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Devised architecture :
b revitalizing the mundane
h [electronic resource] /
by Jason Novisk.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 85 pages.
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: In today's society, we view new as good, a universal standpoint that has become so commonly accepted as true, that to question it would be absurd. While many new items are an upgrade over their predecessor, it is important to understand that used items still retain a high amount of value and efficacy. Our landscape is filled with the mundane, industrial elements that surround us, yet due to our familiarity with them they are pushed to the background of our consciousness. However their commonplace should not mask their true potential value. By using what is already there before us, we will limit our dependence on new materials, as well as begin to diminish our waste. The surplus of idle materials compounded by skyrocketing construction cost has set the stage for a revolutionary change to architecture.Alternative construction methodologies such as up-cycling will undeniably reconfigure the design spectrum, showcasing an entirely new layer of building materials that exists, while giving us a better understanding of our environment. Up-cycling, is the process of turning waste materials and by-products into new, useful items which will reduce our waste and limit our dependence on virgin materials. These revitalized objects create an undeniable usefulness and practicality with dynamic flexibility, all the while changing our mentality. This inventive language has the capability to dictate the way we view common objects by unveiling a potential transformation of architecture. My aim is to create a center for up-cycling education, a facility that will demonstrate the sustainable practice of re-using materials and found items in an effort to achieve an inventive dialect of sustainability that is affordable.This center will demonstrate how everyday items can be utilized in an unorthodox manner to become part of our built environment. The unique components of the structure will create dynamic spaces that encourage interaction with building materials while giving us a better understanding of our environment. This resourceful method of sustainability will showcase a potential change to architecture by revealing a new vocabulary of building materials, as well as serve as a comment on our throw away culture. This new theory of devised architecture will not only prove to be beneficial economically, but more importantly it will provide a sensible solution in creating an affordable sustainable environment. The stage is set; we must do more with less.
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Advisor: Theodore Trent Green, M.Arch.
x Architecture and Community Design
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Devised Architecture: Revitalizing the Mundane by Jason Novisk of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Theodore Trent Green, M. Arch. Stanley Russell, M. Arch. Mark Weston, M. Arch. Date of Approval: November 12, 2009 Keywords: Up-cycle, Reuse, Materials, Surplus, Objects Copyright 2009, Jason Novisk
Acknowledgements I would like to thank my family for supporting me throughout my studies. You always believed in me and pushed me to do my best and to follow my dreams, I wouldnt have been able to make it without your support, and for that I am forever thankful. Mom and dad, without you this would have been impossible, I dont know how I can ever repay you for all that youve done for me. My classmates, this journey has been a long and it memorable. Your support and camaraderie made allnighters a more feasible task; I will never forget any of you. Jessica, I dont know if I can thank you enough for everything youve done for me, your guidance was crucial in forming me both as a student and a person. I truly am a better person since you entered my life. I am certain that I would not be where I am today if it were not for you, everything that I become, I owe you to you. To my teachers, your enthusiasm and dedication has given me a greater appreciating and understanding of architecture. While your guidance and wisdom has transformed architecture from an interest into a passion.
Table of Contents List of Figures iii Abstract viii Thesis Objectives x Research: Expanding Our Design Spectrum 1 Research: What to do With Our Waste 8 Case Study: CHS (Container Housing System) LOT/EK 13 Case Study: PRO/con (PROgram/container) Wes Jones 16 Case Study: Supershed Samuel Mockbee/Rural Studios 19 Site Selection 22 Site Analysis 29 Programming 37 Programming Issues: Site 39 Programming Issues: Up-Cycling Center 40 i
Programming Issues: Material Goals 42 Additional Programming Issues 43 Final Programming 45 Concept 49 Up-Cycling Center Operations 51 Schematic: Execution 54 Conclusion 82 Works Cited 84 ii
List of Figures Figure 1. Sink Wall 4 Figure 2. Abundance of Containers 5 Figure 3. Container Mall 5 Figure 4. Mason Bend Community Center 6 Figure 6. Linear life-cycle diagram 9 Figure 7. Closed loop life-cycle diagram 9 Figure 8. Delft Ladder material cycle 10 Figure 9. Container Housing System 13 Figure 10. Up-cycled material Structure Diagram 14 Figure 11. Facade Diagram 15 Figure 12. Pro/con construction axonometric 16 Figure 13. Up-cycled material Structure Diagram 17 Figure 14. Customizable Components 17 iii
Figure 15. Supershed Construction 19 Figure 16. Up-cycled material Structure Diagram 20 Figure 17. Cardboard Shed 20 Figure 18. Land-Use analysis 23 Figure 19. Public Transportation 24 Figure 20. Excess materials-Port of Tampa 25 Figure 21. Possible Sites 26 Figure 22. Downtown Residential Development Plan 27 Figure 23. Aerial View of site 29 Figure 24. Site with surrounding Contextual photographs 31 Figure 25. Current Site Panoramic 32 Figure 26. Climate Diagrams 33 Figure 27. Views from the Site 34 Figure 29. Initial site layout 36 Figure 30. Adjacency Bubble Diagram 44 Figure 31. Material Circulation Diagram 44 Figure 32. Programming Chart 45 iv
Figure 33. Conceptual Floor Plans First Floor, Second Floor 46 Figure 34. Conceptual Floor Plans First Floor, Second Floor 47 Figure 35. Conceptual Floor Plans First Floor, Second Floor 48 Figure 36. Conceptual Format of Structure 49 Figure 38. Fabrication Lab-various stages 52 Figure 39. Up-cycling center operations 52 Figure 40. Site Plan 54 Figure 41. York St. 55 Figure 42. McKay St. 55 Figure 43. Western Facade 56 Figure 44. Industrial Space vs. Public Space Diagram 57 Figure 45. View from Northeast 58 Figure 46. View from Southeast 59 Figure 47. Perspective overlooking Up-Lab 60 Figure 48. Graph of Commercial Aircrafts Projected to be Dismantled 62 Figure 49. Airplane Graveyard 63 Figure 50. Discarded Fuselage 63 v
Figure 51. Composite Fuselage 64 Figure 52. Structure of Semi-Monocoque Fuselage 65 Figure 53. Fuselage Tectonics 66 Figure 54. First Floor Plan 68 Figure 55. Second Floor Plan 69 Figure 56. Third Floor Plan 70 Figure 57. Building Axonometric 71 Figure 58. Material Circulation 72 Figure 59. Longitudinal Section 73 Figure 60. Cross Section 74 Figure 61. Perspective From Southwest 75 Figure 62. Spatial Layout 76 Figure 63. Material Processing 76 Figure 64. Material Testing 77 Figure 65. Think Tank 78 Figure 66. Interactive Area 79 Figure 67. Material Distribution 80 Figure 68. Store Interior 81 vi
Figure 69. Store Pick-up 81 Figure 70. Up-Lab Night Perspective 83 vii
ABSTRACT In todays society, we view new as good, a universal standpoint that has become so commonly accepted as true, that to question it would be absurd. While many new items are an upgrade over their predecessor, it is important to understand that used items still retain a high elements that surround us, yet due to our familiarity with them they are pushed to the background of our consciousness. However their commonplace should not mask their true potential value. By using what is already there before us, we will limit our dependence on new materials, as well as begin to diminish our waste. The surplus of idle materials compounded by skyrocketing construction cost has set the stage for a revolutionary change to architecture. Alternative construction methodologies such as up-cycling will an entirely new layer of building materials that exists, while giving us a better understanding of our environment. Up-cycling, is the process of turning waste materials and byproducts into new, useful items which will reduce our waste and limit our dependence on virgin materials. These revitalized objects create an undeniable usefulness and practicality with inventive language has the capability to dictate the way we view common objects by unveiling a potential transformation of architecture. My aim is to create a center for up-cycling education, a facility that will demonstrate the sustainable practice of re-using materials and found items in an effort to achieve an inventive dialect of sustainability that is affordable. This center will demonstrate how everyday items can be utilized in an unorthodox manner to become part of our built environment. The unique components of the structure will create dynamic spaces that encourage interaction with building materials while giving us a better understanding of our environment. This resourceful method of sustainability will showcase a potential change to architecture by revealing Devised Architecture: Revitalizing The Mundane Jason Novisk viii
a new vocabulary of building materials, as well as serve as a comment on our throw away culture. This new theory of devised architecture will importantly it will provide a sensible solution in creating an affordable sustainable environment. The stage is set; we must do more with less. ix
Thesis Objectives 1] Expand our vocabulary of construction materials 2] Provide an economical solution to achieving sustainability 3] Make us more aware of our surrounding environment 4] Diminish the amount of waste we produce x
1 RESEARCH: Expanding our Design Spectrum In one century the world population has gone from one to six billion, while the life expectancy has doubled. [Mau 2004, 37] In terms of nature, there are more mouths to feed while resources grow scarcer every day. The need to maximize our resources is a glaring problem worldwide. mindset. As consumers we purchase in abundance, always upgrading and discarding the old, forcing manufacturers into overdrive to keep up with the high demands of the consumers. From a manufacturers standpoint this is a good thing, however it is causing in the same motion. During construction of a 2,000 square foot home, nearly 8,000 lbs. of waste are typically thrown negative economic and environmental impact of this mindset presents a serious problem among our world of design, a problem we must change. This reckless state of consumption has prompted a drastic change to our design spectrum. As manufacturers have begun to acknowledge the importance of material conservation, they are beginning to design with a cradle-to-cradle philosophy, one that asserts that materials never become waste. Materials can be disassembled and used again, continuing along a path of a constant value. [Mau 2004, 189] When a material is constantly in use, its the reuse mindset, we can reduce our dependence on raw material and diminish our waste all within the same motion. While the industrial systems of the
2 endless production, this new era will strive to be more intelligent, a design model that provides a continuous assembly/disassembly line of goods and materials. Within this new model of use, we can maximize of improvement. [Mau 2004, 190] Mankind has become more observant and responsible over the years, paying closer attention to our environment and resources. Fittingly, architectural trends have evolved and adapted to this evolutionary change. Buildings now strive to be green, to run on less or no energy, minimize waste coveted trait has become an expected characteristic among recent works. Although sustainability is highly sought after, it remains absent from many projects, the main reason for this is because a sustainable design is generally more expensive. High priced materials and technologies have given sustainability this stigma. So the question is; how do we create an affordable sustainable environment? Furthermore, sustainability is on the verge of becoming very repetitive and boring, more often than not achieved by implementing solar panels, passive heating/cooling, or some sort of water harvesting system. All of which are very effective ways of designing a sustainable project; however, the majority of architects are not thinking outside the box, to uncover a way in which we can create a new means of achieving sustainability. So the question then changes to: How do we create an affordable sustainable environment that is creative and unique? This trend of architecture that has spurred innovative ideas, forcing architects to think outside the box in ways we can achieve a sustainable typology. One of the most fascinating and inventive dialects of sustainability is up-cycling, which is the process of turning waste materials and by-products into new and useful elements. This innovative way of building and designing, reduces our waste and limits our dependence on virgin materials. [McDonough and Braungart 2002, 93] Contrary to recycling, the material in a more prestigious role than that of the primary function. Recycling is actually downcycling. Items and materials are actually getting lower in quality as they are recycled, for instance, as a milk jug is recycled it is reprocessed and diluted down by various additives and dyes, losing its quality through the system. [Mau 2004, 191] Devised architecture has the potential to it is something everyone can get involved in, much like recycling. With the ability to transform any
3 mundane material or item into a new useful element, a comment on how we live our lives. In the end, its This will force us to stop and think twice before we discard an item or piece of trash from our house. What if it changed the way we saw our surrounding environment? Abandoned cars could become a resource of building materials, excess infrastructure components may well be found in the new library, building scraps from demolition sites would be placed back into construction; everyday household items could be manipulated to work within an inventive wall or window system. Devised architecture is re-inventing our built environment by questioning conventional building construction techniques and materials. [Tolla and Lignano 2002, 34] puts an emphasis on turning everyday objects into something in which we can inhabit and use, creating a new vernacular that is innovative, admirable, amusing, revolutionary. In doing so, these revitalized objects create an undeniable usefulness and practicality with [Scoates 2003, 74] LOT-EKs reuse approach to design began as an observation on the American city. Partners, Ada mechanical equipment is, machinery is on show: air conditioners poke out of windows, water towers sit on top of buildings, hydrants stand out of the ground. It is these sculptural elements that make up the urban environment. [Scoates 2003, 68] Having grown up in Italy, Tolla and Ligano found this new industrial scene to be unique and beautiful. The machinery was an entirely new layer added to the urban landscape. To most it was common and ugly, but when seen Although these machines all have functions, they have an equally valuable sculptural value to them, transforming Americas familiar infrastructure into an inspirational, resourceful environment. [Scoates 2003, 69] It is the introduction of common items into foreign environments that converts any mundane object into that of relevance. Furthermore, it is the new environment that enables us to view the object in a different light, opening our eyes to the beauty of everything we make. You get to know the tree in your own garden a lot better than the one in the forest; the container out of which your apartment is made is much more familiar than the one in the shipping yard. [Scoates 2003, 78] A new environment practically transforms the object into something new, encouraging us to examine and touch it. There is something a little disconcerting
4 and consequently stimulating about being in the presence of these relocated objects..triggering the human desire for a new experience. [Scoates 2003, 58] This inventive language has the capability to dictate the way we view common objects by unveiling the potential architecture can become. Gone would be the day where wood, steel, and masonry are viewed as the backbone of construction. Resources will include anything tactile in the real world, ranging from car parts and cement mixers, to sinks and old detergent bottles. [Scoates 2003, 64] Our landscape surround us, yet due to our familiarity with them they are pushed to the background of our consciousness. However their commonplace should not mask their true potential value. The advantages of implementing reused materials in architecture reach beyond that of an economic standpoint, they also satisfy preconceived notion that architecture must have some sort of aesthetic quality, but most importantly, it allows us to better understand and engage the environment in which we live. [Scoates 2003, 62] Introduction of second-hand items brings into focus elements of our surroundings that get lost among the background of our existence, materials that we can learn from, and appreciate as roles and functions shift. We all would greatly appreciate the simplistic beauty of a wooden pallet if it were part of a screen system on a porch. However without the introduction of an item, it would design. greatest number of people using the least amount of resources, in which LOT-EKs success hinges on. the mainstream. The possibilities and opportunities nearly double thanks to this whole new layer of architecture, where shipping containers are houses, oil tankers become trendy lofts, water cisterns a revolutionary skate park, old buckets and laundry detergent bottles transform into decorative lamps, and a sink becomes a part of a wall system. [Scoates Sink wall. http://www.lot-ek.com/ Fig.1.
5 2003, 64] LOT-EK has opened our eyes to what is there before us, waiting to become part of architecture. In this instance, architecture is shaping our lives, in which the way we live and even think about what a building could become. This would not only change the way we view architecture and various items in our environment, but also our economy. Junk and salvage yards will compete with Home Depot and other manufactures as a source for building supplies and materials. An entire new industry would emerge that specializes on modifying, making, repairing, and relocating scrap and waste. This new market would lead to the development of companies which would provide an array of jobs, not to mention an immediate wealth to whatever company or country that possess any of the 117 million unused shipping containers around the word. [Scoates 2003, 76] In todays society, we view new as good, a universal standpoint that has become so commonly accepted as true, that to question it would be absurd. It is our consumer driven culture that has steered us to this deduction. Products that we buy are an upgrade over the old, yet simultaneously, a mere matter of time from becoming superseded. This creates an understanding that new is more about value than it is chronology. [Jones 2007, 96] We are brought up to think that new is an improvement, which is a Abundance of shipping containers shipping containers Fig.2. http://www.straightupsearch.com/archives/800px-Line3174_-_ Shipping_Containers_at_the_terminal_at_Port_Elizabeth,_New_ Jersey_-_NOAA.jpg Container Mall http://www.lot-ek.com/ Fig.3.
6 widespread misconception. While many new items are an upgrading over their predecessor, it is important to understand that used items still retain a high amount desire for classic automobiles, vintage clothing, and other retro items, this could be due to an underlying lust with certain items or an era, or it simply could stem from a maintained degree of usefulness and trustworthy reliance in a proven product. Whatever the reason, it is a valuable lesson architects should take note of. In a society that aspires for the new and expensive, upcycling provides an alternative to conventional architecture, and more importantly our consumer culture. We are a culture of new gadgets and trends, buying unnecessarily, and disregarding the old, or slightly used. Instead of limiting our efforts to recycling, we should broaden them to the more economical and sensible solution of reusing. As consumers we want more for less, so shouldnt that same sediment be carried over into our actions? of recycling without the energy burden of having to actually recycle. [Scoates 2003, 26] Samuel Mockbee of Rural Studios has embraced this idea by using it to his advantages in hopes of showing others that nothing is useless. His projects are aimed towards lower income families, although this does not hinder his design, it actually broadens his opportunities allowing him to showcase the use of unconventional materials, proving that anything can become architecture. He shows us that used news papers serve as a useful ingredient in mud bricks, rather than just a recyclable. Old road signs can double as an ideal roof cladding, or part of a screen system wrapping a porch. Automotive windshields found in a junkyard can be transformed into the focal point of a new pavilion, creating an architectural expression out of waste. [Dean and Hursley 2002, 74] Due to the unique composition of his projects, inhabitants are more inclined to examine and interact with these rural structures. His reuse of different materials and various found objects are not only cost effective, but showcase a new style Mason Bend Community Center Fig.4. 2002. Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an architecture of decency
7 The surplus of idle materials such as shipping containers, compounded by skyrocketing construction cost, has set the stage for a re-birth of the design/ build approach to creating architecture. Alternative construction methodologies such as upcycling proving to be a viable practice in architecture; strong a trend. Because up-cycled architecture will prove to be substantially cheaper, it will allow a greater number of people access to an architects services. Most importantly, it will provide a sensible solution in creating an affordable sustainable environment. The stage is set, we must do more with less; and minimize our negative impact on the world. [McDonough and Braungart 2002, 53]
8 RESEARCH: What to do with our Waste First we must accept the notion that waste is not a bad thing, that is, if it is handled properly. Waste is an idea that belongs to the throwaway society, not to the reuse and recycling society. [Addis 2006,12] In terms of recycling and reuse, waste is an opportunity rather than a problem. This opportunity is one that must be capitalized upon in an effort to change the current method of design, production, and design of products and materials, the current method products that are being recycled were never designed to be recycled. [McDonough and Braungart 2002, 55] By producing materials in a cradle-to-cradle mindset we can drastically minimize waste, and possibly eliminate it all together. [McDonough and Braungart Fig.5. jpg
9 2002, 92] The life cycle of a material can travel along one of two paths, Figure 6 shows the linear life cycle, in which a raw material has a beginning and an end. By a material can no longer contribute as a resource. This cradle-to-grave process is short-sighted and goods, hence requiring the mining of raw materials. Figure 7 shows the closed-loop cycle, this is the course a material takes when it is either reused or recycled. The reuse process shows that a material must undergo some refurbishment, however it avoids the manufacturing process that recycled elements revert back to before they can enter into the system again. It is evident that the closed-loop cycle is the be investigated further to determine pros and cons of each. Figure 8 shows the material cycle in regards to construction. Recycling has become the widespread solution of conserving resources. However, within the waste management hierarchy of reduce, reuse, recycle, it fact downcycling, meaning that the material quality is reduced over time. [McDonough and Braungart The linear life cycle of materials and goods Fig.6. Building with reclaimed components and materials: a design handbook for reuse and recycling (London:Earthscan, 2006) A closed-loop life cycle for materials Fig.7. Building with reclaimed components and materials: a design handbook for reuse and recycling (London:Earthscan, 2006)
10 Fig.8. Building with reclaimed components and materials: a design handbook for reuse and recycling (London:Earthscan, 2006)
11 2002, 56] Take the automobile, an abundant item that remains idle in salvage yards all throughout our landscape. Due to safety regulations the steel must be of a very high quality, high in carbon and tensile strength, yet when recycled it is mixed with other car parts such as copper, paint, and plastic coatings, thus diluting the quality of the recycled steel. This reduced quality product is compensated for by adding in new materials to bring the material back up to standard, therefore recycling is merely a less harmful solution. [McDonough and Braungart 2002, 56] Many products are not designed with recycling in mind, meaning that when recycled there is no way to separate the desired element from those that surround it. Currently there is no technology to separate the polymer and paint coatings from automotive metal before it is processed; therefore, even if a car were designed for disassembly, it is not technically feasible to close the loop for its high quality steel. [McDonough and Braungart 2002, 57] The diluting of the desired material during recycling is counter balanced by additives of chemicals and elements that bring the material back up to the desired quality of that initial item, however sometimes to achieve standards comparable to the primary element, a recycled material may have more additives than the virgin material, thus negating the desired effect of recycling. [McDonough and Braungart 2002, 58] Because recycling is not the best solution for manner that lets us utilize the material in its strong suit. In addition to the loss of value in materials, recycling also poses a potential harm on the environment through pollution. Many paints and plastics that are melted along with recycled steel contain harmful chemicals, when recycled these chemicals are released making recycling centers large sources of dioxin emissions. [McDonough and Braungart 2002, 57] The emission of harmful gas is compounded by the amount of energy required during the recycling process, where recyclables are picked-up and delivered to sorting facilities, then re-routed to the proper recycling center. All in all, the perception of recycling is more positive than the process itself. Contrary to recycling, reuse is taking use for it. The process of reusing elements will items from entering the waste stream. Reclamation and reuse are not new ideas, in fact it was the norm until the early nineteenth century. [Addis 2006, 9] With the industrial revolution came the ability to mass produce products, providing an endless resource of new materials, however it reduced our ingenuity of resourcefulness. The Egyptians, Greek, an Romans often reused stones
12 from abandoned buildings and sites of earlier structures as foundations of new construction, realizing that reusing would drastically reduce the amount of work. Currently we implement reused items not only to save on energy required to create a product, but to preserve our resources. Much like recycling, reusing is responsible in the sense of resource conservation, it creates less air and water pollution, all the while From a corporate standpoint, reusing will prove to be an economically sound practice by saving money in both purchasing and disposal costs. Furthermore, it is a practice that will promote a positive image to the public by displaying a concern for the environment. If the reuse industry can grow into a widely accepted service, businesses will generate opportunities for employment thus contributing to the economy on a different level. Reusing is the embodiment of the cradle-tocradle philosophy of waste equals food. The earth has been self-sustaining for millions of years on a biological cradle-to-cradle system, until humans and industry began taking resources and altering them to the point where they can no longer be returned to the soil, thus throwing the natural equilibrium of materials out of balance. Now we must revert back to the natural process of waste equals food in order to prevent further harm upon the planet. [McDonough and Braungart 2002,92]
13 CASE STUDY: CHS (Container Housing System) LOT/EK The container housing system is a prototype multi-family housing building that is the result of residential building competition for the city of contemporary solution to this standard building type by using shipping containers as the primary building unit. The dense urban context of New York City calls for residential buildings to go vertical in order to optimize land and accommodate the heavy population. Standard 40 shipping containers are implemented as building blocks to the housing system. Much like bricks, they work well as a building material because create a built structure. Although, contrary to the brick which just serves as a unit of the structure, containers Container Housing System http://www.lot-ek.com/ Fig.9.
14 serve as both the structure and the inhabitable spaces within. It is the multifunctional values of the shipping containers that make them pivotal within the design, acting as both structure and living unit. Because they are of a uniform size this makes them easily stackable of four various unit types, in order to satisfy a wide range of occupants. Because a large majority of the building components are pre-constructed, the container housing system becomes a prototype building that can be duplicated world-wide. The pre-existing infrastructure of the universally used shipping container a variety of building types. The uniform weight and dimensions are ideal attributes for compatibility with other building components, while their demanding previous function assure us that they are indeed sturdy enough to thrive in their role as a piece of architecture. The brilliance is not only their simplicity, but its ability to morph and function, as roles change. [Scoates 2003, 66] The containers modularity offers a system that is easily duplicated, cheaper, quicker, building layout, contrary to conventional housing maximize materials, which leads to drab exteriors and predictable circulation. The container housing shifts in the plan create an alternative to the usual Upcycled material-structure diagram Fig.10.
15 monotonous linearity of long straight hallways in multi-family housing. This shift is transferred to the exterior faade, which help to break up the mass of the building, to create a lighter, dynamic, more sculptural form within the urban context. [LOT/EK] within the breaks are opportunities for exterior porches and balconies, as well as large public areas. The shipping container is a good place to start as far as using reclaimed items as a part of architecture, they are large, strong, uniform, and in abundance; all in all they are perfectly suited to make the conversion to architecture. However, it can easily give us tunnel vision, not allowing us to focus on what other items could be implemented within the design. It is important to establish guidelines to limit the use of an item so that it doesnt lose its value through over-use or repetition. Each item should complement compete with surrounding items. The use of an item should not only establish the boundaries of the identifying the characteristic of each area. The uniformity of the containers creates a very regimented and episodic spatial program; their them in order to achieve a dynamic space. Their role should shift from being the building, to simply an element of the building. Facade diagram Fig.11.
16 CASE STUDY: PRO/con (PROgram/CONtainer) Wes Jones The PRO/con (Program/container) is a modular typology that is focused on adaptability. Making use of 20 shipping containers as building blocks, which allow for a variety of living arrangements. The compatability Contrary to standard container architecture, where the container is the enclosed space, pro/con uses the containers to frame out larger spaces. This allows the utilization of the spaces within, as well as larger areas created around them to create a wide range of spatial conditions. The loose modularity allows the slabs, walls, and additional structure to complement each other to achieve the desired, highly customizable Pro/con construction axonometric Fig.12.
17 as well as the life span of the building. As life changes, users are able to rearrange rooms, trading them in for ones of other functions and purposes. over from one building type to the next. The ability to mix and match and plug in units of different spaces is a highly sought after characteristic. For instance, to rearrange the exhibits and functions of the spaces within, thus creating an entirely new attraction; this would encourage repeat customers to the museum, giving them a slightly different taste each time they returned. Furthermore, the ability to change exhibit sizes would provide the museum with more control to showcasing exhibits, highlighting particular display areas, to create a dynamic media for showcasing materials. Because the containers are modular, the construction time is drastically accelerated. In addition to improved construction, it is obvious that transportation to the site is a very simple procedure, because the means for handling shipping containers are found world-wide. The primary design is intended for the transportation of goods, a characteristic that materials and components, making delivery an all in Upcycled material-structure diagram Fig.13. Customizable components Fig.14.
18 containers offer, however they also offer a quality and strength of steel. [jonespartnersarchitecture ] The standard shipping container is engineered with ridges within the faces, which act as beams, allowing great spans without additional support, providing a structure that is anywhere between twoeight times stronger than required by the building code. [jonespartnersarchitecture] The strength alone places containers in an opportunity for a variety of uses, allowing designs to go places those conventional materials and methods would prohibit. has driven down the cost of the overall process, from design to construction, allowing for funds to spend elsewhere within the project. The pro/con is an example of environmentally friendly architecture, a demonstration of responsible material use, utilizing an element to its fullest potential before turning to a raw material. The longevity that a pro/con structure offers is appealing, especially considering the minimal amount of resources used.
19 CASE STUDY: SupershedSamuel Mockbee/Rural Studio The Supershed project is a conglomeration of pods for student living, joined by a communal gathering space created by the supershed. Just as in many of his other works, Samuel Mockbee and Rural Studios demonstrate how our architectural library is Mockbees use of found materials is a demonstration of the ultimate assemblage. The in which he uses various medias of art to discover the character of the site and client. Thus, each project is the transformation of ideas and method into the Because many of the projects are for lowincome clients, the designs must are for the materials used within his projects are implemented to reduce Supershed construction Fig.15. Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an architecture of decency (New York: Princeton Architectural Press,2002)
20 the cost of the building His projects are aimed towards lower income families, although this does not hinder his design, it actually broadens his opportunities allowing him to showcase the use of unconventional materials, proving that anything can become architecture. The use of unconventional material is his way of reducing two pronged effect; one it is a cheaper solution, but more importantly, it brings life into his designs, giving them an identity. The most refreshing aspect of the project is the honest use of materials. There is no forcing a material in because it is symbolic, it is used because we had it, and for the fun of it [Dean and Hursley 2002, 72] Each project acts as an experiment to see how a material could hold up. The cardboard pod is constructed out of wax-impregnated cardboard scraps, compressed into bales that are stackable like large bricks. Because the cardboard is impregnated with wax to make it water-resistant, it is nearly impossible Hursley 2002, 72] The use of alternative materials give each shed a different identity and character, Old street signs, bits of steel plate, printing plates from the local newspaper, create a quirky vernacular, transforming an ordinary structure into an intelligent blend of art and architecture. [Dean and Hursley 2002, Upcycled material-structure diagram Fig.16. Cardboard shed Fig.17. Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an architecture of decency (New York: Princeton Architectural Press,2002)
21 a building faade into a nameplate, recognizable and tactile. This type of architecture encourages us to examine it, to inspect its construction, to admire the originality and ingenuity of it. This architecture can dictate the way we interact with a structure; persuade us to inspect minor details that would otherwise go overlooked. This vernacular can expose the true potential of everyday materials, creating a heightened sense of our surroundings, as well as a better understanding of construction methods.
22 Site Selection The objective of this thesis is to create an upcycling center that will demonstrate how unorthodox materials can be used in construction, opening our eyes to the surrounding context, forcing us to realize that there are items all around us waiting to become a piece of architecture that is both sculptural and economical. We can draw upon these sources from all different aspects of our built environment, including, but not limited to; excess construction materials, idle components of our existing infrastructure, and anything that still retains value yet lies unused. In doing so, this inventive vernacular will showcase a means of achieving sustainability, introduce a new vocabulary of building materials, and reduce our dependence on virgin materials; all the while reducing construction methods are similar regardless of city, and every region has its own unique infrastructure and product ridden landscape, any urban context could accommodate such a project. Tampa, particularly the downtown region, was selected for site possibilities because it is a developing region with a dense urban landscape that would be an appropriate context for such a building. The factors considered in site selection criteria are; proximity to residential areas, public transit, surrounding points of interest, location and delivery of material sources, and views. Because this project is sustainable, the aim is to build on a vacant lot, or one that houses an unused
23 Land Use analysis Fig.18.
24 building, to avoid any unnecessary demolition. The project should be located in a corresponding region that will support and contribute to the success of the building, which in turn make the reuse center stronger, Because the up-cycling center would implement a material drop off and pick up program, acting as a warehouse of a distribution center, it is important for the site to be in close proximity to a residential district. This will let the facility strengthen the community by engaging those who live nearby as well as tourists. There is a growing residential district along the eastern edge of downtown, most of which are trendy lofts or condominiums, this project would look to serve such residents as well as those living in surrounding residential areas. Public transit is considered in connecting the project to various points of interest in relation to downtown. The ability for users to have an ease of access to the up-cycling center as well as other public parking downtown. Modes of public transportation appropriate site. Surrounding points of interest are considered in helping the center to blend into surrounding social context. The up-cycling center will feed off of the other Public Transportation Fig.19.
25 amenities and grow into a destination amongst other downtown points of interest. Social draws such as Channelside and the St. Pete Times Forum constantly projects such as the Tampa Bay History Museum and the Tampa Museum of Art are examples of an ever growing cultural center that encompasses the downtown peninsula. Downtown is an ideal location due to the proximity to the Port of Tampa, which could function as an abundant resource for materials. The Port of Tampa is one of the largest in the nation at over 5,000 acres, and responsible for the handling over 43 million tons of cargo in 2008 alone. [tampaport] The port has earned a reputation by shipping liquid and dry bulk, with its four most notable commodities being limestone, phosphate chemical fertilizers, cement, and granite. In addition, the port is also well known for container cargoes, a service that brings in goods for the bay area and central Florida, a market of about 4 million residents, and nearly 8 million within 100 miles. [tampaport] As Floridas largest steel port, Tampa has developed into a major steel processing and distribution center with products ranging from pipe, coils and wire rod to scrap, automobiles, as well as high and heavy construction equipment. [tampaport] In result of being major trading hub, the Port of Tampa specializes in ship building and repair, a trait that has of the up-cycling center. With an abundant source of cement, steel, and containers, the port can serve as a valuable resource in collecting excess materials, as well as borrowing certain methods and skills of transporting and construction. one evaluated with the above criteria in mind. The Excess materials at the Port of Tampa Fig.20.
26 site should be located within a prominent area, this is intended to demonstrate that a building constructed of reused materials is no less prestigious than that of a building of new materials. This expression will justify that a building created through up-cycling and reusing materials can thrive in even the most exalted region, therefore, will be acceptable anywhere. potential for thriving with the greatest impact on the surrounding community. The surrounding context gives it the most opportunity to thrive and grow into popularity as it is neighbored by the Channelside entertainment complex to the south, and the Tampa Port Authority to the north. This location will allow the attractiveness of surrounding venues to draw occupants into the up-cycling center, amenities that spans from the Tampa Convention Center, up to the Florida Aquarium. Additional parking will not be required due to the mainly vacant lot that is used for cruise parking, the site is also close enough to negating the need for a large parking lot, something downtown has an abundance of. Furthermore, the site is serviced by a streetcar stop along Channelside for those coming from downtown as well as Ybor city. The use of public transit broadens the reach of those who wish to visit the site. As it stands now, the site is a vacant parking lot that is fenced off and used to store various loading equipment such as forklifts. The site is surrounded by additional parking that accomodates the cruise industry. The nearby residential region is rapidly Economic and Urban Development department have mapped a proposed thirteen residential towers to be surrounding district is tuning into a heavily populated Possible Sites Fig.21.
27 Downtown Residential Development Plan http://www.tampagov.net/dept_economic_ Fig.22. and_Urban_development/programs_and_services/Community_redevelopment_areas/Downtown/ Residential_development_map_interactive.asp
28 an up-cycling center. This site also provides ideal views that help strengthen the concept. Overlooking the water are two distinct land masses, with equally distinct uses, one is the posh residences of Harbour Island, the other the industrial Port of Tampa. These two views represent the course of a material, where they originate, and where they eventually end up. The site serves as a link between the two, the middle ground representing the locale for the transformation of a raw material into that of something that can be utilized within our built environment.
29 Site Analysis on the southern end of industrial distict of the port, just east of Channelside Dr.; It is currently neglected except for a small section of the lot that is used for equipment storage for the port terminals. This lot offers a prime location as it sits on the boundary between the industrial district of the port, and the entertainment district of Channelside. The lot is to thrive in a prominent location. To the north is an abandoned loading dock and port terminal equipped with service roads and parking lots. Accessed by McKay St., which runs along the northern edge of the Port Authority, giving the site an industrial access from Channelside Dr. The southern edge of the site is bordered by York St., which currently services the cruise terminal as well as Aerial view of the site Fig.23.
30 the Florida Aquarium. During visits to the site, it was it reaches the site, due to an empty lot, however it is important to create a strong presence along Channelside Dr. to establish the building along the street edge in an attempt to continue the pedestrian of the building entrance among the site. Figure 24 shows images of the surrounding context in orientation to the site. The current state 25, note the primarily vacant parking lot. Figures 26 show a general understanding of the climate. Figure 27 portrays the views overlooking the water; two distinct built environments can be seen, the industrial, and the residential, each representing a different landscape of materials and items and how they can be used.
31 Site with surrounding Contextual photographs Fig.24.
32 Current Site Panoramic Fig.25.
33 Climate Diagrams Fig.26.
34 Views from the Site Fig.27.
36 Initial site layout Fig.29.
37 Schematic Programming The primary objective of this thesis is to discover what resources in our surrounding environment can transfer into an architectural function. This investigation seeks to broaden the potential that architecture can become by unveiling a creative dialect that will explore the implementation of unconventional items and materials into our built environment. The ideas of the thesis will be conveyed in a center for up-cycling education; a building that is part construction lab, part warehouse/distribution center, and part fabrication studio. This building through both attendance, and outreach of materials and services. our landscape, although they are unused, they still transforming these items into materials that can be used in construction. It is equally important for the public to view these common items as materials rather than what they are originally intended for. In doing so this center will alleviate the amount of materials that are bound for the waste stream from both industrial and community sectors. The upcycling center is intended to showcase what can be done, while the warehouse and distribution center aim to collect, modify, and reallocate throughout sustainable mindset. The up-cycling education center will be successful economically, socially, and environmentally. of materials for the consumer, as well as possible incentives to partners or donor organizations. The
38 of hauling, fabrication, and distribution. Potential tax breaks to donors will promote the community to get involved in a reuse movement. With the operations of the center dependent upon the community for services of the center, the two will feed off of each other, growing in strength and outreach. the center will change the mindset of the community by forcing a more active role in a sustainable lifestyle. This center will have an immediate impact by alleviating the load of recycling reusable materials.
39 1] Let the surrounding context and site features organize building location and site utilization. 2] Maintain the urban context by engaging the street edge to help the building fuse with adjacent street conditions. 3] Use courtyards and parks to create a draw that encourages pedestrians to come to the site. 4] Create a public space on site that will endorse growth as a communal center. 5] Provide access to loading and unloading docks for the warehouse. 6] Clearly distinguish between industrial access, and public access. 7] Engage the waterfront for both public use and industrial operations. this will face those coming from downtown, acting as a self-promotion for the building. Programming Issues: Site
40 Programming Issues: Up-Cycling Center 1] The up-cycling center should clearly convey the goals and ideas of the thesis: reusing items as a building material. 2] Achieve a dialogue with interior and exterior spaces that merge the two together, creating a space that 3] Create a continually changing building, exhibits change dependent on what material is to be demonstrated. 4] The continuing assembly and disassembly of display areas acts as an exhibit within itself, where patrons are 5] The up-cycling center will display building materials and methods that can be taken and transferred into other buildings and renovation projects of all scales. 6] The goal is to introduce people to the idea of reusing an item or material in an unconventional manner, triggering inventive ways we can use materials to achieve sustainability. 7] Up-cycling center will have a fabrication shop/lab that will modify an item from a raw state into a readily used material. 8] The fabrication shop will act as an exhibit, to introduce people to the process taken in reusing a material. This lab will produce new systems to be introduced into the up-cycling center spaces as well as an inventory ready to be reintroduced into construction. 9] The up-cycling center will house a store that will allow patrons to buy up-cycled materials seen in the center. 10] Large items should be picked up near the loading docks. 11] The center should be easily recognizable with distinct features that establish its presence within the
41 12] The journey through the up-cycling center will eventually lead patrons to an overlook of the warehouse, the 13] The eastern end will showcase desired views towards the bay and the Port of Tampa. 14] Regular operations of the warehouse and loading docks will be visible and on display. 15] The adjacent proposed parks will contribute to the center spaces and the site by encouraging exploration. 16] The structure of the building should be strong enough to withstand a constant assembly and disassembly of components and spaces.
42 Programming Issues: Material Goals 1] The use of a material should enhance the space, rather than simply negate the need of a conventional material. 2] Items should be considered as both a whole and a part, to contribute to a system. 3] The building itself should function as an exhibit. 4] Materials, or systems of reused items should compliment adjacent systems or components, cautious not to compete or make a space overwhelming. 5] Utilize an element to its fullest potential. atmosphere. 7] Limit the use of an item so that it doesnt lose its value through over-use or repetition. 8] Use material to achieve a desired characteristic of an area. 9] A material should be used in an innovative way, to showcase the potential that it can become. 10] The building should be an example of systems and techniques could be transferred into other projects. 11] Create unique systems or components that encourage occupants to examine details that would typically be ignored.
43 Additional Programming Issues This center will be a functional building operating to achieve a service to the community by collecting, modifying, showcasing, and redistributing materials and items that are to be reinstated into our built environment. As a working shop, the agenda of building functions need to be concisely established to for both the progression of the material and the path taken by the user. The southern end of the site will be dedicated to freight and operations of delivery trucks pertaining to unloading materials into the warehouse, parking as The exterior space could also function as a staging area space required for the trucks to gain access to the loading docks. To further utilize the site, attention should be given to the water front as a transportation of resources, as well as a means for users to oversee operations. Due to the spatial requirements and highly regimented operations of the loading docks, user parking will take place off site in a nearby parking garage, while minimal parking will be provided for staff. The spatial relationships of the building intended cycle of an item that passes through the up-cycling center. Both are relevant in the forming move both people and materials through it.
44 Adjacency Bubble Diagram Fig.30. Material Circulation Diagram Fig.31.
45 Programming Chart Fig.32. Quantitive Spaces Atrium 3,000 S.f. Loading Docks 3,000 s.f. Material Testing 5,000 s.f. Processing/Fabrication Shop 15,000 s.f. Material Storage 15,000 s.f. Interactive Area 20,000 s.f. Think Tank 5,000 s.f. Store 1,000 s.f. Total 63,000 s.f.
46 Conceptual Floor Plans First Floor, Second Floor Fig.33.
47 Conceptual Floor Plans First Floor, Second Floor Fig.34.
48 Conceptual Floor Plans First Floor, Second Floor Fig.35.
49 Schematic Concept The intent of this thesis is to Expand our vocabulary of building materials by showcasing unconventional items used in an architectural context. Each material will be an exploration of possible solutions in uncovering a progressive means of transforming an item into a more celebrated role. This will be achieved by uncovering secondary uses for a multitude of items. The material will undergo a transformation, in status, use, location, and acceptance; opening our eyes to the underlying usefulness and beauty in everything we produce. Merging the objective with the outcome will be achieved through integrating materials into the purpose of the up-cycling center; focusing on the conversion of materials, from futile to desired. The notion of transformation is one that can be carried Conceptual Format of Structure Fig.36.
50 over into the building itself, the building will change much in the same manner that the materials do, center will behave as an ongoing interactive exhibit, displaying the same principles to be applied to the materials, so that both the means and method are uniform in purpose. The constant change of both building elements and spaces creates a dynamic environment that encourages interface with users and materials, as well as the up-cycling center and the site. The notion of activity will be apparent to the surrounding context, this is intended to draw users in as well as establish the building as something that is as something that is both functional and productive as a one of a kind project, pioneering what will become a pivotal facet within our industry. Fig.37.
51 This thesis is aimed at creating a facility that will optimize materials, keeping them in an increasing is not the up-cycling center in which these materials message. The primary objective is to change the mindset of the user, to convey the notion that many items we throw away still possess a purpose and value. In doing so, a more sustainable lifestyle will ensue creating a more sustainable community. The up-cycling center will function much like a recycling center will, in the sense that materials are delivered, processed (if needed), and re-dispersed back into the community as a commodity. In addition to being a working factory, the center will showcase how different items can be used within architecture through interactive exhibits and displays in which the user can get a hands on tutorial. materials. The center will look towards demolition sites, industrial excess, and items discarded from households as possible resources. Scheduled pickups would be provided as a municipal service in an effort to gather material, in doing so, this service will alleviate the dependence on the already over worked recycling centers of the Bay area, by providing another alternative to recycling. According to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, southern Hillsborough County is responsible for roughly sixty percent of recyclables at the Pasco Recycling Center; a facility that is outdated and undersized and fails to process nearly forty percent of the twenty-four million pounds of trash it takes in annually. Last year alone the facility threw out nearly 4,500 tons of recyclables, Up-Cycling Center Operations
52 essentially negating the entire purpose of recycling. [Construction and Demolition Debris Recycling] These numbers suggest the need for an additional service to As materials arrive to the up-cycling center they will be evaluated as whether needing refurbishing or not then stored in the warehouse. From there the Item is ready to go into the fabrication lab, here any alterations or processing make the material construction ready. The lab is intended to be a focal point of the center as it shows users the steps taken to ready an item to make it reusable. Next the demonstration area will house seminars of active displays where users can participate in various workshops teaching them techniques as well as different ideas of how to use an unconventional item to create various building components, furniture, or works of art. This area with different exhibits and examples at various stages of construction and deconstruction. This dynamic atmosphere will educate users about materials and train them on the assembly process, as well as create a desirable location that will promote repeat visits by content. The items used in the display area will go back into the warehouse so that they may be sold and redistributed. The up-cycling center will feed into a park that will overlook the operations of the loading dock. This Fabrication Lab showing different building elements in Fig.38. various stages of construction. Up-cycling center showing operations Fig.39.
53 is intended to act as a civic space that will promote access to the site by offering a playground made of reused materials as well as sculptural installations commissioned by fabricators and artists that will invite the public into the up-cycling center. The center will strive to process materials that were once considered trash or futile, transforming them into a useful product that can be re-circulated back into commerce. In doing so the center will create a source of quality products at a low price, while minimizing our dependence on virgin materials. This in turn will reduce the amount of waste that is of consumption. The objective is to educate users about waste, and their consumption habits, and to encourage them to take relevant action.
54 Schematic Execution In conjunction with the previous research and project objectives, the nature of this thesis will be discussed on micro and macro levels in order to grasp will include the site, resources, project goal, and building organization. The site poses opportunities for the project to have an interesting blend of public and industrial purposes in both function and design. Located on the southwestern end of the Port of Tampa, the zoning indicates an industrial purpose, however, the proximity to entertainment districts shape the building into an industrial building focusing on user interaction. This blend of function, education, and entertainment is formed by the site and convergence of various districts creating an amenity that allows the public to utilize. Site plan Fig.40.
55 strong enough to withstand the everyday operations of a warehouse, fabrication shop, and loading docks; while at the same time be aesthetically pleasing to appeal to the public. The industrial nature of the site allows for an easy transition of an up-cycling and distribution plant. The site is pre-equipped with access roads for trucks and cargo as well as a vastly unused parking lot that accommodates the Tampa Port Authority, each of which begin to delineate the access for both industrial and public access. The natural shape of the lot along with ease of access of large tractor tailors formed the drive-through style pick up of materials that can be redistributed among ongoing construction projects. York St., which runs along the southern border of the lot, will be used as the main user access as it also accommodates the nearby Florida Aquarium. While the seldom used McKay St. along the northern end of the site will provide access of material drop off. In keeping with the ideas of the thesis, the goal was to alter the site and surrounding access roads as minimally as possible. In order to establish a presence within the strongly considered as the front of the building and thus needs to draw attention from the street. Due to the operations of the Up-Lab, sheer size would York St. Fig.41. McKay St. Fig.42.
56 Western facade Fig.43.
57 be enough to establish a presence from the street; materials it is constructed out of. Activity will also play a role in engaging the site; daily operations will create a dynamic atmosphere in and about the building, which daily operations compounded by the unique building composition will ensure that the Up-Lab has created an iconic presence within its surroundings. The Up-Lab successfully integrates itself into the surrounding context by accommodating standards of both industrial and public genres. This project will demonstrate that industrial buildings can be this building is a hybrid in the sense that it has an industrial purpose, yet is intended for public use; it is important for the project to showcase an aesthetic that will tie it into the urban landscape, while maintaining operations. Industrial space vs. Public space Fig.44.
58 View from the Northeast Fig.45.
59 View from the Southeast Fig.46.
60 Perspective overlooking the Up-Lab Fig.47.
61 Although the Up-Lab has an industrial purpose, it is set to be an iconic building due simply to the nature of its composition. The use of reused items materials, but looks to showcase the natural beauty in many items go overlooked due to their commonplace; however, when viewed out of context these items reveal their resonant value. While it is evident that there are any number of items or materials that could have been selected for use within the construction of the project, it was important to choose an item that would be easily recognizable, abundant, or soon to be abundant, and innovative. In conjunction with the material guidelines previously established, it was important to determine what items or materials would be used before the building could begin to take shape. Upon material selection, the composition was strongly and innovative manner in an attempt to maximize the initial design of a particular item. By limiting the number of items used the project will avoid being conceived as a random assortment of found items, Because of the vast scale of the project, larger items were considered as the main components of the structure. Due to the proximity to the Port of Tampa, many of its resources were considered and most obvious item to be used is the standard shipping container. Shipping containers have made the transition to architecture with relative ease due to their modularity and exceptional strength, as well as the overwhelming number of idle containers worldwide. However, containers were avoided as a building element because they are becoming more and more established within architecture, thus negating the exploration of possible solutions that this thesis seeks. Although containers are avoided in becoming part of the actual design, they are implemented as what they are originally intended for, storage and transportation of goods. It is this of other elements in the design. This thesis looks to provide a solution to what is out there in abundance that still has value, yet enters the waste stream. Additional research led to the discovery of another industrial element that was about to become abundant worldwide, commercial airplanes. The airplane is a sensible solution as well as perfect example of how an item can become up-cycled. First and foremost, there is set to be an abundance of
62 Graph of Commercial Aircrafts projected to be dismantled http://www. Fig.48. grida.no/_res/site/File/publications/vital-waste2/VWG2_p32and33.pdf
63 number of commercial airliners to be decommissioned commercial planes to be retired, this growing number can be directly attributed to the lifespan of the plane. [Ships, Planes and other Hyperbulk Waste] The lifespan is measured in pressurization cycles rather than years. Each time a plane takes off and lands it undergoes a change in pressure due to the change in altitude, over time microscopic cracks and holes begin to form on the connections and joints. These minor cycles cause metal fatigue, the airplane remains structurally sound, however it is no longer considered What happens to an airplane after it is retired? One of several options, it is either sold to African or Asian countries, where regulations arent as harsh as in the U.S. and used as a commercial airliner. Or it is used most retired airplanes end up in an airplane graveyard in the desert. Here, planes are preserved so that they may be scraped out for parts. Some components such and sole as scrap metal and eventually recycled into new items; other elements such as the fuselage are discarded due to extensive dismantling. Although this Airplane Graveyard http://www. Fig.49. desertusa.com/mag06/apr/airplane.html Discarded Fuselage http://www.desertusa. Fig.50. com/mag06/apr/airplane.html
64 airplane, dismantling and transportation costs often deter this from becoming the most common procedure. [Airplane Graveyards] product, Boeing and Airbus, two of the industrys largest airline manufacturers are making the switch to an all composite fuselage. As a result of advances in technology and an increase in code requirements the traditional semi-monocoque style aluminum fuselage. This is due to the composites superiority in strength and weight, the composites are said to be an improvement on corrosion as well as reduced maintenance while improving the cabin environment. [Composite Fuselage] This transition into a new platform will negate the transfer of parts from retired planes. The question that then arises is; what do you do with the fuselage of a decommissioned airplane if it is no longer used for parts and rarely recycled? The fuselage is intended to be the cabin of the plane, to hold the passengers and cargo, much in the same way a building is intended to shelter people and goods. The fuselage has many characteristics that make the transition from airplane component to building component a more seamless one, the most notable of features is the strength it provides. A fuselage is essentially a beam, strong yet lightweight enough to be used in a multitude of different manners. Composite Fuselage http://www.boeing.com/ Fig.51. news/frontiers/archive/2003/may/photos/.html
65 frames, ribs, and the skin. The frames are the circular components intended to give the fuselage its shape, while ribs are used to connect the riveted aluminum as maximizing material properties, the fuselage is more than capable of translating into an architectural setting. However the most intriguing aspect is the spatial quality that it provides. The fuselage is preequipped with storage space as well as mechanical would be ready for inhabitation. Because of the size and strength of the fuselage, it was chosen as an ideal member in creating a roof system for the Up-Lab. The lightweight fuselage beam is capable of spanning the distance needed to cover the footprint of the project, while the spatial characteristics of the fuselage will be utilized to make part of the roof inhabitable. The roof system will be achieved by placing fuselages side by side running in the same direction, the adjacent fuselage will be structurally attached to the next as well as made water tight by peeling up the aluminum skin and ribs and attaching them together. This process will create a uniform roof that is both strong and watertight, while the shape of the fuselage will provide the building with an interesting contour to the roof. Structure of a semi-monocoque Fuselage http:// Fig.52. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/Fuselage747.jpg
66 Fuselage Tectonics Fig.53.
67 Because the Up-Lab is designed to circulate both materials and users, the spaces must be organized to accommodate the path of each. First I will break down the movement of a material as it enters the Up-Lab. During the programming stages it was discovered that the success of the project hinged on the process to stages of processing and redistributing materials. It was also evident that the spaces must be large enough to accommodate incoming materials and projects of effectiveness. Like most distribution facilities, the spatial layout was arranged regarding the ease and Lab, this is achieved through a simple plan that allows the material to be circulated in a chronological order that minimizes unnecessary steps. Materials are delivered on the north end of the building at the loading docks, from there the pass through the processing and fabrication shop. It is here that materials are evaluated as being distribution ready or if they need to be altered. If changes are needed, the workers can modify the material to make it up to standard so it can be ready for reuse. Once the item is ready it is sorted into a shipping container so that it can be easily redistributed to a construction site. New or unique items are taken to the testing lab where workers use machinery to test the structural integrity and material properties of a particular item. Depending on the results, staff members such as artists, architects, and engineers will discover a useful application for an item or material in the section of the Up-Lab that is dubbed the think tank. The focal point and draw to the Up-Lab is the interactive area, this is the main open zone that allows users to get a hands on interaction with a material as it is up-cycled into an architectural element, piece of furniture, or work of art. Here materials are unloaded from the adjacent storage containers into the work space, where a staff member will give demonstrations as well as workshops on how materials can be upcycled. This space is large enough to accommodate multiple exhibits of various stages of construction or deconstruction at a time. Once a component is be deconstructed and stocked back in the storage containers to await distribution, where as smaller items such as furniture can go directly to the store for purchase by users. Shipping containers are arranged and moved by an overhead gantry crane. This is how containers are cycled to accommodate incoming materials as well as keeping a variety to what materials are being used in the interactive area. The stacked containers are used to both house and deliver the materials as they are redistributed.
68 First Floor Plan Fig.54.
69 Second Floor Plan Fig.55.
70 Third Floor Plan Fig.56.
71 Building Axonometric Fig.57.
72 delivery system where the gantry crane loads a through the east side of the building and on to make the delivery. The success of the Up-Lab in terms of circulation of materials. Material Circulation Fig.58.
73 Longitudinal Section Fig.59.
74 Cross Section Fig.60.
75 From a user standpoint, the circulation is set to mimic that of the material, this is intended to show the path a material takes from drop-off to delivery. As users enter the lobby upon the northwest corner of the building, they are greeted with a large view overlooking the loading docks and processing/ fabrication lab. Tour guides will lead groups of users through to the material testing area where observation decks will give users a safe view of various tests. As the tour continues users are encouraged to interact and observe the unique construction of the building daily operations of the interactive area, loading docks, processing shop and gantry crane. A series of catwalks and decks provide observation points for overlooking the operations of the fabrication shop. Once at the think tank, users will be able to interact with employees and help discover new uses for old items. This creative brainstorming session is followed by a path that takes users to observe the inventory of items as they are stored in shipping containers. It is here that users get an overview of the interactive area before they make their way down to begin Perspective from the Southwest Fig.61.
76 construction. The interactive area harness the true essence of the Up-Lab, as workers lead teams of users in projects where every day or discarded items are up-cycled into something of value once again. The ongoing activity and variety of different materials that are in stock at the Up-Lab ensure repeat visits from users as the interactive space is constantly changing. This hands on learning approach is intended to give users the knowledge of how they can reuse materials in an attempt to living a more sustainable lifestyle. The variety of materials that the facility processes will prove that nothing is useless and will surely make visitors think twice before throwing something away. Spatial Layout Fig.62. Material Processing Fig.63.
77 Material Testing Fig.64.
78 Think Tank Fig.65.
79 Interactive Area Fig.66.
80 Material Distribution Fig.67.
81 Store Interior Fig.68. Store Pick-Up Fig.69.
82 Conclusion Current trends in architecture have pushed sustainability to the forefront of most design projects, however, the manner in which we achieve sustainability is quickly becoming predictable, boring, and expensive. This thesis was an exploration of discovering a new means of sustainability that is inventive, practical, affordable, and quite possibly revolutionary. The objective was to create a project that would address issues such as reusing and up-cycling, regarding consumption and waste production, both of which are a problem in our consumer driven society. The project gives an opportunity for the levels. At the communal scale the project offers a resource to surrounding commercial and residential districts by providing a municipal service by offering a solution of what to do with their waste. This in turn will alleviate the burden placed on overworked recycling centers, as well as diminish the amount of On the micro scale the building was considered a success in terms of programming and composition. The Up-Lab offers users a chance to learn about that they can take and implement within their individual setting. The operations allow the concept of reusing to be implemented in various aspects of our built environment ranging from supplying a new construction project, to furnishing a residence. Furthermore, the building functions in a practice
83 what you preach kind of sense, considering a vast majority of its components are up-cycled items that would otherwise have been discarded or recycled. The project looks to showcase the beauty in everything we produce; such is evident in the fuselage structure as well as the walls made of old windshields. The effects of the Up-Lab reach far beyond its walls, this inventive dialect of sustainability is intended to alter the way we view common objects, in doing so it will give us a better understanding of our built environment. This thesis aims to; expand our vocabulary of construction materials, provide an economic solution to achieving sustainability, make us more aware of our built environment, and diminish the amount of waste we produce. The author feels that this project was a success, and hopes that its ideas will help make this inventive dialect of sustainability more prominent Up-Lab Night Perspective Fig.70.
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