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Shifting Paradigms: The Development of Nursing Identity in Foreign Educated Physicians Re trained as Nurses Practicing in the United States by Liwliwa R eyes Villagomeza A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy College of Nursing University of South Florida Major Professor: Mary E. Evans, Ph.D. Laura Gonzalez, Ph.D. Joan Gregory, Ph.D. Cecilia Jevitt, Ph.D. Lu z Porter, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 16 2009 Keywords: Accelerated Nursing Program, Grounded Theory, P hysician Migration, Physician Nurses T ransprofessional Copyright 2009, Liwliwa R. Villagomeza
Dedication To my husband, Christian the love of my life. My best friend forever. To my chil dren, Aga, Kris, and Ian the amazing trio who brings rhythm to my life. To my father, the late Rt. Rev. Clemente G. Reyes and mother, Mrs. Pompeya S. Reyes who raised me to become what I am today. To all my brothers and sisters who share the joys of education with me. To all foreign educated physicians who found meaning and renewed purpose in nursing.
Acknowledgements As I anticipate the culmination of my scholarly expedition at USF College of Nursing, I warmheartedly remember all of you who provided me with help, support, guidance, inspiration, encouragement, and love throughout. I will forever be grateful to you. M y Dissertation C ommittee C hair, Dr. Mary E. Evans and M embers, Dr. Laura Gonzalez ; Dr. Joa n Gregory; Dr. Cecilia Jevit t; and Dr. Luz Porter My Outside Chair, Dr. Charles Lambert. The Southern Nursing Research Society for funding my study. My C onsultants, Dr. Jaime Galvez Tan Dr. Divina Grossman and Dr. Nick Woolf Dr. C ecile Lengacher for teaching me about Theory Dr. Lois Gonzalez for guiding me during the initial conceptualization of my study Dr. Kathleen Blais for giving me insightful feedback about transprofessionalism. Rhovi Anne Allado, Nessa Ortiz, Rebecca Boettcher, Susan Binkowski, Prima Hower, and Jani ce Walker for providing me with administrative support. Day Bueno, Tess Ebrada, Marco Minaca and Heidi Stein for participant recruitment. Dali Allado, Ning Bonoan, Gin Samson and Gadz Tadly for proof reading my manuscript Sharon Henrich, Hazel Pascual, Jobert Poblete, and Dr. Yu Xu for literature. My children, Aga, Kris, and Ian for inspiring me. Ian, I will forever cherish our scholarly dialogues. Church for your love and friendship and for providing me w ith my D issertation Writing Space at the Church Office Thank you most especially to m y husband Christian for your understanding and extreme support throughout my academic journe y. Your unconditional love sustained me throughout.
i Table of Content s List of Tables v i i List of Figures ix Abstract x Chapter One: Introduction 1 Organization of Dissertation 1 Sensitizing Concepts 3 Identity and Nursing Identity 4 Identity 4 Nursing Identity 5 Socialization and Anticipatory Socialization 6 Socialization 6 Anticipatory Socialization 7 Professional Socialization 8 Professional Socialization 8 Professional Socialization to Nursing 9 The Phenomenon of Interest The Migration of Physicians 10 International Physician Migration 10 Interpro fessional Physician Migration 12 The Population of I nterest The Physician Nurses 14 Physician Nurses in the US: The Current State 14 Physician Nurses in the US: The Foreseen Future 15 The Paradigms of Nursing and Me dicine How Do They Compare? 16 Educational Prepara tion for Nursing and Medicine 17 T he Nurse Physician Relationship 21 Statement of the Problem 23 Statement of Purpose and Specific Aims 25 Rationale and Sig nificance 26 Domain of Researc h: Filling the Scientific Gap 26 Domain of Education: Aiming to Dispel Doubts 2 7 Domain of Practice: Assessing Need s of Physician Nurses 27 The Researche r n in the Context of the Study 28 Researcher Biases and Assumptions 30 Definition of Terms and Meanings of Acrony ms 32 Chapter Summary 34
ii Chapter Two: Literature Review 38 Examining the Past: The Emergence o f Interprofessional Migration 43 The Origins o f Interprofessional Migration 44 Training of Physician Nurses in New Zealand 44 Training of Physician Nurses in the Philippines 46 Training of Physician Nurses in Israel 47 Training of Physician Nurses in the US 49 Training of Physician Nurses in Canada 52 Training of Physician Nurses in Russia 52 Driving Forces that Mot ivated FEPs to Pursue Nursing 53 Individual driven Forces 55 Family driven Forces 57 Profession driven Forces 57 Society driven Forces 58 Relevance of this D imension of Literature Review 59 Examining the Present: Cur rent Research about Physician Nurses 59 Profi le of Studies 62 Profile of Subjects in Studies 62 Research Purpose, Study Design, Instru ments, and Data Collection 64 Summaries of Studies 64 Research in New Zealand 64 Research in the Philippines 67 Research in the US 74 Findings Across Studies 7 7 Theo retical Frameworks of Studies 77 Progres s and Gaps in Theory Building 77 Progress and Gaps in Knowled ge Building 78 Relevance of this Dimension of Literature Review 7 9 Examining the Future: The Needs and Problems of Non US Native Nurses 79 A Diverse Workforce for a Diverse Society 79 Language and Communication Problems 81 Relevance of this D imension of Literature Review 8 4 Chapter Summary 8 4 Chapter Three: The Grounded Theory Research Tradition 87 73 74 Grounded Theory Defined 88 A ssumptions of Grounded Theory 8 9 Or igins of Grounded Theory : The Di scovery by Glaser and Strauss 89 87 Divergent Paradigms 90 The Glaserian Grounded Theory 90 T he Straussian Grounded Theory 91 Grounded Theory in Nursing 92 Steps in Gr ounded Theory 92 Data Collection: Data Generation in Grounded Theory 93 Data Analysis : Theory Generation in Grounded Theory 93
iii Constant Comparative Method 95 Memoing or Memo Writing 96 Coding in Grounded Theory 96 Concept Formation 97 Concep t Development 99 Reduction Sampling 100 Selective Sampling of Data 100 Sel ective Sampling of Literature 101 Emergence of Core Categories 102 Concept Modification and Integration 102 Selective Coding 103 Theoretical Coding 103 Emergenc e of the Basic Social Psychological Process 104 Theorizing 105 Theoretical Sensitivity 105 Theory Defined 106 107 The Role of Symbolic Interactionism 106 Chapter Summary 109 111 Chapter Four: Research Methodolo gy: Applying Grounded Theory 11 2 110 Rationale for Qualitative Research Design 11 2 Rationale for Grou nded Theory Methodology 113 Ethical Considerations 114 The Research Participants 115 Sampling Method 115 Recruitment 116 Participant Demographics 118 Instruments 121 Researcher as Instrument 121 Demographic Data Collection Form 1 22 Semi Structure d Interview Schedule 122 Participant Observation 123 Field Notes 124 Procedures 125 Data Collection: Data Generation in This Study 1 25 Data Analysis : Theory Ge neration in this Study 127 Data Transformation : Interview Transcriptions 127 Data Trans formation: Computer Software 128 Constant Comparative Method 130 Concept Formation 131 Concept Development 132 Concept Modification and Integration 139 T heorizing 14 2
iv Verification Procedures: Establishing Trustworth iness in Qualitative Studies 14 4 141 Credibility 14 5 Dependability 14 6 Confirmability 146 T ransferability 14 7 Establishing Trustwort hiness in this Current Study 14 7 Credibi lity 14 8 Prolonged Engagemen t and Persistent Observation 148 Data Triangulation 149 Investigator Triangulation 151 Peer Debriefing 152 Member Checking 153 Researcher Credibility 155 Dependability 1 55 Confirmability 1 55 Transferab ility 1 57 Chapter Summary 1 57 Chapter Five: Findings and Discussion 160 150 150 The Central Problem: Experiencing the Burdens of a New Beginning 162 The Burdens of Crossing Cultures 1 65 The B urdens of Sta rting from Zero 1 69 The Bur dens of Cro ssing Professions 1 71 The Basic Social Psychological Process: Combini ng the Best of Two Worlds 174 Stage One : Letting Go of Profes sional Identity as Physician 175 Medicine Closes its Doors Nursing 175 Disengaging Self From the Profession of Medi cine 177 Making Conscious Decision to Become a Nurse 178 Stage Two : Experiencing Growing Pains 178 Tug of War in Desire to be a Nurse or be a Physician 180 Medicine as Ultimate Power and Nursing Minimizes Past 1 82 Stage Three : Seeing Nursing as a Saving Grace 1 85 Seeing Nursing as an Easier Route to Healthcare Career 186 Seeing Nursing as a Way to Economic Gain 18 8 Stage Four : Gaining Authority to Practice as a Nurse 190 Unlearning Being A Physicia n and Learning Being a Nurse 190 Receiving the Kn owledge and Wisdom of Nurses 191 Shifting Diagnostic Perspective 194 Recognizing Nursing as Autonomous Practice 197 1 Ob taining US Nursing Licensure 199 Stage Five : 201 Upholding of New V enture by Significant People 201 Finding the Right Niche 202 Avoiding Self discl osure of Previous Profession 205 Strengthening New Role with Past Knowledge 206
v Valuing Differences and Experienc ing Professional Integration 209 Shifting Paradigms 211 Chapter Summary 216 Chapter Six: Interpretation and Conclusions 22 1 The Key Sensitizing Concept : Nursing Identity 222 ### The Development of Nursing Identity in Physician Nurses 223 The P rofessional Regi stered Nurse 223 The Knowled ge Base for Nursing Practice 224 T he Code of Ethics for Nurses 224 The Substantive Theory: Comb ining the Best of Two Worlds 226 Toward a Formal Theory: The Th eory of Transprofessionalism 229 Why th e Name Transprofessiona lism? 231 ### Conclusion 233 Limitations of the Study 233 222 Strengths of the Study 234 Implications for the Future 234 Domain of Research 234 Domain of Education 237 Domain of Practice 238 References 239 Appendices 264 Appendix A : Curriculum Prototype of MD to BSN Program, Philippines 2 65 Appendix B: Related Learning Experience s for MD to BSN, Philippines 2 66 Appendix C: The FEP to BSN Curriculum at Florida International Univer sity 2 67 Appendix D: Entry Level Master of S cience in Nursing Curriculum at InterAmerican College 269 Appendix E: UNLV Family N urse Practitioner Curriculum 270 Appendix F: The Curriculum of the MD Nurse Diploma at MAPS, St. Petersburg Russia 271 Appendix G: Case Level Display of Partially Ordered Meta Matrix: Factors Identified from Media Stories that Influenced Foreign Educated Physicians to Pursue Nursing 275 Appendix H: Content Analytic Summary Table: Motivating Factors T hat Influ enced FEPs to Pursue Nursing 279
vi Appendix I : Needs and Problems of Non US Native Nurses and Nursing Students : A Summary of Studies 282 Appendix J : IRB Letter of Approval for Study Period 2008 2009 and Study Period 2009 2010 286 Appendix K : Participant Consent Form 290 Appendix L : IRB Letter of Approval for Modification 295 Appendix M : Recruitment: Sample Letter of I ntroduction to Nurse Leaders 297 Appendix N : Recruitment Flyer 298 Appendix O : Demo graphic Dat a Collection Form 299 Appendix P : Interview Guiding Questions 300 Appendix Q : Consent to Audio Tape 301 Appendix R : Example of ATLAS.ti Output 302 Appendix S : Screenshot of ATLAS.ti Network View Manager 303 Appendix T: Initial Nine Core Categorie s 304 Appendix U : Initial C lustering of Core Categories 305 About the Author End page
vii List of Tables Table 1.1 Compa rison of Nursing and Medicine 19 Table 1.2 Gender Distribution of Nurses and Physicians in the US 22 Table 2. 1 Driving Forces that Motivate Foreign educated Physicians to Pursue Nursing 56 Table 2.2 Summary Across Curr ent Studies: Purpose/Outcomes 60 Table 2.3 Summary Across Current Studies: Theoretical Background/Design 63 Table 2.4 The Push and Pull of I nternational and Interprofessional Migration of Filipino Physicians 70 Table 2.5 Basic Month ly Salary of Nurses Worldwide 71 Table 2.6 Previous Medical Specialties of Filipino Nurse Medics 72 Table 2.7 Needs and Problems Encountered by Non US Native Nurses and Nursing Students Durin g their Transition to US Ways 82 Table 3.1 Dat a Analysis in Grounded Theory 98 Table 3.2 A Family of T heoretical Codes: The Six 6Cs 1 0 4 Table 4.1 Participant Demographic Data Personal & Immigrant C haracteristics 1 19 Table 4.2 Participant Demographic D ata Characteristics as Nurses 120 Table 4.3 Participant Demographic Data C haracteristics as Physicians 121 Table 4.4 The Seven Core Cat egories 137 Table 4.5 Summary of Criteria and Methods for Establish ing Trustw orthiness in Current Study 148
vi ii Table 5.1 Cultural, Employment, and Training Background of Participants 166 Table 5. 2 Illustrative Quotes: Th e Impact of Language Barriers 169 Table 5.3 Illustrative Quotes: H ow Society Perceives Nursi ng 173 Table 5. 4 Illustrative Quotes: Conscious Decision to Pursue Nursing 179 T able 5.5 204 Table 5. 6 212 Table 6.1 The Relationship Between the Stages of the Substantive Theory of Combining the Best of Two Worlds with the Phases of the Proposed Formal The ory of Transprofessionalism 231
ix List of Figures Figure 2.1 Chronology of the Origins and Evolution of Nurse Retraining Prog rams for Immigrant Physicians 45 Figure 2.2 Drivi ng Forces that M otivate FEPs to Pursue Nursing 5 6 Figure 3.1 The Grounded Theory Process: From the Ground Up 9 4 Figure 5.1 A Precursor to the Explanatory Model: The Central Social Psychological Problem and the Basic Social Psychologic al Process 163 F igure 5.2 Explanatory Model: The Substantive Theory of Combining the Best of Two Worlds 164 Figure 6.1 Toward a Theory of Transprofessionalism: A Conceptual Theoretical Empirical Structure 235 Figure 6.2 Toward a Theory of Transprofessionalism: A Diagram of the Proposed Theory of Transprofessionalism and its Phases and Dimensions 236
x Shifting Paradigms: The Development of Nursing Identity in Foreign Educated Physicians Re trained as Nurses Practicing in the United States Li wliwa R Villagomeza ABSTRACT A unique breed of nurses for the US market is emerging the Physician Nurses They are foreign educated physicians who have retrained as nurses. The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that can explain the developme nt of their nursing identity. S pecific aims were to discover barriers that participants perceived as problematic in their transition to nursing and catalysts that influenced how they addressed the central problem atic issue they articulated. Grounded theory methodology guided by the philosophical foundations of symbolic interactionism was used. Twelve Physician Nurses were interviewed T ranscribed interviews were imported to ATLAS.ti. Text data were analyzed by c onstant compa rative method. Concept formation, development, modification and integr ation were accomplished through different levels of coding. Methods were employed to ensure t rustworthiness of findings. Core categories were discovered and a central social psychological problem experiencing the burden s of a new beginning and a basic social psychological process combining the best of two world s emerged Further theorizing generated the substantive theory combining the best of two worlds and the beginnings of a formal theory The substantive theory expla ined the three dimensional central problem and t he five stage basic social psychological pr ocess Dimensions of the central problem were (a) crossing cultures, (b) starting from zero, and (c) crossing
xi professions. Stages of the basic process were (a) letti ng go of professional identity as physician, (b) experiencing growing pains, (c) seeing nursing as a saving grace, (d) gaining authority to practice as a nurse, and (e) nurse The substantive theory is a spri ngboard toward the development of a formal theory which may be able to further explicate the development of nursing identity in Physician Nurses This theory named Theory of Transprofessionalism, was initially conceptualized as having five phases namely: (a) disengagement, (b) discouragement, (c) enlightenment, (d) encouragement, and (d) engagement. These stages correspond to the five stages of t he substantive theory. The key concept nursing identity was operationalized by utilizing three statements publi shed by the American Nurses Association that describe the professional registered nurse, the knowledge base for nursing practice, and the code of ethics for nurses.
1 Chapter One Introduction Besides that profession here I h ad an experience when I first came here to the United States. I went to Kansas, and I was alone there. And, I became sick an d I had to go to the hospital. And, I was very, very, very lonely. Very sick. There was a pe rson [who] helped me feel better. T hat pe rson [who] made me feel better was a nur se; [who] he ld my hand and encouraged me to feel bett er. And that really, really mad e an impact on me. ~ Mair a A unique breed of nurses for the US market is emerging the Physician Nurses Physician Nurses are foreign educated physicians (FEPs) who have re trained as nurses and who are now practicing in the United States (US). This qualitative research study using grounded theory methodology and guided by the philosophical foundations of symbolic interactionism was desig ned to explore the basic social psych ological process that influenced the development of their nursing identity. Shifting from a discipline traditionally viewed by society as more prestigious and powerful than nursing, development of their nursing identity is fundamental in their transition to nursing practice. Being a relatively new phenomenon in nursing, evidence of scientific exploration specifically examining nursing identity development in former physicians who have become nurses does not exist. This r esearch study intends to fill this gap. Organization of Dissertation This dissertation consists of six chapters. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction that sets the tone of the chapter and concludes with a summary intended to
2 capture the salient p oints. This opening chapter provides an overview of the entire research study and puts the study in the appropriate context and perspective. Background information regarding the sensitizing concepts of identity and socialization in general, and nursing ide ntity, anticipatory socialization, and professional socialization to nursing, in particular, and background information regarding the population and phenomenon of interest, the Physician Nurses and i nterprofessional migration are presented A discussion o f the differences between nursing and medicine is provided as well. Also included in this chapter are the statement of the problem, statement of purpose and specific aims, rationale and s ignificance, r biases and assumptions, and definition of terms and meanings of acronyms The literature review presented in Chapter Two brings into context a three dimensional body of knowledge that directly and indirectly pertains to Physician Nurses and in terprofessional migration namely : (a) the emergence of the phenomenon of interprofessional migration, (b) the current limited research about Physician Nurses and (c) literature about the needs and problems of non US native nurses and nursing students d uring their transition to US ways and US nursing practice Due to the limited literature regarding Physician Nurses the population non US native nurses is used as proxy population for them. Chapter Three provides a comprehensive discussion of grounded the ory as a research method ology and symbolic interactionism as a philosophical perspective. Chapter Four presents how grounded theory is applied in this study. Participant demographics and characteristics r esearch instruments procedures for data generatio n data analysis and theorizing are discussed It also include s a discussion of the four criteria for establishing trustworthiness in qualitative studies namely : credibility, dependability,
3 confirmability, and transferability and how these concepts are applied in this current study. Chapter Five presents the findings and discussion of the study. Theoretical explanations of the central social psychological problem and the basic social psychological process and the interrelationships of the concepts wh ich form the substantive theory are discussed. Chapter Six provides a discussion of the interpretation of findings and study conclusions T he key sensitizing concept nursing identity defined as the persona of a professional individual that portrays the expect ed knowledge, skills, roles, behaviors, attitudes, values, and norms that are appropriate and acceptable in the culture of the nursing profession is operationalized utilizing three statements published by the Amer ican Nurses Association namely: (a) descrip tion of the professional registered nurse, (b) knowledge base for nursing practice, and (c) code of ethics for nurses. The essence of the substantive theory combining the best of two worlds to cope with experiencing the burdens of a new beginning and the b egin nings of a formal theory Theory of Transprofessionalism are presented. The conclusion limitations and strengths of the study, and implications for the future provide closure for this research report. The Sensitizing Concepts To put this study in th e proper context and perspective it is important to provide background information regarding the concepts of nursing identity and the related concepts of identity, socialization, anticipatory socialization, and professional socialization to nursing. It is important to review these because they are the sensitizing concepts which serve as background ideas and starting points for this study (Charmaz, 2006). According to Blumer (1969) sensitizing concepts provide the g eneral sense of reference and guidance i n approaching empirical studies. He asserts that they are not prescriptive concepts which
4 provide prescriptions of what to see suggest directions along which to look Working within the perspectives offered by Blumer and Charmaz the researcher of this study selected nursing identity and its related concepts as sensitizing concepts to use as starting points in this research of Physician Nurses Identity and Nursing Identity Identity. Identity is defined as th e set of physical, mental, behavioral or personal characteristics by which an individual is distinctively known or recognizable as a member of a group ( Webster II New College Dictionary, 1995). Identity is a basic human psychological need, and a core sense of identity is integral to normal function. It predicts responses to their own behaviors and to those of others (Tredwell, 2007). Identity is a concept, iden tity encompasses all the characteristics that a person may legitimately assert about himself as a social being which may include but is not limited to his name, status, ethnicity, religion, family affiliation, profession, personality, past life, etc. A per son may have multiple identities depending upon the number of structured role relationships in which he is involved; thus, a man may have identities such as physician, husband, father, uncle, son, tennis player, etc. which when taken together comprise t 1979; Stryker, 1980; Thoits, 1983; Tredwell, 2007). Identity has been used informally by social scientists for a number of years, but E.H. Erikson is credited for the modern le for discussing the problems of self A more focused use of identity as a concept can be related to the act of labeling. To illustrate this, Biddle (1979) uses an example of a stranger who has mannerisms and accent
5 that may not be apparent at first. With closer observation, the stranger becomes identified as a Frenchman. It is in this focused context that the concept of identity is used in this study. Identity in its broad framework as a social concept takes the form of a more focused framework labeled as professional identity and fur ther narrowed down to its subconcept nursing identity. Nursing identity. Nursing identity is defined vaguely in extant nursing literature. Gleaning from what is f ound in nursing literature, it is apparent that the operationalization of this concept has eluded the early works of nursing theorists and researchers. The professional identity of the nurse, although a frequent theme of discussion and concern is linked to diverse meanings and concepts such as professionalism, perceptions of the nurse role, and professional self or self (1998) describe it as having a feeling of being a person who can practice nursing s killfully commonality of the nursing profession and to the special way the nurse utilizes this commonality with the nursing profession T he authors use the term commonality to refer to the goals which all nurses have in common Wengstrom & Ekedahl (2006) define it in the context of what it encompasses from both subjective and objective viewpoints. From the subjective viewpoint, nursing identity is defined as views of the person as a nurse. Gregg and Magilvy (2001) define nursing identity within the context of the term professional identity identification with the nursing profession license obtained by passing the national licensing examination.
6 For the purposes of this study, nursing identity is defined as the persona of a healthcare professional that portrays the expected knowledge, skills, roles, behaviors, attitudes, values, and norms that are appropriate and acceptable in the culture of the nursing profession (Cohen, 1981; du Toit,1995; Fetz er, 200 3; MacIntosh, 2003; Mooney, 2007 ; Shinyashiki, Mendes, Trevizan, & Day, 2006). This definition is adapted from the definitions of professional socialization found in the literature. Such persona or the role that an individual assumes or displays in society is the substantive outcome of the process of professional socialization to nursing. Socialization and Anticipatory Socialization Socialization. skills and internalizing attitudes (Creasia & Parker, 2001, p. 55). It is a broad concept basic to sociological thinking which is concerned with the learning of socially relevant and acceptable behavior at various stages of the life cycle (Biddl e & Thomas, 1966). Socialization experiences can either be accidental or planned. The process, facilitated by socialization agents, brings about changes in the behavior or conceptual state of a person. The change in behavior or conceptual state subsequentl y leads to a greater ability of the person to participate in the social system where he belongs (Biddle, 1979; Kramer, 1974). The concept of socialization has been problematically conflated with the concepts of learning and education. To distinguish thes e concepts, the following viewpoints are provided: learning refers to any non facilitated change in the behavior or conceptual state of a person that can either be positive such as good habits or negative such as bad habits, and
7 education refers to the del iberate process where one person intends to instruct the other so as to change behavior and conceptual state (Biddle, 1979). Anticipatory socialization. In contemporary society, movement of people from one status to another, particularly from a lower to a higher status is common (Merton 1966 ). It is in this context that Merton gives his discourse about anticipatory socialization. He defines anticipatory socialization as the process by which a person acquires the values and behaviors distinctive of a group of which he is not currently a member but of which he is aspiring to belong (Merton, 1966 ). The purpose of anticipatory socialization into a new group is two fold: to promote acceptance by the members of the prospective group and to facilitate transition into the dynamics of the prospective group (Merton, 1968). This concept which emerged from the study of soldiers during World War II by Stouffer Suchman, Devinney, Star, and Robins (1949) showed evidence that soldiers who successfully assumed new status es had proactive stance in acquiring the essential behavioral characteristics, attitudes, and role orientations before they formally made the change (Merton, 1966/ 1968; Kramer, 1974). Although this process has positive implications, it also has complexitie s. Merton observed that the person in transition often becomes marginal to both his current group and his prospective group. While anticipating the change in position and group membership, he may find himself no longer accepted in his current group and no t yet fully accepted by his prospective group (Merton, 1966 ). The concept of anticipatory socialization is relevant to the population of interest in this study In the shift from being physicians in their home countries to being nurses in the US, it is an assumption that early in their nursing education program, the former physicians feel marginalized by both their previous physician group and their prospective nursing
8 group. During this transition period, they are in a very intricate situation. They are n o longer members of their old group but not yet members of thei r new group. Early in their re training to nursing, the Physician Nurses make the effort and commitment to acquire the values and behaviors distinctive of nursing, a process indicative of antici patory socialization. In the natural course of the socialization process; in the cycle (Kramer, 1974) or in the continuum (d u Toit, 2003), anticipatory socialization as experienced by Physician Nurses will eventually progress to professional socializatio n to nursing contingent upon their successful resolution of the sociological and psychological tasks of each defined stage (Cohen, 1981). Professional Socialization Professional socialization Professional socialization is a process of adult socialization Adult socialization is the process by which individuals develop new behaviors and values associated with roles they assume as adult s to fulfill particular life goals. Professional socialization is also referred to as occupational socialization (Hardy & Conway, which a person acquires knowledge, skills, and sense of occupational identity that are characteristic o Cohen further articulate s that there are four goals of professional socialization namely: (a) learning the technology of the profession the facts, skills, and theory; (b) learning to internalize the professional culture; (c) finding a personally and professionally acceptable vers ion of the role; and (d) integrating this professional role into all the other life roles. To fulfill these goals, the process of professional socialization must encourage and permit novices to interact successfully with experts within the profession. The outcome of the process is a person who possesses not
9 only the technical competencies of the profession but also, and more importantly, the internalized values and attitudes required by the profession and expected by the public (Cohen, 1981). Professional s ocialization to nursing Professional socialization to nursing is a function of both adult and professional socialization. Applying the concepts of adult and professional socialization to nursing, and using the components of the definition of nursing iden tity, professional socialization to nursing can be defined as the complex process by which a person acquires the knowledge, skills, roles, behaviors, attitudes, values, and norms that are appropriate and acceptable in the culture of the nursing profession. Professional socialization to nursing plays an important role in the development of nursing identity (Mooney, 2007). MacIntosh (2003) asserted that professional socialization begins in nursing school where students learn the preparatory knowledge and ski lls, and acquire the qualities and the ideals of the nursing profession. Du Toit (1995) studied the influence of professional socialization on the development of nursing identity among nursing students in two universities in Brisbane, Australia. She state d that professional socialization is a process that takes place over time and has three stages: (a) the pre socialization stage, (b) the formal socialization stage, and (c) the post socialization stage. In a different perspective, Kramer (1974) identified that the process of professional socialization is circular. The different phases are not distinct but are overlapping. The four phases according to Kramer are: (a) skill and routine mastery, (b) social integration, (c) moral outrage, and (d) conflict resol ution. Changes in the behaviors of individuals occur gradually through a process of personality drift. These gradual behavior changes become cumulative making individuals become different from what they were in the beginning.
10 The preceding discussion offer ed enlightenment regarding the central concept of study which is nursing identity and the related concepts of identity, socialization, anticipatory socialization, and professional socialization specifically to nursing. These concepts are important in the o verall formulation of the report of this current research study. The researcher in operationalizing these concepts made it transparent that she views professional socialization to nursing as a process and the development of nursing identity as the outcome of that socialization process. It is in this regard that a caveat must be articulated. This caveat is that there is debate in the nursing community whether socialization is a process or an outcome As a process, it is viewed as the route by which new membe rs acquire the unique values, norms, and ways of seeing unique to nursing. As an outcome it is the identity as a nurse which represents self view as a member of the nursing profession (Blais, Hayes, Koz ier, & Erb, 2006). The Phenomenon of Interest The Migration of Physicians International Physician Migration The migration of physicians from one society to another to practice medicine, particularly from developing to developed countries is an establish ed phenomenon (Aluw ihare, 2005; Guzder, 2007; Galvez Tan, 2009; Salsberg & Grover, 2006; Shuval & Bernstein, 1997; Terhune & Abumrad, 2009). This movement of physicians across geographical boundaries can be explained by the push and pull theory of migratio n. The push factors of migration include the poor economic benefits, limited career opportunities, and substandard working conditions in their home countries. The pull factors include the prospect of greater financial rewards and greater job satisfaction as well as better security
11 and future education of their children in developed countries (Aluwihare, 2005; Guzder, 2007; Hashwani, 2006). In a study about physician migration from developing to developed countries, a list of factors that motivated physici ans to migrate were identified as thei r desire (a) for higher income, (b) for increased access to enhanced technology and equipment and health facilities for medical practice, (c) to travel to a country with higher nu mber of medical jobs available, (d) t o work in an academic environment with more colleagues in d with being a physician abroad, (f) to live in a country with a higher level of general safety, (g) to live in a country with economic s tability, In the US, a huge wave of physician immigration began in the 1950s and continued through the 1970s resulting in a 30% saturation of US residency programs by foreign educated ph ysicians (FEPs). But i n the late 1970s to the late 1980s, immigration of FEPs hit a nadir due to the expansion in the enrollment capacities of US medical schools. In the early 1990s, a steady rise in the immigration of FEPs was noted again due to changes i n the dynamics of the US healthcare industry brought about by two policy changes in medical education and immigration. The first change in policy occurred in 1984 when Medicare reimbursement for hospitals was correlated to the number of medical residents t hey trained. With a fixed pool of US medical graduates, hospitals sought FEPs to train. The second change in policy which occurred in 1990 was related to immigration. The H 1B visa for temporary workers which was previously limited to researchers was made available to all physicians. Both policy changes brought renewed interest in physician migration to the US; hence, increasing the number of FEPs. This rise hit a peak in 1999 and has since remained at this level. The majority of physician immigrants came from South Asia (Cooper, 2005).
12 With this type of migration, physicians expect to practice medicine in their new society with the cognizance that they have personal and professional adjustments to make. Such adjustments include processes that are inherent to professional socialization and occupational integration to medical practice as well as integration to the lifestyle and culture of their new society. The theory of occupational status persistence comes into play. This new society is a key determinant of overall adjustment and well 183). Occupational continuity is crucial for immigrant physicians because it provides them uninterrupted i ncome as well as a stable anchor to preserve their self identity during a time when they are dealing with a plethora of physical, social, and psychological stressors. Interprofessional Physician Migration In the last ten years, it has been observed that a different type of migration is occurring in FEPs. Some FEPs are no longer just migrating across geographical boundaries. Some of them are actually migrating across professional borders: from the profession of medicine to the profession of nursing. Dependin g upon their unique personal and past professional circumstances, interprofessional migration may have happened as a result of their geographical migration, or it perhaps happened to facilitate their migration to the US or to other developed countries of t he world. During the conceptualization of this research study, this migration of physicians across professional boundaries was originally labeled by the researcher as the MD to Nurse phenomenon. With the progress of this research study and the steady knowl edge acquisition and conceptualizations by the researcher, the MD to Nurse phenomenon or nurse medic phenomenon as it is known in the Philippines (Galvez Tan, Sanchez, & Balanon, 2004;
13 Pascual, Marcaida, & Salvador, 2003) has been renamed interprofessiona l migration. This phenomenon can be explained by a new twist in the push and pull theory of migration. Instead of the push and pull forces impacting geographical migration, these forces are impacting interprofessional migration. The push factors exerted b y the medical profession in the US include the arduous process and the dense licensure requirements for immigrant physicians (A merican Medical Association [AMA], 2009a ; Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates [ECFMG], 2009) the uncertainty of getting a residency assignment despite success in the US licensure examinations (Terhune & Abumrad, 2009), and the stark disparities in the incomes of physician s and nurse s between developing and developed countries. As an illustration of the latter push factor, many physicians in the Philippines report receiving an annual salary equivalent to less than the monthly salary of a nurse in a US hospital (Chan, 2003; Guzder, 2007). The pull factors exerted by the nursing profession include the high demand for nurses in the US and other developed countries secondary to the prevailing global nursing shortage (Ross, Polsky, & Sochalski, 2005), the less arduous licensure process required for nurses in the US (Jerdee, 2004; Pendergast, 2006), the autonomous, respect ed, and trusted status of nurses in the US (Koerner, 2001; ANA 2004), and the prospect of better income opportunities (Connolly, 2008; Jones, 2001; Sison, 2003). The prospect of enormously better income opportunities working as nurses in the US and other developed countries than working as physicians in developing countries exerts a very strong interprofessional migratory pull (Guzder, 2007). In the Philippines, a country whose governmental policies encourage the production of nurses for export ( Aiken, Bu chan, Sochalski, Nichols, & Powell, 2004; Joyce & Hunt, 1982 ), many physicians have
14 retrained as nurses ( Galvez Tan et al., 2004; Lorenzo, Galvez Tan, Icamina, & Javier, 2007). With geographical and interprofessional migration, occupational discontinuit y occurs. Occupational discontinuity interrupts income capacities as well as rids physicians of the anchor that preserves their self identity during a time when they are dealing with a plethora of physical, social, and psychological stressors. With this ty pe of migration, immigrant physicians undergo a more complex socialization process. In addition to the task of integrating to the culture of their new society, they have to undergo occupational integration and professional socialization to nursing and mus t work toward developing their professional nursing identity. T he Population of Interest The Physician Nurses Physician Nurses in the US: The Current State Two distinct groups of Physician Nurses currently exist. One group comprises immigrants already r esiding in the US who were former physicians in their home countries but who have been unable to obtain licensure to practice medicine in t he US. The other group comprises former physicians from the P hilippines who intentionally re trained as nurses while s till in their home country to facilitate their migration to the US. Although distinct in the context of immigration and resettlement, members of both groups are similar because they are now members of the mainstream US healthcare industry through the nursi ng profession Exact statistics are not known as to how many Physician Nurses currently work in the US. What is known is that approximately 500 Physician Nurses have graduated from the New Americans in Nursing Accelerated Program also known as t he FEP to B achelors of S cience in N ursing (BSN) Program at Florida International University
15 (FIU) in Miami (D. Grossman, personal communication, August 17, 2009). There is possibly a large population of Physician Nurses in the US west coast. An observation shared b y one of the participants in this study indicates that there are at least a thousand Filipino Physician Nurses in Nevada. This is reflective of the high number of Filipino physicians becoming nurses ( Galvez Tan 2006 February; Galvez Tan 2006 November ; Galvez Tan et al 2004; Lorenzo, 2005; Pascual et al. 2003 ). In addition, the retraining program s administered by the Welcome Back Center in San Diego, California for internationally educated healthcare professionals to become US healthcare workers has a ssisted more than 1,200 professionals since its inception in the early 2000s (Penner, 2006), with approximately 1 00 of whom have become Physician Nurses ( Wirkus, 2008 ). Physician Nurses in the US: The Foreseen Future It is foreseen that the growth of the Physician Nurses population in the US will be significant and steady. Through flexible and accelerated nursing educ ational programs designed to re train physicians to become US nurses, immigrant professionals who belong to cultural minority groups and who a lready possess high level medical knowledge and healthcare skills are drawn to the nursing profes sion (Grossman & Jorda, 2008). According to Grossman and Jorda, there are more than 700 FEPs in the applicant pool for the FIU program awaiting completion of a dmission requirements. A program in California at the InterAmerican College (IAC) will graduate its first cohort of 15 students in December 2009 (V. Glaser, personal communication, August 3, 2009). In the Philippines, Galvez Tan approximates that Physicia n Nurses are graduating at a rate of 1,200 a year from nursing schools across the country. His latest estimate indicates that there are now a total of 9,000 Filipino doctors who have become nurses (J. Galvez Tan, personal communication, July 26,
16 2009). Du e to the absence of a gatekeeper to monitor Physician Nurse exodus from the Philippines, it is not exactly known how many of the Physician Nurses ha ve already immigrated to the US and to other developed countries; however, Galvez Tan (2009) indicates that 6,000 doctors are now in the US practicing as nurses. The phenomenon of interprofessional migration as it is occurring in the Philippines has major socio political implications (Galvez Tan et al. 2004); however, the discussion of such implications is beyo nd the scope of this study. T he Paradigms of Nursing and Medicine How do they Compare? Together, nurses and physicians represent the major providers of healthcare in the US, but with 2.9 million nurses, nursing is the largest of the healthcare professio ns (Buerhaus, Staiger, & Auerback, 2000; Health Resources and Services Administration [HRSA] 2006; Jones, 2001). Although nursing is separate and distinct from medicine, nursing practice is closely allied to medical practice (Deloughery, 1977). This is pe rhaps the reason why it is not unusual to hear prospective nursing students say that they have always been interested in the medical field that is why they decided to go to nursing (Ellis & Hartley, 2001). The alliance between nursing and medicine is manif ested in their collaboration. Through collaboration, the professions empower each other (Wolf, 1989). Nurse physician collaboration is described as the cooperative working relationship between nurses and physicians where they share problem solving and deci sion making responsibilities for the formulation and implementation of patient care plans (Gillen, 2007). This collaboration implies that they labor together linked by a common bond they share which is to provide healthcare to the population to individua ls, families, and communities
17 (Grossman & Jorda, 2008). Although nursing and medicine share this common bond, nursing and medical paradigms are different. The concept of collaboration between nursing and medicine did not come easy because it was preceded b y professional conflict and jurisdictional competition (Abbott 1988). Evidence of conflict between the two professions is generally acknowledged in the literature (Wolf, 1989). Discussion of the various conflicts between nursing and medicine is not includ ed in this paper. What is included is a discourse about the perspectives that differentiate the two professions. The study conducted by Wolf (1989) provides a basis for a concise differentiation of nursing and medicine Twenty years ago today, the se differ ences remain to prevail. See Table 1.1 s differentiation is supplemented by narratives that describe the educational preparation required to fulfill each role and the nurse physician relationship It i s important to acknowledge that in the US and in about 50 other countries globally, there are two types of physicians: the Doctor of Medicine or allopathic medicine ( MD) and the Doctor of Osteopathy or osteopathic medicine (DO) (AOA, 2008 2009). This fact was factored in in the differentiation of nursi ng and medicine as seen in Table 1.1. Educational Preparation for Nursing and Medicine The professions of nursing and medicine have each a different set of expected knowledge, skills, roles, behaviors, attitudes, values, and norms. These are acquired thr ough formal academic education, as well as through continuous life long learning and experiences in the practice setting. In the context of edu cational pathways, a notable difference is evident between nursing and medical education: nursing has three rout es for entry level practice while medical education has a single standard route. Nursing education in the US offers three types of programs that prepare students to take the national certification
18 licensing examination (NCLEX) for registered nurses. They v ary in length and course requirements. The three educational pathways to registered nursing are the diploma, baccalaureate, and associate degrees. The diploma school program, the first type of nursing education to develop in the US, is traditionally held i n a hospital setting. The length of training is usually between 27 to 33 months after which the students earn a diploma of nursing upon graduation, but do not earn college credits or an academic degree. The trend has been to move away from diploma educatio n; hence, many diploma school programs have affiliated with colleges or universities and have transferred into their existing associate or baccalaureate degree programs. Even in this scenario, there are still a few, approximately less than a hundred diplom a schools that exist throughout the US. They are mostly located in the Midwest and East ( AllNursingSchools 2009). The baccalaureate degree nursing education, the second type of educational program to develop in the US, requires four to five years of study in the college or university setting. Upon graduation students earn their bachelor of science degree. This educational pathway is the foundation for graduate nursing education. The associate degree program, the third type of nursing pr ogram to develop, i s offered in community and junior colleges. The program is two academic years in length. Graduates earn college credits which can be credited toward a degree the minimum requirement for p rofessional nursing practice but these efforts which have been influenced by the American opposed by many nursing educators, particularly those in diploma and associate degree programs ( AN A, 2004; Doheny, Cook, & Stopper, 1997; Ellis & Hartley, 2001; Kozier, Erb, & Blais, 1997).
19 Table 1.1 Comparison of Nursing and Medicine Focus of Comparison Nursing: Nurses Medicine: Physicians (MDs and DOs) Definition and Purpose T he protection promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations. (ANA 2003, p. 6). T he science and practice of the prevention, diagnosis, and curing of human diseases, and other ailments of the human body or mind. Two Types Allopathic Medicine (MD) Osteopathic Medicine (DO) Focus The art of nursing is based on caring a nd dynamic processes that affect the human empathy, mutual respect, and holistic and up to date comprehensive care (ANA, 2004, p. 12). Diagnosis and treatment of illness (curing) Allopathic Medicine Osteopathic Medicine Diagnose illnesses; prescribe and administer treatment for people suffering from injury or disease. Use all diagnostic/ therapeutic methods as MDs but place special emphasis on musculoskeletal system, preventive medicine, and holistic pt.care. Approach to Patient Care Whole person Disease specific Whole person Methods of Action for Patient Problems Lead to actions/interventions to be done for or with the patien t Lead to actions/interventions to be done to or by the patient Gender Predominantly female Predominantly male Political economic Power Lower Higher N urse Physician relationship Viewed as occupying a position of subservience under medicine. N urses carry out treatment orders. Viewed as occupying a position of dominance over nursing. Physicians give treatment orders. Educational Preparation Three Routes for Entry level Diploma in Nursing AS Degree BSN Advanced Degrees Masters Level DNP PhD Standard for MD 4 years undergraduate 4 years of med. school 3 8 years internship and residency in specialty of choice Standard for DO 4 year academic study 1 year internship 2 6 residency training in specialty of choice There is also a c ategory of licensed, vocational nurses: LPN or LVN Examination and Licensure NCLEX RN APRN Certification USLME I USMLE II USMLE III COMLEX I COMLEX II COMLEX III COMLEX PE Note. Acronyms are defined in the Definition of Terms section on pp 32 3 4 Information obtained from the websites of the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine [AACOM], 2008 2009; American Osteopathic Association [AOA], 2008 2009; American Nurses Association [ANA] 2003, 2004; Bureau of L abor Statistics [BLS], (2008 09b, 2008 09c ; Doheny, Cook, & Stopper, 1997; Ellis & Hartley, 2001; Wolf, 1989
20 In comparing the educational preparation of nurses and physicians it is important to recognize that the American ideology holds a bias that the longer the educational p reparation for the medical profession as longer and probably more demanding, intense, and cloistered than any other profession. Through a lengthy training prog ram combined with licensing regulations, graduates of medical education are viewed as practitioners of highest prestige and consistency in medical education. The le ngth and sequence of medical training is standardized across institutions: from three to four years of general liberal arts education, four years of medical school divided into basic science and clinical phases, and additional years of internship and resid ency (Hughes et al., 1973). Residency training prepares physicians for s choice of specialty practice (Ellis & Hartley, 2001). Nursing and m edical education do not stop at graduation Nurses and physicians become life long learners. Nurses attend continuing nursing education classes to enhance their knowledge and skills and to meet requirements for license renewal M any nursing graduates continue to pursue graduate level edu cation to give them the competitive edge for autonomous specialty practice and for leadership positions in the domain of nursing research, education, and practice (ANA 2004) Physicians whose entry to their profession is at the graduate level also emplo y systematic methods to continue their learning, hone their skills, and benefit maximally from their experience s and some pursue further graduate studies (Manning & DeBakey, 1987).
21 The Nurse Physician Relationship In the hierarchy of professions, when n ursing and medicine are compared, medicine, although not the largest of the healthcare professions, is placed in the position of dominance (Bullough & Bullough, 1984; Remennick & Shakhar, 2003; Thupayagale & Dithole, 2005). This overall dominance occupied by medicine is apparent in the use of the word medicine to connote healthcare whether provided by physicians, nurses, or other healthcare providers (Thompson, 2008). Although nursing has made significant progress in establishing itself as a profession, it s position as a subordinate profession to medicine prevails in a hierarchical society such as the US. In line with the dominant position of medicine in the hierarchy of professions, the nurse physician relationship is one where nurses are considered subse rvient to physicians (Ellis & Hartley, 2001). This perception perhaps might have its roots in the Nightingale era. Nightingale believed that nurses were well suited for supportive roles and fought to establish good nurse is to be a good woman and that the role of nurses was to be obedient to doctors in She assigned indirect roles to nurses. By contrast, she assigned the active intervention roles to physicians specifying that their duty was to remove anomalous organs or to intervene in various disease processes (Bullough & Bullough, 1984). Although more men are venturing into nursing, it seems that the im pact of has prevailed through today. Nursing remains to be predominantly female, and medicine remains to be predominantly male. The gender make up of a particular profession is an important factor in its perceived position of domina nce, significance, and
22 value in society. Nursing, viewed mostly as a feminine profession as much now as it ever was (Blais, Hayes, Kozier, & Erb, 2006), has historically been afforded lesser significance in terms of social value when compared to medicine (Wolf, 1989). In role theory, the imbalanced gender distribution in these two professions can be described as occupational sex structuring or sex segregation which is rooted in cultures with paternal patterns and en 70% of the workforce in a given job category and physicians in the US. The distribution as shown here is better than in the 1970s when nursing was 99% female (Ha rdy & Conway, 1988). The preceding discussion differentiated the paradigms of nursing and medicine It is the existence of t hese paradigmatic differences between the two professions and the ability of the Physician Nurses to transcend these differences th at make the phenomenon of inter professional migration unique. But do former physicians really transcend these differences? Table 1.2 Gender Distribution of Nurses and Physicians in the US Profession Total Males Females RNs in the US 2,909,357 a 168,181 (5.8%) 2,741,176 (94.2%) Physicians in the US 921,904 b 665,647 (72%) 256,257 (28%) Note. a Data obtained from Health Reso urces and Services Administration 2006, Bureau of Health Professions, US Department of Health and Human Services; and from the b American Medical Association website (last updated July 29, 2009).
23 Can they truly shift from their previous professional identity as physicians and embrace their new professional identity as nurses? Can they successfully develop their self concept as nurses? Can they become nurses? Statement of the Problem The idea of retraining physicians to become nurses is not wi thout controversy. According to Alpert, director for the St. Jude Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) Program at University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) she encountered opposition when the FNP program for Filipino Physician Nurses was being conceptualized (P. Alpert, personal communication, April 16 2008). Similarly, the FEP to BSN Program at FIU met some opposition at the outset. A number of influential nursing leaders doubted its usefulness and bene fits. Such opposition was attributed to the ir skepticism about the ability of physicians to be socialized into the nursing profession. Questions and concerns were expressed whether physicians can successfully transition to nursing Some of the questions an d concerns were: 1. How are you going to make doctors into nurses? Because t heir roles are so different A comment by an unnamed commentator to D Grossman (Rexrode, 2007). 2. ry focus is to diagnose and treat. Nurses provide holistic care (D. Horner, as quoted in Jorda, 2005) 3. The change is difficult if not impossible for physicians to achieve. Physicians view their role in healthcare as scientific and intellectual, while they perceive the role of nurses as nurturing, visceral and mundane (C. Fagin as quoted in Kennedy Ferri, & Sofer, 2002).
24 4. Not all former doctors will necessarily make good nurses. Even though they come with some knowledge, nursing and medicine are two distinc t disciplines, so they have to make some adjustments (G. Bednash as quoted in Mangan, 2004 ). The outspoken opponents have included : 1. Claire Fagin, Professor Emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing. 2. Diane Horner, former dean of the Uni versity of Miami School of Nursing. Miami, Florida. 3. Geraldine Bednash, executive director of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. While these concerns were surfacing regarding the establishment of university bas ed nursing re training programs f or FEPs in the US, reports were circulating about Filipino Physician Nurses who were functioning beyond their scope. For instance, two Physician Nurses from the Philippines working at a hospital in the South Central US were reported to have been terminated by their employers because they functioned beyond their scope of practice as nurses. In addition, seven other Physician Nurses were repatriated to the Philippines for failing to f ulfill their roles as nurse s (Filipino Reporter, 2004). Other similar incide nts were also reported at a British Hospital. Honorable Ruth Padilla, RN past president commissioner of the Philippine Professional Regulation Commission cited an incident in the aforementioned Briti sh Hospital where a Physician Nurse performed suturing in an emergency situation (Esguerra, 2005) Although some stories are speculative, they can worsen the perceived pot ential hazards of re training physicians to become nurses or they can serve as precau tion s for program administrators so that they can be keener i n preventing issues of this nature through
25 appropriate curriculum development. As with any role change, p hysicians who have completed re training or who are still in the process of re training as n urses are expected to requires a major paradigm shift. Because very litt le is known about the process by which this paradigm shift occurs, and about how former physicians become nurses, it needs to be explored and examined. The problem can be summarized in the words of Grossman and Jorda (2008): Physicians may be able to easil y master the cognitive and psychomotor skills of nursing, but refocusing perceptions of their role and position in the healthcare setting may be more difficult. Redefining their attitudes, values, and beliefs to navigate the healthcare system from a vantag e point of diminished power and prestige and from a philosophy based on care instead of cure will need to occur to ensure their success. (p. 549). Statement of Purpose and Specific Aims The purpose of this qualitative study using grounded theory methodo logy and guided by the philosophical foundations of symbolic interactionism was to generate a theory that can explain the basic socia l psychological process that influenced the development of nursing identity in FEPs who have re trained as nurses and who ar e now practicing in the US. This psychological process that influences the development of nursing identity in FEPs who have re trained as nurses and who are now practi The specific aims were to discover barriers that participants perceived as problematic in their transition to nursing and catalysts that influenced how they addressed the central problem atic issue they articulated.
26 Rationale and Signific ance In the face of the current nursing shortage and the national mandate to increase healthcare workforce diversity (Sullivan Commission, 2004), Physician Nurses are evolving vital components of the US nursing workforce. Exploring their identity developme nt was timely and significant because it provide d the opportunity to determine and empirically study this emerging unique breed of nurses for the US and global market s. It provided discoveries that offer ed theoretical explanations of the basic social psych ological process that influenc ed the development of nursing iden tity in a sample of professionals who previously belonged to the discipline of medicine, a discipline traditionally viewed as more prestigious and powerful than the discipline of nursing (Elli s & Hartley, 2001) especially in paternalistic societies The rationale and significance of this research study was framed in the perspective of the domains of nursing research, education, and practice. Domain of Research: Filling the Scientific Gap Empir ical literature about Physician Nurses is sparse. No previous study h as been conducted that addressed the specific topic of nurs ing identity development in Physician Nurses This research study which was both exploratory and explanatory was designed to fil l this scientific knowledge gap. It was designed to find answers to the research question that probe s about the development of nursing identity in FEPs who are now practicing as nurses in the US. This study was both timely and significant because it provid ed the opportunity to explore and empirically study this emerging unique breed of nurses for both the US and the global market s It provided theoretical discoveries that defined the central social psychological problem and the basic social psychological pr ocess that addressed the central problem as experienced by Physician Nurses in the process of shifting their professional
27 identity from being physician s to being nurse s Fu rthermore, it provided baseline data for future longitudinal studies regarding the performance and retention of Physician Nurses within the nursing profession. Domain of Education: Aiming to Dis pel D oubts About Re training Programs This research study is significant to the domain of education because it presents to the nursing community a small sample of immigrants who were former physicians in their home countries who have found new meaning and purpose in nursing and who are now gainfully employed as nurses. It provides initial empirical support that academic programs that re train FEPs t o become nurses are viable and worthwhile ventures as evidenced by the exemplars given by the participants. The results of this study may help dispel doubts about the likelihood of physicians becoming nurses. Domain of Practice: Assessing Needs of Physici an Nurses in a Diverse Practice Setting Physician Nurses who by demographics are described as belonging to a minority group, are helping to change the landscape of the US nursing workforce. Althoug h small yet in numbers in the context of the 2.9 million R Ns in the US they contribute in increasing the diversity of the US nursing workforce not only because they belong to ethnic minority groups but because a larger percentage of them are men (Grossman & Jorda, 2008) As members of minority group s Physician Nurses have unique needs. These needs must be assessed and a ttention must be given to these unique needs. Fostering a culturally sensitive work environment where staff members function with cultural competence in dealing with every customer they encounter, whether patients and their families or fellow health care workers and supervisors is desirable and will help them integrate successfully into an ethnic and professional culture different from their own. It will greatly impact the practice of their new
28 pr value in the contributions of Physician Nurses to a culturally diverse practice setting It is anticipated that the findings of this study will assist hospital administrators, n urse leaders, and educators who employ Physician Nurses in planning and implementing evidenced based culturally sensitive strategies for their socialization, adaptation, and support. The Researcher As a constructivi st researcher, the res earcher in this study recognized and acknowledged that her own, social, cultural and historical background and experiences might have help ed shape the analysis and interpretation of the data (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008). Articulation of her position in the context of this research was essential in establishing the trustworthiness of the study. me d from her personal and professional relationships with generic nurs ing students and non nursing professionals desiring to pursue nursing as a second career. Her experiences as a faculty member in the academic setting and as a mentor for professional nurses in the hospital setting, and her interactions with fellow graduate students have served as sources of personal reflection and scholarly inquiry. She has always wondered about the process by which new nursing professionals develop and embrace their new professional identity, whether it is their first career or their secon d career. On one hand, she has always been amused by what it entailed for nurses to be able to affirm with extreme pri de and conviction the statement, a nurse why some nurses sometimes j ust asked about what it is they do. In her view, no nurse is just just
29 nursing profession. It paints a picture of someone who has not fully recognized the t r ue es sence just fully connected with the nursing profession, and ha s not fully developed his or her nursing identity. As a migrant healthcare worker in the US who has experie nced life changing events related to her employment as a professional nurse, t he unique breed of Physician Nurse is of special interest to the researcher. The proliferation of the phenomenon in her home country stimulated initial questioning. Her initial questions emanated from the general societal view that nurs ing is subservient to medicine. Initially, she had similar doubts as expressed by the opponents of the FEP to BSN retraining program at FIU; however, those doubts were short lived. T hrough reading Physician Nurses blogs, discussions with colleagues, and direct observations, she observed that most Physician Nurses have succe ssfully transitioned to nursing. On the other hand, s he also encountered a few who have not successfully transitioned to nursing Her encounters with a few medical professionals in her personal network who have become Physician Nurses but who have not successfully transitioned to nursing in spite of passing the NCLEX spurred more questioning. This questioning provided the impetus f or this study. The researcher initially became interested with Physician Nurses who struggled with their professional transitions and had originally conceptualized a phenomenological study to explore their lived experiences. Through further self reflection and deeper scholarly questioning a proposed grounded theory study focused on those who have successfully transitioned to nursing in contrast to a p henomenological study focused on those who have no t transitioned to nursing was conceptualized. This was ho w this exploratory and explanatory research was conceptualized.
30 The researcher is currently an FEP to BSN Program, Tampa Bay Cohort. As a faculty member for this group of students, she viewed herself as a key agent in their socialization to nursing and a key influence in the development of their nursing identity. She taught the group d uring their first semester of nursing school. Teaching this unique group of ethnically diverse students in their first semester of nursin g school enriched her knowledge about the phenomenon of interprofessional migration. Witnessing the behaviors of the students in the clinical setting on the first day of clinical rotation and on subsequent clinical rotations enabled her to witness directly some of the stories her participants have told her Her relationship with FEPs currently retraining to become nurses provided her with the opportunity to experience prolonged engagement with the phenomenon under study and helped her to control her biases. None of the students whom she taught were participants in this study. Biases and Assumptions In qualitative research, it is important that bias es and assumptions are articulated so that they can remain in check (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Th roughout the course of the study, the following biases and assumptions surfaced through the research e s self reflection. Pertaining to International Migration 1. International migration of professionals particularly from developing to developed countries re sults to loss of professional status in immigrants. 2. International migration of healthcare profes sionals is largely driven by economic factor s
31 Pertaining to Interprofessional Migration 1. Shifting from a discipline traditionally viewed as more prestigious and powerful than nursing has negative psychological effect s ; hence, may be difficult and painful. 2. Immigrant physicians from paternalistic societies view nurses in their native countries as handmaidens. Initial e xposure to the US healthcare system as an cillary personnel provides unlicensed immigrant physicians an inside look at nursing practice in the US and negates the handmaiden view. 3. Immigrant physicians who are working as support personnel in healthcare facilities are more likely to choose to become nurses. 4. Transition to nursing is dependent upon the type of jobs immigrant physicians held while they were beginning a new life in their new society. 5. Immigrant physicians who enroll in nursing programs view nursing as a profession of equal value and st atus to medicine. 6. Transition to nursing is dependent upon the length of prior medical practice. Younger physicians: easier transition; older physicians with well established practices: difficult transition. 7. Physician Nurses in training feel marginalized by both their previous physician group and their prospective nursing group. 8. The economic rewards of being a nurse in the US buffers the negative psychological effect and facilitates transition to nursing. The researcher believes that for nursing ident ity to develop, these individuals must recognize the value and meaning of nursing beyond the economics and they must possess
32 self motivation and commitment strong enough to move forward in their new profession. 9. Although the re maybe truth to the sayi physicians can successfully transition to nursing. 10. Transition to nursing may be an easy and effortless to some; but to others it may be something that requires extra effort not only psychologically but physically, a s well. Definition of Terms and Meaning of Acronyms Throughout this paper, there are terms and acronyms that will be used. To operationalize them, the following definitions and meanings are given : Terms Autonomy degree of discretion and independence a pr actitioner has ( Craven & Hi rnle, 2007, p. 1416). Categories the major units of analysis for grounded theory, and they are defined as abstractions of phenomena that are observed in the data (Chenitz & Swanson, 1986). Culture refers to learned, sh ared and transmitted values, beliefs, norms and lifeway practices of a particular group that guides thinking, decisions, actions and patterned ways (Leininger, 1989, p. 152). Curriculum a planned sequence of course offerings and learning experiences which comprise the nursing education program (Florida Board of Nursing, 2007, p. 18). Lead P eople individuals with P hysician Nurses in their pro fessional and personal networks who helped with participant recruitment.
33 Nurse Medic term used in the Philippines f or a physician who has retrained as a nurse (Galvez Tan et al., 2004). Also called MD Nurse. Nursing I dentity the persona of a professional individual that portrays the expected knowledge, skills, roles, beh aviors, attitudes, values, and norms that are ap propriate and acceptable in the cu lture of the nursing profession Nursing Medics term used in the Philippines to refer to the phenomenon of interpr ofessional migration from medicine to nursing (Galvez Tan et al., 2004). On duty the term used in the Ph rotation. Paradigm the prevailing thought in a specific discipline. Persona the role that an individual assumes and displays in society. Physician Nurse a former physician who has retrained as a nurse. Acronyms APRN Advanced Practice Registered Nurse AS Associate in Science ATLAS.ti German: Archiv fuer Technik, Lebenswelt und Alltagssprache English translation: Archive for technology, the life world and everyday language The extension ti means text interpretation (Bishop & Corti, 2004) BSN Bachelor of Science i n Nursing CGFNS Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools CINAHL Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature
34 COMLEX Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examin ation DNP Doctor of Nursing in Science Practice ECFMG Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates ELMSN Entry Level Master of Science in Nursing FEP/FEPs Foreign E ducated Physician/s FIU Florida International University FNP Family Nurse P ractitioner IELTS International English Language Testing System LPN Licensed Practical Nurse LVN Licensed Vocational Nurse MD NP Physician turned Nurse Practioner NCLEX RN National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses TOEFL Test on English as a Foreign Language U NLV University of Nevada Las V ega s USMLE United States Medical Licensing Examination Chapter Summary This chapter offered an overview of the entire research project. Background information regarding the sensitizing concept s of identity, nursing identity, socialization, anticipatory socialization, professional socialization, and professional socialization to nursing was provided. It was discussed that nursing identity is defined vaguely in extant nursing literature. A n adapt ation of the definition of professional socialization was used to define nursing identity as the persona of a healthcare professional that portrays the expected knowledge, skills, roles, behaviors, attitudes, values, and norms that are appropriate and
35 acce ptable in the culture of the nursing profession. It was asserted that nursing identity is the substantive outcome of professional socialization to nursing, and that socialization to nursing begins in nursing school where students learn the preparatory know ledge and skills, and acquire the qualities and the ideals of the nursing profession. A description of the population of interest the Physician Nurses was provided. It was discussed that there are two distinct groups of Physician Nurses that currently exi st in the US : one group comprise s immigrants already residing in the US who have been unable to obtain licensure to practice medicine in the US, and the other group comprise s immigrants from the Philippines who intentionally re trained as nurses to facilita te their migration to the US. In the face of the current nursing shortage and the national mandate to increase diversity of the US healthcare workforce, it was discussed that MD nurses ar e evolving vital component s of the US and global nursing workforce A steady growth of this unique breed of nurses is foreseen in the future. A brief discussion about international physician migration as well as interprofessional physician migration to nursing was presented. Interprofessional migration was the term used to replace the term MD to Nurse Phenomenon. It was stated that with geographical and interprofessional migration, occupational discontinuity occurs. A comparison of the medical and nursing paradigms was also presented. A table summarizing their differences was presented in Table 1.1 and an expanded narrative discussion of the differenc es of nursing and medical education and nurse physician relationship was also provided. In comparing the two professions, curing was associated with the medical paradigm and c aring was associated with the nursing paradigm. It was asserted that the ability of the Physician Nurses to transcend these differences that makes the phenomenon of interprofessional migration unique. It was mentioned that there are two types of physicians in the US: the doctor of medicine (MD) and
36 the doctor of osteopathy (DO). The statement of the problem listed some ques tions and concerns from leaders in the nursing community that revealed their doubts about the successful transition of physicians to bec ome nurses. The statement of purpose and specific aim s as well as the rationale and significance were also discussed. The purpose was to generate a theory that can explain the basic social psychol ogical process that influenced the development of nursing id entity in foreign educated physicians who have retrained as nurses and who are now practicing in the US. This study was designed to find the answer to the development of nursing identity in foreign educated physicians who have retrained as nurses discover barriers that participants perceived as problematic in their transition to nursing and catalysts that i nfluenced how they addressed the central problem atic issue they articulated. The significance and rationale were framed in the perspective of the domains of nursing research, education, and practice. In the domain of research, it was conceptualized to fill the scientific gap that currently exists regarding the phenomenon of nursing identity development in Physician Nurses In the domain of education, it was conceptualized to help dispel doubts about the likelihood of physicians becoming nurses. In the doma in of practice, it was conceptualized to place value on the contributions of the Physician Nurses to a culturally diverse practice setting. This chapter also presented the position of the researcher in the context of this research study and the list of her biases and assumptions. Definition of terms and meanings of acronyms used throughout this dissertation was also provided. The next chapter Chapter Two will present the literature review regarding interprofessional migration which includes an account of its origins, its current state in terms
37 of theory and knowledge building, and answer s to the questions: (a) What were the driving forces that motivated foreign educated physicians to pursue nursing as their careers in the US? (b) What are the needs and pr oblems encountered by non US native nurses and nursing students during their transition to US ways and US nursing practice?
38 Chapter Two Literature Review When someone stands in the library stacks, he is, meta phori cally, surro unded by voices begging to be heard. Every book, every magazine article, represents at least one person who argue with a range of eloquence, and describe events or scenes in ways entirely comparable to what is seen and heard during fieldwork. The researcher needs only to discover the voices in the library to release them for his analytic use. ~ Glaser and Strauss, 1967, p. 163. During the conceptualization phase of this qualitative research study, an extensive literature review was not conducted to avoid pre conceived researcher bias regarding the topic of study. What was conducted was a limited exploratory literature review regarding the sensitizing concepts and po pulation of interest adequate enough to formulate study methodology. The researcher used three articles pertaining to professional socialization and nursing identity development to conceptualize the study (Du Toit, 1995; Kramer, 1974; MacIntosh, 2003). Dur ing data analysis and concept development, an extensive literature review was conducted to provide the researcher with a comprehensive body of knowledge to help define concepts and clarify relationships in the theory that was emerging from the empirical da ta (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008) The paradox faced by the re searcher was that there was no comprehensive body of kn owledge found directly pertaining to the phen omenon and population under study. Interprofessional m igration and Physician Nurses are novel concepts devoid of established theoretical and empirical foundation s that can be utilized to advance
39 knowledge. Meta phorically the researcher was not surrounded by [clear] voices begging to was surrounded by indiscernible noise needing to be filtered Using the metaphor fi ltering the indiscernible noise the researcher constructed an outline of related topics to re view that would constitute the comprehensive body of knowledge that would help propel her study toward scholarly completion. Chapter Two aims to bring into perspective a three dimensional body of knowledge that directly and indirectly pertain s to interpro fessional migration and to Physician Nurses T he three dimensions of this body of knowledge can be con ceptualized as components of a time capsule characterizing the progression of the phenomenon under study: its past, its present, and its future. For it s p ast, literature about its emergence is reviewed; for its present, current research is reviewed; and for its future, literature about the needs and problems that non US native nurses a nd nu rsing students encounter in their transition to US ways and US nur sing practice is reviewed. Because of the absence of literature directly pertaining to the needs and problems of Physician Nurses in their transition to nursing literature about non US native nurses is relevant because Physician Nurses although they are unique, fit the characterization of being non US native. Concepts can be borrowed from this existing literature to inform future research, education and practice. R eview of literature was accomplished by both computer and manual searches. Computer searc h was conducted through on l ine data bases namely CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Digital Data Base and through internet search engines Google and Yahoo. Electronic co mmunication with topic experts in the Philippines, and w ith researchers in the US was also utilized. Manual searches of books, journals, and newspapers were also conducted.
40 This phase of this study was not without logistical challenges. While conducting the literature search, it became evident early in the un dertaking that several factors would complicate the process. First, empirical literature about the emergence of interprofessional migration was discovered to be nil; therefore, the researcher trekked the unscientific body of popular print and internet medi a literature to accomplish the aim of this first dimension of the review of literature. Internet search of popular media literature using the search engines Yahoo and Google was undertaken. When the search phrase physician retraining as nurse was used, it briefly and most of the articles were discarded. Twelve media articles were i nitially selected that were assessed to be able to shed light to the emergence of interprofessional migration by their ability to provide a chronological account of its origins and to answer the question were the driving forces that motivated foreign educated physicians to pursue nursing added later on. Second, at first glance, the limited current research about interprofessional migration and Physician Nurses o ffered no unifying theme; hence, the researcher was concerned that in presenting them, it may appear as if they were a meaningless bricolage of unconnected studies conducted in different parts of the world. The unifying theme that cuts across them is what they are not they are not studies that directly pertain to the development of nursing identity in Physician Nurses Third was the multi dimensionality of the phenomenon and population of interest which warranted an extensive review of a wide range of topic s that included migration of healthcare professionals, cultural diversity, cultural assimilation or acculturation, accelerated second degree nursing programs for non traditional
41 students, and the integration of non US native nursing professionals into the US mainstream healthcare industry. The researcher felt that conducting and reporting a comprehensive review of literature regarding these topics would provide full understanding of the many dimensions of the central topic of study which subsequently would offer a compelling assessment of the knowledge gap that currently exists. However, by refocusing on the main purpose of the study, the researcher narrowed the additional review to only include the dimension pertaining to the transition process of non US na tive nurses currently training or already practicing as nurses in the US. The researcher fe lt that the descriptive phrase non US native nurses can serve as a proxy to represent the population of interest in this study. This part of the literature review so ught to answer the question, the needs and problems encountered by non US native nurses and nursing students during their transition to US ways and US nursing Fourth was the dearth of literature yield when the key word nursing identi ty was used and the paradoxical massive yield when the key words nursing professional socialization and nursing iden tity development were only yielded 48 items in CINAHL and 22 in PsycIN FO. Using peer reviewed as a delimiter the yield decreased to 17 and 35 items respectively. Visual s canning of the titles further decreased the number of items to two and eight respec tiv ely In contrast, when the keywords nursing identity construction or nursing identity development was used in CINAHL, the yield of the search was in the thousands. This was also true w hen the key words nursing professional socialization combined with nursing identity development were used. To taper down the results of the search, search terms were combined in multiple ways. A dditional search terms included nursing identity construction, accelerated nursing programs, second bachelors degree, and retraining foreign educated
42 physicians. In CINAHL, using a combination of the search terms nursing identity development, nursing identity construction, professional socialization, accelerated nursing progra ms, second bachelors degree, and foreign educated nurses with no delimiters yielded 218 articles for the period between 1 981 to 2009. Source types included all [periodicals, dissertations, CEUs, proceedings]. When delimiters peer reviewed and research article were added the yield became 85. The titles of the articles were scanned and through this process, 30 articles were r ejected decreasi ng the number to 55. A bstracts were read and a final pool of 20 articles were placed in a literature bank to be used during iterations to help define concepts and clarify relationships in the theory that was emerging from the empirical data in this current study. Additional six dissertations were included. The main criterion was that the article had to describe the process of socialization to nursing. With the recursive and iterative nature of data collection, literature review, and data ana lysis in grounded theory, selection of articles about professional socialization to nursing and nursing identity development was greatly influenced by the theory that was emerging from the empirical data in this current study. With the collection of litera ture comprising the three dimensional body of literature that directly and indirectly pertains to the phenomenon and population of interest this chapter is organized into the following major headin gs and subheadings: (a ) the emergence of interprofessional migration with two subheadings the origins of interprofessional migration and d r iving forces t hat motivated FEPs to pursue nursing, (b ) cu rrent research about Phys i cian Nurses, and (c ) the needs and problems that non US native nurses and nursing students encounter in their transition to US w ays and nursing p ractice
43 Examining the Past: The Emergence of Interprofessional Migration The first dimension of this literature review aims to provide an account of the significant past and origins of interprofessi onal migration and to answer the fundamental were the driving forces that motivated FEPs to pursue nursing as their careers The current state of this phenomenon is such that there is very limited empirical literature available t o build knowledge upon. Taking this into consideration, the researcher as stated earlier, trekked the unscientific body of media literature to accomplish the aims of this dimension of the literature review. Fourteen stories featuring narratives about Physi cian Nurses posted in the internet between 1999 and 2009 were selected t o serve as primary data. The main criterion for inclusion of a story was that it provided dated information about retraining programs as well as description of factors that motivated F EPs to pursue nursing (Associated Press, 2003; Burnett III, 2006; Contreras, 2004; Gatbonton, 2004; Gunn Lewis & Smith, 1999; Hatcher, 2007; Jimenez, 2003; Kelly, 2007; Mangan, 2007; Mosqueda, 2006; Ojito, 2009; Rexrode 2007; Ruiz 2004; Thrall, 2008). Addi tional news articles were retrieved that provided information necessary for the construction of a comprehensive chronological account of t he origins of nurse retraining program s for physicians (Adler, 1999; ETA News Release, 2004; K ennedy, Ferri, & Sofer, 2002; Wirkus, 2008) S tories were retrieved using internet search engines Google and Yahoo to to Nurse nurse medics. When these key words were used in CINAHL, PubMed, and OVID, the search yielded zero results.
44 The Origins of Interprofessional Migration The first aim of th is dimension of the literature review was to identify the origins of interprofession al migration. To accomplish this aim, information about nurse retraining programs for immigrant physicians in the US and in other parts of the world was extracted from the media stories. The researcher was cognizant of the limitations of the information sh e was able to obtain from media literature, but she was able to construct a logical and chronological timeline to illustrate the early beginnings of the phenomenon. See Figure 2. 1 It can be hypothesized that the origins of nursing education programs that retrain FEPs to become nurses were modeled after the accelerated second bachelors degree programs which began in the US in 1971 (Miklancie & Davis 2005; Seldomridge & DiBartolo 2005, 2007). The country by country discussion that follows intends to shed lig ht on its early beginnings and to demonstrate that the phenomenon is of global nature. In exploring its origins, it is also important to examine how nursing academicians shaped this phenomenon by scrutinizing sample curricula that were collected during thi s literature review. Scrutiny of curricula is important because socialization to nursing begins in nursing school; however, critical curriculum analysis is beyond the scope of this current study. Therefore, in this context, all sample curricula that the re searcher uncovered were superficially examined and then included Training of Physician Nurses in New Zealand. The article that accounted for the retraining of Chinese immigrant physicians to become nurses in New Zealand (NZ) was a case study and a program evaluation report, but it was included in this category of popular media and internet literature because it provided crucial information for the chronological account of the origins of the phenomeno n of interprofessional migration. The article by Gunn
45 Lewis and Smith (1999) gave the earliest account of physicians retraining as nurses. What can be inferred from this story is that interprofessional migration from medicine to nursing started in NZ. In 1998 and 1999, immigrant physicians resettling in NZ, mostly coming from China, attended the UNITEC Institute of Technology in Auckland to obtain a Bachelors Degree in Nursing. The curriculum was a three year full time program with Figure 2. 1. Chronolo gy of the origins and e volution of nurse retraining programs for i mmigrant p hysicians b, c, d, g, h, j, l W ith certainty that program s still exist to today. a, e, k U n certain if programs still exist today. f, i W ith certainty that program s no longer exist today. i P rogram through the Welcome Back Cen ter in San Diego, CA that awarded AS degree discontinued at Grossmont College l ELMSN program at InterAmerican College currently exists b Physicians in the Philippines retrain as nurses before they immigrate. MAPS = Medical Academy of Post Graduate Studies. ITP = Internationally Trained Physician. NZ = New Zealand. RPN = Registered Practical Nurse.
46 English proficiency requirements. Accelerated curriculum for the Physician to Nurse program did not exist. The ph ysician in the case study debated that it was unfair to require Chinese physicians to undergo a three year retraining program to become nurses while Chinese nurses were only required to attend training as short as six weeks (Gunn Lewis & Smith, 1999). Trai ning of Physician Nurses in the Philippines It is important to note that the Philippines is the leading exporter of nurses to developed countries (Aiken, 2007; Aiken et al., 2004; Brush, Sochalski, & Berger, 2004; Joyce & Hunt, 1982; Lorenzo et al. 2007 ; Perrin, Hagopian, Sales, & Huang, 2007). With the prevailing global demand for nurses and nursing education sector in the Philippines experienced a rapid and unp recedented growth in early 2000. Currently, there are approximately 460 470 nursing colleges (Galvez Tan, 2009) across the nation that offer the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) program and produce about 20,000 nurses per year. In addition to offering the traditional four year undergraduate BSN curriculum, schools in the Philippines have revolutionized the two year accelerated second degree nurse education programs by opening these programs specifically to physicians (Lorenzo et al., 2007). Findings in a 2004 survey showed that at least 40 nursing schools across the country were offering accelerated nursing programs specifically tailored for medical graduates (Galvez Tan et al. 2004; Lorenzo et al., 2007). It is noted in media literature that Filipino p hysicians started making professional transitions to nursing beginning in 1999 (Galvez Tan et al., 2004; Pascual et al. 2003) ; however, one of the participants in this current study indicated that he had colleagues who were in nursing school as early as 1 994. In succeeding years, this trend of physicians becoming nurses became very popular in the
47 Philippines where it has become known as the nursing medic phenomenon. A nurse medic is an individual who holds both MD and RN degrees and who chooses to work as a nurse (Lorenzo et al., 2007 ; Pascual et al., 2003). The Philippines is the first country that intentionally trains its own physician population to become nurses so that they can be employed as nurses in the US and in other developed countries. A prototyp e of a curriculum to retrain physicians to nursing in the Philippines is presented in Appendix A. The Related Learning Experience (RLE) is the equivalent term used to refer to Clinical Experiences. Appendix B summarizes the content and the number of hours required for the RLEs (Villagomeza, 2008). Filipino physicians of all specialties have retrained as nurses. Because of the absence of systematic tracking and trending mechanisms, exact statistics as to how many physicians have retrained as nurses in the P hilippines are not available A study conducted in 2001 revealed that there were approximately 2,000 physicians who became Physician Nurses that year. In 2003, that number increased to approximately 3,000 (Pascual et al., 2003). In 2005, approximately 4,00 0 physicians were actively pursuing nursing education in schools across the country (Galvez Tan, 2006 November ). According to an estimate by the Philippine Hospital Association (PHA), 80% of all public sector physicians were currently or had already retra ined as nurses in 2004 (Lorenzo et al., 2007). The current estimates indicate that there are approximately 9,000 to 11,000 Filipino Physician Nurses today ( J. Galvez Tan, personal communication, July 26, 2009). Training of Physician Nurses in Israe l The retraining of physicians to nursing in Israel came as a response to the need of immigrant physicians from the former Soviet Union who either were unable to pass the Israeli physician certification exams or who decided to
48 av oid the process of physician re l icensure from the beginning. From 1989 to 2001, there were approximately one million immigrants to Israel and a large percentage consisted of physicians. Remennick & Shakhar (2003) indicated that the retraining of former physicians to nursing was opposed by Nurses Union; therefore no physicians were retrained to nursing. It was found that t his was inconsistent with the paper by Adler (1999) which reported that nursing retraining programs for physicians became part of the government retraining programs for immigrant healthcare professionals. The inconsistency was clarified with Remennick through electron ic communication. She responded stating, major retraining stream of that kind, as far as I know. Some individuals or small groups may hav ( L. Remmenick, personal communication, August 5, 2009). The report by Adler (1999) regarding the existence of nurse retraining programs for physici ans in Israel was supported by an article by K ennedy, Ferri, and Sofer (2002) stating that Israel had the experience of retraining FEPs to become nurses. The authors quoted Nursing at the Ministry of Health in Jerusalem asserting that success of the FEPs in their new profession begin at the very start of the conversion course and be supp orted and reinforced after the doctor 4). In search ing for additional evidence it was also identified that the Barzilai Medical Center School of Nursing loca ted in Ashkelon, Israel offers a career retraining program for physicians and graduates of other academic professions to nursing ( Barzilai Medical Center School of Nursing 2009).
49 Due to the inconsistency that was found in the literature and in the resul t of the with Remmennick it is not totally clear when t he retraining programs started in Israel. It can deduced that they probably started in 1999 or dated December that year. Trainin g of Physician Nurses in the US In the US, the Florida International University in Miami offers an innovative nursing education program that retrains FEPs to become nurses with a BSN degree. The FEP to BSN Track is an accelerated program requiring the com pletion of 123 credits of didactic coursework, clinicals, and community pr ojects over five semesters (FIU, 2007). Appendix C outlines the curriculum of the FIU program. Its development was in response to an initial request for nurse training by a group of Cuban trained physicians who were residents of Miami but who were not licensed to practice medicine in the US (Mangan, 2007). Global interest in the program became evident very early in its conceptualization with inquiries from physicians in the Philippine s, Haiti, and Nicaragua, as well as from American born physicians who trained outside the US (Peters, 2002). For its first cohort of 40 students who started the program in May 2002, FIU screened more than 500 applicants and graduated 32 in December 2003 ( Clinical Rounds, 2004). For the second cohort, 632 students vied for 60 slots. Forty percent of the applicants were from Cuba, and 40% came from other Latin American and Caribbean countries. The other 20% came from India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Romania (Ma ngan, 2007). The program was initially approved by the Florida Board of Nursing in 1998 but lack of funding delayed its implementation. In 2002, four hospitals in Miami and Fort Lauderdale provided funding; then in 2004, a federal grant of $1.4 million adm
50 Growth Job Training Initiative was awarded to FIU to fund the expansion of the program (Clinical Rounds, 2004; ETA News Release, 2 004; Grossman & Jorda, 2008). In August 2004, the FIU program branched out to Orlando, Florida through distance education method with 10 students (D. Grossman, personal communication, November 21, 2008). In January 2007, in partnership with Hospital Corpor program added the Largo, Florida cohort with 13 students. These students were from Bulgaria, Colombia, Cuba, Nicaragua, Philippines, and Russia and were chosen from a pool of almost 200 applicants (Rexrode, 2007). According to the faculty coordinator of the program, FIU has graduated approximately 300 Physician Nurses as of December 2007 (S. Simon, personal communication, 2008). This number has increased to approximately 500 as of August 2009 (D. Grossman, p ersonal communication, August 17, 2009). In the US west coast, a program administered by the San Diego Welcome Back Center in partnership with Grossmont College in El Cajon, California retrain ed internationally educated physicians to become nurses. The pro gram was able to place more than 100 immigrant physicians in the mainstream of the US healthcare industry by retraining them as nurses since 2004 ( Wirkus, 2008). The curriculum at Grossmont College was a 14 month program and awarded graduates with an assoc iate degree. Grossmont College no longer offers the nurse retraining program for physicians. Another program is now offered at the InterAmerican College (IAC) in National City, California (C. Girsch, personal communication, August 3, 2009). The first grou p of 15 students at IAC who started in May 2008 will be graduating in December 2009 (V. Glaser, personal communication, August 3, 2009). The program at IAC is a pre licensure, post baccalaureate entry level Master of Science in Nursing (ELMSN) program. Sti pulations for eligibility for admission into the
51 program state that applicants must possess a bachelors level degree from an accredited US college or university or its equivalent from a foreign country as documented by an authorized Foreign Credentialing Service. It further stipulates that applicants who do not possess the equivalent of a US bachelors level degree but are graduates of a medical school in a foreign country may enroll in the IAC Bachelor of Science Degree Program so that they can progress to the ELMSN. The purpose of the ELMSN program is to prepare students for RN positions as generalists. Upon successful completion the ELMSN program, graduates are eligible to take the California NCLEX RN Examination (InterAmerican College, 2009) See Appendi x D for the ELMSN curriculum. by the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) to train physicians to become family nurse practitioners (FNPs). This program, exclusively designed for Filipino phy sicians who have BSN degrees, is a joint venture between the UNLV and St. Jude College in Manila, Philippines (UNLV, 2007). Alpert, personal communication, April 16 2008). The Physician to FNP students spend 18 hours a week in clinical training. The vis ion of Carolyn Yucha, PhD, RN, d ean of the School of Nursing at UNLV is that the physician s who train in the St. Jude MSN Pro gram will develop a relationship with UNLV and will practice or teach in Nevada when they immigrate to the US (Howard, 2006). Other a ccelerated programs known to have retrained FEPs to entry level nursing, but not o n an exclusive basis such as FIU, incl ude the Miami Dade College in Florida (Hatcher, 2007) and the Cuyahoga Community College in Ohio (Mangan, 2007).
52 Training of Physician Nurses in Canada The limited literature found in the internet about nursing retraining program in Canada does not provi de adequate information to allow for the logical sequencing of events that led to the development of interprofessional migration ther e. It can be inferred that a Physician to Nurse education program at Mohawk College in Hamilton, Ontario existed before 200 3. The program taught Chinese anesthesiologists, Iranian general practitioners, and Pakistani gynecologists medication dispensing and clinical nursing techniques (Jimenez, 2003). The program which had approximately 160 international medical graduates as st that took effect in 2005 mandating that all new RNs must have Bachelor of Science degrees (Jimenez, 2003; [RNAO] n.d.). As of April 2008 a pilot program at Conestoga College which started in August 2007 was training 13 internationally trained health professionals, including nine physicians to earn degrees as registered practical nurses (RPNs), a degree similar to the Licensed Practical Nu rse in the US. Students comprising this group were chosen from an applicant pool of 36. The program is a joint effort between the Waterloo Wellington Training and Adjustment Board and Conestoga College and is funded by a grant from the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration and from the Citizenship and Immigration Canada (Kelly, 2007). Training of Physician Nurses in Russia In St. Petersburg, Russia, a n MD Nurse Diploma P rogram in is being offered to medical graduates at the St. Petersburg State Medical to Nurse program is to award nursing diplomas to physicians trained in Russia so that they can qualify to sit for the Com mission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools International (CGFNS) and NCLEX RN examinations and
53 immigrate to the US with a green card. Information provided to potential applicants is that they will use the two year contract period working as nurses to prepare to pursue their respective professional medical careers. The intent of this program is to make nursing the route by which medical graduates from Russia facilitate their entry to the US and make nursing their temporary careers while they pursue the certification requirements of the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) (Mosqueda, 2006). Description of the curriculum for the MAPS MD Nurse Diploma states: The purpose of education is the reorientation of medical graduates to acq uire theoretical knowledge and the practical skills, corresponding to the educational standards required to work as a first level registered nurse and to improve the general level of nursing care; and the educational task is to acquire theoretical knowledg e and practical skills, necessary to work as first level registered nurse that corresponds to the educational standard in the field of Medical Surgical nursing, psychology, and psychiatric nursing, Maternal and Infant nursing, nursing care of the new b orn, Pediatric nursing and also to understand the features of nursing process in the care of elderly persons, to know basics of Community health nursing and to understand necessary diagnostic and med ical procedures. The submitted program is prepared on the basis of the three year program of training in nursing and meets the requirements of the [United] State educational standards. The sample curriculum used in Russia is presented in Appendix F. Driving Forces that Motivate d FEPs to Pursue Nursing This seco nd segment of the first dimension of the literature review intends to answer the fundamental question, were the driving forces that motivated FEP s to pursue a qualitative analy sis of the 14 print and media stories as primary data sources was conducted. A collective case study design was used with each story representing one case. Text d ata were analyzed using content and context analysis, specifically cross case analysis. Cross case analysis facilitated the exploration, description, and in depth analysis of text data extracted from the
54 source documents, and it allowed for the identification and discovery of key words, patterns, themes, concepts, and the relationships among concep ts from across the cases. Immersion in the data facilitated the formation of categorical groupings of the key words, themes, and concepts. The variable oriented approach or clustering technique one that deals basically with the relationships among the conc epts, was utilized. Clustering is an intuitive, first level process that is analogous to ordinary coding. This approach allowed for the themes and the patterns that cut across all cases to appear (Miles & Huberman 1994). To facilitate cross case analysis, a case level display of partially ordered meta matrix was created ( Appendix G ) This display presents each story as a case and key words and ph rases that have been extracted from every case are listed. Visual scanning of the case level display was done fol lowed by a more in depth content analysis. Through content and cross case analysis, i dentifying similarities and clustering keywords in patterns were accomplished. This made it possible to create a content analytic structure consisting of 10 component part s (Appendix H ). This was more manageable than the raw data of hundreds of text from the 14 documents. The 10 c lusters were identified as the factors that influenced the decision of FEPs to pursue nursing. The factor cluster labels were: (a ) economic; (b ) s ocio cultural ; (c ) political; (d ) factors related to immigration; (e ) factors related to the availability of education programs for FEPs ; (f ) f actors related to regulatory requirements for physician licensure in host country ; (g ) factors rel ated to the worldview that medicine and nursing are professions of equal value; (h ) factors related to better job opportunities as nurse s in the US than as physicians in home country; (i ) factors related to family dynam ics; and (j ) factors related to und eremployment and underutilized medical talent.
55 While the 10 clusters of factors were forming, the data was concurrently analyzed to see what conceptual framework was emerging. From the 10 clusters, four major categories became apparent. These four categor ies emerged through the process of subsuming the particulars into the general (Miles & Huberman, 1994). The four cat egories were labeled as forces and they were display ed using a conceptually ordered content analytic summary table ( Table 2.1 ) and a concept ual diagram (Figure 2.2 ) These forces were named in the context of the relationship of the FEPs to themselves, to their families, to their professions, and to the wider society; hence they were labeled as (1) individual driven forces, (2) family driven forces, (3) profession driven forces, and (4) society driven forces. Force is synonymous to the terms strength, energy, vigor, and power (Agnes & Laird, 2002). The term force in the context of this analysis is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct that motivates and drives individuals to pursue actions toward the hierarchical fulfillment of basic human needs from physical needs through the better economic gains attained by becoming a nurse s for the US and glob al markets to self actualization throug h the psychological lift resulting from the removal of the self from underemployment. Individual driven forces. These are the factors that are internal to the individual. This major category is made up of the clus ter of factors that are within the self an d include the impact of underemployment and underutilized medical talent while working in careers and low paying jobs outside of medicine or nursing. In their new country, FEPs had series of minimum wage jobs to support their families: bellman, delivery dr iver, dishwasher, hotel cleaner, grocery stocker, housekeeper, janitor, landscaper, mover, personal support worker,
56 Table 2.1 Driving Forces that Motivate Foreign educated P hysicians to Pursue Nursing 1 Individual driven Forces 2 Family driven Forc es 3 Profession driven Forces 4 Society Drive Forces Factors related to underemployment and underutilized medical talent Factors related to family dynamics Factors related to regulatory requirements for US physician licensure Economic factor s Factors related to the availability of nursing retraining programs Socio cultural factors Medicine and nursing viewed as professions of equal value Political Factors Better job opportunities in the US as nurses Factors related to imm igration Figure 2. 2 Driving F orces that Motivate F oreign educated Physicians to Pursue N ursing
57 pizza delivery, produce sorter, security guard, taxi driver, or waitress. FEPs also worked in healthcare facilities as medical recorder, medical reco rds clerk, or phlebotomist. Family driven forces. These are the factors that stem out from the influence of the priority of supporting their families as only secondary to pur suing licensure to become physicians. Family build a more promising future for them in the US a country with higher standard of living. Profession driven forces. These are factors in herent to the professions of medicine and nursing whether in the US or in other developed countries This major category includes the cluster of factors related to regulatory requirements for physician licensure in the US such as the three part licensing examination required by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) followed by mandatory training under US standards. This is also true in Canada and NZ. Physican Nurses identified this factor cluster as a major hindrance in their abi lity to practice as physicians in the ir new countries. In this major category, it is important to note that FEPs who become Physician Nurses view medicine and nursing as professions of equal value. This is contrary to the assumption of the general public t hat pursuing nursing is a downward professional mobility for them. T hey perceive being a doctor or being a nurse as both important because both are noble professions. In their perspective, n ursing is as much about caring as doctoring This category also in cludes factors related to better job opportunities as nurses in US than as physicians in their home countr ies. In the Philippines p oor working conditions exist and the j ob market for medical graduates is not good This is i n contrast to the better working conditions as nurses in the US or in other developed countries. There are more employment, training, and career growth opportunities
58 as nurses in developed countries than as physicians in their ho me countr ies. This category also includes the availability of nursing retraining program s especially designed for FEPs that allow them to continue working while going to school and that give credit for courses they have taken as part of their medical training. In Canada, they also have retraining programs funded by the government. Society driven f orces These are the forces that are present in the wider society. In this analysis, the clusters of factors that comprise this major category include economic, socio cultural, political, and immigration factors Salaries are v ery low in home countries for physicians. In Cuba as a doctor, one is fortunate if earnings have an equivalence of $30 per month. In the Philippines, most doctors earn between US$300.00 to $1,000.00 per month. In 2002, median gross annual income for self employed physicians was reported as P 230,347.75 [ P hilippine Pesos ] equivalent to US$4,189.00 calculated at the prevailing dollar exchange rate during that time of P54.98[ P hilippine Pesos] per dollar Medical retraining in the US and Canada is very ex pensive, lengthy, and impossible for some. Even after spending significant amounts of money to prepare and pass licensing examinations, FEPs are not assured of acceptance to residency programs. Socio cultural factors include the enormous challenges prevent ing transition to a medical career because of language barrier, cultural differences, and in home country and feeling of hopelessness related to political unc ertainty; poor peace and order; and corruption. Factors exist related to immigration because it is less arduous to obtain a US visa as a registered nurse than as a physician.
59 Relevance of this Dimension of Literature Review This first dimension of the past and early beginnings by describing its origins from a global perspective and by answering the question about the driving forces that motivated FEPs to pursue nursing. This dimension of the lite rature review contributed to the evolving body of knowledge about this research domain by transforming data found in popular media literature into a systematic body of knowledge. This initial systematic body of knowledge is anticipated to incite further sc holarly inquiry regarding this phenomenon. From the themes that emerged in the analysis of the 14 media stories, it can be concluded that the motivating factors for FEPs to pursue nursing is an interplay of the push and pull forces of migration and of Masl hierarchy of human needs This means that FEPs are motivated and are driven to pursue actions toward the hierarchical fulfillment of basic human needs beginning with the primal and most basic physical needs to higher level psychological needs such as self actualization Examining the Present: Current Research About Physician Nurses The second dimension of the review of literature focuses on research studies that currently exist regarding the phenomenon and population under study. Nine empirical artic les were identified. Two of the studies were available only in their abstract forms. Due to the current scarcity of existing research in this domain, all available articles whether published or unpublished wer e analyzed to appraise what they might be able to contribute to the emerging concepts in this current study Critical and systematic analysis of each study was conducted (Moody et al. 1986), Version 2004, a 46 item comprehensive research analysis tool Table 2. 2 pr ovides a summary of the purpose and
60 Table 2.2 Summary A c ross Current Studies: Purpose/Outcomes Studies Setting Purpose Instruments Outcomes/Conclusions Gunn Lewis and Smith (1999) New Zealand Describe and assess effe ctiveness of session address language and communication barriers that physicians retraining as nurs es from non English speaking backgrounds (NESB) encountered during their clinical training. Interview Chinese physicians experience diminished self es teem retraining as nurses in NZ. Support sessions effective in addressing language and communication barriers in NESB. Pascual, Marcaida, & Salvador (2005) Philippines Explore history of nurse migration in the Philippines; determine reasons why Fili pino doctors are taking up nursing Semi structured interviews Reasons for shift to nursing related to push and pull factors of human migration; economic factor main reason. See Table 2.1. Galvez Tan, Sanchez, & Balanon (2004) Philippines Explore mu ltifaceted causes of nursing medics phenomenon; examine major consequences of phenomenon to healthcare delivery system in the Phil. Key informants Reasons for shift to nursing similar to Pascual et al. See Table 2.1. Lorenzo, Galvez Tan, Icamina, &Jav ier (2007) Philippines Describe nurse migration patterns in the Philippines and their benefits and costs Focus Groups Shortage of skilled nurses and massive retraining of physicians to become nurses have created severe problems for health system Pobl ete (2007) a Philippines Examine nursing medics phenomenon in the Philippines, particularly the participation of men Interviews Participant observation Phenomenon consequence of state policy that fosters export of workers. Meaning of migration to particip ants = means of working on self, reconstituting self as new kind of man, a different category of professional, and a novel type of citizen
61 Table 2.2 (C ontinued) Summary Across Current Studies: Purpose/Outcomes Studies Setting Purpose Instruments Outcomes/Conclusions Jorda (2005) US Explore whether former physicians can be socialized into nursing by comparing three groups of students (1) generic/basic BSN students; (2) RNs pursuing BSN; and (3) FEPs pursuing nursing. Healthcare Profe ssional Attitude Inventory (SHCPAI) Differences in demographic data noted; no significant differences in socialization scores. Study concluded that socializations of physicians into nursing was possible Grossman & Jorda (2008) US Determine effectiveness of the New Americans in Nursing Accelerated Program by collecting data on 3 program outcomes SHCPAI for the measurement of socialization. CCTDI b for the measurement of Critical Thinking Skills. Accelerated program demonstrated success in educating un licensed FEPs to become US nurses. Jauregui and Xu (2008) US Examine the transition into practice of Filipino nurse medics in the nurse practitioner role. Interviews Four themes: Unfamiliarity with US health insurance policies ; Limited scope of p ractice and legal requirement to have physician collaborator; Working in a litigious environment ; Having education and experience as physician facilitated transition to NP role. Vapor and Xu (2008) US Describe and interpret the lived experiences of F ilipino physician turned nurses in the US Interviews Experiences of participants involved multi dimensional issues, both in the context of emigration and shift from physician to nurse. Note. a Poblete also interviewed five nurses practicing in California Nursing Homes before and after his fieldwork in the Philippines. b CCTDI = California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory
62 outcomes of the studies and Table 2.3 provides a summary of the theoretical background and design of the studies. T he organizing framework in presenting the synopsis of each study is acco rding to the country where each was conducted. Profile of Studies Four studies (44.5%) were conducted in the Philippines, four (44.5%) in the US and one (11%) in New Zealand. Three st udies (33%) had been published in refereed journals (Grossman & Jorda, 2008; Lorenzo et al., 2007; Pascual et al., 2005). A copy of the published version of Pascual et al. (2005) was not able to be obtained so the unpublished version (2003) which was obt ained by the researcher from the primary author was used in this analysis. The research of Jauregui & Xu (2008) US has been accepted for publication in a refereed journal ( Y. Xu, personal communication, June 29, 2009 ) The number of authors ranged from on e to four. Cumulative total was 19. Three studies (33%) had 1 author, three (33%) had two authors, two (22%) had three authors, and one (11%) had four authors. Of the 19 authors, one ( 5.3 %) was a Physician Nurse three (15.8%) were registered nurses with d octoral degrees, one (5.3%) was a physician, one (5.3%) was an Anthropology undergraduate student, one (5.3%) was a nursing graduate student and 12 (63.2%) were either bachelors or masters prepared in the field of healthcare or sociology. Profile of Subjec ts in Studies Except for the thre e variant cases in the study by Pascual et al. (2003), all participants were physicians training to become nurses or they were physicians already licensed as nurses. See Table 2. 3 for sample sizes. All participants b elonge d to the Asian and Hispanic minority groups
63 Table 2.3 Summary Across Current Studies: Theoretical Background/Design Studies Theoretical Background/ Conceptual Model Major Analytic Design Specific Study design Sample Size Gunn Lewis and Smith (1999) Qualitative Case Study Intervention 1 Chinese MD Nursing Student (case study) 10 Chinese MD Nursing students (intervention study) Pascual, Marcaida, & Salvador (2003) Critical Social Science Perspective Qualitative Descriptive 21 doc tors (18 taking up nursing; 3 not taking up nursing) Galvez Tan, Sanchez, and Balanon (2004) The Pull and Push Theory of Human Migration (implied) Qualitative Case study Descriptive 19 (Study #1) 37 (Study #2) Lorenzo, Galvez Tan, Icamina, & Javie r (2007) The Pull and Push Theory of Human Migration (implied) Case Study Descriptive 48 focus groups Poblete (2007) Human migration (implied) Qualitative Ethnography Descriptive 6 licensed nurse medics 3 nurse medic students Jorda (2005) Soc iological theories of Professional Socialization: Niklas Luhmann & Pierre Bourdieu Quantitative Comparative Descriptive 76 total (32 generic; 19 RN to BSN; 25 FEP to BSN) Grossman & Jorda (2008) Quantitative Descriptive Measurement of program outcomes Variable : 76 (socialization) 40 (critical thinking) 120 (NCLEX RN Pass Rates) Jauregui and Xu (2008) Qualitative Phenomenology Descriptive Interpretive 8 MD NPs a Vapor and Xu (2008) Qualitative Pheno menology Descriptive Interpretive 8 MD NPs b Note. a,b There is some overlap in the participants between the two studies (Y. Xu personal communication. October 14, 2009).
64 Research Purpose, Study Design, Instruments, and Data Collection As seen in Tables 2 .2 and 2.3, analysis of the purposes of the studies showed that the majority (78%) were exploratory and descriptive with the other 22% as effectiveness studies that evaluated program outcomes. Seven studies (78%) were qualitative and two studies (22%) were quantitative. Data collection for the qualitative studies were mostly done by interviews but isolated studies also used focused groups and participant observation. One of the quantitative studies conducted in the US employed a survey method for data coll ection and the other one used data from the university program outcomes. Summaries of Studies Research in New Zealand. The primary purpose of this study by Gunn Lewis and upport address the language and communication barriers that nursing students from non English speaking backgrounds (NESB) encountered during their clinical training. The support sessions were an intervention in response to identified needs of NESB nursing students in their struggles with the profound language and communication barriers they were experiencing. The classes were one hour sessions held weekly which consi s ted of four components: (a) role playing in communication techniq ues wherein dyads were created student nurse to nurse and student nurse to client (b) discussion and analysis of langua ge used for specific functions, (c) vocabulary, and (d) pronunciation o f particularly troublesome phonemes and new vocabulary items. The role playing were video taped and were played back fo r peer and tutor feedback. The support sessions were effective in addressing the
65 language and communication barriers that nursing student s from NESB were encountering while starting out in NZ. A case study of a Chinese physician named Jiang [pseudonym] who immigrated to NZ in 1996 and who started retraining as a nurse in February 1998 was used to put this study in the appropriate context. J narratives about the process of transition from being a physician from one country to a nurse in another country. It also explained the barriers that immigrant physicians in NZ faced when a ttempting to obtain licensure to practice medicine. The reasons in NZ were found to be identical to the reasons in the US which included the difficult medical licensure requirements, different language, and different culture. Medical licensure consisted of three steps which needed to be completed over three years. The first two examinations were written examinations and the third one was a practical examination in the clinical setting. Diagnosing and prescribing treatment were identified as not being issue s because the Chinese immigrant physicians were confident with their clinical skills. It was the language and the manner of speaking of the examining doctors that posed the problems. ion skills for clinical practice. Jiang was identified to have significant English language deficits. His clinical tutor expressed concerns about his ability to understand and to be understood especially during telephone conversations. He was considered un safe because of his perceived English language deficits. He failed his first year of nursing school but through an appropriate appeal process, he was allowed to move on to his second year of nursing school. Prior to commencing his second year, he worked di ligently on improving his English skills by working voluntarily in the rest home where he had his first year clinical experience. This
66 activity which he completed during his three month holiday break helped him with his communication skills. With improved English, he began his second year of nursing school. This time, Jiang received positive feedback about his clinical and communication skills. Staff members were impressed with his clinical skills and asked him if he had been a doctor in China. Jiang said h e was just a nursing student in China. This statement from Jiang indicated his desire not to be open about his status as a physician in his home country while now a nursing student in NZ Lewis & Smith, 1999, p. 4). On a broader perspective, beyon d his own, Jiang articulated the dilemma of Chinese immigrant physicians about shifting to nursing as follows: Many doctors from my country come here. Only some study to be nurses. For many, it want to shift their positions. It is a waste. It is very hard to make the decision. I know some Chinese doctors who have post graduate training in America, Japan, Britain get registered here. So some of them have shops and dairies. It is a waste; it is hard. hard. It is very hard. With Jiang as a representative case, this study identified problematic issues that Chinese immigrant physicians experienced when they were starting out as immigrants in NZ These difficulties were mostly rooted in language difficulties and culture shock rather than in scholastic inadequacies. Cul ture shock was identified as having two dimensions the shock of the NZ culture and the shock of assuming the status of nursing students from being physicians or surgeons. Additionally, they faced difficulties because of different expectations of teachi ng learning styles and because of their prior background knowledge of academic
67 areas. The latter was a significant issue because they felt insulted that they had to be assessed on materials that seemed so basic Research in the Philippines Pascual, Marcai da, and Salvador (2003) conducted a study using the critical social perspective to explore the history of nursing migration in the Philippines, determine the reasons why Filipino doctors were taking up nursing, discuss the different factors that interplay that urge them to study nursing and propose recommendations to address the m atter. This was a qualitative research study with 21 participants. Eighteen participants were enrolled in nursing and three were not. The three physicians served as variant cases to provide a broader picture by getting the perspective of physicians who decided not to pursue nursing. Nurse medic was the term they use d to refer to a physician who has re trained as a nurse or an individual with b oth MD and RN titles who chose to work as a nurse. Nursing medics phenomenon was the term they used to refer to the phenomenon of physicians shifting their careers to nursing. Pascual et al discovered that all types of physicians, regardless of age, sex, or specialty were joining the nursing medics bandwagon: anesthesiologists, general practitioners, obstetricians, pediatricians, surgeons, etc. In the classroom nursing faculty address ed them as doctors I n the clinical areas when they were on duty as students, they had to assume the identity of nursing students and not as physici an s ; however it appeared that f aculty still addressed them as doctor The authors stated th at during training, nurse medic students had difficulty in nursing topics such as community interventions and nursing care. N urse medic students complete d clinical hour s which they refer to as being on duty but many generic nurses voiced concerns that nurse medic students did not get sufficient training in nursing ski lls. The duties on the ward such as changing bed sheets beca me a tough reality check for them. There were anecdotal accounts that indicate d
68 that some nurse medic students especi ally established consultants did not attend nursing classes but they still obtain ed a nursing diploma This was identified as a major socio p olitical issue within the Philippine nursin g education system which impacted and continually impact s the quality of nu rses produced. N urse medic students ke p t their nursing studies a secret to the extent possible, even among their families and colleagues. Their secrets usually were first revealed when their names appeared in the list released by the media of successful Philippine Nursing Board Exam inees Once physicians obtain ed their diplomas, they immigrate d to the US or to other developed countries. The reasons why Filipino doctors shifted their careers to nursing were identified as directly related to the push and pull factors of human migration. A summary of these reasons is provided in Table 2.4. It is important to note that the reasons listed in this research study mimics the reasons identified in the media stories. The main factor identified was the economic factor. To put this factor in context, a comparison of the basic monthly salaries of nurses worldwide is presented in Table 2 5 Galvez Tan, Sa nchez, and Balanon (2004) authored a paper that explored the multifaceted causes of the nursing medic s phenomenon, a phenomenon which they described of the box phenomenon in health human resource development, never before seen 2). They also examined the major consequences of the phenomenon to the healthcare delivery system in the Philippines and provided strategic solutions to be acted upon globally and nationally to prevent an impending health crises and health human resource s disaster in the Philippines. Because the socio political impact of the phenomenon in the Philippines is beyond the scope of this study, such impact will not be included in the discussion of this study. In the narrative version of the paper, the authors did not discuss their study methodology, but they did so in an accompanying power point presentation (Galvez
69 Tan, Balanon, & Sanchez, n.d.). Using a case study methodology, the authors explored the phenomenon as it existed in Southern Philippines. Case Stu dy #1 was about 19 nurse medics in Davao del Sur and Case Study #2 was about 37 nurse medics in Cotabato. Davao del Sur and Cotabato are both provinces in Mindanao, the big island in Southern Philippines. The reasons identified in this study why physicians pursue nursing are identical as the findings in the study by Pasc ual et al. (2003). See Table 2.4 Lorenzo, Galvez Tan, Icamina, and Javier (2007) conducted a Philippine case study to describe the nurse migration patterns in the Philippines and their bene fits and costs. Although the main focus of this study was not the nursing medic phenomenon, it is included in this review because i t further illuminated the nursing medic phenomenon in the context of the wider Philippine healthcare system. It also provided a comparison of the profiles of generic nurses and nurse medics by drawing on data from the study conducted by Lorenzo (2005), Pascual et al. (2003), and from 48 focus groups held in five urban and rural localities. The profile of the migrant generic nur ses revealed that they were predominantly female, young in their early twenties, single and come from middle income backgrounds (Lorenzo et al., 2005). The paper did not specify exact statistics but it was stated that few of the mi grant generic nurses had master s level education and the majority had the basic university education[BSN]. Many had specialization in intensive care, emergency room, and operating room nursing and had one to 10 years of service in the Philippines before migration. On the other han d, the profile of the migrant nurse medics showed a slightly different set of characteristics. They were also predominantly female, but were older (37 years old and older), more likely to be married, and had higher incomes. Twenty four percent were single and 76%
70 Table 2.4 The Push and Pull Factors of International and Interprofessional Migration of Filipino Physicians Push Factors Pull Factors Economic Low salary as a physician No overtime or hazard pay, poor health insurance coverage Higher in come as a nurse [in the US] than as a physician [in home country] Better benefits and compensation package Job Related Poor working conditions Inadequate resources to perform function [as a doctor in the Philippines] which include lack of facilities Decreased stature of doctors Exclusivity of some physician practices leading to the exclusion of doctors not coming from family of physicians Hospital politics, greed, and professional jealousy Better working conditions Nursing deemed as a challenge Nu rsing perceived as a more caring profession More opportunities for career growth Better and constant trainings provided More options in working hours Can work even over the age of sixty Personal and Family Related Peer pressure [everybody else is doing i t] Opportunity for family to migrate Opportunity to travel and learn other cultures Higher standard of living Socio political and Economic Environment Limited opportunities for employment Decreased health budget Socio political and economic instability in the Philippines Threat of malpractice law and compulsory malpractice insurance Peace and order problem Advanced technology Better socio political and economic stability Immigration Related Difficult to obtain US visa as a doctor Easier to obtain a U S visa as a nurse than as a doctor Note. Z. Reasons why Filipino doctors take up nursing: A critical social science perspectiv by F. M. Lorenzo et al., 2007. These illustrate that the reasons that were identified from media stories are similar with those identified in empirical studies.
71 Table 2.5 Basic Monthly Salary of Nurses Worldwide Basic Monthly Salary Philippines Singapore Saudi Arabia UK US Philippine Pesos P8,500 a P42,000 P54,000 P119,000 P216,000 Currency Equivalent S$ 1,400 R 3,724 £1,408 $4, 521 RN b $2,873 LPN c US Dollar Equivalent $177 $875 $1,125 $2,479 $4,376 % Increase 390% 530% 1300% 2900% Taxes 10% 15% None 23% 30% Net Salary P7,650 P35,700 P54,000 P91,630 P151,200 Note. From a Average basic salary of a nurse in the Philippi nes varies widely depending upon employer. In 2004, a nurse at the Philippine Heart Center was earning a basic salary of P12,000, approximately equivalent to US$250 (G. Calub, personal communication, October 21, 2009). b ,c RN and LPN salaries are calculated averages per month of data obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008 09 edition. were married with an average of one to three children (Pascual et al., 2003). Income of nurse medics as physicians in the Philippines had a wide range depending upon where they work ed : from below US $2,400 to US$9,600 annually The majority (63%) had 10 years or more of physician experience. Their previous medical specialties are presented in Table 2. 6 The US was identified as the top d estination country for migration. The researchers gave the following discourse to summarize their principal findings:
72 The Philippines is a job scarce environment and, even for those with jobs in the healthcare sector, poor working conditions often motivat e nurses to seek employment overseas. The country has also become dependent on labor migration to ease the tight domestic labor market. National opinion has generally focused on the improved quality of life for individual migrants and their families, and o n the benefits of remittances to the nation. However, a shortage of highly skilled nurses and the massive retraining of physicians to become nurses elsewhere have created severe problems for the Filipino health system, including the closure of many hospita ls (p. 1406). Table 2. 6 Previous Medical Specialties of Filipino Nurse Medics in Studies Previous Medical Specialty Percentage Internal/General Medicine / Family Medicine 43 % Pediatrics 14% Surgery 8% Pathology 6% Orthopedics, Obstetri cs, Anesthesiology, and Public Health 29% Poblete (2007) conducted an ethnographic research study to examine the nursing medic s phenomenon in the Philippines, particularly the participation of men, while he was an undergraduate summer research fellow a t the University of California, Berkeley. He was very interested with the participation of men in this phenomenon because of his worldview of nursing as a profession for women and as a profession of lower status than medicine. He nurse entails that these men cross both professional and gendered His field work was conducted mainly in the Philippines. The setting of his study was a large tertiary hospital located in the city of Manila. He conducted his observation s over a period of 10 weeks encompassing the period of June to August 2006. Study participants were nine male physicians, six of whom were nurse medics and three were nurse
73 medic students. He also co nducted some field work at two nursing homes in Californi a before and after his Philippine field work Although h is main focus was the participation of men in this phenomenon he interviewed a combination of five male and female nurses during the California phase of his study Poblete did not specifically exami ne the process of professional transition of nurse medics to nursing; however, he offered an exemplar of how a second course nursing education program designed for physicians taught doctors how not to be doctors. He discussed the importance of clinical rot ations but observed that nurse medic students were not given much to do during clinical rotations. He discovered the rationale for this through the words of Ms. Gomez [pseudonym], the lead clinical instructor He was told that the nurse medic students alr eady possess the clinica l knowledge they need as nurses. T he main challenge was c hanging their attitudes and their role s at the bedside In his report, Poblete describe d his observations of the teaching learning continuum in nurse medics as follows : There are other things to learn as well. Whereas doctors are expected to approach each patient clinically and with detachment, nurses are supposed to be softer and more caring This, too, must be practiced during s bedsides, nursi ng medics in training practice softer kinds of care, making small talk with patients, changing soiled sheets, and engaging in non c s moods and feelings. They fill out charts and make recommendations, and afterwards, Ms. Gome z checks their work, removing things that go out of bounds and excising language that sounds too clinical, too doctor like. (p. 11) In summary, r esearch in the Philippines regarding the nursing medics p henomenon is mostly focused on the socio political an d economic aspects. Isolated narratives about the diff iculty of nurse medics to shift their mind set from being a physician to being a nurse is mentioned peripherally but topics about how they so cialize to nursing or how they develop their nursing identity is absent.
74 Research in the US Jorda (2005) conducted a quantitative Can The purpose of her study was to explore whether former physicians can be socialized into nursing, a profession that is viewed by many physicians and Healthcare Professional Attitude Inventory, she conducted a comparative study between three groups of students in their last semester of nursing school using one way analysis of varian ce (ANOVA) The three groups were (a ) generic or basic students (n = 32) ( b ) RNs pursuing BSN (n = 19) and ( c ) physicians trained in other countries who were taking nursing (n = 25) Jorda identified that the three groups of nursing students were differe nt in th eir demographic characteristics : the class comprised of FEP s were older, there were more males, and they considered English as a second language. FEP participants considered the English language as a significant cause of the ir difficulties to becom e licensed physicians in the US The conclusion of the study indicated that soc ialization of physicians into nursing was possible and might have occurred in the population studied Grossman and Jorda (2008) analyzed the outcomes of the New Americans in Nu rs ing Accelerated Program, the name given by the Department of Labor for the FEP to BSN program at FIU Outcomes that were examined were (a) socialization to nursing, (b ) critical thinking ski lls, and (c ) NCLEX pass rates. The program was shown to demonstr ate success in transitioning unlicensed p hysicians residing in the US to become nurses In this study the results of the prior study by Jorda (2005) comparing the socialization of three group of nursing students was used to illustrate the socialization of FEPs to nursing. Critical thinking abilities were measured by using the California Critical Thinking Dispositions inventory. The instrument has various components that include truth seeking open mindedness,
75 inquisitiveness, systematicity, maturity, crit ical thinking, self confidence, and analyticity. The critical thinking data were t I, and they were compared with generic BSN students. T he results demonstrated that the FEPs scored significantly higher. The third outcome indicator that was examined was the first attempt NCLEX pass rate. BSN students and also higher than the state and national averages. Grossman and Jorda concluded that t h e accelerated program at FIU to retrain FEPs to become nurses demonstrated success in the three outcome measures that were examined in their study They asserted that i t was an attractive and cost effec tive option to help in addressing the critical nursin g shortage and in diversifying the nursing workforce. In Las Vegas, two separate qualitative phenomenological studies were conducted by Jauregu i and Xu (2008) and by Vapor and Xu (2008) exploring the transitions into practice of Filipino nurse medics into the nurse practitioner role. These studies have not fully been reported ; however, preliminary reports obtained from the faculty advisor i ndicate that in the first study (Jauregui & Xu, 2008), four themes e merged from the data, namely: (a ) unfamiliarity w ith the U.S. health insurance policies and guidelines was identified as the most frequent and challenging barrier to transition and successful work performance; (b ) limited scope of practice and the legal requirement to have a physician collaborator posed problems to some Filipino MD NPs who were once independ ent, full fledged physicians; (c ) working in a litigious US healthcare environment changed t heir attitudes and practices; (d ) having the education and experience as a physician facilitated their transi tion and role to nurse practitioners and led to a higher job satisfaction than working as staff nurses. The authors recommended further research on transitional issues in this population including development
76 and testing of an evidence based transitional program. T he results of the second study by Vapor and Xu (2008) revealed that the experiences of Filipino physician s turned nurses involved multidimensional issues, both in the contexts of emigration and a professional shift from physician to nurse. When the full study is reported, the authors indicated that it will enlighten society of the lived experie nces of Filipino physicians now working as nurses in the US. Furthermore, this research study will contribute to the existing literature on cross cultural adaptation, particularly involving role compromise in an unfamiliar social and cultural context. In s ummary r esearch conducted in the US regarding Physician Nurses provided results of early scientific work focused on t he socialization of former physicians to nursing. The study by Jorda (2005) i s a landmark study that provided the nursi ng profession with a basis for t he development of an empirical body of knowledge regarding this emerging unique group of nurses. Grossman and Jorda (2008) affirmed in their a nalysis of three program outcome measures that the FEP to BSN Program is a viable strategy to help assuage the nursing shortage as well as to increase the diversity of the nursing workforce in the US. The studies conducted in Las Vegas by Jauregui and Xu ( 2008) and by Vapor and Xu (2008) provided perceptions of interprofessional migration from the vantage point of being pr epared at the master s level Jauregui & Xu ( 2008) articulated a very important finding in their study which was unarticulated before t hat having the education and experience a s physicians in their home country role of nurse practitioners in the US. The studies reviewed offered diversity in research design and focus through the use of both qualitative and quantitative research designs in examining the socialization of FEPs to
77 nursing and the role transitions in participants who are prepared at the baccalaureate as well as at the masters level Although more evidence needs to be constructed, the unifying concept in these initial studies regarding Physician Nurses is the indication that FEPs can become US nurses. Findings Across Studies Theoretical frameworks of studies. Three of the studies (33 %), although not explicitly discussed in the ar ticles, utilized the Push and Pull Theory of Migration, two (22%) used in terpretation, one (11%) used Critical Social Science Perspective, one (11%) used the Sociological Theories of Professional Socialization of Luhma nn and Bourdieu, and two (22%) had no theoretical framework. It is evident from the identified theoretical frameworks used in the current studies that the research domain of interprofessional migration and Physician Nurses lacks a universal framework that can be used as theoretical basis for ongoing research studies. It is important to note that the study by Jorda (2005) the one that is most closely related to this current study utiliz ed a theory from Sociology. Progress and gaps in theory building: Conc epts or models generated. No unifying model was generated from the limited number of studies ; however, valuable c oncepts that can be taken into consideration when studying this phenomenon emerged. For instance, the study in NZ generated concepts about the barriers of language and culture when resettling in a new society. It also generated the concept about the impact of professional discontinuity when shifting from a once valued, highly regarded profession to an alternative one necessitated by profession dr iven limitations. program but may suffer loss of face and drop in self esteem due to the change in status from
78 Chinese doctor to NZ student nurse Lewis & Smith, 1999, p. 9). This study pointed out the importance of interactive communication skills in providing good nursing care. Without interactive communication skill s one cannot succeed as a nurse. In the study by Jorda (2005), she also generated concepts about the barriers of language and culture and the concept of professional discontinuity in immigrant physicians barriers, these physicians were unable to obtain licensure to practice medicine in the United States. The inability to practice medicine was conc These physicians turned to nursing and their socialization to nursing w as viewed as driven by both desire and motivation. She identified economic concerns as a motivator toward socialization to nursing. Poblete (2007) in the context of his conceptualization of migration among the novel generated the concept about flexible citizens the label he gave the men in his study Progress and gaps in kno wledge building. The body of scientific knowledge that currently exist s regarding interprofessional migration and Physician Nurses is weak. What the se current studies contribute to the conduct of th is current study on the development of nursing identity in FEPs retrained as nurses is what they are not They are not studies focused on the central concept of nursing identity development in the population of interest Acknowledging this significant knowledge gap provide s nurse scholars whose work pertains to t his research domain the reality that there is significant amount of work to accomplish; a significant knowledge building to do if the nursing profession intends to take hold of the
79 science of this particular phenomenon. Perhaps this is an opportune time fo r nursing to come to the forefront and start building the empirical foundation of this phenomenon Relevance of this Dimension of Literature Review This second dimension of literature review enabled the researcher to examine the present state of the body of knowledge in this research domain. Use of the MRAT 2004 allowed fo r the systematic identification of the current gaps in theory and knowledge in this domain. This dimension of the literature review contributed to the evolving body of empirical knowled g e about this research domain by synthesizing what appears to be a bricolage of unconnected studies to a scientific bo dy of knowledge unified not by what they are but by w hat they are not To restate, these studies are studies not focused on the central con cept of nursing identity development in Physician Nurses; nevertheless they are worthwhile studies that can be used as the foundation for further knowledge building Examining the Future: The Needs and Problems of Non US Native Nurses A Diverse Workforce for a Diverse Society According to the report of the Sullivan Commission on diversity in the healthcare level of about 36 million to 103 million. Asian populatio ns will triple from 11 million to more than 33 million. The African American population is expected to almost double from 36 population is emerging to become the major ity population in the near future. This is of significance to the healthcare industry because meeting the healthcare needs of an increasingly diverse society will be a challenge given the slow growth rate of minority healthcare professionals. To meet the w ide array of future healthcare challenges of a future
80 highly diverse society, a national mandate exists to increase the diversity of the healthcare workforce (Sullivan Commission, 2004). The future means implementing strategies to tap minorities and underr epresented groups to enter the mainstream US healthcare industry particularly nursing One such strategy is the retraining of unemployed or underemployed immigrant physicians to become nurses. They represent a rich yet untapped healthcare human resource g roup (Grossman & Jorda, 2008). The task has begun The future has been charted. The above discourse segues into the aim of the third dimension of this review of literature w hich is to answer the question, needs and problems encountered by no n US native nurses and nursing students during their transition to US ways and US nursi ng practice Although Physician Nurses are a unique group of minority healthcare workers, the researcher felt that the descriptive phrase non US native nurses can appro priately serve as a proxy for them because by the nature of the phenomenon, most Physician Nurses currently practicing in the US and most of those potentially becoming Physician Nurses in the future perhaps will be non US natives R eviewing the body of lit erature that provides answers to the question at hand is essentially equivalent to examining the needs of immigrant physicians who are currently training or who recently have become Physician Nurses. It is essentially assessing the future needs of the futu re Physician Nurses. It is provid ing a foretaste of what strategies and professional development programs may be needed to assist them to facilitate their transition to their new society and to their new profession. To accomplish the aim of this dimension of the literature review, integrative and synthesis work of experts in the field were selected as a star t ing point An integrative review conducted by Kawi and Xu (2009) and three metasynthesis using the met a ethnographic approach of Noblit and Hare conducted by Alicea
81 Planas (2008), Starr (2009 ), and Xu (2007) provided a body of knowledge rich with insight that describe d the barriers and facilitators that impact the adjustment of non US native nurses and nur sing students to the US. From the work of Kawi and Xu (2009), o nly th ose studies conducted in the US were extracted (n = 9) The work of Alicea Planas (n = 12 ) and Starr (n = 10 ) w ere all conducted in the US. Xu (2007) reviewed 14 studies but only six of these studies were conducted in the US. These six articles were duplicates of the literature reviewed by Kawi and Xu (2009). Further selection for relevancy decreased the number of articles t o 1 1 With one inte grative review, three methasynthese s, 1 1 ar ticles extracted from these and an additional five articles a yield of 20 articles was available for this dimension of the literature review. The f ive additional primary sources included in this body of literature were Bond, Gray, Baxley, Cason, Denke, a nd Moon, ( 2008 ) ; DeLuca ( 2005 ) ; Sherman and Eggenberger, ( 2008 ); Xu ( 2008 ) ; and Yi and Jezewski ( 2000) The main criterion for including these studies was that their focus was on problems and challenges encountered by non US native nurses or nursing studen ts in their transition to US ways and to US nursing practice. Summaries of the integrative review and metasyntheses are p resented in Table 2.7 and the summaries of the other studies are presented in Appendix I. Language and Communication Problems What cut across these studies was the problem of cultural differences specifically language and communication. With different levels of English proficiency and various ethnic accents non US native nurses were sometimes perceived by others as lacking knowledge and skills due to their manner of speaking. During cross cultural communic ation, non US native nurses had been placed in embarrassing situations because of language difficulties. The perceived incompetence during cross cultural communication was not often due to lack of
82 Table 2.7 Needs and Problems Encountered by Non US Nat ive Nurses & Nursing Students During their Transition to US Ways and US Nursing Practice Studies/Purpose Sample Needs and Problems Solutions or Strategies Alicea Planas (2009) Met asynthesis: identify facilitators and barriers for Hispanic nursing students along their journey to success 12 studies Lack of financial support ; u nprepared for the difficulty of nursing school ; f amily obligations & responsibilities l anguage barriers ; u n supportive faculty, perceived discrimination by faculty and peers, lack of advisement, scarcity of role models; lack of Hispanic faculty; feeling different & isolated Availability of financial aid ; m embership in ethnic student organization ; d evelop sense of belonging Kawi & Xu (2009) Integrative Review: synthesize what is known about specific facilitators and barr iers when INs adjust to foreign healthcare environments 29 studies Language and communication inadequacy ; d iffe rences in culture; l ack of suppo rt ; i nadequate pre and post arrival orientations ; d ifferences in nursing practice ; i nequality of opportunity Positive work ethic ; p ersistence ; p sychosocial and logistical support ; l earning to assume an assertive role ; c ontinuous learning Starr (2009) M etasynthesis: synthesize current qualitative literature on challenges faced in nursing education for students with English as an additional language (EAL) 10 studies Langua ge: unprepared for the kind of English spoken in nursing Lack of resources: finan cial family Academic challenges: heavy academic load; need for study groups, tutoring; lack of orientation to academic setting; minimal role models culture Fi nancial aid; greatest resource i s coping mechanisms: self moti vated, determined, with aspirations, resolve, persistence, capable or being able to overcome; i nstructors who were culturally aware; peer support; members hips to clubs and associations; felt proud when acting as advocates and translators in the clinical s e tting Xu (2007) Metasynthesis: provide cumulative insight into the collectively lived experiences of Asian nurses to advance knowledge 14 studies Communication barriers: unfamiliar accents; use of informal language/slang/jargon; telephone communication pr oblematic; problems with i ndiscernible physician hand writing; d ifferences in nursing practice between US and home country ; m arginalization, discrimination, and exploitation
83 cognitive abilities on the part of non native US nurses but due to pr oblematic phonemes and the differences in enunciation and accents. cultural communication encounter is important because effective communication is critical in the healthcare setting. What has been found in research is that cross cultural communication in non US native nurses was problematic. This is an issue which the nursing profession must face because ineffective communication can compromise patient safety (Xu, Gutierrez, & Kim, 2008). With the n ational mandate from the Sullivan Commission about increasing minority representation in the healthcare professions, it is anticipated that the human resource landscape of the US healthcare industry will change and will gain more members from ethnic minori ty groups. Extrapolating from the overarching theme that emerged in this review of literature, the problem that must be dealt with in the future is language and communication barriers in non US native nurses. The paradox seen in the literature presented he re is the paucity of structured programs to assist non US native nurses overcome their language and communication difficulties. This is not to imply that nothing is being done by the profession of nursing in relation to this but there is need for more. For example, a n intervention research program, Speak Up for Success which aims to help internationally educated nurses communicate more effectively and efficiently is being conducted in Las Vegas, Nevada. The participants in the program learn about the US cus tomary behaviors and the terminology in the American healthcare system. Speech pathologists work with them to improve English pronunciation. The project is funded by a two year grant from the National Council of State Boards of Nursing with Dr. Yu Xu as t h e primary investigator (W eddingfield, 2009). The results of the program has not been reported but it seems that it is something that may be worth replicating
84 and putting in place as a mandatory component of programs designed to transition non US native nu rses and nursing students to US ways and US nursing practice Relevance of this Dimension of Literature Review This third dimen sion of literature review enabled the researcher to examine literature p ertaining to the needs and problems encountered by non US native nurses and nursing students during their transition to US ways and US nursing practice. Although Physician Nurses are a unique group of minority healthcare workers, the researcher fe lt that the descriptive phrase non US native nurses can appropri ately serve as a proxy for them because by the nature of the phenomenon, all Physician Nurses currently practicing in the US and most of those potentially becoming Physician Nurses in the future will perhaps be non US natives. The information gained in thi s dimension of the review of literature will help inform practice, education, and research about Physician Nurses and about their needs and problems in their transition to US ways and US nursing practice. Concepts identified in this dimension of the litera ture review also helped clarify concepts in the emerging central problematic issue perceived by the participants in their transition to US nursing practice. Chapter Summary Chapter Two brought into perspective a three dimensional body of knowledge that dir ectly and indirectly pertains to Physician Nurses and interprofessional migration The three dimensions of this body of knowledge were likened to the components of a time capsule characterizing the phenomenon of interprofessional migration: its past, its p resent, and its future. For its past, l iterature about its emergence was reviewed. Given that there was very limited empirical literature pertaining to this subject matter, popular print and internet sources were used to accomplish the aim of this dimensio n of the literature review Fourteen articles
85 were reviewed and from these articles, a diagr am illustrating the chronology of its origins was created. It became clear that this phenomenon was of a global nature. It was discovered that the first documented physician to nursing retraining program happened in New Zealand where Chinese physicians who were unable to obtain licensure as physicians retrained as nurses. Other cou ntries with physician to nurse retaining programs were the Philippines, Israel, Russia, Canada, and the United States. The Philippine case which is referred to as the nursing medic phenomenon is unique because ph ysicians intentionally retrain to become nurses to facilitate their migration from the ir home country to wealthier countries of the world Sample curricula of retraining programs were provided in the Appendix. In this dimension of the literature review, the driving forces that motivated FEPs to pursue nursing were identified. Using the 14 media articles, a collective case study using each media story as a single case was conducted. Using content and context analysis, specifically cross case analysis, four major categories to describe the driving forces that motivated physicians to pursue nursing emerged. These driving forces were ident ified as individual drive n family driven, profession driven, and society driven forces. For its present, current research literature about Physician Nurses and about interprofessional migration was conducted. Only nine empirical articles were identified, two of which were in abstract form. Critical and systematic analysis of each study was conducted using Version 2004. These studies were unified not by what they are but by what they are not The studies were studies not focu sed on the central concept of nursing identity development in Physician Nurses Nevertheless, valuable concepts that can be taken into consideration when studying Physician Nurses emerged. For instance, the study in New Zealand generated concepts about the barriers of language and culture when
86 resettling in a new society. T he concept o f professional discontinuity was also evident in the Chinese physicians in the process of their shift from their once valued, highly regarded profession of medicine to nursing For its future, literature about the problems and challenges that non US native nurses and nursing students encounter ed in their transition to US ways and US nursing practice was reviewed. Because of the absence of literature directly pertaining to the problems and challenges that Physician Nurses encounter ed in their transition, literature about non US native nurses was conceptualized as relevant because Physician Nurses, although they are unique, fit the characterization of being non US native. Conce pts can be borrowed from this existing body of literature to inform future research, education and practice p ertaining to the phenomenon of interprofessional migration and about Physician Nurses. Language and communication problems w as the common theme th at cut across cases. A paradox exist ed in that there seems to be lack of programs designed to help non US native overcome language and communication problems. An intervention project Speak Up for Success was mentioned briefly. The aim of the project was to help international nurses become more proficient with the English language. Literature about professional socialization and nursing identity was also retrieved but not critically and s ystematically analyzed. T his literature was placed in a literature ban k to be used during iterations to help define concepts and clarify relationships in the theory that was emerging from the empirical data in this current study. The next chapter Chapter Three will provide a discussion of the grounded theory research tradit ion and symbolic interactionism.
87 Chapter Three The Grounded Theory Research Tradition Proficiency with grounded theory comes with continued study and practice. One must study thoroughly the methods set forth in Discovery and Theoretical Sensitivit y and be prepared to follow them. Taking a class on grounded theory is a good requisite beginning, but does not make a grounded theorist. It is only by applying the methods in research that one gains the sufficient delayed understanding of how they work an d what they produce, and the openness and flexibility to apply them to diverse fi e l ds of substantive study. ~Glaser, 1992, p.17 18. This research study which was designed to develop an explanatory model depicting the basic social psychological process th at influences the development of nursing identity in FEPs who have retrained as nurses and who are now practicing as nurses in the US us ed grounded theory methodology. The researcher opted to isolate this chapter from the research methodology chapter becau se she believes that a comprehensive description of the grounded theory research tradition and an in depth discussion of the theoretical underpinnings and philosophical traditions of the approach is crucia l in framing this current study. She believes that knowledge building and dissemination is influenced by how a researcher understands and interprets the particular research tradition she is employing (Murphy, 2008) and knowledge assimilation by the practitioners wi thin the scientific, academic, and pract ice settings is greatly impacted by how they understand the research tradition for a particular study. Coyne & Cowley (2006) asserts that g round e d theory as a meth od is not easy to understand and researchers have had disagreements about its cent r al premise and how its different key it is important that researchers publish their
88 ( p. 514). This chapter includes the definit ion of grounded theory, its assumptions, its origins and development, and its use in the discipline of nursing. The steps in the grounded theory research process are presented. Topics discussed are (a) data generation techn iques which include the concept of data saturation ; (b) data analytic methods which include the principle s of constant comparative method and memoing ; (c) concept formation which is paralleled with Level 1 or open or substantive coding; (d) concept development which is paralleled with L evel 2 or axial coding or clustering and includes topics about reduction sampl ing, selective sampling of data and theoretical sampling, selective sampling of literature, and the emergence of core categories (e) concept modification and integration which is paralleled with Level 3 or selective coding and includes discu ssion about theoretical coding and the discovery of the basic social psychological process, and (f) theorizing which is the theoretical sensitivity w hich includes the definition of theory The role of symbolic interactionism, the philosophical framework that guid ed this study is also discussed. Grounded Theory Defined Grounded theory explores a process and is a method based on the philosophical found ations of symbolic interactionism (Hutchison & Wilson, 2001; Richards & Morse, theory that accounts for a pattern of behavior which is relevant and problematic for th ose that uses inductive analysis to generate a substantive or formal theory from the constant
89 comparing of unfolding observations (Babbie, 2004). Inductive anal themes, and categories of analysis come from the data; they emerge out of the data rather than Assumptions of Grounded Theory The main assumpti on of grounded theory research patterns of behaviors when experiencing a specific phenomenon can be explained by an unarticulated central concern that they perceive as problematic and by the resultant basic social psycholo gical process that they utilize to address such problem (Chenitz & Swanson, 1986; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; MacIntosh, 2003; Morse & Field, 1995; Speziale & Carpenter, 2003; Stern, 1980). Hutchinson & Wilson (2001 ) states that grounded theorists are guided b y the assumption that people, although their world may seem to be disordered and nonsensical to observers, have order in their lives and that they make sense of their environment. The Origins of Grounded Theory The Discovery by Glaser and Strauss Based on the symbolic interactionist view of human behavior, the roots of grounded theory as a qualitative research method can be traced back to the discipline of sociology (Babbie, 2004; Richards & Morse, 2007; Speziale & Carpenter, 2003). Sociologists Barney Gla ser and Anselm Strauss are credited with the development and explication of grounded theory methodology (Glaser, 1978, 1992; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss, 1987 as cited in Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Glaser, a sociologist with quantitative background trai ned at Columbia University, and Strauss, a sociologist with qualitative field research background trained at the University of Chicago, shared a common bond in their interest in studying basic social or social psychological processes within a particular so cial experience such as in the
90 setting of a chronic illness. In the early 1960s, while they were both at the University of California in San Francisco, in their research of the dying process in hospitals, Glaser and Strauss analyzed data and constructed theory about the social organization and temporal order of dying. In the process, they developed systematic methodological strategies that can also be adopted by social scientists to study many other topics (Charmaz, 2006). Glaser and Strauss co authored the book The Discovery of Grounded Theory (1967) which contains their classic statements about grounded theory. Through their joint research endeavors, grounded theory originally emerged as one coherent and complete method. As they worked independently f rom each other, and as grounded theory evolved, the method diverged into two different paradigms the Glaserian and Straussian grounded theory (Richards & Morse, 2007). The existence of these two divergent paradigms has been cause for academic debate regard ing grounded theory. Other versions of grounded theory include dimensional analysis, constructivist grounded theory, and situational analysis (Richards & Morse, 2007); however, they are not discussed in this paper. The Divergent Paradigms The Glaseri an Gro unded T heory Glaser continued with the original canons of the classic grounded theory that he and Strauss discovered in the early 1960s. He defined grounded theory as a method of discovery that treated categories as emergent from the data and relied on di rect and narrow empiricism, and analyzed basic social processes. He refuted the Straussian paradigm of grounded theory because he viewed the procedures as forcing data into pre conceived categories. He argued that the Straussian procedures contradict the v ery fundamental canons of grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006 ; Glaser, 1992 ).
91 The canons of the Glaserian grounded theory are more objectivist in perspective, with the data treated as separate and distant from the participants, as well as from the analyst and allowing the data to tell the ir own story (Charmaz, 2006). Glaserian grounded theorists may as cited in Richards & Morse, 2007, p. 63 ). As originally designed, analysis focuses on the v arious components of the theory: on the processes, categories, dimensions, and properties. It is through the interaction of these components that the theory to emerge s In Glaserian approaches, a diagram is utilized to illustrate the relationships between concepts and categories in the theory (Richards & Morse, 2007). The Straussian Grounded Theory Strauss diverged from the original canons of the classic grounded theory toward deduction and verification or validation His collaboration with nurse research er Juliet Corbin furthered his direction toward verification. Straussian grounded theorist s examine the data and face value of the data to develop more abstract conce pts an d their descriptions. What St r a ussian grounded theorists are striving for is to bring every possible contingency that could relate to the data, whether it appears in the data or not As in the Glaserian paradigm, theories are created in the interacti on with the data. There is that focus on processes, emerging categories, dimensions, and properties. The Straussian paradigm strongly encour ages open coding Corbin and Strauss (1990) describe s the tenets of grounded theory as procedures that intend to lea d to the design of a framework consisting of a well integrated set of concepts that provide a clear theoretical explanation of a particular phenomenon. In Straussian approaches, diagrams are not often used (Richards & Morse, 2007).
92 Grounded Theory in Nursi ng Although grounded theory was not specifically designed for nursing science, nursing has enthusiastically embraced it as one of the most prevalent qualitative approaches to the study of various nursing phenomena (Reed & Runquist, 2007; Speziale & Carpent er, 2003). The philosophical basis of grounded theory is applicable to nursing phenomena because of the very nature of nursing as articulated in Speziale and Carpenter (2003) natural rather than controlled setting, and the nursing pr ocess requires constant comparison of collected and coded data, hypothesis generation, use of literature as data, and collection of utilized to explore the robust and diverse human experience that is inherent in the various facets of nursing practice that can lead to the development of middle range theories (Speziale & Carpenter, 2003). It is in this context that the importance of grounded theory in knowledge build ing for the discipline of nurs ing cannot be under estimated. Chenitz & Swanson (1986) provides their viewpoints and affirm that grounded theory offers the nursing profession a systematic method to collect, organize, and analyze data from empirical world of nursing 1986, p. 24). Steps in Grounded Theory Research This current researc h study is using a hybri d model of the divergent paradigms of Glaser and Strauss. It is not pure Glaserian nor is it pure Straussian. The researcher draws broadly on the methodological writings and dicta of both grounded theory co founders as well as othe r contemporary grounded theory methodologists. What follows is a comprehensive
93 discussion of the steps of grounded theory methodology from data generation to the development of a substantive or formal grounded theory using an adaptation of the conceptual m ap in Speziale and Carpenter (2003, p. 117) as organizing framework. See Figure 3.1 Grounded Theory Process: From the Ground Up Data Collection: Data Generation in Gro unded Theory In grounded theory, data is generated from formal or informal interviews, participant observations, and field notes. Additional data sources include journals and the literature. There is no required a priori number of participants because dat a collection continues until data saturation is achieved. D ata s aturation is the point at which the ongoing analysis of Lingard, 2006, p. 104). Data saturation is sa id to be achieved when new data and new conceptual information are no longer emerging, and one core category is discovered to be able to explain the relationship between all the others (Chenitz & Swanson, 1986). Data Analysis: Theory Generation in Grounde d Theory The process of theory generation in grounded theory is accomplished by the analysis of the patterns, themes, and common categories discovered in data observed in naturalistic settings. The rule in generating theory is not to have any pre conceived hypothesis but to have theoretical sensitivity toward the evidence. In the process of discovering theory, conceptual categories or their properties are generated from evidence. The evidence from which the category has emerged is used to illustrate the co ncept. The illustration of the concept then becomes the relevant theoretical abstraction that explains what is going on in the area studied (Glaser & Strauss, 1967).
94 Figure 3 1. The Grounded Theory Process: From the Ground Up Adapted from Figure 7 1 by H. J. S. Speziale and D. R. Carpenter, 2003, Qualitative Research in Nursing by P. N. Stern 19 80, Image pp. 21 23.
95 Through inductive and deductive analytical thinking that occur during the memoing phase (Hutchinson & Wilson, 2001; Speziale & Carpenter, 2003), grounded theory uncovers a core category, also referred to as core variable one that rep resents a central problem that exists within the interactions of the participants in their natural world (MacIntosh, 2003). Inductive analysis is a characteristic of grounded theory research that moves the analytical process toward a higher level of abst raction and toward the identification of thematic relationships as well as to the articulation of the reasons and meanings why such thematic relationships exist Inductive analysis means that the grounded theorist is actively conceptualizing. Deductive an alysis, on the other hand, means that the grounded theorist is actively assessing how the concepts fit together. Repetitive examination of the data as well as theoretical sensitivity facilitates the process (Kennedy & Lingard, 2006). Constant comparative method that generates successively more abstract concepts and theories through inductive processes of comparing data with data, data with category, category with category, and category with harmaz, 2006, p. 187). Constant comparative method is the central data analytic principle in grounded theory. Through an iterative process, issues and incidents of interest, concepts, themes, and categories are compared against other examples from ongoing data collection and from the literature for similarities and differences. This allows for the continual refinement of emerging theoretical constructs (Kennedy & Lingard, 2006). Constant comparison of many groups makes their differences and similarities pe rceptible making it possible to generate abstract categories and their properties which can explain the kind of behavior being observed (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The use of constant comparative method permits the construction of a complex theory that corr esponds closely to
96 the data because the method forces the analyst to consider the diversity in the data. The method produces the richness that is typical of grounded theory analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Memoing or m emo writing Memoing is a concept th at was origin ally described by Strauss Memoing or w riting memos enables grounded theorists to reflect upon the data, theme s, emerging hypothese s, analytical schemes, hunches, and abstractions. Memos are written contextual narratives by grounded theorists regarding the data and data analysis that provide clarity to the concepts discovered (Mullen, 2007). Memos trigger the thinking processes of grounded theorists as they engage in personal internal dialogue (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008). Memos allow the grounde d theorists to fully link and integrate the concepts and cat e gories into either a substantive or formal theory that is grounded in the data. These written reflections serve many purposes as grounded theorists bring closure to their current research project s or even as they plan for the genesis of the next research project. Coding in Ground ed Theory In grounded theory methodology, data collection and analysis occur simultaneously. Data analysis is iterative T he basic analytical process that is used is codin g (Stern, 1980). Coding is not simply a part of grounded theory data analysis. It is the key strategy used by the researcher to craft and transform hundreds of text data from mere transcribed words to concepts and constructs and ultimately to theory (Walke process of data analysis in grounded theory whereby statements are grouped and given a code essentially a process that enables the researcher to create a taxonomy about the properties of a specific phenomenon being studied. It is a process of scrutinizing particular segments of the
97 data that are of significant interest or relevance to the study being undertaken and labeling them with meaningful names so that they can be o rganize d coherently (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008). Grounded theory coding allows the researcher to generate and shape the analytic framework of the study by defining what the data are all about. To facilitate the codi ng process, a computer software program for qualitative data analysis such as ATLAS.ti can be used. With the divergences in grounded theory methodology as discussed earlier, the different t ypes or levels of coding are named differently as well The resear cher in this study compared and contrasted the n ames assigned to the various types or levels of coding and the expected outcomes from each type or level and she discovered that each name is parallel to another name. The comparison of the various names of t he various types or levels of coding are found in Table 3.1 The contents of the table also serve to explain the data analytic steps as illustrated within the circle s in Figure 3 1. Table 3.1 is borrowed from Heath and Cowley (2004). It provides a summary of the coding types or levels in grounded theory that compare techniques, as well as th e data analytic phases as outlined in Speziale and Carpenter (2003) and in Stern (1980) These phases begin from concept formation to concept modif ication and integration and they are paralleled with the different types and levels of coding Concept F ormation Concept formation is the initial phase in the interpretive codin g process. This phase produces codes and it is accomplished through open codin g or substantive coding which is akin to Level 1 coding. The goal of this phase is to break down the raw data into analytical segments and to give these analytical data segments referential names or labels. In this phase,
98 Table 3.1 Data Analysis in Ground ed Theory Coding Level Product of Analysis Speziale and Carpenter; Stern Strauss and Corbin Glaser Level 1 Coding Codes Concept Formation Data dependent tentative conceptual framework Open Coding Use of analytic technique Substantive Coding Da ta dependent Level 2 Coding Concepts Concept Development Reduction Selective sampling/literature Selective sampling/data Emergence of core variable Axial Coding Reduction & clustering of categories (paradigm model) Continued from previous phase; comparisons with focus on data; become more abstract; categories refitted; emerging frameworks Level 3 Coding Categories Concept modification and Integration Theoretical coding Memo writing Basic Psychological Process Selective Coding Detailed development of categories, selection of core, integration of categories Theoretical Coding Refitting and refinement of categories which integrate around emerging core Theorizing Theory Generation of S ubstantive or Formal Theory Detailed and dense process fully described Parsimony, scope and modifiability Note. International Journa l of Nursing Studies, 41. Other sources are Charmaz, 2006; Chenitz and Swanson, 1986, and Speziale & Carpenter, 2003 grounded theorist s read and examine the text data line by line, multiple times to identify processes, and form groups of codes into conce pts through the initial conceptualization of underlying patterns and themes (Corbin & Strauss, 1990; Kennedy & Lingard, 2006; Speziale & Carpenter, 2003; Stern, 1980). A tentative conceptual framework is generated using the data from the point of view of t he participants as reference (Stern, 1980). At this level, Hutchinson and Wilson (2001) remind grounded theorists to treat codes as provisional and to avoid censoring ideas. They emphasize that further analysis and
99 delineation of codes through the iterativ e process of constant comparative method will yield 227). At this level, constant comparison is accomplished by reading through the entire set of raw data, chunking the data into small segments, labeling each segment with a descriptive code, comparing each new segment of data with previous codes so that similar segments are la beled with the same code, grouping each code by similarity, and identifying and documenting patterns and themes based on each gro uping (Onwuegbuzie, Dickinson, Leech, & Zoran, 2009) The decision to use specific code names is facilitated by questioning wha t each Level 1 code might mean and comparing each Level 1 code with all other Level 1 codes When major patterns and themes are identified, L evel 2 coding occurs (Speziale & Carpenter, 2003) Concept D evelopment Concept development brings the grounded th eory research process to the next level. This phase enables grounded theorist s to further develop the group of codes that formed in the initial phase of open or substantive coding into related concepts by exploring and defining the connections between them to form categories (Kennedy & Lingard, 2006). This is accomplished through Level 2 coding or clustering or categorizing which is akin to axial strategies (action/inte T he iterative process of constant comparative method is continually employed by grounded theorist s and the coded text data are assigned to clusters or categories. To accomplish this phase, t hree major processes occur namely : (a) reduction sampling (b) selective sampling of data and (c) selective sampling of the literature. These processes are
100 precursors to the emergence of the core categories They are discussed here using the viewpoints of Speziale and Carpenter (2003) and Stern (1980). R eduction sampling. The process of reduction is a fundamental step in generating the core categories during grounded theory research. This process is called clustering. The goal of this step is to reduce the number of categories that initially emerged during the early phase of concept formation and coding. This is accomplished by comparing categories with each other, examining their relationships, and linking them into already existing clusters to form broader ones. S elective sampling of data. When the main categories become observable, grounded theorists compare these categories with the data to determine the circumstances in which they occur, as well as to ascertain if these categories are truly central to the emerg ing theory. In this step, the collection of additional data in a selective manner through theoretical sampling may be come imperative to enable grounded theorists to develop the hypothesis and discover the properties and characteristics of the main concepts and categories of the emerging theory set prior to data collection, but rather the participants or other data sources are selected purposefully as the analysis progresse advance the development of the emerging theory (Kennedy & Lingard, 2006, p. 104). Therefore, further sampling is based not on the representation of a population but based on the ability of the sample to confirm, challenge, or expand the emerging theory. Glaser and Strauss (1967) mandates that grounded theory data be collected by theoretical sampling. This type of sampling facilitates the development of theoretical categories because the researcher inte ntionally examines the phenomena where it is known to exist. What this means is that the
101 researcher moves on to the next population or participant to gather data as informed by the emerging theory (Chenitz & Swanson, 1986). This is crucial because the wisd om of Glaser & Strauss (1967) states that if the data collected by theoretical sampling is analyzed at the same time as it is collected, the integration of the theory is more likely to emerge by itself. In theoretical sampling, participant selection is ma de purposively from sources known to have relevant data for the phenomenon under study. This is to make the advancement of theory events, or information to illumina te and define the boundaries and relevance of the scheme where individuals or groups are selected on the basis of their theoretical relevance to the research study being conducted (Babbie, 2004). This is strategy strengthens and makes the theoretical categories denser with meaning (Chenitz & Swanson, 1986). S elective sampling of l iterature By convention, literature review in grounded theory is not conducted prior to the study because of the potential for researcher bias. Selective sampling of literature generally occurs with data analysis. As the theory begins to develop, grounded theorists conduct a literature review to identify what has been published regarding t he emerging main concepts and categories. A sampling of the literature is conducted selectively and a careful scrutiny of such literature is undertaken The findings in the existing literature are (Stern, 1980, p. 22) and these findings are then included in the constant comparison of emerging concepts and categories
102 Emergence of Core Categories The process of reduction and constant comparison during this second phase in grounded theory analysis leads to the emergence of core categories. Core categories always exist in a grounded theory study. They are the fundamental elements which serve to clarify the main theme and explain what is going on with the data. As the analytical proce ss proceeds in grounded theory it is probable that multiple core categories emerge from one study. It is also probable that only one core category emerges. When the core categories are discovered, further explorations lead to the identification of the eme rging basic socia l psychological process (Babbie, 2004; Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Richards & Morse, 2007; Speziale & Carpenter, 2003). Concept Modification and Integration The completion of the processes in the concept development phase of a g rounded theory study opens the route to concept modification and integration. Gr ounded theorists become very immersed in the data. While this is desirable, it is this time that grounded theorists must step back from the data and begin to delve deeper into the relationships between the categories by employing selective theoretical coding as well as memoing This phase is akin to Level 3 coding. During this phase, data analysis proceeds from descriptive conceptualizatio ns to higher levels of theoretical abstractions. The main aim of this level is the discovery of the basic social psychological process and its related properties. This is accomplished by the fu rther examin ation of the categories The conditions, phases, co nsequences, and other properties of the basic social psychological process are identified (Hutchinson & Wilson, 2001) Suggested questions to ask during the search for the basic social psychological process are: (a) What is
103 going on in the data? (b) What is the focus of the study and the relationship of the data to the study? (c) What is the problem that is being dealt with by the participants? (d) What processes are helping the participants cope with the prob p. 118). S elective coding. At this level of coding all the categories are pulled toward a core category which leads to the identification and description of the basic social psychological process A basic social psychological process is a process that addresses or resolves the central problem within specific human social interactions (Babbie, 2004; Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Richards & Morse, 2007;Speziale & Carpenter, 2003). Theoretical c oding Theoretical coding is the method by which descriptions th at are theoretical rather than descriptive are given to the emergent categories. Theoretical codes allow for the organization and the clarification of the categories that have emerged, and this process makes possible the creation of theoretical links betwe en the categories. These links will lead to the development of a process or processes and subsequently the generation of theory (Chenitz & Swanson, 1986). There are 18 families of theoretical codes that are listed by Glaser (1978) that can enable novice re searchers to ask questions about their data. To explain the use of the families of theoretical codes, Glaser uses what he refers to as 6Cs family (Table 3.2 ). He recommends the use of this family to beginning researchers who may need to present a beginning theoretical scheme of pilot interviews cond ucted (Chenitz & Swanson, 1986). The family of 6 Cs offers a systematic appr oach to conceptualizing the relationships among the categories and integrating them into a theory. For instance, when categories are
104 Table 3.2 A family of Theoretical Codes: The Six Cs 1. Causes 4. Consequences 2. Context 5. Covariances 3. Contingencies 6. Conditions initially developed from substantive codes, each category is compared and matched to each of the six theoretical codes. The researcher is prompted to ask questions such as: (a) Is this category a cause of another category? (b) Is it in context with anot her category? (c) Is it a contingency, bearing on another category? (d) [Is this category a consequence of another category?] (e) Does this category co vary with other categories? (f) Is this category a condition of some other category? ( Swanson, 1986). A nother useful question at this level of ( Swanson, 1986, p. 126). Using coding families improves the theoretical sensitivity o f grounded theorists one of these codes (Glase r, 1978 ). Emergence of t he Basic Social Psychological Process Basic soci al psychological process is the basic concept in grounded theory that illustrates a social process that serves to address or resolve issues that participants experience as problematic in their world (MacIntosh, 2003). For novice grounded theorists, it is imperative that the concept of basic social psychological process is well understood. The level of understanding regarding basic social psychological process can be enhanced by first vi ewing it as a type of core category; hence, a basic social psychological process is always a core category but not all core categories are basic social psychological processes In addition, in a grounded theory study, a core category always exists; but a b asic social psychological
105 process may not. It is also of importance to understand that a core category can be any theoretical code such as a cause, condition, or consequence from a family of theoretical codes such as process or strategies ( Chenitz & Swans on, 1986). Basic social psychological processe s account for the process of change which occurs over time. One characteristic of a basic psychological process is that it is a gerund, a noun formed from a verb describing an action or movement and it is forme are Theorizing According to Charmaz (2006), theorizing involves stopping, pondering, and rethinking in new ways in order to explore studied life from multiple vant age points and to make comparisons, follow leads, and build on ideas. Charmaz further states that theorizing is getting down to fundamentals, probing into experience, cutting through the core of studied life, posing new questions about it, and reaching up to abstractions. Theorizing fosters seeing possibilities, establishing connections, and asking questions Theorizing is the means by which grounded theorists develop theoretical sensitivity. Theoretical S ensitivity Charmaz (2006) refers to theoretical sens itivity as acts of theorizing. T heoretical sensitivity is essential in grounded theory (Richards & Morse, 2007). It is the ability and skill of grounded theorist s to think inductively and to perceive categories and their relationships so as to move from th e particular (data) to the general (abstract) to ward the development of a theory (Schneiber & Stern, 2001). With theoretical sensitivity, g rounded theorists seek to discover theory by constantly working with the data codes, concepts, and categories to est ablish their relationships and linkages This might provide the structure for the integration
106 and synthesis of categories (Richards & Morse, 2007) and the framework for rich theoretical explanations Grounded theory analysis is deemed completed when the th eoretical explanations convey an understanding of the social phenomenon under study (Kennedy & Lingard, 2006) and a substantive or formal theory grounded in the data has been generated through the constant comparative method. Theory Defined et of well defined concepts related through statements of relationship, which together constitute an integrated framework that can be used to explain or predict deep reflection, discussion, and detailed examination of text data, constructed from codes and memos dense with meaning (Richards & Morse, 2007). A theory can either be substantive or formal Glaser and Strauss (1967) asserts that substantive theory is that wh ich is developed for substantive or empirical area of inquiry. According to Speziale & Carpenter (2003), substantive are considered middle range theories because they are within the range of working hypothesis and the all inclusive grand theories. Formal theory, on the other hand is developed for a formal, or conceptual area of inquiry which may include the concepts of socialization to professional nursing, development of nursing identity, or authority and power in nurs ing practice. The Role of Symbolic I nteractionism In Chapter One, it was asserted that nursing identity is the tangible outcome of professional socialization to nursing, and that socialization to nursing begins in nursing school where students learn the preparatory knowledge and skills, and acquire the qualities and the ideals of the nursing profession (MacIntosh, 2003) The professional socialization process as
107 facilitated by socialization agents brings about changes in the behavior or conceptual state of a professional individual (Kramer, 1 974). Two major theoretical approaches have been used to explain professional socialization to nursing in the context of the primary mechanism by which individuals are socialized to the profession: through the forces of society or through the individual th emselves (Jorda, 2005). These two approaches are the functionalist approach and the interactionist approach. Functionalist approach puts the forces of society (i.e., nursing faculty as socializing agents) as the primary mechanism by which individuals are s ocialized into the profession. In this perspective, students are considered relatively passive recipients of education (Ware, 2008) such as what occurs in the classroom setting (Reutter, Field, Campbell, & Day, 1997). The functionalist perspective is what predominates in the early phase of nursing education and socialization. It is the primary approach to acquiring the ideal norms and values of the profession; thus it focuses on the ideal world (Ware, 2008). The interactionist approach puts the self as t he primary mechanism by which individuals are socialized into the profession; hence, socialization is accomplished by the ability of the individual to define societal expectations (Jorda, 2005) through a reflective process (Ware, 2008) and through their ac tive interaction with others and the environment. Such interaction with others brings about the change in behavior or conceptual state as influenced by the new role they are taking (Biddle, 1979; Kramer, 1974). The interactionist approach focuses on the real world rather than on the ideal world. Grounded theory is based on the symbolic interactionist perspective of human behavior (Richards & Morse, 2007; Speziale & Carpenter, 2003). Symbolic interactionism is a theory about human behavior and it is a pra ctical approach to the study of human conduct and human group life (Blumer, 1969; Chenitz & Swanson, 1986). The empirical world of
108 symbolic interactionism is the natural world. It lodges its problems about group life and conduct in the natural world, condu cts its studies in it, and derives its interpretations from naturalistic studies (Blumer, 1969). The major concepts in symbolic interactionism are the mind, the self, and soc iety (Stryker, 1980) and it was conceived by social psychologist George Herbert Mead and has been expounded and interpreted by several sociologists throughout the years (Meltzer, Petras, Herbert Blumer coined the term symbolic interactionism which he first used in the book Man and Soc iety published in 1937. According to Blumer (1969), there are three basic premises that support the nature of toward things on the basis of the meanings that the t 2). These things may include anything that individuals encounter in the realities of their daily lives objects, other people, institutions, guiding ideals, or any combination of these. The meaning of such things is derived from, or arises out of the social ns. 1969, p.2). The worldview of symbolic interactionists is that human behavio r is a result of a social process. It is a result of human social interactions This process entails the study of human behavior on two levels: (a) the behavioral or interactional level, and (b) the symbolic level. On the first level, referred to as the b ehavioral or interactional level, the meaning of events,
109 experiences, and human conduct are understood from the perspective of the participants in self. The concep t of self is central to symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969). On the second level, referred to as the symbolic level, meanings of events, experiences, and human conduct are derived from social interaction. Social interaction allows individuals to share e vents and experiences and align their behaviors with others. This process is facilitated by communication through the use of a common language (Chenitz & Swanson, 1986). As a grounded theory study, using the philosophical underpinnings of symbolic interac tionism as theoretical framework is fitting. Within this theoretical structure, the Physician Nurses in developing their nursing identity are expected to journey through a two level continuous process in the real world not in the ideal world. The f irst lev el of this process involves assigning meanings to events, experiences, and conduct through views of their new and different selves as nurse s T he second level involves sharing the meanings of events and experiences with others, as well as aligning their co nduct with others in the profession of nursing through social interactio n and through the use of a common language distinctive of nursing. Chapter Summary Chapter Three presented a comprehensive review of the g rounded theory research tradition. The resear cher opted to isolate this chapter from the research methodology chapter because she believes that a comprehensive description of the grounded theory research tradition is crucial in framing this current study and she believes that knowledge building and dissemination is influenced by how a researcher understands and interprets the particular research tradition she is employing and knowledge assimilation by the practitioners within the
110 scientific, academic, and practice settings is greatly impacted by how they understand the research tradition for a particular study. defined in the perspective of its purpose to which is pattern of behavior which is relevant and problematic 93). patterns of behaviors when experiencing a specific phenomenon can be explained by an unarticulated central problem and by the resu ltant basic social psychological process that they utilize to address such problem. The divergent paradigms of Glaser and Strauss that evolved since the ir original discovery of grounded theory in 1967 were discussed. The use of grounded theory in nursing was also discussed Grounded theory is fitting to use in studying nursing phenomena because nursing occurs in a naturalistic rather than a controlled setting. Using a diagram (Figure 3.1) as organizing framework, the steps of grounded theory research from data collection to theorizing as understood by the researcher were discussed. The plethora of i mportant concepts in grounded theory that include data saturation, theoretical sampling, constant comparative method, memoing or memo writing, coding, reduction sampling, selecting sampling of data, selective sampling of literature, emergence of core categories, selective coding, theoretical coding, emergence of the basic social psychological process, theoretical sensitivi t y and theorizing were discussed. The dif ferent levels of c oding in grounded theory were paralleled to concept formation, concept development, and concept modification and integration as seen in Table 3.1 Grounded theory is based on the symbolic interactionist perspective of human behavior so the role of symbolic i nteractionism was also discussed. Symbolic interactionism
111 is a theory about human behavior and it is a practical approach to the study of hum an conduct and h uman group life. The empirical world of symbolic interactionism is the natur al world. The major concepts in symbolic interactionism are the mind, the self, and society. The worldview of symbolic interactionists is that human behavior is a result of human social interactions This process entails the study of human behavior on the behavioral or interactional level as well as the symbolic level. On the first level human conduct is understood from the perspective of the participants in their natural, everyday lives. On the second level, human conduct is derived from their social int eraction. The next chapter Chapter Four will present how grounded theory methodology was applied in this study It will discuss the participants and their demographic characteristics, research instruments and procedures for data generation, and data anal ysis and theorizing. It will also include a discussion about the general concepts of establishing trustworthiness in qualitative studies and how t hese concepts were applied in this current study.
112 Chapter Four Research Methodology : App lying Grounded Theory The requisite conceptual skills for doing grounded theory are to absorb data as data, to be grounded theory is a methodology that is design ed to bring out skills of conceptual analysis that many researchers did not either realize they had or were forbidden to use by the Glaser 1992, p p. 11 12. This chapter presents the study methodology. It include s discussions regarding (a) the rationale for us ing qualitative research design, (b) rationale for us ing grounded theory methodology, (c) ethical considerations, (d) research participants, (e) research instruments, (f) procedures for data generation, (g) d ata an alysis and synthesis, (h) preliminary disc ussion toward a grounded theory, (i) verification procedures, and (j) limitations of the study. Rationale for Qualitative Research Design The purpose of a research study and the ensuing choice of research ap proach are greatly influenced by the paucity of empirical data regarding the phenomenon and population of interest being explored Qualitative research design, an approach that generates theory rather than quantitative research design, one that tests theor y, is intended to increase knowledge about a phenomenon by examining it and its properties in the natural world of the participants. Currently, v ery little is known about the Physician Nurses practicing in the United States and about the develo pment of the ir nursing identity Qualitative research design was chosen as the approach for this study because of its obvious fit to the research problem, purpose, and specific aims. The purpose of this study was
113 to generate a theory about the development of nursing i dentity in FEPs re trained as nurses ; therefore, a q ualitative research design was de emed appropriate Through qualitative interviewing and data collection, the researcher was able to enter the world of the Physician Nurses and was afforded the opportunity to experience a holistic and constructionist rather than a deterministic and reductionist understanding of the phenomenon being examined ( Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008). Q ualitative research offered insight into this unique phenomenon by ensuring that a diversit y of contextual information, demographic information, perceptual information, and theoretical information were discovered and acknowledged (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008; Miles and Huberman, 1994). Rationale for Grounded Theory Methodology When the purpose of a research study is the development of theory about a dominant social process, researchers must utilize qualitative research traditions that can lead them to do just that. Grounded theory methodology was chosen for this study because it is a qualitative res earch tradition that is methodolo gically congruent with the purpose of the study Grounded theory enabled the researcher to develop a new theory that is grounded in the data gained nteraction s with the phenomenon of int erest (Charmaz, 2006). The rationale for us ing grounded theory was furthe r supported by the perspective offered by Stern (1980) that grounded theory is especially useful when there is little research or when no research exists o n a topic. Research pertaining specifically on nursing identity development in Physician Nurses practicing in the US does not exist; hence, the empirical base about the phenomenon is nil. A grounded theory study was therefore deemed essential and appropria te to establish an empirical base about the phenomenon upon which further knowledge building can occur. Through the iterative process
114 of constant comparative analysis, a complete exploration and discovery of theoretical explanations pertaining to the devel opment of nursing identity in Physician N urses practicing in the US was accomplished. Ethical Considerations USF Institution al Review Board (IRB) approval was obtained before data collection began. See Appendix J This study qualified for expedited revie w under USF IRB Expedited characteristics or behavior (including, but not limited to, research on perception, cognition, motivation, identity, language, communication, c ultural beliefs or practices, and social behavior) or research employing survey, interview, oral history, focus group, program Expedited Review Addendum, 2006). The process for inform ed consent was followed. See consent form in Appendix K The alternatives, benefi ts, risk, compensation, and safeguarding confidentiality were discussed with each participant. The research study was identified as not having the potential to pos e any major risk for the participants; however, cognizant that participants may potentially become emotional during the interview, the researcher made it explicit to participants that the interview would be halted should anyone become emotionally distresse d in the process. Due to the nature of qualitative data collection, participant anonymity to the researcher was not possible; but participant anonymity to others was maintained. The participants were made aware of this before obtaining informed consent Safeguarding confidentiality of all participant information was done with utmost vigilance. All participant information was maintained in secure password protected computer files and locked file cabinets located in the
115 s home. No participant ide ntifier was included in the transcriptions of the interviews Code numbers and pseudonyms were assigned to participants. It was explained to the participants that certain individuals may be allowed to see their records including the entors and certain government and university personnel such as members of the USF IRB and support staff of the IRB. In one instance the r eal name of a Physician Nurse was used in this report because she has been featured in a news a rticle The Research P articipants Sampling Method Purposive, snowball, and theoretical sampling w ere utilized in this study to allow the researcher to recruit a representative sample of diverse participants who could offer rich text data about the phenomenon being studied. Al though the dictum of grounded theory mandates that the study sample is not set prior to data coll ection, the researcher defined specific inclusion criteria so as not to lose sight of the focus of the study. Purposive sampling method was used to identify Ph ysician Nurses of various ethnicities who met inclusion criteria as follows: registered nurses who (a) were physicians i n their native country, (b) had worked in the US for at least six months, (c) were not actively pursuing continuing medical training in the US, and (d) were able to speak, read, and write English. In the early stages of the research study, the research protocol specified that to be included in the study a Physician Nurse must be an RN; however, guided by the concept of theoretical sampli ng which dictates that participants are selected purposefully as the analysis progresses for their ability to provide data that would confirm, challenge, or expand an emerging theory (Kennedy & Lingard, 2006), the inclusion criteria was modified to include RN board eligible LPNs A request for modification was submi tted to the IRB in July 2009. See Appendix L for the approval letter of
116 the modification Snowball sampling was also used whereby earlier participants referred additional participants to research er. Combining these sampling methods facilitated the collection of data that provided a more valid explanatory model depicting the basic social psychological process that infl uenced the development of nursing identity in Physician Nurses practicing in the US. There was no a priori determination of the number of participants. Participants were recruited and interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data saturation was determined to have been reached by the 10 th interview but the researc her continued to conduct the 11 th and 12 th interviews to add rigor to the theoretical sample as well as ethnic variation to the participant pool. Recruitment Introductory letters (Appendix M ), and recruitment flyers (Appendix N ) bearing the ontact information were sent to various individuals and entities that included the al and professional networks, the Program Director of the Foreign Educat ed Physician to BSN program at FIU a faculty member of the FIU program, the Huma n Resource Office of hospitals known to have Physician Nurses as employees, the Alumni Foundation, USA. A total of 12 interviews were conducted for this study. The fi rst two interviews were intended to be pilot interviews; however, because no changes were made in the interview guiding questions after their interviews and because their perspectives were rich with substance, data collected from them were included in the final data analysis. Through the
117 identified. They were practicing as nurses in various states such as California, Connecticut, Florida, Nevada, New Jersey, and New Y ork. The researcher provided flyers to colleagues and lead people and requested that the flyers be given to Physician Nurses within their personal and professional ci rcles. Electronic and telephone follow up with colleagues and lead people were made to sti mulate participant recruitment. Through the assistance of lead people, a few of the 47 potential participants called the researcher to indicate their willingness to participate. Most of the potential participants asked that information about the research be e mailed or mailed to them. The researcher sent the study consent form a s well as the consent for audio taping, the demographic data collection form, and the interview guiding questions to potential participants via e mail and regular mail. Most of thos e who initially showed interest did not respond This created a major setback in participant recruitment because three of the potential participants who did not respond after they received the packet were also lead people who indicated that each had five t o six Physician Nurses in their personal and professional circles. The reasons for their hesitancy to participate w ere unclear; however, three potential participants responded that they could not participate because of lack of time secondary to their 5 da y or 6 night work week schedule. Through lead people, the researcher was informed that perhaps the reason why three potential participants declined to participate was due to prior issues with their clinical professor. One barrier in participant recruitment was the hesitancy of some Physician Nurses for self disclosure. Multiple lead people indicated that the Physician Nurses within their personal and professional circles did not want to reveal their former professional identities. To illustrate, two partici pants were married to Physician Nurses but their spouses declined to be participants of this study. Two Physician Nurses did not participate becaus e they were reviewing for USMLE
118 In the beginning of the participant recruitment efforts, the researcher pres ented her research plan at one of the local hospitals in the Tampa Bay area; however, the researcher did not pursue conducting direct recruitment through this institution. This decision was made so as not to compromise participant privacy. The potential fo r compromising participant privacy existed because of the small population of Physician Nurses in that institution. Participant Demographics Pseudonyms were assigned to the 12 participants. They are listed here alphabetically and not according to when the y were interviewed. Adela, Alina, Annabelle, Arnel, Dante, Ma i ra, Nina, Ollie Orlando, Paolo, Rachel, and Zaida ranged in age from 30 to 54 with a mean age of 39.25 years. There were five males and seven females. One participant was divorced, two were sin gle, and nine were married. Five of the participants had no children, and seven had one to three children, with one as average. Six participants were from the Philippines, two from Russia, two from Colombia, and one each from Nicaragua and China. Five part icipants completed their nursing education in the Philippines and seven completed their nursing education in the US. Nine of the participants had BSN degrees, two had AS degrees, and one was a licensed practical nurse (LPN) who has completed his coursework for AS degree. Participants worked as nurses in various settings including cardiology, critical care, emergency care, endoscopy, extended care, labor and delivery, medical surgical nursing and nursery The full demographic profiles of the participants are found in Tables 4. 1, 4. 2, and 4. 3. The demographic data are presented in three categories, namely : (a) personal and immigrant characteristics, (b) characteristics as nurses and (c) characteristics as physicians
1 19 Table 4.1 Participant Demographic Dat a Personal and Immigrant Characteristics Component Characteristic n % Age (Age Range = 30 54) (Mean Age = 39.25) 30 35 36 40 40 45 46 50 51 55 4 3 3 1 1 33% 25% 25% 8% 8% Gender Male Female 5 7 42% 58% Marital Status Single Ma rried Divorced 2 9 1 17% 75% 8% Number of Children 0 child 1 child 2 children 3 children 5 4 2 1 42% 33% 17% 8% Native Country China Colombia Nicaragua Philippines Russia 1 2 1 6 2 8% 17% 8% 50% 17% Year Immigrated to the US 1991 1995 1996 2000 2001 2005 2006 2009 1 3 7 1 8% 25% 58% 8% Number of Years Since Immigration to the US 15 years 13 years 10 years 7 8 years 6 years 4 5 years < 1 year 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 8% 8% 17% 17% 25% 17% 8% Type of Visa on Entry A sylum /Refugee Fianc Immigrant Visitor 2 2 4 4 17 % 17% 33% 33%
120 Table 4.2 Participant Demographic Data Characteristics as Nurses Component Characteristic n % Number of Years in US Before Became Nurse 0 5 years 6 10 years 11 15 years 6 5 1 50% 42% 8% Location of Nursing School Philippines United States 5 7 42% 58% Nursing Degree Obtained AS BSN LPN to AS 2 9 1 17% 75% 8% Examinations Taken as Pre requisite for NCLEX None CGFNS, TOEFL, IELETS 10 2 83% 17% Locati on Where NCLEX Taken Outside the US United States 1 11 8% 92% Location of First US Employer Florida Nevada 7 5 58% 42% Length of Nursing Experience in US 6 months to 2 years 3 4 years 5 7 42% 58% Length of Nursing Experience Outside t he US 0 year 1 year 2 years 8 2 2 67% 17% 17% Nursing Specialty Cardiology Critical Care Emergency Department Endoscopy Extended Care Labor and Delivery Medical Surgical Nursery 1 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 8% 33% 8% 8% 8% 8% 17% 8%
121 Table 4.3 Participan t Demographic Data Characteristics as Physicians Component Characteristic n % Year Graduated from Medical School 1981 1985 1986 1990 1991 1995 1996 2000 2001 2005 2006 2009 2 0 4 4 2 0 17% 0% 33% 33% 17% 0% Former Medical Specialty Anesthes iology Family Physician General Medicine General Practitioner General Surgery Internal Medicine Pediatric Neonatology Sports Medicine 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 8% 8% 8% 33% 17% 8% 8% 8% Number of Years MD Experience Before Nursing School 1 5 years 6 1 0 years 10 15 years 16 20 years 20 25 years 8 2 1 0 1 67% 17% 8% 0% 8% Note. category was a former physician from Russia who indicate Instruments The Researcher as Instrument In qualitative research, the individual researcher is the primary data collection instrument (Miles & Huberman, 1994). As such, it is imperative to identify and control the biases of the researcher. Through self reflection, the researcher was able to put her pre existing biases and assumptions in the proper context so as not to dilute the meanings of the
122 data collected. As a graduate student in nursing trained in qualitative research methodology, the researcher was a credible research instrument for this study. She was trained in qualitative methodology by experts at t he USF College of Nursing and College of Education. Moreover, she possesses the markers of a good qualitative researcher as instrument as enumerated by Miles and Huberman (1994, p. 38). These markers include (a) some familiarity with the phenomenon and the settin g under study, (b) a strong conceptual interest, (c) a multi disciplinary approach, as opposed to a narrow grounding or focus in a single discipline, (d) good investigative skills, including doggedness, the ability to draw people out, and the ability to wa rd off premature closure. Demographic Data Collection Form A demographic data collection form was included as a data collection instrument. immigrant characterist ics, demographic information as a physician, and demographic information as a nurse. The demographic data that were collected provided the researcher before the act ual interview which facilitated the establishment of a relaxed interviewer interviewee rapport (Speziale & Carpenter, 2003). Semi structured Interview Schedule Data collection was conducted via a semi structured interview that was guided by ten open ended interview guiding questions. The interview questions wer e constructed by the researcher The initial set of interview guiding questions consisted o f 12 open ended questions. Through open discussion and expert advice provided by the members of the researche ons were modified and enhanced resulting in
123 the final version of ten items. Some of the interview guiding questions were: (a) What experiences infl uenced your decision to pursue nursing? (b) Tell me about how nursing s chool was for you? (c) Describe how you were able to shift from your identity as a medical doctor to being a registered nurse? The complete set of interview guiding questions is presented in Appendix P The interview guiding questions were formulated to e licit in depth responses from the process that influences the development of nursing identity in Physician Nurses questions were written clearly leaving mini mum room for misinterpretation. In instances where the participant provided amb iguous responses, simple clarifying questions were used (Janesick, 1998). Examples o f simple clari fication in this study were, something that caught my attention You said philosophy Doe s that mean you think the function s of a nurse and a physician are the open ab Participant Observation Data was also collect ed by observing the participant s nonverbal communication techniques of kinesic, proxemic, chronemic, and paralinguistic communication. Kinesic communication is body movements or posture; proxemic communication involves the use of interpersonal space to communicate attitudes; chronemic communication is the pacing of
124 speech and length of silence in conversation; and paralinguistic communication includes the variations in voice quali ty, volume, and pitch (Lichtman, 2001 ; Onwuegbuzie, Dickinson, Leech, & Zoran, 2009 ). Chronemic and paralinguistic communication were especially useful in the three phone interviews that were conducted. V ignette s of her phon e interview s with two of the participant s illustrate the importance of nonverbal c ues. When I interviewed Annabelle via the phone, I asked what her husband do es for a living h my study, Annabelle quickly responded with a firmer tone of voice repeatedly saying no. like things Wh en Ollie discussed with me about considering going back to medical practice, he menti oned his doubts about his physical ability to do those long hours of residency anymore. His tone of voice indicated his doubts. Nonverbal communication patterns are an i mportant source of data that is neglected by many, if not by most researchers (Onwuegbuzie, et al., 2009). Field Notes otes is not limited to ethnographers. Qualitative researchers employing other qualitative methodologies such as grounded theory, can use field notes to document observations and assumptions about what they heard and observed during the interview. Field not es can also serve as the researcher narrative accounts of their thoughts and feelings during specific encounters with study participants. The following field notes were written by the researcher as she attempted to interview Alina after her shift.
125 Alth ough I had indicated in my data collection strategy that I would avoid interviewing Physician Nurses in their work setting, I had to amend that because most of the Physician Nurses verbalized time constraints due to work schedul es and family responsibiliti es; so I am meeting with Alina this evening. I obtained her verbal agreement to participate sometime in February I t is now March and I have yet to conduct my interview with her. She is working until 7:15 tonight and she told me i t would be perfect if I me et her as soon as her shift ends so we could do it quickly Then her two children She said she should be done right at 7:15pm because she is on orientation and so she does not have her own set of patients s orientation to Critical Care. After only a few months in a Med Surg Unit, she is now transitioning to Critical Care. This is impressive! The other day, me about how I am now at the hospital and Alina is not in ICU. I found out Alina worked at a different unit today H er preceptor was assigned to staff the post cardiac intervention unit so she had to follow her there. Ali na and her preceptor are trying to close the post cardiac intervention unit before the day ends. It is now past 7:15 pm There is one more patient to transfer. I I observe Alina briefly as she goes about her mean derings to transfer the patient I was thinking to her, if I did not know she was a physician before, I would not have known. She was conducting herself as if she has been doing this for a while. She was caring for the patient. And caring meant not only assessments, giving meds and treatments, but taking care of a ll the affairs of the patient from ensuring patient belongings are going with the pat Alina was doing all those [packing patient belongings, removing the IV, pulling and pushing the bed to transfer ] In consideration of her time and knowing tha t she had children waiting at home that even ing, I told her I would re schedule and thanked her. (Field note s written March 6, 2009). Procedures Data Collection : Data Generation in this Study In qualitative research, the open ended interview is one of the most frequently used data collection metho ds. Open ended interviews with a set of guiding questions rather than a set of rigid closed ended questions allow participants to explain the focus of interest extensively (Speziale & Carpenter, 2003). In qualitative research interviewing, the researcher must possess good interviewing skills to be able to elicit meaningful responses from participants. The researcher in this study had acquired interviewing skills through lessons in
126 qualitative research methods in graduate school and was deemed adequately pr epared to perform this task. Performing some of the exercises described by Janesick (1998) and studying the ethnographic interview techniques by Spradley (1979) provided her with a strong foundation and with tools for the incremental acquisition of intervi ewing and observation skills. In this research study, the unstructured open ended interview was the primary mode of data collection. Interviews were conducted between July 2008 and July 2009. A set of ten interview guiding questions was used. Probing que stions were used to elicit richer responses from participants. Face to face interviews were conducted with nine of the 12 study participants. Phone interviews were conducted with three of the participants due to time and travel limitations. Prior to each interview, the researcher obtained informed consent, consent for audio taping (Appendix Q ), and demographic data from each participant. For the three participants who were interviewed by telephone, consent forms and demographic data tool were sent ahead of time by mail and the participants returned the signed forms to the researcher in a self addressed stamped envelope. The face to face interviews were audio taped using a digital tape recorder and the telephone interviews were audio taped using a telephone in line recording device. In addition to audio taping, participant observation and field notes were also written. The field notes were used to enrich data collection (Speziale & ptions, thoughts, and feelings about what was heard and observed. Field notes facilitated the reviewing transcribed interview data.
127 The interviews were 45 to 90 m inutes long with an average of 60 minutes. In the conceptualization of this research study, interviews were to be conducted in a private office at the USF College of Nursing especially for participants who reside d locally. This did not occur because most o f the participants preferred to be interviewed in an office at their workplace during their meal breaks or immediately after work hours. One participant requested that the interview be conducted at the home of the researcher and another one opted for the o utdoors. The setting did not interfere with the i nterview process. H for the location of the interviews actually resulted in a more relaxed and informal yet professional interviewer interviewee encounter. Each participan t was given a $50.00 cash stipend up on completion of the interview. Data collection and data analysis occu r red concurrently, enabling the researcher to determine occurrence of data saturation and to apply principles of theoretical sampling. Data Analysis: Theory Generation in this Study Data transformation : i nterview transcriptions When data collection from each participant was completed, the audio taped interviews were transcribed verbatim by a paid transcriptionist. After transcription, the interview tr anscripts were read and reviewed by the researcher for accuracy of content. After accuracy of transcriptions was established, text units were further read and re read multiple times. The ta pe recorded interviews were also reviewed further to validate the i nitial perceptions of the researcher chronemic and paralinguistic communication patterns. Although this was extremely tedious, this activity allowed the researcher to be fully immersed in the data. Clarifications were sought fro m specific participants through e mails, telephone text messages, or telephone calls when the researcher was not clear about the viewpoint of a participant. In addition, eight of
128 the 12 interview tran s criptions chosen at random were sent back to their spec ific owners by e mail for member checking. Data transformation: c omputer software. To facilitate data analysis and to provide an audit trail for the qualitative data collected, all the transcribed interviews were imported in to ATLAS.ti. ATLAS.ti is one of the many computer assisted qualitative data analysis softwares (CAQDAS) that has proliferated in the market since the early 1990s. CAQDAS such as ATLAS.ti assist researchers in coding, searching, indexing, and analyzing data (Bhowmick, 2006). ATLAS.ti do e s not actually analyze data. It is not a data analysis program that can be equated to a quantitative software program such as the Statistical Package for Social Sci ences (SPSS). It does not have an analyze button that would automatically produce an analyt ical output of the qualitative data entered. There is no command to click for a short story or non fiction or essay output that would accomplish a qualitative results report. ATLAS.ti is much more like a word processing program like Microsoft Word than SPS S. It is basically a concept database. Its utility is driven by the ability of the researcher to create codes concepts and thematic categories that give meaning to segments of text data; the aptitude to conceptualize relationships among concepts and cate gories; and the skill to build networks among these concepts and categories ATLAS.ti assists the researcher in organizing, relating, and writing about the concepts (Woolf, 2008). ATLAS.ti student version 6.0.23 was the CAQDAS chosen by the researcher to use because it has been shown to be the ideal program for making linkages and hierarchical connections between different data elements. It has also been shown to be ideal for theory building (Bhowmick, 2006) which is t he goal of this current study. Another factor that was
129 considered in choosing ATLAS.ti is the presence of faculty members at the USF College of Nursing who are trained in its application. The 12 interview transcripts were imported in to ATLAS.ti as one hermeneutic unit (HU). Initial coding of text fragments based on content or in vivo coding was done by the researcher. This process yielded hundreds of in vivo codes which were meaning less in the ATLAS.ti consultant, a coding framework was established to facilitate coding and to create order in the thousands of text data. The coding framework was created and its components were labeled using the key words found in the specific aims of th e study, namely: (a) barriers, (b) catalysts, and (c) process. Although grounded theorists are cautioned against using predetermined coding categories and seeking to fit the data into such categories and running the risk of analyzing data by coding text units according to what one expe cts to find (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008), the researcher in this study, identified the need to establish an initial coding framework. Establishing this coding framework allowed the researcher to perform Level 1 or open coding in a systematic and organized fas hion. The initial coding framework as suggested by the members. As the iterative data collection, coding, and analysis progressed and as categories and theoretical ex planations were discovered, the researcher u sed the network builder in ATLAS. ti and conceptualized relationships and linkages among the concepts. She also wrote memos within the HU file.
130 Constant Comparative Method Constant comparison was the main analyti cal method employed. A systematic analytical process that included coding, defining, developing, and integrating text data into categories was followed. Emergence of categories was not sequential. It was overlapping and iterative. Memoing or memo writing w as also conducted by the researcher throughout data analysis. The analytic steps and coding procedures in grounded theory as described in Chapter Three was followed. With constant comparison, codes, concepts and categories were initially discovered throug h questioning. A sample question the researcher asked during the early phase of process of professional socialization as described by Cohen (1981), du Toit (1995), Kra mer As concepts emerged, they were compared against other examples from the data and the literature for similarities and differences. Ongoing data collection provided new and fresh information for constant comparison and serve d to refine the theoretical constructs that were emerging. This process produced the richness of conceptualization in this study and as typical in grounded theory analysis (Kennedy & Lingard, 2006). To illustrate the systematic process that the res earcher followed during the data analytic coding process, random examples are used in this section. The examples in this section do not give a logical and coherent story regarding this research. Full results and comprehensive discussion of findings are presented in Chapters Five and Six. The sections in the discussion that follows align the analytic activities of the researcher with concept form ation, concept development, concept modification and integration and theorizing
131 Concept Formation During concept format ion, Level 1 or open coding or substantive coding was accomplished. Using the initial coding framework that was created with the components labeled barriers, catalysts, and process help ed the researcher in the process Interview t ranscripts were read line by line and the audio tape recordings were reviewed multiple times Each interview transcription was examined in its entirety. Phrases were selected, highlighted, and coded using referential labels. The body of text data was dissected through questioning. Examples of the questions asked were: What motivated immigrant physicians to pursue nursing as second careers? What problems did the participants encounter during their transition to nursing? How did they cope with problems? What were the factors that faci litated the transition of participants to nursing? In Level 1 or open coding, the formation of concepts was actualized through the labeling of data segments into meaningful codes. See Appendix R for an example of the open coding ATLAS.ti output During the life span of this research study, names of codes, themes and categories that emerged during the open coding phase were revised and refined. For instance, the code skeleton in the closet which was used to denote the reluctance of some participants to openl y reveal their former professional identities to others was changed to avoiding self disclosure. Another exa mple is the use of the code name s event s During the early phase of the open coding, this code seemed to capture what the participants were saying about their seemingly serendipitous fate in nursing; however, on further analysis, the researcher felt that it would be more meaningful to re name this code destined to become a nurse. Another example is the code acquiring nursing knowledge and skills which was initially used to refer
132 to the first step of becoming a nurse. Through further conceptualization, the code was re named receiving the knowledge and wisdom of nurses. During Level 1 or open coding, the researcher reflected dee ply upon the segments of data and the codes associated with them and wrote memos about them and also reviewed literature Reflecting upon the code recognizing that nursing and medicine are different but have same purpose and are equal which captured segmen ts of text data that were conceptualized to define catalysts, the following memo was written : A common theme that resonated from the participants is their recognition that medicine and nursing are different but they have the same purpose (which is caring) and are equal. In my literature review, I found a dissertation written in 1989 by Beryla Branson Wolf (University of Colorado Health Sciences Cente Nursing Iden t ity: Th e Nursing oth profession s make a difference in the lives of people and both demonstrate caring. Medicine demonstrates caring by making a difference, adding possibilities for life that would not exist without the medical perspective. Medicine adds life possibilities from without. Using caring as epistemology and methodology, nursing enables persons to make existing and provided possibilities come into being and work within their lives. Nursing enables living possibilities from within. In collaboration, life to living, the professio ns empower each other (from the abstract, no page number). I think what Wolf meant when she said tha medicine adds life possibilities from without therapies that are external and man made such as life prolonging devices to include ventilators, pacemakers, defibrillators among others; whereas what she meant by to help them deal with their health problems. Concept Development In concept development the researcher brought the current study into the next level of analysis. Questioning continued. Some of the questions that the researcher asked dur ing this phase were: What is going on in the data? What is the focus of the study and the relationship of the data to the study? What is the central social psychological problem that is being dealt
133 with by the participants? This was the phase where the c ore categories emerged. The researcher developed the codes into related concepts. The method of constant comparison was continuously utilized and the iterative process facilitated the exploration and definition of the connections between the major thematic categories. The thousands of text data that were reduced and dissected into meaningful segments during Level 1 coding were put together in new ways. They were grouped into major thematic clusters and categories. During this Level 2 coding phase, concepts evolved and developed. As discussed in Chapter Three, this phase is akin to axial coding also known as clustering or categorizing Similar codes were grouped together. To illustrate, using the initial coding framework labeled as barri ers, catalysts, and process and guided by the specific aims of this study the following examples of major categories and linkages were formed: (a) barriers with the sub themes intrinsic and extrinsic barriers; (b) catalysts with the sub themes intrinsic a nd extrinsic catalysts; and (c) process with the sub themes shift from physician identity, finding the right niche, and shift to nursing identity. The following examples illustrate how the researcher formed the initial categories and linkages: (a) the code s tug of war in desire to become a nurse and remain a physician and nursing minimizes use of knowledge and skills were categorized as dimensions within intrinsic barriers; (b) the codes cultural differences and physician has ultimate power over clinical d ecision making were categorized as dimensions within extrinsic barriers; (c) the codes conscious decision to become a nurse and appeal of nurse autonomy were categorized as dimensions within intrinsic catalysts; (d) the codes nursing as an easier route to healthcare nursing as a saving grace, and nursing as way to economic gain were categorized as dimension s of extrinsic catalysts; (e ) the codes door of opportunity to the profession of medicine closes and disengaging self from the profession of
134 medicine w ere categorized under shift from physician identity ; (f) the codes experiencing burdens of a new beginning and sticking it out with determination were categorized under finding the right niche ; and (g) the codes door of opportunity to nursing opens and ac quiring nursing knowledge and skills were categorized under shift to nursing identity See Appendix S for a sample screen shot of an ATLAS.ti network illustrating the major category process named shifting paradigms: the process of identity shift with the s ub themes shift from physician identity finding the right niche and shift to nursing identity These categories and concepts were generated during the early phase of conceptualization. The researcher continued to reflect and examine the data and she capt ured these reflections with consistent memo writing. An example of a memo written regarding an extrinsic barrier during concept development illustrates the reflective thinking of the researcher and is as follows: I have much to say about the code physician has ultimate power over clinical decision making The perception that the profession of medicine has dominance over the other health professions, particularly over nursing in the context of this study is evident in my conversations with the participants. This may partly be true. In our modern times, the physician remains to be in control of clinical decision making but it is in a milieu of interdisciplinary collaboration. In this collaboration, the doctor is still considered the figure head that represents the person with the ultimate power and responsibility for the treatment plan of the patient. I quote from my original concept paper: Medicine is traditionally viewed as more supe rior than nursing. By tradition nurses hold subservient roles in the doctor nurse relationship. This tradition perhaps might have its roots in the Nightingale era. Nightingale assigned active intervention roles to physicians and surgeons specifying that their duty was to remove anomalous organs or to intervene in various disease p rocesses. She assigned the more indirect role to nurses, and she believed that nurses were well suited for supportive roles and balance of power maybe tied to the differen t educational requirements between nurses and physicians, which may result in economic disparity, ultimately with physicians making more money than nurses. This economic difference can alter the balance of power with physicians seemingly holding more power whether true or imagined, and nurses then are placed in a more subordinate role.
135 In the analytic phase of concept development, the aim of the grounded theorist is to reduce the number of categories without changing meaning. To accomplish this aim, the r esearcher employed reduction sampling, selective sampling of data and selective sampling of literature as discussed in Chapter Three. To illustrate reduction sampling, there was a code labeled powerless to win over conflicting ideology Through clustering which is the characteristic of this analytic phase, this code was merged with the code physician has ultimate power over clinical decision making (2009 07 17T15:17:20**ATLAS.ti ). The memo written pertaining to the original code is as follows: Sometimes, conflicts among healthcare providers regarding care of patients occur. Nurses feel that they are powerless to challenge the decision of the physician. For a professional who has been programmed to be the one with the final say, such as the foreign educate d physician (who is now learning to become a nurse), it is perhaps a difficult and awkward situation. The reality though is that physicians and nurses should work collaboratively with each other to define a patient care plan that is patient centered and fa mily centered so that differences in ideologies can be brought out in the open to be discussed and if necessary negotiated with. It is during reduction sampling that the core categories began to emerge. Diverting away from the descriptive work of identify ing and clustering intrinsic and extrinsic barriers and catalysts impacting the development of nursing identity in Physician Nurses, the researcher moved on to exploring the actual proce ss of nursing identity development in Physician Nurses. During this ph ase, the researcher further examined the initial coding framework which had barriers, catalysts, and process as labels for the major categories. Through iteration and constant comparison and higher level conceptualization, the researcher identified that so me codes which clustered under barriers were emerging to be aspects of the central social psychological problem and some codes which clustered under catalysts and process were emerging to be stages of the emerging basic social psychological process. It was
136 during this higher level of concept development that the core categories steadily emerged. The researcher initially identified nine core categories as shown in Appendix T The initial nine dissertation committee members during a committee (peer) debrief ing session. With this discussion, and with closer analysis of the categories using constant comparison f urther reduction in the number of core categories occurred. The categories new role strengthened by past medical knowledge, skills, and experiences and valuing differences and experiencing professional integration were combined with the core category combining the best of two worlds. This process reduce d the number of core categories to seven See Table 4.4 T he first core category experiencing burdens of a new beginning was identified tentatively as the central social psychological problem in the natural world of the par ticipants ; the last one combining the best of two worlds was identified tentative ly as the basic social psychological process ; and the categories in the middle were identified tentatively as the stages of the emerging substantive theory. With further concept d evelopment and focusing on the self as guided by the philosophical underpinni ngs of symbolic i nteraction, the name of the core category successful transition to US nursing practice was changed to Appendix U provides an illustration on how the researcher initially envision ed the relationships of the se core categories through clustering. As the core categories were emerging and developing, selective sampling of data was accomplished by theoretical sampling. As discussed in Chapter Three, theoretical sampling purposively brings th e researcher to sources known to have relevant data for the phenomenon under study to enable her to confirm, challenge or expand the emerging theory (Glaser &
137 Table 4.4 The Seven Core Categories Core Categories Experiencing burdens of a new beginning Letting go of professional identity as physician Experiencing growing pains Nursing as saving grace Gaining authority to practice as nurse Engaging self to nurs Combining the best of two worlds Strauss, 1967). To illus trate how the researcher accomplished theoretical sampling, the following example is given: In the interview with Dante, he gave a discourse that it was good being a physician in the past, but this is how it is now and that lling on that The researcher was building on the concept of letting go from being a physician and so she sought participants that were within the inclusion criteria but of different ethnic origin to continue to expand, or challenge, or confirm the emergi ng concept. The researcher was led to Zaida, who was from a country different from Dante, who said that since she moved to this country she aida). Another participant was sought to explore letting go from being a physician doctor, took up nursing course afterwards and now, I am working here in the United States a s
138 Another example that illustrated theoretical sampling was when the researcher discovered that the mentor mentee or preceptor preceptee relationship which was conceptualized as willingness to accept the wisdom of others c ame up as a catalyst in the development of nursing identity in Physician Nurses the researcher moved on to a participant who possessed the characteristics as defined in the inclusion criteria and who was employed in a healthcare facility that was known by the researcher as having a strong transition program for new nurses. This allowed her to gather richer data as informed by the emerging concept willingness to accept the wisdom of others During concept development, the researcher also conducted selective sampling of literature. As core categories were emerging, the researcher concurrently conducted literature review to determine what has been published regarding the emerging core categories. During concept development the iterative process of constant c omparison continued as well as memoing or memo writing and it became evident during the process that the themes were coming together in new ways toward the emergence of cor e categories and a basic social psychological process. An example of selective sampl ing of literature was re lated to the core categories experiencing burdens of new beginning To illustrate, the researched wrote a memo as follows: I think there are three dimensions of the central problem. These dimensions have something to do with the sel f the new self in the context of a new culture and a new profes sion and the resultant new self concept that comes with the diminished position in the socio cultural strata. The literature is rich with information about people adjusting to new places; adju sting to new ways of life. [This was when I turned to the literature about non US native nurses and nursing students and the problems that they encounter in their transition to US ways and to US nursing practice.]
139 Concept Modification and Integration Con cept modification and integration was conceptualized by the researcher as akin to moved the grounded theory analysis toward higher levels of theoretical abstraction s While the researcher became very immersed with the data in the previous phase, she had to step back during this phase to enable her to obtain a fresher perspective on the data and on the concepts that were emerging before delving deeper into discovering the relationship between concepts and categories. In this phase keeping in mind the tentative central social psychological problem that had been identified in the previous phase, the researcher continued to explore and examine the core categories and pu lled the categories toward a main phenomenon, one that represented a central theme which was the basic social psychological process The basic social psychological process was the strategy that was employed by the participants to address the central social psychological problem that they experienced in the process of their transition to nursing. In order to accomplish the main aims of this phase of data analysis the researcher defined the properties of the core categories, formulated hypotheses, ide ntified the links between the categories, identified theoretical codes, explored for range and variation, change over time and diagrams of the relationships between the categories (Chenitz & Swanson, 1986). The codes and co ncepts that were formed in Level 1 or op en or substantive coding and the concepts that evolved and developed during Level 2 coding or clustering were modified as deemed necessary and integrated during this phase of the data analytic process. In this phase of the analytical process, the loosely formulated categories were ordered and linked into a logical whole through the process of questioning and constant comparative analysis method.
140 As discussed in Chapter Three, q uestioning occurred during this phase of the analysis. The main q uestion that t he researcher asked in this phase was : What is the central social psychological problem that is being dealt with by the participants? What processes are helpin g the participants cope with this central problem? ( S peziale & Carpenter, 2003 ). Theoretical codi ng u tilizing the coding family of 6Cs ( refer to Table 3.2 ), and other coding families which included process, dimensions, strategy, identity self and cutting point or critical juncture (Glaser, 1978) was conducted Completion of this phase was facilitated by using the network builder in ATLAS.ti. Theoretical coding enabled the researcher to firm up the c entral social psychological problem and the emerging core categories and facilitated the discovery of the corresponding basic social psychological process that addressed the central problem. Theoretical coding was the phase of the coding process whereby the researcher integrated all the coded data with the corresponding concepts and constructs that have emerged toward the development of a grounded theory. D uring this phase of high level abstraction, the researcher made deliberate and discriminate choices about what sample and data to use to provide theoretical explanations. The central social psychological problem that was identified was labeled experienci ng the burdens of a new beginning and the corresponding basic social psychological process was labeled combining the best of two worlds In depth discussion s of the central social psychological problem, the basic social psychological process and the subst antive theory are f ound in Chapters Five and Six. A principle to remember when discussing core categories and basic social psychological process is that a basic social psychological process is always a core category but not all core categories are basic so cial psychological processes.
141 During theoretic al codin g the researcher delved deeper into the data. Memo writing was going on with the data and with the concepts and thematic categories that have e merged. An example of a merged unedited memo written in ATLAS.ti about experiencing the burdens of a new beginning and combining the best of two worlds is presented here. *** Merged with: reality shock (2009 07 03T 05:39:47) *** The experiencing burdens of a new beginning pertains to the struggles and challenges a person undergoes not only related to being a new immigrant but also related to being in a new profession. >> rea : Thinking ab out the life changing events that the participants have experie nced: moving to a new country; learning a new culture; and venturing into a new professional world, (cultural and reality) they have been through. Reality shock is when a person becomes paralyzed by the overwhelming nature of the events in his/her life. emotional response of a person to the unexpected, unwanted, or und esired, and in the most severe degree to the intolerable. It is the startling discovery that the school bred values conflict with work of anxiety precipitated by the loss of familiar signs and symb ols of social intercourse when one is suddenly immersed in a cultural system markedly different from his home or familiar culture. << *** Merged with: boredom with the basics (2009 07 03T08:58:32) *** >> Comment/bo : First semester of Nursing clinical education deals with learning the basics of nursing care: tasks that are considered menial such as (but not limited to) moving, cleaning, and feeding patients, and other activities that a ssist patients with their Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). Physicians retraining as nurses may find these activities mundane. It is during this phase that Physician Nurses feel challenged or frustrated with the limits of skills they could perform in the clinical setting. Physical Assessment is also taught during first semester of nursing school. Medical education has given Physician Nurses with a strong foundation of physical assessment
142 skills. Re learning Physical Assessment from a Nursing Professor doe s not seem logical. << Included in this code is the concept of reality shock. One problem confronted by the new graduate nurse is the seemingly impossibility of delivering quality care within the constrain ts of the system as it exists....may feel powerless to effect any changes and maybe depressed over lack of effectiveness in the situation. Marlene Kramer (1974) was the first to call those feelings reality shock. She noticed that the new nurse experienced considerable psychological stress and that it may exacerbate the problem (p.471). Reality shock occurs when the ideal becomes only a dream. It is when the ideal is out on the back burner. The focus is usually accomplishing the required tasks in the time frame allotted. Reality shock is part of the passage from novice to expert. When nurses experience reality shock, they may become disillusioned. They may either job hop or leave nursing altogether. Or they may return to school searching for the perfect pla ce to practice perfect nursing as it was learned (Ellis & Hartley 2001, p.472) In the process of transitioning to nursing, combining the best of two worlds reflect a hybrid form of a career or vocation. It is the act of picking the best characteristics o f the medical profession that is within the Nurse Practice Role and picking the best of the newly acquired profession of nursing and combining them to provide healthcare to patients. What has emerged from the data is that when the FEPs experienced the role of a nurse, they became more appreciative of the hard work nurses do to care for patients. Their experience as a full pledged nurse validates their observed differences between nursing practice in their own countries and nursing practice in the US. Theor izing The ultimate goal of a grounded theory study is the development of a theory that explains the phenomenon of interest. Guided by the philosophical underpinnings of s ymbolic i nteractionism that human behavior occurs on two levels namely the behaviora l or interactional level and the symbolic level, the researcher moved toward the development of a theory about human behavior, about human conduct, and about human group life as it pertained to the Physician Nurses who were participants in this grounded th eory study. In the conduct of this study, the participants and researcher interacted on the behavioral and symbolic levels. On the behavioral level, the participants interacted with the researcher in
143 their natural world allowing the researcher to gain an u nderstanding of the meanings they place on the events and experiences of their everyday lives as FEPs retrained as US nurses. At this level, central to their meaning making experiences was their view of their self or their self concept, particularly their view of their different and current professional self as a US nurse combined with their view of their original and former professional self as FEP To illustrate, Adela said: gr andmother too; and you are a sister. When I go back to [ my native country], I work as a doctor because we do a mission trips and...and now I am so happy because I can On the symbolic level, the participants shared the m eanings of events and experiences in their lives with the researcher as FEPs retrained as US nurses personifying themselves as nurses to the researcher and to others. The symbolic component of the second level of this process is the portrayal of nursing id entity by the Physician Nurses which is defined as the persona of a healthcare professional that portrays the expected knowledge, skills, roles, behaviors, attitudes, values, and norms that are appropriate and acceptable in the culture of the nursing profe ssion. To i llustrate, Rachel said: At the earlier part of my nursing career, I have to remind myself everyday that I am a nurse now. But since I am already in the nursing field for 3 years, I got used to it. I know that I am living as a nurse and interact ing with nurses plus the fact that I'm I am a nurse. Working, learning and taking care of my patients as a nurse. nsitivity enabled her to theorize; to think inductively; to perceive categories and their relationships so as to move from the particular (data) to the general (abstract) toward the development of the theory. In this study, building from the core categorie s that were discovered, a substantive theory and the beginnings of a formal theory
144 were generated t hat can explain the process of nursing identity development in FEPs who have re trained as nurses Verification Procedures: Establishing Trustworthiness in Qu alitative Studies Verification is the process of checking, confirming, making sure, and being certain. In qualitative research, verification refers to the mechanism used during the process of research to incrementally contribute to ensuring reliability and validity and, thus, the rigor of the study. These mechanisms are woven into every step of the inquiry to construct a solid product by identifying and correcting errors before they are built .good qualitative research moves back and forth between design and implementation to ensure congruence among question formulation, literature, recruitment, data collection, strategies, and analysis. Data are systematically checked, focus is maintained, and the fit of data and conceptual work of analysis and interpretation are monitored and confirmed constantly. Verification strategies help the researcher identify when to continue, stop or modify the research process in order to achieve reliability and valid ity and ensure rigor (Morse, Barret, Mayan, Olson, & Spiers, 2002, p. 9). By tradition, the concepts of validity and reliability have been claimed with exclusivity by quantitative resear chers (Bloomberg &Volpe, 2008; Polit & Beck, 2004); however, some qua litative researchers argue that they are appropriate terms to describe the concepts for attaining rigor in qualitative research studies (Morse, Barret, Mayan, Olson, & Spiers, 2002 ething measures what it purports to measure and reliability is the consistency with which it measures oppose the use of the terms validity and reliability in establi shing rigor in qualitative studies because she believes that these concepts have their right place in qualitative research; however, she believes that the term trustworthiness is more inclusive. Lincoln and Guba (1985) advocated the use of the term trustwo rthiness to denote rigor in qualitative research T heir proposition which has the four criteria of (a) credibili ty, (b) dependability, (c) confi rmability, and (d) t ransferability is considered the gold standard for qu alitative
145 research as sessment. Using concepts in quantitative research as parallels, each criterion is discussed Credibility Credibility is the parallel of validity in quantitative research. This criterion determines them. It determines the thoughts, feelings, and actions (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008). confidence in the truth of the data and interpretations Onwuegbuzie and Leech (2007) sub categorized credibility into internal credibility and external credibility. Their definitions of the sub categories overlap with the other criteria as defined by Lincoln and Guba. Int ernal credibility is defined as the truth value, applicability, consistency, neutrality, dependability, and/or credibility of interpretation and conclusions within the underlying setting or group (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2007, p. 234) External credibility on the other hand, pertains to the confirmability and transferability of findings and conclusions. It is defined as the degree that the findings of a study can be generalized across different population of persons, settings, context, and times uzie and Leech, 2007, p. 235) Polit and Beck (2004) provides a list of techniques for improving and documenting the credibility of qualitative research which includes (a) prolonged engagem ent and persistent observation, (b) the four major types of triangu lation (data, investigator method, and theory) (c) peer debriefing, (d) member checking, (e) searching for disconfirming evidence, and (f) researcher credibility. Not all these techniques were utilized in this study. The techniques that were utilized wil l be discussed in the s ection of this report entitled Establishing T rustworthines s in this Current S tudy.
146 Dependability Dependability is the parallel of reliability in quantitative research. This criterion determines whether the processes and procedures us ed to collect and interpret the data in a specific qualitative research study can be trac ked (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008), and it determines the stability of qualitative data over time and over conditions (Chenitz & Swanson, 1986; Polit & Beck, 2004). As note d in the discussion of credibility Onwuegbuzie and Leech (2007) uses dependability as part of their definition of internal credibility. Bloomberg and Volpe (2008) instructs qualitative researchers, to describe in detail your analytic approach and to show that you are able to demonstrate how you got from your data to your conclusions. This step is necessary to enhance both the credibility (validity) and dependability (reliability) of your study 99). Polit and Beck (2004) r ecommends two approaches that can be employed to assess the dependability of data namely (a) stepwise replication and (b) inquiry audit. Confirmability Confirmability is the parallel of objectivity in quantitative research. Objectivity is the notion that the findings in the study are the results of research and not merely the manifestation of the subjective biases and prejudices of the researcher (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008). It is the perceptual congruence that can likely occur between two or more people re garding the accuracy, relevance, or meaning of the data and research findings (Polit & Beck, 2004). According to Polit and Beck, confirmability can be established by developing an audit trail An audit trail consists of records and documents that are syste matically compiled that allow an independent auditor to make conclusions about the data. Examples of records for
147 audit trail may include the raw interview data and field notes, data reduction and analysis products, and drafts of the final report Transfera bility Transferability is the parallel of generalizability in quantitative research. Transferability is the concept that findings of the research study can be transferred to other settings, persons, groups, context, and times (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008; Poli t & Beck, 2004). Onwue gbuzie and Leech (2007) liken transferability to external credibility. F rom the perspective of consumers of the final research product, transferability is how well they grasped or understood the entire research project as it occurred at the research site, and how well such understanding would help them decide if similar research can work in their own settings and communities. To achieve transferability, the researcher must therefore provide rich and thic k descriptions in the research report (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2008) to enable others to evaluate if the data can be applied in other contexts (Polit & Beck, 2004) Establishing Trustworthiness in this Current Study The inherent threats to trustworthiness in qualitative studies existed in the conduct of this research study; therefor e, the application of the aforementioned verification procedures was critical. The researcher established trustworthiness by employing methods that ensure rigor which have been recommended by influential authorit ies in qualitative research (Polit & Beck, 2004). In employing methods to increase rigor in this study w ithin the framework of the four criteria of qu alitative study trustworthiness ( credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability ) it is n oted that some of the methods overlap in their functions. The various methods are discussed with illustrations on how they were applied in this study and a summary is presented in Table 4.5.
148 Table 4.5 Summary of Criteria and Methods for Establishing Trustw orthiness in Current Study Trustworthiness Criteria Meaning of Criteria Application of Concepts in this Study Credibility Match between participant perception with Prolonged engagement and persistent observation Data triang ulation Investigator triangulation Peer debriefing Member checking Researcher credibility Dependability Processes to collect and interpret qualitative data can be tracked Use of ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software Audit trail Confirmability Findings are results of research, not researcher bias Controlling researcher bias Bias A and Bias B reduction strategies Audit trail Transferability Findings can be transferred to other settings, people, context Rich and thick descriptions by using d irect quotes from participants Credibility Prolonged engagement and persistent observation. The researcher was aware that the threat of unintentional observational bias existed in the conduct of this study Cognizant that this type of threat may arise a t the research design or data collection stage due to the insufficient sampling of behaviors or words from the study participants (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2007), the researcher used strategies to prevent this to occur. Inadequate sampling of behaviors usually occur s if either prolonged engagement or persistent observation does not prevail (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2007). Prolonged engagement and persistent observation imply that the researcher allocates sufficient time with the study
149 particip ants to allow for an in depth understanding of the culture and views of the study population and the phenomenon under study. In this study, prolonged engagement with the participants was accomplished via follow up e mail and telephone communications, and p ersistent observation was accomplished by being immersed in the phenomenon under study by virtue of being a clinical professor for a group of FEPs retraining as nurses. Data triangulation. To obtain sufficient sampling of behaviors and words from the part icipants, da ta triangulation was utilized. A general statement can be stated that the multiple data sources utilized in this s tudy to represent data triangulation were the words and behaviors of the participants obtained through face to face and telephone interviews, participant observation, and researcher field notes. The participants were the main data sources. The other data s ources included extant literature that was directly and indirectly related to the phenomenon under study, and the observations and insights provided by a faculty member currently teaching a group of FEPs to become nurses. A more specific discussion about data triangulation as applied in this study involves the t hree basic types of data triangulation : time, space, and person. In t ime triangulation data collection is conducted at different times on the same phenomenon or on the same population. Different ti mes may mean different time points of the day or of the year. Time triangulation is analogous to the test retest reliability assessment whose purpose is not to study the phenomenon longitudinally but to determine the congruence of the phenomenon across tim es (Polit & Beck, 2004) Time triangulation was applied in thi s study with data collection occurring at different times of the day and at different times of the year as well as different days of the week. The researcher conducted interviews at night for Ph ysician Nurses wor king
150 the 7:00PM to 7:00AM shift Interviews were also done on weekdays and weekends over a period of one year The second basic type triangulation is s pace triangulation This occurs w hen data collection on the same phenomenon is done at multiple sites. The purpose of space triangulation is to validate consistency across sites (Polit & Beck, 2004) Space triangulation was applied in this study by collecting data in two geographical sites Florida and Nevada. The third basic type of triangul ation is person triangulation This type of data triangulation entails the collection of data f rom different levels of persons: individuals, groups and col lective s such as institutions The purpose of person triangulation is to validate data by acquiring multiple perspec tives on the phenomenon (Polit & Beck, 2004). In this study, the person triangulation was applied by acquiring data from the three different levels of person s The individual level of persons was represented by each of the participants Eac h one offered unique perceptual perspectives about the phenomenon because of their various ethnicities and different physician and nurse characteristics. T he group level of persons was represented by the two distinct groups of Physician Nurses that current ly exist in the US namely: (a) the group o f former physicians already residing in the US who became Physician Nurses by attending nursing school in the US, and (b) the grou p of former physicians from the Philippines who intentionally retrained as nurses w hile still in their home country Members of each group consisted of the same individuals from the individual participant pool ; however, a s member s of a specific Physician Nurse group, each individual added a different level o f unique perceptual perspectiv e regarding the phenomenon As an example, the primary motivation for interprofessional migration of th e Physician Nurses belonging to the group originally from the Philippines was their desire to facilitate their migration to the US. The last level of per son triangulation is the collective level of persons. Conceptually, t he faculty
151 member currently teaching a group of foreign educated physicians retraining as nurses can represent the collective level of persons in this context of person triangulation beca use she symbolize s the institution of learning where the individual participants obtain their training as nurses. The faculty member provided her insights and observations regarding the phenomenon t he population being studied, and the evolving substantive theory. My perspective is that the stages of your evolving theory are not linear. They have cycl ical characteristics. For example, the quotes that you provided to support Stage Two, experiencing growing pains, and Stage Three, seeing nursing as a saving grace, both before and after they have obtained their nursing license. (D. Allado). Investigator triangulation. Investigator triangulation is a second major type of or more researchers analyze and interpret a data T ATLAS.ti consultant Nick Woolf, served as the second researcher to ana lyze and interpret the data Collaboration between the two researchers occurred thro ugh online technology. An example of this collaboration is demonstrated in the following excerpts of e mail communication exchange: Y ou have done a truly outstanding job in conceptualizing your data. Everything so fa r is in reasonable proportion numbers of quotations and codes, and amount of memo writing in the code comments. T h e codes are of very high quality and the comments insightful and clearly written. If we are thinking about the Strauss and Corbin G rounded T heory process, you have done all your o pen coding, with many exploratory forays into the axial coding process, i e ., the second phase of identifying some core categories and relating some of the other concepts to it. You have done it in hierarchical form (because I suggested it), starting out with barriers, catalysts and process. This has just been an organizing framework to get your concepts sorted out and in a little bit of order, particularly in clearly separating barriers from c atalysts. But t really going anywhere further It is not really a hierarchy, for example you may have three codes underneath another code, but link ed with relations relations. This shows you are clear what those relations are and they are great, but it is not hierarchi cal (e g .,
152 and clear, but it codes or branc t need to. Also, many codes have single codes underneath them for three or four levels. Thi s is not a hierarchy either. But the tree structure has been a help in thinking out what the concepts are, but has not allowed you to fully represent your whole story accurately in a hierarchical way, because your theory is not going to be hierarchical. Yo u have gone as far as you need with the hierarchy as an aid to open coding conceptualizing. You now have many components of a potential theory, and lots of insights written out on the components. Now yo u are ready for the next step ar have a number of six to ten most significant codes you would like to talk about, the ones with the most meat on them, the ones that interest you the most, and once you have picke d them, add all the codes already linked to them. Then think whether you would like to talk about them separately and independently, in any order, as yet unconnected or maybe when you look at them they unexpectedly form a sequence, making it feels like it [makes] most sense for you to talk about them in a certain order, or maybe you will accidentally discover they are related in a different way to nursing, reprofessio nalization to nursing, physician nurse integrative practice, professional integration to nursing].They are rather empty. They may end up being titles or chapter headings possibly, but they are not high quality qualitative concepts to use as core categories My one concern is the code with 62 quotations, way more than any other code. A couple of codes have almost as many, i e codes in gerund form that te ll their own story. They in contrast is not telling a story and has ton s of data. It looks like this area has not been conceptualized as all the other areas have. This may need further open coding work. T he next step is to actually create the theory. This involves identifying the core categories, like the above process but more carefully and systematically, picking the best ones, and relating all the other concepts to them (N. Woolf, personal communication July 18, 2009). Peer debriefing. Peer debriefing is a technique used to establish credibility through external validation (Polit & Beck, 2004). Initial findings of this research study was presented to five faculty members of the FEP to BSN Program at FIU on July 20, 2009. Although not pre planned as a peer de briefing session the meeting with the faculty members provided the opportunity for the researcher to present emerging categories and obtain feedback from a
153 group of faculty members familiar with the study population. The faculty in attendance agreed that letting go of professional identity as physician must occur in FEPs retraining as nurses F eedback regarding naming the emerging theory was also received. T ation committee represented another peer group that provided external validation. One on one sessions with individual members of her dissertation committee, and group meetings with them provided the researcher the opportunity to present and discuss written and oral summaries of the data that have been analyzed and to discuss the categories and themes that were emerging. During a debriefing session on September 9, 2009, committee members reviewed the emerging core categories and provided validation of concep ts as well as feedback for further reduction in the number of core categories. Member checking. Member checking also known as informant feedback, was another technique employed by the researcher to ensure credibility. It is the most effective way of elim inating the possibility of misrepresentation and misinterpretation of the voices of the participants and it is considered the most critical technique in establishing credibility (Lincoln and Guba, 1985; Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2007; Polit & Beck, 2004). This process involves Leech, 2007). Member checking can be conducted during data collection and analysis, and during data interpretation. This technique gives the participants an active role in assessing the Although the function of member checking is significant in establishing credibility, issues exist pertaining to its conduct. In the most ideal circumstance, a qualitative researcher a nticipates the participation and cooperation of all participants in th e process; however, the reality is that some participants may be unwilling to
154 participate Another issue is that member checking may lead to misleading conclusions if participants expre ssion of agree ment or lack of expression of disagree ment with the data interpretation is influenced by their desire to be polite toward the researcher or in their belief that the researcher analysis and interpretation of the data must be accurate because the researcher is someone more knowledgeable than they are (Polit & Beck, 2004) Member checking can be conducted informally during study data collection phase and formally when data have been analyzed. It can be accomplished through the exchange of writt en correspondence or through face to face or telephone conversations between the researcher and the participants. In this study, it was undertaken as an attempt to maximize descriptive validity and it was conducted at two different times. The first one was conducted during data collection and it was accomplished by e mail communication, voice telephone as well as texting, and face to face follow up conversation. A random number of eight interview transcriptions were returned to their owners T wo participant s responded to the researcher and validated accuracy of information and provided clarifications regarding some of their insights as originally captured in the verbatim transcriptions. Two additional participants provided corrections on their demographic da ta. The second time that member checking was conducted was after data analysis. I nvitations were sent via e mail and telephone text messaging to seven participants to request them to participate in member checking. In addition, a face to face encounter wit opportunity for the researcher to invite her to participate in member checking. Zaida agreed to provide her feedback to the researcher. Member checking was conducted face to face and s he expressed agreement to the analysis and interpretation of the data. Zaida confirmed the reality and truth of the burdens of a new beginning and the logic of the stages of the substantive
155 theory and the phases of the formal theory. One other participant, Rachel, agreed to participate in member checking Due to schedule conflicts, member checking with Rachel was conducted through electronic communication. Like Zaida, Rachel confirmed the reality and truth of the burdens of a new beginning except for the b urdens of starting from zero. Rachel, having strong family ties in the US did not experience this dimension of the burden but she experienced the burdens of crossing culture s and crossing professions Rachel also validated the stages of the substantive th eory. Researcher credibility. The researcher in this study is a clinical professor for a multi ethnic group of foreign educated physicians retraining to become baccalaureate prepared nurses. She obtained formal training in qualitative research methods in the classroom setting and acquired qualitative research skills in the field through the mentorship of various expert researchers Her dissertation committee is comprised of members who are doctorally prepared registered nurses and her ATLAS.ti consultant has a Ph.D. in instructional design who has taught qualitative data analysis in various fields since 1973. Dependability The ability to track the analytic approach e stablished the dependability of this research project. D ependability was enhanced by util izing ATLAS.ti computer assisted qualitative data analysis software. ATLAS.ti facilitated qualitative textual data management and anal ysis and created the audit trail fo r this research project. Confirmability Similar to the criterion of dependability, an audit trail was created consisting of raw interview data and field notes, data reduction and analysis products, and drafts of the final report to enhance confirmability or objectivity of this research study Having an audit trail and
156 employing t echniques to control biases enhanced confirmability Researcher bias was possible because the researcher shared some similar s entiments with the participants: s he experienced culture shock and reality shock when she first immigrated to the US; s he has Physician Nur ses in her professional and personal social circles ; and s he has a significant number of pre existing biases and assumptions as listed in Chapter One. In this study, the researcher ensured that procedures were in place to control for researcher bias. Being honest and open about her biases was critical. Researcher bias can be one of two categories. Bias A is the effect of the researcher on the case, and Bias B is the effects of the case on the resea rcher. Bias A may occur when the researcher disrupts the existing social or institutional relationships, and the participants may alter their responses to be congruent with what they perceive as what the researcher might want to see, hear, or observe. Bias A may also cause the participants to boycott the researcher because she may be viewed as an adversary; thus maybe considered a nuisance, spy, or voyeur. Bias B may occur when the researcher becomes native (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Bias A reduction strat egies that were employed in this study included (a) the provision of a clear description of the purpose of the study to each participant, (b) prolonged engagement with the participants via e mail and telephone communications, (c) persistent observations vi a follow up communications with participants and by being a clinical professor for a group of foreign educated physicians retraining as nurses and (d) member checking. Bias B reduction strategies included (a) examination of potential participant bias, and (b) firmly keeping research the question in mind.
157 Transferability To enhance transferability, the researcher provided rich and thick descriptions of perceptual text data in this research report by using appropriate and r elevant quotes of participants. Chapter Summary In this chapter, the rationale for using a qualitative research design and grounded theory methodology was discussed. A qualitative design was deemed appropriate for this study because very little is known about interprofessional migratio n and about Physician Nurses and about the development of their nursing identity. When very little is known about a phenomenon, an appropriate study design would be one that generates theory rather than one that tests theory. Grounded theory was chosen as the research method because it is a research tradition that allows for the generation of a theory about a dominant social process such as in this current study. This chapter reported how the researcher conducted the research. Data collection commenced aft er the approval to conduct the study was obtained from the USF IRB. The researcher was the primary research instrument. The process of informed consent was followed. Twelve Physician Nurses of various ethnicities from a potential pool of 47 agreed to pa rt icipate. They were recruited through purposive, snowball, and theoretical sampling. Prior to their interviews, they completed a 21 item demographic data instrument. The demographics collected were their personal and immigrant characteristics, their charact eristics as nurses, and their characteristics as physicians. They were interviewed using a set of 10 interview guiding questions. Interviews were audio tape recorded and transcribed verbatim by a paid transcriptionist. The researcher ensured accuracy of tr anscription. After accuracy was
158 ensured, the interview transcriptions were imported to ATLAS.ti to facilitate data analysis. In addition to participant interviews, data was also generated from participant observation, field notes, faculty of FEP nurse retr aining program, and literature. The iterative constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Concept formation, development, modification and integration were accomplished through open/substantive, clustering/axial coding, and selective/theoretica l coding. Seven core categories were discovered and a central social psychological problem and a basic social psychological process emerged. Further theorizing allowed for the discovery of a substantive theory as well as the emergence of the beginnings of a formal theory Discussion about establishing rigor and ensuring trustworthiness of qualitative studies was also undertaken in this chapter. It was discussed that by tradition, the concepts of validity and reliability have always been claimed by quantita tive researchers; however, some qualitative researchers argue that these terms can also be used appropriately in qualitative research studies. The researcher in this study does not oppose the use of the terms validity and reliability in establishi ng rigor in qualitative studies; however, she favors what Lincoln and Guba (1985) advocated as the gold standard for qualitative research assessment, i e., the use of the term trustworthiness to denot e rigor in qualitative research The four criteria for establishi ng trustworthiness are (a) credibility, (b) dependability, (c) confirmability, and (d) transferability Using concepts in quantitative research as parallels, each criterion was discussed Credibility which is the congruence between participant perc eption s and of them is the parallel of validity in quantitative research D ependability which requires that processes to collect and interpret qualitative data can be tracked is the parallel of reliability C onfirmability which mean s that findings are the results of research
159 and not researcher bias is the parallel of objectivity ; a nd t ransferability which means that findings can be transferred to other settings, people, and context is the parallel of generalizability The concepts of establishing trustworthiness were applied in this study U sing as framework the four aforementioned criteria of establishing trustworthiness in qu alitative studies methods that were employed to increase rigor in this study were discussed It was noted t hat some of the methods overlap in their functions. The various methods were discussed. To ensure credibility, the following methods were utilized: (a) prolonged engagement and persistent observation, (b) data triangulation, (c) investigator triangulation (d) peer debriefing, (e) member checking, and (f) researcher credibility. To ensure dependability by creating an audit trail, ATLAS.ti was utilized. To ensure confirmability, Bias A and Bias B reduction were employed. Bias A reduction strategies included (a) the provision of a clear description of the purpose of the study to each participant, (b) prolonged engagement with the participants via e mail and telephone communications, (c) persistent observations via follow up communications with participants an d by being a clinical professor for a group of foreign educated physicians retraining as nurses, and (d) member checking. Bias B reduction strategies included (a) examination of potential participant bias, and (b) firmly keeping research the question in mi nd. To ensure transferability, this research report contains rich and thick descriptions of appropriate and relevant quotes of participants. The next chapter Chapter Five, will present the findings and discussion of the study. Theoretical explanations o f the central social psychological problem and the basic social psychological process and the interrelationships of the concepts which form the substantive theory will be discussed.
160 Chapter Five Findings and Discussion I am a doctor, but I am a nurse, too; and you are a sister. ~Adela This chapter presents the findings of this research study. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory that can explain the basic social ps ychological process that influenced the development of nursing identity in FEPs who have retrained as nurses and who are now practicing in the US The specific aims were to discover barriers that participants perceived as problematic in their transition to nursing and catalysts that influenced how they addressed the central problem atic issue they articulated. As a grounded theory study, core categories emerged and a central social psychological problem that was experienced by the participants in the process of their transition from being FEPs to being US nurses as well as a resultant basic social psychological process was discovered. Basic social psychological process is the basic concept in grounded theory that illustrates a social psychological process th at address ed the issues participants experience d as problematic in their natural world (MacIntosh, 2003). In th is chapter the central social psychological problem is referred to as the central problem and the basic social psychological process is referred to as the basic process In presenting the findings the barriers are conceptualized as properties of the central problem and the catalysts are conceptualized as properties of the stages of the substantive theory; therefore the terms barriers and catalys ts are not used.
161 The discovery of a central problem and a basic process is congruent with what Glaser (1978) advocated in the conduct of a grounded theory study which was to search for social psychological problems and processes and to view them as essent ial to understanding in this study is experiencing the burdens of a new beginning and the basic process that emerged which explains how the participants addressed t he central problem is combining the best of two worlds The central problem has three dimensions and the basic process has five stages. The three dimensions of the central problem occurred within the context of the conce pt, and new profession. As immigrants in the US, the participants experienced three dimensions of burdens namely: (a) crossing cultures, (b) starting from zero, and (c) crossing professions. In combining the best of two worlds, the two worlds that are implied are the professions of nursing and medicine; and the phrase combining the best implies the act of taking the good things about being a physician (the original self) and taking the good things about bein g a nurse (the new self) and blendin g them together to practice in the US healthcare system within the scope of the nursing profession. The five stages of the basic process combining the best of two worlds are: (a) letting go of professional identity as physician, (b) experiencing growing pa ins, (c) seeing nursing as a saving grace, (d) gaining authority to practice as a nurse, and (e) engaging self to nurs What forms the substantive theory of combining the best of two worlds to cope with experiencing the bur dens of a new beginning is the logical combination of the dimensions of the central problem and the stages of the basic process and the various interconnected concepts. Figure 5.1 provides a skeleton framework of the central problem and the basic process, and serves as
162 a precu rsor to the explanatory model. Figure 5.2 provides the detailed framework of the substantive theory which shows the relationships among the concepts and serves as the explanatory model. The relationships as shown in Figure 5.2 resulted from selective coding and theoretical coding using the coding family of 6Cs (Table 3.2) and other relevant coding families namely process, dimension, strategy, identity self, and cutting point or critical juncture (Glaser, 1978). The first part of this c hapter discusses the dimensions of the central problem and the second part discusses the stages of the basic process. To illustrate the findings, direct quotations from participants are used throughout the discussion. The Central Social Psychological Prob lem: Experiencing the Burdens of a New Beginning your career, your financial, your everything, your social status. You start it over again. ~Zaida The central problem burdens of a new beginning as experienced by the participants was identified as an all encompassing problematic issue pertaining to the various aspects of their resettle ment to the US The various new aspects in their real world were id entified as their new society, their new self concept, and their new profession. From these three new aspects which were related to their resettlement in a new country, three dimensions of burdens emerged. These three dimensions of bur dens were identified as (a) burdens of crossing cultures in the context of their new society and the accompanying issues of their new socio cultural environment; (b) burdens of starting from zero which pertained to their new self concept as new US immigrants and the inherent issues of assuming a lower social status in their new society; and (c) burdens of crossing professions which pertained to their seeking a
163 Figure 5.1. A Precursor to the Explanatory Model: The Central Social Psychological Problem of Experiencing the Bur dens of a New Beginning and the Basic Social Psychological Process of Combining the Best of Two Worlds
164 Figure 5.2 Explanatory Model: The Substantive Theory of Combining the Best of Two Worlds
165 new profession necessitated by the professional discontinu ity that occurred with their immigration and resettlement in the US. All the participants expressed their difficulties in starting a new life in a new place and their concerns about being different from the members of the mainstream of their new society. T hey expressed concerns about cultural differences, specifically language; about personal matters such as worrying and feeling depressed because of starting life over again and about feeling behind in every aspect of life; and about professional matters for being unable to start meaningful work because of immigration laws and professional regulations. Table 5.1 provides a summary of the participants, their home countries, their native language, and their original work in the US. The Burdens of Crossing Cult ures The findings in this study showed that t he first dimension of the central problem was experiencing the burdens of crossing cultures Crossing cultures (DeLuca 2004) particularly adjustments to new communication styles and new language, was expresse d as burdensome by the participants. To illustrate the impact of language barriers, a sampling of the voices of the partic ipants is presented in Table 5.2 P articipants who were from the Philippines did not express that language was a main concern excep t for Arnel who verbalized that he had previously experienced problems communicating due to his thick Filipino accent. He said, Filipino] accent; so some challe command of English because English is the medium of instruction in highs schools, colleges,
166 Table 5.1 Cultural, Employment, and Training Background of Participants Pseudonym Native Cou ntry Native Language Employment in the US Before Nursing Location of Nursing School Adela Nicaragua Spanish Unemployed by choice while preparing for USMLE United States Alina Russia Russian Office Clerk Telemetry, Technician, C.N.A. Un ited States Annabelle Philippines Pilipino Unemployed while waiting for work permit as a nurse Philippines Arnel Philippines Pilipino Unemployed while waiting for work permit as a nurse Philippines Dante Philippines Pilipino Fastfood wor ker; care staff and community guide for a group of mentally retarded population United States Ollie Philippines Pilipino Unemployed while waiting for work permit as a nurse Philippines Maira Colombia Spanish Home Health Aid e United States N ina Russia Russian Cleaning houses United States Orlando Colombia Spanish Bagger at Publix, Hospital Orderly, Endoscopy Tech nician United States Paolo Philippines Pilipino Unemployed while waiting for work permit Philippines Rachel Phil ippines Pilipino Unemployed while waiting for work permit Philippines Zaida China Mandarin Researcher for one year while with appropriate v isa; then became a nail technician United States and universities; however, their enunciation and syllab ication of words sometimes create misunderstandings. The participants expr essed concerns with their overall cultural integration in the US
167 prejudice is illustrated in th They [customers] look at you, like you do not know The findings in this study regarding language and communication is similar to what is found in related literature rega rding non US native nurses. In Chapter Two, studies were reviewed which provided evidence of the negative impact of language and communication barriers in non US native nurses and nursing students. As a specific example, in the phenomenological study by De Luca (2004) that explored the concept of crossing cultures in Jordanian graduate adaptation. Issues of language and culture had to be faced before students w ere able to research studies showed that the most challenging experience students faced was adjusting to new language. In a qualitative research conducted by Sherman and Eggenberger (2008) that investigated the educational and support needs of internationally recruited nurses, they identified that cultural differences was a recurring theme as a challenge in transitioning them into the US clinical setting. Hospitals w hich participated in their study conducted intensive screening for English proficiency and held accent reduction classes for those who needed them. In a related grounded theory study of Pakistani immigrants (Hashwani, 2007), it was identified that their tr ansitions to resettlement in the US involved becoming aware of the personal and social adjustments associated with navigating their new society, such as living inde
168 With crossing cultures, the use of certain terminologies and the experience of stereotyping also burdened participants. As an example, Adela g ave a discourse about the terms clients and patients offered to them. For us, no. I see them like a patient all the time. Maira from Colombia expressed how difficult it wa s to be stereotyped. She stated: up. You know, in my country I was learned a lot of things. It was really, really tough. It was tough. Especially coming from [name of country], a country that has that b ad reputation about drugs and everything, people always judge you. Not always, but most of the people think that because we deal with drugs, everybody that comes from there either do drugs, sell drugs, or is a bad person. C ultural differences are not onl y based on ethnicity. Cultural differences are at different levels and categories and may include sub cultural groups that are defined by age, education, gender, occupation, organizational affiliation, profession, religion, sexual preference, etc. The high est level is at the national or regional society manifested in the ethnic differences in people. Cultural differences can also be at the level of professions. For instance, the culture of the medical profession and the culture of the nursing profession ar e unique of each other. This uniqueness is manifested in the differences on how individuals enact their professional roles and functions. It can also be at the corporate or organizational level manifested in the way in which people behave and express their attitudes as members of a specific work organization (Stewart et al., 1995; Trompenaars & Hampden Turner, 1998).
169 Table 5.2 The Impact of Language Barriers Voices of Participants Nicaragua ) Philippines ) I was not fluent but I knew a lot of things. You know, I could re ad English well. And maybe write a little bit thing is to speak me. (Maira Colombia ) level English here for my prerequisite for nursing. (Nina Russia ) So, for me it was hard to understand people. Talking in front of them or working here in a hospital. (Orlando Colombia ) transportation think I have a problem writing articles. An (Zaida China ) The Burdens of Starting from Zero The second dimension of the central problem was experiencing the burdens of starting from zero You start at zero. It really start [s] zero. Your words of Radostina Pavlova who was a Pediatrician in Bulgaria who has also retrained as a
170 w she described her experiences when she moved to Florida with her daughter few years ago, leaving her status as a physician in her home country. When she immigrated to the US, she did not speak English and spent two years cleaning hotels (Rexrode, 2007). As new immigrants, half of the participants in this study literally started from zero. The other half of the participants had strong family ties in the US; hence, their experience of the burdens of starting from zero was not as significant as for Alina, D ante, Maira, Nina, to grab something to make money. To pay for the roof. I also had a second job. I worked as a communi ty guide for the mentally retarded population to integrate them in to the community. Dante also said that he had a second job and My second job was at night. It was a sleep position The job description he said, specifi ed such and he likened it to being a night shift baby sitter for the residents of a group home. Maira worked as a home health aide taking care of a lady in her community during the night, helping her with her basic elimination and other physical needs. Mai [certified nursing assistant] and I got my license that I need but I never went to work in a ing a wage of $7.50 per hour. Zaida, who initially worked in the US as a researcher until her visa allowed her to, learned how to do nails after that and worked in a nail salon to make a living. The consequence of starting from zero affected their sense of self identity resulting to the construction of their negative new self concept. Their new self concept made them believe that they can only function in unskilled occupations. One of the participants said that he went
171 to apply as a housekeeper at a hospita l because he thought that was the only way he could get near a hospital. Survival in a new society with their new self concept was their most immediate goal. T Bootzin, Loftus, Zajonc, & Braun, 1983 ). To survive, the participants shifted their priorities and assumed low paying unskilled jobs which placed them at the lower end of the socio economic stratum. Fulfillment of their most basic physical needs and those of their families ad to put aside their need for self actualization. With the shifting of priorities came the barriers of pursuing their medical professions in the US. To illustrate, Orlando w anted to jump start his life and his medical career in his new society o n the righ t track so he took English classes at a local university. Due to financial constraints, he had to discontinue his English classes because he had to put my lif Starting from zero also meant unemployment for participants because of visa constraints. Foreign educated physicians who came to the US as board eligible NCLEX nurses with visi I stayed for like eight months here without work. Waiting for my work permit. So I was like jobless for eight m onths doing nothing. (Ollie) I experienced all the depression because I was so far away from my family; a nd then I The Burdens of Crossing Professions
172 experiencing the burdens of crossing professions As new immigrants in the US, all participants in this study experienced professional discontinuity from medicine. Such discontinuity occurred because of licensure related and immigration related constraints. Literature ind icates that many highly skilled immigrant professionals usually face temporary or long term downward occupational mobility (Shuval & Bernstein, 2000). unskilled jobs, it illustrated how they survived an d how they supported their families while attempting to reclaim their professional selves as physicians. The participants faced major barriers in their attempts to accomplish this goal which was the main reason why they eventually shifted to nursing. In t he context of the prevailing general societal perception of nursing as a diminished professional status, crossing professions from being physicians to being nurses was found by the participants to be probl ematic and burdensome. Table 5.3 provides illustrat ive quotes of how former physicians educated in foreign countries experienced the burdens of crossing professions. This problematic issue was compounded by their perceptions of the scope of nursing In my coun explained: f riends, they finish residency, they are doing like fellowships. I talk with a friend, he n [my home country as doctors]. We are making more money here as nurses. But, you know, the status of being a doctor is different than being a nurse.
173 To Adela, the burdens of crossing professions manifested itself in her emotional outburst during he weeks, it was hard. It was hard to see the doctors from the hospital with their white gowns beginning. Maira said, It was really surprising how hard it was. Because I thought that since I was a physician, I knew it all, you know. I thought that it was going to be really, really easy for me to go to nursing school but it was totally different. It was very, very difficult difficult. Especially in the beginning, Table 5. 3 Illustrative Quotes: How Society Perceives Nursing Voices of Participants see it that way. (Maira) m el)
174 And Orlando said, the book, you answered your test, and that time we have to go to a hospital and you have to do things that you have never done before. And people think that you are jus t different between our countries and over here. They are going to think that you are finishe The Basic Social Psychological Process: Combining the Best of Two Worlds I have two views. I take the good things about being a doctor and the good things about being ~Adela Combining the best of two worlds is the name given to the basic process that was discovered in this study that explained how the participants addressed the central problem of experiencing the burdens of a new beginning. The two worlds that are implied are the world of nursing and the world of medicine. The basic process has five stages which also form the stages of the substantive theory of combining the best of two worlds to cope with the burdens of a new beginning As illustrated in Figures 5.1 and 5.2, and as evident in the descriptions that the participants provided, the five stages do not occur in a perfectly linear and sequential pattern but rather in a somewhat recursive and cyclical pattern The five stages with the causal factors, consequences, contexts, dimensions, influencing factors, and contingencie s form the substantive theory and are discussed in this section Stage One : Letting Go of Professional Identity as Physician Having been unable to re establish their professional identities as physicians in the Well I guess you just have to be realistic job now
175 and keep coming back to that thing, being a doctor in the past, it just hurts. S o, I just move d on. (Dante) Medicine closes its doors nursing opens its door s There is an aphorism that goes Th e door of opportunity to medicine closed and the door of opportunity to nursing opened. In the experience of the participants, it set the starting point of their transition to nursing. Although the two events did not occur simultaneously, w hen the door of opportunity to medicine closed a reciprocal event occurred, the door of opportunity to nursing opened. The unsuccessful attempts of the participants to meet all the requirements for physician licensure in the US caused the participants to give up on re es tablishing themselves as physicians. The following voices of the participants illustrate this: When I came here in 2005, I try to take the test [USMLE] (Adela) I was not able to get into a residency training so instead of working in a job that has no connection to medicine, I decided to go to nursing. (Dante) And then I passed it [USMLE], but to get into a residency was really difficult because I have bu t I applied. I spent lots of money doing that. And time and everything. And I Reestablishment of their professional identities was a basic need for the participants. felt need of an immigrant is to reestablish a meaningful sense of identity of which the professional component is a major of identity through the medical profe ssion. Nursing then became an opportunity. Nurse
176 retraining program for FEPs became available. As had been discussed earlier in this paper, FIU designed a program specifically for FEPs when nursing school administrators saw the need and the benefit of such a program. Upon learn ing of the accelerated bachelor s degree level program, the participants saw it as a goal that they can achieve amid their family and existing work responsibilities. FEPs first learned of the availability of a program through their fri ends and networks: Actually, it was funny, I was working here in the hospital as an orderly. And it was a a program for one test and after that we had to take the NET [Nursing Examination Test]. Som e kind of English. I think they were trying to see who were good in English or not. Because after that some people went to English classes. (Orlando) Adela said that after her unsuccessful attempt for the USMLE in 2005, she heard about the FIU Program and decided to enroll in it. In a different context, in the Philippines, programs to retrain physicians to nursing became available throughout the country. The participants who were physicians in the Philippines offered the same observation: Because of thi can choose the schedule you wa weekend. But there are some others. If you want to go with the regular students; you There were two reciprocal consequences that resulted from the reciprocal closing and opening of doors of medicine and nursing: (a) disengaging self from the profession of medicine, and (b) making the conscious decision to become a nurse. Disengaging self from the profession of medicine. This aspect of Stage One was a consequence of the closing of doors of oppo rtunity to medicine. It is a critical juncture. A
177 occurrence of a critical event will determine whether a new stage is en evident that an act of disengagement had to occur before they could actually let go. As the analysis of data progressed, it emerged later that such disengagement from the profession of medicine did not constitute total and permanent disengagement as will be described in Stage Five Disengaging from the profession of medicine had to occur first before they could move on to consider repl acing their previous professional identity with nursing. This was evident in their discourses which described their own experiences and the experiences of their colleagues. I nd I can throu Arnel gave a statement supporting why a physician should disengage themselves from medicine in order to transition succ are doctors [who] become nurses and they have a hard time coping. I think they still have that ing to] put you in trouble. Overpractice. Beyond your scope as a nurse. he was not able to do clinicals in a particular hospital:
178 I think there was another physician previously that was working in there. They had a problem with him. He was like acting like a doctor instead of like a nurse. So, they have to fire him. And they doctor. It was before us. Before were really careful. And not many people from my class only two other people are working in that hospital. Making conscious decision to become a nurse. The conscious decision to become a nurse was the reciprocal step to disengaging self from the profession of medicine that FEPs had to do to initiate the process toward becoming US nurses. Conscious decision to become a nurse was the deliberate decision of the individual to shift professions. Table 5.4 p resents quotes from the participants that provide a colorful array of their thoughts when they initiated their transition to nursing. Furthermore, Rachel added: It is all about knowing what you want to become and what you want to happen in the future. In my case, this is what I want to happen. I want to be with my fianc, start a family, work as a nurse for the meantime he is working on in his career, determination to do what I hav e to do regardless of whether I will be in a different sacrificing for the future. Being able to stand up to your decision, and be good at whatever profession you are in. Stage Two: Experiencing Growing Pains Experiencing growing pains is Stage Two of the substantive theory of combining the best of two worlds. This is the stage when the participants experience d identity crisis, akin to what adolescents experience when trying to e stablish their self identity. Maira likened it to the
179 Table 5.4 Illustrative Quotes: Conscious Decision to Pursue Nursing Voices of Participants [Nursing] It w can work at the same time and I can go to school for Actually I did not have to struggle that much because when I decided to go through nursing, I was already California, Maryland Texas. (Arnel) I was not able to get into a residency training so instead of working in a job that has no connection to medicine, I decided to go to nursing. (Dante) I decided to be a nurse. And I went to a regular college. Community College to do nu I always like to help people and treat people. That is why I continued that and for me it was easier to start in nursing than to go back to medical school or to pursue a ca reer as medical doctor. (Nina) It [the decision to pursue nursing] was personal on my part. Not even the family knew. (Ollie) nd thoughts about taking nursing. (Rachel) Zaida) ou cann It is also interpreted as the pain of frustration as experienced by the participants due to their inability to perform certain clinical skills because of limitations imposed not by the abse nce of skills but by established
180 professional rules and regulations that specify scope of practice. Participants expressed these in their sentiments such as in the following example: It was also tough to have all this knowledge and just doing different thi were not allowed to do anything, only like cleaning the patient, moving the patient. But you were no t allowed to do like maybe the f oley catheter. You cannot start an IV. all these An integral dimension of this stage is the manifestation of the feelings of uncertainty that the participants experienced as they began to learn and integrate into nursing. This feeling of uncertainty was conceptualized as analogous to the game tug of war This stage has a recursive property because the participants experienced it during the early stages of their nurse retraining program prior to obtaining their license and it occ urred again after they obtained their nursing license. T u g of war in desire to be a nurse or be a p hysicia n. The uncertainty that was verbalized by the FEPs as they tread the path toward transitioning from being physicians to being nurses was conceptualiz ed as analogous to the game tug of war The mental image created by this conceptualization was a constant pulling and tugging between two opposing forces. The pull on one side was sometimes stronger than the other side. At the time of the interviews, all t he participants were practicing nurses which indicated that their desire to be nurses overpowered their desire to be physicians; however, there were three participants who strongly voiced their uncertainty. The tug of war was evident in the following sele cted excerpts from their discourses: Nursing is not what we are made. We are not made to be nurses. You can try to. But it is going to be hard to be a nurse. What you learned in 11 years of medical school is not going to be replaced by one year and a h alf of nursing. You understand me?
181 patient. Is he stable or anything like that? Let me h ang the IV. Let me make sure the patient is warm and all those things. The approach to the patient that we have is a little bit different. I think it is going to be difficult to find my true identity as a determining if the patient is stable or not f or the planned intervention; hanging the nurses in his country. In h One of the participants who had been a nurse longer than Orlando, said the following: The theme that resonated with the above quotes was the length of time that the participants invested training as physicians in their home countries and how difficult it would be to replace such lengthy education with the shorter retraining to become nurses It is no t the intent of this study to compare physician training in other countries to physici an training in the US ; however, to use the US model of medical education as a benchmark, the length of medical education is and cloistered than any
182 The quote that follows further illustrates the tug of war that occurred within the self of a foreign educated physician now practicing as a nurse in the US. This quote speaks about loving nursing yet still desiring to return to the profession of medicine amid self doubts of this. I can be a doctor if I want to but I still have to go through the process and apply. And until now, they are still re evaluating my application; re evaluating the test that I took decades ago. In the back of my mind too, [I also question] if I can still be able to young to go through that rigorous training that the residents go through. I ahead with my work as a nurse. I love it already. (Ollie) M edicine has ultimate power and nursing m inimizes p ast It was discovered that Stage Two had two inf luencing factors or covariances. T established perceptions that the physician has the ultimate power over clinical decision making and that n ursing minimizes the use of past medical knowledge, skills, and experiences. Thes e two pre established self perceptions shaped the biases of the participants and made them feel that as nurses they were powerless to make a difference in the care of patients. These tw o conditions were considered covariances because they covaried with the stage of experiencing growing pains When their perceptions changed positively, their experience of growing pains lessened and when their perceptions changed negatively, their experience of growing pains intensified And I started to go more into nursing. Then I realized difference
183 being a nurse. You know the relation between physician patient over here, it a kind of rough. You will see the patient. The patient they are very anxious. They need something to or somebody to link them with the doctor. That part is really nice. you can use a lot of what you know fr om your background as a medical.. They were also influencing factors because they influence the level of uncertainty or the tug of war experienced by the participants. Physician has the ultimate power over clinical decision making. Within the healthcare professions, the perception that physicians have the ultimate power over clinical decision making and that the profession of medicine has dominance over the other health professions, particularly over nursing is ackno wledged (Bullough & Bullough, 1984; Remennick & Shakhar, 2003; Thupayagale & Dithole, 2005). In this study, this became evident in the discourses given by the participants. In this contemporary age when collaboration among healthcare providers should preva il, the physician seem s to remain to be the figure head that has dominance and ultimate control of clinical decision making. Gillen (2007) suggests that the difference in power between nurses and physicians may be attributed to the educational preparation and economic differences between the two professions. Physicians who are earning more hold more power, whether true or imagined, than nurses. When conflicts occur among healthcare providers regarding the care of patients, nurses may feel that they are po werless to challenge the decision of the physicians. For professionals who in the past were accustomed to having the final decision in the treatment plan of patients but who are now unable because of their current circumstances in their new roles, such as in the case of the FEPs who have been retrained as nurses, it is perhaps a difficult and awkward situation.
184 You see how the doctors give the last word. Like this is what we are gonna [going] to do. And, still you have this knowledge that it should be done Even when you disagree. So that was tough. (Maira) just go ahead and do this. You just carry out the order. (Ollie) B asically, when I was a (Dante) N ursing minimizes past medical knowledge, sk ills, and experiences. The pre established self perception of the participants that nursing minimizes the use of their past medical knowledge, skills, and experiences had strong influence on the level of their uncertainty. Nursing practice in their home countries and their overall cultural orientation had strong impact on this influencing condition: When I started to practice nursing, you know what, I thought that because the way I see it is if you are a doctor in another country and you come to this country to becom e way I see it is that you really have to be a good person. You really have to be humble enough to do it. You know, because nurses do so many humble things for your patient s. And so many caring things. I thought people would be accepting and nice. But they are not. They consider that you are, kind of, not good enough sometimes. Not good enough. (Maira) It is important to note that as the participants progressed through their nurse retraining, and as they witnessed role models in the clinical setting, their pre established perceptions about nursing practice in the US began to reshape. Reshaping of their perceptions allowed them to see US nursing practice as different fro m nursing practice in their home countries.
185 With the reshaping of their perceptions, they moved into Stage 3 of the substantive theory: seeing nursing as a saving grace. Stage Three : Seeing Nursing as a Saving Grace Stage Three of combining the best of t wo worlds is seeing nursing as a saving grace. Prior to nursing, participants experienced professional discontinuity. All participants experienced either being unemployed, waiting to be employed, or significantly underemployed working in unskilled jobs ear ning minimum salary. In their experiences of professional discontinuity, they experienced restlessness, sadness, and self diagnosed depression. All the participants expressed that they wanted to return to work as professionals in the healthcare field a fie ld where they could land in jobs that they would find meaningful. Being a C.N.A., although it was in the healthcare field, was not meaningful. Cleaning houses was not meaningful. Working at Publix was not meaningful. They wanted to touch patients. It was i mpossible for them to accomplish these through medicine because the profession of medicine has closed its doors of opportunity on them. Then nursing came along and as a saving grace pulled them out of the abyss where they have been trapped for a number of years. With nursing, new life was instilled in them. New energy. New hopes. New dreams. Stage Three confirmed that the decisions and actions they made in Stage One were appropriate. Seeing nursing as a saving grace also diminished the uncertainty or the tug of war you work you feel that you are recognized as a nurse. And like a person certainly that have education. Thanks to nursing. I have a more respectable positio n in society. I enjoy being a
186 This stage was contingent upon the opening of doors of opportunity to the profession of nursing and the availability of nursing re training programs as well as the receiving of knowledge and wisdom of nurses. It had two dimensions as viewed by the participants: (a) nursing as an easier route to a US healthcare career, and (b) nursing as a way to economic gain. S eeing nursing as an easier r oute to a US healthcare c areer Nursing as an easier route to a US heal thcare responses when asked about the reasons why they pursued nursing. As discussed earlier, the route to medical practice in the US for FEPs is difficult and lengthy. In requires a series of t hree examinations and residency retraining programs that may last five to six years. In contrast, foreign educated nurses who come to the US take one test to obtain licensure, the NCLEX for registered nurses, and they are not required to undergo additi onal lengthy retraining programs. In the context of immigration, due to the prevailing global nursing shortage, entry to the US as a nurse is easier than entry as a physician. FEPs particularly those from the Philippines intentionally pursue nursing to e xpedite their immigration to the US. The accounts given by the participants in this study regarding the popularity of interprofessional migration from medicine to nursing and their first hand experience with the Philippine nursing medic phenomenon is overw helming. They validated what the researcher has found in media and popular literature regarding the phenomenon. They told of stories about how nursing was seen as an asset in their country. Nursing has become the less arduous route for Filipino physicians to pursue their Amer ican Dream. They spoke of the nursing boom and its current popularity among Filip ino physicians. Annabelle said:
187 different college from the College of Medicine. I did not have any difficulty doing that study because all my classmates were all doctors. We had 200 doctors [taking nursing]. The experience of Annabelle was typical of the experiences of Filipino Physician Nurses Arnel said that there wer e about 300 physicians taking up nursing in his batch. The same situation was true for Ollie, Paolo, and Rachel. Their accounts supported the notion that nursing was viewed as an easier route for Filipino doctors to pursue a healthcare career in the US. Adela emigrated from Central America to the US by virtue of being married to a US citizen and she was unemployed, by choice, for a few years while studying for the USMLE After her unsuccessful attempt to obtain physician licensure in the US, she turned to nursing. She said that because her passion was people, she felt that nursing was an easy way for her to start working. She made the following statement that likens the process of physician licensure in the US to a big mountain. start practicing En glish and be in the hospital and see how is the environment. And in medical [medicine] or [be] a physician assistant. This [nursing] was like the start for me. Ni primarily because of family. She came to the US with a fiance visa and did n ot work initially. When she divorced and became a single mother, she looked to the US healthcare in d ustry for employment. She said: I always wanted to work in the medicine since I entered even medical school. I always like to help people and treat people. That is why I continued that and for me it was
188 easier to start in nursing than to go back to medic al school or to pursue a career as medical doctor. It was easier for me at that point. perhaps obtained misinformation regarding how an individual can become a regist ered nurse in the US. In his interview, he indicated that in the information he obtained from the internet, it indicated that individuals must possess an LPN license before they could pursue being an RN. Through an LPN program with transition classes to AS degree, nursing was seen by Dante as an easier route to a healthcare career in the US. He passed the USMLE but he said his scores were not competitive enough so he decided to defer applying for residency training. S eeing nursing as a w ay to economic g ai n All the participants expressed that they saw nursing as a way to improve their socio economic status. Orlando expressed how good in the US since 1994 and who my going to nursing school was an upgrade of a sort because I was working another job that was paying A general concern of the participants, especially those with children, was their bas ic need to increase their income capacities to adequately support their families. Participants from the Philippines were very straightforward in their comments: We all know the life in the Philippines. It is so hard. We needed a bigger, bigger, bigger in I have to provide [for my family] and I need another source. To provide for your family so this one, nursing was the best way that we saw. Actually, this [was] not just my decision. My wife was with me. So it was a family decision because we needed to get another source of income. Just being a doctor [in the Philippines was] just not after residency training, I was already in my own practice, private practice. While in
189 [dollars] a month, during my year of practice, [my charit y work] was around 20%. On the second year, 30%. Then The reasons for other people, for other doctors to take up nursing is primarily because they want to earn more than what they are earning in the Philippines. Like my friend he Philippines as a doctor. I talked to my classmates in the nursing school, their reason is the same. They want to earn more. As a general practitioner, you just earn an average of 25,000 to 30,000 pesos. Maybe around 35,000 the most per month. In dollars about 600 or 700 dollars a month. I earned more as a teacher [for nurses] than as a moo nlighting; for the general practitioner; and for those who have already graduated you 20,000 pesos; but others will pay less, especially private hospitals. (Rachel) Reflecting upon these stories from the participants and examining the salary comp arisons of nurses in some parts of the world as seen in Table 2.5, the observer will comprehend why the economic factor plays a significant role in motivating physicians from the Philippines to become nurses. In the US, an LPN can earn an average of $2,87 3 a month and an RN can earn an average of $4,521 a month. The salary of a physician from the Philippines or from Cuba or from Russia is far, far less than a nurse in the US. Stage Four : Gaining Authority to Practice as a Nurse Stage Four of the substant ive theory combining the best of two worlds is gaining authority to practice as a nurse. This stage was the second critical juncture in the process of
190 transitioning to nursing as experienced by the participants in this study. This stage was a process with two phases. The first phase was unlearning being a physician with its reciprocal learning being a nurse ; and the second pha se was obtaining US nursing licensure Stage Four was contingent upon receiving knowledge and wisdom of nurses which in turn was co ntingent upon the opening of the door of opportunity to nursing which in turn is a causal factor for Stage One U nlearning being a physician and learning being a n urse To understand the process of unlearning being physicians as experienced by the partici pants in this study, one must first understand the concept of learning. In Chapter One, in the context of the concept of socialization, learning was referred to as any non facilitated change in the behavior or conceptual state of a person that can either b e positive or negative (Biddle, 1979). Learning definitions of learning as the intentional or unintentional undoing of the effect of what has previously been learned. It can also be defined as the active or passive act of changing previously established behavior. Learning and unlearning are not directly observable; hence they are inferred from the behaviors and performance of individuals (Bootzin et al., 1983). In applying these concepts as experienced by the participants in this study, they experienced changes in their previously learned behaviors as well as changes in their p ersona as physicians by unlearning being physicians A reciprocal act of learning being nurses occurred. The active and passive shift of unlearning being physicians to learning being nurses actualized their conscious decision to become nurses Rachel said, I have to learn the things
191 unlearning learning continuum while transitioning from being physician to being a nurse actice for a year then I went to nursing experienced learning being a nurse as seei because I learned a lot how to see the patient in a different level. This phase of unlearning being p hysicians with its reciprocal of learning being nurses was contingent upon receiving knowledge and wisdom of nurses It also has two dimensions which were (a) shifting diagnostic perspective, and (b) recognizing nursing as autonomous practice. R eceiving th e knowledge and wisdom of nurses. Stage Four of the substantive theory was contingent upon this concept of receiving knowledge and wisdom of nurses The reciprocal actions of unlearning being a physician and learning being a nurse occurred with the partici pants receiving knowledge and wisdom of nurses. This concept is operationalized as the teaching learning continuum. Diverging from the definition by Biddle (1979) and by Bootzin (1983), learning, in the context of t his discussion regarding Stage Four gaini ng authority to practice as a nurse of the substantive theory of combining the best of two world, is defined as a facilitated process of change in behavior or conceptual state of a person. Within a general framework of the teaching learning continuum conc eptualized by the researcher as a triad comprise d of knowledge building through classroom instruction, skill building through laboratory exercises, and skill application in the clinical setting, it is implied that the knowledge and skills acquisition of nu rsing concepts in FEPs was facilitated by a
192 combination of academic based and practice based faculty members. In the classroom, participants received cognitive knowledge from academic based faculty members who instilled in them the ideals, the theoretical, and the scientific basis of the profession. In the skills laboratory and clinical setting, they acquired psychomotor skills from clinical professors clinical instr clarified her statement stating that their clinical instructors felt that their clinical skills as physicians were sufficient for nursing. Receiving the knowledge and wisdom of nurses was critical in the process of the Physician process of their socialization to the profession of nursing and the eventual development of their nursing identity. Recei ving the knowledge and wisdom of nurses manifested their readiness to unlearn being physicians and learn being nurses. Selected quotes from participants serve to illustrate the unlearning learning and teaching learning process: I was taking Fundamentals in Nursing, you know. Physical Assessment, Socialization, realize how important it is until they start asking you those questions [NCLEX type questions] and you have to think every time you answer. You realized how important it was patient, you assess your patients; you evaluate; everything that the Nursing Process says. You do it also when In another aspect of receiving knowledge and wisdom of nurses, Alina wanted good role models. She was very passionate when she talked about the importance of having excellent preceptors. She had a list of names of staff nurses sh e considered excellent
193 perspective is supported by the literature. In the research conducted by du Toit (1995), in her literature review, she gave a discourse about role models in nursing. This discourse is relevant to the circumstances of the FEPs retraining as nurses. She asserted that students who have a certain level of maturation ma y be critical and selective about their role models. She stated that students who have reached a level of maturity and have accumulated considerable experience are able to judge practitioners. The FEPs in training to become possess past experiences that he lp them filter what they see and what they receive from their role models. Du Toit further asserted that students with past life experiences also select their anti models, the models they want to avoid. Choosing role models and avoiding anti models are imp ortant strategies for FEPs training to become nurses. The influence of others is important in the process of professional socialization to nursing. This is supported by the literature. In a meta study of early socialization and career choice in nursing, t he findings showed evidence how other nurses influence the process of socialization to nursing. Students and new nursing graduates spoke of how their own practices were influenced by the practices of more senior nurses (Price, 2008). Another type of nursi with the participants was nursing textbook authors. In the following discourse, the participant expressed his perception about the difference between how knowledge is imparted i n nursing textb ooks compared to medical textbooks. In the beginning, ah, I thought it was going to be kinda little easier. Because you know, nursing should not be hard. But I think you find a lot of not obstacles but differences. First of all, the volume of informatio n that you have to handle is a lot.
194 And English is not your, like, maternal language. So, you have to read a lot in English. So you need to be very proficient on that. And the second one, and probably the most important thing is how the nursing book. Ho w they write those nursing books. You information to give you something. Medical books, they are very concrete. You have the name of this disease, you have the causes, you have the symptoms, you have the treatment. Nursing, everything is a little bit more. How can I say that? Like more things around to give you more information. (Orlando) One of the participants when telling her story about her struggles and how she coped w ith them during the early phase of her transition to US nursing said, something about nursing, just ask your colleagues or your co workers. if you are a doctor, you know everything. You have to ask and seek for othe S hifting diagnostic perspective. A dimension in unlearning being physicians and learning being nurses is the shift in diagnostic perspective. The shift requires the m ind set to change from the point of view of providing medical diagnoses to a mind set of formulating provide medical diagnosis after patient has been thoroughly evaluated using as criteria signs and symptoms and other clinical manifestations obtained through laboratory tests or other sophisticated diagnostic ocused on providing accurate medical diagnosis so that treatment of the existing pathology can commence. Medical diagnosis provides a clear and convenient way to communicate treatment requirements among healthcare practitioners. Nursing diagnosis, on the o 2007, p. 180). Nursing diagnosis provides a standard nomenclature to communicate
195 independent nur sing care interventions among nursing staff. RNs formulate nursing diagnoses thoroughly evaluated by the RN. Nursing diagnoses have legal implications. RNs must be cognizant that only healthcare problems that fall within the scope of nursing practice can be labeled as nursing diagnoses. Diagnosing a medical disease is outside the scope of nursing practice. RNs are not licensed to independently treat medical diagn oses, but are licensed to intervene independently to resolve identified nursing diagnoses which are formulated within their scope, practice abilities, and education (Craven & Hirnle, 2007). All the participants voiced their difficulty in formulating nursin g diagnoses in the early part of their unlearning being physician and learning being a nurse phase. This is perhaps why the behaviors they manifested pertaining to the shift in diagnostic perspective were deviant at first. Although this was the case, they were all cognizant that in their new role as nurses, providing medical diagnose s was beyond their scope of practice. They stated that they were taught about nursing diagnoses in nursing school but their mind set was still to think medical diagnoses. This must not be misconstrued that they provided and documented the medical diagnoses in patien think it A significant barrier to the application of what they learned from school regarding nursing diagnoses was perhaps the ir obser vation of the incongruence between the ideal and the real; between what was taught in school and what was practiced in the clinical setting. They observed that staff nurses in the practice setting did not use nursing diagnoses consistently. The following quotes from the participants illustrate their observations. the funny thing is that
196 in the clin I think it was easier for me to put interventions where I can use my medical go in the book gnosis everyday where I work Oh, you have to focus on the response of the patient which is indicative that he was able to shift his diagnostic perspective. Orlando wondered about how generic students w ho have no past knowledge and experiences to draw upon formulate nursing diagnoses. with so many int erventions? For example, in impaired gas exchange, you know how many things can cause that? And, you know, I understand, I think you have to put like the patient is hypoxic. Something is in the lungs. You need to put t oo much information to produce n urs ing diagnosis together. We can do it easy because we broad. You know like impaired gas exchange you know, you can have pneumonia, thrombo plans in the beginning were horrible. You learn how the nurse instructors want you to write that. And after that, doing the diagnosis was pretty easy. The medical diagnosis. I put that once. Well, ah, those were once like related to coughing. Those ones, we d that once. I always use the n ursing diagnosis that were with the diagnosis. So, most of th e time, I mean sad to say, but most of the time we pneumonia, appendectomy or something, you are always going to try to use the diagnosis that is more medical. The anxi ety or pain or fear, yo u know W hat are you en the diagnosis that they have, they have like a more medical approach. That was my particular way to do the care plan. I always try to do the diagnosis in which I can use my medical have to go in the book and look what is fe ar. Copy the books. (Orlando)
197 Paolo who have been practicing as a nurse in the US for four years admitted that initially he had problems changing his mind set from medical to nursing diagnosis. Time has helped changed that. He gave the following discou rse: diagnosis n Every time I go to my the medical R ecognizing nursing as autonomous practice The other dimension of unlearning being a physician and learning being a nurse and an influencing condition in shifting diagnostic perspective is recognizing US nursing practice as an autonomous practice Every participant verbalized their observations regarding the differences in nursing practice in the US and nursing prac tice in their home countries. In the US, they observed that nurses function with autonomy, whereas nurses do not do so in their home countries. They observed that nurses in the US, most especially those working in specialty areas such as critical care uni t s, emergency departments, and labor & d elivery, have a significant level of autonomy and they perform functions that may be labeled more medical than more nursing. They observed also that in the US, nurses do not automatically carry out orders given by phy sicians. Nurses are expected to use critical thinking, to perform highly skilled procedures that are routinely done
198 by physician residents in their home countries, and to educate patients about their disease processes and their collaborative plan of care. Nurses in the US were also observed by the participants as the professionals responsible for evaluating the effects of treatments and procedures in patients. Participants also observed that nurses in the US are permitted and encouraged to question physicia n orders if they deem them to be needing clarification. The statement from the American Nurses Association about autonomy supports the role or setting, is fund amentally independent practice. RNs are accountable for judgments based on a critical thinking framework known as the nursing process which is the basis for the auton omous decision 11). In published studies, autonomy has been identified frequently as a key factor and critical element in both attracting nurses to new positions and in positively impacting job satisfaction fo r nurses. At the specialty level, the nurses with medical elements in their role incl udes nurse practitioners, nurse midwives, nurse anesthetists, and critical care nurses (Bullough & Bullough, 1984). eally different. They put And the fact that I saw the nurses here in the United States really have more autonomy than the n urses in my country. That really only follow orders from the doctors but have in this country. (Maira) How they perceive nurses in [my country] and how nurses are perceiv ed over here...and really here they perceive nurses as independent thinkers and critical u see in doctors in [my country]. The doctors in [my country] are with the patient all the time. You observe the patient. (Nina)
199 Over here, I think that the role of the nurse is more hectic. Depend [upon] where you work. For example, I like critical care. I think they have a lot of possibilities to the medical profession. Because, particularly, in some hospitals, you see that in the Intensive C are Unit there is no physician 24 hours. So if you are the nurse and you are taking care of a patient who is not stable, like hypotensive or something. You know you have to have critical thinking and try to be a little aggressive because you know your things to be able to you have it in your mind to benefit patients. (Orlando) The nurse here, you have more autonomy. You get to make you (Zaida) O btaining US nursing l icensure Obtaining nursing licensure was the ultimate turning point in the experience of the participants in their transition to US nursing practice. This was the second phase of Stage Four of the substanti ve theory of combining the best of two worlds. Their successful crossing of the line between graduation from nursing school to passing the NCLEX represented their successful efforts of crossing professions. Obtaining licensure entry into Stage Five which is the culminating stage, engaging of the substantive theory; therefore it can be considered a critical point within the critical juncture of Stage Four P articipants who retrained in the US voiced satisfaction with the nursing program they attended. Maira said, Actually, I think we were really well prepared for that. The university prepared us a lot. I think that since the beginning we were taking in class questions that they wer e going to (Maira). Orlando who attended a similar program but in a different geographical location and at a different time period confirmed what Maira said and a lso stated that he felt he was well
200 also said that he felt that he used more of his med ical knowledge compared to his nursing knowledge when he answered questions about Pediatrics, a subject matter that he was not too fervent about. This was also voiced by Arnel saying that he felt that his medical knowledge helped him pass NCLEX and that he would have been able to answer at least 50% of the questions correctly he medical helped me knowledge Alina said that NCLEX was not hard for her. On a different ton e, Adela admitted that the days immediately following her taking the NCLEX constituted intuition indicated she passed but she was very scared of what might the true results be. Participants original ly from the Philippines were very methodological in their transition process. Paolo, for instance, had his trip to the US and NCLEX dates well planned. He said that before he traveled to the US, he ensured that all his requisites for testing were complete. Upon arrival to the US, he took the NCLEX within a week and passed. Rachel who was anticipating her immigration to the US in 2007 or 2008 took NCLEX in Hong Kong, China in 2006 before the Philippines became an international NCLEX testing center All the participants, talked about the importance of having a strategy in answering the questions. with NCLEX.
201 Stage Five : The fulfillment of the requirements for US nursing practice licensure brought the partic ipants to the culminating sta ge, Stage Five of the substantive theory. It was in this stage that the Physician Nurses manifested their successful transition to US nursing practice. This stage which is named has one influencing factor and four strategies. The influencing factor is the upholding of new venture by significant people and the four strategies are (a) finding the right niche, (b) avoiding voluntary self disclosure of previous professional ident ity, (c) strengthening new role with past medical knowledge, skills, and experiences, and (d) valuing differences and experiencing professional integration. With the influencing factor and the four strategies, Stage Five pulls the substantive theory of co mbining the best of two worlds to cope with experiencing the burdens of a new beginning together in a cohesive whole. U pholding of new venture by significant p eople Through the words of the participants, it was clear that they were not alone in their und ertaking to pursue nursing. Significant people in their lives such as spouse, mother, and other close family and friends upheld their decisions for a career change. They encouraged them when they felt discouraged and they provided them with staying power. The positive influence of significant people in the success of nursing students in their pursuit of nursing is well supported in the literature (Rivera Goba, 2007; Taxis, 2006; Villaruel, Canales, & Torres, 2001). Rachel who emigrated from the Philippines where a significant number of physicians are retraining as nurses shared her insight regarding the influence of others on her decision to pursue nursing:
202 Family and friends also have big part on assuming a different identity and profession. With their hel p it was easy for me to assume the role of a nurse. Being with the people who are open minded, and supportive helped me become good and happy with what I'm doing. The decisions of Arnel and Paolo to shift their professions to nursing were also supported decision to pursue nursing. Orlando also had a sister in Canada who did the same thing he did. He said that his sister who was a biologist and a physician worked as a Nurse T ech for three years in Canada before she enrolled in an accelerated BSN program. He said that changing professions from medicine to nursing was nothing new in his house. Alina who had both medical and nursing degrees from her home country but who decided t o attend a nursing program in the US said that her mother who was a physician was extremely supportive of her decision to My mom, she was supportive. She was just like so excited about it. She was even looking at my books and s Finding the r ight n iche Finding the right niche was the first strategy for Stage Five To the participants, finding the right niche was locating themselves in the work places that felt just right for them Nine of the 12 Physician Nurses who participated in this study worked in specialty areas where nurses functioned with high level autonomy like critical care, em ergency department, endoscopy, l abor and d elivery, and nursery. Adela had doubts about her abi meant by floor was a Medical Surgical Unit. She felt blessed for finding her niche early in her nurses preceptorship hours in the nursery a nd had considered it to be her home since. She said,
203 he nurses and then I start easier than to be a nurse in MedSurg. You have to gi ve like 20 pills and take care of the Maira found her niche also although it came seven months after she obtained her license. She wanted to work in labor and d elivery immediately after licensure but she had to accept a position in the mother baby u nit because d elivery delivered t ons of babies in my elivery. So I had to go to be with the moms and babies, post in the mother b aby environment She said that the part that was very difficult was learning the charting and the computer system. She found it challenging. The challenges she faced related to computers and documentation was compounded by the number of patients she was assigned to ey gave you like 6 to 7 where her niche was, so she worked on pursuing to transition there. Within se ven months, she transferred to labor and d elivery. Orlando wa s in a special predicament. Like Adela and Maira, he knew his niche early in his training. He was more a procedural nurse than a floor nurse. For Orlando to land on his niche immediately after nursing school, negotiations occurred between his nursing schoo l hospital sponsor and the hospital where his niche was located. At the time of the interviews,
20 4 all the participants found their niches (see Tabl e 5.5 ) and all of them expressed satisfaction with their nursing careers including those who have only been pra cticing for less than a year. Finding the right niche also meant finding the right geographical location in the US where they would practice as nurses. In the early 2000s, Las Vegas was a popular destination for Physician Nurses from the Philippines. Accor ding to two of the participants in this study who reside in Las Vegas, a staffing recruitment agency which specialized in the placement of Physician Nurses was based in Las Vegas at that time. Arnel was in three places before he Table 5.5 ight Niches The Right Niche Participant Pseudonyms Cardiology Zaida Critical Care Alina, Arnel, Paolo, and Rachel Emergency Department Ollie Endoscopy Orlando Extended Care Dante Labor & Delivery Maira Medical Surgical Annabelle an d Nina Nursery Adela settled in Las Vegas. He started in Illinois, then went to California, and finally in Nevada. He found that no matter where he went, he found a niche of people within his Filipino culture which he found helpful in his adjustment to life in the US.
205 A voiding voluntary self disclosure of previous p rofession All the participants expressed that they preferred that their previous profession be not disclosed to others to the extent possible. The participants found this strategy useful to avoid questioning from others. Ollie also stated that when he received the job offer from his manager, he specifically requested that his previous profession not be disclosed to anyone due to his concern that people might have negative biases ag ainst professionals like him. Other illustrative quotes that show how the participants value d non disclosure are as follows: Well, actually I was working as an examining physician in one of the clinics. They a doctor. (Annabelle) In another context where voluntary self disclosure was of value Arnel spoke of what There was another facet of avoiding voluntary self disclo sure This other facet occurred when the participants did not voluntarily reveal to others, especially to their colleagues that they were pursuing nursing. For instance, Orlando, whose immediate family in the US supported his decision to pursue nursing did not make the fact know n to his parents and to his colleagues in his home country or when he did, he made it very vague. He said he
206 was the extent possible. For instance, in the case study conducted by Gunn Lewis and Smith (1999), J iang and the other Chinese physicians who were retraining as nurses in New Zealand did not reveal to their families in China that they were pursuing nursing. They just claimed that they were studying. S tr engthening new role with past medical knowledge, sk ills, and e xperiences In Stage One it was determined that the participants had to let go of their professional identity as physicians and they had to disengage from the profession of medicine before they made their conscious decision to become nurses In Stage Four they unlearned being physicians and they learned being nurses by receiving the knowledge and wisdom of academic based and practice based nurse teachers. In this culminating stage of the substantive theory, the participants retrieved their past medical knowledge, skills, and experiences and use d those to strengthen their new roles as practicing nurses. The essence of the substantive theory combining the best of two worlds to cope with experiencing the burdens of a new beginning lies here. Adela puts Arnel discussed h ow he thinks his past profession as a physician strengthened his nursing practice. He said he felt that he was at an advantage: Actually, being a doctor [As a doctor], you are aware of this medi cation; the action of this medication, you are
207 Paolo, a former surgeon who practiced for ten years before he beca me a nurse said that he feels he is also at an advantage over others because being a surgeon, he had seen the internal organs and because of that he could conceptualize patient problems better. Additionally, as a medical intern, he learned all the nursing skills such as IVs [intravenous], insertion of foley catheters [urinary drainage] and NGTs [nasogastric tubes], etc. So when My advantage to other nurses is I know the physiology. I know the anatomy and pathophysiology. So I can explain to myself and to my other co time the nurses here, they always come to me to ask f or anything, if they have he now uses in his decision making as a nurse. medical school because I know some stuff that some Orlando also felt that his past medical knowl edge, skills and experiences strengthened his new role as a nurse. He referred back to his NCLEX experience and related that the too many nu er said: You know the [medical] background that we have is pretty useful when you are example, like in the NCLEX. The NCLEX probably is 70 percent of what I learned in medical schoo Regarding clinical skills, Orlando stated :
208 We have those skills in the back of your mind. You know what, you start to do it in medic you get used to that. But you can learn to do. You learn to do IVs. Ollie, whose specialty was internal m edicine when he was a physician and who is now a nurse in the emergency d epartment is consoled that he experiences helped her strengthen her new role as a nurse in the US. She had this story to tell: So it [nursing training and orientation] was pretty much the same as the training in medicine because I trained mostly in the government hospitals; and in the government tertiary hospitals in the Phil ippines and what we do there, we help the nurses do their already familiar with what the nurses are doing except the preparation of medicine and the charting because we do made it a little easier for me to adapt to the situation. Maira felt that her obstetrical experience as a physician in her home country strengt hened her new role as a nurse in labor & d eliver y. She found that her kno wledge, skills, and experience were useful when collaborating with physicians in her role as a labor & delivery r oom nurse. She stated that when physicians learn that she was a physician in her home country, they would show her mor e respect and would encourage her to do more. Some physicians would actually seek advice from her. Because I had experience delivering babies in my own country, I knew how to do the vaginal exam. I know when they are going to deliver. I know when the mom is going to ctually easier for me to be in labor and d elivery th an in mother b aby. All of the participants had stories to share regarding their past knowledge, skills, and experiences as physicians What is apparent in their stories is that they were very technical and skills oriented as physicians The psycho social aspect of patient care was missing in the ir
209 stories The process of becoming nurses changed their views about their roles as healthcare providers. The discussion that follows provides a description of how the participants manifested t heir shift from being t echnical and skills oriented former physicians (original self) to being psycho social oriented nurses (new self). V aluing differences and experiencing professional i ntegration This last strategy for Stage Five describes how the participants value d the dif ferences of nursing and medicine and how they were able to transcend these differences to experience professional integration. A common theme that resonated from the participants is their recognition that medicine and nursing are two professions that are d ifferent but that they carry the same purpose which is to care for individuals needing healthca re. The discussion in Chapter O ne which compares nursing and medicine serves as a reference for the explication of this strategy. Voices of the participants are used for illustration. Valuing differences. When something is valued, it is held in high regard. To the participants in this study, valuing the differences between nursing and medicine meant holding those differences in high regard and using the very aspe cts of those differences to transcend them. A theme that emerged here is the hierarchical positioning of nursing and doctor is different; being a nurse is diff professi know why people think that being a doctor is such a big thing. But we are the same. I mean,
210 superior because On the other hand, Annabelle had a different perspective about physicians perspective about how she perceives her retraining from being a physician to being a nurse. differences and she is keen in observing that US nurs ing practice is different from nursing The differences in clinical focus between nursing and medicine are well docu mented in the literature, and the participants are able to articulate some of those differences as they experienced them. For instance, they all recognized that the physicians are the givers of treatment orders and the nurses are the doers of those orders. Paolo continued on his discourse and focused on diagnosing disease. He stated: the doc tor. The doctor usually spends a little time with the patients unlike the nurses. So the picture is very, very different. Maira also articulated her observations of the differences in patient nurse relationship and patient ph ysician relationship. She said : You know, a nurse is there with the patient most of the time. You know, the nurse can inquire about the social life of the patient and really realize what the changes that is going on with the patient. Because the doctor only goes there, examines the p atient and then he leaves. But the nurse is there all the time.
211 peanut [easy]. But in here as a nurse, I cannot do that. Even s Experiencing professional integration. Professional integration in the context of the results of this current study is the integration of the original self and the new self in the participants. The essence of this section of this dissertation chapter is the presentation of the the qualitative descriptor of the development of their nursing i dentity. Their reflec tions are presented in Table 5.6 This section also pulls specific qualitative descriptors that operationalize the shifting of paradigms the differing medical and nursing paradigms. Participant voices and reflections that are used to illustrate the shift in paradigms and the experience of professional integration are drawn from selected identity as a medical do Shifting Paradigms: Selected Voices and Reflections The Voice and Reflections of Maira at the Community College where not everybody was a doctor. I think it helped me a lot to go just pursuing being a nurse. When I went to the Community College, because I was just like any other student, you know. I d my interview actually to go into the foreign physician program, the person that interviewed
212 Table 5.6 What professional view do you have of yoursel f now? Participant Pseudonym Professional View of Self Reflections of the Participants: Adela I am a nurse. (188) (190) Alina I am a nurse. (148) I view myself as a doctor when I am not practicing? (148) Annabelle I am a nurse. (110) I am a doctor and a nurse. It is good to have two professions: a doctor and a nurse. (127) Arnel I am an RN. (155) I think as a nurse. (172) Because you are bound by your practice act. (175) Dante (110) con n a while. (110) Maira (120) Nina Nurse.(93) medicine here.(36) Ollie (153) Well, I still like being a doctor. (149) Orlando A nurse of course.(144) ask me in 20 years of being a nurse. I had been a nurse for 6 months and I have been a doctor longer than that. (146) Paolo A nurse. (124) y your title wherever you go. So right now, I have two titles after my name. I am MD. I am also RN. (188) Rachel (142) (142) Zaida Nurse. (505) In America Note. Numbers in parentheses indicate lines in ATLAS.ti files where quotes are found.
213 know, a nurse is th ere with the patient most of the time. You know, the nurse can inquire about the social life of the patient and really realize what the changes that is going on with the patient. Because the doctor only goes there, examines the patient and then he leaves But the patient a little bit different, to tell you the truth. When I the patient as a whole, like a perso cannot tell you when I changed. I guess going through all those classes that I took. Tons of classes because I have to take all the pre requisites to go there. And I have to take Fundamentals of Nursi ng. I went to the whole first and second semester in the Community College. Then I transferred to [the university] The Voice and Reflections of Rachel I was able to change my role and identity from being a doctor to being a nurse by mind setting that, I am working now as a nurse and not as a doctor. Physicians have different role and responsibilities than a nurse in the medical field. And there are things that nt role now and also a constant reminder of the limitations I have in my new field. I think I owe it also to my friends who help me accept my new identity. I was in a group of doctors who in what they are doing.
214 course anyone from a higher field will develop certain ego, doctors, lawyers, nurses, accountant, etc. and stepping down to another professio n lower than what they have will hurt [Being a nurse] comes to love it. What I'm doing is very close to what I was doing as a doctor before. It reminds me constantly about patient care. Sometimes it comes into my mind that I am a doctor and I just tell myself, yes, that was before and maybe in the future I can work again as a doctor but not now, because now, I am a nurse. Accepting a new identity wholeheartedly will help everyone be good in what they are doing. The Voice and Reflections of Adela you because [of] the test. For all of us, it was difficult because for example when we were That was very difficult. The first action from the doctor is different; it studying English. At the beginning you translate everything. For example, like I was talking, and I was translating everything in my mind. Now, but it happened. Maybe...m y experience [as general practitioner] was just two years, and I was classmates, they have been a doctor for 30 years, surgeon and with a big background, and I was new.
215 thinking about names and doctors, you cannot be a nurse. Now, I appreciate so much the like a queen or princess because they work. Nurses work. The Voice and Reflections of Alina I like to be at the bedside. I like to be with the patient. I like to talk to them. I like being in service to the ing better. And when you are a physician. The Voice and Reflections of Orla ndo And you know that you are a doctor but you are a nurse. You enjoy being a nurse. And [they] give you some a nurse, believe it or not. Yeah. It gives you so mething to be proud of. Yeah, I know that my
216 Actually, it was an eas y transition because I knew what we were doing. And I was pretty close to the nurses over here. So it was nothing new for me. But yeah, different responsibilities and different things. But it was nothing completely new for me. The Voice and Reflections of Annabelle within my heart. I cannot deny to myself Annabelle refers When I went to nursing school, I was already decided and reconditioned. Chapter Summary This chapter reported the findings in this study. As a grounded theory study, core categories emerged and a central social psychological problem that was experienc ed by the participants in the process of their transition from being FEPs to being US nurses as well as a resultant basic social psychological process was discovered. The name assigned to the central problem that was discovered in this study is experiencin g the burdens of a new beginning and the basic process that emerged which explains how the participants addressed the central problem is combining the best of two worlds The central problem has three dimensions and the basic process has five stages. It w as discussed in this chapter that there are three dimensions of the central problem.
217 concept, and new profession. As immigrants in the US, the participants experi enced these three dimensions of burdens namely: (a) crossing cultures which pertained to the burdens of language and communication barriers and cultural differences; (b) starting from zero which pertained to the burdens of assuming a lower level social st atus secondary to assuming unskilled low paying jobs in order to survive; and (c) crossing professions which pertained to the burdens of professional discontinuity from medicine and crossing over to the nursing profession. In this chapter, the five stage s of the basic process combining the best of two worlds and the related concepts were discussed in depth to explain the substantive theory of combining the best of two worlds to cope with experiencing the burdens of a new beginning. Using voices and reflec tions of the participants, thick descriptions were provided to explain the five stages of the substantive theory which are: (a) letting go of professional identity as physician, (b) experiencing growing pains, (c) seeing nursing as a saving grace, (d) gain ing It was discussed that what forms the substantive theory of combining the best of two worlds to cope with experiencing the burdens of a new beginning is the logical combination of the dimensions of the central problem and the recursive stages of the basic process and the various interconnected concepts. Utilizing relevant coding families (Glaser, 1978) during conceptualization, causal factors, consequences, d imensions, influencing factors, contexts, and contingencies were identified for the five stages comprising the substantive theory. Stage One letting go of professional identity as physician was conceptualized as a critical juncture having two reciprocal causal factors, namely (a) door of opportunity to the profession of medicine closes,
218 and (b) door of opportunity to the profession of nursing opens; and that it had two reciprocal consequences namely (a) disengaging self from the profession of medicine, an d (b) making conscious decision to become a nurse. Stage Two experiencing growing pains was conceptualized as having a dimension with a property of uncertainty labeled, tug of war in desire to be a nurse or be a physician. Stage Two also had two influenc ing factors or covariances which were identified as the pre established self perceptions of the participants that: (a) physician has ultimate power over clinical decision making, and (b) nursing minimizes past medical knowledge, skills, and experiences. St age Three seeing nursing as a saving grace was identified as having two dimensions, namely (a) nursing as an easier route to a US healthcare career, and (b) nursing as a way to economic gain. It was also discussed that Stage Three was contingent upon ope ning of doors of opportunity to the profession of nursing and the receiving of knowledge and wisdom of nurses. Stage Four gaining authority to practice as a nurse was conceptualized as the second critical juncture in the process of transitioning to nursi ng as experienced by the participants in this study. This stage was conceptualized as a process with two phases. The first phase was unlearning being a physician with its reciprocal learning being a nurse ; and the second phase was obtaining US nursing lice nsure Stage Four was found to be contingent upon receiving knowledge and wisdom of nurses which in turn was contingent upon the opening of the door of opportunity to nursing which in turn was a causal factor for Stage One The second phase of this stage, obtaining US nursing licensure was conceptualized as the ultimate turning point in the experience of the participants in their transition to US nursing practice. Obtaining US nursing licensure the substantive theory.
219 Stage Five was conceptualized as having one influencing factor and four strategies. The influencing factor was identified as the upholding of new venture by significant people and the four strategies were identified as (a) finding the right niche, (b) avoiding voluntary self disclosure of previous professional identity, (c) strengthening new role with past medical knowledge, skills, and experiences, and (d) valuing differ ences and experiencing professional integration. With the influencing factor and the four strategies, Stage Five pulled the substantive theory of combining the best of two worlds to cope with experiencing the burdens of a new beginning together in a cohesi ve whole. It was discussed in this chapter that Stage Five of the substantive theory is where the descriptors of the development of their nursing identity were presented. To link the concept of shifting paradigms selected reflections from some of the participants were included. A quote eloquently stated by Adela was the quinte views. I take the good things about being a doctor and the good things about being a nurse and The next chapte r which is the final chapter Chapt er Six will provide a discussion of the interpretation of findings. The key sensitizing concept nursing identity is operation alized utilizing three statements published by the American Nurses Association namely: (a) description of the profe ssional registered nurse, (b) knowledge base for nursing practice, and (c) code of ethics for nurses. The essence of the substantive theory combining the best of two worlds to cope with experiencing the burdens of a new beginning and the beginnings of a fo will be presented. The conclusion,
220 limitations and strengths of the study, and implications for the future will provide closure for this research report.
221 Chapter Six Interpretation and Conclusions Although it is quite possible for one researcher to generate magnificent substantive theory in a relatively short time (using field or library data), it is virtually impossible for him to generate equally excellent formal t heory through only his own field work. Usually he also needs either the primary field data gathered by other researchers or their published analyses and their illustrative quotes drawn from field notes. ~Glaser and Strauss, 1967, p. 175. In the early conc eptualization of this grounded theory study and in the early phases of the research process, the statement of purpose and specific aims that guided the researcher were presented as follows: The purpose of this qualitative study is to develop an explanator y model depicting the basic social psychological process that influences the development of nursing identity in foreign educated medical doctors who have been retrained as nurses and who are now practicing in the US. The findings of this exploratory and ex planatory study will provide significant insight into the process by which this unique breed of nurses shifts from their previous professional identity as physicians to their new identity as nurses. This proposed study intends to discover the answer to the the basic social psychological process that influences the development of nursing identity in foreign educated medical doctors who have retrained as nurses and who are are to: (a) identify and explain the intrinsic and extrinsic catalysts in the development of nursing identity in MD Nurses (b) identify and explain the intrinsic and extrinsic barriers in the development of nursing identity in MD Nurses (c) discover and explain the process by which MD Nurses shift from their previous professional identity and embrace their new identity; and (d) formulate the concepts discovered into a logical, systematic, and explanatory model. As the research process progressed and dev eloped, significant modifications occurred in how the study purpose and specific aims were f ramed and stated. The statement describing the purpose of the study and specific aims became :
222 The purpose of this qualitative study using grounded theory methodolog y and guided by the philosophical foundations of symbolic interactionism was to generate a theory that can explain the basic social psych ological process that influenced the development of nursing identity in foreign educated physicians who have retrained as nurses and who are now practicing in the US. The specific aims were to discover barriers that participants perceived as problematic in their transition to nursing and catalysts that influenced how they addressed the central problem atic issue they articu lated. The Key Sensitizing Concept: Nursing Identity The key concept in this study was nursing identity which was conceptualized by the researcher as the substantive outcome of the process of professional socialization to nursing. Nursing identity was def ined as the persona of a healthcare professional that portrays the expected knowledge, skills, roles, behaviors, attitudes, values, and norms that are appropriate and acceptable in the culture of the nursing profession. Persona, in this context, was define d as the professional role that an individual assumes and displays in society. The definition of nursing identity was adapted from definitions of professional socialization found in the literature (Cohen, 1981; du Toit,1995; Fetzer, 2003; MacIntosh, 2003; Mooney, 2007; Shinyashiki, Mendes, Trevizan, & Day, 2006). The knowledge, skills, roles, behaviors, attitudes, values, and norms of nursing are operationalized utilizing three statements published by the American Nurses Association namely: (a) description of the professional registered nurse (ANA, 2004), (b) knowledge base for nursing practice (ANA, 2003), and (c) code of ethics for nurses (ANA, 2001). In this chapter where interpretation of findings and concluding remarks are made, the researcher deems it essential to provide the readers with reference points about the registered nurse and
223 about the requisite knowledge and values of the nursing profession. The statements by ANA serve to expand the description of nursing which was provided in Chapter One. I n doing so, credence and substance are afforded to the definition of nursing identity as specified in this dissertation. To prevent dilution of the statements provided by the American Nurses Association, excerpts are taken directly from the publications. T he readers are referred to the actual ANA publications (2001/2003/2004) to obtain a comprehensive picture of professional nursing practice in the US. The Development of Nursing Identity in Physician Nurses When the Physician Nurses asserted ), what they conveyed to society was a view of their new self or their self concept that possess the characteristics of a nurse. in the context of what it en compasses from the subjective and objective viewpoints, the subjective viewpoint s It manifested the feelings and per ceptions of the Physician Nurses of themselves as nurses. Their assertion am a nu possession of qualities congruent to the statements of the ANA that describe the professional registered nurse, the knowledge base for nursing practice, and the code of ethics fo r nurses which are as follows: The Professional Registered Nurse A registered nurse is licensed and authorized by a state, commonwealth, or territory to practice nursing. Professional licensure of the healthcare professions was established to protect th e public safety and authorize the practice of the profession. Requirements for authorization of nursing practice and the performance of certain professional education, knowledge, and abilities establish a level of competence. The registered nurse is educationally prepared for competent practice at the beginning level upon
224 graduation from an approved school of nursing (diploma, associate, baccalaureate, or doctorate degree) and qualified by national examination for RN licensure (ANA, 2004, pp. 12 13). Knowledge Base for Nursing Practice Nursing is a profession and scientific discipline. The knowledge base for professional nursing practice includes nurs ing science, philosophy, and ethics, as well as physical, economic, biomedical, behavioral, and social sciences. To refine and expand the knowledge base and science of the discipline, nurses generate and use theories and research findings that are selected values of health and healthcare as well as their relevance to professional nursing practice. Nurses are concerned with human experiences and responses across the life span. Nurses partner with indivi duals, families, communities, and populations to address such issues as: promotion of health and safety; care and self care processes physical, emotional, and spiritual comfort, discomfort, and pain; adaptation to physiologic processes; emotions related to experiences of birth, growth and development, health, illness, disease, and death; meanings ascribed to health and illness; decision making and ability to make choices; relationships, role performance, and change processes within relationships; social pol icies and their effects on the health of individuals, families, and communities; healthcare systems and their relationships with access to and quality of healthcare; and the environment and the prevention of disease. Nurses use their theoretical and evid ence based knowledge of these phenomena in collaborating with patients to assess, plan, implement, and evaluate care. Nursing interventions are intended to produce beneficial effects and contribute to quality outcomes. Nurses evaluate the effectiveness of their care in relation to identified outcomes and use evidence to improve care (ANA, 2003, p. 7). The Code of Ethics for Nurses (ANA, 2001, p. 4) 1. The nurse in all professional relationships, practices with compassion and respect for the inherent dignity, worth, and uniqueness of every individual, unrestricted by considerations of social or economic status, personal attributes, or the nature of health problems.
225 2. group, or comm unity. 3. The nurse, promotes, advocates for, and strives to protect the health, safety, and rights of the patient. 4. The nurse is responsible and accountable for individual nursing practice and determines the appropriate delegation of tasks consistent with t provide optimum patient care. 5. The nurse owes the same duties to self as to others, including the responsibility to preserve integrity and safety, to maintain competence, and to continue personal and professional growth. 6. The nurse participates in establishing, maintaining, and improving healthcare environments and conditions of employment conducive to the provision of quality healthcare and consistent with the values of the profession through individual and collective action. 7. The nurse participates in the advancement of the profession through contributions to practice, education, administration, and knowledge development. 8. The nurse collaborates with other health professionals and the public in promoting community, national, and in ternational efforts to meet health needs. 9. The profession of nursing, as represented by associations and their members, is responsible for articulating nursing values, for maintaining the integrity of the profession and its practice, and for shaping social policy. (ANA, 2001, p. 4) Having graduated from a nursing education program, having obtained US nursing licensure by passing the NCLEX, and having found their right niche in their current employers, the participants in this study possessed the educationa l qualifications and legal This is entity that it is an s self identification with the nursing profe ssion and contingent upon the
226 enabled them to impart the message to society that they possess the identity of a nurse. It conveyed in word s their persona that portrays the expected knowledge, skills, roles, behaviors, attitudes, values, and norms that are appropriate and acceptable in the culture of the nursing profession. heir previous professional identity as physicians, a caveat exists. Their profile is unique from that of a generic nurse because of the pre sence of a silhouette of their original self as ph ysicians hovering around their new self as nurses. In the experienc es of the 12 participants, the degree of the presence of the silhouette was not consistent across. Some had it more than others. Fortunately, what was consistent was the absence of evidence that would have indicated that the presence of such silhouette was detrimental. What emerged was evidence that it had beneficial effects. First, it enabled the participants to strengthen their new roles as nurses with their past medical knowledge, skills, and experiences. Second, the differences between nursing and medi cine in general, and differences in nursing practice in their home countries and in the US came into clearer view allowing participants to value such differences and use the very aspects of those differences to transcend them. For instance, Physician Nurse s observed the autonomous practice of nurses in the US compared to the practice of nurses in their home countries. Recognizing this difference enabled them to overcome their perception that nursing minimized their past medical knowledge, skills, and experi ences. The Substantive Theory: Combining the Best of Two Worlds (1967), a substantive
227 was the nursing identity development in a specific nurse population, the Physician Nurses This grounded theory study generated a substantive theory that explained the process of nursing identity development in a sample of 12 FEPs who have retrained as nurses now practicing in the US. The name given to the substantive theory is combining the best of two worlds to cope with experiencing the burdens of a new beginning or the shortened name combining the best of two worlds. The substantive theory has five stages. The stages are interpreted as a response set on how the participants coped with the three dimensional central social psychological problem that emerged. This response set is also the process that led to the development of nursing identity in Physician Nurses The three dimensions of burdens comprising the central problem are (a) cros sing cultures, (b) starting from zero, and (c) crossing professions. The five stages of the substantive theory are (a) letting go of professional identity as physician, (b) experiencing growing pains, (c) seeing nursing as a saving grace, (d) gaining autho rity to practice as a nurse, and (e) engaging self to nursing and combining the best of two worlds is the logical combination of the dimensions of the central problem and the stages of the basic process a nd the various interconnected conce pts. The discussion in Chapter F ive provided in depth explanations of the dimensions of the central problem and the stages of the substantive theory and the interrelationships among the concepts. Within the philosophical framework of symbolic interactionism, there is interweaving of the elements of the substantive theory with the central concepts of the mind, the self, and society. In symbolic interactionism human behavior is viewed as a result of human social interactio ns or social process. This process entails the study of human behavior on two levels:
228 (a) the behavioral or interactional level, and (b) the symbolic level. On the first level, the meaning of events, experiences, and human conduct are understood from the p erspective of the par self in their natural, everyday lives. In the findings of this study, the partici self was initially at zero but improved as they acquired the vi ews of their new and different self as nurses The second level involved sharing the meanings of events and experiences with others, as well as aligning their conduct with others in the profession of nursing through their social interactions within the nursing profession and within society and throug h their use of a common language distinctive of nursing. Their use of a common language of nursing is part of their nursing identity. The stages of the substantive theory do not occur in a perfectly linear and sequential pattern but rather in a somewhat re cursive and cyclical pattern as was discussed in Chapter Five The duration of each stag e is variable depending upon which context and environment they occur. The essence of the substantive theory of combining the best of two worlds is that the participant s take the good things about bei ng a physician (their original self ) and they take the good things about being a nurse (their new self ) and blend them together to practice in the US healthcare system within the scope of the nursing profession. To summariz e, the stages of the substantive theory occur in the following pattern: To start the process, a critical juncture must occur. The Physician Nurses must first let go of their professional identity as physician. With the occurrence of Stage One two recipro cal consequences happen and the Physician Nurses must act upon them before they can experience Stage Two The two consequences which are reciprocal to each other are disengaging self from the profession of medicine and making the conscious decision to beco me a nurse In Stage Two the Physician Nurses enter a stage where they experience
229 growing pains manifested as uncertainty related to the decisions they made in Stage One They experience inner struggles akin to the game tug of war. The degree of their unc ertainty depends upon the level of two pre established self perceptions. If their perception of physicians having ultimate power over clinical decision making is high, their uncertainty is also high; if it is low, their uncertainty level is also low; if th eir perception that nursing minimizes their past medical knowledge, skills, and experience is high, their uncertainty level is also high; if it is low, their uncertainty level is also low. Stage two has a recursive property. Participants experienced i t pre licensure as well as post licensure. When Physician Nurses successfully pass through this stage, they advance to Stage Three which is seeing nursing as a saving grace. Stage Three has a recursive property as well Seeing nursing as a saving grace is conce ptualized to help with overcoming their growing pains Seeing nursing as a saving grace is made possible by two dimensions that are characteristics of this stage : seeing nursing as an easier route to a US healthcare career and seeing nursing as a way to ec onomic gain After Stage Three Physician Nurses enter Stage Four which is gaining authority to practice a s a nurse This stage is the second critical juncture in the substantive theory Three strategies characterize this stage: the reciprocal strategies o f unlearning being a physician and learning being nurses and obtaining US nursing licensure The Physician Nurses must successfully complete all three strategies in this stage to progress to Stage Five Stage Five is the stage of culmination, engaging se Physician Nurses Toward a Formal Theory: The Theory of Transprofessionalism eric issue or process that cuts across several substantive areas of study. The concepts in a formal theory are abstract and
230 Topics of inquiry that might lead to t he development of formal theory include identity formation and construction of culture (Charmaz, 2006). Glaser and Strauss remind researchers work only. They sta te that usually, generation of a formal theory also involves the use of primary field data gathered by other researchers or published analyses and their illustrative quotes obtained from field notes. They further advise researchers that although they belie ve that formal theory can be generated directly from data; they strongly recommend that researchers start the generation of a formal theory from a substantive theory. Heeding the counsel of the experts in grounded theory generation, the intent of the resea rcher in this current grounded theory study is not to develop the formal theory in this phase of her research project. The substantive theory generated in this study serves as a springboard toward the development of a formal theory; therefore, the resear cher proposes a formal theory derived from the substantive theory of combining the best of two worlds nursing identity development in Physician Nurses It is initially conceptualized as having five phases which correspond to the five stages of the substantive theory. This proposed formal theory can perhaps also explain the process of nursing identity development in other non nursing prof essionals who choose to change careers to nursing at midlife. In proposing this formal theory, illustrations from the current study are used and they are framed according to the Conceptual Theoretical Empirical (CTE) Structure (Fawcett, 1999). Figure 6.1 i llustrates the CTE structure to guide the proposed development of the theory. The empirical
231 research methods as listed in Figure 6.1 were those used in this current study and are listed in the proposed CTE structure for illustration purposes only In a tr ue CTE structure, the philosophical foundation (symbolic interactionism) as listed at the top of the structure wou ld be labeled conceptual model. Figure 6.2 shows a detailed CTE structure of the proposed Theory of Transprofessionalism with its phases and dimensions. Table 6 .1 and Figure 6.2 show how the phases of the proposed formal theory correspond to the stages of the substantive theory. Why the Name Transprofessionalism? The name of the substantive theory combining the best of two worlds inspired t he naming of this proposed theory as Theory of Transprofessionalism The prefix trans means across, over, beyond (Harper, 2001). F rom this meaning of the prefix trans a definition is hen there are two or Table 6.1 The Relationship of the Stages of the Substantive Theory of Combining the Best of Two Worlds with the Phases of the Formal Theory of Transprofessionalism The Substantive Theory The Proposed Formal Theory Stage # Nam e of Stage Phase# Name of Phase Stage 1 Letting go of professional identity as physician Phase I Disengagement Stage 2 Experiencing growing pains Phase II Discouragement Stage 3 Seeing nursing as a saving grace Phase III Enlightenment Stage 4 Gaining authority to practice as a nurse Phase IV Encouragement Stage 5 Phase V Engagement
232 more professional identities existing in a professional individual. One professional identity would be dominant at any one time and that dominant professional identity would serve as the descriptor. The dominant professional identity would represent the profession that the individual is currently practicing. For instance, in the context o f this current study that generated a substantive theory on the development of nursing identity in Physician Nurses, the Physician Nurse would be referred to as a transprofessional nurse. Other career changers could potentially become transprofessional nu rses. What is conveyed in the term changers, the nursing profession wo uld have different categories of transprofessionals. The with nursing author and scholar, Dr. Kathleen Blais firmed up the naming of the proposed theory (K. Blai s, personal communication, July 20, 2009). In the current literature, the term transprofessional has been used to describe a model of care delivery that involves working together as a team of healthcare professionals beyond the traditional multidisciplin ary and interdepartmental teams. Transprofessional patient care means that professions integrate with each other and each profession gets out of their professional box and translocate to other professional models to create synergistic, horizontal team mode ls for patient care (Kerfoot, 1996). This is not the context in which the term is used The researcher in this study proposes to use the terms transprofessional ism and transprofessional in a fresh per spective, different from how it has been used and conceptualized by Kerfoot (1996). As used in naming the theory that explains the process by which FEPs transition to nursing transprofessional ism
233 describes the state of being; of having two or more profes sional identities co existing within the self of a professional individual with the one being practiced as the dominant one. In this context, transprofessional then describes a professional individual rather than a model of patient care. Conclusion This g rounded theory study achieved the purpose that it was designed to accomplish. It generated a substantive theory that explained the development of nursing identity in foreign educated physicians retrained as nurses who are now practicing in the US. The five stage substantive theory, combining the best of two worlds was able to provide theoretical explanati ons of the The substantive theory that was generated contributed to the body of scientific knowledge regarding the phenomenon of interprofessional migration and Physician Nurses. It also served as a springboard for a proposed formal theory named Theory of Transprofessionalism that can explain the development of nursing identity in a wider base population of Physician Nurses and potentially in other non nursing professionals who change careers at midlife. Limitations of the Study The most significant limitation of this study is the potential for researcher and participant bias inherent to qualitative studies. The researcher came into the study with a number of biases and assumptions which needed to be constantly bracketed. Another limitation is the small number of participants, half of whom were from the Philippines. Although rich data were obtained from the 12 participants, a greater number of participants representing more ethnicities would have provided more perceptual and textual perspectives. This limitation was secondary to the difficulty in participant recruitment. Another limita tion
234 was that the participants came from only two geographic locations in the US. It would have been ideal if participants came from multiple geographical locations. The last limitation that you expected of US nursing would have added substance to the textual and perceptual data gathered Strengths of the Study The pioneering nature of this research study contributed to its strength. No studies had been conducted in the past pertaining to the development of nursing identity in Physician Nurses. The availability of funding through a Dissertation Award given by the Southern Nursing Research Society was a strength. The funds helped with participant recruitment, interview transcrip tions, purchase of computer assisted qualitative data analysis software and consultation on its utility, and other related expenditures that facilitated the conduct and completion of the research. The availability of support from the Department of Research at the USF College of Nursing, the multi committee, and the knowledge obtained from consultants with expertise on the phenomenon provided strong structures that supported the completion of this research project. Implications for the Future Domain of Research The work in this domain of research has just begun. In the immediate future, work must begin to pursue the development of the proposed formal Theory of Transprofessio nalism. A skeleton framework has been established. Scholars from regions of the country dealing with
235 Figure 6.1 Toward a Theory of Transprofessionalism: A Conceptual Theoretical Empirical Structure (Fawcett, 1999)
236 Figure 6.2. Toward a Theory of Tr ansprofessionalism: A Diagram of the Proposed Theory of Transprofessionalism and its Phases and Dimensions (Fawcett, 1999).
237 similar populations are enjoined to replicate this study. Continued knowledge building about the phenomenon of interprofessional mig ration and about Physician Nurses is imperative in the immediate future. Qualitative research remains a necessa ry undertaking in this domain; however, measurable constructs pertaining to nursing identity development must be established so that instruments can be developed to begin measuring them quantitatively. It is hypothesized that the degree of nursing identity development correlates with commitment t o the profession. Measuring it quantitatively might help in the design and implementation of nurse reten tion initiatives. Another immediate research project that can spin from this current research project is a longitudinal study to determine the retention of the participants in this study in the nursing profession Domain of Education This study presented a small sample of immigrant physicians who have successfully transitioned to nursing and who are now gainfully employed. It is anticipated that the results of this study will dispel doubts about the effectiveness of retraining programs for FEPs and about the ability of physicians to become nurses. This study also presented a number of curricula designed to retrain foreign educated physicians to become nurses. With its innovative nature, the model at FIU is proposed to become a national model. The need to e xpand the program exist s as evidenced by the number of individuals in current applicant pool. Although not discussed in the findings, some of the Physician Nurses expressed their frustration and dissatisfaction with clinical professors who were not s ensitive to cultural differences. This might be a factor to consider by those planning to start similar programs when selecting faculty members. Another factor to consider is the inclusion of
238 ongoing classes throughout nursing school designed to increase E nglish language proficiency and overall verbal communication skills. Domain of Practice In the practice setting, the needs of this population of nurses must be assessed on a continual basis. Their cultural integration into their work setting and into their new locality is essential. Because literature supported the notion that language and communication is a significant barrier in the transition of non US native nurses, programs that help professionals with English as a second language should be promoted i n the practice setting Culturally sensitiv e orientation and agency training programs should be implemented in hospitals who employ this unique group of nurses. Career counseling services and assistance in finding their right niche within the nursing profe ssion should be offered to them as strategies for retention.
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265 Appendix A Curriculum Prototype of MD to BSN Program, Philippine s Course Number Theory Lecture RLE # Units NCM 100 Nursing Care Management (NCM) Foundations of Nursing I 2 1 3 NCM 101 Promotive and Preventive NCM Foundations of Nursing II 8 8 16 CHD Community Health Development 3 0 3 NCM 10 2 Curative and Rehabilitative NCM 8 8 16 NR Nursing Research 3 0 3 NCM 103 Related Learning Experience 0 4 4 NCM 104 Curative and Rehabilitative NCM 8 8 16 NCM 105 Nursing Management and Leadership 8 8 16 RLE = Related Learni ng Experiences
266 Appendix B Related Learning Experiences for MD to BSN Program, Philippines Year Level (Course #) Related Learning Experience #Hours 1 st year (NCM 100) Foundations of Nursing Practice I 51 2 nd year (NCM 101) Foundatio n of Nursing Practice II 408 3 rd Year (NCM 102) Foundation of Nursing Practice III 1. Maternal and Child Nursing (135 hours) # of Deliveries : 5 handled; 5 assisted 2. Child Nursing with 5 cord dressing (135 hours) 3. Community Health Nursing (138 hours) 408 3 rd Year (NCM 103) Nursing Practice I 1. Concept of stress and illness a. Community Health Illness Concept b. Sources of Stress in Illness c. Responses to Stress/Illness 2. Care of the Patients including Traditional Medicine 3. Care of Patients with Problems Related to Illness a. Psycho Social Surgical Nursing b. Care of the Patients in Pain c. Care of the Patients Requiring Surgery OR: Major Scrubs: 5; Minor Scrubs 5 3. Care of Patients with Specific Problems a. Disturbances in Oxygenation b. Disturbances in Fluids and Electrolytes c. Di sturbances in Metabolism d. Disturbances in Reproduction 204 4 th Year (NCM 104) Nursing Practice II 1. Care of Patients with Specific Problems (continued) a. Disturbances in Sexuality b. Maladaptive Patterns of Behavior c. Disturbances in Immunologic and Inflammatory Responses d. Disturbances in Perception and Coordination e. Cellular Aberration f. Emergency and Disaster g. Acute Biologic Crisis 408 4 th Year (NCM 105) Nursing Management and Leadership 1. Concern and Commitment 2. Primary Nursing 3. Leadership and Management 4. Ethics Leg al 5. Research 408 NCM = Nursing Care Management
267 Appendix C The Fo reign E ducated Physician to BSN Curriculum at FIU, Miami, Florida Semester and Course Number Course Name Credits Clinical Contact Hours Semester I (18 credits) NUR 3026C Foundations of Nursing I: Basic Skills 3 NUR 3027 Foundations of Nursing 3 NUR 3027L Foundations of Nursing Clinical 6 90 NUR 3065 Client Assessment 3 NUR 3825 Professional Nursing I: Socialization 3 Semester II (12 credits) NUR 3535 Psychosocial Nursing 3 NUR 3535L Psychosocial Nursing Clinical 3 180 NUR 3145 Pharmacological Basis of Nursing Practice 3 NUR 3165 Professional Nursing: Research Consumer 3 Semester III (15 credits) NUR 3226 Nursing Care of Adults I 3 NUR 3226L Nursing Care of Adults I Clinical 3 90 NUR 3227 Nursing Care of Adults II 3 NUR 3227L Nursing Care of Adults II Clinical 3 90 NUR 3125 Pathophys iological Basis of Nursing Practice 3
268 Appendix C (C ontinued) The Fo reign E ducated Physician to BSN Curriculum at FIU, Miami, Florida Semester and Course Number Course Name Credits Clinical Contact Hours Semester I V (15 credits) N UR 4455 Care of Families: Childbearing Nursing 3 NUR 4455L Care of Families: Childbearing Nursing Clinical 3 90 NU R 4355 Care of Families: Childrearing Family 3 NUR 4355L Care of Families: Childrearing Family Clinical 3 90 NUR 4827 Professional Nursing: Leadership 3 Semester V (15 credits) NUR 4636 Care of Communities: Community Health Nursing 3 90 NUR 4286 Nursing Care of Older Adults 3 NUR 4940 Senior Clinical Synthesis 3 NUR 4945L Senior Clinical Practicum 6 120 Total Credits and Hours 75 840 Note. Educated Physicians to Nurses: The New Americans in by D. Grossman and M. Jorda, 2008, Journal of Nursing Education, 47, p. 546; and from the website of the Florida International University College of Nursing and Health Sciences. Foreign educated Physician to BSN track. http://cnhs.fiu.edu/nursing/undergr aduate_foreign_courses.html
269 Appendix D Entry Level Master of Science in Nursing Curriculum at I nter A merican C ollege National City, CA Course Prefix Course Title Academic Credits Lecture Hours Laboratory/ Clinical Hours MSN 500 Foundations of Professional Nursing 3 45 MSN 500L Foundations of Professional Nursing Lab oratory 3 90 MSN 501 Nursing Pharmacology 3 45 MSN 502 Mental Health Nursing 2 30 MSN 502L Mental Health Nursing Laboratory 2 60 MSN 504 Nursing Care of Adults & Older Adults 4 60 MSN 504L Nursing Care of Adults & Older Adults Lab oratory 4 120 MSN 505 Reproductive Health Nursing 2 30 MSN 505L Reproductive Health Nursing Laboratory 2 60 MSN 507 Nursing Care of Critically Ill Adults & Older Adults 2 30 MSN 507L Nursing Care of Critically Adults & Older Adults Laboratory 2 60 MSN 508 Child Health Nursing 2 30 MSN 508L Child Health Nursing Laboratory 2 60 MSN 509L Clinical Nursing Internship 3 30 60 3 30 60 T otal Credits and Hours 36 300 510 Note. Information obtained from the school website. http://www.iacnc.edu/downloads/IAC%202008 2009%20catalog%2009 02 09a.pdf
270 Ap pendix E UNLV MD to F amily N urse P ractitioner Curriculum Las Vegas, Nevada Semester &Course # Course Name Credits 1 st semester Indicates has lab/clinical component NURS 705 Roles in Advanced Practice Nursing 1 NURS 703 Advanced Physica l Assessment ( *) (45 total lab hours) 3 NURS 704 Pathophysiology for Advanced Nursing Practice 3 NURS 706 Nursing Theory and the Research Process 3 NURS 714 Family Theory and Assessment 3 2 nd semester NURS 707 Nursing Research Method s and Utilization 3 NURS 730 Pharmacology for Advanced Practice 3 NURS 749 Primary Care of the Family I ( *) ( 15 hours of clinical per week) 7 3 rd semester NURS 713 Health and Public Policy 3 NURS 766 1 NURS 759 Pr imary Care of the Family II* (15 hours of clinical per week) 8 4 th semester NURS 752 Role of the Nurse Practitioner: Transition to Practice 2 NURS 796 1 NURS 769 Primary Care of the Family III* (18 hours of clinica l per week) 7 However, thesis requirements include completion of 6 credits of thesis. Total Credits 48 Note. Information from website < http://nursing.unlv.edu/pdf/msn%20pdfs/ msn_handbook.pdf >
271 Appendix F The Curriculum of the MD Nurse Diploma at MAPS, St. Petersburg, Russia Courses # Hours Course Name 1. Fundamentals of nursing 135 Hours Components 1.1. Evolution of knowledge in nursing. 1.2. Nursing models. 1.3. S cientific researches in the practice of nursing. 1.4. Jurisprudence. The person and a society. Human rights. 1.5. Medical ethics. Basis of medical ethics; a historical context. Course Name 2. Care of the Adult Medical nursing including emergenc y nursing care 230 Hours Components 2.1.General nursing care of young adults, middle aged and elderly adults. 2.2 Pain overview of physiology and pharmacological control. 2.3. Infectious diseases and general nursing care of patients with infection s. Preventive and therapeutic aspects of infections. 2.4. General nursing care of patients with fluid electrolyte disturbances. 2.5. The basic diseases of Cardiovascular system. 2.6. Diseases of respiratory system. Nursing care during traumas of respiratory system. 2.7. Diseases of gastro intestinal tract: 2.8. Diseases of endocrine system. 2.9. Diseases of skin :. Nursing care of patients with pathology of skin. 2.10. Nursing care of patients with pathology of neuromus cular system. MAPS Medical Academy Post Graduate Studies
272 Appendix F (C ontinuation) The Curriculum of the MD Nurse Diploma at MAPS, St. Petersburg, Russia Courses # Hours 2.11 Nursing care of patients with pathology of urogenital system. 2.12. Emergency nursing care: a) Role of Nurse in the Management of trauma Cranio cerebral trauma. Cardio thoracic trauma. Blunt abdominal injury. General management of fractures. b) Role of nurse in carrying out cardio pulmonary resuscitation. c) Nu rsing care of patients with poisoning. d) Critical care nursing C ourse Name 3. Care of Adult Surgical nursing 200 Hours Components 3.1. Pre operative, preoperative and post operative nursing care of patient 3.2. The nursing care of patients with o ncological diseases. 3.3. Disorders of heart. 3.4. Disorders of larynx, pharynx and thoracic cavity. 3.5. Disorders of gastro intestinal tract. 3.6. Disorders of endocrine system. 3.7. Diseases of skin and appendages. 3.8. Burns --Etiology and pathophysiology. 3.9. Neurological disorders and musculoskeletal system. 3.10. Disorders of vision. 3.11. ENT diseases. 3.12. Disorders of urogenital system. Course Name 4. Psychiatric nursing including psychology 180 Hours Compone nts 4.1. Nursing in psychiatry 4.2. Medical psychology. 4.3. Methods of teaching and age psychology. 4.4. Psychology of professional dialogue.
273 Appendix F (C ontinuation) The Curriculum of the MD Nurse Diploma at MAPS, St. Petersburg, Russia Courses # Hours Course Name 5. Nursing Care of children 180 hours Components 5.1. Growth and development of the child. 5.2. Health of the child at the first year of life. 5.3. Basics of care of children from 1 year till 4 years. 5.4. Care of preschool children. 5.5. Basics of care of children of school age. 5.6. Basics of care of teenagers. Course Name Components 6. Maternal and Infant Nursing 6.1. Pregnancy and labor. Age features of female health. 230 Hours 6.2. Nursing care o f newborns. An estimation of date of delivery of newborn and care of him. 6.3. Female health and planning of family. A role of the nurse in family planning. 6.4. Operation theatre techniques general operation theatre, gynecological operation, and obstetric operation theatre techniques. Course Name 7. Community health nursing and Basics of epidemiology 180 Hours Components 7.1. Basics of epidemiology. 7.2. Socially significant infections. HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis, STD. 7.3. Basic s of infectious diseases. 7.4. Role of nurse in public health services. Concept about the society and social groups. 7.5 Social problems of public health services and a way of their decision.
274 Appendix F (C ontinuation) The Curriculum of the MD Nurse Diploma at MAPS, St. Petersburg, Russia Courses # Hours Course Name 8. Nursing of old people Geriatric nursing 60 Hours Components 8.1 .General principles of geriatric nursing care. 8.2 Common problems of the frail elderly. Course N ame 9. Nutrition 15 Hours Components 9.1. Basics of nutrition. The general principles of diet therapy. 9.2. Therapeutic diets. Diet therapy of various diseases. 9.3 Enteral nutrition methods and devices nursing care 9.4 Parenteral nutriti on nursing care. Course Name 10.Sociology and Economics 15 Hours Components 10.1. Basics of sociology. Sociology as a science. Society as a social and cultural system. 10.2. Basics of economy. Micro economics. Economy and its basic problems. Co urse Name 11. Methods of laboratory data analysis 15 Hours Components 11.1. Rules of preparation of the patient for laboratory analysis. 11.2. Role of the nurse in reception of authentic results of research. Note. Information obtained from < http:// www.mdnurse.com/CGFNS.html>
275 Appendix G Case Level Display of Partially Ordered Meta Matrix: Factors I dentified from Media Stories that Influenced Foreign educated Physicians to Pursue Nursing Media Story (Case #) Factors that Influenced Pursuit of Nursing Case #1 Bulgarian MD and Cuban MD (Rexrode, 2007) Build more promising future for family in the US Cleaning hotels, washed dishes for a living Other foreign trained physicians drive taxis, stock groceries, work as security guards Perceive b eing a doctor or being a nurse as both important FIU five semester program Tuition coverage by HCA in exchange for 2 year work commitment Pursuing medical license requires more time and money than could be afforded Case #2 Chinese MD (Gunn Lewis & Smith ,1999) Process to qualify for registration as a doctor in New Zealand (NZ) very long and difficult; comprised of three steps over three years first two steps difficult but not impossible, but last step comprised of practical exam in the clinical setting was very difficult not due to lack of competence in diagnosing and prescribing, but due to language difficulties of the F EP Possessed high scholastic adaptation abilities to train as nurse, but Command of English very limited Overall communication skills p roblematic Belief that not qualified to become a doctor in New Zealand because of language and culture and lack of social knowledge Case #3 Colombian MD (Associated Press, 2003) Took odd jobs to support 5 children cleaning floors, delivering pizz a, and working as landscaper Possessed medical knowledge just waiting to be used in more appropriate ways Vie wed nursing a way to re enter medical field Licensure as a physician in the US limited by lack of English abilities or by difficulty passing US med ical board certification FIU program [for foreign educated doctors] reignited interest in medicine Case #4 Colombian MD (Jimenez, 2003) Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons did not accept MD credentials. Colombia not one of the 13 countries whose medical education have been deemed acceptable in Canada Required more than 2 years and $3,000 to complete the Medical Council of chance of being accepted into residency program to retrain as doc tor Discouraged by the reality of the difficulty of not being able to requalify to become ophthalmologist again so retrained as nurse
276 Appendix G (C ontinuation) Case Level Display of Partially Ordered Meta Matrix: Factors Identified from Media Stori es that Influenced Foreign educated Physicians to Pursue Nursing Media Story (Case #) Factors that Influenced Pursuit of Nursing Case #5 Colombian MD and Yugoslavian MD (Kelly, 2007) Returning to careers as doctors impossible Path to retrain as a surgeon is too long and expensive Due to financial reasons, trying to retrain as doctor not an option Although there is loss of status in going from a doctor to nurse, nursing is an opportunity to work in the medical field Was a cleaner, mover, perso nal support worker; no room for advancement This type of program [nursing] makes good sense and is grateful the government funding it (Canada) Case #6 Cuban MD (Hatcher, 2007) Enormous challenges preventing transition from getting back to the healthc are field language barrier, having to support family, passing difficult medical board exam 10 years of wasting talent working humble jobs Open minded enough to realize that becoming a doctor is not the only alternative Case #7 Cuban MDs (Burnett III, 2 006) Unable to be licensed as MDs in the US Difficult exams required by the ECFMG, followed by mandatory training under US standards, followed by 3 part licensing exam Insight that knowledge deficient for exams which include math and English skills Co uld not afford remedial classes, so gave up on MD careers Worked in retail; worked in healthcare as medical recorder, medical records clerk, phlebotomist at a small clinic Believe her situation is better here regardless of job when compared to being in Cub a In Cuba as a doctor one is lucky if earning an equivalent of $30/month As nurses, will not be physicians again but still recognizing dreams to work with people, with patients Case #8 Cuban and Romanian MDs (Mangan, 2007) Series of minimum wage jo bs to support family produce sorter, security guard, bellman, janitor, delivery driver, housekeeper, waitress In order to practice medicine in US, must pass difficult 3 step licensing exam Cannot pass tough medical licensing exams FIU program give credit for medical expertise they already have FIU has fast track program (18 months) Evening and weekend classes Found a way to work in the medical field Nursing allows working with patients and families and is being appreciated Beginning salary of a nurse in Miami is $45,000.00
277 Appendix G (C ontinuation) Case Level Display of Partially Ordered Meta Matrix: Factors Identified from Media Stories that Influenced Foreign educated Physicians to Pursue Nursing Media Story (Case #) Factors that Influence d Pursuit of Nursing Case #9 Filipino MDs (Contreras, 2004) Job market for medical graduates [in the Philippines] not good Doctors pay [in the Philippines]not commensurate to the profession A nurse in the US can work in two hospitals at the same time three days at each hospital per week; by comparison, resident doctors in the Philippines can be on call 24 hours a day, especially in government hospitals Case #10 Filipino, MDs (Gatbonton 2004) Disenchantment with the medical profession Paltry HMO driven consultation fees Long wait for checks (payment) Threat of compulsory malpractice insurance High income tax High monetary investment to practice in a hospital Requirements to buy stocks, rights to practice, and clinic and parking space (ranging from 800,000 to 1.5 million Philippine Pesos. This is approximately equivalent to US$20,000.00 to $37,500.00 at a 40 peso per dollar exchange rate) Most doctors earn between US$300.00 to 1,000.00 a month High level of charity work, not always by choice but by societal expectations Fees are paid with promissory notes; only one in ten comes back to settle professional fees owed Escalating cost of living (in the Philippines) Enticement of the dollar Greener pastures in the US, London, Canada, and Ireland Poor pea ce and order and political climate in the country If a doctor cannot stay a doctor by force of circumstances, nursing is the next pain or suffering, and bringing comfort as Case #11 Filipino MDs (Ruiz, 2004) Low salaries for self employed physicians (estimates from the Bureau of Internal Revenue database) Median gross annual income in 2002 was 230,347.75 Philippine pesos (US$4,189.00 at the prevai ling P55.00 per peso that year) Nursing like medicine is a noble profession Some Physician Nurses are optimistic that (nursing) will serve as stepping stone to becoming physician assistants or licensed doctors abroad Issue of buying stocks in big hospitals to obtain privileges to practice Feeling of hopelessness related to political uncertainty stagnant economy Fears of increasing malpractice suits and mandatory malpractice insurance
278 Appendix G (C ontinuation) Case Level Display of Partially Ordered Me ta Matrix: Factors Identified from Media Stories that Influenced Foreign educated Physicians to Pursue Nursing Media Story (Case #) Factors that Influenced Pursuit of Nursing Case #11 Filipino MDs (Ruiz, 2004) Low salaries for self employed ph ysicians (estimates from the Bureau of Internal Revenue database) Median gross annual income in 2002 was 230,347.75 Philippine pesos (US$4,189.00 at the prevailing P55.00 per peso that year) Nursing like medicine is a noble profession Some Physician Nurses are optimistic that (nursing) will serve as stepping stone to becoming physician assistants or licensed doctors abroad Issue of buying stocks in big hospitals to obtain privileges to practice Feeling of hopelessness related to political uncertainty stagn ant economy Fears of increasing malpractice suits and mandatory malpractice insurance Case #12 Russian MDs (Mosqueda, 2006) Physician can go to the USA with a green card to initially work as a nurse, earning more than $4,000 per month While in the US legally working and earning as a nurse, physician can take required MD exams, Steps 1 & 2 of the USLME, and Step 3 which is only given in the US If all required MD exams passed, Physician Nurse can apply for residency in a US hospital Physician Nurse can accept any residency because possess legal work authorization (a green card by virtue of being a nurse) Case #13 Nicaraguan MD (Thrall, 2008) Fled war torn home country in 1987 Unable to overcome physician licensure exams, language and financial bar riers Underemployed for many years: worked in a bakery and insurance office; then as X ray technician and scrub technician in healthcare facilities Innovative program that retrains FEPs to nurses Case #14 Cuban MD (Ojito, 2009) Defected from his home c ountry when he was 28 years old Unable to pass medical licensing exams in the US Language barrier: he was taught Russian in his military school in Cuba Salary for physicians in Cuba equivalent to $25.00 a month Lured by a life of freedom and opportunities in the US
279 Appendix H Content Analytic Summary Table: Motivating Factors That Influenced FEPs to Pursue Nursing Factor Clusters Aggregated Elements from Case Level Display 1 Economic factors In the US and Canada, returning to med ical career has enormous challenges. Medical retraining too long, expensive, and impossible exam, not assured of acceptance to a residency program In the Philippines Feelings of hopele ssness related to stagnant economy, escalating cost of living, inadequate resources to perform functions as a doctor such as facilities and patient income High monetary investment required to practice in big hospitals: buying stocks, rights to practice, and clinic/parking space Disenchantment with the medical profession HMO driven low consultation fees; long wait for payment of services Threat of the Malpractice Law and mandatory malpractice insurance High income taxes imposed In developed countries, better financial security and higher standard of living because of higher salaries and compensation [as nurses]. Beginning salary of a nurse in Miami, Florida is $45,000.00. In contrast, in Cuba as a doctor, one is fortunate if can earn an equivalent of commensurate to professional status. Most doctors earn between US$300.00 to 1,000.00 a month with a median gross annual income for self employed physicians in 2002 of P230,347.75 (US$4,189.00) Tui tion coverage to attend MD to Nurse retraining in exchange for work commitment 2 Socio Cultural factors Enormous challenges preventing transition to medical career in new country because of language barrier, cultural differences, and lack of social knowledge of new country Poor working conditions in home country Peer pressure: everybody else is doing it in the Philippines 3 Political factors Lack of faith in home country and feeling of hopelessness related to politica l uncertainty; poor peace and order; corruption in home country Lure of freedom and opportunities in the US More socio politico economic security abroad; situation better here [in US]regardless of job when compared to being in Cuba
280 Appendix H (C ontin uation) Content Analytic Summary Table: Motivating Factors That Influenced FEPs to Pursue Nursing Factor Clusters Aggregated Elements from Case Level Display 4 Factors related to immigration Easier to get a visa as a nurse than as a doctor FEP can go to the USA with a green card to initially work as a nurse. While in the US legally earning as a nurse, FEP FMG can take required MD exams Some MD RNs are optimistic that (nursing) will also serve as stepping stone to becoming physici an assistants or licensed doctors abroad 5 Factors related to the availability of nursing education program for FMGs The Florida International University offers an 18 month/five semester accelerated program with evening and weekend cl asses; gives credit for medical expertise they have Canada has MD to RN program funded by the government (Kelly 2007) 6 Factors related to regulatory requirements for MD licensure in host country In the US, difficult exams required by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG), followed by mandatory training under US standards, followed by 3 part licensing exam In Canada, non acceptance of credentials of Colombian doctor by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons because Colombia is not one of the 13 countries whose medical education have been deemed acceptable in Canada; not being able to requalify to become ophthalmologist again so retrained as nurse In New Zealand (NZ), process to qualify for registr ation as a doctor very long and difficult 7 Medicine and nursing viewed as professions of equal value Perceive being a doctor or being a nurse as both important; both noble professions; nursing is as much about caring as doctoring View nursing as a way to re enter a field left behind in homelands; an opportunity to work in the medical field that allows fulfillment of dreams to work with patients, families, and other people 8 Better job opportunities in the US as nurses In the Philippines Job market for medical graduates are not good A nurse in the US can work in two hospitals, three days at each hospital per week In developed countries, more employment, training, and career growth opportunities; bett er working conditions
281 Appendix H (C ontinued) Content Analytic Summary Table: Motivating Factors That Influenced FEPs to Pursue Nursing Factor Clusters Aggregated Elements from Case Level Display 9 Factors related to fami ly dynamics Build more promising future for family in the US; higher standard of living overseas Motivating factors related to family include desire to bring or petition family and relatives to the US and reunion with loved ones 10 U nderemployment and wasted medical talent Possess medical knowledge just waiting to be used in more appropriate ways Possessed high scholastic adaptation abilities to train as nurse Wasted talent. In new country, had series of minimum wage jobs to suppor t family: bellman, delivery driver, dishwasher, floor/hotel cleaner, grocery stocker, housekeeper, janitor, landscaper, mover, personal support worker, pizza delivery, produce sorter, security guard, taxi driver, waitress. Also worked in healthcare as med ical recorder, medical records clerk, or phlebotomist
282 Appendix I Needs and Problems of Non US Native Nurses and Nursing Students: A Summary of Studies Studies/Purpose Sample Needs and Problems Solutions Amaro, Abriam Yag o, and Yoder (2006) Nursing education focus: to determine educational barriers Ethnically Diverse Nurses N = 17 (African = 3) (Hispanic=6) (Asian = 8) Lack of resources to meet personal, academic, language, & cultural needs: finances; time; family res ponsibilities; culture; language and communication. Perceived prejudice and discrimination at different levels from patients, hospital staff, classmates, and teacher in isolated cases. Self motivation and determination; teachers who value cultural divers ity and respect cultural differences; peer support; ethnic nursing associations; English classes and tutoring; Medical terminology classes communication; assertiveness. Bond, Gray, Baxley, Cason, Denke, and Moon (2008) Nursing educ.focus: describe percei ved barriers and supports for Hispanic BSN students Mexican American Students N =14 Lack of finances and advising; Gender stereotypes. Females were not expected to succeed. Tension between family values and commitment necessary to succeed in nursing sch ool. Financial support from family; cried and laughed together with families and classmates; classmates were second family; presence of Hispanic role models who offered mentoring and encouragement; sought support and developed personal relationships with faculty. Caputi, Englemann, & Stasinopoulos(2006) Nursing educ. focus: P roject [conversation circles]a ssess & help non native English speaking students Non native speaking Students N = 7 (Polish, Romanian, Mexican, Chinese, & Filipino) Grappling to learn a new culture and new language in addition to learn challenging nursing content. Participants did not feel format used for EAL program helped them academically. Faculty to change EAL format to have combined nursing/EAL course focused on reading, w riting, speaking, & listening in nursing context. DeLuca (2005) Work Life Study focus: explored the meaning of crossing cultures Jordanian Graduate Nursing Students N = 7 Anxiety not wing what to expect; loneliness due to missing separation from fa milies; Language and communication barriers; cultural clashes and learning challenges (writing papers, acquiring adequate computer skills; meeting expectations of faculty) Participants went through a process them to integr ate into the US culture; they adapted by overcoming language barriers and by crossing cultures DiCicco Bloom (2004). Work & Life focus: describe work & life experiences in different culture Indian Nurses N = 10 Displaced culturally: belonging to two p laces at one time yet not fully belonging to either; alienated by racism, oppression Persistence. Work resilience.
283 Appendix I (C ontinuation) Needs and Problems of Non US Native Nurses and Nursing Students: A Summary of Studies Studies/Purpose Sampl e Needs and Problems Solutions Evans (2007) Nursing education focus: to assess influence of workforce diversity grant (ALCANCE) on student retention N=14 (3 American Indians; 2 Hispanic/ Latinos; 10 Hispanic/ Latinas/one attrition ) Felt isolated des pite specific grant services to help students. No role models for American Indians. Profound sense of family obligation. ALCANCE provided financial support and services for the students which they found very helpful in their nursing studies. Gardner (20 05) Nursing education focus: described experiences of minority students enrolled in a predominantly white school Racial and ethnic minority students N = 15 Loneliness and isolation; differentness (peers lack respect and are aggressive, lacked fluent En understanding of differentness knowledge (felt ignored, discounted, devalued, misunderstood); desiring support from teachers (emotional support, teacher to take personal interest, treat as unique indivi dual) Determination; coping with behavior; chose their battles; tried to be other than they are; determined to build a better future (striving to improve life) Malu and Figlear (1998). Language development focus: case st udy on language development in as ESL student Immigrant Nursing Students. Case focused on one. Low degree of language development; vocabulary Faculty help students with academic language fluency. ESL[English as a Second Language]students to immerse self in English Rivera Goba & Nieto (2007) Explore meaning and significance of mentoring for Latinos/Latinas in nursing Various Hispanic ethnicities. Students and recent graduates N = 17 Socio economics; marginalization Family, perseverance and mento rs
284 Appendix I (C ontinuation) Needs and Problems of Non US Native Nurses and Nursing Students: A Summary of Studies Studies/Purpose Sample Needs and Problems Solutions Sanner, Wilson, & Samson (2002) Nursing education focus: explore percept ions & experiences of international nursing students Nigerian ESL Students N = 8 Social isolation: feelings of non acceptance; antagonistic attitude; Language problems (accents) Verbal retreat (language problems); cohesive group formation; internation al student network; accept and endure antagonistic attitudes; willingness to adjust; achievement of overall goal[becoming a nurse] is most important Sherman and Eggenberger (2008) Work & Life focus: Investigate educational & support needs of internation al nurses Various: Australia, England, India, Jamaica, Philippines, Scotland, and Zambia N = 21 Differences in nursing practice Transition challenges: fear of lawsuits and litigation; computerized documentation; differences in cultural and religious beli efs; difficulty understanding accents, idioms, and phrases; orientation needs Supportive nurse leaders critical to successful transition of international nurses (work environment that respects and values diversity); workplace transition program Taxis (2006) Nursing educ. focus: explore perceived influences of institutional & interpersonal f actors on retention & grad. Mexican Nursing Students N = 9 Family and financial limitations; bicultural functioning difficulty with living in two worlds; cliques; feeling isolated or lonely in campus. Helpful/accessible staff and faculty; Supportive academic setting: felt safe, cared for, and connected. Family and financial support overwhelmingly helpful. Villaruel, Canales, & Torres (2001) Nursing education foc us: identify barriers and bridges to educational mobility Hispanics 6 Focus Groups with total N = 37 Finances; Language; perceived discrimination and lack of support by faculty; cultural barrier related to prescribed gender roles within the Hispanic cu lture advisement/mentors Family as motivators and provide major support; professional aspirations Xu, Gutierrez, & Kim (2008) Chinese Communication inadequacies; conflicting professional values, roles, and expectations between US and China (difference s in nursing practice); experiencing marginalization, inequality, and discrimination Clinging to hope and adapting through (un)learning and resilience. Worked on enhancing self confidence, strength, assertiveness, persistence, and determination; valuing education and life long learning; taking initiative; never giving up; and managing experiences, perspectives, and perceptions in a savvy manner.
285 Appendix I (C ontinuation) Needs and Problems of Non US Native Nurses and Nursing Students: A Summary of Stud ies Studies/Purpose Sample Needs and Problems Solutions Yi and Jezewski (2000) Koreans Culture shock; language barrier; difference in nursing practice (in the context of role of family members) Worked hard English classes Support from host me mbers in the hospital unit Empathy from co workers Support from hospital administration Teaching USA style problem solving strategies Yoder (2001) Nursing education focus: describes the bridging pattern to teach ethnically diverse students Nurse Educat ors N = 26 and Ethnic Minority Nurses N = 17 Instructor attitudes that are generic, mainstreaming, non tolerant, and struggling; personal, academic, and language needs; cultural needs (invisibility, cultural isolation); unrecognized needs; pressure for conformity; devalued cultural perspectives; increased responsibility; unacknowledged barriers Cultural awareness of bridging faculty
286 Appendix J Letter of Approval for Period March 14, 2008 to March 13, 2009 (page 1)
287 App endix J (C ontinued) Letter of Approval for Period March 14, 2008 to March 13, 2009 (page 2)
288 Appendix J (C ontinued) Letter of Approval for Period February 13, 2009 to February 12, 2010 (page 1)
289 Appendix J (C ontinued) Letter of Ap proval for Period February 13, 2009 to February 12, 2010 (page 2)
290 Appendix K Consent Form for Study Period March 14, 200 8 to March 13, 2009 (page 1)
291 Appendix K (C ontinued) Consent Form for Study Period March 14, 200 8 to March 13, 2009 (page 2)
292 Appendix K (C ontinued) Consent Form for Study Period March 14, 200 8 to March 13, 2009 (page 3)
293 Appendix K (C ontinued) Consent Form for Study Period March 14, 200 8 to March 13, 2009 (page 4)
294 Appendix K (C ontinued) Consent Form for Study Period February 13, 2009 to February 12, 2010 (page 1) Note. Page 2 to 4 are unchanged from prev ious approval period; hence, they are not included.
295 Appendix L Letter of Approva l for Request for Modification (page 1)
296 Appe ndix L (C ontinuation) Letter of Approval for R equest for Modification (page 2)
297 Appendix M Sample Introductory Letter to Nursing Leaders
298 Appendix N Recruitment Flyer Note. The a ctual flyer was in color and printed on an 8.5 x 11 paper.
299 Appendix O Demographic Data Collection Form
300 Appendix P Interview Guiding Questions
301 Appendix Q Consent to Audio Tape
302 Appendix R Example of ATLAS.ti Output
303 Appendix S Screens hot of ATLAS.ti Network View Manager to Illustrate Early Conceptualizations by Researcher
304 Appendix T The Initial Nine Core Categories Core Categories Experiencing burdens of a new beginning Letting go of professional identity as physician Expe riencing growing pains Nursing as saving grace Gaining authority to practice as nurse Successful transition to US nursing practice New role strengthened by past medical knowledge, skills, and experiences Valuing differences and experiencing professional i ntegration Combining the best of two worlds Note. With further theoretical coding, this initial set of nine core categories was reduced to seven New role strengthened by past medical knowledge, skills, and experiences and valuing differences and experie ncing professional integration were combined with combining the best of two wor lds.
305 Appendix U Initial Clustering of Core Categories Note. A s analysi s and interpretation progressed w ith the iterative process of constant comparison the name of Stage 5 was modified from transitioning successfully to US nursing practice to engagin g self to nursing and I am a nurse (This was the phase in the analysis when the researcher was just starting to conceptualize relationships among the conce pts. Relationships among the concepts are defined in Figure 5.2).
About the Author Liwliwa R. Villagomeza received her BSN d egree from Nursing, Trinity Col lege of Quezon City, Philippines in 1980. She immigrated to the US in 19 82. She began graduate studies at the University of Sout h Florida College of Nursing in 2003 and obtained her Master in Science Degree with Academic Role Concentration in Nursing in 2005. While in the program, she was a recipient of scholarships from the C ampusRN AACN and the Philippine Nurses Association of America. She was also the recipient of the 2008 Dissertation Award of the Sou thern Nursing Research Society. other interest is the domain of spirituality and health. Two of her works pertaining to spirituality and spiritu al distress have been published. Currently, Liw works at Pepin Heart Hospital, Tampa In Spring 2010, she will begin her responsibilities as Nursing Director of the Foreign Educated Physician to Nursing Prog ram at the Biscayne Bay Campus, Florida International University, Miami.
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Villagomeza, Liwliwa Reyes.
Shifting paradigms :
b the development of nursing identity in foreign-educated physicians retrained as nurses practicing in the United States
h [electronic resource] /
by Liwliwa Reyes Villagomeza.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 305 pages.
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: A unique breed of nurses for the US market is emerging-the Physician-Nurses. They are foreign-educated physicians who have retrained as nurses. The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that can explain the development of their nursing identity. Specific aims were to discover barriers that participants perceived as problematic in their transition to nursing and catalysts that influenced how they addressed the central problematic issue they articulated. Grounded theory methodology guided by the philosophical foundations of symbolic interactionism was used. Twelve Physician-Nurses were interviewed. Transcribed interviews were imported to ATLAS.ti. Text data were analyzed by constant comparative method. Concept formation, development, modification and integration were accomplished through different levels of coding. Methods were employed to ensure trustworthiness of findings.Core categories were discovered and a central social psychological problem experiencing the burdens of a new beginning and a basic social psychological process combining the best of two worlds emerged. Further theorizing generated the substantive theory combining the best of two worlds and the beginnings of a formal theory. The substantive theory explained the three-dimensional central problem and the five-stage basic social psychological process. Dimensions of the central problem were (a) crossing cultures, (b) starting from zero, and (c) crossing professions.Stages of the basic process were (a) letting go of professional identity as physician, (b) experiencing growing pains, (c) seeing nursing as a saving grace, (d) gaining authority to practice as a nurse, and (e) engaging self to nursing and asserting "I am a nurse." The substantive theory is a springboard toward the development of a formal theory which may be able to further explicate the development of nursing identity in Physician-Nurses. This theory named, Theory of Transprofessionalism, was initially conceptualized as having five phases namely: (a) disengagement, (b) discouragement, (c) enlightenment, (d) encouragement, and (d) engagement. These stages correspond to the five stages of the substantive theory. The key concept nursing identity was operationalized by utilizing three statements published by the American Nurses Association that describe the professional registered nurse, the knowledge base for nursing practice, and the code of ethics for nurses.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Advisor: Mary E. Evans, Ph.D.
Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate.
Education, Professional, Retraining.
Foreign Medical Graduates.
Accelerated nursing program
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.