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Contemporary daughter/son adult social role performance rating scale and interview protocol

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Title:
Contemporary daughter/son adult social role performance rating scale and interview protocol development, content validation, and exploratory investigation
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English
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Cozad, Dana Everett
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University of South Florida
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Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Social role research
Adult development
Havighurst
Adult education
Family life cycle
Dissertations, Academic -- Adult Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Group to update research of Havighurst in the 1950s. The Daughter/Son Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol were created through a series of panel reviews and suggestions by experts drawn from adult education, human development, gerontology, and educational measurement and research. A review of the literature identified the initial performance descriptors; ultimately, four strands were identified for inclusion in the study: Involvement, Perception/Attitude, Activities, and Role Improvement.Questions were developed and reviewed by experts again for their relevance to the performance being measured and their clarity; this created the basis for the Interview Protocol. The resulting instruments were administered to a quota sample of 150 respondents qualified for inclusion by age, gender, socioeconomic status, and racial/ethnicity characteristics. The results were placed in the cells of a 5x3x2 grid reflecting five socioeconomic levels, three age groups, and two genders, with inclusion of minority race/ethnicity participants added throughout the cells. Main effects for each of the primary variables were tested, with only gender showing significance, with daughters performing at a higher level than sons. Other demographic characteristics of respondents and their parents were studied for association with role performance.Distance between the Daughter/Son and the parent with whom she/he is most involved and the Daughter/Son's involvement in parents' decision-making were significant. The closer the proximity, the higher the performance rating; the greater the involvement in the parent's decision-making, the higher the performance rating. Recommendations for further study include a larger population sample study covering a wider geographic range than this study, additional study of demographic characteristics that influence adult Daughter/Son role performance, study of minority differences, and study of the role performance for the younger age level.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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by Dana Everett Cozad.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains 298 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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aleph - 002068308
oclc - 606608140
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0003130
usfldc handle - e14.3130
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Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale And Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, And Exploratory Investigation by Dana Everett Cozad A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Adult, Career, and Higher Education College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Waynne B. James, Ed.D. William Blank, Ph.D. Jeffrey D. Kromrey, Ph.D. William H. Young, Ed.D. Date of Approval: July 9, 2009 Keywords: social role research, adult deve lopment, Havighurst, ad ult education, family life cycle Copyright 2009, Dana E. Cozad

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DEDICATION For my family. The five parents who have blessed my life: Ruth, who gave me life; George, who loved and believed so much; Katherine, who did not have to, but did; Lois, who was a model of a mother-in-law; and Phil, who has shown that life c ontinues to bring surprises. My two children, Matt and Liz And the new lives they have brought into mine My wonderful husband, David; Together we journey. I love you.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people have contributed to this st udy along the way: experts from all over the country, the University of South Florid a Social Roles Research Group, graduate students in adult education at the University of South Florida, respondents who shared their stories and reflections, and family and friends who encouraged and inquired. Especially, the help and guidance of my faculty committee were instrumental in completing this study; thank you to Dr William Blank, Dr. William Young, and Dr. Jeffrey Kromrey who parted the SAS fog. It is impossible to acknowledge in an y proportional way the support Dr. Waynne James has given. Without her patience, faith, assistance, advocacy, and determination, this research would not have been complete d. It was her goal to update the Havighurst studies; and I am pleased that with the conclu sion of this research, her vision has been fulfilled. My husband, David, thank you for enduri ng the months of mess and for your other ways of supporting. Matt and Liz, you became adult children as I pursued this study. Thank you for bearing it with me. Thank you all for embracing th is research with me.

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES viii ABSTRACT ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Purpose of the Study 5 Research Objectives 5 Research Questions and Hypotheses 6 Significance of the Study 7 Social Roles Research Project 10 Limitations of the Study 11 Definition of Relevant Terms 11 Organization of the Study 14 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITER ATURE 16 Social Role Theory and Adult Education 17 Adult Development 23 Erikson 25 Stages of Psychosocial Development 27 Basic Trust vs. Mistrust: Hope 27 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: Will 28 Initiative vs. Guilt: Purpose 30 Industry vs. Inferiority: Competence 31 Identity vs. Identity Diffusion: Fidelity 32 The Adult Stages 35 Intimacy vs. Isolation: Love 35 Generativity vs. Stagnation: Care 36 Integrity vs. Despair: Wisdom 38 Levinson 40 Havighurst’s Studies of Social Roles and Developmental Tasks 46 Prairie City Study 47 Kansas City Study of Adult Life 52 Cross-National Studies 60 The University of South Florida Social Roles Research Pr oject 64 Abney 66

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ii McCoy 70 Kirkman 73 Davis 76 Hargiss 77 Montgomery 78 Wall 80 Witte 81 Yates-Carter 83 Dye 84 McCloskey 85 Rogers 86 Barthmus 87 Comparison of Social Role Performance Ratings for Completed Roles 88 Daughter/Son Social Role 88 Primary Research Variables 96 Age 97 Gender 103 Socioeconomic Status (SES) 105 Other Factors of Interest 106 Marital Status 106 Geographic Proximity 110 Health of Pare nt/Child 111 Other Commitments: Work and Children at Home 112 Summary 113 CHAPTER 3 METHODS 116 Research Design and Methods 117 Research Objectives 117 Research Questions and Hypotheses 117 Study Design 119 University of South Florida Social Ro les Research Project 120 Identification a nd Description of Research Strands 122 Procedures for the Validation Process 122 Development of the Performance Rating Scale 124 Development of the Interview Protocol 127 Field Test 129 Interviewer/Scorer Training 131 Implementation of the Study 132 Population Sampling 132 Data Collection 138 Data Analysis 141 Summary 143 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 146 Development and Content Validation of the Performance

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iii Rating Scale 147 Pilot Panel 148 Validation Panel 149 Verification Panel 150 Interview Protocol Development and Content Vali dation 152 Field Test 154 The Study 156 Data Collection 156 Inter-Rater and Intra-Rater Reliability 162 Other Findings 164 Observations 168 Summary 176 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 177 Summary 178 Conclusions 180 Implications 181 Implications for Adult Educat ion Practice 181 Instrument Refinement 183 Recommendations for Further Research 184 REFERENCES 189 APPENDIX A NAM-POWERS-BOYD OCCUPATIONAL STATUS SCORES FOR 2000 195 APPENDIX B UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA SOCIAL ROLES RESEARCH GROUP 209 APPENDIX C PERFORMANCE RATING SCALE 211 APPENDIX D PILOT PANEL 216 APPENDIX E CORRESPONDENCE AND INSTRUCTIONS TO PILOT AND VALIDATION PANELS FOR PERFORMANCE RATING SCALE 218 APPENDIX F VALIDATION PANEL MEMBERS 225 APPENDIX G VERIFICATION PANEL MEMBERS 228 APPENDIX H CORRESPONDENCE AND INSTRUCTIONS TO VERIFICATION PANEL MEMB ERS FOR PERFORMANCE RATING SCALE 231

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iv APPENDIX I VERIFICATION P ANEL MEMBERS FOR INTERVIEW PROTOCOL 252 APPENDIX J CORRESPONDENCE AND INSTRUCTIONS TO VERIFICATION PANEL FOR INTERVIEW PROTOCOL 254 APPENDIX K FIELD TEST PANEL 267 APPENDIX L DEMOGRAPHIC FORM 269 APPENDIX M INFORMED CONSENT FORM 273 APPENDIX N INTERVIEW PROTOCOL 276 APPENDIX O TRAINING GUIDE 285 APPENDIX P GUIDELINES FOR EV ALUATING ACTIVITIES AND ROLE IMPROVEMENT 296

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v LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Nadel’s Role Cl assification System—Simplified 20 Table 2. Child of Aging Parent Performance Sc ores of Kansas City 58 Adults on the Developmenta l Tasks of Middle Age by Gender And Social Class Table 3. Developmental Events for the Daught er/Son Adult Social Role 70 Table 4. Mean and Rank Order of Pe rceived Importance of Social Roles By Cell 72 Table 5. Mean and Rank Order of Perceived Im portance of Social Roles by SES 73 Table 6. Mean Performance Rating Scor es of University of South Florida Social Roles Previously Conducted 89 Table 7. Performance Scores of Kansas City A dults on the Developmental Tasks of Middle Age Child (Age 40-70) of Aging Parents 95 Table 8. Existence of Main and Interacti on Effects in Completed USF 100 Social Roles Studies Table 9. Phased Developmental Tasks for Daughter/Son Social Role 101 Table 10. Occupation Levels by Category, Sc ore Range, and Estimated 108 Percentage of Population Table 11. Educational Levels Defined for Five Levels 109 Table 12. Comparison of Variables by St ratification Levels 110 Table 13. Quota Sample Configurati on of Cells 133 Table 14. Occupational Levels by Category, Score Range, and 136 Estimated Percentage of Population Table 15. Education Levels by Educational Attainment and Estimated Percentage of Population 137

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vi Table 16. Family Income Levels by Income Range and Estimated Percentage of Population 138 Table 17. Field Test Inter-Rater Relia bility and Agreement for the Daughter/Son Social Role 157 Table 18. Racial/Ethnic Di stribution of Daughter/Son Social Role Respondents by Cell 159 Table 19. Descriptive Statistics fo r the Final Performance Score for The Daughter/Son Social Role 160 Table 20. ThreeFactor ANOVA Summary Table for Final Daughter/Son Social Role Scores 160 Table 21. Means and Standard Deviations of Final Daughter/Son Role by Gender 161 Table 22. Frequency of Rating of Daughter/Son Role Importance in Respondents’ Lives 161 Table 23. Means and Standard Deviations of Fina l Daughter/Son Scores by Gender, Age Category, and SES Level 163 Table 24. Final Group Sample for Daughter/Son Social Role Inter-Rater Reliability by Performance Score 165 Table 25. Final Group Sample fo r Daughter/Son Inter-Rater Reliability by Performance Level 166 Table 26. Final Group Sample Intra-Ra ter Relationship for Performance Scores and Level for the Daughter/S on Social Role 167 Table 27. Frequency Distribution of Distance between Daughter/Son and the Parent with Whom She/He is Most Involved 168 Table 28. Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for Daughter/Son Social Role Performance Scores by Distance 169 Table 29. Summary Table by Daughter /Son Social Role Scores and Distance, Extent of Daughter/S on’s Involvement in Parents’ Decision-Making, and the Number of Living Biological (or Adoptive Parents 170

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vii Table 30. Means Scores and Stan dard Deviations for Daughter/Son Performance Scores by Reported Level of Involvement in Parents’ Decision-Making 171

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viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Males’ early and middle adult years development, indicating characteristic themes, transitions, and age ranges, according to Levinson. 42 Figure 2. Verification Panel sc ores rating the clarity and completeness of Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son adult social role. 152 Figure 3. Verification Panel scores ra ting the clarity and completeness of Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son adult social role. 155

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ix Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Vali dation, and Exploratory Investigation Dana E. Cozad ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to deve lop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protoc ol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by the University of South Florida Social Ro les Research Group to update research of Havighurst in the 1950s. The Daughter/Son Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol were created through a series of panel reviews and sugges tions by experts drawn from adult education, human development, gerontology, and educati onal measurement and research. A review of the literature identified the initial performa nce descriptors; ultimately, four strands were identified for inclusion in the study: Involve ment, Perception/Attitude, Activities, and Role Improvement. Questions were developed and reviewed by experts again for their relevance to the performance being measured a nd their clarity; this created the basis for the Interview Protocol. The resulting instruments were administ ered to a quota sample of 150 respondents qualified for inclusion by age, gender, so cioeconomic status, a nd racial/ethnicity characteristics. The results were placed in the cells of a 5x3x2 grid reflecting five

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x socioeconomic levels, three age groups, a nd two genders, with inclusion of minority race/ethnicity participants added throughout the cells. Main effects for each of the primary variables were tested, with only gender showing significance, with daughters performi ng at a higher level than sons. Other demographic characteristics of respondents a nd their parents were st udied for association with role performance. Distance between the Daughter/Son and the parent with whom she/he is most involved and the Daughter/Son’ s involvement in parents’ decision-making were significant. The closer the proximity, the higher the performance rating; the greater the involvement in the parent’s decisionmaking, the higher the performance rating. Recommendations for further study incl ude a larger population sample study covering a wider geographic range than this study, additional study of demographic characteristics that influence adult Daught er/Son role performan ce, study of minority differences, and study of the role performance for the younger age level.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the first half of the 1950s, Robert J. Havighurst and a team of researchers from the University of Chicago undertook a study of a dult life, called the Kansas City Study of Adult Life (Havighurst, 1955; Ha vighurst, 1957; Havighur st & Orr, 1956). In this study, Havighurst and his associates interviewed persons between the ages of 40 years and 70 years to learn about the social roles they occupied and the developmental events associated with fulfillment of those social ro les. Ten social roles were identified as a result of Havighurst’s study of adult social role s, and this concept of social role and the particular roles identif ied by Havighurst have been signifi cant markers in adult education with important implications for the discipline (Knowles, 1980; Long, 1983; Witte, 1997/1998). In the 50 years since Havighurst’s study, many changes have taken place in the culture of the United States. Obvious differences include th e changed role of women in the workplace and in community life, the ch anges in family life and structure due to increased rates of divorce and remarriages, the mobility of th e population, and the lengthening of the life span. In order to st udy the impact of societal changes in the intervening years, a series of studies to update Havighurst’s social roles was begun at the University of South Florida with the publication of a study by Abney (1992/1993) in which he identified 13 contem porary adult social roles.

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2 Havighurst identified child of an elderly parent as one of the 10 social roles; Abney’s research (1992/1993) described the ro le as daughter or s on, without adding the qualifying reference to the age of the parent because Abney’s study looked at a broader age range than did Havighurst’s. This st udy focused on the Daughter/Son adult social role in order to develop and content valid ate an Interview Protocol and Performance Rating Scale for use in additional studies of this social role. Statement of the Problem Since the 1950s when the work of the University of Chicago’s research team headed by Robert Havighurst conducted severa l research studies on adult social roles, many changes have taken place in American so ciety, changes that call into question the relevance of Havighurst’s findings to cont emporary life. Changes in mobility and geographic dispersion have had dramatic impact on families, as have shifts in the workforce to include a large number of wome n. Changes in expectations related to gender-related behaviors and roles have result ed in a wider range of socially-approved behaviors for both men and women. Advan ces in medicine and health care have increased quality of life and life expectanc y, creating the ability to carry on an active lifestyle well into old age; moreover, these changes result in many persons in their early elderly years still having surviving parents. The family life cycle has also been impacted by increasing divorce/remarriage rates and the blending of families in ways not common in families of the 1950s. The population of most contemporary communities is far more ethnically diverse than were those Havighurst studied as well, and exposure to different cultural norms through daily lif e and through the media has changed perceptions about

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3 what constitutes cultural norms and the accompanying cultural expectations. In short, families are very different than they were in the 1950s, and the social roles associated with being a family member are different, too. This study addressed the Daughter/Son social role for persons 18 years of age and older. This social role was identified in Abney’s research (1992/1993) as a major social role and was in the highest ranked group for inclus ion in the social roles research project. As Bucx, van Wel, Krijn, and Hagendoorn (2008, Theories and hypotheses, 2) observed, “the relationship between children an d their parents remains salient throughout the life course, but . this relationship is a ffected by the life course status of individual family members.” This social role was id entified in Abney’s rese arch (1992/1993) as a major social role and was in the highest ra nked group for inclusion in the social roles research project. Havighurst’s original studies only included the adult social role of child of aging parent, thus considering the role only in respect to the age-related needs of an elderly parent. The role was not considered at all for other life stages. Similarly, Havighurst did not include this ro le in his studies of social roles of older persons, perhaps because people who were still engaged in th e Daughter/Son role were rare; however, it is not now rare at all to find people in their retirement extremely engaged in the Daughter/Son social role. Havighurst’s study needed both expanding and updating with regard to the Daughter/Son role. The Daughter /Son social role needed to be described and studied in terms of the totality of th e adult life span in contemporary American society

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4 Rigorous content validation of a perfor mance rating scale and of an interview protocol was needed if the Daughter/Son social role was studied in light of contemporary American social norms and expectations. Since Havighurst’s research was conducted, research techniques and proce dures have been developed which enable more precise development and testing of a performance ratin g scale and interview protocol as well as more complex data analysis. Until the University of South Florida Social Roles research project began, there had been no attempts to address, on a comp rehensive scale, the updating of Havighurst’s work. Without such researc h, the foundations he laid fo r understanding adult learning needs based upon adult social roles and deve lopmental tasks become obsolete for the adult educator in the 21st cen tury. The Daughter/Son role wa s especially in need of content validated a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol since Havighurst’s work on this role was particularly narrow. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to deve lop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and an Interview Protocol that could be used to define the contemporary Daughter/Son adult social role. Since Havi ghurst’s research was conducted in the 1950s, changes have taken place in American societ y that call for updating his concepts of the Daughter/Son social role. Havighurst’s study is an important theore tical underpinning of adult education programming; therefore, updating Havighurst’s research was an undertaking significant for the field of adult education.

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5 Changes that have taken place in American society in the nearly 50 years since Havighurst’s groundbreaking work call for re -examination of the Daughter/Son social role. In addition, advances in research and measurement theory and techniques make possible more refined data analysis and inte rpretation than were av ailable to Havighurst at the time of his studies; and this study app lied more sophisticated analytical techniques to data collected regarding the Daughter/S on role. This study, which developed and content validated a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for use in studying the contemporary Daughter/Son social role, pr ovided for the gathering of information on a more heterogeneous population than Havighurst ’s samples. It also allowed for data collection on persons across th e adult life stages, thus expa nding Havighurst’s research that considered the role only in regard to the needs of aging parents. Research Objectives The research objectives of this study were: 1. To content validate a Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son adult social role to enable researchers to a ssess the role performance of individual adults across the life span. 2. To content validate an Interview Prot ocol for the adult social role of Daughter/Son in order that reliable dis tinctions can be made about the role performance of individuals. 3. To implement the use of the Perfor mance Rating Scale and the Interview Protocol in a study of a quota sample of participants primarily from the

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6 Tampa Bay, Florida, area but incl uding some respondents from South Carolina and elsewhere. 4. To generate data from the explor atory study about the Daughter/Son role performance that could suggest further re search possibilities and, in particular, could suggest research related to devel opmental tasks across the life span that are unrelated to care for an aging parent. Research Questions and Hypotheses The following research questions were developed by the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project and related to objective #4 above. The research questions addressed in this study were: 1. Are there age-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role? 2. Are there gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role? 3. Are there socio-economic status differe nces in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role? 4. Are there interaction effects between the age, gender, and socio-economic status variables related to role performance of th e Daughter/Son adult social role? 5. Are there activities relate d to performance of the Daughter/Son social role suggested by the respondents that are not related to the aging and increasing dependency of parents?

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7 6. Are there other significan t variables that influenc e Daughter/Son social role performance? To verify further the validity of the instruments, based upon the literature and prior research, the following hypotheses were presented: 1. There are gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role, with daugh ters performing at higher levels. 2. There are socio-economic status differe nces in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role. Significance of the Study A key assumption about adult education is that adult learning is highly linked to specific situations growing out of adult life experience. Aslanian and Brickell (1980) studied why adults engage in learning activ ities and what they choose to study. They stated: The bulk of the data supported our hypothesi s that most adults learn in order to move out of some status they must or wish to leave and into so me new status they must or wish to enter. That is, their reason for learning was to perform well in the new status. (p. 52) With regard to the reason for learning, they found that 83% of adults engage in learning as a utilitarian means to an end. Although the most often cited reason for learning among this group was for career-related purposes the second ranking category was familyrelated concerns (16%). For adult educators, under standing adult learning needs is the beginning point for program planning. “Adult educators must be pr imarily attuned to the existential concerns

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8 of the individuals and institutions they serve and be able to develop learning experiences that will be articulated with these concerns” (Knowles, 1980, p. 54). Knowles’s model for adult education planning has its foundati on in Havighurst’s idea that the teachable moment comes in response to the developmenta l tasks at different life stages and that these developmental tasks are related to the fulfillment of social roles. “Each of these tasks produces a ‘readiness to lear n’ which at its peak presents a ‘teachable moment’. . These [developmental tasks] of the adult year s are the products primar ily of the evolution of social roles” (Knowles, 1980, p. 51). Know les further explicates the relationship of adult learning and social role s in his fourth assumption of the andragogical model of adult education. Adults become ready to learn those things they need to know and be able to do in order to cope with their real-l ife situations. An especially rich source of “readiness to learn” is the developmental tasks associ ated with moving from one developmental stage to the next. (1990, p. 60) Having data on adult social roles and developmental tasks is, therefore, a key ingredient in adult educati on program planning; the need for data on contemporary adult social roles is important to planning releva nt adult education in the new millennium. “Although the timeframe and some of the task s suggested by Havighurst are somewhat dated, the idea of specific life tasks giving rise to a teachable moment is not” (Merriam, Cafferella, & Baumgartner, 2007, p. 308). This study provides tools for future resear chers to gather information about the Daughter/Son social role that can aid admini strators of adult education programs with developing programs and curricula related to de velopmental activities associated with the

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9 Daughter/Son adult social role. This study’s tools enable adult educators to update and redefine the adult social ro le of Daughter/Son. With th e content validation of a Performance Rating Scale and an Interview Prot ocol for conducting fu rther research into this social role, valid and reliable data can be collected that will inform the adult educator about the life demands adults face with re gard to their Daughter/Son social role. Information gathered in this study about de mographic variables (age, gender, SES), the interaction effect between demographic variab les on role performance, and the influence of certain environmental/situational variable s (i.e., geographic proximity and the number of living biological or adoptive parents) have pr ovided data that can be analyzed in more depth on variables that potentially im pact Daughter/Son role performance. This study was also significant because of what it suggested regarding areas of inquiry that might increase the body of know ledge about the Daughter/Son role in the adult years as it relates to developmental task s apart from those related to caring for aging parents. The paucity of literature related to the Daughter/Son adult social role in any context except as it relates to the increasi ng dependency of aging parents indicated that there were important aspects of this role that had not been identified and researched. Abney’s research found, for example, that the Daughter/Son role was the most highly ranked adult social role by the young responde nts (age 18-34 years) in his community survey ranking adult social ro les by order of importance to them; this finding suggested that further study of this role may provide much more information than was currently available about what makes this role so im portant to that younger age group. Further evidence of this need would also be implied from the developmental tasks identified by

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10 the expert panels, who identified six de velopmental tasks associated with the Daughter/Son role. Four of the six developmen tal tasks focused on the role in relation to needs of aging parents, while only two devel opmental tasks spoke to other aspects of the relationship. This study suggested additional activities associated with the Daughter/Son role that may be explored further. Social Roles Research Project The importance of adult social roles to program planning for adult educators has been cited by Havighurst (1955); Knowle s (1980, 1990); Darkenwald and Merriam (1982); Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007); and Aslanian and Brickell (1980). In order to update, revise, and content valida te Havighurst’s work in the 1950s, a team of researchers from the University of Sout h Florida began a process of identifying contemporary adult social roles, devel oping Performance Rating Scales to rate performance levels, constructing Interview Protoc ols to gather data on the identified adult social roles, and utilizing those instrument s to conduct a quota sample study in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. Abney (1992/1993) and McCoy (1993/1994) identified 13 contemporary adult social roles: association/club member citizen, Daughter/Son, friend, grandparent, home/services manager, kin/relative, learner, leisure time consumer, parent, religious affiliate, spouse/partner, and worker. Previous research has been concluded on the association/club member (Montgomery, 1997/ 1998); citizen (Barthmus, 2004/2005); friend (Dye, 1998); grandparent (Rogers, 2004/ 2005), home/services manager (Wall, 1997/1998); kin/relative (Yates-Carter, 1997/ 1998); learner (Witte, 1997/1998); leisure

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11 time consumer (Hargiss, 1997/1998); parent spouse/partner, worker (Kirkman, 1994/1995; Davis, 2002); and religious aff iliate (McCloskey, 2000). This study contributes to the research on the Daughter/Son so cial role for the enti re project on social roles. Limitations of the Study This study had certain inherent limitati ons. First, it was based upon self-report rather than observation of actual behavi or. The self-report method may lend itself response effect (i.e., to inaccurate reporti ng of actual behaviors, either due to miscalculation, to forgetfulness, to enhanci ng responses to reflect behavior perceived by the respondent to be more socially acceptable or other form of biasing of data) (Borg & Gall, 1989). A limitation of the data from the quota sample was that it was drawn primarily from one community, the Tampa Bay area of Florida. Though the Tampa Bay area offered a diverse, heterogeneous population, da ta more geographically representative of the United States might be required to draw conclusions about the Daughter/Son social role across the country. Definition of Relevant Terms For the purposes of this study, the following definitions of terms were used: Adult --”A person who performs socially productive roles and who has assumed primary responsibility for his/her own life” (Darkenwald & Merriam, 1982, p. 8). Adult Education --”Adult education is a proce ss whereby persons whose major social roles are characteristic of adult status undertake syst ematic and sustained learning

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12 activities for the purpose of bringing about ch ange in knowledge, attitudes, values, or skills” (Darkenwald & Merriam, 1982, p. 9). Age Group --Group into which respondent s will be assigned based upon chronological age at the time of the interview. The three groups to be used in this study were: Young--18 to 34 years; Middle--35 to 64 years; and Older--65 years or more. Daughter/Son --A child by birth, adoption, marriage of a parent (i.e., step-child), or by marriage (i.e., son-in-law or daughter-in-law). Developmental Event —According to Abney (1992/1993), a developmental event is, A specific occurrence (e.g., marriage) or a se ries of activities (e.g., raising a child) in adult life that are related to performan ce of a particular soci al role. Generally each occurrence can be viewed as a life task related to social activities rather than biological or mental maturation proce sses. A developmental event may be transitional in nature indicating a shift between phases of social role (i.e., acquisition of a new family member th rough birth or adoption). (pp. 9-10) Developmental Task —Havighurst’s term for the: basic tasks of living which must be achieved if we are to live successfully and to go on with a good promise of success to the later stages of life. The developmental tasks are set for us by three forces: (1) the expectations of values of our society; (2) the maturing and then the aging of our bodies; and (3) our own personal values or aspirati ons. (Havighurst & Orr, 1960, p. 7) Interview Protocol --An interview format of a series of questions that provides for the gathering of information to be used in rating the social role performance. Parent --A father or mother, including rela tionships by virtue of birth, adoption, marriage to a child’s parent (i.e., step-parent relationships), or marriage to the parent’s child (i.e., in-law relationships).

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13 Performance Level --The category describing the de gree of conformity to usual societal expectations for the behaviors, at titudes, skills, and degree of involvement reported by the study’s respondents to an Interv iew Protocol regardi ng the adult social role of Daughter/Son. Performance level was scored in five categories, each with two levels, and which were assigned points as follo ws: Low (0 to 1 point); Below Average (2 to 3 points); Average (4 to 5 points); Above Average (6 to 7 points); High (8 to 9 points). Performance Rating Scale --Common American standard s for the performance of the Daughter/Son social role defined by the exp licit criteria developed and verified by a panel of content and re search experts. Performance Rating Score --The quantitative ranking of a respondent’s selfreported current performance level of the Daughter/Son social role compared to common American standards for performance of the role. Social Role --A social science construct which is a constellation of behaviors, attitudes, functions, and relational positions formed by normative expectations of a society for an individual’s performance of certain duties. “A social ro le is a coherent set of activities that is recognized and ju dged by others as something apart from the individual who happens to fill it” (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953, p. 43). Socioeconomic Status (SES) Level --”The composite of social and economic attributes that combine to indicate a re lative position within contemporary American society” (James & Abney, 1993, p. 4). For this study, the measure of SES used was the socioeconomic status measure developed by James and Abney (1993). It represented a

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14 score based upon three compone nts--occupation, education, a nd income--ranked at five status levels. Strand --”Identification of com ponents of a social role, which aid in defining and organizing the domain” (Witte, 1997/1998, p. 7). Organization of the Study This study was organized into five chap ters. Chapter 1, th e Introduction, includes an introduction to the study, a statement of the problem, a discussion of the purpose of the study, a statement of the research questions and hypothe ses, a discussion of the significance of the study, a desc ription of the University of South Florida social roles research project, a discussion of the limitati ons of the study, a section defining relevant terms, and a description of the organization of the study. Chapter 2 is the Review of the Lite rature. Scholarly literature on adult development, family life cycle and the adult soci al roles of sons and da ughters, social role theory, Havighurst’s social role research, c ontent validation concepts and procedures, and the University of South Florida Social Roles research project is presented in Chapter 2. Chapter 3, Methods, presents the research methods of the study. Discussions of the procedures utilized in the development and validation of the Performance Rating Scale, the procedures utilized in the de velopment and validation of the Interview Protocol, and the use of expert panels in the development processes are included. Description of the implementation of the study addressed the training regimens for interviewers and raters, the field testing pr ocedures, and the quota sample selection. Finally, data collection and anal ysis methods are presented.

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15 Chapter 4 describes the re sults of the study. Findings and interpretations of the development and implementation of the Perf ormance Rating Scale and the development and implementation of the Interview Protoc ol are presented. Re sults of the data collection and data an alysis are included. Chapter 5 presents the summary, conclu sions, implications, and recommendations resulting from this study.

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16 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The purpose of this study was to deve lop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol that can be used to define the contemporary Daughter/Son adult social role. This chapter presents a review of the literature relevant to the development and content validation of a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son soci al role. The chapter presen ts literature regarding the concepts of social role and adult educati on. Next, it presents a review of the adult development most directly related to social roles and the Havighurst studies of adult social roles and the University of South Flor ida Social Roles Research Project. Finally, literature concerning the Daughter/Son role and the methods and variables used in this study are presented. Since Havighurst’s influential research on adult social roles was conducted in the 1950s, changes have occurred in contemporary society; and these changes have dated some of the specific information from Ha vighurst’s research (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007). The centrality of his research to the co ncept of developmental tasks providing the basis for understa nding adult education needs pointed to a necessity to update Havighurst’s research. The University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project was formed in order to study contempor ary American adult soci al roles, and this study was part of this larger research effort to update the adult so cial roles research

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17 conducted by Robert Havighurst in the middle of the 20th century. Thirteen studies laying the foundation for the research and then devel oping and content validating Performance Rating Scales and Interv iew Protocols (Abne y, 1992/1993; Barthmus, 2004/2005; Davis, 2002; Dye, 1998; Ha rgiss, 1997/1998; Kirkman, 1994/1995; McCloskey, 2000; McCoy, 1993/1994; Mont gomery, 1997/1998; Rogers, 2004/2005; Wall, 1997/1998; Witte, 1997/1998; Yates-Carter 1997/1998) had been completed prior to this study. This study completed devel opment and content validation of a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the la st of the contemporary adult social roles identified by Abney ( 1992/1993) and McCoy (1993/1994). Social Role Theory and Adult Education Because humans organize themselves into social organizations in order to accomplish the day-to-day tasks of living, they must cooperate and differentiate tasks. The study of social roles derives from the de sire to understand huma n social structures and the behaviors of persons within t hose structures. Ba nton (1965) writes: Men must organize. In order to obtain food and shelter, to guard against periods of shortage or misfortune, and to propag ate their own kind, men are obliged to cooperate with their fellows. Every society, in fact, can be viewed as a division of labour suited to its enviro nment; particular members are given their tasks to perform on behalf of the group; norms as to proper behaviour in given circumstances are established, and sanctio ns are developed to reward people for worthy conduct and punish them for deviations. (p. 1) The study of the roles that people play w ithin their social units is one means of developing theoretical understand ings of social life. “The idea of role has become so much a part of our general cult ure that it is difficult to realize that it was formulated as a technical term only in the 1930s” (Bohanna n & Glazer, 1988, p. 184). According to

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18 Bohannan and Glazer (1988), it was Linton, a so cial anthropologist, who first wrote extensively about role as a soci al science construct. “The id ea of role is an intellectual tool . remarkably illuminating when br ought to bear upon many f acets of social life” (Banton, 1965, p. 3). Linton linked the concepts of status and role definitionally. Status refers to positions within structur es of reciprocity and can be regarded as the sum of an individual’s rights and du ties within a society. On the other hand, role refers to the behavioral aspect of status. When rights and duties are acted out, an individual plays his role in soci ety. . Role as a concept refers to experienced behavior; and status, to the cognitive aspects of society. (1936/1988, p. 185) Linton’s description of th e concepts of status and role highlighted the relationship between status and role. A role represents the dynamic aspect of a status. The indivi dual is socially assigned to a status and occupies it with re lation to other statuses. When he puts the rights and duties which constitute the status into effect, he is performing a role. Role and status are qu ite inseparable, and the dist inction between them is of only academic interest. There are no role s without statuses or statuses without roles. Just as in the case of status the term role is used with a double significance. Every individua l has a series of roles deriving from the various patterns in which he participates and at the same time a role, general, which represents the sum total of these roles a nd determines what he does for his society and what he can expect from it. (Linton, 1936/1988, p. 186) There is not, however, a universally accep ted definition of “social role” in the social sciences. The social science di sciplines of psychology, anthropology, and sociology each uses the concept for descrip tive and research purposes, but there are subtle differences in underst anding, particularly with rega rd to an understanding of the point of origin for social roles. Banton cite s two traditions for the study of social role: “the dramatic tradition starts from role as a metaphor emphasizing the selection and

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19 performance of parts by a single performer” (1965, p. 21). The dramatic tradition is associated with social psychology. The second tradition has more affinity with social anthropology and sociology. The structural tradition has its inspiration in the legal view of social relations. People’s behaviour is viewed from the standpoint of the relationships within which it takes place, and the relation ships are defined by the rights and obligations of the parties. A role is in this sense a pa ttern of expected behaviour reinforced by a structure of rewards a nd penalties which induces individuals to conform to the pattern. (Banton, 1965, p. 22) Deasy (1964) describes three groupings of social role definitions: those that center on normative culture pa tterns of desirable behavi or, those that focus on an individual’s understanding of her/his position relative to others’ positions, and those that look at what is actually being enacted by t hose occupying social positions. Deasy further observes that, in spite, of differences in the definitions, there is useful common ground and consistency among approaches. “The basi c ideas in most conceptualizations about roles are that: individuals (1) in social lo cations (2) behave (3) with reference to expectations” (Deasy, 1964, p. 4). Theorists utilize various constructs to categorize social roles. Linton, writing about statuses, described them as falling into two groups: ascribed and achieved (1936/1988, p. 186). Ascribed statuses are those which are assi gned to individuals without reference to their innate differences or abilities. They can be pr edicted and trained for from the moment of birth. The achieved status es are, as a minimum, those requiring special qualities, although they are not neces sarily limited to these. They are not assigned to individuals fro m birth but are left open to be filled through competition and individual effort. The majority of the statuses in all social systems are of the ascribed type and those which take care of the ordinary day-today business of living are practically al ways of this type. (Linton, 1936/1988, p. 187)

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20 Because Linton’s definitions of status and role are so interdependent, others have incorporated his labels to describe roles in terms of ascribed and achieved (Banton, 1965). Further definition within these two groups is reflec ted in Banton’s adaptation of Nadel’s role classification system. See Ta ble 1 for Nadel’s simplified classification system providing terms related to social roles. Table 1. Nadel’s Role Classification–Simplified Ascribed Roles UAchieved Roles NonRelational Relational Non-Relational Relational Proprietary Expressive Serv ice Symmetrical Asymmetrical age, sex race, and descent kinship smith, diviner, sage, and other roles characterized by the possession of skills, resources, or learning Demonstrator, artist, orator, and similar roles indicating belief, creativeness Teacher, salesman, laborour and other occupational roles Colleague, partner, rival Manager, leader, patron, etc. Hierarchical roles Note. Banton, 1965, p. 31. Banton posits another model for understand ing social roles in terms of role differentiation. He defines roles differentiati on as “the extent to which incumbency of one role is independent of incumbency of ot her roles” (1965, p. 30). He elaborates that gender roles are less independent than age roles, which are less independent than occupational roles; the roles of student or user of leisure tim e would be very independent roles since they can be engaged by many pe ople quite independently of other roles. Banton also indicated that there are, within general role categories, some

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21 subgroups that have less independence than others. For example, a policeman would have less role independence than a gardener in that there would be tighter constraints in terms of society’s expectations of other roles and the appropriateness of behaviors appropriate for the roles (Banton, 1965). Havighurst leans toward the social psyc hological tradition in his studies, with focus given to role performance as in th e dramatic tradition described by Banton (1965). The social role construct has been useful in two ways. First it facilitates thinking and discussion about the activities and the social adjustment of people. Probably 90% of our waking time is spent in one or another of a dozen social roles. These roles are grouped by people into characteristic clusters called life-styles. The second use of the social role construct is as the major set of variables for a research design that aims to study quantita tively the behavior of various groups of people and to relate this be havior to their social adju stment and life satisfaction. (Havighurst, 1973, p. 599) Havighurst also conceptualizes a grouping of adult social roles. His model has three broad categories (family, work, and commu nity), and then he adds leisure activity as a fourth category (Havighurst, 1973). His interest in social roles was primarily in their relevance to flexible life-styl es and the changes in role pe rformance that occur through the life span (Havighurst, 1973). He comme nted on the importance of social role research: The need for these studies is especially important in view of the growing salience of the concept of flexible life-styles. As people pass through adult life, they reorder and realign their social roles, partly through choi ce and partly through necessity. Some do this more readily th an others. Preretirement counseling and education may have this ki nd of role flexibility as a goal. (Havighurst, 1973, p. 599) Havighurst indicated that the study of social roles and the associated developmental tasks provides essential info rmation for adult educators (Chickering &

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22 Havighurst, 1981; Havighurst, 1963; Havighurst & Orr, 1956). By understanding social roles and the behaviors required for successf ul performance of them, individual role performance can be compared. If there are gaps in expectation and performance, there may be potential for educational programming. “There is a social need for improved performance of the developmental tasks of adulthood whenever a considerable group of people fall below the level of average or passable performance” (Havighurst & Orr, 1956, p. 37). If there is strong motiv ation to improve performance, th e potential is even greater. It appears that such a study can suppl y the educator with useful knowledge concerning the present level of perfor mance by people of their developmental tasks in adult life, and concerning thei r motivation for effort in the various developmental task areas. Equipped with this kind of knowledge the e ducator with skill in working with and through the adult associations of a community and with a grasp of methods and materials for teaching adults can choose the areas of program which seem to him most important for educational effort (Havighurst & Orr, 1956, pp. 65-66) In a later study, Aslanian a nd Brickell illuminate reasons for adult learning. Their research reports that 83% of the Americans studied indicated “some past, present, or future change in their lives as reasons to learn” (1980, p. 49). Knowles (1980) observes that the devel opmental tasks that are the behavioral expectations of social roles produce “a ‘readiness to learn’ which at its peak presents a ‘teachable moment’” (p. 51). Furthermore, writes Knowles, Adults . have their phases of grow th and resulting developmental tasks, readiness to learn, and teachable moments. But whereas the developmental tasks of youth tend to be the products primaril y of physiological an d mental maturation, those of the adult years are the products primarily of the evolution of social roles The requirements for performing each of th ese social roles change, according to Havighurst, as we move through the three phases of adult life, thereby setting up

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23 changing developmental tasks and, theref ore, changing readiness to learn. (Knowles, 1980. p. 51) The University of South Florida Adult Social Roles Research Group’s project to update Havighurst’s mid-twentieth century studi es of adult social roles was undertaken with the belief that social roles were still a valid construc t for understanding and interpreting adult ed ucation needs. Adult Development An underlying rationale for this study of the contemporary adult social role of Daughter/Son and the University of South Fl orida Research Project as a whole was to inform adult educators about adult learning needs for program planning purposes. An important strand of literatur e relevant to this purpose is the literature on adult development. Knowles (1980) makes clear the relationship of adult development, social roles, and adult education n eeds in his discussion on the assumptions about andragogy, defined as “the art and science of helping a dults learn” (p. 43). Among the four crucial assumptions about learners’ characteristics, Knowles indicated that “as individuals mature. . their readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of their social roles” (p. 43). Hence, according to Knowles, the study of social roles and the associated developmental tasks is essential information for adult educators attempting to construct programs to meet adu lt learners’ needs. Furthermore, Aslanian and Brickell (1980) found in their study of a dult learners that 83% of their respondents cited that their reason for undertaking a learning activity was “learning to cope with life changes” (p. 51). Cross (1981), likewise, observes

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24 The necessity to adapt to changing ci rcumstances of life . constitutes a powerful motivating force for learning. So me changes are almost universal and represent the phases of the life cycle: first job, marri age, children, increasing responsibility on the job and in the comm unity, retirement, and so forth. Other changes may be sudden and traumatic: lo ss of job, divorce, il lness, death of spouse. Research on the life cycle and on life changes that “trigger” learning . shows that at some periods in life the motivation for learning is exceptionally high. (p. 144) Theories of adult development have b een organized according to a variety of constructs. Cross (1981) used a convention that places the literature into two categories: those that refer to phases of the life cycle a nd those that refer to developmental stages. The critical difference is the implication of hierarchical movement from simple to more complex structures in stage theories, while phase theories are largely descriptive of predictable life changes, but carry no connotation of evolution toward a more desirable or advanced developmental goal. Bee and Bj orklund (2000) organi ze the discussion of adult development theory along two dimensions with development versus change as one dimension and stage versus no stage as the se cond dimension; these two dimensions form a four-quadrant grid into which theories can be placed. The extent to which a theory links a chronological framework to the developm ental process is another distinction that can be drawn among developmental theorists. Developmental theories can also be distinguished by the extent to which they expl icitly incorporate social context into the theory. In this study of the Daughter/Son c ontemporary adult social role, theories of adult development that speak to social role and/or developmental tasks as important factors in some aspect of the developmenta l process are emphasized in the literature review.

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25 Erikson Erik Erikson was an artist who, throu gh the serendipity of teaching the young children of the students studying under Sigm und Freud at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute, was trained by Freud as a psychoa nalyst and then became a major contributor to, and extender of, Freudian psychoanalytic theory. In Erikson, the historical and societal dimensions of psychological developm ent are added to Freud’s theories. Where Freudian psychology focused on the development of a child from a psychosexual point of view, it was Erikson who saw that developm ent always takes place as the interplay among the biological, historical and cultural contexts. “He proposes that psychosocial development continues over the entire life sp an, resulting from th e interaction between inner instincts and drives and outer cu ltural social demands” (Bee & Bjorklund, 2000, p. 35). Furthermore, Freud described psychos exual development as a process completed with sexual maturity at the end of adolescen ce whereas Erikson looked at development as a psychosocial process paralleling psychos exual development through the years of childhood, but then he extended his theory th roughout the life cycle. Erikson is the forerunner of contemporary developmental ps ychology’s attention to human development throughout the adult years, even to the approach of death. Erikson saw human development as an unfolding process of identity formation that emerges through eight stages during the lifetime (Bee & Bjorklund, 2000). Erikson’s description of the eight deve lopmental stages is grounded in the principle of epigenesis, which is modeled upon embryonic growth. “This principle states that anything that grows has a ground plan, and that out of this ground plan the parts

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26 arise, each part having its time of special asce ndancy, until all parts have arisen to form a functioning whole” (Erikson, 1968, p. 92). While Erikson recognized that there may be wide variability in the oppor tunities for encounter with culture and society, his eight stages proceed, nonetheless, in a prescrib ed sequence of “crises” during which the developing personality is challenged to reso lve critical tensions between syntonic and dystonic forces in order to acquire certain psyc hosocial strengths. “The syntonic supports growth and expansion, offers goals, celebrate s self-respect and commitment of the very finest” (Erikson & Erikson, 1997, p. 106). The dystonic represents those forces that negatively challenge development in positive directions. “Personality, therefore, can be said to develop according to steps predetermined in the human organism’s readiness to be driven toward, to be aware of, and to inte ract with a widening radius of significant individuals and institutions” (Erikson, 1968, p. 93). At each stage, the success with which the conflict is resolved toward the syntonic response de termines the resources with which the person faces the challenges of the next stage. At any point in life, successful resolution of the preeminent crisis, theref ore, is built upon what has transpired in previous stages and will determine the success of the resolution of future crises (Erikson 1968, 1997). Erikson’s developmental theory was partic ularly relevant for this study because he posits human psychological development squa rely in social context where identity formation and the development of psychosoc ial strengths form and emerge in the interaction between the unique biological organism/person and the reaction of the surrounding culture to that person. Hence, th e cultural interpreta tion of the individual

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27 personality inevitably interacts with self-perce ption to drive the form ation of a sense of identity (vs. identity confus ion) and its refinement through the life span. Social role acquisition and the en suing judgment of society about the success with which the individual has met role expectations ar e essential elements in the psychosocial developmental process described by Erikson. Stages of Psychosocial Development Basic Trust vs. Mistrust: Hope. The foundation of all future development is laid at the beginning of the infant’s experien ce of the world through the physical and emotional care provided by his guardians. Th e child whose caretakers provide a sense that his/her needs will be met develops an orie ntation to life that trusts the world to be a place where he/she can survive and where ot hers can be depended upon in relationships; likewise, the self can be trusted to control in ternal urges and to extend into the external world. Mothers create a sense of trust in thei r children by that kind of administration which in its quality combines sensitive care of the baby’s individual needs and a firm sense of personal trustworthiness within the trusted framework of their culture’s life style. This forms the basis in the child for a sense of identity which will later combine a sense of being “all right,” of being oneself, and of becoming what other people trust one will become. There are, therefore, (within certain limits previously defined as the “musts” of child care), few frustrations in either this or the following stages which th e growing child cannot endure if the frustration leads to the ev er-renewed experi ence of greater sameness and stronger continuity of development, toward a fina l integration of the individual life cycle with some meaningful wider be longingness. (Erikson, 1963, p. 149) Beyond the essential requirements for the su rvival of the infant (the “musts” of childcare to which Erikson refers above), the manner in which needs may be met may vary widely among cultures and reflect the cu ltural assumptions about how one receives

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28 and gives within that culture. From the earliest beginnings of life, desired cultural behaviors about how one interact s with the external world ar e embedded into the infant’s experience, signaling ways of being which ar e affirmed by the culture and which lay the foundation for the child to begin to become the kind of person who is recognized by his culture as belonging to it and having a place in it. The psychosocial strength emerging from this foundational stage is hope. “Basic trust is the confirmation of hope, our consistent buttress against all the trials and so -called tribulations of life in this world” (Erikson & Erikson, 1997, p. 107). Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: Will In this second stage, the development of the muscular system is central to the psyc hosocial conflict in the child. Around age two, the child is able to move more freely a bout his/her environment and to begin to manipulate it and control it. A sense of au tonomy, or free will, is introduced. He/she also begins to experience the ability to control the self, both in terms of will and his or her own body. A sense of separate self is de veloping, the knowledge that one can express a choice and make demands are experience d, and the tension between holding on and letting go emerges. The child le arns that he or she has a will, but also that he/she must control it and that he/she must resolve the conflicts within the self. The child can develop an extreme conscience and a compulsive need for order. If the attempts at helping him/her to learn the appropria te parameters for exercising autonomy are heavy-handed or shame the child, the result may be a sense of vulnerability and self -doubt, or in extreme cases, reject limitations on autonomy and beco me secretively defiant of the limitations imposed. “There is a limit to a child’s and an adult’s individual e ndurance in the face of

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29 demands which force him to consider himself, his body, his needs, and his wishes as evil and dirty, and to believe in th e infallibility of those who pass such judgment” (Erikson, 1968, p. 111). Furthermore, Erikson observes, “People all over the world seem convinced that to make the right (meaning their ) kind of human being, one must consistently introduce the senses of shame, doubt guilt, and fear into a child’s life. Only the patterns vary” (1980, p. 74). The social institution which is the reinforcement to this developmental stage’s gains is the principle of law a nd order; it is the formal rules of a particular society that dictate the limitations of individual aut onomy. The child’s expe rience of social expectations for acceptable expressions of au tonomy comes largely through the parents, according to Erikson. The kind and degree of a sense of autonomy which parents are able to grant their small children depends on the dignity a nd sense of personal independence they derive from their own lives. We have al ready suggested that th e infant’s sense of trust is a reflection of parental faith; similarly, the sense of autonomy is a reflection of the parents’ dignity as autonomous beings. (Erikson, 1968, p. 113) Parental satisfaction levels in marriage, in the workplace, and in citizenship often determine the degree of autonomy the parents are able to grant their children (Erikson, 1968, 1980). “This in turn necessitates a relations hip of parent to parent, of parent to employer, and of parent to government whic h reaffirms the parent’s essential dignity within the hierarchy of soci al positions” (Erikson, 1968, p. 76). He cites the growing complexity of modern society as a potential constraint on parents’ ability to provide a positive context for the stage two psychosocial development of a child.

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30 All great nations (and the small ones) are increasingly challenged by the complication and mechanization of modern life, and are being enveloped in the problems of the organizati on of, larger units, larger spheres, and larger interdependencies which by necessity redefi ne the role of the individual. (Erikson, 1968, p. 77) Thus, through the experience of the parents’ sense of place and value in the social order, of rights and obligations establishe d by the institutionalized principle of law and order, the child develops his/ her sense of him/herself as an autonomous human being and lays the foundation for stage thr ee where the child begins to anticipate his/her own social roles. Initiative vs. Guilt: Purpose. During the fourth and fift h years, the child begins to conceive his place in the larger world. The ability to run without thinking about controlling the muscles, the development of language, and the emergence of imagination all enable the child to begin to perceive himself as a part of a larger social order. It is also a time when the child experiences peers in mutual play for the first time. “Being firmly convinced that he is a person, the child must now find out what kind of person he is going to be” (Erikson, 1980, p. 78). During this stage, the child develops an identification with the same sex parent as well as a sense of rivalry for the affections of the opposite sex parent; in Freudian terms, this is the Oedipal stage. Not only does the child become aware of sexual differences betw een father and mother, boys and girls, his imagination also enables him to project him/ herself into the parental roles, and it is, therefore in this stage that Erikson says that a child first anticipates adult roles. In fact, in Identity: Youth and Crisis Erikson titles the section descri bing the third stage “Childhood and the Anticipation of Roles” (1968, p. 115).

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31 He begins to make comparisons and is apt to develop untiring curiosity about differences in size and kind in general, and about sexual and age differences in particular. He tries to comprehend possi ble future roles or, at any rate, to understand what roles are wort h imagining. (Erikson, 1968, p. 116) Initiative, defined by Erikson as “a realistic sense of ambition and purpose” (Erikson, 1968, p. 115), is the systonic side of th e developmental conflict in this stage; guilt is the dystonic possibility at this stage, for just as the child can imagine possibilities, he/she can also imagine doing terrible things th at can leave feelings of fear and guilt. Conscience is developing, which enables an individual to set behavioral parameters according to socially-approved norms but whic h, in extreme, can create such a sense of having committed terrible crimes that the healthy pursuit of goals and ambitions, of fulfillment of potentialities, is crip pled in later life (Erikson, 1968, 1980). Industry vs. Inferiority: Competence. This stage is marked by the systematic instruction of the child by whatever formal or informal processes the culture has adopted to inculcate the necessary skill s to become a functioning memb er of the culture. It is during this time that, in literate cultures, the child begins formal in struction in school and in which he/she is taught to read and manipul ate the other tools required by society of its productive members. He/she moves from a worl d of play to one in which one learns to produce and to work cooperatively with othe rs to accomplish goals. He/she begins to learn to become a worker, and the sense of self begins to include the repertoire of skills and tools he/she has mastered. The child’s c oncept of self also expands to include the degree to which he/she perceive s him/herself to be competent. Satisfaction with doing a task and completing it is motivating. Role models include teachers and other adults,

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32 another indication that the worl d of the child has broadened to include other possibilities for social roles. Thus the fundamentals of technology are developed, as the child becomes ready to handle the utensils, the tools, and the w eapons used by the big people. Literate people, with more specialized careers, must prepare the child by teaching him things which first of all make him literate the widest possible basic education for the greatest number of possible careers. The more confusing specialization becomes, however, the more indistinct are the eventual goals of initiative, and the more complicated social reality, the vaguer ar e the father’s and mother’s role in it. School seems to be a culture all by itse lf, with its own goa ls and limits, its achievements and disappointment. (Erikson, 1963, p. 259) This stage is a critical one for the all-important identity formation that comes during adolescence; it is at this time that th e child develops a sens e of his worth to his culture and his position in it relativ e to his peers based upon his work. This is socially a most decisive stage. Since industry involves doing things beside and with others, a first sense of divisi on of labor and of differential opportunity— that is, a sense of the technological ethos of a culture—develops at this time. Therefore, the configurations of cultu re and the manipulations basic to the prevailing technology must reach meaningfully into school life, supporting in every child a feeling of competence—that is, the free exercise of dexterity and intelligence in the completion of serious tasks unimpaired by an infantile sense of inferiority. This is the lasting basis fo r co-operative particip ation in productive adult life. (Erikson, 1968, p. 126) Identity vs. Identity Diffusion or Role Confusion: Fidelity. The fifth stage is the period in which the search for individual identi ty is ascendant. “It is for this fifth stage, the adolescent identity crisis that Erikson is best known” (Sugarman, 1986, p. 88). The central developmental challenge during this period is creating an ego identity, which Erikson asserts is a consistency and predictabili ty of the inner self a nd the confidence that one has a stable meaning to others (Eriks on, 1963, 1968, 1980). Identity is the result of “an individual’s link with the unique values, fostered by a uni que history, of his people”

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33 (Erikson, 1980, p. 109) as well as the unique development of an individual. Hence identity contains within it both one’s unique internal cons tancy of self as well as a constancy in what one means to others and th e extent to which there exists “a persistent sharing of some kind of essential character with others” (Erikson, 1963, p. 109). Erikson describes the adolescent or t eenage years as a period of transition between childhood and adulthood, a time when the crises and streng ths from psychosocial development during the first four stages of development must be reconsolidated into an identity that will become the foundation for the adult stages. “A pervasive sense of identity brings into gradual accord the variety of changing self-images that have been experienced during childhood . and the role opportunities offering themselves to young persons for selection and commitment” (E rikson & Erikson, 1997, p. 73). This period of identity formation is a tu rbulent one, exacerbated by the confluence of critical psychosocial developmental task s with a rapidly changing physical body. The physical growth of the body and the arrival of sexual maturity create an especially tumultuous context for this developmental st age. The period is one of particular significance for developing social roles. According to Erikson, The integration now taking place in the form of ego identity is . more than the sum of the childhood identifica tions. It is the accrue d experience of the ego’s ability to integrate all iden tifications with the vicissit udes of the libido, with the aptitudes developed out of endowment, and with the opportunities offered in social roles. The sense of ego identity then, is the accrued confidence that the inner sameness and continuity prepared in the past are matched by the sameness and continuity of one’s meaning for othe rs, as evidenced in the tangible promise of a “career.” (Erikson, 1963, pp. 261-262) Bee and Bjorklund further illuminate the ps ychosocial challenge of the teen years.

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34 Teenagers must not only consider what or who they are but who or what they will be. Erikson . suggests that the teenag er or young adult must develop several linked identities: an occupational identity (what work will I do?), a gender or gender-role identity (how do I go about be ing a man or a woman?), and political and religious identities (what do I believe in?). If these identities are not worked out, the young person suffers from a sens e of confusion, a sense of not knowing what or who he is. (2000, pp. 36-37) It is the overwhelming sense that one is becoming who he or she will be in the future and the working out of one’s place in the social order that gives rise to the adolescent culture that is characterized by the paradoxical tension between individualism and conformity. Erikson describes the str ong group affiliations that are so important during the adolescent years as a means of defense against identity loss; while the individual is struggling with an insecure sense of who he or she is, the group provides an identity built upon stereotypes, peer pressure, and ar tificial yet clear distinctions about who one is within the group and what that m eans in relation to those who are not in the group. It is also a time when affiliation with negative groups and identities can lead an adolescent into delinquent behaviors and into id entity confusion or into an identity as an outsider who is not acceptable to the social mainstream of his/ her culture and whose future success in it is tenuous (Erikson, 1968; Erikson & Erikson, 1997). Furthermore, “it is the inability to settle on an occupa tional identity which most disturbs young people” (Erikson, 1968, p. 132). Throughout this fifth st age of development, the importance of social roles is an underlying theme as the young person seeks to determine his place in the social order of his/her world. The Adult Stages. Through the consolidation of psychosocial developmental strengths gained from the first four stages a nd the successful resolution of the fifth stage,

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35 three adult stages of development completi ng the life cycle are framed. “When childhood and youth come to an end, life . begins : by which we mean work or study for a specified career, sociability with the other se x, and in time, marriage and family of one’s own” (Erikson, 1980, pp. 100-101). His attention to the adult years is a distinguishing feature of Erikson’s work as compared to that of Freud, whose work ended with the closing of the adolescent chapters. For Erikson, adulthood is a continuation of the identity formation process that begins at birth. These stages, those “beyond identity” (Erikson, 1968, p. 135), follow the identity cris is of youth as the adult’s developmental stages turn on the ability to extend from self to others in ever-broadening spheres while, at times, revisiting the identity crises of previous stages. Erikson describes the fabric of the adult developmental stages as the acqui sition and shedding of social roles. Intimacy vs. Isolation: Love. In the sixth stage, the young adult is faced with establishing intimate relationships; or if he or sh e fails in the challenges of this stage, of being isolated from true connection with another human being. Such a person “may settle for highly stereotyped interpersonal relations and come to retain a deep sense of isolation ” (Erikson, 1968, p. 136) In contrast to the previous challenge of establishing a firm sense of individual identity and an intim acy with the self, now the task is to develop the capacity to fuse one’s identity with a nother. The young adult “is ready for intimacy, that is, the capacity to comm it himself to concrete affiliations and partnerships and to develop the ethical strength to abide by such commitments” (Erikson, 1963, p. 263). Young adults emerging from the adolescent search for a sense of identity can be eager and willing to fuse their identities in mutual intimacy and to share them with individuals who, in work, sexual ity, and friendship promise to prove

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36 complementary. One can often be “in l ove” or engage in intimacies, but the intimacy now at stake is the capacity to commit oneself to concrete affiliations which may call for significant sacrifices and compromises. (Erikson & Erikson, 1997, p. 70) Distantiation, or the willingness to distan ce oneself from those things which pose a threat or danger to oneself or one’s own, is a counterpart to intimacy, and it may lead to an accentuation of differences as one “fortifie s one’s territory of intimacy and solidarity” (Erikson, 1968, p. 136). The emergent strength from this stage is love, “that mutuality of mature devotion that promises to resolve th e antagonisms inherent in divided function” (Erikson & Erikson, 1997, p. 71). Generativity vs. Stagnation: Care. The primary task of the seventh stage is generativity, defined by Erikson as “the c oncern for establishing and guiding the next generation” (Erikson, 1968, p. 138). The drive to ward generativity is often expressed in parenthood, the result of the intimacy and commitments made during the previous stage. During the fifth stage (identity), young adults develop a sense of who they are; in the sixth stage (intimacy) they establ ish long-term bonds of intimacy through marriage or friendships. At that point th ey are ready to make a commitment to society as a whole in the sense of c ontinuing that society through its next generation. (Bee & Bjorklund, 2000, p. 37) For those who do not become parents, ge nerativity may be expressed in other forms of altruistic concern and creati vity. “Generativity . encompasses procreativity, productivity, and creativity and thus the generation of new beings as well as of new products and new ideas, including a kind of self-generation concerned with further identity development” (Erikson & Erikson, 1997, p. 67). McAdams and de St. Aubin (1992) define generativity as the time usua lly associated with middle adulthood when

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37 “the adult nurtures, teaches, leads, and promotes the next generation while generating life products and outcomes that benefit the social system and promote its continuity from one generation to the next” (p. 1003). Generativit y may find expression in such actions as mentoring younger colleagues, passing on one’s knowledge through teaching children or younger associates, or working for charitable organizations and causes (Bee & Bjorklund, 2000). The emerging strength of this stage is care, both of and about others. The healthy adult personality is inte rdependent with the younger generation because it needs to behave in generative ways in order to progress through the life stage cycle. The fashionable insistency of dramatiz ing the dependence of children on adults often blinds us to the dependence of the older generation on the younger one. Mature man needs to be needed, and maturity needs guidance as well as encouragement from what has been pr oduced and must be taken care of. (Erikson, 1963, pp. 266-267) Reflecting on the longitudinal Harvard University Study of Adult Development following 824 people into their older years, Vail lant states forthrightly, “Generativity provided the underpinning of successful old age” (2002, p.113). The antithesis of generativity is stagnati on. Inability to act in ways that care for that and those which come behind can result in pathological focus on the self, described by Erikson (1963, 1968, 1980) as a self-love that re sembles parenting of one’s own self. Integrity vs. Despair: Wisdom. The passing of the torch to the next generation ushers in the eighth and final stage described in Erikson’s developmental theory. Erikson (1968) states, “In the aging person who has taken care of things and people and has adapted himself to the triumphs and di sappointments of being, by necessity, the

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38 originator of others and the generator of th ings and ideas—only in him the fruit of the seven stages gradually ripens” (p. 139). The integrity of old age is described by Erikson in terms of its attributes. It is the ego’s accrued assurance of its proclivity for order and meaning—an emotional integration faithful to the imag e-bearers of the past and ready to take, and eventually to renounce, leadership in th e present. It is the acceptance of one’s one and only life cycle and of the people who have become significant to it as something that had to be and that, by necessity, permitted of no substitutions. It thus means a new and different love of one ’s parents, free of the wish that they should have been different, and an acceptanc e of the fact that one’s life is one’s own responsibility. It is a sense of co mradeship with men and women of distant times and of different pursuits who have created orders and objects and sayings conveying human dignity and love. (Erikson, 1968, p. 139) The acceptance and affirmation of one’s life and the consciousness of one’s place in the community of humankind that transce nds time and place yield wisdom as its final strength. For those who cannot come to th is resolution, despair becomes the prominent trait of the stage. The person who cannot come to terms with the circumstances and choices of his/her life feels regret for the ro ads not taken or resentful of the opportunities lost or not available. There is no sense th at the life one has lived has been fulfilling. Time is too short and there is despair over wh at was not and will never be. “Despair is often hidden behind a show of disgust, a misanthropy, or a chronic contemptuous displeasure with particular institutions and particular people—a di sgust and a displeasure which . only signify the individual’s co ntempt of himself” (Erikson, 1980, p. 105). Erikson, in his later reflections on the life cycle as he became aged, had a less idealistic view of the last st age of the life cycle. Bee a nd Bjorklund (2000) observe that Erikson’s optimistic view of the end of th e life cycle was written when he was middle

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39 aged. In his seventh and eighth decades, he saw the sense of loss that resulted from the increasing limitations posed by age. “The sense of physical limitation, of loss, contributes often to an increased self-centeredne ss, a quality that is in sharp contrast to the universalism or altruism that Erikson empha sized in his earlier writings on this final stage” (Bee & Bjorklund, 2000, p. 39). In the 1997 extended version of The Life Cycle Completed chapters were added by Erikson’s wife Joan Erikson, in which she described a ninth stage. Her writings were based upon her husband’s notations made in the first edition of the book and his thinking as he moved into his nineties. She noted that the first eight stages were described with the syntonic quotient men tioned first and the dystonic second; however, as she wrote about the nint h stage, she titled each stage with the dystonic preceding the syntonic (Basic Mistrust vs. Trust, for example), emphasizing that the most dominant force in this stage is toward decline and death. The description of the ninth stage is a recounting of each of the previous eight stages as the basic strengths that have accrued during the life cy cle now are lost as physical and mental capacities atrophy with advanced aging and the approach of d eath. The self-centered child-likeness that may come at the end of life is the unraveli ng of the personality strengths emerging from the work of the previous eight stages (Eriks on & Erikson, 1997). It can also be observed that the ninth stage is characte rized by loss of social roles and one’s ability to meet social expectations or to have positively-identified meanings to one’s culture. Levinson Daniel Levinson was concerned that a more complete understanding of the development of the adult years was needed, and so he assembled a team of research

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40 colleagues and undertook two studies, one of men and the second of women. His decision was that the initial study would focu s on men, largely because he had a personal interest in his own deve lopmental processes. The Seasons of a Man’s Life (1978) reports the results of a study of 40 men between the ages of 35 and 45 in four occupational groups. A second study of women was planned from the outset and culminated in the writing of The Seasons of a Woman’s Life (Levinson, 1996). The study of women was completed based upon a study sample of 45 wome n in three occupational groups. As in the first study on men, Levinson focused on the life course and development of the period between the late teens to the mid-forties. Like Erikson, Levinson believed that, “I n creating a deeper and more complex view of adulthood, one has to consider both th e nature of the person and the nature of society” (1978, p. 5). Levinson also chose to describe his theory as a life cycle theory because that term “suggests that the life cour se has a particular character and follows a basic sequence” (1978, p. 6). To speak of a general, human life cycle is to propose that the journey from birth to old age follows an underlying, univers al pattern on which there are endless cultural and individual varia tions. . Second, there is th e idea of seasons: a series of periods or stages within the life cycl e. The process is not a simple, continuous, unchanging flow. There are qualitatively different seasons, each having its own distinctive character. (Levinson, 1978, p. 6) Levinson’s life cycle is conceptualized according to eras composed of developmental periods Eras are the macro-structures of the life cycle; they encompass aspects of biological, psychological, and social development. Four eras are described in the life cycle: childhood and adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late

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41 adulthood. Each of these eras contains de velopmental periods, and each is bounded by a transition period These cross-era transition periods serve to link the eras and provide continuity between the eras. The transition peri ods usually covers four to five years. Levinson further explains the de velopmental periods as follows: In The Seasons of a Man’s Life I presented my own initial map of the developmental periods in men’s lives over the course of early and middle adulthood from roughly 17 to 65. These periods are not periods in a single aspect of living such as personality, cognitive, mora l, or career development. They are, rather, periods in the development of the adult life structure —the underlying pattern or design of a person’s life at a given time. The life structure of a man, I found, evolves through a sequence of alternat ing periods, each lasting some five to seven years. A period of building and maintaining a life structure is followed by a transitional period in which we term inate the existing structure and move toward a new one that will fully emerge in the ensuing structure buildingmaintaining period. (Levinson, 1996, p. 6) The extent to which one is successful in building a satisfactory life structure can be measured by its viability in the social worl d and its compatibility with the inner self. Within a life structure, a man must be “able to adapt, to maintain his various roles, and to receive sufficient rewards. A structure may be externally viable and yet not internally suitable if it does not allow him to live out crucially important aspects of his self” (Levinson, 1978, p. 54).

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42 Childhood and Adolescence to Age 17 Years Early Adulthood Early Adult Transition--Age17-22 Years Entering the Adult World—Age 22 to 28 Years Age 30 Transition--Age 28-33 Years Settling Down—Age 33-40 Years Middle Adulthood Mid-Life Transition—Age 40-45 Years Entering Middle Adulthood—Age 45-50 Years Age 50 Transition—Age 50-55 Years Culmination of Middle Adulthood—Age 55-60 Years Late Adulthood Late Adult Transition—Age 60-65 Years Figure 1. Males’ early and middle adult years de velopment, indicating characteristic themes, transitions, and age ranges, accord ing to Levinson. Adapted from Levinson, 1978, p. 57. In The Season’s of a Man’s Life Levinson (1978) laid out the central concepts of his theory of adult development and the evolu tion of a life structure; and his language in that book made it clear that he did not assume that his research findings would be the same for women’s lives. Hence, Levinson, in that work, carefully described his results and insights in terms of a man’s life or of men’s lives One of the four key questions of Levinson’s study of wome n’s life cycles in The Seasons of a Woman’s Life (1996) was whether there is a human life cycle co mmon to men and women. Through his study, Levinson did come to the conclusion that th e life structures of men and women are the

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43 same and that the timing of the periods is the same, though there are gender-related differences in how men and wo men proceed through the periods. Levinson’s developmental theory describe s the developmental process as one of individuation In successive periods of development, as this process goes on, the person forms a clearer boundary between self and world. He forms a stronger sense of who he is and what he wants, and a more realistic, sophisticated view of the world: what it is like, what it offers him and dema nds from him. (Levinson, 1978, p. 195) Through the process of individuation, pa radoxically, while one is becoming more autonomous and self-defining, one is also able to attach more significa ntly to the external world—to take on more responsibilities in th e form of adult social roles (Levinson, 1978). The individuation process is most appa rent in the transition periods where eras are ending and beginning and the infrastructu re for one’s life is being rebuilt. “It prepares the inner ground, layi ng an internal basis on which the past can be partially given up and the future begun” (Levinson, 1978, p. 195). The process of individuation also involves resolution of f our polarities Levinson believes are fundamental in the life cycle: Young/Old, Destruction/ Creation, Masculine/Feminine, Engagement/Separateness. While presented as polarities, in fact both qua lities exist in a pers on at all times; it is achieving a satisfying balance between these opposites that is the challenge. ”We can work on these polarities at any time during the life course. During the transitional periods, however, both the opportu nity and the need to atta in greater in tegration are strongest” (Levinson, 1996, p. 33).

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44 Each developmental period has its own deve lopmental tasks. Integration of the four polarities forms the basis for the devel opmental tasks of the tr ansition periods. The developmental tasks of a transi tion period are “to review and ev aluate the past; to decide which aspects of the past to keep and which to reject; and to consider one’s wishes and possibilities for the futur e” (Levinson 1978, p. 51). During a stable period, the developmental task is “to build a life struct ure: a man must make certain key choices, form a structure around them, and pursue his go als and values within this structure” (Levinson, 1978, p. 49). The developmental tasks are crucial to the evolution of the periods. The specific character of a period derives from the natu re of its tasks. A period begins when its major tasks become predominant in a man’s life. A period ends when its tasks lose their primacy and new tasks emerge to initiate a new period. (Levinson, 1978, p. 53) The first periods of the Early Adultho od era (approximately age 17-40 years) are the periods most relevant to the Daughter/Son adult social role. Le vinson’s descriptions of other periods do not address developmental task s relevant to this so cial role. However, the developmental tasks of the Early Adult Tr ansition (age 17 to 22 years) center around the child/parent relationship because the pr imary developmental tasks involve separating from the family of origin and forming an in itial adult identity. Separating includes both internal and external separation, as autonom y and independence both in the social and physical worlds are asserted and psychologi cal distancing and emotional independence from parents emerges. “It is necessary to modify existing relationships with important persons and institutions, and to modify the se lf that formed in pre-adulthood. Numerous separations, losses and transformations ar e required” (Levinson, 1978, p. 73). At the

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45 same time, the young person must begin to m ove into the adult world, “to explore its possibilities, to imagine oneself as a particip ant in it, to make and test some tentative choices before fully entering it” (Levinson, 1978, p. 73). During the years from ages 22 to 28, the Entering the Adult World period, the primary task is to create an initial life struct ure that adequately links the valued aspects of self from youth to the adult world. “A young man must shift the center of gravity of his life; no longer a child in his family of origin, he must become a novice adult with a home base of his own” (Levinson, 1978, p. 557). It is a time to test choi ces involving career, love, family, and peers. The young man has two primary yet antithetical tasks: (a) He needs to explore the possibilities for adult living: to keep hi s options open, avoid strong commitments and maximize the alternatives. This task is reflected in a sense of adventure and wonderment, a wish to seek out all the tr easures of the new world he is entering. (b) The contrasting task is to create a stable life structure : become more responsible and “make something of my life.” (Levinson, 1978, p. 58) In addition to the general tasks of crea ting a satisfactory initial life structure, women’s choices are overlaid with the internal images of the traditional woman’s role as caregiver and homemaker a nd the anti-traditional imag e that beckons toward independence and active engagement w ith the world as her own person. A woman must take a furt her step in her relations hip to marriage, motherhood, family of origin, occupation, the wider community. She often has the illusion— so common at the start of every structur e-building peri od—that if sh e just makes the right choices and forms the right rela tionships, she can create a satisfactory life pattern that will last fore ver after. (Levinson, 1996, p. 97) Levinson makes minimal mention of social ro les in his description of his theory. For Levinson, social roles are one aspect of one’s external relati onships. The beginning is the overall life structure and personality, however.

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46 A man’s life has many components: his o ccupation, his love relationships, his marriage and family, his relationship to himself, his use of solitude, his roles in various social contexts—a ll the relationships with individuals, groups and institutions that have significance for hi m. His personality influences and is influenced by his involvement in each of them. We must start, however, with the overall life structure. Once the charac ter of the individua l’s life has been identified, we can study in more detail th e changes occurring in personality, in the marital and occupational careers, and in other components of life. (Levinson, 1978, p. 41) Developmental tasks are not specific be haviors growing out of social role enactment, but are the larger internal pro cesses of meaning making and life-structure creation within which social roles are only co mponent parts. Adult social roles, while important manifestations of choices made in an individual life, are secondary order concepts for understanding human development for Levinson. Havighurst’s Studies of Social Roles and Developmental Tasks A developmental theorist who has been particularly of importance to adult education is Havighurst. He conceptualized development as a sequence of developmental tasks that were, in turn, linked in adulthood to social roles. “Whereas the developmental tasks of youth tend to be the products primarily of physiological and mental maturation, those of the adult years are th e products primarily of the evolution of social roles” (Know les, 1980, p. 51). Havighurst believed that meeting the challenges of these developmen tal tasks created a “teachable moment,” a period of time when there is an increased need and desire for education. “The requirements for performing each of these social roles change according to Havighurst, as we move through the three phases of a dult life, thereby setting up changing developmental tasks and, therefore, changi ng readiness to learn” (Knowles, 1980, p. 51).

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47 For the adult educator, knowing the nature of the developmental tasks and the culturally approved behaviors for meeting those challenge s is important information for developing educational programs for adults. Havighurst recognized Erikson’s work on the life cycle but believed the life cycle was best expressed in terms of dominant concerns, which he believed govern a person’s behavior during particular life cycle phases. He also believed that the phases were best expressed in decades. His scheme of domi nant concerns is presented by decades. 0-10 1. Coming into independent existence 10-20 2. Becoming a person in one’s life 20-30 3. Focusing one’s life 30-40 4. Collecting one’s energies 40-50 5. Exerting and asserting oneself 50-60 6. Maintaining position and changing roles 60-70 7. Deciding whethe r to disengage and how 70-80 8. Making the most of disengagement. (Havighurst, 1963, p. 25) Havighurst’s research in the Prairie City Study (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953), the Kansas City Study of Adult Life (H avighurst, 1955; Havighur st, 1957; Havighurst & Orr, 1956), and the Cross-National Studies (Havighurst & Neugarten, 1969) provided data on adult developmental tasks and social ro les in the mid-twentieth century. In these studies, he identified developmental tasks associated with the adult years, identified social roles of adult life at that time, a nd developed a research design utilizing an Interview Protocol that could be adapted to other situations This study relied heavily on the foundational work of Havighurst in its conceptual framework and methods. Prairie City Study In 1953 Havighurst and Albrecht published th e results of the first of Havigurst’s

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48 studies on adult social roles. It was a three-part study condu cted in a small mid-western city identified in the study simply as Prairie City. The purpose of the study was to research the activities of persons ages 50, 60, and 70 years with regard to the social roles in which they were engaged. More speci fically, Havighurst a nd Albrecht sought to identify the community’s percep tion of age-appropriate behavior s within each social role, the actual performance behavi ors of adults in these soci al roles, and the personal adjustment of those performing at a variety of levels in the identified social roles. The purpose was to determine how people’s involvem ent in various social roles changes with age and how the community views these changes in role performance in terms of social approval or disapproval. The initial work was to identify the community’s perception of age-appropriate social role performance behaviors in order to determine those behaviors approved by the community for older adults and those not appr oved. Questionnaires were administered to 1365 adults in 1949 and 1951. On the questionna ire, respondents were asked to rate descriptions of 96 activities in which older people might be involve d, indicating if they approved of older persons engaging in that ac tivity, if they saw it as neither good or bad, or if they if they saw the activity as a ba d or foolish thing for an older person to do (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953). Based upon the findings from this research, they were able to identify those activities viewed with strong approval, mild approval, indifference or mild disapproval, or strong di sapproval. The overall finding was that “a certain degree of tapering-off is desired, a no ticeable slowing down, but not too much of it” (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953, p. 36). Furthermore, th ey found that older people were more

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49 restrictive in thei r opinions about an appropr iate level of activity for older persons than were younger respondents. Concluding from this public opinion st udy we should say that the American society desires and expects a good deal of activity and independence from its older people, tolerate s a wide variety of roles on th eir part, and wishes them to slow down gradually as they grow olde r. (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953, p. 37) The next stage of the study was administ ering an interview schedule to a cross sectional, representative sa mple of 100 Prairie City citizens over age 65 years. We decided to look at the roles filled by the older people in Prairie City, to describe them and see how they vari ed between men and women, between the married and unmarried, between those we ll along in years and those who are comparatively “young,” as well as between those in the different socioeconomic classes. (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953, p. 43) Havighurst and Albrecht identified 13 soci al roles in which older adults might have an opportunity to be engaged. Those were: Parent Grandparent Great-grandparent Home-maker Member of extended family or kinship group Social club member Business club member Church member Age or peer-group member Member of clique or informal social group

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50 Citizen Worker or money-earner User of leisure time. Havighurst and Albrecht did not include the Daughter/S on social role in the Prairie City study, though their demographic questionnaire did inquire if the respondent had a living parent. They did, however, gath er data on the parent role, and since the Daughter/Son role is a reciprocal role with the parent role, it is possible to infer some aspects of the Daughter/Son role from those da ta. For example, according to the answers provided by the respondents (who were respondin g as parents), there is information about the dependence/independence relationship betw een parents and their adult children; for example, the study found that 80% of fath ers and 70% of mothers described the relationships with their children as ones of mutual independence. Mutual dependence was claimed by 3% of fathers and 12% of mo thers. Dependent fathers made up 3% or the sample, and 9% of mothers were depende nt upon their children. A few parents were still responsible for children (6% of fathers and 9% of mothers), but in most of these cases it was because unusual situations had left older parents with young children still at home (e.g., an adopted child, fathers who had married younger women who then had children). In only one case was the dependent child an adult, and that child was disabled. Of the fathers, 8% had no contact with their children, but all mothers were in contact with their children. The most common role is that of mutual independence of parents and children, with strong affectional ties and much friendl y visiting or even dwelling under the same

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51 roof. Parents and children in this role made their major decisions independently. Neither was subordinate to the other (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953). The Prairie City Study also found that thos e most active in family relationships showed higher personal adjustment scores than average. It also found that those who are married and living with a spouse had much hi gher personal adjustment scores than did the widowed or single respondents. They also found that those with high activity levels in one role area tended to be highly active in other social roles; women tended to rate higher than men. Married persons living with spouses had the highest activity scores across all social roles. The research also identified a gra dual decrease in overall role activity with age. The more important variable in determining role activity levels was socioeconomic status, with higher SES groups achieving higher activity scores than the lower groups. Based on the Prairie City Study, Havighur st and Albrecht concluded that the American culture expects and approves of so me slow down of social role activities to begin about age 60 years and that individuals will begin to assume social roles appropriate to that age then. By age 70 y ears, the community exp ects the individual to play a distinctly different elder role. The third phase of the study involved comb ining the information from the survey of community attitudes about age-appropriate social role performance with the actual social role performance ratings for the 100 respondents to derive individual social approval ratings for each of the individual res pondents. The social approval rating score for any given individual person may be in accurate since the way in which an actual

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52 person is regarded by the community is more than a summary of social role approvals (personality can be a strong influence, fo r example); nevertheless, across a group of people, important information can be gl eaned. Havighurst a nd Albrecht found that gender appeared to influence approval scores because, on the whole, women fill roles that have small but consistently higher approval ra tings. Likewise, those married, living with a spouse, had higher approval rating scores th an those who did not have a living spouse or were not married. Higher soci al status also resulted in hi gher social approval ratings, though the researchers were aware that ther e might be a built-in middle and upper class bias in the premises underlying the developm ent of the social approval ratings. Even with the differences found, there were not larg e differences in social approval ratings, with the exception of those widely separated in SES. “It appears that many people of any age, either sex, any marital and any socioec onomic status, do find role s that are at least mildly approved by the community, while othe r people in these same categories do not” (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953, p. 374). Kansas City Study of Adult Life. Havighurst’s study most important for th is study is the on e conducted between 1952 and 1955 as a part of The Kansas City Study of Adult Life (Havighurst, 1955; Havighurst, 1957; Havighurst & Orr, 1956). The study was conducted by the Committee on Human Development of the University of Chicago and a Kansas City social agency, Community Studies, Inc. Havighurst’s Kansas City Study was intended to assist adult educators in understanding adu lt life in the mid-twentieth cen tury. “The goal of adult education is to help people live better. What does ‘living better’ mean, and how can

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53 education help people to do it ?” (Havighurst & Orr, 1956, p. 1) The purpose of the study was further described: To get one kind of answer to these ques tions we have gone to a group of people and asked them to tell us what their daily life consists of and what seems important to them. We have scrutinized their answers in the light of what the social philosophers have said concerni ng the good life in America, and on this basis we have made some judgments concerning the degree of success which the various people whom we have studied are achieving in their adult years. (Havighurst & Orr, 1956, p. 1) The study aimed at surveying and recordi ng quantitatively as much as possible of the social lives of a sample of American a dults aged 40 to 70. Th e term “social life” is used broadly to cover what is sometimes calle d “way of life” or “life style.” The purpose of securing a quantitative record was to make possible the co mparison of way of life with other characteristics of a person, such as age, sex, personal adjustment, and socioeconomic status, in the hope of making some generalizations concerning middle age and aging in America. (Havighurst, 1957, p. 301) In addition to identifying what these peopl e were doing in their lives, the concept of competence was also introdu ced. In order to determine to what extent people were meeting the societal expectations for perf ormance of socially desirable and desired behaviors, value judgments were made about behaviors that indicated more successful living patterns (high performance). Havighur st was aware of the difficulties presented by making such judgments about social phenom ena that can vary s ubstantially among subgroups within American culture, and he asked, “How can the social role concept be used in the study of social competence in such a complex, pluralistic society?” (1957, p. 304).

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54 He felt the answer was in the design met hod of the study, which was one that sought general definitions of common social roles. This procedure assumes that a general cultur e with its expectations of behavior in the common social roles exists in a modern de mocratic society. The rating scales for role performance then consist of the culture-wide definitions of success and failure in these roles, and omit the particular variants on the general themes which are characteristic of one or another sub-group. This procedure is certainly feasible in America, where mass communication has spread widely the general expectatio n of what makes a good parent, worker, friend, citizen, church member, etc. Th e very high degree of geographical and social mobility of Americans tends to favor this procedure. (Havighurst, 1957, p. 305) The sample for the Kansas City Study began by drawing an area probability sample comprised of approximately 6,000 hous eholds. A short interview was conducted at each household to determine basic demogr aphic data of the household members aged 40-69 years, and then the persons in that group were placed in one of four economic groups (upper and upper middle, lower middle, upper lower, and lower lower). From these four groups, a random sample was drawn that included equal numbers from each economic group and was comprised equally of males and females, resulting in a stratified random sample. Interviewees were chosen randomly from the lists until a sufficient number of interviews had been conducte d (Havighurst, 1957). A proportionate number of Mexicans, African-Americans, and persons of Asian descent were included in the sample. Of those selected in the sample 53% were interviewed. The reasons for nonparticipation were refusal to be interviewed, moving, deat h, inability to locate, and

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55 other undocumented reasons. Ultimately, the Kansas City Study was based upon interviews with 234 people (110 men and 124 women) from Kansas City and its environs; a small sample of 25-30 year olds was also included as a supplementary study. In interviews lasting about two hours, th e respondents were as ked about a variety of aspects of their lives. “The interview was devised to get information on what the person did in the performance of his various so cial roles, how much energy he invested in these roles, and how he felt about himself in his various roles” (Havighurst, 1957, p. 306). Interviews were conducted by 12 different pers ons, eight females and four males. All were white initially until it was noticed th at African-Americans were refusing to be interviewed; when an African-American wo man was added to the interviewer group, she was successful at obtaining the c ooperation from that population. After the interviews were completed, two raters, one male and one female, ranked each respondent on Performance Rating Scales fo r nine social roles. Havighurst (1957) described the conceptual framework for constructing the rating scales: The following general criteria were empl oyed in devising the scales. (a) Energy input in a role was a major factor. A pe rson who spent a great deal of time and energy in a role was generally given a fair ly high score, but not necessarily the highest. (b) Quality of performance was al so a factor. Whenever it seemed that there was general agreement on what ma kes "good" performance, the quality criterion was used together with the en ergy criterion. Nobody was given either of the top two scores, 8 or 9, unless he combined a high en ergy input with a “flair” for the role. . Another aspect of be havior used in rating role-performance was attitude toward the role as reported by the individual. To get the highest ratings, a person must indicate that he found the role personally rewarding, whereas a person who showed that he disliked a gi ven role was rated lower than otherwise on this account. (pp. 306-307)

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56 With regard to the Performance Rati ng Scales, Havighurst summarized: “the meaning of competence in the performance of soci al roles, in this study, includes the level of overt performance judged against common American standards combined with attitude toward the role as disclosed in an interview” (1957, p. 308). Nine adult social roles were included in the Kansas City Study. Those were: Worker Parent Spouse Homemaker User of Leisure Time Friend Citizen Club or Association Member Church Member. The final score for each respondent on each role was the mean of the two scores for that role. Data were analyzed for the four socio-economic groups, for three age groups (41-50 years of age, 51-60 years of ag e, and 61-70 years of age), and for men and women. Generally, it can be said that socio-economic differences were the most prevalent differences in social role perf ormance, and the difference indicated higher social role performance in higher socio-ec onomic groups. “It is also evident that performance is closely related to socio-economic status in most role areas, but not to age” (Havighurst, 1957, p. 317). Havighurst also spec ulated that “the di fferences in role-

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57 performance [ sic ] scores between the various role-areas as due mainly to differences in degree of self-expectation or internalizat ion of the several roles “ (1957, p. 319). The Kansas City Study has some specifi c relevance for th e Daughter/Son adult social role, the subject of this study; but it presents some challenge s for understanding the treatment of the Daughter/Son role within the context of that research. Havighurst wrote about the Kansas City Study in the publication Adult Education and Adult Needs (Havighurst & Orr, 1956 ). The focus of that work was on developmental tasks which were defined as “the basic tasks of living which must be achieved if we are to live successfully and to go on with a good promis e of success to the later states of life” (Havighurst & Orr, 1956, p. 7). Ten areas of human behavior that impinge on adult behavior were listed, and from these 11 developmental tasks of middle age were specified. 1. Setting adolescent children free and he lping them to become happy and responsible adults. *As aunt or uncle, serving as model and, on occasion, as parent-substitute for nephews and nieces. 2. Discovering new satisfactions in relations with one’s spouse. *Working out an intimate relationship with brothers and sisters. 3.Working out an affectionate but indepe ndent relationship w ith aging parents. 4. Creating a beautiful and comfortable home. 5. Reaching the peak in one’s work career. 6. Achieving mature social and civic responsibility. 7. Accepting and adjusting to the physiological changes of middle age. 8. Making an art of friendship. 9. Making a satisfying and crea tive use of leisure time. 10. Becoming or maintaining oneself as an active club or organization member. 11. Becoming or maintaining oneself as an active church member. *Roles which unmarried people may perfor m more fully than the average person, as a partial substitution for the roles of parents and spouse. (Havighurst & Orr, 1956, p. 9)

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58 The third developmental task is of particul ar interest to this study, and the nature of this task was described: People at 45 to 60 generally have parent s who are beginning to show and to feel their age. At this point it becomes de sirable for adult children and aging parents to reorganize their relationships. The adult children must find ways of maintaining an affectionate and friend ly but neither dependent nor dominant relation. And eventually if the aging parents lost their health or their grasp of the world, the adult children will have to take so me responsibility for them. This task requires a delicate touch, an ab ility to be objective, a basi c love of one’s parents. (Havighurst & Orr, 1956, pp. 15-16) Mean scores for performance on developmental tasks were calculated by age, gender, and social class. See Table 2 for th e mean performance scores for each cell. Table 2 Child of Aging Parents Performance Scores of Kansas City Adults on the Developmental Tasks of Middle Age by Gender and Social Class _______________________________________________________________________ Men Age 40-70 Women Age 40-70 Social Class Social Class I II III IV I II III IV M M M M M M M M ______________________________________________________________________ 5.89 6.06 5.89 5.00 5.75 5.90 5.94 5.75 ______________________________________________________________________ Note. Data for this table was obtaine d from Havighurst & Orr, 1956, p. 32. Scores ranged from 0 to 9.

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59 That the Child of Aging Parent role was one that the research team anticipated including is further evidenced by the inclusion of questions in the interview questionnaire about the respondent’s parents. The seven questions were: 14. Are your parents living now? How old are they now? Mother __________ __________ Father __________ __________ 15. If one or both are living ask, Where do they (does he, she) live now? ___ 16. How are they getting along? ___________________ Do you have much responsibility for them? ______________ 17. (If one or both are dead, ask) How l ong ago did your mother pass away? 18. How old was she then?_____ 19. How long ago did your fa ther pass away? ________ 20. How old was he then? _____ (Havighurst, 1957, p. 361) More directly, Havighurst developed a Performance Rating Scale for the Adult Child of Aging Parent social role, and described it in the Research Memorandum on Social Adjustment in Adulthood and Later Maturity (1955). Havighurst stated, “This is a set of rating scales for measuring performance in the major role-areas of adult life. The scales are presented at the end of this paper in the form in which they are now being used in the Kansas City Study of Adult Life” (1955, p. 1). The Social Competence of Middle-Aged People is Havighurst’s most thorough discussion of the social role performance st udy portion of the Kansas City Study of Adult Social Life. Nevertheless, by the time of its publication in 1957, onl y nine social roles were included; the Performance Rating Scale of the adult child of aging p arents was not

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60 included in the report. Furthermore, Havighur st offered no discussion of the reason that the role was omitted in the final analyses. Cross-National Studies. The third of Havighurst’s major studies on social roles was a cross-national study based upon The Kansas City Study of Adu lt Life. This study was intended as a preparatory study of three to four years, in anticipation of a larger, more comprehensive study. The preliminary study had two purposes The first was to generate hypotheses about successful aging that coul d later be tested in larger, more representative samples in a variety of cultural settings. Secondly, it was to be a trial of a research design for comparable studies involving samples from different cultures. In introducing the study, Havighurst and Neuga rten (1969) wrote: One of the principal unanswered questions about the human lif e cycle in modern societies is how people structure their liv es after about age 65 when they retire from or lose some of the roles of middl e age. What is the nature of their experience, how do they pattern their interpersonal relations, and under what conditions do they achieve life satisfaction? (p. 3) The larger research was also to study tw o different views of the aging process. Disengagement theory anticipated that ma ximum social adjustment grows from the mutual withdrawal from each other of the aging person and society. This psychological withdrawal from social interactions is a sign of psychological we ll-being, according to disengagement theory. On the other hand, th e Kansas City Study’s data indicated the opposite to be true: “l ife satisfaction is positively related to social interaction or activity in older persons, rather than to disengag ement” (Havighurst & Neugarten, 1969, p. 138).

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61 An international research team was assembled to prepare interview schedules for administration in six major urban areas: Vienna, Austria; Mila no, Italy; Bonn-Ruhr, Germany; Nijmegen, Holland; Warsaw, Poland; a nd Chicago, U. S. A. It was decided to draw samples from two occupational groups th at would be common to each area. Thus, samples of 25 retired male school teachers a nd 25 male steelworkers were identified in each of the six locations. Though the Kansas City Study was the foundation for the interview schedule and rating scales, great effort was spent in creating interview schedules and rating scales in six languages that would yield comparable data. Scoring was completed using the same procedures used in the Kansas City Study. The process of considering the cross-national as pects of the study also led to the addition of two social roles not included in the Kansas City St udy. The cross-national study was based upon 12 social roles: Worker, Pare nt, Grandparent, Kin, Spouse, Home-maker, Club member, Civic and Political Participant, Friend, Neighbor, Church Member, Acquaintance or Informal Group Member. A social role not reported in this stud y was the Daughter/Son ro le. The interview schedule does have a section titled child of aging parent among the questions for other social roles (Havighurst et al., 1969, p. 170) and the social ro le rating scale has a rating scale provided for child of aged parent (Havighurst et al., 1969, p. 176). Information on this role was not a part of the final study report, however. The Interview Protocol for the study in cluded the following questions regarding the social role child of aging parent :

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62 Is your father or mother still living? (Check to see whether or not death has occurred within the last ten years.) How about your wife’s father or mother? (Probe for activity and involvement and for financial support. Probe also for change in last ten years, a nd affect regarding change). (Havighurst et al., 1969, p. 170) The international research team also developed a Performance Rating Scale for the role. Instructions and rati ng values were provided. In th e instructions, “R” refers to the respondent. The text re garding that role reads: This role includes interaction both with R’ s own parents and with his wife’s parents (mother-in-law and father-in-law). When parent is no longer living, rate ‘0’. As in PARENT and GRANDPARENT ratings, the principal basis for rating in this role is the frequency and regularity of contact. Howe ver, to this there must be added two other dimensions of interaction: a Effort given in sustaining parent(s) financially. This does not necessarily mean that regular visits are made. R may s upport his parents fully, partially, or not at all. b Effort made helping the parent in house hold matters and/or illness. R may take complete care of parents and/or help regu larly in matters of housekeeping; he may do this occasionally; or he may not give such help at all. It is assumed that if R is active in (a) or (b), he will be in regular, somewhat frequent contact with his parents. Thus the rating scale for this role is as follows: 0-no contact at all with parents 2-little, irregular person al contact; or irregular contact by phone or letters 4-infrequent but regular contacts; sees or communicat es with parent at least once a month 6-regular contacts at least weekly with parents; OR some financial assistance to parent but infrequent contact; OR some help given parents in housekeeping or personal care, but in frequent interaction 8-daily contacts or communication with pa rent, or varied cont acts per week with activities planned together: OR R assumes full financial responsib ility for parent, though he may not

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63 communicate with parent daily; OR R takes complete care of pa rent and/or helps regula rly in matters of housekeeping, though R may not communicate with parent daily. (Havighurst et al., 1969, pp. 176-177) No data were provided for this role. Si nce this was a pilot study with a small sample size and the age range was from 69 to 76 years of age, few respondents would be anticipated to be actively engaged in the child of aging parent social role. It was, therefore, predictable that no data were reported. The results of this cross-national pre liminary study found reliability on three of the five dimensions of performance included in the protocol and rati ng scale. The three dimensions were present level of activity, de gree of satisfaction rega rding present level of activity, and extent of ego-involvement in the role. Data were presented for these three dimensions. No data were given for change of activity level since about age 60 or affect concerning change of role-activity because the data were not considered reliable (Havighurst & Neugarten, 1969). Also, “ . because the samples of respondents are small and are not truly representative of the national groups in question, conclusions regarding cross-national differences cannot be safely drawn (Havighurst & Neugarten, 1969, p. 13). They did conclude that the data in the report were sufficient for developing hypotheses regard the relationship between social se tting and role satisfaction and life satisfaction in persons of the studied age group, thoug h the sample was too small to test such hypotheses. In regard to th e purpose of the study to develop a research design and methods that could be used fo r cross-national study of similar social phenomena, they reported that the goal had been accomplished. “More conclusive is the

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64 fact that the cross-national re search team succeeded in working out a set of field-work and analytical methods that are practicable where differences of la nguage and culture are involved” (Havighurst & Neugarten, 1969, p. 16). The University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project The foundation of the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project was laid by Abney’s (1992/1993) study that updated and revised Havighurst’s studies (1953, 1956, 1969) and content validated the cont emporary social roles and associated developmental events. Abney’s research al so investigated socioeconomic, gender, and age patterns. Developmental events were categorized into three phase levels: entry, intermediate, and advanced. The study began with a listing of social ro les and associated developmental events placed in phases adapted from Havighur st’s original studies (1953, 1957, 1959, 1969). Then, a pilot panel of experts from adu lt education, adult development, sociology, psychology, and gerontology were asked in a field test to a) respond to the initial listing of social roles, b) match developmental events with social roles, and c) identify levels of expertise or achievement required to accomplish the developmental event. As a result of the pilot panel responses, revisions were made to the questionnaire and procedures. The pilot panel next matched each developmental event to the appropriate social role; and revisions to the developmental events were made as a result. The final step in the field testing was for the pilot panel to categorize the revised developmental events into entry, intermediate, or advanced levels.

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65 The next stage of research was the valid ation panel process in which 24 experts participated on the initial panel and 23 on th e verification panel. Based upon the initial panel feedback, 13 social roles were accepted as contemporary adult social roles. In the next steps, the initial panel was asked to i ndicate strength of agreement with the phase placement of the developmental events; panel members were also given the opportunity to add, delete, or revise events and change the placement of the event. A verification panel of experts undertook the same process of responding to the inclusion of each social role as a separate adult social role, matching developmental events to social role, and categorizing develo pmental events into phases. The results of the two panels regarding both social roles and developmental events were compared. An agreement of 80% between the total sc ores of the two panels was established to indicate content va lidity of the social roles and developmental events for that role. An agreement between the two panels of 70% for an individual social role and a 60% for an individual developmen tal event was further established as evidence of content validity and for continuation in the study for both the individual roles and events. (p. 61) A card-sort check completed by 10 adults familiar with the project provided a basis for final placement of developm ental events in phases. Based upon the results of the expert pa nel process, a community survey was developed from the social roles and developm ental events identified in the process and was administered to180 adults. The purpose of the community survey was to investigate identifiable patterns in socioeconomic status, gender, and age across social roles and across developmental events within each role. . To accomplish the community survey purpose, the study respondents were asked to complete two tasks concerning the social roles and developmental events. The first task asked “How important on a scale of very important to very unimportant is each of the listed major adult social

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66 roles?” In the second task, the respondents were asked to identify, from a list of developmental events within a specific social role, the activity(ies) or events that they performed in each role. (p. 63) Two pilot tests of the survey were admi nistered, first to 60 adults (30 males and 30 females in three age groupings (young, middle, and old) with similar characteristics to the study respondents. Minor changes were made to the demogra phic data collection form and to the instructions. The second pilot test was conducted with 15 adults responding to the revised versi on of the survey protocol. The community survey was directly admi nistered to 180 individuals comprising a nonprobability quota sample in the Tampa Bay, Florida, area. Respondents’ ages ranged from 18 to over 65 years, were equally ma le and female, and reflected the 1990 ethnic composition of the study’s metropolitan area. In order to include racial/ethnic minorities, minimum quotas were set for the quota samp le (10% African-American, 7% HispanicAmerican, 0.5% Native American, and 1% Asian-American). The quota sample was divided into an 18 cell design (three socioeconom ic levels x male or female x three age categories). Survey respondents were selected based upon conformity to the demographic requirements for the category. Abney Abney’s (1992/1993) research resulted in the identified a nd validated 13 adult social roles that have been the focus of th e University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project. These roles are associ ation/club member, citizen, Daughter/Son, friend, grandparent, home/services manager, ki n/relative, learner, leisure time consumer,

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67 parent, religious affiliate, spouse/partner, a nd worker. The study also identified and validated 94 developmental events associ ated with the 13 adult social roles. With regard to the Daughter/Son social role, Abney found it to be one of the highest ranking roles. The initial panel members gave it a median rating of 3.9 for inclusion as an adult social ro le and an overall rank of 5.5, tied with the parent role for fourth and fifth place among the 13 identified so cial roles. The verification panel gave the Daughter/Son role a medial rating of 3.89, with a rank of 3.5, a tie in rank with the parent role for third and fourth place. The co mbined results of the initial and verification panels were a median rating of 3.90 and a rank of 3.5 of the 13 a dult social roles. The question the initial and verification panels responded to in evaluating the developmental events on a s cale of strongly agree to st rongly disagree was, AIs each developmental event placed in the appr opriate phase for that social role? All the developmental events satisfied the established inclusion criteria by meeting or exceeding a 2.5 rating. (Abney, 1992/1993, p. 80) Six developmental events for the Daughter /Son adult social role were identified for inclusion in the community survey. These were: Establish independence from parents Develop and/or refine adu lt relationship with parents Handle increased demands of older parents Deal with chronic illness, fra ilty, and/or death of parent Handle increased emotional, physical and/ or financial demands of older/aging parents Successfully adapt adult relationship with parents to changing life situations. (Abney, 1992/1993)

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68 In both initial and verification panels, scores were separated by no more than a ranking of 2.0, with initial panel median sc ores ranging from 2.98 to 3.90 and verification panel rankings ranging from 3.67 to 4.0. Additiona lly, the initial panel rated four of the six developmental events in the agree categor y and two in the str ongly agree category with regard to inclusion as a developmental events for the Daughter/Son social role. One hundred percent of the verification panel memb ers agreed strongly that all six of the identified developmental events were a ppropriate developmental events for the Daughter/Son social role. From the mu ltiple panel process, Abney developed a Community Survey to ascertain the perceived importance of the identified adult social roles and the associated developmental events. A quota sample population of 180 respondents evenly distributed among 18 cells (3 age variables x 2 gender variables x 3 SES category variables) and with ethnic dive rsity approximately representing that of the Tampa Bay, Florida, completed the survey. The community survey found that, between respondents, there were no significant differences for the main effects of age, gende r, and SES, nor were there any significant interactions. However, within respondents, there was a significant main effect for social roles and significant interactions between ro le and gender, role and age, as well as a three-way interaction between role and SES a nd age. With regard to the Daughter/Son social role, he found “the Daughter/Son role was the only role sign ificant by SES alone” (Abney, 1992/1993, p. 119). The grand mean for Daughter/Son social role for all groups was 4.24, which was a rank of 3.5 among all social roles. It was the highest ranked role

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69 for the young age group (mean = 4.63) and among the three lowest ranked roles for the older age group (mean = 3.67) (Abney, 1992/1993). Respondents in the community survey were also asked to in dicate which of the developmental events describe d for each social role were behaviors they performed. Analysis of results for the Daughter/Son social role found that, overall, 25% of developmental events were id entified by the respondents. Th e range for the age variable was 41% for younger respondents to 9% for ol der respondents. Males identified 22% while females indicated 28%. SES results were 23% for working, and 26% for both lower middle and upper middle. Among the 13 social roles, the developmental event participation ranked ninth (Abney, 1992/1993, p. 128). The event range was small in the Daughter/Son role with D1 (Deal with chronic illness, frailty, and/or death of parents) being the highest event with 34% circled by the respondents and D4 (Handle incr eased emotional, physical, and/or financial demands of older/aging parent s) the lowest with 17%. The MANOVA shows that the events and events by age were significant on the Wilkes= Lambda. As expected with the age-relatedness of th is role, the percentage of events circled decreased with age. The working older males and upper older females circled the lowest percentage of events while the working young females had the highest percentage circled. (Abney, 1992/1993, pp. 133-134) 0 BFive developmental events emerged from Abney’s (1992/1993) study. Abney adopted a coding convention for developmental ev ents using a letter code for the role (D= Daughter/Son role) followed by a number for each separate developmental event within each social role. For the contemporary Daughter/Son adult social role, the five developmental events identified by Abney are reported in Table 3.

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70 Table 3 1 BDevelopmental Events for the Daughter/Son Adult Social Role _____________________________________________________________________ Code Developmental Event _____________________________________________________________________ D1 Deal with chronic illness, frailty, and/or death of parents D2 Redefine relati onship with parents D3 Establish independence from parents D4 Handle increased demands of aging parents D5 Adapt relationship with pa rents to changi ng situations _____________________________________________________________________ Note. Abney, 1992/1993 Abney also looked at the mean differences in the Daughter/Son role by SES level. The means and rank order of the perceived importance of the Daughter/Son role are presented by cell in Table 4. Worki ng Young Females (WYF) actually rated the importance of the role highe r than any other group ( M = 4.7). This was followed by means of 4.6 for the MYM and MYF cells. 2 BMcCoy McCoy’s (1993/1994) research extende d Abney’s study (1992/1993) to the disenfranchised and elite socioeconomic status (SES) levels and then aggregated his data with Abney’s data on the working, middle, a nd upper middle socioeconomic levels. The research questions asked what profiles are id entifiable for the disenfranchised and elite SES groups across perceived social roles and across developmental events within social roles. McCoy also investigated the profiles by age and gender, and then he compared the disenfranchised and elite groups with the Abney’s (1992/1993) findings for the upper middle, middle, and the working SES levels. McCoy found the elite and disenfranchised SES levels had more disparity between them than other SES levels. He also found that,

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71 across SES levels, the friend role was the most important and the association/club member and grandparent roles were the least important. His results also indicated that for four of the social roles (Daughter/Son, pa rent, grandparent, and worker), age was the important factor for determining developmental events. With regard to the Daughter/Son social role, McCoy found that the disenfranchised ranked the Daughter/Son role ni nth in order of importance while the elite ranked it fourth, for a combined ranking for these two SES groups of eighth. When combined with Abney’s (1992/1993) findings the ranking of the Daughter/Son social role for all five SES groups was fifth among the 13 social roles. The means and rank orders for the perceived importance of the so cial roles are presented in Table 5, which compares McCoy’s (1993/1994) disenfranchise d and elite means and rank order to the overall means of the five SES groups. A repeated measures analysis of the developmental events for the Daughter/Son social role found significant differences ( p < .0001) for between subject effects for age. Older adults reported particip ation rates significantly lowe r than were reported by young and middle aged respondents for two devel opmental events, D2 (redefine relationship with parents) and D5 (adapting to changes in life situation with pa rents). Analysis of within subjects effects for the Daughter/Son social role found significant differences for several groups. Both middle-aged and young adults indi cated significantly higher levels of participation than the older adults in D2 (develop or refine ad ult relationship with parents), D3 (establish independence from parents), D4 (handle increased demands of aging parents), and D5 (adapt relationship with parents to changing situations). (McCoy, 1993/1994, p. 118)

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72 The conclusion of McCoy’s (1993/1994) resear ch made it possible to begin individual research projects on each of the 13 identified contemporary adult social roles. These projects developed Performance Rating Scal es and Interview Pr otocols and content validated them. Quota samples largely in the Tampa Bay, Florida, area provided the subjects for the studies. Kirkman’s ( 1994/1995) study initiated the development and content validation of Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol/assessment instrument phase of the University of South Florida Re search Project. Table 4 3 BMeans and Rank Order of Perceived Importance of the Daughter/Son So cial Role by Cell 4 B____________________________________________________________________ Respondent Cell Mean Rank __________________________________________________________________________ WYM 4.2 8 WYF 4.7 2 WMM 4.3 2 WMF 4.5 4 WOM 3.7 9 WOF 4.4 1 MYM 4.6 3 MYF 4.6 1 MMM 4.5 3 MMF 4.4 3 MOM 4.0 6 MOF 4.1 8

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73UYM 4.7 1 UYF 5.0 1 UMM 4.4 4 UMF 4.4 2 UOM 2.8 13 UOF 3.0 13 ___________________________________________________________________ Note: SES Variable Age Variable Gender Variable W=Working Y=Young M=Male M=Middle U=Upper M=Middle O= Older F=Female Abney, 1992/1993, p. 125 Table 5 5 BMean and Rank Order of Perceived Importance of Social Roles 6 B_____________________________________________________________________ Role Disenfranchised Elite All SES Groups Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Association/Club Member 2.08 13 3.40 12 3.05 13 Citizen 4.08 3 4.27 3 4.09 6 Daughter/Son 3.57 9 4.25 4 4.11 5 Friend 4.42 1 4.50 2 4.48 1 Grandparent 3.18 12 3.23 13 3.50 12 Home/Services Manager 4.22 2 3.70 11 3.97 8 Kin/Relative 4.07 4 4.17 7 4.19 3 Learner 4.02 5 4.23 5 4.16 4 Leisure Time Consumer 3.85 8 3.75 10 3.88 10 Parent 3.87 7 4.20 6 4.09 6 Religious Affiliate 3.90 6 3.83 9 3.74 11 Spouse/Partner 3.22 11 4.72 1 4.20 2 Worker 3.32 10 4.00 8 3.90 9 ________________________________________________________________________ (McCoy, 1993/1994)

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747 BKirkman The first of the University of S outh Florida Research Group’s studies on individual contemporary adu lt social roles was complete d by Kirkman (1994/1995) with the development and content validation of Performance Rating Scales and Interview Protocols for three roles (parent, spouse/par tner, and worker) for the middle three SES groups (working, middle, and upper middle). In this study, Kirkman established the fundamental research questions and developed a process for development of Performance Rating Scales and Interview Protocols that se t the frameworks for all subsequent studies of other contemporary adult social roles in the University of S outh Florida Research Project, including this study of the Daughter/Son role. For each of the three social roles, Performance Rating Scales based upon behaviors and skills appropria te for each performance level were developed from a literature review. “Each ro le had three scales drafted, one for each phase—entry, intermediate, and advanced. Scales were organized in five descriptive performance levels (low, below average, medium, above average, and high) with a two-point score associated with each level” (Kirkman, 1994/1995, p. 72). Kirkman chose to use the framework of phases rather than an agebased framework (young adult, middle-aged adult, and older adult) because she felt that such a construct provided more flexibility to acknowledge the diversity of life patterns present in contemporary adult life. For example, one may enter the parent social role at ages ranging from early young adult life Social Roles research project adopted the original chronol ogical construct of young adult, middle adult, and older adult as the basis for sample selection and data analysis.

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75 The research process developed by Kirk man (1994/1995) was described as a ninetask procedure. Task 1 was to draft the Performance Rating Scales based upon a review of the literature and input from the USF re search project group. Descriptions of behaviors and skills associated with five performance levels and phases for each role were created in order to allow for making j udgments about social role performance. A panel of experts was asked to review the scal es, and then later used a card-sort procedure placed the behavior/skill descri ptors in the appropriate performance level. Task 2 further developed the scales by asking an other group of experts to comp lete the same procedure. These panels, the initial scale panels, were presented with stacks of cards representing strands within the phase perfor mance level and directed to pl ace the cards in performance level categories. Panel members were also asked to provide i nput on the clarity of language and the completeness of the resu lting descriptions for each role phase. The validation of the Performance Rati ng Scales was accomplished in Task 3. A third panel group of experts “received a brief e xplanation of the projec t, scales for their specific role, and a request for rating of language clarity and completeness of description for each phase scale” (Kirkman, 1994/1995, p. 76) An opportunity was also provided for members to suggest changes for the Performance Rating Scales. Task 4 was the creation of interview ite ms for each phase of each of the three adult social roles. During Task 5, the item sets were reviewed by the research project group for suggestions and language clarity, paying attention to ambiguity and bias. Items were revised as appropriate. Task 6 i nvolved Interview Verification Panels, which

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76 critiqued the item sets for relevance, comple teness, and representativeness of the sets relevant to the Performance Rating Scales from which they were constructed. The interviews and Performance Rating S cales were field tested in Task 7. Interviewers and raters were trained to use the instruments prior to administering the interviews to a small population. Discussions about the interview items and the use of the scales resulted in further modificati ons of the Performance Rating Scales and interview item sets (Task 8). The final step (Task 9) of the process was the administering of the interview item sets to 90 individuals for each social role. The three quota samples were stratified with equal numbers of men and women ( n =45), across three age groups ( n =30), and across three socioeconomic groups ( n =30). The disenfranchised and elite SES groups were not covered in this study, but were addressed in a later study by Davis (2002). Data analysis for the parent role found that there was statis tical significance for the main effect of age ( p < .02) as well as for the interaction between age and gender ( p < .03). Age by gender by SES also s howed statistical significance ( p < .04); however, Kirkman (1994/1995) concluded that the effect of gender strongly indicated “that there were no significant differences between males and females in parent role performance in the study” (p. 128). Using Tukey post hoc comparisons, Kirkman found no statistical significance, though she did note some patterns of interest when comparing cell means. The analysis of variance of the worker role data found statistical significance for the main effects for age ( p < .0001) and SES ( p < .03). No significance was found for gender or for any interacti on effects. Tukey post hoc comparisons found that older

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77 respondents’ scores were significantl y higher than those of young and middle respondents. Kirkman also found statisti cal significance for the upper middle SES group when compared with the lower middle SES group. Analysis of results for the spouse/part ner role found no stat istically significant differences for main effects or for any interaction effects for this variable. Davis In 2002, Davis researched the disenfranchise d and elite social roles for the parent, spouse/partner, and worker roles, to complete the research begun by Kirkman (1994/1995). Davis’ data were pooled with Kirk man’s in order to obtain results across all five socio-economic groups in the three adu lt social roles. The pooled data indicated significant effects for SES in all three roles, with the elite level performing significantly higher than the disenfranchised level. For the parent role, Davis also found an interaction effect between age and gender; younger and ol der males both performed at a higher level than did the females in this role. 8 BHargiss The development and content validation of an Interview Protocol and Performance Rating Scale for the leisure time consumer adult social role was completed by Hargiss (1997/1998). The study’s objectives were to use Abne y’s social role research on particular behavioral and sk ill criteria for the leisure tim e consumer social role to create the protocol and Performance Rating S cale. The research questions for the study asked if there were identifiab le patterns in performance ra tings by gender, age, or SES level; the study also examined interaction effects between the variables.

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78 Hargiss’s (1997/1998) study found no si gnificant gender differences in the performance of the leisure time consumer soci al role. There were, however, age and SES level differences. Specifically, Hargiss found significantly higher scores for the older age group than for the younger age group ( p <01). Disenfranchised and working SES levels performed significantly lower than th e other three higher SES levels ( p =.0165). No significant interaction effects were found. When examining effect sizes, Hargiss found a large effect size for SES (.54). A medium effect size was found for age (.24), age by SES (.21), and age by gender (.23). The effect size for gender (.10) and gender by SES (.113) were small. Hargiss also researched the types of leisure-time activities in which her respondents engaged. The top 10 activities, in order, were reading, gardening, exercising/working out, computer s, racquet sports, cycling, watching televi sion, listening to music, cooking, and visiting with friends. “Three specific leis ure activities were reported in all SES levels, age groups, and ge nders. The leisure time consumer reported activities were: gardenin g, reading, and exercising ” (Hargiss, 1997/1998, p. 156). 9 4 BMontgomery The development and content validation of the contemporary association/club member social role Performance Rating Scal e and assessment instrument were described by Montgomery (1997/1998). Differences in so cial role performance based upon gender, socioeconomic status level, and age were ex amined, as were the interactions between gender, socioeconomic status level, and age with regard to social role performance. The study found that through the use of a Perf ormance Rating Scale and an Interview

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79 Protocol, reliable distinctions among associa tion/club member social role performances could be made (Montgomery, 1997/1998). When gender, socioeconomic status level, and age were analyzed, age and SES yiel ded statistically significant performance patterns, supporting the resear ch hypothesis that higher SE S levels would show higher social role performance levels. Specific results of Montgomery’s study (1997/1998) found a below-average performance of the association/club social role for this study sample with a mean score of 3.16 and a standard deviation of 2.68. The di senfranchised SES level scored the lowest; the working SES level also scored low. “T he mean performance ratings for the lower middle, upper middle, and elite all indicated an average performance of this social role, with the upper middle performing th e highest” (Montgomery, 1997/1998, p. 94). Young and older age categories performed below aver age on this social ro le (mean scores of 3.04 and 2.66), while the middle age group score was average (mean of 3.79). Because Havighurst’s Kansas City Study reported in Havighurst and Orr (1956) also studied the associati on/club social role, comparis ons between his study and Montgomery’s results were possible. The males in the Kansas City Study had a performance mean of 3.67, while the males in this study had a performance mean of 3.14. The Kansas City Study females had a performance mean of 2.20 while the females in this study had a performance mean of 3.19. The tw o age groups assessed in the Kansas City study (40-70 year olds and 25-30 year olds) differed only slightly from the middle-age and young-age groups in this study. The Ka nsas City Study young-age performance mean was 3.02 while the young-age performance mean in this study was 3.04. The

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80 Kansas City Study middle-age performance m ean was 2.89 while the middle-age in this study had a performance mean of 3.79. Signi ficant main effects were found for age ( p < .050) and for SES ( p < .0001); no interaction effects we re found to be statistically significant (Montgomery, 1997/1998). Comparison of Havighurst’s four socioec onomic groups to the similar groups in Montgomery’s study indicated that the perfor mance level increased with SES level. Montgomery compared the upper middle class pe rformance mean of 4.44 in Havighurst’s study to the upper middle level performance me an of 4.61 in that study. The lowest SES levels in both studies reported the lowest performance scores. The overall performance mean for Havighurst’s sample was a 2.93, wh ile the overall performance mean of the sample used in Montgomery’s study was a 3.16. Both samples performed the association/club member social role at the below-average level (Montgomery, 1997/1998). 9 2 BWall Wall (1997/1998) studied the contemporary home/services manager social role and developed and content validated a Pe rformance Rating Scale and an assessment instrument for this social role. Social ro le performance was analyzed for differences according to age, gender, SES, and interac tion between these demographic variables. Wall’s review of the literature on the home/services manager social role led her to four expectations for her results, which she also described in the study’s results. Additional analysis was conducted to ascertain if liv ing arrangements affected social role performance ratings for the home/services manager.

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81 Wall found statistically si gnificant results at the p <.10 level for gender and SES, indicating that differences in performance ra tings of the home/services manager social role existed based upon gender and SES. She also found a significant interaction effect based upon age and gender ( p < .10). Post hoc tests indi cated that the disenfranchised SES group rating was statistically significantl y lower than the other four SES groups. The upper middle group had the highest ratings but differences were not statistically significant between the working, lower middle, upper middle, and elite SES groups. Post hoc testing for age differences indicated that younger and older age group’s ratings were statistically significant by gender while there was no statistically significant difference by gender in the middle age group (Wall, 1997/1998). Support for Wall’s stated expectations was mixed when data were analyzed. The expectation that females would have highe r performance ratings than males for the home/services manager role was confirmed for younger and older females, but not for middle-age females. Wall also expected, based upon the literature, to find that performance ratings of the middle-age gr oup would be higher than ratings for the younger and older age groups; however, Wall fou nd no main effects for age. Age was statistically significant only in interaction wi th gender, with the higher mean rating scores of middle age males showing statistical significa nce. With regard to the expectation that role performance would increas e with SES level, Wall found th at this expectation was not fully met based on the data from this study, sin ce the elite level did no t score the highest. “Upper middle level participants had the hi ghest mean, followed by lower middle, elite, working, and then disenfranchised” (Wall, 1997/1998, p. 100). Wall’s analysis of living

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82 arrangement found that single, living alone individuals scored significantly higher on home/services manager social role performan ce than individuals from groups in other living arrangements (Wall, 1997/1998). Witte Witte’s 1997/1998 study developed and conten t validated the adult learner social role Performance Rating Scale and assessmen t instrument. He investigated whether statistically different patterns of performance existed among the variables of gender, age, and socioeconomic status and if interac tion effects among these variables yielded significant differences. He also reviewed the Interview Protocols for qualitative information about the preferred methods for acquiring learning and the settings where learning activities are most likely to occur. The overall performance rating mean for the adult learner social role was 4.85 with a standard deviation of 2.21. The mean score put the overall rating in the medium range for performance. The analysis of va riance for Witte’s results indicated that the SES variable ( p <.0001) was statistica lly significant ( =.10). Age and gender main effects were not statistically significant, nor did Witte find any significant interaction effects for the adult learner social role. Fu rther examination of th e SES variable data by pairwise combinations of the variable s found no differences among the performance rating means for the elite, upper, and middle SES levels. The working and disenfranchised SES categories, however, did have significantly lower means for social role performance than did the other three SES groups. The preferred method for acquiri ng learning by all respondents was

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83 watching/asking (40%), with reading ranked second (36%) an d formal classes (23%) the least preferred method. Elite and Upper respondents were the mo st eclectic of the SES levels citing a wide variety of learning sources, which ra nged from formal classes to individually motivated learning efforts. The middle, working, and disenfranchised groups reported fewer multiple learning strategi es, often citing only a single method to learn new skills or acquire new information. Informal learning situations were preferred by the majority of interviewees. (Witte, 1997/1998, p. 97) Yates-Carter The development of an Interview Protocol and a Performance Rating Scale for the kin/relative adult social role was Yates-Carter’s (1997/1998) contribution to the work of the University of South Florida Social Role s Research Team. The content validation of the Performance Rating Scale and the Interview Protocol allowed raters to make reliable distinctions between the social role perf ormance levels of persons who responded to interview questions. Her research analy zed gender-based, age-based, socioeconomic status-based patterns, and interaction patterns in the performances ra tings of her research sample. She also explored whether there were significant differences in the performance ratings of African-American a nd Caucasian racial groups w ithin her sample. In her research, kin/relative was de fined as all relatives other than parents, grandparents, children, and spouses; it included siblings, unc les, aunts, nephews, nieces, cousins, and the spouse’s relatives of the same degree.

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84 Yates-Carter’s (1997/1998) results found no significant main effects for age or gender, nor did analysis yiel d statistically significant resu lts for interactions among the variables. However, SES wa s found to be significant ( p < .0001). Specifically, YatesCarter found that “(a) with the exception of middle, upper is significantly higher than the other groups; (b) middle is si gnificantly higher than working and di senfranchised; (c) elite is significantly higher th an disenfranchised; (d) worki ng is significantly higher than disenfranchised; and, (e) disenfranchised is significantly lower than all other groups” (Yates-Carter, 1997/1998, p. 97). Examination of the disenfranchised SES level found a range of mean scores from 1.8 to 4.3 indica ting that not all dise nfranchised persons scored low on social role performance; ol der males had the highest mean scores and middle males had the lowest mean scores among the disenfranchised. Analysis of the performance rating scor es for African-American and Caucasian racial groups found that th ere was a statistically si gnificant difference in the performances of the two groups, with African -Americans scoring higher than Caucasians ( p < .10). 9 BDye The development and validation of the Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the social role, “friend,” were accomplished in the research of Dye (1998). Her research explored the gende r, socioeconomic, and age patt erns in the performance of the friend social role; she also questioned what interaction effects be tween these variables might be present in the study data.

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85 The overall mean score for the friend so cial role was 5.05, a sc ore at the high end of the average performance level. Dye found that two of the three main effects were statistically significant. Gender me an scores were significant at p <.0010, while SES mean scores were significant at p <.0001. There was no main effect for age. There was also an interaction effect between age and SES, with statistical significance at p <.0003. Specifically, Dye found no statistically signi ficant differences in role performance between young, middle, and olde r age groups. She did find th at females scored higher than males in this role. Also, “significan t differences were observed among SES levels, most notably in comparing the disenfranchise d and middle SES levels with the remaining SES levels” (Dye, 1998, p. 168). Interaction effects between age and SES were most notable in the contrasts between the perfor mance of individuals in the young middle SES level (young/female/middle with M =7.8 and young/male/middle with M = 6.6) and the young disenfranchised SES level respondent s (young/female/disenfranchised with M =3.2 and young/male/disenfranchised with M =2.3). McCloskey The religious affiliate social role was th e focus of McCloskey’s (2000) research to develop and content validate a Performance Ra ting Scale and Interview Protocol as a part of the University of South Florida Social Role Research Project. McCloskey investigated the gender, age, and socioeconomic patterns id entifiable in the performance rating scores for that social role; and he analyzed data for interacti ons between the variables. Additionally, based upon the l iterature and prior research conducted by social roles research team members, McCloskey posed f our research hypotheses: 1) performance

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86 would differ by socioeconomic st atus; 2) older adults woul d perform at a higher level than younger adults; 3) an interaction eff ect between age and gender would be found, with older women being the highest perfor mers; 4) no difference in social role performance would be found be tween males and females. McCloskey found statistically si gnificant effects for age ( p <.001), gender ( p <.01), and socioeconomic status ( p <.001) at a .10 level of statistic al significance. Interaction effects were found for age a nd socioeconomic status ( p <.001) and age and gender ( p <.067). Pairwise comparisons found that ol der disenfranchised adults performed at a statistically significant lower level than olde r adults in all other older adults. Other statistically significant differe nces were found: older elites performed higher than younger elites and working level females perf ormed higher than working level males. Two of McCloskey’s null hypotheses were supported by his research. He found confirmation for the SES and age main effect s. The null hypotheses predicting age by gender interaction effects and no difference in performance by gender were not supported by this study. Rogers Rogers (2004/2005) contribution to the University of South Florida Research Group’s study of contemporary adult social roles was the development and content validation of a Performance Rating Scale and In terview Protocol for the grandparent role. Her sample for the study was confined to the middle and older age groups because grandparents under age 35 were too rare to in clude in the study. For consistency and comparability with the other research studies in the project, her sample population was a

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87 quota sample of n =120. Rogers also performed anal ysis on an additional race match subsample of n =60 to investigate potential diffe rences in role performance by race/ethnicity. Additionally, Rogers looked at the influence of geographic proximity on role performance. In the comparability population, Rogers found main effects for SES and gender, but no interaction effects were evident. Lower performance was found for the disenfranchised and working SES levels. With regard to race/ethnicity, Rogers al so found in her subsample that there were statistically significant main effects based upon race/ethnic ity. Hispanic grandparents (both grandmothers and grandfathers) had hi gher involvement in daily living activities than did African-American or white grandpare nts. African-American grandmothers had more expectation for frequent involvement than did African-American grandfathers. While Hispanic grandparents and African-A merican grandmothers seemed to see the grandparent role as one of connection with the day-to-day life of their grandchildren, white grandparents were more concerned about noninterference in the parenting process. Whereas Hispanic grandparents saw themselves as stand-by parents, white grandparents saw such involvement primarily in crisis situations. Performance in the grandparent role wa s found to be strongest when grandparent and at least one grandchild were geographi cally proximate. Furthermore, Rogers found that all of the grandpa rents who were high performers, but geographically removed at the time of the interview, had all lived close to th e grandchildren at one time. “So the effect of past proximity, when accompanied by a cl ose relationship with grandchildren, may

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88 have a long term [sic] effect on closeness and intim acy despite physical distance” (Rogers, 2004/2005, p. 145). Barthmus The most recent social roles research completed for the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project wa s conducted by Barthmus (2004/2005) on the citizen role. Using a quota sample of n =150 evenly distributed into 30 cells of five interviewees each assigned according to SES, gender, and age, Barthmus content validated a Performance Rating Scale and Inte rview Protocol for the citizen role. The study of the citizen role revealed significant main effects for SES and age. Barthmus also identified interaction effects by age a nd gender as well as by age and SES. Significant differences in performance were found between young (18-34 years) and older (over 65 years) citizens— the older age group achieving higher performance scores; similarly, middle, upper, and elite SES groups performed significantly higher than the disenfra nchised and working level citizens. (Barthmus, 2004/2005, p. vii) Upper, elite, and middle SES groups, in that order, performed significantly higher than working and disenfranchised groups. Ther e were no main effects for gender. Comparison of Social Role Performance Ratings for Completed Roles A comparison of the mean performance rating of the social roles previously conducted is presented in Table 6. Of the performance roles, the Parent role ( M = 6.73) had the highest mean performance rating, with the Worker role ( M = 6.47) having the second highest mean. The Spouse/Partner role ( M =6.43) was the only other role that had a mean that over 6.00. These three roles had mean performance rati ngs that fell in the Above Average category of the rating scale. The lowest mean performance rating was

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89 the Association/Club Member role ( M = 3.16) which was the only role that had a mean performance rating in the Below Average leve l. All of the other social role mean performance ratings fell in the Average leve l. Of those roles, the Home/Services Manager ( M = 4.05) and Leisure Time Consumer ( M = 4.18) were just slightly about the minimum level for Average. Daughter/Son Social Role A universal social role is Daughter/Son. Fo r most, it is a social role in which one is actively engaged at some level for many decades, from infancy through at least some Table 6 Mean Performance Rating Scores of USF Social Roles Studies Previously Conducted _____________________________________________________________________ Role Mean _____________________________________________________________________ Relational Roles Friend 5.05 Grandparent 4.63 Kin/Relative 4.50 Parent 6.73 Spouse/Partner 6.43 Non-Relational Roles Adult Learner 4.85 Association/Club Member 3.16 Citizen 4.99 Home/Services Manager 4.05 Leisure-Time Consumer 4.18 Religious Affiliate 5.12 Worker 6.47 _____________________________________________________________________ Note : N = 150 per role; Range of scores was 0 to 9.

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90 of the adult years. Havighurst recognized it as one of the 10 social roles covering most adult activities (1953) and in later writings made reference to the Daughter/Son social role among those under consideration (1955, 1960). Among the adult social roles Havighurst (Havighurst, 1955; Havighurst, 1957) studie d, however, the Daughter/Son role was not included in the final analyses in the Prairie City Study (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953), the Kansas City Study of Adult Life (Havighurst, 1955; Havighurst, 1957; Havighurst & Orr, 1956), or the CrossNational Studies (Havighurst & Neugarten, 1969) on adult social roles. When the role was mentioned in the literature about the studies, the role was described as “child of an aging parent” (Havighurst, 1955; Havighurst, 1957; Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953; Havi ghurst & Neugarten, 1969; Havighurst & Orr, 1956). While the protoc ols gathered data on this role, it was ultimately dropped from the findings reports without mention of the rationale (Havighurst, 1955; Havighurst, 1957; Havi ghurst & Albrecht, 1953; Havighurst & Neugarten, 1969; Havighurst & Orr, 1956). The Havighurst st udies, therefore, provide some evidence of the issues of concern to Havighurst through the questions asked on the Interview Protocols, but they give little or no indication of results. More specifically, trac ing the Daughter/Son social role through Havighurst’s work, he addressed developmental tasks for young adults in Developmental Tasks and Education (1952), but none of the developmental tasks spoke to the Daughter/Son role. In the Prairie City Study, as reported in Older People (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953), the population of the study was age 65 years and older. The social roles for which data were

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91 gathered did not include Da ughter/Son or child of aging parents. Also in 1953, Havighurst wrote about so cial roles, saying: The following list of 10 social roles covers most of the activities of an adult: Worker Parent Husband or wife Home-maker or home member Son or daughter Citizen Friend Club or association member Member of a religious group User of leisure time. (Havighurst, 1953, p. 7) In 1955, Havighurst expounded on social roles again. How can social behavior be systematica lly and quantitatively described? A person’s behavior is larg ely, though perhaps not entire ly, a composite of his activity in the several social role-areas wh ich make up the life of an adult. These role-areas are: 1. Parent, 2. Spouse, 3. Child of Aging Parents, 4. Home-maker (for men and women), 5. Worker, 6. User of Leisure time, 7. Church member, 8. Club or Association Member, 9. Citize n, 10. Friend. (Havighurst, 1955, p. 1) James and Mullen (2002) describe the si gnificance of low and high social role performance. Success or failure in a particular situa tion is invariably gauged by how well the exhibited behavior matches role performa nce expectations. A dults rating high in social role performance are those who are well assimilated into American society and have a good understanding of role expect ations. In contrast, low social role performance is associated with low as piration or motivation, misunderstanding of role expectations, and those who choose not to assimilate into the mainstream of American society. (p. 195) Havighurst offered Performance Rating Scales for all his identified social roles for persons age 40 to 65 years, including Adult Child of Aging Parents.

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924 4 BHigh 8-9 Keeps in close personal touch with ag ing parent (s) by visits, letters, or actually living together. Knows what th e needs of parents are. Accepts the responsibility of caring for them while pe rmitting them to be independent in their decisions. Maintains respect for them as individuals, even though they may be dependent upon him in some ways. Suits his expectations of them to a realistic appr aisal of their capabilities and position in life. Is able to adjust to a give-and-take relationship on the basis of this. In face-to-face relations is affec tionate without being either dominating or dependent like a child. 4 5 BAbove Average 6-7 Has no responsibility for caring financ ially for parents but feels a real responsibility for maintain ing satisfactory relations with them—visiting them, keeping in touch, sharing with them in an intimate rather than an obligatory way. Is concerned for their well-being and is ready to help them when needed. 4 6 BMedium 4-5 Expresses some ambivalence toward pa rents. Feels that earlier parentchild relationship interferes with attempt to get along now as equals. Feels that their lives are fairly separa te from his. Feels more comfortably away from parents but senses an obliga tion to see them periodically, to share some family activities with them, to give them an opportunity to see their grandchildren. Mutuality of interests center in th e family and childre n (grandchildren). They may live a long distance away, a nd R has no responsibility for them. 4 7 BBelow Average 2-3 Meets obligations to parents in a mi nimum way. Reacts to the demand of obligation infrequently and periodically ge ts in touch with them simply because they’re his parents and not because of any real concern for them as people. Is uncomfortable in the relationship. Voices some hostility but at the same time has a modicum of respect for the relationshi p because “they are parents and they’re getting older.” If he has to support them, generally does this in most impersonal way possible—puts them in a home, or if they ’re in his home, treats them as boarders rather than family. 4 8 BLow 0-1 A. Manages parents’ lives for them, in such ways as to make them feel weak, helpless, or resentful. Does not respect them as individuals. Treats them as children.

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93 B. Rejects aging parents. Has nothing to do with them. Is hostile to them, or indifferent. Accepts no responsibility for them. (Havighurst, 1955, pp. 5-6) In 1957, Havighurst again disc ussed social roles, th is time reporting on the Kansas City Study of Adult Social Roles in a monograph entitled “Social Competence of Middle-Aged People.” Here he described nine adult social roles and did not include Child of Aging Parents. Although he presented the Performance Rating Scales he had presented in the 1955 Research Memorandum on Social Adjustment in Adulthood and Later Matur ity, the Child of Aging Parents role was dropped. Havighurst and Orr (1960) described a por tion of the Kansas City Study of Adult Life, emphasizing in this report, the developmen tal tasks associated with adult life. Ten adult social roles were identified. The social expectations which impinge upon an adult in modern society may be described in a limited number of areas of behavior, as follows: Parent User of Leisure Spouse Church Member Child of Aging Parent Club or Association Member Home-Maker (male or female) Citizen Worker Friend. (Havighurst & Orr, 1960, p. 6) One of the developmental tasks of mi ddle age identified is “Working out an Affectional But Independent Relationship to Aging Parents” (Havighurst & Orr, 1960, p. 15). They described the nature of the task as follows:

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94 People of 45 to 60 generally have parents who are beginning to show and to feel their age. At this point it becomes de sirable for adult children and aging parents to reorganize their relationships. The adult children must find ways of maintaining an affectionate and friend ly but neither dependent nor dominant relation. And eventually if the aging parents lose thei r health or their grasp of the world, the adult children will have to take some responsibility for them. This task requires a delicate touch, an ability to be objective, a ba sic love of one’s parents. (Havighurst & Orr, 1960, pp. 15-16) Performance of this developmental task is desc ribed in five levels, essentially the same as in the Performance Rating Scale offered in 1955 for the Child of Aging Parents adult social role. This study does provide some data on the Ch ild of Aging Parent as a developmental task of middle age, based on so cial class. See Table 7 for performance scores from the Kansas City Study. The Cross-National Study of social roles (Havighurst et al., 1972) reported findings on 12 adult social roles that did not include Daughter/Son or child of aging parent. The Interview Protocol did include a section titled “Child of Ag ing Parent” with suggestions for probes. Is your father or mother still living? (Check to see whether or not death has occurred within the last ten years.) How about your wife’s father or mother? (Probe for activity and involvement and for financial support. Probe also for change in last ten years, a nd affect regarding change) (Havighurst et al., 1972, p. 170)

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95 Table 7 Performance Scores of Kansas City Adults on the Developmental Tasks of Middle Age Child (Age 40-70) of Aging Parent _______________________________________________________________________ Men Women Social Class* Social Class* I II III IV I II III IV _______________________________________________________________________ 5.89 6.06 5.89 5.00 5.75 5.90 5.94 5.75 _______________________________________________________________________ *Social Class I Upper-middle cla ss with a few upper class persons Social Class II Lower-middle class, whit e collar clerical worker s, owners of small businesses, foremen, supervisors, and highly skilled artisans Social Class III Upper-l ower class—regularly employed manual workers, factory workers, truck drivers, other hard-working people Social Class IV Lower-lower class—uns killed workers, with a few unemployed people and some welfare recipients ________________________________________________________________________ Adapted from Havighurst & Orr, 1960, pp. 30, 32. Abney’s (1992/1993) study identifying cont emporary adult soci al roles found that Daughter/Son was an important adult social role with an averag e ranking of 3.5 among all social roles. It wa s the only role significant fo r SES alone, based on reported importance. There are, however, many differenc es in how the role evolves over the life cycle, as reflected in the changing developm ental tasks associated with the Daughter/Son role (Abney, 1992/1993). Further, the role can be examined in light of perceptions of societal expectations of a Da ughter/Son’s fulfillment of that role as well as the unique expectations of a particular family about the requirements for satisfactory fulfillment of the Daughter/Son social role; the behaviors that characterize the enactment of the role by

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96 a particular Daughter/Son; and the Daughter/S on’s attitudes about the manner in which he/she fulfills the role. These three categories (perception of role expectations, activities associated with role fulfillment, and atti tudes toward role fulfillment) provide the framework for role examination in the Interview Protocol in this study. Literature related to these three categories is presented in this chapter. Many variables also influence these three categories associated with role performance. These factors include 1. Age of Daughter/Son and age of the parent(s) 2. Gender of child and gender of parent(s) 3. Marital status of child and parent(s) 4. Health of child and parent(s) 5. Financial status of child and parent(s) 6. Relationship (consanguineous, adopted, step, in-law) 7. Geographic proximity of the child and parent(s) 8. Affective history and bonds 9. Filial responsibility expectations. This section examines the literature with re gard to the influence of these variables on performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role. The interacti ons and expectations characterized as the Daughter/Son social ro le may include a vari ety of biological and legal relationships. The multiplicity of fa mily arrangements in contemporary society has also made definition of the role more comp lex. For the purposes of this study, however,

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97 the Daughter/Son social role will be defined by the relationship of a child to a parent within the following parameters: 1. the natural, biological child of the legal parent, 2. the legally adopted child of the parent, 3. the child of a parent legally married to someone who is not th e child’s biological or adopted parent (step-child), 4. the spouse of a child or step-child (in-law). Primary Research Study Variables The University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project has consistently incorporated the three variables of age, gende r, and SES (socioeconom ic status) into the various studies (Abney, 1992/1993; Barthm us, 2004/2005; Davis, 1998; Hargiss, 1997/1998; Kirkman, 1994/1995; McCloskey, 2000; McCoy, 1993/1994; Montgomery, 1997/1998; Rogers, 2004/2005; Wall, 1997/1998 Witte, 1997/1998; Yates-Carter, 1997/1998). Age has been defined as the chrono logical age of the respondent at the time of the interview. Gender was the self-reported male or female categorization. Socioeconomic status was defined according to a three-dimension process developed by James and Abney (1993) incorporating occupati on, education, and income into a fivelevel framework. Main effects and interaction effects for these three variables were measured in each study. The only common finding in all studie s had been a main effect for SES. The existence of main and interaction effects for each social role are presented in Table 8.

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98 Age The age of both parent and child are relevant variables in the study of the Daughter/Son adult social role. The developm ental tasks of various life stages described by Havighurst (1960) provide some informa tion about the nature of the activities associated with this role. The only developmental task that directly addresses the Daughter/Son social role activ ity reflected in Havighurst’s developmental tasks is during the Daughter/Son’s middle years (1960) when th ey must “work out an affectionate but independent relationship with aging parents” (Havighurst & Orr, 1960, p. 15). A review of contemporary literature also reflects th e importance of the Daughter/Son social role when parents age, and there is significant l iterature on the parent/child relationship in later life families (Brubaker, 1985, 1990; Fi ngerman, 2001; Mancini & Blieszner, 1989; Bahr & Peterson, 1989). The shift in the Daught er/Son role takes plac e largely in relation to the health of the paren t; and as aging results in me ntal and physical frailty, the Daughter/Son often assumes more responsibility for the care of the pa rent(s). With life expectancies increasing, even those in what Havighurst considered Later Adulthood (age 65 and older) may now find themselves caring for their parents. While developmental tasks are generally age-related, they can su rface at other times because they are not merely products of chronology or physical development. Thus, developmental tasks may arise from physical maturation or change; from social roles, pressures, or opportunities ; or from aspirations and values of a constantly emerging personality. In many cases they arise from combinations of these three major forces acting togeth er. During early and middle adulthood, social demands and personal aspirations dominate in setting and defining major developmental tasks. With later mi ddle age and beyond, biological changes become an increasingly si gnificant consideration. (Chickering & Havighurst, 1981, p. 26)

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99 Abney (1992/1993) and McCoy’s (1993/ 1994) (1993) research found eight developmental events related to the Daughter/S on adult social role and placed them in three phases roughly aligned in the young and middle adult years. The developmental tasks related to each phase, according to the work of Abney, are presented in Table 9. Although phases represent what is typically a sequential proce ss over the lifetime, these developmental tasks can become dominant at other points in the life cycle of family relationships. Disruptions in the parental marital relationship or development of significant health issues for a parent can propel the Daughter /Son role into other phases of activity. These non-normative events ar e precipitated by individual developmental paths in either the child or the parent and ma y also drive changes in family relationships (Aquilino, 1997).

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100 Table 8 Existence of Main and Intera ction Effects in Complete d USF Social Roles Studies Role Age Gender SES Age X Gender Age X SES Gender X SES Age X Gender X SES Relational Roles Friend N* Y* Y N Y N N Grandparent N Y Y N N N N Kin/Relative N N Y N N N N Parent Y N Y Y N N N Spouse/Partner N N Y N N N N Non-Relational Roles Adult Learner N N Y N N N N Association/Club Member Y N Y N N N N Citizen Y N Y Y Y N N Home/Services Manager N Y Y Y N N N Leisure Time Consumer Y N Y N N N N Religious Affiliate Y Y Y N Y Y N Worker Y N Y N Y N N Note *. Y indicates significant differences noted in sample; N indicates no significant difference found. Adapted from Rogers, 2004/2005.

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101 Table 9 Phased Developmental Tasks for Daughter/Son Social Role Entry Phase Intermediate Phase Advanced Phase ________________________________________________________________________ Establish autonomy Redefine fam ily Accept and adjust to aging independence from relationshi ps. process of parents parents. Relate to parents as Responsib ility for Acceptance of chronic an adult. three-generation illness, frailty, and/or family; i.e., growing death of parent. children, and aging parents. Adjust to giving increased support to aging parents. Handling increased demands of older parents Note. From Abney, 1992/1993, p. 192. The family life cycle pattern is one in wh ich the child’s relationship to the parent moves from dependence to mutuality to res ponsibility. Lewis (1990) discusses the four stages of the dependency cycle within which most major changes take place. “These stages may be called: (1) young childhood/ne w parents; (2) adolescence/continuing parenthood; (3) young adult child/middle-aged parents; a nd (4) middle-aged child/feeble elderly parents” (Lewis, 1990, p. 73). The firs t two stages represent the dependence of the child on the parents, the third stage is one of mutuality, and the f ourth stage is the one in which the child must begin to take more responsibility for the parents’ needs and

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102 becomes the “parent” in the relationship. It is a major shift from the mutuality of the previous stage. In the third stage, Lewis (1990) notes that interdependence between the generations is characterized by shared activ ities, frequent contact, and mu tuality of aid; instrumental aid, he noted, still is provided by the olde r generation to the younger, and mostly to married daughters as gifts. Children are ty pically establishing their own homes and careers and taking on the role of parent them selves during the years of early adulthood. Mutuality increases as childre n assume adult roles, and children can provide support for parental needs. During this time period, “young adults generally experience close relationships with their parents, and that th e parent-child bond remains important for the child’s psychological well-being” (Bucx & van Wel, 2008, p. 71). Aquilino (1997) describes the family life cy cle movement similarly in the following statement: The relationship moves from child dependence on parents to one of interdependence. Mutuality should be accompanied by a decrease in parent-child conflict over issues of everyday living (such as how the child dresses or spends money) and a lessening of parental attempts to control their childre n’s behavior. Mutuality also can be seen in the ability of each member of the dyad to find pleasure in th e other’s company and to forge a relaxed relationship marked by humor and affection, rather than tension and emotional distance . . Each of the transitions that are normative or expected for young adults should entail a gradual increase in independence from parents and a continuation of the individuation pro cess begun in adolescence. (p. 673) When children move into new developmental ph ases according to parental expectations, conflict is minimized. Aquili no notes that intergenerational similarity is a helpful hypothesis for understanding this transition.

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103 The hypothesis suggests that when grown ch ildren move into adult roles (such as transitions to worker, wife or husband, a nd parent), their roles and experiences become similar to the roles and experiences of their parents. The expectation is that the increasing similarity of life experiences will strengthen parent-child relations and ease the way for more adult-like mutual ity in the relations hip. (1990, pp. 673-674) Stage three is marked by the child’s life ch anges as he/she moves into adult roles and responsibilities, thus changing the dynamics of the parent/chi ld relationship. Stage four, on the other hand, is precipitated by changes in the parent life circumstances. The relationship shifts as the eff ects of aging take their toll on the parents’ ability to participate mutually in the relationship, a nd the child takes on the tasks of filial responsibility. Lewis (1990) notes that fourth stage transitio ns are often difficult for both generations. Even though most Americans subscribe in some degree to the norms of filial piety— the responsibility of children to care for their aging parents—the transition from interdependence between these generations to dependence of the aged generation is often experienced suddenly and as a crisis. For many family members, this shift to dependency may result from a serious illness or financial crisis for the aging member. The resulting transition is, theref ore, often experienced as difficult for both generations. (Lewis 1990, p. 79) Changes in parental physical and mental health, marital st atus (due to death of one parent), or financial resources may create de pendence on the next generation for support. Age per se is not the cause of change in parental circumstance and the impact of devastating health issues can arise at any age. Nonetheless, the po ssibility of parental need and dependence increases with the increas ed risk of declining health and abilities associated with aging. For the purposes of this study, age of responde nts was categorized in to three levels: young, middle, and older. Young includes those from 18 to 34 years of age. The middle-

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104 age group includes those from 35-64 years of ag e. Older includes 65 and older years of age. This is consistent with previous ag e categories used in th e University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project (Abney, 1992/1993; Barthm us, 2004/2005; Davis, 2002; Dye, 1998; Hargiss, 1997/1998; Ki rkman, 1994/1995; McCloskey, 2000; McCoy, 1993/1994; Montgomery, 1997/1998; Rogers 2004/2005; Wall, 1997/1998, Witte, 1997/1998; Yates-Carter, 1997/1998). Gender. The increased flexibility of gender-sp ecific behaviors is a notable social change that has occurred in contemporary American society since the 1950s and the original adult social roles research. Havi ghurst (1952) wrote in the 1940s, “the approved feminine sex role is changi ng” (p. 38). He observed: Since the masculine and the feminine roles are different in our society, a boy has to accept the idea of becoming a man and a girl has to accept the idea of becoming a woman. For boys, this seems easy in our societ y, which offers its principal places to men. Most girls also find it easy to a ccept the role of wife and mother, with dependence on a man for support. But a number of girls find this to be difficult. They want a career. They admire their fa thers and their older brothers and want the freedom and power and independence of the male For them it is not an easy task to accept the feminine role. Fortunately, our soci ety’s definition of th e feminine role is broadening to give more satisfaction to gi rls of this type. (Havighurst, 1952, pp. 3738) Since Havighurst’s work, roles for both men and women have broadened, and men are now more comfortable with what were once more feminine role behaviors (e.g., nurturing and care giving) than in earlier generations. Of course, some of the family patterns we find in middle-aged a nd older adults today reflect prior societal gender values. As today’s young c ohorts grow older, current gender differences in men and women’s affiliation with their families of origin may begin to dissipate. In the future, parents may place less emphasis on daughters’ maintenance of family ties or more empha sis on seeing their sons. Mobility and

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105 changes in women’s roles in the past 3 d ecades have been accompanied by shifts in the definition of men’s and women’ s roles. (Fingerman, 2001, p. 44) Gender differences not only in role perf ormance level but also in the activities undertaken as a manifestation of role perf ormance may be gender-specific. Rossi and Rossi (1990) noted, for example, that there ar e different patterns of interaction between males and females, both as parents and as th e child. “Most studies find that the vast majority of caregiving children are daughter s” (Mancini & Blieszner, 1989, p. 282). Lazarus and Lazarus (2006) also observed that it is usually a female family member or friend who becomes the caregiver of females. The females are caregivers to the males, but males are more uncomfortable with that role. There is additional evidence that female-to-female interaction is the strongest of the child/parent bonds. Fingerman (2001) observed, “Relationships between older moth ers and daughters are distinct from other social ties across a number of dimensions. The bonds tend to be tighter, the intimacy greater, the interactions more frequent and of a more emotional quality” (p. 37). Also describing the mother-daughter dyad, Rossi and Rossi (1990) found The greatest contract between the four dya ds is that between the mother-daughter and the father-son relationship. The mothe r-daughter emerges as relatively immune to the influence of changing life circumstan ces, implying greater stability and a much less conditional quality to the mother-daughter interaction pattern. (p. 383) The father-son dyad, on the other hand, was si gnificantly impacted by a number of variables. For example, the extent to which they share similar values affected frequency of contact. Married sons also had more cont act with their fathers than did single ones (Rossi & Rossi, 1990).

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106 Socioeconomic Status (SES). In contemporary American society, socioeconomic status is a potent variable in any measure re lated to human behavior. One’s view of the world and her or his place in it relative to ot hers has to do with soci al constructs that are highly influenced by both social and economic factors. Because social and economic factors consist of attributes that tend to cl uster together (Kahl & Davis, 1955), precisely defining SES can be difficult (James & Abney, 1993). James and Abney (1993) also observed, Occupation as a component of SES is gene rally a function of education and highly related to income. In a similar fashion, education and income are also highly related. As a person’s education level increases, hi s or her income level generally increases. (pp. 40-41) SES is, nevertheless, a critical variable to understanding soci al role; and, therefore, it is an essential variable in the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project. Furthermore, since this research project is intended to update Havighurst’s social roles research, SES must be an included variable Havighurst’s research included the SES variable, and he found a positive relationship between social role behavior and SES (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953; Havighurst & Orr, 1956). In an extensive review of the literatu re on SES measures, James and Abney (1993) proposed a multi-variable formula that is a pr oduct of occupational status, education, and family income as a framework for determini ng SES level. Occupati onal status in their original proposal was based upon the work of Beeghley (1989) and Nam and Terrie (1988) and the U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1990. Five occupation le vels were defined;

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107 the five levels are presented in Table 10 w ith the occupation category, score range, and the estimated percentage of the U. S. population. After the 2000 U.S. census, a revised O ccupational Scores index was available (Nam, Powers & Boyd, 2000); this more curre nt rating of occupations was used by Barthmus (2004/2005) and Rogers (2004/2005) and will also be used for this study of the Daughter/Son role. See Appendix A for th e revised 2000 Occupational Scores Index grouped by SES level. Educational level is determined by the amount of schooling and degrees received. In the case of the Elite level, graduate degrees from prestigious institutions are the standard. Five levels were determined by James and Abney (1993) for use in the social roles research. See Table 11 for the five educational levels used in the determination of socio-economic level. Family Income is the third variable used to determine SES. After 2000 U.S. Census data were available, income levels were ad justed for the later studies in this project (Barthmus, 2004/2005; Rogers, 2004/2005). These adjustments were made to maintain approximate comparability to earlier st udies that had been based upon 1990 Census information and income levels. Table 12 provides a summary of all variables by stratification level and includes the revised income data. Other Factors of Interest Marital Status The marital status of both parent and child is a variable in the Daughter/Son role performance. Divorced children are less able to provide support to parents and may, in

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108 Table 10 8 5 BOccupation Levels by Category, Score Range and Estimated Percentage of Population 8 2 BLevel Occupational Category Score Ra nge Est. % of US Population____ 1 Unskilled Laborers/ 1-9 16 Private Household Workers 2 Operators/Fabricators/ 10-65 39 Clerical/Service Workers 3 Sales/Craftsman/ 66-87 20 Precision Workers 4 Managers/Administrators 88-98 20 Professionals 5 Executives/Elite 99-100 5 Professionals Sources: Beeghley, 1989; Nam & Terrie, 1988, Appendix; U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1990, pp.41-44; as noted in James & Abney, 1993, p. 45. Reprinted with permission. fact, be in need of support themselves. For example, Aquilino (1997) found support for the idea that as the child takes on adult role s, the relationship between parent and child becomes more interdependent as their lives b ecome more similar. An exception to this was found in his research; when a child’s ma rriage ends in divorce, the quality of the intergenerational relati onship drops. Aquilino proposed th at the disruption in the child’s marriage places demands for resources on th e parent and noted that one-third of newly divorced children return to their parental home to live initially, an arrangement that

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109 Table 11 8 6 BEducational Levels Defined for Five Levels ________________________________________________________________________ Level Education Elite Gr aduate of Professional Degree from Prestige School Upper Middle College degree; graduate/p rofessional degree Middle Some college Lower Middle High School graduate Disenfranchised Less than high school Note. From James & Abney (1993), p. 21. Reprinted with permission. is generally not seen as satisfa ctory from a parental perspect ive (1997). Married children provide less assistance to their parents than do single children, presumably because of time constraints. Children who are divorced or separated provide even less assistance to parents than do married childre n (Mancini & Blieszner, 1989). Fathers who are divorced from the adult Daughter/Son’s mother suffer negative consequences in terms of their relationships with their children. In a study investigating whether a divorce impacts the long-term re lationship between men and their adult children, Cooney (1990) found: The answer is unequivocal: divorce has pronounced negative effects on men’s contacts with their adult offspring and on their perceptions of adult children as potential sources of support in times of need. . Over 90% of never-divorced older men have weekly contac t with at least one of their adult children, while the same is true of only half of ever-divor ced men. Furthermore, one-third of the ever-

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110 Table 12 8 7 BComparison of Variables by Stratification Levels ________________________________________________________________________ Variable Elite Upper Lower Working DisenfranMiddle Middle chised % of Pop5 20 25 35 15 ulation Income $125,000+ $100,000$35,000$15,000under $124,999 $99,999 $34,999 $15,000 Source of Investments Fees and Salary Wages, Gov’t Income Salaries tips aid Wealth Great wealth. Property from Few assets. Few to no None Inherited savings/investSome savings assets, no Money ments. Savings. Education Prestige College/Grad. Some college High Less Schools/ School School than high Professional school Occupation Professionals, Professions, Small busiOperators, Unskilled CEOs Manage rs ness, sales, fabricat ors, laborers High rankAdminiscraft, clerical, ing governtrators precision service ment OccupaVery High High Medium Low Very low tional Status Note. From Beeghley, 1989, pp. 24, 158.188; Na m & Terrie, 1988; Robertson, 1980; Rossides, 1990, pp. 406-8; U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1988, 1990; James & Abney, 1993. Reprinted and adapted by permission. divorced older fathers essentially have lost contact with one or more of their adult children—a situation almost nonexisten t among never-divorced men. (p. 685)

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111 With regard to marital status of the pare nt, Aquilino (1997) found that stepparents felt less close to adult child ren than did biological parents and received less support from the child. Geographic Proximity Physical distance between adult children a nd their parent(s) is another variable that potentially account s for role performance differences Peterson (1989 ) reported that research indicates that distance has little or no impact on affections or endurance of the parent/child relationship. He also found evid ence of the frustration and guilt that distant children often feel because they may be outside of decision-making and unable to participate in rendering certain types of services. Opportunity for direct physical contact is more abundant when geographic locations are proximate. Many kinds of help that clos e kin provide to each other require accessibility for social interaction. Help with childcare, domestic chores, or caregiving during an illness assumes some face-to-face contact. Othe r types of help could theoretically be given in the absence of f ace-to-face contact. Providi ng money or a loan, giving advice, or providing comfort could be done across great distances, through phone conversations, or by mail. However, it seem s likely that even these latter types of help would be offered more frequently to those who live nearby than to those who live at a great distance, because social in teraction provides the opportunity to learn about the problems and needs of a parent or child, and to reciprocate with information about one’s own problems and needs. (Rossi & Rossi, 1990, pp. 365366) Adult children and parents can find themse lves living together. Children can move back home, or parents may need to move in with a child, particularly after divorce or death of a spouse. There were gender differen ces with respect to a parent’s comfort level with the idea of living with a child, with females more positively inclined to do so.

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112 “Parents who received high levels of filial support from their children were likely to be female, not married, of low income, and in poor health” (Mancini & Blieszner, 1989, p. 276). Mancini and Blieszner (1989) also re ported on findings indi cating a desire for abstract demonstrations of care such as affection, thoughtfulness, and open communication more than for the instrumental assistance. An interesting profile emerges for the im pact of home leaving on the parent-adult child relationship. Parents of coresident adult children, compared with those with sons and daughters living elsewh ere, reported higher levels of emotional closeness, shared activities, and support from childre n, but also higher levels of conflict and control issues. The patter n suggests a high degree of involvement and day-to-day interaction between parents and coresident adult children. It also suggests that issues of parental authority and th eir children’s right to make their own choices play a greater role during periods of coresidence. Control issues subside when children leave home, but parents also feel less conn ected to their grown children emotionally and are less likely to view them as a source of support. (Aquilino, 1997, p. 679) Aquilino’s study of young adult a nd parent relationships indi cated with regard to the leaving home transition that ”home leaving ac ts as a catalyst for movement toward a more individuated relationship that is base d on the mutual care respect of two adults” (1997, p. 682). He also found, however, that pare nts do not feel as close emotionally to their non-resident children and are then less likely to see them as sources of support during the young adult years. Health of Parent/Child Helping activities increase with decline in health of aging parent. The nature of the relationship changes, with mutuality decreasing and dependence of the parent on the child increasing. If an older couple is marri ed, they will typically provide for each other as long as they are able. When an elderly person is alone or the spouse is unable to

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113 provide sufficient care, then a child will need to become more active in the giving of care (Stoller, 1983). Mancini and Blieszner (1989) also found that older parents and children participate in a reciprocal relationship, depending on needs and resources, until the older generation is unable to do so. “When pare nts become widowed, de velop frail physical health, and/or suffer from conditions affec ting their cognitive functioning, however, the parent-child interaction patte rn often changes” (p. 282). Health also impacts the child’s ability to provide assistance to a parent or to be involved in activities with the parent. Particularly as the population ages, older children may be called upon to take care of even older parents. The health of the parent may require more assistance than a child who also has health issues can provide, and that will influence the ability to engage in the Daughter/Son role at higher levels (Rossi & Rossi, 1990). Other Commitments: Work and Children at Home The ability of the daughter or son to be involved in the lives of he/his parents can be impacted by employment and the needs of their own children at home. The time for extensive involvement in activities with pare nts may give way to the needs of their own family. 8 9 BEmployment is another potential influe nce on the amount of Daughter/Son social role involvement. 9 0 BAlthough the amounts of help with task s such as shopping, transportation, housekeeping, money management, and emo tional support did not differ between the two groups of daughters; those w ho were employed provided less personal care and cooking than the nonworking daughters. Families of employed

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114 caregivers tended to be paid helpers for these personal care and meal tasks” (Mancini & Blieszner, 1989, p.282). 9 1 BStoller (1983), on the other hand, found th at while employment did reduce the amount of time sons gave to caregiving, it di d not impact the help given by daughters. All ages believe that children, both sons and daughters, should be available to assist parents and to make some adjustments in thei r own lives in order to do this. “This help should be facilitated by adjustment of family schedules and assistance with health care costs if necessary, but respondent s were not in favor of fam ily caregivers ad justing their work schedules or sharing households with th eir parents” (Mancini & Blieszner, 1989, p. 277). At the same time, when families live in close proximity and parents are in good health, the Daughter/Son may also benefit from receiving help with their children, especially for child care. Studies of exchange, assistance, and support conducted over the past 25 years showed a large amount of intergenerati onal involvement, both instrumental and affective. Not only are parents and their children in frequent contact, but also the practical things they do for each other ar e considerable. (Mancini & Blieszner, 1989, p. 279) While having children can restrict the amount of time available to assist parents, it also becomes the occasion for receiving assistance and for reinforcing a mutually beneficial reciprocal relationship between the generations. Summary This chapter first reviewed the literature on social roles and adult education. The next strand of literature examined the adu lt development literature, with emphasis on

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115 Erikson and Levinson because these theories have particular relevance to the social role construct. Havighurst’s resear ch in the Prairie City Study, the Kansas City Study, and the Cross-National Study was also covered as part of the adult developmental strand. The University of South Florida Social Roles Rese arch Project was presented with data from completed studies. Literature relevant to th e design of this study, including the variables incorporated into all the social roles research studies was addressed. Additional literature pertaining to other factors in fluencing the Daughter/Son role performance was presented.

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116 CHAPTER 3 METHODS The purpose of this study was to deve lop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and an Interview Protocol that can be used to define the contemporary Daughter/Son adult social role. A secondary purpose was the updating of the concepts regarding the Daughter/Son adult social role that grew out of the research of Havighurst (1957; Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953; Havighurst & Orr, 1956). In addition to the development of the instruments, the study implemented an exploratory investigation using the instruments to gather data on th e contemporary Daughter/Son role. The study was conducted primarily in the Tampa Bay ar ea of Florida, though some participants were from elsewhere. This chapter describes and discusses the study’s research design and methods, including: the procedures used to develop a nd to content validate the Performance Rating Scale; the procedures used to develop and content validate the Interview Protocol; the process used to field test the Performance Rating Scale and the In terview Protocol; the training of interviewers and performance le vel raters; and the implementation of the exploratory study using the instruments. Th e description of the implementation of the study includes discussion of the research sa mple, the process of da ta collection, and the data analysis procedures. The chapter concl udes with a summary of the research methods utilized in the study..

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117 Research Design and Methods 8 3 BResearch Objectives There were four research objectives of this study. 1. To content validate a Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son adult social role in order to enable researchers to assess the role perfor mance of individual adults across the life span. 2. To content validate an Interview Prot ocol for the adult social role of Daughter/Son in order that reliable dis tinctions can be made about the role performance of individuals. 3. To implement the use of the Performance Rating Scale and the Interview Protocol in a study of a quota sample of subjects primarily in the Tampa Bay, Florida, area, but including some respondents from South Carolina and elsewhere. 4. To generate data from the explor atory study about the Daughter/Son role performance that could suggest further re search possibilities and, in particular, could suggest research related to developm ental tasks across the life span that are unrelated to care for an aging parent. Research Questions and Hypotheses Related to research objectiv e #4 above, the data generated will be analyzed for Daughter/Son social role performance. Base d upon the literature review and the findings of previous University of South Florida A dult Social Role Research Project studies (Abney, 1992/1993; Barthmus, 2004/2005; Davis, 2002; Dye, 1997; Hargiss, 1997/1998; Kirkman, 1994/1995; McCloskey, 1999; McCoy, 1993/1994; Montgomery, 1997/1998;

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118 Rogers, 2004/2005; Wall, 1997/1998; Witte, 1997/1998; Yates-Carter, 1997/1998), the following research questions ar e addressed in this study: 1. 9 5 BAre there age-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role? 2. 9 6 BAre there gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role? 3. Are there socio-economic status differe nces in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role? 4. Are there interaction effect s between the age, gender, and socio-economic status variables related to role performance of the Daughter/Son ad ult social role? 5. Are there activities relate d to performance of the Daughter/Son social role suggested by the respondents that are not related to the aging and increasing dependency of parents? 6. Are there other significan t variables that influenc e Daughter/Son social role performance? To verify further the validity of the inst ruments, based upon the literature and prior research, the following hypotheses were presented: 1. There are gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role, with daughters performing at higher levels. 2. There are socio-economic status differe nces in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role.

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119 Study Design This study was a content validation st udy. “The validity qu estion is concerned with the extent to which an instrument meas ures what one thinks it is measuring” (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1990, p. 256). According to Crocker and Algina (1986), content validation is one of three types of validation, a nd it is “for situations where the test user desires to draw an inference from the examin ee’s test score to a la rger domain of items similar to those on the test it self” (p. 217). Borg and Gall (1 989) define content validity as “the degree to which the sample of test it ems represents the content that the test is designed to measure” (p. 250). They further state, “content validity is determined by systematically conducting a set of operations such as defining in precise terms the specific content universe to be sampled, sp ecifying objectives, and describing how the content universe will be sampled to deve lop test items” (pp. 250-251). Crocker and Algina (1986) also recommend that the pr ocess of content va lidation consist of, minimally, the following four steps: 1. Defining the performance domain of interest 2. Selecting a panel of qualified experts in the content domain 3. Providing a structured framework for th e process of matching items in then performance domain 4. Collecting and summarizing the data fr om the matching process. (p. 218) The research in this study was designed according to the process for constructing a subject-centered measurement instrument recommended by Crocker and Algina (1986). The principles of this process were util ized for both the Performance Rating Scale construction and the Intervie w Protocol construction.

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120 1. Identify the primary purpose(s) for wh ich the test scores will be used 2. Identify behaviors that represent th e construct or define the domain 3. Prepare a set of test specifications, delineating the proportion of items that should focus on each type of behavior identified in step 2 4. Construct an initial pool of items 5. Have items reviewed (and revise as necessary) 6. Hold preliminary item tryouts (and revise as necessary) 7. Field-test the items on a large sample representative of the examinee population for whom the test is intended 8. Determine statistical properties of item scores and, when appropriate, eliminate items that do not meet pre-established criteria 9. Design and conduct reliability and validity st udies for the final form of the test 10. Develop guidelines for administration, sc oring, and interpreta tion of the test scores (e.g., prepare norm tables, sugge st recommended cutting scores or standards for performance, etc.). (p. 66) 1 0 BUniversity of South Florida Social Roles Research Project The development and content validation of the Performance Rating Scale and the Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son adu lt social role was based on the process developed by the University of South Florid a Social Roles Research Project team. See Appendix B for a listing of the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project team members. The first research proj ect was undertaken by Abney (1992/1993). The purpose of his research was to revise and upda te Havighurst’s adult social roles and to content validate the social roles and their associated developmental events. Abney’s research was on three socioeconomic leve ls (working, middle, and upper middle SES levels). Using panels of experts, he iden tified 13 contemporary adult social roles, which were then validated in a community survey of a quota sample of 180 respondents in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. Respondents were placed in 18 cells representing five age categories, two gender categories, and three socioeconomic levels (worker, lower middle

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121 class, and upper middle class). McCoy’s (1993/1994) research extended Abney’s work to include the disenfranchised a nd elite socioeconomic levels. The work of Abney (1992/1993) a nd McCoy (1993/1994) provided the foundation for the next phase of the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project, the development and content vali dation of Performance Rating Scales and Interview Protocols for each of the identif ied social roles. Kirkman’s research (1994/1995) of the parent, spouse/partner, and worker roles for the worker, lower middle, and upper middle socioeconomic status levels established the procedures for development of the Performance Rating Scale and the Interview Protocol used by subsequent researchers. Davis (2002) extended Kirkman’s study of th e parent, spouse/partner, and worker roles to the disenfranchised and el ite levels. Hargiss (1997/1998) examined the role of leisure time consumer; Montgome ry (1997/1998) studied the association/club member role; Wall (1997/1998) investigated the home/services manger role; Witte (1997/1998) looked into the adult learner ro le; Yates-Carter (1997/1998) examined the kin/relative role; Dye (1998) c onsidered the friend role; a nd McCloskey (1999) explored the religious affiliate role. Barthmus ( 2004/2005) conducted the study of the citizen role, and Rogers (2004/2005) investigated the gra ndparent role. This research of the Daughter/Son role completes the development and content validation of the Performance Rating Scales and Interview Protocols for each of the 13 adult social roles. It concludes the exploratory studies of the 13 adult social roles using the Performance Rating Scales and Interview Protocols.

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122 Identification and Description of Research Strands During the review of the literature on the Daughter/Son adult social role, the work of Havighurst, and the USF Social Roles Re search Project studies (Abney, 1992/1993; Barthmus, 2004/2005; Davi s, 2002; Dye, 1998; Harg iss, 1997/1998; Kirkman, 1994/1995; McCloskey, 2000; McCoy, 1993/1994; Montgomery, 1997/1998; Rogers, 2004/2005; Wall, 1997/1998; Witte, 1997/1998; Ya tes-Carter, 1997/1998), four strands were identified: Involvement, Percep tion, Activities, and Role Improvement. The Involvement strand deals with the freque ncy of contact and the amount of overall time the respondent estimated that she/he spen t related to the Daughter/Son social role. The second strand, Perception, i nvestigated the respondent’s perception of the role in terms of her/his personal satisfaction and pe rsonal benefit from pe rforming the role, and the respondent’s perceived importance of the role in her/his life. Pe rformance descriptors on role importance, perceived personal benefit from perfor ming the role, and satisfaction received from performing the role were pres ented. The Activities strand inquired about the amount of time devoted to activities with parents, the range or activities, and the effort the respondent expended to initiate activities. The fourth strand was Role Improvement. Past efforts and perceived need for role improvement were included within this strand. 9 3 BProcedures for the Validation Process The procedures used in this study for content validation of a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son adult social role are based upon the conceptual framework described by Crocke r and Algina (1986). Abney (1992/1993)

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123 used expert panels to identify the contempor ary adult social roles that have been the subjects of the University of South Florida Re search Project. He also introduced the use of expert panels for describing the att itudes and behaviors associated with the developmental tasks for each of the iden tified social roles. Kirkman (1994/1995) successfully employed this techni que in the first of the Univer sity of South Florida Social Roles Research Project studies on the parent, spouse/partner, a nd worker roles. Since her study, this process has been inco rporated by all the social role research studies that have followed: in chronological order, these st udies were completed by Hargiss (1997/1998), Montgomery (1997/1998), Wall (1997/1998), Witte (1997/1998), Yates-Carter (1997/1998), Dye (1998), McCloskey (2000), Davis (2002), Rogers (2004/2005), and Barthmus (2004/2005). This study of the Daughter/Son adult social role utilized panels of experts from human development, psychology, social wor k, educational measur ement and research, educational foundations, and adult education to develop the Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son adult social role and for de velopment of the Interview Protocol with which data for the study were gathered. Panels were adjusted for balance with regard to field of expertise, gender, and race/ethnici ty. All panels were independent. No one served on more than one panel for the Perf ormance Rating Scale, and no one served on more than one panel for the Interview Protocol development. This feature insured that that many experts contributed to the instrume nts’ development. Classes of graduate students in adult education at the University of South Florid a also critiqued instrument drafts and provided feedback and suggestions at many stages of instrument development.

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124 Development of the Performance Rating Scale The Performance Rating Scale was develope d by a five-step process in which three panels of experts participate in the scale development. A Q Sort was one feature of the development of the Performance Rating Scale. The process consisted of the following five steps: 1. The researcher prepared a draft of the Performance Rating Scale. Review of the literature provide d the basis for the draft. Key topics of research for developing a draft for the Performa nce Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son adult social role were adult educatio n, human development and developmental psychology, family studies and the family life cycle, and the aging process and social work. The work of Havighurst (1957) and the developmental events for the child of aging parents soci al role in the Kansas City Study were the foundation for identifying potential strands for performance ratings. The research of Abney (1992/1993) and McCoy (1993/1994) provided contemporary information on the Daughter/Son adult social role. These studies also included information relevant to the Daughter/Son social role in a context broader than Havighurst’s focus on the child’s relationship to aging parents. Moreover, their research in vestigated the Daughter/Son social role during the early adult years as well as during middle and older adulthood; Havighurst’s (1957) research did not include anyone under 40 years of age in his sample. A final version of the Pe rformance Rating Scale is presented in Appendix C.

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125 2. The draft was presented for feedback and comment to a graduate class of students in adult education at the University of South Florida. The group was introduced to the overall social roles pr oject and to the particular purposes and goals of this study. This group was aske d to serve as a preliminary review panel and respond to the draft in terms of the completeness of the Performance Rating Scale in addressing the domain of behaviors, attitudes, and activities represented within it, and the descriptors associated with five performance levels proposed in the draf t. They were also asked to provide feedback on clarity of language, comple teness of descriptive statements, and potential bias in wording that might skew the responses according to ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, or gende r. Revisions were made to the Performance Rating Scale reflecting the comments and suggestions received. 3. During the next step, a Pilot Panel of si x experts from the fields of education, educational psychology, adult educati on, social work, and educational measurement and research completed tw o Q sorts of the Performance Rating Scale. In forming the panel, care was taken to balance the panel in terms of ethnicity, race, gender, and field of expertise. See Appendix D for a listing of the Pilot Panel members. Panel members were given index cards with individual performance descriptors on each card. They were asked to sort the descriptors into strands. After sorting the descriptors into strands, they then were asked to place them in order of performance rating from low to high. Feedback was also requested with regard to completeness of the descriptors,

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126 clarity of language, and presence of bias in the wording. Based upon the results of the Pilot Panel, revisions were made to the Performance Rating Scale. Appendix E contains copies of the correspondence and instructions to the Pilot Panel for this process. For example, the wording on the levels of performance were changed, primarily for the below average and average levels. The word “occasional” was dropped from the Performance Rating Scale as the frequency indicator, and th e word “rarely” was substituted. 4. The next step in the construction of the Performance Rating Scale was the formation of the Validation Panel. Th e panel consisted of 12 representatives of the disciplines of adult educa tion, human development, educational measurement and research, and social work. Considerations of race, gender, and ethnicity also were taken into ac count in the selection of the panel members. See Appendix F for a list of Validation Panel members. The Validation Panel also performed a card so rt in order to place the performance descriptive statement in the appropr iate stands and to rank order the descriptive statements from high to low. The correspondence and instructions for this task are found in Appendix G. Revisions were made to the Performance Rating Scale reflecting pa nel feedback. For example, with regard to Involvement, amount of time in contact was added to the strand description, resulting in the behaviors included being frequency of contact, amount of time in contact, and involv ement in decision-making of parents.

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127 5. The final step in the development of the Performance Rating Scale was the review by the Verification Panel. The Verification Panel consisted of nine experts from the fields of adult edu cation, human services, social work, and educational measurement and research. The first task of the Verification Panel was to rank order the descriptive statements for performance from high to low within strands. The second ta sk involved rating the clarity, freedom from bias, and completeness of the beha vioral descriptors in the Performance Rating Scale on a Likert scale. Base d upon feedback from the Verification Panel, final revisions were made to the Performance Rating Scale. See Appendix H for Verification Panel members and Appendix I for the correspondence and instructions to the Verification Panel for the Performance Rating Scale. Again, frequency indicator s in performance level descriptions were adjusted. “Some importance” was changed to “limited importance,” and “no or almost no satisfaction” with rega rd to role satisfaction was changed to indicate that the respondent expressed “no” satisfaction. Development of the Interview Protocol The Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son adult social role was created for the purpose of collecting data from study participan ts. Through use of the Interview Protocol data, performance ratings were made for cont emporary role behaviors associated with the adult Daughter/Son social role. A process of using experts in panels of progressive reviews and then critiquing by Un iversity of South Florida graduate students was utilized in the Interview Protocol development.

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128 1. An initial item pool for the Interview Protocol was create d by the researcher into a draft Interview Protocol. The item pool and strand identification were derived from review of the literatu re, Havighurst’s (1957) findings, and Abney’s (1992/1993) results. Based upon re view of the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Projec t studies (Abney, 1992/1993; Barthmus, 2004/2005; Davis, 2002; Dye, 1998; Hargiss, 1997/1998; Kirkman, 1994/1995; McCloskey, 2000; McCoy, 1993/1994; Montgomery, 1997/1998; Rogers, 2004/2005; Wall, 1997/1998; Witte, 1997/1998; Yates-Carter, 1997/1998), the interview item pool wa s organized into strands for Involvement, Perception, Activitie s, and Role Improvement. 2. Next, graduate students in adult edu cation from the University of South Florida and several experts from prev ious panels reviewed the proposed questions and were asked for suggestions of other questions related to the strands or for clarifications. The Inte rview Protocol questions were revised based upon comments and suggestions from the class and the experts. One example of changes made to the Interv iew Protocol by the graduate students was to remove the original wording that described assistance given and received as “tangible” and “instrumental. ” Simpler, more descriptive wording was incorporated instead and examples added as prompts. 3. Next, a six-member Verification Panel (s ee Appendix J for a list of names) were asked to use a Likert scale to rate the revised questions in the Interview Protocol in terms of clarity and comple teness. Areas of professional expertise

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129 of this group were adult education, educational measurem ent and research, and human services. Further revision s were made based on suggestions and comments. A major shift was made to put types of involvement under the Activities strand rather than Involvement Also, in attempting to ascertain information about amount of effort requi red for role performance, the question focus was changed to types and freque ncy of activities, with a follow-up question about the amount effort it required to engage in activ ities relative to the Daughter/Son role. 4. The researcher then administered the Interview Protocol to 10 respondents to determine ease of use of the proposed Interview Protocol. Minor wording changes were made in format and presentation. 5. The final step in the Interview Protoc ol development was receiving feedback and suggestions from a graduate class in adult education at the University of South Florida who were asked to admini ster the Interview Protocol to each other. Feedback from discussion an d suggestions resulted in additional refinements to the instrument. More open-ended questions concerning Role Improvement were dropped in favor of direct questions about the types of information and the sources of that in formation that respondents had sought with regard to the Daughter/Son social role. Field Test The next step in the process of devel oping and content validating the Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol was to us e the two instruments together in a field

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130 test situation with a group of trained raters. Seven raters (see Appendix L for a list of names) from the fields of adult educati on, education, educational foundations, social work, and psychology were trained in the use of the Performance Rating Scale. They then rated completed interviews and also pr ovided discussion and feedback on the rating process. On the basis of two rating sessions for rating and subseque nt discussion, it was determined that the instruments were in th e final form for use in a larger study. An addition suggested to improve the rating pro cess was to develop guidelines specifically for rating Activities in terms of number and ra nge of different activities. Guidelines for evaluating Role Improvement were also adde d at the suggestion of the panel. They participated in developing the guidelines as well. To gain further confirmation that the instruments were ready for use in the larger study, three members of the field test panel agreed to be interviewed with the Interview Protocol and to provide further feedback on the instrument. Their comments about the ra ting process and the us e of the Interview Protocol on them as respondents affirmed th at the instruments could be used in the exploratory investigation. Cohe n’s Kappa calculations were used to determine inter-rater reliability on this sample; analyses were performed on the final ratings. Interviewer/Scorer Training A trained team of interviewers and scorers was essential to reliable data collection for this research study. Training materials we re developed and pract ice sessions held for anyone participating in the interviewing a nd scoring processes. Training included information about using the Demographic Da ta Form (see Appendix M for a copy of the complete form), the Informed Consent Form (see Appendix N for a sample form), the

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131 Performance Rating Scale (Appendix C), and th e Interview Protocol (see Appendix O for a copy of the Interview Protocol). Appendix P presents the Training Guide for using the Interview Protocol and the Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son role. Appendix Q provides the Guide lines for Evaluating Activi ties and Role Improvement. The use of probes to encourage more comple te information during the interview was an important part of the training of interviewe rs. Another feature of the training was to understand the sample criteria in order to interview only quali fied participants. Training on determining SES level was particularly important since that is a multidimensional variable that sometimes require d informed judgment. Interv iewers were also introduced to the characteristics of the sample populati on in order to prepare them to identify potential respondents who met the criteria for some of the rarer respondents needed to fill the sample cells with a representative and diverse sample populati on. Interviewers who were trained to use the Interview Protocol we re graduate students in adult education at the University of South Florida. Training on the use of the Performance Rating Scale was provided to those who rated Interview Protocols. Agreement among raters was emphasized in the training of raters, and raters were allowed to rate Inte rview Protocols for the study only when raters demonstrated understanding of application of the Performance Rating Scale and were able to deliver ratings that were simila r to performance scores of other raters.

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132 Implementation of the Study Population Sampling This study followed the methods fo r obtaining a quota sample of study respondents. Quota sampling involves the selection of t ypical cases from diverse strata of a population. The quotas are based on known characteristics of the population to which one wishes to generalize. Elements are drawn so that the resulting sample is a miniature approximation of the popul ation with respect to the selected characteristics. (Ary et al., 1990, p. 177) To determine the specific characteristics of a quota sample, census data were used. For the first part of the Univ ersity of South Florida Social Roles Research Project, the 1990 census data for the Tampa Bay, Florida, greater metro area were used in all the social roles research studie s prior to 2002; af ter the 2000 census data were available, Barthmus (2004/2005) and Rogers (2004/2005) re vised the figures. The 2000 data were used to determine the quota sample for this st udy as well. The step s in determining the quota sample are define d by Ary et al. (1996). 1. Determine a number of variables, strongly related to the questi on under investigation, to be used as bases for stratification. Va riables such as gender, age, education, and social class are frequently used. 2. Using census or other availa ble data, determine the si ze of each segment of the population. 3. Compare quotas for each segment of the populat ion that are proportional to the size of each segment. 4. Select typical cases from each segment, or stratum, of the population to fill the quotas. (p. 181) All respondents included in th e study had at least one livi ng parent, step-parent, or parent-in-law or one who was deceased duri ng the previous year. For this study, the respondents were drawn primarily from citizen s from the Tampa Bay, Florida, area.

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133 University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project studies completed after the 2000 U. S. census used the percentages based on the percentages derived from that data. Those percentages were 10.7% Black/Afri can-American, 11.3% Hispanic/Latino, 2% Asian, and .7% Native American Indian; 75.3% were white/Caucasian (Barthmus, 2004/2005). The quota sample consisted of 150 responde nts to be equally distributed among 30 cells (2 gender x 5 SES x 3 age groups), as indicated in Table 13. Table 13 Quota Sample Configuration of Cells SES Level Young Middle Older M F M F M F n n n n n n ________________________________________________________________________ Disenfranchised 5 5 5 5 5 5 Working 5 5 5 5 5 5 Lower Middle 5 5 5 5 5 5 Upper Middle 5 5 5 5 5 5 Elite 5 5 5 5 5 5 Note: N = 150 The respondents of the four minority gr oups (African-American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and Native American Indian) were distributed among cells, with each cell

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134 containing one minority respondent; one exception is that six cells had two minorities in order to include the numbers of minorities (36) required for representativeness in the quota sample. The study variables were distributed am ong the cells equally for each variable. The gender variable was evenly di stributed among males and females ( n = 75 males, n = 75 females). The age variable categorized the quota sample into three groups: young (1834 years of age); middle (35-64 years of age); and older (65+ years of age). For each age group, n = 50. The socioeconomic variable consisted of five status levels. The levels used in this study were those identified by James and Abne y (1993) and have been used by all the adult social roles studies of the University of South Florida Adult Social Roles Research Project. In the James and Abney construction of SES levels, a multidimensional approach was used to develop a multi-factor socioeconomic status measure. The three dimensions of occupation, education, and income were combined to determine the SES level. Five levels were defined: disenf ranchised, working, lower middle, upper middle, and elite. For the University of South Florid a Adult Social Roles Research Project, those respondents selected for the study were res pondents whose SES level was consistent across dimensions (i.e., occupati onal status, educational level, and income level varied no more than one level on one dimension). According to the James and Abney (1993) model for SES level, occupational status was determined by using the Nam and Powers ratings for occupational status. Occupations were ranked based upon social stat us and prestige and assigned point values

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135 ranging from 1 to 100. Occupations were then grouped into five levels. These occupational scores are found in Appendix A The Nam-Powers-Boyd Occupational Status Scores for 2000 listed by occupation po int values assigned to each occupation, and placement of each occupation in one of five levels. James and Abney (1993), using the Nam and Terrie (1988) groupings of occupations placed the five levels of occupational prestige and status into thei r disenfranchised (Level 1), working (Level 2), lower middle (Level 3), upper middle (Level 4), and elite (Level 5,) categories. Each of the three components of SES level are presented in the next tables. Table 14 summarizes a broad categorical description for each level, indi cates the score range for each level, and provides the estimated percentage of the U.S. population falling in that level. The largest percentage of the population fell under Level 2 (factory and clerical workers), which accounted for many different assembley-line jobs. Educational level in the James and A bney (1993) model was determined by the number of years of formal e ducation achieved. Five educa tional levels were described, corresponding to the five SES levels: di senfranchised, working, lower middle, upper middle, and elite. Table 15 indicates the educational levels by educational attainment and percentage of the population. The income dimension of the multi-factor socioeconomic status measure (James & Abney, 1993) was determined by family income. Again, income was arranged in five categories (disenfranchised, working, lower middle, upper middle, and elite). This information was gathered on the Demographic Information form and was an

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136 Table 14 Occupational Levels by Category, Score Range and Estimated Percentage of Population Level Occupational Category Score Range Est. % of US Population 1 Unskilled Laborers/ Private 1 – 9 16 Household Workers 2 Operators/Fabricators/ 10 – 65 39 Clerical/Service Workers 3 Sales/Craftsman/ 66 – 87 20 Precision Workers 4 Managers/Administrators/ 88 – 98 20 Professionals 5 Executives/Elite 99 – 100 5 Professionals ________________________________________________________________ Note. From James & Abney, 1993, p. 43. Reprinted by permission. important piece of information to screen elig ible study participants. The income levels are presented in Table 16. Abney (1992/1993) used the James and Abney (1993) socioeconomic status measure to distinguish the five SES groups used in her study and all subsequent University of South Florida Adult So cial Roles Research Project studies. 1. Disenfranchised (comprising about 15% of the U. S. population) are regarded as lowest status and include the poor, unskilled, homeless, and illiterate. 2. Working (comprising about 35% of the popul ation) are described as manual laborers or blue collar workers.

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137 3. Lower Middle (about 25% of the population) ar e described as average income individuals such as nurses, teachers, small-business operators, and middle management. 4. Upper Middle (consisting of about 20% of th e population) are usually active community leaders, professionals or proprietors of large companies. 5. Elite (about 5% of the population) include prosperous old wealth or nouveau riche families who can make decisions of major community consequences. Professions of high status such as doctor or lawy ers are included here. (Kirkman, 1994/1995, pp. 56-57) Table 15 Education Levels by Educational Attainment and Estimated Percentage of Population Level Educational Est. % of Attainment US Population* 1 Less than High School 24 2 High/Vocational School 39 3 2 Years College 19 4 College/Graduate 15 Graduate School up to Doctorate 5 Doctoral/Professional 4 Degree Note. From James & Abney, 1993, p. 43. Reprinted by permission. May not equal 100% due to rounding.

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138 Table 16 Family Income Levels by Income Range and Estimated Percentage of Population Level Pre-2002 Est. % of Updated Est. % Income US Pop. Income of US Range Range Pop. 1 under $10,000 15 under $15,000 15 2 $10,000 – 24,999 28 $15,000-$34,999 25 3 $25,000 – 49,999 33 $35,000-$99,999 35 4 $50,000 – 99,999 20 $100,000-$124,999 20 5 over $100,000 4 $125,000+ 5 Source: James & Abney, 1993, p. 42; Rogers, 2004/2005, p. 81. Reprinted by permission. Data Collection Data collection was completed by trained interviewers and raters primarily at various locations in the metro Tampa Bay, Fl orida, area, but some were obtained from other locations in the U. S. Some respondent s were interviewed in places of work or in their homes. Others were solicited from community organizations serving populations where it might be expected to find persons f itting the demographic requirements for the quota sample. Such sites were senior servi ce centers or retirement living centers, the Salvation Army centers or homeless shelters. In some cases, referrals to persons of certain demographic characterist ics were obtained from reliab le sources such as friends or professional colleagues. The first step in the interview process was to complete the Informed Consent Sheet (Appendix M) with the participant a nd to explain the purpose of the study. The

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139 respondent was also asked to indicate approval to have the interview tape recorded on the Informed Consent Sheet. Next, a Demographic Information Sheet (Appendix N) was completed to determine if the respondent met the demographic requirements for the quota sample characteristics. If not, th e interviewers thanked the respondent and concluded the interview at that time. Since the study part icipants comprised a quota sample of 30 cells with specific demographic characteristic re quirements, determining if a respondent met the requirements for inclusion in a cell was impor tant in order not to waste the time of the interviewer or the interviewee. Additionally, once sufficient interviews to complete the requisite number of interviews for any given cell were obtai ned, that cell was closed for further interviewing. Each interviewer was assigned a unique code to indicate who conducted the interview on each Interview Protocol. A dditionally, each respondent was given a unique identifier that consisted of the interviewer’s initials follo wed by the respondent’s unique number, usually the place in the sequence of interviews conducted by that particular interviewer. For example, the fifth in terview conducted by Inte rviewer XY would be labeled XY105. By using such a method of re spondent identification, it was possible to distinguish individual interv iew data while maintaining relative anonymity; only the Informed Consent Sheet could link the responde nt’s name to the subsequent information obtained on the Demographic Information Sheet Each set of papers had the same identification numbers.

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140 Once the Informed Consent Sheet, the De mographic Information Sheet, and the Interview Protocol were completed and it was confirmed that the respondent met the demographic requirements for inclusion in th e study, the Interview Protocol was rated. This rating was given according to the Pe rformance Rating Scale by the at least two trained raters, who had to be of the opposite gender from each other. This genderopposite provision was initiated to guard agains t gender bias in the ra tings. If there was consensus regarding performance level between the two raters (i.e., both raters indicated a rating within a single performance level) then the information was recorded as complete, with the average of the two scores being the Performance Rating Score for that respondent. The decision “point” was based on the five levels of the Performance Rating Scale, where 0-1 is low, 2-3 is below average, 4-5 is average, 6-7 is above average, and 8-9 is high. Two scores with in a level were averaged. If there was no agreement on the rating but the ratings were only one performance level apart, a third rater was asked to rate the interview. If that rater’s score matched the performance level rating of the first rater of the opposite gender, th en the third rater’s score became the second performance rating scor e for that respondent. If the third rater’s score did not match the performance level of ei ther of the first two raters, a fourth rating was solicited from a rater of the opposite gender of the third rater, to see if the fourth raters could come to consensus on the perfor mance rating score of a rater of the opposite gender. In cases where there was no opposite gender agreement among the four raters on performance level ratings, the interview was presented to the primary researchers to try to gain consensus. If consensus was not attained, the interview was eliminated. Ratings for

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141 interviews included in the study were record ed by the researcher in a database of performance rating scores. This database was us ed for data analysis when all cells in the quota sample were filled. Data Analysis Data analysis of the results of the quot a sample related to the research questions were performed using an analysis of varian ce based on a 2 (gender) x 5 (SES level) x 3 (age level) factorial design. Main effects and possible interaction effects of variables were determined. A Tukey post hoc test was used to discern pattern s within the study’s variables. Data were also described using descriptive statistics such as measures of central tendency to present summary data on th e study data results. Statistical power was calculated to indicate the probability that the te sts of statistical significance used in this study would lead to a correct rejection of a null hypothesis, reducing the probability of a Type I error. The power of an experiment refers to the statistical ability to reject a null hypothesis when it is, in fact, false. This power is a function of the size of the sample, the heterogeneity of the subjects wi th reference to the dependent variable, the reliability of the measuring instrume nts used, the nature of the statistical procedure used to test the hypothesis, as well as effect size. (Ary et al., 1996, pp. 530-531) Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if other secondary variables of interest showed significance as contributors to role performance differences. Because this study included an explorator y investigation and one of the research questions included in the st udy asked if there if there were activities related to performance of the Daughter/Son social role suggested by the responde nts that were not

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142 related to the aging and increasing dependenc y of parents (Research Question #5), data from open-ended responses were collected from the Interview Protocol. Activities were grouped according to content; fr equency was reported. Correlations of data regarding degree of relationship of the parent to the re spondent (biological pare nt versus step-part, for example) and distance between where the respondent and her/his parent lived, and the parent’s health were also analyzed fo r correlation with an ANOVA calculation. Since the purpose of this study was th e content validation of a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son adult social role, the procedures for achieving content validity we re critical to the success of this study. Validity for an Interview Protocol is a measur e of the extent to which “the interview or questionnaire is really measuring what it is supposed to measure” (Ary et al., 1990, p. 434). In this study, panels of experts were used to deve lop both the Performance Rating Scale and the Interview Protocol. Ratings of items were report ed in terms of rating levels in each category of response and the frequency of each rating level. Scoring of the interviews was dependen t upon judgments of rate rs related to openended verbal responses in order to achieve a pe rformance rating score. With this type of instrument, both inter-rater and intra-rater reliab ility are needed to assure stable results. Inter-rater reliability is “the extent to which two or more observers produce similar quantitative results when observing the same individual during the same time period. (Ary et al., 1996, p. 569). To assure that inte r-rater reliability from the field test was reflected or exceeded by the final scores from the study’s quota sample, 12 interviews were drawn from the study popul ation. The 12 chosen included ratings that had the most

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143 diversity of final score. Taking the group for which there was the least agreement among the four raters assured that the lowest reliability of the sample would be known. A Cohen’s Kappa was used again to determine inter-rater reliability for this group. Intrarater reliability was also calculated for th is group with a Pearson’s product moment analysis. Summary This study developed and content va lidated a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the Daught er/Son social role. It was a part of a larger research project to update Havighurst’s mid-20th Cent ury studies of adult social roles. The research design used a quota sample drawn la rgely from the Tampa Bay, Florida, area. A series of expert panels assi sted in the development of th e instruments and to content validate them; graduate students in adult educat ion at the University of South Florida also critiqued the instruments and pr ovided suggestions and feedback. After field testing and revising the in struments, 150 qualified respondents were interviewed by trained interviewers and their responses scored by trai ned raters in order to determine a performance rating on the Daught er/Son social role. Data analysis was performed in order to accomplish the following research objectives: 1. To content validate a Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son adult social role in order to enable research ers to assess the ro le performance of individual adults across the life span.

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144 2. To content validate an Interview Prot ocol for the adult social role of Daughter/Son in order that reliable dis tinctions can be made about the role performance of individuals. 3. To implement the use of the Perfor mance Rating Scale and the Interview Protocol in a study of a quota sample of subjects primarily in the Tampa Bay, Florida, area, but including some respondents from South Carolina and elsewhere. 4. To generate data from the explor atory study about the Daughter/Son role performance that will suggest further re search possibilities and, in particular, will suggest research related to develo pmental tasks across the life span that are unrelated to care for an aging parent.. Related to research objectiv e #4 above, the data genera ted were analyzed for the following research questions regarding Daughter/Son social role performance: 1. Are there age-related differences in a dults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role? 2. Are there gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role? 3. Are there socio-economic status differe nces in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role? 4. Are there interaction effects between the age, gender, and socio-economic status variables related to adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role?

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145 5. Are there activities relate d to performance of the Daughter/Son social role suggested by the respondents that are not related to the aging and increasing dependency of parents? 6. Are there other significan t variables that influenc e Daughter/Son social role performance? To verify further the validity of the instruments, the following hypotheses were also tested: 1. There are gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role, with daugh ters performing at higher levels. 2. There are socio-economic status differe nces in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role.

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146 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to cons truct and content va lidate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the contemporary Daughter/Son adult social role. This chapter presents (a) the development and content validation of the Performance Rating Scale, (b) the development and conten t validation of the In terview Protocol, (c) the implementation of the Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, and (d) the results of the collection of data on 150 participants.. The research questions a ddressed in this study were: 1. Are there age-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role? 2. Are there gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role? 3. Are there socio-economic status differe nces in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role? 4. Are there interaction effect s between the age, gender, and socio-economic status variables related to adults’ performa nce of the Daughter/Son social role? 5. Are there activities relate d to performance of the Daughter/Son social role suggested by the respondents that are not related to the aging and increasing dependency of parents?

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147 6. Are there other significant variable s that influence Daughter/Son role performance? Two research hypotheses were al so tested in this study. 1. There are gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role, with daughters performing at higher levels. 2. There are socio-economic status differe nces in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role. Development and Content Validation of the Performance Rating Scale The construction and development of th e Performance Rating Scale began with the researcher’s draft of st rand definitions and performan ce descriptors appropriate for each strand. Definitions of the strands and be havioral descriptors were constructed based upon the literature review. University of South Florida graduate students in adult education reviewed the preliminary scale, and revisions were made from the review. The next step was to subject the revised behavioral descriptors to a seri es of panel reviews by experts from education, adult education, e ducational measurement and research, human development and human services, and social wo rk. A pilot panel of experts reviewed the Performance Rating Scale and provided inform ation for revisions. That review was followed by a validation panel of experts’ re view of the behavior al descriptors for association with the strand a nd to confirm performance leve l descriptions within each sub-strand cluster of performance descripti ons. Performance desc riptors next were reviewed by a Verification Panel for associ ation with level of performance. The Verification Panel (Appendix I) also rated each descriptor for clarity and completeness of

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148 the statement. Graduate students in adult e ducation at the University of South Florida provided review and feedback th roughout the process as well. Pilot Panel A Pilot Panel of six experts drawn from education, educational psychology, adult education, social work, and educational meas urement and research. See Appendix D for names of Pilot Panel members. These experts completed two card sorts. The panel was also diverse in terms of gender and race/ethnicity. In Task A, each performance descriptor statement was written on an index card. Each panel member was given four envelopes, each marked with a strand name and definition; the panel member was then asked to place each index card in the envel ope with which he/she thought it was most logically associated. Task B was to rank th e performance descriptors for each sub-strand cluster of descriptors from low to high. Each panel member received envelopes with five index cards with performance descriptors for one sub-strand placed in it in random order. Each panel member was asked to place the i ndex cards in rank order from lowest to highest level of performance and then retu rn the index cards to that sub-strand’s envelope. See Appendix E for correspondence and instructions to the Pilot Panel. Tabulation of the results of the Pilo t Panel’s work indicated that on Task A, 382 out of 390, or 97.95%, of performa nce descriptors were placed with their proper strand. Comments provi ded by the panel members helped to clarify particular wordings that were problematic. Most of th e sorting mistakes were self-evident with regard to the cause for confusion; a few were judged to be random.

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149 Results for Task B, the rank ordering of performance desc riptors within substrands, resulted in an over all correct response rate of 98.97%, with 386 of 390 correct responses. In some cases, consistent intraa nd inter-rater mistakes were identified. New language was developed to address the noted problem areas. Word choices for describing frequency of contact with regard to Involveme nt were most often a source of mistakes; the word “occasionally” was dropped from use as a descriptor, for example Validation Panel Revisions to the performance descriptors were completed and submitted to the next round of review, the Validation Panel, list ed in Appendix F, with instructions similar to the Pilot Panel’s. The Validation Panel consisted of 12 experts from adult education, educational measurement and research, human development, and gerontology. Panel members were chosen for diversity of fiel d of study, gender, and race/ethnicity. The composition of the Validation Panel was non-duplic ative of the Pilot Panel membership. The Validation Panel was given the same tw o card-sort tasks as the Pilot Panel, but with performance descriptors revised, base d upon the results of the Pilot Panel. The same process instructions were provided to the Validation Panel members (Appendix F). In Task A, each performance descriptor st atement was written on an index card. The panel member was given four envelopes, each marked with a strand name and definition; the panel member was then asked to place e ach index card in the envelope with which he/she thought it was most l ogically associated. Task B was to rank the performance descriptors for each sub-strand cluster of descriptors from low to high. The panel member received envelopes with five index cards with performan ce descriptors randomly

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150 ordered. The panel member was asked to plac e the index cards in rank order from lowest to highest level of performance and then re turn the index cards to that sub-strand’s envelope. Tabulation of the results of the Validation Panel’s work indicated that 95.1% (742 of 780 responses) of the responses for Task A correctly associated the performance descriptor with its strand. Some sorti ng mistakes were obvious about the cause for confusion, and some misplacements were judged to be random. Results for Task B, the rank ordering of performance desc riptors within substrands, resulted in an over all correct response rate of 99.0%, with 772 of 780 correct responses. A few consistent in traand inter-rater mistakes were identified, and revisions were again made to the problematic performance descriptors. Word. Verification Panel The third round of the Performance Ra ting Scale development process was the submission of the performance descriptors to the Verification Panel, a nine-person panel of experts drawn from adult education, ge rontology, human services, and educational measurement and research. See Appendix G fo r names of the Verification Panel. This panel also was chosen to be diverse in b ackground, gender, and race /ethnicity; the panel did not duplicate any member of previous pane ls. Task A given to the Verification Panel was a card sort similar to the Task B card sort performed by the Pilot Panel and the Validation Panel. See Appendix H for instruc tions provided to the Verification Panel Verification Panel members were given 13 e nvelopes with five car ds containing five index cards, each containing a performance desc riptor associated with a sub-strand. The

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151 cards were randomly placed in the envelope. The panel was asked to rank order the five performance descriptors from lowest to highe st performance and return the ordered index cards to their sub-strand envelope. The resu lts of the Q sort were that panel members identified the correct performance level for a specific descriptor 90.8% of the time. Task B of the Verification Panel was to rate each performance descriptor on a Likert-type scale for completeness of the stat ement and the clarity of the statement. Possible scores ranged from 1 to 6, with 1 being the lowest score and six indicating the highest score. Panel members were also aske d for comments and suggestions. Results of the Verification Panel evaluation indicated th at 91.9 % of performance descriptors (1075 out of 1170 items) received scores of 5 or 6. Evaluation of statement completeness resulted in 92.9% of items receiving evalua tions of 5 or 6, and evaluation of statement clarity resulted in 91.0% of items receiving scor es of 5 or 6. Results of the verification Panel are displayed in Figure 2. Those pe rformance descriptors with scores for completeness or clarity of 4 or less were ev aluated individually, w ith special attention given to comments and suggestions noted. For example, one rater consistently assigned low marks to performance statements includi ng the phrase “little or no”; he wanted the “no” eliminated from the statement, but expe rience with previous so cial roles studies had shown that absence of a “no” statement in the low performance descriptors was a concern to raters. In many cases, the panel members indicated that more detail or an operational clarification was needed; these concerns we re addressed in the construction of the Interview Protocol and in the Field Testing phases of the pr ocess. A major revision was prepared, based upon Verification Panel feedb ack, with the sub-strand, description for

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152 ND = No Data; 1 – 6 Represents Verification Panel members’ scores ranging from 1 – 6, with 1 being low (statement is very unclear and not complete) and 6 being high (statement is very clear and very complete). Figure 2. Verification Panel scores rating the clarity and complete ness of Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son adult social role. Role Improvement changed to Amount of Ef fort Expended to Acquire New Information or Skills Intended to Improve Role Performance. Interview Protocol Developm ent and Content Validation The Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son adult social role was created for the purpose of collecting data from study participan ts. Through use of the Interview Protocol

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153 data, performance ratings were obtained for c ontemporary role behaviors associated with the adult Daughter/Son social role. Based upon review of the li terature, Havighurst’s (1957) findings and Abney’s (1992/1993) results a potential item pool wa s created. Next, after reviewing the University of South Florida Social Role s Research Project studies (Abney, 1992/1993; Barthmus, 2004/2005; Davi s, 2002; Dye, 1998; Harg iss, 1997/1998; Kirkman, 1994/1995; McCloskey, 2000; McCoy, 1993/1994; Montgomery, 1997/1998; Rogers, 2004/2005; Wall, 1997/1998; Witte, 1997/1998; Ya tes-Carter, 1997/1998), the interview item pool was organized into strands for I nvolvement, Perception, Activities, and Role Improvement. Potential items had also b een suggested by spontaneous comments from panel members at all stages of the Perfor mance Rating Scale development, and these suggestions were reviewed to inform the question development and selection. An initial Interview Protocol was prepared and presented to a graduate class of adult education students at the University of S outh Florida. The students were asked to administer the initial Interview Protocol to each other and th en provided feedback through class discussion of the instrument. Qu estion wording, questi on content, and ease of administration of the Interv iew Protocol were discussed. Several changes were made to the draft Family Demographic Form from this feedback, including more code options for some characteristics and rewording some options (health descriptors, for example). Based on this process, revisions were made to the draft Interview Protocol. An example is that “Finding information or resources for the parent” was added to the grid in Question 17. Additional prompts were also suggested as a way for providing more

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154 guidance for the interviewer if she/he needed to stimulate the partic ipant’s thinking about a question. The next step was to submit the Interview Protocol to a Verification Panel of six experts from adult education, educationa l measurement and research, and human services, listed in Appendix I. Panel member s were asked to provide feedback on clarity and completeness of the questions by rati ng each question on a Likert-type scale with values of 1 to 6, with low being the lowest value and 6 being the highest value. See Appendix J for instructions and corresponden ce to the Interview Protocol Verification Panel. The panel results indicated that 90.0% of the total items received a rating of 5 or 6. On the items related to clarity of the que stion, 90.1% of items were rated 5 or 6; on the items related to completeness of the question, 89 .8% received ratings of 5 or 6. Figure 3 depicts the results. Results and comments we re used to make additional refinements to the questions. One major change was that se veral forced-choice opti ons were changed to an open-ended format in order to a llow more flexibility in responses. Field Test The field testing of the Performance Ra ting Scale and the Interview Protocol as companion instruments began with the administ ration of the Interview Protocol to eight persons and assembling and training a group of seven raters. The group of raters (Appendix K, Field Test Panel) from the fields of adult ed ucation, educati on, educational foundations, social work, and psychology were trained in the use of the Demographic Form, (provided in Appendix L), the Informed Consent Form (see Appendix M), and the

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155 Performance Rating Scale to ra te role performance of the Daughter/Son social role. In two sessions of rating and disc ussion, eight Interview Protoc ols were presented for rating, and then each was discussed thoroughly to clar ify processes and instrument use. Ratings were recorded ND = No Data; 1 – 6 Represents Verification Panel members’ scores ranging from 1 – 6, with 1 being low (statement is very unclear and not complete) and 6 being high (statement is very clear and very complete). Figure 3. Verification Panel scores rating the clarity and completeness of Interview Protocol for the Daughter /Son adult social role.

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156 and analyzed for the final performance score on each Interview Protocol. In the discussion, the scoring of the Activity area wa s a particular area of difficulty. After scoring several interviews, gui delines giving numeric threshol ds for Activity levels were developed by the group. Once these guidelines were provided, raters scored this area more consistently. Cohen’s Kappa was used to determine final performance rating score inter-rater reliability. Inter-rater reliability re sults for the field test in Table 17. It can be seen from Table 17 that one rater had lower correlation scores than others. Additional training and provision of the guide lines resulted in his later ra tings being consistent with other raters. See Appendix N for the fina l Interview Protocol, Appendix O for the Training Guide, and Appendix P for the Guide lines for Evaluating Activities and Role Improvement. While some editorial adjustme nts to both instruments were made as a result of the field test, the primary add ition was the Guideline Sheet for raters. To gain further information about the inst ruments, three members of the field test panel agreed to be intervie wed with the Interview Protoc ol and to provide further feedback on the instrument. Their comments about the rating proce ss and the use of the Interview Protocol with them as respondents a ffirmed that the instruments could be used in an exploratory investigation. The Study Data Collection This study was a content validation study of a quota sample of 150 participants chosen according to specific demographic crit eria. A 2 x 5 x 3 research design yielded

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157 Table 17 Field Test Inter-rater Reli ability and Agreement for th e Daughter/Son Social Role ________________________________________________________________________ Assessor Rater 1 Rater 2 Rater 3 Ra ter 4 Rater 5 Rater 6 Rater 7 r k*/r k*/r k*/r k*/r k*/r k* ________________________________________________________________________ Rater1a 1.00 0.13 0.02 0.22 -0.01 -0.29 0.09 Rater 2 0.38 1.00 0.20 0.48 0.48 0.00 0.33 Rater 3 0.00 0.48 1.00 0.00 0.65 0.07 0.33 Rater 4 0.63 0.71 0.19 1.00 0.08 -0.27 0.09 Rater 5 -0.18 0.61 0.81 0.11 1.00 0.23 0.23 Rater 6 -0.53 -0.26 0.25 -0.59 0.25 1.00 0.33 Rater 7 -0.35 0.27 0.76 0.00 0.51 0.50 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________ Note. N= 8 Reliability estimates are below diagonal. Kappa estimates are above. a Because the scores for Rater 1 were unbalanced in configuration and were not calculated by SAS, simple Kappas were calculated for al l pair-wise comparisons for this rater. 30 unique cells comprised of combinations of two gender categories, five socioeconomic categories, and three age categories. Additi onally, study criteria requ ired that each cell should have at least one member of a mi nority population in proportion to minority population distribution in the Tampa Bay area of Florida, in the 2000 census. Table 18 presents the distribution of the quota sample into cells. The quota sample included 15

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158 African-Americans, 17 Hispanics, 3 Asians, and 1 Native American, for a total of 36 minority study participants. Six cells, therefore, had two minorities. A three-way ANOVA calculated variance am ong the independent variable of age, gender, and socioeconomic status on the study sample. A Tukey’s test after the ANOVA produced multiple comparisons to determine if any means for variable levels were significantly different from each other. Main effects for the three primary independent variables revealed that gender was the only variable found to be significance ( p <.05), with females performing at a statistically significantly higher level than males. Calculations of p levels of statistical significance fo r other variables and interaction effects were not significant in this study, while gender di fferences in performance are solidly within the p <.05 level, indicating less than 5% probability that the results occurred due to chance. Table 19 provides the descriptive statis tics for the study group, and Table 20 displays summary data for the ANOVA. Table 21 reports the descriptive data for the gender main effect. Analysis of the descriptive data for the final Daughter/Son performance rating scores in Table 21 indicates th at the overall mean score of 5.97 falls in the high Average level of performance, approaching the low A bove Average level of ra ting. This statistic confirmed that the overall functioning of the Performan ce Rating Scale and Interview Protocol produces overall average scores at a performance level which the Performance Rating Scale defined as Average. The Mean score of 5.97 for the Daughter/Son social role with final performance scores from other social roles indicates that it is the fourth highest mean of all the adult

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159 social roles, with Parent ( M =6.73) (Kirkman, 1994/1995) ; Davis 2002), Worker ( M =6.47) (Kirkman, 1994/1995; Davis, 2002)), and Spouse/Partner ( M =6.43) (Kirkman, 1994/1995; Davis 2002) ranking higher. Open-e nded remarks from respondents confirm a ranking at this approximate level; many volunt eered that their own spouse and children came ahead of parents in terms of the leve l of importance in their lives; nonetheless 52.67% indicated that being a Daughter/Son is in the top three things they do with their lives now. See Table 22 for Daughter/Son ra ting of role importa nce in their lives. Table 18 Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Daughter /Son Social Role Respondents by Cell Young Middle Older Total U18-34 years U U35-64 Years U U65+ years U n Male Female Male Female Male Female n n n n n n ________________________________________________________________________ Disenfranchised 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1H 4W 1H 4W 4W 1H 1NA 30 3W 3W 3W Working 1H 1B 1B 1B 1H 1H 4W 4W 4W 1H 4W 4W 30 3W Lower Middle 1A 1H 1H 1B 1B 1H 4W 4W 4W 4W 4W 4W 30 Upper Middle 1B 1B 1B 1B 1H 1H 1A 4W 1H 4W 4W 4W 30 3W 3W Elite 1H 1A 1H 1B 1H 1H 4W 4W 4W 4W 4W 4W 30 Note. B=African-American H=Hispanic A=Asian NA=Native American W=White

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160 Table 19 1 1 BDescriptive Statistics for the Final Perfor mance Score for the D aughter/Son Social Role Location Variability ________________________________________________________________________ Mean 5.97 Standard Deviation 1.86 Median 6.5 Variance 3.47 Mode 7.0 Range 0.5-9.0 Interquartile Range 2.38 ________________________________________________________________________ N =150 Table 20 Three-Factor ANOVA Summary Table for Final Daughter/Son Social Role Scores Source df Sum of Mean F p Squares Square ________________________________________________________________________ Age 2 11.41 5.71 1.66 0.1953 Gender 1 15.04 15.04 4.37 0.0388 SES 4 11.12 2.78 0.81 0.5230 Age x Gender 2 0.82 0.41 0.12 0.8875 Age x SES 8 28.36 3.54 1.03 0.4184 Gender x SES 4 5.68 1.42 0.41 0.7995 Age x Gender x SES 8 31.18 3.90 1.13 0.3475 Error 120 413.50 3.45 Corrected Total 149 517.12 Note : N =150 p <.05

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161 Table 21 1 2 BMeans and Standard Deviations of Fi nal Daughter/Son Scores by Gender Gender n M SD ________________________________________________________________________ Male 75 5.65 1.99 Female 75 6.29 1.67 Note. N =150; Score range is 0-9. Table 22 Frequency of Rating of Daughter/Son Ro le Importance in Respondents’ Lives Level of Importance n % ________________________________________________________________________ Most Important thing I do with my life now. 12 8.00 In top three things I do with my life now. 79 53.67 About in the middle of all the things I do with my life now. 44 29.33 Not a very important part of the things I do with my life now. 11 7.33 Not important at all compared to other things I do with my life now. 4 2.67 N =150

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162 Though only the main effect for gender wa s significant, exam ination of means and standard deviations for the final score reveals patterns. See Table 23 for means and standard deviations of the final score. Consistent with Abney’s finding (1992/1993) that young respondents rated their role as an adult child very high ly, the highest mean score, at 6.33, was for the young age category. The standard deviation for the young respondents was the lowest of the three groups (1.49), i ndicating that the young age category in this study had a relatively cons istent response around the above average performance level. It can also be noted that in this study, the mean score diminished as the respondents became older. The middle age group had a mean score of 5.92, and the older age category a mean of 5.66. Standard deviations increased with age; the middle age category had a standard deviation of 1.79, and the older age category’s standard deviation was 2.21. Inter-Rater and Intra-Rater Reliability Because the scores in this study are ma de upon the basis of the judgments of trained raters, the stability of the raters’ ap plication of the Performance Rating Scale to the Interview Protocol over time was impor tant to the confiden ce of the performance rating outcomes. To enhance the confidence in th e reliability of the instruments, as a part of the exploratory investigati on, a group of 12 scores were examined for inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. The 12 included the Interview Protocols that had the greatest diversity of rater res ponse, (i.e., the greatest amount of rater disagreement). By choosing this group, the lowest level of re liability could be determined.

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163 Table 23 Means and Standard Deviation of Final Daughter /Son Scores by Gender, Age Category, and SES Level Gender Age SES Level n Mean Std. Dev ________________________________________________________________________ Male Young Disenfran. 5 5.10 1.95 Working 5 7.30 1.40 Lower Mid. 5 5.30 1.96 Upper Mid. 5 5.80 1.75 Elite 5 6.90 0.65 Middle Disenfran. 5 5.50 1.41 Working 5 4.40 1.47 Lower Mid. 5 6.60 0.89 Upper Mid. 5 5.90 1.19 Elite 5 5.80 3.27 Older Disenfran. 5 5.50 2.92 Working 5 5.40 2.27 Lower Mid. 5 4.70 3.27 Upper Mid. 5 5.00 2.35 Elite 5 5.60 1.64 Female Young Disenfran. 5 5.80 1.04 Working 5 6.10 1.88 Lower Mid. 5 6.90 1.02 Upper Mid. 5 7.40 0.82 Elite 5 6.70 0.45 Middle Disenfran 5 7.00 2.52 Working 5 5.70 1.99 Lower Mid. 5 7.00 1.00 Upper Mid. 5 5.30 1.57 Elite 5 6.00 1.17 Older Disenfran. 5 4.30 3.11 Working 5 6.40 2.27 Lower Mid. 5 6.80 0.76 Upper Mid. 5 6.10 1.71 Elite 5 6.80 0.75 1 3 BN = 150 Note: Score range is 0 to 9.

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164 Each performance level (Low, Below Average, Average, Above Average, and High) of the Performance Rating Scale had tw o scores within it, representing the high and the low ends of the range; for example, the Average performance level was represented by a score of either 4 or 5. A rating was considered complete when two raters of opposite genders rate d an Interview Protocol in the same performance level category. Therefore, inter-rat er reliability calculations were calculated based upon performance level within which their scores fell, and data ar e presented in two formats. The performance score levels uses the 0-9 poi nt scale in which th e Interview Protocols were originally scored. Because the scale is divided into five levels with a low and a high score in each level, scores were converted to a 1-5 scale. Table 24 and Table 25 display inter-rater reliability data. Inter-rater reli ability was calculated using a weighted Cohen’s Kappa, except that, simple Kappas were reported for one rater and the pair-wise comparisons for that rater because of unbalanced score cells that could not be calculated by SAS to obtain a weighted Kappa. Those scor es are noted in the tables. Intra-rater reliability was obtained by using a Pearson product moment statistic to compare two different scores from the same rater on the same interview at an interval of at least two weeks. Intra-rater reliability correl ation is presented in Table 26. Other Findings The data from Rogers’ (2004) study of th e grandparent social role found that as physical distance between subjects increas ed, the mean performance rating also decreased. Data were collected in this study to determine th e distance between the adult

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165 Table 24 Final Group Sample for Daughter/Son Social Role Inter-Rater Reliability by Performance Score Assessor Rater1 Rater 2 Rater 3a Rater 4 r k*/r k*/r k* __________________________________________________________________ _____ Rater 1 1.00 0.85 0.07 0.86 Rater 2 0.94 1.00 0.08 0.77 Rater 3a 0.81 0.81 1.00 0.21 Rater 4 0.94 0.93 0.78 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________ Note. N =12 Scores range from 0 to 9. Reliability estimates are below diagonal. Kappa estimates are above. a Because the scores for Rater 3 were unbalanced in configuration and were not calculated by SAS, simple Kappas were calculated for al l pair-wise comparisons for this rater. child and the parent with whom she/he was most involved. An analysis of variance indicated that there was a significant difference in Daughter/Son role performance between those in close proximity and those at further distances ( p <.05). Of this study’s respondents, 53.33% lived more than 50 miles from the pare nt with whom they were most involved, with 36.67% living more th an 500 miles away. See Table 27 for frequencies on distance. Furthermore, mean role performance was directly inversely

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166 Table 25 Final Group Sample for Daughter/Son Social Role Inter-Rater Reliability by Performance Level Assessor Rater1 Rater 2 Rater 3a Rater 4 r k*/r k*/r k* ________________________________________________________________________ Rater 1 1.00 0.92 0.09 0.75 Rater 2 0.96 1.00 0.05 0.82 Rater 3a 0.61 0.53 1.00 0.18 Rater 4 0.91 0.93 0.58 1.00 ________________________________________________________________________ Note. N =12 Scores range from 1-5. Reliability estimates are below diagonal. Kappa estimates are above. a Because the scores for Rater 3 were unbalanced in configuration and were not calculated by SAS, simple Kappas were calculated for al l pair-wise comparisons for this rater. associated with distance. Table 28 displays the mean role performance scores; mean scores drop with each level increase in distance. The interaction between distance and numb er of biological or adoptive parents was also significant ( p <.0001). Table 28 presents the anal ysis of the three independent variables of distance, number of biological or adoptiv e parents, and involvement in decision-making as they are related to final role performance.

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167 Table 26 Final Group Sample Intra-Rater Relationship fo r Performance Score and Level for the Daughter/Son Social Role Assessor Performance Score (0-9) Performance Level (1-5) U_________________________ r ________________________ r _____________________ Rater 1 0.99 0.97 Rater 2 0.95 0.96 Rater3 0.86 0.82 Rater 4 0.89 0.81 Note. N= 12, p <.0024 Scores of interviews over peri od of time by each rater. Each rater scored 12 interviews separated by time. Data were also gathered on the degree of relationship (paren t, step-parent, or parent-in-law) of the person with who the respondent Daughter/Son was most involved. Of the 150 study respondents, 85.4 % indicated that they were most involved with one of their legal parents (bio logical or adoptive); 64.7% indicated that it was their mother with whom they were most involved, and 20.7% indicat ed it was with a father with whom they were most involved. Of the 150 respondents, only six indicated the most involvement with a step-parent, and 16 with an in-law. These data do not necessarily represent the extent the person prefers that parent over other parents; in some cases in this study, especially for the older respondents, there was only one living parent with whom to be involved at any level.

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168 Table 27 Frequency Distribution of Di stance between Daughter/Son and the Parent with Whom She/he is Most Involved Distance n % ________________________________________________________________________ 0 miles-Live together 13 8.67 0-15 miles 35 23.33 16-50 miles 22 14.67 51-499 miles 25 16.77 500+ miles 55 36.67 N =150 Involvement with parents’ decision-making was also significant as a main effect See Table 29 for the summary table of the main effects and interactions between distance, number of biological or adoptiv e parents, and involvement in parents’ decision-making.. Examination of means on a forced-c hoice question about the Daughter/Son’s involvement in the parents’ decision-making i ndicates that the means are higher for those most involved and that main effects were significant. See Table 30 for the numbers and mean scores of participants’ reports by leve l of involvement in parents’ decision-making. Observations While the goal of this study was to c ontent validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son ad ult social role, the pr ocess of developing

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169 Table 28 Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for Daught er/Son Social Role Performance Scores by Distance Distance n Mean SD ________________________________________________________________________ 0 Miles-Live Together 13 7.35 1.60 0-15 Miles 35 6.91 1.18 16-50 Miles 22 5.95 2.01 51-499 Miles 25 5.70 1.63 500+ 55 5.17 1.91 Note. N =150 Score range is 0 to 9. the instruments, training interviewers and scorers, and administ ering the Interview Protocol to almost 200 persons in the process of trials of drafts, field testing, and the conducting the exploratory inve stigation provided the opportunity to observe more about the Daughter/Son social role than was the principal objective of the study. The openended questions allowed respondents to el aborate on their thoughts beyond the most direct answer. In fact, thr oughout the process, people reflec ted their own experience and beliefs as they particip ated in various ways. Of all the adult social roles, Daughter/Son is the universal role, for at some point in every life, one has been a daughter or son. Due to higher standard of living, increased length of life span, and better health care, most

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170 Table 29 Summary Table for Final Daughter/Son Social Role Scores and Distance, Extent of Daughter/Son’s Involvement in Parents’ Decision-Making, and the Number of Living Biological (or Adoptive) Parents Type III Source df Sum of Mean F p Squares Square ________________________________________________________________________ Distance 4 20.25 5.06 3.13 0.0180 Involvement in Decision-Making 4 88.85 22.21 13.74 <0.0001 # Biological Parents 2 4.77 2.39 1.48 0.2336 Distance x # Bio Parents 7 17.37 2.48 13.53 0.1643 Distance x Involvement in 15 28.68 1.91 1.18 0.2979 Decisions Involvement x # Bio Parents 8 13.23 1.65 1.02 0.4241 Distance x Involvement x 9 5.00 0.56 0.34 0.9581 # Bio Parents Error 100 161.69 1.62 Corrected Total 149 517.12 N= 150 p <.05

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171 Table 30 Mean Scores and Standard Deviations fo r Daughter/Son Performance Scores by Reported Level of Involvement in Parents’ Decision-Making _______________________________________________________________________ Level of Response n M SD _______________________________________________________________________ Not at all 12 3.08 2.09 To a very limited extent 34 4.82 1.66 To a moderate extent 40 5.96 1.50 To a great extent 43 6.85 0.93 To a very great extent-I make 21 7.69 0.86 decisions ________________________________________________________________________ Note. N= 150 Score range is 0-9. Americans live to play the Daughter/Son role as an adult for a l onger portion of their lives. Furthermore, it is an affective role with a great emotional content for many, as was found in this study. Many respondents expresse d pleasure at the opportunity to talk about that aspect of their lives, some were vi sibly emotional about the subject, and some expressed deep hurt and anger that had carried into their adult years. Looking through the mirror of the strands, w ith regard to Involvement, the great majority of respondents felt they were included in their parents’ decision-making, at least to the extent that they were asked for f eedback or included for input into major life decisions. Few, however, claimed to be the primary decision-maker for parents; even in

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172 the cases where the parent was incapable of making her/his decisions it was clear that decision-making included other family member s; in these situations, decision-making was a family enterprise. Having contact with at least one of th e respondent’s parents by phone and email was typically at least once a week, a benef it no doubt of the ease and availability of internet use and cheap tele phone communication with cell phones and unlimited or high volume minute payment plans. With many of the study respondents living more than 50 miles from the parent with whom they were most involved, it was common to see reports of extended visits of a week or more. The re ports of numbers of visits and length of stays suggest that many employed respondents may have been using much, if not most, of their vacation time to visit parents. In the section of the Interview Protocol on the Perception section, the most frequent response to the forced-choice question asking re spondents to indicate where their role as a Daughter/Son fell among their life’s priorities wa s that it was in the t op three things that they do with their lives ; the next most frequent was that it was about in the middle of all the things they do. In the open-ended follow-up question, over and over respondents volunteered that their own family came first. Some mentioned that their own lives took priority, including work, friends, and ac tivities. Though care and concern were expressed, it was clear that the establishing of independence from the family of origin had shifted the primary responsibility and ob ligation to their new family and the next generation, and the respondents said that repeat edly. The centrality of parents in their

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173 daily lives was diminished as the business of meeting responsibilitie s of their own lives preoccupied them. The Perception section also asked questi ons about benefits and satisfactions associated with the role and of both receivi ng and giving assistance. Emotional support was a frequent aspect of mutual assistance ; advice was often exchanged. Occasionally financial assistance was mentioned, with the flow of funds going both ways, but this was not a frequently mentioned benefit either given or received. The benefits and satisfactions were most often emotional; instru mental exchanges were for chores such as home maintenance, moving, or childcare. “Bei ng there” for each other was a phrase used to describe the role that bot h generations played for each other as back-up resources when emergencies occur. Another benefit that th e respondents mentioned periodically was the role that their parents had in keeping them connected to other family members. Family news and family history were seen as benefits of the adult child re lationship with her or his parents, respondents frequently used the phrase “paying b ack” as a source of satisfaction in the Daughter/Son role. Even wh en said in a contex t of obvious affection, the social norm of obligation to acknowle dge the sacrifices parents had made was expressed. Being able to care for them in so me tangible manner, even as one respondent said, “to pick up the bill at dinner,” was a source of satisfaction in bei ng able to return in a small way a debt owed to parents. It wa s also noteworthy that in several cases where there was an obvious history of conflict and bad feeling, the respondent expressed satisfaction in being able to see that the pa rent was safe and comf ortable; the obligation to protect was still present.

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174 In Activities, respondents were asked about behaviors related to being a Daughter/Son. Given an opportunity to suggest activities they most enjoyed with their parent(s), eating together, shopping together, and specific sports were mentioned. Most often, however, just talking and being toge ther was what was offered as what the respondent like most that she/ he did with the parent. Ev en in situations where the parent’s health prevented much overt par ticipation in activity or relationship, being together was seen as satisfying to the respondent. In one section of the Acti vity portion of the Interview Protocol, respondents were asked to indicate the parent w ith whom she/he had the most involvement and to indicate the types of activities and the amount of time sp ent in those activities associated with the Daughter/Son role. It was here that the health of the parent became a subject for comment. In cases where the parents were ol der and had health issues, involvement with providing care, overseeing care, and assisti ng with medical management became evident in the role. Nevertheless, those respondent s who lived at a distance were usually less involved than those closer; in this life stage, this study implies that children and parents who do not live close were not as able to en act role behaviors that may be required for aging parents. For some, to serve in that capacity had required m oving the parent closer to them, moving themselves closer to the pa rent, or suspending their own work in order to move temporarily to care for a parent. Role Improvement was a strand that was us ed to enhance a performance rating but not detract from it. In asking respondents to comment on the types of activities in which they might have engaged to improve role behavior, many reported only low-commitment

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175 activities such as watching a television program or reading a book or ma gazine article. A few indicated that they had sought professi onal help at some point to improve their relationship with their parents, but most said th ey had talked to family or friends if they wanted advice about relationship improvement. When asked what they would do if they needed to know something to improve th eir role as a Daughter /Son, the most common responses were to talk to someone (occasiona lly a doctor) or to go to the library or Internet for information. For the most part however, the idea of intentionally “doing something” to improve role performance did not seem to be compelling. An exception was that getting information about a pare nt’s medical condition was recognized as a necessary activity to do a better job of helping a parent. A last section of the Interview Protocol asked questions specifically to the young respondents (ages 18 to 34 years) about their changing relationsh ip with their parent(s). Questions centered around the respondent’s taking on new roles, particularly those of spouse and parent and the impact the new role s had on their Daughter/Son social role. In this sample, many of the respondents were st ill single or were not yet parents, but comments from those who could respond provide interesting observations. One elite young male spoke throughout the interview of the importance of his role as a bridge between his young child and his parents. He saw his role as the gatekeeper for that relationship, both enabling it but also defi ning its boundaries. Others described the importance of making sure that the two generations knew each other as family. Describing the changes that ha ving in-laws had created, the addition of more people to

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176 please or to spend time with was a factor Even when it was described as a good relationship, the addition of more de mands was implied by some respondents. Young people saw their independence as an opportunity to show their parents that they had performed well as parents. In th e Perception section, respondents were asked about what they thought their parents expect ed of them, and many indicated that good behavior of various descriptions was an expectation. A young female respondent elaborated both in response to that question and in the questions for the young respondents at the end of the Interview Protocol that sh e felt her successes were affirmations to her parents that they ha d been successes. They could enjoy her experiences and accomplishments because th ey were confirmations that they had accomplished their responsibilities as good parents. Summary This chapter presented the results of the processes and data analysis for the development and content validation of th e Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son a dult social role and the use of the instruments in an exploratory investigation. Examination of main effects for the three independent variables of age, gender, and socioecono mic status found significance for the gender independent variable, but age and socio economic status were not significant. Additionally, there were no signifi cant interaction effects. Analysis of other secondary variables found that distance be tween adult children and their parents had a significant impact on role performance scores. It was also found that being involved with parents’ decision-making was significantly associated with higher final role performance.

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177 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this study was to constr uct and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the contemporary Daughter/Son adult social role; an exploratory investigation was conducted to demonstrate the utility of the instruments in providing consistent, unbiased results to study this adult role. This chapter presents (a) a summary of the study, (b) c onclusions of the study, (c) the implications of the findings of the study, and (d) recommendations for fu rther research suggested by this study. The research questions a ddressed in this study were: 1. Are there age-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role? 2. Are there gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role? 3. Are there socio-economic status differe nces in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role? 4. Are there interaction effect s between the age, gender, and socio-economic status variables related to adults’ performa nce of the Daughter/Son social role?

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178 5. Are there activities relate d to performance of the Daughter/Son social role suggested by the respondents that are not related to the aging and increasing dependency of parents? 6. Are there other significant variable s that influence Daughter/Son role performance? Two research hypotheses were al so tested in this study. 1. There are gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role, with daughters performing at higher levels. 2. There are socio-economic status differe nces in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role. Summary This study was a part of larger University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project (Barthmus, 2004/2005; Davis, 2002; Dye, 1997; Hargiss, 1997/1998; Kirkman, 1994/1995; McCloskey, 1999; Montgomer y, 1997/1998; Rogers, 2004/2005; Wall, 1997/1998; Witte, 1997/1998; Yates-Carter, 1997/1998) to update Havighurst’s mid-20th century studies of adult social roles. This study addresse d the development and content validation of the Daughter/Son adult social role. The stated research objectives of this study were: 1. To content validate a Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son adult social role in order to enable researchers to assess the role perfor mance of individual adults across the life span.

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179 2. To content validate an Interview Prot ocol for the adult social role of Daughter/Son in order that reliable dis tinctions can be made about the role performance of individuals. 3. To implement the use of the Performance Rating Scale and the Interview Protocol in an exploratory study using a quota samp le of subjects primarily from the Tampa Bay, Florida, area. 4. To generate data from the explor atory study about the Daughter/Son role performance that will suggest further resear ch possibilities and, in particular, will suggest research related to developmenta l tasks across the life span that are unrelated to care for an aging parent. To develop the Performance Rating Scale a nd the Interview Protocol, a series of expert panels was assembled to develop behavi oral indicators, describe levels of role performance, construct interview questions, a nd develop language th at was both clear and complete in both instruments. Critique of the instrument drafts provided suggestions and feedback at each stage of development. Re visions and refinements were made to the instruments throughout the process. Another group of experts was assembled and trained in the use of the Performance Rating Scale to rate the role performance of the field test interviews and to give feedback. At the end of the field test, the exploratory investigation began. Participants were from the Tampa Bay area and met specific demographic characteristics. The Interview Protocol was administered to a quota sample of 150 persons largely respondents were assigned to 30 cells generated by a 2 (gender) x 5 (SES

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180 levels) x 3 (age categories) re search design; racial/ethnic minorities were systematically represented in the study. The Interview Protoc ols were rated for ro le performance level using the Performance Rating Scale. Data were collected from the ratings and were analyzed using ANOVA and calculations for de scriptive statistics. Data were also analyzed for secondary variables to ascertain if distance, the number of parents, and the reported involvement in the parents’ important life decisions were associated with role performance. Inter-rater reliability was calcu lated for the field test, and interand intra rater reliability were calculated for a study samp le of the interviews having the greatest difference in performance ratings. Cohen’ s Kappa and Pearson’s product moment tests were applied. Conclusions This study was successful in developing a nd content validating a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol fo r the Daughter/Son adult social role. The process used to create these instruments was similar to that us ed in the other social roles studies, and the tests for reliability of the instruments affirm ed that they provide stable and consistent performance ratings. Their implementation in the exploratory investigation determined that they were useful tools to collect data on role performance for the Daughter/Son social role. In the exploratory study, six research que stions and two hypotheses were posed. Conclusions drawn from the res earch results are as follows: 1. There were no significant differences based on age.

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181 2. There were significant diffe rences based on gender. As hypothesized based upon review of the literature, female s performed higher than males. 3. There were no significant differences based on SES level, as was expected. 4. There were no interactions between any of the independent variables of age, gender, and SES level. 5. There appeared to be no specific activiti es unrelated to aging and the increasing dependency of parents based on the in formation collected in this study. 6. Close proximity to the parent(s) was di rectly related to higher social role performance score. 7. Involvement in parents’ d ecision-making was significantl y associated with higher role performance. The mean final role performance for Daught er/Son social role was 5.97. This was the fourth highest mean performance rating scor e of all the social roles. Only Parent (M=6.73), Spouse/Partner ( M =6.43), and Worker ( M =6.47) were higher. All of these fell within the above averag e performance level. The Daughter/Son role Mean at 5.97 was the highest final score in the Average Performance Level. Implications Implications both for the practice of adult education and for the refinement of this specific social role instrument are discussed below. Implications for Adult Education Practice 1. Daughters/Sons do not frequently seek out opportunities to learn more about improving performance of this social role The responses in the interviews did,

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182 however, suggest that they do seek out me dical information in order to know how to provide better help to a parent. This would suggest that topics about parents and health care or specific topics related to health are desired by adult children as they perform their Daught er/Son role. Community education by hospitals and other health care organizations might cons ider adult children helping their parents as potential consumers of th eir educational programs. 2. The respondents in this study frequently st ated that for most of them, their own spouse and children were their top responsibil ities in terms of th eir life priorities. They also spoke of time as a barrie r to the Daughter/Son role performance because of the juggling of roles. On e implication is that multi-generational educational events could enable Daughters/ Sons to participate with their children and include parents. Environmenta l weekend programs, sports camps, computer/technology education programs fo r example, could serve the entire family with pleasurable and educatio nal programming that could be shared together. Elderhostel programs alrea dy include programs for grandparents and grandchildren; three-generational pr ograms might also be offered. 3. A general implication for adult education practice arising from the interviews is that Daughters/Sons have many competing demands for their time. Even in positive and warm relationships between adul t children and their parents, the adult children found making time for parents to be a barrier to role performance. Many did it anyway because it was such an impor tant relationship to them, and they felt responsibility and obligation to their parents. Spont aneous comments throughout

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183 the interviews revealed a strong sense that there was not enough time to meet all their obligations, sometimes even their very high priorities. Adults need to see adult education programs and events as wort h the time spent in them. In terms of Daughter/Son role performance, program s that address problems related to specific events or situations are most likely to be perceived as valuable by Daughters/Sons. 4. This information from this study is also a reminder that parents matter to their adult children, and thos e relationships are part of a la rger web of demands. That a high percentage of the study’s population lived more than 500 miles from the parent with whom she/he was most i nvolved confirmed the changes in family living arrangements that have occurred sin ce Havighurst studied so cial roles. In building environments in which adult students can learn and work productively, educators should be aware that the support system may be geographically distant. Role performance may require travel and time. Successful student-centered education will understand this reality. Instrument Refinement Additional modifications, changes, or s uggestions to improve the instruments are discussed below. 1. One time-saving change would be to amend the Family Demographic page (Question #1) of the Interview Protocol It was valuable to know how many parents the respondent had in her/his life and the degree of relationship, but it was

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184 not necessary to have the other specific information on the form for anyone except the person with whom the respondent was most involved. 2. The Performance Rating Scale worked well as a guide for rating. Raters were able to discern differences in role performance based upon the behavior descriptors and were able to come to c onsensus. However, the area of the rating scale that was the most difficult to distinguish among levels was high Above Average and low High performance (between scores of 7 and 8). Addressing those two levels of descri ptors specifically to see if the addition of more descriptors might help distinguish the sc ores for raters and improve the ease of rating. 3. Additional detail about how a respondent has addressed role improvement might be added to the Interview Protocol in or der to learn more about the behaviors in which the participant has engaged. Mo re open-ended questions could elicit a more unstructured response. Recommendations for Further Research Recommendations for additional research are offered below. 1. A next step toward the goal of more research on the social context of the Daughter/Son social role is to conduct research on how individuals navigate multiple roles, prioritizing them, changi ng them across the life span, and choosing which to embrace and which to pass by. A study of the integration of the social roles into a whole life fabric and the soci al context that cuts and textures that fabric would build on this study and the othe rs in the University of South Florida

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185 Social Roles Research Project. Studying mu ltiple social roles in one individual is one potential method for collecting data. Merriam, Caffarella, a nd Baumgartner (2007) prefaced the 3rd edition of Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide with these words: In most writing on adult learning, the sociocultural perspective has been widely neglected in favor of the pred ominant orientation to the individual learner and how to facilitate her or hi s learning. In addition to the focus on the learner, we attend to the context in which learning takes place and to learners’ interactive relationship with that context and with the learning activity itself. We look at how the social structure in fluences what is offered and who participates, how the sociocultu ral context creates particular needs and interests, and how social factors such as race, class, and gender shape learning. (p. x.) This study of the Daughter/Son adult social role addressed an important aspect of the social context of contemporary adult learners, but it also indicates areas of future study. This study was a part of a larger group of studies to update Havighurst’s foundational work on developm ental tasks and adult social roles (Havighurst, 1955; Havighurst, 1957; Havi ghurst & Orr, 1956) in light of contemporary American life. Reflect ing on the Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner quotation above, how the conf luence of many individuals living out their respective social roles as daughters and sons shapes the sociocultural context of contemporary life is also a productive area for study. 2. Role configuration is a key concept in study of the life course. Defined by Macmillan and Copher (2005) as “age-specific matrices of multiple social roles that give unique meaning to each component role” (p. 859), study of the

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186 Daughter/Son social role as a part of th e role configuration of a specified age group (for example young adults) is also a logical extension of this study. 3. One limitation of this study was that the geographic area of research was largely confined to one major metropolitan area. A larger study sample drawing from a national pool of respondents could yield even more information about the patterns and influences impacting Daughter/Son social role performance. It could address questions about the represen tativeness of the study samp le and confirm or revise findings in light of a national perspective. 4. A study of the differences in role pe rformance among minority groups should be considered. This study did not addr ess how Daughter/Son role performance differed among minority groups, but the differences found in Rogers’ (2004) study of the Grandparent role and Ya tes-Carter’s (1997/1998) study of the Relative/Kin role suggest that there might be important differen ces in how various minority group members perceive and carry out their Daughter/Son social roles. 5. Gathering additional information on other variables impacting Daughter/Son role performance would be valuable. This study found that distance from parents is related to role performance, but it did not address the char acteristics of high levels of role performance over a distance. Other variables of potential interest suggested by this study are the health of a dult child and parent(s ), the influence of the Daughter/Son’s working on role perf ormance, and the presence of other family members who share responsibility for parental care and decision-making when needed.

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187 6. This study used three cohorts (young, middle, and older) in the research design to study the Daughter/Son social ro le. It captured the self-r eported role performance behaviors at the moment in time in wh ich the interview was conducted, and this design revealed the current condition of role performance within the three age groups. This was not, however, nece ssarily a true picture of how role performance changes over time because it cannot be inferred that one group’s role performance will become like the older gr oup’s behavior over time; in variables so influenced by a dynamic environment, the young in this study may or may not perform like today’s middle age respondents wh en they reach ages 35 to 64 years. Future longitudinal research of Daughter /Son role performance could illuminate the dynamics of change in role performa nce and developmental tasks over the life span. 7. The numbers of parents with whom a Da ughter/Son have a relationship are larger than in Havighurst’s time, with changes in the patterns of marr iage, re-marriage, and family blending in contemporary life. Staying alone ve rsus remarrying may have very different consequences for the Daughter/Son role performance of the adult child, but more study of the dynamics of role performance relative to the parental marital situation is needed. 8. Young persons have major involvement in the Daughter/Son during those years, but how that involvement is manifested in developmental tasks needs further exploration. Also, more study of the impact on the Daughter/Son role of having in-laws (more parents instantly) and the ex tension of that sense of having them as

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188 parents is needed in order to understand that transition. In this study, the young respondents with in-laws often did not men tion them when naming their parents. Middle-aged and older respondents were more spontaneous in mentioning their in-laws as parents. How and when th at sense of one’s spouse’s parents are viewed as one’s own parents needs further research. More data about that process of accepting the role of Daughter/Son in re lation to parents-in-law is needed to understand Daughter/Son role performan ce more thoroughly. Additionally, the task of establishing ground rules for the relationship between their parents and the adult child’s own ch ildren needs further research with regard to the young age level and its developmental tasks. Lite rature about the young adult concentrates on the developmental tasks associated w ith breaking away from the family of origin and establishing an independent lif e. Havighurst (1952) wrote extensively about the developmental tasks of young adults, but he did not include any comment about the Daughter/S on role for this age group.

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190 Bucx, F., van Wel, F., Knijn, T., & Hagendoor n, L. (2008). Intergenerational contact and the life course status of young adults. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70 (1), 144-156. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgibin/fulltext/119392993/HTMLST ART?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 Chickering, A. W., & Havighurst, R. J. (1981) The life cycle. In A. W. Chickering & Associates (Eds.), The modern American college (pp. 16-50) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Cooney, T. M., & Uhlenberg, P. (1990). The role of divorce in men’s relations with their adult children after mid-life. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 677-688. Crocker, L. M., & Algina, J. H. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Cross, K. P. (1981). Adults as learners: Increasi ng participation and facilitating learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Darkenwald, G. G., & Merriam, S. B. (1982). Adult education: Foundations of practice. New York: Harper & Row. Davis, M., III. (2002). The effects of soci oeconomic status, gender, and age on reported performance in the contemporary social role s of parent, spouse/parent, and worker (Doctoral dissertation, Univers ity of South Florida, 2002). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 1667. Deasy, L. C. (1964). Social role theory: Its compone nt parts, and some applications. Washington, DC: Catholic Univ ersity of America Press. Denscombe, M. (2002). Ground rules for good research. Philadelphia: Open University Press. Dye, L. A. (1998). The development and va lidation of a Performance Rating Scale and interview schedule for the contemporary a dult social role of friend (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 0690. Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society. New York: Norton. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: W. W. Norton. Erikson, E. H. (1980). Identity and the life cycle. New York: Norton. Erikson, E. H. (1997). The life cycle completed. New York: W. W. Norton.

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191 Fingerman, K. L. (2001). Aging mothers and their adult daughters: A study in mixed emotions. New York: Springer. Fink, A., & Kosecoff, J. (1985). How to conduct surveys. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Galbraith, M. W., & James, W. B. (2002). Im plications of social role research for community colleges. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 26 521-533. Hargiss, K. M. (1998). The development and content validation of contemporary leisure time consumer social role performance rating assessment instrument (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 4156. Havighurst, R. J. (1952). Developmental tasks and education (2nd ed.). New York: David McKay. Havighurst, R. J. (1955, April). Research Memorandum on Social Adjustment in Adulthood and Later Maturity. Paper presented at th e Bethesda Conference on Psychology of Aging, Bethesda, MD. Havighurst, R. J. (1957). The social competence of middle-aged people. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 56, 297-375. Havighurst, R. J. (1964). Ch anging status and roles dur ing the adult life cycle: Significance for adult educati on. In H. W. Burns (Ed.), Sociological backgrounds of adult education: Papers presented at a Syracuse University Conference, October, 1963, Sagamore, New York. Note s and essays on education for adults: Vol. 41 (pp. 17-38, 138-144). Syracuse, NY: Ce nter for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults. Havighurst, R. J., & Albrecht, R. (1953). Older people. New York: Longmans, Green. Havighurst, R. J., & Neugarten, B. L. (1969). The aims and me thods of the cross-national research on aging. In R. J. Havighurst, J. M. A. Munnichs, B. Neugarten, & H. Thomae (Eds.), Adjustment to retirement: A cross-national study (pp. 3-17). Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum. Havighurst, R. J., Neugarten, B. L., & Tobin, S. S. (1968). Disengagement and patterns of aging. In B. L. Neugarten (Ed.), Middle Age and aging (pp. 161-172). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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192 Havighurst, R. J., & Orr, B. (1956). Adult education and adult needs. Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults. James, W. B., & Abney, H. M. Jr. (1993). Exploring socio-economic status. Unpublished manuscript, University of South Florida, Tampa. James, W. B., & Mullen, C. A. (2002). A dvocating for a social roles curriculum framework at the secondary school level. Educational Studies, 28(2), 193-207. James, W. B., Witte, J. E., & Galbraith, M. W. (2006). Havighur st’s social roles revisited. Journal of Adult Development, 13 (1), 52-60. Kirkman, M. S. (1995). The development and content validation of contemporary parent, spouse/partner, and worker social role Performance Rating Scales and assessment instruments (Doctoral di ssertation, University of South Florida, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International 55 1793. Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy (Rev. ed.). New York: Cambridge. Knowles, M. S. (1990). The adult learner: A neglected species (4th ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf. Lazarus, R. S., & Lazarus, B. N. (2006). Coping with aging. New York: Oxford University Press. Levinson, D. J. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life. New York: Ballentine Books. Levinson, D. J. (1996). The seasons of a woman’s life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Lewis, R. A. (1990). The adult child and ol der parents. In T. H. Brubaker (Ed.), Family relationships in later life (pp. 68-85). Newberry Park, CA: Sage. Linton, R. (1988). The study of man: An introduction. In P. H. Bohannan & M. Glazer (Eds.), High points in anthropology (pp. 182-206) (2nd ed.). New York: McGrawHill. (Original work published 1936) Long, H. B. (1983). Adult learning: Research and practice. New York: Cambridge. Macmillan, R., & Copher, R. (2005). Families in the life course: Interdependency of roles, role configurations, and pathways. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67 858879.

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193 Mancini, J. A., & Blieszner, R. (1989). Aging parents and adult children: Research themes in intergenerational relations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51 275290. McAdams, D. P., & de St. Aubin, E. (1992). A theory of generativity and its assessment through self-report, behavior acts, an d narrative themes in autobiography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62 1003-1015. McCloskey, M. W. (2000). The development a nd content validation of the contemporary religious affiliate social ro le (Doctoral dissertation, Un iversity of South Florida, 2000). Dissertation Abstra cts International 61 1255. McCoy, M. J. (1993). A comparison of Havighurst ’s adult social role s and developmental events by gender, age, and socioeconomi c status levels (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 1992). Dissertation Abstracts International 54 4333. Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Miller, D. C., & Salkind, N. J. (2002). Handbook of research design and social measurement (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Montgomery, N. D. (1998). The development a nd content validation of the contemporary association/club member social role Performance Rating Scale and assessment instrument (Doctoral dissertation, Un iversity of South Florida, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International 58, 4158. Neugarten, B. L., Havighurst, R. J., & Tobin, S. S. (1968). Personality and patterns of aging. In B. L. Neugarten (Ed.), Middle age and aging (pp 173-177). Chicago: University of Chicago. Peterson, E. T. (1989). Elderly pa rents and their offspring. In S. J. Bahr & E. T. Peterson (Eds.), Aging and the family (pp. 157-191) Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. Phillips, B. S. (1971). Social research: Strategy and tactics (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan. Rogers, A. A. (2005). The development and content validation of a Performance Rating Scale and assessment instrument for th e grandparent social role. (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2004). Dissertation Abstracts International, 65 2458.

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194 Rossi A. S., & Rossi, P. H. (1990). Of human bonding: Parent-child relations across the life course. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Stoller, E. P. (1983). Parental caregiving by adult children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45 851-858. Sugarman, L. (1986). Life-span development: Concepts theories, and interventions. New York: Methuen. Vaillant, G. E. (2002). Aging well: Surprising guideposts for a happier life from the landmark Harvard Study of Adult Development. Boston: Little, Brown. Wall, N. H. (1998). The development and c ontent validation of a Performance Rating Scale and assessment instrument for the contemporary home/services manager social role (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 1997 ). Dissertation Abstracts International 58, 4160. Witte, J. E. (1998). The development and c ontent validation of the contemporary adult learner social role Performance Rating S cale and assessment instrument (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International 58 4161. Yates-Carter, L. E. (1998). The development and content validation of a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for the contemporary adult social role of kin/relative (Doctoral di ssertation, University of South Florida, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 0694.

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195 Appendix A Nam-Powers-Boyd Occupational Status Scores for 2000

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Appendix A (Continued) 196 Nam-Powers-Boyd Occupational Status Scores for 2000 Organized by SES Level LEVEL 1 0-12 Points Occup. Occup. Code Job Title Score 402 Cooks 8 406 Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop 1 394 Crossing guards 11 413 Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers 1 414 Dishwashers 1 785 Food cooking machine operators and tenders 11 416 Food preparation and serving related workers, all others 5 403 Food preparation workers 3 604 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 4 425 Grounds maintenance workers 11 660 Helpers, construction trades 12 761 Helpers—installation, maintenan ce, and repair workers 11 415 Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop 4 395 Lifeguards and other protective service workers 11 423 Maids and housekeeping cleaners 7 605 Miscellaneous agricultural workers 6 964 Packers and packagers, hand 12 831 Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials 9 936 Service station attendants 11 832 Sewing machine operators 11 442 Ushers, lobby attendants, a nd ticket takers 11 Migrant workers; unskilled; chronically unemployed; persons incapable of being employed (e.g., the long-term mentally ill) LEVEL 2 13-65 Points

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Appendix A (Continued) 197270 Actors 55 190 Agricultural and food science technicians 59 601 Agricultural inspectors 64 771 Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers 45 911 Ambulance drivers and attendants, ex cept emergency medical technicians 39 602 Animal breeders 28 390 Animal control workers 44 434 Animal trainers 37 280 Announcers 55 260 Artists and related workers 56 272 Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers 41 715 Automotive body and related repairers 33 716 Automotive glass installers and repairers 43 720 Automotive service technicians and mechanics 37 453 Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges 36 380 Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers 60 780 Bakers 22 450 Barbers 31 404 Bartenders 30 510 Bill and account collectors 49 511 Billing and posting clerks and machine operators 47 621 Boilermakers 51 823 Bookbinders and bindery workers 30 512 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 48 622 Brickmasons, blockmasons, a nd stonemasons 29 934 Bridge and lock tenders 58 721 Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists 48 912 Bus drivers 31 781 Butchers and other me at, poultry, and fish processing workers 22 850 Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters 37 550 Cargo and freight agents 55 623 Carpenters 35 624 Carpet, floor, and tile installe rs and finishers 29 625 Cement masons, concrete finisher s, and terrazzo workers 24 885 Cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders 23 400 Chefs and head cooks 39 864 Chemical processing machine setters operators, and tenders 57 460 Child care workers 21 886 Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders 20 751 Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers 39 752 Commercial divers 62 503 Communications equipment operators, all other 55 790 Computer control programmers and operators 54 580 Computer operators 58 632 Construction equipment workers, except paying, surfacing, and 40 tamping equipment operators

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Appendix A (Continued) 198626 Construction laborers 21 730 Control and valve installers and repairers 55 950 Conveyer operators and tenders 30 890 Cooling and freezing equipm ent operators 23 521 Correspondence clerks 59 474 Counter and rental clerks 17 551 Couriers and messengers 37 522 Court, municipal, and license clerks 53 951 Crane and tower operators 51 523 Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks 54 865 Crushing, grinding, polishing mixing, and blending workers 35 524 Customer service representatives 48 871 Cutting workers 21 795 Cutting, punching, and press machine se tters, operators, and tenders, 33 metal and plastic 274 Dancers and choreographers 32 581 Data entry keyers 41 364 Dental assistants 45 680 Derrick, rotary drill, and service un it operators, oil, gas, and mining 40 205 Directors, religious activities and education 63 552 Dispatchers 51 495 Door-to-door sales works, news and street vendors, and related workers 21 952 Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators 37 796 Drilling and boring machine tool sette rs, operators, and te nders, metal 37 and plastic 913 Driver/sales workers and truck drivers 41 633 Drywall installers, ceiling tile in stallers, and tapers 24 682 Earth drillers, except oil and gas 41 704 Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers 63 705 Electrical and electronics installers a nd repairers, transportation equipment 64 741 Electrical power-line installers and repairers 64 772 Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers 28 635 Electricians 58 711 Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles 63 712 Electronic home entertainment equi pment installers and repairers 48 340 Emergency medical technicians and paramedics 65 773 Engine and other machine assemblers 50 276 Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other 37 891 Etchers and engravers 35 683 Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters 53 792 Extruding and drawing machine sette rs, operators, and tenders, metal 46 and plastic 843 Extruding and forming machine se tters, operators, and tenders, 44 synthetic and glass fibers 872 Extruding, forming, pressing, and co mpacting machine setters, operators, 35 and tenders

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Appendix A (Continued) 199020 Farm, ranch, and other ag ricultural managers 49 021 Farmers and ranchers 31 671 Fence erectors 20 526 File clerks 29 620 First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction 60 workers 600 First-line supervisors/managers of faming, fishing, and forestry workers 33 401 First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers 33 430 First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers 62 420 First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial workers 37 421 First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and 52 groundskeeping workers 432 First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers 54 770 First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers 60 470 First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers 60 610 Fishing and hunting workers 21 783 Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators 37 and tenders 784 Food batchmakers 25 412 Food servers, nonrestaurant 16 031 Food service managers 52 612 Forest and conservation workers 18 793 Forging machine setters, operators and tenders, metal and plastic 44 446 Funeral service workers 32 873 Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders 41 851 Furniture finishers 32 513 Gaming cage workers 37 033 Gaming managers 63 440 Gaming services workers 45 636 Glaziers 41 800 Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, 30 operators, and tenders, meta l and plastic 451 Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists 31 672 Hazardous materials removal workers 40 341 Health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians 49 815 Heat treating equipment setters, opera tors, and tenders, metal and plastic 48 731 Heating, air conditioning, and refri geration mechanics and installers 51 722 Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics 51 693 Helpers—extraction workers 20 895 Helpers—production workers 17 673 Highway maintenance workers 38 956 Hoist and winch operators 41 732 Home appliance repairers 45 530 Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks 33 536 Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping 59 611 Hunters and trappers 20

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Appendix A (Continued) 200733 Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics 56 960 Industrial truck and tractor operators 31 542 Information and record clerks, all other 49 874 Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers 45 640 Insulation workers 30 584 Insurance claims and policy processing clerks 56 531 Interviewers, except elig ibility and loan 38 422 Janitors and building cleaners 17 875 Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers 34 824 Job printers 43 962 Laborers and freight, stock, a nd material movers, hand 20 801 Lathe and turning machine tool se tters, operators, and tenders, 41 metal and plastic 830 Laundry and dry-cleaning workers 13 816 Lay-out workers, metal and plastic 47 532 Library assistants, clerical 38 244 Library technicians 22 350 Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 57 533 Loan interviewers and clerks 59 754 Locksmiths and safe repairers 46 034 Lodging managers 63 613 Logging workers 21 963 Machine feeders and offbearers 22 803 Machinists 52 585 Mail clerks and mail machine ope rators, except postal service 32 734 Maintenance and repair wo rkers, general 47 735 Maintenance workers, machinery 50 755 Manufactured building and mobile home installers 22 363 Massage therapists 48 975 Material moving workers, all other 33 365 Medical assistants and other healthcare support occupations 42 351 Medical records and health information technicians 45 876 Medical, dental and ophthalmic laboratory technicians 47 804 Metal furnace and kiln ope rators and tenders 43 822 Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other 34 553 Meter readers, utilities 46 802 Milling and planning machine setters operators, and tenders, metal 43 and plastic 736 Millwrights 63 684 Mining machine operators 52 775 Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators 29 676 Miscellaneous construction a nd related workers 33 443 Miscellaneous entertainment atte ndants and related workers 15 353 Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians 60 215 Miscellaneous legal support workers 64 286 Miscellaneous media and communication workers 57

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Appendix A (Continued) 201452 Miscellaneous personal appearance workers 24 863 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 65 846 Miscellaneous textile, a pparel, and furnishings workers, except 18 upholsterers 726 Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equi pment mechanics, installers and 20 repairers 852 Model makers and patternmakers, wood 53 490 Models, demonstrators, a nd product promoters 21 810 Molders and molding machine setters operators, and tenders, metal 38 and plastic 892 Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic 38 441 Motion picture projectionists 27 915 Motor vehicle operators, all other 18 812 Multiple machine tool setters, operato rs, and tenders, meta l and plastic 42 275 Musicians, singers, and related workers 51 534 New accounts clerks 58 435 Nonfarm animal caretakers 25 360 Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides 28 361 Occupational therapist assistants and aides 62 593 Office and administrative support workers, all other 60 586 Office clerks, general 40 590 Office machine operators, except computer 36 352 Opticians, dispensing 57 535 Order clerks 36 694 Other extraction workers 35 762 Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers 43 196 Other life, physical, and social science technicians 53 234 Other teachers and instructors 45 942 Other transportation workers 53 880 Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders 18 642 Painters, construction a nd maintenance 23 881 Painting workers 30 893 Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 643 Paperhangers 41 384 Parking enforcement workers 44 935 Parking lot attendants 20 475 Parts salespersons 42 630 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 30 514 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 55 461 Personal and home care aides 19 465 Personal care and service workers, all other 24 424 Pest control workers 44 291 Photographers 55 883 Photographic process workers and processing machine operators 33 362 Physical therapist assistants and aides 56 631 Pile driver operators 63

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Appendix A (Continued) 202644 Pipelayers, plumbers, pipef itters, and steamfitters 47 646 Plasterers and stucco masons 27 820 Plating and coating machine setters operators, and tenders, metal 38 and plastic 825 Prepress technicians and workers 46 230 Preschool and kindergarten teachers 45 826 Printing machine operators 45 515 Procurement clerks 63 896 Production workers, all other 30 591 Proofreaders and copy markers 51 965 Pumping station operators 50 051 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 57 923 Railroad brake, signal, a nd switch operators 61 674 Rail-track laying and maintena nce equipment operators 49 540 Receptionist and information clerks 34 462 Recreation and fitness workers 37 972 Refuse and recyclable material collectors 22 650 Reinforcing iron and rebar workers 32 206 Religious workers, all other 50 541 Reservation and transportation ticke t agents and travel clerks 53 464 Residential advisors 36 476 Retail salespersons 32 756 Riggers 46 794 Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 36 691 Roof bolters, mining 47 651 Roofers 18 692 Roustabouts, oil and gas 14 930 Sailors and marine oilers 40 496 Sales and related workers, all other 61 853 Sawing machine setters, opera tors, and tenders, wood 21 570 Secretaries and administrative assistants 54 713 Security and fire alarm systems installers 52 392 Security guards and gaming surveillance offices 36 884 Semiconductor processors 55 675 Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners 33 652 Sheet metal workers 50 933 Ship engineers 65 561 Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks 33 833 Shoe and leather workers and repairers 19 834 Shoe machine operators and tenders 20 973 Shuttle car operators 14 724 Small engine mechanics 32 861 Stationary engineers and boiler operators 63 592 Statistical assistants 60 562 Stock clerks and order fillers 24 653 Structural iron and steel workers 47

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Appendix A (Continued) 203774 Structural metal fabricators and fitters 50 926 Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers 59 900 Supervisors, transportation a nd material moving workers 60 156 Surveying and mapping technicians 56 501 Switchboard operators, including answering service 34 835 Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers 20 974 Tank car, truck, and ship loaders 28 094 Tax preparers 44 914 Taxi drivers and chauffeurs 31 254 Teacher assistants 32 742 Telecommunications line insta llers and repairers 57 494 Telemarketers 20 502 Telephone operators 39 516 Tellers 36 836 Textile bleaching and dyeing mach ine operators and tenders 26 840 Textile cutting machine setters operators, and tenders 16 841 Textile knitting and weaving machin e setters, operators and tenders 24 842 Textile winding, twisting, and dr awing out machine setters, 19 operators, and tenders 894 Tire builders 56 813 Tool and die makers 64 821 Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners 45 454 Tour and travel guides 32 386 Transit and railroad police 48 483 Transportation attendants 62 483 Travel agents 56 845 Upholsterers 23 411 Waiters and waitresses 20 862 Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators 61 563 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping 36 814 Welding, soldering, and brazing workers 39 052 Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products 62 855 Woodworkers, all other 32 854 Woodworking machine setters, opera tors, and tenders, except sawing 21 582 Word processors and typists 45 Enlisted members in the U. S. military, pay grades E1 through E6 LEVEL 3 66-87 Points 080 Accountants and auditors 85 010 Administrative services managers 82 004 Advertising and promotio ns managers 86 480 Advertising sales agents 73

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Appendix A (Continued) 204050 Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes 70 160 Agricultural and food scientists 83 904 Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists 84 714 Aircraft mechanics and service technicians 72 081 Appraisers and assessors of real estate 81 240 Archivists, curators, and museum technicians 77 703 Avionics technicians 72 191 Biological technicians 67 290 Broadcast and sound engineering t echnicians and radio operators 66 520 Brokerage clerks 66 192 Chemical technicians 71 054 Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators 73 204 Clergy 75 330 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 73 056 Compliance officers, except agriculture construction, health and safely, 80 and transportation 104 Computer support specialists 76 701 Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers 66 666 Construction and building inspectors 71 022 Construction managers 77 060 Cost estimators 76 200 Counselors 75 083 Credit analysts 75 331 Dental hygienists 74 263 Designers 67 583 Desktop publishers 67 382 Detectives and criminal investigators 87 332 Diagnostic related technologists and technicians 72 303 Dietitians and nutritionists 70 154 Drafters 69 283 Editors 79 710 Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility 68 231 Elementary and middle school teachers 83 670 Elevator installers and repairers 66 525 Eligibility interviewers, government programs 68 155 Engineering technicians, except drafters 72 844 Fabric and apparel pa tternmakers 76 012 Financial managers 86 095 Financial specialists, all other 73 374 Fire fighters 77 375 Fire inspectors 77 370 First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers 72 372 First-line supervisors/managers of fire fighting and prevention workers 83 700 First-line supervisors/managers of m echanics, installers, and repairers 68 471 First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers 76 500 First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support 66

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Appendix A (Continued) 205workers 371 First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives 85 383 Fish and game wardens 83 032 Funeral directors 75 002 General and operations managers 86 193 Geological and petroleum technicians 75 326 Health diagnosing and treati ng practitioners, all other 71 013 Human resources managers 82 062 Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists 77 014 Industrial production managers 84 481 Insurance sales agents 74 086 Insurance underwriters 82 003 Legislators 76 243 Librarians 82 091 Loan counselors and officers 76 920 Locomotive engineers and operators 70 070 Logisticians 83 043 Managers, all other 86 181 Market and survey researchers 87 296 Media and communication equipment workers, all other 66 035 Medical and health services managers 85 072 Meeting and convention planners 72 202 Miscellaneous community and social service specialists 68 186 Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers 82 806 Model makers and patternmake rs, metal and plastic 68 110 Network and computer systems administrators 83 111 Network systems and data communications analysts 84 281 New analysts, reporters and correspondents 78 194 Nuclear technicians 79 073 Other business operations specialists 69 354 Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 79 214 Paralegals and legal assistants 71 311 Physician assistants 78 385 Police and sheriff’s patrol officers 79 554 Postal service clerks 69 555 Postal service mail carriers 69 556 Postal service mail sorters, pro cessors, and processing machine operators67 040 Postmasters and mail superintendents 76 220 Postsecondary teachers 86 860 Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatcher 73 743 Precision instrument and equipment repairers 67 391 Private detectives and investigators 72 271 Producers and directors 86 560 Production, planning, and expediting clerks 66 041 Property, real estate, and community association managers 67 282 Public relations specialists 79

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Appendix A (Continued) 206053 Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products 74 015 Purchasing managers 86 320 Radiation therapists 84 702 Radio and telecommunications equipm ent installers and repairers 70 924 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 68 492 Real estate brokers and sales agents 70 321 Recreational therapists 74 313 Registered nurses 83 322 Respiratory therapists 77 484 Sales representatives, services, all other 74 485 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing 79 232 Secondary school teachers 86 482 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents 87 931 Ship and boat captains and operators 66 760 Signal and track switch repairers 69 042 Social and community service managers 78 201 Social workers 77 233 Special education teachers 80 323 Speech-language pathologists 87 373 Supervisors, protective service workers, all other 67 131 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists 84 093 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents 73 292 Television, video, and motion pict ure camera operators and editors 73 324 Therapists, all other 74 941 Transportation inspectors 67 016 Transportation, storage, and distribution managers 70 285 Writers and authors 76 Senior non-commissioned officers and company grade officers in U. S. military, pay grades E7 to E9 and O1 to O3. LEVEL 4 88-97 Points 120 Actuaries 96 132 Aerospace engineers 95 133 Agricultural engineers 91 903 Aircraft pilots and flight engineers 92 130 Architects, except naval 92 171 Atmospheric and space scientists 94 314 Audiologists 91 161 Biological scientists 88 134 Biomedical engineers 91 082 Budget analysts 89 135 Chemical engineers 95

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Appendix A (Continued) 207172 Chemists and materials scientists 91 001 Chief executives 93 300 Chiropractors 97 136 Civil engineers 94 011 Computer and information systems managers 93 140 Computer hardware engineers 92 101 Computer programmers 90 100 Computer scientists and systems analysts 89 102 Computer software engineers 94 164 Conservation scientists and foresters 88 106 Database administrators 89 023 Education administrators 92 141 Electrical and electronics engineers 94 030 Engineering managers 96 153 Engineers, all other 94 142 Environmental engineers 95 174 Environmental scientists and geoscientists 93 084 Financial analysts 94 090 Financial examiners 91 143 Industrial engineers, including health and safety 90 071 Management analysts 92 144 Marine engineers and naval architects 92 005 Marketing and sales managers 90 145 Materials engineers 92 146 Mechanical engineers 93 165 Medical scientists 93 150 Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers 91 124 Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations 91 036 Natural sciences managers 97 151 Nuclear engineers 96 315 Occupational therapists 88 122 Operations research analysts 90 255 Other education, training, and library workers 88 085 Personal financial advisors 92 152 Petroleum engineers 95 305 Pharmacists 97 176 Physical scientists, all other 91 316 Physical therapists 90 182 Psychologists 93 006 Public relations manages 89 493 Sales engineers 90 183 Sociologists 92 123 Statisticians 90 284 Technical writers 89 184 Urban and regional planners 96

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Appendix A (Continued) 208 Field grade officers in U. S. military, pay grades O4 to O6. LEVEL 5 98-100 Points 170 Astronomers and physicists 99 301 Dentists 100 180 Economists 98 210 Lawyers 99 211 Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers 98 120 Mathematicians 98 304 Optometrists 99 306 Physicians and surgeons 100 312 Podiatrists 99 325 Veterinarians 98 CEO’s of large (Fortune 500) corporations; Presidential appointees (e.g., Secretary of State; Senators and Governors; University Presidents and Provosts; General and Flag officers in the U. S. military, pay grades O7 to O10

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209 Appendix B University of South Florida Social Roles Group

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Appendix B (Continued) 210 University of South Florida Social Roles Research Group Names Waynne B. James, Ed.D. University of South Florida Tampa, FL Major Professor and Project Director Howard M. Abney, Jr. Ph.D. Wilfried Barthmus, Ph.D. Mack Davis, III, Ph.D. Lynn A. Dye, Ph.D. Kathleen Hargiss, Ph.D. M. Suzanne Kirkman, Ph.D. Mark W. McCloskey, Ph.D. Michael J. McCoy, Ph.D. Nancy D. Montgomery, Ph.D. Aracelis A. Rogers, Ph.D. Nancy H. Wall, Ph.D. James E. Witte, Ph.D. Laura Yates-Carter, Ph.D.

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211 Appendix C Performance Rating Scale

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Appendix C (Continued) 212 PERFORMANCE RATING SCALE DAUGHTER/SON ADULT SOCIAL ROLE STRAND: INVOLVEMENT—The frequency of contact with parent(s); the amount of time spent in contact with pa rent(s); and the extent to which the Daughter/Son is involved with important decisions in the parent’s(s’) life. ULow Level—0-1 Daughter/Son never or almost never has contact with parent(s). Spends little or no time being in contact with or being invol ved with parent(s) and/or has little or no involvement with importan t decisions about her/his pa rent’s (parents’) life. UBelow Average Level—2-3 Daughter/Son rarely has cont act with parent(s). Spends a limited amount of time being in contact with or being involved with parent(s). Has limited involvement with important decisions about he r/his parent’s (p arents’) life. UAverage Level—4-5 Daughter/Son sometimes has contact with parent(s). Spends a moderate amount of time being in contact w ith or being involved with parent(s). Has moderate involvement with important decisions a bout her/his parent’s (parents’) life. UAbove Average Level—6-7 Daughter/Son frequently has contact with parent(s). Spends a considerable amount of time being in contact with or being involved with parent(s). Has considerable involvement with importa nt decisions about her/his parent’s (parents’) life. UHigh Level—8-9 Daughter/Son very frequently has contact with parent(s). Spends a great amount of time being in contact with or bein g involved with parent(s). Has great involvement with important decisions about her/his parent (parents ’) life.

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Appendix C (Continued) 213 STRAND: PERCEPTI ON/ATTITUDES—How th e Daughter/Son feels about/perceives the importance of the Da ughter/Son role and the extent to which she/he perceives personal benefit and satis faction associated with performing the role. ULow Level—0-1 Daughter/Son attaches little or no importa nce to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Perceives little or no personal benefi t to performing the Daughter/Son role. Receives no or almost personal satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. UBelow Average Level—2-3 Daughter/Son attaches limited importance to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Perceives limited personal benefit to perf orming the Daughter/Son role. Receives limited personal satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. UAverage Level—4-5 Daughter/Son attaches moderate importan ce to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Perceives moderate personal benefit to performing the Daughter/Son role. Receives moderate personal satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. UAbove Average Level—6-7 Daughter/Son attaches considerable importa nce to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Perceives considerable personal benef it to performing the Daughter/Son role. Receives considerable personal satisfacti on from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. UHigh Level—8-9 Daughter/Son attaches great importance to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Perceives great personal be nefit to performing the Daughter/Son role. Receives great personal satisf action from her/his ro le as a Daughter/Son.

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Appendix C (Continued) 214 STRAND: ACTIVITIES—The time spent in activities involving parent(s); the amount of assistance (physical, financial, a nd emotional) given to and/or received from parent(s); the range of different types of activities that characterize the involvement; and the effort the Daughter/S on makes to engage in activities with parent(s). ULow Level—0-1 Daughter/Son never or almost never enga ges in activities involving parent(s). Gives little or no assistance to parent(s). Receives little or no assistance from parent(s). Engages in no or almost no di fferent types of activiti es with parent(s). UBelow Average Level—2-3 Daughter/Son rarely engages in activities involving parent(s). Gives a small amount of assistance to parent(s). Recei ves a small amount of assistance from parent(s). Engages in a few different types of activities with parent(s). UAverage Level—4-5 Daughter/Son sometimes engages in activ ities involving parent(s). Gives a moderate amount of assistance to parent (s). Receives a moderate amount of assistance from parent(s). Engages in a moderate number of different types of activities with parent(s). UAbove Average Level—6-7 Daughter/Son often engages in activit ies involving parent(s). Gives a considerable amount of assist ance to parent(s). Receive s considerable assistance from parent(s). Engages in many differe nt types of activities with parent(s). UHigh Level—8-9 Daughter/Son very frequently engages in activities involving parent(s). Gives a great deal of assistance to parent(s). Receives a great amount of assistance from parent(s). Engages in a great many differe nt types of activities with parent(s).

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Appendix C (Continued) 215 STRAND: ROLE IMPROVEMENT—The Daught er/Son’s belief that she/he has a need for information to improve Daught er/Son role performance; the frequency with which she/he engages in pursuits intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. ULow Level—0-1 Daughter/Son never or almost never undert akes pursuits intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Sees littl e or no need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. UBelow Average Level—2-3 Daughter/Son rarely undertakes pursuits intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Sees limited need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. UAverage Level—4-5 Daughter/Son sometimes undertakes pursu its intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Sees moderate need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. UAbove Average Level—6-7 Daughter/Son frequently undertakes purs uits intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Sees considerable need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. UHigh Level—8-9 Daughter/Son very frequently undertak es pursuits intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Sees great need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance.

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216 Appendix D Pilot Panel

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Appendix D (Continued) 217 Pilot Panel Members Rev. Martha Ebel, M. Div., M.S.W. Minister for Senior Adults First Presbyterian Church, Aiken, SC Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Ministry and So cial Work with Older Adults Dr. John Jacobs President Applied Simulation Corporation Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Educational Ps ychology/Measurement and Assessment Dr. Elizabeth Purvis Administrator, Aiken Count y School Board, Aiken, SC Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Educ ational Foundations Dr. Melissa Riley Department of Education University of South Carolina, Aiken Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Educational Psychology Dr. James Witte Associate Professor of Education Auburn University Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education and Research Dr. Maria Martinez-Witte Associate Professor of E ducation Auburn University Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Hispanic Professional Area: Adult Education

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218 Appendix E Correspondence and Instructions to Pilot and Validation Panels for Performance Rating Scale

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Appendix E (Continued) 219 PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE OPENING ENVELOPES. Four strands, or domain areas, have been identified for the Daughter/Son social role: Involvement, Activities, Perception/Attitude, and Role Improvement. In this exercise, you will perform a Q Sort that will be used in the development of the Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son social role. Directions: In your packet, there are two envelopes marked A and B You should keep the contents of each envelope separate and follow these instructions in the specified sequence. Envelope A 1. You will need to work at a table surface for this activity. 2. Envelope A contains a set of index cards, each of which contains a statement called a “Strand Descriptor.” The envel ope also contains four smaller white envelopes labeled with a St rand title and its definiti on. The Strand titles are: Involvement Activities Perception/Attitude Role Improvement The Strand Descriptor provide s a statement about a “parti cipant,” which refers to the Daughter/Son who will be participating in the study by responding to interview questions. 3 Place the envelopes side by side on a tabl e in front of you, and then look at each of the index cards and place it under the envelope marked with the Strand title that you think best matches the Strand Descriptor statement. Example: You decide that the best match for the Strand Descriptor “Cleans house, does laundry for parent” is the Strand Activities. Place that index card with the Activities envelope. 4 When you have placed all card s with one of the four wh ite envelopes, then place the cards inside the appropriate envelope and seal securely. 5 Place the four white envelopes in the A envelope.

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Appendix E (Continued) 220 Envelope B 1. You will need to work at a table surface for this activity as well. 2. Envelope B contains small white en velopes each containing five index cards with Strand Descriptors printed on them. Work with only one set of cards at a time in order to keep the sets in tact. 3. Working with one set of cards at a time, remove the cards from the envelope and arrange them in a rank order, from lowest to highest level of role performance on a continuum; i.e., the card describing the lowest level of role performance would be the first card, the description of the next lowest role performance would be #2, and so on.. Please mark each card in the upper right hand corner with the number you have ranked it, with 1=lowest (weak est) and 5 =highest (strongest). 4. When you have marked the five cards in th at set from 1 to 5, then put the cards back in its envelope and seal the envelope securely and place it back in Envelope B. 5. Repeat the rank ordering of Strand Desc riptor cards in each small envelope, placing the envelope in Envelope B when you have completed the rank ordering of that set. 6. When all sets have been rank ordered and returned to Envelope B, seal Envelope B 4 9 BReturning Materials You have been provided with an addressed, postage paid envelope. Please put both Envelope A and Envelope B into this envelope and return to me. Thank you for your help.

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Appendix E (Continued) 221 1 4 BStrands and Strand Descriptors INVOLVEMENT Frequency of Contact 1. Participant has little or no contact with parent(s). 2. Participant has occasional contact with parent(s). 3. Participant has a moderate amount of contact w ith parent(s). 4. Participant has frequent contact with parent(s). 5. Participant has very frequent contact with parent(s). Frequency of Instrumenta l/Tangible Assistance Given 1. Participant never or almost never provides instrumental assistance to parent(s). 2. Participant provides occa sional instrumental assi stance to parent(s). 3. Participant provides regular instru mental assistance to parent(s). 4. Participant provides frequent assistance to parent(s). 5. Participant provides very frequent inst rumental assistance to parent(s). 1 5 BFrequency of Instrumental/Tangible Assistance Received 1. Participant never or almost never receiv es instrumental assist ance from parent(s). 2. Participant occasionally receives in strumental assistance from parent(s). 3. Participant regularly receives inst rumental assistance from parent(s). 3. Participant frequently re ceives instrumental assistance from parent(s). 4. Participant very frequently receives instrumental assistance from parent(s). 1 6 BFrequency of Emotional Support Given 1. Participant never or almost never pr ovides emotional support to parent(s). 2. Participant provides occasional emotional support to parent(s). 3. Participant provides regular em otional support to parent(s). 4. Participant provides frequent em otional support to parent(s). 5. Participant provides very frequent emotional support to parent(s). 1 7 BFrequency of Emotional Support Received 1. Participant never or almo st never receives emotional support from parent(s). 2. Participant occasionally receives emotional support from parent(s). 3. Participant regularly receives em otional support from parent(s). 4. Participant frequently receives em otional support from parent(s). 5. Participant very frequently receives emotional support from parent(s).

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Appendix E (Continued) 222 ACTIVITIES Time 1. Participant never or almost never enga ges in activities i nvolving parent(s). 2. Participant occasionally engages in activities involving parent(s). 3. Participant regularly engages in activities involv ing parent(s). 4. Participant frequently engages in activities involving parent(s). 5. Participant very frequently engage s in activities i nvolving parent(s). 1 8 BRange of Activities 1. Participant engages in no or almost no types of activitie s with parent(s). 2. Participant engages in a few types of activities with parent(s). 3. Participant engages in some types of activities with parent(s). 4. Participant engages in many types of activities with parent(s). 5. Participant engages in a great many t ypes of activities with parent(s). 1 9 BEffort Expended in Activities 1. Participant expends no or almost no e ffort to engage in activity involving parent(s). 2. Participant expends modest effort to e ngage in activity involving parent(s). 3. Participant expends moderate effort to engage in activity i nvolving parent(s). 4. Participant expends above aver age effort to engage in activity involving parent(s). 5. Participant expends great effort to en gage in activity i nvolving parent(s). PERCEPTION 2 0 BImportance of Role 1. Participant attaches little or no importance to he r/his role as a Daughter/Son. 2. Participant attaches some importance to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. 3. Participant attaches moderate importa nce to her/his roles as a Daughter/Son. 4. Participant attaches consid erable importance to her/ his role as a Daughter/Son. 5. Participant attaches great importance to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. 2 1 BPerception of Personal Bene fit of Role Performance 1. Participant perceived little or no pers onal benefit to performing the Daughter/Son role. 2. Participant perceives some personal bene fit to performing the Daughter/Son role. 3. Participant perceives moderate personal benefit to performing the Daughter/Son role. 4. Participant perceives considerable personal benefit to performing the Daughter/Son role. 5. Participant perceives great personal bene fit in performing the Daughter/Son role.

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Appendix E (Continued) 223 2 2 BSatisfaction in Role Performance 1. Participant receives no personal satisfacti on from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. 2. Participant receives little personal satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. 3. Participant receives moderate personal satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. 4. Participant receives considerable persona l satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. 5. Participant receives great personal sa tisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. ROLE IMPROVEMENT 2 3 BFrequency of Role Improvement Activity 1. Participant never undertakes activity intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. 2. Participant occasionally undertaken\s ac tivity intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. 3. Participant regularly under takes activity intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. 4. Participant often undertakes activity intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. 5. Participant very frequently undertakes activity intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Perception of Need for Role Improvement Information 1. Participant perceives little or no need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. 2. Participant perceives some need fo r information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. 3. Participant perceives moderate need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. 4. Participant perceives considerable need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. 5. Participant perceives great need fo r information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance.

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Appendix E (Continued) 224 Letter to Pilot Panel Members 5 0 BUniversity of South Florida Social Roles Research Project 2 4 BProject Director Research Associates Waynne Blue James Aracelis A. Rogers Winfried Barthmus Dana E. Cozad February 2005 Dear [Panel Member], Thank you for agreeing to participate in the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project, providing assistance with the Daughter/Son social role. The task you will be performing is a Q Sort technique and will require about 20-25 minutes of your time. You will need a pen or pencil and will need to work on a table surface. Complete instructions are en closed. Should you have any qu estions, however, please call me at xxx-xxx-xxxx or on my cell phone xxxxxx-xxxx. You may also contact me by email at Decozad5@aol.com. When you have completed the tasks, please re turn all materials to me in the selfaddressed, postage paid envelope provided. I would appreciate receiving the materials within one week, if at all possible. Thank you for your help with this project a nd the development of the Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son social role. Sincerely yours, Dana E. Cozad

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225 Appendix F Validation Panel Members

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Appendix F (Continued) 226 Dr. William Blank Adult, Career, and Higher Education University of South Florida Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Workforce Education Dr. Patricia Brewer Adult Education/Community College Leadership Walden University Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Edu cation, Educational Assessment Dr. Ralph Brockett Department of Educational Leadership University of Tennessee Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education Dr. Mack Davis Director, Project Thrust University of South Florida Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: African-American Professional Area: Adult Education Dr. Vicky S. Dill College of Education University of Texas Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Educ ational Leadership Ms. Sharon Grubis Director of Institutional Research Eckerd College Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Educational Measurement and Research

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Appendix F (Continued) 227 Dr. Mark McCloskey Dean, Bethel College and Seminary Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education Ms. Marti Newbold St. Andrews Presbyterian College Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Social Work Dr. Aracelis Rogers Institute for Lifelong Learning University of South Florida Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Hispanic Professional Area: Adult Education Rev. Holly Shoaf-O’Ku la, M. Div., M.S.W. Associate Pastor First Presbyterian Church, Aiken, SC Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Social Work with Older Adults Dr. Margret Skaftadottir Director, Program for Experienced Learners Eckerd College Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education Dr. Claire Stiles Human Development Department Eckerd College Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Human Development

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228 Appendix G Verification Panel Members

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Appendix G (Continued) 229 Dr. Winfried Barthmus Retired Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education/Social Roles Dr. Sanaa Bennouna Office of Curriculum and Medical Education University of South Florida Gender: female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education Dr. William Clyburn Human Services Program, Walden University Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: African-American Professional Area: Human Services Ms. Diane Ferris Director, International Education Eckerd College Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education Dr. James Frasier Director, Continuing Education Eckerd College Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Continuing Education Dr. Michael Galbraith Department of Leadership Studies Marshall University Graduate College Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education

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Appendix G (Continued) 230 Dr. M. Suzanne Kirkman Department of Adult, Car eer and Higher Education University of South Florida Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education/Social Roles Dr. Jeffrey Kromrey Department of Educational Measurement and Research University of South Florida Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Measurement and Research Dr. Naveen Malhotra Faculty, Program for Experienced Lear ners and International Business Eckerd College Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Asian Professional Area: Adult Education

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231 Appendix H Correspondence and Instructions to Verification Panel Members for Performance Rating Scale

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Appendix H (Continued) 232 2 5 BVerification Panel Instructions Performance Rating Scale for Daughter/Son Social Role In this research, certain activities and per ceptions commonly associated with being an adult child of a living parent or parents are identified and studi ed. Four specific performance areas, called “strands ,” are highlighted. These are Involvement, Activities, Perception, and Role Performance. The tasks associated with this Verification Panel contribute to the development of a Performa nce Rating Scale of the Daughter/Son social role. There are two separate activities requested of you. The first is to perform a card sort to rank order descriptive statements. The second assesses the language clarity and completeness of the phrases. An addressed postage paid envelope is encl osed for your use in returning materials. PART ONE : Rank ordering of de scriptive statements Remove the contents of the envelope marked A. In this envelope you have sets of 5 index cards containing performance descri ption statements together in 13 small envelopes. Please be careful to keep the cards in an envelope together ; they should not be mixed with other cards. The 5 cards include five performance rating descriptions. Working with one set at a time, remove the cards from the envelope and arrange the performance descriptions in order from low (weakest) to high (strongest). Mark each descriptor card w ith a number 1 to 5 in the upper right hand corner, using the following scale. Each number s hould be used only once with each set of cards. 1=Low 2=Below Average 3=Average 4=Above Average 5=High Collect the now-ordered statements in or der from low on the top to high on the bottom and insert that group back in its small envelope. Seal the envelope securely and return it to the large envelope marked A. The rank order exercise is now complete.

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Appendix H (Continued) 233 PART TWO: Assessing statement clarity and completeness Remove the contents of the envelope marked B. This is a stapled set of pages containing all of the statements you rank ordered in PART ONE and a Likert-type scale for you to indicate your rating of th e statement in terms of language clarity and language completeness. Please rate each statement by circling th e number reflecting your response. There is a space provided for you to suggest any improvements or make comments. When you have completed the ratings for all statements, please return the stapled sheets to the enveloped marked B. Both envelopes A and B should be placed in the addressed, postage paid envelope and returned to: Dana E. Cozad If you have any questions, please ca ll me at xxx-xxx-xxxx or xxx-xxx-xxxx; you may also email me at H UDecozad5@aol.com U H. Thank you for your help!

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Appendix H (Continued) 234 PART TWO: Assessing Clarity and Co mpleteness of Language Directions: Below is a Like rt-style scale ranging from 1 (Unclear) to 6 (Very Clear) used to rate for statement clarity. A second scale provides a range of 1 (not complete) to 6 (very complete) for rating the statement’s co mpleteness. Suggestions for corrections or restatements may be made under “Additional Comments.” There are four sections of questions, each having to do with one strand, or performance area. The definition of the strand introduces the section. STRAND: INVOLVEMENT—The frequency of c ontact with parent(s ); the amount of time spent in contact with parent(s); and the extent to which the Da ughter/Son is involved with important decisions in the parent’s(s’) life. ________________________________________________________________________ 1. Statement--Daughter/Son never or almost never has contact with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 2. Statement--Daughter/Son rarely has contact with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 3. Statement--Daughter/Son sometimes has contact with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 235 4 Statement--Daughter/Son frequently has contact with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 5 Statement--Daughter/Son very freque ntly has contact with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 6. Statement--Daughter/Son spends little or no time being in contact with or being involved with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 7. Statement--Daughter/Son spends a limited amount of time being in contact with or being involved with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 236 8. Statement--Daughter/Son spends a moderate amount of time being in contact with or being involved with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 9. Statement--Daughter/Son spends a cons iderable amount of time being in contact with or being involved with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 10. Statement--Daughter/Son spends a great amount of time being in contact with or being involved with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 11. Statement--Daughter/Son has little or no involvement with important decisions about her/his parent’s/parents’ life. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 237 12. Statement--Daughter/Son has limited in volvement with important decisions about her/his parent’s/parents’ life. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 13. Statement--Daughter/Son has modera te involvement with important decisions about her/his parent’s/parents’ life. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 14. Statement--Daughter/Son has considera ble involvement with important decisions about her/his parent’s/parents’ life. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 15. Statement--Daughter/Son has great invol vement with important decisions about her/his parent’s/parents’ life. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 238 STRAND: ACTIVITIES —The time spent in activities involving parent(s ); the amount of assistance (physical, financial, and emotional) given to and/ or received from parent(s); the range of different types of activities that characterize the involvement; and the effort the Daughter/Son makes to engage in activities with parent(s). 16. Statement--Daughter/Son never or al most never engages in activities involving parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 17. Statement--Daughter/Son rarely engages in activities involving parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 18. Statement--Daughter/Son sometimes engages in activities involving parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 19. Statement--Daughter/Son often engages in activities invol ving parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 239 20. Statement--Daughter/Son very frequent ly engages in activities involving parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 21. Statement--Daughter/Son gives little or no assistance to parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 22. Statement--Daughter/Son gives a small am ount of assistance to parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 23. Statement--Daughter/Son gives a moderate amount of assistance to parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 240 24. Statement--Daughter/Son gives a cons iderable amount of assistance to parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 25. Statement--Daughter/Son gives a great deal of assistance to parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 26. Statement--Daughter/Son receives little or no assistance from parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 241 27. Statement--Daughter/Son receives a sm all amount of assistance from parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 28. Statement--Daughter/Son receives a modera te amount of assistance from parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 29. Statement--Daughter/Son receives a consid erable amount of assistance from parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 30. Statement--Daughter/Son receives a great amount of assistance from parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 242 31. Statement--Daughter/Son engages in no or almost no different types of activities with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 32. Statement--Daughter/Son engages in a few different types of activities with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 33. Statement--Daughter/Son engages in a mo derate number of different types of activities with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 34. Statement--Daughter/Son engages in many different types of activities with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 243 35. Statement--Daughter/Son engages in a great many different types of activities with parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 36. Statement--Daughter/Son expends no or almo st no effort to engage in activity involving parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 37. Statement--Daughter/Son expends limited effort to engage in activity involving parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 38. Statement--Daughter/Son expends modera te effort to engage in activity involving parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 244 39. Statement--Daughter/Son expends considera ble effort to engage in activity involving parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 40. Statement--Daughter/Son expends great effo rt to engage in activity involving parent(s). Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: STRAND: PERCEPTION/ATTITUDES —How the Daughter/Son feels about/perceives the importance of the Daughter /Son role and the extent to which she/he perceives personal benefit and satisfacti on associated with performing the role. 41. Statement--Daughter/Son attaches little or no importance to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 42. Statement--Daughter/Son attaches limited importance to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 245 43. Statement--Daughter/Son attaches modera te importance to her/his roles as a Daughter/Son. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 44. Statement--Daughter/Son attaches consid erable importance to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 45. Statement-Daughter/Son attaches great importance to her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 46. Statement--Daughter/Son perceives littl e or no personal benefit to performing the Daughter/Son role. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 246 47. Statement--Daughter/Son perceives limited person al benefit to performing the Daughter/Son role Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 48. Statement--Daughter/Son perceives moderate personal benefit to performing the Daughter/Son role Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 49. Statement--Daughter/Son perceives considerable personal benefit to performing the Daughter/Son role Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 50. Statement--Daughter/Son perceives great p ersonal benefit in performing the Daughter/Son role. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 247 51. Statement--Daughter/Son receives no or almo st no personal satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 52. Statement--Daughter/Son receives limited pe rsonal satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 53. Statement--Daughter/Son receives modera te personal satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 54. Statement--Daughter/Son receives considera ble personal satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 248 55. Statement--Daughter/Son receives great p ersonal satisfaction from her/his role as a Daughter/Son. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: STRAND: ROLE IMPROVEMENT —The Daughter/Son’s beli ef that she/he has a need for information to improve Daughter/S on role performance; the frequency with which she/he engages in pursuits intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. 56. Statement-Daughter/Son never or almost never undertakes pursuits intended to improve Daught er/Son role performance Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 57. Statement--Daughter/Son rarely undert akes pursuits intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 249 58. Statement--Daughter/Son sometimes undertakes pursuits intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 59. Statement--Daughter/Son frequently undertakes pursuits intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 60. Statement--Daughter/Son very frequent ly undertakes pursuits intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 61. Statement--Daughter/Son sees little or no need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 250 62. Statement--Daughter/Son sees limited need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 63. Statement-Daughter/Son sees moderate need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 64. Statement-Daughter/Son sees considerabl e need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 65. Statement--Daughter/Son sees great need for information intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix H (Continued) 2515 1 BUniversity of South Florida Social Roles Research Project 2 6 BProject Director Research Associates Waynne Blue James Aracelis A. Rogers Winfried Barthmus Dana E Cozad Dr. [Panel Member] [Address] Dear Dr. [Panel Member], Thank you for agreeing to participate in th e University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project, pr oviding assistance with the Da ughter/Son social role. The tasks you will be performing are a Q sort to ra nk order performance statements and rating the performance statements on clarity and co mpleteness. The tasks will require about 45 minutes of your time. You will need a pen or pencil and will need to work on a table. Complete instructions ar e enclosed. Should you have any questions, however, please call me at xxx-xxx-xxxx or on my cell phone xxx-xxx-xxxx. You may also contact me by email at Decozad5@aol.com. When you have completed the tasks, please re turn all materials to me in the selfaddressed, postage paid envelope provided. I would appreciate receiving the materials within one week, if at all possible. Thank you for your help with this pr oject and the development of the Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son social role. Sincerely yours, Dana E. Cozad

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252 Appendix I Verification Panel Members for Interview Protocol

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Appendix I (Continued) 253 Interview Protocol Verification Panel Dr. Winfried Barthmus Retired Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education/Social Roles Dr. William Clyburn Human Services Program, Walden University Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: African-American Professional Area: Human Services Dr. Michael Galbraith Department of Leadership Studies Marshall University Graduate College Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education Dr. Jeffrey Kromrey Department of Educational Measurement and Research University of South Florida Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Measurement and Research Dr. Naveen Malhotra Faculty, Program for Experienced Lear ners and International Business Eckerd College Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Asian Professional Area: Adult Education Dr. Mark McCloskey Dean, Bethel College and Seminary Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Adult Education

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254 Appendix J Correspondence and Instructions to Verification Panel for Interview Protocol

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Appendix J (Continued) 255Panel Instructions Interview Protocol Four domain areas, or “Strands,” have been identifie d for the Daughter/Son adult social role. The strands are Involvement, Activities, Perception, and Role Improvement. Interview questions have been proposed for each of th ese strands. These questions are listed, and below each is a Likert-type scale on which you are asked to rate that question in terms of its clarity and completeness. Please circle yo ur rating for each question. An addressed, postage paid envelope has been included in these materials for your ease in returning the materials to me. 5 2 BDemographic Questions 3. Question Do you have a living parent, step-parent, or parent-in-law? ___ Yes ___ No. If no, terminate the interview and thank the respondent. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 4. Question Do you live with any of your parents? ___Yes ___ In your home? ___ In your parent’s home? ___ Other? (Specify) ____________________________________ ___ No ___ Are you a financially dependent student, with your own residence? Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix J (Continued) 2565. Question See below. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: FAMILY DEMOGRAPHICS 1. I am going to ask you now to identify the living parents you have and to tell me a little bit about them. Name Relationship Age Marital Status Health Financial Status Employed? State of Residence Living Situation Relationship P=Natural or adoptive parent S=Stepparent I=Parent-in-law Marital Status M=Married W=Widowed D=Divorced S=Separated N=Never married Health G=Good, no major concerns; active; no problems that interfere with daily living tasks S=Stable, no current acute concerns; some limitations but generally capable of unsupervised daily living L=Significant health problems; requires regular assistance and/or supervision with daily living tasks F=Frail and failing health; requires constant assistance and/or supervision

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Appendix J (Continued) 257Financial Status S=Secure; no major concerns about long-term or immediate needs I= Independent financially; no need for assistance with immediate financial obligations O=Occasional need for financial assistance D=Dependent on regular financial assistance from family Employed? Y=Yes U=Unemployed, seeking work N=Unemployed, not seeking work R=Retired Living Situation (Indicate all that apply) A=Lives alone S=Lives with spouse D=Lives with spouse and dependent children I=Lives with spouse and adult child living at home R=Lives in retirement community, independently N=Lives in assisted living or nursing home STRAND: INVOLVEMENT-Amount of contact with parent(s), type of involvement (instrumental and emotional), direction of i nvolvement (givin g, receiving) 6. Question How often do you have contact with at least one of your parents? Include telephone calls, letters, visits—any contact of any sort. ___ Never or almost never; 1-3 times a year or less ___ 3-11 times per year; less than once a month ___ 1-3 times per month ___ Once a week ___ Several times weekly; daily Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix J (Continued) 258 7. Question How often do you provide some kind of physical assistance to at least one of your parents? Examples would be help with transportation, a household chore, taking care of another family member (other children or dependent person in your parents’ home), cooking, yard work, etc. ___ Never or almost never; 1-3 times a year or less ___ 3-11 times per year; less than once a month ___ 1-3 times per month ___ Once a week ___ Several times weekly; daily Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 8. Question How often do you receive some kind of physical assistance from one of your parents? Examples would be help with transportation, a household chore, taking care of another family member (your children or dependent person home), cooking, yard work, etc. ___ Never or almost never; 1-3 times a year or less ___ 3-11 times per year; less than once a month ___ 1-3 times per month ___ Once a week ___ Several times weekly; daily Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix J (Continued) 259 9. Question How often do you provide financial assistance to at least one of your parents? ___ Never or almost never; 1-3 times a year or less ___ 3-11 times per year; less than once a month ___ 1-3 times per month ___ Once a week ___ Several times weekly; daily Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 10. Question How often do you receive financial assist ance from at least on e of your parents? ___ Never or almost never; 1-3 times a year or less ___ 3-11 times per year; less than once a month ___ 1-3 times per month ___ Once a week ___ Several times weekly; daily Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 11. Question How often does at least one of your parents seek your advice or emotional support about a decision or personal problem? ___ Never or almost never; 1-3 times a year or less ___ 3-11 times per year; less than once a month ___ 1-3 times per month ___ Once a week ___ Several times weekly; daily Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix J (Continued) 260 Question How often do you seek a parent’s advice or emotional support about a decision or personal problem? ___ Never or almost never; 1-3 times a year or less ___ 3-11 times per year; less than once a month ___ 1-3 times per month ___ Once a week ___ Several times weekly; daily Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: STRAND: ACTIVITIES— Includes the range of types of activities, the amount of time spent in activities with parent(s), and the amount of effort the respon dent exerts to engage in activities with parent(s). 12. Question Please see below. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix J (Continued) 261 Considering all your parents, please indicate how much total time during a typical month you spend in the following activities with your parents. Activity Less than 1 hour 1-3 hours 3-5 hours 6-8 hours 8+ hours Talking/visiting in person Talking on the phone/emailing Shopping/dining out/movies/theater together Playing/watching sports; outdoor activities Traveling together Getting together for family events and holidays Eating meals together at home Doing household chores (house cleaning, yard work, repairs) for a parent Providing transportation of a parent Providing transportation of another household member (young child, other dependent family member) for a parent Shopping for a parent Providing advice Managing financial affairs Providing supervision/staying with parent who can’t be left alone Providing direct physical care Attending medical appointments/dealing with health care providers Providing for meals, laundry Handling correspondence Other—specify 13. Question Overall, how would you rate the amount of your time and energy you spen d in activities that you do with your parents or for your parents? ___ Not much ___ Some __ About Average ___ More th an most ___ A great deal Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix J (Continued) 2628 4 BSTRAND: PERCEPTION --Degree of importance of the Daughter/Son role to the respondent; perception of personal benefit to engaging in Daughter/Son role; degree of personal satisfaction gained from the Daughter/Son role. 14. Question Thinking about all the responsibilities and activities you have, how important would you say your role as a daughter or son is to you in your life right now? ___ Not important at all ___ Not too important ___ Moderately important ___ Considerably important ___ Extremely important Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 15. Question Why did you rate yourself this way? Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 16. Question Think about what you feel you receive from bein g a daughter or son now in terms of your own personal benefit. This can be tangible benefit or emotional and psychological benefit. How would rate the personal benefit you receive from the Daughter/Son role you play now? ___ I feel no or almost no personal benefit at all. ___ I feel some personal benefit. ___ I feel a moderate amount of personal benefit. ___ I feel considerable personal benefit. ___ I feel great personal benefit. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix J (Continued) 263 17. Question What is the primary personal benefit you feel you receive? Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 18. Question Overall, how much personal satisfaction do you feel about your role as a daughter or son? ___ I receive no personal sa tisfaction from this role. ___ I receive a little personal satisfaction from this role. ___ I feel moderate personal satisfaction with this role. ___ I feel considerable personal satisfaction with this role. ___ I feel great personal satisfaction with this role. Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 19. Question What is most personally satisfying to you in your Daughter/Son role? Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix J (Continued) 264STRAND: ROLE IMPROVEMENT-The extent to which the respondent has taken action in the past to improve role performance; the extent to which the respondent perceives the need for information or learning to improve role performance. 20. Question People sometimes feel a need to learn something new or obtain new information in order to be able to perform certain roles better. Have you ever decided to learn something in order that you could be better at your role as a daughter or son? Some examples might be engaging in personal counseling to understand yourself better in relation to your parents, learned a new sport or activity in order to be able to do it with your parent, learned about a disease or illness your parent was experiencing, taken a class on managing your parent’s financial affairs. ___ No, never. ___ Occasionally ___ Regularly ___ Often ___ Very frequently Give examples. ______________________________________________________ Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 21. Question To what extent do you feel that you have a need to learn something or gain more information about something related to being a daughter or son at this point in your life? ___ Little or no need ___ Some need ___ Moderate need ___ Considerable need ___ Great need Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix J (Continued) 265 22. Question What kind of information or learning do you think would be helpful to you? Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 5 3 BOVERALLCOMMENTS _____________________________________________________________________________________ 23. Question At this point in your life, what do you feel is the most important aspect of your role as a daughter or son in relation to your parents? Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments: 24. Question Are there other comments you want to include in this discussion? Very Unclear Very Clear Clarity of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not complete Very Complete Completeness of Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Additional Comments:

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Appendix J (Continued) 266 Letter to Verification Panel Members—Interview Protocol 5 4 BUniversity of South Florida USF Social Roles Research Project 2 7 BProject Director Research Associates Waynne Blue James Aracelis A. Rogers Winfried Barthmus Dana E. Cozad February 2005 Dear [Panel Member], Thank you for continuing to participate in the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project, provi ding assistance with the Daughter/Son social role. Your previous comments a nd feedback have been very helpful. I am asking for one more rating from you, this time on the latest version of the Interview Protocol, the instrument I will be using to gather the data for the study. There are complete instructions encl osed with the feedback sheets. Should you have any questions, howev er, please call me at xxx-xxx-xxxx or on my cell phone xxx-xxx-xxxx. You may also contact me by email at Decozad5@aol.com. When you have completed the tasks, please re turn all materials to me in the selfaddressed, postage paid envelope provide d. Again, I would appreciate receiving the materials within one w eek, if at all possible. Thank you for your help with this project and the development of the instruments for the Daughter/Son social role. Sincerely yours, Dana E. Cozad

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267 Appendix K Field Test Panel

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Appendix K (Continued) 268 Names of Field Test Panel Members Dr. Larry Andrews Retired School Psychologist Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Mr. David Brinkley, M.A. Teacher, Aiken County, SC, Schools Gender: Male Race/Ethnicity: African-American Dr. Elizabeth Purvis Administrator, Aiken Count y School Board, Aiken, SC Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Educ ational Foundations Dr. Melissa Riley Department of Education University of South Carolina, Aiken Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian Professional Area: Educational Psychology Ms. Nancy Reed, M.S.W. Senior Services and Hospice Care Social Worker Gender: Female Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian

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269 Appendix L Demographic Form

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Appendix L (Continued) 270 DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE University of South Florida Social Role Research Study Note: We will be using the information you pr ovide for statistical analysis only. Your identity and personal information will not be revealed to anyone other than the researchers without you r written permission. Directions: Please respond to each item by check ing the appropriate response or by providing the requested information. 1. Gender: ____Male ____Female 2. Race/Ethnic Group: ___ African American/Black/Negro ___ Native American Indian ___ Asian ___ Hispanic/Latino ___ White (Caucasian) ___ Other (Please specify) _________________________________ 3. Birth Date:______________________ Birth Place: _______________________ Month Day Year State or Country 4. Current Marital Status: ___ Never Married ___ Divorced ___ Widowed ___ Married ___ Separated 5. Number of children: ___ Number of children ___ Number of children living at home 6. Living Arrangements Which statement most clearly describe s your living arrangements? (Check only one) ___ Single, living alone ___ Married, living with spouse ___Single, living with father/mother ___Mar ried, living with spouse & children ___ Single, living with roomma te(s) ___ Living with children ___ Single living with signifi cant ___ Other (specify) How many months of the year do you live in Florida? ___ Do not live in Florida ___ In what state do you reside? __________________ 7. Education: Circle the highest grade (element ary/secondary) you ha ve completed.

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Appendix L (Continued) 271 a. K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 b. Did you receive a high school diploma? ___ Yes ___ No c. Did you receive a GED? ___ Yes ___ No d. Circle the highest education level Uafter high school U you have completed (if any). Vocational College Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior e. Indicate which college degrees, if any, you have received. ___ Associate ___ Bachelor’s ___ Master’s ___Doc torate/Professional ___ Other (please specify) ____________________________________ 8. Occupation: a. Are you working now? ___ Yes, full-time (40 hrs./wk or more). USkip to question 8c. ___ Yes, part-time (39 hrs./wk or less) USkip to question 8c. ___ Yes, part-time, but semi-retired. USkip to question 8c. ___ No. UGo to question 8b. b. If you are not working, why not? ___ Retired ___ Can’t find work ___ Student ___Don’t want a job ___Married and stopped working outside the home ___ Stopped working to care for a family member. Who? _____________ ___Other (please specify) ______________________________________ How long has it been since you worked? __________________________ Note: If you are self-suppor ting, answer questions 8 c and 8d with your occupation. If both you and your spouse/partner work, please al so indicate his/her occupation. If you are being supported by your pare nts, list their occupation(s) in response to question 8e. c. What type of work do you and your spouse/partner do now (or did you do before you retired or became unemployed)? Examples, nurse, personnel

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Appendix L (Continued) 272 manager, supervisor of order department, automobile mechanic, cake decorator, teacher. Military offi cer, please indicate grade as well. You __________________________________ Spouse/Partner ________________________________ d. What are (were) your most important activities or duties while working (e.g., patient care, directing hi ring policies, supervising order clerks, repairing automobiles, icing cakes)? You __________________________________ Spouse/Partner ________________________________ e. If financially supported by parents, what kinds of work do they do? Father _____________________ Mother ____________________ 9. Income: a. What was your total family income last year (2004)? ___ Under $15,000 ___$15,000 to $34,999 ___ $35,000 to $74,999 ___$75,000 to $99,999 ___ $100,000 to $125,000 ___Over $125,000 b. How many family members contributed to this income? ____ Thank you!

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273 Appendix M Informed Consent Form

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Appendix M (Continued) 274 ADULT INFORMED CONSENT FORM The University of South Florida Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Co ntent Validation, and Exploratory Investigation Dana E. Cozad, Person in Charge of Study Dr. Waynne James, Major Professor The following information is being presented to help you decide wh ether you want to be a part of a minimal risk research study. Please read carefully. If you do not understand anything, ask the Person in Charge of the Study. You are being asked to participate in this study because you are an adult matching the profile necessary for inclusion in this study. Only adults 18-65+ years who are U.S. citizens are eligible to participate. 1. The purpose of this study is to examin e the relationship between socioeconomic status, age, gender, and perceived perf ormance in the Daughter/Son social role. 2. We will interview 150 adults, primarily in the Tampa Bay area; some respondents will also be from South Carolina, with a fe w other miscellaneous U.S. locations also contributing respondents. 3. We will interview you at your home, office, or location of your choice. The interview will take less than an hour. 4. With your permission, we will tape the in terview using an audio tape recorder. 5. There are no known risks or personal be nefits to being interviewed. Your participation, however, will benefit the larger society by contributing to our understanding of the Daughter/Son adult so cial role, thus informing educators planning for educational pr ograms for that population. 6. We will not pay you for your participation in this study. 7. Your decision to participate in this study is voluntary. You are free to participate in this study or to withdraw anytime. 8. We will protect your privacy. Only the re searcher and faculty advisor will have access to your interview responses and tape of the interview. They will be stored under lock and key. Names will not appear on any documents connected with this study other than this informed consent form Authorized research investigators, agents of the Department of Health and Human Services and the USF Institutional Review Board and its staff, and any other individuals acting on behalf of USF, may inspect your records from this research pr oject. The results of the study may be published in grouped form. In other words, the published results will not include your name or any other information that will identify you. 9. If you have any questions about this study, contact Dana Cozad at (xxx) xxx-xxxx. If you have any questions about your rights as a person who is taking part in this research, you may contact the Division of Re search Compliance of the University of South Florida at (813) 974-5638

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Appendix M (Continued) 275 Consent—by signing this form, I agree that: < I have fully read (or have had read) a nd explained to me this informed consent form explaining my participa tion in this research study. < I have had the chance to question th e interviewer, and the answers were acceptable. < I understand that I am being asked to pa rticipate in research. I understand the interview will be audio-taped. I understand the risks and be nefits. I freely give my consent to participate in the study. < I have been given a signed copy of this informed consent form, which is mine to keep. _______________________________________________________________________ (Signature) (Printed Name of Participant) (Date) Investigator Statement I carefully explained to the s ubject the nature of the above protocol. I hereby certify that to the best of my knowledge the subject si gning this consent form understands the nature, demands, risks, and benefits involved in par ticipating in this study and that a medical problem or language or educational barrier ha s not precluded a clea r understanding of the subject’s involvement in this study. _______________________________________________________________________ (Signature) (Printed Name of Investigator/Interviewer) (Date) Institutional Approval of Study and Informed Consent The research project and informed consen t form were reviewed and approved by the University of South Florida In stitutional Review Board for pr otection of human subjects. This approval is valid until the date provided below. The board may be contacted at (813) 974-5638.

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276 Appendix N Interview Protocol

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Appendix N (Continued) 277 Interview Protocol Daughter/Son Social Role University of South Florida Social Roles Research 2 8 BINTRODUCTORY QUESTIONS: 2 9 BNote to Interviewer : If there is only one parent, please adjust th e language appropriately throughout the interview. 2. Do you have at least one living parent, step-p arent, or parent-in-law? ___Yes ___No If you answered “No,” has one of your pa rents (step-parents, parents-in-law) di ed within the last year? ___Yes ___No If yes, would you be willing to talk with me abou t your role as a [Daughter/Son] during the last year? ___Yes ___No Note to Interviewer : Please be sensitive to the difficulty that speaking about a recently deceased parent may present to the respondent. If there is no living or recently deceased parent whom the respondent feels comfortable discussing with you, termi nate the interview and thank the respondent Interviewer: During this interview, you w ill be asked to tell me about being a [Daughter/Son]. This may have to do with being a natural or adopted child, a step child, or a [daughter-in-law/son-in-law] of yo ur spouse’s parents. I am interested in your experiences and activities as an adult child of your paren t or parents. The questio ns will ask you to think about all of your living or recently de ceased parents, including your natura l or adoptive parents, your stepparents, and your parents-in-law. Some questions may not apply to your pres ent situation, so just let me know that. You should think about Uyour current situation during the last year U in your answers. There are no right or wrong an swers, so please be as honest as you can be in helping me to understand what being the adult child of your parents is like. Remember that the information is confidentia l and will be used only for research about the expe rience of being an adult child in 2007. 3. Do you live with any of your parents? ___ Yes ___ In your home? ___ In your parent’s home? ___ Other? (Specify) ___________________________________________________________ ___ No Does most of your financial support come from your parents? ___ Yes ___ No If yes, are you a financia lly dependent student, w ith your own residence? ___ Yes ___No

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Appendix N (Continued) 278FAMILY DEMOGRAPHICS 4. I am going to ask you now to identify the living parents you have and to tell me a little bit about them. Consider only legal relationships. Note to Interviewer: You may give better educated respondents a copy of the answer codes below; there is a separate sheet with these codes with the Answer Choice Card on the last two pages of this Interview Protocol. Name Relationship (Note if deceased within the last year) Age Marital Status Health Financial Status Employed? Lives how far away? Living Situation Relationship PM=Natural or adoptive mother PF=Natural or adoptiv e father SM=Step-mother SF=Step-father MIL=Mother-in-law FIL=Father-in-law Marital Status M=Married W=Widowed D=Divorced R=Re married S=Separated N=Never married Health G=Good, no major concerns; ac tive; no problems that interfere with daily living tasks S=Stable, no current serious concerns; some limita tions but generally capable of unsupervised daily living L=Significant health problems; requires regular as sistance and/or supervision with daily living tasks F=Frail and failing health; requires daily assistance and/or supervision I=Invalid; requires 24 hour health care and/ or supervision for all daily living needs Financial Status W=Wealth sufficient to provide for needs even if long-term health issu es require substantial resources for care I= Independent fina ncially; no need for assistance with immediate financial obligations; long-term health issues could jeopardize financial independence O=Occasional need for financial assistance D=Dependent on regula r financial assistance from family or need-based government subsidies Employed? FT=Fulltime PT=Part-time U=Unemployed, seekin g work N=Unemployed, not seeking work R=Retired RP=Retired, part-time work V=Volunteering Lives how far away? Indicate approximate miles. If parent lives at least 4 m onths of the year near the Daughter/Son, write “P” and indicate closest mileage. Living Situation (Indicate all that apply) A=Lives alone S=Lives with spouse C=Lives with child in child’s home D=Lives with spouse and dependent children I=Lives with spouse and adult child living in parents’ home U=Unmarried, living with significant other R=Lives in retirement communi ty, independently N=Lives in assisted livin g or nursing home O=Other; specify_____________________

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Appendix N (Continued) 2793 0 BInterviewer: Now I’m going to begin asking you questions about bein g a [Daughter/Son]. 4 3 1 BChoose three words that you think describe you as a [Daughter/Son]. 3 2 BINVOLVEMENT Interviewer: I want to you think about all your parents you mentioned earl ier as you answer these questions. Note to Interviewer: If the respondent has indicated that there is only one living parent, please use the term “parent” and the singular verb rather than “paren ts” as you administer this protocol. Also, if the respondent indicated that a parent lives closer part of the year, ask him or her to respond in terms of the time when the parent lives closest. 5 How often do you have contact with at least one of your parents? Include telephone calls, letters, visits—any contact of any sort. You may have daily contact, or maybe several times each week, or weekly, monthly, or only several times per year. 6 Now think about the total amount of time you spend being a [Daughter/Son] to your [parents/parent]. Considering all the different ways you have contact with your [parents/parent] and are involved in their lives, how much time would you say you spend on average? You may answer in terms of daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly. Prompt: Think about how much time you spend with them in all kinds of activities as well as the time you spend doing things for them. 7. When your [parents/parent] [are/is] considering im portant life decisions, how likely are you to be involved? Note to Interviewer: Give respondent Answer Choice card and direct to Question #7 responses. ___ not at all; ___to a very limited extent; I usually find out after the decision is already made ___to a moderate extent; they will tell me they are thinking about a big decision ___to a great extent; I am very involved in important decisions ___to a very great extent; I make most of the important decisions for my parents Explain how you get involved in these decisions. Are you asked for help or are you the one who has to take responsibility for the decisions about his/ her/their life? Tell me about what happens. PERCEPTION/ATTITUDE Interviewer: Now I want to ask you some questio ns about how you feel about being a [Daughter/Son]. 8. Thinking about your life right now, describe how important being a [Daughter/Son] is to you.

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Appendix N (Continued) 280 9. I’m going to give you a card with five possible answer s to the next question. Please tell me which one is your choice as the answer to this question: Overall, of all the things you do in your adult life (working, being a spouse, being a parent, being a friend, being a part of organiza tions), how important do you think being a [Daughter/Son] is? ___ It’s the most important thing I do with my life now. ___ It’s in the top three things I do with my life now. ___ It’s about in the middle of all the things I do with my life now. ___ It’s not a very important part of the things I do with my life right now. ___ It’s not important at all compared to other things I do with my life right now. Tell me why you chose this answer. 10 I want to ask you about the personal benefits you get from being a [Daughter/Son]. Tell me how you feel you benefit from being a [Daughter/Son]. Prompt: Some examples you might consider are enjoying their company, friendship and compan ionship, staying in touch with other family members, feeling good about paying back what they gave you, the kinds of help you receive, financial assistance, advice you get. Which one of the things you mentioned is the most important one to you? 11 On a scale from 1 to 5 (1 being low, 3 being average, and 5 being high), how much personal s atisfaction do you get from being a [Daughter/Son]? Why did you choose that rating? 12 What do you think your [parents/parent] [expe ct/expects] of you as their [Daughter/Son]? How well do you feel you meet their expectations? Tell me why you answered this way. 13 Are there any expectations you think you’re not meeting? ACTIVITIES Interviewer: Now I’ll ask you about the ways in wh ich you and your parents help each other and the things you do with your parents.

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Appendix N (Continued) 281 14 Think about the help you receive from your [parents/parent]. What kinds of help—physical, financial, advice, or emotional support—do your parents give you? 15 If your parents do provide some help to you, how do you think they feel about helping you? 16 Now, tell me about the things you do to help yo ur [parents/parent]. What kinds of help do you give ? Think about all the kinds of help-the physical help you give as well as fi nancial help, advice, or emotional support you provide. 17. I want to know about the specific kinds of thi ngs you do with your parents. Now I want you to talk about just one parent the one parent with whom you are most in volved or have the most contact. Please indicate how much total time during an average week, m onth, or year you usually spend, in the following activities with that parent. Which parent are you thinking about: ______________________ Note to Interviewer: 1. Be sure it is a pa rent on Family Demographic table (Question #4). 2. Skip items that are obviously not applicab le and mark NA; e.g., if the responde nt has already told you that this parent is frail and bed-ridden, there is no need to ask if they travel together. Activity How often do you do this activity? (Indicate if it is per week, month, or year.) How much time do you spend when you do this each [day/ week/ month/ year]? Talking on the phone/emailing/Instant Messaging _____ day _____week _____month _____year ___NA Visiting in person _____ day _____week _____month _____year ___NA Shopping/dining out/movies/theater together _____ day _____week _____month _____year ___NA Playing/watching sports; outdoor act ivities together _____ day _____week _____month _____year ___NA Traveling together _____ day _____w eek _____month _____year ___NA Getting together for family events and holidays _____ day _____week _____month _____year ___NA Eating meals together at home _____ day _____week _____month _____year ___NA Corresponding with the parent/sending cards, letters _____ day _____week _____month _____year ___NA Sending packages to the parent _____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Doing household chores (house cleaning, yard work, repairs) for the parent _____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Providing transportation for the parent _____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Providing transportation of another household member (young child, other dependent family member) for the parent _____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Doing the parent’s shopping for her or him _____ day _____week _____month ____year ____NA Providing advice to the parent _____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Managing the parent’s financial affairs _____ day _____week _____month ____year ____NA Providing supervision/staying with parent who can’t be left alone _____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Providing direct physical care to the parent _____ day _____week _____month ____ year ____NA Attending medical appointments/ dealing with health care providers with or on behalf of the parent _____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Providing for meals and/or laundry services for the pa rent _____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Handling the parent’s correspondence _____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Sending packages on behalf of the parent ____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Running errands for the parent _____ day _____week _____month _____year ____NA Finding information or resources for the parent _____ day _____week _____month _____year ___NA Other-specify _____ day _____week _____month _____year ___NA

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Appendix N (Continued) 28218 When thinking about the things you do with this parent, how much would you say you like doing these things? 19 Which of the things you mentioned do you like to do most? 20 Now please think about all your parents and all the different things you do as a [Daughter/Son]. On a scale from 1 5 (one being low, 3 being average, and 5 being high), how much effort would you say it takes for all the different things you do as a [Daughter/Son]? Why did you rate yourself this way? 21 Describe some of the challenges or barriers you face when you’re trying to make time for your parents. 3 3 BROLE IMPROVEMENT Interviewer: Now I’d like to ask you about educatio nal activities or other actions you might have considered or taken to improve the sk ills you need as a [Daughter/Son]. 22 Have you ever (check answer) a. Read a book or article on be ing an adult child and the issues an adult child has to deal with concerning [her/his] parents? ___ yes ___ no b. Taken a class or workshop about being an adult [Daughter/Son]? ___ yes ___ no c. Watched a TV show about adult [Daughter/Son] issues about their parents and how to deal with them? ___ yes ___ no d. Joined a support group for adult [daughters/sons] facing problems relating to being a [Daughter/Son]? ___ yes ___ no e. Tried to learn more about a particular topic or problem because it was something you needed to know more about to help or understand your parents? ___yes ___no f. Sought advice about how to improve your rela tionship with your parents? ___yes ___no 23 Is there anything else you’ve done to try to learn ne w things related to your role as an adult child? 24 If you needed to learn something new connected to being an adult child, what kind of things would you be most likely to do?

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Appendix N (Continued) 2833 4 BAdditional questions for those age 18-34 Note to Interviewer: If the respondent is in the younger age range (18-34 years of age), please ask these additional questions. As a younger person, your relationshi p with you parents has probably ch anged as you entered adult life. These questions are about ways your relationship with your parent/par ents may have changed now that you are an adult. a. If you are married, how has that affected what you do as a Daughter/Son of your parents? b. If you married, how has being a daughter-in-law or son-in-law affected your life? c. If you are a parent, how has that affected your role as a [Daughter/Son]? d. What do you think are the most important ch anges in relation to your role as a child of your parents? OVERALL COMMENTS 25 At this point in your life, what do you feel is the most important th ing about your role as a daughter or son in relation to your parents? 26 Is there anything important we haven’t talked about? Thank you very much for your help! 3 5 BFOR THE INTERVIEWER Describe the setting of the interview. Were there outside influences or distracti ons during the interview? Please describe. What additional comments/impressions do you have that might help in recording or tabulating this interview?

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Appendix N (Continued) 2845 5 BANSWER CHOICE CARD 3 6 BQuestion #3 Family Demographics Answer Codes Relationship PM=Natural or adoptive mother PF=Natura l or adoptive father SM=Step-mother SF=Step-father MIL=Mother-i n-law FIL=Father-in-law Marital Status M=Married W=Widowed D=Divorced R=Remarried S=Separated N=Never married Health G=Good, no major concerns; active; no problems that interfere with daily living tasks S=Stable, no current serious concerns; some limitations but generally capable of unsupervised daily living L=Significant health problems; requires regu lar assistance and/or supervision with daily living tasks F=Frail and failing health; requires daily assistance and/or supervision I=Invalid; requires 24 hour health care an d/or supervision for all daily living needs Financial Status W=Wealth sufficient to provide for needs even if long-term health issues require substantial resources for care I= Independent financially; no need for assistance with immediate financial obligations; long-term health issues could jeopardize financial independence O=Occasional need for financial assistance D=Dependent on regular financial assistance from family or needbased government subsidies Employed? FT=Fulltime PT=Part-time U=Unemployed, seeking work N=Unemployed, not seeking work R=Retired RP=R etired, part-time work V=Volunteering Lives how far away? Indicate approximate miles. If parent lives at least 4 months of the year near the Daughter/Son, write “P” a nd indicate closest mileage. Living Situation (Indicate all that apply) A=Lives alon e S=Lives with spouse C=Lives with child in child’s home D=Lives with spouse and dependent children I=Lives with spouse and adult child living in parents’ home U=Unmarried, living with significant other R=Lives in retirement community, independently N=Lives in assisted living or nursing home O=Other; specify____________ Question #7 ___ not at all; ___to a very limited extent; I usually find out after the decision is already made ___to a moderate extent; they will tell me they are thinking about a big decision ___to a great extent; I am very involved in important decisions ___to a very great extent; I make most of the important decisions for my parents Question #9 ___ It’s the most important thing I do with my life now. ___ It’s in the top three things I do with my life now. ___ It’s about in the middle of all the things I do with my life now. ___ It’s not a very important part of the things I do with my life right now. ___ It’s not important at all compared to other things I do with my life right no

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285 Appendix O Training Guide

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Appendix O (Continued) 286 TRAINING GUIDE FOR DAUGHTER/SON SOCIAL ROLE INTERVIEWING PROCESS AND PROTOCOL OVERVIEW Thank you for participating in the University of South Flor ida Research Team study of adult social roles and assisti ng with the Daughter/Son social role data collection. This guide and the training accompanyi ng it will provide you with the information you need to Screen potential interviewees for appr opriateness for inclusion in the study Conduct the interview accord ing to standard processes, insuring consistency across interviews a nd among interviewers Rate the responses according to th e Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son Social Role. Introduction. In order to conduct social resear ch that yields coherent, consistent, usable, and unbiased information, training in administer ing and scoring of the survey protocol is crucial. The Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son Social Role is a standardized survey instrument in which you must follo w the wording and order of the primary questions (Phillips, 1971). You will be provi ded with probes if the respondent requires prompting in order to provide the requested information. Prior to conducting or scoring any interviews, training must be completed. Training will focus on the following: 1. Obtaining required demographic information from respondents. 2. Obtaining required permission to conduct the interview. 3. Providing explanation of the purpose of the study 4. Applying screening criteria to determin e if the respondent falls within the demographic profile of required interviewees. 5. Conducting the interview according to instru ctions, using specified questions and probes. 6. Conducting the interview in a non-threatening manner. 7. Obtaining accurate, honest in formation from respondents. 8. For those who will be scorers, application of the Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son Social Role with inte r-rater and intra-rater reliability. Your Role. As an interviewer, your role is to: 1. Locate potential respondents. 2. Gather demographic information from the potential respondents. 3. Pre-screen potential respondents fo r appropriateness for inclusion.

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Appendix O (Continued) 287 4. Administer the Interview Pr otocol for the Daughter/Son Social Role according to standard processes. 5. Thank the respondent for participating. 6. If you are a scorer, indicate your score for social role performance on specified dimensions. Materials. For an interview, you will need: Informed Consent Form Demographic Form Daughter/Son Social Role Interview Protocol Tape recorder Pens If you are a scorer, Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son Social Role Conducting the Interview. The following consid erations (adapted from Fink & Kosecoff, 1985) will, at a minimum, be uti lized during the interview session. Introduction. Briefly introduce yourself and the research. Example: “Hi, I am (your name) with the University of South Flor ida Social Roles Research Group. We are conducting social role resear ch, and I would like to ask you some questions about your experiences as a daughter or son at this point in your life. Do you have a few minutes to talk with me?” 1. Demographic Information Sheet. Ha ve the interviewee complete the Demographic Form, or you may assist w ith its completion. Emphasize that all information is confidential and will only be used for this research. Be sure that the Demographic Form is complete, especi ally checking for birthdate, education information, income information, occupational information, race/ethnicity information, and gender indication. If th e interviewee is obviously outside the parameters for the quota sample, thank he r or him and terminate the interview. During this portion of the interview, you w ill also determine if she/he has a living parent of a specified degree. Parents in clude natural and adoptive parents, stepparents, and parents-in-law. Thos without a living parent as defined above will not be interviewed further. 2. Informed Consent Form. The Informed C onsent Form is required to assure that the interviewee is aware of the purposes of the interview and has willingly consented to provide information. In this process, the interv iewer also asks for permission to tape record the responses in order to allow more complete understanding and recording of the respons es, should that information be needed for clarification at the time of scori ng. If the interviewee does not give permission to record, you may continue with the interview without recording.

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Appendix O (Continued) 288 3. Introductory Questions. The introductory questions will enable you to gather information about the parent(s) of the res pondent and their circumstances. It will also allow you to help th e interviewee to choose one parent about whom to answer more in-depth questions. Info rmation includes geographic proximity to parents, health and marital status of parents and respondent, living circumstances of the parents and respondent s, relationship of parent (n atural, adoptive, step, or in-law), employment status of parent and respondent, and other family obligations of respondent. 4. Conducting the Interview. Ask questions in the order and using the wording provided on the Interview Prot ocol. If the respondent needs prompting to answer, use suggested probes to stimulate respons e. Remind the respondent that many of the interview questions pertain to the parent chosen as the subject of the interview, though some questions will ask for responses about all Daughter/Son role involvement with all parents 5. Flexibility. The Interview Protocol is a standardized survey, and, as such, it is intended to be used with the wording provided. However, if provided probes do not yield sufficient information, the inte rviewer may offer additional probes or stimuli consistent with the original scope and intent of the question. 6. Setting for the Interview. Interviews w ill inevitably be conducted in a wide variety of settings and under different circumstances. However, the setting for the interview should provide an environment free of as many distractions as possible. It should also allow for the respondent to speak freely without fear of compromising the confidentiality of the information. You, the interviewer, may need to make adjustments for difficulty with language or vocabulary and impairment of hearing, speech, or sight. Every effort should be made to obtain reliable information that is offered under the optimal conditions for attention, thoughtfulness, and trust. If the circ umstances under which the interview is conducted potentially interfere with or imp act the interview in any respect, they should be noted at the end of the interview in the Note s. Others present during the interview should be noted. 7. Interview Procedures. Every Interview Protocol and Demographic Form should be coded with your Interviewer I.D. numb er. Please use your three initials and the interview number it is for you (i.e., your first interview is coded XYZ 1). If the interview is being taped, be sure the tape is work ing and that you indicate the interview code at the beginning of the tape and on the label on the case for the cassette tape. 8. Demographic Scoring. Each intervie w should be scored according to the respondent’s age, SES, and gender. Ag e is determined by birth date and is calculated for the day the interview is ad ministered. Gender is self-reported. SES is determined by a combination of income level, education, and occupation. Income Levels: Level 1 under $15,000 Level 2 $15,000-$34,999

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Appendix O (Continued) 289 Level 3 $35,000-$99,000 Level 4 $100,000-$124,999 Level 5 $125,000 and over 3 7 BEducational Levels Level 1 Less than high school Level 2 High school/GED Level 3 Some college or post high school formal vocational training Level 4 College graduate/Graduate degree Level 5 Doctoral/Professional degree 5 6 BOccupational Levels See Nam-Powers-Boyd attachment in attachment for occupational categories and codes. Interview Scoring Procedures. After completing the interview, a trained scorer will assess the interview against the stated criter ia in the Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son Social Role to determine a numer ical value for role performance. For the sake of consistency, scoring should be complete d while looking at spec ific criteria in the Performance Rating Scale in order to guard agai nst drifting from the st ated criteria. The Performance Rating Scale provides the bri dge between the qualitative information provided in the interview and the quantita tive numeric score upon which data analysis can be performed. The process for interview scoring is as follows: 1. Usually, the interviewer will be the first rater. 2. The second rater will be a tr ained rater of the opposite ge nder from the first rater. 3. If the ratings of the first and second rater are consistent at the same performance level, a score of the average of the two is assigned to that respondent. 4. When scores fall within different performan ce levels, a third rate r of either gender will score the interview. 5. If the third rater’s score falls within the same performance level as the opposite gender first or second rater, that score is averaged with the score of the opposite gender rater to yield th e respondent’s score. 6. If the third rater’s score does not matc h the performance level of the opposite gender first or second rater, then a four th rater of the opposite gender from the third rater scores the interview; if a performance level match is achieved across gender lines, then a usable score has been identified. 7. If after four raters, no gender-opposite performance le vel matches have been achieved, then the USF Social Roles Research Team will be consulted for consensus, regardless of gender, unless th ere is evidence of gender bias in the scoring (i.e., males and females consistently score differently). 8. If no consensus is found, then the interview is discarded as unusable.

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Appendix O (Continued) 290 9. Consensus processes will be used prim arily for difficult to find respondent categories. The Performance Rating Scale. The followi ng descriptions of performance levels provide the parameters for the sc oring of the Interview Protocol. 3 8 BLow Level 0-1 5 7 BInvolvement Very low level of involvement with parent(s). Has no or almost no contact with parent(s). Never or almost never provides tangible assistance or help to parent(s). Never or almost never receives tangible assistance or help from parent(s). Never or almost never provides em otional support to parent(s). Never or almost never receives emotional support from parent(s). 5 8 BActivities Extremely limited range of activities involvi ng parent(s); activities are indirect (i.e., inquiring about the parent from someone else) or incidental (i.e., r unning into the parent at a store) No or almost no time spent in activities involving parent(s). Types of activities involving parent(s) are very limited and require no or almost no effort on the part of the Daughter/Son 5 9 BPerception Very low perception of Daughter/Son role importance. Attaches no or very low level of importanc e to the Daughter/Son role in her/his life. Perceives little or no personal benefi t from performing the Daughter/Son role. Receives little or no satisfaction fr om Daughter/Son role performance. 6 0 BRole Improvement Very low level of interest in role improvement activities Has never engaged in activity intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance Indicates no need for information to improve role performance. 3 9 BBelow Average Level 2-3 6 1 BInvolvement Low level of involvement with parent(s). Has occasional contact with parent(s). Occasionally provides tangible assi stance or help to parent(s). Occasionally receives ta ngible assistance or help from parent(s). Occasionally provides emotional support to parent(s).

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Appendix O (Continued) 291 Occasionally receives emoti onal support from parent(s). 6 2 BActivities Relationship involves only occasional, low e ffort, and restricted types of activities. Occasionally spends time in ac tivities involving parent(s). Engages in a few different types of activities involving parent(s). Expends a little effort to engage in activities involving parent(s). 6 3 BPerception Low perception of Daughter/Son role importance. Attaches a low level of importance to the Daughter/Son role in her/his life. Perceives some personal benefit fr om performing the Daughter/Son role. Receives some satisfaction from Daughter/Son role performance. 6 4 BRole Improvement Low level of interest in role improvement activities Has only once engaged in activity intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance. Indicates minimal need for information to improve role performance. 4 0 BAverage Level 4-5 6 5 BInvolvement Typical level of involveme nt with parent(s). Moderate amount of contact with parent(s). Regularly provides tangible assist ance or help to parent(s). Regularly receives tangible assistan ce or help from parent(s). Regularly provides emotional support to parent(s). Regularly receives emotiona l support from parent(s). 6 6 BActivities Expected and usual engagement in activities with parent(s). Regularly engages in activ ities with parent(s). Engages in a moderate range of activities involving parent(s) Activities include at least one high effort type of activity 6 7 BPerception Moderate perception of Daughter/Son role importance. Attaches moderate importance to the Daughter/Son role in her/his life. Perceives moderate personal benefit from performing the Daughter/Son role. Receives moderate satisfaction from Daughter/Son role performance.

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Appendix O (Continued) 2926 8 BRole Improvement Moderate interest in role improvement activities Has sometimes engaged in activity intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance Indicates some need for informati on to improve role performance. 4 1 BAbove Average Level 6-7 6 9 BInvolvement Considerable involvement with parent(s). Frequent (weekly) amount of contact with parent(s). Frequently (weekly) provides tangible assistance or help to parent(s). Frequently (weekly) receives tangible a ssistance or help from parent(s). Frequently (weekly) provides emotional support to parent(s). Frequently (weekly) receives em otional support from parent(s). 7 0 BActivities Frequently engagement in many type s of activities with parent(s). Frequently (weekly) engages in activities with parent(s). Engages in many different types of activities invol ving parent(s) Activities include several hi gh effort types of activity 7 1 BPerception The Daughter/Son role is of considerable importance. Attaches considerable importance to the Daughter/Son role in her/his life. Perceives considerable personal benefit from performing the Daughter/Son role. Receives considerable satisfaction from Daughter/Son role performance. 7 2 BRole Improvement Considerable interest in role improvement activities Has regularly engaged in activity intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance Indicates considerable need for inform ation to improve role performance. 4 2 BHigh Level 8-9 7 3 BInvolvement Exceptional level of involvem ent with parent(s). Very frequent (several times weekly, daily ) amount of contact with parent(s). Very frequently (several times weekly, daily ) provides tangible assistance or help to parent(s). Very frequently (several times weekly, daily) receives tangibl e assistance or help from parent(s).

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Appendix O (Continued) 293 Very frequently (several times weekly, daily ) provides emotional support to parent(s). Very frequently (several times weekly, daily ) receives emotional support from parent(s). 7 4 BActivities High level of engagement in activities with parent(s). Very frequently (several times weekly, da ily) engages in activities with parent(s). Engages in a wide range of types of activities involving parent(s) Activities include many high effort types of activity 7 5 BPerception The Daughter/Son role is extremely important. Attaches great importance to the Daughter/Son role in her/his life. Perceives great personal benefit fr om performing the Daughter/Son role. Receives great satisfaction from Daughter/Son role performance. 7 6 BRole Improvement Great interest in role improvement activities Has regularly engaged in activity intended to improve Daughter/Son role performance Indicates great need for informati on to improve role performance. Points to Consider When Rating: 1. We are only interested in interviewing adu lts over age 18 who have living parents. 2. We are only interested in relationships that are with natural or legally adoptive parents, step-parents where one’s natura l or legal adoptive parent has remarried, and parents-in-law where the respondent is legally married to the child of a natural, adoptive, or step-parent. 3. Other relationships that are more informal or which do not involve relationships of legally married parents are not the subject of this study. 4. Most questions involve the current relationship or the relationship during the past year. Questions involving Role Improveme nt, however, do ask about activities in which one has engaged “ever.”

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Appendix O (Continued) 2947 7 BStrand and Sub-Strand Rating The Interview Protocol and the Performa nce Rating Scale assess the Daughter/Son relationship across four areas or domains of role performance: Involvement, Activities, Perception, and Role Improvement. The firs t three strands also include sub-strands. 7 8 BStrand—Involvement Frequency of Contact: How often does the respondent have contact of any sort with her/his parent(s)? Lowest level may include even indirect contact through others. To what extent is the respondent involved in/with the life of her/his pare nt(s), as represented by the frequency of contact? Instrumental/Tangible Assistance: Both giving and receiving in strumental/tangible assistance are included in this aspect of involvement. Gene rally, there will probably be a shift from receiving assistance or mutual givi ng and receiving assistance as the age of the respondent increases. However, there will be notable exceptions to this typical family life cycle pattern. Emotional Support: Both giving and receivi ng emotional support are included as aspects in Daughter/Son involvement with a parent or parents. Emotional support may consist of advice, sharing problems or concerns, listening and talking about person al plans or goals, providing encouragement and unconditional love and respect. Respondent may describe this as simply “being there” for the other. 7 9 BStrand—Activities Time: Time in the Activities strand is meant to gauge the amount of time spent in specific activities. Whereas Frequency of C ontact in the Involveme nt Strand is intended to indicate the level of involvement in a pare nt’s life, in the Activ ities Strand, time is a function of the level of demand upon the respondent’s limited time resource. The Activities Grid is meant to suggest common activities that might occupy the respondent, both as giver and receiver. By asking the res pondent to indicate th e amount of time spent in specific activities, we will be able to know the kinds of act ivities with parents that are manifested in the Daughter/Son social role at various life stages and circumstances. Range of Activities: In this sub-strand we are looking for the extent to which the relationship between the respondent and her/ his parent(s) is comprised of a limited number of activities or whethe r it includes a variety of diffe rent types of activities. Effort: An important aspect of role perfor mance is the level of effort the respondent exerts in the fulfillment of role responsibili ties. Certainly, one who provides for the daily physical care of a parent expends great effort in performing her/his role. To what extent does the Daughter/Son role receive various performance levels, and does the effort change based upon the life stage or the respondent or parent?

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Appendix O (Continued) 2958 0 BStrand—Perception Importance of Role: To what extent is the Daughter/Son role of importance to the respondent? In her/his life, is this role significant or a major priority? Perception of Personal Benefit of Role Perf ormance: This substrand is intended to measure if the respondent feels there is any personal benefit to being actively engaged in Daughter/Son role performance. This is di fferent from role importance because one may feel being an involved Daughter/Son is impor tant to him, even though there is little personal benefit (e.g., staying involved with an elderly parent who is unable to provide any tangible or affective reward may be seen as both important but with little or no personal benefit.) Satisfaction in Role Performance: The exte nt to which the responde nt derives personal satisfaction from performing the Daughter/Son ro le. Regardless of personal benefit, does the role provide the intangible reward of satisf action? Is the role one which is satisfying to the respondent? 8 1 BStrand—Role Improvement Frequency of Role Improvement Activity: Has the respondent ever engaged in an activity specifically intended to improve her/his Daughter/S on role performance? This could include classes to learn more about family functioning or adult development (if taken in order to improve role performance) personal/family counseling to improve one’s relationship with a parent, classe s about elder care in order to be able to deal with the needs of aging parents better. Perception of Need for Role Improvement Info rmation: Does the respondent see a need to learn something new that would improve her/his Daughter/Son role performance? Is there a perceived need for information or learning? Thank you for your help.

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296 Appendix P Guidelines for Evaluating Activ ities and Role Improvement

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Appendix P (Continued) 297 Guidelines for Evaluating Activity These will help to put the activities in cons istent levels. As always, there may be odd situations that will need to be accounted fo r, but generally, these guidelines will allow us to be consistent with ourselves and betw een us as we look at the Activity strand. Frequency of contact: Low Every other month or less Below Average Around monthly Average About weekly Above Average Every other day High Daily Number of Different Activities on the Grid: Low 0-3 different activities Below Average 4-6 Average 7-9 Above Average 10-12 High 13+ Hint: Take into acc ount distance factors Time Spent: Low Less than 25 hours per year Below Average 26-59 hours total per year

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Appendix P (Continued) 298 Average 60-99 hours per year Above Average 100-174 hours per year High 175+ hours per year Hint: Include travel time when there is some distance to cover. 4 3 BGuideline for Role Improvement Role Improvement should never lowe r a Total score but may raise it. Low Nothing marked at all Below Average If respondent indicated a positive response to anything Average A couple of things indicate d that he/she has done to improve Above Average Something fairly sophisticat ed—for example, research on a topic, consult with physician High Counseling, group support, taken a class

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR Dana Everett Cozad received her Bachelor of Ar ts in Literature from Florida Presbyterian College (now Eckerd College) in 1969. She received an M.S.W. from Florida State University in 1974. Her career has been in adult higher education, beginning with teaching social work part-time and then m oving in administration. She served in the Eckerd College Program for Experienced Lear ners in several capaci ties, and became the director of the program in 1988. Since 2002, sh e has worked on grant projects and as an educational consultant. She has presented papers at national adult higher education conferences and at alternative teacher certification meetings.


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Contemporary daughter/son adult social role performance rating scale and interview protocol :
b development, content validation, and exploratory investigation
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[Tampa, Fla] :
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2009.
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Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Group to update research of Havighurst in the 1950s. The Daughter/Son Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol were created through a series of panel reviews and suggestions by experts drawn from adult education, human development, gerontology, and educational measurement and research. A review of the literature identified the initial performance descriptors; ultimately, four strands were identified for inclusion in the study: Involvement, Perception/Attitude, Activities, and Role Improvement.Questions were developed and reviewed by experts again for their relevance to the performance being measured and their clarity; this created the basis for the Interview Protocol. The resulting instruments were administered to a quota sample of 150 respondents qualified for inclusion by age, gender, socioeconomic status, and racial/ethnicity characteristics. The results were placed in the cells of a 5x3x2 grid reflecting five socioeconomic levels, three age groups, and two genders, with inclusion of minority race/ethnicity participants added throughout the cells. Main effects for each of the primary variables were tested, with only gender showing significance, with daughters performing at a higher level than sons. Other demographic characteristics of respondents and their parents were studied for association with role performance.Distance between the Daughter/Son and the parent with whom she/he is most involved and the Daughter/Son's involvement in parents' decision-making were significant. The closer the proximity, the higher the performance rating; the greater the involvement in the parent's decision-making, the higher the performance rating. Recommendations for further study include a larger population sample study covering a wider geographic range than this study, additional study of demographic characteristics that influence adult Daughter/Son role performance, study of minority differences, and study of the role performance for the younger age level.
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Advisor: Waynne B. James, Ed.D.
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