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Title:
Redesigning the megachurch : reintroduction of sacred space into a highly functional building
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English
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Valencia, Javier
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University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Spiritual
Church
God
Temple
Architecture
Dissertations, Academic -- School of Architecture and Community Design -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: "Megachurches offer a unique way of being religious in modern society; one that fits the social and religious context of many people says Scott Tumma "Beyond Megachurch myths". These Massive congregations of two to fifteen thousand participants occupy an undeniable space in the religious and social landscape. It is not only their massive buildings, locations, activities or television broadcasts that make these churches important. It is the role that they play in changing society (Hartford, 2006)" Architecturally the Megachurch has failed today, it has become a "big box", a well developed building which houses thousands of members and provides them with all the necessary entertainment and functions that are needed; but, has lost its essence. The Megachurch today has lost its focus; it is focused on the function that the building has to offer and has failed to recognize the purpose of the space. By achieving a highly functional space the sacredness of this space has disappeared. This thesis presents an investigation into how to deal with the notion of sacred space in today's Megachurch; it will introduce the sacred biblical pattern of coming into the presence of God trough architecture, it will deal with how to make an extremely massive space into a personal and spiritual. The goal of this thesis is to redesign the Megachurch as a highly efficient building that provides the user with the sense of awe, majesty and reverence that is lost in today's Megachurches. The sacred aspect of this thesis project will be emphasized in the architectural poetics thru the use of symbolism represented in the right use of spatial organization and embedded religious cues; also will be focused on materiality and the archetypes used to express a sacred feeling; Furthermore the study of natural light and structural systems for vast large spaces in a sacred manner will be investigated. The outcome of this project intends to change the negative connotation of the Megachurch today; it intends to teach society that this institution can be a sacred place to worship God and not just a place to be entertained.
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Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
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by Javier Valencia.
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Redesigning the Megachurch: R eintroduction of S acred S pace I nto a Highly Functional Building by Javier Valencia of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Cooke Steve, M. Arch. Hudson Robert, B. Arch. Huggins Tony, M. Arch. Emerson Rich, M. Arch. Date of Approval: November 18, 2009 Keywords: Spiritual, Church, God, Temple, Architecture Copyright 2009, Javier Valencia

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DEDICATION to God who has helped me in everything and has never abandoned me. I also dedicate this project to my parents Ricardo and Nury Valencia, my sister Angelica, my grand mother Elsy nana and Isabel Corsino who was someone very important in my life and who I will always love.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to acknowledge my chair Steve Cooke my professors Trent Green my committee members Robert Hudson, Tony Huggins and Rich Emerson. Also my friends from the USF SACD Camilo Lopez, Carlos Gil, Claudia Justiniano, Fernando Pizarro, Diego Du ran and Adam Barbosa whom I leaned a lot from.

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i List of Figures ..................................................... Abstract .............................................................. 1. Project Intent and Research Methods .................. 2. Introduction ..................................................... What is a Megachurch? ................................... Megachurch Locations ................................... Nature of the Megachurch................................... Size of the Megachurch ................................... 3. Problem .............................................................. Problem Within Architecture .......................... 4. Hypothesis ..................................................... What is Christianity? ................................... Christian Foundation ................................... What is the Church? ................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS v xii 01 05 06 08 10 11 12 15 17 18 20 21

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ii Why is the Church Necessary? .......................... Description of the Church ................................... Church as a Body ............................................ Purpose of the Church ................................... What is Worship ................................................ The Church Temple ........................................... God and Architecture ......................................... Conclusion ...................................................... Architecture in a Sacred Sense ............................ A Sacred Pattern ............................................... 5. Case Studies ..................................................... Crystal Cathedral ............................................. Church on the Water............................................ Lakewood church and Willow Creek Church ......... Padre Pio Pilgimagge Church ........................... Our Lady of Los Angels Church ........................... 6. Program .............................................................. 23 26 27 28 29 31 33 34 35 37 39 39 41 43 46 49 52

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iii 7. Site ..................................................... Ybor city ..................................................... Channelside district .......................................... Downtown Tampa .............................................. Selected Site ............................................ Site Data .......................................................... Zoning ............................................ Site Analysis ..................................................... Site Panoramic .................................................. 8. Conceptual Project Design ........................................ 9. Final Design ........................................................... Diagrams ......................................................... Plans ............................................................... Sections ........................................................... Elevations ........................................................ renderings ........................................................ Final model ....................................................... 55 57 59 62 66 68 68 71 75 76 80 80 84 90 92 94 108

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iv Final Section Model ............................................ 10. Conclusion ........................................................... Works Cited ............................................................... 111 114 117

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v LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Megachurch members during worship service Figure 2 Megachurch denomination table .................. Figure 3 Megachurch membership orientation ........... Figure 4 Regional distribution of Megachurches in the United States ........................................... Figure 5 Megachurch location in the United States .... Figure 6 Sacred pattern diagram.............................. Figure 7 A path to sacred architecture...................... Figure 8 A path to sacred architecture...................... Figure 9 Crystal Cathedral Interior rendering............. Figure 10 Church on the water view from seating area.. Figure 11 Lakewood church rendering......................... Figure 12 Willow creek church worship space............... 01 08 08 09 10 37 38 38 39 41 43 45

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vi Figure 13 Padre pio pilgrimage church view................. Figure 14 Padre pio pilgrimage church Interior view..... Figure 15 Padre pio pilgrimage church chapels............. Figure 16 Padre pio pilgrimage church Floor plan......... Figure 17 Our lady of Los Angeles Exterior View.......... Figure 18 Our lady of Los Angeles Interior View........... Figure 19 Our lady of Los Angeles Public space........... Figure 20 Our lady of Los Angeles Floor plan.............. Figure 21 recommended square footage allowances..... Figure 22 Ybor city location on map............................ Figure 23 Ybor city boundaries................................... Figure 24 Ybor city location on Tampa......................... Figure 25 Channelside District CRA............................ Figure 26 Downtown Tampa Boundaries...................... Figure 27 Downtown Tampa Context plan.................... 46 47 48 48 49 49 50 51 54 57 58 59 60 61 62

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vii Figure 28 Downtown Tampa Surrounding Neighbor hoods ..................................................... Figure 29 Downtown Tampa Surrounding Neighbor hoods ..................................................... Figure 30 Downtown Tampa skyline............................ Figure 31 Possible sites in Downtown Tampa............... Figure 32 Tampa Zoning map.................................... Figure 33 Schedule of permitted principal, accessory and special uses........................................ Figure 34 Schedule of permitted principal, accessory and special uses........................................ Figure 35 Schedule of permitted principal, accessory and special uses........................................ Figure 36 Schedule of dimensional regulations............. Figure 37 Site Location............................................. Figure 38 Figure ground .......................................... Figure 39 Parcel Boundaries...................................... 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 70 71 71 72

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viii Figure 40 Roads....................................................... Figure 41 Land use types.......................................... Figure 42 Land use.................................................. Figure 43 School locations......................................... Figure 44 Hydrology................................................. Figure 45 Green spaces............................................ Figure 46 Commercial locations................................. Figure 47 3-D model of site...................................... Figure 48 3-D model of site...................................... Figure 49 3-D model of site...................................... Figure 50 Panoramic view of site............................... Figure 51 Panoramic view of site............................... Figure 52 Pre conceptual parti sketches ..................... Figure 53 Conceptual diagramming ........................... Figure 54 Conceptual diagramming............................ 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 77 78

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ix Figure 55 Conceptual perspective study...................... Figure 56 Conceptual parti and program..................... Figure 57 Approach diagram .................................... Figure 58 Unity diagram .......................................... Figure 59 Cleansing diagram .................................... Figure 61 Presence of diagram ................................. Figure 62 Praying diagram ....................................... Figure 63 Eqipping the saints diagram ....................... Figure 64 Reaching Out Diagram ............................... Figure 65 Site Plan ................................................. Figure 66 Ground Plan ............................................. Figure 67 Plaza Plan ................................................ Figure 68 Sanctuary plan ......................................... Figure 69 Sanctuary plan ......................................... 78 79 80 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

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x Figure 70 Longitudinal section .................................. Figure 71 Cross section ........................................... Figure 72 Cross section ........................................... Figure 73 East elevation .......................................... Figure 74 West elevation ......................................... Figure 75 South elevation ........................................ Figure 76 Approach from river walk rendering ............ Figure 77 View from river rendering .......................... Figure 78 Riverwalk rendering .................................. Figure 79 Main plaza rendering ................................. Figure 80 Main plaza rendering ................................. Figure 81 View from parking rendering ...................... Figure 82 School rendering ...................................... Figure 83 Praying Rooms rendering ........................... Figure 84 Chappels rendering ................................... 90 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

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xi Figure 85 Temple rendering ..................................... Figure 86 Temple entrance rendering ......................... Figure 87 Temple inside rendering ............................. Figure 88 Temple inside rendering ............................. Figure 89 Temple inside rendering ............................. Figure 90 Final model Picture ................................... Figure 91 Final model Picture ................................... Figure 92 Final model Picture ................................... Figure 93 Final section model picture ......................... Figure 94 Final section model picture ......................... Figure 95 Final section model picture ......................... 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113

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xii REDESIGNING THE MEGACHURCH: REINTRO DUCTION OF SACRED SPACE INTO A HIGHLY FUNCTIONAL BUILDING. Javier Valencia ABSTRACT Megachurches offer a unique way of being religious context of many people says Scott Tumma Beyond Mega teen thousand participants occupy an undeniable space in the religious and social landscape. It is not only their mas sive buildings, locations, activities or television broadcasts

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xiii that make these churches important. It is the role that they play in changing society (Hartford, 2006) Architecturally the Megachurch has failed today, it has become a big box, a well developed building which houses thousands of members and provides them with all the necessary entertainment and functions that are need ed; but, has lost its essence. The Megachurch today has lost its focus; it is focused on the function that the building has to offer and has failed to recognize the purpose of the space. By achieving a highly functional space the sacred ness of this space has disappeared. This thesis presents an investigation into how to deal with the notion of sacred space in todays Megachurch; it will introduce the sacred biblical pattern of coming into the presence of God trough architecture, it will deal with how

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xiv to make an extremely massive space into a personal and spiritual. The goal of this thesis is to redesign the Mega with the sense of awe, majesty and reverence that is lost in todays Megachurches. The sacred aspect of this thesis project will be em phasized in the architectural poetics thru the use of sym bolism represented in the right use of spatial organization and embedded religious cues; also will be focused on the materiality and the archetypes used to express a sacred feeling; Furthermore the study of natural light and struc tural systems for vast large spaces in a sacred manner will be investigated. The outcome of this project intends to change the negative connotation of the Megachurch today; it intends

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xv to teach society that this institution can be a sacred place to worship God and not just a place to be entertained.

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01 1. PROJECT INTENT AND RESEARCH METHODS This thesis project would investigate and develop an innovative Megachurch that would attempt to remedy the considerable architectural, religious and social issues faced of members from small communities, the main focus on entertainment than religion, the role in changing society, of U.S. trends such as urban sprawl, the proliferation of Mac mansions and the size of its facilities are some of the challenges that are faced by the Megachurch and its members. As a potential solution to assist these institu tions and individuals who continually struggle to maintain their own identity in a positive sense. This thesis project proposes a new design for the Megachurch that addresses Figure 1 Megachurch members during worship service.

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02 the architectural, religious and social problems that these institutions face today. This innovative Megachurch would become the ex ceptional and unquestionable tool to create a holistic de sign that addresses the relationship between building and user that respond to a contextual situation. This project intends to reintroduce the idea of sacred space such as a church into a big box massive space, while still satisfying the programmatic needs of the space by implementing new and past theoretical methods reestablishing the relationship between sacred space and function in a Megachurch. This innovative Megachurch would become the ex ceptional and unquestionable tool to create a holistic de sign that addresses the relationship between building and user that respond to a contextual situation. This project

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03 intends to reintroduce the idea of sacred space such as a church into a big box massive space, while still satisfying the programmatic needs of the space by implementing new and past theoretical methods reestablishing the relation ship between sacred space and function in a Megachurch. Some of the techniques this design will use in clude: The investigation and understanding of religious background related to church design to be used in a meta the sense of awe, exploration of structural systems, study of spatial proportion and relationship between the building and the user, research and implementations of materials to be proposed for the project, study and understanding of modern technological features that a Megachurch requires, study of programmatic functions that will be needed for the project, volumetric studies as form generators.

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04 In order to develop the design of this unique Megachurch, conceptual research methods will be uti lized. Some of the systems to be investigated are: case studies on the design concepts of diverse architectural schemes, tactics of simulation and 3-D modeling, inves tigation through correlational research, and the design and qualitative investigation through the involvement of design critiques. In order to validate the proposed solu tion, an evaluation of the project will be necessary.

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05 2. INTRODUCTION When I walk into a Church... One is immediately aware that one has stepped into the presence of what St. Paul would call the whole family in heaven and earth. You have stepped into the precincts of heaven! Thomas Howard. The term Megachurch is the name given to a cluster of very large, Protestant congregations that share several distinctive characteristics. These churches generally have: 2000 or more persons in attendance at weekly worship, A charismatic, authoritative senior minister, A very active 7 day a week congregational community, A multitude of social and outreach ministries, and a complex differentiated orga nizational structure (Hartford, 2006). America has seen an explosion in the number of Megachurches over the past

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06 three decades. They are growing bigger, faster and stron ger and are thriving in nearly every state of the nation and in much smaller communities than was previously believed possible (Thumma, Travis. 2008). This rapid growth has leaded to disapproval from critics claiming that these con gregations or big box churches are more concerned with entertainment that with religion itself (herald tribune); cre ating a new challenge for architects in todays society. What is a megachurch? The word Megachurch refers to large Christian prot estant congregations that share various characteristics such as: two thousand or more member attendance, a senior minister, a seven day a week active community within the congregation, Various social and outreach ministries and a complex differentiated organizational structure.

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07 The majority of Megachurches are focused on a very large protestant Christian congregation in the United States (currently there are more than 1200). The united states is not the only country that has this congregations, they can be found in Korea, Brazil, and several African coun tries. Although an exact world number count is not avail able today. The largest American Megachurch has close to 49,000 members with a weekly attendance; however sev eral churches in Korea claim to have over 250.000 mem bers. Although very large congregations have existed throughout Christian history, there has been a rapid prolifer ation of churches with massive attendance since the decade of the 1970s. As such, some researchers suggest that this church form is a unique collective response to distinctive cul tural shifts and changes in societal patterns throughout the

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08 industrialized, urban and suburban areas of the world. While size is the most immediately apparent char acteristic of these congregations, the Protestant Mega churches in the United States generally share many other traits. The majority of these congregations have a con servative theology, even those within mainline denomi nations. A large number are nondenominational but Megachurch location The national distribution of Megachurches reveals a clear pattern. Over 75 percent of these congregations are located in the Sun belt states, with nearly half of them in the southeast region. California had the highest concentration of Megachurches, followed by Texas, Florida, and Georgia Nondenominational 34% Southern Baptist 16% Assemblies of God 6% United Methodist 5% Calvary Chapel 4.4% Christian 4.2% Evangelical 56% Charismatic 8% Pentecostal 8% Moderate 7% Traditional 5% Seeker 7% Fundamentalist 2% Other 7% Figure 3 Megachurch membership orientation Figure 2 Megachurch denomination

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09 (Thumma 1993). Sprawl cities, such as Houston, Orlando, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Phoenix, and Okla homa City, contained the highest number of Megachurches. In addition, Megachurches tend to have a suburban set ting the majority of these congregations are found in the suburb area of large cities. Their location characteristics include a placement in high and visible land, The expand ing of the city edge, easy access from major highways. It is very rare to see a church of this nature to be placed in a urban setting other than the older inner city established First churches There are many reasons for this entities for being placed in this strategic points or suburban areas. Numerous researchers have found that in growing areas churches of all sizes grow faster (Hadaway & Roozen 1993:131; Olson Figure 4 Regional distribution of Megachurches in the United States

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10 1988). These suburban areas offer expansive, less expensive plots of land suitable for acres of parking lots and the mul tiple buildings that are needed to support a congregation of several thousand. Zoning regulations are often less restric tive than in established urban communities. Most impor type of person attracted to Megachurches -consumer ori ented, highly mobile, well-educated, middle class families. Nature of the megachurch Megachurches are non denominational since in Christianity are various denominations such as: Adven tists, Anglicans, Anabaptist, Baptist, Calvinist, Charis matic, Congregational, Lutheran, Methodist / Wesleyan, Nazarene, Pentecostal, Plymouth Brethren, Presbyterian, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker), Reformed, Resto Figure 5 Megachurch location in the United States

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11 ration movement, Seventh-day Adventist, Waldensians. itself (its size, pastor, programs, and reputation) attracts adherents, not its denominational ties. Consequently, al most one half of all Megachurches are independent and nondenominational. Size of the megachurch The most overt characteristic of Megachurches is their size, the number of persons attending in a giv en week. The number used to label a congregation with this name is a weekly attendance of two thousand peo ple. The size of some Megachurches can be deceptive, More often churches estimate their attendance based on the number of people their sanctuary holds.

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12 3. PROBLEM Megachurch architecture is being expressed as goal of this approach is to create new religious forms, to remake the traditions, so they are acceptable and relevant to a modern person who had been turned off by traditional religion. To accomplish that, the buildings of churches using this approach are quite ordinary looking, duplicating ev houses. Inside these structures, persons are greeted by large lobbies with well-lighted signs, information booths, and often a mall-like court yard complete with refresh ments. Their sanctuaries are usually spacious auditoriums,

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13 with comfortable theater seating, large stages, and a mini mum of religious symbols. The architecture of this orien tation, communicates a message that religion is not a thing apart from daily life (Goldberger 1995). The sermon, probably delivered from a clear plexiglass removable po dium, conveys a biblical but practical, non-dogmatic, thisworldly message that also suggests religion should not be separate from daily life. The architectural style does not only convey the message of the movement but also is sensitive and adapt able to the context in which it resides. A different approach requires a building which expresses the realities of their everyday lives. This orientation, can be found in most of the older First Churches that have grown to Megachurch proportions. This approach is characterized by a retention of the images of traditional Protestant Christianity.

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14 The implication is that this larger expression is not only more successful and more exciting, but it is more authentically Christian than other churches. It is tra ditional Protestantism, but on a mega scale. Megachurch architecture also entails a blending of this conventional form with the nontraditional style. This Composite orientation attempts to retain some connec tion to traditional religion but also embraces modern ar chitectural forms and a contemporary worship format. The Megachurches of this type often superimpose a traditional building facade onto a unconventional, conventional, us er-friendly structure. The exterior, or at least the street exposure, of the church may appear church-like, while the interior resembles a theater, with comfortable individu al seating, state of the art sound and light system, and an adaptable performance stage.

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15 This building often has both the conveniences of the nontraditional church building and the symbols and trap pings of familiar Christianity. Worship may be an equally eclectic mix of hymns, jazz, and praise choruses, combined with liturgical readings and charismatic healing sessions. This can be seen in the worship format at Chapel Hill Har this blended approach architecturally, with mixed results (Goldberger 1995). Problem within architecture Megachurches are using architecture as means of just attracting people, architecture is no longer a tool in which people can be informed about the religion but just an image that attracts people. Architecture only plays an aesthetic role and does not contribute to the people.

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16 The Megachurch architecture and religion in this sense is disconnected. There is no common bond between the essence of the message which is GOD and the building itself. It might be a bigger problem than what it seems, critics say that the roots of the problem lay on their reli gious foundation rather than the architecture itself. How ever it is important to ask ourselves if architecture can remedy any of this.

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17 4. HYPOTHESIS Now that the problem within Megachurch architec ture has been established it is important that the Masters Thesis project focuses on the solution for it. Before at tempting to solve the problem it is important that param eters and criteria are established so the end result can be judged. base and foundation for designing or redesigning a Mega church in a sacred manner. Previously mention a Mega Therefore this Masters Thesis project will focus in its es sence. What is the base and foundation for the Christian believe?

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18 What is Christianity? monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. The Christian faith is essentially faith in Jesus as the Christ (or Messiah), the Son of God, the Savior, and God (Yahweh or the Lord) himself. Adherents of Christianity, known as Christians, be lieve that Jesus is the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible (the part of scripture common to Christianity and Judaism). Orthodox Christian theology claims that Jesus suffered, died, and was resurrected to open heaven to humans. They further maintain that Jesus ascended into heaven, and most denominations teach that Jesus will re turn to judge all humans, living and dead, and grant im

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19 mortality to his followers. He is considered the model of a virtuous life, and both the reveller and physical incarnation of God. Christians call the message of Jesus Christ the Gos pel (good news) and hence refer to the earliest written accounts of his ministry as gospels. as an Abrahamic religion Originating in the eastern Medi decades, and by the 4th century had become the domi nant religion within the Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, with Christians also being a religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, through missionary work and colonization, Christianity spread to the Americas and the rest of the world.

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20 As of the early 21st century, Christianity has be tween 1.5 billion and 2.1 billion adherents, represent ing about a quarter to a third of the worlds population and is the worlds largest religion. In addition, Christi anity, is the state religion of several countries. Christian foundation The Bible is the central religious text of Christianity. The Christian Bible includes both the Old Testament and a collection of newer canonical books known as the New Testament. The word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin, as used in the phrase biblia sacra (holy book). The bible is the holy book for Christianity and narrates the story of men and God from the beginning to the end of times and it is where the foundation for Christianity lays.

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21 What is the church? The word church comes from the greek ekklesia which means assembly, for Christianity it means to all that believe in Jesus. Matthew 16:18 And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church Acts 8:3 But Saul began to destroy the church. Go ing from house to house, he dragged off men and women and put them in prison Acts 16:5 So the churches were strengthened in the faith and grew daily in numbers Romans 16:5 Greet also the church that meets at their house when you come together as a church

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22 Ephesians 5:23 For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Savior Colossians 4:15 Give my greetings to the brothers at Laodicea, and to Nympha and the church in her house Philemon 1:2 To Philemon our dear friend and fel low worker, to Apphia our sister, to Archippus our fellow soldier and to the church that meets in your home word church it can be concluded that a church is not a building but a group of people that believe in Jesus, meet or congregate and make a whole unity. It is also under stood that the church exists in two levels Local and uni versal. The local church is the group of believers that are

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23 located in a close proximity and congregate locally; The universal church is the group of believers around the world. Why is the church necessary? Hebrews 10:25 Let us not give up meeting togeth er, as some are in the habit of doing, but let us en courage one anotherand all the more as you see the Day approaching Romans 12:10 Be devoted to one another in brother ly love. Honor one another above yourselves Romans 15:7 Accept one another, then, just as Christ accepted you, in order to bring praise to God 1 Corinthians 12:25 so that there should be no division in the body, but that its parts should have equal concern for each other

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24 Colossians 3:13 Bear with each other and forgive whatever grievances you may have against one an other. Forgive as the Lord forgave you Ephesians 4:32 Be kind and compassionate to one another, forgiving each other, just as in Christ God forgave you 1 Corinthians 12:4-7 There are different kinds of gifts, but the same Spirit. There are different kinds of service, but the same Lord. There are different kinds of working, but the same God works all of them in all men. Now to each one the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the common good The need for a church is very important, a church will give its members a sense of belonging, of being in volved with other believers, spiritual safety, it can teach its members things that they would not learn alone.

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25 A church united is a church. When their members do not congregate there is simply no church, that is why is so important to have a place where people can come together as one and become a church. A place for meeting will facilitate the church to be, an it will make easier for its members to follow what is commanded as a whole. Members need each other. God has given different abilities to different believers, and he wants us to work together for the common good. as mentioned different members have different gifts from God, if these people do not interact with each other the church will not work. It is very important that this space facilitate unity so the church can act as one.

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26 Description of the church 1 Corinthians 3:9 For we are Gods fellow workers; Ephesians 2:22 And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit 1 Corinthians 3:17 If anyone destroys Gods tem ple, God will destroy him; for Gods temple is sacred, and you are that temple 1 Corinthians 6:19 Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own In these scriptures it is clear that the people are the building in which God Dwells, The church is the temple of

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27 God. And even though he can be worshiped anywhere it is necessary for the church to worship as one Church as a body 1 Corinthians 12:27 Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it Colossians 1:18 And he is the head of the body, the church 1 Corinthians 12:21 The eye cannot say to the hand, I dont need you! And the head cannot say to the feet, I dont need you! John 17:21 that all of them may be one, Father, just as you are in me and I am in you The Church is supposed to be united. Is an entity that depends on each other. It is understandable that not

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28 all the members of a church are the same but they have to have a common purpose. By understanding that a in church all people are not the same but they need each other and depend on each other it can be said that this congregation needs a space in which they feel as a whole and can bring unity and under stand that they need each other. Purpose of the Church: 1 Corinthians 10:31 So whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God As seen in the previous verses the purpose of the church is to bring glory to God through everything is done in by the church. The church brings glory to God by every

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29 thing they do and a large part of it is worship as mentioned in the verses. What is worship? 1 Peter 2:9 But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people belonging to God, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light John 4:23 Yet a time is coming and has now come when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for they are the kind of worshipers the Father seeks Hebrews 13:15 Through Jesus, therefore, let us fruit of lips that confess his name Psalm 95: come, let us sing for joy to the LORD; let

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30 us shout aloud to the Rock of our salvation. Let us come before him with thanksgiving and extol him with music and song..... Come, let us bow down in worship, let us kneel before the LORD our Maker John 4:20 Our fathers worshiped on this mountain, but you Jews claim that the place where we must worship is in Jerusalem. Jesus declared, Believe me, woman, a time is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusa lem. You Samaritans worship what you do not know; we worship what we do know, for salvation is from the Jews. Yet a time is coming and has now come when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for they are the kind of worshipers the Father seeks. God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in spirit and in truth.

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31 Worship is a the way the church bring glory to God, Worship is manifested in various levels, Spiritually and physically. God is spirit so the church needs to worship in spirit, once spiritual worship happens physical manifesta tions start to occur as mentioned. Praying, singing, danc ing, kneeling, bowing down, gather in his name, listen and learn his word are those physical manifestations of wor shiping these passages it also talks about when, where, who or what and how to worship. The church is supposed to worship always, wherever they are, they are to worship God Thru Jesus in spirit and truth since God is spirit he ex pects his church to do it in spirit. The church Temple This is what the LORD says: Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool. Where is the house

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32 you will build for me? Where will my resting place be? Has not my hand made all these things, and so they came into being? 1 Kings 8:26 But will God really dwell on earth? The heavens, even the highest heaven, cannot contain you. How much less this temple I have built Acts 7:48 However, the Most High does not live in houses made by men Revelation 21:3 Now the dwelling of God is with men, and he will live with them, they will be his people, and God himself will be with them and be their God Temple is used to describe the place where God dwells, Does God Need a temple? It is said that He does not inhabit temples of buildings made by men and even if we were to build one for him it says that not even the uni

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33 verse can contain him. It can be concluded that God does not need a temple. However, if God does need a temple why do we even build buildings in the name of God? As it can As it can be seen the purpose of the church is to bring glory to God, be united and act as a whole. Therefore, it is not God who needs a temple but it is men who need it. The Church is the temple of God and he dwells in them and the physical building is the one that houses the church so it can be united and act as one. God and Architecture: Job 38: Where were you when I laid the earths foundation? Tell me, if you understand. Who marked off its dimensions? Surely you know! Who stretched a measuring line across it? On what were its footings

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34 for it and set its doors and bars in place Hebrews 11:10 For he was looking forward to the city with foundations, whose architect and builder is God Architecture is an spiritual art that is close to God, there is a relationship mentioned in the bible. How impor tant is architecture for God? And what role does it play in Gods realm? Are questions to ask before designing a facil ity for him. Conclusion As a conclusion it can be said that the church is the people who believe in God Through Christ whose philo sophical base is the bible. It is necessary for this group

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35 of people to congregate and be united as one with the purpose of giving glory to God and growing in their belief through spiritual and physical manifestations of worship in a spatial temple. Architecture in a sacred sense This masters thesis project can be designed with a philo understand what you are to design. This Masters Thesis project attempts to design a temple or place for the church people of God that can facilitate all the activities that God wants for their people to do when they come together as one. This place or temple will acknowledge and understand the function in its con

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36 text. This temple to be designed will attempt to remedy todays misunderstanding and erroneous preconceptions of the church architecture on a large scale. It will focus on God as the driver of the church and trough architectural structure, symbolism, spaces, moments and poetics will in form the church that it is not about the individual but about the body of Christ. This masters Thesis project intends to use a biblical base for all its architectural approaches in all levels. Archi tectural design will plays key role in all this. If a place of for God and his people is to be designed the architecture must understand and acknowledge it role within the con text. Architecture is the building and space that will house the church so they can be united and facilitate its religious purpose.

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37 A Sacred Pattern A diagram was developed after researching all top ics and words related to sacred in a biblical sense in or church and its purpose and architecture. A possible pattern is found and can be applied to architecture as seen in the following diagrams. Figure 6 Sacred pattern diagram.

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38 Figure 8 A path to sacred architecture. Figure 7 A path to sacred architecture.

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39 5. CASE STUDIES Crystal Cathedral Focusing on the religious function of the building, architect Phillip Johnson (1906-2005) with the collabora tion of partner John Burgee were appointed to design the Crystal cathedral (Garden drove community church in Gar frame structure with seating capacity of two thousand nine hundreds users. The religious function of the building is signaled by a stalagmite like spire (Rybczynski. 2005). Johnson and his partner, John Burgee, included several re Figure 9 Crystal Cathedral Interior view.

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40 theatrically open to reveal the sky, the transparency and vast scale of the glass and space frame structure evokes the feeling of awe, the design of seating with users facing each other side by side attempts to remind the worshipers of the human manifestation of the body of Christ and con nect with the idea of God in our midst (turgeson 2007) tual sense reminds the user of the idea of that the church The conceptual ideas from Crystal cathedral will serve as a guide to motivate this thesis to resolve some of the critical aspects that the Megachurch congrega tions are facing today such as focusing in religious in stead entertainment by: utilizing religious cues which will drive the design scheme; understanding of hu man scale in context to a church setting, and struc

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41 tural explorations and its relationship to the user. Church on the water Another approach concerning the idea of sacred space is employed by the Japanese architect Tadao Ando 1985 and 1988, the church faces a large pond that steps down in towards the small river. At the high end of the pond is the building, the shape of which is a pair of overlapping cubes. The larger one faces the pond directly serving as the chapel which is connected to the smaller cube entrance by a semi-circular, spiral stairway. At last, an L-shaped wall runs alongside the south and east of the pond-building, the guests enters the church by rounding the wall at the north ern end. As the user enters, four large, concrete crosses set inside the glass cube direct the view upwards. Going Figure 10 Church on the water view from seating area.

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42 up and around the brightly lit crosses, the path then leads down the dark spiral stairway the chapel below. Once visi tors enter the chapel space, they are confronted with a view of the pond. A steel cross placed in the middle of the water, and the entire view is framed by the open face of the chapel has only three concrete walls. The fourth wall is a made out of glass which can slide open (Drew, 1996). space by making the entry a religious experience; in addi can immediately see a full view of the church, which is not visible at any other point along the outside path. The con ceptual ideas from church on the water such as Metaphori cal spatial techniques, proper use of natural light, and un derstanding of relationship between building and user are

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43 some of the conceptual design approaches taken in con sideration for the development of this thesis project. Lakewood Church and Willow Creek Church A different approach considering the idea of pro grammatic function and technological requirements are found on Lakewood church located in Texas and Willow Creek church located on South Barrington Illinois. Lakewood church in Houston Texas designed by Morris Architects of Houston, formally the Compact cen ter a converted sports arena is a 16.000 seat sanctuary and it is the largest nondenominational church. It has padded theater seats instead of wooden pews, a stage instead of an altar, and video projection screens instead Figure 11 Lakewood church rendering.

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44 of stained-glass windows. Hardly a classic place of wor ship, although the expansive expression of religious com munity in this vast space is as impressive, in its way, as any soaring medieval nave (Rybczynski. 2005). Social issue The desire of congregations to make their place of worship a part of everyday life rather than a place apart is admirable (Rybczynski. 2005). However, ac architectural alternatives. Just putting up a sign and a foun tain is not enough. Within the process of developing a new Megachurch solution, this thesis project would employ the Understanding of programmatic and technological needs of the project; Also, will deal with social understanding of the users in a contextual manner; As well as the architectural ges tures that will deal with todays issues of Megachurch design. Simultaneously, Willow Creek Church in the Chi

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45 cago suburb of South Barrington demonstrates the pro grammatic functions needed by a congregation. The sprawling complex, on an attractively land scaped 155 acre site, includes not only two sanctuaries but also a gymnasium that serves as an activity center, a bookstore, a food court, and a cappuccino bar (Rybczyn ski. 2005). It also pays attention to technological infra scanner, which quickly checks them into Willow Creek for Sunday school. Nearby, parents swipe ID cards through digital card-readers to check in the younger kids. Beyond the high-tech check-in lies a church that is as wired as any business in the country large video screens.. They still pass the collection plate but they also accept automatic bank drafts. worshippers use the in-house Wi-Fi network to call up Bible verses on their laptops (Rybczynski. 2005). Figure 12 Willow creek church worship space.

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46 However it brings a critical design issue Willow Creek appears to have good sightliness, excellent audio visual facilities, and comfortably wide aisles for moving around in. But inspiring its not. (Rybczynski. 2005). This thesis project will pay strict attention to how to incorporate technology and programmatic functions without loosing fo cus on sacred space. Padre Pio Pilgrimage Church Renzo Piano Located in San Giovanni Rotondo (Foggia), Italy and owned by (Provincia dei Frati Minori Cappuccini di Foggia) designed between 1991 and 2004. This case study was analyzed in various levels. Figure 13 Padre pio pilgrimage church view.

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47 Light: in the main worship space light is treated a a heavenly scenario. Light drama occurs as the sectional level changes and the pilgrim descends to a lower level, materiality is used to defuse light, at the entrance diffused light is used. By having a change of light so drastic the user understands that there is a different space. Sacred space according to the architect is a combination of dark and bight spacial experiences. The more intimate the space the are more intimate and darker. Materiality: stone from a local source resembles the sacredness of the structure by focusing on the beauty of the plan material. A paved piazza with local stone, wood roof resembles lightness and gives humanity to building, steel Figure 14 Padre pio pilgrimage church Interior view.

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48 struts are used lightly and carefully to not overpower the roof, stained glass evokes an archaic feeling and related to old or traditional church style, water elements and nature is incorporated and used as fabric for the building Structure: arches are used as a symbol of basic con struction techniques used in the past with new construction methods and technology. The plan: a central plan is used as a method of hav ing people as closed to the altar as possible., The central parti gives importance and hierarchy to the spaces. The approach is as important as the inside spaces, it is a pro cession in which one can utilize to tell a story. Figure 15 Padre pio pilgrimage church Chapels. Figure 16 Padre pio pilgrimage church Floor plan.

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49 Our Lady Of The Angels Rafael Moneo Located in Los Angeles and designed by Rafael Mo neo architect the new church is home to the nations larg dral to be built in America in three decades. Light: the light of the church can be analyzed with a photo philter, as a result the light that comes from the tion, this evokes a sacred feeling that light is coming from the sky and captured inside the space. Materiality: poured and polished concrete is vastly used in this project, its gives the feeling of power and emp tiness, also note that the construction methods are revealed Figure 17 Our lady of Los Angeles Exterior View. Figure 18 Our lady of Los Angeles Interior View.

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50 in the concrete work. Light landscape is introduced, the water element is not introduced, steel and glass is vastly used, it gives a cold feeling, the materials used combined with the scale tells the user something sacred or special about this place. Minimum detail in the materials used, no symbols or banners are used, the scale is more vertical than horizontal emphasizing the light through materiality. Structure: a heavy poured monolithic concrete structure is used. The facade is broken down by separation of poured phases to celebrate the methods of construction. As seen in the analysis of the image the building fenestra tions are minimal. However, they are carefully developed, and oriented to capture the majority of the light and use it to evoke dramatic moments. Figure 19 Our lady of Los Angeles Public space.

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51 The plan: a linear plan is used. The hierarchy is stabilized by the length of the path and the focal point in the nave. This approach is more traditional as seen in the Gothic or romanesque church period. However the ap proach is different, it is a procession, the user has to travel space being the altar where the majority of the light drama occurs. Figure 20 Our lady of Los Angeles Floor plan.

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52 6. Program The building program is based in the idea of a sacred path into architecture as explained in the hypothesis chap ter. It is broken down into three parts. The approach area it is where the parking facility, a bridge and a public plaza link and welcome all the members or users into the facility. Then there is the main worship space which seats 5000. People and provides an entrance hall, room for dancing; in a choir area, a pulpit or altar where the preacher delivers the word of God and an empty space which symbolizes the presence of God. Further into the complex there is the transforma tion areas, praying gardens and a baptism area.

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53 Next to the transformation area is the teaching area. In this part of the program seminar rooms, lecture found. Another part of the program is the interactive area which is where the church gives back to the community, one part of it is placed facing the river walk and it is where a coffee shop and a bookstore is placed. Also there is the park setting placed around the complex which is where the community can enjoy a natural park setting with walking trails where nature and landscape is the main focus. The last part of the program is the support area where mechanical areas are located and also rest rooms and storage. As seen in the early sketches bubble diagrams were created to create relationships between spaces.

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54 Even though the project is not designed yet at this point it is important that this masters thesis projects crates direct relationship between the spaces or programs with the notion of a sacred path into architecture, Facilitating the church the path towards an encounter with God. Square footages are based upon Building codes all the functions as seen in the square footage allowance table. Recommended Footage allowances Functional Area Minimum Ideal Sanctuary/Ministering Center and related rooms 10 sf. 15 f. Foyer, Toilets, Ushers Room, Storage 3 sf. 5 sf. Choir Practice (per person in choir) 7 sf. 10sf. Education (see Education Section): Adult (if in sanctuary) (other areas) 10 sf. 15 sf. Children: infant to school age 30 sf. 35 sf. School age 25 sf. 30 sf. Teens 20 sf. 25 sf. Corridors/storage/toilets for education space 6 sf. 12 sf Administration Total Sq. Ft. Secretarial/workroom 100-250 each Library and Board Room 150-300 Storage, corridors, toilets are additional-allow approximately 10 to 15 per cent of the above total. Figure 21 Recommended square footage allowances.

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55 7. SITE Possible Sites There are three possible sites for the Masters the sis project. To be able to choose the right location for this project, three major criteria had to be met. First, it had to be on an urban setting; second, the site had to be close to a large program. An urban setting was chosen as a major criteria to select a site. Since, the majority of Megachurches are lo cated in a suburban context, by choosing to develop this masters thesis project in and urban area one can see that a project of this magnitude can also be developed in a non

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56 conventional manner. Proximity to the water was a major part of site selec tion, The role in symbolism that water plays in religion and in architecture is really important. In Christianity, water symbolizes baptism which is the second birth of a person in mind and soul; It also represents cleansing and purity. In architecture, water is used as an element that represents nature and spirituality. Because of the religious and archi tectural meaning of water a site that was near water was an important criteria to base site selection. Finally the size of the site and the capability to con tain a large program was another criteria the be ruled by. Since Megachurches are congregations that house from derstand the size of the program and its requirements in

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57 order to be able to choose the right site for this Masters Thesis project. Ybor City The First option to consider was Ybor city Located in Tampa, Florida, United States. It is a historic neighbor hood in Tampa, Florida located just northeast of downtown. It was founded in the 1880s by cigar manufacturers and was populated by thousands of immigrants, mainly from Spain, Cuba, and Italy. For the next 50 years, workers in Ybor Citys cigar factories would roll millions of cigars an nually. The neighborhood had features unique among con temporary immigrant communities in the southern Unit Figure 22 Ybor city location on map.

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58 ed States, most notably its multi-ethnic and multi-racial population. A slow exodus out of the area accelerated af ter World War II, leading to a period of abandonment and decay. After decades of neglect, a portion of the original neighborhood was redeveloped into a popular night club Hillsborough Community College is located there as well, HCC Ybor. The neighborhood has been designated as a National Historic Landmark District, and several structures in the area are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. In 2008, 7th Avenue, the main commercial thoroughfare in Ybor City, was recognized as one of the Great Streets in America by the American Planning Association. (Wikipedia). The advantages of choosing Ybor city as a Site to Figure 23 Ybor city boundaries.

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59 utilize for this Masters Thesis Project are: its urban loca tion, its historical importance within the united states, the recognition and popularity within the Tampa bay area and the proximity to key locations such as downtown Tampa, the Channelside District and highways I275 and I4. The Disadvantages of this site are: The lack of space for building a large facility such as a Megachurch, The ab sence of water bodies. By not meeting two of the three criteria that were established to be able to select a site Ybor city was no lon ger eligible to develop this masters Thesis Project. Channelside District The character of the Channel District, from its begin Figure 24 Ybor city location on Tampa.

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60 nings over 75 years ago, was maritime related; a hard working, industrial and commercial area, developed to serve the Port of Tampa, and the private shipping interests which gave Tampa its earliest reputation. Until the mid1970s, when the commercial use of containerized shipping displaced general cargo shipping in Tampa, the District, known over the years as the Estuary, La Draga, and the Ybor Channel area, was home to ships chandlers, shipping companies, bonded warehouses and thousands of long shoremen loading and unloading general cargo ships. The late 1970s and 1980s were a period of de cline and transition for the area, lagging behind rede velopment efforts in Downtown and Ybor City. It was a time when property ownership struggled to keep ten ants in buildings and property values dropped. During that period, the larger property owners in the area, in Figure 25 Channelside District CRA.

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61 cluding the Gulf Florida Terminal Company, the Tampa Port Authority, Anthony Distributors, Inc., The Coca Cola Bottling Company, and Bonanni Ship Supply formed the Ybor Channel Redevelopment Association, which promot ed and positioned the area for eventual redevelopment A key turning point for the area was the decision by the Tampa Port Authority to acquire waterfront prop erty on Garrison and Ybor Channels in the mid 1980s, and develop an ambitious master plan for the propertys redevelopment. The original master plan was never con structed. However, it was revisited in the early 1990s, and has evolved today into Garrison Seaport. (City of Tampa) The advantages of the Channelside district to be uti lized as a potential site for this masters thesis project are: The abundant presence of water bodies, the proximity to Figure 26 Downtown Tampa Boundaries.

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62 key places in the Tampa bay area, the popularity of the site within the inhabitants of the city of Tampa and its sur roundings, the urban setting in which this district is located. The disadvantages of this site as a possible location for this project are: The lack of space for a large program needed. After studying the site and seeing that it does not meet all the criteria earlier established for a possible site it is concluded that it can not be utilized for this Masters Thesis project. Downtown Tampa Tampa Bay area in 1513, but the Spaniards focused their Figure 27 Downtown Tampa Context plan.

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63 attention on settling eastern Florida and left the western areas alone. In 1824, only two months after the arrival of established Fort Brooke to protect the strategic harbor at Tampa Bay. Development of the Tampa Bay region began after the territory became part of the United States in 1845. In spite of the blockade and Federal occupation during the Civil War, the area grew steadily. Henry B. Plants 1884 railroad extension to the Hillsborough River provided ac cess to new areas, and he built lavish hotels along his rail line to attract visitors. Tampa owes its commercial success to Tampa Bay and the Hillsborough River. When phosphates were dis covered nearby in the late 1880s, the resulting mining and Figure 28 Downtown Tampa Surrounding Neighborhoods.

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64 shipping industries prompted a boom of growth and wealth that lasted through the 1890s. Tampas port is now the seventh largest in the nation. The main Tampa downtown business district has grown phenomenally since the 1960s. Major banks and an increasing number of other corporations occupy large glass, steel and concrete buildings that tower high above the bay. The Tampa Convention Center, over looking the Hillsborough River, offers meeting facilities Thus Tampa has evolved into a multi-cultural, di verse business center with sustainable communities for its citizens. People of all ages arrive here to es cape the worries and winters of wherever they came from, and an increasing number of them stay. Figure 29 Downtown Tampa Surrounding Neighborhoods.

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65 Its locations boundaries are: on the west, the Hills borough river; on the east Nebraska avenue; on the north, highway I275; and on the south, two blocks down of Ken nedy boulevard. Downtown Tampa seems to be the most convenient choice for a site proposal for this masters thesis project, because of its rich history, geographical placement on the map, its urban setting, its proximity to a large body of wa ter and its availability of land that can hold a large archi tectural program. Now that the thesis has narrowed down to an specif ic city and district. Final site has to be placed and selected judging by the preestablished criteria (water proximity, ur ban setting and capacity to hold a large architectural pro gram) in order to be constant and successful. Figure 30 Downtown Tampa skyline.

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66 Selected site By visiting the downtown Tampa area and analyzing aerial pictures it is three possible locations were identi Site three as seen on the aerial picture was located on the south east. Its boundaries are: on the north, John F Kennedy blvd; on the south, west keller st; on the east, S. Plant avenue; on the west; the Hillsborough river. Has direct access to the river and provides an urban setting, the accommodation for the program needed for this proj ect. Site two is located on the northeast of downtown Tampa. Its boundaries are: on the north, west laurel st; Figure 31 Possible sites in Downtown Tampa.

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67 on the south, west fortune st; on the east, north Ashley drive; on the west; Hillsborough river. Site two meets all the preestablished criteria; however, existing infrastruc ture divides the site and blocks the direct access to the Hillsborough river. Site three is currently Julian B. lane Riverfront park. The boundaries are: on the north, highway I275; on the south; University of Tampa; on the east, Hillsborough riv er; on the west, north boulevard. This site meets all the criteria previously preestablished. Because of this reasons this site was selected to be further studied and further de velop this Masters Thesis Project. ect is going to be developed, further data gathering and considerations need to be studied. Site analysis has to be OLD T AMP ABA Y HILLSBOROUGH BA Y McKA Y BA Y YAWSSERPXE22ND ST .M. L. KING BL VD. SKIPPER RD. BEARSS A RMENIA A VE. NEBRASKA A VE. BOULEV ARD NOR TH SW ANN A VE. EUCLID A VE. BLOOMINGDALE BL VD.BL V D.BA Y SH ORECARROL LAKE MAGDALENE LAKECR OSS T O W N RIVE RHILL S BO ROUGHSLIGH A VE. 50TH ST .R D .BRIDGEMORRISR D .H ARNEY56TH ST EISENHOWER BL VD. DALE MABR Y HWY 30TH ST HWY .G UNNST 40THLINEBAUGH A VE. FOWLER A VE FLETCHER A VE.15TH ST .BUSCH BL VD. W A TERS A VE.MACDILL A VE. BR IDGE H O W AR D -FR A N KLAN DG A ND Y B R ID G EIN TER BA Y BL V D.DALE MABR Y HWY MANHA TT AN A VE. WEST SHORE BL VD.GANDY BL VD. SPRUCE KENNEDY BL VD. HILLSBOROUGH A VE. COLUMBUS DR. A DAMO DR. FRANK CAUSEW A Y BL VD.34TH ST HIMES A VE.26TH A VE.37TH ST ROME A VE.SAN JOSE ST BA Y A VE. EVERETT ST .S T .BR UCE B D OW N S BL VD. 60 TEMPLE TERRACE 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 9 10 1 1 15 16 17 18 33 34 35 36 28 27. 26 25 21 22 23 24 16 15 14 13 12 1 1 2 1 6 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18. 23 22 21 20 19 28 29 30 33 32 31 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 15 16 17 18 22 21 20 19 27 28 29 30 33 32 31 31 32 18 17 14 13 12 1 1 10 9 8 5 4 25 24 32 33 34 35 36 27 26 25 22 23 24 14 13 12 1 1 32 33 34 35 36 29 28 27 26 25 19 20 21 22 23 24 18. 17 16 15 14 13 12 1 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 1 1 14 15 16 17 18 20 19CC-15 CC-16 CC-17 CC-18 DD-15 DD-16 DD-17 DD-18 EE-15 EE-16 EE-17 EE-18 EE-19 EE-20 EE-21 EE-22 FF-17 FF-18 GG-17 GG-18 FF-21 FF-22 GG-21 GG-22 FF-23 GG-23 GG-24 F-8 F-9 F-10 F-1 1 F-12 F-13 F-14 F-15 F-7 G-8 G-9 G-10 G-1 1 G-12 G-13 G-14 G-15 G-7 H-8 H-9 H-10 H-1 1 H-12 H-13 H-14 H-15 H-7 I-8 I-9 I-10 I-1 1 I-12 I-13 I-14 I-15 I-7 G-6 G-16 G-17 G-18 H-16 H-17 H-18 I-16 I-17 H-5 H-6 G-4 G-5 J-8 J-9 J-10 J-1 1 I-12 J-12 J-13 J-14 J-15 K-8 K-9 K-10 K-1 1 K-12 K-13 K-14 K-15 L-13 L-8 L-9 L-10M-8M-9 M-10 M-1 1M-7 N-8N-9 N-10 N-1 1N-7 O-8 O-7 O-6 P-6 T AMP A INTERNA TIONAL AIRPOR T MACDILL AIR FORCE BASET 31 S T 30 S T 29 S T 28 S T 27 S T 26 S T 31 S T 30 S T 29 S T 28 S T 27 S T 26 S R 19 E R 20 E R 21 E R 18 E R 17 E R 19 E R 20 E R 21 E R 18 E R 17 E E-1 E-2 F-2 F-3 G-2 G-3 H-1 H-2 E-8 E-9 E-10 E-1 1 E-12 E-13 E-14 E-15 D-10 D-1 1 D-12 D-13 D-14 D-15 D-16 C-10 C-1 1 C-12 C-13 C-14 C-15 C-16 B-1 1 B-12 B-13 B-14 B-15 B-16 A-1 1 A-12 A-13 A-14 A-15 A-16 AA-15 AA-16 AA-17 AA-18 BB-15 BB-16 BB-17 BB-18 M ASCOTTE Land Development Coordination 306 East Jackson Street, 3E T ampa, FL 33602 813-274-8403 www .tampagov .net/ldc City of T ampaSection T ownship Range/Atlas Sheet Grid for Zoning Maps Disclaimer: The City of T ampa, Florida does not guarantee that the zoning maps are free from any errors or inaccuracies. We have done our best to ensure that the information contained within these electronic files is accurate. However the City of T ampa, Florida disclaims any responsibility or liability for interpretations from generated maps or decisions based thereon. The City of T ampa, Florida presents the zoning information contained on this webpage as a service to the public. The generated maps as contained on this web site are subject to revision and interpretation as permitted by City of T ampa Code, Chapter 27. Prior to making any decision or taking any action based on the information contained on these maps or for specific information regarding land use regulations on a piece of property it is highly recommended that you contact one of the City's planners, with the Land Development Coordination Division at 813-274-8403, for the latest and most up to date zoning information. Based on various zoning request, maps contained on this page are updated and re-published monthly on this website.Section Numbers Ar e Shown in Red Atlas Page Numbers Ar e Shown in Gr een 92 92 92 41BR 41 Figure 32 Tampa Zoning map.

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68 performed in order to understand and to provide solutions for this thesis. Site Data. Zoning: CBD-1 The purpose of the CBD district is to implement the goals of the Tampa Central Business District Land Use Pol icy Plan, a component of the comprehensive plan for the city. It is also the purpose of the central business district regulations to guide development design to establish the desired character of development for each of the twelve policy plan. The central business district consists of the fol lowing two (2) zoning subdistricts: SCHEDULE OF PERMITTED PRINCIPAL, ACCESSORY AND SPECIAL USES X = Permitted principal use S1 = Special useZoning administrator review S2 = Special use--City council review A = Permitted accessory use Zoning Subdistrict Use CBD-1 CBD-2 Use Group A Adaptive reuse X X Congregate living facility: Large group care facility X X Correctional facility X Dwelling, multiple-family X X Home occupation S1 S1 Private pleasure craft S2 S2 Use Group B. Accessory use to a A A Permitted principal Group B. Use Church X X Clinic X X Club X X College X X Day care and nursery X X Hospital and associated uses X X Hotels and motels X X Public cultural facility X X Schools: business, X X Vocational and trade Figure 33 Schedule of permitted principal, accessory and special uses.

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69 CBD-1 This zoning subdistrict is appropriate for CBD projects in areas with lowto midrise structures. 1 Property located within the waterfront over lay district shall have a building/structure setback of twenty-three feet from the waters edge, as mea sured from the waterside face of the bulkhead. cant natural, historic or architectural resources in proxim ity to the project. Examples of ways to achieve compat ibility include design features such as height-to-setback ratios or stepped or graduated building faces. 3 All buildings with a height in excess of one SCHEDULE OF PERMITTED PRINCIPAL, ACCESSORY AND SPECIAL USES Use Group C Accessory use to a A A permitted principal Group C use Bank X X Bank, drive-in S1 S1 Bar and lounge X X Catering shop X X Dry cleaning plant, small X X Heliport/helistop X X Interim parking 2,5 Marina X X Professional Off-street parking Principal use S1 1 S1 1 Accessory use A1 A1 Parking, interim S1 S1 Parking, temporary S1 S1 Personal service X X Pharmacy X X Place of assembly X X Place of Religious Assembly X X Printing, light X X Printing and publishing X X Public service facility X X Public use facility X X Radio/TV studio X X Figure 34 Schedule of permitted principal, accessory and special uses.

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70 4 Property zoned CBD-2 with or without a zoning site plan approved by the city council may be developed provided it meets the dimensional regulations of CBD-1. 5 Development is either CBD district that propose redevelopment of an entire city block (excluding water minimum 5 average building setback on all sides. The pur pose of the averaged setback is to accommodate widened, pedestrian-oriented sidewalks and more functional public open space. The area created by the required building set back, may be counted towards the public open space re SCHEDULE OF PERMITTED PRINCIPAL, ACCESSORY AND SPECIAL USES Private or commercial X X Research activity X X Restaurant X X Retail sales, specialty: Shoppers and commercial X X Goods, distilled beverages and gasoline Special event parking2, 4 X X Temporary Film Production6 X X Temporary special events S1 S1 Temporary waterfront S2 S2 Surface parking lot Transportation service S1 S1 Facility Vehicle repair, minor X X SCHEDULE OF DIMENSIONAL REGULATIONS District Lot Required Yards Height FAR Size Front/Side/Rear Area/Width CBD-1 N/A N/A1 120 ft.3 N/A CBD-2 SP/SP4 SP/SP/SP1, 4 SP2, 3, 4 SP4 Figure 35 Schedule of permitted principal, accessory and special uses. Figure 36 Schedule of dimensional regulations.

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71 After analyzing the zoning aspects of the site, a va riety of gis data layers were used to further study the lo cation for the project. By doing this one can see how to approach the project from a macro to a micro scale. First by taking into consideration the contextual situation and further by seeing the relationship of the project to its sur roundings. Figure 37 Site Location. Figure 38 Figure ground.

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72 Figure 39 Parcel Boundaries. Figure 40 Roads. Figure 41 Land use types. Figure 42 Land use.

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73 Figure 43 School locations. Figure 44 Hydrology. Figure 45 Green spaces. Figure 46 Commercial locations.

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74 As part of the initial site analysis a 3-D model of the downtown area was created in order to: understand the scale of the project, study light scenarios at different times of the day, create possible perspectives and under stand how the project will be viewed from different parts of downtown Tampa. Figure 47 3-D model of site. Figure 48 3-D model of site. Figure 49 3-D model of site.

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75 When visiting the site panoramic pictures were tak sborough river, as seen in the picture the site frames the downtown skyline. The second panoramic shows the cur rent condition of the site itself. Figure 50 Panoramic view of site. Figure 51 Panoramic view of site.

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76 8. CONCEPTUAL PROJECT DESIGN As part of the preliminary project design a series of sketches were drawn in order to understand how can the project be placed on the site responding to all surrounding conditions and also to the concept of a sacred pattern into the presence of God. Also Bug models were developed in order to under stand in a large scale how the project is responding in the urban scale and its immediate surroundings. Bubble diagrams were created in order to under stand and link the conceptual approach and the possible architectural response to the problem. Possible perspec tives were created in order to understand scale. Figure 52 Pre conceptual parti sketches.

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77 Figure 53 Conceptual diagramming.

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78 In The conceptual Diagraming phase the relation ship between the program, concept and form starts to be evolved. Sectional qualities and plan coordination starts to be analyzed by overlaying the concept of sacred architec tural pattern with the design elements. Parti studies are done in a sketch format in order to look for the best pos sible solution taking into consideration all the design as pects. Figure 54 Conceptual diagramming. Figure 55 Conceptual perspective study.

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79 In this more developed schematic sketch a clear parti is show responding to the river angle. A clear separa tion between public and private space is shown. The place ment of the program starts to be analyzed an more clear as scale is applied to the sketch and proportions by also looking at it in section. The programmatic functions start to relate and respond to the site a sacred path to architec ture is starting to be overlaid with program spaces and site context. Figure 56 Conceptual parti and program.

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80 9. FINAL DESIGN Diagrams After the conceptual design phase, the concept be came more clear. As a result of that a series of diagrams were developed in order to understand the sacred pattern of coming into the presence of God and to better under stand the project. The approach diagram includes three major parts of the architectural program The Bridge, The River walk and The parking. The bridge connects the east side of Down town Tampa to the west side; The River walk includes a small marina, a coffee shop and a bookstore and the grand massive stairs that connects the river walk level to the Figure 57 Approach Diagram.

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81 es that the majority of users will be using their automobiles to approach the temple. The Unity diagram responds to the necessity of hav ing a public plaza to facilitate the interaction of church members before coming into the main temple. This plaza includes the use of a circular trellis accompanied by water and hardscape. The cleansing diagram shows that when the church passes through the public plaza and enters the temple they are being cleansed metaphorically speaking by the use of water that surrounds the temple. The use of water in this part of the project represents the baptism in which the church goes through when they enter the temple and are submerged in a change of level. Figure 58 Unity Diagram. Figure 59 Cleansing Diagram.

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82 people this is where the church is seated and receive the word of God. When the church enters the temple, they go through a level change by going doing in a ramp that takes them from the entrance and circles all the way down to the central space in which the presence of God is represented by light, water and an empty space. The presence of God diagram show that it is the cen tral space in which all the project moves around, The entire project is focused in this area. The presence of God is rep resented by a void empty space in which the user can only up with a light port on top which is the main source of light for the entire temple; As in the bible God is said to be the light of the wold, the fountain of living water and the invis ible but omnipresent one. Figure 61 Presence of God Diagram.

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83 The praying diagram shows the location of the pray ing gardens which are a contoured landscape, full of foli age and water space in which people can go to pray and be baptized. This area is heavily landscape with the purpose of creating a boundary from the street noise and views and to isolate this space to have a closer relationship to nature since According to the bible Gods presence and existence in undeniable in his works being all nature. The equipping the saints diagram shows the loca tion of the school and chapeaus. To the top of the diagram diagrams the chapels are found which function as multi purpose rooms where members go to be equipped, mean ing go to learn in depth about the word of God also smaller activities can be accommodated. Figure 62 Praying Diagram. Figure 63 Equipping the Saints Diagram.

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84 The reaching out diagram shows the location of the river walk development. This is how the church interacts with people by providing a bookstore, a coffee shop and a marina that faces the Hillsborough river the river walk is developed by having water features stone paved walkways and shaded areas. In this level is were the interaction of the church and the world occurs. Plans The architectural plans show the relationship be tween spaces and spatial organization. The site plan shows the context in which the project is situated. The ground and plaza plans show explain the level change be tween spaces; And the sanctuary plans illustrate the or ganization and seating arrangement for the users. Figure 64 Reaching out diagram.

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85 Figure 65 Site plan.

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86 Figure 66 Ground Plan.

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87 Figure 67 Plaza Plan.

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88 Figure 68 Sanctuary Plan.

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89 Figure 69 Sanctuary Plan.

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90 Sections Three sections were developed (one longitudinal and two cross sections) in order to understand relation ship between spaces, programmatic functions and height changes. Figure 70 Longitudinal section.

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91 Figure 71 Cross section. Figure 72 Cross section.

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92 Elevations Three sections were developed (east, west and south) in order to understand how the facade is articulated and how the scale of the project affect the surrounding structures. Figure 73 East elevation.

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93 Figure 74 West elevation. Figure 75 South elevation.

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94 Figure 76 Approach from river rendering. Renderings

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95 Figure 77 View from river rendering.

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96 Figure 78 River walk rendering.

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97 Figure 79 Main plaza rendering.

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98 Figure 80 Main plaza rendering.

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99 Figure 81 View from parking rendering.

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100 Figure 82 School rendering.

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101 Figure 83 Praying rooms rendering.

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102 Figure 84 Chapels rendering.

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103 Figure 85 Temple rendering.

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104 Figure 86 Temple entrance rendering.

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105 Figure 87 Temple inside rendering.

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106 Figure 88 Temple inside rendering.

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107 Figure 89 Temple inside rendering.

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108 Final Model Figure 90 Final model picture.

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109 Figure 91 Final model picture.

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110 Figure 92 Final model picture.

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111 Final Section Model Figure 93 Final section model picture.

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112 Figure 94 Final section model picture.

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113 Figure 95 Final section model picture.

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114 10. CONCLUSION In conclusion a year of research and design ing for large non denominational Christian place of wor ship has been brought to a point of not termination; yet, rather a point of transition. A transition that will hope fully teach me how to explore architecture in new lev els concerning the idea of God and architecture. By attempting to design this temple I made various discoveries when it comes to architecture and its relationship to God and his church. It is a very crucial part of the project to know what are you designing, who are you design ing for and what are the parameters to be design

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115 ing from or what is its measuring standard. In this case a large Christian non denominational tem ple was designed for The church to worship God and to per sonally learn from him. Along my research I came to the real ization that if one is to design for God one needs to understand The bible was where all the design tools came from, the bible that can be translated into architectural terms, I came upon the discovery of a processional pattern of com ing into the presence of God. When one comes into the presence of God there are pattern that the believer follows and as a designer it is critical to embed or include this pat tern into the design of a place of worship for God.

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116 These called sacred pattern of coming into the pres ence of God translated into architecture that I discovered along my research journey are: Coming towards God (ap proach), Gathering in His name (public space), Thank him (approach experience), Exalt Him (Large open space to sing, dance Learn), Because He is Great (frame nature), Admire God (awe feeling in architecture), Corporal and individual worship (common and personal space for worship). When this sacred pattern of coming into the presence of God is included it does not mean that the church will be able to worship God, It only means that as a designer one will facilitate the actions or activities that the church needs in order to worship and bring glory to His name.

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117 WORKS CITED Church of the Light: Tadao Ando. London: Phaidon, 1996. chitectural Research Methods. New York: J. Wiley, 2002. churches 2000 2006 Hartford Seminary, Hartford Institute for Religion Research. Accessed 01 march 2008. http://hirr.hartsem. edu/Megachurch/Megachurches.html London ; New York: Routledge, 2004. majority Indonesia International Herald Tribune. Septem ber 2o 2008. available from http://www.iht.com/articles/re uters/2008/09/20/asia/OUKWD-UK-INDONESIA-CHURCH.php ; Internet; accessed 02 June 2008 Megachurch myths : what we can learn from Americas largest churches / Scott Thumma, Dave Travis Jossey-Bass, San Fran cisco, CA : Phenomena: Their characteristics and cultural context. Retrieved

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118 march 8, 2009 from http://hirr.hartsem.edu/bookshelf/thum ma_article2.html nence: Architecture for worship and ministry today. Calvin Insti tute of Christian Worship liturgical studies series. Grand Rapids, Mich: William. B. Eerdmans Pub. Slate magazine 2005. Accessed 01 march 2008 http://www. slate.com/id/2127615/slideshow/2127739/ retrieved march 08 2009 from http://www.tampagov.net/dept_ economic_and_urban_development/programs_and_services/ Community_redevelopment_areas/Channel_District/History. asp trieved march 08 2009 from http://www.tampagov.net/informa tion_resources/Tampa_history/ 1995 The Gospel of Church Architecture, Revised. The New York Times. (April, 20): B1, B4. (Museum : Humlebk, Denmark). Renzo Piano Building Work shop. Arkitekturens vrksteder. Humlebk, Denmark: Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, 2003. al Poetics. Architecture series. New York, NY: Universe Pub,

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119 2000. New York: Abbeville Press, 2004. Oxford, 1682. Vercelli, Italy: White Star, 2006. Moneo. Milan: Motta, 2009. plete Works. New York: Rizzoli, 2007.


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ABSTRACT: "Megachurches offer a unique way of being religious in modern society; one that fits the social and religious context of many people says Scott Tumma "Beyond Megachurch myths". These Massive congregations of two to fifteen thousand participants occupy an undeniable space in the religious and social landscape. It is not only their massive buildings, locations, activities or television broadcasts that make these churches important. It is the role that they play in changing society (Hartford, 2006)" Architecturally the Megachurch has failed today, it has become a "big box", a well developed building which houses thousands of members and provides them with all the necessary entertainment and functions that are needed; but, has lost its essence. The Megachurch today has lost its focus; it is focused on the function that the building has to offer and has failed to recognize the purpose of the space. By achieving a highly functional space the sacredness of this space has disappeared. This thesis presents an investigation into how to deal with the notion of sacred space in today's Megachurch; it will introduce the sacred biblical pattern of coming into the presence of God trough architecture, it will deal with how to make an extremely massive space into a personal and spiritual. The goal of this thesis is to redesign the Megachurch as a highly efficient building that provides the user with the sense of awe, majesty and reverence that is lost in today's Megachurches. The sacred aspect of this thesis project will be emphasized in the architectural poetics thru the use of symbolism represented in the right use of spatial organization and embedded religious cues; also will be focused on materiality and the archetypes used to express a sacred feeling; Furthermore the study of natural light and structural systems for vast large spaces in a sacred manner will be investigated. The outcome of this project intends to change the negative connotation of the Megachurch today; it intends to teach society that this institution can be a sacred place to worship God and not just a place to be entertained.
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