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The realization of the speech act of refusal in Egyptian Arabic by American learners of Arabic as a foreign language


Material Information

The realization of the speech act of refusal in Egyptian Arabic by American learners of Arabic as a foreign language
Physical Description:
Morkus, Nader
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Pragmatic competence
Pragmatic transfer
Role plays
Cross-cultural communication
Dissertations, Academic -- Secondary Education -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


ABSTRACT: This study investigated how the speech act of refusal is realized in Egyptian Arabic by intermediate and advanced American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. It also compared the performance of the learners to that of native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and native speakers of American English. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between the learners' language proficiency and their pragmatic competence. In addition, it examined the extent of pragmatic transfer from L1 and whether there was a relationship between the degree of pragmatic transfer and the level of L2 proficiency. The study also examined how refusals are structured and organized at the discourse level. Four groups participated in the study: 10 native speakers of Egyptian Arabic, 10 native speakers of American English, 10 American learners of Arabic at the intermediate level, and 10 at the advanced level.Data were collected using enhanced open-ended role plays which consisted of 6 scenarios eliciting refusals of offers and requests in equal and unequal status situations. Both quantitative and qualitative data analytic methods were used for analyzing the interactions. Results show that there were important differences between the two learner groups and the native speakers of Egyptian Arabic with regard to the frequency of direct and indirect strategies and individual strategy use. For example, the learners used a higher percentage of direct strategies and a lower percentage of indirect strategies than the native speakers of Egyptian Arabic, especially in higher status situations. The learners also used a higher percentage of the Statement of Regret and Request for Information/Clarification strategies and a lower percentage of the Postponement and Hedging strategies than the Egyptians.With regard to differences between the two learner groups, the advanced students were able to engage in more negotiation and use an overall lower percentage of direct strategies and a higher percentage of indirect strategies than their intermediate counterparts. Evidence of positive and negative pragmatic transfer was observed in the two learner groups; however a higher degree of transfer was observed in the advanced students. Individual differences among the learners were found to play a major role in how refusals were realized.
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Nader Morkus.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 389 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002069331
oclc - 608221042
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0003209
usfldc handle - e14.3209
System ID:

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// <4&D.2B?Enrn nnrrnn r+nn&4r &D"4ED++* nnn4rnn&+ nnn4n4nnEI nnn4D! nED++*nnn4 n&+nnn4r EIn4n**rn nDED++*nn n&+ nn4 =E+7nnnnnnnn< 4&&4nrn &+ n<4&*& rnn4 r=+JK nnnnrn n4nnrnnnn nr+*r 8*nnn&nnr& +nnJ Knnn nnD++*E+ nnnJrrKn nnn* &nn n=nn &nnnnnnrnn4 rnn+ n<4&=n& rnr4 rn&nnrn*n 'nnr n+D.22AE*r8*nn n=rn=r nnnnrnrnr *4n =r+<4&=rn &nrnnr n&n&n& + nn"D$*.2BAE*: Dnn*.2BBE*#DH*


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/A nrnnnn* n&n4n nnnrrn n4n nnnnn& &nn+n nnnnnnrr n+8*4 84*nnnrn nr5nn *nnrn& n**r8*n n&nn+*nn& nnnnrr n*n4r4 8nrnnn r&nrnn&nn +nnn rn+ n*nn5nr8 n4n nn+8*GD011 >En3 9D.22BE84n #+-n n&&nn4n n+8 nnrD<8 *0110E*n: D-*011BE*4D5:4*01 11E*n# D*0110E+rnnn 5nrn &nn*nrn nnnnnnn 4n+n4n nnnn r4nrrr nn+ &nnnnnn rnnrn nnrrnn+


/> rnrn 5nn8n nrnn4 n+8*< D.222ErnnH +3D011BE nnnr3n 45 D011@E&nnnnn "+-nn nn nn* "GD*.222E+4 *nn&rr nnnn4nrr nr n+r& nnrrn n8n4nn nnnrn rrnnn&& rn4n rnnr* rrrnr + nrnrnn nrn +5nnr nnnnn nn+rn& nrn(n& n*nn5n*n5n *n&nnn nrn+rn 54rn r4+ n*nn&nnn nnrn nnn& rn=rn n&rnnn+ D011/E*r8*8n nrnnr nr


/? :nrnnnr n&r: n&r+n &nnnnr nnrrn&rr +8*<5H D011>En4rn *nn&& nn&&4nr nnnrn& rn&r+ -nn&n 8n=nn'n nrn n5n&rnnn+ D011.E*r8*n 4r:&nn nnrn5n& r:rnnr n+G84nn =rrrn' n+7nnnnn nnnnnrn5n rn&*5n* nn+7n84nn rrn r* nrnnnrn& rn&r n+n&* 5nn&4&* nnnnnn rrnn 5n+n 8nnrnnrrn=.* nnn4n =r nn+

/B rnr+8* D011@E84n nnn&# =nnn nr n*n*4 nnrrnrnn 4n&n+D011?En nrrnr8nn nnn nr n 5&4+ &nnnn&rrn&rn nnnn4(r5 n5rnnn5n nn*5$#+7 nn*)D011BE8nrrn &rnnn nr nr5n nn% :n+nn 5n& nnnnnnrrr n &nn5nn nrn 4nnnnnnrr +r nnnnnr n*nn n8n4n+ n5nrn nrn n5n+n*4 n*nnrrnr nn&nrnr =n n+8*$D01 1?E&nnnrrnr nnnnn nnrr +rnn& nrnnn nrnnr rnr4 nnnnnn%&nr; n*#+


/2 D011@E8rHnnn n

@1 nD&4&E*nn&nn nnrn nnrn r4(nnn rn5nnD##E4 nnn n&nnr5n5rn+ rn##n4 nnn(n*n nn rrnrn4nn nnnr* nr*n4n&nnn4 n+*nnn nnrnrn nnnr nn5n*n n4nrn nn+7n4*n 4nrn nnnnn& r5n5rnn+ n&nnnnn nnr4 n4nrrr r5n5rn+ n&nnnrr nn4 rn5nnn nnnr r+ rnrnn nnnn &nnnnn+n rrnnnn nnnrnnn4 rn+n nnnnnrr nn! #nnD!#E+4n5nn nnnr r* nnn nnnD++* n*rE+nn4 nnnn+


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@0 n4nnnnn +* nn*rrnn4 &n4nn rrnnn+rn n&rn nnnnn nrnrnn n+7nnnnnnn rnn5n* n*rnr +n rrnnnnn& nrnnnn!# nn&n&nnn4 84+n rnn&& nnnnn n+n&nnn n4&4n r4+8n*nn& nn&nnnn r&n

@/ &nr*&+ *nn* nnn*n& 4nrnrr+ r5rr nn+8*: nnnr4: rnnn nn&nn+r *nn*nn nnnrnn nn+ 5nnrn r4+n*n nnnnnn r nn+7 rn*rnnnnn nrn n*nn r&&nr H+nrnn& nnrn nnrnr nr nH&&n+ nnnnnrnnn &nnrrr +

@@ n4n&nD<4F&*.2B? Enn+* nnrnn8n nn nnrr5&+ nnrn nn &n&n*n4n nnrnnn nnn+n& nrnnr nnn+n*4 &*

@A 4nn+r nn4nnn nrnnr* nn8nnn+ rnnn*nn n0*n= nnnrn 0+nnnnn 8nnrnnrrnn nnnn= nrn&nr nrnnr+ nrn4 +n*nrnn nnnnnn &nnn8nn rnnrrn=.+nnrrnnnn n&rnnrrn =.+nnn nnrnnnnn nn&44nn nnrn nrrn4 n*4n nnn&n n4nrrnnn nn4r nn4n+*nn rnn n rnn n+nnn &nnnn4nn!#*n nn!#*4 n5nrnnn nnnn n+nn*4&*& nH4=nn nnn5 n*4nnn nInn48n# n+-nnH4= n*4&*nnnn n&rrn nn =0n4n


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@? 7nn**5 Enn + nn&4 4nnnnDB2/0E nnnn+n nnn 4&n&nn &44nnnnnn4n nnrn*n rnr4 nnn&4 nnn&4nnr n+ n&4nr4n4n n& rnnnrnnn&4+nr nn4nnn 4nnn nnnnrr nnn'nn+

@B nnrnrr8 *nnn4 &n+n&nnnnn n&nn nnrnn+ nn4rn nnrrnn n#nA+ 7nn&nnn *53n D011.E8n: +n4n nrnnnnnn 9%&n:+ nrAr*@r0 +nnn nnnn rnn( *rn+ rnr :nnn+ nnnr0>B nn+rnn 4rr nn8+ rrn4n4 nn&r+7 n*nnn nnr nnnr nn+ nnrn n&nn nnrn&: nn4nn rrn4r+n &rnn nn&:n nnn + 7nnn*G D011>En4 34nnnnn n&nn


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A1 n:nnnnn 4n5n nD011/E484: &n n+Grnrr n4r4 n4rrrn+n 8rn n4n.1r4 n7*:+ nnn4n *&rJnnK nnr nn4 rrrnn+ 4rrnn n+8*4 r nn4 rn+ nrnnnn8 n: n+nnnn *nnn5 n&5nr n&nn n+nnn n&rnnn n4nnn5n rnnrnn n*n4n +7n8nnn& r*nn4nrrn n&: n+&nnn4 nnnn n&rnnrn n&nnn n+ nnnnn4n 5GnD0110E 4nnnr&n n+!n 4nrnrnn( E..Bnnn &n*E@>nn n&nn


A. *ErA1n&r< n*nr &n+ nnnnnn n&n4nnn !+n nrnnnn n&4n4nn+ !n4rnn 4r& n+nnn n4&D++* *nr*nrn* rn&*4nnEn r&n+n nrrrr nnn4n&5n& +8*4n& rnn&r< n r n&n*nn nn r n+nnn. nnn r nn

A0 &nn5nn +n& nnrrn4

A/ &nnn &&n+ n4n nn*&4 &*rnnn 4rrnn+ nnnnr r rnn& &nnnn8 nrnn+n 4nnrnrn nnrnn nrrr+n &&nrrnn n+7nnnnnnnnn n4&nnn 4rnrnnnr n 4r+ n&4&&n&& 4rn n+nnn& &nnn nrn* n+*n :n*r*nnn nn+ $nnnnn*n 5nn*n 5nnn* 4n5nnn nn*n!#+nrnn n*nn* n5n+ rnn 8nr*nn4 nnr r+ 5nnnrrr rnn+nnnnnnnnn 4n5!#*8 &+nn rnnn+ nnn* 4Inn


A@ nr*4nn*&nrn +r*nnn nnnnnn nnn4n+ !#nn*4n n4n 5rnn4n&& rnn& rn+nnnnnnn rnnn n*44nnn+r *nnnnnnnn n&4rnnn &nnnn rrnnn4n nnr&+ rnn&4 &nn n&rnnn n*8&+< nn&4nn*nr4 nnr nnnn(nn4 &nIr r r*&nrHI nnr*nn nnrnIr rr8*r*8 n+ 7n8nnrrr n4 n+nn&4&*n n&nn nnrnn*n n4nn4n nrr+ n%" rn&nnnnr r& n+rnnn nnnnnn


AA *5n*&n nnnrr +-nnn 4nn +nrnn !#rnnn+* nn&nnnnrr rrnn n*9*:*+n &4 nn&rnnn 4nnn n+n&4n nn4nnn &n& rnnnn+ $nnrrnn*n4 nrrn nn#nA+n&4 44r4 8nr4n& nnnn+7n*n nrnnrnn 4nrnr 4&+ rnnn&4n&D.22/E 4nnrnr n+Gn&nnn nrnnrr n&r*n& rn*n rr +4nn!# nr<53-nD.2B@En r.Annrn nnrrD++*rr n *rr&nnE+nn nn4./n&r rn%*.? n%*0.n&rn n+7nn*n nn Dn&*.2BBE*4nr.1 n&rn0.n n+


A> nnnrn n n5n+G4 nnn &nnn+rnn 4nn0nr nnnnr. +nnn rnn0nnrr .rnnnnn4& 40Innnnnn nn.0+ nnnnnnnn nnnnnnr nnn4n & nr+n nnrnnnn rnn n*&r4n nn+nnr nn4rnrn D57*.22BE+nnn 5nnnrr nnr4 nn0+7n4nn4n rrn *nnnrnnn r n+ n&=nnnnn nnrnr nnrnrn rrnr+ 8*rnrnnnnn &r4nnn rnn*r8 *#*$n*n nn*<&*8n*5 #nnnn+-rn nnnn*4&*nnn n5n nnnnnn4 nn+nnn nnnnnn nrrn


A? rrnn+n4 nn!#rnnn*4 *8&*n rnnn+ nnnrn4n *#*

AB nr*nnnn 8rnn+7 n*nn*nn r4r5&nn nr+ nnnrn&nn 4nn nn+8*nnn n*4nn&n nnr +n nnnnnnn rnnnn n+nnnnn n4nn 8n&n4+nn nrnn n+8*nnn n!#n nnrnrnnn 4nnnnn+ nnnnnr nn nnn+ nnnnrr45n&4 n4&nn nnn=rnnr rnn+ nn*nnnn rnr& &n nn&nn n+nn nnnnnn* rn*nrnnn 8nnrr&&n + nnnnnnn nrnnr5 7D.22BE48nnr nn: 4n&r: n&r +4r&nn 4nn4&r nnrrnrn nnr+


A2 !#nnnnrn(A1: &*A1 :n&rA1 n&r+ 4 &+ n5nn n&44nn:nr nnn&nrnr nnrr.+rnn nnnn4&r nnrr4nnr *n**nnrn nr+rn nnnr4 nnnn *r8*nn&* nr%n+7n*n: r4n*n* n*nn* 4nnn4r nn+*n8n: &4&r nn8+7n*r nnnn:D<* F%5$n*.221E+7n*n 4r nrnHn n+

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>. r4<#=D.2BAErn rrnn*n 4nD++*En nrn+Gn r nrr*n5nn nrnrn4nnn rnrrn4nn4* nnnn4 &(nnn+r n4nn r4nrn*nn nn rnr4r rnn+ nrnnnr nrrn4nn4 nrnr+

>0 nD++* 8*$ E*4nnrn D++* $'"$'$ E+*4nnnr n rn HD++* :#, E*n4rn n+ 8rnnn nn+* nrnrnnnn4 nnnn nN=nrD4n 4 nnnnE* nnnnN= nn*nnn r n4nn4nnnr 4nn+n57= D.22BEr*nnn5 4=n4n nnnrn8n nn nn+ 54=nnrn nnnnnnnn n4nnr4rnrr n4nn4 n+7nnnnr nn&nnnn nnn+54= nnrn &nnnnnn4 nnnrr nnrrnnn+ r#nAr nnn+ nrn4n5D0 11?E4nn rnnr9 nnnn& r9n&r +8nn nnn(015 *01n&r9 019&+n nn4+


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>@ nnn+rn 4nnnr r n4n nr nn4 rr nn+ #nrrnnrr nnn r*n8nnrn nnn nnnD+ +*8rn&* 8rn*8*nnnrn n&*nnnr*rn E+nnnnn' rrn4n&r nn nnnn4n nr nnn4n nr nn+ n*4&*rrrr n nn+8*nn &nrn 4nn4nn+ nn*n nnnnn+7n *n8 rnDE*4n r*4nn*&nrn +Gn8r nr+ &5n nrn 8nnr4 n&nnnn+ 7n8nn4nrrnn 4n+4 r4nnr n+nnnr4 8nrnnnn &nnnnn+ n&4&nr4( Enn DG*.22AEnn8nnrr n:"n


>A nIEn45n nnD54*.22?I* #*5

>> nr* nnrrn 4nnrr+*5 4D.22?E57D.22BEn rnn8n8nn nn 4nn+

>? 05. n8*rnn#"%" n !n 7nn "nn n&D.22/E n $nn!# ./0.n.? &rn& nnrr #nn.04nnrGrn4rnn GD.22AE "nF: -&nr4nn 55 7nrnnr n4n nr nnrr nnnrnn


>B 05.DnE n !n 7nn "nn 54D.22?E $nn!# A1A1 r4nr&8nI8n4rI nrnnnn!nJK4r nn*8rn 57D.22BE : $nn!#45n&4 A1:&A1:A1 &rnnr#nnrnn:r4n*n*n88n4& nrnHnn


>2 05.DnE n !n 7nn "nn #*5


?. n*nnr4*n4 nnn&4nrn 4nnrrnn n+ )#D011>E8nnrn nrr n r*n&r *n&r nnnn +n nrrnn5nn =nnnn rrr+8n5r&nn nnnn(01n& r*01n&r r*0A r+!n4n 5nn nr8rnn(rr ;*##"" +7 rnn*n&rn 44&+4n4 &nrrn( nn nn+4rn& rn4rn& rrn n&4nnn n+ nnnrr n*&nnrr* 4nnrr n+G nnn&nr r nrnnr nr n4 &nnnr nnnn+nnrn nr44+ n nn& rnn*4nr nnnnnn+ nnrnnrn nn&nnn55 n8nrnnnn nnnn*n n4nnnnnn n=rD<4F&*.2B?E*


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?A 8n4nnrN& r=r<4 &D.2B?Ennnn + )#=D011>En*85E*n <**%5 $nD.221Errnrnn nrnnr+ nn4n nn+85

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?B H=D.220Ennnn &nnnnn rn8 rnn&r+ Gnnrnnnn nnrn rn*nrnn5& nn r r+n45 &nrr* nnr 8&+nnn4 nnD85E4rn& rrn&nn+nnn n4nn nrnrnn+n nn4r4nr n&4+#n/ rnnr4r 44n4rnn nnn+ 7nnnn*HGD.222E 8nnr nnrr:r r nnn+:D 4nnn&E*4& n%rnnnnrnn *4n4n nr*nnnn+ nnnB 4nn&r+ nrrr &nn* n*rr*n+4 nn r4 nrrn+nnn 4&n+ nn*nn nnn& nn& n+ nnn&rn rnnn+ nn&4nrn nnnnnn &rnnnn r4rnn&


?2 nnr+nn4 nr r# +r r# r4DHFG*.222*+A?E( .+ n nnnn nnnnnnn rnnn+ 0+ nrD++ *nrr& rnEnn&nnn nn+ nn n4rrn& n4r nn 4r nnnnnnn+r nrnr& 8+nnnnnr nnnnn nr4rr nnrn nnnD++*n*rr* n* &nnE+0504 nr4*4nrn rn'n+


B1 050 &#%r#4n#$:<0#n r-= 7nnnD7nnO7E 7nDnOE n=5nD7E -n n7&nn-rrn n 5n 55r55"nDE"nn& nr= 5n5nr =5n nn D"E nr"nn#Dnn&nC5n 8nnnn nnnD++* n*rrE* nnnnn n+5n 8r*nnn rnn&+7nn n=5n*nnn nnn=5n nnnn&(nn nn4nr n+G4&*rnnnnnr 4nnn=5n* nn+ 8nnnnn &&nnnn7nnn* rn*r nn&*&nrnn+ nnn n=nn+n n&rrn


B. nnrn+ rn*4&*rnn rnrnnn+rn nDn nE*r*nn*nn& nnn+ nnnrnnnnn nn nrnnnn +nrn r4nnnnn(.E nn*0Enr nnr4*/E .nr*@E nrn*AE 5&8rrrn+*nn 4rnn n5&n nnnnn+ HG=D.222Ennr n&nnnn n4+nn4n*nn nrnnr n*nnnn&r +7n nn nn4 nn&nn nnrn 4rnn&n nnr+ nnnnn nr r# rr* rnrrn'n *8&+ n=rnr nnnn* 4nnnnn+ rnn 4rn&r nnnnn+ nnn&4nnn rnn<* *%5$nD.221E4n nnrnnr nnrr:r +8nnnnn


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02/ '9&#"nn'n*nnnnnnn4 n7nn &nnnrnnnr nn*rnn n7nnnn=nnn n&nn=n &&+8*nr4nn4 n&nnn nn7nnnn(n&# n n*%r 7rn*nn#nrn +*nr4n4 nn4n7nnnn nnn&nn( nnnr"C""&C# +-rnnn nnnrnn#nr n+$nnnnD++* "&C#nnnr"C" E nrnnrn nn*nnnrnn #nrn&&nrn n*4 nnn 4r8nnn nnrr+ 7nnnnnn n &&r r*n4n& nn*nn 7nnnn4n& n4+Gn nnn&nn&n n&n&n 7nnnnnnn&n nnn4 4nn4rnnrn n+

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02A nnn+7n nnnnnnnnn4 rrnr nnn r8 D85
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02? n*n4nnnnn nnn4nn 4nnnn+ nnnrrn4n nnn 4nnnn4nrn #nCnn+ nn 7nrnn nnnn&nnn nnnnrrnr+ !nnn*nn n&D<4F&*.2B?Enn nDF*.2B/E+ nnnnnnn n*n4 rrnnn4*n& nnnrr+ nnnn n8&".4 nrn&nnnn n+nnnr nnrnn 4 rn 8nnn4nrrnn& nn+G4&*nnn nnnnnnn nnnn+ n*nn*nnr n ">4nrn nr'n4'nn r+*4n nnn4nn4n nn*nnn 4nn4n4nn+ nnn=rr4 7nnn!nnn* &nnn #nC*4nn4n 4nnrnn nnrnnnD< *0111E+*n n*&nr7n nn*n&n nn*4nn4n4 nn+nn

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02B nr=r n4n &4n&r nDn4nFE+nnnrnn r!nnnnnn 7nnnnnnnr nnn& nn+7nnnnn& nn=r4 nnnnnn rnr7n

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022 nn4nr!nnn nnnnn& n+7nnnn rn&r rn&nn4nn rrnn 4r.+n*n4n n7n!nnn nnn8nn+ $nn4nn8nrnrnn rrnnr!n nn*n&nn4 nr!nnnn n7nnnnnnnn (4* *G+7 n4n4nnnn8n n+*n nnnnr4n nnrrnn 4r.+7rn*r 34nn& nnnnnnnn nn&D34* 011/E+nnn"n&#n GnDF<* .2B?E*4nnnnn& nn4n&r rn8nnrnnrr .+7nnnnnnnn nrn&nnnn nnnrrnn 4r.4r nn4 nn4+*nr*4 8rn&nnr+ 8n $nnnnnr7nn nnnn8nn &nnn4n4&4nn! nnn&+ 7nnnn4nrn nnnn+

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/11 &nn& nr7nnn nn4nnnnn n+G4 &nnn&nnnn nn&nn n+7nnnnn &nn= r4nnnrrn n4r.+ G4&*n*nr!nn n*nnr4 r*n&*n4n& nnnn r7nnn4nn nnn +$nn4nn8nrnrnn rrnnr7n nn*4rnnnn& rnnrnn4 *4nnn r7nnnn4 nnnn+7nGnnn nnn4 nr7nnnnn +G4&*nn4 4nr nnnnn+ 4*nn44*rn* nnnnn +r*nnnnn4 &4 n8rnnrr.+G4 &*nrrn4n 7nn&nn4nn 4nn8nrnrnn rrnnnnn nrn&r 7nnn*44&+

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/./ nn r!nrnnn rnnrnn( !nr8C+nn 4r4+ 7n*nr!nnn4 r nr &4nr+ nnn"n nnn&4nr !nnn& nr7nnn+:=84 nn8 nnnnnn4 n"n4n nn*44 nGn n+n&*nr nnn &nnnnnrrn r+n n"n nnrrn r+8*nn* 4n+:= nnnnn7nnnr"&C# 4r+ n*nnnnnnnnnn nnnn "&C#nnn"+ nn4 r nn 4nnnn +*nrnnn4 r nrnn nnn nn+&nn:4r = nD++*J4 rKE4nnn& nnnnnn nrrr+7*nnnnnnnn &rr nn&rr n&+7n nnnn&rrnn 4&nnn

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/.@ nnnrrrnn *nnnr rrnn+$ n&nnn* &:*nrnn4 r.*nrrn4 nnnnr4nn nnr+8* &4:nr nr!nnn*& nrnr'nnr *nnnnr"n& -Cn+r& rr4n nnn*nrn nnnnD)#* 011>E+ 9&#"nn'&$n!#$rn $nnn nn&n nnn4 rnn*n rnn4n #n@4&+r4nn nnn4 rnnn nn8+$n &nnnn nn7nnnn* nnnnn4 nrn* nn5nnn+ 4&n nn& r#n@*nnn4nn4 r*3*n rn&nn*3 n*rnr+ !nnr*34 nnnnr nr7nnn'n nrI4n& n&nnnn4nn &r&

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/.A n+&nn*3n*n n* nr!nnnnn nnn777rn nn+7*n nn&nnnr 444n+7rn* !nnn*r47n nnr4'nnrnn nnnn4+* nnn&rr nn nnnrn nrnnrr+ G4&*nnnnnnn n&nn4* *rrn nrrnn7nn nn+4rnnnn nn 4nr!nnn nr7n nn4nn7nnn n+4nnnn r44nnn +G4&*nnnn nnnnn&nn& rnn 7nnnnnn &rn n*nnr 4nnnr rnnnnnD ++*n&nnrE+ r4nnnr nnr.nn4n nD++*n&nn rE+ (n8n0 # rrn nn&rn nnr 4nnn4&4n n

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/.> nnrrn4nn4 rrrnn+ rn&nn nrrn4n + nn&r&& n4rrnn r4nn4nn n+ nnr4(r!nnn n7rnnnI r!nr4r4nn nnrnnn Dn77EIrrn7nnnr 8C*r r5n*rr'nn r*nnnnr "n&-Cn+n *nn* nnr4(&nI& r!nnnn7 77Ir*!nnnn4 n77nnn7r nnnI4r4nnn nrnnnnn nnnnnn rnr7n nn*r4r7nnn 8C* n r%nC#n*$*"nn *r!rI8& 4r5n4D ++*nrn n*nrrE+ rnnn&n nnrr n4nn%*nnn nn& nnnnn+n nn*nn nnnn n&nDGrn*.22.E4n5 n8nnnDG*.2?>E+7n n4Jn **8KD<*0 111*+.10E+n*

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/.? nn& n4n45n8n nn+7nn4n & n&4 n&rn Dn4nF
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/.B rnnnn&nn nnn n7nnnnn nrn&r r*44nn nnnn7nn nn+n4nn nnn4 nnnrn&rn +
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/.2 nH*Knnn rrnnn r+7rn*n#nn rrn8 n&nn+G4&*rnnnrrn nn*4 n&nn4;n. 4nrnnn& nnnn4nr! nnnn r7nnnnn7nnn n*nr4nnnn nnn8nnn&rn *rnnn& r4+7n nnnn& nn=r4nn nn*n rnr7nnn 4nr!n nn+7nnnn*nn *r&nn !nnn&n7nnn *44n rrnrnn+$nnnn8nrnrnn 4nrrnnr!n 7nnnrnn4* r4nnn& nn4nr!nnn nr7n nnrnnnnn nn7nnnn+ 4n&nnr4nnn n4nnn4 +*nnnnr rn&nn 4nnnnnn4nn n&r 4nn&r +7nnnn4

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/01 nnnrnnrn nn D++*n&nnrE+ 7nnnnnnnnn rn r rnnn4nn nnnn 4rn DHFG*.222I3*.22?E+3D.22?E 8nn 4nnn n* *nn+7n nnn7nn nn4rnnn nrnrnn nn&nn*8&+7 n4*n7nn nn4rnn4 nn&nn+ -rnnnrrnnn* n*nnnn &nn4 r+ (n##"G*. -rnnn nn&r4n nrrn4n n44".4& nn8rnn nnrnnnJ&nK 44nnn nn"+-n& rnnnr8 N4n=D85
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/0. r+"rnn! r;nn&&r nrnn+ nnnr4nnn r8&n 4"04n4rnnnn 7nn&nn nr"n r nrnn 8nn4+*nn *n"* nn+7n nnnnnn &nr4n4 rnrrn nn+nnnn nnnnn rn&4nnr+*n nnn44rn rr*4nn +7n&r rnnrrnn r8+ G4&*nnnn=r rrnnn rnn">+8*4n& nn*nnn *nrn4nr8 (n) nn)*nr'n=rrr nrn r*n7nnnn nn)nr8+ 7nnnnn7nnn nnnnn) 8n &r r*4n )8Jn4+K 7*nrrnnn 4nnn& nn4**r rnnrr

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/00 nn7nnnn+4r nnnn nn&4 nr!nnn &nr7nnn4 nn7nn nn+4nnnn4 nn8nnn& rn+G4&*nn nnnnnnn& nn4rnn7nn nn*nn &rnn *nn r4nnnrrnn nnn D++*n&nnrE+
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/0/ *nnnnrnnn4n nnr nnn* nrnnn4nnnr nnn+ 8rn&nnr4n nnnn 4r.nnr r+G4&*n nnnnnnnnn4 &r rn nnnrnnnnn*4 rnn4n nrnD85
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/0@ 4r.+$nnnn8nr nrnn*n&nn !nnnnnnn4 nnnn nnnn+r& nrn"n&#n GnDF<*.2B?E4nn nnn&n n4nrnnrr &+r& nnnnnr nD34*011/E+*n nnnnnnnnr nr7nnn4 nr!nnnn&n n8rr n&nnrnn4 r4nnn4+ (n##"G*. &r5&n nrr.+ 8*n77rnnnnn4 nnnnD"0"@E* 'nrnnn !nnn4 nnnnn nn+*"@4n n@1‡rnnn/ !nnnn7 nn>1‡rn!nnn n77*.1‡rnn nnnnnnn +*n8rn& nnrnn&n 4nn4nn& !nnnnn4nrnn* nnr n n77+-rnn4 5&nnr nr4(nn nnrnnnn nnnnr nr!n

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/0A nnnnnnnn +n*nn *nnnnn nrnr 7nnn+ $nnrrn4nn4 *r nnrnn&4 &n&nn+ 8*"A4B1‡rnnnn nn 8Cnnn7*/1‡rn nnn7 nnn+ *nnnnnn nn4nn nnnnrn 4rn&+ n*4nn&nn* rnn4nn nnnn*n (8C*nnnr nn&*nnnr"n&-C n+*nnnn nnnn"A*4 nn nn*n'nrnn n!nnn4n nnnr"n&-C nn777+r !nnnr n nnrnnn">*4 4nnnn+ 7*nnnnnnnnn nn4 rnnr8 +n&*rr nnnnn"n&#n GnDF<* .2B?E*4nnnnrn rnn&4n r+7n4*n nnn&

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/0> n0*nn4r.n nr+G4&*n nnnnnrrn nnnn44 nn&&rnn nn&nn+ rnnrnnnn rrn &nn44nnnr rnnnnn. 0+7nnnn&nn 4rn n7nnnnrnr n4n nrrnnnnn nD++* n&nnrE+G4&*4n nn4nn *n&nn4 rnn7nn nnnrnnn4D ++*n&nnrE+ G4&*nnnnnnn nr 4nnnn4 rrr+ n*nnn4n&n nn+rn nnrn4n nnnr5n nr#+7n nnnn4 nnnrnnn nrn nnrnn+ #nrnnn-nr n n4nrnnnnn nnr rnrnnn nnnnn*n nnnnrrnn nnrrnr

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/0? n+rnnrnnn rrnnnr rnrn*nn nrnnrn rn+ rnrrnnn4 nrr nrn+8*8C4 rnnnr n nnrrnn nrnnD85 E4nnn nnnnn!#D< *.222IGn*011/I34* 011/E+rrnnn4 nrrnn 4nnnr nrnnnnr nnn n&D85E+ nnr"&C#*44r nn nnnnnn nnn* 4rnr n8 D85
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/0B nnnn&nn 4n5n8nn n+ 7nn*nrnD<& 5GFGnr*.221*.22/I HFG*.222Ir5<*.22/En ** nrn nr7rnC#r nnn+nn rn&&nnnn nnr &nnrD<&5GFG nr*.221*.22/I)#* 011>E+7rnnnrnn n*85E rnr r nnn+-nn*4&* rn&r8n r rnnn nnD85
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/02 nnn7nnnn4rn n4 nn &nn+7nnnn nnnr nrnnnn&nn +-rnnnrrn nnnnn&n n4 r&+ 7&&nnnn nrnnr r4nnnrn DIHF G*.222I)#*.222E+HGD.222E 8nn rn&nnnrrrnr nnnnnn nnnnrnnn= nnnD++* n*rrE*4 nnr&n+n nnn& rrr&n+=& n4nnnn nnDFG*.22.E 4nrn D85
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//1 n!#DGn*011/E+7n*rr nnn nn4nrnnnn n4r rnnr+7Gn=n* nnn*&r &nn4r nrnnr 4r+
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//. nr5r+ n4rn nnnnnnnn rr+ rnnn4nn4n nnn& D.22/E4nnnnn4n rnnn n+7n nn*nnrn&*n nnnnnrn &nnr+4 rnn"7n n4+ rnrrnnn4 nnn4nn n*#*
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//0 7n*57D.22BE4nn nnr :rr rnnn4&r nnrr.*r4n nnn**nnr nrCnn+Gr nn4nrrn nn+G4&*4nnnr nr%nC#n 4n:nn n*n4nn nnnnn n+nnn&n nnnnnrn: nnnn nrnnn4nn4r +8*57 rn:rnn* nn4 nn4nnn+4 nnnrn nrrnnn+57 r&rr n rnHnnrr*4 nn4nrrn nn+G4&*457=nn :84& r*nn8r n+
PAGE 350

/// G4&*nrrnrr nn54 4nn!#4nnn 54+ rr8nrrr nn n4n+$54 rn8nn &rnn*n n84 rn rnnn+ *nnn rrnnn*nnr nnnnnn4 +nnrnn8n nn*4&*4rn nnnnrn8 54=nInnn n84rnr 5nnn 8+7nnn45 4=*57=D.22BE*5 =D011?En*nnn nrnn nnnn+*4n nn54= nnnnnr nn n*nnn*n nnnnn 4nnnrnI n*4&*nnnn 8nnr nnn nn nnnn+ "7n rn nrrn nn+8rnnn 4nn r&nn5n 5n4r +# n*n&nnnn nnnr44

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//@ nn+$nnn 5nn*n nnnnnnrrn 4n4nrrn n+8*nnnr rn nnnnrnn 4&* *nn*nnn nnn8nrn n+&rnn*4 4nrrn nn*44r4r rn D++*"0@E+nnn 8n4*n 4*r**r8* nnn*n 4&rrnnnn nnn+ $nn5nn*n nn*4& nn*nn4nnn rrn +n4nn n rnn*nnnnn nnrrn+ 4nnnnnn *r8*nnnr n*#nC*8C*$*" nn*G+n nn4*nnnr rn nnnrnrnnn nnD++*nE+ 7n*r88& *4& &nnn nnr *nn8nnnn+n nnn4n n8nnnn &nn8nrn+

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//A "nn4nnnnnnr nrn n4*4n n&nnnn rD<&5G*.22>I *.222E+nn *nnnnnnn rn8n*nnn n&nrnn 4+n nnnnn8n*84rr nn8nrnrrn n+&4nn nnnnn& nnn&nr n*nn nnnn n+ 3D.22/Enrn&nnn n=5n 4+'nr nnn8n nnn&nnn*n =&n n&n*rr *n5n =4r5nrn +-nn n nD.22@E*4&nnr &rnn 4+G8nn&n rnn n+ n4n8 nn&nn5& nnn+ *n&nnnnnnnn rn nn&4n5n rnnnnn+ D.2B/E8nnJn rn n*4rr nn4n n*n'nrn&n &n+++'n

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//> n nKD+.1@E+r*n &nrnn nn4n8n &nnnD<&5 G*.22>I*.2B/E+7nnn 4nnnnn nnrnnn* nn4nn nn5nrrn nnn+ !nrn nnn4nrnnn nnnn *nnrn nnnnnn+ rn4&&r nnn n4nnn &+r nn&& rn*n8n 4n*+$nnn&nn4 r nnrrn n*nnn r+7n4nnrr nnnnnn nnnnr4 n rr+ nnr r&nn&rn nnn +7n4nnnrn4n4 n&rrrnn nrn+*n rn&rn4 nn+nnnnn nnn

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//? DE4nnnn* n4nnrnnn rnn4n8nnn&rrnn =nn+ nrnnnnn 8nr5& &nnrnnr rnnn& +nHG D.222Enn nr5&nnn nnrnnr r+nrnn& nnr'nr n+n*n&=n n'rn n&r+&& rnnnnn& r'nn r=r+ *nrnn8 4r nnrrn nnnr nnrnn+ *n4nnnn&4 rnnnn nnnrn 4nn4nn n4+ n&4&n&rn &&rnn= nrrnn 5n4D85
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//B r 5:4*G+D0111E+n nnnr4 + 9!!n$D D0E*0.?50@1+ 5*++D011?E+rnn9 + 6.9 K# D0E*.25/@+ 57*+D.22BE+ #n#r$n"r"#$n#"" 'K# 6.9/6*n$#*"n#%n nn*7%&nr"&*7 *"&+ 54*G+H+D.22?E+ %"$nn%n=n+nn%& n*n* + 54*G+H+D011.E+ En#$r$ n#$$n#%nnn+nn% &n* "8*+ n*:++D.2>0E+ 0#,##,,#-8r*(#"+ <*++D.221E+ .$n## +-8r(-8r %&n"+<*++*F"*++D.2B0E+n n&nrnr n&r+ 649G'C D@E*@@25@>>+

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//2 <&5G*3+D.22>E+"n n(A+
PAGE 357

/@1 <*++*F#*+#+D.22>E+n nn&4nn nn(G4nnnrr nnr+ 7++HF:+D+E* rnnn#n/!# n#$$n#n# D+>A5B>E+<(nHn+ <*+*+**+*F%5$n*+D.2 21E+"nnr r+7+#+*+*F+#+ 3D+E* (*#r n#$$n*n#$rnn# D+AA5?/E+49( 4G+ <*"+D0111E+#n4nn+7 ++&F++"n D+E* 8nn#$$n#/ D+00050/@E
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/@. <53*+D.2B0E+4n4n ( nrnrrrG 4+ rr9nD 025A2+ <53*+D.2B?E+7nn n(rrnL K##"&$n *.@A5.>1+ <53*+*G*:+*F3*H+D.2B2E+7& nn5nn( nn&&4+7+<53*:+G *FH+3D+E* !#nr$n/%;r## D+.5/@E+4*:( 8+ <53*+*F-n*+D.2B@E+ n (5nnr nnnnD##"E+ rr9nA *.2>50./+ <5HD011>E+ n;##"r"#/8 r **n +%nnn+%&n r74* 74#n*74+ <8*!+D0110E+(rrn + K##"&$nD= *@25 >.+ <4*"+*F&*+#+D.2B?E+ &#/#$*#(#%&n"+ #*+D.2B/E+n&nn n& +7:+F+nD+E* 9n#$$n# D+ 050?E+(+

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/@0 #*+*F4*+D.2B1E+n rn&n nnn+ rr9n *.5@?+ #*+D011@E+ rnn#n#n / 0#,,#$n#$r '#$n ##"$ +%nnn+7 %&nr"&*7*"&+ #*+D.2>AE+ rn#"#'#"'? +#*(7"+ #*+!+*F-n*+D.2B.E+!& rnn( r+ 99D ../5./@+ #n*!+D011/E+ (n#'#"9n&#n DAn+E+nn( <4"+ *$+D.2B.E+ r#n# +(+ *$+FG*:+D.22.E+!n nL4rr nn+7+"*+3 *+*+ 4n*F4D+E* .#+n#r#' n/n#$$$#**#$"#!.n D+0?/50B?E+#&* %3(nnn 5*,+D011@E+5nn nnn( "+ K##"&n"n!#$$n#= D.E*.B.5.2?+ *+F53n*+D011.E+: nn=n n(nn+ K##"&$nDD *.@BA5.A10+

PAGE 360

/@/ *+FG*+D011>E+#n& 34n nn+ 8#K##"6n# $ D.E*2@5..B 85?nr $n6 $n#"r"#%n nn+%&nrn*4#n* n+ *<+D.2B/E+rn+7:+ #+F+$+nD+E* 9n#$$n# D+.0/5.A@E+(+ *#+*F3*H+D.2B@E+"n4 (+ rr 9nA D/E*0.@500A+ H*#+D.220E+r&nn( nr"&n+ 0rn 9nA *01?50@/+ H*#+D.222E+nnr) &nn+ > F */2.5@//+ H*+*FG*+D.222E+ 8"/n#n'#" Kr6<(nHn+ H4*+D.22/E+"nnr r+ 6,# D.E* /25A0+ Hrr*+D.2>?E 8n#/6'#"n#"n*# #( "n#+

PAGE 361

/@@ Hn*+D011/E+nn( r!# rnn+ rr9nB= D.E*215.0.+ H*G+"+D.2?AE+&n+7"+ #F:++D+E* '? $n/E#-D-rnn D+@.5ABE 49("+ H*9+D.221E+"n# + K##"&$n= 0/?50A?+ G*:+D011>E+ r##5# +%nnn*%&nr G4*G*G4+G*+D.2?>E+ '#n +49(!+ G*++3+*FG*+D.2?>E+ !##6(+ Gn*+D011/E+r( n,$n Kr%nnn+"%& n*$nrnn* 7+ G*<+*7*+*7n*+*34*+*F*+D.2B>E+%&rn n(;nnn&&r: + K# #"&$n /@?5/?.+ G*+D.22?E+nr&(!# nn+ rr 9nF D.E*.50>+ Grn*H+D.2B1E+ !n#;n<&G*#(+

PAGE 362

/@A Grn*H+D.22.E+ !##/#",#"$ +( H45G+ G*+*!n*+*F<4*:+D.22AE+ (*#rr##'rn$#"n# nr$nDn0+E+G7(%&nrG 4 "+ G*++D.22AE+nnn rn&( 7nrnr + rr9 9C *>A5B?+ G*++*FG*++D.22BE+nn r: + :9n = /?5A1+ G*!+D.2>0E+nr+7 +H4F$+nn&nD+E* #r##'$*# D+.A5A/E+$n!#(n nr$n+G*!+D.2?@E+ .###n#n/#rnr r#n + "(%&nr"&"+ 3D.22?E+1E+ (+ 3*H+*F<53*+D.22/E+7n n(nn+7H+ 3F+<53D+E* 8r$n D+/501E+-8r( -8r%&n"+

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/@> 3*H+*F!*+D.22.E+n nn+ n#9n;#D 0.A50@?+ 3*G+D011BE+nn rn3n nn+ K##"&$n= *0A?50?B+ 3*#+D.22/E+ !#?nn +-8r(-8r %&n"+ 3n5*#+D.22?E+ r#n##"n#$r$r#6 *rr&#%n#/n r$n'%nnn*49%& n*49*49+ 34*:+D011/E+ &$n"r#"nn'"#"5 #6.9 + %nnn+
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/@? r5<*+D.22/E+ %n$#r$n/ ;' #n#n#r#n%nnn*7 %&n*+ n*+D011?E+8nrnrrnr nn n&n+ 8n&$n= D0E*.>?5.20+ *+:+D.22AE+"rn+ K##"&$nB= */B.5/20+ *+:+D.22?E+n&r n+ 69K#A D.E*0.50B+ *+D011/E+ !#$r$K#n/#n#r$n '%nnn*>+ *+<+D0110E+5n5r rnn+ : 9nA@ *B251@+ *H+*5E+ n ("nnrnr+ rr9n@ D@E*@..5@/0+ *H+*#*:+*/5.B2+

PAGE 365

/@B *H+*5<*$+*F+ 4*H+D.2B2E+nn7+ >F D0C/E*0A250?A+ 4*H+D.220E+nn5 n&nrnnr r+ K##"&$nF */125/0B+ -*:+D011BE+nnrn :(5/1+ *:+D.22.E+ 7#---n/'#"r$n" "$# &#%nr6 +%nnn* #%&n*49+ :+#+*Fn*+$+D.2B/E+ 9n#$$n# +49( +

PAGE 366

/@2 *3+D.220E+n4nn n(rrnr + K##"&$n@ *@25>0+ *3+D.22@E+-n&nr!# nn54nn8n+ rr9nA D.E*.5.@+ *3+D.222E+nn n nG3+7+ GD+E* !n#n D+.>?5.B1E+ #(#%&n"+ *+9+D011@E+ 6""n#"r#n*##*#r$ #"r$n n#$rn#"6"# 6.9 + %nnn+%&nr **+ *+F5nn*G+D.22BE+ nn+ 8"n B D0E*../5.0@+ *+D.22BE+7&nnnn= nrn( rn n+ K##"&$nD *@A?5@B@+ *H+D011@E+L7n n&n n+ 6%492##= *0A/50?/+ *H+F*+D011>E+8r nn!#n( )*r *+ '$D= *..25./@+ *+F*<+D.2B/E+nn n+7:+F+ nD+E* 9n#$$n# D+.A>5.BBE+49( +

PAGE 367

/A1 nn*+D.22BE+ &#""n#"n $%nnn+n %&n*nrr* + *:+D.2>2E+ rnn#*(#%&n"+ n*+D.22?E+:5%r n+ !#$$n# %nB= D@E*/@25/?1+ n&*"+<+D.2BB*E+JK5 nnr( nnrr+" nnn00#&n*#*7+ n&*"+<+D.22/E+nrJK( nn+ 8(69C *B?5..1+ n4n*+#+*FA+ *+*F<*++D.2B?E+& nrnn :r+ K9K#F *./.5.AA *+*F<*++D.22/E+#5 nrnnr n+7H+3F+<53D+E* 8r$n D+ ./B5.A?E+49(-8r%&n"+

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/A. +D011/E+ 8 rnn##"r##n#$r/ r"#$n#"Kr9Brn#$r #,Kr9 69r%nnn+%&nr# r* **#r+ 5Gn*#++D0110 -:*n#rn*/n#n '#"66$n +%nnn* %&nr*H&*+ *:+D.2B/E+#5nnr + rr9n= *2.5..0+ *D011.E+ 9Brnr##"r#Kr/ *##" #*rrn9BKr +%nnn+ %&nrG4*G*G4+ *G+#+D.22AE+ 8*$!#n*$<($n&4+ *$+D.22@E+ rr#"r$nn#n;"# '#" #n"n# PnQ+ )*G+D011BE+ 8n#""n*r$ n%nnn+n %&n*nrr* + )#*++D011>E+ K'H#I/%";r n#%nnn+%&nr7 4*74 #n*74+

PAGE 369

/A0 $*+F*%+D011?E+ n rn& nn8n+ 8n&$n= D0E*00.50A.+ $nn*+:+D.220E+nn n&&( r&n+7:+$nn*+7*F3+ D+E* &# D+@/5>2E+<(nHn+ $*+D.2BAE+!rrnn*rr n*rrnn+ K##"&$n *.@A5.?B+ $*+D.22.E+ !#nr$n/$n#"$ n# + <(n+ $r*+D.2B>E+nn nr&n+ 649 G'B D@E*>B25>22+ $r*+D.2B2E+ &rn*#*(4G+ 9*9+D.22BE+ #n#n$##"n#$r$* #, >r#5$!%nnn*7 %&n*E+ &$n'#"!8#*%n nn+%&nrG4*G*G4 +

PAGE 370


PAGE 371

/A@ 8(<;nrnnr (nnnnr n+n*4& n7n&4+ nrrn4n nrnnnr +< &nrnnnn n5nrrnr n+n ( + ( GnnCn(+++ H(5( +++ "DnE( r#&nnnnDr E( ++ &(nn 7rn( : 7rn*4nnn L++ 'Cn( + 7rnnn*4nnnL n&(+ -n4( + nnn( +++ n=n&( +

PAGE 372

/AA 8(<;nD#nE n=n&( + nnG4nnr nDEL <7nn& G4&nL ++ G&nn5n L97r9*4nDEL G4nnL+++ !nnDE nrn nL9-7r9*4nDEnL+++ + !nnnn rnnL97r9*4nDEnn nL++ $nnr4 nL+++G4nr& nLD<*7nn* &*E G4nrn4nnL n&r4nr )r $nrnL++++

PAGE 373

/A> 8<(<;n+nrrn4 nnrnn nr+<&nrn nnnn5nr rnrn+n (++ ( + GnnCn(+ H(5( "DnE(+++ r#&nnnnDr E( +++&(nn C 7rn( : 7rn*4nnn L++ 'Cn( + 7rnnn*4nnnL + n&( + -n4( +

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Morkus, Nader.
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The realization of the speech act of refusal in Egyptian Arabic by American learners of Arabic as a foreign language
h [electronic resource] /
by Nader Morkus.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 389 pages.
Includes vita.
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated how the speech act of refusal is realized in Egyptian Arabic by intermediate and advanced American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. It also compared the performance of the learners to that of native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and native speakers of American English. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between the learners' language proficiency and their pragmatic competence. In addition, it examined the extent of pragmatic transfer from L1 and whether there was a relationship between the degree of pragmatic transfer and the level of L2 proficiency. The study also examined how refusals are structured and organized at the discourse level. Four groups participated in the study: 10 native speakers of Egyptian Arabic, 10 native speakers of American English, 10 American learners of Arabic at the intermediate level, and 10 at the advanced level.Data were collected using enhanced open-ended role plays which consisted of 6 scenarios eliciting refusals of offers and requests in equal and unequal status situations. Both quantitative and qualitative data analytic methods were used for analyzing the interactions. Results show that there were important differences between the two learner groups and the native speakers of Egyptian Arabic with regard to the frequency of direct and indirect strategies and individual strategy use. For example, the learners used a higher percentage of direct strategies and a lower percentage of indirect strategies than the native speakers of Egyptian Arabic, especially in higher status situations. The learners also used a higher percentage of the Statement of Regret and Request for Information/Clarification strategies and a lower percentage of the Postponement and Hedging strategies than the Egyptians.With regard to differences between the two learner groups, the advanced students were able to engage in more negotiation and use an overall lower percentage of direct strategies and a higher percentage of indirect strategies than their intermediate counterparts. Evidence of positive and negative pragmatic transfer was observed in the two learner groups; however a higher degree of transfer was observed in the advanced students. Individual differences among the learners were found to play a major role in how refusals were realized.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Advisor: Camilla Vasquez, Ph.D.
Pragmatic competence
Pragmatic transfer
Role plays
Cross-cultural communication
0 690
Dissertations, Academic
x Secondary Education
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.