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Exploring efficient design approaches for display of multidimensional data to facilitate interpretation of information

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Title:
Exploring efficient design approaches for display of multidimensional data to facilitate interpretation of information
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Pathiavadi, Chitra S
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Multivariate data
Data displays
Graphical displays
Eye tracking
Conjunctions
Dissertations, Academic -- Secondary Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Prescriptions for effective display of quantitative information involving more than two variables are not available. To explore the effectiveness of retinal variables in facilitating the interpretation of information and decision making when used in conjunction, a study with 135 participants was conducted. The study involved the use of color shape, color value, and value shape as retinal variables in interactive displays that required participants to answer nine questions in three levels of complexity (identification of data points, analyses of local comparisons and global trends). Time-on-task scores and performance scores were measured. In addition, a View Clamp eye tracker system was used and 12 out of the 135 participants completed the task of answering questions while their eye movements were recorded. Repeated measures analysis followed by multiple comparisons of means showed that participants in the color and shape group performed significantly better and faster than color/value and shape/value groups only for questions that involved studying global trends and decision making (level 3). The shape and value group was significantly faster than color and shape group in answering level 1. Color and value as retinal variables produced results that indicated that the two variables when used in conjunction could be suitable for display of data that involved comparison. This needs to be explored further. Eye movements provided further evidence to the feature integration theory (Treisman, 1982) and showed feature search occurred right away as participants entered the display. 78% of those who reported mental strategies indicated that they identified the features used in the display first.
Thesis:
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Chitra S. Pathiavadi.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 188 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002069268
oclc - 608087619
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0003158
usfldc handle - e14.3158
System ID:
SFS0027474:00001


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Full Text
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ABSTRACT: Prescriptions for effective display of quantitative information involving more than two variables are not available. To explore the effectiveness of retinal variables in facilitating the interpretation of information and decision making when used in conjunction, a study with 135 participants was conducted. The study involved the use of color shape, color value, and value shape as retinal variables in interactive displays that required participants to answer nine questions in three levels of complexity (identification of data points, analyses of local comparisons and global trends). Time-on-task scores and performance scores were measured. In addition, a View Clamp eye tracker system was used and 12 out of the 135 participants completed the task of answering questions while their eye movements were recorded. Repeated measures analysis followed by multiple comparisons of means showed that participants in the color and shape group performed significantly better and faster than color/value and shape/value groups only for questions that involved studying global trends and decision making (level 3). The shape and value group was significantly faster than color and shape group in answering level 1. Color and value as retinal variables produced results that indicated that the two variables when used in conjunction could be suitable for display of data that involved comparison. This needs to be explored further. Eye movements provided further evidence to the feature integration theory (Treisman, 1982) and showed feature search occurred right away as participants entered the display. 78% of those who reported mental strategies indicated that they identified the features used in the display first.
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Eye tracking
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PAGE 6

e

PAGE 17

Figure 1 Snow Plot Showing Death by Cholera

PAGE 18

Context of the Research Problem

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Semiologie Graphic

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Purpose of Research Research Questions

PAGE 23

Correlations Definition of Variables

PAGE 24

Independent Variables

PAGE 25

Dependant Variables Limitations/Delimitations

PAGE 26

Implications to Education and Learning Environments

PAGE 27

Definitions of Terms Configurations and Discriminations Data Visualization. Eye Tracking Feature Integration Theory

PAGE 28

Gaze Fixations Score Glance Frequency. Graphics Graphical displays

PAGE 29

Figure 2 Example of a Tabular Representation Figure 3 Example of Graphical Representations using a Graph

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Figure 4 Example of Graphical Representation using a Map Perception and Imagery. Preattentive Processing

PAGE 31

Regions of Interests. Retinal Variables

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Figure 5 Retinal Variables as Defined by Jaques Bertin Value Shapes Color. Saccade Scores Visualization.

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Summary

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Information Processing

PAGE 35

Perception

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Figure 6 Example used by David Chandler to Explain Perception

PAGE 38

Cognitive Architecture

PAGE 39

Image Theory

PAGE 40

retinal

PAGE 43

Semiologie Graphique,

PAGE 44

Visual Attention Theory attention The Components of Visual Attention where what

PAGE 45

Treatise on Physiological Optics how

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Preattentive Theory

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Figure 7 An Example of Conjunction Use in the Search for a Target Red Circle. Target

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Figure 8 Form and Hue Segregation. Hue Boundary is Preattentively Detected even though Forms Varies, but Hue Interferes with the Detection of Form Boundary

PAGE 51

Similarity Theory

PAGE 52

Graphical Displays and Data Visualization Semiotics

PAGE 53

Graphical Displays

PAGE 54

Challenges in design of graphical displa ys

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Graphics and Media

PAGE 56

Multivariate graphical displays

PAGE 60

Eye tracking and visualization

PAGE 61

Eye Tracking Research

PAGE 67

Selection of Sample

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Random Assignment

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Table 1.Research Design using three treatment groups Control for Extraneous Variables Prior Knowledge Computer Skills Color Value Color Shape Shape Value Question Level 1 Question Level 2 Question Level 3

PAGE 70

Motivation/Interest Other Data Display Formats Explored

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Treatment Groups

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Interactive Displays

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Figure 9 Display for Color Shape Treatment Group

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Figure 10 Display for Color Value Treatment Group

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Figure 11 Display for Shape Value Treatment Group Eye Tracker System

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Regions of Interest (ROI)

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Figure 12 Regions of Interest defined in Color Shape Treatment Group Figure 13 Regions of Interest Defined in Color Value Treatment Group

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Figure 14 Regions of Interest defined in Shape Value Treatment Group Performance and Time on Task Scores from the Interactive Displays

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Usability Rating and Mental Strategies

PAGE 84

Scores from Level 3 Questions

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Scores from the Eye Tracker omputer Equipment used in the Study

PAGE 86

Eye Tracker System Set up

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Treatment Group 1 Treatment Group 2 Treatment Group 3 Participants solicited from Undergraduate Education courses Performance Scores and Time on Task Scores Participants Sign In Logistics and Research set u p Rating and Reports on Mental Strategies used IRB Study Descriptor and Random Assignment

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Figure 15 Flow Chart Showing the Research Procedures. Data Collection and Reporting Eye Tracking Scores

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Figure 16 Study Descriptor Screen Explaining the Study and the Task that needs to be Performed

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Figure 17 Sample Question in Color Shape Treatment Group

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Figure 18 Sample Question in Color Value Treatment Group

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Figure 19 Sample Question in Shape Value Treatment Group

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Figure 20 Screen Showing the NEXT Button

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Figure 21 Question Level 1 Figure 22 Question Level 2

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Figure 23 Question Level 3

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Figure 24 Screen howing Questions Related to Usability Rating and Mental Strategies

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Eye Tracker System Rubric

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Table 1 Inter-Rater Reliability Resu lts

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Scores from the Interactive Displays for Level 1 and Level 2 Questions

PAGE 102

Table 2 Reliability Coefficients for Questions at Level 1 for the Three Treatment Groups Table 3 Reliability Coefficients for Questions at Level 2 for the Three Treatment Groups

PAGE 103

Usefulness Rating and Mental Strategies

PAGE 105

Pilot Study

PAGE 108

Table 4 Mean Performance Scores by Groups

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Table 5 Table 6 Descriptive Statistics for Performance Scores for Color/Value Treatment Group Table 7 Descriptive Statistics for Performance Scores for Shape/Value Treatment Group

PAGE 110

Table 8 Repeated Measures Tests of Within Subjects and Between Subjects Effects F p

PAGE 111

Figure 25 Display Showing Differences in Average Performance Scores by Group by Question Levels 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 QL1 QL2 QL3 Color/Shape Color/Value Shape/Value

PAGE 112

Table 9 Post hoc Analysis of Comparison of Means

PAGE 113

Table 10 Multiple Comparisons of Group Mean Performance Scores for the Different Question Levels Among Groups

PAGE 115

Table 11 Mean Time on Task Scores by Group by Levels Table 12 De scriptive Statistics of Time on Task Scores for Color/Shape Treatment Group Table 13 Descriptive Statistics of Time on Task Scores for Color/Value Treatment Group Table 14 Descriptive Statistics of Time on Task Scores for Shape/Value Treatment Group

PAGE 116

Table 15 Repeated Measures Tests of Within Subjects Effects F p

PAGE 117

Figure 26 Display Showing Differences in Average Time on Task Scores by Group by Question Levels 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 TOT1 TOT2 TOT3 Color/Shape Color/Value Shape/Value

PAGE 118

Table 16 f Means

PAGE 119

Table 17 Comparisons of Means

PAGE 120

Correlational Studies

PAGE 121

Table 18 Strength and Direction of Relationships between Overall Group Performance Scores and Time on Task Scores

PAGE 122

Table 19 Strength and Relationships between Performance and Time on Task Scores by Question Levels in Group 1 Table 20 Strength and Relationships between Performance and Time on Task Scores by Question Levels in Group 2

PAGE 123

Table 21 Strength and Relationships between Performance and Time on Task Scores by Question Levels in G ro up 3

PAGE 124

Table 22 Mean Usefulness Ratings by Treatment Group Table 23 Strength and Relationship between usefulness rating and performance scores by group

PAGE 125

. Table 24 Strength and Relationship between Usefulness Rating and Time on Task Scores by Group

PAGE 126

Eye Tracker Data Analysis Table 25 Mean Performance Scores by Question Level by Group

PAGE 127

Table 26 Mean Time on Task Scores by Question Level by Group Table 27 Descriptive Statistics for Color Shape Treatment Group Table 28 Descriptive Statistics for Color Value Treatment Group Table 29 Descriptive Statistics for Shape Value Treatment Group

PAGE 128

Table 30 Mean Saccade Scores and Fixation Scores by Group

PAGE 129

Table 31 Strength and Direction of Relationship between Overall Mean Time on Task Scores, Fixation and Saccade scores

PAGE 130

Table 32 Strength and Direction of Relationship between Time on Task Scores, Fixation and Saccade Scores

PAGE 131

Table 33 3 (treatment groups) X 2 (eye scores) ANOVA Results F p

PAGE 132

Table 34 ROI and the Location of Data Points that needed to be looked at to Answer the Questions

PAGE 133

Table 35 Sequence in which Regions of Interests were Fixated Upon

PAGE 135

Figure 27 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 1 in Color Shape Treatment Group

PAGE 136

Figure 28 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 2 in Color Shape Treatment Group Figure 29 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 3 in Color Shape Treatment Group

PAGE 137

Figure 30 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 4 in Color Shape Treatment Group Figure 31 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 1 in Color Value Treatment Group

PAGE 138

\ Figure 32 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 2 in Color Value Treatment Group Figure 33 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 3 in Color Value Treatment Group

PAGE 139

Figure 34 ROI and Eye Movement for Participant 4 in Color Value Treatment Group Figure 35 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 1 in Shape Value Treatment Group

PAGE 140

Figure 36 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 2 in Shape Value Treatment Group Figure 37 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 3 in Shape Value Treatment Group

PAGE 141

Figure 38 ROI and Eye Movements for Participant 4 in Shape Value Treatment Group Table 36 Glance Frequencies by Participant in Color Shape Treatment Group

PAGE 142

Table 37 Glance Frequencies by Participant in Color Value Treatment Gr oup Table 38 Glance Frequencies by Participant in Shape Value Treatment Group

PAGE 143

Tabl e 39 Highest Glance Frequency Regions and the Corresponding Performance Scores in Color Shape Treatment Group

PAGE 144

Table 40 Highest Glance Frequency Regions and the Corresponding Performance Scores in Color Value Treatment Group Table 41 Highest Glance Frequency Regions and the Corresponding Performance Scores in Shape Value Treatment Group

PAGE 145

Mental Strategies Reported Table 42 Coding of Mental Strategies Reported

PAGE 148

Within Groups Differences

PAGE 153

Implications of Research Questions 1and 2

PAGE 155

Implications for Research Question 3 and 4

PAGE 162

Levels of Complexity of Questions Used in the Study

PAGE 165

Strength and Direction of Relationships Explored in the Study Usefulness Ratings

PAGE 166

. Mental Strategies

PAGE 167

Eye Tracker Resul ts

PAGE 180

American Educational Research Journal Cognitive Psychology and its implications. Towards a general theory of expertise Journal of Computer-based Instruction Instructional Technology :Foundations International Yearbook of Cartography Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied Cognition and Instruction,

PAGE 181

British Journal of Educational Psychology, Cognitive Science, Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics Cartographica Psychology fr-FR Acta Psychologica Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition American Journal of Psychology. Journal of Human Factors Science, Vision Research,

PAGE 182

Proceedings of the Statistical Graphics Section ACM Publication. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications Perception and Psychophysics Contemporary Educational Psychology, Applied Cognitive Psychology, British Journal of Educational Psychology Contemporary Educational Psychology Journal of American Statistical Association Review of Educational Research, Educational Technology, Research and Development

PAGE 183

Cognitive Science Journal of Advertising Instructional Design Theories and Models, Educational Psychologist, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Canadian Journal of Psychology, Educational Technology Research and Development International Journal of Instructional Media. Contemporary Educational Psychology Contemporary Educational Psychology, Educational Psychology Review

PAGE 184

Proceedings of the 1976 workshop on Automated Cartography and Epidemiology Cognitive Psychology Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing it-IT American Statistician Educational Researcher Educational Psychology Review, Educational Technology, Research and Development, Educational Researcher

PAGE 186

e

PAGE 189

Year Math Language Arts

PAGE 190

Question for sample display Questions Level 1 Questions Level 2

PAGE 191

Questions Level 3

PAGE 192

Category 4 3 2 1

PAGE 196

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

PAGE 197

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

PAGE 203

.