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Sustainable planning and design for ecotourism

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Title:
Sustainable planning and design for ecotourism ecotecture embraced by the essence of nature on Amboro National Park, Santa Cruz-Bolivia
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Gil, Claudia P
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sustainable architecture
AgroEcology
Nature
Green roof
Bolivia
Dynamic and Responsive Landscapes
Dissertations, Academic -- Architecture and Community Design -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: The concern for the environment and social aspects have been emphasizing in the concept of ecotourism. Tourism is the world's largest industry. "It accounts for more than 10% of total employment, 11% of global GDP, and total tourist trips are predicted to increase to 1.6 billion by 2020". As such, it has a major and increasing impact on both people and nature. The increase of travels and tourists in the world, has led to the acknowledgement of tourism as part of the emissions of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the framework of sustainable development in tourism has been developed as well as ecotourism. Eco-tourism can be both an effective conservation tool and a successful community development model. Sustainable architecture can be well integrated in a community that will base their knowledge on role model site for the sustainability of a park and village.This thesis is aiming to study and develop a sustainable model for the conflict that exists between architecture and eco-tourism because of current practices and their impact on natural habitat. Inappropriate tourism development and practice can degrade habitats and landscapes, deplete natural resources, and generate waste and pollution. The local community is also in need of a better and healthy living. This has become a social, cultural, and economical issue prevalent for decades since there hasn't been an established relationship between the local community and the tourist. The main investigation into determining factors is on how and why we need the bond between eco-village and eco-tourism.Does it consist of culture and society integration? Or is it nature preservation? What is the new relationship between tourist-community or tourist development design and development of this relationship? Some of the options for research and study is an eco-cabin that will serve as a prototype for ecotourism sustainable technologies and architecture, integrating an eco-village as a model for the local community. A way to approach this issue is through the education of the local people and tourism through sustainable architecture and development. Community knowledge can be increased through environmental sustainable building techniques. Perhaps the community gets involve in the construction process, so they learn how to take care of their surroundings and its stewardship.. In this way the sustainability of well-being of human cultures that inhibit those environments are sustained, and tourists can get engaged through community learning and interaction.Responsible tourism can also promote awareness of and support for the conservation of local culture, creating economic opportunities for countries and communities.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Claudia P. Gil.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 114 pages.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002069366
oclc - 608305753
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0003225
usfldc handle - e14.3225
System ID:
SFS0027541:00001


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ABSTRACT: The concern for the environment and social aspects have been emphasizing in the concept of ecotourism. Tourism is the world's largest industry. "It accounts for more than 10% of total employment, 11% of global GDP, and total tourist trips are predicted to increase to 1.6 billion by 2020". As such, it has a major and increasing impact on both people and nature. The increase of travels and tourists in the world, has led to the acknowledgement of tourism as part of the emissions of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the framework of sustainable development in tourism has been developed as well as ecotourism. Eco-tourism can be both an effective conservation tool and a successful community development model. Sustainable architecture can be well integrated in a community that will base their knowledge on role model site for the sustainability of a park and village.This thesis is aiming to study and develop a sustainable model for the conflict that exists between architecture and eco-tourism because of current practices and their impact on natural habitat. Inappropriate tourism development and practice can degrade habitats and landscapes, deplete natural resources, and generate waste and pollution. The local community is also in need of a better and healthy living. This has become a social, cultural, and economical issue prevalent for decades since there hasn't been an established relationship between the local community and the tourist. The main investigation into determining factors is on how and why we need the bond between eco-village and eco-tourism.Does it consist of culture and society integration? Or is it nature preservation? What is the new relationship between tourist-community or tourist development design and development of this relationship? Some of the options for research and study is an eco-cabin that will serve as a prototype for ecotourism sustainable technologies and architecture, integrating an eco-village as a model for the local community. A way to approach this issue is through the education of the local people and tourism through sustainable architecture and development. Community knowledge can be increased through environmental sustainable building techniques. Perhaps the community gets involve in the construction process, so they learn how to take care of their surroundings and its stewardship.. In this way the sustainability of well-being of human cultures that inhibit those environments are sustained, and tourists can get engaged through community learning and interaction.Responsible tourism can also promote awareness of and support for the conservation of local culture, creating economic opportunities for countries and communities.
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Sustainable Planning and Design for Ecotourism: Ecotecture Embraced by the Essence of Nature on Amboro National Park, Santa Cruz-Bolivia by Claudia P. Gil A thesis submitted in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Shannon Bassett, M.A.U.D Stanley Russell, M.Arch. Ron Chandler, M.S. Robert Hudson, B.Arch. Date of Approval: November, 2009 Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, AgroEcology, Nature, Green roof, Bolivia, Dynamic and Responsive Landscapes. Copyright 2009, Claudia P. Gil

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Dedication This thesis is dedicated to my God, that have given me all the love and strength to follow this path and to complete this part of my journey. To my parents, for all of their guidance, support and care for me in every step I take, for teaching me the meaning of life, th ey are my best example. For my sisters, their sweetness and love kept me going and not stopping. To my brothers that always care for me and fo r their advice.

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Acknowledgements Completing this part of my journey brings joy into my life. But none of all this would have happened without the help of many p eople that are involved in my life and who have contributed. I would like to thank the following people for their dedication, prayers, and sup port: To my family, “Thank you” for being my guidance, for your understanding, and love. To my friends, you know who you are, for letting me in into your lives, thank you for your friendship and constant help in hard times and joy in happy moments. I would like to acknowledge to all the professionals who where part of the path through my career, for their knowledge and supp ort. To my major professor Shannon Bassett, thank you for your personal guidance, and your detailed and constructive comments. My committee members, Robert Hudson; I will always be thankful for your wisdom, knowledge, and deep concern not only for me but for all of your students; Ron Chandler, my sincere gratitude to you and your ideas that have given me a good basis for my thesis projec t design; Stanley Russell, thank you for your understanding, helpful observations and support. Special thanks to Cecilia Guardia, Trent Green, Jean Caldieron, thank you for your advice and care.

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iTable of ContentsList of Tables................................................................................................................. ................................................................................... iii List of Figures................................................................................................................ .................................................................................. iv Abstract ...................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................x Chapter One: Introduction ..................................................................................................... ...........................................................................1 Chapter Two: Precedents........................................................................................................ ........................................................................11 Ecology in Bolivia........................................................................................................... ................................................................... 11 Environmental Sustainability.................................................................................................. .............................................................12 Technical Sustainability...................................................................................................... ................................................................13 Financial Sustainability .................................................................................................... ..................................................................14 Organizational Sustainability................................................................................................. ..............................................................15 Social Sustainability ....................................................................................................... ...................................................................16 Ecologic Design ............................................................................................................. ...................................................................17 Chapter Three: Case Studies.................................................................................................... ......................................................................24 Bay of Fires Lodge ........................................................................................................... .................................................................36 Key Features................................................................................................................. ........................................................25 Background and Objective..................................................................................................... ...............................................25 The Development.............................................................................................................. ....................................................26 The Setting................................................................................................................. ..............................................26 Description of Facilities................................................................................................... ..........................................26 Site Issues and Constraints................................................................................................. .....................................27 Development Responses........................................................................................................ ..............................................28 Energy...................................................................................................................... ................................................28

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ii Water....................................................................................................................... .................................................28 Waste....................................................................................................................... ................................................29 Fire Protection............................................................................................................. .............................................29 Building Materials and Construction......................................................................................... ..................................29 Experiential................................................................................................................ ...............................................30 Connection with the Landscape............................................................................................... ..................................30 Aesthetics.................................................................................................................. ...............................................30 Social and Economic Response................................................................................................ ................................31 Ridge Top Retreats ........................................................................................................... .................................................................32 Key Features ............................................................................................................................... .......................................... 32 Background ............................................................................................................................... ............................... 32 Site Considerations ............................................................................................................................... ................................ 32 The Setting ............................................................................................................................... ................................ 32 Issues and Constraints ............................................................................................................................... .............. 33 The Development ............................................................................................................................... ................................... 33 Development Objectives ............................................................................................................................... ........... 34 Description of Facilities ............................................................................................................................... .............. 34 Development Responses........................................................................................................ ..............................................34 Building Materials and Construction......................................................................................... ..................................34 Energy......................................................................................................................... .............................................34 Water....................................................................................................................... .................................................35 Waste....................................................................................................................... ................................................35 Experiential................................................................................................................ ...............................................35 Connection with the Landscape............................................................................................... ..................................35 Social...................................................................................................................... ..................................................36 The Development Process ............................................................................................................................... ..................... 36 Fire Protection............................................................................................................. .............................................37 Bridge House ................................................................................................................. ...................................................................37 Background................................................................................................................... ........................................................38 The Desing................................................................................................................... .........................................................39 Structure and Materials...................................................................................................... ...................................................39 Sustainability and Environment............................................................................................... ..............................................40 Thermal Comfort.............................................................................................................. ......................................................40 Materials.................................................................................................................... ...........................................................41 Services .................................................................................................................... ...........................................................41 Chalalan Ecolodge ............................................................................................................ ................................................................42

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iii Ford Calumet Environmental Center............................................................................................. .....................................................46 Ariau Jungle Lodge ........................................................................................................... .................................................................49 Chapter Four: Site............................................................................................................. ..............................................................................51 Site Description ............................................................................................................. ....................................................................52 North Side .................................................................................................................. ...........................................................54 South Side .................................................................................................................. ..........................................................55 Site Documentation ........................................................................................................... ................................................................56 Chapter Five: Educational Retreat The Proposal............................................................................... ..........................................................69 ECO-Brief..................................................................................................................... .....................................................................69 Objectives.................................................................................................................... ......................................................................69 Strategies.................................................................................................................... .......................................................................69 Chapter Six: Material Study ................................................................................................... .........................................................................73 Types of Connections.......................................................................................................... ...............................................................74 Chapter Seven: Initial Concept Idea ........................................................................................... ....................................................................77 Thesis Concept................................................................................................................ ..................................................................77 Chapter Eight: Sustainable Strategies ......................................................................................... ...................................................................82 Agroecology Bene ts .......................................................................................................................... ..............................................83 Vegetative Roof............................................................................................................... ...................................................................86 The Gravity Fed Irrigation System............................................................................................. .........................................................87 Micro-Hydroelectric Power..................................................................................................... .............................................................88 Animal Corridors.............................................................................................................. ..................................................................89 Chapter Nine: Design Solution ................................................................................................. ......................................................................90 Master Plan.................................................................................................................... ....................................................................91 Works Cited.................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................112

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ivList of TablesTable 4.1 Table Of Site Description 52 Table 5.0 Sun PathSanta Cruz, Bolivia 56 Table 7.0 Program Sizes 69

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vList of FiguresFigure 1.0 “ Trees Give Life...” Xii Figure 1.1 Irony Of Eco-Tourism Projects In India 1 Figure 1.2 Sustainable Methods Of Constructing An Adobe House For An Indigenous Family 2 Figure 1.3 Business Skills Training For Kruger Park Crafters 3 Figure 1.4 Terunobu Fujimori 10 Figure 2.0 Sustainable Community 12 Figure 2.1 Rural Living 12 Figure 2.2 Oruro City 13 Figure 2.3 Oruro City Street 13 Figure 2.4 Uyuni Towncenter 14 Figure 2.5 Train Cementery 14 Figure 2.6 Colchani Village Salt Extraction 15 Figure 2.7 Salt Processing 15 Figure 2.8 Uyuni Salt Flats 17 Figure 2.9 Incahuasi Island 17 Figure 2.10 Fish Island 18 Figure 2.11 View From The Fish Island 18 Figure 2.12 Crafts In The Salt Museum 19 Figure 2.13 Craft Detail 19

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vi Figure 2.14 Salt Museum 20 Figure 2.15 Salt Hotel 20 Figure 2.16 Salt Tower 21 Figure 2.17 Salt Hotel Dining Area 21 Figure 2.18 Gateway To Coqueza 22 Figure 2.19 Coqueza 23 Figure 2.20 Tambo Coqueza 23 Figure 3.0 Bay Of Fires Lodge 25 Figure 3.1 Bay Of Fires Lodge 25 Figure 3.2 Site Analysis 26 Figure 3.3 Site Location 26 Figure 3.4 Lodge Viewed From The Rear 27 Figure 3.5 Use Of Louvers System 28 Figure 3.6 Sun Diagram 28 Figure 3.7 Sun Diagram 28 Figure 3.8 Bedroom Unit With View To Wilderness 29 Figure 3.9 Elevated Porch 30 Figure 3.10 Wind And Sunlight Diagrams 31 Figure 3.11 Design And Structure 31 Figure 3.12 Ridge Top Retreat 32 Figure 3.13 Lodge Located Along The Park 33 Figure 3.14 Inside View Of The Lounge Along The Fire Place 33 Figure 3.15 Diagrams Illustrating Sustainable Strategies 36 Figure 3.16 Dining Area With Views To The Outside 37 Figure 3.17 Bridge House 38 Figure 3.18 Closer View Of Materials Used 38 Figure 3.19 Axonometric View And Structure 39 Figure 3.20 Pressed Steel Screens 39

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vii Figure 3.21 Closer View Of Steel Trusses That Holds The “Box” 39 Figure 3.22 Design Diagrams 40 Figure 3.23 Site Plan 41 Figure 3.24 Floor Plan 41 Figure 3.25 Site Plan 42 Figure 3.26 Project Location 42 Figure 3.27 One Of The Ecolodges At Chalalan 43 Figure 3.28 Diagram Illustrating The Random Location Of The Ecolodges At The Chalalan Region 43 Figure 3.29 Diagram Illustrating The Different Sizes And Match Of The Rooms At Chalalan 44 Figure 3.30 Diagram Of The Different Locations Of The Ecolodges 44 Figure 3.31 Communal Dining 44 Figure 3.32 View Of A Room At The Ecolodge 44 Figure 3.33 Different Floor Plan Arrangements 45 Figure 3.34 Connections Between All Ecolodges At Chalalan 45 Figure 3.35 Environmental Center Location 46 Figure 3.36 View Of The Environmental Center 46 Figure 3.37 Floor Plan And Site Context 47 Figure 3.38 Elevation Drawing 47 Figure 3.39 Inside View And Sunlight Penetration Into The Space 48 Figure 3.40 Sustainable Features Of The Building 48 Figure 3.41 Diagram Illustrating The Main Concept Of The Screen Design 48 Figure 3.42 Rendering Illustrating The Screen Design And Structure 48 Figure 3.43 Location Of Ariau Jungle Lodge 49 Figure 3.44 Aerial View Of The Lodges Connected One To The Other 50 Figure 3.45 Pier Walk To The Lodges 50 Figure 4.0 Map Of Bolivia Showing The Location Of The Site 52 Figure 4.1 View Of Volcanes, A Region Near The Amboro 53 Figure 4.2 Giant Ferns At North Side 54 Figure 4.3 Path Through The Giant Ferns 54

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viii Figure 4.4 Waterfall View At South Side Of Amboro 54 Figure 4.5 Solar Energy And Surface MeteorologySanta Cruz, Bolivia 55 Figure 4.6 Sunrise, Sunset, Dawn And Dusk Times 55 Figure 4.7 Ecoregion Map 57 Figure 4.8 Hydrographic Map 57 Figure 4.9 Life Zones Map 58 Figure 4.10 Social Economic 1 Map 58 Figure 4.11 Social Economic 2 Map 59 Figure 4.12 Social Economic 3 Map 59 Figure 4.13 Community Of Bermejo 60 Figure 4.14 Waterfall In Between The Cuevas Community 60 Figure 4.15 Panorama View Of Volcanes At Amboro National Park 60 Figure 4.16 Map Of Bolivia And Amboro National Park 61 Figure 4.17 Close Up View Of Site Location 61 Figure 4.18 Site Location With Connection To Park And Nearby Communities 61 Figure 4.19 Aerial View Of The Site And Pictures Of Main Tourist Attraction 62 Figure 4.20 ( Left) Flora Of Native Plants Around The Southern Portion Of Amboro National Park. 63 Figure 4.21 Fauna At Amboro National Park 63 Figure 4.22 Locality Analysis And Main Features 64 Figure 4.23 Detailed Site Analysis 65 Figure 4.24 Proposed Crops For Agroecology Purposes 66 Figure 4.25 Site Connection To The Community And Eco-Path 67 Figure 4.26 Site Approach And Analysis 67 Figure 5.0 Bubble Diagram Illustrating Relation Of Culture 69 Figure 5.1 Bubble Diagram Illustrating Community Relation 69 Figure 5.2 Bubble Diagram Illustrating Social Responsibilities 71 Figure 5.3 Bubble Diagram Illustrating Ecologic Design Intent 71 Figure 6.0 Type Of Connections 73 Figure 6.1 Connection Study Of Bamboo In Tension 74

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ix Figure 6.2 Bamboo Bolt Connection 74 Figure 6.3 Bamboo Alternative Connection 74 Figure 6.4 Building Approach To Using Bamboo Structure 75 Figure 7.0 Initial Concept Idea Sketches 76 Figure 7.1 Concept Model 1 77 Figure 7.2 Concept Model 2 77 Figure 7.3 Concept Model 3 77 Figure 7.4 Initial Model 1 78 Figure 7.5 Initial Model 1 Perspective View 78 Figure 7.6 Initial Program Space Analysis 1 78 Figure 7.7 Initial Model 2 79 Figure 7.8 Initial Model 2 Perspective View 79 Figure 7.9 Initial Program Space Analysis 2 79 Figure 7.10 Initial Model 3 80 Figure 7.11 Initial Model 3 Perspective View 80 Figure 7.12 Initial Program Space Analysis 3 80 Figure 8.0 The Image Below Illustrates The Triangle Of Life And The Way That Our World Should Find Its Balance. 81 Figure 8.1 Agroecology, Its Importance And Application To Farms And Small Villages. 82 Figure 8.2 The Roof Structure Of The Eco-Cabins Are Used For Crops Planting 83 Figure 8.3 Eco-Cabin Clusters Not Only Give The Tourists A Comfortable Stay But Also Is A Learning Process 84 Figure 8.4 The Diagram Above Illustrates How Passive Design Takes Place In One Of The Eco-Cabin Cluster 8 5 Figure 8.5 The Diagram Above Exemplify The Main Irrigation System Used At The Roof Structure 86 Figure 8.6 The Diagram Above Demonstrates How Renewable Energy Is Used By The Community 87 Figure 8.7 The 3 Diagrams Illustrate The Types Of Animal Corridors Planned For The Eco-Village. 88 Figure 9.0 Image Of A Baby Fern Combined With A Diagram Of Site With Design Elements 89 Figure 9.1 Process Diagrams Of The Initial Building Form 89 Figure 9.2 Top View Of 3D Master Plan Of Eco-Village 90 Figure 9.3 Cabin Floor Plan 91 Figure 9.4 Cabin Section 92

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x Figure 9.5 Eco-Cabin Elevations 93 Figure 9.6 Picture Of One Eco-Cabin Cluster From Final Model 93 Figure 9.7 Cluster South Elevation 94 Figure 9.8 Cabin Modules Axonometric 95 Figure 9.9 Site Axonometric Illustrating Sustainable Layers 96 Figure 9.10 Site 3D Graphic Top View 96 Figure 9.11 Eco-Center Floor Plan 97 Figure 9.12 Section Through The Site 98 Figure 9.13 Section Looking West 99 Figure 9.14 Section Looking South 100 Figure 9.15 View Of Eco-Cabin Vegetative Roofs 113 Figure 9.16 Vegetative Roof Section Through One Module 113 Figure 9.17 Photos Of The Project 114 Figure 9.18 Photo Of The Physical Model For The Eco-Tourim Project 115 Figure 9.19 Eco-Cabin Cluster Model 116 Figure 9.20 Eco-Center Section Model 117 Figure 9.21 South View Of Eco-Center Model 118 Figure 9.22 View Of Eco-Center’s Classrooms Model 119 Figure 9.23 Photo Of The Eco-Cabin Model 120 Figure 9.24 Perspective View Of Eco-Center Model 121 Figure 9.25 Rendering Of Eco-Center 122

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xiEcotourism and Sustainable Architecture Claudia P. Gil ABSTRACT The concern for the environment and social aspects have been emphasizing in the concept of ecotourism.Tourism is the world’s largest industry. “It accounts for more than 10% of total employment, 11% of global GDP, and total tourist trips are predicted to increase to 1.6 billion by 2020”. As such, it has a major and increasing impact on both people and nature. The increase of travels and tourists in the world, has led to the acknowledgement of tourism as part of the emissions of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the framework of sustainable development in tourism has been developed as well as ecotourism. Eco-tourism can be both an effective conservation tool and a successful community development model. Sustainable arInappropriate tourism development and practice can degrade habitats and landscapes, deplete natural resources, and generate waste and pollution. The local community is also in need of a better and healthy living. This has become a social, cultural, and economical issue prevalent for decades since chitecture can be well integrated in a community that will base their knowledge on role model site for the sustainability of a park and village. This thesis is aiming to study and develop a sustainable model for the con ict that exists between architecture and eco-tourism because of current practices and their impact on natural habitat.

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xii Some of the options for research and study is an ecocabin that will serve as a prototype for ecotourism sustainable technologies and architecture, integrating an eco-village as a model for the local community. A way to approach this issue is through the education of the local people and tourism through sustainable architecture and development. Community knowledge can be increased through environmental sustainable building techniques. Perhaps the community gets involve in the construction process, so they learn how to take care of their surroundings and its stewardship.. In this way the sustainability of well-being of human cultures that inhibit those environments are sustained, and tourists can get engaged through community learning Figure 1.0 “ Trees give life supporting Oxygen and that’s one huge reason to plant more! Have you planted any trees in your life and if yes, when was the last time you planted one? Do you think your neighborhood has enough trees to create a healthy living environment around your home?” Mayank. there hasn’t been an established relationship between the local community and the tourist. The main investigation into determining factors is on how and why we need the bond between eco-village and eco-tourism. Does it consist of culture and society integration? Or is it nature preservation? What is the new relationship between tourist-community or tourist development design and development of this relationship? and interaction. Responsible tourism can also promote awareness of and support for the conservation of local culture, creating economic opportunities for countries and communities.

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11 Introduction Eco-tourism has become very important to our society, since it deals with the preservation of natural areas, the wellbeing of the local people and their communities. Issue arise when there is not an adequate understanding and interconnectedness between tourists, communities, and our environment. This con ict has been present for years, and there is a need to inform the world about this crisis because of the destruction of our surroundings, and our future depends on saving our planet. Currently, people are focused on their own life routine; not considering that ahead of us there is an issue that has been following us for such a long time, and there has been done so little to resolve it. The proposed concept approaches two speci c Figure 1.1 “ This graphic attempts to highlight the irony of eco-tourism projects in India, with special reference to lakes. More and more Indian lakes are ‘developed’ to become tourist friendly: with heritage structures, walkways, driveways, amusement parks, etc. around them and with boating / water sports facilities. As a result of the disturbance, animals and birds (and insects and shes)—which constitute a lake’s ecosystem— nd their homes destroyed and either perish in the process or are forced to leave. Lakes, in a water scarce and environmentally degraded country like India, are hearts of its natural support system, their stereotypical development results in short-term gains and long term loss for the country. Lakes need to be left untouched and respected for the not-always-visible-to-the-naked-eye role they play in securing our environment.” Mayank.

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2 Sustainable architecture tries to minimize the negative environmental impact on the environment by buildings by enhancing ef ciency and careful use of materials, energy, and space ef ciency. In many cases however, we as designers are not aware of “sustainable” architecture and its real meaning. With new discoveries and technologies, we have forgotten how to build with the environment. Therefore, the main challenge for us as designers, is to nd solutions which do not disturb the environment. With this issue, my major scheme is to link these two systems that relate in a particular way without harming our surroundings. Eco-tourism involves many aspects in a worldwide state, for example: The quality of life; historic precedent; social life; cultural life, economic activities, etc. We are surrounded by natural resources that we currently take for granted. Figure 1.2 This is a photograph taken during my trip to the Salt Desert “ Salar de Uyuni”, in the Uyuni Community in Bolivia. This is a sustainable method of constructing an adobe house for an indigenous family. The community is in charge of building their own houses with the help of tourism industry’s income. aspects that are related to each other, eco-tourism and sustainable architecture. Eco-tourism is about the care for nature, trying to conserve our environment, with as minimal impact to our surroundings as possible.

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3 Daily, we destroy some of our most important resources that currently keep us living. The proposal for sustainable development emerges from the current global economical and environmental crisis, due to the failure of the previous economical development models. To achieve an analysis for the approach to sustainable development, is necessary to analyze the “development” as a speech inside the capitalist system, historically produced, that has become into being since WWII, an integral part of our socioeconomic, cultural, and political life. After WWII, in the United States and Europe, the poor conditions from most of the inhabitants from Asia, Africa, and Latin America begun to look problematical. In 1949, the United States’ president, Truman, proposed an economic development program, based on the democratic concept, to create, in these countries, the necessary conditions to implement the socioeconomic model from advanced societies which would, in this manner eliminate poverty. With this development model the necessary conditions for undeveloped countries were created to obtain the quality of life that characterized the advanced societies, articulating that a major production was the key for prosperity and peace. The base for a major production was knowledge application of scienti c and modern technology. After this, many countries begun to see themselves as “underdeveloped”, in this behavior, to reach to “development” begun to be a fundamental issue. Figure 1.3 Business skills training for Kruger Park crafters“ Boosting the skills of selected Kruger National Park crafters will assist them in diversifying their product ranges and producing higher quality crafts, thereby enabling them to bene t from more vibrant eco-tourism businesses.” South African Social exchange

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4 From that point, the development had as its main objective to reach a high degree of industrialism and urbanization, with the application of technology in agriculture, in this way obtaining the implementation of education and “modern” cultural values (Escobar 1995). Through science, technology and assets, life conditions from advanced societies will extend to all people of the planet. In other words, to obtain the economic development for the undeveloped countries, there will be a need to totally restructure their societies. This development model becomes dominant in the 1950’s. The major concern from the scientists and politicians, until the 1970’s, were based on the necessary development type to try to solve the economical and social issues from these regions of the world. Even though many authors were opposed to the capitalist strategies, they were forced to expose their critics in terms of the growth need. In other words, they criticized a determined approach, proposed modi cations, but the need for development couldn’t pause (Escobar, 1995). Governments designed and implemented politics of development, the institutions took programs in the cities and villages in which experts studied their underdevelopment. These politics uni ed the economies from undeveloped countries to the developed nations of the world, and linked to their most remote towns with this economical system and national capital. When the local economies were restructured to contribution in the market’s system, quickly the natural resources, agricultural products, and work strength were transformed in merchandise. The capitalist ideology begun to diffuse into the communities and small towns from the majority of the undeveloped countries, where the inhabitants begun to change their traditional values to acquire the “modern” values. This system of market expansion excluded people from access to land, water and other natural resources, in this way to be able to develop their self-suf ciency, their culture, and community bond. During the last forty years, the occidental knowledge, based on science, the rational economics and individual consumption has reached to the majority of the world society (Thomas, 1998). The reality has been colonized by the development’s discourse.

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5 In the last decades, the gap in the socioeconomic levels between the industrialized countries and the so-called Third World countries has become deeper. Speci cally, in these last few years, the environmental and life quality degradation has been evident in the population. Since the 1970’s, is where critics to the economic development model in the occidental world, begun to rapidly manifest in the academic and political medium, repeatedly pointing out its inef ciency to revert the environmental issue and eliminate poverty. Leff (1995) mentions that the over exploitation or resources and degradation of the environment are the results from the economical rationality in this development model, that removes nature from production. It’s evident that since the last decade, even though there is proof that there was a prolonged period of growth in worldwide economy, poverty, equality, and environmental degradation were deeply noticed in the whole world (PNUD, 1992). For this reason, in 1984, during the General United Nations Assembly, they created the commission about Environmental medium and Development. The rst report in 1987, Our Common Future, also known as Brundtland, was one of the most important for the conceptualization for the sustainability perspective. In this document, the sustainable development is de ned as the one that “allow the present generations satisfy their necessities, without compromising the capacities of future generation to satisfy their own requirements”, being the only basic element to achieve sustainability, and the improvement of poverty conditions (Pronks and Haq, 1992). The sustainable development speech shows that its main objective is to improve the inhabitants’ quality of life worldwide and protect the environment, in contrast with the actual development that is based in maintaining the economic growth, without considering the cost of that development in ecological and social terms. The decrease in natural resources, and the deterioration of the ecosystems provoked because of this model, are clearly poverty promoters, because they offer subsistence for human beings. But, simultaneously, poverty causes environmental deterioration.

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6 The poorest sections of the town had to employ as a strategy of survival, the exploitation of natural resources within their reach. To accomplish this, a sustainable development, there is the need to tear this cycle apart. In other words, there is the priority to eliminate poverty and improve the quality of life of the inhabitants of the Third World countries. A Martinez Alier (1994) mentions that the main message from Brundtland was exactly that the cause for environmental degradation is poverty, and the necessity to maintain a sustained economic growth to eliminate it. The economic growth, “sustainable development”, proposes itself as a remedy to poverty and environmental degradation. Also, wealth is a menace to the environment and a cause of environmental degrading, as now most environmental contamination is generated is in developed countries. For example, the industrialized countries, with 26% of the world population, they count for 78% production on goods and services, 81% energy consumption, 70% chemical fertilizers, and 87% world armament (Escobar, 1992). Environmental management can become of interest to small external groups in order, to satisfy their needs, more than the local inhabitants (Escobar, 1993). It is dif cult to agree with the sustainability principle and, its basis for humanity survival, given the actual socio-environmental crisis; but the sustainability development has spread and populated until forming part of the of cial discourse and common language. This has motivated this concept to adopt different directions, frequently against the relationship of economical, political and social interests. A third option provides a more positive panorama, when it emphasizes that the sustainability idea has to implement a distinct vision to the future. There is the need to search for social equality, generalized welfare, justice and peace, goals hard to reach. De ning sustainability from these principles, open new social perspectives, and responsibility to create a new ecological rationality (Leff, 1993; 1995). The sustainability perspective has related to environmental crisis with social crisis; nevertheless, this relation is far from being simple, since they are consequences from

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7 environmental processes and social phenomenon, political, economical and cultural that responds to multiple consequences and a dif cult interrelationship to capture in its historical complexity. In this manner, the environment emerges from a complex system, object of the social reappearance of a process, and the beginning of equity is indivisible from the sustainable development objectives. The expropriation of the nature’s social problem deals with the community’s existing conditions, with the legitimization of the property rights of the natural resources legacy, its own culture, and with the rede nition of its productive process, lifestyle, and existence senses. Leff (1995) mentions: “ the expropriation of nature set a beginning of equity in diversity, that implies the auto determination of needs, the workers’ self management of ecological potential of each region in alternative development and the cultural autonomy of every community, processes that de ne the community groups in relation to sustainable operation of its environment” ( Leff, 1995,p.6). Sustainability in this perspective is based on democracy and equity, which are rede ned in the expropriation of the environment, the quality of life, in other words, in the local empowerment. The main proposal for my thesis is designing a sustainable community model and/or an eco-lodge near an Eco-tourist Park that will connect to the community. This will accommodate not only tourists coming to visit the area, but also local people that are going to interact with the tourists within a social and cultural aspect. A sustainable community model will be introduced, while at the same time giving these local people employment opportunities, improving their quality of life, while still preserving their culture. Analyzing a case study in Iran, the MIPIM award winning Alamoot’s design was based on the proposition that ecotourism will make a positive contribution to a stagnating local community. The way the design follows up is by implementing sustainable features in the most cared manner: saving water and snow-melt for multi re-use; earth pipe cooling; solar

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8 heating; building form to maximize energy conservation as well as waste management. Positive contribution to a village that suffers the effects of rural migration is a step towards improving the quality of life; which is one important factor that I want to obtain into account in the development of my thesis proposal. Another case study examined, is an eco-lodge, located in Madidi National Park deep in the Bolivian Amazon. The region is a pristine tropical rainforest. Its preservation is a main concern due to its diverse ecosystems and rich biodiversity. The eco-lodge is called, “ Chalalan”, which is a joint ecotourism initiative of the community of San Jos de Uchupiamonas and CI (Conservation International). The community desired an economic alternative to the current destructive uses of the forest, including hunting and logging. Their optimism was to make tourism as an alternative to logging, which has been increasingly perceived as short-lived, poorly paid, and destructive of the very forests on which the inhabitant have lived for more than three centuries. CI was interested to the idea of using ecotourism as a tool to link biodiversity conservation with community development. With grant funds and technical assistance from CI, 70 families volunteered at least 20 days of labor to build the eco-lodge. The structure was made from local rainforest materials that had been harvested in a sustainable manner. By launching this kind of scheme, CI’s goal at the beginning of the project was to create a pro table ecotourism lodge, which would be completely owned and operated by the community. To accomplish this goal, CI guided the community through the design and development of the ecolodge and, together with a regional private-sector partner, America Tours, trained inhabitants in the necessary skills to run a tourism business: This included building, guiding tours, preparing food, housecleaning, making handicrafts, marketing and managing the lodge (CI). The method of following this case was successful in many different aspects, and some of them I want to implement into my thesis. These ideas are: eco-tourism as an instrument to connect biodiversity conservation and community development design; the community participation in the design and construction process; the careful use of sustainable materials; and the education and knowledge acquired by the community.

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9 All of these positive aspects are ideal for the success of an undeveloped country, in order to show economic success through pro ts and employment bene ts. Through all this process there is a more stabilized fact and economic value for authorities or government to protect our forests and environmental surroundings. The main location of my project is situated in Bolivia, South America. Why Bolivia? One top reason, is because it is the country where I grew up. Secondly, I want to help my country in many aspects. This is a country of economical, political, and racist issues. Despite these factors, our culture still survives and keeps holding up very strong. Bolivia is an undeveloped country, which is very rich in its nature and culture. Unfortunately however, there is a high percentage of poverty and unemployment; which creates many social issues. Bolivia has an incredibly diverse culture, and a unique history. There are two major indigenous people, Ayamara and Quechua and several other lowland groups that together account for over half of Bolivian population. The remainder of Bolivians are “mestizo”: of mixed or European descent. This distinctive blend of cultures and history can be appreciated throughout the country where handicrafts, traditional festivals, museums, and colonial churches abound. Eco-tourism and conservation efforts in Bolivia are generating revenue to support local economies. Bolivia features a complex geological landscape which integrates several rich ecosystems ranging across different altitudes. This landscape covers the Andes, cloud forests, rainforests, and savannahs. These ecosystems form one of Earth’s special places, unparalleled in its biodiversity. This country is considered to be one of the “mega-diverse” countries. Among many choices, experts have suggested tourism as a feasible strategy for Bolivia to improve its economy and thus the conditions of its people. In 1997 alone, more than three hundred and fty thousand tourists arrived in Bolivia; this was 19.9% more than in 1995. This is an encouraging and promising trend. Once eco-tourism is well implemented, it can improve the economic conditions of rural populations by offering jobs and improving living conditions (America tours SRL).

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10 In conclusion, eco-tourism is not a sustainable activity ,only because it focuses on natural or cultural spaces that are protected. In the eco-tourism project studies or case studies, the economical society reigns and continues, without considering the ecological or social costs in the economic domain. To achieve the goal that ecotourism becomes a real, economic sustainable alternative, it must be based on a new politic signi cant, ideological and moral development, that takes to a new relocation of power and decision taking. The success for ecotourism depends on the position the community takes (Kadt, 1989). Figure 1.4 Terunobu fujimori“It’s nostalgic even though I’ve never seen anything like it before.” Fujimori’s “Primitive-Garde” Architecture

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11 Precedents Ecology in Bolivia Eco-tourism in Bolivia has become the rst income for rural communities. Bolivia attracts tourists because of its diversity in climate and culture. Imagine… the juxtaposition of the majestic snow-capped mountains, the immense plateau with its unequalled blue sky, marsh lands and tropical forests with imposing waterfalls. Beautiful lakes and lagoons of amazing colors and oating hotel tours by the Amazon. Bolivia offers you this and much more with eco-tourism, besides the beautiful landscapes, it has great wealth, a variety of vegetal and animal life for its geographical diversity. During my trip to Bolivia, it was amazing how in a few hours and from one place to the other, I could appreciate climatic and topographical changes. There was a transformation in everything, The trip began with the arrival to Cochabamba, known for its beautiful valleys. It’s a city in central Bolivia, located in a valley bearing the same name in the Andes mountain range. The name derives from a compound of the native language Quechua words qucha, meaning “lake”, and pampa, “open plain”. Cochabamba is known as the “City of Eternal Spring” and “The Garden City” due to its spring-like temperatures year round. I took a bus to go to my next destination but on the way, one could culture, people, architecture, climate, and landscapes. I am from Bolivia, and going back this time to make investigations on my thesis, I felt like a tourist in my own country. I did not imagine how much beauty there is in such a small place. 2

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12Environmental Sustainability The vernacular architecture lives within the mountains, and every house around has its own character, just as the people that live in them. Figure 2.0 Sustainable communityDuring my trip to Bolivia, I could appreciate a vernacular community along the mountains.Figure 2.1 Rural livingLocal materials are used in this rural community along the side of the road. The community also grow crops beside their homes. appreciate the red mountains that surround you with such power, like telling a story about its present and past. In between these red mountains, there were some small communities that seem forgotten from history, but had their special character, the way they are settled, their materiality, their agriculture, their land, is magni cent the way they have survived just because the way they live is so sustainable.

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13Technical Sustainability Four hours later, I arrived to Oruro. This is a city located in the high altiplano southeast of La Paz. This area of Bolivia is a natural marvel, a wild, windy wilderness, with few people and towns. At an altitude of 12,159 ft( 3.6576 m), Oruro is the only city on the southern end of Bolivia’s altiplano, and it is cold, arid and circled by mountain peaks. Oruro seems an unlikely spot for the capital of Bolivia’s folkloric traditions, yet UNESCO has proclaimed Oruro a Tangible Heritage site. I arrived to the terminal and saw this city that is growing, a city with earthy tones, very kind and native people. Their culture is so vibrant and the way of building it’s still vernacular although in some places you could appreciate some modern building techniques. I saw the use of sustainable features in some homes and commercial buildings, for example water collection and solar panels on roofs. Figure 2.2 Oruro cityConstruction methods outside the city, cascading homes along the mountains.Figure 2.3 Oruro city streetWherever one is located in the city, one could have a good view of the mountains at a distance. People started building their homes along the mountains.

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14Financial Sustainability From there, I went to the train station, to go to my next destination, Uyuni, a town in the Potos Department in the south of Bolivia. Founded in 1890 as a trading post, the town has a population of 10,600 (2006 of cial estimate). The town has an extensive streetmarket. It lies at the edge of an extensive plain at an elevation of 3,670 meters above sea level, with more mountainous country to the east. There is little agriculture in the area because water supplies are scarce and somewhat saline. Today, the town’s primary function is as a gateway for tourists visiting the world’s largest salt ats the Salar de Uyuni. It is an important transport hub, being the location of a major railway junction. Four lines join here, respectively from La Paz (via Oruro), Calama (in Chile), Potos, and Villazn (on the Argentine border, where the line now ends). One of the sights in Uyuni is the train cemetery lled with old, rusting steam locomotives. This is the place where you feel like you are in a uninhabited place. Figure 2.4 Uyuni towncenterAt this small town people still uses carriages for goods transportation within the town.Figure 2.5 Train CementeryThis place is de netely a tourists attraction because of its history. Uyuni is a small sustainable town and one of the community’s rst income is eco-tourism.

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15Organizational Sustainability I saw different vernacular construction methods and the in uence of culture and how this methods are applied. From there, I met with a family that works in the eco-tourism industry. The husband is the guide for the tourists and the wife cooks food for the tourists. The guide drove me to see the salt ats in a 4x4WD and it took us thirty minutes to get there. We arrived to Colchani, a small town before the salt ats. It lies beside the Salar de Uyuni and is the home of the Cooperative Rosario – the main plant for the iodization of salt. It is the best place to observe the methods of salt extraction from the Salar. Here ovens are used to dry the salt, which is then formed into cakes. I visited the salt re nery where l witnessed the iodization of salt for national consumption. Figure 2.6 Colchani village salt extractionThis is a room where people work in the processing of salt.Figure 2.7 Salt processingThis woman works in the salt re nery.

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16Social Sustainability After spending half of the day in Colchani, we drove to the Salt at of Uyuni, the largest salt at in the world, which has a surface area of more than 12,000 km( 7 miles). The crust of salt is astonishing and as perfect as the snow or as a gigantic mirror in the rainy season. To venture into the salty desert of Uyuni is to experience a profound sense of freedom. The Salar is covered by dry salt or evaporite with a maximum thickness of about 121meters( 396 feet). This is composed of Lithium, Boron, Potassium, Carbonates (borax) and Sulphates of Sodium. One very interesting mineral found here is ulexita or “stone television”, this is transparent and has the power of refracting to the surface of the stone the image of what lies below it. In addition to salt, the Salar is also considered to have largest reserve in Lithium in the world, although it this is very dif cult to extract due to lack of water. Lithium can form an energy substitute for Petroleum. Within the Salar there are groups of islands concentrated in different parts of the lake, on them clinging plants, bushes and columnar cacti grow. The most famous islands are those of Incahuasi (House of the Inca) and Isla Pescado (Fish Island). The Fish Island is a true oasis amid a complex of recovered islands of low elevation with formations of algae and fossils. The most important for their size are Isla Pescado and Incahuasi (approximately 10 hectares, 24 acre). They are characterized mainly by their covering of thousands of giant columnar cacti, which can be more than a hundred years old, and grow to a height of more than 11.9 meters(39 feet). At this island there was also an administrative building for tourists’ information, which was built in 2000 and all of the electricity comes from solar panels installed by a group of people that helped in the construction. The materials are very sustainable, and almost everything is built out of recycled materials. For example, they used the dead cacti to use it as doors, windows, columns, garbage cans, crafts, etc.

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17 Figure 2.8 Uyuni Salt atsThis is a monument constructed of salt blocks in the middle of the ats. Figure 2.9 Incahuasi IslandThis gure illustrates the sustainable way of using recycled materials along the island.Ecologic Design

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18 Figure 2.11 View from the Fish IslandThis illustration demonstrates the need to care about our environment and to initiate the way to sustainability.Figure 2.10 Fish IslandThis image shows the use of solar panels and sustainable construction at the island.

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19 Other remarkable places to visit were the different salt hotels along the Uyuni salts. These places are built out of salt blocks only, including the beds, chairs, tables, crafts. Some of these hotels had become museums for the tourists to observe and appreciate. Figure 2.12 Crafts in the Salt MuseumThe three illustrations above portray how the local people make their crafts made out of salt, another way of being environmental and economically sustainable.Figure 2.13 Craft detailGiant bird made out of salt by the local crafters.

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20 Figure 2.14 Salt MuseumThis is an illustration of a salt museum, the main gate to the salt ats. Figure 2.15 Salt HotelA salt hotel placed in the middle of the salt ats and is built out of sustainable materials.

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21 Figure 2.16 Salt towerLocated at Colchani community, sustainable living. Figure 2.17 Salt Hotel dining areaInside view of the salt hotel, windows decorated with woven fabric made from the community, chairs and tables are made out of salt.

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22 On our way back, we stopped at Coqueza, located in the middle of the Salar de Uyuni, on a cape in front of Colchani, the Tunupa Volcano raises 5.1816 m (17,700 feet), over the village of Coqueza. The village is right at the bottom of the volcano. There is also an ecological hotel, which uses stone as its construction material. The houses are constructed of stones and it seems that this is a beautiful village hidden from the rest of existence and uses underground water for its consumption. All the places I visited have their own identity and character. Its pleasant to observe vernacular and sustainable architecture at its different stages of inception across a spectrum of scales. In conclusion, Bolivia offers a variety of sustainable living. Sustainable tourism is more than a marketing slogan; it is the management of all resources to ful ll, also taking into account cultural value, ecological balances and biodiversity. It can be an appropriate strategy to create economic opportunities for the poor. It becomes an intelligent mechanism to promote development in rural communities. Figure 2.18 Gateway to CoquezaThis is a gateway to a rural community located at the bottom of a volcano.

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23 Figure 2.19 CoquezaTwo little girls were coming out of school in this communityFigure 2.20 Tambo CoquezaEco-hotel located at rural community Coqueza, one can appreciate the skylights and how natural light enters the lobb space.

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24Case Studies Bay of Fires Lodge Chalalan Ecolodge RidgeTop Retreats Bird Ford Observatory Bridge House Ariau Jungle Lodge 3

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25Bay of Fires Lodge Key Features • Award-winning architectural design • Environmentally sensitive construction techniques • Sustainable energy, water supply and waste management • Isolated wilderness setting Background and Objectives Bay of Fires Lodge provides simple but high-end market accommodation for two nights during the four-day Bay of Fires walking tour through Mount William National Park on Tasmania’s northeast coast. The walk, for a maximum of ten guests and conducted by two guides, begins at Pleasant Banks, continues to the Forester Beach Camp for one night and then continues on to Bay of Fires Lodge for the remaining two nights. Bay of Fires Lodge was established and designed by Tasmanian architect Ken Latona to provide a unique, educational and environmentally sustainable way of experiencing the dramatic landscape of Mount William National Park. Figure 3.1 Aerial view looking towards the ocean. Figure 3.0 Porch area looking towards the wilderness landscape and sea

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26 The Development The Setting • Bay of Fires Lodge is set on 35 hectares of private property next to Mt William National Park on the north eastern corner of Tasmania. It contains a dramatic and diverse wilderness landscape of white sandy coastline and woodland scenery. • The Park is a refuge for wildlife, including Eastern Grey Kangaroos, echidnas, Brush tail Possums, wombats, wallabies and Tasmanian Devils as well as over 100 species of birdlife. There are many signi cant Aboriginal sites within the Park. • Bay of Fires Lodge is set on a hilltop 40 meters above the ocean, among native vegetation and has spectacular views of Bay of Fires and Tasman Sea. • The site is reached by foot from a private vehicle road approx 200m away or from the beach as part of the guided walk. It is also accessed by helicopter twice yearly for delivery and the removal of large supplies. Description of Facilities Bay of Fires Lodge consist of two linear pavilions constructed principally of timber and glass, connected by large timber decks. The Lodge provides accommodation for twenty guests (twin share/ double) and six staff. There are common areas for dining both indoor and outdoor, a reading room and a lounge room, and shared bathroom facilities. Meals are prepared by staff in a communal kitchen. The Lodge features a wood combustion stove in the living area and quality furniture, ttings and xtures. Figure 3.2 Site Analysis sun path and wind direction Figure 3.3 Site location

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27 Site Issues and Constraints • The sitting of the building was dictated by an existing clearing on the site to minimize the removal of trees and vegetation. Only three trees were removed during the building process. • The nearest vehicle access is 200m from site. This required an innovative approach to construction. The local tip 6km away was used as a base for trucks delivering materials. These were then divided into loads of a maximum 500kg and own in by helicopter. • There is no mains power, mains water or sewage connection so all basic services are provided on site. • All efforts were made to minimize damage to surrounding vegetation during construction and use. • The walk is only operated for six months of the year allowing any damaged vegetation the opportunity to re grow while undisturbed. d) Development Approval • The approval process experienced some dif culties because the conservation values of the site and the proximity to a National Park. Ken Latona’s success can be largely attributed to his embracing the notion of ‘touch the earth lightly’ architecture and the credibility he has established through working with the National Parks and Aboriginal Land Council (a government and Aboriginal communitybased council). • Out of respect for local sacred Aboriginal sites, approval was sought from the Aboriginal Land Council before sitting the building. Koori groups were consulted when developing the interpretation for the guided walks. Figure 3.4 Lodge viewed from the rear Timber is used as the main material for the lodge

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28 Development Responses Energy The main power supply for the building is solar energy with a generator backup. Passive solar design features to reduce energy consumption include: • Extensive use of glass louvers to provide sunlight penetration and cross ventilation, the louvers are shielded from the direct summer sun by 1200mm eaves on the skillion roof • The long north facing building plan and skillion roof (pitched north) • Sitting the building low in the vegetation to provide shelter from strong coastal winds • Use of a lightweight structure, no thermal mass is required to retain heat because the accommodation is only open during the summer months. Other energy conservation features include: • Instantaneous gas hot water systems • WC fan vents powered by solar energy • Fridges, cook top and barbecue powered by LPG. Cylinders are brought in and removed every six months by helicopter • Low energy lighting. Water • The water source for the Lodge is supplied by rainwater collected from the roofs into ve 22,000 liter tanks. This water is used for drinking, showers, kitchen use and bush re protection. Rainfall to the area is currently providing an adequate water supply. • AAA rated water ow restrictors have been installed on ttings to minimize water consumption. Figure 3.5 Use of louvers system Inside view Figure 3.6 sun diagram Figure 3.7 sun diagram 2

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29Waste • All sewage and organic kitchen waste is treated on site in a Clivus Multrum Dry composting system. Waste water is removed from the system and passed through a ‘digester’ where it is further ltered through a ne weave material treated with bacteria and then passed into a transpiration trench where it evaporates. Kitchen waste water is run through a grease trap and then into the ‘digester’. Basin waste water runs straight to the ‘digester’. • Solid waste is recycled where possible. • Any larger waste is collected and removed by helicopter every six months at the beginning and end of the season. Fire Protection The timber construction and proximity to vegetation means the building cannot be protected from re. Minimal bush re protection measures include re hoses and tank water set aside for re protection. In the case of a re the building will be evacuated and left to burn. Building Materials and Construction • Prevention of vehicle access to the site meant that all materials • Water for showers and basins is hand pumped from the water tanks by guests to a header tank on the roof. This hands-on approach to water use, and visibility of tanks was designed to give guests a greater appreciation of their water usage and encourage conservation. • The water supply pump to the kitchen uses solar power for the convenience of staff. Figure 3.8 Bedroom unit with view to wilderness

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30 • Waste was centralized during construction and the site was kept tidy to minimize the impact on the surrounding bush. Connection with the landscape • The Lodge achieves a very strong connection with the landscape. The long timber and glass open plan pavilions and outdoor decks have uninterrupted views to the bush and the ocean. The design of common areas is very open to the elements ensuring a full experience of the weather and climate while still affording all necessary protection. • The exposed laminated beams and glass louvers re ect the horizon line of the ocean while the skillion roof pitch follows the line of the wind clipped trees. Aesthetics • The building is approached from the beach as part of the guided walk. It is not visible until almost upon it because of the dense vegetation, successfully achieving a dramatic sense of arrival and surprise. • The careful and detailed use of single skin timber cladding throughout the building creates a strong sensation of comfort and warmth. had to be either brought in by helicopter or walked in. Selected building materials were lightweight and allowed for simple construction techniques. • A limited number of materials were used to minimize the amount of wastage. Materials included Tasmanian hardwood and plantation pine structure, cladding and ooring, corrugated steel roof sheeting and glass. Walls are of single skin construction reducing the amount of material required. Figure 3.9 Elevated porch

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31 • The Lodge is a very beautiful piece of architecture, sited in an amazingly breathtaking location creating a completely unique and memorable experience. Social and Economic Response • The Bay of Fires Walk is a very social experience, and encourages interaction between guests and staff. This occurs both during the walk and in all of the accommodation’s communal facilities, thereby adding the extra dimension of shared experience. The design also enables privacy when required in the individual sleeping areas. • The site is very isolated so the links with the closest local community are limited to: Use of local tradesmen during construction and continued use for ongoing maintenance Use of the local laundry service Use of local produce and Tasmanian wines in prepared meals. Figure 3.10 wind and sunlight diagrams Figure 3.11 design and structure

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32 Ridgetop Retreatsarchitect: Max Pritchard Key Features • Award-winning architectural design • Passive heating and cooling • Energy ef ciency • Environmentally sensitive construction practices • Conservation Park setting Background Southern Ocean Retreats is a family-owned business that aims to provide visitors to Deep Creek Conservation Park with a choice of quality accommodation at different locations within the Park. Barry Duykers and Jane Formato have developed a range of accommodation from renovated rustic cottages, to the construction of the modern Ridge top Retreats set in a bush land area of the Park. The Ridgetop Retreats were designed by Adelaide-based architect Max Pritchard. Ridgetop Retreats has received the highest award available, a Royal Australian Institute of Architects Award of Merit for design and building excellence. Site Considerations The Setting Deep Creek Conservation Park lies at the southern tip of the Fleurieu Peninsula in South Australia. It contains some of the State’s most spectacular semi-wilderness areas and coastal scenery. The Park is a contrast of rugged coastal views across the Southern Ocean, as well as tranquil settings beneath tall stringy bark forests. Orchids and ferns grow in moist gullies with permanent running creeks. The Park is home to some 400 native plant species including several of conservation signi cance. Western Grey Kangaroos can be observed as they graze on nearby grasslands. There are some 120 bird species in the Park from the tiny Blue Wren to the mighty Wedge-tailed Eagle. Figure 3.12 Ridge top retreat

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33 The Development Site – Issues and Constraints Ridgetop Retreats was established on a at ridge top on the edge of a stringy bark forest within Deep Creek Conservation Park. The development site was previously disturbed and used by National Parks & Wildlife as a storage depot. The development issues and constraints included: • Constructing a new tourism accommodation development within a Conservation Park • Minimizing site disturbance caused by the development and construction process. Priority concerns were natural hydrology, soil stability and quality and disturbance of vegetation around the site. • Control of access to surrounding area to avoid damage to natural vegetation • Appropriate native (or regenerative) plantings to the site • Power supply • No mains connection for water and waste disposal • Views and other qualities of the site • Access to walking paths • Fire protection considerations. The Development Figure 3.13 Lodge located along the park Figure 3.14 Inside view of the lounge along the re place

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34 Development Objectives The owners had a number of key development objectives that they wanted to achieve including: • A requirement to establish three units on the site • Providing a high level of luxury. The retreats together with the DeepCreek Homestead complements other properties run by Southern Ocean Retreats at the budget end of the market • Ensuring the units are custom designed to take full advantage of the natural environment and setting • The units to be built on best practice energy and conservation principles • Allowing visitors to have an authentic experience of the setting, its climate and attractions. Description of Facilities The development involved the construction of three modern selfcontained retreats on a tightly de ned 2000 square meter site. The retreats have a small footprint (65 sq m) and include two double bedrooms; kitchen; lounge room and bathroom. The retreats also feature a stainless steel kitchen, leather lounge with wood re and quality xtures and ttings. Other facilities constructed on the site included a large rainwater tank for each unit and a separate rainwater tank dedicated for re ghting purposes. The owners have also commenced replanting the site with native vegetation. Site Speci c Development Responses Building materials and construction • The retreats feature primarily ‘lightweight’ building materials apart from the concrete slab. A waf e pod concrete slab was used as it avoids the need for excavation yet also provides thermal mass. • Other building materials include a mix of laminated glass, colourbond steel and compressed ber cement for wall cladding and colourbond steel for roo ng. The walls and roof are insulated. Materials have been selected primarily for passive thermal performance/ good design for the climate, durability and aesthetic values. • During construction, the areas available for builders access and building envelopes were tightly de ned and a daily cleanup of the building site was enforced to minimize impact on the bush. Energy • A key feature of the retreats is the use of passive solar design

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35 principles including: north facing oor to ceiling laminated glass windows appropriate roof overhang to allow thermal performance during winter and shading during summer concrete slab construction for thermal mass, cross ow ventilation is facilitated by the site’s location on a ridge top and prevailing southerly breezes. • Other energy conservation principles include a solar hot water system, energy ef cient down lights with dimmers, a slow combustion heater and ceiling fan. • Importantly, there is no air-conditioning provided (ceiling fan only), however the design features maintain comfort levels all year round. • The retreats are reliant on a mains power connection located approximately 40 meters from the site. The owners considered alternative energy solutions but these proved costly. The use of passive solar design, solar hot water and energy conservation principles has helped minimize reliance on mains power. Water • Each retreat is completely reliant on a 25,000 liter rainwater tank as the sole source of water. The retreats bene t from a location within a high rainfall area (880mm/year). To date this rainwater supply has been adequate, even with high occupancy rates and recent dry years. • Water conservation measures include the installation of water ef cient showerheads and taps and a dual ush toilet. • A separate 25,000-litre rainwater tank has been installed for re ghting purposes. In the event of re, this tank provides the capacity to douse the units in water for a minimum of 20 minutes. Waste • The retreats rely on an Envirocycle septic system. Because of the limited size of the site and the need to minimize site disturbance, a conventional septic system could not be installed. • The Envirocycle system is an aerobic waste treatment system that reticulates clean nutrient rich water into the surrounding landscape. The existing soils are low in nutrients, however there has been no visible impact on native vegetation. Experiential • The sitting of the cottages on a ridge top afforded opportunities for either distant panoramic coastal views (facing south) or intimate nature views of a natural stringy bark forest (facing north). The de-

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36 sire to incorporate passive solar design principles determined the northerly orientation of buildings. • The open plan design and oor to ceiling windows has maximized indoor/outdoor views and succeeded in ‘bringing the outside in’. • Although the retreats are in relatively close proximity, with minimal screening between each, the careful staggered sitting and deliberate avoidance of side facing windows affords a high degree of privacy. • The retreats are characterized by a strong sense of individuality, attention to detail and careful aesthetic choices in interior design. The overall sense of the interior space is of peace, isolation and a heightened appreciation of the bush. Social • Positive linkages with the surrounding community have been established. These include linkages with local business through the packages in the South Australian Shorts marketing campaign, and packages with local restaurants and wineries. The Development Process Development approval process Figure 3.15 Diagrams illustrating sustainable strategies

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37 • Because of the location of the site within a Conservation Park, two layers of approval were required. Approval was sought from both Departments of Environment and Heritage and the Local Council. • The approval process was dif cult and the proponent’s success can largely be attributed to their persistence and the credibility they had established through operating existing accommodation within the Conservation Park. • Importantly the development site was identi ed within the Deep Creek Management Plan as a site where development could occur. This was largely because of the previously disturbed nature of the site as a storage depot. The proponents were successful in negotiating a lease over the 2000 sq m development site. Fire protection considerations • Fire protection measures in place include installation of a dedicated rainwater tank and sprinkler system, use of re preventative building materials (such as laminated glass, aluminum windows and colourbond steel) and establishment of an evacuation plan. Figure 3.16 Dining area with views to the outside

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38Bridge Housearchitect: Max Pritchard Architects: Max Pritchard Architect Location: Adelaide, Australia Consultant: Engineers Pocius & Associates Constructed Area: 110 sqm Project year: 2008 Background The clients required a permanent home/of ce on their small property, located one hour’s drive from Adelaide. A bend in the winter creek that divides the property, creates a billabong (a deep waterhole) bounded by a high rocky bank. A house was required that would allow appreciation of the site without spoiling its beauty, but at a budget comparable with a “prefabricated” dwelling or an “off the plan” developers design (approximately (A$220,000). Figure 3.17 Bridge house Figure 3.18 Closer view of materials used

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39 The Design A narrow house form, spans over the creek. Glazing each side opens the house to views in both directions, giving the feeling of living amongst the trees. Structure and Materials Two steel trusses forming the primary structure, were fabricated off site and erected by two men and a crane in two days. They were anchored by four small concrete piers, poured each side of the creek. Spanning between the trusses is a concrete oor slab on steel decking with a layer of rigid insulation. The “box” walling and roo ng is plantation pine. Figure 3.19 Axonometric view and structure Figure3.20 Pressed steel screens Figure 3.21 Closer view of steel trusses that holds the “box”

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40 Sustainability and Environment House Size A oor area of 110 sqm has proved quite adequate for the couple‘s permanent home and of ce. An ef cient plan is a simple and effective method of limiting the environmental “footprint” of the building. Thermal Comfort Winter Heating The long sides of the house face north and south. The low winter sun from the north heats the black insulated concrete oor, storing heat for reradiating at night. Insulation to the underside of the slab, wall and roof combined with double glazed curtained windows aid the retention of heat. A small wood combustion heater provides additional heat when required, fuelled from timber grown sustainably on the site. Summer Cooling Pressed steel screens shade the north facing windows in summer. A combination of ceiling fans and openable windows allow for ef cient and effective cooling from cross ventilation. By closing the house during hot summer days and opening it during the cool evenings, comfortable conditions can be maintained without air conditioning. Figure 3.22 Design diagrams

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41 Materials produced locally in a sustainable manner recyclable or reusable easily installed with little machinery created little waste Steel and aluminum are used in recyclable sections, whilst satisfying the design requirements for bush re prone areas. Secondary framing is plantation pine grown in the state. Roo ng and wall cladding is recyclable sheet steel. Services Water Roof water is collected for use within the house. Waste Water Is pumped 100 metres from the creek to avoid pollution and dispersed underground following treatment. Electricity Photovoltaic cells are located on the adjacent shed, to power the house, with excess power fed back into the grid. Hot Water Solar hot water panels on the house roof provide hot water at minimal cost. Environmental Impact The design represents the classic “Touch the Earth Lightly” approach, both visually and environmentally Figure 3.23 Site plan Figure 3.24 Floor Plan

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42Chalalan Ecolodge Chalalan Ecolodge blends in with its environment using old building techniques and environmentally-friendly local materials. It is located in one of the richest protected areas of the planet known by scientists as a “Biodiversity Hotspot”, which is a priority for conservation weakened by the huge demand for development in the area. This tropical Andean hotspot has the highest biodiversity of plants endemic to the planet and is host to some 45,000 different plant species and over 1,000 tropical bird species. Figure 3.25 Site Plan Figure 3.26 Project location

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43 Chalalan is an indigenous community committed to the integral development of ecotourism in the Madidi National Park. In the Chalalan region they are aiming efforts at the sustainable use of natural resources ( ora and fauna) by offering highly competitive ecotourism services that improve the living conditions of the people of San Jos de Uchupiamonas, by generating direct and indirect bene ts, which will also guarantee the sustainability of the territory and the Quechua-Tacana culture for the wellbeing of future generations. Figure 3.27 One of the ecolodge at Chalalan Figure 3.28 Diagram illustrating the random location of the ecolodges at the Chalalan region

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44 Figure 3.29 Diagram illustrating the different sizes and match of the rooms at Chalalan Figure 3.30 Diagram of the different locations of the ecolodges Figure 3.31 Communal Dining Figure 3.32 View of a room at the ecolodge

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45 Figure 3.33 Different oor plan arrangements Figure 3.34 Connections between all ecolodges at Chalalan

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46Ford Calumet Environmental Center In order to educate visitors on the past and present of the Calumet region’s unique patchwork of industrial and natural areas this project re-conceptualizes the way the building is constructed. Like a ‘nest’, materials for the building are collected from things abundant, nearby, and discarded. The design is composed of salvaged steel from the Calumet industrial region and other discarded recyclable materials such as slag. In highlighting these materials, the building demonstrates the sustainable principle of re-use. Architect Studio Gang, Chicago Location The 4,000-acre Calumet Open Space Reserve of marshes, wetlands, and prairies on the far south side of Chicago. Figure 3.35 Environmental Center location Figure 3.36 View of the Environmental Center

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47 The south facing porch enclosed within a basketlike mesh of salvaged steel protects the migrating bird population from collisions with the glass that they cannot see. 97 million birds die annually in the U.S. from collisions with glass. At the same time it creates an outdoor classroom for visitors and becomes a blind for observing wildlife. Geothermal heat pumps, earth tubes, a bio mass boiler, wind turbines, and water collection systems are integrated into the overall building design and become part of the educational component of the center and its site. Figure 3.37 Floor plan and site context Figure 3.38 Elevation drawing

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48 Figure 3.39 Inside view and sunlight penetration into the space Figure 3.40 Sustainable features of the building Figure 3.41 Diagram illustrating the main concept of the screen design Figure 3.42 Rendering illustrating the screen design and structure

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49Ariau Jungle Lodge The Ariau Jungle Lodge is a local ecotour operation about 35 miles up the Negro River from Manaus in the Amazonas state of Brazil. The Ariau Tower Jungle Lodge is owned and operated by Brazilian national – Dr. Francisco Ritta Bernardo. Many of the rainforest tour guides that are employed at the Ariau come from the surrounding local villages. The ecolodge was built in with respect to its surrounding environment. Not a single tree has been cleared to make way for the lodge's structures. The cabins were built up and in between the trees interconnected by raised walkways among the treetops. All of the lower level structures stand on stilts raised above the ood line. The accommodations are basic and very much a part of the environment. Figure 3.43 Location of Ariau Jungle Lodge

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50 Ariau is only accessible by boat or by foot. There are no roads that access the lodge. During the ood season between March and September the entire journey to the Ariau is taken by canoe or by small boat. During the dry months visitors travel by boat for part of the, journey but then must hike through the jungle to the lodge. There are plenty of animals to see and interact with at the lodge site. Monkeys swing freely above and macaws and toucans greet visitors in the morning. While strolling along the raised walkways visitors can see all types of sh in the water below and lizards that frequently cross the walkway path. During the evening visitors can hear the sounds of the jungle while spotting alligators in the shallow waters of the river. Figure 3.44 Aerial view of the lodges connected one to the other Figure 3.45 Pier walk to the lodges

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51Site Analysis 4

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52 Site Description Amboro National Park, covers and area of over 630,000 hectares, it lies within three distinct ecosystems: the foothills of the Andes, the northern Chaco and the Amazon Basin. The park was originally established as the Reserva de Vida Silvestre German Busch in 1984 but, with the help of native biologist Noel Kempff, British zoologist Robin Clark and others, the park was expanded to its present size. Figure 4.0 Map of Bolivia showing the location of the site Figure 4.1Table of site description

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53 Amboro National Park is composed of mountain relief’s, canyons and deep valleys, rough rivers and waterfalls which contribute to make up a unique landscape of great beauty and of a diversity of ecosystems that go down from rainy and cloudy woods of the Yungas as far as the dry woods of the mesothermic valleys. The protected area of Amboro that divides its area of 637,600 hectares between the Natural zone of Integrated Management, where 97 communities are settled and it works as a cushion zone of the park. And the Amboro Park itself that spreads over 442,500 hectares, where there are no human settlings and the extraction of natural resources is banned. Figure 4.2 View of Volcanes, a region near the Amboro

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54 North Side The North Side of Amboro National Park is an area that, despite its proximity to the city of Santa Cruz, receives very few visitors. Nearly all tourism in the northern area of the Amboro preserve takes place within 3 kilometers inside what is called the “red line”. This line separates the park’s Natural Area of Integral Management (ANMI) from the heart of the park itself, which covers nearly 400,000 hectares of land. Figure 4.3Giant ferns at North side Figure 4.4 Path through the giant ferns

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55 South Side The southern zone of Amboro National Park is the high part of this protected area. It is a mountainous area and the access or passing the Red Line is much more dif cult than on the North Side. This area is where the spectacled bear (Trematus ornatus we call it a Jucumary) makes its habitat, as do other types of animals. Here there are fewer rivers and streams and it is less humid than the North Side. Vegetation is less dense, trees are not as tall, and wildlife species vary. Lodges are surrounded by immense vegetationcovered reddish mountains. Figure 4.5 Waterfall view at South side of Amboro

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56 Site Documentation Basic Information Santa Cruz,Bolivia Table 4.6 Sun PathSanta Cruz, Bolivia Table 4.7 Solar energy and surface meteorologySanta Cruz, Bolivia Figure 4.8 Sunrise, sunset, dawn and dusk times

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57

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58 Legend Legend Figure 4.9 Ecoregion Map Figure 4.10 Hydrographic Map

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59 Legend Legend Figure 4.11 Life Zones Map Figure 4.12 Social Economic 1 Map

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60 Legend Legend Figure 4.14 Social Economic 3 Map Figure 4.13 Social Economic 2 Map

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61 The upper Carboniferous Escarpment formation and the upper Cretaceous Cajones formations dominate the landscapes of “Los Volcanes”, Bermejo and “El Fuerte” de Samaipata. These are massive reddish sandstones which form enormous rounded hills with vertical cliffs colonized by a specialized ora including the massive Tillandsia samaipatensis with the bright yellow hanging in orescences as tall as a person. Figure 4.15 Community of Bermejo Figure 4.16 Waterfall in between the Cuevas Community Figure 4.17 Panorama view of Volcanes at Amboro National Park

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62 The site chosen for this speci c project is located in the Cuevas Community, along the Amboro National Park. The reason for choosing this speci c site it’s because of the relation between the community to the tourists. The community needs a source of income as well as their cultural exchange between the local people and the tourist. Figure 4.18 Map of Bolivia and Amboro National Park Figure 4.19 Close up view of Site Location Figure 4.20 Site Location with connection to Park and nearby communities

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63 Figure 4.21 Aerial view of the site and pictures of main tourist attraction

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64 Ambor has an average annual temperature of 12 C. in the south and 24 in the north, with rainfall-range: 500(n) to 4,000 mm (s). There are 26 different vegatation-areas and about 3,000 plant species registered, although there might be even more than 3500 species. Figure 4.22 Flora of native plants around the southern portion of Amboro National Park. Figure 4.23 Fauna at Amboro National Park The Ambor park features 105 reptiles, half of the country Reptile species; 4 are also endemic. It has one of the highest numbers of birds in Latin America and represents with about 900 species, 60% of the species in Bolivia. 9 are endemic and 7 are threatened with extinction. Ambor is Bird migration area for 28 bird species from the north and 8 from the southern Hemisfere. Ambor counts with 127 species of mammals, and preserves Dinosaur remnants.

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65 Figure 4.24 Locality analysis and main features

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66 Figure 4.25 Detailed site analysis

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67 Figure 4.26 Proposed crops for agroecology purposes

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68 Figure 4.28 Site approach and analysis Figure 4.27 Site connection to the community and eco-path

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69Educational Retreat The Proposal ECOBrief Amboro National Park covers an area of over 630,000 hectares, and lies within three distinct ecosystems: the foothills of the Andes, the northern Chaco and the Amazon Basin. Because the park straddles different ecosystems, the animal population is also extremely diverse. Perhaps most impressive is the huge number of birds that inhabit the area. Objectives The proposal is based on the proposition that eco-tourism will make a positive contribution to the conservation of representative and functional ecosystems in the park, by building environmental, social, economic, political and legal sustainability. Increase public awareness and knowledge regarding Bolivia’s biodiversity and its value. Ecomeasures include saving water for multiple re-use, use of local materials, earth pipe cooling, solar heating, through ventilation, the use of building form to maximize energy conservation and waste management. Strategies Use of: Micro-hydroelectric power, gravity fed irrigation systems, solar energy, green vegetative roofs, local material integration, manage site conditions. 5 Table 5.0 Program sizes

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70 Figure 5.1 Bubble diagram illustrating relation of culture Figure 5.2Bubble diagram illustrating community relation

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71 Figure 5.3 Bubble diagram illustrating social responsibilities

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72 Figure 5.4 Bubble diagram illustrating ecologic design intent

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73Material Study Tectonic Connections 6

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74 Types Of Connections friction-tight rope connections: For tight connections green bamboo strips are used, the bres are watered before tying around the bamboo. While drying, the bres shorten and the connection becomes stronger. plugin/bolt connections: Constructions with secondary interlocking elements are often used in context with rope connections. In this case the bolts have to transfer tractive and compressive forces. In wooden connections this is done by different kinds of pro les. positive tting connections: positve tting connections are used in traditional bamboo buildings. Different kinds of holes are cutted into the bamboo and make it possible to connect the round bamboo rods. interlocking connections: Pan Spatially frame-works. This frame-work works on bamboo with diameters small than 80mm. These threaded bolts can transfer about 50% of the tractive force. Induo System. This system makes it possible to transfer about 100% of the maximum rated load of large bamboo diameters. Other industrial products: cable tie mount with concrete reinforcement steel reinforcement-screw connection with concrete steel combined connections: Double post, here with b ounded knot and continuous handle. Within this construction the tube wall is not weakened bei drillings. The advantage of this system is, encumbrances of the roof and the oor are absorbed by different posts. Figure 6.0 Type of connections

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75 Figure 6.1 Connection study of bamboo in tension Figure 6.2 Bamboo bolt connection Figure 6.3 Bamboo alternative connection

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76 Figure 6.4 Building approach to using bamboo structure These diagrams are a study of bamboo connections and how theycan implement it into my building design. I want to consider using some bamboo connections, since this is a sustainable material widely used around the Amboro National Park and surrounding cities.

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77Educational Retreat Initial Concept IdeaThesis Concept The proposal is based on the scheme that eco-tourism will make a positive contribution to the conservation of representative and functional ecosystems in Amboro National Park, by building environmental, social, economic, political and legal sustainability. Figure 7.0 Initial concept idea sketches 7

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78 These 3 initial concept models illustrate the sitting of the building in different landscape conditions. The building will be carefully exposed above ground, to make the less impact on site. Figure 7.2 Concept model 2 Figure 7.3 Concept model 3 Figure 7.1 Concept model 1

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79 Figure 7. 4 Initial Model 1 Figure 7. 5 Initial Model 1 perspective view Figure 7.6 Initial program space analysis 1

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80 Figure 7. 7 Initial Model 2 Figure 7. 8 Initial Model 2 perspective view Figure 7.9 Initial program space analysis 2

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81 Figure 7. 10 Initial Model 3 Figure 7. 11 Initial Model 3 perspective view Figure 7.12 Initial program space analysis 3

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82 Sustainable Strategies for ECOvillage Agroecology Micro-hydroelectric power Local material integration Gravity fed irrigation system Water collection Solar Energy Sustainable Strategies Figure 8.0 The image illustrates the triangle of life and the way that our world should nd its balance. 8

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83 Agroecology Bene ts Increased ecological resilience and reduced risk in weathering changing environmental conditions. Improved health and nutrition Conservation of natural resources Economic stability Climate change mitigation through increased energy-ef ciency, reduced reliance on fossil fuel and fossil fuel-based agricultural inputs, increased carbon sequestration and water capture in soil. Increased social exibility and institutional capacity( increased ecological literacy and social support networks). Figure 8.1 Agroecology, its importance and application to farms and small villages.

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84 Agroecology has been a very positive strategy for some towns in Bolivia that have iniciated this kind of agriculture not long ago. It improves the soils that are deteriorated, nourishment and preserves health with medicinal plants that are planted. It is a good way to develop an organizational, economical, and productive strategy. These strategies take a step towards the integration of group relationships not only between local people but also tourists and people that are involved in this new kind of agriculture. Crop cultivation is rotational and diversi ed. It is a potential production for the recovery of the soil in harmony with nature. Figure 8.2 The roof structure of the eco-cabins are used for crop rotation and planting while the eco-cabin design camou ages in between the mountains.

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85 Figure 8.3 Eco-cabin clusters not only give the tourists a comfortable stay but also provide a learning process for them and t he local people since the design integrates functionning ecological systems into them.These include: vegetative gardens; the collection of wate r for dry seasons; gravity irrigation systems, micro-hydroelectric power, solar panels, and passive design.

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86 Vegetative Roof advantages to water runoffmitigates problems caused by impervious surfaces roof stores water for plants to use, reducing runoff plants remove nutrients and pollution from water water returned to atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration building bene ts from insulation provided by plants [ cooler in summer ] [ warmer in winter ] Figure 8.4 The diagram above illustrates how passive design takes place in one of the eco-cabin cluster.

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87 The Gravity Fed Irrigation SystemAdvantages: Increases and improves the crop yield. Uniform water distribution system Figure 8.5 The diagram above exemplify the main irrigation system used at the roof structure, where water is distributed along smaller trenches by gravity. Ef cient water use Easy installation, operation and maintenance Durable, long-life drip-lines, which resist clogging.

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88 MicroHydroelectric PowerAdvantages renewable energy help for poor communities Figure 8.6 The diagram above demonstrates how renewable energy is used by the community to generate electricity for the villa ge. more small businesses better education for schools improves health People ( tourists) capacitate or train the community from the village to run the power house

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89 Animal Corridors maintaining biodiversity Purpose: Help maintain recover fragmented ecosystems Viability of animal and plant species is improved by: a) Enlarging habitats b) Dispersion of young animals c) Re-use of “ empty” habitats3 types: 1. Linear corridors long, uninterrupted strips of vegetation; for example: strips of forests, hedges, and vegetation growing on banks of rivers and streams. 2. Stepping stone corridors these are non-connected habitats which are used to nd shelter, food, or to rest. 3. Landscape corridors Diverse, uninterrupted landscape components which propose suf cient cover for a safe journey from one core area to another. Figure 8.7 The 3 diagrams illustrate the types of animal corridors planned for the eco-village.

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90 Design Solution The main inspiration for the development and form of the eco-village comes from the baby fern that grows in the Amboro National Park. The main spine of the fern is the anchor for the leaves, and in relation to the eco-village, the main feature to the site is the creek that runs along the site with the water owing from south to north. The eco-cabin clusters develop along the main creek, and in between the Cuevas community. 9 Figure 9.0 ( left) Image of a baby fern combined with a diagram of site with design elements Figure 9.1 Process diagrams of the initial building form

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91 Master Plan Main approach to eco-design is through the least disturbance of the site and its surroundings. The journey to a natural site not only compromises the conservation of the environment but also the well-being of the local people. The aim of this thesis exploration was to propose an architectural building typology that renovates and enhances the natural environment, through human conscience and habitat renovation by introducing different levels of sustainability. The program elements integrated a conceptual master plan for the Cuevas community, an eco-center for the education of local people and cabin clusters for tourists accomodation, community crops cultivation and the integration of sustainable strategies. Figure 9.2 Top view of 3D master plan of eco-village

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92 Figure 9.3 Cabin oor plan The oor plan below illustrates one of the cluster of an ecocabin with the creek next to it. The creek is one of the natural resources most valuable in the site. It is the main resource from where the community obtain water for drinking, agriculture, cooking, etc. The eco-cabin design consists of four cabins for sleeping, a communal kitchen, dining room, and restroom. It has a small square footage since there is not going to be that many tourists at once, for the sustainability of the site. The eco-cabin forms other clusters along the site. The main layout are two clusters at once, this means that they form a main courtyard garden in the midlle for agroecology purposes and interaction.

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93 Figure 9.4 Cabin section

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94 The eco-cabins are the main building design of the ecovillage. They sit on the ground gently without impacting the site. They are a new building typology that represents a good example of sustainability since they are not only a home for the tourists but also a teaching and learning tool for everybody at the village. The eco-cabins are placed randomly along the site in between the community creating different clusters. Figure 9.5 Eco-cabin elevations Figure 9.6 Picture of one eco-cabin cluster from nal model

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95 Figure 9.7 Cluster south elevation

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96 The materials used for the building construction are local and not harmful for the environment. The structure is based on bamboo and is raised above ground. The main feature that the building structure expresses is that it camou ages around the mountains and surrounding landscape. This is done by having vegetative gardens on the roof tops, and also by integrating sustainable systems that makes the building work with the environment. The green roof or vegetative garden roof tops, creates for an opportunity for the local people to grow their crops. This is also a very good way for the people to interact with each other and create an organizational sustainability. The tourists staying at the eco-cabins can teach the people on new systems and also they can learn on cultivation, culture, planting from the community at the village. Figure 9.8 Cabin modules axonometric

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97 Figure 9.10 Site 3D graphic top view Figure 9.9 Site Axonometric illustrating sustainable layers Agriculture layer Green vegetative roofs Animal corridor Creek ( hydrography) Fish farming

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98 Figure 9.11 Eco-center oor plan The Eco-center was created with the inspiration of a new building typology that will teach the community about new sustainability systems. The design includes as a main space an exhibition/museum room where the local people will be creating their crafts and also for them to have an opportunity to exhibit their work. This main space is where tourists will also have the opportunity to learn about the local people’s culture and desire to keep their own traditions. The eco-center also is designed around main resources, including a sh farming and the cultivation of crops. The spaces that are built around the pond, are classrooms for the learning about agroecology and the new systems that are going to be integrated in this ecovillage, for example, green vegetative roofs, collection of rainwater, methods to stop the water runoff, solar panels, gravity irrigation systems, micro-hydroelectric power, etc.

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99 Figure 9.12 Section through the site

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100 Figure 9.13 Section looking west

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101 Figure 9.14 Section looking south

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102 Figure 9.15 View of eco-cabin vegetative roofs Figure 9.16 Vegetative roof section through one module The graphics illustrated below represents the main basis for the project, sustainability. In a community or small village, the people are striving to survive with the resources that already exists in their environment, and there is a need to help these communities. In many occasions, the community don’t know how to take advantage of these resources, for example, to store water during rainy seasons to use it for their advantage. Also the local people don’t know how to construct systems for potable water and irrigation. Because of lack of technologic and ecologic knowledge, rivers become obstruction instead of ways of access. In consequence, these type of vernacular communities need outside help and experts to assist in the implementation of new systems.

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103 Figure 9.17 Photos of the project

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104 Figure 9.18 Photo of the physical model for the eco-tourim project

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105 Figure 9.19 Eco-cabin cluster model

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106 Figure 9.20 Eco-center section model

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107 Figure 9.21 South view of eco-center model

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108 Figure 9.22 View of eco-center’s classrooms model

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109 Figure 9.23 Photo of the eco-cabin model

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110 Figure 9.24 Perspective view of eco-center model

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111 It is my belief that implementing the master plan will provide a sustainable model for the future development of the Eco-touris m industry. This model will bring a better life for rural communities that need to be informed about sustainability systems, and will not o nly work for my country Bolivia, but also to other areas in the world that are in need of a change because day by day we are harming our enviro nment and our people. Think before you act. Figure 9.25 Rendering of eco-center

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112 Works Cited“Bolivia Ecoturismo Turismo Comunitario La Chonta.” Bolivia Ecoturismo Turismo Comunitario Inicio. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. < http://www. turismo-comunitario.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99&Itemid=132>. “Bolivian Amazon wildlife tour. World’s best responsible & ecotourism holidays.” Adventure holidays, family holidays, ecotouris m, responsible travel & responsible tourism, gap year and family holidays. World’s best responsible & ecotourism adventure & family holidays. Softfusion. Web. 11 July 2009. .Crowther, Richard L. Ecologic Architecture. Boston: Butterworth Architecture, 1992.“:: Ecoturismo Comunitario Bolivia :::.” PROBIOMA Productividad Biosfera Medio Ambiente. Kfeina.com. Web. 9 July 2009. . “Ecotourism. Bolivia is One of the Best Places for Socially Responsible Touring.” Bolivia Facts. Information on Bolivia, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Beni, Tarija. Charis Barks. Web. 23 July 2009. .

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113 “Ecotourism in Bolivia.” Welcome About I/O, Inc. America Tours. Web. 16 May 2009. . “Hydroelectric Information.” NoOutage Home. NoOutage.com. Web. 14 Aug. 2009. .Jones, David Lloyd, Tadao Ando, and Rosa Cano Camarasa. Arquitectura y entorno: el dise o de la construcci n bioclim tica. Barcelona: Blume, 2002.“Map of Amboro National Park, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia, South America.” Travel Blogs, Photos, Videos and Maps. Web. 12 No v. 2009. . “OHI Special Issue on Eco-Tourism and Ecolodges is Coming Soon!... Vol 32, No. 4. December 2007.” Architecture-Urbanism. Ashraf Salama. Web. 21 May 2009. . “Panoramio Photo of La Cueva primo salto.” Panoramio Photos of the World. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. .Richardson, Vicky. New Vernacular Architecture. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 2001. Redner, Harry. Conserving Cultures: Technology, Globalization, and the Future of Local Cultures. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Little eld Publishers, 2004. Spiluttini, Margherita. Tourismus und Landschaft = Tourism and landscape. Wien: Springer, 2004.

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114 “Uyuni Salt Flat of Uyuni Fish Island.” Discover Bolivia: Salt Flat of Uyuni, Salar de Uyuni, Potos. Web. 18 Aug. 2009. . “WWF Corredor binacional Itnez-Mamor.” WWF Trabajo de conservacin ambiental en Bolivia. Andrea Lozano. Web. 12 July 2009 .