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Cigagna, Karina Cabernite.
Community service through architecture :
b social housing with identity
h [electronic resource] /
by Karina Cabernite Cigagna.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: Despite reasonable advances in public policies for housing in the last two decades, Brazil's current housing deficit is 5.6 million housing units. In So Paulo, Brazil's largest city, an estimated one fifth of the population of 17.5 million is currently living in inadequate housing conditions, like the "favelas" (Shanty Towns) (IBGE). The favelas' houses are made from scrap materials such as wood and metal sheeting, they do not have services such as sanitation, water or electricity, and the settlements are usually very overcrowded. The gigantic rate of illegal occupation of urban land has lead to disastrous consequences not only to the people who live in them, but to society as a whole, and to environment sustainability. At most countries, including Brazil, social housing has little to do with diversity and uniqueness of living. Social housing is influenced by functionalism and the economic cost effectiveness of the production process.Unfortunately, new urban areas are still being built using the same traditional ideas, which results largely in a very functionalistic approach of repetitiveness. One unit is repeated into a row of identical blocks. This concept is still used in most of the new Brazilian urban areas. As a result those areas become monotonous and repetitive, lacking identity and uniqueness. This Thesis objective is to expose the negative impacts of the present social housing mass production model, and then to analyze the possibilities of a coherent alternative to housing based on identity, sense of community and uniqueness present at the favelas, which could consistently improve the dwellings and the built environment. The main idea is to find inspiration on the Brazilian favelas to develop a new concept for social housing.In spite of all the physical, environmental, economic and social problems, favelas are an example of coherent housing production processes where dwellers autonomously decide about the design, building and use of their dwellings. They also are usually linked to a strong sense of community no longer found elsewhere. The pattern of these large areas shows an uncontrolled growth of residential units, which leads to a vast, seemingly chaotic, but yet very structured way of living. (Vanderfeesten) The analysis of this pattern of structures is a very strong foundation to develop a modular system of building blocks. The main idea is to create an urban housing environment consisting of modular blocks to provide a "favela-based" pattern. Multiple modules typologies will be designed in order to correspond to each family's needs. The arrangement of the modules will result in open walkways, small streets, larger open areas and a vast amount of balconies, roof terraces, parks, and gardens.As a result there is a great opportunity for social interaction. The main goal is to design a housing neighborhood where each house is unique in its structural composition, providing a way of living in which social interaction is promoted while maintaining each individuals identity through the uniqueness of each unit.
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Advisor: Stanley Russell, M.Arch.
x Architecture and Community Design
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Community Service T hrough Architecture: Social Housing with Identity by Karina Cabernite Cigagna A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Stanley Russell M.Arch Mark Weston, M.Arch. Miguel Kaled Eng.Civ.CREA RJ Date of Approval: November 20 200 9 Keywords: Housing, Flexib ility Modular ity Adaptab ility Favelas Containers Copyright 200 9 Karina Cabernite Cigagna
Dedication I would like to dedicate my Master of Architecture Degree achievement to my entire family especially to my Dad, Luiz Cabernite, and my Husband, Luiz Cigagna. Thank you very much Dad, for providing me all the best through all these years giving all the support I needed along my entire life, and helping me on reaching all my dreams Thank you Gui, for all the comprehension all the long nights and weekends that I had to work on my projects, and we could not go out and enjoy the time together Thank you for being always there by my side, supporting and taking good care of me. I also would like to thank my Mom, Tania Cabernite, who also supported me a lot along these years. Thank you Mom, for all the hours we talked on the phone during my long trips you were always there when I needed you Last but not Least I would like to thank my brother Ri cardo Cabernite. Thank you, Rick for your patience even when I release on you by my side for all long days and n ights that I worked on my projects. I love you all so much!
Acknowledgments I would like to thank all the p r ofe s sors that contributed to build my knowledge along all these academic years. Thank you for all your comments and critiques that helped me to improve not only as a student or professional, but also as a human being Thank you very much to my chair professor Stanley Russell, who with all his expertise and experience guided me through my Thesis proje ct the final step on this long journey towards graduat ion. Special thanks to Miguel Kaled, with Morris Architects, who also contributed with his time and knowledge giving me gr eat input on my Thesis process.
i Table of Contents List of Figures iv Abstract x ii Chapter One: Project Background and Objectives 1 Introduction 1 Favelas 3 Social Housing 8 Favelas as a Concept 11 Chapter Montral, Canada 1 3 Conclusion 1 8 Chapter T hree : Case Study I I : A lt E rlaa Vienna 1 9 Conclusion 20 Chapter Four : Case Study I II : Izola Social H o using Slovenia 2 2 Conclusion 2 5 Chapter Five : Case Study I V : Parametric Design, Eric Vanderfeesten 26 Conclusion 29 Chapter Six : Analysis of a Brazilian Favela Structure & Programming 30 Flexibility & Adaptability 30
ii Uniqueness & Identity 31 32 Mixed Use 34 Sustainability 3 5 Program & Essential Design Criteria 36 Chapter Seven : Site selection and Analysis 3 6 Site selection 36 Site Analysis & Surroundings 37 Climate 46 Vegetation 47 Topography 48 History and Culture 48 Economic and S ocial data 49 Site Conditions 49 Chapter Eight : Design Concepts 5 1 Building with shipping containers 51 Examples of Shipping container Buildings 53 Hybrid construction: Combining shipping containers & Traditional building systems 56 ISBU Insulation: Ceramic Insulation Paints 59 Self building process 60 Tropical Design & Sustainability 67 Chapter Nine: Design Resolution 74 Master/Site Plan 74 Flexibility/Adaptability: House Growth/Expansion 76 Housing Typologies 77 Indoor Outdoor Connection 85 Commercial Typologies 88
iii Shading & Natural Ventilation 90 Conclusion 95 References 98
iv List of Figures Figure 1 .1 Informations about the cities with most favelas in Brazil 1 Figure 1 .2 Panoramic view of an informal settlement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2 Figure 1 .3 Scenic view from a favela house in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 4 Figure 1 .4 Contrast between the poor and the rich: the Paraispolis favela, next to a high end apartment complex in So Paulo 4 Figure 1 5 Illegal electrical connections at street post 5 Figure 1 6 Police action against criminality in a Brazilian favela 6 Figure 1 7 Example of a mass producted social housin g project 9 Figure 1 .8 Concept model comparing the existing mass production social housing model and the proposed idea based on Identity 11 Figure 2.1 12 Figure 2.2 View of rooftop terraces 13 Figure 2 .3 Pre fabricated module arriving at the construction site 13
v Figure 2.4 18 dwelling types within the system 1 4 Figure 2.5 V iew of suspended pedestrian walkways 15 Figure 2.6 D 16 Figure 2.7 General view of modular units 16 Fig ure 3.1 General view of housing complex 18 Figure 3.2 View of recreational areas 1 9 Figure 3.3 Dense vegetated balconies 20 Figure 4 1 Building overall view 21 Figure 4 2 layouts) 22 Figure 4.3 Interior views of housing units showing different colors of shading elements 23 Figure 4.4 Axonometric drawing of a typical balcony 23 Figure 5.1 Parametric design diagram 25 Figure 5.2 Generated urban pattern 26 Figure 5.3 Possible combinations of tw o identical modules 27
vi Figure 5.4 Structure of a basic building module and combination of modules generating different housing units 28 Figure 6.1 Typical favela house plan 2 9 Figure 6 .2 Owners participation in their house construction 30 Figure 6.3 Owners participation in their house construction 30 Figure 6.4 Uniqueness of facades adds character to the community 30 Figure 6.5 Roof terraces 3 1 Figure 6. 6 Mixed use structures 3 3 Figure 6.7 Water tower (cistern) in a favela house 34 Figure 6.8 35 Figure 7.1 Site Location and distance from So Paulo 3 6 Figure 7 .2 Bertioga coastal extension, Site Location and Main connectors 3 7 Figure 7 3 Downtown area pictures key plan 3 9 Figure 7.4 Downtown area pictures 39 Figure 7.5 Vista Linda district pictures key plan 40 Figure 7.6 Vista Linda district pictures 40
vii Figure 7.7 Vista Linda district pictures 41 Figure 7.8 Riviera de So Loureno (planned community) pictures key plan 41 Figure 7.9 Rivie ra de So Loureno (planned community) pictures 42 Figure 7.10 Surrounding areas use diagram 42 Figure 7.11 Vista Linda/ Site area diagram 43 Figure 7.12 Overall zoning map 44 Figure 7.13 Vista Linda zoning map 4 5 Figure 7.14 Brazil Climate & Prevailing Marine Currents 4 6 Figure 7.15 So Paulo average rainfall and temperature chart 46 Figure 7.16 Types of Vegetation 47 Figure 7.17 Bertioga map Terrain, rivers, and main districts 48 Figure 7.18 National Indian Festival in Bertioga photo 49 Figure 7.19 Site Analysis concept models 50 Figure 8.1 Shipping Containers 52 Figure 8.2 Container City, London 53
viii Figure 8.3 Student Housing Project Keetwonen 54 Figure 8.4 Bamboo Groove house 55 Figure 8.5 Shipping containers used as the structure base 55 Figure 8.6 Guadua Bamboo roof structure 56 Figure 8.7 Second roof system for passive cooling 56 Figure 8.8 Concept model of community using ( Hybrid construction ) 57 Figure 8.9 Con cept model of housing unit (Hybrid construction) 57 Figure 8.10 Earth block construction 5 8 Figure 8.11 Wood construction 5 8 Figure 8.12 Ceramic insulation diagram 60 Figure 8.13 61 Figure 8.14 62 Figure 8.15 Example of houses 65 Figure 8.16 Typical settlement for warm humid regions 68 Figure 8.17 Different types of shading devices for each facade 69
ix Figure 8.18 Typical settlement for warm humid regions 70 Figure 8.19 Verti cal screening examples 71 Figure 8.20 71 Figure 8.21 Habitable roof garden 7 2 Figure 8.22 Natural Ventilation/Light Diagram 7 3 Figure 8.23 Indoor/Outdoor connection diagram 7 3 Figure 9.1 Study Model picture 75 Figure 9.2 Final Site Model picture 75 Figure 9.3 Site Plans showing density growth 76 Figure 9.4 Pictures of site model showing density growth 76 Figure 9.5 78 Figure 9.6 78 Figure 9.7 B features 79 Figure 9.8 B 79 Figure 9.9 C 80
x Figure 9.10 C 80 Figure 9.11 D 81 Figure 9.12 D 81 Figure 9.13 Typolog E 82 Figure 9.14 E 82 Figure 9.15 83 Figure 9.16 Model picture 84 Figure 9.17 Public plazas & trail diagram 85 Figure 9.18 Model picture 86 Figure 9.19 View of outdoor terraces on different levels 87 Figure 9.20 View of one Roof Terrace 87 Figure 9.21 Commercial Typology floor plan 88 Figure 9.22 View of Commercial Typology (restaurant) from co mmercial road 89 Figure 9.23 View of one commercial plaza 89 Figure 9.24 Model pictures showing day and night views of commercial road 90
xi Figure 9.25 Model pictures one commercial plaza 90 Figure 9.26 Shading Device diagram 91 Figure 9.27 Street view of Housing units and Shading system 92 Figure 9.28 Plaza view of Housing clusters 92 Figure 9.29 Perspective view showing interaction of Dwelling units and Shading devices 93 Figure 9.30 Perspective view showing different levels of activities through th e Community 93 Figure 9.31 94 Figure 9.32 Section showing cross ventilation through the units 94 Figure 9.33 Sections showing cross ventilation 94 Figure 9.34 Site Model picture showing density growth 97
xii Community Service T hrough Architecture: Social Housing with Identity Karina Cabernite Cigagna ABSTRACT Despite reasonable advances in public policies for housing in the last two In So (Shanty Towns) (IBGE) crap materials such as wood and metal sheeting, they do not have services such as sanitation, water or electricity, and the settlements are usually very overcrowded. The gigantic rate of illegal occupation of urban land has lead to disastrous consequences not only to the people who live in them, but to society as a whole, and to environment sustainability. At most countries, including Brazil, social housing has little to do with diversity and uniqueness of living. Social housing is influenced by functional ism and the economic cost effectiveness of the production process. Unfortunately, new urban areas are still being built using the same traditional ideas, which results largely in a very functionalistic approach of repetitiveness. One unit is repeated into a r ow of identical blocks. This concept is still used in most of the new Brazilian urban areas. As a result those areas become monotonous and repetitive, lacking identity and uniqueness.
xiii This T hesis objective is to expose the negative impacts of the presen t social housing mass production model, and t hen to analyze the possibilities of a coherent alternative to housing based on identity, sense of community and uniqueness present at the favelas, which could consistently improve the dwellings and the built envir onment. The main idea is to find inspiration on the Brazilian favelas to develop a new c oncept for social housing. In spite of all the physical, environmental, economic and social problems, favelas are an example of coherent housing production processes w here dwellers autonomously decide about the design, building and use of their dwellings. They also are usually linked to a strong sense of community no longer found elsewhere. The pattern of these large areas shows an uncontrolle d growth of residential uni ts, which leads to a vast, seemingly chaotic, but yet very structured way of living. (Vanderfeesten) The analysis of this pattern of structures is a very strong foundation to develop a modular system of building blocks. The mai n idea is to cr ea te an urban housing pattern. Multiple modules typologies will be designed in order to correspond The arrangement of the modules will result in ope n walkways, small streets, larger open areas and a vast amount of balconies, roof terraces, parks and gardens. As a result there is a great opportunity for social interaction. The main goal is to design a housing neighborhood where each house is unique in its structural composition, providing a way of living in which social interaction is promoted while maintaining each individuals identity through the uniqueness of each unit.
1 Chapter One : Project Background and Objectives Introduction of which is accounted for by families with a monthly income below US$250 1 After decades of intensive urbanization, more than 80 pe r cent of the population currently lives in cities. (IBGE) The impoverishment of Brazilian cities in the last twenty years is evidenced by an increase in the number of informal human settlements. These settlements include which result from illegal occupation of urban land that disregard property laws and regulations (Maricato) These dwellings were built without any kind of technical support from engineers or architects, or of funding from the government, and without complying with the laws and regulations on the occupation of land and housing. Figure 1. 1 : I nformations about the cities with most favelas in Brazi l. (IBGE)
2 The gigantic rate of illegal occupation of urban land has lead to disastrous consequences not only to the people who live in them (known as favelados but to society as a whole, and to environmental sustainability. The unlawful occupation of steep hills, r iver margins, swamps, dunes and flood plains adversely affect the life of the occupiers who are at risk of being killed under landslides. Figure 1. 2 : Panoramic view of an i nformal settlement in Rio de Janeiro Brazil (Wikipedia)
3 Favelas The So Paulo Metropolitan Region, one of the largest in the world, with a population of around 17.5 million people, is still experiencing a dramatic increase in population. This increase has come mostly in the form of the their families. Because of the high land values and the enormous demand for space, the poor are forced into informal settlements, the favelas. (Grassiotto) The favela houses are made from scrap materials such as wood and metal sheeting. They do not have services such as sanitation, water or electricity, and the settlements are usually very overcrowded. Favelas are mainly located on the edge of major citi es along main roads and up very steep hillsides. Although these types of informal settlements started around main Brazilian capitals, like So Paulo or Rio de Janeiro, lately they are starting to The housing conditions in Brazil reflect the unequal income distribution as excluded part of the formal market, the poorest urban population is compelled to occupy residual areas of the formal city. The government approach towards the favelas has slowl y evolved, since the beginning of the last century, from expulsion or removal programs to urbanization interventions, both strategies followed by ma ss housing production policies. (Poltica Nacional de Habitao)
4 Figure 1. 3 : Scenic view from a favela house in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil One of the characteristics that make the favelas so unique is their location on the steep hillsides. The extremely poor live on the hillside with the scenic views while the rich live along the botto m where conditions are less than favorable. Not only is the direct opposite of city development around the world, but it creates a dramatic social contrast between the rich and the poor by putting the t wo directly next to one another (Maricato) Figure 1. 4 : Contrast between the poor and the rich: the Paraispolis favela, next to a high end apartment complex in So Paulo.
5 favelados residents), revolves around their rural origins, supposed lack of urban experience and that they are only leaching off the infrastructure of the city. Many consider the favelas the source of Brazilian cities' urban problems, citing them for crime, violence, promiscuity, family breakdown and the creation of a culture of poverty. The prevailing view is that the favelas are just a transfer of poverty from the rural areas of the Country to the city and are responsible for the negative effects of over urbanization Though there is much variation from favela to favela, the shortage of utilities is constant. Some favelas have better access to different utilities due to their location. Regardless of this, all are below standard access. Water is usually accessed by tapping into a water main that runs near the favela (Maricato) This is always at the bottom of the hill and creates an incredibly difficult journey for those who live near the top. Only about 50% of the favelados have access to an in house toilet facility (IBGE) From these facilities, sewerage runs through open ditches and eventually ends up at street level, creating an incredible health hazard. Electricity is scarce and very hard to access. Normally the favelados get electricity illegal ly by bringing it from street light posts to their houses. Figure 1. 5 : Illegal electrical connections at street post
6 Each favela has its own community complete with grocery markets, clothing stores, pharmacies, repair shops and other types of small businesses. In most major Brazilian cities, schooling is divided by address of residency. Because of this, favelados are not allowed to attend these schools. If a parent has a connection or job with one of the wealthy residents, they normally claim that as their home address and allow their children to attend that school. Community organizations are in constant battles to force the government to give money for a community school. It is nearly an impossible task to get funding of any type for these areas. Th e government does not feel it is a worthwhile investment to put money into these poor communities. It would rather avoid the whole situation and force people to figure out other ways to school their children. This type of situation, in addition to others, is responsible for the violence and crime that keeps growing in an unsustainable way along Brazilian cities (Maricato) Children are now been involved with drug dealing and criminality. Figure 1. 6 : P olice action against criminality in a Brazilian favela (Wikipedia)
7 Social Housing In most countries, social housing has little to do with diversity and uniqueness of living. The identification and uniqueness of a building block is usually determined by the exterior, while the pattern and structuring of the elements of the building block is following very strict rules (Vanderfeesten) The merging of housing for the masses and the uniqueness of the individual in a way that the building block itself represents the unique character instead of the cosmetic skin is a challenge for the design of new urban housing environments. Due to new industrial processes it was possible to build new prefab elements. Since then, soci al housing has been built in mass production. Social housing is influenced by functionalism and the economic cost effectiveness of the production process. As a result both the structural elements and the visual outer skin were very similar in those post wa r urban environment projects. Unfortunately, new urban areas are still being built using the same traditional ideas, which results largely in a very functionalistic approach of repetitiveness. One unit is repeated into a row of identical blocks. This conce pt is still used in most of the new urban areas. As a result those areas become monotonous in the bare structural geometric composition of each unit. Although new urban environments are more diverse in their visual appearance than in past decades, this is only a change in outer skin rather than a change in geometric structure. A rich diversity of colors and materials is used more often to enrich the structure of the building block which supports a visual idea of difference and uniqueness. The identification and uniqueness of a building block is usually determined by the exterior, while the pattern and structuring of the elements of the building block is following very strict rules (Vanderfeesten) My objective is to expose the ne gative impacts of the present mass housing production model. Then to analyze the possibilities of a coherent alternative to social housing based on
8 the identity, sense of community and uniqueness of the favelas which could consistently improve the dwellin gs and the built environment (considering their physical, environmental, economic and social dimensions). The main problems observed in Social Housing Design over the past years are: 1. Existing public housing projects are conceptualized and built as chea p dormitories, and thus follow a military/industrial planning philosophy: build as many units as possible, as cheaply and efficiently as possible. 2. To erect a housing project most efficiently, the directing entity wants to have maximal control over the g eometry and building process. This practical requirement means that user participation is excluded. 3. A conventional social housing project is seldom concerned about social accessibility to the urban network, since it is usually built in disconnected area s. impact on individuals, rather than the quality (or sustainability) of the community life. 5. A typical has bad impact on the environment. It is disconnected from local and from global economic cycles. 6. The geometry of a conventional social housing project and the configuration of its const ituent units give few or no ways to affect further development. They present a number of geometrical obstacles for its suppresses their prospects for social and economic improvemen t. 7. Governments are still stuck in the mindset of social housing serving jobs in a particular place. The reality is different: healthy urban quarters connect into an urban conglomeration, and people work wherever they can find jobs. By contrast, unhealth y urban regions are isolated, disconnecting people from each other and from employment opportunities.
9 Figure 1. 7 : Example of a mass producted social housing project Despite strong social and economic forces leading to isolation, the idea is not to codify this isolation in the buildings and urban form. We should instead use the urban geometry to counteract social isolation. The above list of practices leads to unhealthy housing projects, creating unsustainable social conditions. To achieve a more ad aptive approach, those typologies must be reversed, and the forces that lead us to repeat the same mistakes over and over again should be redirected. One principle becomes clear: there over the past years. We need to design and build complex, mixed use urban fabric, and to make sure it fits into existing complex mixed use urban fabric. Social housing and housing in general, need to be part of a healthy (and socially inclusive) process of urbanism. The very notion of monofunctional housing is obsolete, discredited because it never worked to connect residents to their community. All of the planning measures most designers reject were adopted as a means to improve efficiency in facing a seri ous urban challenge. The key point is that the process of producing living places that incorporate social housing has to be changed at its root. It must accommodate more fundamental and meaningful engagement, grounding the generation of urban form in a pro cess that adequately respects the organized complexity distinctive to the nature of cities.
10 Favela s as a Concept The main idea is to find inspiration on the favelas of So Paulo, Brazil to develop a new concept for social housing. The pattern of these large areas shows an uncontrolled growth of residential units. As a result this pattern of uncontrolled growth leads to a vast, seemingly chaotic, but yet very structured way of living. The expansion of new building blocks seems to lead to a number of dis tinct typological elements. These elements are the basic structural types that constitute the building blocks. The analysis of this pattern of structures can be a very strong foundation to develop a modular system of building blocks. The uniqueness and ide ntity is not only present in its cosmetic skin, but also in the arrangement and combination of the building blocks. This generated design of a mass housing environment will be responsible for setting new standards for social interaction and structuring of society as a whole, and not inspiring for civilization as a community to live in, the pattern and structure of the construction on the other hand is far more intriguing. In spite o f all the physical, environmental, economic and social problems, favelas are an example of coherent housing production processes where dwellers autonomously decide about the design, building and use of their dwellings. At the same time, they are usually li nked to a strong sense of community hardly found elsewhere. The concept of this uncontrolled growth environment compared to the structured row housing in new urban areas has become the basis for the development of a modular housing project. The objective i s to create an urban housing environment consisting of the favelas in order to determine what they lack, as well as what they have to offer the community, and then combine these ide as to design a new community. Multiple modules will be designed in order to provide the
11 community with different aspects of an urban environment. Each module will contain a specific range of structuring elements within a grid. Within the environmental boun dary new areas are created for infrastructure, green and leisure zones, future development, mixed use, schools, and modules for housing. The arrangement of the modules will result in open walkways, small streets, larger open areas and a vast amount of balc onies, parks and gardens. As a result there is a great opportunity for social interaction. The main goal is to design a housing neighborhood where each house is unique in its structural composition, providing a way of living in which social interaction is promoted while maintaining each individuals identity through the uniqueness of each unit. Figure 1. 8 : Concept model comparing the existing mass production social housing model and the proposed idea based on Identity
12 Chapter Two : Case Study I : Montral, Canada Figure 2. 1 : Port (Wikipedia) Habitat 67 is a housing complex and landmark located on the Marc Drouin Quay on the Saint Lawrence River at 2600, Pierre Dupuy Avenue in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Its design was created by architect Moshe Safdie based on his master's thesis at McGill Unive rsity and built as part of Expo 67. It is one of the only modern utopias that was materialized by becoming a popular success as w Its intrinsic genius is indeed praised by both the architectural and the urban planning circles by the public in general and particularly by its residents (Wikipedia) explored new solutions to urban design challenges and high density living. His ideas evolved into a three part building system which pioneered the combined use of a three dimensional urban structure, specific construction techniques (the prefabrication and mass production of prototypal modules), and the adaptability of these methods to various site conditions for construction conceivably around the world The environmental feature of long commitment to creating salubrious and dignified living environments, by providing every dwelling with at lea st one garden (located on the roof top of an underlying residence) (Rmillard)
13 Figure 2. 2 : View of rooftop terraces (Wikipedia) gives life to these ideas. The design for Habitat relies on the multiple use of repetitive elements, called boxes or modules, which were arranged to create 16 differently configured living spaces, for a total of 158 residences within the complex. Figure 2. 3 : Pre fabricated module arriving at the construction site (Wikipedia) The cube is the base, the mean and the finality of Habitat 67. In its
14 material sense, the cube is a symbol of stability. As for its mystic meaning, the cube is symbol of wisdom, truth, moral perfection, at the origin itself of our civilization. 354 cubes of a magnificent grey beige build up one on the other to form 148 residences nestled between sky and earth, between city and rive r, between greenery and light. Figure 2. 4 : 18 dwelling types within the system The whole unites in a gigantic sculpture, futuristic interiors, links, pedestrian streets and suspended terraces, aerial spaces, skylights of diff erent angles, large plazas and monumental elevator pi llars, without forgetting the openings, here and there, that are as many winks an d calls to meditation from the environm ent as well as from the living experience.
15 Figure 2. 5 : V iew of suspended pedestrian walkways (Wikipedia) ent of paradise to Its residences characteristics, which are displayed over 12 floors, can be summarized as the following: 15 models varying between 1 and 8 cubes Views on 3 sides and landscap ed terraces Areas from 624 to 5000 square feet, displayed over 1,2,3 or 4 floors Private terraces from 225 to 1000 square feet Possibility to add a solarium 6 elevators Sidewalks at various leve ls giving access to residences
16 Figure 2. 6 : 5 D ifferent units floor plans Figure 2. 7 : G eneral view of modular units (Wikipedia)
17 Conclusion The Flexibility provided by the modularity present in the Habitat 67 project is a major idea that will be explored on this Thesis project The option of having several distinct house layouts is very interesting and important in approaching the social housing problem Another interesting idea of this project is that e ach housing unit has their own terrace, which provides each certain level of interaction within the community, since the terrace of one unit is the rooftop of another. The open spa ces created by the arrangement of the different modules are a great opportunity to design larger plazas, or public gathering spaces, where sever al types of events, like concerts, fairs, or farmers markets, which will be responsible for creating a greater s ense of community.
18 Chapter T hree : Case Study II: A lt E rlaa, a social housing complex in Vienna Figure 3. 1 : G eneral view of housing complex (Deputy Dog) The Wohnpark Alt Erlaa is the largest non municipal residential facility in Austria and is located on the 23rd district of Vienn a. Built between 1973 and 1985, this government funded 27 storey complex accomodates approximately 10,000 low income residents amongst a healthy amount of greenery. T he blocks are topped with o utdoor and indoor swimming pools, fitness rooms, solariums, saunas, ten nis courts, 3 schools, 2 medical cent er s, metro station. The complex also runs its own TV station. The Austri ans
19 believe that for any housing project to succeed in the long term a strong community bond is essential. The terraces present in most of the residential units are dense vegetated, and some of the homeowners practice urban agriculture in their own terrace s (Deputy Dog) Figure 3. 2 : V iew of recreational areas (Deputy Dog) Conclusion The Community Interaction provided by the Wohnpark Alt Erlaa complex is a very important feature and one of the main objectives of this Thesis. One characteristic that makes this social housing very unique and successful is the incorporation of commercial, institutional, and services facilities into the residential project. The Mixed use quality, in addition to the recreational/outdoor parks of this project, is responsible for the creation of a strong community bond Another interesting feature of this housing complex
20 is the connection between indoor and outdoor spa ces, provided by the vegetated balconies. Figure 3. 3 : D ense vegetated balconies (Deputy Dog)
21 Chapter Four : Case Study III: I zola S ocial H ousing / O FIS architezt Slovenia Figure 4. 1 : Building overall view (Saieh) The project is a winning entry for two housing blocks in a competition convoked by the Slovenia Housing Fund, a government run programme that is providing low cost apartments for young families The proposal won for economic, rational and functional issues but mostly for the Flexibility of the plans. The blocks are set out on a hill with a view of Izola Bay on one side and of the surrounding hills on the other. The given urban pl ot was 2blocks of 6028 meters. The brie f required 30 apartments of different sizes and structures, varying from studio fla ts to 3 bedroom apartments. The apartments are small, with minimum sized rooms according to
22 Slovenian standards. There are no structural elements inside the apartments, thus providing flexibility and the possib ility of reorganising things. The blocks are set out on a hill with a view of Izola Bay on one side and of the surrounding hills on the other. Since the blocks are subject to a Mediterranean climate outdoor space an d sh ade are important elements (Saieh) Figure 4. 2 The proje ct proposed a veranda for each apartment, thus providing an outdoor space that is intimate, partly connected with the interior, shady and naturally ventilated. A textile shade provides privacy however, due to its semi transparency allows the owner to enjoy the views of the bay. Perfora ted side panels allow summer breeze to venti late the space. The strong colo rs provide Identity to each apartment and create different atmospheres within the apartments. The small rooms become visually bigger because the textile shade creates a perspective effect that connects part of the exterior with the interior
23 Figure 4. 3 : Interior views of housing units showing d i fferent colors of shading elements Figure 4. 4 : Axonometric drawing of a typical balcony (Saieh)
24 Balcony modules are designed as efficient system providing shading and ventilation for the apartments. Textile elements fixed on the front of the summer hot accumulated area behind the shadin gs is naturally ventilated through (10 cm holes) perforated side partitions of the balconies. In the winter the warm air stays in the area and provides additional heating to the apartments. Conclusion The main design feature of the I zola S ocial H ousing is the Identity created by the colorful shading elements. The housing units are based on modularity; h owever, by having different fabric colors on each individual balcony, it creates uniqueness to each individual unit. Another important quality of this ho using project is the Flexibility of the plans. On each building three bedroom unit s. This is a great example of social housing that is Identit y, Flexibility and Adapta bility are some of the qualities of this housing complex that will be explored and applied to this Thesis.
25 Chapter F ive : Case Study I V : Confection for the masses in a parametric design of a modular favela structure Eric Vanderfeesten This Housing project is based on the d esign of modules by means of specific parameters. For every module some basis functions are carried out. When all controls have been carried out successfully, the modules are placed in the world. After a module has been placed s uccessfully in the world, it proceede s to the next module and start the put operations again. Every operation and control is done by means of on that moment existing situation. Every next module takes into account therefore the ea rlier successfully placed module and on that moment applying world. The world changed therefore at every placeme nt of a module or other object. The primary rules which determine the way the modules are placed, vary from geometrical provisions to orientatio n. The positions where a module can be placed is always a multiple of a grid value, within which the dimensions of every module are then stipulated (Vanderfeesten) Figure 5.1: Parametric design diagram (Vanderfeesten)
26 The primary element in the formation of the urban and architectural world is the M odule This module is a central element in any buil ding The choice to use a module comes from the relationship with the creation of the urban scheme The composition of all construction modules together directly contains a rich scattering form and order Figure 5.2: Generated urban pattern (Vanderfeesten) One housing unit consists of the combination of different modules. The way in which certain modules are combined to be a single unit depends on th e prescribed class for the homes in the cluster.
27 Figure 5.3: P ossible c ombinations of two identical modules (Vanderfeesten) On the basis of the parameters are different reserved areas built into the overall planning Several areas are possible, whic h varies the size and placement. There are several of these areas over the planning These zones are scheduled from multiple targets : First, the re are reserved spots to the lightness and density of the total construction equipment surface, thus ensuring sufficient air and light entry. Moreover, these zones are also use d as pub lic green areas, and f ina lly, the larger areas will also be used as locations for future development an d for devices with larger areas as supermarkets and shops as well as enhanced business facilities
28 Figure 5.4: Structur e of a basic building module and combination of modules generating different housing units (Vanderfeesten) Conclusion The most interesting feature of this project is the idea of solving the housing problem based on parametric design. In this case, parameters were stablished not only to determine the size and shape of the housing units, but also to determine the community infrastructure and open green areas. The Flexibility and Adaptability characteristics of this project, together with th e Dynamism of the modular units, are very interesting qualities that will be explored and developed further on this Thesis.
29 Chapter Six : Analysis of a Brazilian Favela S tructure & Programming Flexibility & Adaptability The analysis of th e structure pattern, as well as of the urban and community qualities of the favelas w ill be the foundation to develop a mo dular system of building blocks, resulting in a social housing community. The main qualit ies observed in the Brazilian favelas that will be applie d in this Thesis project are the Flexibility and Adaptability within the family For instanc e, when a couple constructs a house in a favela, it will probably have a great room, which will be a living/dining/resting space, with a small kitchen area, and a small bathroom. In five years, when they decide to have kids, they will expand the constructi on adding a second bedroom for the kids. After that, the house keeps growing either horizontally or vertically in order to adapt See figure 6.1 below for a typical favela house floor plan. Figure 6.1: Typical favela house plan (Lauber)
30 Uniqueness & Identity entire design and construction process of their houses, reducing the construction costs. That also results in a larger freedom to construct a house that is more dyn amic and will fit their needs. Figure 6.2 and 6.3: Owners participation in their house construction (Lauber) That also contributes to the Uniqueness of each favela house. Since each house reflects the structure of each individual family, each dwelling unit is unique in terms of floor plan, faade, size, color, and materiali ty, providing a customized look to each individual housing unit (Lauber) which reflects the Identity of each homeowner and adds character to the community as a whole. Figure 6.4: Uniqueness of facades adds character to the community (Lauber)
31 Roof Terraces The Roof terraces are another interesting feature of the favelas houses. They are known as favela house, where the homeowners most frequently entertain with family a favela communities. This feature is also responsible for the interaction between the housing units, since, in some cases, one house terrace is located on the rooftop of another. This interaction and connection between the different dwelling units result in a very Dynamic community Figure 6.5: Roof terraces (Lauber)
32 design a new concept of social housing in this Thesis. Generally, the conventional low income that can hardly be extended or altered, designed to accommodate an average family from a particular income group. These houses do not take in consideration the needs of the families that will inhabit those s paces. These rigid containers are then repeated in rows, creating a housing complex that lacks any kind of identity or uniqueness. The interaction between the different housing units, not only provide a dynamic aspect to the structures, but also create opportunity for designing open plazas and gathering spaces through the community. These spaces, where several types of events, like concerts, fairs, or farmers markets will happen, have a very importan t role on constructing a strong bond within the community residents.
33 Mixed Use The presence of mixed use buildings, such as small commercial and services, is the main urban quality of the favelas that will be also explored in this Thesis project. Although mixed use buildings are not very common in most social housing projects, and sometimes forbidden to ensure the uniform appearance, t he social housing community proposed in this Thesis will incorporate some small commercial and services located on the ground floor of residential buildings. This variety in uses is an important feature that contributes to the favelas to become successful as a community. Figure 6 6: Mixed use structures
34 Sustainability Due to the low income of the families, and the lack of services such as sanitation, water or electricity there are several sustainable features that are outdoor spaces, to be a dapted to the hot and humid Tropical climate. The connection between outdoor and indoor spaces is really important, as well as the cross ventilation, since air conditioning is not affordable in these areas. The electricity is given only by illegal connecti ons on street posts, so natural light is also a very important feature. Another interesting sustainable feature Wells are normally the only source of water in these communities, but since they are frequently polluted by wastewater that flows unfiltered across the site, the residents are forced to build cisterns of corrugated asbestos cement or use metal barrels to collect the rainwater from the roofs in order to supply the kitchens and bathrooms wi th cleaner water (Lauber) The use of cheap and local materials for th e house constructions is also an example of sustainability driven by low budget, and will also be explored in this Thesis. Figure 6.7: Water tower (cistern) in a favela house
35 Program & Essential Design Criteria well as some essential design criteria, was developed for the design of this new social housing community. housing units with different layouts resulted from the combination of different modules and room for future expansion/addition of new modules Each dwelling unit will have their own roof terrace. Mixed use buildings with small commercial and services on the ground floor and residential on top. Open plazas and gathering spaces through the community.where several types of events, like concerts, fairs, or farmers markets will happen. Owner participation on the construction (self built) Sustainable features: c ro ss ventilation, natural light, rainwater harvesti ng/recycling, green roofs, small urban agriculture, use of cheap/local materials, pre fab modules. Figure 6. 8
36 Chapter Sev en: Site selection and Analysis Site Selection The site selected for the design of this social housing community is located in the district of Vista Linda, Bertioga SP, Brazil, about 67 miles from the city of So Paulo. The main reaso n this site was selected is because its location in a low income community that is growing through series of illegal occupations Figure 7.1: Site Location and distance from So Paulo (Google Earth) Vista Alegre district is under the process of urbanization and development. There are several districts there are part of the Bertioga city, however, some of them are a result of illegal settlements, mainly on the north side of the major roadway, by the hi lls. These illegal neighborhoods do not have access to any infrastructure such as sanitation, water, or electricity and are developing really fast towards becoming new favelas.
37 The main objective of proposing a social housing community in this area is to avoid the further development of these illegal occupations, providing decent housing for the needed people in the area. Ultimately, this will stop the process of the favela environment growth. The new concept of social housing proposed on this Thesis will repeated in several sites within the city of Bertioga, to relocate the residents from these illegal settlements to safe and developed communities. Site Analysis & Surroundings The project site is located in the Vista Linda district which is surrounded by conservation areas on East and West sides, a main highway BR 101 on the North boundary and the Atlantic Ocean on the South. Figure 7.2: Bertioga coastal extension, Site Location and Main connectors The main commercial ac tivities happen in the downtown area. In this area is also where the fishermen boats are located and themain fish market, by the main boating dock area, on the extreme South. It is also in the
38 Downtown area that most of the historical buildings are located such as the Forte So Joo. (See figures 7.3 & 7.4) The project site is located in the Vista Linda district. This district is mainly residential, with some small commercial and mixed use structures (Refer to figures 7.5 & 7.7). There are also three schoo ls located in this area and three additional ones on the adjacent communities. On the North boundary of the site area, there are some illegal residential settlements, which are a result of the housing deficit in the area. This residential area is very clos e to the favelas environment, since they both lack sanitary, water, electrical, among other infrastructure The dwelling units are built from cheap materials, or any kind of resource available in the area. There are also some mixed use buildings in this area such as bars, or small grocerie stores. The houses are surrounded by an open sewage system, which increases the risk of contamination and spreading diseases (See figures 7.5 & 7.6). There were several attempts of constructing social housing complex i n the area; however they were abandon n ed and driven to a failure On the East boundary of Bertioga, a high income planned community high season months, especially along the summe r, since moost of the houses and apartments are used as vacation homes. (See figures 7.8 & 7.9). There are also shopping malls and restaurants located within this community.
39 Figure 7.3: Downtown area pictures key plan (Google Earth) Figure 7.4: Downtown area pictures
40 Figure 7.5: Vista Linda district pictures key plan (Google Earth) Figure 7.6: Vista Linda district pictures
41 Figure 7.7: Vista Linda district pictures Figure 7.8: Riviera de So Loureno (planned community) pictures key plan (Google Earth)
42 Figure 7.9: Riviera de So Loureno (planned community) pictures Figure 7.10: S urrounding areas use diagram
43 Figure 7.1 1 : Vista Linda/ Site area diagram
44 The site is located along Eng. Eduardo da Costa Jr. Avenue, which is a divided road with a canal in the center that is responsible for connecting the BR 101 highway, the Anchieta Avenue (main commercial road) and the Waterfront Avenue. There is al so a proposed road that will cut through the middle of the site and will create another main city connector. This will be a great opportunity to explore the activities that will happen along this road, such as transforming it into a pedestrian friendly bo ulevard, with small mixed use buildings and plazas There are three schools located at a walking distance from the site, as well as a brand new medical center, which is under construction, part of the Vista Linda urbanization process. There are also severa l blocks that will be used as recreational areas, with different levels of activities, such as sports courts, and parks. The Waterfront Avenue has mainly mixed use structures, a waterfront park, and a bike trail. The houses located on the South edge of Anc hieta Avenue are mainly used as rental vacation homes. (Refer to figures 7.10 & 7.11). The site is located in a special residential zone (Residential zone 1), which means that it supports small commercial/mixed used buildings. The zoning code allows the co nstruction of buildings up to three stories high. Refer to figures 7.12 & 7.13 for zoning information. Figure 7.12: Overall zoning map
45 Figure 7.13: Vista Linda zoning map
46 Clim ate The Bertioga climate is Tropical humid known also as coastal humid In summer, the average temperature is around 35 degrees Celcius (95 degrees Fahrenheit) The rest of the year the average is 25 degrees Celcius (77 degrees Fahrenheit) .The rains normally prevail in the warmer seasons (November through March). Figure 7. 1 4 : Brazil Climate & Prevailing Marine Currents Figure 7. 1 5 : So Paulo average rainfall and temperature chart
47 Vegetation (Serra do Mar State Park) thereby, th is is the city with an area of more green and environmental protection throughout the state. Bertioga preserves one of the largest Atlantic green areas of the country, traversed by rivers, waterfalls and sierras for over 40 kilometres (25 miles). Figure 7. 1 6 : Types of Vegetation
48 Topography The topography of the city of Bertioga is mainly Flat Coastal. It is The highlight s are the 33,100 meters of beaches, and the rivers I tapanha, Itaguar and Garatuba, which f orm three drainage basins that di rectly in the Atlantic Ocean (Prefeitura do Municipio de Bertioga) Figure 7. 1 7 : Bertioga map T errain rivers, and main districts (Prefeitura do Municipio de Bertioga) History and Culture Before the Portuguese arrival (1532), this territory was inhabited by indigenous people, the Tupis, wh dwelling) Until the 50's was a core of fishermen. Thereafter, with the improve ment of acce ss roads, began to receive increased tourism. This city is famous for its gastronomy parties. The most popular of them is The Traditional Party of Tainha which ta kes place every weekend of July Another festival that also attracts a large audience is the shrimp Festival, held in August in the same place of the Tainha Festival. And in summer, the beaches are sports and music in 'Summer Project', which
49 happens a long the coast of So Paulo. Another Festa Nacional do ndio or Br National Indian Festival. It is held every April in Bertioga, So Paulo. Considered the largest indigenous cultural event in the world, it lasts between three and five days and takes place a round Dia do ndio or Brazilian Indian Day, on April 19 (Ribeiro) Figure 7. 1 8 : National Indian Festival in Bertioga photo (Ribeiro) Economic and S ocial data The Main Economic Activities in Bertioga are tourism and trade. The tourist attractions such as the beaches, historical points, and festivals, as population. Site Conditions The density of the site will be arou nd 50% higher than the surrounding blocks. The housing units will be arranged up to three stories high in order to provide several open spaces, which will function as plazas and recreational
50 areas. The proposed road that cuts through the site will be trans formed into a pedestrian friendly boulevard, where the mixed use structures will be located. The main objective is to have a slower vehicular traffic and incentive pedestrian flow through this street. The most direct sunlight comes from the North; therefor e this corner should have the most attention as far as providing shading. There are mainly two positive views from the site: The conservation area on the left, and the Atlantic Ocean on the southeast. The Highway on the northwest, as well as the Eng. Eduar do da Costa Jr. Avenue are both busy streets. Due to that, the idea is to orient the dwelling units opening up towards the South. Figure 7.19: Site Analysis concept models
51 Chapter Eight: Design Concepts Building with shipping containers Shipping containers are the pe rfect modular building blocks, essentially a prefabricated struct ure, that is ISO (International Standardization Organization) standardized in 20 and 40 foot lengths and made to stack. They are 8 feet wide and have 8.5 foot ceilings. Containers already have industrial gauge wood floors and are made o f corrugated steel that can be insulated with a thin ceramic layer. Containers can be stacked, and Walls can be removed (while structural integrity is maintained), doors, windows, and skyli ghts added. Tiered stacks can create balconies, overha ngs and other design features. The newest in green building, container projects are being used worldwide for everything from youth hostels, to custom beach homes, emergency shelters, solutions to inadeq uate housing, and state of the art live/work complexes. There are enough excess shipping containers to circle the globe twice. Already manufactured, very little energy is expended in building a container home because th e structure is already built. Constru ction costs can be cut in half and certain design strategies can be applied to maximize energy efficiency, natural light, passive cooling, water cycling, and the g eographic features of the land. The m ain Advantages of using shipping containers as construc tion building blocks are : The site is located very close to a major Brazilian port, which can facilitate the process of acquiring the containers that are not used for shipping anymore. are million of units stored in scrap yards near residential neighborhoods It was estimated that
52 there are enough excess shipping containers to circle the globe twice. container (or ISBU intermodal steel building unit) will co st between $1000 and $6000 each, depending on size, age, condition and distance from the building site. feet. construction cost by 20 50%. can all be precut as well as electrical, painting, insulation, and other built ins can be installed before the unit is shipped. R ecycled / Cut the carbon footprint. It takes far less energy to reuse shipping containers in a building than to melt them down and reform then into steel beams. Structured and designed to be stacked on top of each other containers are used it is easy to mix and match containers from different sources and still be assured that they will line up exactly combined arranged. containers can be added to the existing ones at any time, getting adapted to the new needs of the dwellers. Figure 8.1: Shipping Containers
53 Examples of Shipping container Buildings Container City, London 2001 Developers Urban Space Management used a flexible, component based container construction system to build this city in the London Docklands in 2001. The demand was so high for these homes made from 80% recycled materials that by 2002 they had built a second city right next to it. Rather than following the 1 container = 1 unit concept, architect N icholas Lacey and partne rs and engineer Buro Happold used component pieces to create adaptable living and work spaces (5 Incredible Container Houses) Figure 8.2: Container City, London (5 Incredible Container Houses)
54 Student Housing Project Keetwonen, Amsterdam 2006 Containers have been used to create 1,000 dorm units for Dutch students, making it the biggest container city in the wo rld. It has a rooftop used for rainwate r drainage, heat dispersal and insulation of the units below. Figure 8.3: Student Housing Project Keetwonen (5 Incredible Container Houses) Container house in the tropic s: sustainable and affordable Bamboo Groove, a design and construction firm in Costa Rica, has developed some new designs for homes made from insulated shipping containers and bamboo. Developed for the tropical climate, these prefab homes focus on insulating from the heat and providing lots of nat ural ventilation to help cool. Bamboo Groove uses Intermodal Steel Building Units (ISBUs), which are insulated shipping containers, in creating the framework of the home. Then Guadua Bamboo, which is one of the fastest growing bamboos, is harvested from nearby Costa Rican bamboo plantations and used as t he structural beams for the roof. Current designs range from 100 sq meters with one ISBU up to 250 sq meter split level villas with three ISBUs.
55 Construction should take less than 5 months and are very affordable (Schuster) Figure 8.4: Bamboo Groove house (Schuster) Figure 8.5: Shipping containers used as the structure base (Schuster) To suit better for the tropical climate a second roof system was designed in order to provide additional shading and maximize passive cooling. There were also bamboo shading devices added to the facades were there is more incidence of direct sunlight. Natural light, as well as the connection between indoor and outdoor spaces were a lso some tropical design concepts applied to these houses.
56 Figure 8.6: Guadua Bamboo roof structure Figure 8.7: Second roof system for passive cooling Hybrid construction: Combining shipping containers & Traditional building systems The main objective for this thesis project is t o use shipping containers as the main structure, combining it with the flexibility and availability of local
57 materials. Some construction systems that can be combined with the containers in a hybrid system are : wood, concrete, and masonry. T he use of local and affordable materials will contribute for the future expansion of the housing units based on the self built system Two of the most affordable Figure 8.8: Concept model of community ( Hybrid construction ) Figure 8.9: Conc ept model of housing unit ( Hybrid construction )
58 The dwelling units will be designed based on a grid system and the main structural system will be the shipping containers. Additi onal structure will be designed in wood for second roof systems as well as shading devices, such as louvers or brises. The construction blocks will mainly be used to create room expansions. This hybrid system and the combination of different materials will be responsible for creating an interesting contrast between more traditional Figure 8. 10 : Earth block construction Figure 8. 11 : Wood construction
59 ISBU Insulation: Ceramic Insulation Paints Ceramic paints are a very good option for insulating ISBU's, the paints and coatings are already widely used as the ultimate Eco Green insulation solution. With much success, these coatings are now being used on prefabs, shelters, industrial buildings, offices, factories, and is gaining acceptance as the ne w solution to reduce heating and cooling cost on the normal homes. It is well adapted to top coating all type roofs and exteriors including wood, cement, stucco, metal, and tiles. The main active ingredients are hollow microscopic thermal balls filled with air. Because the balls are made of a pure, glass like material, they are called Ceramic Beads. The m icroscopic ceramic beads have a technical name: Cenospheres. Once applied to a hard surface, specifically an ISBU container module, the thin coating will r eflect both extreme heat and also UV rays before it even enters the structure. The ceramic coating can be used in any paint type, and virtually any color applied to walls, roofs, heat ducts, pipes, and almost any hard surface (Association) The main Ceramic Spray Insulation Advantages are : on under insulation and limits migration of corrosion spores lar he at transfer highly reflective 80 F to +350F) salt water and most chemicals roof damage effective
60 contains no chlorides, and no V.O.C.s o an R 20 Can be applied either inside or outside Reduces the overall insulation thickness Figure 8.1 2 : C eramic insulation diagram (Association) Self building process In developing countries and particularly in Brazil, low income population groups often occupy vacant land, close to urban areas, with good infrastructure of transportat ion and job opportunities. These areas are often under environmental protection and therefor residential building activities are illegal. In many cities these urban invasions fa ll under the scrutiny of environmental laws and the population is forced to new locations through government supervised programs. (Fvero) The objective of this thesis project is to provide de cent housing to these people without forcing them to move out of these settlements, but showing them that they could afford much better living out of the conservation areas through the self building process. Below is a case study of the transfer process of one of these groups of populations in the region of the city of Campinas, in the State of So Paulo, Brazil, s pecifically the families of the Jardim Conceio government provided a new area for subdivision and organized the
61 distribution of residential lots per families. The program further offered the option of house constructions through a minimal ho Families also had a choice of using the assistance of a technical aid program, devised by a research group of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), ca lled built in both cases. 300sqft with a small multipurpose room, kitchen and bathroom as shown in Figure 8.11 The quality of the construction is precarious due to t he lack of a ceiling and choice of materials; concrete block and thin asbestos cement roof sheeting, which, for thermal comfort conditions, are not re commended for the local climate (Fvero) Figure 8.1 3 : Floor plan of the (Fvero) Transferncia de Inovao Tecnolgica na Autoconstruo de Moradias ), consisted in providing self builders with a house plan, based on the lot conditions family necessities a nd desires. In the particular c ase of the assistance given to the Jardim Conceio as most appropriate for the lot conditions and family ne eds as seen in Figure 8.12 (Fvero) The house design types were based on an extensive research project in relation to housing needs of this type of pop ulation in the Campinas region. The experience of cooperating with a low income
62 population in a situation of fast action for relocation of dwellings was the main focus of this program. The self building process is the most common model for low income families to become house owners in most Brazilian outer city areas The process lacks a proper design and planning stag e and thus causes many transforma tions of houses during the lengthy construction period. The building process is fast in its first primary shelter construction stage, but very slow at the finishing stages (Fvero) A distinct io n must be made between a self building process and spontaneous housing. In Brazil, as in many developing countries, spontaneous housing is synonymous of extreme condition of poor quality housing and has a negative impact on the urban environment In this thesis the idea is to discuss and develop house production in l egal situations through the self building process of individual families and their need for technical support. Figure 8.1 4 : program ( The hatche d area of the Plan A indicates the minimal construction, which some families built first. Plan B is the preferred house design in the Campinas region for the self building population ) (Fvero)
63 A preliminary explanatory visit to a potential community was considered important in this case This visit should include a full explanation of the assistance program. The house design choices would be explained as to their functional and environmental comfort goals. Questions should be an swered and reduced scale three dimensional models should be presented. These models can illustrate better the type of house that will be able to be built, following the design instructions which are distributed Families had a better understanding of the d esigns of the houses through the three dimensional models and were made aware of aspects of environmental quality of their future homes. Durin g the first six month of buildin g activities in the new location ( Jardim Conceio ) frequent visits were made by the construction process and progress. A questionnaire to evaluate the construction phase was applied to all families present. This questionnaire re gistered the origin of the families, their socio ecnomic level, the house design planning that took place prior to construction, construction experience of each family and the type of help sought to proceed with the construction of house. User satisfaction was assessed with regard to the design of the house and its construction. Houses were evaluated as to construction techniques employed, stage of house constructi on, and with regard to changes introduced to the designs during the construction phase. All th e changes introduced were registered in CAD designs and analyzed as to their purp ose. Ten houses were specifically chosen for a more detailed evaluation. In these cases, environmental comfort conditions were measured with technically appropriate methods and equipment. Results showed that, after six months of relocation of the specific community, 40% of the lots were still empty wit h no building traces. Of the fam ilies who had relocated, 45% opted for the without reference to ted to them. 30% of the families assisted design individually produced for them by the UNICAMP team
64 houses were built by families them selves or with some hired help. Satisfaction was assessed through variou s methods. Personal responses in a post occupancy evaluation were registered. An analysis of modifications introduced to the design during the constructi on phase was undertaken and technical environmental measurements were evaluated as to recommended comfo rt standards. six month period of construction. These modifications consisted in precarious additions, such as an extended roof to locate constructions were true to desig n outlines in 72% of cases. Alterations were introduced in some cases due to inadequate perception of room sizes during the construction phase, which can give the impression of reduced functional space. Thus, some families eliminated the front verandah, pr esent in all and comfort purposes, incorporating its area into the interior of the house, especially the kitchen. Some families also judged the bathroom to be small, although it was larger in area than the built by some of the neighbors. These changes are shown in Figure 8.13 With the incorporation of the small external covered verandahs at the entrance and for the laundry area, houses lost important transition spaces. These modifications reduced the quality of functional aspects of both the living ro om and the kitchen. Circulation patterns were affected and privacy was reduced. Th e front and back doors lost their important rain protection element. The living room window, in most site cond itions, was no longer protected against excessive sun exposure, a major thermal comfort factor in the local climate. These results caused the both the drawings of the houses and tec hnical assistance material distribution in the form of booklets The information manual discusses, among other t hing s, aspects of privacy, functionality and technical elements of rain and sun protection. Further analysis of the hous es showed that 61% of self builders used concrete block for the construction of
65 material, a local building material with better thermal resistance. In relation to ceilings, important in the local climate as an element to reduce heat gain through the roof, only 30% o f constructions introduced this protection through wooden or prefabricated concrete ceilings. O ne of the reasons for the low occurrence of this important comfort element was related to the need for more information, on the relation between comfort and construction techniques, among this type of population (Fvero) Figure 8.1 5 : (Fvero) An investigation showed that some dissatisfaction was due to problems with urban infrastructure in the subdivision. Roads were not paved, the promised sewer system was not installed and water and electricity connections were still unsatisfactory. These conditions cause friction between the community leadership and individual families and influence the expressed satisfaction of owners. Final res ults showed a greater satisfaction with the spaces provided by Post occupancy evaluations and environmental comfort measurements indicate that these houses provide a better quality of life for low income families, based on adequate func tional
66 space provision. Thermal, acoustic and lighting conditions are shown to be related to a wider range of aspects (Fvero) These include technical choices and user habits. Proper orientation and dimensions of openings indi cated on designs are insufficient elements to ensure comf ort Choices of construction materials and techniques are important factors to provide comfort quality, as are the uses and occupation types of spaces. Thus if windows are blocked or never opened, fo r reasons of problems with security or dust, thermal conditions will be negativel y affected, independent of design orientation. From these results the assistance team concluded that more information is needed to ensure a higher level of house construction quality. Information, in various forms, must be made available to self builders. Assistance programs must be on site during a period of the construction phase to discuss choices of materials and building techniques. The technical reasons behind design fea tures must be made cl ear to be preserved when construction takes place. These features must gain importance to avoid the elimination of positive elements and changes which may diminish certain comfort aspects. The elimination of verandahs is such a case. Verandahs are a traditional element in Brazilian colonial architecture and have positive effects on shading conditions of outer walls. Verandahs protect the front door from rain and increase privacy in small houses by providing a transition space. Reducing the size of windows and changing their location, thus excluding the possibilities o f cross ventilation, also are important factors to be discussed with self builders. The importance of ceilings must be stressed and the proper choices of building materials must be indicated. In the booklet, or manual, the main purpose was t o transmit to self builders the importance o f using a good design as a basis for construction. L ot conditions, siting, orientation of the house and the functions and comfort condition s of each room were discussed. Room sizes are shown to be important for the proper performance o f activities and arrangement of furniture. Thus the kitchen is shown to need a certain size for cooking and
67 house designs, to avo id the unnecessary incorporation of the verandah. Particular attention i s given to excess sun exposure of windows and the necessity for shading through roo f overhangs, verandahs and trees. Treatment of open or garden a reas is also shown to influence direct ly the thermal and acoustic conditions of a home. Some hints are given on circulation and privacy in the home and shown to be related to the position of doors and the distribution of spaces in a house, as well as the existence of transitions spaces, which thus should not be eliminated or incorporated into other spaces. The experience in the assistance program, to the population of the J has shown that on the urban scale different f actors are equally important First, the planning o f subdivisions must be improved to provide a better basis for the quality of design of individual homes. Second, the basic infrastructure must be prov ided from the start to improve the urban image and living conditions. Lastly, a community spirit should be n ourished through various methods. Provision should be made for open space for recreational activities. Subdivisions should be planned with the incorporation of community buildings, such as schools. Attempts must also be made, by local government or other o rganizations, in creating community groups with special interests to improve the built environment (Fvero) Tropical Design & Sustainability The Tropical climate of the city of Bertioga creates a warm and humid environment all year round. The main objective is to design the housing units to be adapted to this climate applying several design strategies to provide better ambiental confort for the dwell ers. Settlements for warm humid areas should be laid out to make maximum use of the prevailing breeze. Buildings should be scattered, and vegetation arranged to provide maximum shade without hindering natural ventilation.
68 Figure 8.1 6 : Typical settlement for warm humid regions Designs using vegetation are of functional, aesthetic as well as climatic importance for its radiation absorbent surface and its evaporative and shade giving properties. Vegetation is desirable both for providing shade, thus reducing the temperature in such shaded areas, and for reducing the effects of strong solar radiation on the walls of buildings and structures. Also, by forming a thick barrier of foliage, the velocity of strong wind is reduced. The main a dvantages of vegetation are (Climate responsive Building) : It improves the microcli mate both outdoors and indoors. Through the transpiration of l eaves temperatures are lowered. Its shade lowers daytime temperatures and heat emission at night is also reduced, thus resulting in more balanced temperatures. It balances the humidity. During precipitation much of the free water is absorbed and during dry periods water is evaporated. Plants offer longterm energy saving free of cost, both in fin ancial and in ecological terms. The building design main points that need to be considered through the design of the community are: Orientation and room placement, for op timal response to sun and wind. Form, providing protection where required. Shade, as much as required. Ventilation, by excluding cli matically adverse side effects. In tropical and subtropical regions the outdoor space is actively used. A major part of the social life and the daily routine work takes place there. Depending on the climatic conditions, various forms of courtyards, protected
69 niches and alcoves are common In warm humid zones, openings should be as large as possible, and the view directed to surrounding grass or trees, with the sky blocked by roof overhangs or sun breakers. Ai r circulation should not be blocked by vegetation (Climate responsive Building) Principles for the design and construction of special devices for passive cooling, such as shading, natural ventilation, evaporative cooling, energy storage and temperature exchange between day and night, are very important considerations when designing fo r the Tropical climate A major part of the heat gained by a building is through solar radiation. This radiation is experienced in the form of increased air temperature, radiant heat and glare. Adequate shading reduces these effects drastically Shading can be provided by means of building shape, double shell construction, shading devices as attached accessories, facade greenery and roof gardens (Climate responsive Building) Shade can be provided by the shape of the building itself; for instance, by cantilevered upper floors or arcades. A double shell construction should have reflective properties protecting the building from direct and diffuse radiation. The outer skin should be placed fairly close to the facade and be proper ly ventilated. Such methods are suitable mainly for warm humid climates. A common means of shading is the use of shading devices placed outside the facades. The sun's path is the main criterion for its design. Therefore, each facade has to be planned separ ately. In general, shading elements on east and west facades should be ver tical, because the sun is low. On south and north facades the shading elements should be horizontal. Here, shading can often be provided simply by roof overhangs. Figure 8.1 7 : Different types of shading devices for each facade (Climate responsive Building)
70 Horizontal screening is very efficient against high midday sun, especially on north and south facades. It can take the form of a roof overhang, a slab projection and verandahs, or with fixed or adjustable louvres. Figure 8.1 8 : Horizontal screening examples (Climate responsive Building)
71 Vertical screenings are best against low sun, thus on east and west facades. Op timal efficiency can be obtained with movable elements. A simple form of vertical screening can also be achieved with window shutters and doors. Figure 8.1 9 : Vertical screening examples (Climate responsive Building) A combination of vertical and horizontal elements may be used where only horizontal or vertical protection alone would not provide shade. It may be required on east to southeast and on west to southwest oriented surfaces. It could be made of precast concre te or brick elements, timber or other similar material. Figure 8. 20 (Climate responsive Building)
72 Traditional wooden trellis work or similar elements, e.g. bamboo screens, provide protection against sun as well as glare. A pergola can be made of bamboo or wooden components. The horizontal screening can be overgrown with creeping vegetation for better shading. Balconies and loggias as architectural elements can be helpful in providing shade. W hen covering large horizontal areas, such elements are also a very efficien t protection for roof surfaces (Climate responsive Building) houses, especially in the favelas. The idea is to provide each dwelling unit with at least 1 terrace/outdoor space, and incorporating a green roof system on the habitable roofs. Roof gardens ha ve a strong regulating effect on the indoor temperature due to the heavy earth coverage and the shading effect: Solar radiant h eat gain is drastically reduced The ceiling temperature is fairly even throughout day and night. The temperature of the roof sla b also remains stable, and the thermal stre ss on the structure is reduced. Further advantages are the aesthetic values, the reduction of dust and the improvement of the microclimate. Figure 8.21: H abitable roof garden Natural ventilation is a major fa ctor influencing indoor climate and should be considered when planning and constructing buildings. Similar to the sun's radiation, existing winds will also be incorporated in the design concept. The low income houses in Brazil do not have access to air condition
73 systems. Due to that, the spaces need to be designed in order to maximize cross ventilation. A simple strategie is to have long and narrow plans, allowing each room to have operable windo ws on 2 walls. Figure 8.2 2 : Natural Ventilation/Light Diagram The use of water tanks to store rainwater is very common in the Low project. The idea is to have a water collecti on and rec ycle system integrated with solar panels, to filter water to be reused for toilets, irrigation, among other uses. Another quality of Tropical Houses is to be very open to the outdoor spaces. The idea is to have the spaces open to terraces by sli ding doors. That will be responsible for connecting the indoor and outdoor, as well as for maximizing the cross ventilation. Figure 8.2 3 : Indoor/Outdoor connection diagram
74 Chapter Nine: Design Resolution Master /Site Plan The Community M aster P lan was based on an on the idea of having a mixed use road that crossed through the site. Once the grid was stablished, and the commercial modules were placed on the site facing the mixed use road, all the residential modules wer e then organized The commercial modules were placed on the site following the grid in between the building facades and the street, instead of being parallel to the street. The creation o gardens, as well as gathering areas along the commercial road. This will be responsible for bringing people into the commercial spaces, having some outdoor seating areas for bars and restaurants, an d also playing areas for children. The location of parking was also an important consideration on the design of this community. The main objective was to avoid a large parking lot which would create a void on the site. The best solution found was to create two internal alleys cutting through the site and having parking spaces spread through these alleys. This way, each homeowner can park their car close to gardens, and plazas The study model p icture on Figure 9.1 shows the organization of this grid, the position of the commercial buildings in relationship to the site, as well as the position of the internal alleys where the parking spaces are located.
75 Figure 9.1: Study Model picture Figure 9.2: Final Site Model picture
76 F l exibility/Adaptability: House Growth/Expansion The most important concept of this housing project is the Flexibility of the house plans. The idea is that all the dwelling units can grow through years to get adapted to build their own additions/extensions to their houses based on a set of rules pre constructed by the Government, as well as the bu ilding foundations all kinds of infrastructure, A Guide/Brochure will be distributed to the homeowners explaining all the possible expansions to their house and the construction process step by step. This constant growth movement of the dwelling units is responsible for the dynamic characteristic of the entire community, as shown on Figure s 9. 3 and 9. 4 below Figure 9. 3 : Site Plans showing density growth Figure 9. 4 : Pictures of site model showing density growth
77 Housing Typologies There are five different housing typologies, and each one of them can have up to three possible additions. All five house types have the pontential to become a four bedroom/ two bathroom unit after all the extensions are made. Each housing unit also has its own private terrace/outdoor gathering area. Refer to Figures 9. 5 through 9. 14 for house plans perspectives, and possible additions to each house and some local materials. All the house expansions are constructed with local materials, such as concrete or earth blocks, that will be self built by the dwellers based on an existing steel frame constructed by the City of Bertioga. The Shading devices will be built with local woo d lumbers in order to bring to the spaces frame structure. second floor. For that, the steel frame structure, as well as the sta irs to access that floor will already be built by the City of Bertioga when the base house is built. At the beginning, the rooftop of these houses will be used as outdoors. When the dwellers are ready to have their second floor built, they can then enclose the stairs and build walls and roof around the pre determined second floor footprint. Figure 9.1 5 shows an example of a brochure that will be distributed to the homeowners to be us ed as a guide during the construction of their house expansions, and Figure 9.16 shows the even after all additions, still is a one story house. This typology will also always be located on the first floor, to attend the necessities of possible ADA residents.
78 Figure 9. 5 Figure
79 Figure 9. 7 features Figure
80 Figure 9. 9 Figure
81 Figure 9. 11 Figure 9.12:
82 Figure 9. 13 Figure
84 Figure 9.1 6 : Model picture showing growth of
85 Indoor Outdoor Connection In Tropical climate, the connection between Indoor and Outdoor spaces is really important. In Brazilian culture, especially along the coast, most people expend the majority of their time outside. Due to that, this community was designed focusing on outdoor spaces as much as the indoors. The porches or terraces are seen as an extension of the living area. The idea was to enhance the outdoor spaces and encourage people to be outside enjoying the weather. The way that the housing units interact with each other was a major design strategy to determine the entire community plan. This dynamic interaction is responsible for creating several levels of gathering spaces, from public to private. On the public level, the arrange the opportunity to have several plazas of different sizes that will be used for different types of activities, such as: play areas for kids, swimming pools, natural gardens, spaces for small concerts, and walking trail s through the entire community. The diagram on Figure 9. 1 7 shows the location of these public plazas within the community and the connection between them. Figure 9. 1 7 : Public p lazas & t rail d iagram
86 The model picture below (Figure 9.1 8 ) shows a public plaza created by a cluster of housing units. This picture also shows the access to these houses, and some outdoor terrace locations Figure 9.1 8 On the private level, each dwelling unit has its own outdoor terrace. This is a very important gathering place for Brazilian families. The interaction between the housing units is responsible for the creation of these spaces. In Figure 9. 1 9 shows the interaction bet we en the houses and outdoor spaces and Figure 9. 20 shows a view of one roofterrace.
87 Figure 9. 1 9 : View of outdoor terraces on different levels Figure 9. 20 : View of one Roof Terrace
88 Commercial Typologies Along the proposed road that will cut through the diagonally, several mixed use buildings will be located. The entire first floor along this road will have small commercial buildings such as bars, restaurants, drugstores, grocerie stores, and small service s stablishments. This mixed use quality will be very important to activate the community and also to bring more people into this area. This road will also be responsible for connecting the community to the urban fabric. Figure s 9. 2 1 through 9. 2 5 below show a plan some model pictures, and some renderings of the commercial typolog ies located on the main mixed use road. Figure 9.2 1 : Commercial Typology floor plan
89 Figure 9. 2 2 : View of Commercial Typology (restaurant) from commercial road Figure 9. 2 3 : View of one commercial plaza
90 Figure 9.2 4 : Model pictures showing day and night views of commercial road Figure 9.2 5 : Model pictures one commercial plaza Shading & Natural Ventilation When designing in Tropical climate locations, several characteristics nedd to be considered. To do that, therea are different strategies that can be applied to create a confortable environment. Some of these strategies were applied to these housing units, such as natural light, shading, and natural ventilatio n. The dwelling units are designed to maximize the daylight. However, there is a shading device system that wrap around the houses, mainly along the North and West facades in order to protect from direct sunlight, blocking the heat, while still letting th e natural light through. The main purpose of these elements is to provide shading for the houses,
91 especially when they are made from shipping containers. But, in addition to that, the shading devices provide privacy to the homeowners defining better each h Figure 9. 2 6 below is a diagram which shows how the shading devices can help with the direct sunlight. Figure 9. 2 6 : Shading Device diagram The dwellers can also have different types of plants growing on these devices, from grennery, to flowers or even fruits. By having different plants expressed once again. See Figures 9. 2 7 through 9.30 for several applications of these devices, with or without plants along the community.
92 Figure 9. 2 7 : Street view of Housing units and Shading system Figure 9.2 8 : Plaza view of Housing clusters
93 Figure 9.2 9 : Perspective view showing interaction of Dwelling units and Shading devices Figure 9. 30 : Perspective view showing different levels of activities through the Community
94 operable windows on 2 walls. These 2 strategies combined are very important to maximize cross ventilation through the spaces Figures 9. 3 1 through 9. 3 3 are diagrams showing the natural ventilation both in plan and section. Figure 9. 3 1 showing cross ventilation Figure 9. 3 2 : Section showing cross ventilation through the units Figure 9. 3 3 : Sectio ns showing cross ventilation
95 Conclusion This entire process of rese arching and designing a low income community in Brazil, not only answered several questions, but also raised a lot of discussion and new questions came up. How to design social housing re being functional, sustainable, and economic without being repetitive and monotonous? How to create spaces where people can interact as a community? How to design places where each individual ca n express his/hers own Identity? How to provide a Home The main goal of this Thesis, as the title states, was to show how architecture can serve the community and to criticize the current mass producted social housing model The objective was to propose a new concept for social housing based on Identity. Some very important qualities of the Brazilian Favelas were the main conceptual foundation for the entire project. The problem addressed by this Thesis w as the current Brazilian housing deficit, which is really high. In consequence of that, a huge percentage of the population currently liv es in inadequate housing conditions The favelas house s are made fr om scrap materials, and do not have access to any type of infrastructure, such as sanitation, water or electricity, and the settlements are usually very overcrowded. The next step was to find a site where this community would be developed The selected sit e is in the city of Bertioga, located on the coastal area of the state of So Paulo. The main reason why this site was selected has to do with the prevention of a new Favela development in this area. The site is located in a low income community that is gr owing through series of illegal occupations. These illegal neighborhoods do not have access to any
96 infrastructure and are developing really fast towards becoming new favelas. The main objective of proposing a social housing community in this area is to avo id the further development of these illegal occupations, providing decent housing for the needed people in the area. T his will stop the process of the favela environment growth. The main challenge of this Thesis was to design a community based on the Flexi bility/Adaptability of the housing units, where each family could express their own Identity through the construction of their houses. First, five different housing typologies were designed. Each house type can have up to three different possible additions that can be built along the years based on the necessity of each family. After that, a master plan was determined based on a structural grid, and then, the dwelling units (built with maximum density/all the possible additions) were settled in this plan li ke pieces of a puzzle. When the puzzle was complete, the additions of each typology were removed and the base (lowest density) master plan was defined. The community will be very active and dynamic, due to the interaction between the housing units as wel l as this constant grow of the community. The cost of construction of the se houses was another challenge of this Thesis. Since they are for low income people and will be built by the C ity of Bertioga these dwelling units need to be somehow mass producted and cost effective. The solution for these issues was found on the modularity of shipping containers. Shipping containers are the pe rfect modular building blocks, essentially a prefabricated struct ur e that is made to stack on top of each other. Containers already have industrial gauge wood floors and are made o f corrugated steel that can be insul ated with a thin ceramic layer. There are enough excess shipping containers to circle the globe twice. Alre ady manufactured, very little energy is expended in building a container home because th e structure is already built. Construction costs can be cut in half and certain design strategies can be applied to maximize energy efficiency, natural light, and pass ive cooling. The idea was to use all these qualities of the shipping containers, together with the low cost and
97 accessibility of local materials to develop a hybrid construction system. The base houses were buil t from shipping containers and the additions will be self built by the homeowners using local and affordable materials. In conclusion, this Thesis project was proposed to prevent the growth of illegal housing settlements along the City of Bertioga. Although this construction system was designed based on a determined site, the objective is that this organizational structure will become a new Typology for social housing developments in Brazil, and could be applied to any other site, in eeded people, where they can identify themselves as being part of the community. Figure 9.34: Site Model picture showing density growth
98 References "5 Incredible Container Houses." 23 October 2008. Environmental Graffiti. 15 July 2009
99 Maricato, Ermnia. Metrpole na Periferia do Capitalismo: Ilegalidade, Desigualdade e Violncia. So Paulo: Hucitec, 1996. Matthews, Kevin. Habitat '67. 2001. 01 July 2009
100 Wikipedia. 11 July 2009