanks to the TV producers, the very few who kindly agreed to speak to me, for their forthrightness and honesty. Many thanks to the personnel of HACA for their assista No words of thanks would ever come close to express my appreciation to the most precious person in my life, my wife, Houda. She is the perfect supportive spouse and pa rtner; she prov ided encouragement when I was tired and frustrated, offer ed guidance when I temporarily wandered off from my path, and showed patience when I needed it. Last, I thank Allah for making all things possible.

PAGE 5

i Table of Contents List of Tables vi List of Figures vii Abstract viii Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1. 1 General Context 1 1. 2. Literature Review 3 1. 2. 1. C ommunication and National Development 3 1. 2. 1. 1. Development Communication Paradigm s 4 1. 2. 1. 2 Media, Democracy, and National Development 6 1. 2. 1. 3 Mass Media and the Public Interest 7 1. 2. 2. Mass Media in the Arab World 10 1. 2. 2. 1. 11 1. 2. 2. 2. A Typology of World Media Systems 13 1. 2. 3. Broadcast Media in the Arab World 15 1. 2. 3. 1. Broadcast Media in Morocco 19 12 1999 19 1. 2. 3. 2. Broadcast Media in Morocco 1999 2008 23 1. 2. 3. 3. Concluding Remarks 26 1. 3. Area of Research 27 1. 3. 1. Research Hypotheses 29 1. 3. 2. Research Quest ions 32 1. 4. Theoretical Background 33 1. 4. 1. Development Communication 33 1. 4. 2. Critical Media Theories 34 1. 5. Methodology 35 1. 5. 1. Content Analysis 35 1. 5. 2. Television Production Analysis 39 1. 5. 3. Audience Reception Analysis 40 1. 6. Significance 43 1. 7. Preview of the Chapters 44 Chapter 2: A Review of Theory 47 2. 1. Introduction 47

PAGE 6

ii 2. 2. The Dominant Paradigm 50 2. 2. 1. Modernization Approach 53 53 2. 2. 1. 2. Diffusion of Innov ation Theory 56 2. 2. 1. 3. Summary 61 2. 2. 2. Other Theories within the Modernization Approach 64 2. 2. 2. 1. Social Marketing 64 2. 2. 2. 2. Education Entertainment 65 2. 2. 2. 3. Summary 66 2. 2. 3. Criticism of the Dominant Paradigm 67 2. 3. The Alternative Paradigm 72 2. 3. 1. The Neo Marxist Approaches 72 2. 3. 1. 1. Dependency T heory 73 2. 3. 1. 2. Structural Imperialism Theory 75 2. 3. 1. 3. Summary 78 2. 3. 2. Participatory Approaches 80 edagogy 80 2. 3. 2. 2. 82 2. 3. 2. 3. Summary 85 2. 3. 3. Criticism of the Alternative Paradigm 87 2. 4. Synthesis 89 2. 4. 1. Synthesis of D evelopment Communication Theories 89 2. 4. 2. Public Service Broadcasting 92 2. 5. Conclusion 95 Chapter 3 : History and Current Status of the Moroccan Broadcast Media System 96 3. 1. General Characteristics 96 3. 2. Historical Development 99 3 2. 1. Radio 99 3. 2. 2. Television 104 3 2. 2. 1. RTM 1962 1999 105 3. 2. 2. 2. 2M 1989 1999 110 3. 2. 2. 3. RTM and 2M 1999 2004 113 3. 2. 2. 4. Satellite Television 1992 2004 114 3. 3. Media Policy 116 3. 3. 1. The Constitution: 1962, 1970, 1992, 1996 116 3. 2. 2. Press Codes: 1959, 1963, 1973, 2002 119 3. 3. 3. HACA 2002 2006 123 3. 3. 3. 1. Audio Visual Communication Law 125 3. 3. 3. 2. Licensing Obligations of Al Oula and 2M 128 3. 3. 4. Concluding Remarks 130 131 3. 4. 1. Comparative World Media Systems 133 3. 4. 1. 1. Authoritarian 134

PAGE 7

iii 3. 4. 1. 2. Libertarian 134 3. 4. 1. 3. Communist 135 3. 4. 1. 4. Social Responsibility 135 3. 4. 1. 5. Social Democratic 136 3. 4. 1. 6. Developmental 137 3. 4. 1. 7. Participatory 137 3. 4. 1. 8. Summary and Critique 138 3. tem: 1956 1999 140 3. 4. 2. 1. The Legal Environment 140 3. 4. 2. 2. The Economic Environment 141 3. 4. 2. 3. The Political Environment 142 3 2008 144 3. 4. 3. 1. The Legal Environment 145 3. 4. 3. 2. The E conomic Environment 147 3. 4. 3. 3. The Political Environment 148 152 Chapter 4 : Content Analysis 155 4. 1. General Introduction 155 4. 2. Methodology 156 4. 2. 1. Quantitative Research 157 4. 2. 1. 1. Sampling 159 4. 2. 1. 2. Coding 163 4. 2. 2. Qualitative research 166 4. 2. 2. 1. Sampling 167 4. 2. 2. 2. Description of Data 168 4. 2. 3. Conclusion 168 4. 3. Description of the Television Shows 169 4. 3. 1. Al Oula Shows 169 4 3. 2. 2M Shows 1 75 4. 4. Quantitative Content Analysis 187 4. 4. 1. Representation of Gender 188 4. 4. 2. Use of Language 190 4. 4. 3. Availability of Feedback 193 4. 4. 4. Geographical Location 194 4. 4. 5. Urban Vs Rural Themes 196 4 4. 6. Portrayal of Lifestyle 197 4. 4. 7. Discussion of Findings 199 4. 5. Qualitative Content Analysis 202 4. 5. 1. Confirming Case 201 4. 5. 2. Disconfirming Case 204 4. 5. 3. Extreme/Deviant Case # 1 205 4. 5. 4. Extreme/Deviant Case # 2 207 4. 5. 5. Discussion of Findings 209

PAGE 8

iv 4. 6. Gene ral Conclusion 214 Chapter 5 : Television Production Study 217 5. 1. Introduction 217 5. 2. Theory 220 5. 3. Methodology 225 5. 4. Findings of the Production Study 228 5. 4. 1. Responses to the Quantitative Content Analysis 228 5. 4. 2. The Use of Language in the TV Shows 230 5. 4. 3. Mechanisms of Feedback and Perception of Audiences 232 5. 4. 4. The Editorial Policy of Al Oula 233 5. 4. 5. The Legal Constraints of Television Production 234 5. 4. 6. The Political Constraints of Television Production 238 5. 5. Discussion of Findings 243 5. 6. Conclusion 246 Chapter 6 : Audience Reception Study 248 6. 1. Introduction 248 6. 2. Theory 250 6. 3. Methodology 256 6. 3. 1. Advantages and disadva ntages of focus gro up interviews 257 6. 3. 2. S ampling Focus Group Participant 258 6. 3. 3. Framing Focus Group Participation 259 6. 3. 4. Focus Groups Demographics 260 6. 3. 5. Focus Groups Sites 260 6. 3. 6. Running the Focus Groups 262 6. 3. 7. Important Methodological Considerations 264 6. 4. Findings 265 6. 4. 1. Watching Television 266 6. 4. 2. Understanding Television 268 6. 4. 3. Representation of Lifestyle 270 6. 4. 4. Expectations 274 6. 5. Discussion of Findings 278 6. 6. Conclusion 285 Chapter 7: Conclusion and Recommendations 286 7. 1. Summary and Conclusions 286 7. 2. Recommendations 296 List of References 300 Appendices 320 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis D ata R esults 321 Appendix B: Production Study Interview Guide 352

PAGE 9

v Ap pendix C: Focus Group Interview Guide 354 About the Author End Page

PAGE 10

vi List of Tables Table 4. 1. Breakdown of TV show s s ample 161 Table 4. 2. Breakdown of TV show s by TV station : Al Oula 162 Table 4. 3. Breakdown of TV show s by TV station : 2M 163 Table 5. 1. List of interviewees 227 Table 6. 1. Focus groups participants by age, gender, and education 260 Table 6. 2. Focus group sessions by location and date 261

PAGE 11

vii List of Figures Figure 3. 1. A p roposed m odel for Morocco's m edia s ystem 153 Figure 4. 1. Representation of gender 189 Figure 4. 2. Representation of gender in Al Oula shows 190 Figure 4. 3. Representation of gender in 2M shows 191 Figure 4. 4. Use of language 191 Figure 4. 5. Use of language in Al Oula shows 192 Figure 4. 6. Use of language in Al Oula shows 192 Figure 4. 7. Availability of feedback 194 Figure 4. 8. Geographical location of pa rticipants 1 195 Figure 4. 9. Geographical location of participants 2 195 Figure 4. 10. Representation of urban versus rural themes 196 Figure 4. 11. Portrayal of lifestyles 198 Figure 4. 12. Portrayal of lifestyles in Al Oula shows 198 Figure 4. 13. Portrayal of lifestyles in 2M shows 199

PAGE 12

viii Public Service Television Policy and National Development in Morocco Bouziane Zaid ABSTRACT Like many developing countries, and for many years, Morocco has sought the help of television to disseminate development ideas to its citizens. The Moroccan government has recently given policy considerations to regulate the use of television and radio air waves as important outside sources for promoting its development objectives The newly assigned importance of television in Moroccan developmental policies makes a study on the relationship between television and development interesting and crucial. This s tudy investigates the extent to which the Moroccan public service television meets the challenges of effectively contributing to the development objectives of the nation. It focus es on the two government owned public service television stations, Radiodiffu sion et Television Marocaine (RTM) and Soread 2M Based on initial observations, the general hypothesis is that television programming decisions in the two public television stations are influenced by the elite class that want s more entertainment and has less need for educational programs than their rural and urban poor counterparts. Concerning methodology, the study uses three main areas in critical media studies: content analysis, production analysis, and audience analysis. The study conducted a quantit ative and a qualitative content analysis of a sample of Moroccan produced programs to examine the

PAGE 13

ix developmental themes addressed by the two public service television stations. Concerning the production study, the study carried out a critical assessment of the current choices undertaken by the TV producers in the two public service television stations through conducting i n depth interviews with media executives The third impor tant area is audience reception. Addressing this area helps tackle these research questions from broadcasters and the audience. The a udience reception study assess es the opinions of television viewers on the quality of Moroccan produ ced programs and their perceptions on the public service provided by the two TV stations. The audience study use s focus groups as a standalone data gathering strategy. Finally, the study offers a list of recommendations for the use of TV for development.

PAGE 14

1 Chapter One : Introduction 1. 1. General Context Morocco 1 has been undertaking a comprehensive long term development project called the National Initiative for Human Development (NIHD). In the inauguration speech of May 18, 2005, Mohammed VI, King of Morocco, called attention to the miserable living conditions o f a large portion of Moroccans. They are sheltered in shantytowns, poor urban and sub urban districts, and in rural communities. 2 They suffer from a lack of access to basic social services such as, health, education, water, electricity, etc. Against this background, the NIHD aims at leading the nation on the path of development by prioritizing areas of education, health, gender equity, economic growth, and democratic reforms. The initiative r the national social indicators. The NIDH aims to boost income generating activities, improve infrastructure and social services (such as education, literacy, and health care), and provide assistance to the most vulnerable groups (women, youth, and the poor). The 1 Capital: Rabat; Largest city: Casablanca; Area: 710,850 sq km; population: 29.823.706 ; Major languages: A rabic (official) Amazigh dialects, French, Spanish; Major religion: Islam; Life expectancy at birth : 70 years; Monetary unit: Dirham, 1 US $ = 7.6 dhs; Main exports: m inerals, seafood products, citrus fruit; GNI per capita: US $1,730; 42.3% of jobs are in the agricultura l market; Internet domain: .ma (World Bank, 2006). 2 See address by King Mohamed VI to the Nation on May 18, 2005, (http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/06C42C8B 0F3C 4CF2 8ED3 563C0E421F6F).

PAGE 15

2 poverty and religious extremism (Ibahrine, 2007). On May 16 2003, Morocc o was subject to the deadliest terrorist attacks in the country's history F ive explosions occurred within thirty minutes of each other killing forty three people and injuring more than 100 people in suicide bomb attacks in Morocco's largest city, Casablan ca Morocco has been a staunch ally of the U.S. The fourteen suicide bombers all originated from a poor suburban neighborhood in the outskirts of Casablanca. A public debate ensued in the print and broadcast media questioning the relationship between pover ty and extremism. Over the last decade, the media in many developing countries have undergone a revolution in structure and accessibility. In Morocco, access to radio and television is nowadays almost universal. Radio and television have witnessed remarkab le progress since Morocco's independence in 1956. Radio and television, both through terrestrial and satellite broadcasting, cover 95 percent of the nation's territory (Ministry of Communication, 2003). Like many developing countries, Morocco has sought t he help of television to disseminate development ideas to its citizens. There are large numbers of non literate or marginally literate individuals who are living out their lives in print scarce environments with few or no reading materials in their homes, but they have regular access to television. The illiteracy rate for Moroccan citizens of fifteen years and older is estimated at 26.7% for males, and 61.7% for females; for citizens of fifteen to twenty four years old, the rate is estimated at 22.6% for ma les and 38.7% for females (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2003). National network television stations and satellite television channels

PAGE 16

3 remain the main source of information and education for a large group of Moroccan citizens. This dissertation address national development. This chapter first reviews the literature on development communication and briefly summarizes the state of broadcast media in the Arab World and in Morocco. Second the chapter delin eates the research area, the research questions and hypotheses, and describes the theory and methodology. Finally, it explains the significance of this study and presents the outline of the chapters. 1. 2. Literature Review 1. 2. 1. Communication and National D evelopment Development communication deals with the basic question of how can be put to use to bring about rapid social change and economi c progress for the developing countries. Development communication has its origins in post war international aid programs to countries in Latin America, Asia and Africa that were struggling with poverty, illiteracy, poor health and a lack of economic, poli tical and social infrastructures. In the post World War II era, and after the last remains of European colonial powers in Latin America, Africa and Asia fell apart in the 1950s and 1960s, the world community was faced with the reality of the abysmal dispar ities between the developed and underdeveloped worlds. The Cold War divided the world into two hostile blocks, East and West, creating thus a Third World made up of countries that wanted to avoid bloc politics and concentrate on the development of their ec onomic and social infrastructures.

PAGE 17

4 D evelopment communication paradigms became part of the Cold War discourses of free market capitalism and state socialism. Supporters of capitalism argue that the primary function of communication is to promote democracy a nd free markets, while Neo Marxists advocate greater state regulation on communication and media outlets (Thussu, 2000). Developed countries of the West, mainly the U.S. championed the ition to state regulation and censorship, deemed bad for business. Their argument was grounded in the media and their assumed relevance for political development and econom ic prosperity. 1. 2. 1. 1. Deve lopment communication paradigms. Complementary to the free flow doctrine was the view that communication was the key to modernization and development in the Third world. The Modernization approach to development communication stressed the inherent ability of mass media to bring about social change (Lerner, 1958; Schramm, 1964; Roger & Shoemaker, 1962). The modernization approach was considered a panacea for development for Third world regimes as well as Western international f unding organization. S ince the late 1950's, amid the popular fascination with radio and television as powerful tools of communication, e arly attempts to investigate the relationship between media and development assumed a fairly simple and unproblematic re lationship between access to modern forms of mass communications and economic and political development. It was assumed that society was not changing because the large majority of people did not have the right kind of information to facilitate change (Lern er, 1958; Schramm, 1963). It was also believed that urbanization and the spread of literacy would lead to growing access to modern technologies such as

PAGE 18

5 telephones, newspapers, radio and television, which in turn would produce an informed citizenry able to participate effectively in political affairs. Lerner (1958) argues that (pe Development originally meant the process by which Third World societies could become more like Western developed societies (Inkeles & Smith, 1974). In his seminal book The Passing of Trad itional Society: Modernizing the Middle East, Lerner (1958) argued that modernization and development take place only when traditional values are development as the most ef fective and viable path, one that is able to shake off the By the late 1960s and early 1970s, however, skepticism grew as major setbacks for economic growth and democracy in Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia occurred. It was clear that the modernization approach, a panacea for development for Third world regimes as well as Western international funding organization, had failed to deliver. Other approaches emerged either as a continuation of the modern ization paradigm or as alternative approaches to the dominant paradigm. Diffusion of innovation, s ocial marketing, and e ntertainment education approaches were continuations of the dominant modernization paradigm. Alternatives to the dominant paradigm are t he dependency theory, structural imperialism theory, media advocacy, and the participatory community based theories ( Waisbord, 1999). 3 3 I will address in details the evolution and the theoretical debate s surrounding development

PAGE 19

6 Part of the 1960s and early 1970s skepticism was a growing recognition that public access to newspapers, radio and telev ision was insufficient by itself to promote economic and political development. The modernization theory considered the mass media to be neutral tools and ignored the fact that they (mass media) are subject to cultural, economic and political conditions. I n many developing countries, mass media played a key role in legitimizing the power establishment, under the control of a tiny, often unrepresentative, elite (Thussu, 2004). Once under the control of authoritarian regimes (common in Third world countries), print and broadcast media were used effectively to reinforce autocratic power and the power of multinational corporations. 1. 2. 1. 2. Media, d emocracy, and n ational d evelopment The relationship between media and democracy and the influence this relation ship has on national development has been widely researched. Classical liberal theorists from Milton through Locke and Madison to John Stuart Mill have argued that a free and independent media can play a critical role in the processes of democratization an d human development. Edmund efficient mechanisms of checks and balances. Investigative journalism is considered a powerful tool in the hands of journalists to scrutin record, and hold authorities accountable for their actions, be they public sector institutions, non profit organizations, or private companies. According to Amartya Sen, Nobel Prize laureate in Economics, political freedoms are linked to economic development and good governance in developing countries. The right of freedom of expression strengthens the responsiveness of governments to all communication theories in Chapter Two.

PAGE 20

7 citizens and provides a pluralist platform of political expression (in Besley & Burgess, 2001). Freedom of expression and information is regarded as a basic human right in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the UN in 1948, the European Convention on Human Rights, the American Convention on Human Rights, and the Afri can Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. These basic assumptions about the power of a free and independent mass media apply to both developed and developing countries. The mass media, unlike other businesses and industries, and by the nature of the produ cts they offer the public are assumed to carry out tasks that contribute to the short and long term benefits of the society as a whole, especially in cultural and political matters (McQuail, 1992; Smith, 1989; Melody, 1990). There is widely shared belief that the media have an important part to play in public life, therefore the activities of media institutions are inextricably linked to the public domain. 1. 2. 1. 3. Mass m edia and the p ublic i nterest The p ublic interest is a concept that has a long and contentious history in media studies in general and media policy in particular (Napoli, 2001). In so far as the public interest has served as the primary benchmark against which media systems are assessed, it will continue t o represent a contested territory (Napoli, 2001). This concept embodies the standard that most media policy makers are supposed to adhere to in their decision making. Policy decisions should never reflect the interests of small groups but rather the intere st of the population as a whole. McQuail (1992) states that a wide range of normative criteria can be embedded in the concept of public interest, criteria such as freedom, diversity, competition, pluralism, as well as access, participation, and objectivity (McQuail, 1992).

PAGE 21

8 In the United States, in the 1920's, a n extended debate over t he licensing arrangements of a limited number of broadcast frequencies triggered debates over the issue of public interest. The Government's exclusionary licensing arrangement was P ublic interest obligations were an attempt to reconcile the prerogatives of commercial interests on the one hand with the needs of the democratic system on the othe r Unlike newspapers and magazines, broadcasters have regulatory obligations to serve the public in specific ways. A key principle of the U.S. federal communications law is that in exchange for free use of the public airwaves, broadcasters agree to provide a service that benefits the large public. Both the 1927 and 1934 Acts provide that the primary duty of 1998). The Federal Radio Commission, which was created by the 19 27 Act, described the public trustee model in this manner: [Despite the fact that] the conscience and judgment of a station's management are necessarily personal....the station itself must be operated as if owned by the public.... It is as if people of a community should own a station and turn it over to the best man in sight with this injunction: Manage this station in our interest. The standing of every station is determined by that conception. (Benton Foundation, 2008) The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) released a report, widely known as the 1960 Program ming Policy Statement to clarify the meaning of the public interest standard and to articulate guidelines for programming. The report listed 14 major elements necessary to serve the public interest:

PAGE 22

9 1. Opportunity for local self expression. 2. The develop ment and use of local talent. 3. Programs for children. 4. Religious programs. 5. Educational programs. 6. Public affairs programs. 7. Editorialization by licensees. 8. Political broadcasts. 9. Agricultural programs. 10. News programs. 11. Weather and mark et services. 12. Sports programs. 13. Service to minority groups. 14. Entertainment programming (Benton Foundation, 2008). Public service broadcasting is a vital part of the society and culture of the nation where it exists and it must teach, educate, illu minate and inspire. Stacey (1998) argues being of this society and its culture the state (perhaps 'the body politics' is better phrase) has not just a right but a duty to make strategic decisions and interventions through its nomi nated institutions. In broadcasting those interventions are to guarantee a range, depth, quality, and independence of programme output which other arrangements would simply n Is there any empirical evidence that supports the claim that the mass media has the power to promote and uphold democracy, or to transform countries from a state of

PAGE 23

10 underdevelopment to one of economic prosperity? Much of the existing research confirm espread mass access and by an independent free press experience less corruption, greater administrative efficiency, higher political stability, and more effective rule of law, as well as better social outcomes such as higher per capita income, greater lite racy, lower economic inequality, lower House, a non profit organization that promotes democracy and freedom around the world, conducted many quantitative studies to dete rmine the relationship between freedom, economic well being, and media use and availability (Stephens, 1995). Stephens argues that the data shows that measures of economic prosperity are strongly related to the level of freedom. Stephens (1995) concludes and civil liberties and their economic well being are linked to press freedom and media 1. 2. 2. Mass Media in the Arab World These basic assumptions about the power of a free and inde pendent mass media apply to both developed and developing countries, including the countries of the Arab world. However, some communication scholars doubt the potential of mass media in Arab countries in bringing about social change (Hafez, 2001, p. 10). T hey argue that since mass media in Arab countries have been under tight control by Arab authoritative regimes, the effects of mass media on democracy, politics, society or economy would be at best minimal. Arab regimes use mass media mostly for propaganda and entertainment purposes at the expense of other functions and services (Ayish, 2003).

PAGE 24

11 typology of Arab press systems. In the 1960's, there was no systematic study that addressed the relationship between mass media, democracy, and development in the Arab world. Lack of research during this period is understandable given the restrictions on media policies imposed by Arab re gimes. In the 1970's, the recognition of the role of mass media in the Arab world was both specific and limited. William Rugh (1979) addresses the history, functions and structures of print media in the Arab world, spread across eighteen Arab countries: Al geria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Rugh (1979) uses a media typology to illustrate the relationship between print media and Arab power regimes. Rugh groups characterized by its complete subordination to the political regime. This typology includes countries such as Algeria, Egypt, South Yemen, Sudan, Syria, Libya, and Iraq. Rugh argues that mass media, under such circumstances, have not exerted any impact on the process of modernization in these countries, except as mobilizing instruments to support and approve the economic and social pol icies of the regimes. owned but is subject to censorship and has direct ties to the regime. It supports the establishment and journalists function under strict laws; any transgression of the red lines is punished. This typ e of press groups countries such as Bahrain, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. The in opinions. It includes only three Arab countri es: Lebanon, Kuwait, and Morocco.

PAGE 25

12 regimes. They cannot initiate change in the respective countries where they operate. it free from the grip of the authoritarian regimes. Hence they served the same propaganda and entertainment functions dictated by the establishment. Ibahrine (2007) argues that the privately owned unctions as a propaganda tool. functions (Ibahrine, 2007, p. 9). As an ins trument of social and political change, it was incapable of triggering socio economic change or democratic reforms. I do not agree with this assessment for many reasons. First, it is important to note that Rugh's typology is to be applied only to the prin apply to broadcast media which was owned and controlled by Moroccan State. In Morocco, the print press was owned by political parties, with the exception of two government owned newspapers. Second, newspapers were the mouth piece of the not only from serious deficiencies in the democratic process, in forms of intimidation, censorship, and imprisonment, but also from deficiencies in social life due to high rates of illiteracy (in 2004 at 26.7% for males and 61.7% for females, this illiteracy rate was 87% in 1960). 4 However, journalists managed to carry out significant attempts to challenge the approved "government line" on many contentious issues such as corruption, election frauds, and constitution amendments. Therefore, I think it is incorrect to deem 4 Jaidi & Zouaoui, 2005, p. 74.

PAGE 26

13 the work of journalists and activists as propaganda in the service of the establishment when many journalists/activists took many risks and some lost their freedom in pursuit of social and political change. 1 2. 2. 3. A Typology of world m edia s ystems Before I discuss the broadcast media in the Arab world, it is important to delineate another attempt to think about media internationally and to offer a typology of media systems. Siebert, Peterson, and Four Theories of the Press did not address Arab media in particular the way Rugh did. However, the book is relevant because it offers a larger framework through which we can understand Moroccan media system. These world media systems provide a map according to which we can identify the characteristics of Morocco's media system. They provide a set of criteria (extent of freedom of expression, media ownership, media/government relations, etc.) that can be used to better understand Morocco's media system. Four Theories of the Press repr esents the first widely recognized attempt to clarify the link between mass media and political systems. Unlike Rugh, Siebert et al. use the term "press" to refer to all media of communication, including television and radio. In this classic, Siebert et al offer four categories of how media are regulated and organized around the world. The four categories are authoritarian, totalitarian, libertarian, and social responsibility. The authoritarian media is characterized by censorship, licensing, and autocrati c power. The role of the media is to support the state and leadership and no threats or criticisms of the power elite are allowed. The totalitarian (communist) media is characterized by the control of the ruling party and government. The media are not allo wed to criticize communist party objectives. The main difference between this system

PAGE 27

14 and the authoritarian system is that the authoritarian is concerned with controlling the mass media and allowing private freedoms, while the communist aims at controlling all aspects of a person's life. The libertarian media refers to media in Western countries, where the role of media is to help find the truth, inform and entertain. It is characterized by private ownership and freedom of the press. Finally, the social resp onsibility media stems from the 1947 Hutchins' Commission report on the Freedom of the Press (Merrill, 1995). The role of the media is to inform, educate, and help social progress. In terms of ownership, it argues for private ownership, but allows for gove rnments intervention to assure public service. In terms of freedom of the press, it defers from the libertarian model in that it considers the social responsibility of the press as more imp ortant than its freedom. Other scholars added two new categories, t he developmental and the participatory media (Altschull, 1984; McQuail, 1994; Hatchen, 1992; DeFleur & Ball Rokeach, 1990). infrastructure. It aims at internal political unificat ion. The role of the media is to help alleviate poverty, illiteracy, and ill health. The media are instruments for education, social change, social justice, and peace. Developmental media, according the Altschull, is a vehicle for a two way exchange whereb y the media help to mediate public issues, and that the public be allowed to play a bigger role in the news decision making process The participatory media is community based, small scale and democratically organized media. It calls for public participati on in editorial decisions and policies. Through the use high cost, centralized broadcast systems (Downing, 2007).

PAGE 28

15 These media systems have received many criticisms. The y were criticized for their strongly normative aspects (Downing, 2007). This means that they did not just attempt to explain the media systems, they offered definitions of how they should 25). They were also criticized for their failure to account for the stages of development of media within countries. Countries do not just move from communist media to libertarian media over night. What happens in between the stages is not accounted for, as was the case for many 1. 2. 3. Br oadcast Media in the Arab World The Arab media do not fit neatly into any of these categories (Rugh, 2004). Elements of each of these categories exist within Arab media. Before I discuss Moroccan media, I will first address the Arab broadcasting and its relationship to the Arab political regimes. Since their inceptions in the 1950's, almost all Arab broadcast media have been owned, operated, and controlled by governments, most of them non elected and authoritarian. There are several reasons for this. First, radio and television reach beyo nd the borders of literacy and geography. Print media can be used to reach the educated elite, and when it is seen as a threat, it is not nearly as great as the threat of reaching millions of people. Radio and television are too important to be left to pri vate persons (Rugh, 2004). Second, most radio and television stations were established by British and French colonial administrators who used them as instruments of colonial rule. They handed them over to the newly independent governments instead of privat e owners, because of their experiences at home (in France and England) with government owned broadcast media. Finally, the cost of establishing a radio or television station is high the fact that

PAGE 29

16 encourages the pooling of resources. Until the 1990's there were a few exceptions to this trend, with private television experiments in Iraq, Lebanon, and Morocco (Kraidy, 2005). In Morocco the experiment lasted for seven years when the private channel 2M, which started in March of 1989 as a private company was ta ken over by the State, which, as of January 1996, owns 72% of its share. It is fair to say that Rugh is right in his assessment of Moroccan print media; his assessment, however, does not apply to audiovisual media. According to Ayish (2003), audiovisual systems in the Arab world were developed by the ruling regimes to further their domination and control. The Arab states controlled the financing, regulation, production, and distribution of the audiovisual system, considered as the most powerful of all exi sting media, given the high rates of illiteracy in the Arab world. The main argument advanced by the Arab ruling elite is that mass media was in the service of nation building. Arab regimes deployed mass media to access to public broadcasting or print press. For the above mentioned reasons, the study of Arab mass media was apparently not a worthy endeavour for empirical or theoretical research. Sreberny (2000) notes that what research exists being predominantly descriptive and devoid of signific ant analytical the television landscape of the Middle East region is said to have changed (Ayish, 2003). With the exception of Al

PAGE 30

17 Jazeera most satellite televisio n channels were owned and controlled by their respective governments. Whatever change happened occurred at the level of quantity of media outlets (Saeed, 2006). Of all the new Arab satellite channels, Al Jazeera drew much attention from researchers, journa lists, and politicians alike. Unlike the state owned and state censored national television stations of the Middle East and North Africa, Al Jazeera presented controversial views about the governments of many Arab states. Al Jazeera exposed unethical, immo ral, and illegal behavior by individuals, businesses and governments in the Arab world. This level of freedom and independence in news reporting was previously unheard of in many of these countries. For the first time, people in the region had access to a free and independent source of news and commentary that was not under the control of dictatorial regimes. Whether Al Jazeera has any effect on Arab politics and culture remains a debatable issue. Some argue that Al Jazeera opened a platform for Arab audien ces to hold public discussions on controversial issues with a high degree of freedom. Others argue that in the name of press freedom, Al Jazeera serves as a mouthpiece for extremist views at the expense of moderate rational voices (Al Hroub, 2006). Rugh (2004) examines the Arab mass media and unlike his 1979 study, he includes radio and television in his analysis. He revises the three typologies he suggested countries like Eg ypt, Jordan, Tunisia, and Algeria. Morocco stayed in its initial typology attempt to offer a new typology for broadcast media. He argues that while Arab broadcast media are under the control of Arab governments, there are differences in terms of the

PAGE 31

18 political role radio and TV played prior to the 1990. The three groups are: the strict control systems (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Libya, South Yemen, and Sudan), the loyalist broadcasting (Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Oman, North Yemen, and Qatar) and finally Lebanon as a special case. Countries in the strict control system recognised the great importance of radio an d television as instruments of mobilization of the population. They therefore devoted greater resources to broadcasting and established earlier and more sophisticated broadcasting systems. In terms of content, television and radio programming disseminate p olitical messages to try and control public opinion. The politicized programming is imperialist Third World ware of the importance of broadcast media and kept it under government control, but, unlike the strict control media, they did not use it extensively for political mobilization of the populations. Political content consisted of presenting evidence of the a chievements of the government and the virtues of the monarchy or ruling party and top personalities. I think Rugh's broadcasting typology is grounded on a differentiation between countries that adhered to the socialist/communist block and those that adhere d to the Western block. Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Libya, South Yemen, and Sudan are all countries that adopted a socialist system. They are known for their revolutionary rhetoric and their harsh criticism of Western civilization. Moroccan broadcast medi a, as this study will demonstrate, were equally and extensively used for political purposes. The only major difference between Moroccan TV and Algerian TV (strict control) is content. Algeria is a socialist country and it used the media to critique capital ism and the West.

PAGE 32

19 Morocco, much like the Western world, was immersed in the righteousness of the capitalist system, and therefore did not feel the need to cri tique the socialist East. 1. 2. 3. 1. Broadcast m edia in Morocco 1956 1999 In Morocco, the regime used directed policies and to serve what the regime considered vital development goals of the King of Morocco from 1961 to 1999, was very sensitive to the potential of the broadcasting re to discuss briefly the historical context of Morocco in its relation to development communication. From 1912 to 1956, M orocco was a protectorate of France and Spain. It became independence in March 2 nd 1956. It was not until 1962 that Morocco developed its national broadcasting system named Radiodiffusion et Tlvision Marocaine (RTM) (Moroccan Radio and Television) 5 It is important to note that Morocco chose a pro western stance and adopted democracy and liberal economy as its political and economic s ystem since its independence. These choices put it at odds with the majority of Arab nations and Arab national movements which aligned themselves with socialist ideology. The adoption of socialist ideology was not so much due to the fact that the Soviet Un ion provided a better media model but because socialism was appealing to many third world Marxist intellectuals who considered the inequalities within the world as a direct outcome ppositio n political 5 Modeled after the French broadcasting system, Office de la Radiodiffusion et Tlvision Franaise ORTF.

PAGE 33

20 parties consisted mainly of pan arabists (the Istiqlal party) that called for a unified Arab nation (influenced by Egyptian socialist president Jamal Abd Nasser), and the socialist party that called for reducing the power of the king and the nationalization of the Early introduction of r adio and television transmissions came from colonial powers and from foreigners living in the country. The print press was much more developed with a dozen publications issued by Moroccan nationalists. Print press was a tool in the struggle for liberation and independence. Under the imperative of security, the French colonial powers introduced a number of press codes to regulate the nationalist independence intensified, all Ar abic papers were banned (Jaidi, 2000 ). and constitution referendum. For instance, in the campaign for the 1962 referendum on the constitution, the regime distributed TV sets in public cafs to inform the public about the constitution and to mobilize them to vote (Ben Ashour, 1992). wer structure of the nation. New social and political groups began to affect the media relationship between the political regime and the opposition (Ben Ashour, 1992). The print press, mostly owned by political parties, were critical of the politically con servative role of the Moroccan broadcast media. They accused TV and radio of ignoring the needs of the majority of Moroccans and of being a tool of propaganda in the hands of the regime. In the parliamentary election of 1963, the government decided that th e broadcasting system

PAGE 34

21 would stay away from any involvement in any political debate during the elections campaign. Leaders of the opposition demanded that this restriction be lifted but King Hassan II refused their demand (Ben Ashour, 1992). Also during the 1976 elections, the opposition campaigned for parliamentary elections without access to TV or radio. Opposition leaders used the print press, newspapers in particular, as chief weapons of political agitation because they had no alternative for articulatin g their challenges against the regime. Considering the high rates of illiteracy among Moroccans, estimated in the 1960 at 87% (Jaidi & Zouaoui, 2005, p. 74), it remains to be seen what kind of effect, if any, newspapers may have had. The struggle between There were few moments of relative openness, but mostly repression was the rule. During the 1970's and 1980's, it was difficult to determine whether television cameras were used for journalistic purpo ses or for policing purposes. The line between providing information to audiences and providing information to police service was blurred for more than twenty years. When TV cameras attended public demonstrations, it was not clear whether the footage would end up in an editing room at the TV station or at the secret service offices. Another point of contention between political parties and the regime relates to the creation of 2M. I n March 1989, 2M SOREAD was launched as a private channel. It was one of th e first private television stations in the Arab world. It was subscription based and needed a decoder to get clear signals till January 1996, when it turned public. The channel's self proclaimed function is to entertain. The news bulletins were short in fo rm of news briefs. French language was predominant with 80% of the programs in French.

PAGE 35

22 Lamnadi (1999) highlights the political dynamics of communication policy decisions regarding the creation of 2M SOREAD. He argues that the most important participants an d actors in launching were the Royal Palace, Omnium Nord Africain (the largest Moroccan economic conglomerate), and the Ministry of the Interior and Information (Lamnadi, 1999). His research results show that a combination of domestic and external factors have affected the creation of the private television station. He states that international moves towards privatization and political liberalization had an impact on the development of private television, but the influence of an elite local group also played an important role in the advent of the station. The public and the intellectual/social elite who were dissatisfied with the government broadcasting system also had some influence on the government's decision process, even if the public was not so much asking for the creation of private television as it was demanding r eforms of the public television system (Lamnadi, 1999). The most encouraging signs of improvement in press freedom appeared in the creation of the Consultative Council on Human Rights in 1990. The constitutions of 1992 and 1996, while they did not include a specific clause on press freedom, included it as part of the general right to free expression. Article 9 of the 1996 constitution secures and guarantees freedom of assembly and freedom of expression. In more explicit terms, the constituti on allows everyone the freedom to express his or her political opinions as long as these opinions do not represent a threat to the political system or the status quo (Ibahrine, 2007). The relationship between the regime and the mass media took a radically different turn when the opposition and socialist led government was elected to power in 1997. The

PAGE 36

23 new government led a campaign to formulate a new press law that promised to enhance press freedom. This campaign was the first attempt to draft a comprehe nsiv e media policy for Morocco. T he impasse in developing a coherent media policy is due to the fact that t he media since Morocco's independence in 1956 were caught up in internal political struggle between the regime and opposition political parties. The medi a addressed development issues only to document and glorify the successes and accomplishments of the regime in power, and indirectly to discredit the opposition. T here is an utter absence of legal texts that regulate the use of television and radio broadca sting in Morocco in terms of content (e.g. to protect youth or to ensure cultural diversity), structure (ownership patterns), and infrastructure. Besides the dahir 6 of 1962 which created RTM, the press code of 1959, nothing happened in terms of legal docum ents until 2002. The creation of both Medi 1 and 2M for instance occurred within a legal vacuum (Ibahrine, 2007). The government did not issue a dahir that would justify their creation. The press code that existed since 1959 (ratified in 1960 and 1973) was modeled after the oppressive French colonial press code. 1. 2. 3. 2. Broadcast m edia in Morocco 1999 2008 W hen King Mohammed VI succeeded his father Hassan II in July 1999, he instantly became a symbol of hope for a more democratic and free Morocco. Unlike his father, whose 38 year rule was stained by human rights violations, corruption and a discredited political system, Mohammed VI famed in the Moroccan and foreign media as the "king of the poor" -embodied modesty, social justice and moderation. He made the promotion of human rights a priority. One of 6 A royal decree.

PAGE 37

24 the first major pro human rights measures under his reign was the creation with a royal decree of the Justice and Reconcilia tion Commission in 2003 that investigated the human rights violations of the past. Besides establishing the truth about the past violation, the Commission organized public forums in 2004 to allow victims to voice their pains and sufferings. These forums we re broadcast live on TV, which I consider a very important moment in Moroccan television history. The goal of the Commission is to facilitate the reconciliation of Moroccans with their recent past. Another major initiative was the new Family Status Law or Moudawana. It was in Morocco, praised this initiative and noted the improvements of the status of women and their rights (Freedom House, 2004). Mohamed safeguard and promote Amazigh language and culture. Imazighen are the majority ethnic group in Morocco, yet Amazigh culture was undermined for many years. For political reasons, Hassan II regime identified with Arabism hence the predominance of the Arabic culture and identity. The National Initiative for Human Development (NIHD) remains the most important long term development project undertaken under the reig n of Mohamed VI. The Moroccan government has clearly stated the role it expects the mass media in general and television in particular, to play to support and enhance these development initiatives. It has given important policy considerations to regulate t he use of television and radio airwaves as important outside sources for promoting its development goals. It pledged to reform the state broadcast system, turn it into a public service broadcasting system, and

PAGE 38

25 relieve it from political control. Consequentl y, the structure of the broadcast media was re defined, an independent regulator was set up, the public service broadcasting was reformed, and a framework for private broadcasting was provided. As a first step, the government created the High Commission f or Audiovisual Communication ( Haut Autorit de la Communication Audiovisuelle HACA) in August 2002 to establish the legal framework for the liberalization of the audio visual sector. In September of the same year, it promulgated a decree law that ended the state's monopoly of the national broadcasting system and allow the licensing of new private radio and television stations. The Moroccan parliament adopted the reform law on November 25, 2004. The law assigns public service obligations to the two major tel evision stations in broadcasting management by transforming Moroccan Radio and Television (RTM) from a subsidiary of the Ministry of Communication to an independent and self governing body, the National Company of Radio and Television ( la Socit Nationale de Radiodiffusion et de Tlvision SNRT). The SNRT is a public company that will manage both television stations, but will no longer be subject to the financial control and supervision of the ministry of Communication. RTM 7 is to be called Al Oula (meaning the first). 2M will implement the editorial directives of the government, a legal document that HACA approved. The two stations will have to grant an important portion of their programs to national productions, and increase the percentage of deve lopment oriented programs. 7 to refer to this television channel.

PAGE 39

26 Therefore, by virtue of this Audiovisual Communication Law t he number of radio stations and television channels has increased in since 2006. The number of radio stations increased from six stations in 2006 to seventeen in 2007. The number of TV channels increased from three stations in 2004 to eight in 2007. In the field of radio, in addition to the existing public radio stations, many new commercial and private radio stations were launched in 2006, including Chada FM Aswat, Ma rrakech Atlas FM, Agadir Radio Plus and Likoulli Nass Moroccan Television has also undergone a restructuring process. Morocco today has eight channels, 1) Al Oula (formerly known as RTM), 2) 2M (these two are general news and entertainment channels), 3) A rriadia (all sports channel), 4. Arrabiaa Al Maghribia (channel for the Moroccan community abroad), 6) Assadissa (religious channel), 7) Laayoune (regional TV designed for the southern region) and 8) Medi I Sat (Arabic and French service news channel). While the growth of the audiovisual sector in Morocco is encouraging, I have many questions about the short time it took to implement all these changes, and about the guiding principles and the overall medi a philosophy behind all these decisions. 1. 2. 3. 3. Concluding Remarks There are at least two main points that emerge from this literature review. First, a free and independent mass media can play a vital role in transforming developing countries from a state of underdevelopment to one of economic prosperity and democracy. As noted earlier, there is enough empirical data to prove this. Second, since 2002, the Moroccan government has given important policy considerations to regulate the use of television as an important outside source for

PAGE 40

27 promoting its development goals. In fac t since 2004, the media reform law assigns public service obligations to the two major television stations in Morocco (Al Oula and 2M). The two stations have to grant an important portion of their programs to national productions, and increase the percenta ge of development oriented programs. These two main points are interrelated. The facts that television is widely adopted in Moroccan society, and that television represents a major source of information and education for a large number of Moroccans, make the role of television in the process of development of a developing country a n important area of research. The aim of this dissertation is to explore the role of Moroccan public television in development. The focus will be on the period from 2006 to 2008. In November 2004, the national media reform law assigned public service oblig ations to the two major television stations, but it was not until January 2006 that the two public stations were committed to these obligations. 1. 3. Area of Research Drawing from critical studies research, this dissertation situates television within t he broader context of Moroccan social life and interrogates its goals, messages and effects. The major site of research is television itself. As a cultural critic, I have come to understand and study television from a cultural studies perspective. In a mos t general level, television is a technology, a social, economic, cultural, and ideological institution. As a technology, it produces electronic images and sounds; as a social institution, it produces viewers and helps in their socialization process; as an economic institution, it produces consumers and gives business; as a cultural institution, it produces programs and schedules that tells people who they are, where they are, and when they are; and as

PAGE 41

28 an ideological institution, television provides norms, v alues and rules that tell viewers what to consider as acceptable and what to consider as unacceptable. This dissertation will investigate the extent to which the Moroccan public service television serves the development objectives of the nation. It will f irst examine the contents of the programs that are offered in order to assess the public service function of Moroccan television. Second, it will examine the current media policy and editorial choices of media executives in the two public television statio ns, namely Al Oula and 2M. Based on my observations, there seems to be a void in the area of media policy in Morocco, a void that this dissertation aims to explore. Finally, this dissertation will investigate the views and opinions television audiences hav e vis vis their public TV. This dissertation will focus on the two government owned public service television stations, Al Oula and 2M. I chose to work on the two stations for three main reasons. First, they are the most watched TV stations (Marocmetrie ratings results 2008). 8 Second, they are the most accessible to all audiences because their broadcasts require only an aerial ant enna to be captured, an item almost all Moroccan households can afford (compared to satellite dishes). Third, Al Oula and 2M are owned by the State and run by the National Company for Radio and Television (SNRT). They cover a broad spectrum of programming: news, sports, music, documentaries, films, TV series, commercials, public relations announcements etc. After the launching of the NIHD, both stations witnessed a remarkable increase in development programs that aim at supporting the government's developme ntal goals and fostering its projected democratic reforms. The stations seem to serve as the mouthpiece and the carriers of the changes the government aims to achieve. 8 Marocmetrie is the leading audience measurement firm in Morocco. It determines the audience size and composition of television shows viewers.

PAGE 42

29 1. 3. 1. Research Hypotheses Based on my initial observations, there is reason to be con cerned about how the communication gap between the public service TV and its public at large is widening. On the one hand, there are large numbers of non literate or marginally literate individuals who are living out their lives in print scarce environment s with few or no reading materials in their homes, but they have regular access to television. On the other hand, television seems to promote a cultural agenda that benefits only a small privileged segment of Moroccan society and seems to shy away from, if not prevent, the possibility of allowing the concerns and perspectives of the poor and marginalized to be highlighted. Based on my observations, my first hypothesis is that television programming decisions in the two public stations seem to be influenced by the elite upper middle class who want more entertainment and have less need for educational programs than their rural and urban poor counterparts. The two TV stations seem to propagate a consumerism mentality that seems to serve the ends of the rich mor e than those of the poor. Catering to television for development purposes. My second hypothesis is that the two public television stations seem to restrict access to and participation in public debates to only the wealthy and highly educated classes of Morocco. For instance, Moroccans speak darija 9 a derivative of Arabic, in their everyday life, but both public service television stations use formal Arabic which according to estimates, only 40% of Moroccans understand, and formal French which 9 Darija is a variation of Arabic ; it refers to the dialect spoken in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. It has a few vocabulary words from Amazigh, French and Spanish. It is an oral language, not used in writing. T he official languag es are modern standard Arabic and French.

PAGE 43

30 only 10 percent of Moroccans understand. French in partic ular is the language of the elite. The choice of language restricts access to public television for a large portion of Moroccan society. The third hypothesis is that the two public television stations, being highly patriarchal, seem to contribute to the r eproduction of an undemocratic social order by targeting the urban elites as their main audience and by disregarding the needs of poor urban, suburban and especially rural classes. The locally produced programming contents seem to project the life styles a nd values of the elite while at the same time projecting rampant images of misrepresentations of women, poor classes, rural and suburban people. They target the urban elites as their main audience and disregard the needs of poor urban, suburban and especia lly rural classes. The three hypotheses are interrelated in the sense that c atering to the urban elite tastes and needs projects an undemocratic social order. It is undemocratic in the sense that it limits the possibilities of television to play the develo pment role it is supposed to perform, and limits the possibilities for participation in public discourse. Television gives legitimacy to what it shows. For instance, if most people featured on television are wearing suits and ties and speak classical Arabi c and French, this would present the average Moroccan with the list of things he or she doesn't have: to speak French and Arabic and to look a bit Western, or at least not to look aroubi (rural person). Many people feel more comfortable in their djellabas and traditional hats or turbans. Many feel comfortable speaking their own dialect, including darija French and Arabic have more credibility than darija and much more than Tamazight (Ennaji, 2005). Instead of broadening public debates, a function the techn ology of television can fulfill, television

PAGE 44

31 seems to create a narrow space where only a few can participate. Besides, the two public television stations seem to fail even in their basic function of informing their viewers on some very important national re forms. For instance, according to an investigation done in 2005 by the High Commission for Planning ( le Haut Commissariat au Plan ), the Moroccan governmental authority in charge of the national economic forecasts and of economic and social planning, and in charge of the elaboration and implementation of the government policies for development, 38% of Moroccan are unaware of the existence of the new Moudawana (the reform law on Family Code). This reform is one of the most important legislative reforms achiev ed by the State and is considered as a major step towards gender equality in Morocco. Both public television stations devoted a lot of air time to this issue and yet 38% of Moroccans remain unaware of the existence of such law. I suppose the languages the TV stations used to disseminate the information were classical Arabic and French. Norris (2002) argues that an independent media with a watchdog function is a necessary but not sufficient means of strengthening good governance and promoting human developm ent. She suggests that these goals are efficiently achieved if people have widespread access to these media. An independent media is only efficient for development and democracy if all sectors of society especially those who are most disadvantaged or marg inalized, can access the media to gain information and make informed decisions that affect their lives. I agree with Norris that access is important, but I have to ask, access to what kind of content? Access to a content that undermines an ethnicity, a gender, or an age group limits the possibilities of participation and engagement for the marginalized groups.

PAGE 45

32 1. 3. 2. R esearch Questions My main research question is: to what extent does the Moroccan public service television serve the development objectives of the nation? To provide substantial answers to this question, for the sake of analysis, I will tackle the question from three main angles: content, production, an d reception. In other words, I will tackle these research questions broadcasters (supply) and the audience (demand). The research questions can therefore be di vided into three main areas in critical media studies: 1) content analysis, 2) production study, and 3) audience reception analysis. 1. Content analysis: What are the demographic characteristics of participants in the television programs in terms of their g ender and geographical origin? What is the language used in the programs? Do the programs offer the possibility and means for television viewers to send Does public television propagate consumerism and the lifestyl es of the wealthy and highly educated classes? 2. Production study: Is there a media philosophy or a general guideline that informs the production process? development?

PAGE 46

33 What are the perceptions of television executives on their audiences' educational level, attention span, and their values and beliefs? 3. Audience reception analysis: lifestyles and their concerns? Are television viewers satisfied with the public service provided by the two television stations? What e xpectations do television viewers have of the two public TV stations? 1. 4. Theoretical Background 1. 4. 1. Development Communication This dis sertation situates itself within the fields of development communication and critical media studies. Development communication addresses issues of using communication and media to bring social and economic progress in developing countries. The field emerge d in the late 1950's, amid the popular fascination with radio and television as powerful tools of communication that can successfully be put to use in the world's developing countries to bring about rapid social change and economic progress (Mody, 2003; Th ussu, 2004). The area of development communication will, on the one hand, provide the context for the development issues related to the broad questions this dissertation will try to answer, i.e. the role of television in development. Discussing development communicatio n will serve as background knowledge that is necessary to understand how development communication scholars have theorized on the role a powerful mean of communication like television should play in a developing country. The review will also

PAGE 47

34 provide the co ntext where Morocco's public television is situated vis vis development communication theories and practices. On the other hand, development communication scholars described world media systems and their philosophies, namely, libertarian, authoritarian, communist, social responsibility, developmental, and participatory (Downing, 2007). These world media systems and the philosophies that support them provide a map according to which we can locate where Morocco's media system is. They provide a set of crite ria (extent of freedom of expression, media ownership, media/government relations etc.) that can be used to determine whether Morocco's media policy fit any of the systems. This section will be very relevant to the analysis of the editorial policies and ch oices of Moroccan television producers. 1. 4. 2. Critical Media Theories This dissertation draws its theoretical vigor from critical media studies. C ritical media studies examine the effects of mass communication on society and culture, and the role they p lay in perpetuating an unjust social order. Television, it is argued, can propagate ideologies, construct identities, and normalize life styles. Television provides information about relationships and lifestyles, and offers numerous kinds of Critical theorists interrogate the structure, goals, values, messages of mass media, and analyzed their ideological and normalizing effects on society and culture. Critical research Critical theories are essential for a better understanding of issues of representations of gender and class, as well as issues of participation in public

PAGE 48

35 disc ourse. It is important to note that critical theories have influenced many studies in development communication, namely structural imperialism theory, the dependency theory, and the participatory developmental approach. 1. 5. Methodology This dissertation will look at the extent to which the two television stations serve the development goals of Morocco. This dissertation will look at three main areas in critical media studies: content analysis, production study, and audience reception analysis (Kellner 199 0). 1. 5. 1. Content Analysis I will conduct a q uantitative content analysis 10 of a representative sample of Moroccan produced programs to examine the public service function of Moroccan public broadcasting. I would like to address the research methodology, and in particular the use of both critical and quantitative methodology. Such combination is rarely attempted considering the fact that quantitative and critical scholars generally do not favor each others' methods. To clarify this choice, I am using quantitative content analysis as a counting tool that is imbedded in the project. The quantitative study is not an overarching framework that constrains the critical study with hypothesis testing tools, etc. I e mploy quantitative methodology because it allows me to make reliable claims about the degree of access and participation in public service television. To rely only on a few examples and claim that they are representative would be insufficient. Contribution s from this approach are essential to achieving substantial and balanced results. 10 A more thorough description of the methodology will be provided in Chapter Three.

PAGE 49

36 In this content analysis, focus will be one the principle of universality of appeal and in particular on access to and participation in public television. Before making decisions on the unit of analysis and the sampling method, I conducted a pretest of the data. The initial sample consisted of twelve shows from both public TV channels th at were broadcast at different times from January 2006 to January 2008 They represent a variety of shows meant to educate audiences on issues of economy, health, and politics. This preliminary data collection and analysis informed the subsequent data coll ection decisions. The operational definitions of the concepts of access and participation are as follows. Access means the extent to which regular citizens from all regions of Morocco have a chance to express their views on public television. I n the prel iminary data collection and analysis, I observed that most participants (either as experts or guests) in the television shows are from urban centers, in particular the country's capital Rabat and the economic capital Casablanca. For television to serve the public it must be inclusive and offer the largest portion of the audience to access. P articipation refers to the opportunities of the public to participate in the production of content. Participation looks at whether there are means whereby audiences can give feedback to the television shows and to other audiences. To have access to and be able to participate in public television requires language skills. Access and participation entail the following sub categories: the languages being used in the televisi on shows, the demographic characteristics of hosts and guests of the TV shows, the availability of means of feedba ck, and the thematic location (u rban v ersus rural themes discussed). T he operational definitions of the four sub categories are:

PAGE 50

37 The demograp hic characteristics of hosts and guests of the TV shows: They include gender, socioeconomics, and geographic location. The language used in the programs: they include the use of darija Arabic, French, Amazigh, or any combination of them. The availability of means of feedback: they include phone calls and text messaging. E mail feedback is not counted considering the high percentage of computer illiteracy in Morocco (estimated at 90% according to the Ministry of Communication, 2006). Thematic location refe rs to whether the themes discussed in the show relates to urban or rural issues. S ampling is the process of systematically selecting that which will be examined during the course of the study. The sample will consist of all locally produced shows in both public stations over the span of one year, from January 2007 to January 2008. The reason why I choose to work on the period between January 2007 and January 2008 11 is that, a fter the launching of the National Initiative of Human Development, both stations witnessed a remarkable increase in development programs that aim to support the government's developmental goals and to foster its projected democratic reforms. Besides, in N ovember 2004, the national Audio visual Communication Law assigned public service obligations to the two major television stations, but it was not until January 2006 that the two public stations were committed to these obligations. The content 11 This period includes two irregular television seasons: the summer (June through August) and the month of Ramadan (Mid September to Mid October). Some shows do not air in the Summer. Ramadan is a month Therefore, some shows either did not air or were placed outside of primetime, and were therefore excluded from the sample.

PAGE 51

38 analysis wil l focus on the period from January 2006 to January 2008, in particular on the second half of this period to make sure that the public television stations have started to carry out their public service obligations. The sample includes all the shows that ar e broadcast during three main time blocks, pre prime time (19:00 20:30), prime time (20:30 23:00), and post prime time (23:00 00:00) 12 Primetime witnesses the highest ratings and are therefore more meaningful in terms of audience exposure. This samp le size consists of seventy eight shows. The shows must be locally produced, non fiction, and must deal with development themes such as education, politics, economy, culture, and society. They include talk shows, newsmagazines, documentaries, game shows, r eality based shows, debate shows, and practical advice shows. It is important to note that other foreign and locally produced drama and fiction shows such as television series, films, and sit coms, and music and sports programs such as live concerts or so ccer games are broadcast during prime time and are excluded from the sample. I would like here to address the research methodology, and in particular the use of both critical and quantitative methodology. Such combination is rarely attempted considering the fact that quantitative and critical scholars generally do not favor each others' methods. To clarify this choice, I am using quantitative content analysis as a counting tool that is imbedded in the project. The quantitative study is not an overarching framework that constrains the critical study with hypothesis testing tools, etc. I employ quantitative methodology because it allows me to make reliable claims about the degree of access and participation in public service television. To rely only on a fe w examples 12 I use HACA's designation of primetime.

PAGE 52

39 and claim that they are representative would be insufficient. Contributions from this approach are essential to achieving substantial and balanced results. 1. 5. 2. Television Production Analysis Concerning the production study, 13 I will carry out a critical assessment of the current choices undertaken by the TV producers in the two public service TV stations. The production study will be mainly based on the results of the content analysis. Initial results of the content analysis s how that public service television offers the majority of Moroccans few opportunities for access, and even less opportunities for participation. I n depth interviews with media executives will help obtain insights on the reasons behind this seemingly discre pancy between the television's public service mission and the contents it offers audiences. Focus will be on examining the constraints in production processes that may influence content The study will look at both political and economic constraints; it wi ll address the issues of state ownership and the degree of political control that may limit TV producers' ability to operate. All interviewees will also be asked specific questions pertaining to the role of television in development. The interviews will al so unveil whether there is a clear vision for the role of television in development. I will also try to examine the perceptions of these media executives on their audiences' educational level, attention span, and their values and beliefs. The interviewees are program directors, media managers, editors, anchors, and reporters. While conducting interviews as a methodology does not lead to experiences and insights (Berger 2007). 13 A more thorough description of the methodology will be provided in Chapter Five.

PAGE 53

40 1. 5. 3. Audience Reception Analysis Addressing audience reception 14 helps tackle these research questions from both and the audience. An a udience reception study will assess the opinions of television viewers on the quality of Moroccan produced programs and their perceptions on the public service provided by the two TV stations. The goal is to obtain the opinions and insights of TV audiences with regard to what public service television they may (or may not) want. To cover all segments of Moroccan society requires addressing a multicultural society characterized by different ethnic, linguistic, and geographic characteristics, including urban, sub urban, and rural communities. Accordingly, I will use focus groups as a standalone data gathering strategy. To conduct interviews or surveys would require human and financial resources that go outside the scope of the current research endeavor. Focus groups are interviews designed for small group of usually six to ten distinct individuals. Focus groups are efficient in collecting rich data in participants own words and for developing deep insights. They are also good for obtaining data from peopl e with low level of literacy (Berg, 2005). Indeed, the audience reception analysis will focus mainly on television viewers of lower educational backgrounds and lower income because they are the main focus of both national and international development prog rams and initiatives. The National Initiative for Human Development (NIHD) and the national media reforms that followed it are supposed to address the needs of those who lack access to basic social services such as, health, education, water, electricity, e tc. as well as access to print press. The television viewers comprise large numbers of non literate or 14 A more thorough description of the methodology will be provided in Chapter Six.

PAGE 54

41 marginally literate individuals who live out their lives in print scarce environments, but they have regular access to television. These focus groups' as sessment and perception of the public service provided by the two television stations are of utmost importance and are necessary to obtain a clearer picture of the investigation under study. The focus groups participants consist of Moroccan television aud iences that reside in sub urban and rural areas. Sub urban areas are poor neighborhoods located at the outskirts of the city, and they are for the most part inhabited by rural migrants. The demographic characteristics of the participants in the groups are as follows: women and men aged eighteen to forty, illiterate or semi literate, average to low income. The groups will be divided up in terms of gender, age, and locality. There are a total of ten focus groups, made up of eight to ten individuals each. The focus groups are separated in terms of gender and age because in Morocco masculinity and age affect the dynamics in group discussions. Older men tend to dominate group discussions, and younger participants tend to conform to the older participants views. S ix focus group sessions were conduced in the area close to Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane. Timmedikine is a poor suburban neighborhood in Ifrane where low income residents live. I used the local elementary school (school Annasr) for the meeting. Azrou is fifteen minutes drive (18 kilometers) west of Ifrane. I know the members of a local youth association and I used their meeting room for the focus groups. For the rural area, I used Dayet Ifrah, a rural community that is 20 minutes drive north east of Ifra ne. I used the local associatio n to meet with the participants. Two focus groups were held in Khmiss Anjra, Province of Fahs Anjra, 32 kilometers east of Tangier in the north of Morocco. I chose this rural area to get a sense

PAGE 55

42 of what people from other rura l areas think of the TV stations under investigation. Khmiss Anjra is a small community of 1 4,700 inhabitants ( Haut Commissariat au Plan 2004). I also used the local association for contacts and for meetings. The last two focus groups were conducted in a suburban neighborhood in Casablanca. Karian Toma is located in Sidi Moumen, one of the poorest communes in the suburbs of Casablanca. In habited by 170,000 inhabitants, the commune is infamous for its shanty towns and dusty wasteland of low crumbling houses. Karian Toma was home to several of the suicide bombers who killed 45 people in downtown Casablanca on May 16, 2003. This was the deadl iest terrorist attack in Morocco since the Independence in 1956. The focus groups will consist of guided discussions on public service television. The goal is to obtain the opinions and insights of TV audiences with regard to what public service televisi on they may (or may not) want. Because the study is not looking for memories and their long term exposure to television. The first phase of the meetings entails factual questions that serve as a warm up for the subsequent questions: What television channels do you watch the most? What television programs do you watch the most? Then, the questions are more abstract: What are your opinions on the quality of locally produced programs? Do the shows in the two public television stations represent your lifestyle and your concerns? Whose lifestyle do you think is being represented on the two television stations? Do you feel you have a right to participate in some way on what goes on the public television stations? What e xpectations do television viewers have of the two public TV stations?

PAGE 56

43 1. 6. Significance The Arab media have received very little attention from the American public discourse, with the exception of few articles an d opinion pieces in some national newspapers. Arab media appeared in the North American radar screen when Al Jazeera, an all news pan Arab satellite television station, surprised the world's media by its coverage of the U.S. attack on Afghanistan at the af termath of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Al Jazeera also drew much attention when it broadcasted almost exclusively footage and statements of Oussama Bin Laden and other terrorist groups. As a result of this lack of interest, the development of mass media in the Arab countries, their socio cultural impact and their political implicat ions, remain poorly understood. Other areas that are also woefully under researched are Arab audiences and television viewing habits. Audience research is scarce (Ayish, 2003; Boyd, 1999; Hamada, 2001), except for recent attempt s by marketing research companies such as the Arab Advisory Group (Jordan) to categorize TV consumption in selected Arab countries, particularly Saudi Arabia, which is the major source of advertising income in the region. Recent interests in Arab public opinion especially as they pertain to U.S. image and foreign policies after the U.S. invasion of Iraq have triggered much attention to this topic. The flow of information from the U.S. to the Arab world is overwhelmingly one way. Arab audiences know much m ore about Americans than Americans know about Arabs. As a result, Americans know very little about the Arab world and almost nothing about particular social, cultural, and pol itical environments. Anyone who wants to understand

PAGE 57

44 the Arab World should therefore know t he only other studies done so far in Morocco on televi sion deal with quantitative audience analysis (ratings analysis), mainly studying who is watching what and when. The data collected is used by advertising agencies and media service organizations. T he present study goes far beyond what exists now in Morocc o in terms of media research. many policy considerations were taken to make television an important outside source for promoting this national initiative. The facts that televis ion is widely adopted in Moroccan society, and that television represents a major source of information and education for a large number of Moroccans, make the role of television in a developing country an important site of research. This study will contri bute to a better understanding of the intersection between public television, development, and media policy. It seems obvious to me as this stage of the research, that there is a void in terms of a clear media policy, vision, or philosophy in Morocco. The aim of this study is therefore to contribute to the elaboration of a comprehensive national media philosophy that would allow the two public television 1. 7. Preview of the Chapters This diss ertation consists of six chapters. Chapter Two deals in details with the theoretical review and the conceptual foundation of development communication theories. The aim is to review the existing approaches of development communication and to see their broa

PAGE 58

45 practices. This chapter will provide the theoretical context where Morocco's public television is situated vis vis development communication theories and practices. Chapter Three traces the historical development of the broadcast media in Morocco, with a focus on television. This account will unveil important social, economic, and political data needed for understanding the forces and imperatives of development television in Morocco. To evalu ate the nature of the role of television in development requires close scrutiny of three major factors: the legal, the economic, and the political environments. The chapter examines the media policy as enacted in the Constitution, the Press Law, and the Au diovisual Communication Law. The chapter provides a careful and detailed examination of the economic and political environments and addresses the issues of ownership and the degree of political control and the government's tendency to use media policy to l imit the media's ability to operate. Chapter Four consists of a quantitative content analysis of a representative sample of Moroccan produced programs to examine the issues of access to and participation in the two public service television stations. The first principle of public service broadcasting is universality of appeal. This principle refers to the extent to which the programs cater to the different tastes and interests of all the segments of Moroccan society. The content analysis will test one of the hypotheses of this study which claims that t he two public television stations seem to restrict access to and participation in public debates to only the wealthy and highly educated classes of Morocco. Chapter Five will examine the current choices under taken by the TV producers in the two public service TV stations. The production study will be mainly based on the results of the content analysis. Focus will be on the analyzing the constraints in

PAGE 59

46 production processes that may influence content The study will look at both political and economic constraints; it will address the issues of ownership and the degree of political control that may limit TV producers' ability to operate. All interviewees will also be asked specific questions on their perceptions o f their audiences. Chapter Six will explore audience reception, in particular to assess the opinions of television viewers on the quality of Moroccan produced programs and their perceptions on the public service provided by the two TV stations. The analys is will focus mainly on people of lower income and lower educational backgrounds because they are the main focus of both national and international development programs and initiatives. The goal is to obtain the opinions and insights of TV audiences with r egard to what public service television they may (or may not) want. Chapter Seven is the concluding chapter where I summarize all the findings and draw appropriate connections between them. Based on the research findings, the Chapter will provide a list o f recommendations for Moroccan public service television.

PAGE 60

47 Chapter Two : A Review of Theory 2. 1. Introduction This dissertation situates itself within the field of development communication. Development communication deals with the basic question of how communication (mass media and information and communication technologies ICTs) can be put to use to bring about rapid social change and economic progress for the developing countries. Many terms are used to describe this field; among them are communication and national development, national development, communication and development, communication for development, a nd development communication In this dissertation, I will use the term development communication to refer to the systematic use of communication resources to trigger social change and promote human development. The following theoretical discussion provide s the context where Morocco's mass media are situated vis vis development communication theories and practices. The aim is to review and understand the existing approaches of development communication and t and media policies and practices. Since the 1950's, a diversity of theoretical and empirical traditions has converged in the field of development communication. Such convergence produced a rich analytical vocabulary but also a conceptual confusion. Conce pts such as development, participation, community, communication, are hard to define (Huesca, 2003). There are many ways one can approach them. However, after a careful review of development communication

PAGE 61

48 theories, I found that, despite the multiplicity of theories and concepts that have so far emerged, all the studies have converged to offer two different diagnoses and answers to the problem of underdevelopment. One position, the dominant position, argued that the problem was lack of information and techno logy within developing countries, the other, critical of the first, argued that the problem was lack of participation. I use the concept of the paradigm to discuss these two diagnoses. A paradigm is an approach that provides a community of scholars a way of looking at some problem or phenomenon. According to Kuhn (1996), a paradigm is a set or constellation of concepts, values, and practices that are shared by a community of scholars and that define a scientific discipline and its vision of reality during a particular period of time. A paradigm provides guidelines for what questions research can ask, and what answers it can provide. I will argue that all the approaches to development communication since the 1940's consisted of two basic paradigms for unders tanding communication and development. In communication, major paradigm shifts occurred from a conceptualization of communication as a one way flow of information from sender to receiver, to a conceptualization of communication as a transactional and dialo gic process where communication happens only when all participants contribute equally to the construction of meaning. There was also a shift in the conceptualization of mass media as having magic bullet effect and of audiences as passive recipients, to a c onceptualization of mass media as having limited effects and of audiences as selective recipients and resilient receivers.

PAGE 62

49 In development theories, there was a paradigm shift from a conceptualization of development in terms of industrialization and econo mic growth, to a conceptualization of development as in terms of human well being (education, health, environment, human rights, etc.) along with a recognition of the uniqueness of cultures and ethnic identities. Therefore in the area of development commun ication, t he dominant paradigm had blind faith in the assumed powerful effects of media on audiences, it promoted a top down approach from experts to audiences, and it focused on economic development. The alternative paradigm sought the use of communicatio n in a more participative fashion, and promoted the idea that media can be effective only if audiences are considered equal partners in the production and dissemination of development messages. In this chapter, I will first discuss and critique the dominan t paradigm (Lerner, 1958; Schramm, 1964; Rogers, 1962). I will focus on the modernization approach, innovation theory because they address the question of national development at a macro level. I will also discuss two other approaches that carried forward modernization 1970s, social marketing and entertainment education have been the most influentia l strategies in the field of development communication (Kotler & Zaltman, 1971; Bandura, 1977). Second, and with regard to the alternative paradigm, I will discuss the neo Marxist approaches and participatory approaches to development communication (Baran, 1957; Schiller, 1976, 1992; Galtung, 1971; Mowlana, 1985; Freire, 1970; Masmoudi, 1979; MacBride, 1980). The neo Marxist approaches, namely the dependency and the

PAGE 63

50 structural imperialist theories, emerged as major setbacks for economic growth and advances in democracy in Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia occurred. The modernization approach to development, considered as a panacea for the development of the newly independent countries of Latin America, Africa and Asia, had failed to deliver (M ody, 2003) Concerning the participatory approaches, I will discuss two theoretical responses that drew upon the notion of the participatory model. The first is sponsored debates on the New World Information and Communication Order. The concluding section of this chapter is a synthesis of both paradigms and a discussion of their broad 2. 2. The Dominant Paradigm The dominant paradigm emerged in the 1940's, and remained valid or unquestioned until the 1970's. To better understand this paradigm, it is important to provide a brief review of the historical events that guided the intellectual discussions on development and influenced national development programs. Development theories have their origins in post war international aid programs to countries in Latin America, Asia and Africa that were struggling with poverty, illiteracy, poor health and a lack of economic, political and social infrastructures (Merrill, 1995; Mody 1991). In the post World War II era, and after the last European colonies in Latin America, Africa and Asia gained their independence in the 1950s and 1960s, the world community was faced with the r eality of the abysmal disparities between the developed and underdeveloped worlds. The Cold War divided the world into two hostile blocks, East and West, creating thus a

PAGE 64

51 Third World 15 made up of countries that tried to avoid bloc politics and concentrate on the development of their economic and social infrastructures (Stevenson, 1988). D evelopment communication theories became part of the Cold War discourses of free market capitalism and state socialism (Thussu, 2000). Supporters of capitalism argue that the primary function of communication is to promote democracy and free markets, while Neo Marxists advocate greater state regulation on communication and media outlets (Thussu, 2000). Developed countries of the West, mainly the U.S. championed the concept of regulation and censorship, deemed bad for business. Their argument was grounded in the media and their assumed relevance for political development and economic prosperity. The industrial revolution in the U.S. and England, and the wealth they generated served as models for developing countries (Nair & White, 1993). The rapid economic growth in these c ountries implied that the process of development was tied to economy, and that industrialization was key to development. Development was defined in economic terms; it was believed that economic gains and financial incentives are the catalyst and generator for change in individuals' behaviors and their response to profit motive and cash incentives (Rogers, 1993, p. 37). Industrialization implies the availability of technology which developed countries possessed in abundance compared to developing countries. The main criterion for development was the economy measured in terms of 15 Cold war terminology referring to newly independent/former colonies in Africa, Latin American, and developed and developing, the latter being the most politica lly correct

PAGE 65

52 as the decade of economic development. The tendency to quantify was an outgrowth of North Americ an social science empiricism. The dominance of the positivist and quantitative research methods was also a contributing factor to these tendencies in defining underdevelopment quantitatively. uld not be measured (Rogers, 1993, p. 37). The main index for the level of national development was the gross national product, or, when divided by the total populati on, the per capita income. Values, such as justice, freedom, or dignity did not fit the measurement methods employed, and therefore remained unaccounted for. The simplicity of measurement made it easy to forget that countries such as India, China, and Egyp t were old centers of civilization, because cultural richness was not measurable and could not be used as an index for the level of development (Roger, 1993). For economic growth to occur, political stability was thought to be a necessity. As a result, aut horitarian governments in forms of military dictatorships and autocratic leaderships, with the support of developed world, emerged progressively in developing countries. One fascinating interpretation of this emphasis on economic development is David Harve The New Imperialism. He argues that for capitalism means to du mp its surplus capital (Harvey, 2003, pp. 87, 88). In other words, in order for the system of capitalism to work (for accumulation and growth to continue) excess capital has to be disposed of. The development projects in developing countries that

PAGE 66

53 consisted of investments in massive infrastructure projects such as hydroelectric dams, bridges, and highways were ideal for dumping the overflow of capital. For developed countries, the success (or failure) of these projects was virtually meaningless. Therefore, since the 1940's through the 1960's, development programs for developing countries used to consist of investments in economic infrastructures and assumed that economic progre ss would lead to progress in all other facets of life, in terms of better education, better health services, improvements in human rights etc. Many international organizations such as the United Nations, UNESCO, the United Nations for Development Program ( UNDP), and the World Bank devoted large percentages of their funding resources to economic oriented projects ( UNDP, 2006). 2. 2. 1. The Modernization Approach heory of n ational d evelopment In his seminal book The Passing of Traditi onal Society: Modernizing the Middle East, Lerner (1958) argued that the mass media had the potential to change the way of life of citizens in developing development take plac e only when traditional values are replaced with secular, rationalist and positivist values. He conducted his field research in 1950 in Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Iran, and Greece. He categorized the people of the Middle East along the lines of him, secular and ration

PAGE 67

54 acity is the predominant personal style only in modern 1958, p. 50). Lerner sees the Western model of development as the most effective and viable path, one that is able transmitters of modern values and can even function as surrogate for travel. In other words, the shift from a traditional to a modern lifestyle can be done through information transmission via mass media and communication technologies; rural residents do not have to travel to the city to see and live modernization, media can bring modernization to rural re sidents' homes. Lerner emphasized the relationship between communication, urbanization, and modernization. He believed that the availability of communication facilities would lead to faster progress and greater modernization. Based on a simple correlation analysis, showing a strong connection between the spread of communications and economic and political development, Daniel Lerner theorized: [The] Western model of modernization exhibits certain components and sequences whose relevance is global. Everywher e for example increasing urbanization has tended to raise literacy; rising literacy has tended to increase p. 46).

PAGE 68

55 Wilbur Schramm further developed Lerner's ideas. In 1963, he published a short but influential article that set the agenda for communication and development for the following ten years (Schramm in Chu, 1994). Schramm proposed the following: Communication must be used to contribute to the feeling of nation ness. Communication must be used as the voice of national planning. Communication must be used to help teach the necessary skills. Communication must be used to help extend the effective mar ket. As the plan develops, communication must be used to help prepare people to play their new roles. Communication must be used to prepare the people to play their role as a nation Lerner and Schramm sought th e use of communication resources for fundamental social transformation and basic cultural change. In his book, Mass Media and National Development vehicle for shifting new ideas and mo dels from the developed North to the underdeveloped South and, within the South, from modern urban to traditional rural areas. For him, the mass media in the South face the challenge of raising the aspirations of the people and stirring them from fatalism (Schramm, 1964, p. 130). Lerner and Schramm sought the use of mass media as tools for fundamental social transformation and cu ltural change. This theory relies on the assumption that modern and traditional lifestyles were mutually exclusive. The theory held a dismissive view of the cultures of the South, what

PAGE 69

56 he inevitability of a shift from the traditional to the modern. For instance, in the Arab world, Islam, a dominant how one should move from traditional ways toward modern life styles. The symbols of t to note that Schramm published his book Mass Media and National Development in conjunction with the UNESCO, thereby setting the agenda of research on the link between communication technologies and socio economic development. Schramm is often referred to as the father of communication studies (Rogers, 1997). He founded the first doctoral programs in communication and the first institute of communication research and he trained the first generation of communication scholars. Sch ramm worked and had close associations with a number of forerunners in the communication research field such as Harold D. Lasswell, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Kurt Lewin, Carl I. Hovland, Warren Weaver, and Claude E. Shannon. His close association with both aspec ts of academic life, i. e. research and funding, made him an influential figure who sat the stage for further theory development from diffusion to participatory theories. 2. 2. 1. 2. Diffusion of Innovation. innovation (1962) originates from the preoccupations of U.S. sociologists with the questions of how to promote technical innovations in agriculture in rural areas. This concern was extended to involve looking at the p rocess of adoption of innovations in

PAGE 70

57 society. Along the lines of the magic bullet theory of mass media effects, the theoretical premise is: when given relevant information about a particular new practice, whether it is a new chemical fertilizer, a family p lanning device, or a nutritious food, the audience will likely abandon the old in favor of the new. The new has to be perceived as more rewarding and the adoption needs to take place in a socially supportive environment. Rogers 16 (1962) defines diffusion as the process whereby an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. This definition contains four main elements: Innovation: an idea, an object, a technical invention, or a practice, that is percei ved as new by an individual. Communication channels: the communication means by which messages move from one individual to another or from an institution (advertising) to individuals. Time: The time it takes for an innovation to be adopted by an individua l or a group, and the innovation's rate of adoption. Social system: Individuals and social groups engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal. The theory describes two processes: the process of diffusion and the process of adoption. The pr ocess of diffusion deals with how an innovation is diffused through communication channels and through time within a social system. The process of adoption addresses how individuals come to adopt an innovation, i.e. how does an individual go from not knowi ng about an invention to using it. Rogers (1962) identifies the characteristics of five main segments of any given population that adopt an 16 alternative approaches to development communication.

PAGE 71

58 innovation. The differences between the segments are based on how much time it takes each segment to adopt an innova tion. The innovators, not to be confused with those who actually invent things, are the segment of the population that adopts the innovations first. They require the shortest adoption period than any other category. After the innovators come the early adop ter, the early majority, the late majo rity, and finally the laggards. Rogers identifies several characteristics dominant in the innovators type. They are venturesome; they have a craving for the daring, and the risky. They control substantial financial res ources that allow them to absorb possible loss in case the innovation turns out to be unprofitable. Innovators have higher than average education level that enables them to understand and apply complex technical knowledge, and they have the ability to cope with uncertainty. Regarding the process of adoption, the diffusion of innovation theory breaks the adoption process down into five stages: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption. In the awareness stage, the individual is exposed to the innov ation but lacks full information about it. At the interest stage, the individual becomes interested in the innovation and seeks additional information about it. At the evaluation stage the individual mentally evaluates the usefulness of the innovation with regard to his or her present and anticipated future situation, and then makes a decision whether or not to try it. During the trial stage, the individual uses the innovation to see how it works and whether it will help him/her solve problem. At the adopti on stage, the individual decides to continue using the innovation. Roger argues that prior conditions such as previous practice, felt needs and problems, innovativeness, and norms of the social system determine to a large extent the manner in which th e ado ption process takes place.

PAGE 72

59 Rogers states that mass media can help make very efficient the awareness and knowledge stages (or fulfillment of interest stage) of an innovation. To create awareness of and interest in an innovation, Rogers argues that mass medi a, thanks to their ability to (innovators and early adopters) to innovations and raising their interest in them. Once opinion leaders adopt the innovation, they will then transmit their experience through interpersonal communication to other members in the social system. This is an example of the trickle down effect assumption this theory leans on. Rogers, in a divergent move from media centrism and magic bullet effects t heories, incorporated insights from the two step flow theory advocated by Katz and Lazarsfeld (1955). Contrary to the media effects model that suggested a direct relation between the mass media and audiences, Katz and Lazarsfeld argued that media effect is a two step process, from the mass media channels to opinion leaders and from opinion leaders to the masses. To make decisions, media audiences rely on the opinions of members of their social networks, especially influential opinion leaders, rather than so lely or mainly on the mass media. Because mass media are effective in making people aware about innovations, both exposure to mass media and face to face interaction were necessary to induce effective change (Hornik 1988). 955), summarized in their book Personal Influence shook the foundation of modern communication theory and raised questions regarding the premises upon which the dominant paradigm rests. They changed the way researchers understood the role of mass media an d audience reception, and at the same time they opened up new horizons in communication research (McQuail, 2002). McQuail

PAGE 73

60 (2002) points out that researchers used not to pay attention to the variables that intervened between message producers and message re ceivers. They saw mass media as having direct effects on audiences. Katz and Lazarsfeld saw mass media as one of the rrelated individuals rather than as isolated the 'two step flow of communication' shows that formally identical content, as disseminated in the mass media, can be int erpreted and responded to in quite different notion of active audiences is both a critique of the notion of an all powerful media and an expression of faith in the autonomy of people and in the importance of interpersonal communication. To apply their findings to development communication, Katz and Lazarsfeld inaugurated a move from a conceptualization of communication involving media message experts and beneficiaries, to one that involves a tri adic model that included media experts, beneficiaries, as well as change agents (Waisbord, 1999). By pointing out the fact that interpersonal networks were necessary to induce effective change, they also drew attention to the importance of sociocultural e nvironment where communication takes place. Katz and Lazarsfeld anticipated the paradigm shift to the transactional, social constructionist and participatory models of communication. It was not until the 1990's that this paradigm shift materialized to beco me part of the agenda of government and non government development agencies. The same happened with audience research. It took many decades before the notion of an active audience became popular.

PAGE 74

61 Rogers and Schramm incorporated many of these findings in their later writings. By the mid social change. 2. 2. 1. 3. Summary. The modernization theories served as the blueprint for development communication activities for many decades. They exemplify t he free flow of information doctrine and the top down approach to communication. The two theories assumed that contact with the media would help the process of transition from traditional to a modernized state, with the media being a mobility multiplier. The messages are to be designed by a group of specialists and transmitted to the audiences. Once audiences receive the messages, they will respond to them. For instance, if the purpose of the message is to raise awareness or change attitudes about a particular issue like health or environment, it is enough to design a message that can be understood by audiences and to transmit it to them. It was assume d that the audiences would then act on what they have learned (Haberman, 1986). In Morocco, like many other developing countries, development was conceived in terms of the modernization approach, in terms of industrialization, transfer of technology and i nnovations, and economic growth. The process of development was tied to the economy, and industrialization was considered key to development. According to a study by the Moroccan Ministry of Social Development (2006) entitled Understanding Human Developmen t, development programs and policy in Morocco during the consisted of investments in economic infrastructures and technology. It was assumed that economic progress would lead to progress in all other facets of life.

PAGE 75

62 E mphasis was placed on the accumulation of financial capital, on infrastructure development shifted slightly to the development of human resources, focusing mainly on the labor force to increase productivity. These development projects did not target w omen and poor classes living in rural and suburban areas. For instance, projects such as development of modern agricultur e and maintained drinking water supply to the cities. However in remote areas, populations without water did not necessarily benefit from the positive advantages of the dams, the roads or the electricity network. The trickle down effect did not occur, and the knowledge of and access to technologies remained restricted to a small powerful class. view of the role of communication in development originated in two influential communication models. The first is the Shannon Weaver Sender Message Channel Receiver ( SMCR) model. The second model is the propaganda model which was developed during World War II. Both hierarchic views on communication can be summarized in Lasswell's classic formula -through Which channel t -which dates back to research (mainly American) on campaigns and diffusions in the late 40s and 50s. According to this attitudes, beliefs and behavior. Besides, the behavior s cience theory on persuasive communication constitutes the intellectual base that influenced most communication research in mid 20 th century (Waisbord, 1999). The communication process consists of an input (message designed by sender) and output (listener's response triggered by input). The problem of

PAGE 76

63 underdevelopment was then believed to be an information problem, and communication was considered as the instrument that would solve it. Lasswell (1948) had in mind a managerial function for communication. For him, the role of communication is society was to mitigate dysfunction of the social system. He ne task of a rationally organized society is to discover and control any p. 223). For him, interferences with efficiency can be of a technical nature, and these can be solved via the use of knowledge. However, inefficiencies in communication can be related to human factors, such as lack of knowledge, lack of professionalism, or a desire to promote a particular ideology. Lasswell believed that to avoid human related inefficiencies in communication, the communication channels should be under the control and command of experts. Here, he draws a distinction between specialists, le aders and laymen. He he attention structure of the full time specialist on a given policy will be more elaborate and refined than that of the layman. That this difference will always exist, we must take for granted.... It is by no means fanta stic to imagine that the controllers of mass media of communication will take the lead in bringing about a high degree of equivalence throughout society between the layman's picture of significant relationships, and the picture of the expert and the leader allowing groups in power to control communication because the communication channels such a way that only responses wil l be forthcoming which are deemed favorable to the

PAGE 77

64 Lasswell's idea of control of communication channels by experts can easily be applied in a democracy because there are systems of checks and balances, free and transparent elections, and a strong public opinion that can change things. In developing countri es such as Morocco, the ruling classes were in control of communication and considered mass media as too powerful instruments to be handed to private persons. 2. 2. 2. Other Theories within the Modernization Approach In the early 1970s, modernization theo ry was the dominant paradigm of development communication. The climate of enthusiasm that had existed a decade earlier had notably receded but the notion that the diffusion of information and innovations could solve problems of underdevelopment reigned. Co nsistent with the empiricist top down approach to development, but less dismissive of the grass roots participation are research in social marketing and entertainment education. 2. 2. 2. 1. Social marketing. It is one of the approaches that carried forwar d the premises of behavior change and diffusion of innovation models. Since the 1970s, social marketing has been one of the most influential strategies in the field of development communication (Novelli, 1990) One definition of social marketing states tha design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving consideration of product planning, pricing, communication, p. 5). The central premise of social marketing strategies is that since advertising/marketing campaigns have been successful in making the public aware about the existence, the price, and the benefits of some product, these strategies can also benefit deve loping countries in many of their interventions regarding immunization programs, condom use, breast feeding, etc.

PAGE 78

65 The development of social marketing as a development communication theory is the product of specific political and academic developments in th e United States disciplines to respond to social issues, and the emergence of non profit organizations saw in marketing an effective tool of promoting its social programs (Waisb ord, 1999; Elliott 1991). Social marketing consists of putting into use standard techniques in commercial marketing to promote pro social behavior. From marketing and advertising, it borrowed theories of consumer behavior and inserted them into development communication the exchange model according to which individuals, groups and organizations exchange resources for perceived benefits of purchasing products. The aim of interventions is to theories lies in the fact that it focuses on behavior change, in its understanding of down approach to implement change. 2. 2 2. 2. Entertainment e ducation. Entertainment Education shares behavior change premises with the modernization paradigm. It is a strategy that helps maximize the reach, effectivenes s and efficiency of development messages through the combination of entertainment and education. One of the starting points of entertainment education is that populations in developing countries are widely exposed to entertainment media content. The pervas iveness of media content matched with heavy exposure provides numerous opportunities to design and communicate messages that can help educate

PAGE 79

66 people on a myriad of problems that they confront. Singhal and Rogers (1999) define entertainment he process of purposely designing and implementing a media message to both entertain and educate, in order to increase audience knowledge about an educational issue, create favorable Par adigmatic examples of this approach are soap operas in Latin America (telenovelas) and in India that were designed to provide information about literacy and education, health issues, family planning, sexual behavior, and agricultural development. Its major premise is desirable behavior by observing and imitating role models, especially in the mass media (Bandura 1994, Maibach and Murphy 1995). This theory is rooted in the dominant paradigm because it is concerned with behavior change and subscribes to a top down communication model. 2. 2. 2. 3. Summary Entertainment affinity with modernization and diffusion of innovation theories lies in the fact that they both focuses on behavior change, in their understanding of communication as persuasion down approach to implement change. The theories can be used as strategies that can inform a particular development project or awareness campaign, but they do not offer large scale applications for the use of the mass media in development at a national level.

PAGE 80

67 2. 2. 3. Criticism of the Old Paradigm By the late 1960s and early 1970s, after decades of interventions, skepticism grew as major setbacks for economic growth and advances in democracy in Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia occurred. The modernization approach to development, considered as a panacea for the development of the newly independent countries of Latin America, Africa and Asia, had failed to deliver (Mody, 2003) One major shortcoming of the moderni zation approach is that it advocates a top down approach, one way flow of information via the mass media from governments or international development agencies to the developing countries, and from developing countries governments to their citizens. Messag es are designed and transmitted by media executives to large audiences. The contents of the messages that matter are related to those pertaining to the changes in attitudes and values and to the uses of the technological innovations, and do not pertain to the everyday life concerns of the citizens. Pasquali paradigms' unilateral decisions on definition of the problems, solutions, and their diffusion were seen as a violation of the essence of communication. The modernization theory ignored the fact that mass media are themselves subject to cultural, economic and political conditions. As a media consumer of the Moroccan television and radio, I will describe how television was used as an instrument of development and social change. RTM (the only available T V channel from 1962 1989) aired many development oriented programs that were meant to teach Moroccans about

PAGE 81

68 science, technology, industry, modern agriculture, geography, etc. They were mostly imported programs from Western countries, mainly German, British French and American, and were dubbed in classical Arabic or French. The locally produced programs consisted mostly of a continuous propaganda campaign in support of the political regime. In particular, the news bulletins in RTM consisted of countless sto ries about royal engagements and ministers' activities. The "holiness" of such stories in the running order was unchallenged. It did not matter what happened in any given day; royal activities were the most newsworthy stories. Other local programming consi sted of awareness campaigns on issues of health (vaccination), family planning, traffic accidents, environment (conservation of water) etc. I never took these awareness campaigns seriously, and neither did the people around me. Most of the news programs c onsisted of glorifying the successes and accomplishments of the regime. We knew that that was propaganda because our lives were rarely changing and if they were changing, they were changing for the worst. So we wondered what accomplishments television was talking about. Television became the embodiment of government lies and deceit, and so were the development programs. The major function of Moroccan mass media at the time was to legitimize the power establishment, and buttress the control of tiny corrupt and unrepresentative elite. The media are part and parcel of their social, political, and cultural environments. The modernization paradigm considers developing world audiences as isolated individuals who lack information, refuse to change their traditiona to adopt innovations. It did not take into account other variables such as the interpretive capacities of audiences and the impact of interpersonal communication. The approach

PAGE 82

69 also undermines the instrumental role of larger political and social transformations that affect social change (Wilkins, 1999). RTM tried to convince people to change their attitudes and behaviors vis vis a variety of issues, but it failed. Moroccan mass media were more successful in legitimizing the power establishment of tiny and unrepresentative elite than in triggering change in people's perceptions of their current and future conditions. It was not a matter of whether people were interested or not to improve their quality of life; due to the oppressive political regime, they were not given the opportunity to have that choice. Diffusion theory assumed that development will eventually reach the poor clas ses thanks to the trickle down effects of communication. The innovators and early adopters will adopt the innovations, and then through influence, opinion leadership and economic necessity, they will manage to convince the late adopters to catch up. What h appened in most developing countries is that the elite, having access to information and resources, managed to benefit from the innovations but the trickle down effect rarely if ever happened (Nair and White, 1993). In agriculture, small farmers in Morocc o were aware of many innovations but they either could not afford to buy them or could not understand their complex technical knowledge and soon run out of business. In few years, they could no longer compete with big farmers (Ministry of Social Developmen t Report, 2006). disproportionate access to education, purchasing power, and contacts required for adoption of new ideas.... The few rich got richer and the poor rem ain 1991, p. 26). The local elite in capital cities, in coordination with foreign specialists design and

PAGE 83

70 execute development programs. Local people were considered as passive receivers of development programs. They were not given a sense of owne rship over their own development; they were not involved in conceptualization or the instrumentalization of the development interventions. Interventions basically conceived of local residents as passive receivers of decisions made outside of their communit ies, and in many cases, instrumented ill conceived plans to achieve development (Mody 1991; Serva es 1989; Nair and White 1993). Because of their top down nature, development programs and the innovations they introduced were deemed by the local communities as foreign property. When something broke, the locals waited for the government officials to come and fix it. Alfonso Gumucio Dagron (2002), a practitioner and activist in development which never opened its doors because there were no nurses and doctors to run it. five hun water being wasted during months (a path of mold went down on the street) from a tap at a very dry village in the south Saharan belt known as Sahel, because nobody would spend about seen expensive and sophisticated OB vans (mobile television studios) grounded for years because their tires were flat (Gumucio Dagron, 2002). Critics of the dominant paradigm see the lack of local par ticipation as responsible for the failure of many programs. The local communities needed to take an active role in

PAGE 84

71 the development programs. Another flaw was the lack of sensitivity to local cultures and traditions. People were asked to change their centur ies old way of life in the name of a better more efficient knowledge, a knowledge that dismissed their culture and traditions as backward. Development in the old paradigm also meant disempowerment. The local communities had to accept the development progra m and did not have the choice to reject or mod ify development interventions. Experts learnt that development was not a matter of building roads, piping water, and distributing electricity (Vilanilam, in Nair and White, 1993). T he essence of poverty is not lack of food and shelter alone. It is also powerlessness, exclusion, a state of being in which a number of human rights or freedoms are unfulfilled, such as the right to participation, information, expression, education, and equality before the law (White and Nair, 1993). Many development projects failed because local populations were reluctant to be part of a project that did not treat them as equal partners (Vilanilam in Nair and White, 1993) The leading figures of the modernization paradigm (Lerner, 19 76; Roger, 1976, 1993; Schramm, 1976) later on acknowledged that their conceptualization of development and their emphasis on mass media were oversimplified. They also acknowledged the value of participation and the extent to which it rendered the process of development more humane, more expansive, and more flexible (Roger, 1993). International institutions such as the World Bank and USAID use such reformist approaches to participation (White, 1999). They however discard the value of grass roots participati on and local knowledge as incompatible with the contemporary reality of globalization. The apparent epistemological contradictions of integrating participatory

PAGE 85

72 elements to enhance the traditional development practices have received much criticism from deve lopment scholars (Huesca, 2003). It was perceived as an attempt to redeem the modernization approach (Huesca, 2003). 2. 3. The Alternative Paradigm The alternative paradigm consists of two distinct sets of theories. First, the neo Marxists theories (Ba ran, 1957; Schiller, 1976, 1992; Galtung, 1971; Frank, 1969 ) redefined the problem of underdevelopment and raised important questions on the biases embedded in the premises of the modernization approach. Second, the participatory theories ( Freire, 1970; Masmoudi, 1979; Mowlana, 1985; MacBride Report, 1980) offered a new conceptualization of communication that replaced the transmission, one way, top down model of communication with a transactional, horizontal, and social constructionist perspective. What t hese two sets of theories share is their sharp criticism and social justice, such as 2. 3. 1. The Neo Marxist Approaches The neo Marxist approaches emerged as a consequence to the failure of the modernization approach in the developing world, especially in Latin American, in the late 1 increasing U.S. support for right wing authoritarian governments (Thussu, 2004). The theories are based on the Marxist analysis of the capitalist free market ideas advoca ted by the modernization theorists. The analysis considers the inequalities within the world as a direct outcome of imperialist and capitalist policies and practices.

PAGE 86

73 2. 3. 1. 1. Dependency t heory Grounded in the neo Marxists approach, dependency theory p osits that transnational corporations, mostly based in developed countries (U.S., Britain, France) exercise control, with the support of their respective governments, over developing countries by setting the terms of global trade. Paul Baran (1957) was one of the first to articulate the thesis that development and underdevelopment are interrelated processes, that is, they are two sides of the same coin. th the colonialist, capitalist and imperialist core developing at the expense of the structurally impoverished periphery (Thussu, 2000). It is a central contention of dependency theory that rich states are enriched by the way poor states are integrated in to the "world system." Poor states open their markets to When poor nations resist or refuse the terms of trade, rich nations counter these attempts by economic sanction s or military actions. Dependency theory rejected the m odernization countri es. They argued that the modernization theory calls for strengthening the dominance of developed nations and for maintaining peripheral nations in a state of The dependency theory has a cultural dimension, examined by scholars interested in issues of media and cultural production. They aim to show the link between discourses of modernization and the policies of international media organizations and communication corporations (Schiller, 1976, 1992). The concept of media and cultural imperialism is central to the dependency theory. Schiller (1976) defines cultural

PAGE 87

74 the sum of the processes by which a society is brought into the modern world system and how its dom inating stratum is attracted, pressured, forced, and sometimes bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond to, or even promote, the Schiller like many other depe ndency theorists argues that the beneficiaries of the modernization programs are Western media and communication companies. They expand to Third world countries and sell their media products in the name of development. As a result of this dependency on We stern, mainly U.S. media products, citizens of developing countries have only limited choices for information and entertainment debates about the nature of development and its relation to dependency issues triggered other debates at the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) about inequalities and imbalances in the news flow. According to Mowlana (1986), there were at least three reaso ns for this imbalance in news flow. First, most international news flew vertically from developed nations to developing countries of the South via major international news agencies (e.g. Reuters Britain; Associated Press -US., Agence France Presse France). Second, the U.S. and Western Europe received a greater amount of news coverage compared to other parts of the world. Finally, news did not flow horizontally among countries belonging to the poor developing South. The UNESCO sponsored debates on the World Information and Communication Order is an important element in the general debate on the role of mass media in national development. I will discuss this debate more closely when I address the participatory approach.

PAGE 88

75 2. 3. 1. 2. Structural imperialism the ory. The theory was developed by Norwegian sociologist Johan Galtung. He argued that even if the imperialism era of colonies was point of departure two of the most gl aring facts about this world: the tremendous inequality, within and between nations, in almost all aspects of human living conditions, including the power to decide over those living conditions; and the resistance of this inequality to change. The world co 1971, p. 81). Galtung focuses on the complicity between the elite in developed countries, from where modernization and innovations emanate, and the elite in developing countries, where modernization and in novations are to be adopted. Galtung (1971) argues that the core center in the center nations and a core center in the periphery nations. The core centers in the cent er and periphery states refer to the elite and the groups in power. Galtung argues that there is a harmony of interest between the core centers in center and the inter ests of the elite of developing nations. The values, attitudes, and beliefs of the elite in the periphery nations are closer to the elites of center nations than with the values, attitudes, and beliefs of other groups in their own country (periphery). Peri phery in center state and periphery in periphery state have a disharmony of interest. Developing world elites are used to help developed world elites maintain their economic, political and cultural dominance over Third world countries. Galtung distinguis hes five types of imperialism: economic, political, military,

PAGE 89

76 communication and cultural. Communication imperialism is closely tied to cultural imperialism. The centers in periphery and center states maintain their relationships via information flows and e conomic activities. Institutions in the center of the periphery often mirror those of the developed nations (democracy, parliament, ministries etc.) and For example, Moroccan political and economic elite, i.e. the center in the periphery state (Morocco), share many of the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the elite in France, i.e. center of the center s tate. To illustrate, in Morocco, French is the language of politics and business, it is also the language of the elite; this is an undisputed fact within Moroccan society. The elite of France and Morocco have harmony of interest, but they have disharmony o f interests with poor people in their own respective countries. Poor people of France and poor people of Morocco have a disharmony of interests; besides, they speak two different languages and adopt two sets of values, respectively, French and Arabic. Ac cording to Galtung, two types of interactions provide the mechanism for the periphery center relationship: vertical and feudal. In the vertical interaction, the relationship is asymmetrical in the sense that information, technology, political and military power flow downward, from center to periphery, while political and economic interaction along the spokes, from periphery to the center hub; but not along the rim, from imperialism, Galtung argues, is based on the feudal interaction principle. Information flows from center states to periphery but little information flows among periphery states.

PAGE 90

77 Periphe ry nations learn about other periphery states through the eyes of the transnational news agencies of the center (developed nations), namely Reuters, Associated Press, and Agence France Presse For instance, Morocco and Algeria (neighboring countries) receive and broadcast more information about France than France receives and broadcasts about Morocco and Algeria. And there is more information exchange between Morocco and France on the one hand and Algeria and France on the other hand, than there is between Morocco and Algeria. A link can be drawn between this theory and Rogers' diffusion of innovation, a link that further demonstrates the failure of the modernization model. For Rogers, an in novation is adopted in a social system when information about the innovation is diffused through mass media and interpersonal communication. The center in the periphery nations adopts innovations that are manufactured in the center nations. Rogers' theory presupposes a trickle down effect according to which the periphery in the periphery nations would also adopt the innovations once they receive information about them from the elite in their countries (center of the periphery). The trickle down effect was n ot proven to be effective in triggering change (Waisbord, 1999, p. 5; White and Nair, 1993), and the knowledge of and access to technologies remain restricted to a small powerful class. This implies that participation in message design is limited to a smal l elite group. Because the dominant values and beliefs in both core centers in the center and periphery states are similar, it becomes difficult for core periphery in the periphery states to voice their concerns and be considered equal partners in the proc ess of their country's development.

PAGE 91

78 2. 3. 1. 3. Summary To sum up, the neo Marxists argued that modernization theories were guided by behaviorist, positivist and empiricist approaches that entail particular biases which guided the interventions to focus mainly on behavior change at the individual level rather than on the root causes of underdevelopment, poverty and marginalization. For neo Marxist theorists, the solution to development is political, not simply informational. They called for social change through the redistribution of power and resources in developing countries, a call that did not resonate with the existing oppressive regimes in developing countries and their loyal allies in the developed world. Information and media institutions also nee ded transformations in terms of policies and regulations as the media structures in developing countries were dominated by commercial and propaganda principles. New policies needed to be in place to promote media systems that could put in the service of th e people rather than as pipelines for capitalist ideologies (Mowlana, 1985). Such positions were expressed in a number of international fora, particularly during the UNESCO sponsored debates about the New World Information and Communication Order in the 19 70s and 1980s. Both modernization theory and the neo Marxist theories shared an important common feature: the nation state as a unit of analysis. This left them both open to criticism. The two theories tended to cancel each other out due to their deployme nt as ideologically oppositional narratives during the Cold War, with modernization espousing free market capitalism and neo Marxist theories espousing state controlled socialism (Thussu, 2000). It is important to note that the neo Marxist theories offer u seful insights into the role of media in the reproduction of the status quo and as an arena for class and ideological conflict. They also highlighted the importance of Western cultural domination

PAGE 92

79 and how culture can be used to reinforce developing countrie s' dependency on the Western world. Audiences in developing countries are exposed to media contents that emphasize contemporary events in Western societies, secular beliefs and values, and the material cultures of the U.S. and Western Europe. Neo Marxist t heories failed, however, to propose a coherent approach to the use of communication for development. One major shortcoming of the dependency and the structural imperialism theories lies in their unfounded assumptions about developing countries audiences, which they consider as passive consumers at the mercy of media influence (Fiske, 1987). They assumed a hypodermic needle model of media effects while undermining the complexities of Third world cultures ( Sreberny Mohamadi, 1991; 1997) and failed to recogni ze the intricacies in audience perceptions (Thussu, 2004). Unlike the neo Marxist approach, the participatory approach posits the development was most evident in communities the participation of communities in the design and implementation of development programs and of mass media contents was the key to their success (Serveas, 1995). 2. 3. 2. Participatory Approaches Scholars have produced a wide range of theoretical respon ses that drew upon the are two major approaches to participatory communication which everybody today accepts as common sense. The first is the dialogical pedagogy of Paulo Freire, an d the second involves the ideas of access, participation and self management as they were articulated in the UNESCO debates of the 1970s (Servaes, 1989)

PAGE 93

80 The participatory approaches inaugurate a move from obsession with modernization and economic growth to development of human competencies along with and level of analysis, arguing that since the reality of development is most evident in communities, the participation of communities in the design and implementation of development programs and their access to and participation mass media contents is fundamental. Communities are acknowledged as the owners of their own development, and communication is viewed as key to fac ilitating and amplifying the voice of all segments of the society, especially the poor and the marginalized. 2. 3. 2. 1. Freire's Dialogical Pedagogy. Paulo respect for the autonomous personhood of each human being and on the right of people to be different. He insisted that subjugated peoples must be treated as full human subjects. Servaes (1989) points out that this view of participation was a moment of utop ian hope that was derived from early Marxist writings. This Marxist vision believed in the notion of a human destiny that was larger than mere fulfillment of material needs. It is important to note here that Freire's point of departure was Christianity, no t Marxism ( Servaes, 1989). Education, for Freire, is not the process whereby people with information (those powerless, but rather learning is a collaborative and creativ e discovery of the world. He insisted on equity in participation in the learning process. Communication should give a sense of ownership to all participants through sharing and constructing experiences (Aronowitz, 1993). Unlike the modernization theories, h is approach posits that p eople

PAGE 94

81 should not be forced to adopt new practices no matter how beneficial they seem in the eyes of development agencies and governments. Instead, they should be encouraged to take an active role in development with solution emerg ing from their own knowledge and resources. Lack of voice is perceived as an element of poverty itself (Panos, 2006). The role of communication is to enable indigenous people to become self reliant and speak for themselves directly to the power elite. Deve lopment is conceived as a process, rather than a list of specific outcomes to be achieved and deadlines to meet ( Servaes, 1996). With these goals in mind, Freire stressed on the necessity of using alternative or .e. c ommunity based forms of communication such as community radio, public performances, theater, video, and other activities. Studies in a variety of developing countries rural settings found that illiterate groups preferred to communicate face to face ra ther than through mass media or other one way sources of communication (Okunna, 1995). Okunna concludes that development workers act as facilitators of dialogue and rely more on interpersonal methods of communication rather than national media and technolo gies. Like social marketing and Entertainment education approaches, most applications of Freire's approach focus on small scale development projects. His approach offers new insights into how to carry out a particular development project but it does not su ggest specific ways in which mass media can be used for development. In its applications, his approach is more a strategy than a theory of development communication. 2. 3. 2. 2. The second discourse about participatory comm unication is the outcome of the debates that took place within the UNESCO about the New World Information and Communication Order triggered by the

PAGE 95

82 inequalities and imbalances in the international information system ( Huesca, 2003) Developing countries and the Soviet block argued that developing countries were heavily dependent on the developed countries for both software and hardware in the information sector. They argued that the existing order perpetuates inequalities in development with serious implicati on for developing countries. Three international Western news agencies, British Reuters, American Associated Press and French Agence France Presse, controlled more than 80% of news flow (Masmoudi, 1979; Altschul, 1984). Developing countries complained abou t this control of information and news, and about the unfair media coverage of the developing world. Developing countries receive less media attention compared to developed nations, and media coverage of their countries consists of reports on famines, natu ral disasters, and military coups. The public in developing countries were exposed to more Western media contents and Western lifestyles and culture than local or regional contents (Masmoudi, 1979) A commission was appointed to generate a set of recommend ations to make global communication more equitable. The MacBride Commission, a UNESCO panel orld Information Communication Order. The Commission found that imbalance of information and news cannot be blamed on Western news monopolies alone. The Commission found many examples of repression of information on the part of ruling elites in developing countries The Commission called for the democratization of communication and this call represents one of its most innovative recommendations. The Commission argued that

PAGE 96

83 b ureaucratic and corrupt administrative systems, technologies controlled and understood only by a few, the exclusion of minority groups, and the abundance of illiteracy and semi literacy (MacBride Report, 1980). The Report pointed out that access for the st rong for the abolition of censorship on the part of governments as well as the abolition of constraints imposed by advertisers and concentration of media ownership. The MacBride reports called for the use of the mass media for public service, instead of the use of media as instruments for political propaganda and control. The Report recommends that media inform, educate, and promote diversity, pluralism, respect and equa The Report also recommends that mass media offer a variety of relevant programs to the public and must allow that public means of feedback to express its reactions and demands to media outlets. The media must be responsive to the concerns of the public and involve them in the elaboration of information (MacBride Report, 1980). that it recommended that people be give n the right to access and participate in the mass media. Access refers to inequalities in terms of availability of technology, and to inequalities in terms of skills. People must have access to media via the promotion of small scale community press, local radio, low cost small format television and video systems especially in rural areas and small towns to provide ample opportunity for diversified cultural expressions. In this vein, the Report stresses equally the importance of educating and preparing young people for communication activities by introducing them

PAGE 97

84 at primary and secondary school levels to the various forms of mass media such how to read newspapers, how to evaluate radio and television shows, etc. Participation means that higher level of public involvement in communication systems must be allowed. This includes the involvement of the public in the production process, which means to open up the opportunities for the public to participate in the production of content. This includes also the partic ipation of the public in the management and planning of communication systems. The public must be involved in decision making within media outlets, as well as be involved in the formulation of media policies and plans (MacBride Report, 1980). Other recomme ndations dealt with the issue of news reporting. The commission held that journalists were not only responsible for providing objective and impartial news worldwide strug journalists became that of an activist. The mass media had the power to promote peace, further human rights, strengthen international security and cooperation and help d ecrease intern ational tensions. The United States withdrew from the UNESCO as a result of these recommendations. What was implied in these recommendations was stronger government intervention and control. The U.S. saw these recommendations simply as barriers to the free flow of communication and as a threat to the interests of its media corporations. The flows (Wells, 1987, p. 27). The U.S. viewed the UNESCO, an organization run by

PAGE 98

85 governments, as unfit to function as controller of the global media, and concluded t hat this might be dangerous to freedom of the press. The U.S. rejoined the UNESO in 2003. 2. 3. 2. 3. Summary discourse called for the democratization of media. They theorized it differently. The MacBr ide Commission emphasized the importance of the use of national mass media for participation in mass media contents. Freire called mainly for the use interpersonal methods of c ommunication rather than national media. When media are used, they must be community based and grass roots forms of communication such as community radio, public performances, theater, video, and other activities. Freire points out that community based med ia should be used only as supplements to interpersonal communication. The MacBride report The participatory approach calls for the participation of local communities and their direct involvement in the design and implementation of development programs and their involvement in the contents of mass media. This conceptualization of communication c onstitutes the foundation for the current conceptualization of the role of communication in development for major international development and aids agencies. The formal United Nations definition of development communication, adopted in the General Assembl stresses the need to support two way communication systems that enable dialogue and that allow communities to speak out, express their aspirations and concerns, and participate in the decis ions that rel

PAGE 99

86 The United Nations Development Program (2006) defines development as an activity that involves issues that transcend economic progress or the rise or fall of national incomes. Development is: about crea ting an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. People are the real wealth of nations. Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead li ves that they value. And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means if a very important one of enlarging rights. The goal is human freedom. And in pursuin g capabilities and realizing rights, this freedom is vital. People must be free to exercise their choices and to participate in decision making that affects their lives. Human development and human rights are mutually reinforcing, helping to secure the wel l being and dignity of all people, building self respect and the respect of others ( www.undp.org accessed June 20, 2006). The UNDP Millennium Development Goals reflect this new vision of development. The MDGs are: Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; achieving universal primary education; promoting gender equality and empower women; reducing child mortality; improving maternal health; combating HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and other diseases; ensuring environmental su stainability; and developing a global industry, economy, or infrastructure. The human development approach recognizes the fact that the essence of poverty is not lack of food a nd shelter alone; it is exclusion,

PAGE 100

87 2. 3. 3. Critic ism of the Alternative Paradigm The participatory approach in its Freirian version is very well elaborated at the theoretical level. It is even difficult to think of drawbacks in terms of its conceptualization of development. There are, however, a few shortcomings to this approach. The community. Communities have hie rarchies, based on age, wealth, or family lineage. Participatory approaches instill a sense of inequality within the community because some community members take on larger roles than others and as a result acquire new status in their community. From my ex perience as a practitioner 17 of the participatory approach in community development in Morocco for the past four years, I noticed this shortcoming firsthand. For instance, Dayet Ifrah 18 project consisted first of creating a local association. The community m embers who took leadership roles within the newly created association managed to gain a higher status than the community would otherwise be willing to grant them. Some of these people are young and were seen to gain more respect than their age would otherw ise grant them. Some community members may choose not to take an active role and this should not imply that they are any less important than those who do. To 17 I presented a paper on this project in the International Association for Media and C ommunication Research Stockholm, Sweden 20 25 July 2008 This is a comprehensive development project for the village of Dayet Ifrah in the Middle Atlas mountain region. The project which started on September 2004 consists of working with the local population, using the participatory approach, to help them adopt alternati ve agricultural methods, launch income generating projects, and improve education and health services especially for women. 18 Dayet Ifrah is a small rural village in the province of Ifrane, Morocco. The population is estimated at 890 (2004 National Census Bureau). The main sources of income are agricultural activities: raising cattle and sheep, wheat harvesting, potato and few other vegetable plants. The level of illiteracy is high: 68% overall, 55,6% for men and 81,4 for women, one of the highest rates in Morocco.

PAGE 101

88 to be coer ced to participate. One other shortcoming is the time it takes for change to happen. There are at times problems that require immediate action. For instance, public health cases such as epidemics need prompt top down solutions (Waisbord, 2000). To try an d involve people in decision making and implementation in such cases may be too risky and counter productive. Participatory approach is effective for long term change, not for short term ones. 2. 4. Synthesis 2. 4. 1. Deve lopment Communication Paradigms Both the dominant paradigm and the alternative paradigm aim at improving the living conditions of citizens in developing countries. They both attempted to use the media to serve the development objectives of nations. The modernization approach has been his torically discredited. A look at the literature on development communication or at the international development agencies programs shows clearly that this approach has been abandoned for a more promising participatory approach. In Morocco, like many other developing countries, development was conceived in terms of the modernization approach, in terms of industrialization, transfer of technology and innovations, and economic growth. Since the Independence in 1956, the process of development was tied to the e conomy, and industrialization was considered key to development. It was assumed that economic progress would lead to progress in all other facets of life. D evelopment initiatives did not target issues of education, health, environment, marginalized groups such as w omen and poor classes living in rural and suburban areas. For instance, projects

PAGE 102

89 such as the hydroelectric dams have obviously contributed to the water conservation and the development of modern agriculture and maintained drinking water supply to the cities. However, in remote areas, populations without water did not necessarily benefit from the positive advantages of the dams, the roads or the electricity network. The trickle down effect did not occur, and the knowledge of and access to technologi es remained restricted to a small powerful class. The neo Marxist paradigm deployed an ideologically oppositional narrative to that of the modernization theories during the Cold War (Thussu, 2000). The neo Marxist theories offer useful insights into the im portance of culture and the role of media in the reproduction of the status quo and as an arena for class and ideological struggle. They failed, however, to propose a coherent approach to the use of communication for development. Unlike the majority of Ara b nations which aligned themselves with socialist ideology, t he Moroccan government and political elite chose a pro western stance and adopted democracy and liberal economy as the political and economic systems since the independence in 1956. Because much of its framework was provided by the French cultural and political influence, t he Moroccan media model was neither a western model based on free market of ideas, nor a soviet model based on a revolutionary rhetoric Broadcast media were owned by the state and print media served essentially as the mouthpiece of particular political or ideological expressions. Moroccan media system was authoritarian much like other Arab media systems, but unlike socialist regimes it allowed for mild forms of political critici sm. With regard to the participatory theories, I think that the Freirian view of participation empties the media from their political dimension as instruments of power,

PAGE 103

90 d authoritarian nature of the developing countries regimes. Freire argues that decision making regarding media production should be in the hands of community members, own development process. He adds that in countries where the mass media are usually controlled by governments and the urban elites, small media can offer the opportunity for media access, not just in terms of being an audience but in terms of being a conte nt producer. This view is unrealistic because it assumes that relocating power to the people is a neutral and non political act. According to many scholars, participation implies a new definition of power and a new power distribution in society. Lozare (1 989) points out that 2). It may also not sit well with the ruling classes a nd the local elites (often unrepresentative and undemocratic) in countries of the developing world. In the Arab world, mass media represent an important national resource and an important political tool in the hands of the mostly autocratic regimes (Ayish, 2003). Participation in media implies equitable sharing of this political instrument. For a redistribution of power, structural change must first happen (Serveas, 1989). Many communication experts agree that structural changes are necessary to establish p articipatory communication policies. Media policies are an intricate part of the power arrangement in any given society, and any change in the function of media involves large scale political adjustments (Mowlana and Wilson, 1987). In Morocco, to call for equity and participation means calling for the

PAGE 104

91 transformation of the political regime, an undemocratic and authoritarian regime. for the use of the mass media for public service constitutes, in my view, the most coherent approach to the use of mass media for development. The modernization approach, the neo Marxist approaches, and the participatory approaches all had many limitations. They either misconceived the process of change or were focused on small scale dev elopment projects. The MacBride Report remains in my view the closest model for the use of mass media for development. The concept of serving the public embodies the standard that most media policy makers are supposed to adhere to in their decision making (Napoli, 2001; Tracey, 1998). This concept has been the primary benchmark against which media systems are assessed (Napoli, 2001). Public interest implies that policy decisions should never reflect the interests of small groups but rather the interest of the population as a whole. McQuail (1992) argues that a wide range of normative criteria can be embedded in the concept of public interest, criteria such as freedom, diversity, competition, pluralism, access, participation, and objectivity (McQuail, 1992). vision of the role of mass media in development. The Moroccan government has given important policy considerations to regulate the use of television and radio airwaves to adhere to the public service broadcasting model. As a first step, the government created the High Commission for Audiovisual Communication ( Haut Autorit de la Communication Audiovisuelle HACA) in August 2002 to establish the legal framework for the liberalizati on and the privatization of the audio visual sector. In September of the same year, it promulgated a decree law that ended the state's monopoly of the national

PAGE 105

92 broadcasting system and assigned public service obligations to the two major television stations in Morocco (RTM and 2M). 2. 4. 2. Public Service Broadcasting Public service broadcasting ( PSB ) is the dominant form of broadcasting around the world. There is no standard or widely accepted definition of public broadcasting; there are, however, some key characteristics that many scholars agree upon. Radio and television receive funding from the public in form of state subsidies that originate in taxes or other national funding resources, and in return they produce and transmit programming that is independ ent from the influences of advertisers, political parties, and the government (Stacey, 1998). The programming must aim at informing, educating and entertaining, and at improving society by giving viewers balanced information that helps them make informed decisions. A number of studies have addressed the role of public service broadcasting in nation building. Many studies, particularly on several European countries, have demonstra of the central missions of public broadcasting (Curran, 2002; Scannell, 1996; Tracey, 1998). P ublic broadcasting programs were created by cultural engineers and were expected to produce a national identity. There are eight principles that guide public service broadcasting. They are borrowed by the Peacock Committee from the Broadcasting Research Unit study that identified these characteristics in an inductive fashion by polling British broadcasters and commentators (Stacey, 1998; Collins in Allen and Hill, 2004):

PAGE 106

9 3 1. Universality of availability: broadcasting signal must be available for all. 2. Unive rsality of appeal: the shows must cater to the different tastes and interests good programs popular and popular programs good; it understands that serving the national diversi ty of a society is not the same as 'giving people what they want' (Stacey, 1998, p. 27). 3. Provision for minorities, especially those disadvantaged by physical or social circumstances: PB does two things, it provides such group access to allow them to speak to one another and speak about the issues as they see them; and it provides coverage of their interests, concerns, and histories. 4. Serving the public sphere: Stacey (1998) refers to Richard Hoggart who said that one of the great benefits of public broadca important and vital function of television is to help society understa nd itself. 5. A commitment to the education of the public: the education of citizens is designed to help them participate in a democracy. 6. Public broadcasting should be distanced from all vested interests: this is a key principle in public broadcasting; the shows serve the public best when they are produced within a structure of independence. PB must remain distanced from any commitment to any power structure within the nation, be it political or economic.

PAGE 107

94 7. Broadcasting should be so structured as to encourag e competition in good programming rather than competition for numbers: quality is the prime concern for public service broadcasting regardless of who the intended audience might be. 8. The rules of broadcasting should liberate rather than restrict the shows maker: the essence of the legislative foundation must maintain a liberal function that provides a secure environment for show makers. In the absence of other criteria, these principles will function as the criteria on the basis of which the public service function of Moroccan public broadcasting will be evaluated. I will also incorporate insights from Lasswell, Katz and Lazarsfeld into issues of media production and audience research. The chapter on content analysis of the shows of RTM and 2M will focus o n the principle of universality of appeal and in particular on access to and participation in public television, including the provisions for minorities. The chapter on production analysis will address the extent to which the two TV stations are distanced from all vested interest, be it political or economic, and will look at the political and economic constraints, or lack thereof, that are involved in the production process. 2. 5. Conclusion The review of theory in this chapter provided the context where Morocco's mass media are situated vis vis development communication theories and practices. It aimed at reviewing and understanding the existing approaches of development communication and development and media policies and practices. The following chapter provides a historical review of radio and television. It

PAGE 108

95 reviews the major stages of their development, with a particular focus on television Second, it examines the history and current status of media policy in Morocco. T he chapter will also answer the question of what media system best describes Morocco's media during the periods 1956 1999 and 1999 2008. 19 I t describes the government media relationship in light of the world media sys tems, and the role of Moroccan broadcast media in the processes of nation building and the democratic transition period. 19 1956 is the year Morocco got its independence from France. 1999 is the end of the Hassan II era. The period 1999

PAGE 109

96 Chapter Three : History and Current Status of the Moroccan Broadcast Media System 3. 1. General Characteristics Morocco was a protectorate within the French colonial empire of North Africa for forty four years (1912 1956). The French cultural and political influence provided much of the framework for its judicial, political, and educational systems (Ayish, 200 3b ). Morocco also inherited media and press systems that were formed and nurtured by French media and journalistic traditions. Historically, French broadcast media were owned and controlled by the state. It is also customary in French society that newspapers reflect particu lar political viewpoints and social agendas ( Kepel & Leveau, 1996 ) Newspapers serve essentially the mouthpiece of particular political or ideological expressions. Moroccan media continued these traditions. TV and radio remained in the realm of the state u ntil 2002 when HACA 20 was founded and a new audiovisual liberalization law was decreed. Regarding newspapers, far from providing their readers with factual and unbiased news reporting, Moroccan newspapers have continued the French tradition of providing the ir readers with a steady flow of editorialized news. In terms of media laws, Morocco perpetuated a French concept of the freedom of the press that emerged from the authoritarian regimes of the nineteenth century (El 20 Haut Autorit de la Communication Audiovisuelle HACA, the High Commission for Audiovis ual Communication was created in August 2002 to establish the legal framework for the liberalization of the audio visual sector in Morocco.

PAGE 110

97 Kobbi, 1992). King Mohammed V (1956 1961 ) instituted the first national press code in 1959 on the basis of the French legal framework that had been in force under the French protectorate between 1912 and 1956. King Hassan II (1961 1999) strengthened this repressive press law by instituting the p ress code of 1963. Generally, the Moroccan government accepts mild forms of political criticism but does not tolerate attacks on the monarchy, Islam, or the Western Sahara 21 Media professionals are considered patriotic citizens who must be mindful of their social responsibility to the public. Another effect of the French colonization is the bilingual nature of its media. TV channels and radio stations broadcast shows in French and Arabic. Newspapers are also published either in French or Arabic. Even today, 44 years after the independence, French is still used in both broadcast and print media. As Morocco underwent a process of reclaiming its cultural heritage since the succession of King Mohamed VI (1999 present) Arabic and Amazigh dialects are increasingly being used in the media. The development of the Moroccan broadcasting system has followed in the footsteps of many developing countries. The French colonial rulers were the first to start broadcasting in Morocco in February 1928, when radio signals were s ent from the city of Rabat. In 1951, the first TV license was issued for a French private television company, TELMA. It began broadcasting in 1952 and was considered the first Arab and African private television (Bertrand, in Ibahrine, 2007) It operated for three years and had to stop in May 1955 due to severe financial hardships and to the tense political situation at the time in Morocco. 21 The Western Sahara refers to the southern province in Morocco. The legal status of the territory and the question of its sovereignty remain unresolved; the territory is contested between Morocco and the Polisario Front.

PAGE 111

98 T he arrival of radio and television in the post independence period was part of Morocco's efforts to modernize. The f orty four year domination by the regime has significantly influenced the development of the broadcasting system. In this chapter, I will demonstrate how broadcast media has operated since the independence, and focus on how it interacted with the socio poli tical and cultural environment. This historical review will not address t he Moroccan print media. 22 Newspaper circulation today is at 300,000 copies a day, the equivalent of one copy for every one hundred Moroccans, far from the UNESCO's minimum requiremen t of ten copies for every one hundred persons (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2003). With an illiteracy rate of 43 percent, large numbers of non literate or marginally literate individuals live out their lives in print scarce environments with few or no reading materials in their homes, but they have regular access to radio and television. Print media has been a site of political tensions between the liberation movement and the colonial powers, and later between the opposition political parties and the re gime. An examination of print media is relevant to development issues as a whole but it is outside the scope of this dissertation. This chapter first provides a historical review of radio and television. It reviews the major stages of their development, w ith a particular focus on television Second, it examines the history and current status of media policy in Morocco. Here, I will give a summary of the provisions of the media law and policy from the Independence to today as outlined in the Constitution, t he Press Code, the 2004 Audiovisual Communication Law, and the Licensing Obligations of RTM and 22 For a thorough account of the history of print media, see Ibahrine (2007).

PAGE 112

99 2M. Third, the chapter will answer the question of what media system best describes Morocco's media during the periods 1956 1999 and 1999 2008. 23 I t describe s the government media relationship in light of the world media systems, and the role of Moroccan broadcast media in the processes of nation building and the democratic transition period. 3. 2. Historical Development In March 1962, six years after Morocco 's independence from colonial France and one year after the succession to the throne of Late King Hassan II, Radiodiffusion et Television Marocaine (RTM), a state owned television station, was launched. In 1981, Medi 1 a private radio station was created. In March 1989, 2M was launched as a private channel, and in 1996 the government took it over and had since become a public television station. In 2 002, HACA was created. On November 25, 2004, t he Moroccan monopoly in terms of broadcasting, and allow for the liberalization of this sector. By virtue of this law t he numbe r of radio stations and television channels has increased. 3. 2. 1. Radio Radio has its roots in the colonial period. The French were the first to start broadcasting in Morocco in February 1928. Radio Morocco broadcasted its signals from the capital city of Rabat. The French Resident General 24 was positioned to appoint the director of the station and to supervise news programs contents (Alami, 1985). Already in 1952 Radio Morocco broadcasted about 171 hours weekly, 75 in French, 60 hours in 23 1956 is the year Morocco got its independence from France. 1999 is th e end of the Hassan II era. The 24 The official representative and head of the French colonial power in Morocco

PAGE 113

100 Arabic, 20 in Be rber, 10 and a half in Spanish and five and a half in English (Alami, 1985). Similarly the Spanish colonial ruler established Radio Dersa Tetuan in the north of the country. Tangier, which was part of the international zone, witnessed an emergence of sever al radio stations, such as Radio Tanger, Voice of America and Radio Africa Maghreb. These stations offered a variety of programming to boost colonial intentions, while criticizing competitive colonial powers over Morocco (Alami, 1985, p. 22). Foreign resid ents ran and controlled all these radio stations. The Moroccan resistance sought the use of radio in their fight for independence. Nationalist leaders used clandestine radio stations based in Spain and Italy to voice their ideas for liberation. The colonia l powers had issued a dahir a royal decree, in 1929 to define the scope of the monopolization to include all signal transmissions, whether they are radio, telephony or telegraphy (Ibahrine, 2007). This restriction was designed mainly to prevent Moroccans from using radio transmissi ons. The Voice of Cairo 25 the Egyptian pan Arab radio station established by Egyptian president and Arab revolutionary figure Gamaal Abdel Nasser, was the new platform for Moroccan nationalist and allowed them to communicate their political messages in the ir fight for independence (Alami, 1985, p. 22). Voice of Cairo was a very popular radio station in the Arab world. 25 Based in Cairo, Egypt, this station was an international service, which in the 195 0's and 1960's became the pulpit of revolution across the Arab world.

PAGE 114

101 Morocco gained its independence in 1956. Radio Morocco continued to operate. In 1957, it had three programs: the A program in French and (7 5 hours per week), the B program in Arabic ( 60 hours) and Berber ( 20 hours), and the C program in Spanish ( 10 hour s 30 minutes ) and English (five and a half hour). In 1 958 Radio Morocco was officially renamed as Moroccan National Radio (Jaidi, 2000 p. 226 ). radio and television services in Rabat by the name of A1 Idaa WatTalfaza A1 Maghribiya (Moroccan Radio diffusion and Television; French: Radiodiffusion et Tlvision Marocai ne RTM). The Moroccan government either took over or bought the exiting infrastructure in Rabat, Tangier, Tetouan and other major cities. The studios' equipments were relatively respectable in the light of the time (Ibahrine, 2007, p. 69). The airing cove red mainly the coastal region of Casablanca, Rabat, and Tangier, and some big cities such as Fez and Meknes. The broadcasting system was under the control and administration of the Ministry of Information 26 To build a national network, 27 the regime established the main station in Rabat, and created several regional radio stations in Casablanca, Marrakech Fez, Oujda, Agadir Laayoune, Tetouan, Tangier, a nd Dakhla. By the late 1990's, the radio sector consists of a national network radio s tation in Rabat and nine regional radio stations. The national radio covers ninety five percent of the territory via long waves, and eighty five percent on 26 It has been named Ministry of Communication since February 1995. 27 In the 1960s, the modernization of the broadcasting was the outcome of the cooperation between Morocco and European c ountries such as France and Italy. The governments of both these countries were largely responsible for building the infrastructure and upgrading radio facilities. From a network of three a major network of almost nine radio stations.

PAGE 115

102 a medium wave (Jaidi, 2000 p. 226). Broadcasts are in four languages: Arabic, French, English, an d Spanish, and three dialects (Tarifit, Tamazight and T achelhit). Based in Rabat and part of RTM, Radio International was created in 1984. It airs its programming in French, English and Spanish on FM waves. It broadcasts for nineteen hours daily, sixteen ho urs in French, two hours in English, and one hour in Spanish. Fifty percent of the program consists of music and entertainment, fifty percent consists of culture, sport, education and talk shows. Ninety percent of the shows are live broadcasts. Since March 3, 1993, and thanks to EUTELSAT, all RTM radio stations started broadcasting by satellite, they reach many countries especially the Moroccan immigrant community in Europe. The first private radio station was launched in 1980. Medi 1 radio was part of a Moroccan French partnership comprising associates from banks and major enterprises of the two countries (Ministry of Communication, 2005) The radio was an initiative of the late King Hassan II and French President Valry Giscard d'Estaing. It is a bilingual radio station (French and Arabic) of international news and entertainment. It broadcasts everyday from its Tangiers based studios. Daily airing hours have been extended from twenty hours in 1991 to twenty four hours in 2004. This station covers the entire west Mediterranean basin, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Mauritania and a part of Libya. It is also received in Spain, France and Italy. Its listeners in the Maghreb are estimated at between twenty two and twenty three million persons and it exceeds twenty four million listeners during the holidays (Ministry of Communication, 2005) Since March 3, 1993 the shows were broadcasted by means of satellite and were also available on the Internet.

PAGE 116

103 Moroccan radio's golden age happened during 1970s. A 1973 study found that 92.1 percent of the urban population and 75. 2 percent of the rural population listened to radio on a regular basis (Ibahrine, 2007, p. 70). The number of radio receivers in the country increased from 512,000 in the late 1960s to thre e millions in 1980s. 28 The number of receivers peaked in mid 1990s. In 1997 estimates placed the number of radio receivers at 6.62 Million 29 radio signals. The advent of TV and satellite broadcasting however, dramatically affected radio. The number of radio listeners declined s ubstantially in the late 1990s. Casablanca Radio, a regional and private radio station, went on the air on 13th October 1987. This station initially broadcasted for ten hours: from 12:00 A.M. to 22.00 P.M. Since May 1989 it increased its broadcast time from ten to 22 hours. The station provides mostly music ( 70 percent) but it also broadcasts cultural programs and news on current event. The broadcasts were mainly for the Casabla nca area and its environment and are available online. In 2003, Radio Sawa began broadcasting in Moroccan soil. It is an American 24 hour, seven day a week Arabic language network Radio Sawa received an exceptional authorization from the government to broadcast in Morocco. There was at the time no legal framework for such authorization. HACA was just created yet and the parliament did not approve the media reform law yet. Negotiat ions between Radio Sawa and HACA to the newly established broadcasting law. The network is a service of U.S. International 28 In 1930 out of the 2,649 radio sets in Morocco, only 19 belonged to Moroccan nationals (Ministry of Communication, 2002). 29

PAGE 117

104 Broadcasting and is publicly funded by the U .S. Congress. Its broadcasts originate from studios in Washington, D.C. and Dubai, U.A.E. as well as from news bureaus throughout the Middle East. O n November 25, 2004, the Moroccan parliament adopted the media reform law on the audio visual communication, broadcasting, and allow for the liberalization of this sector. B y virtue of this law t he number of radio stations has increased in since 2005. The number of radio stations increased from six stations in 2 005 to seventeen in 2007. Most of these stations are commercial and private radio stations: Chada FM Aswat, Marrakech Atlas FM, Agadir Radio Plus and Likoulli Nass Much of the post independence broadcasting development in Morocco was based on the framewo rk set down by the French. As the central mouthpiece of the regime, extending radio services to reach all Moroccan citizens especially in isolated areas was a top political priority. Since the 1960s, the potential of the radio as a national propaganda tool appeared obvious. Radio was affordable, entertaining, and remained one of the most important and popular cultural medium within Moroccan society until the creation of the second TV channel 2M (Ibahrine, 2007). 3. 2. 2. Television The beginning of Moroccan television can be traced back to the early 1950s. In 1951, the first TV license was issued for French private television company, TELMA. It began broadcasting in 1952 and was considered the first Arab and African TV (Bertrand, in Ibahrine, 2007 ). Due to the tense political situation and severe financial difficulties, it stopped broadcasting in May 1955. Like many developing countries, t he arrival of radio

PAGE 118

105 and television in the post independence period was part of Morocco's efforts to modernize. On March 3 d 1962 the national TV channel went on the air as part of the national broadcasting system Radiodiffusion et Tlvision Marocaine (RTM) The development of television differs from that of the radio in so far as there were no attempts to create publ ic regional channels or private channels until 1989 when 2M was created. Color television transmission began in 1972. By 1973, television only c overed thirty three percent of the national territory. Until the late 1970's the price of a television set was too expensive for the overwhelming majority of Moroccans. Television was a luxury for most people in Morocco. During the first decade of its introduction in Morocco, the number of TV sets grew from 5000 in 1962 to 151.000 in 1970 ( Minist re du Dveloppeme nt 200 8 ). The general public began to have access to TV in the late 1970s. With lowered prices triggered by domestic mass consumption, television sets soon found their ways into all avenues of Moroccan society. There were an estimated 3.1 million TV receivers in 1997. Today, virtually every urban Moroccan home has a television set. RTM and 2M signals reach eighty eight percent of the total area of the kingdom in 1996, today, via f Communication, 2006). 3. 2. 2. 1. Radiodiffusion et Tlvision Marocaine (RTM) 1962 1999. Launched on March 3 1962, RTM was the only television station available for Moroccans until 1989. In the same year, 1962, late King Hassan II oversaw the writing of the first constitution which defined the role of the king, giving him broad powers including the power to appoint ministers, governors, judges; the power to dissolve the

PAGE 119

106 parliament, declare a state of emergency, and revise the constitution. The 1962 co nstitution also created two major institutions: the parliament and an independent judiciary system. It also provided for freedom of press, freedom of speech and movement. Since its inception, and although self proclaimed as a public service television, RTM was the mouthpiece of the government and the palace. RTM's role was to promote nationalism, reinforce the sacredness of the monarchy, and discredit communist and anti monarchy/republican ideologies. From 1962 to 1989, the RTM broadcasts started at 6:30 pm. and ended at 11:30 pm. The first broadcasts were children programs, then documentaries or religious programs, then the news in French at 7:30 pm, then a documentary, a religious program, or a music show. At 8:30 pm RTM featured the main news in Arabic, finally a film, TV series (mostly Egyptian), theatre play or music concert. There were sports programs on weekends. Live coverage of the king's activities took priority over everything else. One of th e most important television moments in Morocco's TV history happened in July 1971. A military coup d'etat took place and for few hours, and RTM was taken over by a military commando. They interrupted the regular programs, played military music, and obliged a famous newscaster, Mohamed Ben Daddouch to announce the new republic and declare that the nation was then a new republic under the control of the military. At the time there was increasing dissent on the part of the people concerning rampant corruption, injustice, and favoritism. One year later another coup d'etat took place but failed as well. RTM was not taken over that time. No other coup d'etat took place after 1972.

PAGE 120

107 In 1975 Late King Hassan II organized the Green March to expand the territory and r ecover the Western Sahara. RTM played a key role in educating people about the State's effort, and in mobilizing them to participate in the march. Besides the rebroadcasts of the King's speeches, RTM also featured many nationalistic songs and music videos glorifying the State's call for the march. The Green March, a highly mediated event, pushed the regime to invest in upgrading the broadcasting infrastructure. In 1979, Driss Basri, a former chief of police was nominated by late King Hassan II as the minist er of Interior and minister of Information (the Ministry of Information was named Ministry of Communication starting February 1995). Basri was minister of Interior from 1979 to 1999 and minister of Information from 1985 to 1999. Minister of Interior is the chief law enforcement officer of Morocco; one can only imagine the twisted authoritarian logic of putting the same man to be in charge of security and of press freedom. Basri held both positions till 1999 when he was removed by King Mohamed VI. Driss Basr i was late King Hassan II's notorious minister in charge of domestic security and political repression. Basri is the embodiment of the despotism and the rampant corruption of King Hassan II's era. Basri's was known as "King's Policeman" during his time as Interior Minister under Hassan II, a period referred to as the "years of lead" and characterized by the imprisonment, murder and "disappearance" of pol itical opponents of the regime. During the time when the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Informa tion were under the supervision of Basri, it was difficult to determine whether television cameras were used for journalistic purposes or for policing purposes. The line between providing information to audiences and providing information to police service s was

PAGE 121

108 blurred for more than twenty years. The national news consisted of news related to the king and government activities. What was striking about RTM news bulletin was the countless stories about royal engagements and ministers' activities. The "holines s" of such stories in the running order remains unchallenged till today. For example the news bulletin would still feature, for instance, a letter the king sent to the president of Uganda at the occasion of Uganda's national holiday. The newscaster would r ead the content of the entire letter. Uganda and Morocco have very little economic, social or political ties, if any. The same goes for the king's letters sent to the president of Fiji or the prime minister of Haiti. For instance, in the same day that Lond on was hit by a terrorist attack in July 7, 2005, there was a visit of the Prince of Qatar to Morocco. The RTM news bulletin The bulletin featured the coverage of t he Prince's arrival at the airport and his meeting with the King. The coverage entailed even the ceremonial listening to Moroccan and Qatari national anthems. This took 30 minutes. After that came the letter the king wrote to the Queen of England to expres s his condolences at the aftermath of the tragic event, and only after that did the station provide coverage of the London terrorist attack. In case one missed the news in French, the Arabic version which broadcast immediately after the French, repeats the full news story including the ceremonial lis tening to the national anthems. attalfaza tataharak (Arabic: television is moving). The campaign promised many changes in the quality and quantity of prog rams. Indeed, the broadcasts went from an average of 4 to 5 hours a day

PAGE 122

109 to 12 hours a day. They began at 12 pm and ended at around 12 am midnight. The quality of programming did not change a lot; there was simply more of the same things. The failure to im prove the quality of TV programming is partly due to the fact that t he media since Morocco's independence in 1956 were caught up in internal political struggle between the regime and opposition political parties. Television addressed development issues only to document and glorify the successes and accomplishments of the regime, and at the same time to discredit the opposition. In terms of RTM's contribution to art, the station provided a platform to Moroccan musicians, theatre groups, and film makers. M ost artistic productions that were broadcast dealt with nationalist issues around the many national holidays. The other productions were mainly dramas and comedies dealing with family issues, crimes, stories contrasting modern versus traditional, and urban versus rural lifestyles. During the Muslim holy month of Ramadan the station offers more locally prod uced programs, mostly comedies. Like in many Arab countries, television in Morocco has been largely dominated by programs imported from the United States. Foreign films comprise the main part of prime time every night. Overall, television is filled with foreign movies and soap operas, which are highly popular and achieve high audience ratings (Ibahrine, 2007). Report s from the Moroccan Culture and Communication Ministry have indicated that there is a steady decline in the proportion of imports compared to locally produced programs. In 1999, the percentage of local production has been estimated at sixty percent, sevent y two percent are in Arabic language.

PAGE 123

110 To sum up, RTM's editorial choice is clear; it is the mouthpiece of the palace and the government. Therefore, it censured many shows; it manufactured and disseminated a unified discourse around the unity of the nation the sacredness of the monarchy, and the territorial integrity of the nation (involving the important issue of Moroccan southern provinces). RTM rarely gave the microphone to an average Moroccan who had something to say other than to those willing to say el am zine. 3. 2. 2. 2. 2M Soread 1989 1999. On the 4 th of March 1989, Morocco introduced the Arab world's first terrestrial pay TV channel, 2M Soread It began transmission from Casablanca. Until then Moroccan television scene consisted of one television station (Poindexter, 1991). It was established and funded by the largest Moroccan economic conglomerate, Omnium Nord Africain (ONA). Socit t de Ralisations Audiovisuelles (Soread) is the company that manages 2M and ONA is its major shareholder. There are many explanations as to why the government decided to issue a license to a privately owned and commercial channel. Some argue that 2M was l aunched to compete with the national channel, with the aim that competition would help wish to protect Moroccan culture from the growing threat posed by foreign satellite channel s (Ibahrine, 2007 ). Lamnadi (1999) argues that 2M was created because the Moroccan elite were dissatisfied with the government broadcasting system and wanted better quality programming. He supports his argument by pointing to the fact that the important pa rticipants and actors in the creation of 2M were the Royal Palace, ONA, and the Ministries of the Interior and Information. The intellectual/social elite

PAGE 124

111 influenced the government's decision process, even if the public at large was not so much asking for t he creation of private television as it was demanding reforms of the public television system (Lamnadi, 1999). 2M Soread was subscription based and needed a decoder to get clear signals. 2M was technically unavailable in most regions of the country. Only v iewers in the major cities of the kingdom where most of the wealth is concentrated could tune to it. They also needed to be able to afford the costly subscription (by Moroccan standard) of a little less than thirty dollars per month. With the emergence of the satellite television in the mid nineties, 2M started experiencing some serious financial difficulties. 2M's goal was to attain 250,000 subscribers by 1994, a goal that was not achieved. By June 1996, 2M was going through financial difficulties due to t he fact that as an increasing number of its subscribers cancelled their subscriptions in favor of free and often more interesting programs on various satellite television channels. ONA, the major shareholder of the station, withdrew from the management of 2M and sold 68% of its shares, at an undisclosed price to the Moroccan government. The government then took over the management of the station as part of the Moroccan Broadcasting Network. In January 10, 1997, 2M turned public and its signals only needed a regular antenna to be captured. This was a major event for Moroccan television viewers. 2M brought in a breath of fresh air for most Moroccans who were unsatisfied with the programs of RTM. 2M broke some old taboos and tackled controversial issues. The fi rst taboo it broke was manifested in the format of its news bulletin. Contrary to RTM, the format was rather compact and its content was not necessarily focused on the daily engagements of the king or the government. It addressed these issues with brevity and

PAGE 125

112 more objectivity than RTM. 2M also featured programs on what was considered then controversial issues such as poverty, corruption, government ineffectiveness. For the first time in Morocco's history, ordinary citizens were allowed to speak on a microph one and tell the countrymen and the world what they thought. 2M also featured films with what is considered in Morocco to be "obscene" sexual scenes (couples kissing, extended scenes of affection). It established a reputation for itself as a symbol o f free dom of speech in Morocco. Ironically the station, which came to symbolize the freedom of press, was after 1997 under the direct control of the regime. It became a public channel and broadcasted its programs in clear since January 11th, 1997. The takeover b y the state was carried out in the name of preserving the freedom of speech which 2M came to was seen as the only national channel open to political debates where the op position (now in power) could express its view s electricity bill of every household and business in the country as 2M became a free (Ben Cherif, 2002). This was illegal and undemocratic because the parliament and the taxpayers were never asked, it was a decision made and carried out by the government. The introduction of this new TV tax did not and still does not seem to bother Moroccan as symbol of the struggle for freedom of speech (Ben Ch erif, 2002).

PAGE 126

113 The channel's self proclaimed function is to entertain. 2M offered a 24 hour line and films. Before the state take over, French language was predominant w ith 80% of the programs in French. The percentage of Arabic language programs increased to reach fifty one percent in 2001. Besides, after January 1997, the channel devoted more of its programs to informational and educational programs like extended news b ulletins, talk shows, documentaries and TV magazines. 2M enjoyed its finest moments of popularity among Moroccan TV audiences until the TV satellite revolution. 3 2. 2. 3. RTM (Al Oula) and 2M 1999 2004. In 1997, King Hassan II appointed an opposition socialist led government. Reforming the media was a top priority for this government. It announced from the start that it would attempt to create an open and pluralist media environment, providing access to everyone. They insisted that radio and television should be removed from the administration of the ministry of Communication, and should be run by an independent organization (Ibahrine, 2007). In 2000, the minister of Communication announced that the socialist led government was preparing a policy docume nt which proposes the setting up of a media council ( Al Sahifa 2000). What follows was the creation of the HACA in 2002. In 2004 the Audio visual management by transforming Mor occan Radiodiffusion and Television (RTM) from a subsidiary of the Ministry of Communication to the National Company of Radio and Television ( la Socit Nationale de Radiodiffusion et de Tlvision SNRT). The SNRT is a public company that will manage both RTM and 2M. The stations will no longer be subject to the financial control and supervision of the ministry of Communication. RTM

PAGE 127

114 changed its name to A l Oula 30 Al Oula and 2M have to grant an important portion of their programs to national productions and increase the percentage of development oriented programs. As a result of the liberalization of the audio visual sector, the Moroccan Television has also undergone a restructuring process. Morocco today has eight channels, 1) Al Oula, 2) 2M 3) Arriadia (part of SNRT, an all sports channel), 4. Arrabiaa (SNRT's leading education and cultural channel), 5) Al Maghribia (SNRT's channel for the Moroccan community abroad), 6) Assadissa (SNRT's religious channel), 7) Laayoune (SNRT 's regional TV designed for the southern region) and 8) Medi I Sat (Arabic and French service news channel). 3. 2. 2. 4. Satellite Television 1992 2004 During the 1990s satellite technology changed the landscape of the national broadcast media. In 1992, it became legal to own a satellite dish and the government tax on possession was eliminated. Since then, satellite dishes have mushroomed on the rooftops of buildings and houses in urban centers and villages of the country. By late 1990s, the ado ption of satellite dishes became even more widespread and pronounced. Approximately seventy percent of the Moroccan households owned a satellite dish (Ibahrine, 2007). The parabool as the Moroccans call the satellite dish, turned into a social phenomenon Of all the new Arab satellite channels, Al Jazeera drew much attention from Moroccan audiences. Headquartered in Qatar, Al Jazeera was launched in 1996. Unlike the state owned and state censored national television stations, Al Jazeera presented controve rsial views about the governments of many Arab states. Al Jazeera exposed 30 I will henceforth refer to RTM as Al Oula except when talking about it before 2005.

PAGE 128

115 unethical, immoral, and illegal behavior by individuals, businesses and governments in the Arab world. This level of freedom and independence in news reporting was previously unheard of in many of these countries. For the first time, people in the region had access to a free and independent source of news and commentary that was not under the control of dictatorial regimes. Whether Al Jazeera has any effect on Arab politics and cultur e remains a debatable issue. Some argue that Al Jazeera opened a platform for Arab audiences to hold public discussions on controversial issues with a high degree of freedom. Others argue that in the name of press freedom, Al Jazeera serves as a mouthpiece for extremist views at the expense of moderate rat ional voices (Al Hroub, 2006). Morocco jumped late on the bandwagon of nations eager to gain a foothold in the new Al Jazeera era of powerhouse Arab satellite media, and launched Al Maghribia (which transl community living abroad. The channel broadcast a compilation of programs in Arabic taken from both government owned TV stations, Al Oula and 2M. In 2007, Morocco had seven state owne d and one private satellite channels. They use N ilesat satellite to reach the Arab world, Hotbird to reach Europe, and Telestar to reach North America. 3. 3. M edia Policy 3. 3. 1. The Constitution: 1962, 1970, 1972, 1992, and 1996 The constitutional history of independent Morocco originated in a struggle between the monarchy and the opposition political parties at the aftermath of the independence. A series of constitutions, drafted in 1962, 1970, 1972, 1992, and 1996

PAGE 129

116 preserved and strengthened the monarchical nature of the Moroccan regime. The core of the 1962 constitution remained unchanged for four decades. Article 23 stipulates that the king was acknowledged as "commander of the faithful" (amir al and his person was dec lared sacred. He was both the most powerful political figure and the most sacred religious symbol. The king could nominate and dismiss the prime minister and the members of the government. Article 35 gave the king the right to declare a state of emergency and to dismiss the parliament, a right the king used in 1965. The provisions concerning the powers of the king and the monarchical nature of the regime were carried over to the constitutions of 1970, 1972, 1992, and 1996. Therefore, many legal analysts ref er to these dates as mere constitutional revisions. The second constitution of 1970 was promulgated after a long period of social unrest, with students, labor unions' strikes and protests. Hassan II attempted to solve the crisis by allowing for the formati on of a house of representatives. However, since the constitution did not provide for a deadline to establish the chamber, the elections could be delayed indefinitely. The 1972 constitution granted more legislative powers to the chamber and the prime minis ter. Article 65 stipulates that the government was also to be consulted on key issues such as declaration of war or state of emergenc y or constitutional revision. Due to an increase in criticism from both Moroccan politicians and European human rights acti vists, Hassan II undertook a process of political liberalization and called for the promulgation of a fourth constitution in 1992 ( Kepel & Leveau, 1996 ). The preamble states that the kingdom is committed to improving human rights. Title VI stipulates that a constitutional council is to be created to supervise the constitutionality of

PAGE 130

117 Moroccan politics and elections. In addition, the prime minister obtained the right to nominate ministers, and the chamber gained the power to debate and vote on the government 's policies. Morocco's last constitution was adopted in 1996. Hassan II wished to strengthen the democratic and political reforms. The King needed to convince the opposition parties to participate in government, which he called the government of alternan ce (Ibahrine, 2002). In the new constitution are many provisions that are meant to reinvigorate parliamentary democracy. They state that the members of the Chamber of Representatives must now be elected by direct universal suffrage. Article 2 states, for t he first time in Morocco's history, that sovereignty belongs to the nation. The 1996 Moroccan constitution recognizes that a ll Moroccan citizens are equal before the law, that men and women enjoy equal political rights. The constitution guarantees all citi zens freedom of worship, movement, opinion and expression in all its forms, freedom of association, public gathering, and the freedom to belong to any union or political group of their choice within the limits of the law. itution shall guarantee all citizens the following: problematic. It allowed the Moroccan legislature to adopt an array of laws limiting freedom of expression. The 2002 press code and the anti terrorism law 31 both contain provisions that limit free speech or prohibit access to public information. They provide 31 The anti terrorism law was decreed after the May 16, 2003 terrorist att a cks in Casablanca that killed 43 Moroccan and foreign nationals.

PAGE 131

118 territorial integrity. The situation is complicated by the fact that certain offences an attack on Islam, on the institution of the monarchy or on territorial integrity are not clearly defined. One area that shows the regime's close ties to the national media lies in the loyal royalist figures who were appointed to the k ey positions of minister of Information and heads of television and radio. King Hassan appointed his staunch allies as ministers of Information: Moulay Ahmed Alaoui (1961 1965) is an advisor to and cousin of the king. Ahmed Majid Ben Jelloun, Ahmed Snoussi Abdelouahed Belkziz were also close allies of the King, and Abdellatif Filali who was father in law to the king's daughter and finally the notorious Driss Basri. The Ministry of Information and the Ministry of Interior 32 were both headed by Driss Basri d uring the 1980s to 1990's. He was minister of Interior from 1979 to 1999 and minister of Information from 1985 to 1995. The most encouraging signs of improvement in State Media relations appeared in on Human Rights in 1990. In 1995, the ministry of Information is changed to the Ministry of Communication. From 1995 to 1998 political party affiliated academic became minister. The relationship between the regime an d the mass media took a radically different turn when the opposition and socialist led government was elected to power in 1998. As noted above, the new government led a campaign to formulate a new press law that promised to enhance press freedom. 32 The minister of Interior is the chief law enforcement officer of Morocco. Three months after King Mohamed VI rose to the throne in 1999, succeeding Hassan II, Basri was discharged from his ministerial functions on November 1999. This act was symbolic and stirred, for a while, great hopes that a new democratic Morocco was emerging. Basri exiled himself in Paris where he died of cancer in 2007.

PAGE 132

119 3. 3. 2. Press C odes: 1956, 1963, 1973, and 2002 Political traditions inherited from the colonial French have created a legal framework that allows the government to restrict the flow of information. King Mohammed V (1956 1961) instituted the first national press code in 1959 on the basis of the French legal framework that had been in force under the French protectorate between 1912 and 1956. King Hassan II (1961 1999) strengthened this repressive press law by instituting the press code of 1963 and 1973. According to these press codes, and in the name of guaranteeing public order and insuring national security, newspapers can be fined, suspended, or banned, and a journalist's freedom be threatened (Hidass, 1992). The regime hardened its position vis a vis print medi a because the latter were too critical of the monarch's actions. The regime stated that a compeletely free press would undermine the country's security. Morocco reenacted colonial press laws and even added further cons traints on them (Hidass, 1992). Morocc press code of 1959, as amended in 1963 and in 1973. Article 5 for instance states that anyone who wants to print and publish a newspaper or magazine must have a permit from the authoriti es. No publication is allowed without explicit State authorization. The press code gives the Minister of Interior the power to seize and censor any publication. Article 21 stipulates that anyone found guilty of attacking in writing or print the person of t he king or the royal family can be imprisoned from five to 20 years and be subjected to a fine ranging from 100,000 dhs to 1,000,000 dhs (roughly 8,000 to 80,000 US $) (Ibahrine, 2007, p. 89). ing the reform

PAGE 133

120 of the press code in 2002, there was hope that radical reforms of Moroccan press laws would take place, but such aspirations have not been fully realized. The new press code still maintains prison sentences for journalists and gives the gove rnment the right to shut down any publication "prejudicial to Islam, the monarchy, territorial integrity, or public order." Dlit contre la chose publique ffence against the public thing, hat anybody who offends in any way, i.e. in writing, print, audio, video, a poster, or a speech, the king and the royal princes and princesses will be imprisoned for three to five years and must pay a fine of 10,000 to 100,000 dhs (roughly 800 to 8000 US$) The same sentence applies to anybody who attacks Islam, the monarchy, and the territorial integrity. The publication can be suspended for up to three months or can be permanently banned. Article 42 stipulates that any disturbance of the public order due to publication, diffusion, or reproduction, in bad faith of false information, false allegations or fabricated facts shall be punished by a prison term of one month to one year and a fine of 1,200 to 100,000 dhs (roughly 150 US$ to 8000 US$), and five year s imprisonment for publication, diffusion or reproduction of information that disturbs the moral of the military. Articles 45, 46, and 47 stipulate that defamation vis vis the tribunal courts, the military, public administrations, members of the governme nt and any public person shall be punished by a prison term of one month to one year. Article 52 protects heads of states of foreign governments, their ministers of foreign affairs as well as members of the diplomatic envoys by punishing any offence toward s them with one month to one year prison sentence and a fine of 10,000 to 100,000 dhrs. It is important to reiterate the fact that there is no specific

PAGE 134

121 Judges can interpre t these terms any way they want. According to Reporters Without Borders and the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), two international organizations dedicated to the freedom of the press in the world, the actions of Moroccan officials against freedom of the press have increased since 2000. In its "Middle East and North Africa Report," the CPJ states that the government banned three weekly newspapers, Le Journal, Al Sahiffa and Demain in December 2000 for publishing articles questioning Morocco's militar y activities in the Western Sahara and for investigating the possible involvement of then Prime Minister Youssefi in a plot to assassinate the late King Hassan II in 1972. Reporters Without Borders also indicated that in 2001 the managing editor of Le Jour nal Hebdomadaire was sentenced to three months in jail and ordered to pay a fine of $200,000 for investigating allegations that the foreign minister misused public funds while serving as ambassador to the United States. In 2005, there were a record number of cases brought to court by individuals or the public prosecutor against journalists and media outlets. The public prosecutor filed thirty one complaints against seventeen different publications. The charges ranged from defamation, to insulting a foreign head of state, to undermining public order, and to publishing false information and photographs of the royal family without authorization. In February of 2006, the editor and director of the Journal Hebdomadaire were convicted for defamation and sentenced to a jail term and steep fines. In August 2006, Telquel 33 month suspended prison sentences and were ordered to pay damages of $110,000 to a member of parliament who sued the 33 Le Journal, Telquel, and Nichane are the main taboo breaking newsmagazines in Morocco.

PAGE 135

122 magazine for defamation. In 200 7, the chief editor and a reporter of the weekly magazine Nichane were charged with defamation of Islam after they reported some popular jokes on Islam. The magazine was suspended for three months. At the same time, the years since the succession of Mohame d VI to the throne are the years when many taboos were broken. Ahmed Benchemsi, the director of Telquel magazine, critiqued in one of his editorials the communication skills of King Mohamed VI. He also published the salary and expenses of the king in one of his reports in December 2004. None of these acts triggered an official reaction from the government. In 2006, many newspapers, magazines and even the public TVs and radios published reports on the arrest of the chief of security of the royal palaces about his alleged connections to a drug lord. No journalist could ever dream or imagine publishing such sen sitive information during the reign of Hassan II. Am I free as a Moroccan? Do I feel like I can say whatever I want whenever I want? I feel free to say anything I want as long as I do not critique the monarchy, Western Sahara, and Islam. In my conversation s in public or with my students in the classroom, I can denounce the government corruption, police brutality, or express disagreements with some of the King's policies. However, in the name of national security, the police have the right to conduct a searc h on me, my car, and my home without court's authorization. It is important to note that there are more restrictions on the broadcast media compared to print press. Besides the fact that broadcast media have been under the tight control of the state for ma ny decades, its liberalization did not happen until an independent regulatory body (HACA) was put in place. For the state, TV and radio are

PAGE 136

123 too important and too influential that they must remain under strict control. While the print press can enjoy the fr eedom of choosing their own editorial lines, have the luxury of expressing their biases, being openly liberal or conservative, and as grumpy and savage as they choose, audiovisual media are restrained by a list of laws that assign them specific roles and f unctions. 3. 3. 3. High Authority for Audio Visual Communication ( Haute Autorit de la Communication Audio visuelle : HACA) HACA was established under the Dahir of August 31, 2002. It is an independent administrative body in charge of regulating the audio v isual communication sector. Its self proclaimed mission is to ensure compliance of the audio visual communication sector to the principles of pluralism and freedom of speech. HACA is the authority with the legal power to license new private radio and telev ision stations. HACA consists of the Higher Council of the Audio Visual Communication; it is a nine member council, five of whom are appointed by the king, including the president. The prime minister appoints two members, and the last two members are named by the presidents of the two Chambers of the Parliament. It also consists of the General Directorate of Audio Visual Communication ( Direction Gnral de la Communication Audiovisuelle -DGCA). he HACA's administrative and technical services. The DGCA includes the following services: research and development, program monitoring, technical infrastructure, and the legal department. The council has three major missions: Advice: to the King, the Pri me minister and government, and both chambers of the parliament on issues related to audio visual sector.

PAGE 137

124 Regulation: authorizes the creation of audio visual companies, and grants licenses and to use radio frequencies. Control: monitors the compliance to t he laws and regulations applicable to audio visual sector, compliance to the pluralism (in particular in the matter of political parties access), and compliance to advertising legislation and regulation ( HACA, 2006 ). HACA receives many bids from private individuals or companies seeking new licenses. By May 2006, t he Higher Council of the Audio visual Communication announced the results of its deliberations in connection with the granting of the first wave of licenses to eleven new private companies, ten r adio stations and one satellite television channel. The television license was granted to Medi 1 Sat, the television affiliate of Medi 1 Radio. Besides granting licenses, the HACA overseas the compliance of all TVs and radios to their Licensing Obligations document s (Cahier des Charges) The Cahier des Charges constitutes a written agreement between the HACA and broadcast media outlet. The media outlet commits to fulfill the terms and conditions specified in the Book, and the HACA through its mechanism of m onitoring and surveillance makes sure the media outlets comply with their own Licensing Obligations. In this section, I will first delineate some of the key laws that regulate the broadcast media sector, and then will describe the Licensing Obligations doc uments for both Al Oula and 2M. 3. 3. 3. 1. Audio V isual Communication Law On November 25, 2004, t he Moroccan parliament adopted the media reform law on the audio visual communication. The law, called the Audio Visual Communication Law, put an end to the

PAGE 138

125 monopoly in terms of broadcasting, and provides the legal framework that allows for the liberalization of this sector. Hence the Radiodiffusion Tlvision Marocaine (RTM) will no longer be administered by the ministry of Communication, it will beco me an autonomous company with the name Socit National de Radiodiffusion et de Tlvision (SNRT). 2M was already an independent entity run by its own administration, but will now be run by the SNRT. The law assigns the public service mission and obligati on to Al Oula and 2M. The liberalization of the audiovisual sector aims to achieve the following goals: 1. To promote freedom of the audiovisual communication and to guarantee of the freedoms of expression and opinion 2. To adhere to the ethical standards of the profession, respect of human rights, namely respect for human dignity, of privacy, and respect for plurality of expressions and ideas, as well as democratic principles. 3. To strengthen and consolidate the public service function of audiovisual communica tion (public radio and television), the unity of the Nation and the protection of human rights. 4. To contribute to the socioeconomic and cultural development of the Nation notably by encouraging development at the regional and local levels. 5. To support the d evelopment of the public sector of the audiovisual communication and endow it with the necessary tools and resources that would allow it to perform its public service obligations in a way that make it competitive. 6. To incite the private sector to invest in audiovisual sector

PAGE 139

126 7. To promote national audiovisual production and give priority to national resources and competencies; 8. To preserve the national cultural heritage and promote its richness and diversity. 9. To respect and adhere to laws and regulations regar ding the protection of copyrights and intellectual property. In the preamble, it is stated that the general philosophy of this law is founded on the kingdom's constitutional principles of Islam, monarchy and national unity. It is also founded on the univer sal human rights. This law claims that it aims at consolidating the nation's choice for democratic reforms, rule of law, pluralism and freedom of expression and opinion. In the preamble the notion of responsibility is emphasized, that freedom is to be exer cised within the limits of responsibility. The king's speech of November 2002 emergence of a high quality press, but responsibility is essential to ensure that the me dia freedom of expression and opinion; to promote democratic ideals and the respect of human rights and pluralism; to contribute to the socio economic and cultural devel opment of the nation; to promote public service broadcasting; to enhance audio visual communication production; to encourage national production and to preserve the national cultural heritage. Article 3 stipulates that audio visual communication is free and that this freedom is exercised while respecting the dignity, liberty and property of other human beings. It is also a freedom that is exercised while respecting diversity of opinions, the country's religious values, public order, and national security. Article 4 stipulates that all

PAGE 140

127 broadcasting companies reserve the right to create their programs freely, as long they respect pluralism and diversity of viewpoints Article 8 stipulates that broadcasting companies must promote Moroccan arts and culture an d encourage local production, provide objective and balanced coverage of news events while not taking sides with any political party, ideology or doctrine. The programs must also be appealing to all regions needs. Broadcasting companies must also respect intellectual property and copy rights. Article 9 states that TV and radio programs must not question Morocco's dogma, Islam, monarchy, and Western Sahara. They must preserve neutrality and not serve the inter ests of a political party, an ideology, an ethnicity, or particular economic or financial interests. They also must not incite people to violence or terrorism, or express racist and discriminatory rhetoric vis vis an ethnic group, a nation, a race, or a religion. Regarding ownership, Article 21 stipulates that any broadcasting company or a shareholder in a broadcasting company can own or control another broadcasting company as long as he/she/it does not exceed 30% of the shares of the new company. In othe r words, no one can control more than one media outlet. Articles 46 through 49 address the public broadcasting system, namely Al Oula and 2M. Article 46 stipulates that public broadcasting serve the public interest of the nation by providing public service programs that aim at educating, informing, and entertaining the public. The broadcasters must serve the general public and design programs that satisfy the needs of all Moroccan ethnic groups by providing programs in Arabic and Amazigh, and promote values of democracy, tolerance, modernity and freedom. They also must promote Moroccan arts and culture. Article 49 stipulates that

PAGE 141

128 public service television and radio must broadcast the king's speeches and activities, debates and presentations in both chambers of the parliament, government press releases. They also must give political parties and labor union equal access especially during elections campaigns. 3. 3. 3. 2. Licensing o bligati ons d ocuments of Al Oula and 2M. The documents 34 assign explicitly the public service functions for Al Oula and 2M. In the preamble, it is stated that the two TV stations must serve the public interest. They must ensure their public service missions to satisfy the general public' needs for information, education, and entertainment. They have to provide a diversified and general programming meant to appeal to the largest audience possible. The programs have to be founded on the Islamic, Arab, Amazigh and Moroccan civilizations, as well as on the universal human values. The programming has to support the values of democracy, liberty, tolerance, openness and modernity. They must promote the ideals of dialogue, national unity, respect for ind ividuals' thoughts and beliefs. The TV stations must also promote th e modernization process undertaken by the government as well as the government's social and economic development initiatives. They also must encourage ideals of civic duty, solidarity, and responsibility. They must also provide their audiences with informa tion on regional, national, and international issues. They must help citizens understand issues of importance to their lives so that they 34 Refer to: http://www.mincom.gov.ma/NR/rdonlyres/6517D7FE 5F8C 4867 9AE5 958734831D62/0/Cahier_de_Charges_2M.pdf/ and, http://www.mincom.gov.ma/NR/rdonlyres/3451DD5C F7DB 45D3 A927 D1EB691AD635/903/CCSNRT.pdf

PAGE 142

129 can make informed decisions and carry out their duties as effective citizens. The two television stations must broadca st the king's speeches and provide adequate coverage for royal activities. They must report on the parliament's activities and debates. They also must broadcast the government's press releases and any information the government deems necessary. The TV sta tions must strive to be inclusive and appeal to all segments of the Moroccan population. They must encourage the production of national music and films. They must glorify the national identity and promote Moroccan heritage and artistic creation. Article 3 stipulates that 2M and Al Oula's programming must include the following: 1. news and newsmagazines of political and general information; 2. TV magazines dealing with social issues; 3. educational documentaries; 4. religious programming; 5. programming on practical advice; 6. music, games, live music shows; 7. fiction and films; 8. children and youth programming; 9. sports shows. The Licensing Obligations documents also stipulate the quantity and the frequency of such programs. For instance, Article 9 states that the TV stations must broadcast at least ten times a week, between 9 pm and midnight, programs devoted to people's everyday life matters such as health, civic education, consumption, domestic

PAGE 143

130 issues, education, training, financial management, etc. Article 10 indicates tha t the two TV stations must devote at least 10 hours per week for programs designed for children. The Books do not explain the rational behind assigning this amount of time. 35 With regard to advertising, Article 15 stipulates that both TV stations are author ized to diffuse advertising messages. The advertising sequences must be identifiable as such and separated from other programs. The sequences must not exceed six minutes, and the total amount of time per hour is 14 minutes. Programs can be interrupted for the purpose of inserting advertising sequences except for children's programming. 3. 3. 4. Concluding R emarks The language in both the audio visual law and the Licensing Obligations outside source to support its development objectives. However, these laws, policies and regulations do not reflect the entire nature of Moroccan media. They do not reveal, for instance, the details of who decides what on the news content and why. The media cannot be fully understood without taking into account the specific political conditions prevailing at the country at the time. An examina tion of the legal environment shows that the principle of freedom of expression underlies all the laws and policies. Print media, under the 2002 Press Code, seem to enjoy a relatively higher level of freedom compared to broadcast media. Unlike broadcast me dia, print media are free to choose their editorial lines, they can be openly 35 Answers to these questions will be addressed in Chapter Fiv e on Television Production.

PAGE 144

131 conservative or liberal, and they do not have to comply with any norms regarding cultural diversity or political pluralism. However, the Press Code still maintains prison sentenc es for journalists and gives the government the right to shut down any publication "prejudicial to Islam, the monarchy, territorial integrity, or public order." There are more restrictions on the broadcast media because the Audiovisual Communication Law as signs radio and television the role of consolidating democratic reforms, and promoting political pluralism and cultural diversity. The law also emphasizes that freedom is to be exercised within the limits of responsibility. However, this Law gave the legal means for private companies or persons to acquire licenses to establish their own radio and television stations. This Law allowed for the liberalization of the audiovisual sector. From the Independence until 2002, Medi 1 and 2M were the only private broa dcast stations and they both were initiated by Late King Hassan II. The following section attempts to clarify the link between Moroccan mass media and its economic and political environments. Given the high rate of illiteracy in Morocco, the Moroccan government controlled the production and distribution of broadcast media, considered as the most powerful and influential of all existing media. 3. 4. World Media System In order to fully understand the na ture of a national media system, one approach is to compare it to other world systems. The standard theoretical typology that is mostly used to compare media systems at the macro level was established in mid twentieth century by Siebert, Petersons, and Sch ramm (1956), and then subsequently developed by other scholars ( McQuail, 1994; Altschul, 1984; Hallin and Mancini, 200 5 ; DeFleur and Ball Rokeach, 1990). The world media systems are normative media theories that

PAGE 145

132 prescribe what is desirable in both media st ructure and performance, i.e. they describe how media ought to or are expected to operate. Structure refers to ownership, laws and regulations, and performance refers to the actual manner in which the media carry out their tasks (McQuail, 1994, p. 121). Mc Quail (1994) points out that the media are both a and convention very much national institutions and respond to domestic political and social pressures and to the e If we examine the world media systems carefully, we will notice that they revolve around three main issues: ownership, political influence, and the existing laws, policies and regulations. I will bo rrow three concepts established by Freedom House, a non profit organization that promotes democracy and freedom around the world, and use them as indicators to evaluate where Morocco's media system stands in light of the world media systems: The legal envi ronment, the political environment, and the economic environment. The legal environment category includes an examination of the laws and regulations that could influence media content and the government's tendency to use these laws and legal institutions to limit the media's ability to operate. The political environment category addresses th e degree of political control over the content of news media. The third category examines the economic environment for the media and it addresses the structure of media ownership (Freedom House, 2008). Freedom House classifies countries in three groups: Fr ee, partly free, and not free. From 2002 and 2007, Free. It is important to note that Morocco, Lebanon and Yemen were the only Partly Free countries in the Arab World.

PAGE 146

133 I will look at two historical periods: From 1956 to 1999, and from 1999 to 2008. I will briefly describe the authoritarian model and explain why I argue that it fits 36 media s ystem does not accurately fit with any of the media systems and that it has strong overlap with authoritarian, developmental, and social responsibility media systems. environment, I will propose a media typology or framework that appropriately describes 3. 4. 1. Comparative World Media Systems Scholars have outlined the different roles the media play in different countries. They categorized world media into seven media systems. 37 These systems provide a set of criteria (extent of freedom of expression, media ownership, media/government media structure and performa nce and for sketching the evolution of national media. I will attempted to take account of other media realities across nations. The goal is to propose a model or fra mework that would a ppropriately describe the current Moroccan media system. Before outlining the proposed framework, however, a close look at the typologies upon which it builds is required. 36 It is Morocco, under Hassan II's rule, was characterized by repression, rampant injustice, corruption, and media censorship, and by the imprisonment, murder and "disappearance" of political opponents of the regime. 37 They are: authoritarian, l ibertarian, communist, social responsibility, social democratic, developmental, and participatory.

PAGE 147

134 Four Theories of the Pre ss represents the first widely recognized attempt to clarify the link between mass media and political systems. Siebert et al (1956) presented the world's press systems according to the Cold War ideologies: authoritarian, libertarian, communist, and social responsibility. 3. 4. 1. 1. Authoritarian The authoritarian media describes the media system found in many dictatorial regimes, such as fascist regimes in Italy and Germany, and also in some developing countries. It aims at maintaining and protecti ng the established social and political order. It is characterized by censorship, licensing, and autocratic power. The role of the media is to support the state and leadership. Within this system, media freedom is highly restricted and no threats or critic isms of the power elite are allowed. In terms of ownership, media is owned by monarchy, ruler, governing political party, or private persons close to the regime (Lambeth in Merrill, 1995). 3. 4. 1. 2 Libertarian. The libertarian media arose in England in the late seventeenth century. It stemmed from enlightenment thought and democratic ideals of separation of church and State and an independent judiciary. The role of the media is to help find the truth and serve as watch dog for the public interest. Media is controlled by private owners in a free market of ideas and by courts. In this system, nothing is forbidden from publication. 3. 4. 1. 3. Communist. The communist media is similar in many ways to the authoritarian system; it refers to the media systems found in communist dictatorships. The media supports the communist system, educates and mobilizes people to support the goals and objectives of the communist party. The role of the media is to serve as the only legitimate voice of the working class. In ter ms of media freedom, the media are not

PAGE 148

135 allowed to criticize communist party objectives. In terms of ownership, the guiding between this system and the authoritarian system is that the authoritarian is concerned with controlling the mass media and allowing private freedoms, while the communist aims at controlling all aspects of a person's life (Rugh, 2004). 3. 4. 1. 4. Social r esponsibility. The social responsibility media stems from the libertarian model. It is the outcome of the report of the 1947 Hutchins' Commission on the Freedom of the Press and the criticism that the libertarian model received from within the U.S. (Altsch ul, 1984; Merrill, 1995). The role of the media is to inform, educate, and help social progress. In terms of freedom of the press, it defers from the libertarian model in that it considers the social responsibility of the press as more important than its f reedom. A key feature of this theory is its emphasis on self regulation via press councils, codes of professional journalistic standards etc. In terms of ownership, it argues for private ownership, but allows for society's intervention to assure public ser vice. This public service broadcasting. With the fall of the Eastern block in E urope and the emergence of new strong economies in South Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan, the four theories were criticized for their incapacity to fully match reality (Merrill, 1995). The communist world no longer stringent construal of standards of freedom of

PAGE 149

136 (Lambeth in Merrill, 1995, p. 3). They were also criticized for their failure to account for the stages of development of me dia within countries. Countries do not just move from communist media to libertarian media over night. What happens in between the stages is not accounted for, as was the case for many Eastern European countries in the early 2007 ). They ha ve used mostly ideological criteria which have led to oversimplified categorizations of the world's media systems; as a result, the main category for systematization has been the different societies' political perspective on government press relations. Thi s has brought a confusion between "the actual working 2007 p. 26). 3. 4. 1. 5. Social Democratic. system found theory but is different from the social responsibility and the libertarian systems in that it considers legitimate the government's intervention to ensure independence, access, di versity of opinions, and public service. In this system, broadcast media are mostly owned by the state to ensure public service. 3. 4. 1. 6. Developmental Other scholars added other categories, the developmental or advancing media system, and the democrat ic participant system (Altschull, 1984; McQuail, 1992, 1994; DeFleur and Ball Rokeach, 1990). The developmental system is the product of the historical and ideological context of the erican, and Asia distanced themselves from the Communist East and Capitalist West alliances, and

PAGE 150

137 created their own group of Non Aligned Nations. 38 Some countries such as Taiwan and South Korea were ruled by dictatorships for decades and managed to develop r epresentative governments and achieve economic prosperity (Lambeth in Merrill, 1993). The four press systems do not account for these changes and these emergi ng political and media systems. A developmental or advancing media system describes media systems in countries undergoing a transition from underdevelopment and colonialism to independence and nation building. The primary task of the media is to support all infrastructure. The role of the media is to help alleviate poverty, illiteracy, and ill health. The media are instruments for education, social change, social justice, and peace. The media are responsible for carrying out information campaigns on a variety of issues, such as health, new agricultural methods, conservation of local resources, etc. Since the unity of nation and its political stability are vital for the country's economic development, the media needs to play a major role in internal political unification. Develop mental media, according the Altschull, is a vehicle for a two way exchange whereby the media help to mediate public issues, and that the public be allowed to play a bigger role in the news decision making process In terms of freedom of the press, this mod el considers media freedom as less important than the unity of the state. It calls for auto censorship. In terms of ownership, it calls for a mix of public and private ownership and allows for governments' intervention to assure public service. 3. 4. 1. 7 Participatory. The participatory media system designates community 38 Known today as the Group of 77.

PAGE 151

138 based, small scale and democratically organized media. It calls for the use of alternative means of communication for interaction and social action in small scale settings. The system cal ls for direct involvement in the everyday life of the community. Through the use of community radio, public access video, and ICTs, it challenges the necessity to use high cost, centralized broadcast systems (Downing, 2007). Centralized broadcast systems a re state controlled and are conducive to top down patterns of communication. This system favors horizontal forms of interaction and calls for public participation in editorial decisions and policies. 3. 4. 1. 8. Summary and Critique. A more recent cross national research by Hallin and Mancini (2005) proposed a revised classification of the structure of media systems in advanced industrialized societies. The authors proposed a typology that involves an Anglo American (liberal) model (found, for examp le, in USA, Canada, Britain), a Mediterranean (polarized pluralism) model (e.g. in Italy, Spain, and France), and a Democratic Pluralist model (e.g. Austria, Norway, and the Netherlands). Hallin and nstance, argues that the British system, classified as Anglo American, has a dual commercial public service media system, the fact that makes it more in line with the North European model, given the strong role for public service broadcasting, than with th e more commercially dominant American te levision market (Norris, 2008). There is so far no general consensus on the most appropriate typology or classification. It is important to note that none of these typologies offer an exact description of media syste ms (Altschul, 1984; Merrill, 1995; Downing, 2007). What they offer are ways of understanding media systems around the globe by relying on showing

PAGE 152

139 the major differences between them. Most systems are a mixture of elements from different systems ( Downing, 20 07 ). Besides the criticism waged at the four theories, all these typologies tend to focus on news media and political content (McQuail 1994; Downing, 2007). The media offer a variety of other contents such as music, sports, and fiction. Despite this criti cism, which I find for the most part valid, I think that these world media typologies are very useful because they offer a set of criteria on the basis of which we can compare and contrast a variety of media systems. They also offer the general context for understanding how media operate within political systems. For instance, it is easy and seems righteous to argue the importance of press freedom for any media system in any country, but once we put the media within the political and historical context of t he country, press freedom in the libertarian sense, as noble as it sounds, may prove to be unproductive for a developing country. Developing countries may have important priorities such educating and informing their citizens. With scarce media outlets, dev eloping countries may not afford to allow entertainment to be the dominant function of the media. Some regulations have to be in place to guarantee public service. 3. 4. 2. Morocco's A uthoritarian Media System 1956 1999 The authoritarian media model, a model adopted by many past and present dictatorships, assigns mass media the tasks of supporting the state and leadership (Merrill, 1995). It is characterized by licensing restrictions, censorship of any opposing views to t he dominant regime, and autocratic power. In this system, no criticism or threat to the power structure is permitted, and ownership of mass media is by government, major political party, or private persons (if aligned with the regime) (Merrill, 1995).

PAGE 153

140 3. 4. 2. 1. The Legal e nvironment It is not difficult to see the affinity of this In terms of the legal environment, the regime inherited a number of French colonialist laws for regulating the press (Hidass, 1992). These laws were meant to suppress the liberation regulating the press stemmed from the press code of 1959, as amended in 1963 and in 1973. Article 5 for instance states that anyone who wants to print and publish a newspaper or magazine requires a permit from the authorities. No publication is allowed without explicit State a uthorization. The press code gives the Minister of Interior the power to seize and censor any publication. Article 21 stipulates that anyone found guilty of attacking the person of the king or the royal family can be imprisoned from five to twenty years an d be subjected to a fine for up to 100,000 US $ (Ibahrine, 2007, p. 89). In 1962, the year the first TV and radio station were launched, late King Hassan II oversaw the writing of the first constitution which defined the role of the king, giving him broad powers including the power to appoint ministers, governors, judges; the power to dissolve the parliament, declare a state of emergency, and revise the constitution. With regard to broadcasting media, t hey existed in a legal vacuum for more than four decade s and were not under the obligation to provide public service. I n the absence of a legal framework, the broadcast media was run and controlled by the state. Since its inception in 1962, and although self proclaimed a public service television, RTM was the mouthpiece of the government and the palace. RTM's role was to promote nationalism, reinforce the sacredness of the monarchy, and discredit communist and anti monarchy and republican ideologies.

PAGE 154

141 3. 4. 2. 2. The Economic e nvironment: In terms of the economi c environment, the regime owned and controlled directly and indirectly all audiovisual media. 39 The regime owned and controlled RTM, which ran both the main TV channel 40 and radio stations. In 1980 a new radio station was launched, the International Mediterr anean Radio (Medi I). Medi 1 was launched as part of a Moroccan French partnership comprising associates from banks and major enterprises of the two countries. The radio was an initiative of King Hassan II and French President Valry Giscard d'Estaing. In 1989, 2M was launched. T he Royal Palace, the Omnium Nord Afrique (ONA) (Morocco's largest economic conglomerate) and Basri's Ministries of the Interior and Information were the most important participants and actors in launching 2M ( Lamnadi, 1999). 2M was an entertainment channel par excellence, it stayed aloof from the affairs of the government. Print media were owned by the leading political parties and a few private persons. Political parties' print publications managed to survive thanks to self censorship. Private newspapers and magazines such as Kalima (1986 1987) and Lam Alif (1966 1988) suffered many restrictions and were shut down by the government because they dared discuss issues deemed sensitive. For example, Kalima was a general magazine that existed from 1986 to 1987. In April 1987, it published a report on prostitution in Morocco's tourism cities of Marrakech and Agadir. Two weeks later, it published another report on homosexuality in Moroccan society. Driss Basri ordered the magazine to be seized from the newsstands, and ordered its editor to shut down the magazine. One may wonder how prostitution and homosexuality, as social phenomena, can be threats to 39 Medi 1 and 2M were the only private radio station and TV channel that were privately owned. King Hassan II played a key role in launching them. 40 RTM was the only available TV stations for 27 years, from 1962, the year of its creation, to 1989 the year wh en 2M was launched.

PAGE 155

142 national security. 3. 4. 2. 3. The Political e nvironment With regard to the political environment, it is important to discuss the role of Driss Basri, a former chief of police, who in 1979 was nominated by late King Hassan II as the Minister of Interior and Minister of Information. 41 Driss Basri was late King Hassan II's notorious minister in charge of domestic security and political repression. Basri is the embodiment of the despotism and the rampant corruption of King Hassan II's era. Basri was known as the "King's Policeman" during his time as Interior Minister under Hassan II. T he same man was in charge of the media and the police force, a contradiction that only an authoritarian regime can impose. Basri held the position of the Minister of Information until 1995 and the position of interior minister until 1999 when he was remove d by King Mohamed VI. This was a sign that Morocco was heading towards democratic reforms. During the time in which the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Information were under the supervision of Basri, it was difficult to determine whether televi sion cameras were used for journalistic purposes or for policing purposes. The line between providing information to audiences and providing information to police services was blurred for thirty years. When TV cameras attended public demonstrations, it was not clear whether the footage will end up in an editing room at the TV station or at the secret service offices. Under Basri's media regime, all media outlets were subject to the same censorship. It did not matter whether the media outlet was owned by th e government or by private persons. W hen King Mohammed VI succeeded his father Hassan II in July 41 T he Ministry of Information became Ministry of Communication in February 1995.

PAGE 156

143 1999, he immediately removed Basri from his functions, a symbolic move and a sign that there was hope for a more democratic and free Morocco. The period from 1962 to 1999 was purely authoritarian. Media professionals lived in fear. At the time of Driss Basri, RTM journalists, management, and staff considered themselves salaried employees of the ministry of Interior. In an interview with Mr. Mohamed Moudden, a s enior news editor and presenter and currently news director, he said that the journalists were assigned to report on specific events, and were told the editorial line to follow. Most of the work at RTM and its radio affiliates consisted of writing governme nt press releases. The journalists did not have the right to report and interpret the events. Moudden said that he submitted four resignation letters at different t M. Moudden personal communication, Interview, March 10, 2008). 3. 4. 3. Morocco's Develop mental Media System 1999 2008 Altschull (1995) argues that there is no pure system, that every media system has degrees of freedom and control. Merrill (1995) states that all media systems can be placed on a continuum between authoritarianism and libertarianism, or libertarianism and s ocial responsibility. Elements of these media systems co exist and this is more evident refers to the democratic transition Morocco has witnessed since 1997, when the socialist led government of alternance came to power and led the government. The new major reforms that aimed at promoting human rights, civil liberties, an open and pluralist media, and the rule of law. Two years later,

PAGE 157

144 Mohamed VI became king and cont inued these democratic reforms. The recent progress that Morocco witnessed regarding human rights improvements and the recent liberalization of the audiovisual sector with its new media policies and regulations put Morocco's media more or less in line with the philosophy of be placed on a continuum between authoritarianism and developmental. The developmental system does not accurately desc it represents the closest model. There are elements of the social responsibility and elements of the public broadcasting syste ms in the current media system. I will first discuss the developmental media system and ap ply the three Freedom House concepts, the legal environment, the political environment, and the economic environment, as indicators to evaluate where the current Morocco's media system stands 3. 4. 3. 1. The Legal e nvironment With regard to the legal environment, the developmental model calls for a national press policy to safeguard freedom (Altschull, 1984). It considers media freedom as less important than the unity of the State and allows for governments' intervention to ensure public service. The A udio Visual Communication law of 2004 assigns public service obligations to the two major television stations in Morocco (Al Oula and 2M). P ublic broadcasting must serve the public interest of the nation by providing programs that aim at educating, informi ng, and entertaining the public. The broadcasters design programs that satisfy the educational needs of all Moroccans. Since the unity of nation and its political stability are vital for the country's development, the media needs to play a major role in in ternal political unification. Morocco's media system seems to adhere to these prescriptions. T he Moroccan

PAGE 158

145 government has given important policy considerations to regulate the use of television and radio airwaves as important outside sources for promoting i ts development goals. With regard to the Press Law, as amended in 2002, and the Audio Visual Communication law of 2004, both laws guarantee Moroccans the freedom of expression but they both limit this freedom by calling for r espect of the dignity, liberty and property of other human beings, and respecting the diversity of opinions, the country's religious values, public order, and national security. The Moroccan government considers Islam, the monarchy and the Western Sahara as the country's three major pil lars. To maintain the stability of the nation, it is therefore illegal to criticize Islam, the king, and the royal family. It is also illegal to publish anything that challenges Morocco's territorial integrity, in direct reference to Morocco's claims over the Western Sahara. The elements of the authoritarian model are manifested in the heavy fines and prison sentences that journalists are still subject to. While the government's interference with issues related to its territorial integrity and to the Monarchy can be attributed to a need for political stability, the government interference with issues related to libeling of public officials or statement related to Islam can only be attributed to the persistence of an oppressive regime. In other words, the territorial integrity a nd the Monarchy are important for the country's stability, and some interference may be understood in the name of national unity and economic development. However, the law still provides for jail sentences and fines for journalists found guilty of libeling public officials. In February of 2006, the editor and director of the Journal Hebdomadaire were convicted for defamation and sentenced to jail terms and steep fines. In 2007, the chief editor and a reporter of the weekly magazine Nichane were charged with defamation of Islam after

PAGE 159

146 they reported some popular jokes on Islam. The magazine was banned for three months till the trials took place. In August 2006, Telquel 42 were given two month suspended prison sentences and wer e ordered to pay damages of $110,000 to a member of parliament who sued the magazine for defamation. In 2007, the chief editor and a reporter of the weekly magazine Nichane were charged with defamation of Islam after they reported some popular jokes on Isl am. The magazine was suspended for three months. These are clearly elements of the authoritarian media system within the current media system. 3. 4. 3. 2 The Economic e nvironment In terms of economic environment, Morocco's current media system seems to b e in line with the developmental media system. The latter calls for a mix of public and private ownership and allows for governments' intervention to ensure public service. With regard to the print press, Morocco is home to a large number of print publicat ions, many of them owned by political parties, and a growing number is owned by private persons. They are mostly critical of the government. However, circulation is limited to about 300,000 daily newspapers sold everyday. Most papers receive government sub sidies. Concerning audio visual media, television is still overwhelmingly state owned and editorially supportive of the government. With the liberalization of the audiovisual sector, it is now technically legal to establish private television stations. There has b een some progress with regard to private radio stations which have increased from two to eleven, five of which are owned and run by private companies. For television, only one license was granted to Medi 1 to create its TV affiliate Medi 1 Sat. It is impor tant to note 42 Le Journal, Telquel, and Nichane are the main opposition and taboo breaking newsmagazines in Morocco.

PAGE 160

147 that Medi 1 radio was launched as part of a Moroccan French partnership comprising associates from banks and major enterprises of the two countries. The radio was an initiative of the late King Hassan II and French President Valry Giscard d'E staing. Five other television station licenses were granted but all were for State owned television stations since 2006. All new stations are thematic except for Laayoun station which is a regional station in the southern province of Morocco. The other sta tions are Arriyadia specialized in sports, Assadissa in religion, and Arrabia in culture. It is important to note that Article 21 stipulates that any broadcasting company or a shareholder in a broadcasting company can own or control another broadcasting co mpany as long as he/she/it does not exceed 30% of the shares of the new company. In other words, no individual or company can control more than one media outlet. 3. 4. 3. 3. The Political e nvironment Concerning the political environment, it is important to describe, albeit briefly, the new political environment under the reign of Mohamed VI. Mohamed VI made the promotion of human rights one of his priorities. One of the first major pro human rights mea sures under his reign was the creation with a royal decree of the Justice and Reconciliation Commission in 2003 that investigated the human rights violations of the past. Besides establishing the truth about the past violation, the Commission organized pub lic forums in 2004 to allow victims to voice their pains and sufferings. These forums were broadcast live on Al Oula, which I consider a very important moment in Moroccan television history. The goal of the Commission is to facilitate the reconciliation of Moroccans with their recent past. Another major initiative was the new Family Status Law or Moudawana. It was

PAGE 161

148 in Morocco, praised this initiative and noted the improvements of the status of women and their rights (Freedom House, 2004). Mohamed safeguard and promote Amazigh language and culture. Imazighen ar e the majority ethnic group in Morocco, yet Amazigh culture was undermined for many years. For political reasons, Hassan II regime identified with Arabism hence the predominance of t he Arabic culture and identity. The developmental media system recognizes the importance of government involvement in media. The belief in mass media as instruments of social justice and social change implies some form of intervention. The Licensing Obligations documents for both Al Oula and 2M are meant to reinforce these pro h uman rights initiatives. They stipulate that the programming have to respond to the needs of minorities. The programming has to support the values of democracy, liberty, tolerance, openness and modernity. They must promote the ideals of dialogue, national unity, respect for individuals' thoughts and beliefs. The TV stations must strive to be inclusive and appeal to all segments of the Moroccan population. They must also encourage the production of national music and films. Government intervention can in fac t be in the interest of the public, and not necessarily in the interest of authoritarianism. The political environment is certainly more open and conducive to more freedom than it was during the years of lead. The Mohamed VI era is more democratic in form and substance. Many taboos were broken, from reporting on the king's salary to reporting on the arrest of high officials close to the palace. Journalists denounce corruption, and some have called for the resignation of many powerful government and army pe rsonalities,

PAGE 162

149 something that was inconceivable during the reign of Hassan II. The last decade witnessed an unprecedented opening of the political system in Morocco. Ahmed Benchemsi, the director of Telquel magazine, critiqued in one of his editorials the co mmunication skills of King Mohamed VI. He also published the salary and expenses of the king in one of his reports in December 2004. None of these acts triggered an official reaction from the government. In 2006, many newspapers, magazines and even the pub lic TVs and radios published reports on the arrest of the chief of security of the royal palaces about his alleged connections to a drug lord. No journalist could ever dream or imagine publishing such sensitive information during the reign of Hassan II, wi thout some daunting consequences. However, t he government still interferes with the content of the media in ways that do not serve the country's democratic transition and its image abroad. According to Reporters Without Borders and the Committee to Protec t Journalists (CPJ), two international organizations dedicated to the freedom of the press in the world, the actions of Moroccan officials against freedom of the press have increased since 2000. In its "Middle East and North Africa Report," the CPJ states that the government banned three weekly newspapers, Le Journal, Al Sahiffa and Demain in December 2000 for publishing articles questioning Morocco's military activities in the Western Sahara and for investigating the possible involvement of then Prime Min ister Youssefi in a plot to assassinate the late King Hassan II in 1972. Reporters Without Borders also indicated that in 2001 the managing editor of Le Journal Hebdomadaire was sentenced to three months in jail and ordered to pay a fine of $200,000 for in vestigating allegations that the foreign minister misused public funds while serving as ambassador to the United States. In 2005, there were a record number of cases brought to court by individuals or the public

PAGE 163

150 prosecutor against journalists and media out lets. The public prosecutor filed thirty one complaints against seventeen different publications. The charges ranged from defamation, to insulting a foreign head of state, to undermining public order, and to publishing false information and photographs of the royal family without authorization. Regardless of the media policy and the margin of freedom it may permit, there are f eatures of the old regime that re emerge unexpectedly as their cultural and institutional foundations turn out to be more resilient. Features of the old regime are manifested in the organizational culture of some media outlets, especially those traditional ly run and controlled by the state. RTM's news coverage offers two appropriate examples. O n the same day that London was hit by a terrorist attack on July 7, 2005, there was a visit of the Prince of Qatar to Morocco. The RTM news bulletin featured as its t dinner reception that he organized to honor his guest. The bulletin featured the coverage of the Prince's arrival at the airport and his meeting with the King. The coverage entailed even the ceremonial listening to Moroccan and Qatari n ational anthems. This took thirty minutes. After that came the letter the king wrote to the Queen of England to express his condolences at the aftermath of the tragic event, and only after that did the station provide coverage of the terrorist attack. In c ase one missed the news in French, the Arabic version which airs immediately after the French, repeats the full news story including the ceremonial listening to the national anthems. On a Saturday morning of April 26, 2008, a fire broke out in a mattress factory in a sub urban neighborhood in Casablanca, killing fifty five workers and injuring dozen others. RTM reported on the story in the main prime time evening news at 20:00 only after reporting on the royal activities. T he king presided over a ceremony of a signature

PAGE 164

151 agreement, had a meeting with his aunt Princess Lalla Amina to congratulate her on becoming a member of the Advisory Board for the International Special Olympics committee, and finally had a meeting with the local authorities of the city of Meknes to discuss the city's rehabilitation programs. The last King related story was about his condolences to the fire victims and his instructions to the authorities to investigate the causes of the tragedy. These stories took twenty four minutes. The te n minutes coverage of the fire consisted of a description of what happened, using testimonies from witnesses, fire fighters, and the survivors. Most of the coverage addressed the causes of the tragedy and heroic role of the firefighters. The coverage also included the visit of the Minister of Interior to the scene. The independent press severely critiqued the coverage of the channel of what they engagements. They expressed th e humiliation the average Moroccan felt when they saw their public television give priority to routine activities over human tragedy. The legal, economic and political environments are certainly more open and conducive to more freedom than they were durin g the years of lead. There is still more work to be done with regard to the media policy and the organizational culture in formerly state run media institutions. The law still provides for jail sentences for journalists, and the Audiovisual Communication L aw has too many restrictions on what private radio and TV stations can and cannot do. State run television seems to be stuck in the old regime, and it seems that resistance to freedom and democracy emanates more from within the media institutions and less from without. Media policy can improve but the remnants of the old regime still persist.

PAGE 165

1 52 3. 5. Conclusion: A Proposed Model for Morocco's Media System I developed a tentative model that visually describes the current media system. It is an unstable media system that seems to be swinging back and forth from developmental to authoritarian. The media in Morocco during Hassan II regime (1961 1999) seems to f it the authoritarian model. The recent progress that Morocco witnessed regarding human rights improvements and the recent liberalization of the audiovisual sector with its new media policies and regulations put Morocco's media more or less in line with the media systems can be placed on a continuum between authoritarianism and developmental. For the sake of clarification I propose a simplified model of the current Moroccan Media system. This model points to the overarching presence of authoritarianism in the Moroccan media system, but also points to the recent changes in the role and function of media. Figure 3. 1. A Proposed Model for Morocco's Media System Authoritarian Developmental system Legal, economic, and political environments Legal, economic, and political environments

PAGE 166

153 This chapter provided a historical review of radio and television. It reviewed the major stages of their development, with a particular focus on television Second, it examined the history and current status of media policy in Morocco. T he chapter also answered the question of what media system best describes Morocco's media during the periods 1956 1999 and 1999 2008. I t described the government media relationship in light of the world media systems, and the role of Moroccan broadcast media in the processes of nation building and the democratic transition period. In order to better understand the nature of the Moroccan television public broadcasting system, the next chapter will investigate the contents of the programs of Al Oula and 2M This study will help shed more light on the nature of the media system. It will address the public service function of Moroccan public broadcasting. Focus will be one the principle of universality of appeal and in particular on access to and participation in public television. Access and participation refer to the demographic characteristics of hosts and guests of the programs, the language used in the programs, the availability of means of feedbac k, the thematic location (Urban versus rural themes).

PAGE 167

154 Chapter Four : Content Analysis 4. 1. General Introduction As noted in Chapter Three, since 2002, the Moroccan government has given policy considerations to regulate the use of television as an imp ortant outside source for promoting its development goals. In 2004, the Audiovisual Communication Law assigned public service obligations to the two major television stations in Morocco: Al Oula and 2M. The two stations have to increase the percentage of d evelopment oriented programs and grant an important portion of their programs to national productions. Based on the theoretical analysis in Chapter Two, the public service broadcasting principles will serve as the criteria on the basis of which the public service function of Al Oula and 2M will be evaluated. T he focus of the content analysis will therefore be on the principle of universality of appeal, and in particular on the questions of access to and participation in public television, including the prov isions for minorities. Contrary to developmental, participatory, and public service theories of television, the contents of the two public service television stations do not seem to allow for access and participation. M y major hypothesis is that television programming decisions in the two public stations seem to be influenced by the elite upper middle class, who want more entertainment and have less need for educational programs than their rural and urban poor counterparts. The two TV stations seem to promo te a cultural agenda that benefits only a small privileged segment of Moroccan society and seems to shy away from, if not prevent, the possibility of

PAGE 168

155 allowing the concerns and perspectives of the poor and marginalized to be highlighted. It is important to note that audiences are active interpreters of media texts (Croteau & Hoynes, 2003, p. 269). The notion of active audiences is both a critique of the notion of an all powerful media, and an expression of faith in the intelligence and autonomy of people. W hile my content analysis points to some facts about Moroccan public service television and to their potential effects on Moroccan audiences, an process of audience reception that media texts acquire their full meaning (Croteau & Hoynes, 2003, p. 270). 4. 2. Methodology Content analysis is one of the best known and most widely utilized research methodologies in the study of mass communication (Berger, 2000, p.173). Content analysis is traditionally a quantitative research endeavor. Berelson (1952) describes it r the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the body of mate 2007, p. 303). However, users of content analysis have debated whether analysis should be quantitative or qualitative. Some insist on the quantitative nature of content analysis ( Silverman, 1993; Neuendorf, 2002). Others argue that communication cannot be limited and confined to numerical measurements (Berg, 2007; Denzin & Lincoln, 1994) They call for a blend of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Wright (1986) defines con

PAGE 169

156 systematic classification and description of communication content according to certain usually predetermined categories. It may involve quantitative or qualitative analysis, or Content analysis addresses manifest and latent content. Manifest content are the analysis is very effective in coding manifest attributes of texts. Latent content i s the symbolic and underlying message and needs interpretive reading and examination (Berg, 2007, p. 308). Because this study attempts to understand the potential manifest and latent meanings of television programming and their potential effect on the dev elopment role of the Moroccan public service television, both quantitative and qualitative analysis will be used. 4. 2. 1 Quantitative Content Analysis Before making decisions on the categories to be investigated, the sampling method, and the unit of analysis, I conducted a pretest content analysis of twelve locally produced television programs. They represent a variety of shows meant to educate audiences on issues of economy, health, and politics. The initial sample consisted of twelve shows from both public TV channels that were broadcast at different times from January 2006 to January 2008. 43 This preliminary data collection and analysis informed the sub sequent data collection decisions. This technique allows for the refinement of the categories to be investigated in the content analysis, and for making informed decisions regarding sampling. 43 As noted in Chapter I, i n November 2004, the national media reform law assigned public service obligations to the two major television stations, but it was not until January 2006 that the two public stations were committed to these obligations.

PAGE 170

157 The categories that the content analysis will investigate are a ccess and participation, which constitute the foundation of the first principle in public service broadcasting: universality of appeal. Universality of appeal means that the TV shows must cater to the different tastes and interests of all the segments that constitute society. The operational definitions of access and participation are as follows. In the preliminary data collection and analysis, I observed that most participants (either as hosts or guests) in the television shows are males from urban centers in particular the country's capital Rabat and the economic capital Casablanca. Access then means the extent to which regular citizens from all regions of Morocco have a chance to express their views on public television. P articipation refers to the oppor tunities of the public to participate in the production of content. Participation looks at whether there are means whereby audiences can give feedback to the television shows and to other audiences. To have access to and be able to participate in public te levision requires language skills. Access and participation entail the following sub categories: the demographic characteristics of hosts and guests of the TV shows, the languages being used in the television shows, the availability of means of feedba ck, a nd the thematic location (u rban vs. rural themes discussed). The quantitative analysis will then consist of investigating the m anifest content of the programming. T he operational definitions of the four sub categories are: The demographic characteristics of hosts and guests of the TV shows: They include gender, geo graphic location, and lifestyle. The language used in the programs: they include the use of darija 44 Modern Standard Arabic, French, Amazigh, or any combination of them. 44 Darija is a variation of Arabic and is a dialect spok en in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. It has a few

PAGE 171

158 The availability of mean s of feedback: they include phone calls and text messaging. E mail feedback is not counted considering the high percentage of computer illiteracy in Morocco (estimated at 90% according to the Ministry of Communication, 2006) Thematic location refers to whe ther the themes discussed in the show relates to urban or rural issues. 4. 2. 1. 1. Sampling. S ampling is the process of systematically selecting that which will be examined during the course of the study. The sample consists of all locally produced shows in both public stations over the span of one year, from January 2007 to January 2008. The reason why I choose to work on the period between January 2007 and January 2008 is that, a fter the launching of the National Initiative of Human Development, both st ations witnessed a remarkable increase in development programs that aim to support the government's developmental goals and to foster its projected democratic reforms. 45 Besides, in November 2004, the national Audio visual Communication Law assigned public service obligations to the two major television stations, but it was not until January 2006 that the two public stations were committed to these obligations. The content analysis will focus on the period from January 2006 to January 2008, in particular on the second half of this period to make sure that the public television stations have started to carry out their public service obligations. The sample includes all the shows that are broadcast during three main time vocabulary words from Amazigh, French and Spanish. It is an oral language, not used in writing. T he official languages are modern standard Arabic and French. 45 This period includes two irregular television s easons: the summer (June through August) and the Muslim holy month of Ramadan (Mid September to Mid October). Some shows do not air in the summer. primeti me placement. Therefore, some shows either did not air or were placed outside of primetime, and were therefore excluded from the sample.

PAGE 172

159 blocks, pre prime time (19:00 20:30), prime time (20:30 23:00), and post prime time (23:00 00:00). Primetime witnesses the highest ratings and is therefore more significant in terms of audience exposure. This sample size consists of seventy eight sh ows. The shows are locally produced, non fiction, and they deal with such development themes as: education, politics, economy, culture, and society. They include talk shows, newsmagazines, documentaries, game shows, reality based shows, debate shows, and p ractical advice shows. It is important to note that other foreign and locally produced drama and fiction shows (e.g. television series, films, and sit coms, and music) and sports programs (e.g. live concerts or soccer games) are broadcast during prime tim e and ar e excluded from the sample. The unit of analysis is the television show. I analyzed a total of seventy eight shows. The shows were broadcast daily, weekly, bi weekly, and monthly. The following table illustrates the breakdown of the sample:

PAGE 173

160 Table 4. 1. Breakdown of TV shows Sample Frequency Number of TV shows by frequency Systematic sampling by TV show 46 Number of TV shows aired per year Total of the sample size Daily 2 10 712 47 20 Weekly 14 2 514 48 28 Bi weekly 6 2 120 49 12 Monthly 9 2 66 50 18 Total: 78 July, 2008. I sampled ten daily shows, two weekly, two bi weekly and two monthly shows. Two shows are daily bringing the total to twenty shows. Fourteen shows are weekly bringing the total to twenty eight shows. Six shows are bi weekly bringing the total to twelve. F inally, nine shows are monthly bringing the total to eighteen. Therefore the total number of shows that I viewed and analyzed is seventy eight shows. 46 The sampling was systematic and then randomly selected ten of the daily shows, and two of the weekly, biweekly, an d monthly shows. 47 The total number of shows aired during the year: 365 multiplied by 2 daily shows. 48 The total number of weekly shows per year; nine shows did not air for twelve weeks during the two summer months of July and August and Ramadan; one show aired in July through September; one show aired only in July and August; two shows aired all year; (see table 1, and table 2). 49 The total number of bi weekly shows per year; Four shows did not air during the two summer months of July and August. 50 The to tal number of monthly shows per year; 2 shows did not air during the two summer months of July and August.

PAGE 174

161 Table 4. 2. Brea kdown of TV shows by TV station : Al O ula Program Frequency Length Number of shows aired Number of shows analyzed Istehlek bla ma tehlek daily 5 min 356 10 Hiwar weekly 1h 30min 40 2 Moudawala weekly 52 min 40 2 100% Chabab weekly 52 min 52 51 2 Oussar wa Houloul weekly 52 min 40 2 Kadam dahabi weekly 52 min 12 52 2 Lalla Larossa weekly 1h 30min 8 53 2 Tifaouin bi weekly 52 min 20 2 Macharif bi weekly 24 min 20 2 Echo Eco bi weekly 52 min 20 2 Macharia/ Entreprendre monthly 52 min 10 2 TOTAL 618 30 July, 2008. 51 The show aired all year. 52 The show aired July through September 2007. 53 The show aired during July and August 2007.

PAGE 175

162 Table 4. 3. Brea kdown of TV shows by TV station : 2M TV Show Frequency Length Number of shows aired Number of shows analyzed Sihatouka Koula Yawm daily 10 min 356 10 Majallat Al Barlamane weekly 24 min 40 2 Rihanat Moujtamaa weekly 24 min 40 2 Tiyarat weekly 24 min 40 2 Challengers weekly 1h 30min 10 54 2 Challenger Innovation weekly 1h 30min 7 55 2 Macharif weekly 24 min 20 2 Islam Soulouk wa Mouamalat weekly 24 min 52 2 Generation weekly 52 min 48 2 Abwab El Medina weekly 52 min 40 2 Diwan weekly 52 min 40 2 Eclairage bi weekly 52 min 20 2 Marocains du Monde bi weekly 52 min 20 2 Moubacharat Maakoum bi weekly 1h 30min 20 2 Maroc en Mouvement monthly 52 min 10 2 Moukhtafoun monthly 52 min 10 2 Grand Angle monthly 52 min 10 2 Entre les Lignes monthly 52 min 6 56 2 Tahqiq monthly 52 min 10 2 Toubkal monthly 52 min 10 2 TOTAL 819 48 SUB TOTAL 1437 78 Percentage of the analyzed shows 5.42 % July, 2008. 4. 2. 1. 2. Coding. In terms of coding, researchers generally adopt existing coding schemes that were established by other researchers. Sometimes, they have to develop their own coding schemes especially for research on categories that have not yet been coded before. In order to obtain coder reliability, Berger (2000) points out, one must 54 The show aired February 2nd through April 6th. 55 The show aired from April 13 to May 25th, 2007. 56

PAGE 176

163 (p. 183). As noted above the operational definition of the four activities are: The demographic characteristics of hosts and guests of the shows: They include gender, socioeconomics, education, and geographic location. The language used in the programs: they include the use of darija Modern Standard Arabic, French, Amazigh, or any combination of th em. The availability of means of feedback: they include phone calls and text messaging. E mail feedback is not counted considering the high percentage of computer illiteracy in Morocco (estimated at 90% according to the Ministry of Communication, 2006). T hematic location refers to whether the themes discussed in the show relates to urban or rural issues. l television show to be analyzed. They are thirty one television shows, eleven from Al Oula and Talk show, Newsmagazine, Documentary, Game/quiz show, Reality show Practical advice show Public Affairs, and Debate show. This variable is measured qualitatively. I used the theme(s) that the show addresses. They include politics, economy, education, culture, society, family, religion, youth, women, environment, health, and sport. This variable is measured qualitatively. television show: the shows were either 24 minutes, 52 min, less t han 10 min or mor e than 52 min.

PAGE 177

164 The most important variables are gender, lifestyle, language, and thematic ones who participated by speaking and expressing an opinion or a point of view. This variable is measured. It refers to whether the standard of living being portrayed, talked about, or shown as part of the TV show is that of the Moroccan elite or the average Moroccan. I divided the elite into two broad categories, Francophone and Arabophone elite. What distinguishes these two elite groups is the use of language: Modern Standard Arabic or French. Since the average Moroccan uses darija the use of Modern Standard (MS) Arabic and French are elite choices, not those of the average designates the use of MS Arabic, French, darija Tamazight and a combination of any participants that use different languages. For instance, some woul d use MS Arabic, while others use French. In this case, the show would usually have two hosts: one speaks MS the show relates to urban or rural issues or a mix of both. topic exclusively meant for residents in rural areas, such as issues of soil and water conservation, the use of fertilizers, school ing in rural areas etc. migration problems which involve both urban and rural matters. This variable is measured qualitatively. Finally, two s oftwares were used for data computing, data collection and analysis: Microsoft Excel and SPSS. (See Appendix A for the quantitative conten t analysis data results in SPSS .)

PAGE 178

165 4. 2. 2. Qualitative Content Analysis Content analysis is primarily a quantitative research endeavor, but it requires some qualitative analysis as well (Berelson, 1952). Macnamara (2006) in many cases, in depth analysis of selected content using qualitative research methods is req However, precise methodology for qualitative content analysis is poorly defined. McKee (2004) points out that there is an odd lacuna at the heart of cultural studies of the media. He argues that although textual analysis is the central methodology, and yet there is no straightforward published guide as to what it is and how it is done (McKee, 2004). The work of Miles and Huberman (1994), Denzin & Lincoln (1994), and Silverma n (1993) have informed research procedures for qualitative text analysis. These methods which are applicable to analysis of media content include text analysis, rhetorical analysis, narrative analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative analysis and semiot ic analysis (Macnamara, 2006). I will use interpretive analysis because it is the approach that is most likely to give the best answers to the research questions. Interpretive content analysis will help uncover and capture the essence of the television pro grams in so far as their contents relate to research is that it goes beyond how much there is of something to tell us about its essential qualities (Miles and Huberman 1994, p. 215). The unit of analysis is the locally produced television shows. They include news bulletins, talk shows, newsmagazines, documentaries, game shows, and television series. These shows address the themes of education, politics, economy, culture, and soc iety.

PAGE 179

166 4. 2. 2. 1. Sampling. Sampling for qualitative analysis is different than sampling for quantitative analysis where statistically valid formulae are required. Miles and Huberman (1994) argue that sampling strategies for qualitative research should be driven since qualitative research is meant to investigate certain issues or themes in detail, random or even representative sampling methods may not capture the desir ed themes and may not therefore yield to useful results. However, sampling for a qualitative study does According to Miles and Huberman (1994), a strong research design and analytical approach wi ll incorporate more than one of the sampling strategies. Miles and Huberman (1994) suggest three techniques which can be used together to yield rich results in qualitative analysis: Selecting apparently typical cases; Selecting confirming and disconfirming cases; Selecting extreme and deviant cases. The selection of all these cases occurs after some portion of data collection and analysis has already been completed. Some patterns emerge that make obvious the fact that there are shows that confirm the hypoth esis of this analysis, and shows that do not. Therefore, for the sake of clarity, I selected one confirming case to lend richness and depth to patterns emerging from data analysis, and one disconfirming case that does not fit emergent patterns or allow for rival explanations. Finally, I include two extreme cases in order to develop a more in depth understanding of the phenomenon under study. 4. 2. 2. 2. Description of Data. By choosing a combination of confirming/disconfirming and exceptional examples for this study, this content analysis

PAGE 180

167 can explore the boundaries of the data and identify the range of views including typical, discordant and extreme cases. The sampling approa ch proposed by Miles and Huberman allows exploration of discourse at various points. Sample size is an important concern in qualitative research. Typically, researchers continue sampling until they achieve informational redundancy or saturation. This means they reach the point at which no new information or themes are emerging from the data. The sample consists of four television shows, two from each public service television station: two confirming cases, one disconfirming, and one extreme case. 4. 2. 3. Co nclusion T he description of the television shows is an important starting point for this content analysis. This description is guided by some considerations and questions: 1. What are the duration and genre of the show? 2. Who hosts the show? 3. What happens dur ing the show? 4. What are the themes addressed in the sampled shows? The second step consists of a descriptive task to display the results of the quantitative analysis in terms of descriptive statistics, and an analytical task to delineate and discuss the findings. This last section will focus on the interpretive analysis of the cont ents of four shows. 4. 3. D escription of the Television Shows 4. 3. 1. Al Oula Shows Lalla Laaroussa ( Darija : her highness the bride) is a ninety minute prime time weekly show that airs on Saturdays at 21:20. The show is in darija and takes place inside

PAGE 181

168 the studio with a live audience. T he show is hosted by a popular film and television actor, Rachid El Ouali, and a TV host Rachid El Idrissi. This show is currently in its third edition. The shows I analyzed were taken from the second edition. Here is the premise of the show: five newly married couples are selected to participate in a three months long competition to win a luxurious wedding ceremony, a free honey moon trip, and a new furnished apartment, all paid for by Al Oula. The five newly wed couples a re living with their parents and could not afford their dream wedding ceremony, honey moon, and obviously an apartment. These couples are from low socio economic backgrounds, all living in urban areas, Fez, Khenifra, Essaouira, Oujda, and Sal. The mothers in law also participate in the show. The competition consists of quizzes and games. The couples are asked questions to test how much they know about each other, and trivia questions about Morocco's history, music, films, etc. The show also includes music performances from pop Moroccan bands. Oussar wa Houloul (Arabic: Families and Solutions) is a 52 minute talk show aired weekly on Fridays at 21:00 and hosted by Ms. Fatima Kheir. The show uses a mix of MS Arabic and darija It takes place inside the studio without a live audience. It consists of a discussion about family issues such as matrimonial relationships, juvenile delinquency, education, etc. The host invites one or two specialists such as a psychologist, a social worker, or officials from a ministry depending on the topic being discussed. The guests also include private citizens concerned with the topic such as patients, parents, and children (if necessary). The show is in darija and speaks in plain terms about the issues. The host introduces the to pic and then invites the guests to define

PAGE 182

169 the problems and speak about their own experiences. The show is centered around the guests, not the host The shows that I analyzed discussed the issues of adolescence and children of divorce. In both shows, the ho st introduces the topic, and then asks three couples to speak about their teenage children and the problems they face. They identified drugs, rebellion against all forms of authority, and difficulties in communication as the problems they face. The special ist was a psychologist, Dr. Ibrahim Ibrahimi, who commented on the stories of the parents. The second show, about children of divorce, consisted of the same format. Three single mothers and one single father were asked to tell their stories; and a psychologist (Dr. Ibrahim Ibrahimi) and a female representative of the ministry of Family commented on the parents' stories. Moudawala (Arabic: Deliberation) is a fifty two minute weekly reality based show that airs on Thursdays at 20:10. The show uses a m ix of MS Arabic and darija It is hosted by Dr. Rachida Ahfoud, a university law professor. The show aims at raising awareness about legal issues, with a focus on the new family code, Moudawana a legal text that gave new rights to women in matters of divo rce, custody, and child support. The show consists of an introduction by the host, then the fictional re enactment of the court inside a studio where she introduces the cou rt case, then the re enactment in a fictional form which involves the re enactment of the court hearings, and finally the host's archives, and have been ruled on by a cou rt of law.

PAGE 183

170 The first show I analyzed dealt about the problem of divorce. It talked about a newly married man who fell in love with another woman and decided to divorce his first wife. The show demonstrated the effects of the new Moudawana, Family code, on the The two young men involved used knives to settle their fight, the fact that led to the hospitalization of one of the men. The show portrayed the story and the n the court hearings. The scenes in the court room were also enacted. The show demonstrated in a very simple language the intricacies of the legal system in Morocco. It also portrayed a positive image of the Moroccan legal system. Al Kadam Addahabi (Arabi c: the Golden Foot) is a ninety minute weekly reality television show that airs during primetime Friday evening. The show is in darija and MS Arabic and consists of a soccer competition meant to discover new young soccer talents. The show travels to all ma jor cities in Morocco to offer the opportunity for all young people to participate in the local competitions leading to a final list of seventy five players. These players benefit from a training camp for six weeks leading to the selection of thirty two pl ayers. The latter participate in one of tw o teams that play a final game. The show takes place at the training camp, and portrays the daily life of the participants, the training, the meetings, and the decision of the judges at the end of each day and at t is supposed to be the climax of the show. This is an all male show, all the participants, the hosts, the trainers and the judges are men. Famous soccer players attend as guests mean t to inspire the young participants, they also participate as coaches. 100% Chabab (Arabic: 100% Youth) is a weekly twenty four minute show. The

PAGE 184

171 show is in darija and addresses youth issues such as music, arts, and sports. The show focuses on urban youth mainly from Casablanca, Rabat, Meknes, Marrakech, and Fez. It consists of briefly introducing a young artist and letting him/her speak about his/her experience. Th e music of the artists is played as background. Many of the shows that I viewed dealt with rap, hip hop music, and dj ing. Many Moroccan youth are attracted to these new styles of music and the show tries to highlight this phenomenon. Young people speak s pontaneously about their lives and experiences. The shows I analyzed introduced the rappers, Massinissa from Rabat, J O from Casablanca, new rap bands Maktoub3lina from the city of Meknes and Bad Mic from Rabat, DJ Red Dog from Rabat. Tifawin (Amazigh: Lights) hosted by Khadija Rachouk, is a fifty minute weekly documentary. It is in MS Arabic. The show deals with Amazigh cultural productions in literature, poetry, story telling, music, theatre, and painting. The show takes the viewers to different parts of Morocco, urban and rural, and tries to get the viewers closer to an understanding of the richness of Amazigh cultural productions. The documentary speaks primarily via a male voice (a voice over) that comments on the images and the personalities. The vo ice over is in MS Arabic. The show also speaks through live testimonies of Amazigh artists and cultural critics, and they speak either in MS Arabic or Amazigh. One of the shows that I analyzed was part of four episodes about a pop music band called Izenza ren. The show started off with showing the lead singer, Abdelhadi Igout, visiting his village, greeting his family and old friends. In the mean time, the narrator talked about the departure of this musician from his village and about his music

PAGE 185

172 experience a broad. The show then featured a testimony of a cultural critic who spoke in MS Arabic. He talked about the band members and the friendships that tied them up together. The rest of the show consisted of an interview with the lead singer Abdelhadi Igout. In between these segments, the show used some of the band's songs as background music for images of the lead singer, his village, and the band. Entreprendre (French: Business Undertaking) is a monthly fifty two minute show hosted by Abdelkamel Sabbari. It is in French. The show takes place inside the studio without a live audience. The show consists of two segments: a short documentary about the topic and a panel discussion. Two to three guests are invited to speak. The first show I analyzed dealt with citrus farming. The documentary was about a modern farm that specializes in exportation of citrus to the European Union. The guests were an agricultural engineer, a government official, and a representative from the Regional Bureau of Agricultural Investments. T he second show was about marketing agricultural products in the Moroccan market. The short documentary was about the difficulties many small farmers find in selling their products at local markets. The focus was on the middle men who buy directly from the farmers at low prices and sell the products at the local markets at high prices. A representative from the Ministry of Agriculture and a member of the Chamber of Commerce of the capital Rabat debated the issues. Macharif (Arabic: prospective) is a twenty four minute weekly show hosted by Yassine Adnane. It is in MS Arabic. The show takes place inside the studio without a live audience. It is a talk show where the host invites one of Morocco's literary figures and discusse s with him or her a cultural or literary issue that appears in one of the guest's newly published book. The discussion can also be on a problematic issue in the cultural

PAGE 186

173 or literary life in Morocco. The last segment of the show is devoted to introducing th e viewers to the latest books in the market. The show claims that it aims to narrow down the gap between the general public and the literary circles by using a language that is more accessible and understandable. Although the show addresses itself to the c ultural and literary elite, it also aims at reaching out to students. Another aim of the program is to promote Moroccan books and to promote the habits of reading. The shows I analyzed featured authors Laila Chafie and Mohammed El Maazouz. Hiwar (Arabic: dialogue) is hosted by Moustapha Alaoui, one of the most senior journalists in Al Oula. It is a live ninety minute bi monthly show. The show takes place inside the studio with a live audience. The Moroccan political elites are invited to answer questions f rom the host and three journalists on current political issues. Heads of political parties, labor unions, and members of the government are asked to explain their positions to the large public on a variety of issues. The show uses a mix of darija and Arabi c. The first show that I analyzed invited the head of the Islamist political party, Party of Justice and Development, Mr. Azzedine El Atmani. The second show hosted Mr. Thami El Khiari, General Secretary of the Front of Democratic Forces. lak (Arabic: Consume Wisely) is a five minute daily advice show on everyday consumption hosted by Mr. Driss El Iraqi. The show takes place inside the studio without a live audience. The host speaks directly to the camera. The show is in darija It gives ad bill, the dan ger of extensive use of cell phones, how to purchase a safe gas heaters,

PAGE 187

174 changing car coil, cleaning air conditioner's filters, maintenance of silver ware, pedestrian safety, how to get rid of batteries safely, children's car seats, and different types of sun screens. 4. 3. 2. 2M Shows Toubkal (the name of the highest summit in the Atlas Mountains) is a fifty two minute monthly show about travel and tourism in Morocco. The show is in French. It is a documentary that each month covers an area in Morocco and the activities that a tourist may undertake. The show features a voice over narration in French interrupted by commentaries from the tourists. The two episodes I analyzed are part of a series of first episode portrayed the Valley of Ziz in the southern desert of Morocco; it consists of palm groves and small gardens. A group of French tourists are shown horseback r iding while the narrator talks about the beauty of nature and at times the tourists comment on their experience and their feelings. In the second show, the camera moves to Rabat, nizers built portrays what is left from the old gardens; it features the areas where the old gardens existed, and the gardens that still exist.

PAGE 188

175 Grand Angle (French: Broa d Viewpoint) is hosted by Reda Benjelloun is a monthly fifty two minutes TV documentary that addresses social, political and cultural issues in Morocco. The show starts off by an introduction in French to the themes addressed in the episode. The show then consists of footage with voice over and testimonies. The voice over of the footage is in French but the testimonies are mostly in darija and are subtitled in French. The themes addressed are pedophilia in Morocco, prostitution, Moroccan immigrants' experie nces abroad, etc. The first show I analyzed dealt with the new life of former government ministers. It dealt with their experiences after their terms as government ministers ended. The second show addressed the unique experiences of three young Moroccan. T he first one overcame his physical handicap and writes poetry. The second was an immigrant in Spain who realized his dream of becoming a banderillas. The last one was also an immigrant; he lived in France and managed to realize his dream of becoming a clot hing designer. Mokhtafoun (Arabic: the Missing) is hosted by Adil Benmoussa. It is a monthly fifty two minute TV documentary devoted to helping families find their relatives who have disappeared. The show organizes its episodes based on the reasons for an d the nature of the disappearances: disappearances of minors and teenagers, disappearances amongst handicapped people, disappearances of illegal immigrants, etc. It addresses a handful of disappearance cases. A segment of the show is devoted to family memb ers making calls for whoever might have seen their relatives, they hold a picture of their relative and plead for information on their relatives. The host and the voice over both use MS Arabic. The first show I analyzed deals with children out of wed locks Mothers abandon

PAGE 189

176 their children because they cannot afford to raise them. The show talks about the reunion of a young woman with her family. She was abandoned by her mother at the age of six and managed to find her mother's and grand parents' home at the age of twenty four. The second show talks about the experience of three men who left their homes in their villages to find work in the city or overseas. The show also features a reunion of deaf and mute child with his family after fourteen years of separat ion. Hicham Ennouari left his small village in Ben Ahmed and ended up living in the city of Taroudant where a family adopted him. Moubacharatan Maakoum (Arabic: Live on Air with You) is hosted by Jamaa Goulehcen. It is a bi weekly talk show of ninety minut es. The show takes place inside the studio with a live audience. It is devoted to discussions about current social, political, economic and cultural events and issues in Morocco. The guests are chosen depending on the topic under discussion, usually involv ing academics, activists, social workers, and government officials. On very few occasions, the guests involve some ordinary citizens. The discussion is mostly in Moroccan darija and Arabic. The show addresses issues like the legislative elections, political parties, intellectual property, labor conditions in the agricultural sector, hooliganism in Moroccan sports, women's rights and the new Moudawana etc. The panel consists of f ive to seven participants. Before the discussions start, the show runs a short documentary on the issue of the day. Later in the show, the show features testimonies of regular citizens from various cities commenting on the issue. The panel is asked to comm ent on both the do cumentary and the testimonies. The first episode I analyzed dealt with the new changes in the political scene in Morocco. In preparations of the 2009 elections, political parties were working on creating

PAGE 190

177 new coalitions and this triggered members, two political analysts, and one journalist debated the issues. The second episode dealt with the phenomenon of drugs in high schools. A panel of two school representatives, a journalist, and a psychologist debated these issues. Al Islam, soulouk wa mouamalat (Arabic: Islam, Behaviors and Transactions) is hosted by Moustapha Samadi. It is a weekly twenty four minute advice show that aims at educating viewers on various aspects of Islam. The show takes place inside the studio without a live audience. It focuses on showing what behaviors good Muslims should display at work, at home, and in society in general. The show consists of a presentation by Samadi of the topic. This part of the show is in Arabic. The second segment of the scholar, provides answers and advice in darija The first show I analyzed dealt with the issue of honesty and the second dealt with the issue of a husband's responsibility vis vis his wife. Challengers, hosted by Mr. Thami Lghorfi, is a ninety minute reality based TV show that aims at promoting the spirit of entrepreneurship among Moroccan youth. T he show takes place inside the studio with a live audience. The show encourages young Moroccans to initiate business projects. The show helps candidates make their project more coherent and potentially more profitable by setting up meetings between candida tes and successful Moroccan business people as well as banking and accounting experts, consulting and communication agencies. Major banks and companies offer funding to the top ten projects.

PAGE 191

178 I analyzed the third edition of spring 2007. The show first trav eled to eight Moroccan cities and one European city, Paris. The candidates must be under 35 years and must have a project. Out of 2500, twenty one candidates were selected for the final rounds. The candidates stayed in Casablanca for one week, and underwen t some tests and interviews. The twenty one candidates participated in the semi finals and five were selected to participate in the finals where they all passed before a jury live on television. The show consisted of seven short daily summaries of five min utes to show the different local competitions in various cities and the daily activities the participants undertook in Casablanca. The short summaries aired from March 1 to April 6, 2007. The episodes I analyzed were the semi finals and the final which to ok place on March 23, 30 and April 6, 2007. They were broadcast live for ninety minutes on Friday at 21:30. The show consisted of a discussion on the various business projects by a panel of business men and women, communication, banking and accounting expe rts. The candidates were asked questions by the jury at the end of which they were asked to give a brief presentation to convince the jury and the audience that their project was good. There were two winners, one selected by the jury and one by the audienc e. The live audience and the viewers at home could vote for their favorite candidate, and could determine the winner by sending cell phone messages. The show used both French and darija The jury was made up of five men. Out of the twenty one semi finalist s, four were women. Out of the five finalists, one was a woman. Challenger Innovations has a similar format. It is also hosted by Mr. Thami Lghorfi. The show takes place inside the studio with a live audience. The show consists of seven short daily summar ies of five minutes over the span of one month (October

PAGE 192

179 2007), and three live prime time shows of ninety minutes. Out of 600 applicants, eighty were pre selected to defend their projects before a jury made up of five men. Ten were selected to participate i n the semifinal and the final. The jury in the finals was made up of three men. Of the ten semi finalists, one is a woman, and the three winners were all men. Maroc en Mouvement (French: Morocco in Motion) is a fifty two minute monthly newsmagazine. It de als with entrepreneurship in Morocco. Each episode talks about the experiences of three or four successful business ventures. In the same spirit as Challengers it tries to inspire and motivate youth to take charge of their future and carry out business pr ojects. The show consists of three to four documentaries on business ventures. Besides the narration, the show features testimonies of the owners of the businesses and their partners. The first show I analyzed talked about Lahcen Ahansal, a marathon champi on ( Marathon des Sables ), who is working on creating a company on sports events management. The second story was about Youssef Dakhamat who started off with a small business of renting camels to tourist; he was successful and managed to expand his business and build his own hotel. Both Ahansal and stories highlighted the fact that new entrepreneurs should stay tied to their origin and land. The last two stories were about two winners of the 2006 edition of C hallengers Abdelkrim Mostalih and Rach id El Aouad. The show gave audiences an update on their projects and showed their success. The second show I analyzed tells the story of three projects. The first is an update on the project of the winner of the 2005 edition of Challengers Mustapha Essaf i. His

PAGE 193

180 is the raising and selling of rabbits. The last story is about Youness Boudiane, a passionate surfer, who created his own surfing company. Rihanate Moujtama (Arabic: Challenges of a Society) is hosted by Mohamed Amrani. It is a weekly twenty four minute TV debate show that addresses everyday Moroccan social issues. The show takes place inside the studio without a live audience. It is in Arabic and involves two guests and the TV host. Issues discussed are tied to the time of year the show is on. For insta nce, in September, the issues addressed are linked to preparations for school year. In July and August, the show addresses issues like how Moroccans organize their vacations, and Moroccan immigrants return to their home country, etc. The first show I anal yzed dealt with the issue of global warming. The guests were Mr. Abdellah Mouqssid, an international expert in climatic changes, Mr. Mustapha Chhalli, a consultant, and Mr. Naoufal Belghazi, a journalist in the daily The second show dealt wit h the Moroccan government's decision to add one hour for daylight saving. The guests were Mr. Abderrahim El Hafidi, a high official from the Ministry of Energy, Water and the environment, Mr. Driss Benali, a university professor, and Mr. Samir Chaouki, Dir ector of the daily newspaper Al Massae. An Al Osra (Arabic: about the Family) is a twenty four minute monthly talk show hosted by Ms. Meryem Faraji. The show takes place inside the studio without a live audience. It deals primarily with family issues such as marriage conflicts, wedding planning, adolescence, working mothers, etc. The show uses a mix of darija and Arabic. The host introduces the topic and then invites the guests (families, single parents) to define the problems and speak about their own experiences. The host invites a specialist,

PAGE 194

181 stories. The first episode I analyzed dealt with the issue of communication within families. Is there dialogue between the family members? Who do some families resolve their conflicts in courts? Can families educate their children on the principles of dialogue from an early age? These questions were discussed among three families and two communication university professors. The second show dealt with the issue of working mothers. The show first discussed the difference between women who choose to work to further their professional careers, and the women who must work to provide for their families. The show focuses on the mothers who are the sole providers for their children. They are either divorced or married to unemployed husbands. Tahqiq (Arabic: Investigation) is a monthly fifty two minutes show. It is a newsmagazine that deals with v arious social issues. The narration is in MS Arabic while the testimonies of interviewees are either in darija MS Arabic or French. Issues discussed are: drug addiction, religious discourse in Morocco, pedophilia, women's rights, Moroccan immigrants and r acism, etc. The first episode I analyzed dealt with the issue of Moroccan brain drain. Many highly educated and skilled Moroccans chose to leave the country for better money and better working conditions. The show interviewed some of these immigrants in Fr ance and Germany. The second show addressed the issue of women wearing the Muslim veil. The show defined this phenomenon as new and interviews some women who chose to wear veil and some who did not. The show also featured the experiences of five women: a h ousewife, a banker, a business woman, a student, and a secondary school teacher.

PAGE 195

182 Eclairages (French: illumination) is hosted by Nadia Hachimi. It is a monthly fifty two minute debate show devoted to economic, environmental, educational, and soci al issues. The show is in French with no Arabic subtitles. It takes place inside the studio without a live audience. The show consists of two segments: a short documentary, then one on one discussion with a guest. If the show deals with two topics, which i t usually does, then the two segments are repeated. The guests are usually CEOs of some big companies, economic consultants, or high government officials. The show deals with issues such as alternative medicine, new agricultural productions, the state of p ublic transportation, water preservation, Moroccan NGOs, investment in Morocco, etc. The first show I analyzed deals with two issues: after school programs and the business of selling gold plates. The second show dealt with the topics of luxury skin treat ments and the used car market. Diwan (Arabic: Record) is hosted by Mokhtar Benabdellaoui; it is a weekly twenty four minute debate show that deals with literary issues. The show takes place inside the studio without a live audience. The language used is Ar is to introduce audiences to the recently published books. The guests are a book author and one or two literary critics. The show consists of the host introducing the book and the author, and then inviting the authors to present his/h er book. The critic is then asked to comment on the books. The second part of the show consists of giving homage to an author who died and who had published literary books. At the end of the show, the host reads a list of new published books. The first sho w I analyzed introduced the book Nidam Azzaman Al Arabi by Redouan Salim. The show gave homage to an author, Abdellah Ibrahim, who died in 2005 and introduced and discussed many of his books. The guests

PAGE 196

183 were the author Redouan Salim, and two university pro fessors Damia Benkhouya and Mohamed Mazouz. The second show was about the author Hassan Amilli and his book The show gave homage to Mohammed El Manouni, a historian. Tiyarat (Arabic: Waves) is hosted by Mr. Abdessamad Benchrif; it is a weekly twenty four minute TV debate show that addresses Moroccan everyday political issues. The show takes place inside the studio without a live audience. Issues of economic development, Morocc an expatriate communities and their relations with Moroccan governmental bodies, implementation of socially oriented policy, Middle East peace process all these issues are covered in Tiyarat The show is in Arabic and involves two guests and the TV host. The show features discussions among representatives of political parties, government ministries, and NGOs. In the first show I analyzed, the host invited Mr. Ismael Alaoui, General Secretary of the Party of Progress and Socialism (PPS) to discuss the afte rmath of the legislative elections of September 2007. The second show hosted Mme. Latifa El Abida the Secretary of State in charge of Education to discuss the 2007 alarming World Bank r eport on education in Morocco. Sihati Koula Yaoum (Arabic: My Health Every Day) is a five minutes daily advice show on health related issues hosted by Ms. Meriem Saad. The show takes place inside the studio without a live audience. It is in Arabic. It addresses issues of hygiene, nutrition, sleep disorde the host speaking directly to the audience about the issues. The shows I analyzed dealt with the following issues: how to eat balance meals, the influence of sleep on productivity, bad ea ting habits, how to manage stress, skin care, breast feeding, eye care,

PAGE 197

184 child safety, fitness, and teen obesity. Abwab Al Madina (Arabic: the Doors of the City) is a fifty two minutes weekly documentary about a city in Morocco hosted by Mr. Said Bel Fakir. It deals with the history of the city, the economic, cultural and tourism potentials of the city, the customs of its inhabitants, and the cities' current problems. The show is in Arabic, and some testimonies are either in darija or French (with Arabic sub titles). The show consists of three major segments. The first segment consists of an interview with the mayor of the city. The second segment is about a trip in the city where the host tries to prove that a visit to any city does not cost more than 100 dhs (8 US$). The host uses the local transportation to visit many monuments, buys a gift from a local handcraft shop, and has lunch. The idea is to promote national tourism for all segments of the Moroccan population by showing them all the monuments and prov ing that it does not cost much to see so many places. The last segment deals with other interviews with tourism officials, local hotels owners, and keepers of typical tourist sites. The idea here is to inform viewers about any potential itineraries. The ep isodes I analyzed covered the cities of Rabat and Safi. Generation, hosted by Mr. Samid Ghailan, is a weekly twenty four minute talk show. The show takes place inside the studio with a live audience. It addresses primarily youth music. The show focuses on urban youth mainly from Casablanca, Rabat and Marrakech, and Fez. Many of the shows that I viewed dealt with rap, hip hop music, and dj ing. It consists of five main segments: an interview with a band or a singer, then the listing of the top ten songs ann ounced by a female co host (Halima), a second interview with a young artist or successful young entrepreneur), then a segment on internet news

PAGE 198

185 and new video games announced by a female co host (Ismahan). The last part is devoted to a music video of guest b and or singer. The first show I analyzed was a devoted to a Lebanese Canadian rap singer Massari. The interview took the major part of the show. The top ten list was announced, together with the internet news and the video games update. The second show an alyzed featured a rap band Kelma, made up of six young men and one young woman. The band talked about their last album that became a sound track of a new film. The show also featured Sad Arsalan, the winner of the third edition of the show Challengers in 2007 who was asked to give an update on his project. Finally the show featured three students from a private school that organized a goodwill event in favor of 600 orphans. 4. 4. Quantitative Content Analysis The first principle of public service broadcast ing is universality of appeal. This principle refers to the extent to which the television shows cater to the different tastes and interests of all the segments of society. The quantitative analysis consists of examining the m anifest content of the televis ion shows. The areas that I investigated relate to issues of access to and participation in public service television. Access and participation refer to the gender and geographical location of the hosts and guests of the television shows, the languages use d, the availability of means of audience feedback, attending to urban versus rural themes, and the portrayal of the average versus elite lifestyles. Based on the content analysis results, Al Oula and 2M restrict access to and participation in public servic e television to only the male, urban, wealthy and highly educated classes of Morocco.

PAGE 199

186 4. 4. 1. Representation of Gender The content analysis of the television shows confirms my hypothesis that women are misrepresented in Moroccan public service television. The television shows of both stations featured more men than women, with 70.7% of men and 29.3% of women. For Al Oula, the percentage of female participants is 23.3% compared to 76.6% for male participants. For 2M, the percentage of female participants is relatively higher with 33.4% compared to 66.7% for male participants. According to the Haut Commissariat au Plan -Moroc half of Morocco's population, less than one third of the hosts and guests featured on television are women. Of t he 78 shows analyzed, thirty three do not feature women, compared to only one show that does not feature men. The latter is the daily show Sihatouka Koula Yawm (Your Health Everyday), a five minutes daily show about health and hygiene issues. The thirty th ree shows comprise a variety of daily, weekly, bi weekly, and monthly shows and they address issues of the economy, politics, sports, and education. Besides, Al Oula's Hiwar Moubachatan Maakoum two highly rated prime time live shows, did not feat ure women. They are both debate shows on politics and current events and are highly respected because they are the first live uncensored shows in Moroccan television history. All the five participants in Hiwar and the six participants in Moubacharatan Maak oum are men, and they are from Rabat and Casablanca.

PAGE 200

187 Figure 4. 1 Representation of gender July, 2008. Figure 4. 2. Representation of gender in Al Oula shows July, 2008.

PAGE 201

188 Figure 4. 3. Representation of gender in 2M shows July, 2008. 4. 4. 2. Use of Language The results show that 35% of the shows use a mix of darija and Arabic, 17.9% use French alone, 15.4% use Modern Standard Arabic alone, 15.4% use darija 10.3% use a mix of darija and French, and 2.6% of the shows use a mix of Tamazight and darija It is important to note that while the use of a mix of darija and Arabic has the highest percentage 35%, it is followed by the use of either Arabic or French with 33.3%. What is even more striking is that the number of shows that use French alone is higher than the number of shows that use darija alone or Arabic alone. S even shows use French, while six use Arabic and only two use darija alone. It is important to note that the percentage of language use defers between the two stations. Al Oula darija more than 2M. 40% of the content is in darija and 26.7% u se a mix of Arabic and darija while only 6.7% of the content is in French. Most of content is a mix of Arabic and darija with 41.7%, 25% is in French (compared to 6.7% for Al Oula ), 20.8% is in Arabic, and 12.5% is a mix of French and darija 2M doe s not offer a show in darija alone.

PAGE 202

189 The choice of language restricts access to and participation in public television for a large portion of Moroccan society. The choice of language allows access and participation for only the wealthy and highly educated classes of Morocco. Moroccans speak darija a derivative of Arabic, in their everyday life, but both public service television stations mainly use formal Arabic and French. In 2004, 43% of the Moroccan population aged ten and above are illiterate ( Haut Commissariat au Plan, Moroccan Census Bureau, 2004) The illiteracy rate is at 60.5% in rural areas and 29.4 in urban areas, 54.7% among women and 30.8% among men. Half the literate population, 28.5% of the Moroccan population aged ten and above, know s how to read Arabic and French. 19% or one third of the literate population knows how to read and write Arabic alone ( Haut Commissariat au Plan, Moroccan Census Bureau, 2004). French and Arabic are the languages of the elite. Figure 4. 4. Use of language July, 2008.

PAGE 203

190 Figure 4. 5. Use of language in Al Oula shows July, 2008. Figure 4. 6. Use of Language in 2M shows July, 2008.

PAGE 204

191 4. 4. 3. Availability of Feedback In terms of availability of means of feedback and the opportunities of the public to participate in the production of content, the results show that the overwhelming majority of shows do not offer the means for audiences to give feedback. For Al Oula and 2M, 89.7% of the shows do not offer the opportunity of audiences to send feedback. It is important to note that feedback includes only the possibility of making phone calls, sending cellular phone text messaging directly to the show, or conduct ing street interviews. E mail feedback, which many shows provide, is not counted considering the high percentage of computer illiteracy in Morocco (estimated at 90% according to the Ministry of Communication, 2006). For Al Oula, none of the shows offer mea ns of feedback. For 2M, 16.7% of the shows offer their audiences means of feedback. Two types of feedback have been identified: cellular phone text messaging and street interviews. Both forms of feedback are not used to obtain feedback on the quality of TV shows. They are used to get audiences opinions on the theme(s) being discussed in the television show. There are no TV shows that use the phone as a mean of receiving feedback from its audience. There are four shows in 2M that use feedback: Moubacharatan Maakoum Challengers and Challenger Innovation (use both text messaging and street interviews), and Mokhtafoun (uses street interviews only).

PAGE 205

192 Figure 4. 7. Availability of feedback July, 2008. 4. 4. 4. Geographical Location The results show that 21.5% of the participants in the television shows were from Rabat, 31% were from Casablanca, which means that 52.5% of the participants are from the country's capital Rabat and the economic capital Casablanca. It is important to have regional offices in the major cities of the country. .3 million. The population of these two cities represents 19.80% of the overall Moroccan population, yet 52.5% of the participants in the two TV stations is from Rabat and Casablanca.

PAGE 206

193 Figure 4. 8. Geographical location of participants 1 Source: July, 2008. Figure 4. 9. Geographical location of participants 2 July, 2008.

PAGE 207

194 4. 4. 5. Urban and Rural Themes With regard to the extent to which the television shows address urban and rural themes, the results show that 70.5% of the shows address urban themes, while 29.5% deal with issues related to a mix of rural and urban themes, and 0% dealt with issues exclusi vely related to rural issues. For Al Oula, the percentage of shows that address urban issues is 56.7%, compared to 43.3% for a mix of urban and rural themes, and 0% for rural themes alone. For 2M, the percentage of shows that address urban themes is 79.2%, and 28.8 for a mix of urban and rural themes, and 0% for rural themes alone. 55.1% of Moroccans live in urban areas while 44.9% live in rural areas ( Haut Commissariat au Plan Moroccan Census Bureau, 2004). It seems like unless a rural theme has some rele vance or connection to an urban issue, it does not get covered by the two public service television stations. Besides, the issues of concern to rural areas residents do not seem to be worthy. As a result, p overty, illiteracy, ill health and low incomes in rural Morocco are unseen, unacknowledged, and unattended. Figure 4. 10. Representation of urban versus rural themes July, 2008.

PAGE 208

195 4. 4. 6. Portrayal of Lifestyle Portrayal of lifestyle refers to whether the standard of living being portrayed, talked about or shown as part of the TV show is that of the Moroccan elite or the average Moroccan. I divided the elite into two broad categories: arabophone and francophone. What these two groups have in common is that as hosts or guests, they are always dressed up in Western clothing, business like attire for both males and females. What distinguishes these two elite groups is the use of language: Arabic and French. The use o f Arabic and French are elite choices. The average Moroccan uses darija Results show that 24.4% of the shows featured a lifestyle that belongs to the francophone elite and 32.1% to the arabophone elite. This means that 56.5% of the shows featured Moroccan portrayed less elite lifestyle than 2M. 63% of the lifestyles portrayed belong to average citizens, 33.3% to the elite lifestyle, 13.3 francophone and 20% arabophon e. 2M portrayed more elite lifestyle with a total of 70.8% elite lifestyle, 31.2% Francophone and 39.6% arabophone. The average lifestyle portrayed is 16.7%. The themes discussed when the elite lifestyle is portrayed on public television deal with issues that are not of concern to the majority of Moroccans. For instance, 2M show Eclairage a francophone elite show, addresses topics such as home interior design, weight loss, and cosmetic surgery. For the average Moroccan, weight loss is a problem because o f lack of food, not because of the risks of obesity, blood pressure, and heart failures. What is most significant is not so much the amount of elitism that is portrayed, but the bitter taste the topics may leave in the average Moroccan's mouth as they see their own public service television so detached from their lives.

PAGE 209

196 Figure 4. 11. Portrayal of lifestyles July, 2008. Figure 4. 12. Portrayal of lifestyles in Al Oula shows July, 2008.

PAGE 210

197 Figure 4. 13. Portrayal of lifestyles in 2M shows July, 2008. 4. 4. 7. Discussion of Findings: The content analysis findings substantiate the hypothesis that the two public service television stations do not allow for access or participation for the majority of Moroccans and limit the access and participation to only a small urban elite minority. As noted in Chapter Three, t he Audiovisual Communication Law and the Licensing Obligations documents of both TV stations assign public service obligations whereby the two TV stations must satisfy the general public' needs for information, education, and entertainment. They have to provide a diversified and general progr amming meant to appeal to the largest audience possible. The stations must contribute to the socioeconomic and cultural development of the Nation notably by encouraging development at the regional and local levels. The Licensing Obligations went even further to specify the need to help ci tizens understand issues of importance to their lives, so that they can make informed decisions and carry out their duties as effective citizens. With TV shows that portray male dominance with 70.7% of the guests bein g males, and urban dominance with 70.5% of the shows addressing urban themes, and

PAGE 211

198 any affinities between the goals set and the means used to achieve those goals. Beside s, one of the least used languages (15.4 %) by the TV shows, i.e. darija, is the very language that most Moroccans use. Television is the most important source of information for the majority of Moroccans. Considering the percentage of illiteracy in Morocc o, this majority is made up of large numbers of non literate or marginally literate individuals who live out their lives in print scarce environments with few or no reading materials in their homes. Inequalities in television access involve, borrowing some commonly used phrases in academic and popular writing about the Internet, a skills divide and a content divide (Chadwick, 2006). The skills divide refers to the ability of TV audiences to understand and use TV contents to further their social advancement. The content divide refers to the extent to which the While physical access to television is available, the TV shows do not present their contents in a way that requires the language ski lls the TV audiences already have. The that the contents of TV shows communicated in darija a language spoken by all Moroccans, are less than those communicated in Frenc h, a language spoken by a small minority, is indicative of the distance between the TV contents and their target audiences. The content divide reinforces the skills divide and creates a vicious circle of exclusion (Chadwick, 2006). Even if the TV shows cr eate more relevant content, the audiences would likely be uninterested and unmotivated in acquiring the skills since there rural population is 44.9, and

PAGE 212

199 yet not one single show deals exclusively wi th rural issues, and only 29.5% of the shows contents deal with a mix of rural and urban themes. It is worth mentioning here that 70.5% of the shows address urban themes. Therefore, for a rural person, it is not interesting to learn the skills since issues that matter to him or her are not portrayed on TV anyway. C atering to the urban elite tastes and needs projects an undemocratic social order. It is undemocratic in the sense that it limits the possibilities of television to play the development role it i s supposed to perform, and limits the possibilities for participation in public discourse. Television gives legitimacy to what it shows. For instance, if most people featured on television are from urban centers, wear suits and ties, and speak Arabic or Fr ench, this would present the average Moroccan with the list of things he or she doesn't have: to speak French and Arabic and to look a bit Western, or at least not to look aroubi (rural person). Many people feel more comfortable in their djellabas and traditional hats or turbans (Ennaji, 2005). Many feel comfortable speaking their own dialect, be it Amazigh or darija French and Arabic, because of their extensive use in media, seem to have acquired more credibility than darija and much more than Ta mazight (Ennaji, 2005). Instead of broadening public debates, a function that the public service mandate imposes, television seems to create a narrow space where only a few can participate. For instance, s ome shows rarely feature women and rarely feature p Hiwar Eco Echo Entreprendre Macharif Majalat Al Barlaman Diwan and Tiyarat Finally, p ublic service broadcasting is accountable to its audiences, and it

PAGE 213

200 emp hasizes the significance of the public control, rather than government or private interest control. The accountability principle implies that the audience can demand that the media provide content that is important and significant to them. Given the fact t hat feedback mechanisms are absent, it is not clear how TV stations can determine the success of their mission. of the programs. It remains to be seen in Chapter Five whether TV producers use o ther mechanisms (such as focus groups) to obtain audiences feedback. 4. 5. Qualitative Content Analysis This qualitative content analysis supplements the quantitative analysis. It attempts to uncover and capture the essence of the television programs in so far as their contents relate to development. The sampling method is used to explore the boundaries of the data and identifies a range of TV shows that include confirming, disconfirming and ex treme cases. By choosing a combination of confirming/disconfirming and extreme examples, this study provides the reader with a clearer idea of the type of shows the two TV stations offer. I will analyze four different TV shows. The first show is a confirm ing case; it is a 2M documentary Toubkal the two TV stations seem to promote a cultural agenda that benefits only a small privileged segment of Moroccan society. The second is a disconfirming case; it is an Al Oula on the ( Instance d'Equit et Reconciliation ) ( IER) public hearings. Finally, the third and the fourth shows are extreme cases and show the extent to which both television stations are distant from t heir public service mandates. One case is a popular and highly rated prime time 2M sit com Rbib (Arabic: the Step Son), and the other consists of two examples from Al Ou

PAGE 214

201 4. 5. 1. Confirming Case Toubkal is a fifty minute monthly documentary about travel and tourism in Morocco. It is a documentary that each month covers an area in Morocco and the activities that a tourist may undertake. The episodes take place in remote areas of the Atlas Mountains. The show portrays typically a group of French tourists riding their dirt bikes through villages in the Middle Atlas Mountains, or engaged in other activities such horseback riding, hiking, or mountain climbing. The narrator is a French speaking male with a low pitc hed voice. The tourists also comment on their experiences and on the beauty of the landscape. What is significant is how Moroccans living in those areas of the Atlas Mountains are portrayed. First, the viewer does not have to be a cultural or media critic to see the and elementary lifestyle of the Moroccans. The Moroccans featured in the show are most often barefoot malnourished children standing by their homes and gazing at the tourists, old women carrying large piles of wood, and teenage girls walking their mules to fetch for drinking water. They do not speak; they just stare at the camera and at the tourists and see what seems to be a reality beyond their reach p ass through their village. While the narrator speaks of the beauty of the landscape, or the tourists comment on the pleasures of their undertaking, the Moroccans do not speak, they are just there. The show portrays Moroccans as part of the landscape; they are no different than the beautiful pastures tourists admire, or the purity of the air they breathe. Moroccans are portrayed as part of albums.

PAGE 215

202 This show is broadcast during prime time in Moroccan public service television and is meant to propose touristy itineraries exclusively for the foreign nationals and the Moroccan French speaking elite. What adds more disgrace to Moroccan identity is the fact that the narrator ei ther does not make any effort or simply cannot pronounce Arabic culture and identity of Moroccans to see their authentic names being mispronounced by a French speaking narrator in their own public service television. It is important to note that Morocco was a French colony from 1912 to 1956. 4. 5. 2. Disconfirming Case Al Oula aired a sp ecial program on a newly created bureau of investigations, called Equity and Reconciliation Commission ( Instance d'Equit et Reconciliation ) (IER). King Mohamed VI created this commission in 2003 to investigate the state and police abuses of the old regime and the past human rights violations that took place in Morocco from 1956 to 1999 (a.k.a. the years of lead) happen. Morocco can then u se these lessons to build a stronger, open and more democratic future. The IER looked into cases of political prisoners and missing persons. It organized public hearings in different provinces in Morocco. The public hearings were an opportunity for many of the victims of State abuse to voice their pains and sufferings. These hearings were broadcast live on Al Oula. The public hearings offered an opportunity for former prisoners to testify. The relatives of those who were killed in jail

PAGE 216

203 or disappeared were a lso given the opportunity to speak about their ordeals. Some of the most striking stories were those of the political prisoners of the infamous jail of Tazmamart. Tazmamart refers to a prison that was built in the early seventies to shelter the fifty eight military officers for allegedly participating in the July 1971 and August 1972 coups d'etat and would make Guantanamo prison facilities look like a five star hotel. The prisoners wer e thrown there and forgotten for eighteen years with a bare minimum of food and no medical attention (Marzouki, 2001). Of the fifty eight prisoners, only twenty eight survived. The jail was closed in 1994 after international pressure, and the public hearin gs allowed its residents and their relatives to speak live on television about their ordeals. Clearly the public hearings were a moment of national therapy: looking at the issues that stigmatized the nation, ruined its image abroad, and instilled dreadful fear amongst its citizens. It was an historic moment, a moment of looking at the past with sob er eyes. The live broadcast was a moment of therapy for a nation that endured abuse for many years, and now finally is given the chance to tell its story to itself and to the future generations. The public hearings were broadcast live on Al Oula, and there were many debate shows devoted to it in both Al Oula and 2M. 4. 5. 3. Extreme/Deviant Case # 1 The sit com Rbib (Arabic: the Step Son) tells the story of a family whose life changes with the arrival of the step son from the father's previous marriage. Th e father (Ismael) is a wealthy businessman. The mother (Aida) is a housewife from a wealthy family. She spends her days shopping, hanging out in rich people's clubs, and in beauty parlors. The daughter (Fatine) is a smart teenager, managed to get in a pres tigious

PAGE 217

204 business school; she is always in conflict with her mother. The son (Mustapha) is a teenage boy who studies at a French school. Both Mustapha and Fatine live a western lifestyle, and seem disconnected from their own Moroccan culture and traditions. The step son (Alwane) is a young adult, unemployed, and always looking for means to make easy money. The maid (Ghizlane) is a young woman who is obsessed with the idea of marriage and thinks that marriage will get her out of her condition. The guard/garde ner (Bahloul) is a young man who finds satisfaction in serving the home owners. What is significant in this sitcom is the representation of domestic violence. Many episodes of this show reproduce and normalize images of domestic violence. Ismail, the fath er, screams at the maid and pushes her around for not ironing his shirt. Alwane, the step son slaps Fatine, his sister, for seeing her talking to her boyfriend at a bus stop. None of these acts get punished in the sitcom. Besides, t the sit com are most of the time meant to demean a person for not being rich enough or poor enough, not and ridicule. As an In one episode, a neighbor gets punched in the face by her husband, and comes to and that divorce is shameful. Ismail and Alwane try to convince the husband that physical se both partners and talk them into reconciliation. The abusive husband does not go to jail, the abused wife gets an apology and has no guarantees that the abuse will not happen again.

PAGE 218

205 These acts of violence, both physical and emotional, find their excuse s in the sympathy audiences feel for the two characters. The characters of Ismail and Alwane are the ones audiences sympathize and identify with. Ismail is the hard working caring father who spends countless hours worrying about providing for his family. H e is also a religious person, who mentions Allah all the time. He also plays the role model of a father who accepts the responsibility of re uniting with his son. Alwane is the step son who lived in poverty all his life and had just found a new home where he tries to balance between his duties as the older brother and the unwanted guest. The show portrays as normal a reality where people get away with abuse. The television sitcom Rbib normalizes domestic violence, propagates and glorifies social injustices. 4. 5. 4. Extreme/Deviant Case # 2 With regards to the fourth case, Al Oula's news coverage offers two appropriate examples. O n the same day that London was hit by a terrorist attack on July 7, 2005, there was a visit of the Prince of Qatar to Morocco. Th e Al Oula news bulletin featured as featured the coverage of the Prince's arrival at the airport and his meeting with the King. The coverage entailed even the cere monial listening to Moroccan and Qatari national anthems. This took thirty minutes. After that came the letter the king wrote to the Queen of England to express his condolences at the aftermath of the tragic event, and only after that did the station provi de coverage of the terrorist attack. In case viewers missed the news in French, the Arabic version, which is broadcast immediately after the French, repeats the full news story including the ceremonial listening to the national anthems.

PAGE 219

206 On Saturday morning of April 26, 2008, a fire broke out in a mattress factory in Issassfa, a poor sub urban neighborhood, in Casablanca, killing fifty six workers and injuring dozen others. Al Oula did not report the story until the main prime time evening news at 20:00. The news bulletin started with the royal activities. T he king presided over a ceremony of a signature agreement, had a meeting with his aunt Princess Lalla Amina, to congratulate her on becoming a member of the Advisory Board for the Intern ational Special Olympics committee, and finally had a meeting with the local authorities of the city of Meknes to discuss the city's rehabilitation programs. The last King related story was about his condolences to the fire victims and his instructions to the authorities to investigate the causes of the tragedy. These stories took twenty four minutes. The ten minutes coverage of the fire consisted of a description of what happened, using testimonies from witnesses, fire fighters, and the survivors. Most of the coverage addressed the causes of the tragedy and the heroic role of the firefighters. The coverage also included the visit of the Minister of Interior to the scene. The cause of the high number of deaths was due to the fact that the workers were locked up inside the factory. There were no exit doors open, let alone emergency fire escape exits. According to the TV news report, the factory management had a policy of locking up the factory to prevent workers from stealing. The independent press severel y critiqued the coverage of the channel of what they called a national tragedy. They expressed the humiliation the average Moroccan felt when they saw their public television give priority to routine activities over human tragedy. The royal activities are always meaningful and therefore newsworthy because royal decisions affect all Moroccans. Yet for Al Oula to present them as more newsworthy than the tragic

PAGE 220

207 death of fifty six Moroccans makes the royal activities lose their credibility. Clearly Al Oula disc redits the very holiness they try to instill in the royal engagements. 4. 5. 5. Discussion of Findings As a cultural critic, I have come to understand and study television from a cultural studies perspective. In a most general level, television is a tech nology, a social, economic, electronic images and sounds; as a social institution, it produces viewers and helps in their socialization process; as an economic insti tution, it produces consumers; as a cultural institution, it produces programs and schedules that tell people who they are, where they are, and when they are; and as an ideological institution, television provides norms, values and rules that tell viewers what to consider as acceptable and what to As a cultural and ideological institution, television offers viewers images, frames, and descriptions that they use to make sense of the world around them. Televisi on provides information about relationships and lifestyles, offers numerous kinds of prescriptions or guidance, and produces programs that represent gender, class, and nation. The notion of television representation considered to be the primary function o f television, invokes the notion of something standing in for something else. It conjures up the idea that whatever electronic image or scene we see on TV is a portrayal or substitute of something happening in real life (Hall, 1997). Embedded in the above statement is the social constructivist view of meaning and representation. There is a material world out there but it is socially meaningless. It is the language system that social actors use that gives it meaning and therefore a sense of existence. Social actors use linguistic and other

PAGE 221

208 forms of expression to communicate meaningfully about the world (Hall, 1997, p. 25). The language system can consist of verbal sounds, photographic images, marks on a canvas, or electronically or digitally produced dots on a screen. All these systems allow us to construct and convey meaning and allow others to read and interpret these meanings in roughly the same way. Their primary function is mediation. A number of studies were conducted on how television constructs such th emes as gender, race, class, and ethnicity (Gilroy, 199 1 ; Hall, 1997; hook s 199 0; Dyer, 1994 ). Researchers differentiate between social construction of, for instance, gender as it construction of gender as it is represented on television screens (and other socialization apparatuses such as film, literature, and art) ( ) For instance, as part of his primary socialization, a boy at some point in his life sta rts adopting the behaviors of men around him, behaviors he would consider to be completely natural. (It is important to note that social constructionists believe that there is no such thing as a real manhood out there in nature and that masculinity is a so cial construct made possible through human interactions and use of symbolic systems such as language, film, comic art). Some argue that the representations of masculinity on television serve to reinforce and strengthen the primary socialization. What is im plied here is that the difference between the two forms of socialization is fundamental and that primary socialization, directly connected to the material world, is more profound. Others argue that it is the socializing agencies like family, schools, churc hes that buttress media representations. The power of television, as a cultural and ideological institution, lies in the fact that there are important elements in the material world that only television (newspaper,

PAGE 222

209 magazine, film, radio, and internet as we ll) represents and makes meaningful. The concept of nation is primarily a television representation /construction. 57 I derive a sense of what Morocco is through exposure to various cultural representations, the most important of which is done by television. Like most Moroccans, I never visited the royal have never attended the official celebrations in the Capital of Independence Day or of the enthronement of the king, but they all watched these defining moments and these national symbols and how we come to imagine our country have very little to do with our primary socialization or our every day social reality. Television is the primary source of represent ation of our national identity. According to Richard Hoggart, member of the British Pilkington Committee on Broadcasting and the Broadcasting Research Unit, one of the great benefits of public f help society understand itself. Considering the confirming and the extre me cases outlined above, the two public service television stations give an appalling sense of national identity. When television news considers royal activities as more newsworthy than a when television p ortrays M oroccans living in the rural areas of the middle Atlas as props in the documentary, television communicates and actively constructs an unusual national identity. Moroccans seem to be defined as less 57 I am not referring here to Benedict Anderson's concept of the nation as an

PAGE 223

210 human than the wealthy tourists and their lives as less i mportant than routine royal activities. Besides content, what is also communicated is the nature of the relationship between a nation and its citizens, a relationship based on disrespect and contempt. (I do not claim that this interpretation represents the correct interpretation of these two TV events, rather it is one possible reading among others, and an examination of the meaning.) If television is to become an important actor in Morocco's development, television producers and decision makers need to be aware of the kinds of social constructs they disseminate each day to their audiences. The danger in portraying Moroccan national ide ntity the way the two pub l ic service television stations do is that they provide images, frames, and descriptions on the basis of which national identities and national symbols are constructed and defined. The show Toubkal is a manifestation of the cultura l legacy of colonialism. It is also the continuation of the orientalist legacy of portraying the orient as, in the words of 1978 p. 97). Sai d's main thesis in his seminal book Orientalism is that the Orient is a western discourse that consists of a constellation of false assumptions, and that this discourse represents the dominant discourse about the Orient. He also adds that it has persisted till today and has framed much of the western discourse on Islam and the Arab world. The Orient is Europe's greatest colony and represents one of its most recurring images of the Other. Said argues that the Orient also helped define Europe by functioning a Toubkal represents this

PAGE 224

211 contrasting image. It portrays the European (French) as the progressive, the explorer (invader), and the intelligent, and it repre sents the orient (Moroccans) as a lower breed, as the emotional, the mysterious, the passive, and the irrational. It was the 18 th and 19 th century Europeans who carried out these symbolic constructions with the aim to justify coloni zation of N orth Africa a nd the Middle East region. Toubkal and many other shows in the two public service television stations are carriers of the same distorted, dismissive and racist discourse, a discourse that constructs the 21 st cent ury Moroccan national identity. The use of French language in the show Toubkal (as well as other shows) is a manifestation of the cultural legacy of colonialism. The mispronun c iation of Moroccan names is an indication that the curse of colonialism has still not been dispelled. Said argue ew in Singh and Johnson, 2004 p. 97). In order to construct a national identity, a unified language has to be in place. Using French interview, argued that none of 22 Arab countries have an information policy that dispels this orientalist vision. All of them are dictatorships and need the supp ort of the West and they try to avoid challenging the West's misrepresentations. The Arabs keep themselves collectively in a subordinate and inferior position to the West the fact that fulfils the expectations that the West has of the Arabs (Media Educatio n Foundation, 2009).

PAGE 225

212 The apparent distance between Al Oula and 2M and their public service mandates may be traced to an utter lack of understanding, on the part of television producers, of the relationship between the television texts and the world they represent and understanding the processes by which the meanings of these texts are constructed. A TV text that represents an identity or state of being is a text that represents a particular conception of power and responsibility. Television producers seem to be either oblivious or indifferent Chapter Five will look into these supposit ions and assess their validity. To conclude, this qualitative content analysis showed that the contents of A l Oula and 2M greatly hamper the attainment of their public service mandate and their desired objectives. Thus, because there seems to be a lack of vision about what public service means, because TV producers seem to be assigned to produce programs for whi ch they are not trained and/or fail to employ the necessary external input, and because frequent evaluation of the programs seems to be non existent, the result is not likely to be what the public service mandate intended. 4. 6. General Conclusion A ccess a nd participation are the major corner stones for the use of television for development. Moroccan public service television is in clear violation of its public broadcasting mandate, i.e. to appeal to all segments of Moroccan society, to offer opportunities for assess and participation to its audiences, to stay detached from government interest, and to cater to national identity and community. The two stations seem to marginalize and dis empower the very audiences they claim to serve. The two public televisio n stations construct on a daily basis an undemocratic social order by

PAGE 226

213 acting as media by the elite and for the elite and by narrowing down the possibilities of partici pation for the underprivileged and the poor segments of Moroccan society. The two public television stations contribute to the reproduction of an undemocratic social order by misrepresenting women, poor classes, and some ethnic minorities. commitment to using public televi sion for development purposes. If television is to become an important actor in Morocco's development, television producers and decision makers need to be aware of the kinds of social constructs they disseminate each day. Based on the theoretical analysis in Chapter Two, t he concept of public service is the benchmark against which all media systems are assessed (Napoli, 2001). Public service broadcasting implies that programming decisions should never reflect the interests of small groups but rather the int erest of the population as a whole. McQuail (1992) argues that a wide range of normative criteria can be embedded in the concept of public interest, criteria such as freedom, diversity, competition, pluralism, access, participation, and objectivity (McQuai l, 1992). The content analysis results show that programming decisions do not take into account the interests of the Moroccan population as a whole, and that criteria such as diversity, pluralism, access, and participation are virtually absent from the two public service television stations. They appear to be more in line with the modernization approach where communication and information flow in a top down fashion with little or no rega rd to the receivers' feedback. Chapter Five will focus on production an d will try to uncover some of the reasons behind the dissonance between the public service mandate and the TV stations' contents. The production study will be mainly based on the results of the content analysis. The

PAGE 227

214 chapter will examine the current choices undertaken by the TV producers in the two public service TV stations. I n depth interviews with media executives will help obtain insights on the reasons behind this appalling discrepancy between the television's public service mission and the contents it offers audiences. Focus will be on examining the constraints in production processes that may influence content The study will look at both political and economic constraints; it will address the issues of state ownership and the degree of political contr ol that may limit TV producers' ability to operate. All interviewees will also be asked specific questions pertaining to the role of television in development. The interviews will also unveil whether there is a clear vision for the role of television in de velopment. As noted in the introduction, it is important to point out that audiences are active interpreters of media texts (Croteau & Hoynes, 2003, p. 269). The notion of active audiences is both a critique of the notion of an all powerful media and an ex pression of faith in the intelligence and autonomy of people. While my content analysis points to some facts about Moroccan public service television and to their potential effects on al because it is in the process of audience reception that media texts acquire their full meaning (Croteau & Hoynes, 2003). Chapter Six is an audience reception study that examines this interpretive activity through assessing the opinions of television vie wers on the quality of Moroccan produced programs and their perceptions on the public service provided by the two TV stations.

PAGE 228

215 Chapter Five : Production Study 5. 1. Introduction Chapter Three provided a thorough examination of the legal, economic and political environments where broadcast media operated since 1956, the year of Morocco's independence. I described the government media relationship during the periods of 1956 1999 and 1999 2008 in light of the world media systems. 58 The chapter addresse d the issues of ownership and degree of legal and political control over the content of news media and the government's tendency to use laws to limit the media's ability to operate. The media system during the period from 1956 to 1999 was authoritarian. Th e broadcast media performed the tasks of supporting the state and leadership. It was characterized by licensing restrictions, censorship of any opposing views to the dominant regime, and autocratic power. The progress that Morocco witnessed since 1999 rega rding human rights improvements and the recent liberalization of the audiovisual sector put Morocco's media more or less in line with the philosophies of the developmental media system. I pointed out that t he legal, economic and political environments were more open and conducive to press freedom than they were during the media policy and the organizational culture in form erly state run media institutions. The law still provides for jail sentences for journalists, and the Audiovisual 58 1956 is the year Morocco got its independence from France. The year 1999 is the end of the Hassan II era. The period between 1999 2008 is

PAGE 229

216 Communication Law has some restrictions on what radio and TV stations can do. In State run television, f eatures of the old regime re emerge un expectedly as their cultural and institutional foundations turn out to be more resilient. It seems that resistance to freedom and democracy seems to emanate more from within the media institutions and less from without. For instance, Al Oula's news bulleti ns still give priority to routine royal activities over more newsworthy events. In the conclusion of Chapter Three, I stated that systems could be placed on a continuum between authoritarianism and developmental. The developme ntal media system recognizes the importance of government intervention in media. The Licensing Obligations documents assign explicitly the public service functions for Al Oula and 2M. In the preamble, it is stated that the two TV stations must serve the pu blic interest. They must ensure their public service missions to satisfy the general public' needs for information, education, and entertainment. They must provide a diversified and general programming meant to appeal to the largest audience possible. Acco rding to the developmental media system, g overnment intervention can in fact be in the interest of the public, and not necessarily in the interest of authoritarianism. Chapter Four demonstrates that government intervention in the two public service television stations has not so far served the interests of the general public. The content analysis findings point to the fact that there is an appalling discrepancy between the television's public service mission and the contents it offers audiences. The two stations seem to marginalize and dis empower the very audiences they claim to serve. Moroccan public service television is in clear infringement of its public broadcasting mandate, i.e. to appeal to all segments of Moroccan society, to offer opportunit ies for assess and

PAGE 230

217 participation to its audiences, to stay detached from government interest, and to cater to national identity and community. Chapter Five is a continuation of Chapters Three and Four. It will focus on production and will try to uncover s ome of the reasons behind the dissonance between the public service mandate and the TV stations' contents. The chapter will examine the current choices undertaken by the TV producers in the two public service TV stations. I n depth interviews with media exe cutives will help obtain insights on the reasons behind the discrepancy between the television's public service mission and the contents it offers audiences. I will first review the literature on media production theories. Second, I will describe the metho dology used in this study. Finally, I will delineate and analyze the findings. 5. 2. Theory In media studies, one of the prevailing practices in thinking about production has been to focus on the economic and political forces that influence the media industry (Adorno & Horkheimer, 1972; Herman & Chomsky, 1988; Marris & Thornham, 1996; Schiller, 2 000; Croteau & Hoynes, 2003). Political economy theorists have examined how political and economic constraints limit and bias content production and distribution. The scholars in the Marxist tradition consider media content as an instrument of control and of the reproduction of the social order. In their book Manufacturing Consent: the Political Economy of the Mass Media Herman and Chomsky (1988) put forward a propaganda model that provides a framework for understanding and analyzing how mainstream US medi a work and why they work as they do. The basic argument consists of saying that the US media are firmly entrenched in the market system and that they and

PAGE 231

218 their funding sources are profit seeking businesses. They point out that the media consistently operat e on the basis of particular ideological premises and depend on elite sources for both information and funding. As a result the media participate in propaganda campaigns that serve the interests of the elite. Herman (2000) quotes political scientist Thomas maximizing investors do not encourage the dissemination of news and analyses that are likely to lead to popular indignation and, perhaps, government action hostile to the interests of Herman and Chomsky identify five structural forces that function as information filters and that greatly influence media choices: 1. ownership; 2. advertising; 3. sourcing (the reli ance of the media on information sources provided by government, businesses, and the "experts"); 4. flak (as a means of disciplining the media); and 5. anti communism ideology (as a national religion and control mechanism) These elements interact with and reinforce one another (Herman & Chomsky, 1988) Herman (2000) notes that the behavior and performance [italics in the original], not of r political economy studies gained respect in Europe and Canada but were largely ignored in the US (Baran & Davis, 2006). While the political economy has been a dominant approach, other approaches have also been used to shift the focus to the micro aspects of media production. Cultural studies theorists were skeptical about the power of the elite to advance hegemonic forms of culture. They focused instead on how average people interpreted and resisted these dominant forms of culture. In their review of the literature,

PAGE 232

219 Whitney and Ettema ( 1994 ) cite researchers such as Schudson (1989) and Dreier (1982) who moved away from the strictly political economic approach that relates the economic structure of the media directly to the political content of the news and entertainment. They argued research should also focus on the individual and organizational processes that influence or shape production (Whi tney and Ettema, 1994 p. 172). Whitney and Ettema's review also shows that many of the studies conducted and the r esearch questions asked on media production focused on the relationship between news production and the political environment. From studies on gatekeeping studies (Shoemaker, 1991) to Patterson (1980), Gans (1979), Tuchman (1978) and Gitlin's (1980) work, all addressed the interface between the news media and the political process (Whitney & Ettema, 1994 p. 159). These studies looked mainly at the issues of journalists' values and biases and the issues of under representation of women and minorities in new srooms. Other studies looked at television producers of entertainment oriented programs (Cantor, 1971, 1987; New comb 1982; Tunstall, 1993). Cantor's (1971 ) landmark study on television producers investigated the autonomy TV producers processes they go through to get thei r programs on the air (Cantor 1971, p. xvi). Cantor's study was focused mainl y on TV fiction productions. These studies managed to examine and describe various aspects of the behavior and performance of Western countries media systems where the media are private and formal censorship is absent. the levers of power are in the hands of a seen simply as a support system for the authoritarian regimes and as serving the end of

PAGE 233

220 the dominant elite. As I noted in Chapter Three, because Morocco is in a state of transition fro studying television production (of Al Oula and 2M) in Morocco will not reveal some hidden forces of structure that may constrain television production. The forces of structure are the State because the State owns the television stations and controls the legal bo dy (HACA) that regulates them. However, it is important to avoid falling into the trap of ove rsimplifications whereby the media that operate in non democratic societies are seen simply as State instruments for promoting a narrow set of government sanctioned images and messages. What this perception implies is that media professionals are indenture d servants with no agency. While these assumptions are partly valid if we apply them to the way Al Oula management, and staff were considered salaried employees of the minis try of Interior. 59 Most of the work at Al Oula TV and its radio affiliates consisted of writing and disseminating government press releases. Western assumptions that media in developing and non democratic countries are subject to political and economic bond age overlook their plural and diverse character and the internal cultural dynamics of these countries. As I noted in 59 Ministry of Interior is the government ministry in charge of the police force and internal security. Driss Basri, a former chief of police, was nominated by late King Hassan II as the Minister of Interior and Minister of I nformation in 1979. Basri was late King Hassan II's notorious minister in charge of domestic security and political repression. Basri is the embodiment of the despotism and the rampant corruption of King Hassan II's era. The same man was in charge of the m edia and the police force. Basri held the position of the Minister of Information until 1995 and the position of interior minister until 1999 when he was removed by King Mohamed VI. This was a sign that Morocco was heading towards democratic reforms.

PAGE 234

221 Chapter Three, the recent progress that the country witnessed regarding human rights improvements and the recent liberalization of the audi ovisual sector with its new media policies and regulations put Morocco's media more or less in line with a developmental media system. It is an unstable system that swings back and forth from authoritarian to developmental system, but the political and leg al environments after 1999 became certainly more open and conducive to more freedom than they were during the years of lead. Many taboos were broken, from reporting on the king's salary to reporting on the arrests of high officials close to the palace. To u nderstand television production requires a nuanced approach, based on uncovering multiple layers of ambiguity that address not only the economic and political environments but also the individual and organizational processes in production. framework whereby the researcher looks at media production as a result of the social processes that take place within an institutional structure, and not solely as the result of the int eraction between media production and the larger political and economic forces. The sociological perspective emphasizes the tension between individual agency of media producers and the structural constraints of the media organization, the media industry, a nd the larger social context. Croteau and Hoynes (2003) argue that while political and economic forces constrain the media, the actions of the media producers and executives do not follow inevitably and directly from structural constraints. They add that d espite working under these structural constraints, media producers still make some choices on the dynamic tension between the forces of structure, which shape but do no t determine

PAGE 235

222 behavior, and the actions of human beings, who make choices but are not fully Chapter Five is a continuation of the arguments made in Chapters Three and Four. The Chapter investigates the extent to which the media actors, i.e. television producers, interpret and respond to the constraints of both the media organizations and those of the larger economic and political environments. It investigates the views of TV producers on the media policy and the w ays in which it liberates and/or constrains them. TV producers were asked questions about their own perceptions of their audiences' educational level and language skills; and whether there are feedback mechanisms that allow them to know inions and satisfaction levels. 5. 3. Methodology The interview is probably the most widely employed method in qualitative research. I us ed in depth semi structured interviews (also called semi standardized interviews) whereby I used a list of questions (see Appendix B ) that covered some specific topics but had some leeway to change the order of the questions and to adjust the level and type of language. 60 I used both French and darija depending on the preferred or spoke n language of the interviewees. 60 I also asked follow up questions to get more clarifications on the answers given. In many instances, although the answer was unclear, I decided to stop the line of questioning because the interview would then turn into a debate on what concepts such as cul f reedom (as a human right or as relative state of existence linked to historical circumstances) mean. The interview would also turn into a debate whereby the goal would shift from col lecting information to changing the mind s of the interviewees

PAGE 236

223 While conducting semi structured interviews as a methodology does not lead to generalizable results, it offers the opportunity to distill m experiences and insights (Berger, 2007). Interviews are an effective method for the type of research questions being asked. The purpose is to gain insight into the decision making processes in the two TV stations as well as obt ain some narratives that describe the possible constraints on production. I interviewed four employees from 2M and two employees from Al Oula. From 2M, I interviewed Mr. Reda Benjelloun, the producer of the monthly show Grand Angle, 61 and associate director of the news service. Mr. Jamaa Goulehcen is the presenter and co producer of the bi weekly live debate show Moubacharatan Maakoum, 62 and the director of the Amazigh edition of the news. Mr. Salahdine Ghomari is a journalists/news anchor and member of the M oroccan Union of Journalists. Fatima El Ouadi was one of the first female reporter and news anchor in 2M (1990 2002); I interviewed her when she was working as an external communication officer at Al Akhawayn University. From Al Oula, I interviewed Mr. Moh amed Moudden, a senior news director and producer; he worked for Al Oula for more than 35 years. The second interviewee from Al Oula is Mrs. Fatima Kheir, presenter and co producer of the show Oussar wa Houloul. 63 In the present research, I used a convenient sample because it was difficult to gain access to TV executives and producers. I tried to talk to the directors of the TV stations and many other executives, and they either showed no interest in doing the inter view, or 61 For a description of this show, see section 4. 3. in Chapter Four. 62 For a description of this show, see section 4. 3. in Chapter Four. 63 For a description of this show, see section 4. 3. i n Chapter Four.

PAGE 237

224 never returned my numerous calls and email requests. I made an appointment with the few who responded favorably. I met all of them in their respective offices except for Ms. Fatima El Ouadi and Mr. Mohamed Moudden who I met in a conference room at Al Akhawayn University. The first worked at the time at Al Akhawayn, the second was in a visit to the campus. All the interviews lasted from one hour to one hour and fifteen minutes. All interviews took place between March 2008 and January 2009, except fo r the interviews conducted with Reda Benjelloun (June 2006) and Fatima El Ouadi (November 2005). Table 5. 1. List of interviewees Interviewee Function Location length Date Mr. Mohamed Moudden Senior news director and TV producer at Al Oula (1978 present) Conference room at Al Akhawayn University 1 h 15 min March 10, 2008 Mrs. Fatima Kheir Presenter and co producer of the show Oussar wa houloul at Al Oula (2000 present) Mrs. Kheir's office, Al Oula, Rabat. 1 hour January 3, 2009 Mr. Reda Benjelloun Producer of the show Grand Angle and vice director of information in 2M (1999 present) Casablanca 1 h 15 min June 16, 2006 Mr. Salahddine Ghomari Reporter and news presenter at 2M (2001 present) 2M, Casablanca 1 h 15 min April 10, 2008 Ms. Fatima El Ouadi Reporter and news presenter at 2M (1990 2002) Conference room at Al Akhawayn University 1 h 15 min November 2005 Mr. Jamaa Goulehcen Reporter and co producer of the show Moubacharatan Maakoum (2002 present) Casablanca 1 hour March 16, 2008 I took notes during the interviews. All the interviewees refused to be tape recorded. Immediately after each interview, I go over the notes with the interviewee to confirm that all the main points are included in the notes, and to invite corrections and additional comments. Then I carefully examined the notes of all interviews and looked for key themes and issues raised in the discussions.

PAGE 238

225 5. 4. Findings This section delineates the major themes that emerged from the six interviews. For the sake of clarity, I isolate six themes: 1. Responses to the results of the qu antitative content analysis 2. The use of language in the TV shows 3. Mechanisms of feedback and perceptions of audiences 4. The editorial policy of Al Oula 5. The legal constraints on television production 6. The political constraints on television production It is important to mention some facts and dates. Al Oula was established as Radiodiffusion et Television Marocaine (RTM) on March 2 nd 1962. 2M was launched on March 4, 1989. From 1989 to 1997, 2M was subscription based pay TV and needed decoder to watch i t. After January 11 1997, 2M became available for all audiences and only required the aerial antenna to capture its signals. From 1962 and 1989, the only TV channel available for Moroccans was Al Oula (known then as RTM). 5. 4. 1. Responses to the Quanti tative Content Analysis Results All the interviewees expressed concern for the disproportionate representations in terms of gender, languages, and themes, but they were not surprised by those numbers. For them, because the new public service mandate is onl y two years old, the TV stations cannot yet be accountable. Mrs. Kheir, Presenter and co producer of the show Oussar wa houloul said that the audiovisual communication law was new, and that it had only been two years that the HACA started overseeing the compliance of Al Oula and 2M to their Licensing Obligations. Mr. Moudden, senior news editor at Al Oula, and Mr. Ghomari, a

PAGE 239

226 2M reporter and news anchor, both undermined the research results arguing that it was very normal that such discrepan cy between the TV stations and their public service mandates would occur. They argued that the two TV stations needed time to adjust to the new political and legal environments and that it was unfair to evaluate their work only two years after the new poli cies were in place. Mr. Benjelloun, p roducer of the show Grand Angle added that other changes needed to happen for public broadcasting to become more efficient. He said that there were many characteristics of the old regime that needed to change before t he two TV stations could perform their public service functions. Journalists and reporters still had major difficulties to access an essential element in any media work, is not a right but a privi for state owned TV stations, reporters and journalists did not have access to government and that giving it away is giving away pieces of their what they (government officials) are willing to disclose, not on what we want to basis of whether there was enough information about some iss ues. He said that public service television would become more efficient only if the State strongly reinforced the right to information principle.

PAGE 240

227 5. 4. 2. The Use of Language in the TV Shows The responses point to the fact that the use of darija in TV programming is not as simple as it may seem. For many, it is a political decision that needs to be taken at the of the nation. Darija is spoken by all Moroc cans and yet is not recognized as a language; it is not used in legal documents nor taught in schools. Mr. Ghomari said that the debate over the choice of language was also a debate on identity, culture and religion. He said that advocates of darija were c onsidered advocates of secularism and Western hegemony. darija at the expense of Arabic means permanently undermining Ara bic. On the other hand, advocates of Arabic link language use with identity and authenticity, and they consider preserving Arabic as a way of preserving Moroccan Islamic and Arab identities. I asked a follow up question on the use of Arabic in the national news and that most Moroccans may not understand such important information. Many interviewees responded by saying that they were aware of this problem and that unless a decision was taken by the State, there was nothing they or the TV management could do about this. Ms. El Ouadi said that advertisers in the past few years had been using darija as their main language of communication on radio, TV and also in print ads. She also mentioned the e xample of the Egyptian television news and how they managed to use a language that was somewhere between modern standard Arabic and their spoken vernacular. She believes that such an attempt is also possible in Morocco. Mr. Moudden offered a different res ponse. He said that the use of standard Arabic

PAGE 241

228 and French were choices by Al Oula, and there were no attempts as far as he knew to change this. The goal in Al Oula has always been to raise the cultural standards of the audience, he said, to push the audien ce to rise up to a higher level of thinking and darija He argues that Moroccans should embrace higher levels of cultural expressions and that darija was not the right langua ge for such expressions. On the use of French language, the responses were unanimous. On the one hand, they praised the fact that the use of French had decreased to accommodate more non elite audiences. Today only 40% of the programming in 2M is in French compared to 80% in its first six years. On the other hand, the interviewees said that almost half the staff in Al Oula and 2M was trained to use French in broadcasting, and, as Mr. Ghomari said, Mr. Ghomari also added that Morocco was a French protectorate for forty four years and that the French cultural including the bilingual nature of its media. He said that there was also a considerable number of French speaking nationals and foreign residents who could not understand Arabic, hence the need to offer programming in this language. 5. 4. 3. Mechanisms of Feedba ck and Perceptions of Audiences All interviewees said tha t they made general assumptions about their audiences and that they lacked research data on the demographic profiles and household data of their national TV audience. They were aware of the rate of illiteracy and the level of education of their average aud ience members, but they all said there were limits to what

PAGE 242

229 they could do with this information. Mr. Goulehcen said that in his show Moubacharatan Maakoum, he made sure to always use darija. He said he instructed his guests to do the same so that his show c ould reach the widest audience possible. But most of his guests used Modern Standard Arabic. He speculated that this might be due to the fact that Modern Standard Arabic and French had been the dominant broadcasting languages and people might find it diffi cult to change that. Mr. Ghomari said that he was aware of the fact that most of his viewers may not understand the news, but he assumed that viewers discuss the news at home and that eventually, through these interactions and through the power of images o n screen, information would reach everybody. He stated, however, that news bulletins could only be presented in either Arabic or French and that such decision must be taken from the State or upper management. All the interviewees agreed that there were no mechanisms of receiving feedback from the audiences, let alone mechanisms whereby audiences would be invited to contribute to production of content. Mr. Benjelloun, a 2M producer (2001 present), said that the only feedback TV producers received was from re latives and people they personally interacted with. Mr. Goulehcen added that there was no scientific study on audiences that could be useful for deciding what language to use and what level of language complexity, or data that showed, for example, what 20 or 30 years old males with certain educational background watched and when. The current audience research addressed issues that were of interest to advertisers and that was still in its infancy. 64 They only monitor audience ratings in five major cities: Rabat, Casablanca, Fez, Marrakech, and Tangier. Mrs. Kheir, Mr. Ghomari, and Mr. Benjelloun said that the clues 64 Mr. Goulehcen refers here to Marocmetrie a ratings analysis firm, which was launched in July 2006.

PAGE 243

230 that they and other TV producers received about the success or non success of their pr ograms were from their conversations with cab drivers, grocery stores keepers, and unfortunately they 5. 4. 4. The editorial Policy of Al O ula I asked Mr. Moudden and Mrs. Kheir about the current editorial policy of Al Oula. I told them that the new mission statement of the SNRT (released in 2006) did not refer to the station being at the service of the royal palace, and yet the news bulletin s were still primarily devoted to the King's activities. Mr. Moudden responded that since its inception, Al Oula had functioned as the mouthpiece of the palace. While this function and role were still valid till today, the way Al Oula interprets them had c hanged since 1999, the year of the enthronement of King Mohamed VI. He said Al Oula still referred still gave priority to his activities and to those of their highnesses the princes and issues, that's how we choose to present the news, and this editorial policy did not and will that the channel changed its editorial policy in many ways in the other programs that they produced. In the past, during the years of lead the channel used to prevent the average Moroccan from speaking on the TV microphone and sa ying what he or she had in mind. When an average Moroccan was given the microphone, it was for them to make a nice comment about the way things were, otherwise his or her comments were edited out. The channel also used to focus on mainstream culture, the F

PAGE 244

231 cultures and we portray everyone's Aji Tchouf, 65 Moudawala and Oussar wa Houloul. They all portray a variety o f lifestyles and people from all walks of life from urban and rural areas and from all parts of Morocco. Aji Tchouf for instance, consists of filming typical days of low income craftsmen and allows them to narrate their own stories. The main and only narr ators of the show are the participants themselves. For Moudden, these shows are representatives of the new direction Al Oula took after 1999. 5. 4. 5. The Legal Constraints on Television Production The interviews all pointed to the historical fact that i n the absence of a legal framework, the broadcast media existed in a legal vacuum for more than four decades and were not under the obligation to provide public service. They all said that this vacuum and lack of laws and regulations tightened, rather than loosened, the constraints on broadcast media. Al Oula documented and glorified the successes and accomplishments of the monarchy. T he regime used the broadcasting system as an important communication vehicle to promote its policies. Mr. Moudden, senior new s director and producer at Al Oula radio and television for political awareness and education, such as the preparations for the nce, in the campaign for the 1962 referendum of the constitution, the regime distributed television sets in public cafs to inform the public about the constitution and to mobilize them to vote. On the question of why television was not used for education and development, Mr. 65 Aji Tchouf is a show that was not analyzed in the content analysis because it did not air during primetime. Aji Tchouf aired on Sundays at 13:30.

PAGE 245

232 Ghomari and Mr. Goulehcen pointed out that it was important to bear in mind that the 1960's through the early 1980's were decades of struggle between the regime and opposition political parties. To ensure the stability and unity of the nation, the regime had to maintain strict control over its broadcast media. There was no time for the regime to think of any use of the media outside self promotion. On the creation of 2M, the interviewees agreed that it was a personal initiative of King Hassan II (1961 1999), and that it was also created in a legal vacuum. On Saturday Mar ch 4, 1989, 2M SOREAD was launched as the first private channel in Morocco and the Arab world. It was the State, the Royal Palace, the Omnium Nord Afrique (ONA) (Morocco' s largest economic conglomerate), and Basri's Ministries of the Interior and Information that were the most important participants and actors in launching 2M. Mr. Benjelloun, a 2M producer said that 2M was an entertainment channel par excellence ; it stayed distant from the affairs of the government and the public. T he target audience for the channel was the Francophone elite of the urban centers mainly of Rabat and Casablanca. Most of the programs were imported programs from France and the U.S. Befor e the state's take over in January 1997, French language, the language of the economic and political elite, was predominant with 80% of the programs in French. Mrs. Kheir recalls that unlike Al Oula (RTM) which devoted some of its programs to awareness cam paigns on a variety of issues, and devoted a significant amount of time to news and documentaries, 2M devoted most of its programs to For the interviewees, the major policy change occurred in 2002 when the State established the High Authority for Audio Visual Communication (HACA) in August 31,

PAGE 246

233 2002. HACA drafted an Audio visual Communication Law that provided the legal framework for the liberalization of this sector. The Moroccan parliament adopted the reform law on November 25, 2004. The law assigned public service obligations to the two major television stations in Morocco (Al Oula and 2M). For Mr. Moudden, what was most significant for him was the fact that the Audi o visual Communication Law put an Oula from a subsidiary of the Ministry of Communication to the National Company of Radio and Television ( la Socit Nationale de Radiodiffu sion et de Tlvision SNRT). The SNRT is an independent government entity that manages both Al Oula and 2M.The stations are no longer be subject to the financial control and supervision of the ministry of Communication. For Mr. Moudden, who worked for Al O ula (RTM) while under the the Fall of the Berlin Wall was Another important change in the legal environment is the Licensing Obligat ions documents (Cahiers de Charge) The Licensing document constitutes a written agreement between the HACA and broadcast stations. The radio and TV stations commit to fulfill the terms and conditions specified in the documents, and the HACA through its mechanism of monitoring and surveillance makes sure the media outlets comply with their own obligations. For Al Oula and 2M, their licensing obligations entailed a mandate on providing public service. There were, however, divergent views on how important t hese policy changes are. For Mr. Moudden, these changes were very promising and came at a time when Morocco needed them the most. For him, the new political environment in Morocco after

PAGE 247

234 the enthronement of King Mohamed VI required new media policies to acc ompany the political changes. The new policies were very positive and unlike the obscure legal environment of the past, Mr. Moudden said that they provided clear guidance to decision makers in both TV stations. Mr. Benjelloun, who referred to the cahie r de charges cahier de dcharges dcharge meaning garbage in French), said that the new media policy did not affect production and that many producers in 2M did not bother to look at this cahier de charges He at the cahier de charge s because it is quite unclear what exactly it expects us to do. The directions we're getting from the cahier de charges are ambiguous and confusing. There are basically no internal criteria on what programs to broadcast. TV producers suggest programs and if it has generally clear goals that don't in general conflict with the general times in a sentence, this simply means that there are no clear directions on what to do or God, nation, and King. It clearly stated the fact that journalists must abide with the idea that Isla m was the religion of the nation, that Western Sahara was Moroccan, and that the King was a sacred entity, and that these three issues must not be violated under any circumstance. He added that in order to produce meaningful television programs that could enlighten the audience, it was important that these constraints be lifted. All the interviewees expressed major concerns with the non existence of courts of law specialized in press and media law. Journalists are tried in penal courts where the penal law is used. In cases of defamation, Mrs. Kheir said, journalists were assumed to

PAGE 248

235 have acted in bad faith. The penal court would not accept the claim that a journalist may have committed a professional mistake. 5. 4. 6. The Political Constraints on Televisio n Production According to Mr. Moudden, the period from 1962 to 1999 was purely and staff considered themselves salaried employees of the ministry of Interior. He added that the journalists were assigned to report on specific events, and were told the editorial line to follow. Most of the work at Al Oula and its radio affiliates consisted of writing government press releases. The journalists did not have the right to rep ort and interpret the events; they were not doing the work they were trained to do. Mr. Moudden said that imprisoned, I could not leave and I could not do the type of professional journalistic work When asked about the political constraints that may hinder the work of reporters today, Mr. Moudden said that today there was no censorship within the station and that the problem they faced at Al Oula was t hat reporters and journalists were not aware of the amount of freedom they had. They practiced auto censorship and refused to address and how it is still forbidden by la w to address them outside the guidelines imposed by the In his response to the same question on politi cal constraints today, Mr. Benjelloun referred to the work done by the Justice and Reconciliation Commission ( l'Instance de

PAGE 249

236 L'Equit et Reconciliation IER). 66 He said that the State seemed to be willing to turn the for those illegal acts a re still in power; so it is very difficult to walk a straight line here. They would say 'yes' to freedom of the press and the media, and at the same time they impose on us some obligations vis vis their programming contents, and be unclear on what these liberalism and democracy but they also want to keep things the way they are, at least they Mr. Benjelloun raised an important questio n of what would be considered a violation of the sacredness of the King. He said that some people thought that referring to King Mohamed VI as M6 was a violation of his sacredness, while he personally used it as love for the King and respect for his otherwise they would not be showing respect to his sa gave the example of a documentary series Parcours d'Ailleur that 2M produced on Moroccan immigrants. In one episode, a Moroccan immigrant from Italy who was from the city of Fez mentioned her Fez origins and she praised ma ny things about Fez like its cuisine, fashion, arts, etc. She added this old saying in Morocco that if a man wanted to 66 The Justice and Reconciliation Commission investigated the human rights violations of the past. Besides establishing the truth about the past violation, the Commission organized public forums in 2004 to allow victims to voice their pains and sufferings. These forums were broadcast live on TV, which I consider a very important moment in Moroccan television history. The goal of the Commission is to facilitate the reconciliation of Moroccans with their recent past.

PAGE 250

237 get married, the best choice he could make was to choose his bride from Fez. She added that even King Mohamed VI chose his wife from Fez. many phone calls and emails about this from people complaining about the fact that the program spoke about King Mohamed VI as an ordinary person, and that this was a violation of the King's sacredness. As you can see, it is difficult to draw a line on what is Mr. Benjelloun admitted that other than addressing the three taboos, there was aud iences both sides of any story. We try to give viewers enough perspectives so that covered in his show Grand Angle such as pedophilia, political prisoners, the infamous prison of Tazmamart, 67 religious fundamentalism, Jewish festivals in Morocco, and people out there who either accuse us of being too daring or not daring enough. There are l Mr. Benjelloun said that what bothered him the most was not the freedom they may or may not have, it was the fact that no action ever ensued after airing a particular program. He gave the example o f a 2M program that addressed the problem of mental health hospitals in Morocco. The program showed the miserable state of the hospitals and the shameful conditions where the patients lived. The show gave some compelling numbers and facts, such as the fact that these hospitals could now host less people and 67 Tazmamart re fers to a prison that was built in the early seventies to shelter the fifty eight military officers for allegedly participating in the July 1971 and August 1972 coups d'etat This prison represents a dark episode in Morocco's human rights record.

PAGE 251

238 expected a government official from the ministry of health to resign, or that government programs for these mental he alth hospitals would be launched, but nothing happened. Mr. Goulehcen, like Mr. Ghomari and Mrs. Kheir, praised the new era as more free. He gave the example of his own show Moubacharatan Maakoum as an indication of the freedom he enjoyed and the few constraints they still suffered from. Mr. Goulehcen said that the show was a live show devoted to discussions about current social, political, show must be seen as a major achievement in terms o f freedom of expression. Topic of discussions included human rights in Morocco, state and local governance, and tobacco and drugs consumption. He added that he did not get any instructions from top management on how to address any of these issues, but that he was always careful about censorship on the quality of the program, and on the reasons why the show never dealt with the three taboo subjects (monarchy, Sahara, and Islam). On the first question, he said that he did censorship but as an attempt to provide his viewers with a televised public debate where civility and respect reigned. On the this was clearly stated not only in the Licensing obligations and the Audio visual Constitution. He said that he addressed the

PAGE 252

239 Western Sahara issue but he made sure none of the guests held an opinion that was different from the one held by the State. Mr. Goulehcen, like many other interviewees, praised the new era as more free but also agreed that for more efficiency in television production, the legal and political constraints needed to be lifted. Mr. Ghomari argued that the question of political constraints needed to be looked at from a broad perspective. He said that there was as much of it at 2M as there was anywhere else in the world. Western media outlets cannot also be totally free; there are restrictions on their work too. They do not for example question the legitimacy of the war on terrorism, they also consider many Western valu es as universal values, and they Israeli refer to the Palestinian or Iraqi militants whi le Western news outlets can only use the term suicide bombers or terrorists. If we deem the act as legitimate we refer to them as follow up question on the limited scope of freedom Moroccan reporters had when it came to critiquing government performance, Mr. Ghomari responded that Morocco was now in a state of transition from an oppressive regime to a democratic one and that whatever political constraints may exist today woul d slowly disappear. 5. 5 Discussion of Findings The interviewees all confirmed the fact that the major forces of structure in Moroccan television production had been the State and the Palace. Before 1999, television functioned as a support system for Moro cco's authoritarian regime for 38 years. The regime used television mostly for propaganda and entertainment purposes at the

PAGE 253

240 expense of other functions and services. After 1999, the new political environment under the reign of King Mohamed VI made the promotion of human rights one of his priorities. The legal environment had to change to accompany the political reforms. While these changes (the creation of HACA and the new Audio visual Communication law) allowed for the liberalization of the sector and the creation of new TV and radio stations, they had until now failed to exert and wield significant changes in the contents and the public service function of the two television sta tions. The interviewees agreed that it was too early to judge the performance of the two TV stations. The responses stressed the idea that television production in Morocco could not be seen in isolation from its history. Al Oula and 2M were instruments in the hands of the regimes for many years and the impact this situation had on the organizational culture of each institution was enormous. The views of the actors in the television industry seem to vary according to seniority. For Mr. Moudden who worked fo r more than 35 years at of constraints, be they political, economic or legal. He s eems to have worked in an oppressive environment for so long that he embraces the current conditions without questioning them. For instance, because Al Oula rarely if ever allowed regular citizens to use the TV microphones for decades, the fact that Al Oul a now produces shows that allow for such access is, for Mr. Moudden, revolutionary. Therefore, he would not accept to change other important editorial policies such as the newsworthiness values used in Al al activities is non negotiable. For him, there is no contradiction in a statement that says journalists are free and yet cannot

PAGE 254

241 Younger producers believe that the recent c hanges are positive but that progress is still needed. They recognize that the legal and political (economic) environments are be done with regard to media policy and political freedom. They believe that the Audiovisual Communication Law is vague and that the Licensing Obligations documents do not entail detailed instructions on how the two TV stations can perform their public se rvice function. They also expressed major concerns with the fact that the law still provides for jail sentences for journalists and reporters and that the penal court system is still used for media related court trials. In the discussions on the use of language and the availability of audience feedback, the interviewees expressed incapacity to act from within the television institutions to change any of these things. They refer to the State as the sole entity that is able to dictate a change in language or in availability of feedback. On the question of language for instance, the response is that using darija as the main language of the TV programs is a political decision that needs to be taken at the highest level of the State. For Mr. Ghomari, a debate over the choice of language is also a debate on identity, culture and religion. To use darija in the news to facilitate understanding would be considered defiant to the powers that be. In most instances during the interviews, the interviewees either refer to the state and to the management of the Stations as the real decision makers. The interviewees used passive voice statements where the implied/absent actors are the State or some entity from above. The responses all point to t he top down nature of decis ion making within

PAGE 255

242 television organizations. The producers seem to rely on decisions made at an ad hoc basis. There seems to be an absence and lack of agreed upon principles on the basis of which TV programs are produced. Decisions on production are made on a case by case basis without adhering to any set principles. The interviews also point to the presence of fear amongst TV producers. The fact that television functioned as a tool of an oppressive regime for many years seems to have shaped much of the cult ural and institutional foundations of the television industry. These cultural and institutional foundations became part and parcel of the organizational culture of these TV station. This is more evident in Al Oula than it is in 2M. With the exception of Mr Benjelloun who questioned the three taboo subjects (Islam, Monarchy and Western Sahara), all the other interviewees either provided more justifications for why they must remain taboos as the case of Mr. Moudden shows, or expressed a wish that political f reedoms should improve. The undemocratic and repressive features of the old regime still impact how media producers perceive their work and perceive the margins of fr eedom they may or may not have. The TV producers seem to perceive themselves more as patri otic citizens who must be mindful of their responsibility to the State rather than as media professionals with a mission to serve the public interest. The State is still the major force of structural constraints on the two public service television station s. The State controls the economic, political, and legal environments. The attitude of the TV producers vis vis their profession is understandable given the transitional and unstable nature of the Moroccan media system. The elements of authoritarianism a re still present although there are signs that there is a movement towards a m ore developmental media system.

PAGE 256

243 5. 6. C onclusion This study managed to draw some important insights on how actors in the Moroccan television industry interpret and respond to some aspects of the political and legal environments. It demonstrated the top down nature of decision making within television organizations. It showed the extent to which features of the old regime impacted how media producers perceived their work and per ceived the margins of freedom they may or may not have. The fact that television functioned as a tool of an oppressive regime seem to have shaped the cultural and institutional foundations of the television industry. These cultural and institutional founda tions are resilient and they resist much of the current legal and political changes. Therefore, unless the State lifts the legal and political constraints on the two TV stations, unless revisions are made to the Licensing Obligations, unless a clear missi on reforms will continue to be a varnish. Underneath lies the same old State controlled broadcasting system. I must admit the fact that this production study failed to ac hieve some of the goals it has set for itself. The relatively small quantity of the interviews and the quality of the responses were not rich enough to provide concrete answers to all the questions. An ethnographic approach might be a better suited methodo logy for such research questions. The researcher must immerse him or herself in the television institutions to get a better understanding of the production processes. The organizational cultures in Al Oula and 2M seem to entail many of the answers to the q uestions this study has. Uncovering the s hared meanings, the common perceptions, the implicit theories of the role of media

PAGE 257

244 within these organizations would certainly provide much of the needed information. Another important piece in the large media puzzl e is how audiences interpret media contents. Addressing audience reception helps tackle the research questions from broadcasters and the audience. The following chapter is a n audience reception study that assesses the opinions of television viewers on the quality of Moroccan produced programs and their perceptions on the public service provided by the two TV stations. The goal is to obtain the opinions and insights of TV audi ences with regard to what public service television they may (or may not) want.

PAGE 258

245 Chapter Six : Audience Reception 6. 1. Introduction Television is one of the most important sources of information for the majority of Moroccans. Considering the percentage of illiteracy, 68 there are large numbers of non literate or marginally literate individuals who live out their lives in print scarce environments with few or no reading materials in their homes, but have easy and regular access to television. I n Chapter Three, I noted that t he Audiovisual Communication Law and the Licensing Obligations documents assign Al Oula and 2M a public service role whereby the two TV stations must satisfy the general public's needs for information, education, and entertainm ent. They must provide a diversified and general programming meant to appeal to the largest audiences possible. The stations must also contribute to the socioeconomic and cultural development of the nation notably by encouraging development at the local an d regional levels. The Licensing Obligations went even further to specify the need to help ci tizens understand issues of importance to their lives so that they can make informed decisions and carry out their duties as effective citizens. In Chapter Four, however, the content analysis findings point to the fact that there is an appalling discrepancy between the television's public service mission and the 68 In 200 4, 43% of the Moroccan population aged ten and above are illiterate ( Haut Commissariat au Plan, Moroccan Census Bureau, 2004) The illiteracy rate is at 60.5% in rural areas and 29.4 in urban areas, 54.7% among women and 30.8% among men. The illiteracy rate for Moroccan citizens of 15 years and older is estimated at 26.7% for males, and 61.7% for females; for citizens of 15 to 24 years old, the rate is estimated at 22.6% for males and 38.7% for females, according to the 2003 UNESCO Institute for Statisti cs (2003 ).

PAGE 259

246 contents it offers audiences. Moroccan public service television, the content analysis found, was in clear infringement of its public broadcasting mandate, i.e. to appeal to all segments of Moroccan society, to offer opportunities for assess and participation to its audiences, to stay detached from government interest, and to cater to nation al identity and community. The findings also show that w hile physical access to television is available, the TV shows do not present their contents in a way that requires the language skills the TV audiences already have. The fact that the number of TV sho ws in darija a language spoken by all Moroccans, is less than those using French, a language spoken by a small minority, is indicative of the distance between the TV con tents and their wide audiences. This audience reception study assesses the opinions of television viewers on the public service provided by the two television stations. The television viewers this study focuses on are of lower income and lower educational backgrounds. Besides the fact that they constitute the majority of the Moroccan popula tion, they are also the ones most concerned with the developmental role of the public service television stations. Although the content analysis shows that the contents of t he locally produced programming target the urban elites as their main audience and project the life styles and values of the elite, it is very important to examine the views and opinions of the TV audiences. One cannot assume, on the basis of the content analysis alone, what the nature of the relationship between TV viewers of lower inco me and educational backgrounds and their publ ic service television might be. It is important to reiterate the fact that this dissertation conceives the audiences as active interpreters of media text messages (Croteau & Hoynes, 2003). The notion of active audiences is both a critique of the notion of an all powerful media and an

PAGE 260

247 expression of faith in the intelligence and autonomy of people. While my content analysis points to some facts about Moroccan public service tel evision and to their potential because it is in the process of audience reception that media texts acquire their full me aning (Croteau & Hoynes, 2003). This chapter exami nes the opinions of television viewers on the quality of the TV programs and their perceptions on the public service provided by the two TV stations. The focus is on the extent to which the television viewers understand the contents of the TV stations, and the extent to which the TV programs represent the viewers' lifestyles and concerns. The study will also examine the expectations the television viewers may have of their public service television. 6. 2. Theory A survey of the literature on television audi ence analysis shows a rich variety of approaches that drew from functional, psychoanalytic, critical, interpretive and semiotic theories (Morley, 1992). The variety of approaches and strategies of research can be seen ssed the power of the text (or message) and their effects on audiences, and perspectives that stressed the interpretive a ctivity of audiences as well as their social characteristics and environment (Morley, 1992, p. 46). The media effects model, which influenced the modernization theory of development, conceives the mass media as having the magic bullet effect and the audience as passive recipients. The media are thought to have the power to inject t heir audiences with particular messages which will trigger particular behaviors from the audiences. Morley argues that this position was held by both critics from the Right and

PAGE 261

248 the Left. The Right saw the media as a major contributor in the breakdown of tr aditional values, and the Left saw the media as a major instrument of indoctrinating consumerist values and false consciousness (Morley, 1992) The theoretical discussion in Chapter Two pointed out that this position and view on communication and audiences were held by both the modernization theories and the neo Marxist theories of development. One of the most influential representatives of the neo Marxist perspective is the Frankfurt School of Social Research. Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer maintain tha t the mass media are instruments of mystification, indoctrination, and social control. They argue that the same instrumental rationality that gave birth to fascism, in terms of its ability to manufacture consent, can also be used by capitalist states, via the proliferation of mass communications, to turn citizens into mere consumers, from active free participants into passive spectators. Both the modernization theory and the neo M arxist theories shared the premise that audien ces were passive and powerless. Other perspectives emerged such as the functional theories, generally described as audiences use the media and what audiences do with that use. The focus in this appr oach is no longer on what media do to people but rather on what people do with the media. the media do to people and substitute for it the idea of what people do with th (Halloran in Morley, 1992, p. 51). Other perspectives were the psychoanalytic theories that drew from Marxism and semiotics, and looked at the relationship between the textual representation (in a broad sense) and the construction of gend ered iden tities (Morley, 1992).

PAGE 262

249 Stuart Hall's audience research in the Center for Contemporary Cultural Studies took forward insights that have emerged from all these perspectives. His l framework for the notable boom in studies of media consumption and the media understanding of communication as a process whereby messages are sent and receive d with so me effects (Alasuutari in McQuail, 2002). Hall's approach also took from the uses and gratifications theory the idea that audiences are active interpreters of media texts. He moved away from the stimulus response model which conceived messages or texts as not a behavioural input, like a tap on the knee proposed instead an interpretive framework whereby the message is encoded b y a program producer and decoded by an audience member and that the message sent and the one received may not be the same message (Alasuutari in McQuail 2002). The message consists of signs and symbols as well as of a system of codes that both message pro ducers and receivers share. For Hall, the effect a message may have, within this semiotic framework, depends on particular interpretations of the signs and symbols (McQuail, 2002). An important element in the process of interpretation is the code. Codes ar e interpretive frameworks which are used by both producers and interpreters of texts. C odes can be verbal and they include knowledge of phonological and syntactical codes and these must be shared by senders and receivers for understanding to occur. Codes c an also be behavioral codes such as protocols, rituals, role playing, games, etc. The semiotic

PAGE 263

250 analysis of any text or practice involves considering several codes and the relationships between them. In understanding even the simplest texts we draw on a rep ertoir e of textual and social codes. It is important to note Charles Morris' division of the semiotic field into three branches: semantics, syntactics, and pragmatics. The interpretation of signs and codes of media texts involves these three levels (in Lit tlejohn, 2002). This distinction is important for an understanding of the notion of decoding. The first level is the level of semantics and it refers to the relationship between signs and things, or signs and what they stand for; this level is concerned wi th the literal meaning of signs. Second, the level of syntactics refers to the formal or structural relations between signs (for example, in the case of language this would include syntax and grammar). The third level is pragmatics and it refers to the rel ation of signs to their actual use in everyday life, and to the way people mold signs in their everyday interactions. When senders and receivers share semantic and syntactic codes, they can understand the literal meaning of their messages. Pragmatic codes require more than knowledge of language itself. They require knowledge of how signs are used among particular groups within given situations open the store; it informs them that the store is open for business. The first reading is based on knowledge of semantics, but the second reading is based on knowledge of how Hall's key concepts, encoding and decoding, lie in the realm of p ragmatics. He

PAGE 264

251 involves the institutional practices and routines of a given TV station tha t provide conditions of production. D ecoding involves both the understanding of a media text as well as the evaluation and interpretation of its meaning wi th reliance on relevant codes. Morley, one of the leading researchers who employed Hall's model in an of Hall's encoding/decoding model: 1. The same story or event can be encoded in more than one way. 2. The message always conveys more than one potential "reading". Messages propose or "prefer" one particular reading over others, but the messages can never become wholly closed around one reading: a television text remains polysemic (i.e. capable of conveying a variety of interpretations). 3. Decoding and understanding the messag e is also a problematic practice, no matter how transparent and "natural" this act may seem. Messages encoded one way can always be decoded in a different way (Morley, 1992). For Hall, encoding is done in such a way as to produce a preferred meaning of the text. TV producers rely on a wide range of socially shared codes to make the text amenable to that preferred reading and interpretation. A dominant or hegemonic univer se of possible meanings of a whole society or culture; and (b) ... carries with it the stamp of legitimacy it appears coterminous with what is 'natural', 'inevitable', 'taken for texts are polysemic, they invite alternative readings of the text. Besides what Hall calls the dominant/hegemonic reading where the reader accepts the preferred reading, Hall argues

PAGE 265

252 that members of the audience may also operate within a negotiated or an o ppositional reading. A negotiated reading, for Morley, means that an audience member accepts the preferred reading but at the same time modifies it in a way to reflect his or her own interests, position, or experience. Oppositional reading is anti hegemoni c and it involves the process whereby the audience member rejects the frame of the preferred reading and brings an alternative frame of reference. Hall says that in this reading, the audience erred code in order t o retotalis e the message within some alternative framework of reference. This is the case of the viewer who listens to a debate on the need to limit wages, but also 'reads' every mention of 'the 2, p. 308). It is important to emphasize the fact that these three readings are moments of decoding that lie in the realm of pragmatics. In other words, the audience members' interpretations of the television text are beyond the levels of semantics and syn tactics. The audience members understand the literal meanings and whether their readings are dominant, negotiated, or oppositional depend on the connoted meaning (and pra gmatic codes) of the text. This audience reception study will use these theoretical to ols to look at the interactions of the Moroccan audiences members with the television contents of the two public service television stations, Al Oula and 2M. This study will not look at the audiences' understanding or interpretation of any particular telev ision program or show. by the television producers, and the ways in which these messages are interpreted or

PAGE 266

253 It is important to note that this study adopts McQuail's (1983) definition of and rep 19 83 p. 1 10). McQuail's perspective draws attention to the notions of citizen's rights and responsibilities and the political dimension of audience activities and participation in the public sphere. 6. 3. Methodology Addressing audience reception helps tackle the research questions of this dissertation from both both the broadcasters and the audience. To cover all segments of Moroccan society requires addressing all segments of a multicultural society characterized by different ethnic, linguistic and geographic characteristics, including urban, sub urban, and rural ultimately pragmatic ones, to be determined according to the resources available and the particular t Accordingly, I will use focus groups as a standalone data gathering strategy to vis vis the two major public television stations in Morocco. F ocus groups are interviews designed for small groups of usually six to twelve distinct individuals. The group is formed by an investigator who leads the discussion on a particular topic or topics (Berg, 2005). Participants in the group are encouraged to sh are their thoughts, feelings, attitudes and ideas on certain subject. Focus groups are used because they allow the researcher to obtain great deal of information during each focus group session (Morgan, 1997).

PAGE 267

254 Focus groups are the most useful method for answering this study's research question for the following reasons. Focus groups are efficient in obtaining in depth understanding and insight of people's opinions and attitudes and in collecting rich data in participants' own words. Besides, they help gai n access to private thoughts and feelings (Morgan, 1997). They allow respondents to talk freely and to choose descriptions and categories that are significant to them (rather than to the researcher); i.e. they enable "the members of the target population t o express their ideas in a spontaneous manner that is not structured according to the researchers' prejudices" (Bertrand, Brown & Ward, 1992, p. 199). Finally, they are good for obtaining data from people with low levels of literacy. p. 33). 6. 3. 1. Advantages and Disadvan tages of Focus Group Interviews As a data collection strategy focus groups have many advantages, as various sources in the literature point out (see e.g. Morgan, 1997; Edmund, 2000; Hagan, 2006). Focus groups are highly flexible in terms of duration, number of groups and participants etc. In relatively short period s of time, one can gather a large amount of information from potential large groups of people. Important insights can be generated on related but existing literature also identified some disadvantages. The results obtained are not those of the individual participants but those of the whole group. Some participants may be is important to be cautious about the manner in which the results obtained from focus

PAGE 268

255 groups are used. 6. 3. 2. Sa mpling Focus Group Participants The participants in the focus group discussions constitute a purposive sample of the target population (Lederman, 1990). As a non probability sample, purposive sampling is occasionally used as a sampling method in qualitative research (Berg, 2007). Given the nature of the research question, researchers rely on their expertise about some group of people to identify subjects who represent that population (Berg, 2007). For this study, the decision to select the focus groups participants was based on the fact that people of lower income and lower educational backgrounds are the main focus of both national and international developm ent programs and initiatives. As I mentioned in Chapter One, the NIHD and the national media reforms that followed it are meant to address the needs of those who lack access to basic social services such as, health, education, water, electricity, etc. They also represent a large segment of the television viewers that are most concerned with the developmental role of the public service television stations. This stations ar e of utmost importance and are necessary to obtain a clearer picture of the investigation under study. I contacted the participants via the local associations. I meet them after they finish participating in one of the associations' activities: literacy cla sses or workshops on computer skills. My choice of the local associations is only a mean to reach the participants. Being involved in local associations is not considered part of the desirable attributes in focus groups participants. In fact, I ask them to introduce me to their family

PAGE 269

256 6. 3. 3. Framing Focus Group Participation The invitation to the focus groups is done through a one on one meeting with each potential participant. I tell them that I am a university researcher working on a project about the two main Moroccan television channels, and that I am interested in collecting information on their perceptions of the two public television stations. I show them my u niversity ID and explain that this is university research and that it is not government sponsored research. Such assurance is necessary as government related activities are looked at with suspicion. I inform them that the purpose of the research is to coll ect information about what they think of the contents of the TV programs. I do not Because of the results of the content analysis, one of my main concerns was that the participants would use the focus group sessions as a place where they would vent their frustrations about the two TV stations. I was aware that this assumption may influence how I ran the focus groups, so I made sure, in case none of these feelings are expressed, that I did not ask questions that may provoke them. I made sure that the participants clearly understood the purpose of the invitation, that the purpose is to share their opinions about the programs of the two TV stations. I inform them that all participants a re encouraged to share and express their opinions and views even when they are in disagreement with others participants. I also remind them that the focus group is not intended to be an exercise where participants try to persuade each other of their own po ints of view, but rather a platform where they share their views and opinions.

PAGE 270

257 6. 3. 4. Focus Groups Demographics The demographic characteristics of the participants in the groups are as follows: women and men aged eighteen to forty years old, illiterate or semi literate, average to low income. The groups were divided up in terms of gender, age, and locality. There are a total of ten focus groups, made up of ei ght to twelve individuals each. The focus groups participants by age, gender, education, and mari tal status: Table 6. 1. Focus Group participants by age, gender, and education Focus Group Women/ Men Age Education Number of participants FG. 1 W 31 40 All illiterate 12 FG. 2 W 18 26 4 elementary school level, 6 illiterate 10 FG. 3 W 18 22 6 elementary school 6 FG. 4 W 26 32 4 elementary, 3 middle, 1 high school 8 FG. 5 W 20 34 All illiterate 6 FG. 6 M 30 38 8 elementary school, 3 middle school 11 FG. 7 M 22 35 10 elementary, 2 middle school 12 FG. 8 M 25 40 2 high school, 8 middle school 10 FG. 9 M 19 32 9 middle school 9 FG. 10 M 19 40 2 middle school, 6 illiterate 8 6. 3. 5. Focus Groups Sites The focus groups consist of Moroccan television audiences that reside in sub urban and rural areas. Sub urban areas are poor neighborhoods located at the outskirts of the city. Six focus group sessions were conduced in the area close to Al Akhawayn University in the Province of Ifrane Timmedikine is a poor subu rban neighborhood in Ifrane where low income residents live. I used the local elementary school (school Annasr) for the meeting. Azrou is fifteen minutes drive (18 kilometers) west of Ifrane. I know the members of a local youth association and I used their meeting room for the

PAGE 271

258 focus groups. For the rural area, I used Dayet Ifrah, a rural community that is 20 minutes drive north east of Ifrane. I used the local association to meet with the participants. Two focus groups were held in Khmiss Anjra, Province of Fahs Anjra, 32 kilometers east of Tangier in the north of Morocco. I chose this rural area to get a sense of what people from other rural areas think of the TV stations under investigation. Khmiss Anjra is a small community of 14,700 inhabitants (Census B ureau, 2004). I also used the local association for contacts and for meetings. The last two focus groups were conducted in a suburban neighborhood in Casablanca. Karian Toma is located in Sidi Moumen, one of the poorest communes in the suburbs of Casablanc a. Inhabited by 170,000 inhabitants, the commune is infamous for its shanty towns and dusty wasteland of low crumbling houses. Karian Toma was home to several of the suicide bombers who killed 45 people in downtown Casablanca on May 16, 2003. This was the deadliest terrorist attack in Morocco s ince the Independence in 1956. Focus groups by site: Table 6. 2. Focus groups sessions by location and date Focus Groups Location Site Date and time FG 1 Sub urban Ahadaf, Azrou May 26, 2007. 16:00 17:30 FG 2 Sub urban Karian Toma, Sidi Moumen, Casablanca June 20, 2008. 10:00 11:30 FG 3 Rural Dayet Ifrah, Province of Ifrane July 14, 2007. 16:00 17:00 FG 4 Sub urban Timeddikine, Ifrane July 8, 2007. 17:30 19:00 FG 5 Rural Khmiss Anjra, Province of Fahs Anjra, near Tangier in the north of Morocco December 7, 2008. 16:00 17:00 FG 6 Sub urban Ahadaf, Azrou May 26, 2007. 10:00 11:30 FG 7 Sub urban Karian Toma, Sidi Moumen, Casablanca June 20, 2008. 15:00 16:30 FG 8 Rural Dayet Ifrah, Province of Ifrane July 15, 2007. 16:30 17:30 FG 9 Sub urban Timedikine, Ifrane July 7, 2007. 17:30 19:00 FG 10 Rural Khmiss Anjra, Province of Fahs Anjra, near Tangier in the north of Morocco December 8, 2008. 15:00 16:30 June, December, 2008.

PAGE 272

259 Concerning the setting, four sessions took place in classrooms of the local elementary or secondary schools in the neighborhoods where the respondents lived; six sessions took place in conference rooms at the local youth centers. The chairs were configured in a way to allow for all group members to see each other. 6. 3. 6. Running the Focus Groups Because the purpose of the focus group is to obtain data pertaining to the views of audiences on their TV programs as a whole, the focus groups consisted of disc ussions about TV programs offered by the two public service stations, and no screening of the TV shows took place. Because the purpose is to look at the participants' opinions on the TV programs as a whole, screening any particular show or shows may entail the risk of directing and framing the discussions either in favor o f the programs or the opposite. The existing literature in research methodology suggests a set of guidelines on how to conduct focus group sessions. Regarding the planning, I scheduled the sessions to run for one to one hour and half. The start time depended on the availability of all the participants in the group. Unlike Americans who take time commitments very seriously and emphasize promptness, Moroccans consider time commitments as obje ctives to be achieved, if possible. The sta rt time was always approximate. Because each session is a one time occurrence, I laid out three ground rules at the beginning of each session: a) stay focused on the questions asked, b) get closure on questions, c ) work in an orderly, polite and open environment where everyone is encouraged to participate and where all opi nions are welcome (Berg, 2007). Regarding the focus group questions (see appendix C ) and the order in which they are asked, the literature sugges ts that the moderator asks questions about facts before

PAGE 273

260 asking more abstract questions (Berg, 2007). This approach allows respondents to easily engage in the interview before moving to more personal matters. Besides, as a rule that applies to one on one i nterviews, the facilitator should ask questions about the present before asking questions about the past or the future. It is much easier for respondents to talk about current and present matters than it is to talk about past or future issues. The last que stion was devoted to allowing the respondents to provide any other info rmation they would like to add. Therefore, the focus group sessions entailed four main phases: Introduction: After introducing myself, I give a brief overview of the session where I ex plain the purpose of the focus group interview and what the results will be used for. Then I ask for a quick round of introductions so that group members feel less anxious to participate in discussions. Factual questions: In this phase I ask questions on the general context of the theme to ease the group into responding to the key questions. In this phase I ask two contextual/factual questions: What television channels do you watch the most and why? What television programs do you watch the most and why? Key questions: This phase is identical to the previous phase in terms of structure. The following questions are asked during this phase: What are your opinions on the locally produced programs? Do the two public television stations' programs do you think is being represented on the two television stations? What e xpectations do television viewers have of the two public TV sta tions? Are there other information, issues, ideas, the respondents would like to add?

PAGE 274

261 Closing the session: In this phase, I summarize briefly the main points discussed in the session and invite corrections and comments. Finally, I thank all the participant s. 6. 3. 7. Important Methodological Considerations I anticipated some of the problems that may arise about the quality of data from the group dynamics, but it is difficult to resolve all of them. The focus groups were separated in terms of gender and age because research shows that masculinity and age affect the dynamics in group discussions (Hollander, 2004). Older men tend to dominate group discussions especially in a highly patriarchal society such as Morocco. There were three instances where a few part icipants dominated the discussions; as the moderator I call on the other participants to express their views. There were also instances where some participants did not talk at all. Out of respect for their privacy, I did not call on them to speak during th e focus group session. I approached them during the break to ask if there were any reasons for their silence and to encourage them to speak. I struggled with the first part of the sessions because the participants seemed to be more concerned about giving m questions. It is only in the last half of the sessions that discussions were more open. I am not sure what the reasons for this might be. It could be the physical context (local associations meeting rooms and classrooms) where the sessions took place. The participants might have perceived the sessions as educational activities in the local association especially that the moderator is a university person. I asked but never received a clear answer to t his question.

PAGE 275

262 The focus group sessions all used darija as the main language of interaction Although it is the language spoken by all Moroccans, for some participants it is a second language. Residents of the rural communes of Dayet Ifrah in the Middle At las Mountains and of Khmiss Anjra in the Rif region are Imazighen (also referred to as Berbers) and they speak two different dialects. The participants from Dayet Ifrah (to a less extent in Ifrane and Azrou as well) speak Tamazight and participants from Khmiss Anjra speak Tarifit in their everyday life. While they are fluent in darija many of them expressed a desire to use their dialects because they said it helped them articulate their thoughts better. Because I am not fluent in T arifit and I do not speak Tamazight and for data collection purposes, I asked them to use darija alone. I am not sure how much data might have gotten lost because of this language restriction. I used English to process and summarize the data. When I trans late a particular testimony, I translate its overall cultural meaning. Translating the literal meaning would certainly lead to confusion and misunderstandings. 6. 4. Findings I used note taking as a technique to record the contents of the focus groups disc ussions. I managed to use a tape recorder to record only one of the 10 focus group discussions. All the other groups refused to be tape recorded. Immediately after each focus group, I go over the notes with the participants to confirm that all the main poi nts are included in the notes, and to invite corrections and additional comments. Then I carefully examine the notes and look for key themes and issues raised in the discussions. In this analysis, I will identify the trends and patterns that emerged from t he 10 focus groups conducted. Using an inductive approach, I isolate four themes that are

PAGE 276

263 meaningful in the current study: Watching TV: The television channels and the programs that participants watch and the reasons for their choices. Understanding TV : The extent to which the participants understand the contents of the TV stations. Representations of lifestyle: The public service television representation of the lifestyles and concerns of the participants. Audience expectations: The e xpectations that the participants have of the two public TV stations. The responses to these themes were consistent for the most part. The responses to the first and second themes varied slightly according to gender and the level of literacy/education. The responses to t he third theme were all consistent. The responses to the fourth theme varied slightly according to the level of literacy/education. 6. 4. 1. Watching Television All participants affirmed that they prefer watching Moroccan channels. They admit that there is a variety of choices in the TV landscape with many satellite channels, but their number one choice remains either Al Oula or 2M. They said that they liked to wa tch the locally produced programs such as documentaries that deal with social issues such as family, employment, education, and sports. They particularly like shows that investigate sensational issues such as corruption within the police force, drug traffi cking, prostitution, sexual tourism, etc. Shows such as Tahkik Moubacharatan Maakoum and Moudawala are very popular. The participants also like Moroccan movies, sitcoms, and TV series, especially

PAGE 277

264 those dealing with everyday life of average Moroccans such as Oujea Trab Lalla Fatima Erbib , and Mbarek ou Among these TV series, Oujea trab is the one most participants referred to as their favorite. Said, a 29 years old illiterate enough of the story, the emotions, the characters; it's a realistic story about life in rural areas and about our reality. It's down to earth and it speaks to our rea lity and everyday The participants also watch other Arab channels as well. The responses here vary across gender. Women like to watch music and fiction TV channels such as Rotana Music, Rotana Cinema, Rotana Clip, Melody Hits, Melody Aflam, MBC1, and LBC. They are mainly Egyptian, Lebanese, or Saudi TV channels. The TV series they watch are the Egyptian and Turkish drama series like Noor, Sanawat al Dayaa Lahdat Music videos and music related programs suc h as Pepsi Top 20 on Rotana Music and Rotana Clip are favorites among younger women. Women also watch the news on Al Jazeera and Al Arabia as well as religious channels such as Iqraa and Annas. Amr Khaled's show 69 was mentioned as the most popular religious talk show. Cooking programs and health related shows were also mentioned as favorites. Men said they watched mainly news, sports, music, film, and religious programs in foreign channels. Like the women participants, they also prefer Arab satellite channe ls over European channels. They mentioned Al Jazeera News, Al Arabia, CNBC Arabic, BBC Arabic, Annas, Iqraa, and MBC 2. They also said they watched Al Jazeera Sport 69 Amr Khaled is a popular preacher and televangelist. Time magazine named him the 62 nd most influential persons in the world in 2007. He is often referred to as Bill Graham of the Muslim world.

PAGE 278

265 channels on the weekends for the Spanish soccer league and other European soccer championsh ips. They also watch movie channels such as MBC 2 and MBC Action. Asmae, a 20 years old female unemployed, elementary school education, from programs to choose from, but it you relate to; w e identify with our own culture, it's obvious and we only watch other vein, Fatiha, a 32 years old waitress from Ifrane said, henever such shows (Moroccan) are on TV, we don't watch anything else. Why watch other channels that talk about Participants with lower education backgrounds all said that they were loyal to t he two Moroccan television stations RTM and 2M. The shows that they like are the ones in darija Yamna, a 36 years old illiterate housewife from Rural Khmiss Anjra, said that other than the few shows in darija she did not understand what went on in the ot her and laugh too. I am not always sure why they're sad or happy, but I cry and laugh along 6. 4. 2. Understand ing Television The responses varied accordin g to the level of literacy and education of the participants. Participants with higher levels of education said that they understood the contents of the TV channels. They said that they understood the programs in Modern Standard (MS) Arabic but they strugg led with the programs in French. Other respondents with limited literacy skills said they did not understand the shows in MS Arabic or

PAGE 279

266 French. The only shows they enjoy are the ones in darija or tamazight The literate participants also said they played th e role of translators for their parents and other semiliterate or illiterate family members. Yassine, a 27 years old small business owner and a high school drop out, said interesting for me to carry on wi Hassan, a 32 years old male farmer from Dayet Ifrah, said that when a Moroccan show is in MS Arabic or French, he switches to another channel, first Moroccan then it is very difficult for them to understand Arabic, which means that they don't understand most of what's on TV. If the program is in Darija it's ok then, everybody understand and we have discussions about the show, but when it's in classical Arabic or French, then I have to information for us farmers, is not understandable for most people. The weather pretty much determines most of our activities. I have to transla te to my parents, uncles and aunts all the information presented. They can interpret the signs of clouds and sun but they still need Other participants regretted the fact that t here were many interesting shows in French like Eclairage and Grand Angle but they find themselves compelled to change the channel to accommodate the other members of the family who do not understand French. channels, ther e is no point in watching something most of us don't understand. People in my family would rather watch foreign channels like Egyptian channels than watch a Moroccan program that they don't understand.

PAGE 280

267 Older participants expressed their frustration with t he news programs. They said that the news bulletins are either in Modern Standard Arabic or French. They admit that the news footage in the Arabic editions helps them have an idea of what is happening, but without the help of their younger siblings, they r emain more or less misinformed. What is more frustrating is that the Arabic edition of the news bulletins in 2M is at 12:45 pm and till late at night to watch the news again. It does not make sense to me at all that they give better timing to a languag The shows that were praised and enjoyed unanimously by all participants are shows that use darija or a mix of darija and MS Arabic, such as Biladi Amoudou and Abwab Al Madina They find the shows to be informative, entertaining and of good quality. Some participants added that the quality of the programs de pended on whether they understood the program contents or not, and whether the content appeals to their needs and relates to their daily lives. In other words, a good program is one that can first be understood, if it is not understood, then the theme is m eaningless. 6. 4. 3. Representation of Lifestyle All participants agree that most television shows do not portray their lifestyle, and that the shows have little if no relation to their lives. When asked about what lifestyle they thought was represented, t hey unanimously agreed that it is the lifestyle of people living in big urban centers, namely Casablanca and Rabat. In general, they refer to the ouled

PAGE 281

268 lemdina y). The participants also agree that language 70 is one of the main factors why they do not feel their lifestyles are not represented in the public television stations. They all pointed to the use of MS Arabi c and French as a main problem. Lehcen, a 27 years old high school graduate and a farmer from Dayet Ifrah, said that the two TV stations are the most popular in his village and yet the most both speak to the peop le from the big cities. I am an Imazighen, my village people speak Tamazight. When we watch TV we don't see our reality being represented simply because there are very few shows in Tamazight. It's only once every two or three months that the TV channels sc reen an Amazigh show, and everything in between is a mix of French and Arabic shows, or foreign films. When there is a program in Tamazight, it is considered a major event, and people talk about it in the village or the neighborhood. People remind each oth er not to miss the show, and they also inform each other of when the re runs will occur. The people on television say they're Moroccans and we say that we are Moroccans, but they don't speak our language, they don't wear our clothes, they don't share our v Besides the issue of language, many participants also pointed out that i n Moroccan sitcoms and series, the furniture and layout of the homes are too expensive for the average Moroccan to afford. Ahmed, a 35 years old automobile repairman from Azrou magic world, I 70 As I have demonstrated in the content analysis 3 3.3% of the programs use either classical Arabic or French, and the number of shows that use French alone is higher than the number of shows that use Arabic alone or darija alone.

PAGE 282

269 can They also added that it is not just a matter of being Amazigh or unable to understand Arabic and French, it is also a matter of being poor. The lifestyle portrayed is unaffordable for most Moroccans. Most participants said that t hey find it difficult to relate to most programs because the programs do not address the issues of concern to rural areas, in particular those of the Middle Atlas Mountains 71 Even when a sit com takes place in a rural area, the language they use is not Amazigh and therefore the television representation remains unappealing n you are living in a small rural village that is known to very few people, then the world that is with the characters in drama series such as a story a bout life in rural areas, because the show features people working on their land, and living in similar houses they live in. The participants from Karian Toma, the Casablanca suburb, said that some shows are better than others in terms of how they portray their lifestyles. They drew some comparisons between Al Oula and 2M shows. For instance, they compared two shows Generation 100% Chabab Regarding Generation all participants in the focus groups said that they did not ident ify with this show, and that it had nothing to do with their lives or the lives of the majority of Moroccan youth. Malika, it is anything but that. The hosts speak m ostly in French or use a mix of French and darija What they wear also is kind of unreal v ery expensive clothes from very expensive 71 Nine of the 10 focus groups conducted took place in the Ifrane province which exists in the Middle Atlas Mountains.

PAGE 283

270 places. None of the hosts, guests, or even the studio audience wears hijab (the head scarf), the fact that I find quite fak e and unreal since it seems like more than half of Moroccan women wear hijab Besides we don't learn anything, they talk about video games and internet sites, it seems like the show is an exact copy of something European, we don't see us connected to it in any way. This also applies to other shows produced by 100% Chabab th e participants agree, is more connected to their lives. They find it to be more down to earth and more accessible to all. The show is in darija and the hosts dress and speak like an average citizen. Loubna, a 25 years old nurse, gave another example by com paring the show Lalla Laaroussa, a game show broadcast produced by Al Oula, and Studio 2M, a talent music show. She says that she and many of her friends and relatives love Lalla Laaroussa because it deals with issues that they care about such as issues of marriage and of being darija and the show hosts are humble, they improvise most of their speeches and we feel close to them. When I watch this show with my family, there are no moments of embarrassment like we feel sometime when we watch Studio 2M I feel embarrassed because of what people wear sometimes in 2M's show, it is a shame that young Muslim girls wear tight clothes and show so much skin. high school drop out and unemployed, added that in Studio 2M the French speaking host does not pronounce the fuse to accept that being Moroccan is ok bhal ila ma radish

PAGE 284

271 To sum up, Mhamed, a 40 years old farmer from Dayet Ifrah, gives a compelling testimony as to the distance between the two public service TV stations and their public. every time I watch TV and I see who speaks on it, it's always a well dressed person, in a Westernized tie and suit, and who is fluent in Arabic or French. I always think about the number of things that I have to do to become like them. People in my village feel much le 6. 4. 4. Expectations All participants agree that the two TV stations would serve them better if they portrayed their lifestyles, addressed rural issues, and used either darija or tamazight as the main languages. The responses in this segment of the focus groups varied slightly according to age and education. The participants said they wanted to understand the news, the weather forecast, and some shows and suggested that the TV stations sho uld use darija and their local dialects such as Tamazight and Tarifit The more educated participants had other thoughtful insights into this issue. They said that they wanted their TV to represent their concerns, their everyday lives, in a manner that is accessible to all our media to reflect who we are, not who some of us are; the hosts have to be humble, speak a language we understand, be simple and down to earth. TV pro grams must deal with our everyday problems. Every time there is a show in darija about an issue that relates to us, and portrays a lifestyle that we identify with, we become loyal to the T he participants also mentioned the lack of opportunity to participate in TV debates and discussions.

PAGE 285

272 are some live shows such as 7iwar and Moubacharatan maakoum that address important issues, and in most shows I feel like I have so many things I can say and explain, but I'm people to use the phone and voice their concerns. Mou bacharatan maakoum allows for some feedback but only through cellular phone text messaging but these can of course be censored. The participants expressed their frustration with the dominant format of the talk shows. A host moderates the discussion among a group of experts about a theme. While the themes discussed may be important, the manner in which these themes are discussed experts speak, they use classical Arabic, they use big words, t hey use a language only they and the host when normal citizens speak about their problems, they are more in touch with reality and I feel connected with them, the y give real examples of real people. The experts speak and that's all they do, they give you the impression like they try to avoid touching the real In the focus groups conducted in the rural communes of Dayet Ifrah and Khmiss An jra, many of the participants said they wanted to watch the imh alel or inchaden (the Amazigh poets). These poets are known for their powerful lyrics, their magical stories, and heroic characters. For Imazighen, these poems have been a major source of enter tainment and education for many centuries, but their impact has weakened because of migration to cities as well as the overall impact of modernity. There are only a few old poets and many participants lament the fact that whenever televisions wants to give

PAGE 286

273 homage to an old artist, it is usually someone who sang or wrote in Arabic. The TV stations produced only a few shows that feature these Amazigh artists. Moha, a 40 years Inchaden are our people, they tell great stories that speak to our hea The participants also asked for shows that give them a sense of empowerment. Three focus groups with young female respondents said they liked a TV series that tells the story of a woman police investig ator. The title of the series is Yetou a typical female Amazigh name, the name of the main character. Yetou is 30 years old, single, female, police officer and a member of a special team of forensic investigators. In the series, she struggles with what so ciety typically expects from an adult woman, which is marriage and kids, and her commitment to being a successful and professional crime fighter. Yeti is a great character, a woman in a positi on of power is something fascinating. She has to take care of herself, being a woman, but also be strong in her work. The show inspires me to want to be a Many young female participants said they wanted more shows like Yetou Other participants went further and linked television service with the sense of being a citizen. They expressed their frustration with the fact that the two TV channels do not consider them as full citizens. In the two focus g roups conducted in Karian Toma in Casablanca, the participants illustrated this fact by invoking an incident that happened in their neighborhood. A few weeks before the focus group took place (May 2008), a bus driver lost control over his bus, crushed and killed six people (according to the official police account). The participants said that the coverage of 2M and Al Oula consisted of a

PAGE 287

274 two minutes report, where both TV stations tried to hide the facts. They said the facts in the reports were not accurate; the TV reports said six people were killed while in reality there were a lot more. They added that the footage was deliberately meant to hide the old unemployed high sch spoke to people and I saw the extent of the damage. Both TV station lied to us and that Loubna, a 25 members of the victims. We had to watch Al Jazeera to get those testimonies. It was also quite insulting to see both channels spend two minutes each covering the event, and then spend more than ten minutes covering the national soccer team and their new coach. The TV stations also aired the usual Saturday night music show as if those who died were a nei ghborhood, the coverage would have been more accurate and more substantial. The participants from other focus groups expressed similar sentiments. Because they do not see their lifestyle, their language, and their every day life represented on TV, they do not feel a 27 years old high school graduate and a farmer from Dayet Ifrah soccer than people's lives, it's as if we don't really exist

PAGE 288

275 The participants also made an observation on how the two TV stations adjust their programs to the two Muslim Hol idays, Aid Al Fitr and Aid Al Adha. 72 They noted that d uring these two holidays, apart from covering the king's ceremonial activities and the morning prayer, the remainder of the program is mainly the same. Asmae, a 32 years old housewife from Ifrane, said often wonder, who are these people in charge of the programming, what would they want their sons and daughters to see on their TV during holidays? Maybe they spend the two holidays in Spain or somewhere in Europe so they don't care. We don't see the atmosphere of the Aids In conclusion, the overall response I received from the majority of the participants is that their main problem is exclusion. They expressed a feeling of inferio rity vis vis their TV stations, and a feeling of exclusion from their own media and their own society. For them, the two public service television stations promote the Westernized and urban lifestyle as the normal and the dominant lifestyle. Karima, a 32 years old unemployed these urban lifestyles and as a consequence we feel ignored by Moroccan society. This situation breeds feelings of bitterness and frustration. We fe el intimidated by our own TV stations, we feel we're unable to claim our own lifestyle because it doesn't seem to have any value. Bottom line is, what we do not like about our TV channels is the way we're 72 Aid Al Fitr day of feasting, is a day of celebration when Muslims rejoice for having completed the commandment of Allah to fast during the holy month of Ramadan. Aid Al Adha is the Islamic religious celebrat ions that commemorate the Prophet Abraham's willingness to sacrifice of his son Ismael as an act of obedience to Allah.

PAGE 289

276 6. 5 Discussion of Findings The responses of the focus groups participants were very consistent with regards to the important issues of understanding television content s, representation of lifestyle, and audience expectations. The focus groups participants ex pressed very clearly the following: They prefer to watch their own television stations. They praise and enjoy the shows that use darija or a mix of darija and MS Arabic and shows that portray their lifestyles and address their everyday life concerns. Al l participants agree that most television shows do not portray their way of life, and that the shows have little if no relation to their lives. When asked about what lifestyle they thought was represented, they unanimously agreed that it is the way of lif e of wealthy people living in big urban centers, namely Casablanca and Rabat. The participants expressed frustration with the manner in which the two television stations excludes them and their lifestyles by using MS Arabic and French and by promoting the westernized and urban lifestyle as the norm. Stuart Hall's audience theory ca n be used to shed light on the interpretation by Moroccan audiences of the contents of their two television stations. This theory application will also show the extent to which Hall's theory is applicable to non Western audiences. For Hall, there are three possible readings for any given television text: the dominant/hegemonic reading, the negotiated reading, and the oppositional reading. Hall assumes that the receiver (viewer) is capable of decoding the signs in the television text and attains a particular understanding which can then be categorized as a dominant,

PAGE 290

277 negotiated, or oppositional reading. As noted in the theory section, these three readings are moments of decoding that lie in the realm of pragmatics. In other words, the audience members' interpr etations of the television text are beyond the levels of semantics and syntactics. In Hall's model, it is assumed that the audience members understand the literal meanings and whether their readings are dominant, negotiated, or oppositional depends on the connoted meaning (and pragmatic codes) of the text. The participants in the focus groups are people of lower income and lower educational backgrounds. As audience members, most of them do not understand the literal meaning of the television texts. Because they watch television contents that use MS Arabic and French, most of them do not recognize the semantic and syntactic codes and are therefore incapable of understanding the literal meaning of the programs. Other audience members are capable of understandi ng the contents of the programs in MS Arabic and fewer can understand the contents in French. They all understand programs in darija and some understand shows in tamazight After the examination of the data, I believe that there are two ways in which the a udience members read and decode television messages. They either decode the message and offer a dominant/hegemonic reading, or they offer an oppositional reading. The hegemonic and oppositional readings are not so much interpretations of the contents of th e shows, they are an interpretation and a response to the manner in which the audience situate themselves vis vis television as a social and political institution. In other words, udience reading is an interpretation of the command (relationship) aspect of communication rather than the report or content aspect. According to Watzlawick et. al. (1967) each

PAGE 291

278 communication act involves two messages. The first is the report aspect of the message and it refers to the content or information being conveyed. The second message refers to the nature of the relationship between the communicators. For instance, when a father rms the son to go to his room, and the relationship message informs the son that the father is the authority in the house. The son's response may also convey a relationship dimension which may express compliance, respect, or defiance. Watzlawick et. al. po int out that (Watzlawick et. al., 1967, p. 52). They add that the rela tionship aspect of a communication is a metacommunication, or communication about communication, and that the ability to metacommunicate appropriately is a conditio n for successful communication. The focus group participants respond to the metacommunicatio n. When the two public service television stations use darija and address themes that audiences identify with, the two TV stations communicate a relationship message to their audiences. The message seems to be something like this: the audiences and their r ights as citizens do matter. According to focus group testimonies, when the participants understand the show and relate to the show's theme and lifestyle, they tend to offer a dominant/hegemonic reading. The participants expressed the joy of having watched and understood something that resembled their own lives, and they did not question what Hall calls the hegemonic instance, all participants expressed

PAGE 292

279 admiration to the TV series Oujea Trab areas. The show reproduces a view of the world that can be interpreted as hegemonic but audiences do not produce negotiated or op positional readings to this TV show. The audience responded more to the fact that their TV station offered them an enjoyable and entertaining show than to the actual content in the show itself. However, when the two public service television stations use MS Arabic or French and address themes that participants do not identify with, the two TV stations communicate a strong metacommunicational (relationship) message to their audiences. The message seems to be something like this: the audiences and their righ ts as citizens do not matter. Here, the participants offer an oppositional reading. The oppositional reading offers an alternative framework to the relationship message, and not to the content message. The participants expressed this framework when they qu estioned the legitimacy of the TV stations to exclude their lifestyles, when they linked the feeling of exclusion from their own media with a feeling of exclusion from their own society. They also expressed dissatisfaction regarding what they saw as illogi cal choices, such as presenting the news and weather forecast in languages that only a few can understand. The responses rarely addressed the content of the shows; they addressed instead the institution of television, their rights as citizens, and the edit ori al choices of TV producers. Hall argues that audiences that reproduce the dominant/hegemonic reading may lack the necessary knowledge that would allow them to propose alternative readings for the text. In other words, they may lack an alternative world view they can use to replace the one offered by the TV content. For example, a union member has the necessary knowledge, definitions, and terminology that can help him or her negotiate or counter the

PAGE 293

280 hegemonic contents of economic news. I am not sure if th is is applicable to the focus groups participants. I think that because they feel distanced from the concerns of decision makers in the two TV stations, their interpretive activity as audiences is restrained to the level of metacommunication (the relations hip) message of TV contents. Therefore, when they accept the hegemonic message, they accept it more as a way of expressing their satisfaction with the relationship message, than as a way of expressing consent with the hegemonic message. This focus on the relationship level of communication is clearly manifested in the participants' reference to their rights as citizens, to their perceived worth vis vis the two TV stations. the ability to metacomm unicate appropriately is not only the conditio sine qua non of successful communication, but is intimately linked with the enormous problem of awareness of self Watzlawick et al., 1967, p. 53) Awareness of the self comes as a result of workin g out a relationship with another individual. For the participants, the two public service television stations promote the Westernized and urban lifestyles as the normal and the dominant lifestyles the fact that communicates a relationship message about th e worthlessness of the participants' own rural and suburban lifestyles. As a result, s ome they felt intimidated by the people and the lifestyles they see portrayed o n their TV. The application of Stuart Hall's encoding/decoding model in the Moroccan context reveals some of the model's strengths as well some of its limitations. The model provides very useful tools that help understand the relationship between how telev ision producers encode messages and how audiences decode them, and this study would not

PAGE 294

281 have been possible without the model's rich analytical tools. The model stems from studies done in England where one of the best public service televisions exists and w here English is dominant even among the smallest minorities. The model is founded on the assumption that audiences are capable of decoding the TV contents and that variations in readings are the outcome of the audiences' reactions to the hegemonic message. The model is also founded on the premise that audiences are capable of understanding the literal meanings of texts, the readings are to be analyzed at the level of pragmatic s, not semantics or syntactics. In the case of Moroccan television and their audie nce, the audience' readings of the TV contents depend not so much on the content level, but on the relationship level of the TV messages. Participants confirmed that they did not understand most of the contents of the two TV stations, and they interpreted these contents by focusing on the metacommunicational (relationship) messages. Hall's model does not account for these situations where audiences, faced with lack of skills to understand the content (at the levels of semantics and syntactics), resort to in terpre ting the relationship messages. Sylvia Harvey (2004) from the Center for Briti sh Film and Television Studies argues that a constant public policy issue in public service broadcasting is the provision of high quality information, education and enterta inment to households throughout the country. She describes the programs as ones that offer some insight into the economic and social conditions and that enrich the choices of individuals whether acting in their capacity as citizens or as consumers. For ins tance, public service programs may facilitate the recognition of human rights and may further democratic processes. There are a variety of ways that this can be done: in drama as in documentary, in current affairs and

PAGE 295

282 in investigative journalism ( Harvey 2004 ). On the basis of the audience reception analysis, one may conclude that the two Besides, they do not produce high quality programs and even if they did, the p rograms are not meant for all Moroccan households. The high rates of illiteracy among its population and the TV stations refusal to communicate to their target audience in a language they understand restrict audience access to most of the TV's contents. In terms of public broadcasting role in furthering human rights and democracy, Moroccan public service television is far from fulfilling this role. It actually communicates a relationship message whereby it defines the Moroccan audience as unimportant, there by denying Moroccans one of the basic human rights, i.e. the right to information. 6. 6. Conclusion The television viewers that are most concerned with the developmental role of the public service television stations are of lower income and lower educati onal backgrounds. The results of the focus groups allowed to distill some of the perceptions of this segment of the Moroccan population of the public service provided by the two television stations. These insights are of utmost importance and are necessary to obtain a clearer picture of the investigation under study. The participants asserted that they preferred to watch their own television stations. They praise and enjoy the shows that use darija or a mix of darija, Arabic and Tamazight shows that portra y their lifestyles and address their everyday life concerns. All participants agree that most television shows do not portray their way of life, and that the shows have little if no relation to their lives. When asked about what lifestyle they thought was represented, they unanimously agreed that it is the

PAGE 296

283 way of life of wealthy people living in big urban centers, namely Casablanca and Rabat. The participants expressed frustration with the manner in which the two television stations exclude them and their l ifestyles by using MS Arabic and French and by promoting the westernized a nd urban lifestyle as the norm. These findings confirm the major hypothesis of this dissertation, that the two public service television stations seem to promote a cultural agenda th at benefits only a small privileged segment of Moroccan society and seems to shy away from, if not prevent, the possibility of allowing the concerns and perspectives of the poor and marginalized to be highlighted. The two TV stations alienate the very audi ences they claim to ser ve. T he question of access and the relationship it entails between contents and audiences show that the potential of Moroccan public service television to have any positive impact on the development of the nation and its democratic t ransition does not depend only on the existence of an independent and free media. It also depends on the extent to which media offer the possibilities of access and participation to the majority of Moroccan audiences. A core assumption of much of the literature on media in developing countries is that a more independent press with greater freedom will make a positive contribution to political change. U nderstanding the developmental role of Moroccan public service televi sion in the country's democratic transitions requires a nuanced approach, based on uncovering multiple layers of ambiguity that address the legal, economic, and political environments, the television contents, the production dynamics, as well as the relati onship between content and audiences.

PAGE 297

284 Chapter Seven : Conclusion and Recommendations 7. 1. Conclusion and Summary This study addresses the basic question of how public service television is put to use to bring about rapid social change and economic pro gress for Morocco. The primary task of this study is to examine the extent to which Moroccan public service television serves the development objectives of the nation. To provide substantial answers to this question, the study tackled this question from three main angles: content analysis, production study, and audience reception analysis. This study looked at the research both the broadcasters (sup ply) and the audienc e (demand). First, the content analysis investigated the issues of access and participation, which constitute the foundation of the first principle in public service broadcasting: universality of appeal. The study used quantitative content analysis as a co unting tool to ad dress the demographic characteristics of participants in the television programs of Al Oula and 2M, the languages used in the programs, and the availability of means of feedback The study supplemented this quantitative analysis with an in terpretive (qualitative) content analysis to help uncover and capture the essence of the television programs in so far as their contents relate to development. It analyzed four shows, one confirming, one disconfirming and two extreme cases. By choosing a c ombination of confirming/disconfirming and exceptional examples for this study, this content analysis

PAGE 298

285 explored the boundaries of the data and identified the range of views including typical, discordant and extreme cases. The second area is the production s tudy. Using in depth interviews, the study investigated the ways in which t elevision producers and managers of Al Oula and 2M interpreted and responded to the constraints of both the media organizations and those of the larger economic and political enviro nments. It investigated the views of TV producers on the media policies and the ways in which they liberated and/or constrained them. TV producers were asked questions about their own perceptions of their audiences' educat ional level and language skills, and whether there were feedback mechanisms that Finally, the audience reception analysis examined the opinions of television viewers on the quality of the TV programs and their percep tions on the public service provided by Al Oula and 2M. The focus was on the extent to which the television viewers understood the contents of the TV stations, and the extent to which the TV programs represented the viewers' lifestyles and concerns. The st udy also examined the expectations the television viewers may have of their public service television. Before summarizing the core findings of this study in Chapters Four, Five, and Six, it is important to point out some of the major ideas that emerged fro m the theory and historical surveys in Chapters Two and Three. In Chapter Two, I argued that the for the use of the mass media for public service constituted the most coherent approach to the use of mass media for devel opment. The modernization approaches, the neo Marxist approaches, and the participatory approaches all had many limitations. They either misconceived the process of change or

PAGE 299

286 were focused on small scale development projects. the The Moroccan government has given important policy considerations to regulate the use of television and radio airwaves to adhere to the pub lic service broadcasting model. The MacBride Report remains in my view the closest model for the use of mass media for development. Chapter Three provided a historical review of radio and television and described the government media relationship in light of the world media systems. It also described the role of Moroccan broadcast media in the processes of nation building and the democratic transition period. In order to define Morocco's media system during the periods 1956 1999 and 1999 2008, the chapt er also examined legal, economic and political environment s. system is an unstable media system that swings back and forth from developmental to authoritarian systems. Today, t he legal, economic and poli tical environments are certainly more open and conducive to more freedom in the period from 1999 to 2008 than they The study found that t here was however still more work to be done with regard to the media policy and the or ganizational culture in formerly state run media institutions. The law still provides for jail sentences for journalists, and the Audiovisual Communication Law has too many restrictions on what private radio and TV stations can and cannot do. State run tel evision seems to be stuck in the old regime, and it seems that resistance to freedom and democracy emanates more from within the media institutions and less from without. Media policy can improve but the remnants of the old regime still persist.

PAGE 300

287 The core f indings of this study emanate from the content analysis, the production study, and the audience reception analysis. T he focus of the content analysis was on the public broadcasting principle of universality of appeal, and in particular on the questions of access to and participation in public television, including the provisions for minorities. Contrary to developmental, participatory, and public service theories of television, the contents of the two public service te levision stations do not allow for access and participation. The findings confirm my major hypotheses, that television programming decisions in the two public stations is influenced by the elite upper middle class, who want more entertainment and have less need for educational programs than their rural and urban poor counterparts. Al Oula and 2M do promote the cultural agenda of a small privileged segment of Moroccan society and seems to shy away from, if not prevent, the possibility of allowing the concern s and perspectives of the poor and marginalized to be highlighted. The content analysis results show that programming decisions do not take into account the interests of the Moroccan population as a whole, and that criteria such as diversity, pluralism, ac cess, and participation are virtually absent from the two public service television stations. They appear to be more in line with the modernization approach where communication and information flow in a top down fashion with little or no regard to the rece ivers' feedback. A ccess and participation are the major cornerstones for the use of television for development. Moroccan public service television is in clear violation of its public broadcasting mandate, i.e. to appeal to all segments of Moroccan society, to offer opportunities for assess and participation to its audiences, to stay detached from

PAGE 301

288 government interest, and to cater to national identity and community. The two public television stations construct on a daily basis an undemocratic social order b y acting as media by the elite and for the elite and by narrowing down the possibilities of participation for the underprivileged and the poor segments of Moroccan society. An important and vital function of television is to help society understand itself. Considering the confirming and the extreme cases examined in the interpretive content analysis, the two public service television stations give an appalling sense of national identity. When television news considers royal activities as more newsworthy tha n a when television p ortrays Moroccans living in the rural areas of the middle Atlas as props in the documentary, television communicates and actively constructs a bizarre national identity. Moroccans seem to be defined as less human than the wealthy tourists and their lives a s less important than routine royal activities. The participants in the audience analysis confirm this fact. They expressed frustration with the manner in which the two television stations excluded them and their lifestyles by promoting the westernized and urban lifestyle as the norm. in the words of If television is to become an important actor in Morocco's development, television producers and decision makers need to be aware of the kinds of social constructs they disseminate each day. The danger in portraying Moroccan national identity the way the two pub l ic service television stations do is that they provide images, frames, and descriptions on the basis of which national identi ties and national symbols are constructed and defined.

PAGE 302

289 The apparent distance between Al Oula and 2M and their public service mandates may be traced to an utter lack of understanding, on the part of television producers, of the relationship between the tel evision texts and the world they represent and understanding the processes by which the meanings of these texts are constructed. A TV text that represents an identity or state of being is a text that represents a particular conception of power and responsi bility. Television producers seem to be either oblivious or indifferent The two stations marginalize and dis empower the very audiences they claim to serve. T he qualitative content analysis also showed that the contents of Al Oula and 2M greatly hampered the attainment of their public service mandate and their desired objectives. B ecause there seems to be a lack of vision about what public service means, becaus e TV producers seem to be assigned to produce programs for which they are not trained and/or fail to employ the necessary external input, and because frequent evaluation of the programs seems to be non existent, the result is not likely to be what the publ ic s ervice mandate intended. In Chapter Five, the television producers in both stations confirmed the fact that the major forces of structure in Moroccan TV production had been the State and the Royal Palace. Before 1999, television functioned as a support system for Morocco's authoritarian regime for 38 years. The regime used television mostly for propaganda and entertainment purposes at the expense of other functions and services. After 1999, the new political environment under the reign of King Mohamed VI made the promotion of human rights one of its priorities. The legal environment had to change to accompany the political reforms. While these changes, i.e. the creation of HACA and the new A udio

PAGE 303

290 visual Communication law, allowed for the liberalization of the sector and the creation of new TV and radio stations, they had until now failed to exert and wield significant changes in the contents and the public service function of the two televisio n stations. The fact that television functioned as a tool of an oppressive regime seem to have shaped the cultural and institutional foundations of the television industry. These cultural and institutional foundations are resilient and they resist much of the current legal and political changes. In response to the questions on the use of language and the availability of audience feedback, the interviewees expressed incapacity to act from within the television institutions to change any of these things. Th ey refer to the State as the sole entity that is able to dictate a change in issues such as the choice of language or the availability of feedback. On the question of language for instance, one of main responses was tha t using darija as the main language o f the TV programs was a strong political decision that needed to be taken at the highest level of the State. The interviews also pointed to the presence of fear amongst TV producers. The fact that television functioned as a tool of an oppressive regime for many years seems to have shaped much of the cultural and institutional foundations of the television industry. These cultural and institutional foundations became part and parcel of the organizational culture of these TV station s This is more evident in Al Oula than it is in 2M. With the exception of Mr. Benjelloun who questioned the three taboo subjects (Islam, Monarchy and Western Sahara), all the other interviewees either provided more justifications for why they must remain taboos as the case of Mr. M oudden, or expressed a wish that political freedoms should improve. The undemocratic and repressive features of the old

PAGE 304

291 regime still impact how media producers perceive their work and perceive the margins of freedom they may or may not have. Finally, the TV producers seem to perceive themselves more as patriotic citizens who must be mindful of their responsibility to the State rather than as media professionals with a mission to serve the public interest. The State is still the major force of structural constraints on the two public service television stations. It controls the economic, political, and legal environments. The elements of authoritarianism are still present although there are signs that there is a movement towards a more developme ntal media system. Therefore, unless the State lifts the legal and political constraints on the two TV stations, unless revisions are made to the Licensing Obligations, unless a clear mission recent media policy reforms will continue to be a varnish. Underneath lies the same old State controlled broadcasting system. In Chapter Six, the results of the focus groups allowed to distill some of the perceptions of the viewers of the public service p rovided by the two television stations. The television viewers this study focused on are of lower income and lower educational backgrounds. Besides the fact that they constitute the majority of the Moroccan population, they are also the ones most concerned with the developmental role of the public service television stations. Their insights are of utmost importance and are necessary to obtain a clearer picture of the investigation under study. The participants asserted that they preferred to watch their own television stations. They praised and enjoyed the shows that used darija (or a mix of darija Arabic and Tamazight ) and shows that portrayed their lifestyles and addressed their everyday life concerns. All

PAGE 305

292 participants agreed that most television shows d id not portray their way of life, and that the shows had little if no relation to their lives. When asked about what lifestyle they thought was represented, they unanimously agreed that it was the way of life of wealthy people living in big urban centers, namely Casablanca and Rabat. The participants expressed frustration with the manner in which the two television stations excluded them and their lifestyles by using Modern Standard Arabic and French and by promoting the westernized and urban lifestyle as t he norm. In terms of public broadcasting's role in furthering human rights and democracy, Moroccan public service television is far from fulfilling this role. It actually communicates a relationship message whereby it defines the Moroccan audience as unimp ortant, thereby denying Moroccans one of the basic human rights, i.e. the right to information. The high rates of illiteracy among Morocco's population and the TV restr ict audience access to most of the TV's contents. Al Oula and 2M alienate the very audiences they claim to serve. 7. 1. Recommendations In a media environment that is changing rapidly, any attempts to make recommendations for the future must be cautious. However, based on the findings of this study, it is obvious to me that the Moroccan government either does not possess a clear vision for the use of television for development, or lacks the willpower to make such use possible. Chapter Four demonstrated tha t the potential of Moroccan media to have a positive impact on the development of the nation and its democratic transition does not depend only on the existence of an independent and free media. It also depends on the

PAGE 306

293 extent to which media offer the possib ilities of access and participation to the majority of Moroccan audiences. However, t o regulate the use of television as an outside source for promoting its development goals, the government created the HACA and passed the Audio visual Communication Law to liberalize the sector. As a result, many television stations were launched, five of which were thematic ( Arriyadia for sports, Assadissa for religion, Aflam TV for films and TV series, and Arrabia the education channel); one station was regional, the TV s tation of Laayoun located in the capital of the southern provinces of Morocco. 73 Therefore, instead of conducting large scale evaluation and assessment of the quality and quantity of the programming of the existing two public service television stations (Al Oula and 2M), the government launched new channels without knowing what works or In order to comply with the principle of universality of appeal, the public service TV stations must address the concerns of the loca l populations and show sensitivity to the uniqueness of their local cultures and local dialects. Morocco is a diverse country that is made up of distinct geographical, ethnic and cultural groupings. Many observers say that travelling in Morocco from one re gion to the other seems more like travelling from one country to another. Riffians in the north, Middle Atlas Imazighen in the center, Arabs in the western plains, the Sous in the south, and finally the S ahraouis of the deep southern territories, all have distinct dialects, cuisine, fashion, and lifestyles. Therefore, I recommend that the TV stations must be regional, not national. For television to have a development impact, TV audience s must have access to television 73 The station is located in the contested Western Sahara and it plays a major role in promoting Morocco's official position vis v is this territory.

PAGE 307

294 content. TV content must be communicated in the language spoken and understood by the people and must address issues that are of concern to the people. The availability of means of feedback is of utmost importance for relevant television program making. Th e long term goal must be to involve the local populations in the production of television programs contents. It is important to note that television content must be distanced from all vested interests: this is a key principle in public broadcasting; the s hows serve the public best when they are produced within a structure of independence. Public service television must remain distanced from any commitment to any power structure within the nation, be it political or economic. Based on the findings of the q ualitative content analysis, t he distance between Al Oula and 2M and their public service mandates can be traced to an utter lack of understanding, on the part of television producers, of the relationship between the television texts and the world they rep resent and understanding the processes by which the meanings of these texts are constructed. I recommend that TV producers undergo intensive training in critical media studies so that they become aware of the kinds of social constructs they disseminate eac h day to their audiences. For instance, the danger in portraying Moroccan national identity the way the two public service television stations do is that they provide images, frames, and descriptions on the basis of which national identities and national s ymbols are constructed and defined. A TV text that represents an identity or state of being is a text that represents a particular conception of power and responsibility. Television producers seem to be either oblivious or indifferent to the impact TV rep TV producers seem to be

PAGE 308

295 assigned to produce programs for which they are not trained and/or fail to employ the necessary external input. Therefore, there is a need to train TV producers in message production an d reception. Finally, I recommend that Al Oula and 2M adopt and implement a strategic internal communication plan to transform the organizational culture of the two stations. The fact that Al Oula and 2M functioned as tools of an oppressive regime for 38 years has shaped the cultural and institutional foundations of the television industry. These cultural and institutional foundations are resilient and they resist much of the desired legal and political changes. Unless the organizational culture of the tw o stations change, the undemocratic and repressive features of the old regime will continue to shape how media producers perceive their work and perceive the margins of freedom they may have.

PAGE 309

296 References Abdel Rahman, H (1998) Uses and g ratifications of s atellite TV in Egypt. Transnational Broadcasting Journal issue 1, fall 1998. Alami, D. (Ed.) ( 1985 ) Le Parlement et la Pratique Legislative au Maroc Casablanca: Les Editions Toubkal. Al Bayati, Y K (2001) Satellite TV: The f oreign culture and the v isual Authority: Libya as a c ase s tudy'. Al Mustaqbal Al Arabi Vol. 24(267): 111 127. Al Hroub, K. ( 2006 ) Satellite m edia and social c hange in the Arab w orld. In Arab Media in the Information Age. The Emirates C enter for Strategic Studies and Research. Allen, R. C., Hill, A. (Eds.) (2004). The Television Studies Reader New York: Routlege. Al Refai, M. K. (1995) Video: The m odernisation of the m eans and the p roblem of e xposure: Syria as a c ase s tudy. Al Mustaqbal Al Arabi Vol. 17(194): 68 84. Altschull, J. H. (1995) Agents of Power: The Media and Public Policy NY: Longman. Asante, C. E. (1997) Press Freedom and Development: A Research Guide and Selected Bibliography. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Al Sahifa (2000, September 29). pp. 2 3. Auter, P. J., Arafa, M., & Al Jaber, K. 2005. Identifying with Arabic journalists. How Al Jazeera Tapped Parasocial Interaction Gratifications in the Arab World. Gazette:

PAGE 310

297 The International Journal for Communication Studies Vol. 67(2): 189 204. Ayish, M. (2003 a ) Beyond Western o riented c ommunication t heories: A n ormati ve Arab Islamic p erspective in The Public 10: 2, pp. 79 92. Ayish, M. (2003 b ) Arab World Television in the World of Globalization Hamburg : Ubersee Institute. Bandura, A. ( 1977 ) Social Learning Theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bandura, A. ( 1994 ). Social c ognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant & D. Zillman (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in Theory and R esearch (pp. 61 90). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Baran, P. A. (1957). The Political Economy of Growth New York: Monthly Review Press. Baran, S. J., & Davis, D. (2006). Mass Communicati on Theory: Foundation, Ferment, and Future Belmont, CA.: Thompson Wadsworth. Ben Ashour. A. ( 1992 ) Mass m edia in Morocco Institut Suprieur de Journalisme Rabat, Morocco. Ben Cherif, N. Morocco: Public TV, private business. Retrieved June 10, 2002, from, http:// www.allied media.com/arabtv/2m_moroccan_tv_article.html Benjamin, L. (1998). Working i t o ut together: Radio p olicy f rom Hoover to t he Radio Act of 1927. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 42(2), (Spring 1998): 233. Benton Foundation (2008). The F ederal Radio Commission Retrieved June 14, 2008, from, http:// www.Benton.org Berelson, B. (1952). Content Analysis in Communication Research New York: Hafner.

PAGE 311

298 Berg, B. L. ( 2005 ) Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences Boston : Allyn & Bacon. Berger, A. A. ( 2007 ) Media and Communication Resea rch Methods: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Bertrand, J., Brown, J., & Ward, V. (1992). Techniques for a nalyzing f ocus g roup d at a. Evaluation Review 16, 198 209. Besley T., & Burgess R. (2001) Political a gency, g o vernment responsiveness and the r ole of the m edia. European Economic Review. 45(4 6): 629 640. Boyd, D. (1 999) Broadcasting in the Arab World. A Survey of Radio and Tele vision in the Middle East. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Carey, J. W. (1989) Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society Boston : Unwin Hyman. Chadwick, A. ( 2006 ) Internet Politics: States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies New York: Oxford University Press. Cantor, M. G. (1988). The Hollywood TV Producer: His Work and His Audience. NJ.: Transaction Publishers. Chomsky, N. (1989) Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies. Boston, MA: South End Press. Cook, D. (1996) The Culture Industry Revisited Lanham, Maryland and London : Rowman and Littlefield Press. Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2003) Media Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences Thousand Oaks, CA.: Pine Forge Press. Curran, J. (2002) Media and Power NY: Routledge.

PAGE 312

299 D'Acci, J. (2004). Television, representation, and gender. In Robert C, Allen and Annette Hill (Eds.) The Television Studies Reader NY.: Routledge. D ahlg ren, P. (1995) Television and the Public Sphere London: Sage. Dahlgren, P., & Sparks, C. (1995) Communication and Citizenship London: Routledge. Darif, M. ( 1992 ) The Political Islam: A Historical Approach Rabat: Makta bat Al Maarif Al Jadid. (Arabic). DeFleur, M. & Ball Rokeach, S. (1990). Theories of Communication (5th ed.). New York: Longman. Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of Qualitative Research Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. Donohue G. A., Tichenor, P. et al. (1995). A Guard d og perspective on the role of the m edia. Journal of Communication 45(2): 115 128. Downing, J., McQuail, D., Wartella, E., & Schlesinger, P. (2004) The SAGE Handbook of Media Studies. Thousand Oaks, CA : SAGE. Downing, J. ( 2007 ) Drawing a bead on g lobal c ommunication. In Global Communication Yahia R. Kamalipour (Ed.). Belmont, CA.: Thompson Wadsworth. Durham, M. G., Kellner, D. M. (2006). Media and Cultural Studies: Keywords Malden MA.: Blackwell Publishing. Edmunds, H. (2000) The Focus Group Research Handbook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. El Kobbi M. ( 1992 ). L'Etat et la Presse au Maroc Paris: L'auteur El Yahyaoui, Y. (2000) Malaise de la Tlvision au Maroc Rabat : Okad.

PAGE 313

300 Ennaji, M. ( 2005 ) Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco New York: Springer. Failakawi, Y. ( 2005 ) Kuwait viewers' behaviour: field study. Journal of the Gulf & Arabian Peninsula Studies Vol. 31(117). Fisher, H. D., & Merrill, J. C. (eds.). ( 1976 ) I nternational and Intercu ltural Communication New York: Hastings House Publishers. Freedom House. (2004). Retrieved September 11, 2008, from, http://www.freedomhouse.org Freedom House. (2008). Enabling e nvironments for c ivic m ovements and the d ynamics of d emocratic t ransition. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from, http://www.freedomhouse.org Freire, P. ( 1970 ) Pedagogy of the Oppressed New York : Continuum Publishing Company. Giddens, A. (1997) Sociology. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press. Gilroy, P. ( 2000 ) Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line Cambridge. MA.: Harvard university Press. Gilroy, P. ( 1991 ) T here Ain't No Black in the Union Jack': The Cultural Politics of Race and Nation Chicago, IL.: University of Chicago Press. G itlin, T. ( 1980 ) The Whole World is Watching Berkeley: University of California Press. Gitlin, T. (ed.) ( 1987 ) Watching Television New York: Pantheon. Gomulko, S. ( 1971 ) Inventive Activity, Diffusion, and Stages of Growth Institute of Economics, Asrhus University Denmark.

PAGE 314

301 Griffin, E. (2009). A First Look at Communication Theory. NY.: Mc Graw Hill. Haberman, P. (1986) Back at the Drawing Boards: The Third Decade in Development Communication. Unpublished Manuscript. Miami, Florida: Florida International U niversity. Hadj Moussa, R. (2003) New media, community and politics in Algeria. Media, Culture & Society Vol. 25: 451 468. Hafez, K. (2001) Mass Media Politics and Society i n the Middle East New Jersey : Hampton Press. Hagan, F. E. ( 2006 ) Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology Boston : Allyn and Bacon. Hall, S. ( 1980 ) Encoding and Decoding. In Culture, Media, Language London : Hutchinson. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices The Open University, UK.: Sage. Hallin, D. C., Mancini, P. (2005). Comparing Media Systems : Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hamada, B. I. (1993). The Agenda Setting Role of the Media in the Arab Region Beirut : Centre for Arab Unity Studies (in Arabic). Hamada, B. I. (2001). Islamic cultural theory, Arab media performance, and public o pinion. In Slavko Splichal (ed.), Public Op inion and Democracy: Vox Populi Vox Dei, Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, pp. 215 39.

PAGE 315

302 Harvey, S. (2004) Public s ervice Television: Everyday l ife and the p olitical p rocess. T he Center for British Film and Television Studies Retrieved March, 4, 2009, from http:// www.bftv.ac.uk Haute Authorit de la Communication Audio Visu lle (2006a). Description. Retrieved November 22, 2006, from http://www.haca.ma Haute Authorit de la Communication Audio Visu lle (2006b). Cahier des Charges de 2M. Retrieved November 22, 2006, from http://www.mincom.gov.ma/NR/rdonly res/6517D7FE 5F8C 4867 9AE5 958734831D62/0/Cahier_de_Charges_2M.pdf Haute Authorit de la Communication Audio Visu lle (2006c). Cahier des Charges de SNRT. Retrieved November 22, 2006, from http://www.mincom.gov.ma/NR/rdonlyres/3451DD5C F7DB 45D3 A927 D1EB691AD635/903/CCSNRT.pdf. Haut Commissariat au Plan ( 2004) Le Rap port 2004 Retrieved January 14, 2006, from http://www.hcp.ma/pubData/Demographie/RGPH/RGPHRapportNational.pdf Herman, E. (2002). The propaganda model. In D. McQuail (ed.), Mass Communication Theory London: Sage Publication. Herman, E., & Chomsky, N. ( 1988 ) Manufacturing Co nsent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon. Herzog, H. ( 1941 ). On b orrowed e xperience : a n a nalysis of listening to daytime s ketches, Studies in Philosophy and Social Science Vol. IX, No. 1: 65 95. Hidass, A. ( 1992 ). Librt et c ommunication au Maroc, in Tunis: Ceres Production.

PAGE 316

303 Hijams, E. ( 1996 ). The l ogic of qualitative m edia content analysis: a t ypology. Communications 21, 93 109. Hollander, J. A. ( 2004 ). The s ocial c ontexts of focus g roups. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography Vol. 33, No. 5, 602 637. hooks, b. (1990). Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics. Boston, MA.: South End Press. Horkheimer, M, & Adorno, T. W. ( 1972 ) Dialectic of Enlightenment New York : Herder and Herder. Hornik, R.C. (1989) Channel effectiveness in development communication programs. In Rice, R.E. & Atkin, C. K. (Eds.) Public information campaigns 2 nd edition, ( pp. 309 330). Newbury Park: Sage. Hur, K. K. ( 1984 ). A critical analysis of international news f low r esearch. Critical Studies in Mass Communication 1: 365 378. Ibahrine, M. ( 2007 ) The Internet and Politics in Morocco : The Political Use of the Internet by Islam Oriented Politi cal Movements Berlin: VDM Verlag. Jai di, D. (2000 ). Diffusion et A udience des M dia s Audiovisuels: Cinma, Radio, T lvision, V ido et P ublicit au Maroc Rabat, Maroc: Al Majal. Jaidi, L., & Zouaoui, M. ( 2005 ) Figure de la P rcarit : G enre et E xclusion E conomique au Mar o c Casablanca: Najah El Jadida. James C. J. (1991). Rethinking the m e dia as p ublic s phere. In Media and Society. London: Routledge. Jay, M. ( 1973 ) The Dialectical Imagination Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Jensen, K. ( 1995 ) The Social Semiotics of Mass Communication London : Sage

PAGE 317

304 Jhally, S., & Lewis, J. ( 1992 ) Enlightened Racism: The Cosby Show, Audiences, and the Myth of the American Dream San Francisco: Westview Press. Katz E. and Lazarsfeld, P. (1955). Personal Influence NY: Free Press. Kellner, D. ( 1989 ) Critical Theory, Marxism, and Modernity Cambridge and Baltimore : Polity and John Hopkins University Press. Kellner, D. ( 1990 ) Television and the Crisis of Democracy Boulder, Col. : Westview Press. Kellner, D. ( 1995 ) Media Culture. Cultural Studies, Identity, and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern New York: Routledge. Kepe, G. ( 1984 ) oritarisme dans le Moyen Orient Contemporain. Grenoble. Kepel, G., Leveau, R. (1996). Les Musulman s dans la Socit Fran aise Paris: R f rences. Kothari, R. ( 1988 ) Rethinking Development: In Search of Human Alternatives Delhi India: Ajanta Publications Kraidy, M. M. ( 1998 ) Broadcasting r egulation and civil s ociety in p ostwar L ebanon. In Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. V. 42, N. 3, p. 387 414. Krueger, R.A. ( 1988 ) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research Newbury Park: Sage. Kuhn, T. ( 1996 ) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL.: University of Chicago Press.

PAGE 318

305 Lambeth, D. (1995). The global perspective. In John Merrill (Ed.). Global Journalism : Survey of International Communication (3rd ed.). New York: Longman Publishers. Lamnadi, A. ( 1999 ) Communication Policy Making and Electronic Media in Morocco : The Introduction of Private Television. Unpublished Dissertation. Lasswell, H. ( 1927 ) Propaganda Technique in the World War. New York: Alfred Knopf. Laswell, H. (1948). The structure and function of communication in society. In L. Bryson (Ed.), The communication of ideas. New York: Harper. Lazarsfeld, P. ( 1941 ) Admini strative and critical c ommunications r esearch. Studies in Philosophy and Social Science Vol. IX, No. 1: 2 16. Lederman, L. (1990). Assessing e ducational e ffectivenes s: The focus group interview as a t echnique for data c ollection. Communication Education 38, 117 127. Littlejohn, S. ( 2004 ) Theories of Human Communication Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Macnamara, J. (2003). Mass media effects: A r e vi ew of 50 years of media effects r esearch. Retrieved August 28, 2004 from http://www.masscom.com.au/book/papers/mass media.html. Maghraoui, A. ( 2001 ). Morocco in t ransition: Political authority in c risis, Middle East Report. Retrieved June 23, 2007 from http://www.merip.org/mer/mer218/218_mghraoui.html Maibach, E., & Murphy, D.A. ( 1995 ) Self efficacy i n health promotion research and practice: conceptualization and measurement. Health Education Research, Theory, & Practice 10:37 50

PAGE 319

306 Marzouki, A. ( 2001 ) Tazmamart: Cellule 10 Paris: Gallimard. Marris, P., & Thornham, S. (Eds.). (1996). Media Studies: A Reader Edinburgh : Edinburgh Un iversity Press. Matar, D. ( 2006 ). Diverse diasporas, o ne m eta n arrative: Palestinians in the UK talking about 11 September 2001. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies Vol. 32(6): 1027 1040. McChesney, R. W. (1999). Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Time Urbana: University of Illinois Press. McKee, A. ( 2004 ) A b g uide to textual a nalysis. Retrieved April 13, 2004 from http://www/enhanc etv.com.au/ articles/article31.htm McQuail, D. (1983). Mass Communication Theory: An Introduction. London: Sage. McQuail, D. (1994). Mass Communication Theory: An Introduction. London: Sag e. McQuail, D. (1992). Media Performance: Mass Communication and the Public Interest London: Sage. McQuail, D. (2001). Political Communication Theory. London: Sage. McQuail, D. (Ed.) (2002). McQuail's Reader in Mass Communication Theory London: Sage. Media Education Foundation (Producer). (January 2009 ) Edward Said's Orientalism Podcast retrieved January 30, 2009, from http:// www. Youtube .com Media Policy (2006). A resource on t elevision, c hange and s tandards Retrieved June 10 2006 from http://www.mediapolicy.org/

PAGE 320

307 Newcomb, H. (1982). Television: The Critical View Oxford: Oxford University. Merrill, J C. (ed.). ( 1995 ) Global Journalism : Survey of International Communication (3rd ed.). New York: Longman Publishers. Miladi, N. ( 2006 ). Satellite TV n ews and the Arab D iaspora in Britain: Comparing Al Jazeera, the BBC and CNN. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies Vol. 32 (6): 947 960. Miles, M., & Huberman, M. ( 1994 ) Qualitative Data Analysis California: Sage. Ministry of Communic ation. History of Moroccan media. Retrieved November 10, 2005, from, http :// www.mincom.ma Ministry of Communication ( 2003 ) Le Domaine de la Communication au Maroc. Rabat: Al Anbaa. Ministry of Communication ( 200 6) Ministry of Communication Report Rabat: Al Anbaa. Ministry of Development. (June 2007). Comprendre le dveloppement humain Retrieved June 12, 2007 from http://www.social.gov.ma/upload/documents/Brochure%20 finale.pdf Ministry of development. (January, 2008). Fifty Years of Human Development & Perspectives to 2025 Report Retrieved January 10, 2008 from http:// www.rdh50.ma Mody, B. ( 1991 ). Designing Messages for Develop ment Communication: An Audience Participation based Approach. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage Mody, B. ( 2003 ). International and Developmen t Communication: A 21st Century Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.

PAGE 321

308 Mowlana, H. ( 1985 ) International Flow of Information: A Global Report and Analysis. Paris: UNESCO. Morgan, D. J. ( 1997 ) Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. London: Sage Morley, D. ( 1992 ) Television Audiences and Cultural Stu dies London: Routledge. Mumby, D. K. ( 1997 ). Modernism, p ostmodernis m, and communication studies: A r ereading of an o ng oing d ebate. Communication Theory 7, 16 28. Nair, K. S., & White, S. A. ( 1993 ) Perspectives on Development Communication. London: Sage. Napoli, P. (2001). Foundations of Communication Policy: Principles and Process in the Regulation of Electronic Media Cresskill, NJ.: Hampton Press. Neuendorf, K. (2002) The Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications. Norris, P. (2002) Democratic Phoenix: Political Activism Worldwide Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Oullette, L., & Lewis, J. (2004). Moving b and t elevision in the United States. In The Television Studies Reader Robert C. Allen and Annette Hill (Eds.). London: Routledge. Picard, R. G. (1985). The Press and the Decline of Democracy The Democratic Socialist Response in Public Policy. Santa Barbara, CA.: Greenwood Press. Poindexter, M. (1991). Subscription television in the third world: the Moroccan experience. Journal of Communication 41, 27 38. Preston W., Herman, E. S., & Schiller H. I. (1989) Ho pe and Folly: The United States and UNESCO 1945 1985. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.

PAGE 322

309 Rogers, E. M. ( 1962 ) Diffusion of Innovations New York: The Free Press. Rogers, E. M., Shoemaker, F. F. ( 1971 ) Communi cations of Innovations: A Cross Cultural Approach. New York: Free Press. Rogers, E. M. (1997). A History of Communication Study: A Biographical Approach NY: The Free Press. Rugh, W. (1979) The Arab Press: News Media and Political Process in the Arab World. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. Rugh, W. (2004) Arab Mass Media: Newspapers, Radio, and Television in Arab Politics. Westport, CT. Praeger Publishers. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism New York : Pantheon Books. Saeed, M. A. ( 2006 ). New t rends and forces in the Arab m edia a rena. In Arab Media in the Information Age. The Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. Scannell, P. (1986) Broadcast Talk London: Sage. Schiller, H. ( 1976 ) Communication and Cultural Domination NY.: International Arts and Sciences Press. Schramm, W. L. (1964) Mass Media and National Development. Stanford University Press. Schramm, W. L ., Chaffee, S. H., & Rogers, E. M. (1997) The Beginnings of Communication Study in America: A Personal Memoir. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Sen A. (1999) Democracy as a u niversal v alue. Journal of Democracy 10.3. Sen A. (1999) Development as Freedom New York: Anchor Books

PAGE 323

310 Servaes, J. (1989) One World, Multiple Cultures. A New Paradigm on Communication for Development Leuven: Acco. Shah, H.. (1996). Modernization, m arginalization and e mancipatio n: Toward a normative model of journalism an d n ational d evelopment. Communication Theory 6 (2). Shoemaker, P. (1991) Gatekeeping Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications. Silverman, D. (1993). Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction London: Sage. Singh, A. & Johnson, B. G. (Eds). (2004). Interviews with Edward Said. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. Singhal, A. & Rogers, E. M. (1999) Entertainment educati on: A Communication Strate gy for Social Change PA.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Sreberny Mohammadi et al. (1984) Foreign n ews in the m edia: International reporting in t wenty n ine c ountries. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication 93. Paris : UNESCO. Sreberny Mohamadi, A. & Mohamadi, A. (1994). Small Media, Big Revolution: Communication, Culture, and the Iranian Revolution. Minneapolis: Minneapolis University Press. Sreberny Mohammadi, A. (2000) Television, g en der, and democratization in the Middle East. In L. Curran and M. Jin Park (Eds.). De Westernizing the Media Studies London: Routlege. Stevenson, R. L., Shaw, D. L. (eds.). (1984) Foreign News and the New World Information Order Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press.

PAGE 324

311 Stewart, D.W., & Shamdasani, P. N. ( 1990 ) Focus Groups: Theory and Practice Newbury Park: Sage. Tessler, M. (2000) Changing Media Habits and Entert ainment Preferences in Morocco: An Inter Generational Analysis. Retrieved June 25, 2007, from http://nmit.georgetown.edu/papers/mtessler.html Thompson, J. (1995) The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of the Media Cambridge: Polity Press. Thussu, D. K. (2000) International Communication: Continuity and Change London : Arnold Publishers. Tozy, M. (1999) Monarchie et Islam Politique au Mar oc Paris. Presses des Sciences Po. Tracey, M. (1998) The Decline and Fall of Public Service Broadcasting Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tunstall, J. (1993). Television Producers NY.: Routledge. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2003). The 2003 Report Retrieved July 8, 2007, from http://www.uis.unesco.org/ev.php?URLID =3754&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201 United Nations. United Nations Millennium Declaration (2000) Retrieved June 20, 2007 from http://www.un.org/millennium. United Nations for Development Program Retrieved June 22, 2006, from, http://www.undp.org. Valdivia, A. N. (2003). A Companion to Media Studies Malden, MA. Blackwell Publishing.

PAGE 325

312 Wate rbury, J. ( 1970 ) The Commander of the Faithful: T he Moroccan Political Elite A Study of Segmented politics. New York: Columbia University Press. Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J. H., & Jackson, D. D. (1967). Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes NY.: Norton. White, S.A. ( 1994 ) The Concept of Participation: Transforming Rhetoric to Reality. In White, S.A. et al. Participatory Communication: Working for Change and Development New Delhi, India: Sage Publications. Williams, R. ( 1974 ) Television: Technology and Cultural Form London: Fontana/Collins. Wilkins, K.G. (1999). Development D iscourse on Gender and Communication in S trategies for S ocial C hange, Journal of Communication 49(1), 46 58. Whitney D. C., & Ettema J. S. 1994. Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience. London: Sage. World Bank ( 2006 ) World Bank Annual Report Retrieved June 25, 2007, from http://treasury .worldbank .org/ web/AnnualReport 2006 .pdf

PAGE 326

313 Appendices

PAGE 327

314 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results

PAGE 328

315 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 329

316 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 330

317 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 331

318 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 332

319 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 333

320 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 334

321 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 335

322 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Da ta Results (Continued)

PAGE 336

323 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 337

324 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 338

325 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 339

326 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 340

327 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 341

328 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 342

329 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (C ontinued)

PAGE 343

330 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 344

331 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 345

332 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 346

333 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 347

334 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 348

335 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 349

336 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 350

337 Appendix A: Quantitative Content Analysis Data Results (Continued)

PAGE 351

338 Appendix B: Chapter Five Production Study Interview Guide This is an interview guide for six semi structured qualitative in depth interviews. This interview guide facilitated the qualitative d ata collection for this dissertation. All the interviews lasted from one hour to one hour and fifteen minutes. All interviews took place between March 2008 and January 2009, except for the interviews conducted with Reda Benjelloun (June 2006) and Fatima El Ouadi (November 2005). All interviews were conducted in a language most appropriate to the participant, whether Arabic or French. The interviews were then translated and transcribed into English within three days after the interviews. Immediately after ea ch interview, I go over the notes with the interviewee to confirm that all the main points are included in the notes, and to invite corrections and additional comments. The researcher recorded the context, process and impression of the interviews in field notes. Before each interview, I notified the interview participants with the following: 1. I will not ask private questions. If you are uncomfortable in disclosing certain information, please feel free to avoid them. 2. The interview will last between 45 minutes to one hour long. The interview will be audio taped upon consent of the interviewee. (None of the interviewees accepted to be tape recorded.) 3. Not all questions on this guide will be asked. 4. The main purpose of the interview is to share your stories concern ing their respective jobs at the two public service television stations.

PAGE 352

339 Appendix B (Continued) Table 5. 1. List of interviewees Interviewee Function Location length Date Mr. Mohamed Moudden Senior news director and TV producer at Al Oula (1978 present) Conference room at Al Akhawayn University 1 h 15 min March 10, 2008 Mrs. Fatima Kheir Presenter and co producer of the show Oussar wa houloul at Al Oula (2000 present) Mrs. Kheir's office, Al Oula, Rabat. 1 hour January 3, 2009 Mr. Reda Benjelloun Producer of the show Grand Angle and vice director of information in 2M (1999 present) Casablanca 1 h 15 min June 16, 2006 Mr. Salahddine Ghomari Reporter and news presenter at 2M (2001 present) 2M, Casablanca 1 h 15 min April 10, 2008 Ms. Fatima El Ouadi Reporter and news presenter at 2M (1990 2002) Conference room at Al Akhawayn University 1 h 15 min November 2005 Mr. Jamaa Goulehcen Reporter and co producer of the show Moubacharatan Maakoum (2002 present) Casablanca 1 hour March 16, 2008 Interview questions in English What are your comments on the results of the content analysis? What are your perceptions of your audiences' educational level, attention span, their biographical characteristics, and their values and beliefs? Given the high rate of illiteracy in Morocco, why do the TV stations use lang uages only a few Moroccans understand? What are the feedback mechanisms that you have in place that allow you to know Tell me your views on the audiovisual media policy in Morocco Who decides the type of program, the theme of the show etc.?

PAGE 353

340 Appendix B (Continued) Are there any constraints, political or economic, that influence the decision making process at the station with regards to production? Is there any censorship or control from within or from without the TV station? Is there any media guidelines or philosophy that informs the production process? Interview questions in French ? Comment percevez vous le niveau ducatif, croyances de votre audience ? classique et le Franais ? Quels outils utilisez et de la qualit de vos programmes? Parle moi de la rglementation du champs audiovisuelle au Maroc. Comment dcide t mission? Qui est responsable de ce genre de dcision ? dcisions prises au moment de la production ? production?

PAGE 354

341 Appendix C: Chapter Six Focus Gr oup Interview Guide Sampling Focus Group Participants The participants in the focus group discussions constitute a purposive sample of the target population (Lederman, 1990). As a non probability sample, purposive sampling is occasionally used as a sampling method in qualitative research (Berg, 2007). Given the nature of the research question, researchers rely on their expertise about some group of people to identify subjects who represent that population (Berg, 2007). For this study, the decision to select the focus groups participants was based on the fact that people of lower income and lower educational backgrounds are the main focus of both national and international development programs and initiatives. As I mentioned in Chapter One, the NIHD an d the national media reforms that followed it are meant to address the needs of those who lack access to basic social services such as, health, education, water, electricity, etc. They also represent a large segment of the television viewers that are most concerned with the developmental role of the public service television stations. This stations are of utmost importance and are necessary to obtain a clearer picture of the investigation under study. I contacted the participants via the local associations. I meet them after they finish participating in one of the associations' activities: literacy classes or workshops on computer skills. My choice of the local association s is only a mean to reach the participants. Being involved in local associations is not considered part of the desirable attributes in focus groups participants. In fact, I ask them to introduce me to their family

PAGE 355

342 Appendix C (Continued) Framing Foc us Group Participation The invitation to the focus groups is done through a one on one meeting with each potential participant. I tell them that I am a universi ty researcher working on a project about the two main Moroccan television channels, and that I am interested in collecting information on their perceptions of the two public television stations. I show them my university ID and explain that this is univers ity research and that it is not government sponsored research. Such assurance is necessary as government related activities are looked at with suspicion. I inform them that the purpose of the research is to collect information about what they think of the contents of the TV programs. I do not Because of the results of the content analysis, one of my main concerns was that the participants would use the focus group sessions as a plac e where they would vent their frustrations about the two TV stations. I was aware that this assumption may influence how I ran the focus groups, so I made sure, in case none of these feelings are expressed, that I did not ask questions that may provoke the m. I made sure that the participants clearly understood the purpose of the invitation, that the purpose is to share their opinions about the programs of the two TV stations. I inform them that all participants are encouraged to share and express their opin ions and views even when they are in disagreement with others participants. I also remind them that the focus group is not intended to be an exercise where participants try to persuade each other of their own

PAGE 356

343 Appendix C (Continued) p oints of view, but ra ther a platform where they share their views and opinions. Focus Groups Demographics The demographic characteristics of the participants in the groups are as follows: women and men aged eighteen to forty years old, illiterate or semi literate, average to l ow income. The groups were divided up in terms of gender, age, and locality. There are a total of ten focus groups, made up of eight to twelve individuals each. The focus groups participants by age, gender, education, and marital status: Table 6. 1. Foc us Group participants by age, gender, and education Focus Group Women/ Men Age Education Number of participants FG. 1 W 31 40 All illiterate 12 FG. 2 W 18 26 4 elementary school level, 6 illiterate 10 FG. 3 W 18 22 6 elementary school 6 FG. 4 W 26 32 4 elementary, 3 middle, 1 high school 8 FG. 5 W 20 34 All illiterate 6 FG. 6 M 30 38 8 elementary school, 3 middle school 11 FG. 7 M 22 35 10 elementary, 2 middle school 12 FG. 8 M 25 40 2 high school, 8 middle school 10 FG. 9 M 19 32 9 middle school 9 FG. 10 M 19 40 2 middle school, 6 illiterate 8 Sub Total 92 Focus Groups Sites: The focus groups consist of Moroccan television audiences that reside in sub urban and rural areas. Sub urban areas are poor neighborhoods located at the outskirts of the city. Six focus group sessions were conduced in the area close to Al Akhawayn

PAGE 357

344 Append ix C (Continued) University in the Province of Ifrane (see Appendix D). Timmedikine is a poor suburban neighborhood in Ifrane where low income residents live. I used the local elementary school (school Annasr) for the meeting. Azrou is fifteen minutes drive (18 kilometers) west of Ifrane. I know the members of a local youth association and I used their meeting room for the focus groups. For the rural area, I used Dayet Ifrah, a rural community that is 20 minutes drive north east of Ifrane. I used the lo cal association to meet with the participants. Two focus groups were held in Khmiss Anjra (see Appendix D), Province of Fahs Anjra, 32 kilometers east of Tangier in the north of Morocco. I chose this rural area to get a sense of what people from other rura l areas think of the TV stations under investigation. Khmiss Anjra is a small community of 14,700 inhabitants (Census Bureau, 2004). I also used the local association for contacts and for meetings. The last two focus groups were conducted in a suburban nei ghborhood in Casablanca. Karian Toma is located in Sidi Moumen, one of the poorest communes in the suburbs of Casablanca. Inhabited by 170,000 inhabitants, the commune is infamous for its shanty towns and dusty wasteland of low crumbling houses. Karian Tom a was home to several of the suicide bombers who killed 45 people in downtown Casablanca on May 16, 2003. This was the deadliest terrorist attack in Morocco since the Independence in 1956. Focus groups by site:

PAGE 358

345 Appendix C (Continued) Table 6. 2. Focus g roups sessions by location and date Focus Groups Location Site Date and time FG 1 Sub urban Ahadaf, Azrou May 26, 2007. 16:00 17:30 FG 2 Sub urban Karian Toma, Sidi Moumen, Casablanca June 20, 2008. 10:00 11:30 FG 3 Rural Dayet Ifrah, Province of Ifrane July 14, 2007. 16:00 17:00 FG 4 Sub urban Timeddikine, Ifrane July 8, 2007. 17:30 19:00 FG 5 Rural Khmiss Anjra, Province of Fahs Anjra, near Tangier in the north of Morocco December 7, 2008. 16:00 17:00 FG 6 Sub urban Ahadaf, Azrou May 26, 2007. 10:00 11:30 FG 7 Sub urban Karian Toma, Sidi Moumen, Casablanca June 20, 2008. 15:00 16:30 FG 8 Rural Dayet Ifrah, Province of Ifrane July 15, 2007. 16:30 17:30 FG 9 Sub urban Timedikine, Ifrane July 7, 2007. 17:30 19:00 FG 10 Rural Khmiss Anjra, Province of Fahs Anjra, near Tangier in the north of Morocco December 8, 2008. 15:00 16:30 Concerning the setting, four sessions took place in classrooms of the local elementary or secondary schools in the neighborhoods where the respondents lived; six sessions took place in conference rooms at the local youth centers. The chairs were configured in a way to allow for all group members to see each other. Runnin g the Focus Groups Becau se the purpose of the focus group is to obtain data pertaining to the views of audiences on their TV programs as a whole, the focus groups consisted of discussions about TV programs offered by the two public service stations, and no screening of the TV sho ws took place. Because the purpose is to look at the participants' opinions on the TV programs as a whole, screening any particular show or shows may entail the risk of directing and framing the discussions either in favor of the programs or the opposite. The existing literature in research methodology suggests a set of guidelines on

PAGE 359

346 Appendix C (Continued) how to conduct focus group sessions. Regarding the planning, I scheduled the sessions to run for one to one hour and half. The start time depended on t he availability of all the participants in the group. Unlike Americans who take time commitments very seriously and emphasize promptness, Moroccans consider time commitments as objectives to be achieved, if possible. The start time was always approximat e. Because each session is a one time occurrence, I laid out three ground rules at the beginning of each session: a) stay focused on the questions asked, b) get closure on questions, c) work in an orderly, polite and open environment where everyone is encoura ged to participate and where all opi nions are welcome (Berg, 2007). Regarding the focus group questions (see appendix F) and the order in which they are asked, the literature suggests that the moderator ask s questions about facts before asking more abstrac t questions (Berg, 2007). This approach allows respondents to easily engage in the interview before moving to more personal matters. Besides, as a rule that applies to one on one interviews, the facilitator should ask questions about the present before ask ing questions about the past or the future. It is much easier for respondents to talk about current and present matters than it is to talk about past or future issues. The last question was devoted to allowing the respondents to provide any other info rmati on they would like to add. T herefore, the focus group sessions entailed four main phases: Introduction: After introducing myself, I give a brief overview of the session where I explain the purpose of the focus group interview and what the results will

PAGE 360

347 Ap pendix C (Continued) be used for. Then I ask for a quick round of introductions so that group members feel less anxious to participate in discussions. Factual questions: In this phase I ask questions on the general context of the theme to ease the group into responding to the key questions. In this phase I ask two contextual/factual questions: What television channels do you watch the most and why? What television programs do you watch the most and why? Key questions: This phase is identical to the previous phase in terms of structure. The following questions are asked during this phase: What are your opinions on the locally produced programs? Do the two public television stations' programs do you think is being represented on the two television stations? What e xpectations do television viewers have of the two public TV sta tions? Are there other information, issues, ideas, the respondents would like to add? Closing the session: In this phase, I summarize briefly the main points discussed in the session and invite corrections and comments. Finally, I thank all the participant s. Importan t Methodological Considerations I anticipated some of the problems that may arise about the quality of data from the group dynamics, but it is difficult to resolve all of them. The focus groups were separated in terms of gender and age because r esearch shows that masculinity and age affect the dynamics in group discussions (Hollander, 2004). Older men tend to dominate

PAGE 361

348 Appendix C (Continued) group discussions especially in a highly patriarchal society such as Morocco. There were three instances where a few participants dominated the discussions; as the moderator I call on the other participants to express their views. There were also instances where some participants did not talk at all. Out of respect for their privacy, I did not call on them to speak during the focus group session. I approached them during the break to ask if there were any reasons for their silence and to encourage them to speak. I struggled with the first part of the sessions because the participants seemed to be more concern questions. It is only in the last half of the sessions that discussions were more open. I am not sure what the reasons for this might be. It could be the physical context (local ass ociations meeting rooms and classrooms) where the sessions took place. The participants might have perceived the sessions as educational activities in the local association especially that the moderator is a university person. I asked but never received a clear answer to this question. The focus group sessions all used darija as the main language of interaction Although it is the language spoken by all Moroccans, for some participants it is a second language. Residents of the rural communes of Dayet Ifrah in the Middle Atlas Mountains and of Khmiss Anjra in the Rif region are Imazighen (also referred to as Berbe rs) and they speak two different dialects. The participants from Dayet Ifrah (to a less extent in Ifrane and Azrou as well) speak Tamazight and participants from Khmiss Anjra speak Tarifit in their everyday life. While they are fluent in darija many of th em expressed a

PAGE 362

349 Appendix C (Continued) desire to use their dialects because they said it helped them articulate their thoughts better. Because I am not fluent in Tarifit and I do not speak Tamazight and for data collection purposes, I asked them to use d arija alone. I am not sure how much data might have gotten lost because of this language restriction. I used English to process and summarize the data. When I translate a particular testimony, I translate its overall cultural meaning. Translating the liter al meaning would certainly lead to confusion and misunderstandings.

PAGE 363

About the Author Bouziane Zaid was born in Casablanca, Morocco. He obtained his B.A. degree in English Literature from Moulay Ismail University in Meknes, Morocco, and his M.A. in Mass Communication from the University of South Florida. His research interests are in the areas of media law and policy, international communication, development comm unication, and critical media studies. Zaid is an academic, an activist, and a development communication practitioner. While in graduate school, he served as president of the local chapter of Graduate Assistant Union at USF. In Morocco, he works on a varie ty of grassroots development projects both with local associations and international organizations. Zaid began his teaching career as a teaching assistant at the Department of Communication at USF and as a lecturer at Al Akhawayn University in If rane The courses he has taught include Media and d evelopment, Mass media and society, International communication, Communication theories, and Human c ommunication. Zaid now wo rks as an Assistant Professor at the Communication Studies Program of the school of Humanities and Social Sciences at Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane Morocco


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam 2200409Ka 4500
controlfield tag 001 002063908
005 20100318105207.0
007 cr mnu|||uuuuu
008 100318s2009 flu s 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0003019
035
(OCoLC)558588026
040
FHM
c FHM
049
FHMM
090
PN4121 (Online)
1 100
Zaid, Bouziane.
0 245
Public service television policy and national development in Morocco
h [electronic resource] /
by Bouziane Zaid.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2009.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 349 pages.
Includes vita.
502
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
520
ABSTRACT: Like many developing countries, and for many years, Morocco has sought the help of television to disseminate development ideas to its citizens. The Moroccan government has recently given policy considerations to regulate the use of television and radio airwaves as important outside sources for promoting its development objectives. The newly assigned importance of television in Moroccan developmental policies makes a study on the relationship between television and development interesting and crucial. This study investigates the extent to which the Moroccan public service television meets the challenges of effectively contributing to the development objectives of the nation. It focuses on the two government-owned public service television stations, Radiodiffusion et Television Marocaine (RTM) and Soread 2M.Based on initial observations, the general hypothesis is that television programming decisions in the two public television stations are influenced by the elite class that wants more entertainment and has less need for educational programs than their rural and urban-poor counterparts. Concerning methodology, the study uses three main areas in critical media studies: content analysis, production analysis, and audience analysis. The study conducted a quantitative and a qualitative content analysis of a sample of Moroccan produced programs to examine the developmental themes addressed by the two public service television stations. Concerning the production study, the study carried out a critical assessment of the current choices undertaken by the TV producers in the two public service television stations through conducting in-depth interviews with media executives. The third important area is audience reception.Addressing this area helps tackle these research questions from both 'sides' of the screen, examining the issues from the perspectives of both the broadcasters and the audience. The audience reception study assesses the opinions of television viewers on the quality of Moroccan produced programs and their perceptions on the public service provided by the two TV stations. The audience study uses focus groups as a standalone data-gathering strategy. Finally, the study offers a list of recommendations for the use of TV for development.
538
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
590
Co-advisor: Fred Steier, Ph.D.
Co-advisor:
653
Comparative media systems
Development communication
Critical media studies
Broadcasting policy
Arab media
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Communication
Doctoral.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.3019