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Relationships between participation in athletics and substance use among high school students

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Relationships between participation in athletics and substance use among high school students
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Stockslager, Kevin
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Alcohol use
Drug use
Athletic participation
Adolescence
Athletes
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychological and Social Foundations -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Substance use among high school students has become an increased concern for administrators, parents, and community members. Previous research has demonstrated relationships between adolescent substance use and numerous negative outcomes. This study investigated the relationship between athletic participation and substance use using self-report data from a sample of 139 high school students. Specifically, the current study examined the relationship between frequency and setting of participation in athletic activities (e.g., football, baseball, soccer) and multiple types of substance use (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other illicit drugs) in adolescents. The results of this study indicate that nonathletes reported significantly more marijuana use than athletes when gender, ethnicity, SES, and grade were controlled for in the analyses. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between students' grade and substance use. Specifically, 12th grade students reported significantly higher rates of alcohol use than 10th grade students. Implications for school psychologists and directions for future research are presented.
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Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Kevin Stockslager.
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Relationships Between Participation in Athletics and Substance Use Among School Students b y Kevin M. Stockslager A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Education Specialist Department of Psychologi cal and Social Foundation College of Education University of South Florida Co Major Professor: Kathy Bradley Klug, Ph.D. Co Major Professor: Rance Harbor, Ph.D. Robert Dedrick, Ph.D. Date of Approval: August 28, 2009 Keywords: alcohol use, drug use ath letic participation, adolescence athletes C opyright 2009 Kevin M. Stockslager

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i Table of Contents List of Tables iii Abstract iv Chapter One : Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem 1 Athletic Participation 4 Substance Use 5 Purpose of the Cu rrent Study 5 Research Questions 6 Chapter Two : Review of the Literature 7 Substance Abuse Disorders 7 Prevalence of Substance Use in Adolescence 8 Negative Outcomes Associated with Substance Use 10 Health Related Problems 10 Psychiatric Disorders in Adul thood 12 Substanc e Use on Academic Achievement 14 Risk Factors for Substance Use 15 Peer Influences 15 Parental Influences 16 Extracurricular Activities 17 Partici pation in Athletic Activities 18 Conclusion 21 Chapter Three : Method 23 Participants 23 Sele ction of Participants 25 Data Collection Procedures 2 7 Variables 2 9 Measures 2 9 Demographics Questionnaire 30 Participation in Athletic Activities Scale 31 A dolescent Substance Use Scale 31 Data Analysis 32 Chapter Four : Results 36 Treatment of the Data 3 6 Descriptive Analyses 37 Frequency of Adolescent Su bstance Use 37

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ii Research Question #1 37 Athletic Pa rticipation and Substance Use 4 9 Research Question #2 4 9 Gender an d Ethnicity and Substance Use 5 2 Research Question #3 5 2 Frequency and Setting of Athlet ic Pa rticipation and Substance Use 5 5 Research Question #4 5 5 Chapter Five : Discussion 60 Summary of the Study 60 Frequenc y o f Adolescent Substance Use 60 Research Question #1 60 Athletic Pa rticipation and Substance Use 6 3 Research Question #2 6 3 Gender a n d Ethnicity and Substance Use 6 5 Research Question #3 6 5 Frequency and Setting of Athletic Pa rticipation and Substance Use 6 8 Research Question #4 6 8 I mplications for Practitioners 72 Limitations 7 5 Validity of Results 7 5 Sample Size 7 6 Data Collection Me asures 7 6 Data Collection Methods 7 7 D irections for Future Re search 7 7 Conclusion 7 8 References 7 9 Appendices 8 7 Appendix A: Informed Consent to Parents, E nglish Version 8 8 Appendix B: Informed Consen t to Parents, Spanish Version 91 Ap pendix C: Student Assent Form 94 Appendix D: Stude nt Demog raphics Questionnaire 9 7 Appendix E: Participation in Athletic Activities Scale 9 8 Appendix F: Adolescent Substance Us e Scale 100

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iii List of Tables Table 1 Demographic Information 24 Table 2 Intercorrelatio ns Between Substance Use Groups 38 Table 3 Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender 38 Table 4 Frequency Analysi s: Athlete Status b y Grade 4 9 Table 5 Frequency Analy sis: Athlete Status by Gender 50 Table 6 Frequency Analysis: Athlete Status by Ethnicity 50 Table 7 Frequency Analysis: Athlete Status by Socioeconomic Status (SES) 50 Table 8 Chi Squared Analysi s: Sub stance Use and Ath lete Status 5 1 Table 9 Logistic Regression Analysi s: Substance Use and Athlete Status by Gender an d Ethnicity 5 2 Table 10 Logistic Regression Analysi s: Substance Use and Frequency of Athl etic Participation 5 6 Table 11 Logistic Regression Analysi s: Substance Use and Setting of Athletic Participation 5 8

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iv Relationships Between Participation in Athletics and Substance Use Among High School Students Kevin M. Stockslager ABSTRACT Substance use among high school students has become an increased concern for administrators, parents, and co mmunity members Previous research has demonstrated relat ionships between adolescent substance use and numerous negative outcomes. This study investigated the relationship between athletic participation and substance use using self report data from a sample of 139 high school students. Specifically the current study examine d the relationship between frequency and set ting of participation in athletic activities (e.g., football, baseball, soccer ) and multiple types of substance use (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other illicit drugs) in adolescents. T he result s of this study indicate that nonathletes reported significantly more marijuana use than athletes when gender, ethnicity, SES, and grade were controlled for in the analyses Additionall y, there and sub stance use. Specifically, 12 th grade students reported significantly higher rates of alcohol use than 10 th grade students. Implications for school psychologists and directions for future researc h are presented

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1 Chapter One Introduction Statement of th e Problem Substance use defined as the use of a drug, medication, or toxin (DSM IV TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000), among high school students has become an increased concern for school administrators, parents, and community members in the U nited States for many reasons. Substance use among adolescents has been associated with numerous negative outcomes, including reductions in educational attainment (Chatterji, 2006 a ; Chatterji, 2006b; Cox, Zhang, Johnson, & Bender, 2007 ; The Substance Use a nd Mental Health Services Administration, 2006 ) susceptibility to peer pressure and low self esteem (Dielman, 1987). Additionally, adolescents who engage in substance use are at an increased risk for developing a substance use disorder (SUD) as an adult (Offord & Ogborne, 2000), as well as numerous health risks, including substance overdose, impa ired driving, and HIV infection (National Institute on Alcoh ol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1997). Data collected from the 2006 National Institute on Drug Abuse survey pertaining to substance use among adolescents i n grades 8, 10, and 12 indicate that nationally, 40% of 8 th graders, 60% of 10 th graders, and approximately 75% of 12 th graders have at least tried alcohol (Johnston, O'Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2007). Also, over 30% of 10 th and 12 th graders reported using alcohol in the 30 days prior to the survey

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2 Additionally, about 30% of 10 th graders and half of 12 th graders reported at least trying cigarettes, with a lmost 22 % of 12 th graders smoking at least some i n the prior month. adolescents in the 12 th grade indicated using the following substances one or more times in their lifetime: marijuana (42.3%), cocaine (8.5%), inh alants (11.1%), and ecstasy (MDMA) (6.5%). Prior research indicates that adolescents who use illicit substances a t an early age have an increased risk for developing lifel ong substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to individuals who begin using substances la ter in life (Miller, Davies, & Greenwald, 2000). Given the known risks involved with adolescent substance use, it is important that the predictors of early onset substance use be identified so that appropriate preventative measures can be designed. Rec ent research has examined the role of several demographic characteristics in while males exhibit somewhat higher rates of illicit drug use and are much more likely to u se smokeless tobacco and steroids, rates of heavy dri nking and cigarette smoking are fairly consistent across gender s (Johnston et al 2007). Additionally, the study found that d ifferences in the use of certain drugs (i.e., cigarette smoking, binge drinki ng, and cocaine) by socioeconomic class ar e very small and th e gap between socioeconomic groups continues to narrow Regarding race/ethnicity, White students reported higher rates of illicit drug, alcohol, and cig arette use than Black adolescents (Johnston et al 2007) This finding is contradictory to the popular assumption that Black adolescents exhibit higher rates of substance use than White adolescents.

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3 Previous research focused on risk factors associated with adolescent substance use. Hawkins, Catal ano, and Miller (1992) defined several risk factors such as laws and norms favorable toward drug use, the availability of drugs, economic deprivation, early behavior problems, a family history of alcoholism and drug use, academic failure, peer rejection, and the early initiation of drug use and families. Other researchers also found that parent substance use and attitudes towards illicit drug s (Halebsky, 1987 ) and associating with peers who use substances (Musher Ei zenman, Holub, & Arnett, 2003) are factors that place adolescents at risk for using substan ces themselves. y, & Johnson, 2000) and participa tion in athletics ( Fredricks & Eccles, 2006 ; Naylor Gardner, & Zaichkowsky, 2001) Bryant et al (2000) found that lower levels of academic achievement contributed to increased levels of cigarette use between 8 th and 10 th grades and again between 10 th and 12 th grades. Additionally, previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between adolescent alcohol use (Chatterji, 2006a) and recent marijuana use (Chatterji, 2006b) and reductions in educational attainment. Regardi ng athletic participation, Naylor et al (2001) found that interscholastic athletes were significantly less likely than nonathletes to smoke cigarettes and use cocaine or psychedelics. However, p revious studies of athletic participation in relation to adol escent substance use a re limited by their examination of athletic participation as a whole, ignoring potential differences between frequency and settings of athletic participation ( Harrison & Narayan, 2003 ; Moore & Werch, 2005 ). Additionally, most research examining substance use has

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4 been conducted using a college student population ( Jones, Oeltmann, Wilson, Brener, & Hill, 2001; Lucey, Marel, Smith, Frank, & Schmeidler, 1999 ) or has examined only one type of substance (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, marijuana) as the outcome variable ( Carr, 1990). Nevertheless, previous research has elicited valuable information demonstrating in athletics is related to substance using behaviors. Additional research is needed to examine multiple aspects of part icipation in athletic activities in predicting multiple types of substance use in adolescents. Athletic Participation The current stud y was designed to address the limitations of prior investigations of the relationship between substance use and a thletic participatio n. Specifically, athletes were defi ned as students who participate d on any state sanctioned interscholastic athletic team (Naylor et al., 2001). Students who reported participating in athletics in only recreational settings were not con sidered athletes for the purpose of this study. Furthermore, the frequency and setting s of involvement in various athletic activities was measured (e.g., football, basketball, baseball/so ftball, hockey, socce r, golf, swimming) was evaluated by how frequently students participate in each activity and in which setting students participate in each activity Participants replied to each a ctivity by describing how often they are involved in th a t activity, ranging from never, to three or more t imes a week. Pa rticipants also report ed the settings in which they typically participate in each activity (i.e., recreational, club teams, school teams).

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5 Substance Use This study focused on adolescents c urrently enrolled in grades 9 12 who are not legally allowed to engage in substance using behaviors (e.g., consuming alcohol or using tobacco products). Substance u se within this study encompassed a wide range of substances. This study exa mine d substances in four categories: (a ) alcohol (wine, beer, and liquor) (b) tobacco ( cigarettes and cigars ), (c) marijuana, and (d) other drugs ( i.e., inhalants, prescription drugs not prescribed to you, ecstasy, hallucinogens, stimulants, barbiturates, and cocaine). P urpose of the Current Study The current study expand s on the aforementioned research on the r elationship between athletic participation and substance use (e.g. Fredricks et al., 2006; Naylor et al., 2 001). T he existing body of literature has examined stu in broad terms, ignoring potential relationships between substance use and frequency and setting of athletic participation Additionally, research ers have rarely examined substance use comprehensively (e.g., others examine d only one substance such as alcohol). The present study examine d participation in various athletic activities in order to identify important relationsh ips between athletic participation and substance use in adolescents. The current study contribute s to t he literature on adolescent subs tance use by providing a comprehensive investigation of participation in at hletics The study examine d the strength of the relationship between participation in different athletic activities and multiple types of substance u se among adolescents. Identifying potential relationships between the frequency and settings of athletic participation and various types of substance use will provide valuable information for future research.

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6 Research Questions The research questio ns that were addressed in this study are as follows: 1. What is the frequency of student substance use in this sample with respect to the following drug groups? A) A lcohol (wine, beer, and liquor) B) Tobacco ( cigarettes and cigars ) C) Marijuana D) Other drug s (i.e., inhalants, prescription drugs not prescribed to you, ecstasy, hallucinogens, stimulants, barbiturates, and cocaine). 2 Are there differences in the frequency and type of drug and/or alcohol use among adolescent athletes 1 and non athletes? 3 Are there gender and/or ethnicity differences in drug and/or alcoho l use among adolescent athletes and nonathletes ? 4. Are there relationships between the frequency and setting of athletic participation and adolescent substance use? 1 For the purpose of this study, athletes will be defined as stude nts who report participating on a school sports team on the Participation in Athletic Activities Scale.

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7 Chapter Two Revi ew of the Literature The following literature review begins with a discussion of substance abuse disorders as well as the prevalence of substance use in adolescence. Negative attitudes associated with adolescent substance use are also reviewed. Then, ris k factors for the initiation of substance use are discussed. Finally, school variables related to substance use are presented along with previous research on the relationships between participation in extracurricular and athletic activitie s and adolescent substance use. Substance Abuse Disorde rs Substance use by early adolescents has a negative impact on the well being of students. Adolescents who engage in using substances are at an increased risk for negative consequences such as health problems (Nationa l Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1997), developing substance use disorders (Grant & Dawson, 1997; Anthony & Petronis, 1995), and reductions in academic achieveme nt (Abdelrahman, Rodriguez, Ryan, French, & Weinbaum, 1998). A dolescence is a criti cal time during which students are particularly vulnerable to numerous negative outcomes. Substance abuse disorders are defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV TR (DSM IV TR, American Psy chiatric Association, 2000) as: A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one (or more) of the following, occurring

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8 within a 12 month period: (1) recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, scho ol, or home (e.g., repeated absences or poor work performance related to substance use; substance related absences, suspensions, or expulsions from school ; neglect of children or household ), (2) recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physical ly hazardous (e.g., driving an automobile or operating a machine when impaired by substance use), (c) recurrent substance related legal problems (e.g., arrests for substance related disorderly conduct), and (d) continued substance use despite having persis tent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance (e.g., arguments with spouse about consequences of intoxication, physical fights) (p. 199) The DSM IV TR groups commonly used subs tances into 11 class es: alcohol; amphetamine or si milarly acting sympathomimetics; caffeine; cannabis; cocaine; hallucinogens; inhalants; nicotine; opioids; phencyclidine (PCP) or simila rly acting arylcyclohexylamines; and sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics (American Psychi atric Association, 2000). Substance use ( as opposed to substance abuse) is often defined as using licit or legal substances without the negative side effects commonly associated with substance abuse. Prevalence of Substance U se in Adolescence The Monitor ing the Future series, an annual survey of nati onally representative samples, reports data on the substance use of 8 th 10 th and 12 th graders in the United States. In 2006, 40% of 8 th graders, 60% of 10 th graders, and 70% of 12 th graders reported consumin g alcohol over the course of their lifetime (Johnston et al., 2007). Tenth and

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9 twelfth grade substance use rates are of particular interest to this investigation, as they highlight the substance use rates of students currently enrolled in high school. In a ddition to reporting high rates of lifetime alcohol use, many 10 th (37%) and 12 th graders (47%) reported having smoked cigarettes in their lifetime. Regarding the use of marijuana, 30% 40% of high school age students reported trying marijuana at least once in their lifetime. The prevalence rates of other illicit substances were also report ed in the results. In 2006, 17 % of 10 th graders and about one quarter of 12 th graders reported trying any illicit drug other than marijuana over the course of their life time. Of the substances categorized as illicit drugs other than marijuana, the most com monly used drugs among high school students were inhalants and amphetamines, whi ch about 12% of students reported having used in their lifetime. A dditionally, high schoo l students reported relatively low lifetime use rates of hallucinogens (7%), ecstasy (MDMA) ( 5.5% ), cocaine ( 7 ), tranquilizers ( 8.5% ), and steroids ( 2% ). The Monitoring the Future study also focused on potential demographic characteristics associated with the prevalence of su bstance use. In particular, the researchers examined the impact of gender, SES, and race on substance use rates among adoles cents. Data indicate that although males exhibit ed somewhat higher rates of illicit drug use and were much more likely to use smokeless tobacco and steroids, rates of heavy drinking and cigarette smoking were fairly consi stent across genders (Johnston et al. 2007). The authors also noted that 10 th grade females reported higher rates of alcohol use in the past 30 d ays than 10 th grade males. Add itionally, the study found very small differences in the use of several drugs between socioeconomic classes and there has been a narrowing of the gap between socioeconomic class and the use of cocaine, cigarette

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10 smoking, and binge drinking. With regards to race/ethnicity, White students reported higher rates of illicit drug, alcohol, and cig arette use than Black adolescents. This finding is contr adictory to popular assumption that Black adolescents exhibit higher rates of subs tance use than White adolescents. Negative Outcomes A ssoci ated with Adolescent Substance U se Health related problems Numerous health risks are associated with adolescent substance use, the most extreme of which is mortality. One potential immediate neuro logical consequence of alcohol use in adolescents is alcohol poisoning. When adolescents consume massive amounts of alcohol, alcohol crosses the blood brain barrier so that the concentration of alcohol in the brain is equivalent to the alcohol concentratio n in the blood. With increasing blood alcohol contents, adolescents may experience lethargy, respiratory depression, and/or vomiting. As adolescents continue to consume alcohol, raising their blood alcohol content, more adverse consequences can result. Alc ohol poisoning over 450 mg/dL, can result in the development of stupor, coma, and deat h (Zeigler et al., 2005). Adolescents typically have smaller bodies than average adults, resulting in q uicker intoxication and sharper rises in blood alcohol content than average adults. Additionally, adolescents are often prone to heavy and rapid drinking until intoxicated due to less developed social, emotional control, thinking, and decision making skill s (Zeigler et al., 2005). Recent research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2003) found the drug induced mortality rate for adolescents to be 9.1/100,000. Although alcohol induced mortality is a rare occurrence among teenagers, it is a rea listic consequence of

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11 alcohol use. Additionally, substance using behaviors resulting in intoxication place adolescents at risk for other negative consequences. While deaths related to alcohol poisoning are a less likely to occur among teenage populations deaths caused by driving while intoxicated are a very realistic consequence associated with adolescent substance use. Chou et al. (2006) reported that nearly 40% of all traffic fatalities are alcohol related, resulting in over 17,000 deaths and 258,000 i njuries in the year 2002 alone. Driving while intoxicated, defined as operating a vehicle with a blood concentration (BAC) of .08 or above, is of special concern for younger individuals. Participants in the youngest age group (aged 18 29) reported a signif icantly higher rate (5.33%) of driving after having too much to drink than older participants. Additionally, males were three times more likely than females to report driving while drinking, driving after drinking too much, and drinking while being a passe nger in the car. Finally, drug use has been shown to be associated with early initiation of risky sexual behavior, potentially increasing the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS among adolescents (Hawkins, Catalano, & Miller, 1992). In their study of 1,153 adolesc ents aged 15 to 21 years, Houck et al. (2006) evaluated the association between substance use, sexual behavior, and the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS. The researchers used adolescents with a history of unprotected sex and assessed them in five domains of risk : unprotected sex, alcohol/marijuana use, other drug use, mental health crisis, and arrest/school dropout. The researchers used cluster analyses to group adolescents by risk factors, finding that the largest cluster (49% of males, n =251) was defined primar ily by significantly higher levels of alcohol consumption and marijuana use relative to peers as

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12 well as many unprotected sexual acts. These findings suggest that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use are associated with unprotected sexual acts, greatly i ncreasing the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS. Additionally, it is important to note that males were significantly more likely to engage in risky sexual acts. With the long term risks and consequences associated with HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted dise ases, it is necessary that prevention efforts be evaluated to reduce behaviors that place adolescents at risk for engaging in risky sexual behaviors. This study demonstrates the potential risks associated with substance using behaviors in adolescents, incl uding risky sexual behaviors, and the greater risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS. Psychiatric Dis orders in Adulthood. Another long term consequence of initiation in substance use during adolescence is the development of a substance use disorder in adulthood (Gr ant & Dawson, 1997). While adolescents who wait until they are of legal drinking age to initiate alcohol use have a 10% chance of developing alcohol dependence later in life, the risk increases to 41% when adolescents initiate substance use prior to the ag e of 14 years (Grant & Dawson, 1997). Previous research has used retrospective data to show the strong relationship between age at first use of a substance and the risks associated with early onset substance use later in life. Anthony and Petronis (1995) f ound that adults who reported substance use prior to age 13 years were two times more likely to have a substance use disorder than adults who reported initiating substance use after the age of 17 years. These findings highlight the need to prevent students from engaging in substance using behaviors early in adolescence, when the risk for future problems is the greatest. This study also suggested that the risk factors for developing a substance use disorder later in life are already established by adolescent substance using behaviors.

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13 50 80% of individuals with a substance abuse disorder also meet criteria for another psychiatric diagnosis. Some psychiatric disorders commo nly comorbid with substance abuse disorders include antisocial personality disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. school students to early adulthood examined the relationshi p between substance use across ages along with psychiatric disorders. They found a strong relationship between adolescent substance use and substance use disorders in early adulthood. The rate of adult substance use disorders was almost 60% in the regular substance use group, higher than in the experimental group (42.7%) and the abstainers group (26.1%). These data suggest that adolescents who regularly used substances during early adolescence were 1.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with a substance use disorder in early adulthood than adolescents who only experimented with substances. Further, adolescents who abstained from substance use were half as likely to develop a substance use disorder as a young adult. Along with higher rates of substance use dis orders, findings included higher rates of psychiatric disorders in adolescents who reported substance use in early adolescence. While differences were found between ethnicities, overall research has shown that engaging in substance use as an adolescent is a factor that can potentially increase the risk of psychiatric difficulties during adulthood. Research clearly outlines the multiple negative outcomes associated with adolescent substance use that include both immediate and long term consequences. Addi tionally, school related outcomes are also associated with adolescent substance use, including academic achievement.

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14 Substance Use on Academic Achievement Substance use in adolescence has a negative effect on academic achievement. Cox, Zhang, Johnson, an adoles cents who engage in using substances such as cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were more likely to be poor academic performers. Specifically, students who engaged in smoking cigarettes while students who currently smoked marijuana were almost 2 times as likely to have Similar results were yielded from a large study of adolescent students. The Subst ance Use and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS) (2006) found in The National Survey on Drug Use and Health study of 59,649 students aged 12 to 17 years residing across the United States that students who use alcohol or drugs are at a greater risk for performing poorly in school. The researchers relied on self report data from students who reported being enrolled in school. Specifically, among students who a verage. On the contrary, among the students who reported engaging in binge alcohol use results in grade point average were found in relation to marijuana use. Among st udents who reported not having smoked marijuana in the past month, 72.2% reported having an or more times over the course of the month reported having an average grade o less. While the directional relationship between adolescent substance use and academic achievement is still unclear, previous research has suggested that even moderate

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15 involvement in substance use is related to poor academic achievement (Mandell, Hill, Carter, & Brandon, 2002). Adolescents who engage in substance use beha viors are more likely to drop out of school before graduation (Mensch & Kandel, 1988). Dropping out has been shown to have significant negative effects on the individual. Student s who drop out of school earn less than their peers who completed their high school education and are more likely to be unemployed. Aloise Young and Chavez (2002) found in a study of 1,812 Mexican American and non Hispanic White high school students from a southwestern state that nearly one third of dropouts reported that substance use was an important contributor to their decision to leave school early. The previous research cited has clearly shown the relationship between adolescent substance use and ne gative school related consequences, including poorer academic achievement and an increased risk of dropping out of school. While research on the causal relationship between substance use and academic achievement is unclear, both substance use and poor acad emic achievement have been linked to numerous negative outcomes for adolescents. For this reason, it is critical that we identify risk factors for adolescent substance use. Risk factors for Substance U se Peer i nfluences. Research has identified several r isk factors for adolescent substance use. One risk factor is a uences Peers serve as role models and provide access to substances. Additionally, the perception of peers using substances is a predictor of adole using behaviors (Chopak, Vicary, & Crockett, 1998).

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16 that negative peer behaviors were predictors of substance use as well as other h ealth risk Additionally, findings showed t hat the suicidal and deviant behavior s of peers wer e factor model demonstrated that multiple risk factors significantly increased the likelihood that adolescents would engage in substance use and other health risk beh aviors. A study that investigated the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes (e.g., expectancies, resistance, self efficacy, and perceived harm) on substance use in 213 younger adolescents (aged 12 15 years ) and 219 older adolescents (aged 1 8 22 years ) found that peer related to substance use for both age groups (Musher Eizenman, Holub, & Arnett, 2003). However, differences were found between groups regarding their ability to resist peer pressure, as younger a dolescents reported a lower ability to resist peer pressure than older adolescents. Parental Influence. Another risk factor for adolescent substance use is parent substance use, as illustrated in a study of middle school students (Li, Pentz, & Chou, 20 use of substances resist substance offers from peers. Specifically, adolescents whose parents reported no substance use were least likely to use substances, while adolescents with two parents who engaged in cigarette smoking were at the highest risk of smoking cigarettes, consuming alcohol, and using marijuana. Similar research focusing on the relationship between

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17 parenting styles and adolescent substance use demonstrated that adolescent alcohol and and higher permissiveness (Cohen & Rice, 1997). The authors noted that ag reement between parents and children on parenting styles was poor and that child perceptions of parenting styles were more strongly associated with substance use than the perception of parents. Extracurricular Activities. Another risk factor for adolescen t substance use is involvement in unsupervised after school activities, as demonstrated in a large study of low income, at risk Mexican American middle school students (Yin, Katims, & Zapata, 1996). In this study of middle school students, involvement in o rganized activities after school served as a protective factor against engaging in substance use. In a similar study, Shilts (1991) assessed the levels of substance use and involvement in extracurricular activities of 237 middle school students, finding th at while substance abusers reported little to no involvement in extracurricular activities, adolescents who did not use substances reported higher involvement in extracurricular activities and spent more time with their families. The finding that adolescen t substance users and abusers spent more time with their friends, while adolescents who did not use substances spent more time with their family, supports previous research suggesting that peer influences are important fact ors in initiating su bstance use ( Musher Eizenman et al 2003). Additionally this study is consistent with other empirical studies reporting that substance using adolescents spend more time involved in unstruc tured activities than their non substance using peers (Cohen & Rice, 1997). Dar students from California found that while extracurricular activity participation is

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18 associated with several positive outcomes in adolescents, including higher grades and academic aspirations and more positive attitu des t owards school, participants and non participants reported similar rates of alcohol use However, students who participated in extracurricular activities reported lower levels of smoking, marijuana use, and use of other drugs compared to students who d id participate in extracurricular activities. Participation in athletic activities Although very little research has focused on the relationship between athletic participation in high school students and school related outcomes, most research in this area has been positive (Fred ricks & Eccles, 2006; Naylor et al 2001). Currently, over 7 million high school students participate in some school based athletic activity, representing nearly 54.2% of the population of high school students ( National Federation of State High School Federations, 200 7). With more high students involved in school based athletics than ever before, it is critical that researchers examine the relationship between athletic participation and student outcomes. s ( 2006) longitudinal study of 11 th grade students examined the relationship between participation in a wide range of high school extracurricular activities and developmental outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood. In general, participation in clubs and organized school sports was associated with positive academic and psychological development, as well as decreased drug and alcohol use in the predominantly African American and European American sample The researchers found more than half of the participa nts to be involved in school clubs (56%) and organized sports (55%), similar to previously mentioned statistics. After controlling for family demographic variables, Fredricks and Eccles (2006) found that participations in sports

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19 predicted higher 11 th grade GPAs ( F = 5.46, p <.05) and hi gher educational expectancies ( F = 16.13, p <.001) than those students who did not participate in sports. Sports participation also predicted psychological adjustment as athletes reported lower levels of depression and internaliz ing behaviors, and higher levels of self esteem than nonathletes. Additionally, male athletes reported lower levels of externalizing behaviors tha n male nonathletes. These results were not found for female athletes and nonathletes. Regarding substance use, athlet es reported lower alcohol use ( F = 4.45, p <.05) than individuals not involved in athletics and marijuana use was moderated by two factors; gender and race. For example, while participation in athletics predicted lower marijuana use in 11 th grade for boys and European Americans, participation in athletics did not predict lower marijuana use for girls and African Americans. Athletic participation in 11 th grade also predicted positive outcomes after high school. Data collected one year after high school graduation found that adolescents in sports in 11 th grade completed significantly more schooling after graduation than nonathletes, even after controlling for family demographics, achievement related motivation, educational expectancies, and GPA. Finally, the researchers stated that the number of activities participated in at 11 th grade wa s positively associated with their indicators of academic and psychological adjustment. predict ed higher grades, educational expectancies, and years of schooling after graduation. However, the number of activities participated in was moderated by gender for several measures, including alcohol and marijuana use at 11 th grade. Although the numb er of activities participated in was associated with lower alcohol and marijuana use at 11 th grade for boys and girls, the relationship was much stronger for boys. These

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20 findings clearly suggest that athletic involvement, as well as the time commitment nee ded to be involved in several activities, serves a protective factor against substance use and predicts several educational and psychological outcomes. Naylor, Gardner (2001) study examining the drug use patterns of 1,515 high school at hletes and nonathletes in a northeastern state reported results similar to the previously mentioned study. The researchers used a 150 item questionnaire in order to examine the substance use patterns of students at 15 high schools. Athletes, defined as stu dents who participated on any state sanctioned interscholastic athletic team, reported lower usage levels than non athletes for many drugs. Specifically, the researchers used chi square analyses to find that nonathletes reported statistically higher levels of cigarette smoking ( = 7.455, p < .01), cocaine use ( = 11.49, p < .01) and psychedelics ( = 18.38, p <.001), with greater frequency. Additionally, nonathletes reported higher rates of marijuana, amphetamine, and barbiturate use than athletes, though th e differences were not statistically significant. The researchers also found that the only substance athletes used significantly more than nonathletes was creatine ( = 7.455, p< .01). Regarding alcohol, rates of use were almost identical for athletes (68.8 %) and nonathletes (68.4%), possibly due to the social acceptance of alcohol, as opposed to mariju ana and other illicit drug use. While several studies in the area of high school athletics have shown a relationship between athletic participation and decre ased substance use, ot her studies have found contrasting results. In a study of 891 8 th grade students, Moore and Werch (2005) found that the relationship between athletic participation and substance use often depended on gender and the specific sports tha t students were engaged in. For example,

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21 the authors reported that females who participated in dancing, cheerleading, and gymnastics were at a decreased risk of substance use, while males who participated in football, swimming, and wrestling were at an inc reased risk for substance use. The authors note that it is important to examine substance use rates among athletes engaged in different sports. While this study highlights the relationship between participation in various athletic activities and substance use, it is important to note that a causal relationship between athletic participation and substance use has not been established. Research examining the relationship between athletic participation and substance use among h igh school students has suggeste d that athletic involvement is associated with lower usage of most substance than nonathletes. With such a large number of students currently participating in school based athletics than ever before, this offers practitioners with a potential protective fa ctor against substance use in adolescents. Conclusion Adolescent substance use has been associated with numerous negative outcomes in various areas, including academics, health, and increased risk for future dependency. Given that research has suggested that initiation of substance using be haviors during adolescence increases the likelihood that the individual will develop a substance use disorder, it is important to identify a range of predictors that are related to the initiation of substance use. Prev ious research has demonstrated that athletic involvement is associated with decreased substance use. With the numerous negative outcomes associated with adolescent substance use, participating in extracurricular activities and athletics might result in low er substance using behaviors among high school students.

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22 To date, the majority of research on athletics and substance use in high school students has focused on athletics as a whole, ignoring potential d ifferences between frequency and setting of athletic activities This research contribute s to existing literature by examining the relationship between commo n athletic activities in high school and rates of substance use.

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23 Chapte r Three Method The following chapter begins with a discus sion of the participants in volved in this study, the methods used to select particip ants and the methods used to collect data The variables that were examined in this study are also reviewed. Then, the measures used to collect da ta are discussed. Finally the data analysis procedures used in this study are presented Participants Participants for this study consist ed of students enrolled in grade s nine through twelve in a large, public high school within the Hillsborough Cou nty Public School District (HC PS ). This partic ular high school was chosen because the researchers had access to the school site. Additionally this school has a low graduation rate and the interested in learning more about potential risk and protective fact o rs that may exist for students. The data u sed in the current study were part of a larger study investigating the overall substance use of high school students in relation to various educational and psychosocial outcomes. Appro val to conduct the study was obtained from the University of South Florida (USF) Division of Research Integrity and Compliance in August of 2008 Additionally, approval for the study was granted by the HCPS Department of Assessment and Accountability before data collection commenced Data were collected in October of

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24 2008 by a research team comprised of graduate students from USF. A faculty member of the Schoo l Psychology Program at USF serve d as the principal investigator of the larger study and supervise d data collect ion. After data collection was completed descriptive statistics were conducted to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of the sample. Of the 139 students who participated in the study, 73.4% ( n = 102) were female and 26.6% ( n = 37) were male. Since t he research was conducted in a primarily low socioeconomic status (SES) and predominantly Hispanic high school, information on SES and ethnicity was also collected. Almost 70% ( n = 96) of the sample reported that they received free/reduced lunch, which was used as an indicator of SES in this study. Additionally, about 57% ( n = 79) of the sample reported Hispanic as their ethnicity. Since athletic participation was an area of interest in this study, information on student participation in athletic activities was also collected About one third (33.8%) of the sample reported participating on a school based athletic team and 87.8% of the sample reported participating in an athletic activity in at least one setting (recreational, schoo l). A more detailed report of the demographic data of th e sample is presented in Table 1. Table 1 Demographic Information (N = 139) Variable n sample % of sample N school % of school Gender Male 37 26.6 858 48.0% Female 102 73.4 928 52.0%

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25 Table 1 (continued) Deomographic Information (N = 139) Variable n sample % of sample N school % of school Grade 9 th 43 30.9 543 30.4% 10 th 26 18.7 474 26.5% 11 th 31 22.3 433 24.2% 12 th 39 28.1 336 18.8% Ethnicity African American 12 8.6 174 9.7% Asian/Pacific Islander 10 7.2 30 1.7% Hispanic 79 56.8 1158 64.8% Native American 1 0.7 5 0.3% White 29 20.9 314 17.6% Other 8 5.8 105 5.9% SES a Low 96 69.6 1193 66.8% High 42 30.4 593 33.2% Note. a SES (socioeconomic status) was determined by asking students to report whether or not they receive free/reduced school lunch. Selection of p articipants The hig h school in which the study took place is considered to be a predominantly low socioeconomic status (SES) school due to the percentage of students attending the

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26 school that qualify for free or reduced lunch. Specifically, at this school 70 % of students qualify for free or r educed lunch compared to the state average of 45.8% (Florida Department of Education, 2007). To ensure that only students who fit th e criteria for participation were included in this study, parental consent forms were only delivered to students in standard diploma classes who had English listed as their primary language or were proficient in English. Therefore, parental consent forms were not distributed to students who were English Language Learners (ELL), classified as LYA (do no speak English), or classi fied as LYB (bilingual students, but not predominantly English speaking). Students serv ed exclusively in self contained spec ial education classrooms were also excluded due to higher incidences of low reading skills impacting the accurate completion of the s urvey. Finally, students who were absent on the date s of data collection were excluded. Of the criteria outlined above and were eligible to participate in the survey. Of the 139 students who returned paren tal consent forms, all decided to complete student assent forms and participate in the survey. This represents a return rate of about 13%, which is relatively low for participation in survey research For example, when Ji, Pokorny, and Jason (2004) studied factors influencing return rates of parental consent forms, the y found the average return rate for high school students was almost 57%. While s tudents were not paid for participation in this stud y, the researchers offer ed participants the opportunity to w in one of four, $50 Best Buy gift cards as an incentive for participation. Participants were randomly selected from the list of students who returned parental assent forms and signed student assent forms.

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27 Data Collection Procedures Prior to data collectio n, details of the study were given during scheduled English classes. English teachers were provided with parental consent forms, which were distributed to all students who met the criteria outlined above. Active parental consent was required for participat ion in this study. Active parental consent requires parents to sign a participation form which outlines the details of the study, as well as risks and benefits associated with participation. Due to the large Hispanic population at this particular high scho ol, parental consent forms were available in both English (see Appendix A) and Spanish (see Appendix B). The parental consent forms included information. Parents were enco uraged to contact to principal investigator to discuss any form highlighted that student participation was entirely voluntary and that all information collected duri ng the study was confidential and would not be shared with teachers or administrators. Students returned signed parental consent forms to teachers, who then delivered them to the principal investigator by placing the forms in a mailbox in t he teacher mailr oom. The principal investigator used these signed parental consent forms to compile a list of eligible participants. Data collection took place over a three day period in October 2008. The researchers involved in this study escorted small groups of studen ts (approximately 8 10 students) from class to a n empty conference room designated by a school administrator. Researchers involved in this study included the primary investigator of the current study (a USF School Psychology program graduate student) and t hree other USF research

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28 assistants (also USF School Psychology program graduate students). Due to the sensitive nature of some of the questions in the survey packet, participants were seated such that a t least one seat was between each student. The student s were seated this way because the researchers did not want participants to be able to look at the survey packets of other participants and wanted participants to feel more comfortable and respond h o nestly to the survey questions. Prior to handing out surv eys, the one member of the research team read the student assent form (see Appendix C) aloud to the participants. The student assent form described the purpose of the study and outlined the potential risks and benefits of participation. Students were made aware that their participation was entirely voluntary, that they were free to leave the study at any time, and that their responses were confidential and would not be shared with any teachers or administrators. Students were also notified that a research t eam member would quickly look over surveys to ensure that students did not inadvertently skip any questions. At this time, students were allowed to ask the researchers any questions they had about the study and their involvemen t. After participants signed the assent forms a member of the research team collected each of the office. After all student assent forms had been collected, research team members distributed surve y packets to each of the participants. Students were instructed to raise their hand when they were finished with the entire survey packet and a research team member would pick up their packet. All survey measures were counterbalanced to control for order e ffects using Students were encouraged to ask questions if any items were

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29 unclear. USF researchers were available to answer any questions from students throughout data collection Upon handing in the survey packet, a USF researcher quickly examined the survey packet to check if the student had inadvertently missed any questions and/or made errors. If the student had made errors and/or skipped questions, he or she was asked to complete missed questions or correct any questions on whi ch they made an error. When all participants in the small group completed their survey packet, the students were escorted back to their classrooms by a USF researcher. Variables The researcher investigate d the relationship between several variables and su bstance use. The independent variables that were investigated in this study include d gender, ethnicity, grade level, and athletic involvement. Ethni city was classified into four class groups: (a) Af rican American/Black, (b) Hispanic (c) White, and (d ) Oth er Athletic involvement was defined by usin g a 5 point Likert type scale that assess ed how often adolescents in this study participate d in certain athletic activities, such as football, soccer, basketball, baseball/softball, and golf. The dependent variab le for this study was su bstance use. Substances were classified into the following drug class groups: (a) alcohol (wine, beer, and liquor) (b) tobacco (cigarettes and cigars) (c) marijuana, and (d) other illicit drugs (i.e., inhalants, prescription drugs not prescribed to you, ecstasy, hallucinogens, stimulants, barbiturates, and cocaine ). Measures A survey packet comprised of 14 separate scales was developed to obtain information about high school students to be used in several smaller studies. The su rvey packe t was comprised of scales used in previous studies, as w ell as additional scales

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30 developed to obtain information specific for this study. For the purpose of this study, response s from only three scales were ex amined. Additional scales in the surv ey packet were included to be used in studies conducted by other members of th e research team, but were not used for the purpose of this study. The three scales that were used in this study are described below. The entire survey packet was piloted to asses s completion t ime and readability with 20 HCPS high school students enrolled in an Honors P sychology class. No questions regarding readability were reported and time of completion was approximately 20 30 minutes. Due to concerns about the r epresentation of students in the first round of pilot testing (i.e., only including students enrolled in an honors level course) additional pilot testing was conduc ted with students from a general education English class. Similar to the first round of pilot testing no q uestions regarding readability were reported by participants and time of completion was approximately 25 30 minutes. After pilot testing, all surveys completed during pilot testing were filed in a lo cked filing cabinet and data were not recorded. The three scales used specifically for this study are described below. Demographics Questionnaire Students complete d a demographics questionnaire in order for the researchers to g ather information about the students in this study (see Appendix D) Participants re port ed information relevant to this study, including their gender, ethnicity, age, grade, estimated GPA, and whether the y receive free or reduced lunch Additionally, the questionnaire included other items relevant to the larger study, including school att endance, estimated GPA, frequency of behavioral discipline referrals in the past year, frequency of out of school suspensions in the past year, frequency of arrests in the past year, past diagnoses of mental health problems, and past history of

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31 medications for mental health problems. All questions were close ended, with the exception of the item for Ethnicity. The Ethnicity item allowed participants to fill in their American/Bl ack, White/Caucasian, Hispanic) best represented their ethnicity. Participation in Athletic Activities S cale In order to gather information about participation in various athleti c activities, students complete d a 16 item Athletic Activities Scale cr eated for this study (See Appendix E) The scale include d a list of various sports that high school students are commonly involved in and ask ed them to report how often they participate d in the var ious activities. The scale utilize d a 5 point Likert scale, in w hi ch 1= never 2= less than once a month 3= once or twice a month, 4= once or twice a week, and 5= three or more times a week Additionally, the scale asked students to report in which setting(s) they participate d in each activity (i.e., recreational, clu b, school team). The Participation in Athletic Activities Scale was developed by the principal investigator for the purpose of this study. The principal investigator collaborated with members of the resea rch team involved in this study, including USF gradu at e students and a school psychologist The scale was developed in order to provide information on the settings in which students participated in the various athletic activities. The reliability and validity of the Athletic Activities Scale has not been pr eviously examined. For the purpose of this study, athletes are defined as students who reported participating on any state sanctioned interscholastic athle tic team (Naylor et al., 2001). Adolescent Substance Use S cale In order to measure how often partic ipants use d various sub stances, students complete d a 17 item Substance Use Scale (see Appendix F) The s cale consisted of a list of commonly used substances (e.g., cigarettes/cigars,

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32 chewing tobacco, wine/wine coolers/malt beverages, beer, liquor, marijuan a, inhalants, OTC drugs, cocaine, crack) as well as a 7 point Likert type scale measuring how many occasions the participant has used each substance in the past 12 months The scale was scored as follows: 1= zero occasions, 2= one to two occasions, 3= thre e to five occasions, 4= six to nine occasions, 5= 10 to 19 occasions, 6= 20 to 39 occasions, and 7= 40 or more occasions The Adolescent Substance Use Scale was developed by the principal investigator and members of a graduate research team for the purpose of this study. Since this study focused on the substance use rates of athletes, the principal investigator wanted to examine the rates of steroid use in this population. The scale was developed to include steroids in the list of substances. When developin g this scale, the research team members consulted previously developed substance use scales, as well as colleagues who have previously conducted research examining substance use in adolescents. The reliability and val idity of the Adolescent Substance Use S cale has not been previously examined. In order to evaluate the internal consistency reliability of these me asures, reliability analyses were conducted The Cronbach alpha for all of the items on the Adolesc ent Substance Use Scale was 0.866 For t he three items used to construct the Alcohol variable ( i.e., wine, beer, liquor) in the current study, the Cronbach alpha was 0.888. Finally, the Cronbach alpha for the seven items used to construct the Other Drugs variable ( i.e., inhalants, prescription drugs not prescribed to you, ecstasy, hallucinogens, stimulants, barbiturates, and cocaine ) was 0.734. Data Analysis A series of statistical analyses were conducted in order to answer the research questions for this study.

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33 Question 1: What is the rate of student su bstance use wit h respect to the following drug groups ? A) A lcohol (wine, beer, and liquor) B) Tobacco ( cigarettes and cigars ) C) Marijuana D) Other drugs ( i.e., inhalants, prescription drugs not prescribed to you, ecstasy, hallucinogens, stimulants, barbiturates, and cocaine ) Descriptive a nalyses. Frequencies were obtained for all variables of interest with respect to substance use. For all of the substances, frequency distributions were presented in the past 12 months, on how ma ny occasions have you used alcohol or the following drugs ? (1) zero occasions, (2) one to two occasions, (3) three to five occasions, (4) six to nine occasions, (5) 10 to 19 occasions, (6) 20 to 39 occasions, and (7) 40 or more occasions Question 2: Are there differences in drug and/or alcohol use among adolescent athletes and non athletes? Chi square analyses. In order to determine the potential differences between athletes and non athletes in relation to substan ce use, chi square tests were conducted. These chi square tests examine d the relationship between athletic participation and use of the four drug groups identified in question one For the purpose of this question, both variables were coded as categorical variables. Athletes were defined as any students who reported playing on a school sponsored athletic team, while non athletes were defined as

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34 any students who did not report playing on a school sponsored athletic team. Additionally, substance use was defined as reporting use of a particular subs tance at least one time in the pa st 12 months, while non use was defined as reporting never using a particular substance in the past 12 months. Substance use in the past 12 months was examined using the four drug groups identified in questio n 1 Question 3 : Are there gender and/or ethnicity differences in drug and/or alcohol use among adolescent athletes and nonathletes ? Logistic Regression a nalyse s. Logistic regression analysi s was used because the dependent variables (alcohol use, tobacco use, marijuana u se, other drug use) were recoded as categorical variables (used in the past 12 months vs. not used in the past 12 months ) Logistic regression analyses were used to predict which category a person belongs to (used substance vs. not used substance) based on other variables (i.e., gender, race, athl ete status). In order to examine potential moderator variables in the logistic regression ana lyses, interaction terms were created and analyzed. The an alyses of interaction terms were used to determine if there wer e interactions between different levels of the independent variables (i.e., gender, race, athlete status). Additional ly, the main effects were analyzed to determine g ender, race, and athlete status were related to substance use. Question 4: Are there relat ionships between the frequency and setting of athletic participation and adolescent substance use?

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35 Logistic Regression analyses. Logistic regression analysis was used because the dependent variables (alcohol use, tobacco use, marijuana use, other drug use ) were recoded as categorical var iables (used in the past 12 months vs. not used in the past 12 months ) Logistic regression analyses were used to predict which category a person belongs to (used substance vs. not used substance) based o n frequ ency of athl etic participation and setting of athletic participation In order to examine potential moderator variables in the logistic regression ana lyses, interaction terms were created and analyzed. The an alyses of interaction terms were used to determine if there we re interactions between different levels of the independent variables (i.e. frequency of athletic participation, setting of athletic participation ). Additi onally, the main effects were analyzed to determine if freq uency of athletic participation and set ting of athletic participation were related to substance use.

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36 Chapter Four Results Treatment of the Data S urvey d ata were entered from the completed survey packets into an SPSS database by the primary investigator Data were checked for possibl e errors. First, the data were checked for scores that were outside the possible range of scores based on the Likert scales used in each survey. For example, the possible range of scores for the Adolescent Substance Use Scale was 1 (Never) to 7 (40 or more times) A score below 1 or above 7 would have been out of the possible range for this scale. No scores were found to be outside the possible range for any of the scales used in this study. A not her member of the research team checked a random 15% of the survey packets that were entered into the SPSS database. Specifically, the research team member checked to make sure that the data entered into the SPSS database matched the data reported on the survey. If an error was detected, the member of the rese arch team corrected the error in the database by entering the correct survey response into the SPSS database Of the 139 survey packets that were entered into the databa se, only 5 errors were recorded and corrected in the database. After data was entered a nd checked by research team members, all completed

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37 Descriptive Analyses Descriptive analyses were conducted to obtain the means and standard deviations of all variabl es. To assess univariate normality of variables, skewness and kurtosis were examined. Since the skewness and kurtosis values for the dependent variables of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other drugs were all outside of the normal range of 2.00 to 2.00, the dependent variables were dichotomized (0 = Did not use the substance in the past 12 months 1 = Used the substance in the past 12 months ) due to non normality. The dichotomized forms of data for alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other drugs were used fo r all subsequent chi squared and logistic regression analyses. Skewness and kurtosis v alues for the independ ent variables of athlete status and frequency of athletic participation were all within the normal range of 2.00 to 2.00. Frequency of Adolescent S ubstance Use Research Question #1. What is the rate of student substance use with respe ct to the following drug groups? A) Alcohol (wine, beer, and liquor) B) Tobacco (cigarettes and cigars) C) Marijuana D) Other drugs (i.e., inhalants, prescripti on d ru gs not prescribed to you, ecstasy, hallucinogens, stimul ants, barbiturates, and cocaine) Before examining the rate of student use, the present researcher wanted to determine the relationships between each of the four drug groups. Analyses were conducted i n order to determine the intercorrelations between each of the four drugs

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38 groups. These a nalyses indicated that all four of the drug groups were significantly correlated. A detailed report of the correlation a nalyses are presented in Table 2 Table 2 Inte rcorrelations Between Substance Use Groups (N = 139) Substance Use Group 1 2 3 4 1. Alcohol .361* .404* .244* 2. Tobacco .564* .427* 3. Marijuana .418* 4. Other Drugs Note. p < .01 In order to determine the use rates of specific sub stances, frequency distributions were calculated. Substance use rates are presented in Table 3 by gend er. Table 3 Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Males (n=37) Females (n=109) Total (n=139) Substance N % N % N % Ci garettes None 31 83.8 85 83.3 116 83.5 1 2 times 3 8.1 6 5.9 9 6.5 3 5 times 1 2.7 1 1.0 2 1.4 6 9 times 4 3.9 4 2.9 10 19 times 1 1.0 1 .7

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39 Table 3 (continued) Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Males ( n=37) Females (n=109) Total n=139) Substance N % N % N % 20 39 times 1 1.0 1 .7 40 or more times 2 5.4 4 3.9 6 4.3 Chewing Tobacco N one 36 97.3 102 100.0 138 99.3 1 2 times 3 5 times 6 9 times 10 19 times 1 2.7 1 .7 20 39 times 40 or more times Wine/Wine Coolers None 22 59.5 54 52.9 76 54.7 1 2 times 9 24.3 22 21.6 31 22.3 3 5 times 2 5.4 11 10.8 13 9.4 6 9 times 3 8.1 4 3.9 7 5.0 10 19 times 5 4.9 5 3.6

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40 Table 3 (continued) Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Males (n=37) Females (n=102) Total (n=139) Substance N % N % N % 20 39 times 1 2.7 3 2.9 4 2.9 40 or more times 3 2.9 3 2.2 Beer None 23 62.2 68 67.3 91 65.9 1 2 times 9 24.3 17 16.8 2 6 18.8 3 5 times 2 5.4 5 5.0 7 5.1 6 9 times 1 2.7 3 3.0 4 2.9 10 19 times 1 2.7 5 5.0 6 4.3 20 39 times 1 1.0 1 .7 40 or more times 1 2.7 2 2.0 3 2.2 Liquor None 23 62.2 61 60.4 84 60.9 1 2 times 5 13.5 15 14.9 20 14.5 3 5 times 3 8.1 8 7.9 11 8.0 6 9 times 1 2.7 2 2.0 3 2.2 10 19 times 3 8.1 4 4.0 7 5.1

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41 Table 3 (continued) Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Male s (n= 37) Females (n=102) Total (n=139) Substance N % N % N % 20 39 times 1 2.7 7 6.9 8 5.8 40 or more times 1 2.7 4 4.0 5 3.6 Marijuana None 31 83.8 81 80.6 112 80.6 1 2 times 3 8.1 5 5.8 8 5.8 3 5 times 1 2.7 5 4.3 6 4.3 6 9 times 1 .7 1 .7 10 19 times 3 2.9 3 2.2 20 39 times 1 2.7 2 2.0 3 2.2 40 or more times 1 2.7 5 4.9 6 4.3 Inhalants None 35 94.6 93 92.1 128 92.8 1 2 times 1 2.7 3 3.0 4 2.9 3 5 times 3 3.0 3 2.2 6 9 times 1 1 .0 1 .7 10 19 times 1 1.0 1 .7

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42 Table 3 (continued) Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Males (n=37) Females (n=102) Total (n=139) Substance N % N % N % 20 39 times 40 or more times 1 2.7 1 .7 OTC: Not Sick None 35 94.6 93 91.2 128 92.1 1 2 times 3 5 times 3 2.9 3 2.2 6 9 times 1 1.0 1 .7 10 19 times 20 39 times 2 5.4 2 2.0 4 2.9 40 or more times 3 2.9 3 2.2 Rx: Not Rx to you None 34 91.9 90 88.2 124 89.2 1 2 times 1 2.7 5 4.9 6 4.3 3 5 times 1 .7 2 1.4 3 2.2 6 9 times 2 2.0 2 1.4 10 19 times

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43 Table 3 (continued) Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Males (n=37) Females (n=102) Total (n=139) Substance N % N % N % 20 39 times 1 1.0 1 .7 40 or more times 1 2.7 2 2.0 3 2.2 Rx: To you None 28 75.7 80 78.4 108 77.7 1 2 times 2 5.4 7 6.9 9 6.5 3 5 times 3 8.1 6 5.9 9 6.5 6 9 times 2 5.4 6 5.9 8 5.8 10 19 times 1 1.0 1 .7 20 39 times 1 1.0 1 .7 40 or more times 2 5.4 1 1.0 3 2.2 Steroids None 37 100.0 101 99.0 138 99.3 1 2 times 1 1.0 1 .7 3 5 times 6 9 times 10 19 times

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44 Table 3 (continued) Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Males (n=37) Females (n=102) Total (n=139) Substance N % N % N % 20 39 times 40 or more times Ecstasy None 35 94.6 99 97.1 134 96.4 1 2 times 2 2.0 2 1.4 3 5 times 1 2.7 1 .7 6 9 times 1 1.0 1 .7 10 19 times 20 39 times 40 or more times 1 2.7 1 .7 Hallucinogens None 34 91.9 100 98.0 134 96.4 1 2 times 1 2.7 1 1.0 2 1.4 3 5 times 1 2.7 1 1.0 2 1.4 6 9 times 1 2.7 1 .7 10 19 times

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45 Table 3 (continued) Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Males (n=37) Females (n=102) Total (n=139) Substance N % N % N % 20 39 times 40 or more times Stimulants None 34 91.9 98 96.1 132 95.0 1 2 times 1 1.0 1 .7 3 5 times 2 5.4 2 1.4 6 9 times 1 1.0 1 .7 10 19 times 1 2.7 1 1.0 2 1.4 20 39 times 1 1.0 1 .7 40 or more times Barbituates None 36 97.3 100 98.0 136 97.8 1 2 times 3 5 times 1 1.0 1 .7 6 9 times 10 19 times

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46 Table 3 (continued) Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Males (n=37) Females (n=102) Total (n=139) Substance N % N % N % 20 39 times 1 1.0 1 .7 40 or more times 1 2.7 1 .7 Meth None 37 100.0 101 99.0 138 99.3 1 2 times 1 1.0 1 .7 3 5 times 6 9 times 10 19 times 20 39 times 40 or more times Crack None 36 97.3 102 100.0 138 99.3 1 2 times 3 5 times 6 9 times 10 19 times 1 2.7 1 .7

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47 Table 3 (continued) Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Males (n=37) Females (n=102) Tota l (n=139) Substance N % N % N % 20 39 times 40 or more times Cocaine None 36 97.3 98 96.1 134 96.4 1 2 times 1 1.0 1 .7 3 5 times 6 9 times 10 19 times 1 2.7 2 2.0 3 2.2 20 39 times 1 1.0 1 .7 40 or more times Heroin None 37 100.0 101 100.0 13 8 100.0 1 2 times 3 5 times 6 9 times 10 19 times

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48 Table 3 (continued) Rates of Substance Use in Past 12 Months by Type and Gender (N = 139) Males (n=37) Females (n=102) Total (n=139) Substance N % N % N % 20 39 times 40 or more times Other None 17 100.0 37 92.5 54 94.7 1 2 times 1 2.5 1 1.8 3 5 times 1 2.5 1 1.8 6 9 times 10 19 times 20 39 times 40 or more times 1 2.5 1 1.8 Overall, the majority of participants reported using at least one substance in the past year. When examining the reported substance use rate s, the most commonly used substance was alcohol. Over half (55.4%) of the participants in this study reported using alcohol at least once in the past 12 months. With regard to the other substance groups 19.4% of participant s reported using marijuana in th e past 12 months and 16.5% reported using tobacco or other drugs at least once in the past 12 months. Heroin was the only illicit substance that was reported as not used by any participants. There were no

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49 significant gender differences in reported rates of use for a s pecific substance. In other words, neither males nor females reported significantly higher ra tes of a particular substance Athletic Participation and Substance Use Research Question #2. Are there differences in drug and/or alcohol use among ad olescent athletes and non athletes? Before examining potential differences in substance use among athletes and nonathletes, the present researcher conducted frequency analyses to determine the percent of athletes by grade gender, ethnicity, and SES The results of these frequency analyses are presented in Table 4 Table 5, Table 6, and Table 7, respectively Table 4 Frequency Analysis: Athlete Status by Grade (N = 139) Grade Athlete n Athlete % Nonathlete n Nonathlete % 9 th 9 20.9% 34 79.1% 10 th 7 26 .9% 19 73.1% 11 th 11 35.5% 20 64.5% 12 th 20 51.3% 19 48.7% Total 47 33.8% 92 66.2%

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50 Table 5 Frequency Analysis: Athlete Status by Gender (N = 139) Gender Athlete n Athlete % Nonathlete n Nonathlete % Male 14 37.8% 23 62.2% Female 33 32.4% 69 67.6% Total 47 33.8% 92 66.2% Table 6 Frequency Analysis: Athlete Status by Ethnicity (N = 139) Ethnicity Athlete n Athlete % Nonathlete n Nonathlete % African American 5 41.7% 7 58.3% Hispanic 28 35.4% 51 64.6% White 8 27.6% 21 72.4% Other 6 31.6% 13 6 8.4% Total 47 33.8% 92 66.2% Table 7 Frequency Analysis: Athlete Status by Socioeconomic Status (SES) (N = 139) Grade Athlete n Athlete % Nonathlete n Nonathlete % High Ses 11 26.2% 31 73.8% Low SES 36 37.5% 60 62.5% Total 47 33.8% 92 66.2%

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51 In or der t o determine whether potential differences existed between athletes and nonathletes with respect to substance use, chi square analyses wer e conducted. An alpha level of .05 was used to determine statistical significance. The results of the chi squared analyses are presented in Table 8 Table 8 Chi Squared Analysis: Substance Use and Athlete Status (N = 139) Substance Athlete Yes No df p Alcohol 61.7% 52.2% 1.143 1 .285 Tobacco 8.5% 20.7% 3.321 1 .068 Marijuana 10.6% 23.9% 3.502 1 .061 Ot her Drugs 10.6% 19.6% 1.795 1 .180 Initial chi squared analyses indicated that there were no differences in athlete status between males and females ( 1 N = 139 ) = .361 p = .549 Therefore, gender was collapsed for the purpose of subsequent chi squa red analyses. Chi squared analyses indicated that no significant differences existed between athletes and nonathletes for alcohol ( 1 N = 139 ) = 1.143 p = .285 tobacco ( 1 N = 139 ) = 3.321 p = .068 marijuana ( 1 N = 139 ) = 3.502 p = .061 and other drugs ( 1 N = 139 ) = 1.795 p = .180 Although differences in substance use rates were not statistically significant, more athletes ( 61.7% ) reported having used alcohol in the past 12 months compared to nonathletes ( 52.2% ). Conversely, nonath letes reported slightly higher rates of tobacco use

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52 (20.7% vs. 8.5%), marijuana use (23.9% vs. 10.6%), and other drug use (19.6% vs. 10.6%) in the past 12 months than athletes, though not statistically significant. Gender and Ethnicity and Substance Use R esearch Question #3. Are there gender and/or ethnicity differences in drug and/or alcoho l use among adolescent athletes and nonathletes ? In order to test differences in substance use by gender, ethnicity and athlete status, logistic regression analyses w ere conducted. For each of the four substance groups (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other drugs), analyses were conducted to determine if any of the two way interactions between the ind ependent variables (gender, ethnicity athlete status) were significant Since analyses indicated that no interaction effects were statistically significant, only main effects from the logistic regression analyses were reported. Results from this logistic regression analyses are presented in Table 9 Table 9 Logistic Regressi on Analysis: Substance Use and Athlete Status by Gender and Ethnicity (N = 139) Alcohol Tobacco Marijuana Other Drugs Athlete vs. Nonathlete .172 1.009 1.141* .864 (.400) (.600) (.569) (.571) Male .317 .046 .162 .308 (.423) (.539) (.541) (.522) Ethnicity African American .835 .049 .558 .573 (.674) (.877) (1.114) (1.121)

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53 Table 9 (continued) Logistic Regressi on Analysis: Substance Use and Athlete Status by Gender and Ethnicity (N = 139) Alcohol Tobacco Marijuana Other Drugs White .227 .219 .505 .025 (.476) (.580) (.549) (.607) Other .1016 .633 1.450 .053 (.549) (.824) (1.078) (.720) SES .540 .119 .754 .291 (.409) (. 513) (.547) (.545) Grade 9 th Grade .503 .142 .662 .725 (.497) (.664) (.598) (.671) 10 th Grade 1.280* .331 .098 .298 (.558) (.717) (.626) (.636) 11 th Grade .471 .435 1.222 .514 (.529) (.693) (.753) (715) Note Log odd coefficie nts are reported and the standard error is reported in parentheses. Interaction terms were created, entered into a model, and analyzed. Since no significant interaction effects were found, only main effects are reported. Hispanic and 12 th grade participant s were used as the reference category. p < .05. While no significant main effects were found for tobacco and other drug use, d ata indicated that a significant main effect was found when examining rates of marijuana use between athletes and nonathletes. S pecifically, when gender, ethnicity, SES, and grade

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54 were controlled for, nonathletes reported significantly more marijuana use in the past year than athletes ( Log Odds Ratio = 1.141). Additionally, l ogistic regression analyses indicated that a significant main effect was found when e xamining rates of alcohol use by ethnicity. When the relationship between substance use and ethnicity was examined by itself, analyses indicate d that a significant main effect for alcohol existed betwee n Hispanic participants an d students who reported their ethnicity as Other ( Asian/Pacific Islander Native American/Alaska Native and Other). Specifically, Hispanic (75.0 %) participants reported higher rate s of alcohol use than participants who identified themselves as Other (33.0 %) ( Log Odds Ratio = .344). However, when gender, SES, and grade were controlled for, no significant diffe rences in alcohol use existed between Hispanic participants and those who reported their ethnicity as O ther. In addition to gender and ethnicity, the present researcher also examined additional pot ential demographic variables ( i.e., SES, grade). While no significant differences in substance use emerged between high and low SES participants for any of the four substance groups, the relationship between grade and alcohol use was significant Specifically, 12 th grade participants reported significantly more alcohol use than 10 th grade participants ( Log Odds Ratio = 1.280 ) However, the relationship between grade and substance use was not significant for th e three remaining substance groups ( toba cco, marijuana, other drugs)

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55 Frequency and Setting of Athletic Participation and Substance Use Research Question #4 Are there relationships between the frequency and setting of athletic participation and adolescen t substance use? Two separate l ogistic regression analys es also were conducted to test differences in substance use by frequency and setting of participation in an athletic activity. The f irst logistic regression analysi s tested differences in substance u se by frequency of athletic participation, while the se cond logistic regression analysi s tested differences in substance use by setting of athletic participation. All 139 participants were included in these logistical regression analyses. These analyses ex amined the relationship between frequency and setting of athletic participation and substance use, regardless of athlete status. For the logistic regression analysi s for frequency, analyses were conducted for each of the four substance groups (alcohol, to bacco, mari juana, other drugs) and potential interactions between the lev els of frequency were examined For the purpose of these analyses, participants recorded how often they participated in athletic activities on a Likert type scale (never, less than on ce a month, once or twice a month, once or twice a week, three or more times a week). Since analyses indicated that no significant interaction effects existed between the levels of the independent var iable and substance use only main effects were reported Results from the logistic regression analysi s are presented in Table 10.

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56 Table 10 Logistic Regression Analysis: Substance Use and Frequency of Athletic Participation (N = 138) Alcohol Tobacco Marijuana Other Drugs Frequency of .011 .104 .081 .161 Athletic Participation (.141) (.191) (.173) (.173) Male .327 .035 .262 .284 (.422) (.533) (.531) (.517) Ethnicity African American .810 .138 .667 .596 (671) (.866) (1.109) (1.115) White .237 .277 .561 .026 (.476) (.580) (.538) (.604) Other .1017 .557 1.516 .102 (.553) (.819) (1.072) (.712) SES .560 .215 .688 .258 (.410) (.514) (.546) (.546) Grade 9 th Grade .560 .409 .409 .546 (.484) (.642) (.571) (.653) 10 th Grade 1.325* .541 .105 .449 (.551) (.69 8) (.602) (.619) 11 th Grade .505 .581 1.070 .421 (.526) (.676) (.728) (.701) Note Log odd coefficients are reported and the standard error is reported in parentheses. Interaction terms were created, entered into a model, and analyzed. Since no s ignificant interaction effects were found, only main effects are reported. Hispanic and 12 th grade participants were used as the reference category. p < .05.

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57 These data indicted that no significant main effects were found between the levels of frequency of athletic participation for tobacco, marijuana, or other dru gs. Specifically, the frequency in which students participated in athletic activities did not predict tobacco, marijuana, or other drug use in the current study In addition to examining the rel ationship between frequency of athletic participation and substance use, demographic variables (i.e., gender, ethnicity, grade, and SES) were examined When these variables were examined in the logistic regression analyses, the relationships between gender ethnicity, and SES and adolescent substance use were not significant However, the relationship between grade and alcohol use was significant Logistic regressions analyses indicated that 12 th graders were significantly more likely to drink alcohol than 10 th graders in this sample ( Log Odds Ratio = 1.325). The se cond logistic regression analysi s tested differences in substance use by setting of athletic participation Analyses were conducted for each of the four substance groups (alcohol, tobacco, mariju ana, other drugs). For the purpose of these analyses, participants reported in which settings (recreational, school) they participated in athletic activities. Results from the logistic regression analysis are presented in Table 11

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58 Table 11 Logistic Regres sion Analysis: Substance Use and Setting of Athletic Participation (N = 125) Alcohol Tobacco Marijuana Other Drugs Setting (1=School) .347 .996 .946 .903 (0=Recreational) (.417) (.608) (.580) (.579) Male .156 .068 .462 .197 (.45 5) (.588) (.628) (.563) Ethnicity African American 1.498 .241 .328 .499 (.786) (.914) (1.138) (1.138) White .209 .359 .513 .041 (.506) (.607) (.582) (.621) Other 1.017 .479 1.207 .495 (.594) (.842) (1.091) (.837) SES .585 .41 8 .312 .098 (.453) (.537) (.565) (.563) Grade 9 th Grade .911 .675 .703 .767 (.531) (.712) (.656) (.712) 10 th Grade 1.450* .423 .150 .243 (.599) (.801) (.684) (.673) 11 th Grade .372 .632 1.105 .519 (.552) (.738) (.759) (.720) Note. Log odd coefficients are reported and the standard error is reported in parentheses. Interaction terms were created, entered into a model, and analyzed. Since no significant interaction effects were found, only main effects are reported. Hispanic an d 12 th grade participants were used as the reference category. p < .05.

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59 The logistic regression analysis indicated that no significant main effects were present between the settings of athletic participation for alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other dr ugs. In addition to examining the relationship between setting of athletic participation and substan ce use, demographic variables (i.e., gender, ethnicity, grade, and SES) were examined When these variables were examined in the logistic regression analyse s, the relationship between gender, ethnicity and SES and substance use were not significant for any of the four substance use groups However, the relationship was significant between grade and substance use As previously stated, the overall relationshi p between setting of athletic participation and substance use in this sample was not statistical ly significant. However, 12 th grad e students reported significantly more alcohol use in the past year than 10 th grade students ( Log Odds Ratio = 1.450).

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60 Chapter Five Discussion Summary of the Study The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between participation in athletics and adolescent substance use. Specifically, t his study attempted to identify differences in substance use among adolescent athletes and nonathletes A dditionally, the relationship s between frequency and setting of athletic participation and substance use were examined. This chapter will summarize the results of the current study and address significant fi ndings. Similarities and differences between findings from the current study and previous research will also be discussed. Fi nally, this chapter will present the implications of the results for practitioners, identify limitations of the investigation, and discuss directions for future research. Frequency of Adolescent Substance Use Research Question 1: What is the frequency of student substance use in this sample with respect to the following drug groups? A) Alcohol (wine, beer, and liquor) B) Tobacco (ci garettes and cigars) C) Marijuana D) Other drugs (i.e., inhalants, prescription drugs not prescribed to you, ecstasy, hallucinogens, stimulants, barbiturates, and cocaine).

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61 While over half of the high school participants in this study reported using alco hol in the past 12 months, reported rates of use were much lower for tobacco, marijuana, and the other drugs group Less than 20% of participants reported using tobacco, marijuana, or other drugs in the past year. Additionally, one substance (heroine) was reported as not being used by any participants and numerous other substances (i.e., chewing tobacco, steroids, meth amphetamine and crack) were reported as being used by only one participant in the past year. Compared to previous research examining adolesc ent substance use (Johnston et al., 2007), freque ncy of alcohol use was comparable For example, Johnston et al. measured self reported substance use and found that 66.5% of 12 th graders had used alcohol in the past year compared to almost 70% of 12 th grad ers in this study. With regards to frequency of tobacco, marijuana, and other drug use, rates were lower among partiticpants in this sample. Specifically, while Johnston et al. found that over 40% of high school students had reported using tobacco in their lifetime, only about 17% of participants reported using a tobacco product in the past year. Marijuana use also was reported less frequently by participants in this study. While over 25% of 10 th graders and 30% of 12 th g raders in the Johnston et al. study reported using marijuana in the past year, less than 17% of participants in the current study reported marijuana use. One hypothesis for these differences in substance use may be the predom inantly Hispanic population participating in the current study. Pre vious research has indicated that Hispanic adolescents report lower rates of substance use compared to White adolescents (Johnston et al 2007). Among the participants in the current study, almost 60% reported their ethnicity as Hispanic compared to only about 20% reporting their ethnicity as White. Based on the previous research that Hispanic adolescents typically report lower

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62 substance use rates it would be expected that substance use in this sample would be slig htly lower due to the large percentage of Hispanic participants. Regardin g gender, Johnston and colleagues found that males reported higher rates of smokeless tobacco, steroid, and illicit drug use as compared to females In the current study, substance use rates between males and females were n ot significantly different for any of the four drug groups. However, as Thompson (1987) stated, factors such as sample size and reliability of data can affect statistical significance. It is important to note that due to the small sample size in the curre n t study, signifi cant differences between groups may not have been detected. Also of interest in this study was the difference in substance use between the high and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups. In the current study, 60% of low SES participants reported using alcohol in the past year compared to less than half of high SES participants. For the other three drug groups, nearly identical use rates were reported for low and high SES participants. Previous research examining the relationship between SES and alcohol use amon g adolescents has provided different results. For example, when Blum, Beuhring, Shew, Bearinger, Sieving, and Resnick (2000) examined substance use among African American, White, and Hispanic youth, they found that while high SES ad olescents were less likely to smoke cigarettes, they were more likely to engage in alcohol use than their low SES peers Although these results differ from the current study, it is noted that Blum et al. controlled for other factors, including family struc ture (e.g., single parent homes), ethnicity, and age of participants when examining SES Thus, the results of these two studies may not be directly comparable.

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63 Athletic Participation and Substance Use Research Question 2: Are there differences in the freq uency and type of drug and/or alcohol use among adolescent athletes and non athletes? In the current st udy, one of the purposes was to examine differences in substance use between athletes and nonathletes. For the purpose of this study, athletes were defi ned as any participant who reported participating on a school team on the Participation in Athletic Activities Scale. Conversely, nonathletes were defined as any participant who did not report participating on a school team. Of those 139 students who parti cipated in data collection, 47 (33.8%) reported that they participated on a school team. Additi onally 23 (48.9%) students reported participating on one school sports team, while 24 (51.1%) reported participating on multiple school sports teams. At the sch ool where the study was conducted nine sports teams were offered for males and nine teams were offered for females. During the 2008 2009 school year, the year in which data were collected, 219 males participated on a school athletic team compared to 183 f emales (R. Harbor, personal communication, September 3, 2009). As mentioned in the previous chapter, no significant differences between athletes and nonathletes were found with regards to any of the four substance groups. Since previous research on substanc e use in high sc hool athletes has provided equivocal results ( Fredricks et al., 2006; Hildebrand, Johnson, & Bogle, 2001; Moore et al., 2005; Naylor et al., 2001 ), the present researcher was not surprised. While differences in substance use between athlete s and non athletes were not statistically significant in the curre nt study, there were trends in substance use between athletes and nonathletes consistent with previous rese arch in t his area. For example, over

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64 20 % of nonathletes reported having used tobacco in th e past year, compared to only 8.5 % of ath letes in the current study. Nonathletes (23.9%) also were more likely to report using marijuana than athletes (10.6%). Additionally 5% of nonathletes reported having used cocaine in the past year, while none of the athletes in this study reported using cocaine. Similarly, p revious research has found that nonathletes reported significa ntly higher levels of cigarette smoking cocaine use, and use of psychedel ics than athletes (Naylor et al 2001). Baumert, Hend erson, and Thompson (1998) also found that athletes were less likely to smoke cigarettes or marijuana and more likely to engage in healthy dietary behaviors (i.e., eating breakfast on a daily basis, not adding salt to food, consuming fruits and vegetables) With previous research suggesting that athletes engage in healthier behaviors, t he researcher hypothesizes that athletes may exhibit lower rates of tobacco and mari juana use due to the perception that smoking will contribute to poor health, and ultimatel y, negatively affect athletic performance (Melnick, Miller, Sabo, Farrell, & Barnes, 2001) Specifically, athletes could be concerned that smoking cigarettes or marijua na will lead to lower endurance and stamina, along with slowing reaction time Additiona lly it is possible that athletes are concerned that getting caught using marijuana or illicit drugs could result in getting kicked off the sports team. For example, the high school in which the study took place has a substance use policy stipulating that students caught using drugs or alcohol are to be suspended, which c ould also result in students being dismissed from all school sports teams (R. Harbor, personal communication, September 3, 2009). Also of interest was the lack of steroid use reported by pa rticipants. In the current study, only one participant reported using steroids in the past 12 months. While the lack of steroid use was a positive sign, the present researcher thought it would

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65 have been reported by more than one participant. However, due t o the low SES of the participants in this sample, it is less likely that they would be able to afford the cost of expensive drugs such as steroids. Regarding alcohol use, more athletes (61.7%) in the current study reported having used alcohol in the past y ear than nonathle tes (52.2%) However, previous research on the relationship between athlete status and alcohol use has provided mixed results. For example, w hile athletes from some studies (Hildebrand et al. 2001 ; Wetherill & Fromme, 2007) have reported higher rates of alcohol use than nonathletes Fredricks et al. (2006) found that nonathletes reported significantly higher rates of alcohol use than nonathletes. Although research on the alcohol use behaviors of athletes and nona thletes has provided incons istent results, both groups (athletes and nonathletes) have reported higher use rates for alcohol than other substances, providing support to previous research suggesting that alcohol use is more socially acceptable than smoking or other drug use (Reifman, Barnes, Dints cheff, Farrell, & Uhteg, 1998). Additionally Baumert et al. (1998) found that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to engage in alcohol use and binge d rink ing as well as more likely to drive more than 10 miles over the speed limit and ride bicycles withou t helmets While more research on the relationship between athlete status and alcohol use needs to be conducted, previous research reporting that athlet es are more likely to engage in risk taking behaviors suggests that athletes might be more likely to enga ge in the risky behavior of consuming alcohol. Gender and Ethnicity and Substance Use Research Question 3: Are there gender and/or ethnicity differences in drug and/or alcoho l use among adolescent athletes and nonathletes ?

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66 Another pur pose of this study was to examine differences in substance use among participants of different genders and ethnicities. In the current study, some results were consistent with previous research in this area. However, other findings differed from previous s tudies of high school athletes and substance use. Consistent with previous research (Baumert et al., 1998), when gender, ethnicity, SES, and grade were controlled for, nonathletes reported significantly more marijuana use than athletes. However, when those same four demographic characteristics were controlled for, there were no significant differences in alcohol, tobacco, or other drug use between athletes and nonathletes. Also of interest in the current study was the relationship between gender and substa nce use. When athlete status, ethnicity, SES, and grade were controlled for, there were no significant differences in substance use between males and females for any of the four substance groups. However, there were trends in substance use consistent with previous research. For example, more male athletes (71.0%) reported using alcohol in the past year than female athletes (58.0%) in the current study. Since previous research on a large, nationally representative sample has found that male adolescents repor t higher rates of alcohol use than females (Johnston et al., 2007) these differences in alcohol use were not surprising. With regards to the other three substance groups (tobacco, marijuana, other drugs), male and female athletes reported lower use rates than their nonathlete counterparts in the current study, though not statistically significant. Additionally, use rates among male and female athletes were nearly identical for these three substances, with female athletes reporting slightly higher rates of tobacco use and male athletes reporting slightly higher rates of marijuana and other drug use. While some previous

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67 research on substance use in athletes (Baumert et al., 1998; Naylo r et al., 2001) has not found differences between genders, Fredricks et al. (2006) found that gender moderated the relationship between athletic participation and marijuana use. For example, Fredricks and colleagues found that participation in athletics predicted lower marijuana use for males. Additionally, female athletes also r eported lower rates of marijuana use than female nonathletes in the current study though not statistically significant. The results from the current study seem to follow the same trend, with male and female athletes reporting lower rates of marijuana use than nonathletes. As previously stated, the present researcher hypothesizes that athletes may be more inclined to avoid cigarettes, marijuana, and other drugs due to the perception that these substances lead to poor health and negatively affect performance (Melnick et al., 2001). In the current study, although the differences in substance use between male and female athletes and nonathletes w ere often quite large, it is hypothesized that the small sample size (i.e., only 17 male athletes and 23 ma le nonathl etes) may have resulted in the inability to detect statistical significance (Thompson, 1987). Regarding participants of different ethnicities, when athlete status, gender, SES, and grade were controlled for, there were no significant differences for any of the four substance groups. Though not statistically significant, there were some large differences between ethnicities for some substances in the current study. For example, a larger percentage of Hispanic athletes (75.0%) reported using alcohol in the pa st 12 months than African American athletes (60.0%), White athletes (38.0%), and athletes who identified themselves as Other (33.0%). However, Hispanic athletes r eported lower instances of tobacco and marijuana use than both African American and White athl etes. The reported

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68 alcohol use rates for Hispanic athletes was surprising, citing previous research that Hispanic adolescents typically report lower alcohol use than White adolescents (Johnston et al, 2007). Additionally, African American athletes reported higher marijuana use than White athletes, consistent with previous research which found that participation in athletes predicted lower marijuan a use for European Americans, but not for African Americans (Fre d ricks et al, 2006). As noted above, while the d ifferences in substance use by ethnicity were not statistically significant in the current study there were trends in differences between ethnicities consistent with previous research. Frequency and Setting of Athletic Participation and Substance Use Rese arch Question 4: Are there relationships between the frequency and setting of athletic participation and adolescent substance use? The current study intended to add to the empirical literature by examining the relationship between frequency and setting of athletic participation and substance use among high school students. Previous research in this area has examined several relationships between participation in athletics and substance use. For example, Fredricks et al. (2006) examined the connection betwee n the number of clubs/athletic activities participated in and substance use in high school students. Also, participation on specific athletic teams (e.g., football, wrestling, basketball) and substance use in both high school (Moore et al., 2005) and colle ge (Ford, 2007) students has been examined. However, research on the relationship between frequency and setting of athletic participation and substance use in high school students is scarce. In the current study, no significant differences were found betwe en frequency of athletic participation and substance use for any of the four substance groups. Specifically,

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69 when gender, ethnicity, SES, and grade were controlled for, the frequency in which students participated in athletic activities did not predict alc ohol, tobacco, marijuana, or other drug use. While not statistically significant, there were some trends in substance use between the groups. For example, students who participated in an athletic activity once or twice a week were most likely to engage in alcohol use (62%), students who participated less than once a month were most likely to engage in tobacco (25%) and other drug use (38%), and students who reported never participating in athletic activities were most likely to engage in marijuana use (33%) Those students who never participated in athletic activities reported using marijuana nearly twice as frequently as those who participated in an athletic activity three or more times a week, consistent with previous research which found that breadth of p articipation (defined as participating in numerous prosocial activities, such as school clubs and athletics) predicted lower marijuana use one year after high school (Fredricks et al., 2006). Again, the present researcher hypothesizes that those students w ho participate in athletic activities more frequently are aware of the perception that smoking marijuana inhibits endurance and athletic functioning (Melnick et al., 2001). Fredricks and colleagues also found that breadth of participation was associated wi th decreased alcohol use in European Americans and increased alcohol use in African Americans. Although that seems like a negative trend, the researchers also noted that African American participants in the study reported lower overall alcohol use rates th an European Americans, which is consistent with previous research (Johnston et al., 2007) and the findings from the current study. Also of note, 12 th grade students in the current study were significantly more likely to report alcohol use than 10 th grade s tudents,

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70 consistent with findings from previous research that students in higher grades reported increased rates of alcohol use (Dewey, 1999; Johnston et al., 2007). Similar to the results for frequency of athletic participation, the setting of athletic p articipation did not predict substance use for any of the four substance groups. However, trends in substance use among those students who participated in school based athletic activities and those students who participated in recreational athletic activit ies will be discussed. For example, students who reported participating in athletics in a school setting were more likely to engage in alcohol use (62%) than students who participated in recreational settings (49%). While it seems that participating in a s chool setting was associated with increased alcohol use, the researcher notes that 66.0% of those students who reported participating in a school setting were in 11 th or 12 th grade, compared to only 46.2% of those who reported participating in a recreation al setting. Because students in higher grades typically report increased rates of alcohol use (Dewey, 1999; Johnston et al., 2007), and significantly more 12 th graders reporting alcohol use in the current study, it is important to note that some of the dif ference in alcohol use between these two groups may be explained by the higher percentage of older students in the school setting group. Conversely, Barber, Eccles, and Stone (2001) found that athletes had more peers who drank alcohol than nonathletes, sug gesting that those students participating in school settings may have more alcohol using peers (and be more likely to use alcohol) than those participating in out of school, recreational settings. Regarding the other substance groups, students who reported participating in athletics i n a recreational setting were more likely to engage in tobacco (22%), marijuana (22%), and other drug use (21%) than those who reported participating in a school setting. Similar to previous findings in the

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71 current study, the p resent researcher hypothesizes that those who reported participating in school settings were more likely to be athletes on school based teams and would be less likely to engage in substance use behaviors (i.e., smoking cigarettes or marijuana, engaging in other illicit drug use) that could negatively impact their performance on the field (Melnick et al. 2001). As noted above, previous research in this area has also examined the relationship between participation in various athletic activities in both the sc hool and out of school setting (Moore et al., 2005). Due to the small sample size and low participation rates in certain activities (e.g., hockey, golf, wrestling) in the cu rrent study, data related to substance use behaviors among students participating i n specific athletic activities could not be analyzed However, it is important to address the research by Moore and colleagues (2005), as it suggests that substance use is related several factors, including gender, the setting in which students participate and the sport in which individuals are i nvolved For example, they found that out of school basketball players were significantly more likely to use alcohol than nonbasketball players, tennis players were significantly more likely to use alcohol than non tennis players, and skateboarders were more likely to smoke marijuana than nonskateboarders. Regarding gender, male school sponsored football players and swimmers were also more likely to smoke marijuana than their nonparticipating counterparts. While resu lts from Moore et al. (2005) do not directly correlate with the results of the current study, they certainly add to evidence from previously stated research suggesting that a variety of factors (e.g., gender, ethnicity, grade, breadth of participation, typ e of sport/athletic activity involved in) moderate the relationship between athletic activity and substance use among high school

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72 students. The present research suggests that further examinations will help to clarify the relationship between athletic parti cipation and substance use. Implications for Practitioners Adolescent substance use has been associated with a number of negative outcomes, including an increased risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) later in life (Offord et al., 2000) reductions in educational attainment (Chatterji, 2006a; Chatterji, 2006b; Cox et al., 2007; The Substance Use and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006), and l ow self esteem (Dielman, 2006). Although research has confirmed many of these negative ou tcomes, adolescents continue to report high rates of alcohol and cigarette use, as well as increasing rates of ecstasy, painkiller (i.e., OxyContin, Vicodin), and inhalant use (Johnston et al., 2007). Since adolescent substance use has been linked to so ma ny negative consequences, it is critical that school psychologists and educators are aware of risk or protective factors that may lead student s to use substances, or avoid substance use. With over half (54.2%) of high school students currently participatin g on school based athletic teams ( National Federation of State High School Associations, 2008 ), and even more participating in recreational and club settings, examining the relationship between athletic participation and substance use in high school is bec oming increasingly important. This study attempted to do that, by examining differences in substance use between athletes and nonathletes, as well as the relationship between frequency and setting of athletic participation and substance use. The current st udy found that when gender, ethnicity, SES, and grade were controlled for, nonathletes reported significantly higher rates of marijuana use than

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73 athletes. Additionally, nonathletes were almost two times more likely to report tobacco and other drug use than athletes, though not statistically significant. Regarding alcohol use, athletes reported slightly higher use rates than nonathletes. These findings are consistent with previous research, suggesting a need for educating nonathletes on the negative outcomes associated with tobacco, marijuana, and other drug use. Although research in this area is scarce, it has been suggested that athletes exhibit lower rates of tobacco, marijuana, and other drug use due to an increased knowledge of the negative side effects associated with these substances (Melnick et al., 2001). Perhaps programs designed to educate students on the negative side effects of substance use would lead to decreased tobacco, marijuana and illicit drug use in high school nonathletes, as well as the overall school population. A second important finding was that when substance use and ethnicity were examined alone, Hispanic students reported significantly higher rates of alcohol use than students who identified themselves as Other, as well as slightly higher rates than African American and White participants, though not statistically significant. Conversely, Hispanic students reported lower rates of tobacco and marijuana use than both African American and White students With previous research reportin g that Hispanic adolescents typically report lower overall substance use rates than African American and White adolescents, the results from the current study were somewhat surprising for alcohol use. However, the present researcher highlights the need for school psychologists to gather information about the substance use behaviors of the students in their own school, as well as comparing results with nationally representative samples. By relying on previous research, as well as information gathered from st udents in their specific school, school

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74 psychologists can assist in more accurately targeting groups of students for substance use prevention efforts. The finding that older students (i.e., students in 12 th grade) were significantly more likely to report a lcohol use than younger students (i.e., students in 10 th grader) also is informative Since students in higher grades typically report increased substance use rates (Dewey, 1999; Johnston et al., 2007), t hese results were anticipated. These outcomes highli ght the need for educators, and specifically school psychologists, to provide resources (e.g., information on AA, access to counselors at school or in the community, information on the effects of substance use, etc.) to all students, not only those student s who are just entering high school. Unfortunately, only about half of the school districts in one study reported administering a substance use prevention program in their high schools ( Ringwalt, Hanley, Vincus, Ennett Rohrbach, & Bowling, 2008). S chool p sychologists can and should be focus ed on providing substance use prevention services as early as possible instead of waiting until students have substance use related problems to intervene In order to identify students who are at risk of engaging in sub stance use, school psychologists can consult previous research in the area of adolescent substance use, as well as use screening tools such as the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory (ADSI) ( Corrigan, Loneck, & Videka, 2007 ). Regarding prevention efforts p revious research has highlighted the protective influence that parents and peers (2008) found that parent and peer disapproval was associated with lower intentions to use drugs in the future among 6 th and 8 th grade students. This research suggests that school psychologists can work together with parents and peers of students who ma y be at risk

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75 for substance use. Community based programs focusing on the entire family ha ve also demonstrated positive outcomes, including increases in adolescent self esteem and assertiveness, as well as increased knowledge of the effects of substance use. In a ddition to involving parents, peers and community members school psychologists ca n also utilize evidence based su bstance use prevention programs, such as (Kulis, Marsiglia, Elek, Dustman, Wagstaff, & Hecht, 2005). Developed in Arizona, one of the strengths of this substance use prevention program is the emphasis that is placed on cultural values. Specifically, offers three evidence based substance use curriculums; one modeled on Mexican American culture, another modeled on European American and African American cultures, and a multicultural version. The i mportance of taking cultural values and norms into account cannot be understated when implementing any type of prevention or intervention, especially in diverse schools, such as the high school used in the current study. Limitations During the current st udy, the present researcher and research team took several precautions to address potential limitations and threats to validity. However, not all limitations and threats to validity can be controlled. In this section, the present researcher will address li mitations as well as precautions that were taken to address these limitations. Validity of Results. One goal of any researc her is to enhance the generalizability of study outcomes to the larger population. Due to the design of the current study, several aspects limit the extent to whic h these results can be generalize d to the larger population. First, the current study utilized a convenience sample in which students from a pre

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76 selected high school were included. Additionally, only students who returned pa rental consent forms and provided stud ent assent were permitted to participate. T he gender characteristics of the students who returned parental consent forms differed from those students who did not receiv e parental consent. Specifically, an overwhelming majority of students in the convenience sample were female (73.4%), compared to the overall school population of females ( 52.0% ) The student demographics of the high school population utilized in the current study is also a potential threat to validity. Specifically, the high school used for data collection consisted of predominantly low SES and Hispanic students. The researcher acknowle dges that results of this study may not generalize to other populations, such as high SES and predominantly White/Caucas ian high school students. Sample Size. The sample size of the current study was 139 students, which represent only about 13% of the overall school population. P revious research by Ji et al. (2004) examined factors which influence return rates of parental consent and found an average return rate of around 57%. Although the researchers took steps to increase pa rticipation (i.e., four $50 Best Buy gift cards, asking teachers to promote participation in the study), the low participation rate mak es it difficult to generalize results to the overall school population Additionally, the small sample size lowered the statistical power of analyses. Specifically, the small sample size lowered the chances that statistically significant results would be found, even when large differences in substance use existed between groups. Data Collect ion Measures. Another pot ential limitation to this study is that the survey i nstruments used to gather information from participants have not been previously

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77 examined regarding their reliability and validity. The Participation in Athletic Activities Scale and Ado lescent Substance Use Scale were developed by a team of USF researchers involved in the larger study. The Participation in Athletic Activities Scale was developed in order to d etermine how often students participated in athletic activities, as well as in which setting students participated in these athletic activities. Due to the present The Adolescent Substance Use S cale was developed in order to include an item measuring steroid use. Although the researche rs involved in developing and piloting these instruments took several precau tions (i.e., conducting pilot studies, consulting with experien ced researchers and USF f aculty), further analyses of the instruments used in this study need to be conducted to determine their reliability and validity. Data Collection Methods. A final limitation i s that only self report data were utilized to collect information on athletic pa rticipation and substance use in a single school. Although participants were ensured that their responses would be completely anonymous, the possibility exists that students did not fill out the Adolescent Substance Use Scale honestly. Due to the sensitive nature of the questions (illegal substance use), it is possible that participants did not feel comfortable reporting that they had used illegal substances in the past year. Directions for Future Research The current study was an examinatio n of athletic p articipation and substance use in high school adolescents. This study should be repl icated with a larger and more heterogeneous sample to provide a better examination of the relationship between frequency and setting of athletic participation and substance use. In addition to

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7 8 replicating this study with various populations, futur e r esearch should incorporate different methods for collecting informatio n The current study used self report surveys to collect data, which are quick and efficient methods to coll ect quantitative data. However, qualitative methods of data collection (e.g., focus groups, interviews) would allow researchers to gather more information on the beliefs, thoughts, and feelings of student athletes regarding to substance use Further studi es related to this line of research will add to the existing literature in the field of adolescent substance use among high school athletes. Research should examine the relationship between substance use and athletes participating in different sports (e.g. football, baseball, basketball, soccer) and types of sports (i.e., team sports vs. individual sports). Studies examining the variability of substance use both within the teams and between the different sports teams are needed Continued findings in this area may clarify the relationship between high school athletes and substance use, resulting in more reliable information for school and community based practitioners attempting to develop programs aimed at preventing adolescent substance use. Conclusion T he current study examined a number of relationships between participation i n athletic activities and substance use in high school students. Findings support links between athlete status, frequency and setting of athletic participation, grade, and substanc e use. In addition to informing future research in substance use among athletes, t hese results may assist school personnel in both developing prevention programs related to substance use and identif ying students who are at risk for engaging in substance us e

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79 References Abdelrahman, A. I., Rodriguez, G., Ryan, J. A., French, J. F., & Weinbaum, D. (1998). The epidemiology of substance abuse among middle school students: The impact of school, familial, community and individual risk factors. Journal of Chi ld and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 8 55 75. Aloise Young, P., & Chavez, E. (2002). Not all school dropouts are the same: Ethnic differences in the relation between reason for leaving school and adolescent substance use. Psychology in the Schools, 39 539 547. American Psychiatr ic Association (2000 ). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental D isorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision Washington, DC American Psychiatric Association. Anothony, J., & Petronis, K. (1995). Early onset drug use and risk of late r drug problems. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 40 9 15. Barber, B. L., Eccles, J. S., & Stone, M. R. (2001). Whatever happened to the jock, the brain, and the princess? Young adult pathways linked to adolescent activity involvement and social identity. Journ al of Adolescent Research, 16, 429 455. Barnes, G. M., Hoffman, J. H., Welte, J. W., Farrell, M. P., & Dintcheff, B. F. (2007). Adolescents' time use: Effects on substance use, delinquency and sexual activity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36 697 710.

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80 Baumert, P. W., Henderson, J. M., & Thompson, N. J. (1998). Health risk behaviors of adolescent participants in organized sports. Journal of Adolescent Health, 22, 460 465. Blum, R. W., Beuhring, T., Shew, M. L., Bearinger, L. H., Sieving, R. E., & Resnic k, M. D. (2000). The effects of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure on adolescent risk behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1879 1884. Bryant, A. L., Schulenberg, J., Bachman, J. G., O'Malley, P. M., & Johnston, L. D. (2000). Acting o ut and lighting up: Understanding the links among school misbehavior, academic achievement, and cigarette use. monitoring the future occasional paper 46. Monitoring the Future, Inst. for Social Research, Univ. of Michigan. Carr, C.N. ( 1990). Alcohol use am ong high school athletes: A comparison of alcohol use and intoxication in male and female high school athletes and non athletes. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 36 39 43. Center for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA. (1994). Health risk beha viors among pe rsons aged 12 21 years: United S tates, 1992. Chatterji, P. (2006 a ). Does alcohol use during high school affect educational attainment?: Evidence from the national education longitudinal study. Economics of Education Review, 25 482 497. Chatt erji, P. (2006b). Illicit drug use and educational attainment. Health Economics, 15, 489 511. Chou, S. P., Dawson, D. A., Stinson, F. S., Huang, B., Pickering, R. P., Zhou, Y., & Grant, B. F. (2006). The prevalence of drinking and driving in the United Sta tes,

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81 2001 2002: Results from the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 83 137 146. Cohen, D. A., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescent substance use, and academic achievement. Journal of Drug Education, 27 199 211. Corrigan, M., Loneck, B., & Videka, L. (2007). The development and preliminary validation of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory: A substance use prevention tool. Research on Social Work Practice, 17, 348 357. Cox, R. G., Zhang, L., Johnson, W. D, & Bender, D. R. (2007). Academic performance and substance use: Findings from a state survey of public high school students. Journal of School Health, 77 109 115. Darling, N. (2005). Participation in extracurricular activities and adolescent adjustment: Cross sectional and longitudinal findings. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34 5, 493 505. Dawkins, M. P., Williams, M. M., & Guilbault, M. (2006). Participation in school sports: Risk or protective factor for drug use among black and white students? Journal of Negro Education, 75 25 33. Dewey, J. D. (1999). Reviewing the relationship between school factors and substance use for elementary, middle, and high school students. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 19, 177 225. Diego, M. A., Field, T. M., & Sanders, C. E. (2003). Academic performance, popularity, and depression predict adolescent substance use. Adolescence, 38 35 42.

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82 Dielman, T. E. (1987). Susceptibility to peer pressure, self esteem, and health locus of c ontrol as correlates of adolescent substance abuse. Health Education Quarterly, 14 207 221. Florid a Department of Education. (2007 ). Florida information note: Free and reduced lunch eligibility (FLDOE Publication). Tallahassee, FL: Author Ford, J. A. (20 07). Substance use among college athletes: A comparison based on sport/team affiliation. Journal of American College Health, 55, 367 373. Fredricks, J. A. & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concur rent and longitudinal relations. Developmental Psychology, 42 698 713. Gil, A., Wagner, E., & Tubman, J. (2004). Associations between early adolescent substance use and subsequent young adult substance use disorders and psychiatric disorders among a mult iethnic sample in South Florida. American Journal of Public Health, 94 1603 1609. Grant, B., & Dawson, D. (1997). Age of onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM IV alcohol abuse and dependence: Results from a national longitudinal alcohol epidem ic survey. Journal of Substance Abuse, 9 103 110. Halebsky, M.A. (1987). Adolescent alcohol and substance abuse: parent and peer effects. Adolescence, 22 961 967. Harrison, P. A., & Narayan, G. (2003). Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence. Journal of School Health, 73 113 120.

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83 Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R., & Miller, J. (1992). Risk and protective factors associated for alcohol and oth er drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse preventions. Psychology Bulletin, 112, 64 105. Hildebrand, K. M., Johnson, D. J., & Bogle, K. (2001). Comparison of patterns of alcohol use between high school and colleg e athletes and non athletes. College Student Journal, 35, 358 365. adolescents at risk for HIV. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31 619 629. Ji, P. Y., Pokorny, S. B., & Jason, L. A. (2004). Factors influencing middle and high Evaluation Review, 28, 578 591. Joh nston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2007). Monitoring the future: National results on adolescent drug use. Overview of key findings, 2006. (NIH Publication No. 07 6202). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Jones, S. E., Oeltmann, J., Wilson, T. W., Brener, N. D., & Hill, C. V. (2001). Binge drinking among undergraduate colleg e students in the united states: Implications for other substance use. Journal of American College Health, 50 33 38. Khantzian, E., & Treece, C. (1985). DSM III psychiatric diagnosis of narcotic addicts: Recent findings. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4 2 1067 1071. Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F., Elek, E., Dustman, P., Wagstaff, D., & Hecht, M. (2005). Mexican/Mexican American adolescents and : An evidence based substance use prevention program. Children and Schools, 27, 133 145.

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84 Lucey, R., Jr. Marel, R., Smith, R. B., Frank, B., & Schmeidler, J. (1999). Alcohol and other drug use among college students in New Y ork state: Findings from a statewide college survey (1996). New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services, 1450 West ern Avenue, Albany, NY 12203 3526. Luthar, S. S., Shoum, K. A., & Brown, P. J. (2006). Extracurricular involvement among affluent youth: A scapegoat for "ub iquitous achievement pressures?" Developmental Psychology, 42 583 597. Melnick, J. M., Miller, K. E., Sabo, D. F., Farrell, M. P., & Barnes, G. M. (2001). Tobacco use among high school athletes and nonathletes: Results of the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adolescence, 36, 727 747. Mensch, B. S. & Kandel, D. B. (1988). Dropping out of high school and drug involvement. Sociology of Education, 61 95 113. Miller, L., Davies, M., & Greenwald, S. (2000). Religiosity and substance use among adolescents in the national co morbidity survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39 1190 1197. Moore M., & Werch C. (2005). Sport and physical activity participation and substance use among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36, 486 493. Musher Eizenman, D. R., Holub, S. C, & Arnett, M. (2003). Attitude and peer influences on adolescent substance use: The moderating effect of age, sex, and substance. Journal of Drug Education, 33 1 23. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (1997). Youth drinking: Risk factors and consequences. Rockville, MD: Author.

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85 Naylor, A. H., Gardner, D., & Zaichkowsky, L. (2001). Drug use patterns among high school athletes and nonathletes. Adolescence, 36 627 639. Reifman, A., Barnes, G. M., Dintcheff, B. A., Farrell, M. P., & Uhteg, L. (1998). Parental and peer influences on the ons et of heavier drinking among adolescents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59, 311 317. Ringwalt, C., Hanley, S., Vincus, A., Ennett, S., Rohrbach, L., & Bowling, J. (2008). The schools. Journal of Primary Prevention, 29, 479 488. Sawyer, T. M., & Stevenson, J. F. (2008). Perceived parental and peer disapproval toward substances: Influences on adolescent decision making. Journal of Primary Prevention, 29, 465 477. Shilts, L. (199 1). The relationship of early adolescent substance use to extracurricular activities, peer influence, and personal attitudes. Adolescence, 26 613 617. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies & Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC. Academic Performance and Substance Use among Students Aged 12 to 17: 2002, 2003, and 2 004. The NSDUH Report. Issue 18 (2006). Substance Abuse and Mental Heal th Services Administration. The National Federation of State High School Associations (2008). 2007 2008 High School Athletics Participation Survey. Indianapolis, IN: NFHS. Thompson, B. (1987, April). The use (and misuse) of statistical significance testing: Some recommendations for improved editorial policy and practice. Paper

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86 presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC Wetherill, R. R., & Fromme, K. (2007). Alcohol use, sexual activity, and perceived risk in high school athletes and non athletes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 294 301. Yin, Z., Katims, D. S., & Zapata, J. T. (1996). After school activities and substance use among Mexican American youth. Journal of A t Risk Issues, 2 47 54. Zeigler, D., Wang, C., Yoast, R., Dickinson, B., McCaffree, M., Robinowitz, C., et al. (2005). The neurocognitive effects of alcohol on adolescents and college students. Preventative Medicine, 40, 23 32.

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87 A ppendices

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88 Appendix A : Informed Consent to Parents, English ver sion Dear Parent or Caregiver: This letter provides information about a research study that will be conducted at XX Senior High School by investigators from the University of South Florida. Our goal in conducting the study is to determine the effect of and with friends on their psychological wellness and health Who We Are : The research team consists of Rance L. Harbor, Ph.D., a Hillsborough County School Psychologist who is also a visitor professor in the Coll ege of Education at the University o f South Florida (USF), and several graduate students in the USF School Psychology Program. We are planning the study in cooperation with the principal of XX Senior High School ( XX ) to make sure the study provides inform ation that will be helpful to the school. : This study is being conducted Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Substance Use Among High School Students Your child is being asked to participate because he or she is a student at XX High School Why Your Child Should Participate : We need to learn more about what leads to alcohol and drug use while students are in high school. The information that we collect from studen ts may increase our overall knowledge of risk factors that lead to drug and/or alcohol use as well as what characteristics and activities serve as a protective factor. In addition, information from the study will be shared with the teachers and administrat ors at XX in order to increase their knowledge of specific school experiences that lead to wellness in students. Please note neither you nor your who participate in the study will be entered into a drawing for one of several gift certificates. What Participation Requires : If your child is given permission to participate in the study, he or she will be asked to complete several paper and pencil questionnaires. These qu estionnaire towards drug and alcohol use, participation in extracurricular activities, sports, peer relationships, and mental health history. Completion is expected to take your child between 30 and 45 minutes We will personally administer the questionnaires at XX during regular school hours in the Winter 2008 semester, to large groups of students who have parent permission to participate. In total, participation will take about one hour of during one school day : There is minimal risk to your child for participating in this research. We will be present during administration of the questionnaires in order to provide assistance to yo ur child if he or she has any questions

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89 Appendix A: (Continued) or concerns. In addition, after your child has completed the questionnaires, we will give your child a list of community mental health resources in case he or she would like to discuss pe rsonal issues or find out more information about tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. This study is anonymous packet of questionnaires will be added to the stac k of packets from other students; we will not be able to identify which student completed which questionnaires. Only we will have access to the locked file cabinet stored at USF that will contain the form your child must sign in order to take part in this study. This permission form will be explained, signed, and collected before questionnaires are handed out in order to avoid linking kept confidential to the extent of the law. Authorized research personnel, employees of the Department of Health and Human Services, the USF Institutional Review Board and its staff, and other individuals acting on behalf of USF may inspect the records from this research project, but your system personnel or anyone other than Dr. Harbor and his research assistants. Please Note : Your decision to allow your child to participate in this research study must be completely voluntary. You are free to allow your child to participate in this research study or to withdraw him or her at any time. Your decision to participate, not to participate, or to withdraw participation at any point during the study will in no student status, his or her grades, or your relationship with XX Hillsborough County Schools, USF, or any other party. : We plan to use the information from this study to inform educators and psychologists abou t the effects of various risk and protective factors associated with high school alcohol and/or drug use. The results of this study may be published. However, the data obtained from your child will be combined with data from other people in the publication The published results will personally identify your child. Questions? If you have any questions about this research study, please contact Dr. Harbor at (813) 872 5300 ext 303 a person who is taking part in a research study, you may contact a member of the Division of Research Compliance of the USF at (813) 974 9343. Want Your Child to Participate? To permit your child to participate in this study, complete the attached consent form and have your child turn it in to his or her homeroom teacher.

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90 Appendix A: (Continued) Sincerely, Rance L. Harbor Ph.D. School Psychologist Hillsborough County Public Schools Visiting Professor, University of South Florida Department of Psychological and Social Foundations ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Consent for Child to Take Part in this Research Study I freely give my permission to let my child take part in this study. I understand that this is research. I have received a copy of this letter and consent form for my records. __________________________ ________________ Printed n ame of child Grade level of child __________________________ ____________________ ____________ Signature of parent Printed name of parent Date of child taking part in the study Statement of Person Obtaining Informed C onsent I certify that participants have been provided with an informed consent form that has explains the nature, demands, risks, and benefits involved in participating in this study. I further certify that a phone number has been provided in the event of additional questions. __________________________ ___________________ _____________ Signature of person Printed name of person Date obtaining consent obtaining consent

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91 Appendix B : Informed Consent to Parents, Spanish version Estimados padres: Esta carta es para informarles sobre un estudio investigativo que ser realizado el la Escuela Secundaria de XX Los investigador es de la Universidad del Sur de la Florida (USF) estn tratando de averiguar los efectos que tienen las experiencias en la escuela, la casa y con amistades sobre la salud y el bien psicolgico de los alumnos. Quines somos?: El equipo de investigacin consiste del doctor Rance L. Harbor, psiclogo para el Condado Escolar de Hillborough y profesor visitante de la Universidad del Sur de la Florida (USF) y tambin consiste de estudiantes licenciados en el Programa de Psicologa en la Universidad del Sur de la Florida (USF). Estamos planeando este estudio investigativo en cooperacin con el director de la Escuela Secundaria de XX para poder asegurar que la informacin obtenida beneficia a la escuela. Por qu estamos solicitando la participacin de su hijo/ hija? Este estudio es parte de un proyecto titulado Su hijo/hija fue seleccionado porque es un alumno/alumna de la Escuela Secundaria de XX Por qu su hijo/hija debe de participar? Necesitamos aprender ms sobre las razones que atraen a la juventud al uso del alcohol y las drogas cuando estn en la escuela secundaria. La informacin que recibimos de los alumnos puede que nos ayude a entender mejor nue stro conocimiento de los factores peligrosos que atraen a los alumnos al uso del alcohol y las drogas. A propsito, tambin nos dar la oportunidad de mejor entender nuestro conocimiento sobre las caractersticas y las actividades que sirven como factores protectivos en prevenir el uso del alcohol y las drogas. Adems, la informacin que logremos obtener de los alumnos ser repartida entre los maestros y la administracin de la Escuela Secundaria de XX para que estn al tanto de experiencias especficas q ue ocurren en la escuela que resultan en la salud y el bien psicolgico de los alumnos. Ninguno de los alumnos ni sus padres sern compensado por su participacin en este estudio investigativo. Sin embargo, todos los alumnos que participen en este estudio investigativo tendrn la oportunidad de ganar uno de varios premios en una rifa. Los requisitos para participacin : Si su hijo/hija tiene permiso para participar en nuestro estudio se le entregar varios cuestionarios de papel y lpiz los cules tendr n que responder. Estos cuestionarios se tratan de los pensamientos, el comportamiento y la actitud de su hijo/ hija sobre el uso del alcohol y las drogas; tambin tendrn preguntas sobre la participacin de su hijo/hija en programas y actividades fuera de la escuela, sobre su participacin en deportes, sobre las amistades y relaciones que mantienen con sus compaeros, y sobre la salud y el bien psicolgico. Est estimado que le tomar entre media hora y 45 minutos para llenar los cuestionarios. Personalm ente distribuiremos los cuestionarios a los alumnos durante las horas de escuela en el segundo semestre escolar (los meses de invierno y primavera). Estos cuestionarios se le darn a los estudiantes que tengan permiso para participar en nuestro estudio; estos alumnos sern divididos en varios grupos. En total, es estimado que la participacin de su hijo/hija tomara no ms de una hora durante un da de escuela. La privacidad de las respuestas de su hijo/hija: Hay un riesgo mnimo en la participacin de su hijo/hija en este estudio. Nosotros estaremos presentes durante la administracin de los

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92 Appendix B: (Continued) cuestionarios para poder asistir a su hijo/hija por si acaso tienen algunas preguntas o preocupaciones. En cuanto su hijo/hija term ina el cuestionario, nosotros le entregaremos una lista de recursos en la comunidad que ofrecen sus servicios si desean hablar con alguna persona sobre preocupaciones personales o sobre el mantenimiento de su salud y su bien psicolgicamente. Tambin se le ofrecer informacin sobre programas sobre el uso del alcohol, las drogas y los productos de tabaco. Este estudio es annimo. El nombre de su hijo/hijo no aparecer con las respuestas. Los cuestionarios que termine su hijo/hija se combinarn con lo s cuestionarios de todos los otros alumnos; nosotros no podramos distinguir las respuestas y los cuestionarios de un alumno con las respuestas y cuestionarios de los otros alumnos. Nosotros seramos los nicos con acceso al gabinete con los documentos dndole permiso a su hijo/hija para participar en este estudio y conteniendo la firma de su hijo/hija. El permiso de participacin que firman los alumnos se le explicar antes de entregarles los cuestionarios; este documento requiere la firma de su hijo/ hija y se recoger antes de llenar los cuestionarios para asegurar que las respuestas sean annimas. Los archivos se mantendrn confidenciales al alcance de la ley. Personas autorizadas, empleados del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos, los emplead os y los miembros del Panel Institucional de Repaso de la Universidad del Sur de la Florida (USF) y personas actuando por parte de la Universidad del Sur de la Florida pueden revisar los archivos de este estudio, pero las respuestas individuales de cada pa rticipante no sern compartidas con empleados del sistema escolar o cualquier otra persona menos el doctor Rance L. Harbor y su grupo de investigadores. Nota informativa: La decisin permitiendo la participacin de su hijo/hija en este estudio investiga tivo debe ser totalmente voluntario. Usted tiene el derecho de permitir que su hijo/hija participe en este estudio investigativo y tambin tiene el derecho de retirar la participacin de su hijo/hija el este estudio investigativo en cualquier momento dese ado. La decisin que usted tome sobre la participacin de su hijo/hija en este estudio investigativo no afectar de ninguna manera la posicin de su hijo/hija como estudiante, sus notas, o su relacin con XX las escuelas del condado de Hillsborough, la U niversidad del Sur de la Florida (USF) o cualquier otra institucin. Lo que haremos con las respuestas de su hijo/hija : Nosotros planeamos utilizar la informacin obtenida durante este estudio investigativo para mejor informar a los maestros y los psicl ogos sobre los efectos de los riesgos y los factores protectivos asociados con usos de sustancias (alcohol y drogas) entre alumnos en escuelas secundarias. Los resultados de este estudio investigativo se podrn publicar. Sin embargo, la informacin obte nida por parte de su hijo/hija estar combinada con la informacin obtenida de otros participantes en este estudio investigativo antes de publicacin. Los resultados publicados no incluirn ningn tipo de informacin identificando a su hijo/hija. Preg untas? Si usted tiene algunas preguntas sobre este estudio investigativo, favor de llamar al doctor Harbor al telfono (813) 872 5300, extensin 303. Si usted tiene algunas preguntas sobre los derechos de su hijo/hijo como una persona participando en este estudio investigativo, favor de llamar a un miembro de la Divisin de Cumplimento para Investigaciones en la Universidad del Sur de la Florida al telfono (813) 974 9343.

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93 Appendix B: (Continued) Usted desea que su hijo/hija participe en este estudio investigativo? Para permitir que su hijo/hija participe en este estudio investigativo, favor de llamar el formulario proporcionado para que su hijo/hija se lo entregue a su maestro/maestra de homeroom Sinceramente, Rance L. Harbor, Ph.D. Psiclogo p ara el Condado Escolar de Hillborough Profesor Visitante de la Universidad del Sur de la Florida Departamento de Fundamentos Psiclogos y Sociales Permiso pare participar en este estudio investigativo Libremente doy mi permiso para que participe mi hij o/hija en este estudio investigativo. Entiendo que esto es una investigacin escolar. Yo he recibido una copia de este formulario y documentos para mis expedientes. ___________________________________________ _______________________ Nombre del Estud iante (Escrito con letras Maysculas) Nivel Escolar del Estudiante ______________________________ __________________________ ________________ Firma del Padre Nombre del Padre Fecha Alumno Participando En Este Estu dio (Escrito con letras Maysculas) Declaracin de la persona obteniendo consentimiento informado Yo certifico que los participantes han recibido un formulario de Consentimiento Informado aprobado por el Panel de Repaso Institucional de la Unive rsidad del Sur de la Florida (USF) explicando la historia, las demandas, los riesgos, y los beneficios asociados con la participacin en este estudio investigativo. Tambin certifico que un nmero de telfono se ha proporcionado por si acaso tendran alg unas preguntas adicionales. __________________________ __________________________ ___________ Firma de la Persona Obteniendo Nombre de la Persona Obteniendo Fecha Consentimiento Informado Consentimiento Informado (Escrito con letras Maysculas)

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94 Appendix C : Student Assent Form Hello! Today you will be asked to take part in a research study by filling out several experiences at school, home, and wit h friends on their psychological wellness and health Who We Are : The research team consists of Rance L. Harbor Ph.D., the School Psychologist here at XX High School and a professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida (USF) and s everal graduate students in the USF School Psychology Program We are working with your principal to make sure the study provides information that will be helpful to your school. Why We Are Asking You to Take Part in the Study : This study is part of a project Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Substance Use Among High School Students XX High School. Why You Should Take Part in the Study : We need to learn more ab out what leads to drug and/or alcohol use during high school. The information that we gather may help us better understand what causes psychological wellness during high school and specifically what factors help students not to use alcohol and/or drugs. In addition, information from the study will be shared with the teachers and administrators at XX to help them understand which specific school experiences lead to wellness in students. Please note you will not be paid for taking part in the study. However, all students who participate in the study will be entered into a drawing for one of several gift certificates. Filling Out the Questionnaires : These questionnaires ask you about your thoughts, behaviors, and attitudes towards alcohol and drugs as well a s peer relationships, participation in extra curricular activities, and athletics, and life in general. We expect it will take between 30 and 45 minutes to fill out the questionnaires. Please Note : Your involvement in this study is completely voluntary By signing this form, you are agreeing to take part in this research. Your decision to participate, not to participate, or to withdraw participation at any point during the study will in no way affect your student status or your grades; you will not be punished in any way. If you choose not to participate, it will not affect your relationship with XX High School USF, or anyone else. Privacy of Your Responses : We do not expect that t here will be more than minimal risk to you for taking part in this research. We will be here to help the entire time you are filling out the surveys in case you have any questions or concerns. When you hand in your completed questionnaires, we will give you a piece of paper that lists places you can call and go to in th e community if you would like to discuss personal issues. The paper also tells you how to find out more information about tobacco,

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95 Appendix C: (Continued) alcohol, and drug use. This study is anonymous Your name will not be linked in any way to your r esponses. Your completed packet of question n aires will be added to the stack of packets from other students; we will not be able to tell which student completed which questionnaires. Only we will have access to the locked file cabinet stored at USF tha t will contain this signed permission form. Your privacy and research records will be kept confidential (private, secret) to the extent of the law. People approved to do research at USF, people who work for the Department of Health and Human Services, th e USF Institutional Review Board and its staff, and other individuals acting on behalf of USF may look at the records from this research project, but your individual responses will not be shared with people in the school system or anyone other than us and our research assistants. : We plan to use the information from this study to let others know about the effects of different experiences at school, home, and with friends happiness and risky health behavior The results of this study may be published. However, your responses will be combined with responses from other people in the publication. The published results will not include your name or any other information that would in any way identify you. Quest ions? If you have any questions about this research study, please raise your hand now or at any point during the study. Also, you may contact us later at (813) 872 5300 ext 303 (Dr. Harbor ). If you have questions about your rights as a person who is taki ng part in a research study, you may contact a member of the Division of Research Compliance of the USF at ( 813 ) 974 9343, or the Florida Department of Health, Review Council for Human Subjects at 1 850 245 4585 or toll free at 1 866 433 2775. Thank you f or taking the time to take part in this study. Sincerely, Rance L. Harbor, Ph.D. School Psychologist, Hillsborough County Public Schools Visiting Professor, University of South Florida Department of Psychological and Social Foundations --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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96 Appendix C: (Continued) Assent to Take Part in this Research Study I freely give my permission to take part in this study. I understa nd that this is research. I have received a copy of this letter and assent form for my records. __________________________ __________________________ ________ Signature of child taking Printed name of child Date part in the study Stat ement of Person Obtaining Informed Consent I certify that participants have been provided with an informed consent form that has explains the nature, demands, risks, and benefits involved in participating in this study. I further certify that a phone number has been provided in the event of additional questions. __________________________ ___________________ ___________ Signature of person Print ed name of person Date obtaining consent obtaining consent

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97 Appendix D : Student Demographics Questionnaire 1. Gender 1) Female 2) Male 2. Ethnicity 1. African American /Black 2. Asian/ Pacific Isla nder 3. Hispanic 4. Native American/ Alaska Native 5. White 6. Other (Specify ________ ______) 3. Age 13 18 14 19 15 20 16 21 17 22 4. Grade 9 10 11 12 5. Estimated Cumulative GPA 4.0 or higher (A) 3.0 3.9 (B) 2.0 2.9 (C) 1.0 1.9 (D) Less than 1.0 (F) 6. Do you currently receive Free or Reduced Price School Lunch? 1. Yes 2. No 7. Including last year and this year, how many times have you been absent? 1. Zero to 2 times 2. 3 9 times 3. More than 10 times 8. Have you ever received any discipline referrals for behaviors other than being tardy? 1. Never 2. 1 to 5 times 3. More than 5 times 9. Have you ever been suspended out of school (including ATOSS)? 1. Never 2. 1 to 5 days total 3. More than 5 days total 10. Have you ever been arrested? 1. Never 2. 1 to 2 times 3. More than 2 times 11. Have you ever been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD/ADHD)? 1. Yes 2. No 12. Have you ever been diagnosed with Anxiety, Depression, or other mental health problems? 1. Yes 2. No 13. Have you ever been prescribed medication for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD/ADHD)? 1. Yes, and I still take the medication. 2. Yes, but I no longer take medication. 3. No 14. Have you ever been prescribed medication for Anxiety, Depression, or other mental health problems? 1. Yes, and I still take the medication. 2. Yes, but I no longer take medication. 3. No

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98 Appendix E : Participati on in Athletic Act ivities Scale In this question you will be asked how often you participate in different physical activities and in what setting(s). For each type of physical activity, circle only one number that describes how often you participate in that type of physica l activity and fill in the circle(s) describing which setting(s) you participate in that type of physical activity. For example, a student who played football once or twice a week on a school team and on a club team would respond like this. Circle the nu mber that best describes how often If yes, in what Setting? (Check all that apply) Type of Physical Activity Never Less than once a month Once or twice a month Once or twice a week Three or more times a week Recreational (with Friends) C lub Team(s) School Team(s) 1. Football 1 2 3 5 For each type of physical activity, circle the number that best describes how often you participate and fill in the circle for each setting you participate in. Circle the number that best descr ibes how often If yes, in what Setting? (Check all that apply) Type of Physical Activity Never Less than once a month Once or twice a month Once or twice a week Three or more times a week Recreational (with Friends) Club Team(s) School Team(s) 1. Football 1 2 3 4 5 2. Basketball 1 2 3 4 5 3. Baseball/Softball 1 2 3 4 5 4. Hockey 1 2 3 4 5 5. Soccer 1 2 3 4 5 6. Golf 1 2 3 4 5

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99 Appendix E : (continued) 7. Wrestling 1 2 3 4 5 8. Tennis 1 2 3 4 5 9. Swimming 1 2 3 4 5 10. Track and Field (Cross Country, Jogging) 1 2 3 4 5 11. Volleyball 1 2 3 4 5 12. Cheerleading 1 2 3 4 5 13. X treme Sports (i.e., Skateboarding, Rollerblading, BMX) 1 2 3 4 5 14. Dancing 1 2 3 4 5 15. Gymnastics 1 2 3 4 5 16. Other: ____________________ 1 2 3 4 5

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100 Appendix F : Adolescent S ubstance Use Scale In the past 12 months, on how many occasions (if any) have you used the following drugs? Circle the number that best describes on how many occasions Alcohol/Substance Use Zero occasions 1 2 occasions 3 5 occasions 6 9 occasions 10 19 occasions 20 39 occasions 40 or more occasions 1. Cigarettes/Cigars 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Chewing Tobacco 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Wine/Wine Coolers/Malt Beverages (e.g., Smirnoff Ice) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Beer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. Liquor (e.g., vodka, rum, whiskey) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. Marijuana 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. Inhalants (e.g., glue or gasoline) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Over the counter drugs when you are NOT sick/hurt (e.g., cough medicine) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. Prescription drugs NOT prescribed to you (e.g., Zanex, Prozac, Ritalin, Adderall ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. Prescription drugs prescribed to you (e.g., Zanex, Prozac) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. Steroids 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 Ecstasy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 Hallucinogens (e.g., LSD, Mushrooms) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 Stimulants (uppers) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15 Barbiturates (downers ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16. Meth 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17 Cocaine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18 Crack 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19 Heroine (e.g., cheese) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20 Other ____________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


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Relationships between participation in athletics and substance use among high school students
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ABSTRACT: Substance use among high school students has become an increased concern for administrators, parents, and community members. Previous research has demonstrated relationships between adolescent substance use and numerous negative outcomes. This study investigated the relationship between athletic participation and substance use using self-report data from a sample of 139 high school students. Specifically, the current study examined the relationship between frequency and setting of participation in athletic activities (e.g., football, baseball, soccer) and multiple types of substance use (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other illicit drugs) in adolescents. The results of this study indicate that nonathletes reported significantly more marijuana use than athletes when gender, ethnicity, SES, and grade were controlled for in the analyses. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between students' grade and substance use. Specifically, 12th grade students reported significantly higher rates of alcohol use than 10th grade students. Implications for school psychologists and directions for future research are presented.
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