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Aquatecture: Architectural Adaptation to Rising Sea Levels by Erica Williams A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of T he Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Mark Weston, M.Arch Shannon Bassett, M .Arch.U.D. David Fries, M .S. Date of Approval: November 20 2009 Keywords: Waterhouse, Community, Sustainability, Climate Change, Flood Protection Copyright 200 9, Erica Williams
DEDICATION I want to thank those that Inspire me Motivate me Believe in me This one is for you.
i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLE S iii LIST OF FIGURES iv ABSTRACT vi i CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM 1 MELTING ICE EQUALS RISING WATER 2 Climate Change: A Global Crisis 2 Main Contributio ns to Sea Level Rise 3 CURRENT AND PROJECTED IMPACTS 4 Recent Floo ding Triggered by Climate Change 4 Future Impacts of Climate Change 5 Global Impacts 6 Projected Impacts on Communities 7 Proj ected Sea Levels and the United States 8 9 CHAPTER 2: SOLUTIONS AND GOALS 10 AQUATECTURE: PREPARING FOR SEA LEVEL RISE Devising a Plan: Project Goals 11 Redefining Architecture to Sustain 12 Communities The Solution: Implementing Aquatecture 12 S tep 1: Redefining a Coastal Hom e 12 Step 2: Redefining a Coastal Community 12 Step 3: Redefining a C oastal City 13 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES 14 CASE STUDY: INDIVIDUAL HOUSING UNIT 15 Summary 15 Critique 15 CASE STUDY: ADAPTIVE RE USE 16 Summary 16 Critique 16 CASE STUDY: COMMUNITY ON THE WATER 17 Summary 17 Critique 17 PRECEDENT STUDYl THE NETHERLANDS 18 Adopting Dutch Strategies 18 CHAPTER 4: PROJECT CONCEPT 19 MITIGATE, ADAPT, SUSTAIN 20 Strategies: Mitigate, Adapt, and Sustain 20 Mitigate 20 Adapt 20 Sustain 20 CHAPTER 5: SITE SELECTION AND ANAYLSIS 21 SITE SELECTION PROCESS 22 Site Selection and Risk Management 22 PROJECTED SEA LEVEL IMPACT ON S OUTH FLORIDA 23 Rising Tides: Florida 23 The Effects on Florida 23 Sea Level Rise and South Florida 24 Climate Change Impacts to South Florida 24 THE SITE MIAMI FLORIDA 25 Miami, Florida 25 Risk Management 25 Miami: An Endangered City 25 Sea l evel rise in Miami Dade County On 25 Urban and Natural Resources 25
ii Miami Reside nts: Interview 27 Average Rainfall and Impact 27 Is Miami Prepared for Rising Sea Levels? 28 Prepare for Flooding 28 Stay Informed 28 Aquatecture Opportunities within the Miami 29 Mia mi Beach Context 29 CHAPTER 6: REDEFINING A COASTAL HOME 30 A HOME THAT FLOATS 31 H2 OME 31 Necessity of an Adaptable Home In Existing 31 Communities Mitigation Pr inciples for Living Units 31 Lifted: Rising with the Water 32 CHAPTER 7: REDEFINING A COASTAL COMMUNITY 56 WHEN HOMES CREATE A COMMUNITY 57 Aquatecture Community Development 57 Main Comm unity Goals 57 Alternative Living 57 Adaptability 57 Self Sustain 58 Archetype 58 PROPOSED COMMUNITY LOCATION 59 COMMUNITY ESSENTIALS 63 Incorporating Community Needs 63 AGRICULTURE 64 Farming Methods for an Inundated Environment 64 TRANSPORTATION 65 Trans portation Services: Alternative Mobility 65 The Effects of Alternative Transportation 65 Services AQUACULTURE 66 Aquaculture 66 Mariculture 66 Al ternatives to Controlled Farming 66 DESALINIATION WATER FILTRATION 67 Desalination and Water Filtration 67 Grey Water Filtration Methods 67 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRODUCTION 68 Al ternative Energy Production 68 COMMUNITY PROPOSAL 69 COMMUNITY PHASING DRAWINGS 71 PROPOSED COMMUNITY 79 CHAPTER 8: REDEFINING A COASTAL CITY 95 LIVING IN AN INNUNDATED CITY 97 What Happens to Our City Cores? 97 Adaptive Re Use Strategies 97 CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSION 10 4 EXPLORING WORLD WIDE POSSIBILITIES 104 Conclusion 104 CHAPTER 1 0: REFERENCES 107
iii LIST OF TABL ES Table 1 .1. Increases in Sea Level for over 120 Years 4 Table 1. 2 Holocene Sea Level Increase 4
iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 .1. Polar Bear on Melting Glacier .............................. 2 Figure 1. 2 Satelli te Image of Shrinking Ice Cap Over a Two Decade Span 3 Figure 1. 3 Mother an d Ch ild Making their Way Through 5 Figure 1. 4 Wo rld Regions Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise ....... 6 Figure 1.5. Southeast Asian Family Living in Flood Waters ................................ ................................ ... 7 Figure 1.6. Hurricane Katrina Victims Seeking Refuge 8 Figure 1.7. Tom Agnew Quote Discussing the Severity of Climate Change 9 Figure 2.1. Lifted Conceptual Diagram ................................ 11 Figure 3.1. Floating House on Hollow Concrete Pontoon ..... 15 Figure 3.2. Exterior Material Options 15 ................................ .. 15 Figure 3.3. Hotelier at Sea: Adaptive Re use of an Oil Rig ... 16 Figure 3.4. Adaptable Living Unit D esign .............................. 16 Figure 3.5. Silodam by MVRDV ................................ ............ 17 Figure 3.6. Showing Silodam Site Context ............................ 17 Figure 3.7. Waterstudio NL Waterhouse Architecture ............ 18 Figure 4.1. Aquatecture Concept 20 Figure 4.2. Project Concept Presentation Board ................... 20 Figure 5.1. The Cric hton Risk Triangle ................................ .. 22 Figure 5.2. 100 Year Sea Level Rise Projection ................... 23 Figure 5 .3. South Florida Projected to be Most Vulnerable ... 24 Figure 5.4. Ocean Drive, South Beach Florida ...................... 25 Figure 5.5. Satellite Image of Miami, Flori da (Year 2009) ...... 26 Figure 5.6. Projected Sea Level Impact: Miami (Year 2100) 26 Figure 5.7. Miguel Quesada, Resident of Miami Beach for 25 Years 27 Figure 5.8. Average Rainfall in Miami ................................ ... 27 Figure 5.9. Flooding in Miami after Hurricane Andrew ......... 28 Figu re 5.10. Site Analysis: View of Miami from ............................. North Key Biscayne ................................ ............. 29 Figure 6.1. H20ME Flood Protection Diagram ...................... 31 Figure 6.2. Floating Boat Dock in the Everglades, Florida 32 Figure 6.3. H20ME: Housing Unit Concept ............................ 33 Figure 6.4. Housing Unit Designs ................................ ......... 34 Figure 6.5. One Bedroom Housing Unit Design .................... 35 Figure 6.6. Two Bedroom Housing Unit Design .................... 36 Figure 6.7. Three Bedroom Housing Unit Design 37 Figure 6.8. Row of Waterhouses in Miami Intercoastal Waters ................................ ................................ 38 Figure 6.9. Unit Systems ................................ ........................ 39 F igure 6.10. Unit Sustainable Systems ................................ ... 40 Figure 6.11. Exploded Axonometric of Unit Components ....... 41 Figure 6.12. Set of Housing Units from Above ......................... 42 Figure 6.13. Exterior Perspective of Two Bedroom Housing Unit 43 Figure 6.14. Longitudinal Section of Three Bedroom Unit ...... 44 Figure 6.15. Cross Section of Three Bedroom Unit 45 Figure 6 .16. H2OME Unit Perspectives ................................ .. 46
v Figure 6.17. Final Model: One Bedroom Unit View #1 .............. 47 Figure 6.18. Final Model: One Bedroom Unit View #2 48 Figure 6.19. Final Model: Two Bedroom Unit View #1 ........... 49 Figure 6.20. Final Model: Two Bedroom Unit View #2 .............. 50 Figure 6.21. Final Model: One Bedroom Unit View #1 .............. 51 Figure 6.22. Final Model: Two Bedroom Unit View #4 ............. 52 Figure 6.23. Final Model: Showing Linking Capabilities of Housing Units ................................ ...................... 53 Figure 6.24. Final Model: Three Bedroom Unit View #1 54 Figure 6.25. Final Model: Three Bedroom Unit View #2 55 Figure 7.1. View of Proposed Community (from Mac Aurthur Causeway) 59 Figure 7.2. View of Proposed Community Location 59 Figure 7.3. Panoramic of Proposed Water Community of Site (year 2009) 60 Figure 7.4. Site Panoramic Water level Year (2050) 60 Figure 7.5. Site Locati on and Context 61 Figure 7.6. Community Conceptual Model 62 Figure 7.7. Hydroponic Farming 64 Figure 7.8. Alternative Transportation 65 Figure 7.9. Aquaculture Fish Farm 66 Figure 7.10. Desalination Tank 67 Figure 7.11. Hydroelectric Power Turbine 68 Figure 7.12. Site Plan of Proposed Water Community: Miami (Year 2025) 69 Figure 7.13. Community Diagrams 70 Figure 7.14. Possible Linking Configuration s 71 Figure 7.15. Phase 1 View of Miami Dade Inter coastal 72 Figure 7.16. Phase 2 Showing Addition to Existing Community 73 Figure 7.17. Phase 3 View Showing Growth of Existing Community 74 Figure 7.18. Phase 4 View Showing Small Water Communities Branching from Vulnerable/ Flooded Areas 75 Figure 7.19. Phase 5 View Showing Small Water Communi ties Growing from Vulnerable/ Flooded Areas 76 Figure 7.20. Phase 6 View of Miami Dade Inter coastal Water Community Network 77 Figure 7.21. Phase 7 Vi ew of Miami Dade Inter coastal Water Community Network 60 Figure 7.22. Elevation (North Side) of Community Site (year 2009) 79 Figure 7.23. Cross Section of Community Center Area and Inhabitation Capabilities within Substructure 80 Figure 7.24. Cross Section Showing Des alination Tanks, Pedestrian Paths, and Housing Units within Community Context 81 Figure 7.25. Section of Community and Surrounding Context 82 Figure 7.26. Aerial View of Community 83 Figure 7.2 7. Community with Water 'Removed' to Show Piling to Ground Connections 84 Figure 7.28. Bio Swales for Water Run off Management 85 Figure 7.29. Tide Gar dens Between Housing Units 86
vi Figure 7.30. Undulating Boardwalk and Waterhouses 87 Figure 7.31 Micro Hydroelectric Power Chamber and Desalination Silo 88 Figure 7.32. Housing Unit Configurations 89 Figure 7.33. Community Park 90 Figure 7.34. View of Dock at Night 91 Figure 7.35. Final Model: Water Community View #1 92 Figure 7.36. Final Model: Water Community View #2 93 Figure 7.37. Final Model: Water Community View #3 94 Figure 8.1. Concept S tatement: Barnacle Colony 96 Figure 8.2. Housing Units Latch onto Pre Existing Towers 97 Figure 8.3. Barnacle Living Presentation Board 98 Figure 8.4. Adap tive Re use of Downtown Miami Infrastructure 99 Figure 8.5. Community Cluster Along Bridge 100 Figure 8 .6. Final Model: Barnacle Living 101 Figure 8.7. Clusters of U nits Latch onto Existing Tower 102 Figure 8.8. Roof of Existing Towers to be Garden Spaces 104
vii Aquatecture: Architectural Adaptation to Rising Sea Levels Erica Williams ABSTRAC T Our world is drastically changing. Temperatures are rising, skies over cities are blanketed with smoke, and melting glac iers are raising sea levels at a larming rates. Although the destruction we face is already threatening the quality of life for billions around the world, it could just be the beginning. What is projected to come in the future could be catastrophic. It is crucial to realize that climate change is already happening. One of the main concerns relating to climate change is that as the polar ice caps continue to melt, rising water will invade our coastal cities around the world. In accordance with sea level pro jection maps, sea levels will rise 20 feet 1 and major cities like Miami, Shanghai, Calcutta, and Manhattan will be completely submerged. 2 We must ask ourselves: How can we avoid a mass migration as water levels invade our homes and cities ? Instead of re treating inland, adaptation strategies should be devised. This proposal will explore how homes and cities should respond to sea level increase through the implementation of a new architectural typology Aquatecture. 1 An Inconvenient Truth Motion Picture. Paramount, 2006. 2 Ibid. Aquatecture is defined as an architectur al adaptation typology used to mitigate and manage flooding (long and short term). With this typology, water and architectural design can unite to produce dynamic and reliable mitigation solutions. The main course of action involves redefining three main l iving systems: a home, a neighborhood, and a residential tower to resist destruction of rising water levels and to continue city town home inhabitation. In addition to adaptable building design, supporting systems will be integrated throughout affected a reas. Systems such as alternative energy production, alternative farming mixed used industry alternative transportation, and water filtration zones will be incorporated. With the help of Aquatecture, alternatives to abandoning our coastal cities are pro vided. Due to the flexibility of site location that Aquatecture allows, this intervention can serve as a long term solution and standard of living within current and projected flood prone areas around the world.
1 CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM
2 MELTING ICE EQUALS RISING WATER C limate Change: A Global Crisis Our world is drastically changing. Within the recent years, climate change has become a growing concern worldwide. The various modes of destruction imposed on our environment a re targeted to be the catalyst to these changes. A substantial increase in hurricane activity, noticeable fluctuations in temperature, and an influx in CO2 emissions have all been noted concerns for many. One of the primary fears stemming from global war ming is that not only will weather patterns become more severe and unpredictable, but our oceans will rise and destroy our coastlines, buildings, homes, and communities world wide According to climate scientists, sea level rise is "O ne of the most importa nt impacts of global climate change." 3 Sea level has been cons istently rising over the past 100 years, and global warming is expected to increase the annual rate by two to five times 4 3 Intergovernmental Panel o n Climate Change, Working Group I Report. The Sci 364 365. 4 Ibid. Figure 7 .1. P olar Bear on Melting Glacier
3 Main Contributions to Sea Level Rise The vast expanse of ice that h as characterized the Arctic Ocean is pred ompletely melt far faster than anyone has imagined and will certainly be gone before the century is out. 5 Current projections of sea level rise "should be of major concern for coastal zones and small is lands." 6 The main contributor to global sea level rise is expected to come from thermal expansion of ocean water, followed by an increased melting of glaciers and ice caps. 7 The majority of 8 If the Antarctic ice sheet were to completely melt, it would be roughly equivalent to a 180 f oot increase. 9 The ice sheets located on Greenland are another contributor to the increase. According to Intergovernmenta l Pa nel on Climate Change ( IPCC) if the Greenland Ice Sheet completely melted, sea level would rise 25 f eet world wide 10 5 Alanna Mitchell. The Globe and Mail Canada. http://www.commondreams.org/head lines02/1128 06.htm (acce ssed 8 July 2009) 6 The Threat of Sea Level Rise http://archive.greenpeace.org/comms/97/arctic/library/climate/seachange.html#e ndnotes (accessed on 8 July 2009) 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. Figure 1. 8 Satellite Image of Shrinking Ice Cap Over a Two Decade Span
4 CURRENT AND PROJECTED IMPACTS Recent Flooding Triggered by Climate Change The consequences of climat e change are impacting people and communities world wide. While many people remain unaware of the scope of climate change and sea level rise, threats are constantly being posed. On a global scale, the numbers of climate related incidents are rapidly ris year are affected by climate related disasters. 11 In Asia, approximately 66 million households suffered from damage or destruction of their homes by floods in 2007. 12 In November 2007 ed by a flood, having all crops ruined and affecting more than two million people directly 13 In the United States, Katrina killed more than 1,600 people des troyed 200,000 Gulf Coast homes, and displaced a 14 11 Oxfam America. http://www.oxfamamerica.org. (accessed 12 Architecture Publishing Co. Ltd., 1980), 27. 13 14 icane Katrina Livability Statistics http://uspolitics.about.com/od/katrina/l/b l_katrina_stats.htm (accessed 2 November 2009) Table 1.4. Increases in Sea Level for over 120 Years Table 1. 3 Holocene Sea Level Increase
5 Future Impacts of Climate Change As the earth continues to warm, it is predicted that average sea levels will rise between 7 and 36 centimeters by the 15 By the year 2100, sea lev el s are projected to be approximately 22 inches higher than they are today. An increase of this magnitude could inundate coastal areas, erode beaches and increase coastal flooding and storm surge. 16 The destruction around the world could be devastating. Higher temperatures are expected to raise sea level by : 17 Expanding ocean water, Melting mountain glaciers and small ice caps, Causing portions of the coastal section of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to melt or slide into the ocean. 15 (Architectural Press : 2004), 190. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. Figure 1. 9 Mother and Child Making their Way Flood Waters
6 Global Im pacts As noted by the Intergovernm ental Panel on Climate Change's Third Assessment Report (WG II), the current and future climate changes induced by global w arming will have such impacts: Increased coastal erosion, higher storm surge flooding, inhibition of primary production processes, more extensive coastal inundation, changes in surface water quality a nd groundwater characteristics, increased loss of property and coastal habitats, increased flood risk and potential loss of life, loss of nonmonetary c ultural resources and values, impacts on agriculture through decline in soil and water quality, and loss of tourism, recreation, and transportation functions. 18 18 IPCC Reports. Internet; http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/index.htm (accessed on 9 March 2009) Figure 1. 10 World Regions Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise
7 Projected Impacts on Communities It is important to acknowledge that t he affects of global wa rming and the increase in sea levels will not only affect coastline environments but it will greatly affect the communities within them. With more than 70 percent of the world's population living on coastal plains, the human and socioeconomic effects of r ising sea level s will be substantial 19 A sea level rise of just 20 centimeters will cause 740,000 peopl e to lose their homes in Nigeria. 20 sea level rise of just 40 cm in the Bay of Bengal would put 11 percent of the country's coastal land underwater, c reating 7 t 21 Seventeen percent of Bangladesh could disappear with a three foot rise in sea level, and approximately 140 million people could be impacted in China and Bangladesh. 22 In the Pacific, there are growing concerns that rising seas could submerge whole island nations Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia could lose much of their territory and face severe freshwater shortages in the years to come 23 19 IPCC II 1996. Coastal Zones and Small Islands (chapter 9). 20 Ibid. 21 IPCC Report http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/index.htm (accessed on 9 March 2009) 22 IPCC II 1996 Coastal Zones and Small Islands (chapter 9). 23 Ibid. Projected Sea Levels and the United States A significant and increasing proportion of th e United States population lives within the coastal zone. By 2100, sea levels could rise 13 inches in Los Angeles, 20 inches in Miami Beach, 22 inches in Boston, 38 inches in Galvest on, and 55 inches in Grand Isle, Louisiana. 24 Louisiana and Texas are already experiencing the highest rates of relative sea level rise in the U.S. 25 Louisiana 24 Statement of David Gardiner, Assistant Administrator, Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, before the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee/Energy and Environmental Subcommittee, November 16, 1995 25 Robert J. Nic holls and Stephen P. Leatherman. Adapting to Sea Level Rise: Relative Sea Level Trends to 2100 for the United States, Coastal Management 24:301 324 Figure 1. 5. Southeast Asian Famil y Living in Flood Waters
8 loses 25 square miles of wetla nds per year, due to 26 Sea level near Galveston i s also steadily increasing. Though the city was designed to withstand moderate sea level rise it could not withstand the levels predicted to result from global warming. Along the Chesapeake Bay, where many beaches have already been lost, the sea is rising more than an inch per decade. 27 In the U.S., a sea level rise consistent with IPCC's estimates could drown more than 5, 000 square miles of dry land an ar ea the size of Connecticut by the year 2100. 28 The highest risk areas are those currently experien cing rapid erosion rates and areas at low levels, parts of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts where sea level is already rising by small amounts each year 29 26 Ibid. 27 "Fragile Beaches Being Replaced by Armored Shore. Baltimore Sun. May 25, 1997. 28 D.G. Vaughan and C.S.M. Doake, Recent atmospheric warming and retreat of ice s helves on the Antarctic Peninsula, Nature, January 25, 1996, 379: 328 330. 29 Mitchell. Tom Agnew, a research meteorol ogist with the Meteorology Service of Canada lobal warming is linked to the greenhouse gas emissions that humans are pumping into the atmosphere as they burn fossil fuels. 30 As much as we need to re evaluate our consumption and reduce CO2 em issions, the habits formed by nations could be difficult to stop 30 Mitchell. Figure 1.6. Hurricane Katrina Victim s Seeking Refuge
9 E ven if global greenhouse gas emissions are stabilized n early all projections show that sea level s will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 d ue to delay in climate response. 31 It is b elieved that even if we eliminate d all greenhouse g as e have already bo ught decades of climate change i 32 Over the course of decades the environment has been slowly destroyed. As research meteorologist Tom Agnew states, This chan ge is already taking effect; the whole system is very slow to start and also very slow to stop." 33 Due to t he current circumstances, we should not only reduce and counteract climate change, but we should prepare for worst case scenarios. 31 Ibid. 32 Hefty L, Nichole. Department of Environmental Res ource Management. Miami Dade County's Climate Change Adapta tion Efforts 33 Mitchell. Figure 1.7. Tom Agnew Quote Discussing the Severity of Climate Change
10 CHAPTER 2: SOLUTIONS AND GOALS CHAPTER 2: THE SOLUTION
11 AQUATECTURE: PREPARING FOR SEA LEVEL INCREAS E Devising a Plan : Project Goals We should be at a time of great concern. With catastrophic s cenarios posing a threat to billions of people and communities around the world, it is crucial that defense strategies against devastation are prepared. Th e main goal and intent of this proposal, is to provide long term solution s to flooding and rising s ea levels for coastal cities By taking into considerations the risks created by rising water levels on a short term and long term (climate change) scale, the predominate questions to be answered are: Where will people go when the water rises? H ow can peop le continue to live in coastal cities in spite of th e threats that inundation poses? What will happen to homes, to cities to architecture? Strategies must be implemented to make populated, economic and city 34 Adaptation stra tegies should be focused within hot spots which are areas that are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change areas with high human, social and economic activity. 35 34 Royal Netherlan 45 35 Ibid. If the areas that are currently threatened by rising sea levels start to pla n and invest in a variety of reliable mitigation strategies, coastline abandonment could be avoided when water levels become threatening However, to successfully do so, architecture and city planning must start to redefine its current position. Figure 2.1. Lifted Conceptual Diagram
12 R edefining Architecture to Sustain Communities People have a n unexplainable connection and desire to live by the water they will continue to live by water systems in spite of risk factors and threats they may pose. According to Frits Schoute, a Dutch engin eering professor and advocate of living at most of which lie in coastal regions. Soon there will be these enormous p 36 The number of people living in world is approximately 6 bil lion, and it will increase to 9 billion by 2050. 37 The Solution: Implementing Aquatecture The main course of action is to avoid the destruction of communities through adaptation and the implementation of a new arc hitectural typology Aquatecture Aquatect ure derived from merging water and architecture pertains to building types and adaptive re use strategies that mitigate and manage flood related threats. To successfully, counteract potential destruction and migration caused by rising sea levels the built environment within coastal communities need to be redefined. 36 Ibid. 37 Ibid. Step 1: Redefining a Coastal Home Homes are a primary component in a coastal community. Without a safe and reliable place to live, people will become threatened and migrate to inl and locations. To avoid this migration it is important to redefine the current housing typology As a first line of defense, a home that adapts with rising water will be the first step towards providing alternative, reliable, and adaptable living solution s. Step 2 : Redefining a Coastal Community Following the implementation of a reliable and safe home, a coastal community will be redefined The proposed water houses will be one of many components that make up the water community. In this proposal, a mic ro community comprised of 40 homes will be integrated as an introduction to water community design As the water rises, and the need increases, growth and adaptation of the community will follow This sma ll community of 40 homes will serve as an archetype for future communities in Step 3 : Redefining a Coastal City As the final phase of Aquatecture, city components will be redefined. As time progresses, and water rises, high rise residential towers, bridges, city infrastructure etc. will become
13 affected or unusable because of flood waters. In this case, pre existing city infrastructure is no longer suitable for its intended use. As a result of this, adaptive re use strategies for the building envelopes and existing infrastructu re will be integrated within the city core.
14 CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDIES
15 CASE STUDY: INDIVIDUAL HOUSING UNIT Project: Floating Homes, Berlin, Germany, 2002 200 5 Architect: Forster Trabitzsch Architects Location: Berlin, Germany, 2002 2003 Figure 3.1. Floating House on Hollow Concrete Pontoon Summary T he maritime building project by the Hamburg arch itect duo Frster + Trabitzsch ms living on the water to be a viable option Its material palette of glass, steel and wood create a tone of transparency and reflectivity to connect the living space with the surrounding water. Critique The home is floating on a hollow concrete pontoo n system. Although this strategy is good to prevent water damage, the home is susceptible to rocking and drifting, producing possible lack of comfort and vulnerability to its users. Also, the orientation and design of the exterior creates no delineation b etween public and private space This design represents itself as a home for luxury vacation style living. Figure 3.2. Exterior Material Options
16 CASE STUDY: ADAPTIVE RE USE Project: Hotelier at Sea, Gulf of Mexico Architect: Morris Architects Location: Gulf of Mexico Summary There are approximately 4,000 oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico varying in size, depth and mobility that will be decommissioned within the next century. If a deck on one of these rigs is about 20,000 square feet, then there is potentially 80 million square f eet of programmable space just off the coast of the United States. The current method for rig removal is explosion, which costs millions of dollars and destroys massive amounts of aquatic life. Critique Pro: Efficient adaptive reuse of an Oil Rig that wo uld be otherwise demolished. Con: and luxury living. The adaptive re use strategy relates to the mitigation of rising sea levels, however its location makes it hard for transitions to occur for surr ounding communities. Figure 3.3. Hotelier at Sea: Adaptive Re use of an Oil Rig Figure 3.4. Adaptable Living Unit Design
17 CASE STUDY: COMMUNITY ON THE WATER Project: Silodam Architect: MVRDV Location: Amsterdam, Netherlands Summary Silodam is equipped with 157 apartments, business units and public spaces. The apartments are different sizes and a re stacked to create internally connected neighborhoods. Residents can walk through the building, passing different facades and roof tops, under the building through the hall to the terrace, or along the marina where boats can be docked 38 38 http://www.arcspace.com/architects/mvrdv/silodam_article.html (accessed 11 Nove mber 2009) Critique Pro: The incorporation of mixed used industry allows for the development of a community. The Silodom is not only a place to live, but it provides, jobs, and public spaces. Also, the location of Silodam is beneficial to promote transitions from land to aquatic living in the event of a rising sea/river level crisis. Con: Although the Silodam successfully promotes the idea of mixed use industry and living, it does not fully promote self sufficiency. More alternative energy and living methods could be incorpor ated. Its design is internalized and because of this, it lacks the opportunity for growth on a larger scop e. Figure 3.6. Silodam by MVRDV Figure 3.5. Silodam by MVRDV
18 PRECEDENT STUDY: THE NETHERLANDS Adopting Dutch Strategies When choosing precedents, Holland serves as a successful example. The Netherland s have been threatened by the water systems that surround them for hundreds of years. The top two thirds of the country are at or below sea level, and the whole country is vulnerable to river flooding and ti dal inundation. In spite of these circumstances more than 11 million people two thirds of all Dutch citizens live in these areas, and 70 percent of Dutch gross domestic product is produced in these flood prone areas. 39 Due to these circumstances, the Dutch have had to conceptualize and develop their c ommunities to avoid flooding. While developing this proposal Aquatecture t he Netherlands served as a predecessor for innovation. For years, they have battled the sea Instead of constantly fighting it; their country has learned to view water as a site o pportunity. Currently in the Netherlands, projects are being designed to accommodate living and the sea. 39 response to the unfortunate event, the Dutch have strategized with U.S. public and privat e sector officials how Dutch expertise and technology might strengthen U.S. flood protection systems. Currently, Policymakers from Florida and the Netherlands are sharing best practices on water system management, climate change, environmental restoration, emergency response, and sound waterfront development. 40 40 Ibid, 27. Figure 3.7. Waterstudio NL Waterhouse Architecture
19 CHAPTER 4: PROJECT CONCEPT
20 MITIGATE, ADAPT, SUSTAIN Aquatecture Strategies: Mitigate, Adapt, and Sustain The main concept or theme of this proposa l is mitigation, adaptation, and sustainability. Mitigate Mitigation is the first line of defense. If successful and reliable defense strategies are incorporated into the construction in homes and communities, migration will not be a necessity. Adap t Once water starts to immediately threaten coastal city infrastructure and industry, adaptive re use st rategies will become an option for communities, towns, and cities. Sustain Although mitigation and adaptation will be crucial initial steps to less en the threat of rising sea levels, sustaining communities will be an important strategy for long term projections. If the inundated environment is providing the necessities to sustain life (food, energy, transportation) then it is more likely that residen ts of coastal communities will not be inclined to migrate. Figure 4.1. Aquatecture Concept Figure 4.2. Project Concept Presentation Board
21 CHAPTER 5: SITE SELECTION AND ANAYLSIS
22 SITE SELECTION PROCESS Site Selection and Risk Management As water levels rise and start to impact communities worldwide, the areas with the highest population, infrastructure, and economic investment should be benchmarks as to where adaptation should occur It is important to ex amine the risks in order coastlines threaten ed by inundation. There are varying degrees of threats dispersed around the world. Targeting areas with the highest risk factors first, will provide rankings of possible impact most vulnerable sites to least vulnerable site. Three factors used to evaluate site risks are: (1) Vulnerability (2) Exposure (3) Hazard. 41 Vulnerability: The lack of ability people may have to adapt to sea level rise. Exposure: Relating to geographical location, latitude, and the current risk to water. In the case of inundation, dev elopment s situated adjacent to a water systems will be the most exposed. Hazard: T he size of the risk and the frequency with which it will be experienced. 41 Adapting Cities for Climate Change 63 65 This risk analysis model provides a practical strategy for site selection and scenario planning. Fr om this analysis, the site was chosen. (P ossible) Hazard X Vulnerability X Exposure= (P ossible) Impact Figure 5.1 The Crichton Risk Triangle 42 42 The Crichton Risk Triangle (Source: Crichton, D.C. (2001) in the Climate Change for the Insurance Industry, ed. Dr. J. Salt, Buil ding Research Establishment, UK. D.C. Crichton 2001)
23 PROJECTED SEA LEVEL IMPACT ON SOUTH FLORIDA Rising Tides: Florida F lorida is one of the nation's m ost vulnerable states for destruction caused by sea level rise. The entire coast of Florida is threatened by rising seas and stronger storm surges. The future looks bad for apartments and homes that crowd the coasts. Rising sea levels are also driving s ea water into the Everglades, inundating mangroves, and directly threatening all low lying islands. The Effects on Florida In a June 2009 report, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) outlined what Florida would endure if no signific ant action is enforced to curb consequences of climate change: Over time, sea level rise will put 99.6 perce nt of Monroe County under water. I n Miami Dade, 70 percent would be awash, while 10 22 percent of land would be flooded in 14 other coastal counti es. This would destroy real estate worth more than $130 billion. 43 Florida's tourism industry will lose $9 billion by 2025 and $167 billion from beaches and attractions by the end of the century 44 43 on Miami. http://eyeonmiami.blogspot.com/2009/06/miami herald editorial recognizes sea.html (accessed on 11 November 2009) 44 Ibid. Figure 5.2. 100 Year Sea Level Rise Projection
24 Sea level rise will destroy importan t infrastructure throughout South Florida: T wo nuclear power plants, three prisons, 68 hospitals, 74 airports, 334 public schools and nearly 20,000 historic structures. 45 Gradual warming and rising of the seas will increase hurricane intensity inflicting an estimated $25 billion in damages on Floridians by 2050 46 45 Ibid. 46 Ibid. Sea Level Rise and South Florida South Florida faces the most threats It will be one of the first regions in the world to be affected as the sea levels rise. Patrick Gleason, a geol ogist and member of the Broward County Climate Change Committee, noted that South Florida is mong the world's more vulnerable areas, due to low elevation and a porous limestone base. 47 The state of Florida is already dealing with flooding, and coastal e rosion, but is still using traditional and insufficient means of mitigation. Climate Change Impacts to South Florida 48 ral/Fishing Impacts 47 C ammy Clark Climate Change Adaptation. http://carbon based ghg.blogspot.com/2009/06/florida keys ill prepared for rising.html (accessed on 11 November 2009). 48 Miami F igure 5 .3. South Florida Projected to be the Most Vulnerable Area in Florida
25 THE SITE MIAMI FLORIDA Miami, Florida Miami is ranked number one on the list of top 20 cities ranked in terms of assets exposed to coastal flooding 49 Miami is i n that ranking in 2070, with exposed assets rising from 50 In terms by New York, Calcutta, Shanghai, Mumbai, Tianjin, Tokyo, and Hong Kon 51 49 OECD. Today and in the Future http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/59/36/39729575.pdf (accessed on 2 November 2009). 50 Ibid. 51 Ibid. Risk Management and long term flooding+ high population= high impact Miami : An Endangered City financial centers. It is a major center of commerce, finances, corporate headquarters, and boasts a strong international business community. According to the ranking of world cities undertaken by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC) and based on the level of presence of g lobal corporate service organizations, Miami is considered a "beta world city". 52 Sea level rise in Miami Dade County and Its Impact On Urban and Natural R esources projected sea level in Mi ami Dade County will have: (1) I nundated much of the b arrier island and coastal wetlands, (2) seriously degraded freshwater availability in coastal 53 This rise will 52 "The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network, Loughborough University http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html (accessed on 3 March 2009 ) Figure 5.4. Ocean Drive, South Beach Florida
26 resources respond to relatively rapid and widespread flooding. 54 In order to better understand the impact of sea level rise in the Miami intervals to sea level heights projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The impact of each flooding scenario on urban and natural resources was then evaluated. Two sea At a nick point of about +6 ft, a very plausible height under even the most conservative sea level rise models, only the highest mainland elevations on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge will remain above sea level, while the vast majority of urbanized areas and asso ciated ecosystems will be under water 55 53 Peter W Dade County and its Impact on Ur Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University http://spacecoastclimatechange.com/images/Harlem_Abstract.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2009). 54 Ibid. 55 Ibid. Figure 5.5. Satellite Image of Miami, Florida (Year 2009 ) Figure 5.6. Projected Sea Level Impact: Miami (Year 2100)
27 Miami Residents : Interview constantly threatened by water. Interviews were conducted to discover the inconveniences brought on by short term flooding. A s stated by Miguel Quesada, a 25 year resident of Miami floods to the point that I continued to explain how this problem is getting worse and it is not only triggere d by hurricane activity it occurs every time there is a heavy downpour. Unfortunately, heavy downpours are very common during the summertime in Florida. Average Rainfall and Impact In August, the rainfall average is 8.68 inches. 56 From the interview with Quesada, it is appropriate to conclude that the crisis of flooding is current problem However efforts to control or mitigate the causes remain unsatisfactory. 56 ather.com (Accessed on: August 6, 2009) Figure 5.8. Av erage Rainfall in Miami Figure 5.7. Miguel Quesada, Resident of Miami Beach for 25 Years
28 Is Miami Prepared for Rising Sea Levels? In spite of the current threat, Miami does no t have a sufficient plan to combat the reality of rising sea le v els. Current Mitigation Strategies to Short Term and Long Term Flooding are as follows : Prepare for Flooding Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel in your home i f you live in an area that has a high flood risk. Consider installing "check valves" to prevent flood water from backing up into the drains of your home. A flash flood warning means a flash flood is occurring. Seek higher ground immediately; do not wait for instructions. Plan to Evacuate Plan how you will leave and where you will go if you are advised to evacuate. If you do not have a car, plan alternate means of evacuating. Do not walk through moving water, if possible. Look for areas where the water is not moving. What might see like a small amount of moving water can easily knock you down. Do not drive into flooded areas. If your vehicle becomes surrounded by rising water, get out quickly and move to higher ground, if possible. Figure 5.9. Flooding in Miami after Hurricane Andrew
29 Stay Informed Stay out of flood waters, if possible. The water may be contaminated or electrically charged. However, should you find yourself trapped in your vehicle in rising water get out immediately and seek higher ground. Stay away from downed power lin es to avoid the risk of electric shock or electrocution. Do not return to your home until local authorities say it is safe. Even after flood waters recede, roads may be weakened and could collapse. Buildings may be unstable, and drinking w ater may be con taminated. Use co mmon sense and exercise caution. 57 Aquatecture Opportunities within the Miami Miami Beach Context Many areas in Miami will be affected in some way by rising sea levels. Aquatecture will be presented in phases. Phase 1: Incorporating hous ing units that adapt to water level increases Phase 2: Aqua Communities start to form within intercoastal water Phase 3: Adaptive Re use of existing building structures in urban conditions: Barnacle Living 57 http://www.miamidade.gov/oem/floods.asp (accessed on 12 October 2009). Figure 5.10. Site Analysis: View of Miami from North Key Biscayne
30 CHAPTER 6: R EDEFINING A COASTAL HOME
31 A HOME THAT FLOATS 0ME As a primary strategy to mitigate flooding, a responsive houseing design will be implemented throughout the Miami Miami Beach a rea. A home that can infinitely raise or lower with water fluctuations is the primary design solution Necessity of an Adaptable Home In Existing Communities The desire and necessity for this houseing typology is current. Every year houses are damaged or destroyed with flood ing. Mitigation Principles for Living Units Design p rinciples for designing this houseing prototype were developed to ensure protection and safety from long and short term innundation. They are as follows: Lifted : A home that will rise with the w ater level Waterproof: Interior protection from water by way of materiality and building methods Resistance: D wellings will be resistant to that are floating but are restricted from shifting because of the lifted piling system. Figure 6.1. H20ME Flood Protection Diagram
32 Lifted: Risin g with the Water Nautical engineering will be adopted to redefine living unit design and construction methods. To create a living situation that is reliable and adaptable in high risk areas for flooding floating dock technology will be adopted. Traditio nally, a floating dock is comprised of a buoyant subsurface material and topped with a secondary material. Some floating docks are designed with pilings incorporated that act as guides to allow the platform to glide up and down in accordance with the surro unding water levels. The base of each home will be equipped with a buoyant plat form to keep each unit afloat. Additionally, p ilings will be used as guides to allow each unit to rise in accordance to the level of water in which it resides. The piling syst em is designed to promote adaptation to a variety of water levels. Each pilling guide is comprised of five foot galvanized steel sections. As the water continues to rise and the distance of the exposed piling is reduced, another guide can be linked and att ached to create more length. This additive and subtractive method provides reassurance that the unit can withstand any height increase in water levels Ultimately, this flood protection system can provide a sense of security and reliability for home owne rs residing in endangered community zones This adaptable strategy can also be very useful in locations where dramatic fluctuations in water levels occur frequently. Figure 6.2. Floating Boat Dock in the Everglades, Florida
33 Figure 6.3. H20ME: Housing Unit Concept
34 Figure 6.4. Housing Unit Designs
35 Figure 6.5. One Bedroom Housing Unit Design
36 Figure 6.6. Two Bedroom Housing Unit Design
37 Figure 6.7. Three Bedroom Housi ng Unit Design
38 Figure 6.8. Row of Waterhouses in Miami Intercoastal Waters
39 Figure 6.9. Unit Systems
40 Figure 6.10. Unit Sustainable Systems
41 Figure 6.11. Exploded Axonometric of Unit Components
42 Figure 6.12. Set of Housing Units from Above
43 Figure 6.13. Exterior Perspective of Two Bedroom Housing Unit
44 Figure 6.14 Longitudinal Section of Three Bedroom Unit
45 Figure 6.15. Cross Section of Three Bedroom Unit
46 Figure 6 .16. H2OME Unit Perspectives
47 Figure 6.17. Final Model: One Bedroom Unit View #1
48 Figure 6.18. Final Model: One Bedroom Unit V iew #2
49 Figure 6.19. Final Model: Two Bedroom Unit View #1
50 Figure 6.20. Final Model: Two Bedroom Unit View #2
51 Figure 6.21. Final Model: One Bedroom Unit View #1
52 Figure 6.22. Final Model: Two Bedroom Unit View #4
53 Figure 6.23. Final Model: Showing Linki ng Capabilities of Housing Units
54 Figure 6.24. Final Model: Three Bedroom Unit View # 1
55 Figure 6.25. Final Model: Three Bedroom Unit View #2
56 CHAPTER 7 : REDEFINING A COASTAL COMMUNITY
57 WHEN HOMES CREATE A COMMUNITY Aquatecture Community Development Following the implementation of a reliable and safe home, each unit will be oriented to promote community development. In this proposal, a micro community of 40 homes will be created. From t hat, possibilities of growth and adaptation will be explored. This small community of 40 homes serve s as an archetype to future communities and will be an example to future Aquatecture communities in threatened areas. Main Community Goals Goals a re set forth to exemplify the main intent of water community development. They are as follows : Alternative Living Adaptability Self Sustain Archetype Alternative Living : Over time, the majority of the water communities will be branching from island and areas affected by rising water levels. Due to the adjacency to the previously inhabited (now destroyed and inundated) environments, a transition will occur. As water continues to be a threat to pre existing communities, the need for water commu nities will increase. Adaptability Due to the magnitude of people that this crisis will be affecting, it is important to consider the possibilities of growth and configurations that these communities can undergo. The structural module. The housing units are designed for their width to fit on this module. Because of this system a house can be added or removed from the community module at any time. On a macro scale, the community system is designed as the com munity has linking capabilities possibly turning a 20 home community into a 100 home community network.
58 Self Sustain : As water levels rise it is important to design for self sustainabil ity and independence from land. E ssentials will be provided to the community such as food, potable water, energy, etc. When the community starts to provide livi ng necessities it will create an independence from land. Archetype Rising sea levels and floo ding continues to destroy homes and communities. If these strategies are implemented within threatened communities Aquatecture can serve as an archetype for future developments.
59 PROPOSED COMMUNITY LOCATION Figure 7.1. Panoramic View of Proposed Community Location (from Mac Ar thur Causeway) Figure 7.2. Panoramic View of Proposed Community Location (from Star Island Bridge)
60 ) Fi gure 7.4. Site Panoramic of Projected Water level Height (year 2050) Figure 7.3. Panoramic of Proposed Water Community of Site (year 2009)
61 Figure 7.5. Site Location and Context
62 Figure 7.6. Community Conceptual Model
63 COMMUNITY ESSENTIALS Incorporating Community Needs to Avoid Migration In order to promote an independent self sustaining community on the water Essential Co mmunity Needs (ECNs) are to be integrated: In addition to the living units, the next step towards growth is the implementation of supporting community functions. E nvironments will be redef ined when implemented into the water communities. The preconceived notions of what a park, a garden, a front yard, and a street will change and be redefined to relate to the water. The circulation of these communities can be conceptually to a street. The main connection all of these units and functions will be through a b oardwalk pedestrian path. These networks of circulations will not only be used as a mode for the users to move throughout the area, but it will also provide recreational spaces, community gathering spaces, and boat docking areas.
64 AGRICULTURE Farming Methods for an Inundated Environment The standard of farming will be drastically changed and be reinvented. Hydroponics, aquaponics, and other forms of aquaculture will be implemented within each specific site context Aquaponics is the symbiotic cultivation of plants and aquatic animals in a re 58 With aquaponic systems, fish and plants can grow together in one integrated, soilless system. The fish waste provides a food source for the growing plants and the plants provide a natural filter for the water the fish live in. Aquaponics is a sustainable ecosystem in which both fish and plants can thrive. It produces safe, fresh, organic fish and vegetables 59 When soilless culture (aquaponi cs or hydroponics) is combined within a controlled environment or a greenhouse, premium quality crops can be grown on a year round basis, anywhere in the world. 58 Aquaponics.com http;//www.aquaponics.com (Internet; accessed on 9 March 2009) 59 Ibid. In addition to alternative farming sectors within the community, Green roofing syste ms will be a part of the living units design. Not only are they incorporated to serve as a community space, but they are a means to provide filtration methods for grey water collection. Figure 7.7. Hydroponic Farming
65 TRANSPORTATION Transportation Services: Alternative Mobilit y The community will maintain its independence from land through the implementation of alternative mobility. Boats and other means of aquatic mobility will be the main means of transport within the community. To accommodate for the incorporation of the alt ernative transportation services on the micro scale, each living unit and main public space will be equipped with a docking area for boats and/or small water crafts. In addition to the small unit docks, there will be a larger area within the community to a ccommodate for the storage of boats. The Effects of Alternative Transportation Services Due to the elimination of the car and other on land transportation services, an effort to reduce the level of CO2 emissions will be achieved. Figure 7.8. Alternative Transportation
66 AQUACULTURE Aquaculture is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms including fish, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic 60 Unlike fishing, aquaculture, also known as aquafarming implies the cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled conditions. 61 Particular kinds of aquaculture include algaculture (the production of kelp/seaweed and other algae), fish farming, shrimp farming, oyster farming, and the growing of cultured pearls. Mariculture Mariculture will also be int roduced into the aqua communities. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments. is a specific branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with 62 60 American Heritage Definition of Aquaculture 61 Ibid. 62 Water Encyclopedia http://www.waterencyclopedia.com (Internet accessed on 10 March 2009). Alternatives to Controlled Farming Although this is a controlled and reliable way to provide food for the community wild fishing will still be p romoted in the communities as a source for food as well Figure 7.9. Aquaculture Fish Farm
67 DESALINIATION WATER FILTRATION Desalin ation and Water Filtration Water will be taken from the immediate surrounding source and filt ered for use by way of desalin ation or other filtration methods. From there, it would be distributed to the consumers of the town to be used for their primary necessities. Grey Water Filtration Methods Subsequently, the grey water (from sinks, showers, etc) would be disinfected and reused for appropriate pu rposes such as irrigation would be cleansed in greenhouse living machines. Microbial 63 Once the process has concluded, the water would be returned to the original water source through an artificial wetland filtration process located within the respective aquaculture vicinity 63 Places, Number 2, Volume 20 (2008), 3. Figure 7.10. Desalination Tank
68 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRODUCTION Alternative Energy Pr oduction In order to create a self sustaining community on the water, sources to provide energy need to be introduced. Through the use of wind, water, and solar energy the aqua communities will acquire sustainable energy supply. For main communities on t he water, hydroelectric power could be the most efficien t option for energy production. Tidal power is also a viable energy producer. Tidal power sometimes called tidal energy is a form 64 Although not widely used yet, tidal power has potential for water communities In many cases, tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. 65 64 Maas, Winy. MVRDV: Excursions on Capacities KM3 (Actar D Roca Printing Press: 2005), 206. 65 Ibid. Figure 7.11. Hydroelectric Power Turbine
69 COMMUNITY PROPOSAL Figure 7. 12. Site Plan of Proposed Water Community: Miami (Year 2025)
70 Figure 7.13. Community Diagrams
71 COMMUNITY PHASING DRAWINGS Figure 7.14. Possible Linking Configuration s
72 Figure 7.15. Phase 1View of Miami Dade Inter coastal Showing Primary Component of Water Community
73 Figure 7.16. Phase 2 Showing Addition to Existing Community
74 Figure 7.17. Phase 3 View Showin g Growth of Existing Community
75 Figure 7.18. Phase 4 View Showing Small Water Communities Branching from Vulnerable/ Flooded Areas
76 Figure Phase 7.19. View Showing Small Water Communities Growing from Vulnerable/ Flooded Areas
77 Figure 7.20. Phase 6 view of Miami Dade Inter coastal Water Community Network
78 Figure 7.21. Phase 7 view of Miami Dade Inter coastal Water Community Network
79 PROPOSED COMMUNITY Figure 7.22. Elevation (North Side) of Community
80 Figure 7.23 Cross Section of Community Center Area and Inhabitation Capabilities within Substructure to be used as Shelter and Storage Area
81 Figure 7.24. Cross S ection Showing Desalination Tanks, Pedestrian Paths, and Housing Units within Community Context
82 Figu r e 7.25. Section of Community and Surrounding Context
83 Figure 7.26. Aerial View of Community
84 Figure 7.27. Community With Water 'Removed' to Show Piling to Ground Connections
85 Figure 7.28. Bio Swales for Water Run off Management
86 Figure 7.29. Tide Garden s Between Housing Units
87 Figure 7.30. Undulating Boardwalk and Waterhouses
88 Figure 7.31. Micro Hydroelectric Power Chamber and Desalination Silo
89 Figure 7.32. Housing Unit Configurations
90 Figure 7.3 3. Community Park
91 Figure 7.34. View of Dock at Night
92 Figure 7.35. Final Model: Water Community View #1
93 Figure 7.36. Final Model: Water Community View #2
94 Figure 7.37. Final Model: Water Community View #3
95 CHAPTER 8 : REDEFINING A COASTAL CITY
96 Figure 8.1. Concept Statement: Barnacle Colony Biomim i cry
97 LIVING IN AN INNUNDATED CITY What Happens to Our City Cores? Water levels will not only impact small homes and towns, but it will affect coastal city ur ban cores as well. Instead of a bandoning the city of Miami ad aptive re use strategies can be implemented. Adaptive Re Use Strategies B uilding envelopes, bridges, and other types of infrastructure will present opportunities for adaption In the event, that the pre existing buildings, towers, bridges, and other typ es of infrastructure become no longer suitable for their intended use, the barnacle living adaptive re use strategy will be implemented For example, housing units, public spaces, farming spaces and energy production zones can start to use the foundation, interior, and exterior space s that that building envelope provides. The housing units can start to for m community clusters on the exterior of abandoned residential towers and use their interio r spaces for pedestrian paths, vertical farming and energy prod uction zones. Figure 8.2. Housing Units Latch onto Pre Existing Miami Towers
98 Figure 8.3. Barnacle Living Presentation Board
99 Figure 8.4. Adaptive Re use of Downtown Miami Infrastructure
100 Figure 8.5. Community Cluster A long Bridge
101 Figure 8.6. Final Model: Barnacle Living Adaptive Re use
102 Figure 8.7. Clusters of Units Latch onto Existing Tower
103 Figure 8.8. Roof of Existing Towers to be Public Garden Spaces
104 CHAPTER 9 : CONCLUSION
105 EXPLORING WORLD WIDE POSSIBILITIES Conclusion With the flexibility of site location, this intervention can serve as an archetype that can be implemented throughout coas tlines all around the world. The architecture will respond accordingly to the specific site location, climate, and cultural identity of the area and/or its inhabitan ts. For example, Aquatecture located in a sub tropical climate will have the materiality an d design to promote passive cooling strategies, accommodate for heavy rainfall, and grow plants a ppropriate for the temperature. Aquatecture located in cooler climates will be constructed with material s that support passive heating strategies, and provide varying degrees of enclosure Ul timately, it is crucial to understand that as the world changes, so should architecture. The threats that global warming presents to our coastlines are severe. In addition to what already has happened, thousands of cities w ill be destroyed and billions of people will lose their homes. If we do not take the precautions t o provide mitigating strategies the effects on coastlines could be detrimental. S trategies, such as the implementation of dikes, dams, and levees have proven to be unsatisfactory solutions. The inadequacy of such conventional systems should provoke a comprehensive reconsideration of coastal planning. It is the time that p ro active efforts are made to improve the quality of life and safety of coastline c ommunities With Aquatecture, we can provide the necessary safe guarding of rising sea levels flooding and storm surges. Individuals, families, and communities can continue to inhabit coastlines, and cities provided these adaptation strategies are imple mented Through Aquatecture, coastal cities are provided with new options to mitigate against sea level increase, and have the opportunities for non threatening co habitation with water.
106 CHAPTER 10 : REFERENCES
107 REFERENCES Aquaponics.com. Aquaponics Hydroponics. http://www.aquaponics.com (accessed March 9, 2009). Doake, D.G. Vaughan and C.S.M. "Recent Atmospheric warming and retreat of ice shelves o n the Antarctic Peninsula." Nature January 25, 1996: 37: 328 330. Embassy, Royal Netherlands. "Pioneering Water." 2009: 45. "Florida Keys Ill Prepared for Rising Sea." Carbon Based: Climate Change Adaptation. http://carbon based ghg.blogspot.com/2009/06/f lorida keys ill prepared for rising.html (accessed November 11, 2009). An Inconvieniant Truth. Directed by Al Gore. 2006. Harlem, Peter W. "Sea Level Rise in Miami Dade County and its Impact on Urban and Natural Recourses." Southeast Enviornmental Research Center. http://spacecoastclimatechange.com/images/Harlem_Abstract.pd f (accessed November 8, 2009). Hefty, Nichole L. Miami Dade County's Climate Change Adaptation Efforts. Powerpont Presentation, Miami: Department of Enviornmnetal Resouce Management, 200 7. Hurricane Katrina Livability Statistics. 2009. http://uspolitics.about.com/od/katrina/l/bl_katrina_stats.htm (accessed 2 November 2009 (accessed November 2, 2009). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The Science of Climate Change. 1996 Lydon, Donlyn. "Climate Change and Place." Places 2008: 3. Maas, Winy. MVRDV: Excursions on Capacities KMS. Amsterdam: Actar D Roca Printing Press: 2005, 2005. "Mariculture." Water Encyclopedia. http://www.waterencyclopedia.com (accessed March 10, 2009) Miami, Eye on. Miami Editorial Recognizes Sea Level Rise and Threat to Turkey Point. http://eyeonmiami.blogspot.com/2009/06/miami herald editorial recognizes sea.html (accessed November 11, 2009). Miami.gov. "Floods." http://www.miamidade.gov/oem/floods. asp (accessed October 12, 2009). Mitchell, Alanna. "Arctic Ice Melting Much Faster Than Thought." The Globe and Mail Canada. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1128 06.htm (accessed July 8, 2009). Monthly Averages for Miami Florida. Bar Graph, Miami: Weather.com, 2009.
108 "Number of People Affected by Climate Disaster up 54 Percent by 2015." Oxfam America. 2009. http://www.oxfamamerica.org (accessed August 11, 2009). Flooding Today and in the Fu ture." http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/59/36/39729575.pdf (accessed November 2, 2009). Quesada, Miguel, interview by Erica Williams. Resident of Miami Beach Interview (June 4, 2009). Reports, IPCC. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. http://www.ipcc.ch /ipccreports/index.htm (accessed March 9, 2009). Salt, Dr. J. The Crichton Risk Triangle. The Climate Change for the Insurance Industry, UK Sue Roaf, David Crichton, Fergus Nicol. Adapting Building and Cities for Climate Change. New York: Architectural P ress, 2005. "The Threat of Sea Level Rise." http://archive.greenpeace.org/comms/97/arctic/library/climate/se achange.html (accessed July 8, 2009). University, Loughborough. "The World According to GaWC 2008." Globalization and World Cities Study Group and N etwork. (accessed March 3, 2009). Yagi, Koji. Indigenous Settlements in Southwest Asia. Tokyo: Process Architecture Publishing Co. Ltd., 1980.
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by Erica Williams.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 108 pages.
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: Our world is drastically changing. Temperatures are rising, skies over cities are blanketed with smoke, and melting glaciers are raising sea levels at alarming rates. Although the destruction we face is already threatening the quality of life for billions around the world, it could just be the beginning. What is projected to come in the future could be catastrophic. It is crucial to realize that climate change is already happening. One of the main concerns relating to climate change is that as the polar ice caps continue to melt, rising water will invade our coastal cities around the world. In accordance with sea level projection maps, sea levels will rise 20 feet and major cities like Miami, Shanghai, Calcutta, and Manhattan will be completely submerged. We must ask ourselves: How can we avoid a mass migration as water levels invade our homes and cities? Instead of retreating inland, adaptation strategies should be devised.This proposal will explore how homes and cities should respond to sea level increase through the implementation of a new architectural typology-Aquatecture. Aquatecture is defined as an architectural adaptation typology used to mitigate and manage flooding (long and short term). With this typology, water and architectural design can unite to produce dynamic and reliable mitigation solutions. The main course of action involves redefining three main living systems: a home, a neighborhood, and a residential tower to resist destruction of rising water levels and to continue city-town-home inhabitation. In addition to adaptable building design, supporting systems will be integrated throughout affected areas. Systems such as alternative energy production, alternative farming, mixed-used industry, alternative transportation, and water filtration zones will be incorporated. With the help of Aquatecture, alternatives to abandoning our coastal cities are provided.Due to the flexibility of site location that Aquatecture allows, this intervention can serve as a long- term solution and standard of living within current and projected flood prone areas around the world.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Advisor: Mark Weston, M.Arch.
x Architecture and Community Design
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.