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Urban Eco Filter : Introducing New Lungs to the C ity of Beijing by Carlos Gil A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts Univ ersity of South Florida Major Professor: Shannon Bassett, M. Arch. Theo dore Trent Green, M. Arch. Ron Chandler M.S. Date of Approval: November 12 2009 Keywords: Sustainability, Productive Landscapes, Environment Highway, Density. Copyright 2009 Carlos Gil
Acknowledgements I would like to thank my family for their unconditional support during this final process of my education. A lso I would like to thank all the architects, landscape architects, and friends in China for their knowledge and guidance to make this thesis project a success. I would like to highlight and thank the vital key of my thesis project: Professors Shannon Bassett and Trent Green for their unconditional support and encouragement. Lastly, I would like to thank the professi onal architects and professors in the cities of Beijing and Shanghai for their time and assistance in the development of this magnificent design project.
i Table of Contents List of Figures iv Abstract x Thesis Statement 1 Introduction 2 Hypothesis 4 Project Description 6 Research Topics Historic Timeline 9 Mapping 16 Urban Public Spaces Analysis 20 Pocket Parks 22 Historic Parks 27 Urban Plazas 31 Productive Urban Landscapes 34 Existing Conditions of Beijing, China 39 3 Important Issues to be taken in consideration 4 0 Air Pollution 4 1 Absences of Ecological Footprint 4 2
ii Groundwater Depletion/ Pollution 4 3 Analysis of Public Spaces Park at Zhangzizhonglu S tation 5 2 Park at Workers Stadium 5 5 Park at Longze Station 5 7 Park Temple of Heaven 5 8 Site Observations 6 1 Site Analysis 6 2 Case Observations Olympic Forest Park, Beijing, China 7 1 The Emerald Necklace, Boston, USA 7 2 Green Roofs in Toronto, Toronto, Canada 7 3 The High Line Project, New York City, USA 7 4 Olympic West Bridge, Beijing, China 7 5 Linked Hybrid Kindergarten, Beijing, China 7 6 Linked Hybrid community, Beijing, China 7 7 Case Studi es The Ecological Belt, Beijing, China 7 8 Olympic Sculpture Park, Seattle, USA 79 Yokohama International Port Terminal, Yokohama, Japan 8 0 Sociopolis, Valencia, Spain 8 1 The High Line Project, New York, USA 8 2 Conceptual Ideas 8 3 Conceptual Diagram 8 4 Proposed Aqueduct 9 3 Preliminary Sections 9 4 Planting Strategy 9 7
iii Site Study Models 99 Conceptual Mode ls 10 3 Schematic Design Plans 10 6 Exploded Axonometric 10 7 Conceptual Landscape Model 1 09 Schematic Section Model 11 0 Matrix Guidelines 11 1 Strategies Sections 1 1 3 Sustainable Systems 1 29 Final Models 13 1 Perspectives 13 7 Conclusion 143 References 144 Image References 146 Bibliograph y 14 7
iv List of Figures Fig. 1. Conceptual idea proposed Urban Eco Filter 3 7 Fig. 2. Historic Timeline Beijing 3 8 Fig. 3. Existing environmental conditions in China 39 Fig. 4. Three important issues to be taken in consideration 4 0 Fig. 5. Air Pollution 4 1 Fig. 6. Absences of Eco footprint 4 2 Fig. 7. Groundwater depletion/pollution 4 3 Fig. 8. Air Pollution in Beijing 4 4 Fig. 9. Urban a nd Rural Population 4 4 Fig. 10. Mapping Growth of Beijing 4 5 Fig. 11. Existing Built Environment of Beijing 4 6 Fig. 12. Future Developments in Beijing 4 7 Fig. 13. Existing Vegetation in Beijing 4 8 Fig. 14. Existing W ater Systems in Beijing 49 Fig. 15. Existing Road Network in Beijing 5 0 Fig. 16. Existing Subway Network in Beijing 5 1 Fig. 17. Existing Conditions Park @ Zhangzizhonglu Station (early morning) 5 2 Fig. 18. Existing Conditions Park @ Zhangzizhonglu Station (afternoon) 5 3 Fig. 19. Existing Conditions Park @ Zhangzizhonglu Station (late night) 5 4 Fig. 20. Existing Conditions Park @ Workers Stadium (daytime activities) 5 5
v Fig. 21. Existing Conditions Park @ Workers Stadium (n ighttime activities) 5 6 Fig. 22. Existing Conditions Park @ Longze Station (daily activities) 5 7 Fig. 23. Existing Conditions Temple of Heaven, Sunday Activities (early morning) 5 8 Fig. 24. Existing Conditions Temple of Heaven, Sunday Activities (late morning) 59 Fig. 25. Existing Conditions Temple of Heaven, Sunday Activities (afternoon) 6 0 Fig. 26. Existing Conditions Guomao Bridge 6 1 Fig. 27. Existing Conditions Madian Bridge 6 1 Fig. 28. Existing Conditions West Haping Bridge 6 1 Fig. 29. Existing Principal Areas of Development 6 2 Fig. 30. Existing Node Conditions (macro scale) 6 3 Fig. 31. Existing Node Conditions (micro scale) 6 4 Fig. 32. Proposed intervention diagrams 6 5 Fig. 33 Pedestrian movement (week days) 6 6 Fig. 34 Pedestrian movement (weekends) 6 7 Fig. 35 Pedestrian movement (Nighttime) 6 8 Fig. 36 CBD future development 69 Fig. 37 CBD Existing Conditions 7 0 Fig. 38 Olympic Forest Park 7 1 Fig. 39 The Emerald Necklace 7 2 Fig. 40 Green Roofs in Toronto, Canada 7 3 Fig. 41 The High Line Project 7 4 Fig. 42 Olympic West Bridge 7 5
vi Fig. 43 Linked Hybrid Kindergarten 7 6 Fig. 44 Linked Hybrid Pr oject 7 7 Fig. 45 Ecological Green Belt 7 8 Fig. 4 6 Olympic Sculpture Park 79 Fig. 4 7 Yokohama International Port Terminal 8 0 Fig. 4 8 Sociopolis 8 1 Fig. 49 The High Line Project 8 2 Fig. 50 Conceptua l Idea 8 3 Fig. 5 1 Conceptual UEF Diagram 8 4 Fig. 5 2 Conceptual Planting Strategy 8 5 Fig. 5 3 Proposed Vertical Node Connections 8 6 Fig. 5 4 Existing and Proposed Elements 8 7 Fig. 5 5 Existing and Proposed Green E lements 8 8 Fig. 5 6 Exploded Axonometric existing and proposed infrastructure 89 Fig. 5 7 Proposed Activities 9 0 Fig. 5 8 3 RD Ring Road General Info. 9 1 Fig. 59 Chaowai Soho 9 1 Fig. 60 Biowall System 9 2 Fig 61 Shanghai Observations 9 2 Fig. 62 Proposed Aqueduct 9 3 Fig. 63 Preliminary sections (Section A D) 9 4 Fig. 64 Preliminary sections (Section E F) 9 5
vii Fig. 6 5 Preliminary sections (Section G) 9 6 Fig. 66 Plant ing Strategy by season 9 7 Fig. 67. CBD Site Plan 9 8 Fig. 68. Site Study Mod el (3 sites) 99 Fig. 69. Site Study Mod e l (3 sites) 99 Fig. 70 Site Stu dy Model #1 10 0 Fig. 71 Site Stu dy Mode l #1 10 0 Fig. 72 Site Stu dy Model #2 10 1 Fig. 73 Site Stu dy Model #2 10 1 Fig. 74 Site Stu dy Model #3 10 2 Fig. 75 Site Stu dy Model #3 10 2 Fig. 76 Conceptual model #1 10 3 Fig. 77 Conceptual model #1 10 3 Fig. 78 Concept ual model #2 10 4 Fig. 79 Concept ual model #2 10 4 Fig. 80 Conceptual model #3 10 5 Fig. 81 Conceptual model #3 10 5 Fig. 82 Site Plan 10 6 Fig. 83 Second Level 10 6 Fig. 84 Ground Level 10 6 Fig. 85 Exploded Axo 10 7 Fig. 86 Pedestrian Circulation 10 8
viii Fig. 87 Bike Circulation 10 8 Fig. 88 Conceptual Landscape Model 1 09 Fig. 89 Conceptual La ndscape Model 1 09 Fig. 90 Schematic Section Mod el 11 0 Fig. 91 Schematic Section Mod el 11 0 Fig. 92 Matrix Guidelines 11 1 F ig. 93 Key Plan 11 2 Fig. 94 Flow (section a) 11 3 Fig. 95 Jungle (section b) 11 4 Fig. 96 Habitat (section c) 11 5 Fig. 97 Projection (section d) 11 6 Fig. 98 Intera ction (section g) 11 7 Fig. 99 Framing Views (section i) 11 8 Fig. 100 Air Rights (section j) 1 19 Fig. 101 Shift (section k) 12 0 Fig. 102 Shading (section l) 12 1 Fig. 103 Verticality (section m) 12 2 Fig. 104 Kuatic (section n) 12 3 Fig. 105 Pocket Park (section o) 12 4 Fig. 106 Wrapping (section p) 12 5 Fig. 107 Interweaving (section e) 12 6 Fig. 108 Side Bridge (section h) 12 7
ix Fig. 109 Underlighting (section f) 12 8 Fig. 110 Clean the polluted air diagram 1 29 Fig. 111 Harvest the wind diagram 13 0 Fig. 112 Final Sec tion Mode l 13 1 Fig. 113. Final Section Mode l 13 2 Fig. 114. Final Section Model (UEF merging with bu ilding) 13 3 Fig. 115. Final Section Model (Void in relationship with landscape) 13 3 Fig. 116. Final Section Model (UEF between highway a nd cantilever) 13 3 Fig. 117. Final Section Model (Ramping Sys tem) 13 3 Fig. 1 18. Final Model 13 4 Fig. 119. Final Model 13 5 Fig. 120. Final Model (View lo oking south) 13 6 Fig. 121. Final Model (Building Typology #1) 13 6 Fig. 122. Final Model (Building Typology #2) 13 6 Fig. 123. Final Model (Building Typology #3) 13 6 Fig. 124 Bridge connecting sidewalk with UEF 13 7 Fig. 125 UEF passing through a building 13 8 Fig. 126 Activities and landscape together 1 39 Fig. 127 UEF merging with a green building 1 4 0 Fig. 128 UEF shifting 14 1 Fig. 129. Ramping System 14 2
x Urban Eco Filter : Introducing New L ungs to the City of Beijing Carlos Gil ABSTRACT It is evident that several cities in Chin a have experienced a variety of global impacts. Beijing for instance, has become synonymous with m ass migration over the years. The immense scale of projected rural migration the unmanageable intervention of new housing urban developments, and the high l evels of air pollution in Beijing have become a global dilemma an urban environment al design to the city should be examined. This thesis project illustrat e s how urban productive landscape and bike infrastructure can be essential in urban development through the implement ation of an innovative dynamic Urban Eco F ilter that would respond to the active circumstances of the city of Beijin g The enormous amount of air pollution, ground water depletion /pollution and particularly the lack of an ecological footprint are some of the challenges the c ity of Beijing continually battle s As a potential solution to assist the citizens of Beijing who continually struggl e to maintain a better quality of life, this thesis project proposes a new
xi Urban Eco F ilter approach that will s erve as a green corridor incorporating environmental resources. This innovative urban infrastructure would become the exceptional and unquestion able tool to create a holistic environment including productive urban landscape bike infrastructure and sustainable themes. As a solution this project proposes the implementation of an elevated eco network infrastructure in the center of the city of Bei jing. In addition the proposal would focus on developing a new productive landscape connection prototype at the Guomao Bridge on the 3 rd Ring Road T he procedures analyzed are: case observation, case studies, strategies of 3 D modeling, and the design an d qualitative investigation through workshops. In order to further validate the proposed solution, an in depth evaluation of the research techniques is necessary. It is indispensable to analyze the existing hazardous urban conditions and consider the unc ontrollable gro wth of metropolitan cities, while introducing new ecological bike infrastructure With the li mited environmental footprint, constant amo unt of air pollution and the deficie ncy of ground water the investigation of a new Urban Eco F ilter is e ncouraged to enhance the social and environmental fabric of the city of Beijing.
1 Thesis Statement Through different analysis and investigat ions in designing urban public spaces, it has been demonstrated of the improvement and development of ecological tissue as well as the incorporation of mass transit systems in metropolitan cities result in healthier cities U nderstand ing that metropolitan cities have been facing a significant demand in automobile and new housing developments are concerns that we hav e to keep in mind In Beijing for example, rural migration as well as the easy access t o acquire cars have been an issue for the past thirty years. Since then, Beijing has been experiencing a variety of urban conditions that relate s back to the overpopul ation and the increase of car sales in the area, which need to be taking in to consideration. Moreover, t he uncontrollable amount of pollution, ground water depletion, rise of unanticipated urban inner flow and particularly the lack of ecological footprint have lead to a sequence of analysis to consider the challenges the city of Beijing is currently facing In conclusion, it could be corroborated that metropolitan cities in recent times are suffering not only from mass migration and pollution but they are also facing a lack of productive urban landscape s as well as a deficiency of transportation systems that could be a stepping stone to a better future.
2 Introduction It is apparent that Beijing is suffering from excessive urban expansion If the curren t trend continues, Beijing may be collapsing to a complicated future. The development of the city is moving away from the monocentric model established by the Tang Dynasty (618 907). From 1953 to 1993 five master plans were submitted for review in order t o avoid urban sprawl; however, these schemes have not been able to control the mass migration to t he city. This problem has contributed to air contamination, lack of green urban spaces, decrease of ground water, and the insufficient supply of natural food products. Until recently, China was known as one of the most self suffic ient countries in the world. Presently China is importing natural food products from other countries in order to survive During the Asiatic Society of Japan in 2001, Professor Mako to Taniguchi stated that N ew urban developments seem to focus more on the car and not the pedestrians this is another worry Beijing is dealing with. Likewise the depletion of ground wat er should be taking in to consideration because it is rapidly disappearing Consequently, it has been prognostica ted that Beijing in approximately twenty years would no longer be the capital of China. All these concerns could have solutions if new design ideas were implemented. For this reason, this thesis exploratio n will analyze the possibility of introducing new lungs to Beijing in order to improve the dynamic conditions the ci ty has been facing
3 This new U E F will deliberate a sequence of outcomes t o improve the lifestyle of the residents of the city of Beijing.
4 Hypothesis An e xtensive analysis of successful urban ecological precedent studies and case observations around the world has persuaded a series of explorations interrelated w ith green elevated infrastructures. By incorporating a similar system in a dynamic urban setting such as Beijing, t his thesis project will attempt to alleviate some of the critical u rban conditions the city currently faces The analysis will begin by res earching the history and cultural aspects of the city. This will be develop ed by implementing a historic time line of the most important political, economical and urban design events that have occ urred throughout Beijing 's history In addition, an intensiv e analysis of existing urban public spaces will be establish ed to display the interactive everyday activities of Chinese people Furthermore, case observation s from different travels around the world will influence the transition of the design qualities t hi s thesis project wants to achieve Theoretical methodologies will also be analyzed from case studies such as the Ecological Green Belt proposed by Liang Sicheng, The Olympic Sculpture Park by Weiss/Manfedi architects, the Yokohama international port term inal by FOA architects, Sociopolis fomente d by the Generalitat Valenciana and the High Line project by Field Operations. D esign and qualitative investigation s will be established through the involvement in design workshops. Some of the charrette/worksho ps to be addressed are: the Line 13 Beijing workshop by Moving Cities and the
5 Shanghai workshop with Tongji University Moreover, c omparative studies, relationship analysi s, and mapping are some of the correlation r esearch methods that would be applied dur ing the evolution of this thesis project Within t he comparative studies will be include the creation of different design schemes which will be analyzed in order to select the most suitable approach. Similarly, a s a supplementary and beneficial system of research, the design project integrates mapping analysis which will be utilized as investigations of connectivity, proximity and porosity in relation to the site.
6 Project Description Throughout analytical studies of the existing environmental conditions and the effects of the immense urban growth in the city of Beijing, it is vital to develop new urban design ideas that would benefit and enhance the valuable ecological and transit networks of the city. 3rd ring r oad is one of the seven ring road infrastructures existing in Beijing. I t passes through Beijing's Central Business District and diplomatic communities connecting five of the six principal areas of development within the city includi ng Sanlitun and Haidan districts The 3 rd ring road is the most centralized expressways in the city and is directly interlinked with the most important highways in town. However, since this is the most active and desirable ring road by Beijingers, there i s a deficiency in pedestrian amenities, green ecological spaces, public transportation systems, and connections from one to the other side of the highway D ue to the significant importance to automobiles the 3 rd ring road is suffering from more fragmenta tion and less accessibility which divides the city in two. Therefore, new ways of approaching the negative impacts on this ring road have been the foundation to evolve a conceptual master plan that would revitalize the area. The design proposal for this thesis project is divided in two different scales. In a macro scale the project suggests bring ing the city together. By incorporating a new elevated Urban Eco F ilter over the 3 rd ring road will generate new approaches of connectivity not only to the exist ing transit network but to the existing ecological tissue of the city. The idea is to integrate existing green parks to the new linear landscape organism and give people a
7 better quality of life While improving the access to interconnected pedestrian am enities around the city the proposed U EF would act as the main spine of a new vibrant environmental experience In order to create a clear importance to become healthier and more sustainable citizen s a projected ele vated bike infrastructure would also b e implemented to connect to the existing multi modal transit network The s e bike paths give Beijingers a new alternative to commute throughout the city while experiencing an exceptional friendly green atmosphere from one stop to the next. Furthermore, the design approach incorporate s a very important feature that has not been developed in the city of Beijing and this is the implementation of a productive urban landscape system This new scheme would bring a new face to the city and could set up the stone to become a sustainable design model for the rest of the world. The new UE F serve s as a rainwater collection machine. I t would collect rain water from different surfaces of the green infrastructure this water will be treated and then use for irrigation purp oses as well as a water supplier to the existing streams canals, and river s that are at risk of extinction in Beijing On the other hand, in a micro scale the new UE F focuses on a mai n intersection node located in the Central Business District of the cit y. The new intervention proposes solutions to horiz ontal and vertical connectivity, making of this important node a prototype design for future intersection s throughout the 3 rd ring road. In order to develop a pedestrian friendly environment in the area, the development of this node includes pedestrian pathways under and over the existing infrastructure separating people physically from vehicular traffic while at the same time preserving a visual connection. Mo reover, this thesis project focus es on desig ning programmatic uses that
8 would be correlated with the idea of produc tive urban landscape; this design project incorporate s programmatic uses such as a juice refreshing stand to an agricultural museum. The prog rams are located on the ground, under the e xisting overpasses as well as in new proposed structures. Another very important aspect of this new deve F ilter as the skin system of the overall structure The idea is to design a bio green skin system which will help to alleviate the unco ntrollable air pollution in Beijing and will serve as the surface for the implementation of vertical urban agriculture. The consolidation of the two scales would generate a unique master plan including not only a n extensive observational study of divers e urban characteristics in Beijing but also a variety of sustainable system s that have never been implemented in the existing high way infrastructures of the city.
9 Research Topics Historic Time line S ome half a million years ago, Peking man lived in Zhoukoudian, in the southwestern suburbs of Beijing. The climate of that time was warmer and more humid than it is today. Forests and lakes in the area supported large numbers of living creatures. The fossi l remains of Peking man, his stone tools and evidence of use of fire, as well as later tools of 18,000 years ago, bone needles and article of adornment from the age of Upper Cave Man are the earliest cultural rel ics on record in China today ( china.org.cn ) Some of the historic events in the history of Beijing were taken in consideration throughout the development of this thesis project. Several of these events are related to the design of green belts, water systems, and the creation of new sustainable p rojects in the city. Around four to five thousand years ago, areas to the southwest of Beijing were blooming i n agriculture and animal husbandry. Beijing was also known as an important transport hub connecting the farming and nomadic cultural zones. One of the reasons of implementing a new Urban Eco Filter is to and transport hub character back to the city This could be achieved by implementing an urban productive landscape system interconnected with a light ra il proposal which would serve and benefit the citizens of the area around it The Ming Dynasty took place from 1368 to 1 644 During this period of time the Ming era city wall served as the Beijing city wa ll until modern times, then it was turn down and t he 2nd Ring Road was built in its place. In this scenario, it is noticeable t hat the city was going thru several urban
10 changes, from a historic fortified city to a more civ ilized modern city. Later in 1 752, the Summer Palace was constructed. This magnifi cent green park was developed during the Qing Dynasty and was given the name of Longevity Hill meaning eternal land The Summer Palace incorporates a variety of palaces gardens, and other classical style architectural structures which make this public o pen space one of a kind in the history of Chinese culture In December of 1998, UNESCO included the Summer Palace on its World Heritage List. It declared the ation but also (Unesco.org). This important ecological site is one of the green parks that would be tak en in to consideration to be connect ed to the new design proposal For its history and import ance in ancient Chinese cultu re, it is ver y significant for the UEF to identify and reach green areas that can be part of a new green belt system throughout the urban fabric of Beijing. In 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion, Beijing was violently conquered and looted by the Eight Po wer Allied Force. For 55 days they survi ved with limited food and water until the Eight Nation Alliance brought 20,000 troops to their rescue (wikipedia.org/ Boxer_Rebellion ). This historic event took place at different locations of Beijing including im portant green vegetated areas such as the Yuanmingyuan Park, which was destroyed. After the war was over, the Chinese government decided to restore and rebuilt the Yuanmingyuan Park because this 350 acre park represents a masterpiece of royal gardens in China and is worldly known as a famous scenic spot china travel tour guide.com ). Soon after the end o f the Boxer Rebellion, around 1 950, a new proposal for an ecological
11 belt on the existing city wall was turned down by the local government of Beijing. The designer of the proposal was the famous urban architect Liang Sicheng He was architectural history, a pioneer in historical research and exploration in Chinese architecture and planning, and a lead (pennclubbeijing.com ). the city walls of Beijing by int roducing a new system of green ecological area on top of the walls. Since back in history, t hese walls have only been designated for the guards of the government, not for the citizens. However, urban park for the public and not only for the government. The conceptual idea of Liang Sicheng became one of the drivers to develop this thesis project. The idea of elevating the public r ealm with a variety of vegetated areas is one of the desig n concepts that the new UEF would implement. In 1957, a regulation plan was proposed This plan proposed that a large number of fields of the urban environment should be dedicated to green spaces to preserve a healthy ecological setting of Beijing This plan also implemented a new Ecological Green Belt on the 5th ring road similar to the one in Moscow. The idea was to give oxygen to the city of Beijing; however, the plan remains on paper. Duri ng t he first modernization in 1976 1 992 in Beijing, the first important reform was the "rural reform", which aimed to increase agricultural production. Agriculture if we go back to the ancient history of the city was an important methodology of food product ion.
12 Beijing needs to go back to its days of production and recover some of its history that has been buried down For that reason, the new UEF wants to develop the beg inning of a new future of productive urban landscape in the ci ty of Beijing In order t o benefit the neighbors of the area, t he new scheme suggests an adequate area for production of v egetables, fruits, etc. The idea is to teach the neighborhoods of the districts to be self sustainable and to be able to produce their own food. Right afte r the end of th e first modernization era, in 1 992, a map of the city of the principal areas in Beijing was published to the use of the citizens and tourists. This map emphasizes the six most important zones from a green park to a business district. The s ix areas shown in this map are: Haidan Olympic green airport zone, sa nlitun, the historic center and the central business district (CBD). This final zone is the area of focus where the UEF project would be zooming in The new design would improve the exi sting features at the intersection of Guomao Bridge, which would serve as a prototype example for future nodes of different scales on the 3 rd ring road The CBD is geographically situated to the east of the city center, sandwiched between the 3rd Ring Ro ad and the 4th Ring Road, the Beijing CBD is currently undergoing large scale development ( Greco pg 137 ). This region is becoming one of the most important international financial centers in China and worldwide. Furthermore, there are some proposals fo r the future of the CBD in Beijing and most of the existing empty lots are going to be developed by new office, commercial, m ixed use and residential towers.
13 In 2 001, the Olympic committee name d Beijing as the site for the 2 00 8 Olympics. This was a signif icant challenge for the Chinese government as well for the citizens. Their main goal was to convert this Olympics into the greenest in the history of this worldwide event. Within the Olympic park is a forest p ark which architectural design was led by Hu Jie, director of the Landscape Planning and Design Institute at the Urban Planning and Design Institute of Tsinghua University. landscape architecture firms operate as design arms of u niversity departments. ( gardenvisit.com ) The Beijing Olympic Park has an area of 680 hectares and was built between 2003 and 2008. It is located at the north end of hich most people compare it to the Grand Axis in La Defense, Par is. Over the 5 th ring road which crosses the park has been designed a green ecological bridge which links the southern and northern areas of the forest park. This green bridge would be utilized as a case observation because of its function an d unique char acteristics regarding ecology and pedestrian connectivity. Even though Beijing was categorized as the most polluted Asian city in 2 005 the Chinese government officials were trying to make of the 2 008 Olympics the greenest in history. According to ADB da ta for 2005, the most polluted city is Beijing with 142 micrograms of particles of pollution dust per cubic meter, compared to Paris with 22, London 24 and New York 27. It was such findings that prompted the International Olympic Committee to warn the Chin ese capital that it "risks losing the Games if it doesn't do something to improve its air quality." (speroforum.com) The air pollution in Beijing is very critical due to the rise in economic growth and the decrease in quality of life. 64% of the air poll ution comes from
14 automobiles and people are purchasing more and more cars every day. Beijingers have left their bicycles in their backyards because for middle class people are easier to acquire a car than it was 30 years ago. In order to provide a safer e nvironment for people who ride their bicycles to work, t he new Urban Eco Filter would incorporate elevated bicycle lanes away from traffic lanes avoiding hazardous congestions. Finally, after a meeting of more than three hours with Ro n Henderson a landsc ape designer and professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing, explained that in approximately 40 years, Beijing will no longer be the capital of China, because of its ground water depletion growing mu nicipalities, is running out of water. Although more than 200 rivers and streams can still be found on official sweet tasting water, have disappeared. Dozens of reservoirs built since the 1950s have dried up. Finding a clean source of water anywhere in the city has become impossible. ( chinaheritagequarterly.org). A s recently as 30 years ago, Beijing residents regarded ground water as an ine xhaustible resource; n ow hydrogeologists warn it too is running out. water table is dropping approximately 1 meter every year water is being pumped out faster than it can be replenished, and more ground water is becoming polluted. (Guardian.co.uk) For this re ason, the new UEF project wants to implement a new water collection machine system. The rainwater would be collected from different surfaces of the elevated landsc ape in order to supply gray water for irrigation purposes Likewise, the water collection machine will be
15 working as a water filter, providing clean water to the rivers streams and canals that jointed the new green infrastructure. The general idea is to clean the water supply systems of the city and unify them in a way that water gets collected from the new devel opment and then it will be treated before it runs to the ecological water systems of the city.
16 Mapping After an intensive analys is of various maps, this thesis project evaluated and generate d a series of maps displaying the footprint area of the city of Beijing since 1 949 to the future sub way network plans. The development of the city of Beijing is moving away from the monocentri c model established by the Tang Dynasty (618 907) ( Mars pg.320 ). The built footprint has dramatically increased in the past sixty years while the green footprint environment of the city has been slowly improved. There is a need for develop ing innovative urban and architectural projects that can establish eco friendly environmental solutions. The plan would help to alleviate the diff icult anti ecological sceneries B eijingers are facing currently Also, it is importa nt to eval uate the lack of no more let over lots in the center of the city, meaning that there is a massive urban sprawl of new residential developments on the outer areas of the city. Two maps were implemented to explain the existing and future develop ments of the city. The first map demonstrates how the existing built environment has been spread out from the monocentric model of the ancient city. People want to live as close as possible to the center of the city so they can have easy access to work e nvironment as well as being close to more o ptions of public transportation S ixty years ago Beijingers were using bicycles as a way to access different points of the city; t he city was accessible due to its proportional size and the few people living in i t. However, sixty years later the city has grown approximately four times its size and the demand of vehicles increased as well as the amount of people. think ( Mars pg. 354) The second
17 map expresses the new and future housing developments in the outer part of Beijing. The city used to be just one strong independent city for man y years, however, at the moment Beijing is reaching other small towns (villages) that once were s uburban areas and now they belong to a new mega city. On th e environmental aspect of Beijing, two maps were created to express the existing conditions of the green vegetated areas as well as the existing water systems throughout the city. During this t hesis process some of the most important ecological parks were highlighted in order to identify the built environment areas that were missing green vegetation as well as water systems After the analysis was visualized, propose d conceptual ideas came up to suggest where the new UEF could take place. Moreover, the last two maps display the existing traffic network as well as the existing and future subwa y stations in Beijing. The s e two maps help to understand the location of the most active areas and int ersections throughout the city. O ne of the most important keys on the development of the new design proposal is to connect the new bike infrastructure system with the existing conditions of the city. In addition, the ex isting ecological footprint was tak en in to consideration in the process of selecting a site The deliberation was made in order to create a new cohesive green infrastructure that will be reaching existing ecological footprint and water systems of the city Before the site was selected all the different layers of maps conceived were placed one on top of the other to finalize the l ocation of the Urban Eco Filter. Because of its location and the importance to the citizens, the 3 rd ring road was the best
18 suitable site for the new design projec t. The 3 rd ring road is located basically in the center of Beijing. It is the most active vehicula r traffic oriented and it s potential to connect existing environmental resources of the city give the site an opportunity to unify the ecological fabric of t he city. A visit to the planning exhibition museu m in the city of Beijing facilitated the understanding of the development and history of the city. At the museum, a broad exhibition of historic plans and physical models demonstrate the different layers that compose the city. From the introduction of executed master plans to project ed design ideas of the city this exhibition helped in understanding the urban development of Beijing Since the ipal Government has paid special attention to urban planning. From 1953 to 1993, five master plans were submitted for review, in each of which there are different characteristics. ). In 1953, a set o f master plans were designed to predict the development and redevelopment of Beijing. Some of the characteristics suggested by the government were neither to demolish the historic heritages left on ancient sites nor to preserve all of them because this might restrain the cit ( Planning exhibition museum, Beijing ). They also suggested that the capital city which is Beijing, should serve as the national political, economic and cultural center, and in particular, be a strong industrial base and a scientific and technological center for the country of China. ( Greco pg. 119 ). In 1 958, a revised preliminary master plan for the development of Beijing was submitted to the central government. This new plan was considering the issue of urban sprawl, so they designed a master plan that would divide the urban areas
19 into more than 20 relatively independent construction districts separated by green belts. ( Greco pg. 126 ). In the urban areas, extensive territories w ere dedicated to green spaces in order to maintain a good environment and also to reserve spaces to further urban developments. A new comprehensive master plan for Beijing municipality was established in 1 9 93 in order to implement a demographic control especially in the urban area, and appropriated consider ation given to the immigration. Also, the government wanted to suggest tha t the capital of China function opening widely to the outside world. Lastly, to th e development of the city of Beijing, water conservancy maps were implemented. One of the first and most important water conservation plan s is the scheme of Yuan Dadu from the Yuan Dynasty. Water supply for Dadu was from south, and some river and canals built then help lay the foundation for the river systems in ( Planning exhibition museum, Beijing ).
20 Urban Public Spaces Public space relates to all those parts of the built and natural environment where the public has free acces s. It encompasses: all the streets, squares and other rights of way, whether predominantly in residential, commercial unrestricted (at least during daylight hours) It includes the interfaces with key internal and external and private ( Carmona, pg. 5 ) Urban public spaces can be classified into parks, squares and scenery spots, which originated fr om Europe and extended all around China. In Beijing for example, citizens gather in a range of urban public spaces from pocket parks next to subway infrastructures to big open plazas surrounded by historic walls. After a three month study abroad program i n the cities of Beijing and Shanghai, this thesis project investigated an extensive analysis of a series of urban public spaces at different scales with special types of activities All the open public spaces were evaluated at different days and different times of the day. The idea behind this study was to explore the diverse social activities of Chinese citizens within open spaces and how they take advantage of every designated area as places to encounter social, cultural and environmental relationships The social and cultural principles of an urban public space consist of approaches towards nature and the desire to get in contact with it It has been suggested that the urbanity of public open space is threatened by the increase in
21 technology obviatin g the need f or real, social interaction. However, there is also evidence that use of new co mmunication technology can e nhance the use of public open space. This may include engagement in the prod uctive aspect of our landscape. The urban public spaces tha t were analyzed are: Zhangzizhonlu pocket park, park at workers stadium, park at Longze subway station and the Temple of Heaven. In order to further develop the final resolution of this thesis project, an in depth investigation of the previously mentioned urban public spaces was essential.
22 Pocket P arks The Zhangzizhonly pocket park is a small urban public space located on the south east corner of Dongsi Shitiao Street and Zhangzizhonly Street This park welcomes people who are getting out fr om the Zhangzizhonly subway station of line 5, gate C. It is a very interesting pocket park because of its particular pedestrian activities happening throughout the different times of the day An evaluation of this open space was done through a series of observations of the behavior of the neighbors in the area. The analysis was divided in three important times of the day. Beginning at 7:00am, the pedestrians of the area utilize the pocket park as a path connector to reach the subway entrance. People comm ute through the center and the sides of the park while the vehicular traffic on both streets is very active. Even though bicycles are not the main transportation system in the city as it used to be, people in this community use them to reach short travel distances. This process happens until 9:00am; however, it is very interesting to notice that the same type of activities happens also from 4:00pm to 6:00pm rush hour time. The second observational study of the pedestrian behavior was done from 5:00am to 7 :00am and from 6:00pm to 9:00pm. On this occasion, the pedestrians keep using the pocket park as a connector device to reach the subway entrances; nevertheless, this urban public space is transformed into a communal setting. The elder citizen come to the p ark early in the mornings and when the sun sets in order to practice Tai Chi which is an internal Chinese martial art often practiced for health reasons. Tai chi is typically practiced for a variety of other personal reasons: its hard and soft martial art technique, demonstration competitions, health and longevity. Consequently, a multitude
23 of training forms exist, both traditional and modern, which correspond to those aims. Some of tai chi chuan's training forms are well known to Westerners as the slow mo tion routines that groups of people practice together every morning in parks around the world, particularly in China. ( wiki pedia.org /Tai_chi_chuan ). In addition to the Tai Chi practice, the neighbors gather together to gossip, play cards, and mostly to g et away from the monotony routine of work home. Citizens not on ly gather to chitchat, but they also come together with their dogs so the animals can inte ract with others of their nature Dogs play a very important role in Chinese culture; they are more tha n just pets; they are part of the nuclear family. The analysis of the Zhangzizhonly pocket park finalizes with a particular case of how this urban public space becomes not only a linker, a ga thering area, or a gossip place but a destination for illegal pr ostitution activities. Even though, this type of activates are illegal in mainland China, prostitution is still happening all around the city Another pocket park that was carefully analyzed is the park at the Workers Stadium. This is a linear pocket par k located along the Dongsi Shitiao Street near the Sanlitun District. This public space in particular is very interesting because it shows how it could be transformed from a very pleasant green area of a neighborhood to a parking lot The observational stu dy of the pedestrian activities at the workers stadium park was done in two sections. On the first part of the study, the analysis was mainly focused on the recreational activities of the neighbor s of the area in this urban public space. There is a signifi cant amount of pedestrian movement along the north edge of the site, pedestrian traffic commute through this area mainly because there are two bus stops.
24 Generally, the park serves as a transitional space where cars, buses, bicycles, and pedestrians transi t through Moreover, the park posses a series of display boards where pedestrians can come in contact with. These billboards serve as information device s where news advertisement, etc are posted on. The workers stadium park is not only a transitional sp ace but a congregation area. People, especially men, come to the pocket park to play Xiangqi which in English is known as Chinese chess The game represents a battle between two armies, with the object of capturing the enemy's "general" piece. (wikiped ia.org/ Xiangqi ) Xiangqi is one of the most popular board games in China. In addition to all the activities taking place in this urban public space, this incorporates an Italian restaurant which helps as an anchor structure to bring more neighbors and tour ist s to the area. On the other hand, this pocket park has a different face during the night time. The neighbors do not spread out on the park as they do it during the daytime; they only use the small open plaza in front of the restaurant as a street ballro om. Approximately 60 citizens come together to practice and show off their dancing skills while other people commute through the park. Street dancing in c hina is very popular within as well as in big syn chronize groups. A particular feature of this pocket park at night time is that this public space is near the workers stadium which during most of the weekends it holds either performance s or sport event s This means that the park not longer is an urban p ublic space; it becomes a vehicle park ing which in a way is valid to give the park a different use wh en this is not being use d by people.
25 The last pocket park that forms part of the observational study is the park at Longze subway station. This urban pub lic space has its own qualities; it is very different from the other two parks previously mentioned because it has an elevated transit infrastructure which creates special characteristics for the pedestrians of the area. Located along the east edge of the Bandaling expressway and underneath the line 13 Longze subway station, this pocket park includes two features connection and transition. On the connection aspect, this public space serves as a link to bring peop le from the southwest and south east part s o f the site to the subway station entrance. Pedestrians walk on top of e xisting train rails due to the lack of connection on the ground level. People have to climb a 13 feet hill up to the train rails and walk approximately more than 60 fee t on the elevate d surface and then walk 13 feet down on the other side of the hill to where the subway station is located. This are a lacks pedestrian connectivity so the neighbors have developed their own ways to commute from one side of the hill to the other. One of the particular scenarios taking place at this pocket park is the street vendors. All kinds of food are sold along the main street facing the subway station. Street vendors are spreading under the elevated infrastructure where most of the pedestrians transit. After the necessary observational analysis of the Zhangzizhonly park, the park at the Workers Stadium, and the part at Longze subway station, it could be con cluded that there are positive and negative qualities implemented by each of these public open sp aces These three pocket parks have unique characteristics that generate human
26 different times of the week to grasp the important aspect s of each urban public space Likewise, most of the successful characteristics in pocket parks should be implemented in future urban developments. Th ese three pocket parks are essential in the design of the new Urban Eco Filter since this would include a var iety of human social activities in relationship to the proposed green infrastructure.
27 Historic Parks Historic Parks are somehow the roots culture Historic Parks invite you to engage with the past, present and future of the region They provide an extraordinary opportunity for recreation and education in the heart of each city. They not only hold recreational activities but also historic buildings that are related to the cultural past of the people who lived in the region f or many years. Beijing is a city of history and culture; therefore, it is important to recognize those two features and to closely analyze one of the most important historic parks of the city and even of China. The Temple of Heaven is one of the most imp ortant urban parks in Chinese history. Heritage Site in 1998 and was described as "a masterpiece of architecture and landscape design which simply and graphically illustrates a cosmogony of great import as the "symbolic layout and design of the Temple of Heaven had a profound influence on architecture and planning in the Far East over many centuries." (Unesco.org ). This historic park is a complex that includes not only vegetation but Taoist buildings situated in the southeastern part of the center of the city of Beijing. The masterpiece of historic structures was visited by the Emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties for annual ceremonie s of prayer to Heaven for good harvest. It is regarded as a Taoist temple, although Chinese Heaven worship, especially by the reigning monarch of the day, pre dates Taoism. ( wikipedia.org/Temple of Heaven ) P ark visitors can wander pathw ays and
28 enjoy seve ral historical buildings that are within walking distance as well as discover and celebrate the natural and cultural heritage of Beijing. Sundays on the Temple of Heaven represents community; people come together to bring and receive positive energy to th eir bodies. The historic park was strategically stu died in three different times on a Sunday. The first observational analysis of the pedestrian behavior was done during the early morning hours. From the young to the old, pedestrians come to the park to ce lebrate a variety of activities. The elder people play Jian Zi which in English is known as shuttlecock. This game is played in pairs or big groups of people; it is played mostly where there i s no obstruction of t rees and pedestrian traffic. Another activi ty pedestrian s usually encounter is the visitors to the historic temples. People from all over the world come to this magnificent park to enjoy an d learn from the history of Beijing. While some individuals walk through the monuments, others are practicing Tai Chi. This type of exercise mainly takes place on shaded areas; groups from 10 to 60 people congregate to participate in this famous and cultural relaxation technique. Since some people are not so flexible with their bodies they have the option to joi n other crowd s wh ere their purpose is to relax and take all the negative energies out of their bodies. There are two particular activities that not many people practice; they are: knee fighting and forehead massage which consist of massaging ones forehead with a tree trunk in order to closely get in contact with nature for cure purposes.
29 The second observational study took place in the early afternoon hours. During these hours there are more small group activities; from chitchatting to playing air ping pon g. There are couples of people playing b adminton, air ping pong and tui tie huan, which is basic ally playing with a rubber rope Moreover, there are activities for individual people; some of these activities are walking around the open spaces of the park and playing Jian Sheng Qiu, which in essence is exercising ones hands and fingers with two quartz balls. Lastly, the analysis ended up by studying pedestrian behavior during the late afternoon hours. Women from all ages co me together to do group dancing. T hey especially dance Chinese traditional music in crowds of more than 20 people. This type of activity generally takes place at the entrances of the historic park in order to welcome visitors to a new enjoyable atmosphere. During the late afternoon hours, besides group activities, there are two other activities dedicated to single individuals; these are: Taichi qiu which is basically a one person game played with a racquet and a bouncing bal l. The other activity is the Kong zu, which is played with two sti cks on each hand of the individual and another stick that bounces around In conclusion, every single activity on the Temple of Heaven has a particular relationship to its space where it takes place. This urban public space is an example of how big gree n areas can be utilized to its maximum and how people designate territories to specific activities throughout the whole open space. The new Urban Eco Filter would incorporate an enjoyable urban landscape space that would integrate most of the activities as generators of
30 public spaces, meaning that each activity would require its own scale depending on its use and unique characteristic s
31 Urban Plazas According to National Institute of Building Sciences, a public plaza is a community amenity that serves a variety of users including building tenants, visitors and member s of the public. This type of space may function as pedestrian site arrival points, homes for public art, settings for recreation and relaxation, and inconspicuous security featur es for high profile buildings. beneficial feature s of any lively streetscape. (wbdg.org). Public plazas could also serve as transitional spaces meaning that people can use the area to commute from one side of the plaza to the other. A suc cessful example with this characteristic is the Wu J iao C hang plaza located in District This plaza is a remarkable example of urban improvement for the benefit of pedestrians because of its unusual location as well as the gigantic art p iece wra pping an elevated highway This sunken plaza is located in one of the most important intersections in Shanghai; it connects five mai n roads of the city with its underground pathways. Every day, tens of thousands of pedestrians ride the escalators h ere to shop in the underground; the plaza leads to one of the most dynamic underground shopping system s in the world. This urban plaza is a transitional space as well as a recreational area for adults, children, and even pets of the neighborhood near the a rea. s soon as one come s across with it. Designed by the artist Zhong Song, this urban masterpiece is an installation that dynamically merges architecture with lighting as a holistic composition. In an interview done by Architectural Records, Zhong
32 expresses: evels of infrastructure, creating a complex fabric that affects the pedestrian nature of the area. So, the question was, how do we add the pedestrian element so people will ( archrecord.construction.com). In order t o acc omplish this tas k, the artist encircled the existing 105 foot wide elevated highway in an ovular steel frame clad with aluminum. Measuring 348 feet long, 157 feet wide, and 82 feet tall, it cloaks cars speeding along the overpass. ( archrecord.constructio n.com ) The pedestrian experience with this magnificent artifact is indescribable; when people come to the site especially at night time, they are blown away because of its unique feature of displaying a harmonious composition of artificial lighting. The Wu Jiao C hang plaza is an excellent example of how to separate vehicular traffic from pedestrians. This urban plaza demonstrates that people could experience a desirable natural environment even though they are surrounded by highways from every corner. In a way this becomes a composition of different layers without interfering with each other. This thesis proposal investigates how pedestrians and vehicles could share a common sociable urban public space without any hazards and obstructions to stop any ki nd of flow under the same conditions. As it was previously mention at the beginning of this document, this design p roject proposes a new Urban Eco Filter which means f iltering a variety of aspects Some of the aspects are palpable and others are more
33 hypo thetical For instance, pedestrians would be come as air pollutants, meaning that individuals will be filtered by the new UEF from one side of the 3 rd ring road to the other.
34 Productive Urban Landscape Different forms of agriculture are be ing implemented within the limits and suburban areas of cities around the world. Products are being acquired from farming, fishing, forest activities, as well as ecological themes that coexist in multiple agricultural and horticultural system s. This type o f agriculture or urban a griculture can contribute to the nourishing security in many forms. It increases the amount of foods available for families of low income of ( continuous productive urban landscapes) Andr Viljoen states, We should view our cities as much in terms of being productive spaces (Vijoen, pg. 36 ). extensively accepte solution. It provides a design technique for a new type of sustain able urban landscape which is known as urban a griculture. By growing food within an urban setting rather than exclusively in rural environment s productive urban landscape s would reduce the need for industrialized production, packaging and transportation of foodstuffs to the city dwelling consumers. The innovative and ground breaking concepts described in this book have potential to shape the future of our cities and the li fe quality of the people living in it Viljoen also identified the non renewable energy consumption associated with the remote production and transport of food into cities, as a significant contributor to green house gas emissions. This led to research ex ploring the environmental case that can be made for the integration of productive landscape, in particular urban agriculture, into urban environments and the design implications arising from this.
35 One of the most successful case studies around the world is the Cuban urban agriculture achievement. Right after the Soviet Union collapsed; the production of Cuban oil was diminished basically to the lowest level in Cuba suffered a big economic crisis, the government and citizens i mplemented a rigorous agriculture system, th at later became a model for worldwide urban communities. Cuban productive urban landscapes produce almost half of the most essential vegetables and fruits that are consumed in the cities; from green roofs to com munity productive backyards; Cuba is one of the models to be followed for the future of metropolitan cities in the world. Urban agriculture could be implemented not only on a community ground base but it could also be applied on private balconies, walls, public buildings, or river edges. Urban agriculture practices could also generate diverse type of social activities resulting from food production. Productive urban landscape contributes to the nouri shing security and safe foods in two ways: increasing t he amount of foods available for people occupying the cities, and provides fresh vegetables and fruits for the urban consumers. Because the production of food promotes energy saving of local food production, urban agriculture is a sustainable activity that should be implemented for the future of mega cities In conclusion, the idea of this thesis project is to develop an intensive productive urban landscape with gardens bringing fresh afford able food into Beijin g, improving the climate, cre ating new farming job opportunities and unquestionably embellish ing the city with vibrant lands. This project would also benefit not only the city but the
36 farmer immi grants who live in the area by being able to own a lot within the proposed green communit y. One of the other advantages from designing this green infrastructure is to develop agricultural study areas in order to make research/explora tions for improvement of fields. In addition, the use of live projects in the area for education purposes such as teaching/learning strategies could also expand the participation/engagement of the community and visitors to the site. It could be stated that if metropolitan cities become producers of plentiful agricultural products, then metropolitan cities would be called exporters rather than importers.
37 Fig. 1. Conceptual idea proposed Urban Eco Filter
38 Fig. 2. Historic Timeline Beijing
39 Existing Conditions of Beijing, China Fig. 3. Existing environmental conditions in China
40 Fig. 4 Three important issues to be take n in consideration
41 Fig. 5 Air Pollution
42 Fig. 6. Absences of Eco footprint
43 Fig. 7. Groundwater depletion/pollution
44 Fig. 8 Air Pollution in Beijing Fig. 9 Urban and Rural Population
45 Fig. 10 Mapping Growth of Beijing
46 Fig. 11 Existing Built Environment of Beijing
47 Fig. 12 Future Developments in Beijing
48 Fig. 13 Existing Vegetation in Beijing
49 Fig. 14 Existing Water Systems in Beijing
50 Fig. 15 Existing Road Network in Beijing
51 Fig. 1 6 Existing Subway Network in Beijing
52 Analysis of Public Spaces Park @ Zhangzizhonglu Station Fig. 1 7 Existing Conditions Park @ Zhangzizhonglu Statio n (early morning)
53 Fig. 1 8 Existing Conditions Park @ Zhangzizhonglu Station (afternoon)
54 Fig. 1 9 Existing Conditions Park @ Zhangzizhonglu Station (late night)
55 Park @ Workers Stadium Fig. 20 Existing Conditions Park @ Workers Stad ium (daytime activities)
56 Fig. 21 Existing Conditions Park @ Workers Stadium (nighttime activities)
57 Park @ Longze Station Fig. 22 Existing Conditions Park @ Longze Station (daily activities)
58 Temple of Heav en Park Fig. 23 Existing Conditions Temple of Heaven, Sunday Activities (early morning)
59 Fig. 24 Existing Conditions Temple of Heaven, Sunday Activities (late morning)
60 Fig. 25 Existing Conditions Temple of Heaven, Sunday Activities (afternoon)
61 Site Observations Fig. 26 Existing Conditions Guomao Bridge Fig. 27 Existing Conditions Madian Bridge Fig. 28 Existing Conditions West H aping Bridge
62 Site Analysis Principal Areas of Development Fig. 2 9 Existing Principal Areas of Development
63 Fig. 30 Existing Node Conditions (macro scale)
64 Fig. 31 Existing Node Conditions (micro scale)
65 Fig. 32 Proposed intervention diagrams
66 Fig. 33 Pedestrian movement (week days)
67 Fig. 34 Pedestrian movement (weekends)
68 Fig. 35 Pedestrian movement (Nighttime)
69 Central Business District Future Development Fig. 36 CBD future development
70 Central Business District Existing Conditions Fig. 37 CBD Existing Conditi ons
71 Case Observations Olympic Forest Park by Hu Jie Fig. 38 Olympic Forest Park
72 The Emerald Necklace By Frederick Law Olmsted Fig. 39 The Emerald Necklace
73 Green Roofs in Toronto, Canada Fig. 40 Green Roofs in Toronto, Canada
74 The High Line Project by James Corner Fields Operations Fig. 41 The High Line Project
75 Olympic West Bridge by Hu Jie Fig. 42 Olympic West Bridge
76 Linked Hybrid Kindergarten by Steven Holl Fig. 43 Linked Hybrid Kindergarten
77 Linked Hybrid Project [by Steven Holl] Fig. 44 Linked Hybrid Project
78 Case Studies Ecological Green Belt by Liang Sicheng Fig. 45 Eco logical Green Belt
79 Olympic Sculpture Park by Weiss Manredi Fig. 4 6 Olympic Sculpture Park
80 Yokohama International Port Terminal by FOA Fig. 4 7 Yokohama International Port Terminal
81 Sociopolis Fom ented by Generalitat Valenciana Fig. 4 8 Sociopolis
82 The High Line Project by James Corner Fields Operations Fig. 49 The High :Line Project
83 Conceptual Ideas Fig. 50 Conceptual Idea
84 Conceptual Diagram Fig. 5 1 Conceptual UEF Diagram
85 Conceptual Planting S trategy Fig. 5 2 Conceptual Planting Strategy
86 Proposed Vertical Node Connections Fig. 5 3 Proposed Vertical Node Connections
8 7 Existing and Proposed Elements Fig. 5 4 Existing and Proposed Elements
88 Fig. 5 5 Existing and Proposed Green Elements
89 Fig. 5 6 Exploded Axonometric existing and proposed infras tructure
90 Fig. 5 7 Proposed Activities
91 Fig. 58. 3 rd Ring Road General Info. Fig. 59 Chaowai Soho
92 Fig. 60, Biowall System Fig. 61 Shanghai Observations
93 Fig. 62 Proposed Aqueduct
94 Fig. 63 Preliminary sections (Section A D)
95 Fig. 64 Preliminary sections (Section E F)
96 Fig. 6 5 Preliminary sections (Section G )
97 Fig. 66 Planting Strategy by season
98 Fig. 67 CBD Site Plan
99 Fig. 68 Site Study Model (3 Sites) This model displays the three node prototypes that were selected in order to show three different scale of intervention throughout the 3 rd ring ro ad. Each node has its own qualities and characteristics. Fig. 69 Site Study Model (3 Sites)
100 Fig. 70 Site Study Model #1 This site is located on the northern part of the 3 rd rind road. It was selected because of its proximity to existing ecological footprint and the existing underground pedestrian connections to commute people from one s ide of the highway to the other. This site is very close to the Olympic Forest Park. Fig. 71 Site Study Model #1
101 Fig. 72 Site Study Model #2 This is the most simplistic site because it does not have any more than one bridge and it is an intersection where most of the building uses are dedicated to residential communit ies. This node is located on the northeast side of the 3 rd ring road. Fig. 73 Site Study Model #2
102 Fig. 74 Site Study Model #3 This site is located on the Eastern side of the 3 rd ring road. It is very significant b ecause this node is located on the Central Business District of Beijing. This site brings a big amount of people from the four corners of the intersection. On this site, subway line 1 and 10 meet and the flow of people is high. Fig. 75 Site St udy Model #3
103 Fig. 76 Conceptual model #1 Fig. 77 Conceptua l model #1 The idea on this node was to have different pedestrian and bike access points from the four corners bringing people up the new Urban Eco Filter. The UEF in this site is centralized and at some points it reaches some of the existing buildings a djacent to it in order to influence and convert the city into a more sustainable environment.
104 Fig. 78 Conceptual model #2 Fig. 79 Conceptual model #2 On this node, the UEF is shifted fro m one side of the 3 rd ring road to the other. The conceptual idea is to reach people from areas where there is more density on each side of the highway. There is also an example of proposing a new structure which becomes part of the overall ecological sy stem providing vertical agriculture along the main faade.
105 Fig. 80 Conceptual model #3 Fig. 81 Conceptual model #3 This is the site where there is not a significant amount of people; however, there is a need f or providing better opportunities for the people to commute along the 3 rd ring road. In this area, green roofs are introduced to demonstrate that existing buildings could become sustainable and be part of a new urban master plan. Green roofs are one of th e new opportunities this thesis project proposes in order to alleviate hazardous conditions in metropolitan cities.
106 Fig. 82 Site Plan Fig. 8 3 Second Level Fig. 84 Ground Level
107 Fig. 85 Exploded Axo
108 Fig. 86 Pedestrian Circulation Fig. 87 Bike Circulation
109 Fig. 8 8 Conceptual Landscape model This is a new landscape approach which incorporates pedestrians, bicycles and productive landscapes in one holistic environment. This example shows how the new UE F is elevated across one of the adjacent roads next to the 3 rd ring road. The new design incorporate light wells to have visual and tangible connections to the ground plane. Fig. 8 9 Conceptual Landscape model
110 Fig. 90 Schematic Section Model This section model was taken through in the Central Business District. It shows the big amount of vehicular lanes and the lack of pedestrian amenities. In this area the Urban Eco Filter is located on top of the 3 rd ring road connecting p edestrian an d bike flow from both sides of the highway. Fig. 91 Schematic Section Model
111 Fig. 92 Matrix G uidelines
112 Fig. 93 Key Plan
113 Fig. 94 Flow (section a)
114 Fig. 95 Jungle (section b)
115 Fig. 96 Habitat (section c)
116 Fig. 97 Projection (section d)
117 Fig. 98 Interaction (section g)
118 Fig. 99 Framing Views (section i)
119 Fig. 100 Air Rights (section j)
120 Fig. 101 Shift (section k)
121 Fig. 102 Sha ding (section l)
122 Fig. 103 Verticality (section m)
123 Fig. 104 Kuatic (section n)
124 Fig. 105 Pocket Park (section o)
125 Fig. 106 Wrapping (section p)
126 Fig. 107 Interweaving (section e)
127 Fig. 108 Side Bridge (section h)
128 Fig. 109 Underlighting (section f)
129 Fig. 110 C lean the polluted air diagram
130 Fig. 111 Harvest the wind diagram
131 Final Models Fig. 112 Final Section Model
132 Fig. 113 Final S ection Model
133 Fig. 114 Final Section Model (UEF merging with building) Fig. 115, Final Section Model ( Void in relationship with landscape) Fig. 116 Final Section Model (UEF between highway and cantilever) Fig. 117 Final Section Model (Ramping system)
134 Fig. 118 Final Model
135 Fig. 119 Final Model
136 Fig. 120 Final Model View looking South Fig. 121 Final Model ( Building Typology #1 ) Fig. 1 22 Final Model (Building Typology #2) Fig. 12 3 Final Model (Building Typology #3)
137 Fig. 1 2 4 Bridge connecting sidewalk with UEF
138 Fig. 1 2 5 UEF passing through a building
139 Fig. 1 2 6 Activities and landscape together
140 Fig. 1 2 7 UEF merging with a green buidling
141 Fig. 1 2 8 UEF shifting
142 Fig. 1 2 9 Ramping system (view from the ground)
143 Conclusion Because of a complex observational analysis of urban settings in China as well as research studies of conceptual programmatic prototypes along the 3 rd ring road in Beijing, the new UEF shou ld be considered in order to improve existing hazardous conditions in infrastructures. Spatial characteristics of Beijing urba n tissue such an elevated bike infrastructure productive urban landscapes, water collection m achine and a bio green filter are conceptualized along a highly congested highway which is the base of the design process The new proposed Urban E co F ilter becomes the connective fabric system that creates effective urban public spaces, alleviate s air pollution generate s water inner net work and produce s urban agriculture fields. This design approach aims to revitalize the dangerous conditions of a major highway in Beijing. I n order to strengthen the social activities and the necessary pedestrian links to enhance the existing urban fabr ic of Beijing t his thesis proposal seeks a new way of urban living throughout a dynamic elevated green infrastructure system
144 References Beijing's History, Available from: http://www.chi na.org.cn/archive/2007 05/30/content_1041120.htm; accessed May 30 th 2009. Summer Palace, Available from: http://www.unesco.org; accessed; June 2 nd 2009. Boston Rebellion, Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion; accessed; June 6 th 2 009. Yuanmingyun Park, Available from: http://www.china travel tour guide.com/attractions/yuanmingyuan.shtml; accessed; June 4 th 2009. Sicheng, Liang, Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liang_Sicheng; accessed; June 19 th 2009. Sicheng, Liang, Available from: http://www.pennclubbeijing.com/aboutpc.html; accessed; June 20 th 2009. Greco Claudio and Santoro Carlo ; Beijing The New City Milano, Italy: Skira editore, 2008. Beijing Olympic Forest Park, Available from: http://www.gardenvisit.com/ garden/olympic_forest_park_beijing; accessed June 2 nd 2009.
145 Asian cities most polluted worldwide, Available from: http://www.speroforum.com/site/article.asp?id=7207; accessed June 5 th 2009. 1949 2008 Olympics, Available from: htt p://www.chinaheritagequarterly.org ; accessed June 5 th 2009. Too good to waste?, Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/aug/29/waste.recycling; accessed June 10 th 2009. Mars Neville and Hornsby Adrian ; The Chinese Dream a society u nder construction Rotterdam, Nederland: 010 Publishers, 2008. Carmona, Matthew; Public places Urban spaces/ The dimensions of urban design Oxford: Architectural Press, 2003. Plaza, Available from: http://www.wbdg.org/design/plaza.php; accessed June 3 0 th 2009. Wu Jiao Plaza, Available from: http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/lighting/archives/0708wujiao.asp; accessed July 10 th 2009. Viljoen, Andre; Continuous productive urban landscapes Burlington, MA: Architectural Press, 2005.
146 Im age References Background Maps on some drawings and models (aerial views) http://earth.google.com Ecological Green Belt by Liang Sicheng (Drawing) School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 2009 Olympic Sculpture Park (photo) http://taylormade press.com/press_room/wp content/uploads/2008/08/olympic sculpture park 01 Yokohama International Port Terminal (photo) http://www25.big.or.jp/~k_wat/yokohama/eindex.htm Sociopolis (photo) http://www.sociopolis.net/web/sociopolis.php The High Line Projec t (photo) http://www.thehighline.org/ Chaowai Soho (photo) http://www.chaowaisoho.com/
147 Bibliography Central Business District, Beijing, Available from: http://www.china.org.cn/china/200910/21/content_18741794.htm; accessed; July 3 rd 2009 Tai Chi, Avail able from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tai_chi_chuan; accessed; June 23 rd 2009. Xiangqi, Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xiangqi; accessed; June 23 rd 2009. Temple of Heaven, Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Heaven; acc essed; June 25 th 2009. Thomas J. Campanella; New Yor k, NY: Princenton Architectural Press, 2008. Foreign Office Architects; Barcelona, Spain: Actar, 2003. Evolution Danish/Chinese collaboration on sustainable urban development in China Shanghai, China: DAC and the individual authors, 2006. Diana Balmori ; Balmori C3 Landscape Seo ul, Korea: C3 Publishers Co., 2007. Merleau Ponty, Maurice; The World of Perception London ; New York: Routledge, 2004.
148 Vincent Callebaut. Archibiotic Paris, France: A ADCU publishers, 2008. Shyam Paudel,David Greenberg and Robert Henrikson; Visitonar y Bamboo Designs for ecological living Beijing, Chian: Bamboo Technologies publishers,2007. Decade: Retrospect and Prospects, Landscape Architecture China, 2008 no. 2 Wetland Design, Landscape Architecture China, 2009 no. 1. Landscape Architecture of South China, Landscape Architecture China, 06 20 2009 no. 3. Japan and Asia in a new Global Age: Can Asia become the most dynamic centre of the world economy in the 21st century? Asiatic Society of Japan, by Professor Makoto Taniguchi Available from: http://www.tiu.ac.jp/~bduell/ASJ/2001/Feb.19.summary.html; accessed Ju ly 30 th 2009.
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Urban eco-filter :
b introducing new lungs to the city of Beijing
h [electronic resource] /
by Carlos Gil.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 148 pages.
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: It is evident that several cities in China have experienced a variety of global impacts. Beijing for instance, has become synonymous with mass-migration over the years. The immense scale of projected rural migration, the unmanageable intervention of new housing urban developments, and the high levels of air pollution in Beijing have become a global dilemma. In order to alleviate Beijing's critical ecological conditions, the introduction of "new lungs", as an urban environmental design to the city should be examined. This thesis project illustrates how urban productive landscape and bike infrastructure can be essential in urban development through the implementation of an innovative dynamic Urban Eco-Filter that would respond to the active circumstances of the city of Beijing. The enormous amount of air pollution, ground-water depletion/pollution and particularly the lack of an ecological footprint are some of the challenges the city of Beijing continually battles.As a potential solution to assist the citizens of Beijing, who continually struggle to maintain a better quality of life, this thesis project proposes a new Urban Eco-Filter approach that will serve as a green corridor incorporating environmental resources. This innovative urban infrastructure would become the exceptional and unquestionable tool to create a holistic environment including productive urban landscape, bike infrastructure and sustainable themes. As a solution this project proposes the implementation of an elevated eco-network infrastructure in the center of the city of Beijing. In addition, the proposal would focus on developing a new productive landscape connection prototype at the Guomao Bridge on the 3rd Ring Road. The procedures analyzed are: case observation, case studies, strategies of 3-D modeling, and the design and qualitative investigation through workshops.In order to further validate the proposed solution, an in depth evaluation of the research techniques is necessary. It is indispensable to analyze the existing hazardous urban conditions and consider the uncontrollable growth of metropolitan cities, while introducing new ecological bike infrastructure. With the limited environmental footprint, constant amount of air pollution and the deficiency of ground-water, the investigation of a new Urban Eco-Filter is encouraged to enhance the social and environmental fabric of the city of Beijing.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Advisor: Shannon Bassett
x Architecture and Community Design
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.