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Developing pre-literacy skills in preschool children

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Material Information

Title:
Developing pre-literacy skills in preschool children the utilization of parents as a vital resource
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Sundman, Ashley N
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Early literacy
Caregiver-led intervention
Treatment integrity
Head Start
Parental involvement
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychological and Social Foundations -- Specialist -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of a parent-implemented intervention on preschool children's development of letter-naming and phonological awareness skills. Six parent-child dyads with children enrolled in a Head Start Program in West Central Florida were selected to participate in the study. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the impact of an intervention package that included activities focusing on: (1) using mnemonics to learn letter names and (2) developing phonological awareness of the onsets of words through parent questioning and feedback. Phonological awareness development was measured using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills First Sound Fluency (DIBELS-FSF) and letter-naming ability was measured using the DIBELS Letter Knowledge (DIBELS-LK) probes. Results showed that five of the six students responded favorably to the intervention, increasing their growth rate on at least one of the two measures. The final child showed little change in trends across the phases. Additionally, data was collected regarding intervention integrity of intervention implementation as well as social validity, or the acceptance and usefulness, of the intervention. Intervention integrity data revealed that the majority of parents completed the intervention with high levels of fidelity, although variability across parents was noted. Social validity data indicated that the parents found the program helpful and effective. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ashley N. Sundman.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 134 pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002069520
oclc - 608552776
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0003298
usfldc handle - e14.3298
System ID:
SFS0027614:00001


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D e ve l opi ng P r e L i t e r a c y S ki l l s I n P r e s c hool C hi l d r e n : T he U t i l i z a t i on O f P a r e nt s A s A V i t a l R e s our c e by A s hl e y N S undm a n A t he s i s s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f ul f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of E duc a t i on S pe c i a l i s t D e pa r t m e nt of P s yc hol ogi c a l a nd S oc i a l F ounda t i o ns C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : K a t hy L B r a dl e y K l ug P h. D J ul i a A O gg, P h D J ohn F e r r on, P h. D D a t e of A ppr ova l : N ove m be r 10, 2009 K e yw or ds : e a r l y l i t e r a c y, c a r e gi ve r l e d i nt e r ve nt i o n, t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y he a d s t a r t pa r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt C opyr i ght 2009 A s hl e y N S undm a n

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i T A B L E S O F C O N T E N T S L I S T O F T A B L E S i v L I S T O F F I G U R E S vi A B S T R A C T vi i C H A P T E R O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m 1 P r e ve nt i on a nd E a r l y I nt e r ve nt i on i n L i t e r a c y S k i l l s 2 P a r e nt I nvol ve m e nt i n P r e s c hool 2 I nt e r ve nt i on 3 I nt e r ve nt i on I nt e gr i t y & S oc i a l V a l i di t y 4 P ur pos e 5 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 6 S i gni f i c a nc e of t he S t udy 6 C H A P T E R T W O : R E V I E W O F T H E R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E 8 O ve r vi e w 8 S oc i oe c onom i c S t a t us a nd E a r l y L i t e r a c y 8 L e gi s l a t i on S uppor t i ng L i t e r a c y 11 P a t h t o L i t e r a c y 13 D e ve l opi ng P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s S ki l l s 15 D e ve l opi ng L e t t e r N a m i ng S ki l l s 18 P a r e nt s a s a R e s our c e 21 B e ne f i t s 25 B a r r i e r s 26 I nt e r ve nt i on I nt e gr i t y 27 S um m a r y 29 P ur pos e of t he P r e s e nt S t udy 30 C H A P T E R T H R E E : R E S E A R C H M E T H O D S 31 P a r t i c i p a nt s 31 P a r t i c i pa nt A t t r i t i on 32 S e t t i ngs 33 M e a s ur e s 34 I nde pe nde nt V a r i a bl e 34 D e pe nde nt V a r i a bl e s 34 D yna m i c I ndi c a t or s of B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s 34 D I B E L S I ni t i a l S ound F l ue nc y 35 D I B E L S F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y 36 T e c hni c a l A de qua c y of D I B E L S F S F 36 A dm i ni s t r a t i on a nd S c or i ng of D I B E L S F S F 37 D I B E L S L e t t e r N a m i ng F l ue nc y 37 D I B E L S L e t t e r K now l e dge 38

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i i I nt e r ve nt i on I nt e gr i t y 38 S oc i a l V a l i di t y 39 D e s i gn 40 P r oc e dur e 41 E t hi c a l C ons i de r a t i ons 41 T r a i ni ng i n D I B E L S A dm i ni s t r a t i on 41 P a r t i c i pa nt S e l e c t i on 42 B a s e l i ne P e r i od 43 C a r e gi ve r T r a i ni ng 44 I nt e r ve nt i on P r oc e dur e 44 I nt e r ve nt i on P ha s e 46 P r oc e dur a l I nt e g r i t y 47 F ol l ow U p P ha s e 47 D a t a A na l ys i s 48 C H A P T E R F O U R : R E S U L T S 51 V i s ua l A na l ys i s a nd D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s 51 C hi l d 1 R a c he l 51 F S F R e s ul t s 51 L K R e s ul t s 53 C hi l d 2 W e s l e y 55 F S F R e s ul t s 55 L K R e s ul t s 57 C hi l d 3 J e nni f e r 58 F S F R e s ul t s 58 L K R e s ul t s 60 C hi l d 4 T a nne r 61 F S F R e s ul t s 61 L K R e s ul t s 63 C hi l d 5 M e l a ni e 65 F S F R e s ul t s 65 L K R e s ul t s 67 C hi l d 6 B r e nna 68 F S F R e s ul t s 68 L K R e s ul t s 70 H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng 72 H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng f or F S F 75 H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng f or L K 80 I nt e r ve nt i on I nt e gr i t y 86 R e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n I nt e r ve nt i on I nt e g r i t y a nd C hi l d O ut c om e D a t a 88 S oc i a l V a l i di t y 88 R e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n S oc i a l V a l i di t y a nd C hi l d O ut c om e D a t a 90 S e m i S t r uc t u r e d I nt e r v i e w s 90 C H A P T E R F I V E : D I S C U S S I O N 93 S um m a r y of R e s ul t s 93

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i i i S t ude nt O ut c om e s 93 R e l e va nc e t o R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s 94 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on O ne 94 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T w o 96 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e 98 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on F our 99 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on F i ve 100 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on S i x 101 I m pl i c a t i ons f or R e s e a r c h 102 I m pl i c a t i ons f or P r a c t i c e 104 L i m i t a t i ons 106 C onc l us i ons 107 R E F E R E N C E S 109 A P P E N D I C E S 122 A ppe ndi x A : C ons e nt F or m 123 A ppe ndi x B : P a r e nt T r a i ni ng S e s s i on C he c kl i s t 125 A ppe ndi x C : L e s s on P l a n E xa m pl e 127 A ppe ndi x D : I nt e r ve nt i on R a t i ng P r of i l e 129 A ppe ndi x E : S e m i s t r uc t ur e d I nt e r vi e w Q ue s t i ons 130 A ppe ndi x F : F i gu r e 1 F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y A c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt s 131 A ppe ndi x G : F i gu r e 2 L e t t e r K now l e dge P e r f o r m a nc e A c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt s 133

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i v L I S T O F T A B L E S T a bl e 1 P a r t i c i pa nt D e m ogr a phi c I nf or m a t i on 33 T a bl e 2 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) S ki l l s f or R a c he l 52 T a bl e 3 R a t e s of F S F G r ow t h f o r R a c he l A c r os s P ha s e s 53 T a bl e 4 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dge ( L K ) S ki l l s f or R a c he l 54 T a bl e 5 R a t e s of L K G r ow t h f o r R a c he l A c r os s P ha s e s 55 T a bl e 6 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) S ki l l s f or W e s l e y 56 T a bl e 7 R a t e s of F S F G r ow t h f o r W e s l e y A c r os s P ha s e s 56 T a bl e 8 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dge ( L K ) S ki l l s f or W e s l e y 57 T a bl e 9 R a t e s of L K G r ow t h f o r W e s l e y A c r os s P ha s e s 58 T a bl e 10 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) S ki l l s f or J e nni f e r 59 T a bl e 11 R a t e s of F S F G r ow t h f o r J e nni f e r A c r os s P ha s e s 59 T a bl e 12 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dge ( L K ) S ki l l s f or J e nni f e r 60 T a bl e 13 R a t e s of L K G r ow t h f o r J e nni f e r A c r os s P ha s e s 61 T a bl e 14 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) S ki l l s f or T a nne r 62 T a bl e 15 R a t e s of F S F G r ow t h f o r T a nne r A c r os s P ha s e s 63 T a bl e 16 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dge ( L K ) S ki l l s f or T a nne r 64 T a bl e 17 R a t e s of L K G r ow t h f o r T a nne r A c r os s P ha s e s 64 T a bl e 18 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) S ki l l s f or M e l a ni e 66 T a bl e 19 R a t e s of F S F G r ow t h f o r M e l a ni e A c r os s P ha s e s 66 T a bl e 20 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dge ( L K ) S ki l l s f or M e l a ni e 6 7 T a bl e 21 R a t e s of L K G r ow t h f o r M e l a ni e A c r os s P ha s e s 68 T a bl e 22 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) S ki l l s f or B r e nna 69

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v T a bl e 23 R a t e s of F S F G r ow t h f o r B r e nna A c r os s P ha s e s 70 T a bl e 24 D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dge ( L K ) S ki l l s f or B r e nna 71 T a bl e 25 R a t e s of L K G r ow t h f o r B r e nna A c r os s P ha s e s 71 T a bl e 26 C ova r i a nc e a nd F i xe d E f f e c t s f or F S F f r om B a s e l i ne t o I nt e r ve nt i on 76 T a bl e 27 C ova r i a nc e a nd F i xe d E f f e c t s f or F S F f r om B a s e l i ne t o F ol l ow U p 78 T a bl e 28 C ova r i a nc e a nd F i xe d E f f e c t s f or L K f r o m B a s e l i ne t o I nt e r ve nt i on 81 T a bl e 29 C ova r i a nc e a nd F i xe d E f f e c t s f or L K f r o m B a s e l i ne t o F ol l ow U p 83 T a bl e 30 L e s s on P l a n C om pl e t i on D a t a 87 T a bl e 31 C or r e l a t i ons f or I nt e r ve nt i on I nt e gr i t y a nd C hi l d O ut c om e s 88 T a b l e 32 S oc i a l V a l i di t y R a t i ng f r om t he M odi f i e d I R P 15 89 T a bl e 33 S oc i a l V a l i di t y R a t i ngs i n R e s pons e t o E a c h I R P Q ue s t i on 89 T a bl e 34 C or r e l a t i ons f or S oc i a l V a l i di t y a nd C hi l d O ut c om e s 90

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vi L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i gur e 1 F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y A c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt s 131 F i gur e 2 L e t t e r K now l e dge P e r f or m a nc e A c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt s 133 F i gur e 3 H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng of F S F D a t a i n B a s e l i ne a nd I nt e r ve nt i on P ha s e s 77 F i gur e 4 H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng of F S F D a t a i n B a s e l i ne a nd F ol l ow U p P ha s e s 79 F i g ur e 5 H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng of L K D a t a i n B a s e l i ne a nd I nt e r ve nt i on P ha s e s 82 F i gur e 6 H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng of L K D a t a i n B a s e l i ne a nd F ol l ow U p P ha s e s 84

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vi i D E V E L O P I N G P R E L I T E R A C Y S K I L L S I N P R E S C H O O L C H I L D R E N : T H E U T I L I Z A T I O N O F P A R E N T S A S A V I T A L R E S O U R C E A s hl e y N S undm a n A B S T R A C T T hi s s t udy e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of a pa r e nt i m p l e m e nt e d i nt e r ve nt i on on pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n s de ve l opm e nt of l e t t e r na m i ng a nd phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s S i x pa r e nt c hi l d dya ds w i t h c hi l dr e n e nr ol l e d i n a H e a d S t a r t P r ogr a m i n W e s t C e nt r a l F l or i da w e r e s e l e c t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. A m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne a c r os s pa r t i c i pa nt s de s i gn w a s us e d t o e va l ua t e t he i m pa c t of a n i nt e r v e nt i on pa c ka ge t ha t i nc l ude d a c t i vi t i e s f oc us i ng on: ( 1 ) us i ng m ne m oni c s t o l e a r n l e t t e r na m e s a nd ( 2) de ve l opi ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s of t he ons e t s of w or ds t hr ough pa r e nt q ue s t i oni ng a nd f e e dba c k. P honol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s de ve l opm e nt w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng t he D yna m i c I ndi c a t or s of B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y ( D I B E L S F S F ) a nd l e t t e r na m i ng a bi l i t y w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng t he D I B E L S L e t t e r K now l e dge ( D I B E L S L K ) pr obe s R e s ul t s s how e d t ha t f i ve o f t he s i x s t ude nt s r e s ponde d f a vor a bl y t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on i nc r e a s i ng t he i r gr ow t h r a t e on a t l e a s t one of t he t w o m e a s ur e s T h e f i na l c hi l d s how e d l i t t l e c ha nge i n t r e nds a c r os s t he pha s e s A ddi t i ona l l y, da t a w a s c ol l e c t e d r e ga r di ng i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e g r i t y of i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on a s w e l l a s s oc i a l va l i di t y, o r t he a c c e pt a nc e a nd us e f ul ne s s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on I nt e r ve nt i o n i nt e gr i t y da t a r e ve a l e d t ha t t he m a j or i t y of pa r e nt s c om pl e t e d t he i nt e r ve nt i on w i t h h i gh l e ve l s of f i de l i t y a l t hough va r i a bi l i t y a c r os s pa r e nt s w a s not e d. S oc i a l va l i d i t y da t a i n di c a t e d t h a t t he pa r e nt s f ound t he p r ogr a m he l pf ul a nd e f f e c t i ve I m pl i c a t i ons f o r r e s e a r c h a nd pr a c t i c e a r e di s c us s e d.

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1 C H A P T E R O N E I N T R O D U C T I O N S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m T he m a t t e r of l i t e r a c y ha s be c om e a na t i ona l c onc e r n. A s t udy c om m i s s i one d by t he U S gove r nm e nt r e ve a l e d t ha t 14% o f A m e r i c a n a dul t s pos s e s s be l ow ba s i c l i t e r a c y s ki l l s i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he s e a dul t s w oul d ha ve di f f i c ul t y us i ng a t e l e vi s i on gui de t o de t e r m i ne a s how t i m e or c om pa r i ng t i c ke t pr i c e s f or t w o e ve nt s ( N C E S 2006) I l l i t e r a c y c or r e l a t e s s t r ongl y w i t h e xt e ns i ve i nc r e a s e s i n he a l t h c a r e c os t s hi ghe r l i ke l i hood o f i m pr i s onm e nt a nd hi ghe r l i ke l i ho od o f r e c e i vi ng g ove r nm e nt a s s i s t a nc e ( A r ka ns a s L i t e r a c y C ounc i l 2005) D ue t o t he s e c onc e r ns l i t e r a c y ha s c om e t o t he f or e f r ont o f i s s ue s f or t he U S gove r n m e nt R e c e nt l e gi s l a t i on a ddr e s s e s t he l i t e r a c y pr obl e m w i t h bot h e xpe c t a t i ons f o r a c hi e ve m e nt ( e g. N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t N C L B ) a nd pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt ( e g S e c t i on 1118) T he N C L B m a nda t e s t ha t s c hool s m oni t or ba s i c s ki l l de ve l opm e nt i n r e a di ng a nd m a t h. I t a l s o s e t s a goa l of ha vi ng a l l s t ude nt s r e a c h s t a t e s t a nda r ds i n r e a di ng a nd m a t h by 2013 2014. S e c t i on 1118 of N C L B f o c us e s on pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt a nd s t a t e s t ha t s c hool s s houl d e nc our a ge pa r e nt s t o: ( 1) a s s i s t i n t he i r c hi l d s l e a r ni ng, ( 2) be a c t i ve l y i nvol ve d i n t he i r c hi l d s e duc a t i on, a nd ( 3 ) be i nc l ude d i n m a ki ng de c i s i ons a bout t he i r c hi l d s e duc a t i on. P a r e nt i nvol ve m e nt i s no l onge r a n opt i ona l a c t i vi t y a s s c hool s a r e now r e qui r e d t o e nc our a ge pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa t i on. A m ul t i t ude o f r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t f a m i l y i nvol ve m e nt di r e c t l y r e l a t e s t o s t ude nt a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt ( E ps t e i n, 2002; F a nt uz z o, M c W a yne P e r r y & C hi l ds 2004) S pe c i f i c a l l y, pa r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt i n r e a di ng a c t i vi t i e s ha s be e n f ound t o

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2 ove r c om e l i m i t a t i ons due t o e c onom i c e t hni c r a c i a l a nd e duc a t i ona l ba c kgr ounds t o i m pr ove c hi l dr e n s r e a di ng a bi l i t i e s ( A r nol d Z e l j o D oc t or o f f & O r t i z 2008; E ps t e i n, 1996) W hi l e r e s e a r c h ha s be e n c onduc t e d f oc us i n g on pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt onc e c hi l d r e n e nt e r f or m a l s c hool i ng, t he r e i s a pa uc i t y of r e s e a r c h a t t he p r e s c hool l e ve l W i t h gr e a t e r e m pha s i s on t he pr e ve nt i on of pr obl e m s t he e a r l y s c hool ye a r s be c om e a n i m por t a nt f oc us T he r e f o r e i t i s c r uc i a l t o i nve s t i ga t e w a ys i n w hi c h c a r e gi ve r s c a n be c om e i nvol ve d i n a nd e f f e c t i ve l y i m p r ove t he i r c hi l dr e n s e a r l y a c a de m i c a bi l i t i e s P r e ve nt i on a nd E a r l y I nt e r ve nt i on i n L i t e r a c y S k i l l s B ot h r e s e a r c h a nd l e gi s l a t i on a r e f oc us i ng on pr e v e nt i on a nd e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on t o he l p l e s s e n t he pr obl e m s w i t h i l l i t e r a c y i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s A good f ounda t i on of pr e l i t e r a c y s ki l l s c a n he l p pr e ve nt t he M a t t he w E f f e c t w he r e s t ude nt s w ho s t r u ggl e w i t h i ni t i a l r e a di ng s ki l l s f a l l f ur t he r a nd f u r t he r be hi nd t he i r pe e r s a s t i m e pa s s e s ( S t a novi c h, 1986) T he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( N R P ; 2000) h a s s um m a r i z e d r e a di ng r e s e a r c h a nd f ound t ha t phone m i c a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r know l e d ge pr e di c t f ut u r e s c ho ol s uc c e s s I n a ddi t i on, t he N a t i ona l E a r l y L i t e r a c y P a ne l ( N E L P ; 2008) c on f i r m e d t he i m po r t a nc e of t he s e s ki l l s a l ong w i t h s e ve r a l ot he r pr e di c t or s of e a r l y l i t e r a c y s uc c e s s T he s e s ki l l s t ypi c a l l y de ve l op dur i ng pr e s c hool P a r e nt i nvol ve m e nt a t t hi s s t a g e of de ve l opm e nt ha s pr ove n t o be e f f e c t i ve a nd pa r e nt s c a n be s uc c e s s f ul l y t a ught t o he l p t he i r c hi l d r e n i f gi ve n t he c or r e c t t ool s ( G a ng & P oe c he 1982) P a r e nt I nvol ve m e nt i n P r e s c hool V e r y f e w s t udi e s ha ve e xa m i ne d pa r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt a t t he p r e s c ho ol l e ve l A r nol d a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2008) e xpl or e d t he e xi s t i n g l i t e r a t ur e ba s e a nd f ound on l y f ou r s t udi e s t ha t i nve s t i ga t e d pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt a nd pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n s e m e r gi ng a c a de m i c

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3 s ki l l s T hr e e o f t he f our s t udi e s f oc us e d pr i m a r i l y on t e a c he r r a t i ngs of pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt a nd onl y r e por t e d c o r r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t e a c he r pe r c e pt i ons r a t i ngs of pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt a nd c hi l d r e n s pe r f or m a nc e on e a r l y a c a de m i c s ki l l t a s ks ( M a nt z i c opoul os 1997; M a r c on, 1999; T a yl o r & M a c hi da 1994) A f our t h s t udy d i r e c t l y m e a s ur e d pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt be ha vi or s i n H e a d S t a r t c l a s s r oom s a nd a t hom e ( F a nt uz z o e t a l 2004) R e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e d a s t r ong pos i t i ve r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n hom e ba s e d i nvol ve m e nt a nd de ve l opm e nt o f r e c e pt i ve voc a bu l a r y. R e s e a r c h ha s f ound t ha t t he r e i s l e s s pa r e nt i nvol v e m e nt i n hous e hol ds t ha t f a l l be l ow t he pove r t y t hr e s hol d ( R us h, 1999) T he s e p a r e nt s of t e n ha ve l ow e r l e ve l s of e duc a t i on, r e s ul t i ng i n r e s t r i c t e d r e s our c e s t o pr ovi de f or t he i r c hi l d r e n, a pr obl e m t ha t be c om e s e ve n m or e s i gni f i c a nt w he n pa r e nt s do no t s pe a k E ngl i s h ( Z i l l e t a l 2003) T he l i t e r a t u r e c l e a r l y de l i ne a t e s t ha t c hi l dr e n w ho gr ow up i n pove r t y a r e a t hi ghe r r i s ks f or a va r i e t y o f ne ga t i ve out c om e s L i vi ng i n pove r t y dur i ng pr e s c hool ne ga t i ve l y i m pa c t s c hi l dr e n s c ogni t i ve de ve l opm e nt a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt a nd s oc i o e m ot i ona l w e l l be i ng i n t he l ong t e r m ( A l l hus e n e t a l 2005; B r oo ks G unn & D unc a n, 1997 ) T he s e c hi l dr e n a r e a l s o e xpos e d t o m or e vi ol e nc e l i ve i n m or e c ha os ha ve m o r e s e pa r a t i on f r om t he i r pa r e nt s ha ve l e s s s t r uc t ur e a nd r out i ne a nd a r e l e s s s oc i a l l y s uppor t e d ( E va ns 2004) T he m ul t i pl e s t r e s s or s t ha t r e s ul t f r om l i vi n g i n pove r t y pr ovi de a s t r ong r a t i ona l e f or i m p l e m e nt i ng i nt e r ve nt i ons w i t h a t r i s k popul a t i ons I nt e r ve nt i on M a ny i nt e r ve nt i on s ha ve be e n f ound t o be e f f e c t i v e f or i m pr ovi ng c hi l dr e n s e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s I n t e r ve nt i ons a t t he pr e s c hool l e ve l t ypi c a l l y t a r ge t a s pe c i f i c a r e a ( e g

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4 phone m i c a w a r e ne s s l e t t e r na m e a nd l e t t e r s ound c or r e s ponde nc e s ) a nd i nc or por a t e va r i e d a c t i vi t i e s t o de ve l op t he s ki l l ( S i nde l a r L a ne P ul l e n & H uds on, 2002 ) T he e a r l y l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge of t hi s s t udy w a s i nt e nde d t o a ddr e s s t he i s s ue s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a di s a dva nt a ge d e a r l y e nvi r onm e nt T he pa c ka ge i s a c om bi na t i on of t w o e vi de nc e ba s e d pr a c t i c e s T he f i r s t pa r t of t he pa c ka ge f oc us e s on t e a c hi ng t he na m e s of l e t t e r s t hr ough t he us e o f a m ne m oni c s t r a t e gy ( R a s c hke A l pe r & E gge r s 1999) T he s e c ond pa r t of t he pa c ka ge f oc us e s on de ve l opi ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i n a s e que nc e pr opos e d by S i nde l a r a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2002) A de t a i l e d e xpl a na t i on o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on pr oc e dur e a ppe a r s w i t hi n t he m e t hods s e c t i on of t hi s doc um e nt I nt e r ve nt i on I nt e gr i t y & S oc i a l V a l i di t y A w e l l de s i gne d e m pi r i c a l s t udy of t he i m pa c t o f c a r e gi ve r i nvol ve m e nt on c hi l dr e n s e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s m us t go be yond s i m pl y t e a c hi ng c a r e gi ve r s a n i nt e r ve nt i on s t r a t e gy. E ns ur i ng t he i nt e g r i t y o f a n i nt e r ve nt i on c onduc t e d a t hom e i s vi t a l t o a f f i r m i ng t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on. A r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e ha s f ound a s i gni f i c a nt m ode r a t e c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd i nt e r ve nt i on out c om e s ( G r e s ha m G a ns l e N oe l l C ohe n, & R os e nbl um 1993 ) pr ovi di ng e vi de nc e t ha t i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y da t a c ol l e c t i on s houl d be a n i m por t a nt c om pone nt of a ny i nt e r ve nt i on r e s e a r c h. T o i l l us t r a t e t hi s B a t e s ( 2005) e xa m i ne d f i f t e e n s t udi e s t ha t i m pl e m e nt e d f a m i l y s c hool i nt e r ve nt i ons w i t h pr e s c hool a nd ki nde r ga r t e n c hi l dr e n. I nt e r ve nt i ons pr i m a r i l y t a r ge t e d e a r l y a c a de m i c s ki l l s a nd c om pl i a nc e w i t h a dul t r e que s t s R e s ul t s of t he a na l ys i s di s pl a ye d t ha t i n c om pa r i s on t o s t udi e s t ha t di d not ha ve a de qua t e i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y t hos e t ha t di d ha ve a de qua t e i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y ( r a t e d a s 2 o r g r e a t e r on a 0 3 s c a l e ) pr oduc e d s l i ght l y l a r ge r e f f e c t s i z e s ( B a t e s 2005 )

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5 W hi l e i nt e r ve nt i on i n t e gr i t y i s a n i m por t a nt pa r t of a ny i nt e r ve nt i on i t c a n be i m pa c t e d by t he pe r c e pt i ons o f t hos e di r e c t l y i nvol ve d i n i m pl e m e nt a t i on S oc i a l va l i di t y r e f e r s t o t he a ppr a i s a l of t he i nt e r ve nt i on by c ons um e r s ( W ol f 1978) S oc i a l va l i di t y c a n be br oke n up i nt o t h r e e c om pone nt s : ( 1 ) goa l s ( 2) pr oc e dur e s a nd ( 3 ) out c om e s ( W i t t & E l l i ot t 1985) Q ue s t i ons s uc h a s W e r e t he goa l s a ppr opr i a t e f o r t hi s c hi l d? W a s a ny pa r t of t he pr oc e dur e f or i m pl e m e nt a t i on a ve r s i ve t o you? a nd W h a t w e r e t he i n t e nde d a nd uni nt e nde d out c om e s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on? c a n a s s e s s t he s e c om pone nt s P r i or t o a nd a f t e r i m pl e m e nt i ng a n i nt e r ve nt i on t he opi ni ons o f t he c ons um e r s s houl d be e xpl or e d on a l l t hr e e c om pone nt s ( W i t t & E l l i o t t 1985) P ur pos e T hi s s t udy ha s a dde d t o t he l i m i t e d l i t e r a t ur e ba s e on how c a r e gi ve r s c a n be i nvol ve d i n e nha nc i ng t he i r c hi l d r e n s a c a de m i c s ki l l s W i t h l e gi s l a t i on a dvoc a t i ng f o r gr e a t e r pa r e nt i nvo l ve m e nt i n a c hi l d s e duc a t i on, i t i s i m por t a nt t o i nve s t i ga t e w a ys i n w hi c h c a r e gi ve r i nvol ve m e nt w i l l r e s ul t i n hi gh l e v e l s of s uc c e s s f or c hi l dr e n. T hi s s t udy ha s e xa m i ne d t he i m pa c t of a pa r e nt l e d i nt e r ve nt i on on pr e s c hool c hi l d r e n s e a r l y l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt T he de gr e e t o w hi c h i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd e a s e of i m pl e m e nt a t i on i nf l ue nc e e a r l y l i t e r a c y ou t c om e s ha s a l s o be e xpl or e d. T he r e s ul t s of t hi s pr oj e c t ha ve c ont r i but e d t o t he l i t e r a t ur e on pa r e nt ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons f or e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l de ve l opm e nt a nd pr ovi de a m e t hod f or i m pr o vi ng ki nde r ga r t e n r e a di ne s s f or und e r pr i vi l e ge d c hi l dr e n

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6 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s T he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons ha ve be e n e xa m i ne d i n t hi s s t udy: 1. I s t he pa r e nt l e d i nt e r ve nt i on a n e f f e c t i ve m e t ho d f or i m pr ovi ng a c hi l d s e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s ( phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r n a m i ng) ? 2. G i ve n t he e vi de nc e ba s e d pr a c t i c e s us e d t o i nc r e a s e i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e g r i t y ( i e vi de ot a pe d de m ons t r a t i ons l e s s on pl a n pa c ke t s ) w a s t he i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt e d w i t h i nt e g r i t y? 3. W ha t i s t he s t r e ngt h a nd di r e c t i on o f t he r e l a t i ons h i p be t w e e n i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd ou t c om e s on phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng a s s e s s m e nt s ? 4. W ha t i s t he l e ve l o f i nt e r ve nt i on a c c e pt a bi l i t y of t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i on a s r a t e d by t he I nt e r ve nt i on R a t i ng P r o f i l e ( W i t t & E l l i ot 1985) ? 5. W ha t qua l i t i e s of t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i on ( e g. l e s s on pl a ns t r a i ni ng s e s s i on, f ol l ow up s uppor t ) do pa r e nt s pe r c e i ve t o be t he m os t he l pf ul ? 6. W ha t i s t he s t r e ngt h a nd di r e c t i on o f t he r e l a t i on s hi p be t w e e n t he l e ve l of i nt e r ve nt i on a c c e pt a bi l i t y a s r a t e d b y t he I nt e r ve nt i on R a t i ng P r o f i l e a nd t he out c om e s on phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng a s s e s s m e nt s ? S i gni f i c a nc e of t he S t udy D i f f i c ul t i e s i n r e a di ng a r e c om m on a m ong c hi l dr e n i n e a r l y e l e m e nt a r y s c hool R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t t he t w o m os t s i gni f i c a nt pr e di c t or s of k i nde r ga r t e n s uc c e s s upon e nt r y i nt o s c hool a r e phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng a bi l i t y ( B l a c hm a n, 1994; D a l y, W r i ght K e l l y & M a r t e ns 1997; E hr i & R obe r t s 2006; N R P 2000; S ha r e J or m M a c L e a n, & M a t t he w s 1984) A p r e ve nt i on pe r s p e c t i ve a i m s t o i nt e r ve ne p r i or t o

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7 pr obl e m s oc c ur r i ng. T hi s w oul d poi nt t o be gi nni ng i nt e r ve nt i ons a t t he pr e s c hool l e ve l P r ogr a m s s uc h a s H e a d S t a r t pr ovi de a s t e p i n t he r i ght di r e c t i on but i nc r e a s i ng pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt c a n pr ovi de f ur t he r s uppo r t t o e s t a bl i s h a s ol i d f ounda t i on i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s E f f e c t i ve i nt e r ve nt i ons c a n i nc r e a s e pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt a nd c hi l dr e n s s ki l l s t o be t t e r pr e pa r e c hi l d r e n f o r ki nde r ga r t e n ( N E L P 20 08) I t i s e s s e nt i a l t ha t s t r a t e gi e s s uc h a s t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge t ha t ha s be e n i m pl e m e nt e d i n t hi s s t udy, be e va l ua t e d f or e f f e c t i ve ne s s

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8 C H A P T E R T W O R E V I E W O F T H E R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E O ve r vi e w L i t e r a c y i s a g r ow i ng na t i ona l c onc e r n. I n a r e c e nt r e por t by t he N a t i ona l A s s e s s m e nt of E duc a t i ona l P r o gr e s s ( N A E P ) on l y 32% o f s t ude nt s i n t he U S w e r e a t o r a bove a pr of i c i e nt l e ve l i n r e a di ng ( N A E P 2007) E ve n m or e t r oubl i ng w a s t ha t onl y t w o t hi r ds ( 66 % ) of s t ude nt s a t t a i ne d a ba s i c l e ve l of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( N A E P 2007 ) T he N R P ( 2000 ) i ndi c a t e d t ha t ove r 17. 5 % of c hi l dr e n w i l l ha ve r e a di ng pr ob l e m s w i t hi n t he i r f i r s t t hr e e ye a r s o f s c hool S t ude nt s w ho i ni t i a l l y s t r uggl e w i t h a c qui r i ng r e a di ng s ki l l s a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o be c om e l i t e r a t e l a t e r ( T o r ge s e n & B ur ge s s 1998) I n f a c t of c hi l dr e n w ho e xp e r i e nc e r e a di ng pr obl e m s i n t hi r d gr a de 75% w i l l c ont i nue t o de m ons t r a t e de f i c i t s i n r e a di ng s ki l l ( L yon, 1995) T he r e m a i nde r of t he c ha pt e r t ha t f ol l ow s c r i t i c a l l y r e vi e w s r e s e a r c h r e ga r di ng t he i m pa c t of s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us on pr e l i t e r a c y s ki l l s e a r l y l i t e r a c y, a nd t he r ol e pa r e nt s p l a y i n t he i r c hi l d s pa t h t o l i t e r a c y. T he r e vi e w c onc l ude s w i t h a s um m a r y o f t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e a nd a de s c r i pt i on of t he pur pos e of t he s t udy S oc i oe c onom i c S t a t us a nd E a r l y L i t e r a c y S oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us ha s be e n s how n t o ha ve m ul t i pl e i m pa c t s or c or r e l a t e s t o e a r l y l i t e r a c y e xpe r i e nc e s E va ns ( 2004) r e vi e w e d t he r e l e va nt l i t e r a t u r e a nd f ound t ha t w he n s e pa r a t i ng pa r e nt s i nt o c l a s s e s by e i t he r i nc o m e or p r of e s s i on/ e duc a t i on, t he f i ndi ngs a r e c ons i s t e nt C hi l dr e n i n l ow e r s oc i oe c onom i c c l a s s e s ha ve f e w e r w or ds a ddr e s s e d t o t he m go t o t he l i br a r y l e s s f r e que nt l y a r e e nga ge d i n c onve r s a t i on l e s s of t e n, a r e r e a d t o l e s s of t e n, a nd a r e m or e l i ke l y t o be or de r e d t o do s om e t hi ng ( F e de r a l

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9 I nt e r a ge nc y F or um on C hi l d a nd F a m i l y S t a t i s t i c s 2000; K a ga n & T ul ki n 1971 ; H a r t & R i s l e y, 1995; H of f L a ur s e n, T a r di f f 2002) M a ny of t he s e f a c t or s di r e c t l y i m pa c t e a r l y l i t e r a c y due t o e xpos ur e t o l a ngua ge a nd pr i nt M e t s a l a ( 1996) i nve s t i ga t e d t he e f f e c t s of i nc om e on hom e l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s of f a m i l i e s w i t hi n t he B a l t i m or e r e gi on. F a m i l i e s w e r e i nc l ude d i f t he y ha d a c hi l d i n pr e ki nde r ga r t e n i n t he 1992 1993 s c hool ye a r T he s a m pl e c a m e f r om f our ne i ghbor hoods i n B a l t i m or e t ha t ha d d i ve r s e popul a t i ons T he f our s e pa r a t e ne i ghbor h oods w e r e c om pos e d of : ( 1) l ow i nc om e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n f a m i l i e s ( 2) l ow i nc om e E ur ope a n A m e r i c a ns ( 3) a m i x of l ow i nc om e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns a nd E ur ope a n A m e r i c a ns a nd ( 4) a m i x of m i ddl e i nc om e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a ns a nd E ur ope a n A m e r i c a ns P a r e nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o ke e p di a r i e s of t he i r c hi l d s hom e a c t i vi t i e s f o r one w e e k a nd w e r e i nt e r vi e w e d r e ga r di ng t he i r c hi l d s e nga ge m e nt i n m a ny a c t i vi t i e s t hought t o pr om ot e t he de ve l opm e nt o f e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s A n a ne c dot a l i ns pe c t i on of t he l a ngua ge us e d w i t hi n t he l ow i nc om e hom e s pr ovi de d m ul t i pl e e xa m pl e s of t he l a ngua ge c hi l dr e n i n t h i s s t udy w e r e e xpos e d t o du r i ng t he i r e a r l y l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt T he i m pr ope r g r a m m a r a nd m i s us e of w or ds w e r e hypo t he s i z e d t o c ont r i but e t o di f f i c ul t i e s i n l e a r ni ng t o r e a d pr ope r E ngl i s h. R e s ul t s s how e d gr e a t e r di f f e r e nc e s w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gr oupe d by s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us t ha n w he n gr oupe d by r a c e A l s o, m i ddl e i nc om e f a m i l i e s e nga ge d i n r e a di ng a nd l i t e r a c y r e l a t e d a c t i vi t i e s a s a s our c e of e nt e r t a i nm e nt f o r t he i r c hi l dr e n I n c ont r a s t l ow i nc om e f a m i l i e s of t e n e nga ge d i n ve r y s t r uc t ur e d a c t i vi t i e s s uc h a s r e c i t i ng t he a l pha be t or us i ng f l a s hc a r ds vi e w i ng t he s e a c t i vi t i e s m or e a s t a s ks t ha n a s e nj oya bl e pur s ui t s

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10 R us h ( 1999) e xa m i ne d t he a c t i vi t i e s w i t hi n t he ho m e s of c hi l dr e n e nr ol l e d i n H e a d S t a r t S he s ur ve ye d a nd obs e r ve d a t ot a l o f t hi r t y ni ne f a m i l i e s I nf or m a t i on on c hi l d s ki l l s w a s obt a i ne d t hr ough t he P e a body P i c t ur e V oc a bul a r y T e s t R e vi s e d ( P P V T R ; D unn & D unn 1981 ) t he E xp r e s s i ve O ne W or d P i c t ur e V oc a bul a r y T e s t ( E O W P V T R ; G a r dne r 1990) l e t t e r s na m e d w i t hi n one m i nut e i ni t i a l s ounds of w or ds ge ne r a t e d w i t hi n one m i nut e a nd phone m e bl e ndi ng. C hi l dr e n i n t hi s s t udy w e r e f ound t o s c or e on a ve r a ge a bout t w o t hi r ds t o one s t a nda r d de vi a t i on be l ow t he m e a n on t he s t a nda r di z e d voc a bul a r y m e a s ur e s ( P P V T R a nd E O W P V T R ) T he l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s t ha t e a c h H e a d S t a r t f a m i l y e nga ge d i n w e r e m e a s ur e d t hr ough t he S t ony B r ook F a m i l y R e a di ng S ur ve y ( S F R S ; W hi t e hur s t 1992) T hi s ni ne i t e m m ul t i pl e c hoi c e que s t i onna i r e a s s e s s e s how f r e que nt l y pa r e nt s r e a d t o t he i r c hi l dr e n, t he num be r o f books i n t he hom e c hi l d s i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng or be i ng r e a d t o, a nd ot he r l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s t ha t t a ke p l a c e w i t hi n t he hom e T he hom e l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt w a s r e c or de d us i ng t he C ode f or I nt e r a c t i ve R e c or di ng of C a r e gi vi ng a nd L e a r ni ng E nvi r onm e nt s 2 ( C I R C L E 2; A t w a t e r M ont a gna C r e i ght on, W i l l i a m s & H ou, 1993) T he C I R C L E 2 a s s e s s e s t he hom e e nvi r onm e nt w i t hi n t hr e e dom a i ns : ( 1) t he e c ol ogy o f t he c a r e gi vi ng e nvi r onm e nt ( 2) t he c a r e gi ve r s be ha vi or a nd ( 3) t he c hi l d s e nga ge m e nt w i t h pe opl e a nd obj e c t s w i t hi n t he c a r e gi vi ng s e t t i ng. A na l ys i s r e ve a l e d t ha t de s pi t e t he H e a d S t a r t pr e s c hool s of f e r i ng m ul t i pl e l i t e r a c y e n ha nc i ng a c t i vi t i e s no pa r e nt s s ur ve ye d ut i l i z e d t he m a t e r i a l s o r s e r vi c e s T he hom e obs e r v a t i on f ound t ha t a m a j o r i t y o f c hi l d r e n w e r e r a r e l y e nga ge d i n s t r uc t ur e d a c t i vi t i e s a nd s pe nt m os t of t he i r t i m e w a nde r i ng f r om a c t i vi t y t o a c t i vi t y w a t c hi ng t e l e vi s i on, o r e nga gi n g i n non i nt e r a c t i ve pl a y. F o r a t l e a s t ha l f of t he obs e r va t i on pe r i ods t he c a r e gi ve r w a s pr e s e nt w hi l e t he c hi l d c ont i nue d i n

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11 uns t r uc t ur e d a c t i vi t i e s a r ound t he hom e T he a m ou nt of t i m e i n s t r uc t ur e d a nd uns t r uc t ur e d a c t i vi t i e s i s i m por t a nt t o not e be c a us e c hi l dr e n w ho w e r e m or e of t e n e nga ge d i n s t r uc t ur e d a c t i vi t i e s a nd pl a y w i t h a c a r e gi ve r t e nde d t o s c or e h i ghe r on l i t e r a c y a nd voc a bul a r y s ki l l s ( R us h, 1999) R e s e a r c h c onduc t e d w i t h H e a d S t a r t s t ude nt s f oun d t ha t c hi l dr e n c om i ng f r om t he s e l ow i nc om e hom e s pe r f or m e d c ons i de r a bl y b e l ow t he na t i ona l no r m s i n voc a bul a r y, w r i t i ng a bi l i t y e m e r ge nt r e a di ng, a nd l e t t e r i de nt i f i c a t i on T he pe r f or m a nc e s c or e s on a ve r a ge w e r e t w o t hi r ds t o one f ul l s t a nda r d de vi a t i on be l ow na t i ona l nor m s ( Z i l l e t a l 2001, 2003) L e gi s l a t i on S uppor t i ng L i t e r a c y T he r e s e a r c h t ha t ha s e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of pove r t y on a c a de m i c s ki l l a c qui s i t i on a nd t he r e s e a r c h de l i ne a t i ng t he di f f i c ul t i e s young r e a de r s f a c e a f t e r f a l l i ng be hi nd a c a de m i c e xpe c t a nc i e s ha s pr om pt e d t he c r e a t i on of a s ys t e m t o e ns ur e t ha t a l l c hi l dr e n r e c e i ve qua l i t y e duc a t i on. T he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ( N C L B ; 2001 ) e ndor s e s r e f or m s t ha t a r e ba s e d on t he be l i e f t ha t s e t t i ng hi gh e xpe c t a t i ons a nd e s t a bl i s hi ng m e a s ur a bl e goa l s c a n i m pr ove i ndi vi d ua l out c om e s i n e duc a t i on. T he l a w s t a t e s t ha t s c hool s m us t c r e a t e a s ys t e m t ha t a s s e s s e s a nd m oni t or s ba s i c s ki l l de ve l opm e nt T he goa l a c c or di ng t o t he l a w i s t o h a ve 100% of s t ude nt s r e a c h s t a t e s t a nda r ds i n m a t h a nd r e a di ng by 2013 2014. T o s uppor t l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt di r e c t l y R e a di ng F i r s t a nd E a r l y R e a di ng F i r s t w e r e e s t a bl i s he d. R e a di ng F i r s t i s a p r ogr a m m a nda t e d unde r N C L B t ha t pr ov i de s f undi ng t o T i t l e I s c hool s i n or de r t o i m pr ove r e a di ng out c om e s T he pr ogr a m f oc us e s on ki nde r ga r t e n t hr ough t hi r d gr a de F unds a r e t o be us e d t o i m p l e m e nt s c i e nt i f i c a l l y b a s e d r e a di ng

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12 r e s e a r c h ( S B R R ) a nd t o hi r e c oa c he s t o a s s i s t t e a c he r s w i t h i m pr ov i ng c l a s s r oom r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. A r e c e nt r e vi e w of t he da t a f ou nd t ha t t he R e a di ng F i r s t i ni t i a t i ve w a s e f f e c t i ve i n i m p r ovi ng c hi l d r e n s ba s i c e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s s uc h a s phoni c s phone m i c a w a r e ne s s a nd f l ue nc y ( M a nz o, 2008) E a r l y R e a di ng F i r s t t he c om pa ni on o f R e a di ng F i r s t f oc us e s on pr e ki nde r ga r t e n m a t e r i a l s a nd c oa c he s t o i nc r e a s e r e a di ng r e a di ne s s T he m one y i s a l l oc a t e d f o r i m pl e m e nt i ng e vi de nc e ba s e d r e a di ng r e s e a r c h i n a r e a s w i t h hi gh c onc e nt r a t i ons o f l ow i nc om e f a m i l i e s E xa m pl e s of t he t ype s of pr ogr a m s s uppor t e d i nc l ude H e a d S t a r t a nd ot he r s c hool ba s e d a nd f a m i l y l i t e r a c y s e t t i ngs W hi l e t he r e i s r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t i ng t ha t s t ude nt s a r e m a ki ng ga i ns i n l i t e r a c y s ki l l s m a ny s t ude nt s s t i l l do not m e e t gr a de l e ve l e xpe c t a t i ons i n r e a di ng ( N A E P 2007 ) L e gi s l a t i on i s e nc our a gi ng t he us e of e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on w i t h t he us e of e vi de nc e ba s e d pr a c t i c e s t o i nc r e a s e c hi l dr e n s l i t e r a c y s ki l l s E vi de nc e ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons ( E B I ; F or m a n & B u r ke 2008 ) ha ve be e n s how n t o be e f f e c t i ve t hr ough w e l l c ont r o l l e d r e s e a r c h. I m pl e m e nt i ng E B I s w he n i ni t i a l de f i c i t s i n s ki l l s a ppe a r i s c r i t i c a l due t o w ha t ha s be e n t e r m e d t he M a t t he w E f f e c t T he M a t t he w E f f e c t r e f e r s t o a phe nom e na i n w hi c h c hi l dr e n w ho ha ve di f f i c ul t y w i t h i ni t i a l r e a di ng s ki l l s t e nd t o m a s t e r s ubs e que nt r e a di ng s ki l l s m o r e s l ow l y t ha n pe e r s o f t e n r e s ul t i ng i n m or e s t r e s s a nd f e a r o f f a i l ur e ( S t a novi c h, 1986) T he s e c ons e que nc e s be c om e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h r e a di ng m a ki ng i t a ne ga t i ve e xpe r i e nc e a nd s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s be gi n t o a voi d e nga gi ng i n r e a di ng a c t i vi t i e s t he r e f o r e de c r e a s i ng t he i r oppo r t uni t i e s t o pr a c t i c e r e a di ng s ki l l s ( S t a novi c h, 1986; T opp i ng & L i nds a y, 1992)

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13 P a t h t o L i t e r a c y E a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s a r e c r i t i c a l t o pr ogr e s s i n s c ho ol R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t t he t w o bi gge s t pr e di c t or s o f ki nde r ga r t e n s uc c e s s upon e nt r y i n t o s c hool a r e phono l ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng a bi l i t y ( B l a c hm a n, 19 94; D a l y e t a l 1997; E hr i & R obe r t s 2006; N E L P 2008; N R P 2000; S ha r e e t a l 1984 ) C hi l dr e n w ho ha ve a de qua t e s ki l l s i n t he s e a r e a s w he n e nt e r i ng ki nde r ga r t e n a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o ha ve di f f i c ul t i e s i n l a t e r s c hool ye a r s ( S t e ve ns on & N e w m a n, 1986) I n f a c t r a t i ng s on r e a di ng s ki l l s t a ke n p r i or t o ki n de r ga r t e n c or r e l a t e d w i t h c om pr e he ns i on ( r = 6 0) a nd de c odi ng ( r = 61) s c or e s i n f i f t h gr a de a nd c om p r e he ns i on s c or e s i n t e nt h gr a de ( r = 60; S t e ve ns on & N e w m a n, 1986) E s t a bl i s hi ng t he s e e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s p r i or t o ki nd e r ga r t e n pr ovi de s c hi l dr e n w i t h a s t r ong f ounda t i on a nd s pr i ngboa r d f or t he i r f ut ur e e duc a t i on. E m e r ge nt l i t e r a c y a nd e a r l y l i t e r a c y a r e t w o t e r m s t ha t a r e of t e n us e d t o de s c r i be w ha t t a ke s pl a c e i n t he de ve l opm e nt o f a c hi l d s l i t e r a c y s ki l l s H ow e ve r t he s e t w o t e r m s a r e not t he s a m e E m e r ge nt l i t e r a c y a s de f i ne d by G unn, S i m m ons a nd K a m e e nui ( 1995) de s c r i be s t he br oa d c onc e pt o f know l e dge l e a r ne d pr i or t o f or m a l i ns t r uc t i on t ha t l e a ds t o a n a w a r e ne s s of pr i nt E xa m pl e s of t hi s a w a r e ne s s a r e know l e dge of t he how t o hol d a nd t ur n pa ge s of a book, a nd r e c ogni z i ng a p hr a s e s uc h a s a nd t he y l i ve d ha ppi l y e ve r a f t e r a s a c l os e t o a s t or y E a r l y l i t e r a c y t ypi c a l l y r e f e r s t o s ki l l s c hi l dr e n a r e e xpe c t e d t o m a s t e r dur i ng t he f i r s t f e w ye a r s of f or m a l s c hool i ng s uc h a s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd t he a l pha be t i c pr i nc i pl e o r t he kno w l e dge t ha t l e t t e r s a nd s ounds c or r e s pond t o one a not he r i n s pe c i f i c w a ys ( D a l y, C ha f oul e a s & S ki nne r 2005 ) T he f oc us of t hi s s t udy i s on i nt e r ve nt i ons of e a r l y l i t e r a c y a bi l i t i e s i n t ha t t he s ki l l s o f l e t t e r

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14 na m i ng a nd phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a r e e xpe c t e d t o be m a s t e r e d w i t hi n t he f i r s t ye a r s of s c hool A not he r i m por t a nt c onc e pt t o unde r s t a nd w he n e x a m i ni ng t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y r e s e a r c h i s t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n phonol ogi c a l a n d phone m i c a w a r e ne s s P honol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s c on s i s t s of f our l e ve l s o f a w a r e ne s s : w or d, s yl l a bl e ons e t / r i m e a nd phone m e ( S i nde l a r e t a l 2002) T he w o r d l e ve l o f phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s de ve l ops ve r y young a s c hi l dr e n s e gm e nt s poke n l a ngua ge i nt o w o r ds T yp i c a l l y, by t he a ge of t hr e e m os t c hi l dr e n c a n de t e c t t he be a t o f l a ngua ge by c l a ppi ng or w a l ki ng t o t he be a t of w or ds s how i ng a m a s t e r y of s yl l a bl e a w a r e ne s s ( S i nde l a r e t a l 2002) T he ons e t / r i m e l e ve l of a w a r e ne s s de ve l op s a l i t t l e l a t e r a nd c hi l dr e n o f t e n e nj oy pl a yi ng ga m e s p r a c t i c i ng t he s e s ki l l s by r hym i ng w or ds ( m ous e a nd ho us e ) a nd s t a t i ng w or ds t ha t s t a r t w i t h t he s a m e s ound ( s a t a nd s i p, phone a nd f un; S i nde l a r e t a l 2 002) P hone m i c a w a r e ne s s i s t he hi ghe s t l e ve l of phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd c ons i s t s of t he a bi l i t y t o b r e a k w or ds or s yl l a bl e s i nt o i ndi vi dua l phone m e s a nd t he n m a ni p ul a t e t he m ( D a l y e t a l 2005 ) T hi s i nc l ude s bl e ndi ng i ndi vi dua l phone m e s s e gm e nt i ng phone m e s a nd de l e t i ng or r e ve r s i ng i ndi vi dua l phone m e s i n w or ds T h i s l e ve l of s ki l l e m e r ge s t hr oughout ki nde r ga r t e n a nd by t he e nd o f t ha t ye a r m os t c hi l d r e n w ho be c om e s uc c e s s f ul r e a de r s w i l l s how s om e s uc c e s s on t a s ks a s s e s s i ng t hi s l e ve l of phono l ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s ( S i nde l a r e t a l 2002) R e s e a r c h by t he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( N R P ; 20 00) f ound t ha t ph one m i c a w a r e ne s s l e d t o i m pr ove m e nt s i n not onl y phone m i c a w a r e ne s s but a l s o pos i t i ve l y i m pa c t e d r e a di ng a nd s pe l l i ng s ki l l s A l s o, phone m i c a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r know l e dge a r e t he t w o be s t s c hool e nt r y pr e di c t or s of how w e l l c hi l dr e n w i l l l e a r n t o r e a d du r i ng t he ki nde r ga r t e n a nd f i r s t g r a de ye a r s T he N R P ( 2000 ) e xt e ns i ve l y r e vi e w e d t he e xi s t i ng

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15 s c i e nt i f i c l i t e r a t ur e on r e a di ng s ki l l s a nd how t he s e s ki l l s s houl d be t a ught T he pa ne l f ound t ha t a l pha be t i c s ki l l s f l ue nc y, a nd c om p r e he ns i on a r e c r i t i c a l a r e a s of r e a di ng t o be t a ught t o s t ude nt s w i t hi n a c ur r i c ul u m A l pha be t i c s c ons i s t s of t w o s ubs ki l l s : phone m i c a w a r e ne s s a nd phoni c s A da m s ( 1990) s t a t e d t ha t t he de ve l opm e nt of phono l ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s r e qui r e s e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h l a ngua ge a c t i vi t i e s s uc h a s e nga ge m e nt i n s poke n l a ngua ge a nd l a ngua ge pl a y w i t h c a r e gi ve r s P honi c s c ons i s t s of unde r s t a ndi ng t he l e t t e r s ound c or r e s ponde nc e s or t he l i nks be t w e e n phone m e s a nd t he l e t t e r s t ha t r e pr e s e nt t h e m i n w r i t t e n l a ngua ge T he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( 2000) r e po r t e d t ha t s ys t e m a t i c pho ni c s i ns t r uc t i on pr oduc e d s i gni f i c a nt be ne f i t s i n r e a di ng a nd s pe l l i ng f o r c hi l d r e n i n k i n de r ga r t e n t hr ough s i xt h gr a de I t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t t he N R P d i d f i nd t ha t p honi c s i ns t r uc t i on di d not s i gni f i c a nt l y i m pr ove c hi l dr e n s a bi l i t y t o c om pr e he nd t e xt A f t e r c hi l dr e n de ve l op a s ol i d unde r s t a ndi ng of phoni c s ot he r s ki l l s s uc h a s f l ue nc y a nd c om pr e he ns i on s houl d be c om e a f oc us of t he r e a di ng c u r r i c ul um A n i m por t a nt pr e c ur s or t o de ve l opi ng t h i s s ki l l i s know l e dge of t he l e t t e r s t he m s e l ve s D e ve l opi ng P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s S ki l l s P honol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s c a n be i m pr ove d t h r ough a va r i e t y of e vi de nc e ba s e d pr oc e dur e s O ne s i m i l a r i t y be t w e e n a l l a c t i vi t i e s i s t ha t c hi l dr e n m us t be e nga ge d w i t h s om e one e l s e i n c om m uni c a t i on. T he s e s ki l l s c a nnot be i m p r ove d w i t h w r i t t e n w o r k ( S i nde l a r e t a l 2002) D a l y a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2005) a da pt e d s i x c r i t e r i a t o be m e t f o r good e a r l y l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on f r om S t a hl D u f f y H e s t e r a nd S t a hl ( 1998 ) E a r l y l i t e r a c y i ns t r uc t i on s houl d pr ovi de ( a ) de v e l opm e nt of t he a l pha be t i c pr i nc i pl e ( b) de ve l opm e nt of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s ( c ) a t ho r ough g r oundi ng i n l e t t e r s ( d ) s t i m ul a t i ng a nd

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16 e nga gi ng a c t i vi t i e s ( e ) s uf f i c i e nt p r a c t i c e i n r e a di n g w or ds a nd ( f ) de ve l opm e nt o f a ut om a t i c w or d r e c ogni t i on ( D a l y e t a l 2002) T h e be s t a c t i vi t i e s t o ut i l i z e de pe nd on w hi c h s ubs e t of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s i s be i ng a ddr e s s e d a nd t he a ge a nd s ki l l of t he c hi l d. T he or de r of i ns t r uc t i on f or t e a c hi ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s be gi ns br oa dl y by t e a c hi ng c hi l dr e n t o r e c o gni z e s e pa r a t e w or ds i n a s e nt e nc e a nd t he n m ovi ng t o s e gm e nt i ng t hos e w or ds i nt o s yl l a bl e s F u r t he r de v e l opm e nt i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s br e a ks dow n s yl l a bl e s i nt o phone m e s S i nde l a r a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2002) p r ovi de a c om pr e he ns i ve out l i ne of a c t i vi t i e s t ha t c a n be us e d t o t e a c h phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a t t he va r i ous l e ve l s F o r de ve l opi ng a w a r e ne s s a t t he w or d l e ve l s t ude nt s c a n be i ns t r uc t e d t o i de nt i f y s e pa r a t e w or ds by t a ppi ng e a c h w or d i n a s e nt e nc e or c onne c t i ng bl oc ks / s l i di ng be a ds f or e a c h w or d i n a s e nt e nc e I f a c hi l d ha s m a s t e r e d t he s e t a s ks m ovi ng on t o t a s ks t ha t f u r t he r s e gm e nt s poke n l a n gua ge a nd f oc us on t he s yl l a bl e s of a w or d i s a ppr opr i a t e C hi l d r e n c a n do a c t i vi t i e s s i m i l a r t o t hos e f or de ve l opi ng a w a r e ne s s a t t he w or d l e ve l bu t us e s yl l a bl e s f or e a c h c ount i ng uni t o r t he y c a n pl a y ga m e s s uc h a s r oc ki ng t he i r hi ps f o r e a c h s yl l a bl e i n a w or d m ov i ng t he s a m e num be r of s t e ps a s t he r e a r e s yl l a bl e s i n a w or d o r c l a ppi ng ou t s yl l a bl e s i n ot he r c hi l d r e n s na m e s or i n w or ds f or f a m i l i a r obj e c t s ( S i nde l a r e t a l 2002 ) A f t e r de ve l opi ng a n a w a r e ne s s of s yl l a bl e s w i t hi n a w or d, c hi l dr e n c a n be i ns t r uc t e d t o f oc us on e i t he r t he ons e t o r r hy m e of a w or d T a s ks t e a c hi ng t hi s l e ve l c a n r a nge i n di f f i c ul t y f r om ha v i ng a c hi l d r e c ogni z e a m a t c h i n on s e t or r hym e ( i e D o f i s h a nd w i s h r hym e ? ) t o a s ki ng t he c hi l d t o ge ne r a t e a r e s pons e ( i e W ha t i s a not he r w or d t ha t s t a r t s w i t h t he s a m e s ound a s m oon? ) ( S i nde l a r e t a l 2002) C hi l dr e n c a n be t a ught w or d f a m i l i e s s uc h a s t he a t or um f a m i l i e s L e a r ni ng nur s e r y

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17 r hym e s c a n a l s o be i nc or por a t e d a t t hi s l e ve l T he f i na l l e ve l of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s na r r ow s dow n t o t he i ndi vi dua l phone m e s w i t hi n a w or d, or phone m i c a w a r e ne s s S t ude nt s s houl d a c hi e ve t hi s l e ve l of s ki l l i n t he m i ddl e t o e nd o f t h e i r ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r A c t i vi t i e s t ha t w or k t o i m p r ove t hi s s ki l l i nc l ude a da pt i ng t he a c t i vi t i e s pr e vi ous l y di s c us s e d a s w e l l a s ha vi ng s t ude nt s i m a gi ne t ha t t he r e i s a r obot ( puppe t ) w ho onl y unde r s t a nds w or ds i f e a c h s ound i s s poke n s e pa r a t e l y or ha vi ng s t ude nt s l i s t e n f or a pa r t i c ul a r s ound ( i e / t / ) i n a l i s t of w or ds ( S i nde l a r e t a l 2002) I t i s i m po r t a nt t o ke e p i n m i nd t ha t t he s e a r e not t he onl y i nt e r ve nt i ons t h a t w i l l w or k T he m os t i m por t a nt t hi ng i s t ha t t he i nt e r ve nt i on m e e t s t he s i x c r i t e r i a s e t f or t h by D a l y e t a l ( 2005 ) T he t e a c hi ng pr oc e dur e out l i ne d a t t he ons e t r i m e l e ve l w i l l s e r ve a s pa r t of t he c ur r e nt s t udy s i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge t o i m pr ove c h i l dr e n s phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s T he ons e t / r i m e l e ve l w a s c hos e n a s a f oc us s i nc e i t i s a n e xc e l l e nt bui l di ng b l oc k f o r phone m i c a w a r e ne s s by he l pi ng c hi l dr e n t o na r r ow dow n t he ons e t or f i r s t s ound, o f a w or d. R hym i ng w a s not i nc l ude d i n t he i nt e r ve nt i o n be c a us e t he r e i s l i t t l e s uppor t f o r f oc us i ng on t he r hym e of a w or d I n f a c t N a t i o n a nd H ul m e ( 1997 ) f ound no s uppor t f o r be i ng a bl e t o i de nt i f y t he r hym e o f a w or d a s a m a j or pr e di c t or of f ut u r e r e a di ng o r s pe l l i ng a bi l i t i e s a f t e r c ont r ol l i ng f o r a ge a nd m e m or y. N a t i on a nd H ul m e ( 1997) s t udi e d f i r s t gr a de s t ude nt s a nd a s s uc h t he s e s t ude nt s m a y ha ve a l r e a dy ha d p r a c t i c e or i ns t r uc t i on w or ki ng on phone m i c a w a r e ne s s O ns e t w a s c hos e n f or t hi s s t udy a s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w i l l be a bout t w o ye a r s younge r a nd m a y ne e d i ns t r uc t i on a t a m or e ba s i c l e ve l t o pr e ve nt f r us t r a t i on I n t he c ur r e nt s t u dy, l e s s on pl a ns i nc r e a s e d i n di f f i c ul t y a c c or di ng t o t he f ol l ow i ng pr oc e s s : ( 1) c om pa r i ng t he ons e t s of t w o w o r ds ( 2 ) o r a l l y pr oduc i ng a w or d t ha t be gi ns w i t h t he s a m e ons e t a s a s t i m ul us w or d, a nd ( 3 ) pr oduc i ng

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18 onl y t he i ni t i a l s ound( s ) o f a n o r a l l y p r e s e nt e d w or d. T h i s i nt e r ve nt i on s e r ve d a s one of t he t w o c om pone nt s of t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y i n t e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge D e ve l opi ng L e t t e r N a m i ng S ki l l s T he r e i s s om e de ba t e a s t o w he t he r t o t e a c h l e t t e r na m e s l e t t e r s ound c or r e s ponde nc e or bot h A da m s ( 1990) a n d S t a hl e t a l ( 1998 ) r e c om m e nd t e a c hi ng bot h s ki l l s s i nc e l e t t e r know l e dge i s a pr e di c t o r o f f ut u r e s uc c e s s w i t h r e a di ng, a nd know i ng t he l e t t e r s ound c or r e s ponde nc e s he l ps de ve l op phoni c s s ki l l s a nd s pe l l i ng. W hi l e t e a c hi ng bot h c onc e pt s w oul d be i de a l t he pr e r e qu i s i t e s ki l l i s know l e dge of t he na m e s of t he l e t t e r s ( A da m s 1990; E hr i & R obe r t s 2006) T e a c hi ng l e t t e r r e c ogni t i on pr i o r t o l e t t e r s ound r e l a t i ons hi ps ha s s e ve r a l be ne f i t s F i r s t l e t t e r na m e s pr ovi de s e pa r a t e l a be l s s o c hi l dr e n c a n c a t e gor i z e e f f e c t i ve l y i nc l udi ng pl a c i ng bot h l ow e r a nd uppe r c a s e l e t t e r s i n a c or r e c t c a t e gor y. S e c ond, l a be l s a l l ow s t ude nt s t o t a l k a bout l e t t e r r e f e r e nt s w he n us i ng t he m t o r e a d or s pe l l T hi r d l a be l s a r e m uc h c l e a r e r t ha n us i ng s ounds a s l e t t e r s c a n r e pr e s e nt s e ve r a l s ounds F our t h c hi l d r e n w ho a l r e a dy know t he na m e s of l e t t e r s c a n l e a r n t he s ounds of l e t t e r s m or e qui c kl y ( S ha r e 20 04) F i na l l y, l e t t e r na m e s a r e e a s i e r t o he a r t ha n s ounds ( T r e i m a n & K e s s l e r 2003) m a ki ng t he m e a s i e r t o r e c r e a t e a c c ur a t e l y. R obe r t s ( 2003) a s s e s s e d w he t he r l e a r ni ng l e t t e r na m e s t r a ns l a t e s i nt o l e a r ni ng l e t t e r s ounds a nd a s s i s t s w i t h pr ogr e s s i nt o r e a di ng T h i r t y t hr e e pr e s c hool e r s ( a ge s 3 4 ) pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he s t udy. T w e nt y c hi l dr e n pr i m a r i l y s poke H m ong, n i ne s poke S pa ni s h a nd t he r e m a i ni ng f our s poke E ngl i s h i n t he i r hom e A l l c hi l d r e n w e r e e nr ol l e d i n a ha l f da y pr e s c hool pr ovi de d f or l ow i nc om e f a m i l i e s P r e s c hool e r s w e r e t r a i ne d f o r s i xt e e n w e e ks on e i t he r l e a r ni ng l e t t e r na m e s f o r l e t t e r s A t hr ough P a nd w or k i ng on i d e nt i f yi ng r hym e s or w or k i ng on c om pr e he ns i on t hr ough s t or ybook r e a di ngs E a c h w e e k, t h r e e 20

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19 25 m i nut e l e s s ons t ook pl a c e C hi l d r e n i n t he c om pr e he ns i on c ondi t i on f i r s t vi e w e d a vi de ot a pe t ha t m a t c he d a s t or ybook a nd t he n r e a d t he s t or ybook. I n t he ne xt t w o s e s s i ons c hi l dr e n e nga ge d i n a va r i e t y o f a c t i vi t i e s w or ki ng on voc a bul a r y f or t he s t or y, us i ng c a r ds w i t h pi c t ur e s f r om t he s t or y t o c r e a t e a s e que nc e of e ve nt s a nd a c t i ng out s c e ne s f r om t he s t or y. A s t he w e e ks pa s s e d, t he c o m pl e xi t y a nd l e ngt h of t he s t or i e s gr e w T he f i r s t da y of t he l e t t e r r hy m e t r e a t m e nt c ons i s t e d of t e a c hi ng c hi l dr e n t he a l pha be t s ong, ha vi ng t he m l ook a t a n a l pha be t bo ok, a nd t he n i ns t r uc t i ng t he m on r hym i ng w or ds ( i e C a ke a nd l a ke r hym e ) D u r i ng t he ne xt t w o da ys c hi l dr e n w r ot e l e t t e r s a nd r e vi e w e d l e t t e r s t a ught dur i ng pr e vi ous i nt e r ve nt i on da ys A f t e r t he i nt e r ve nt i on, c hi l d r e n w e r e a s s e s s e d f or t he i r a c c ur a c y on t hr e e l i s t s of w or ds : ( a ) phone t i c l e t t e r na m e s pe l l i ngs ( e g. K N D f or c a ndy) w i t h l e t t e r s A P ( b ) phone t i c l e t t e r na m e s pe l l i ngs w i t h l e t t e r s Q Z a nd ( 3) vi s ua l l y di s t i nc t i ve s pe l l i ngs c ont a i ni ng no c or r e l a t i ng l e t t e r s ( e g H f f or c a ndy) C hi l d r e n t r a i ne d i n l e t t e r na m e s pe r f or m e d m or e a c c ur a t e l y on l i s t s w i t h phone t i c s pe l l i ngs of l e t t e r s t he y w e r e t a ug ht t ha n on t he ot he r t w o l i s t s I n c ont r a s t c hi l dr e n w ho r e c e i ve d t r a i ni n g i n c om pr e he ns i on pe r f or m e d s i gni f i c a nt l y be t t e r on t he l i s t s of vi s ua l l y di s t i nc t w or ds T he a bi l i t y t o be gi n t o a ppl y l e t t e r na m e s t o r e a d w o r ds w a s i nt e r pr e t e d a s i nd i c a t i ng de ve l opm e nt i n p r e l i t e r a c y s ki l l s W hi l e t he r e s ul t s of R obe r t s ( 2003) a r e i n t e r e s t i ng i n t he us e of t he know l e dge o f l e t t e r na m e s t o r e a d w or ds s e ve r a l a s pe c t s of t hi s s t udy a r e pr obl e m a t i c T he f i r s t c onc e r n i s w he t he r t he a bi l i t y t o e xa m i ne a c om bi n a t i on of l e t t e r s a nd s a y t he na m e s i n s uc c e s s i ve or de r a c t ua l l y e qua t e s t o e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l de ve l opm e nt A s e c ond c onc e r n r e ga r di ng t hi s s t udy w a s t he us e of e xpe r i m e nt e r g e ne r a t e d m e a s ur e m e nt t ool s w i t h l i t t l e

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20 da t a pr ovi de d t o s uppor t ps yc hom e t r i c p r o pe r t i e s a nd f e w de t a i l s e xpl i c i t l y s t a t e d a bout how m e a s ur e s w e r e de ve l ope d, or w ha t t he f i na l f o r m w a s O ne f i na l c r i t i c i s m i s t he l a c k of di s c us s i on r e ga r di ng w hy s t ude nt s w ho r e c e i ve d no i ns t r uc t i on i n l e t t e r na m e s pe r f or m e d be t t e r on l i s t s of w o r ds t h a t pos s e s s e d n o c or r e l a t i ng l e t t e r s t o t he w or d s t ude nt s w e r e s uppos e d t o a ns w e r ( i e c N f or ba l l ) T he l i t e r a t u r e of f e r s a f e w e f f e c t i ve m e t hods f or h ow t o t e a c h l e t t e r na m e s O ne m e t hod t ha t ha s be e n s how n t o be e f f e c t i ve i n a c a s e s t udy i s i nc r e m e nt a l r e he a r s a l ( B unn, B ur ns H of f m a n N e w m a n, 2005) I n i nc r e m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t he c hi l d na m e s l e t t e r s t ha t a r e on f l a s hc a r ds pr e s e nt e d t o hi m or he r T he f l a s hc a r ds a r e pr e s e nt e d i n a pa r t i c ul a r or de r s o t ha t a know n l e t t e r f o l l ow s a n u nknow n l e t t e r a nd t he n t he unknow n l e t t e r i s pr e s e nt e d a ga i n. I t i s t he n f ol l ow e d by t w o know n l e t t e r s a nd t he n t he unknow n l e t t e r a ga i n. T hi s p r oc e s s r e pe a t s w i t h t he num be r of know n l e t t e r s i n be t w e e n t he unknow n l e t t e r i nc r e a s i ng up t o f our T hi s pr oc e s s i s r e pe a t e d w i t h t w o unknow n l e t t e r s f or e a c h s e s s i on. A not he r pr oc e s s t ha t ha s be e n pr ove n e f f e c t i ve i n r e s e a r c h i s t he us e of m ne m oni c s t o t e a c h l e t t e r na m e s ( R a s c hke e t a l 1 999) R a s c hke a nd c ol l e a gue s w or ke d w i t h 10 f i ve a nd s i x ye a r ol d c hi l dr e n w i t h va r yi ng e xc e pt i ona l i t i e s w ho w e r e i n a s e l f c ont a i ne d c l a s s r oom P r i or t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on c hi l dr e n kne w a n a ve r a ge o f s i x l e t t e r s F or t hi s i n t e r ve nt i on, c hi l dr e n w e r e t a ught a s hor t s e nt e nc e t ha t w a s pa i r e d w i t h t w o l e t t e r s a nd a n i m a ge O ne e xa m pl e i s a pi c t ur e o f a n e ye pa i r e d w i t h t he uppe r a nd l ow e r c a s e ve r s i ons of i a nd t he s e nt e nc e T hi s i s m y e ye T he c hi l d r e n t he n ha d t o r e pe a t t he s e nt e nc e a nd t he na m e o f t he l e t t e r A s c hi l dr e n be ga n t o m a s t e r t he l e t t e r na m e s t he s e nt e nc e w a s w hi s pe r e d a nd t he i m a ge w a s gr a dua l l y r e m ove d unt i l no

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21 pr om pt w a s ne e de d f or t he c hi l d t o na m e t he l e t t e r T o f i ni s h e a c h s e s s i on, c hi l dr e n w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o go t hr ough f l a s hc a r ds w i t h l e t t e r s on t he m a nd pr a c t i c e us i ng t he c ue s s i l e nt l y. A c hi l d w a s c ons i de r e d t o a c hi e ve m a s t e r y w h e n he or s he w a s a bl e t o r e c a l l a l l t w e nt y s i x l e t t e r s c or r e c t l y t h r e e da ys i n a r ow I t t ook c hi l dr e n i n t hi s s a m pl e t e n t o s e ve nt e e n s e s s i ons t o be a bl e t o na m e a l l t he l e t t e r s a c c ur a t e l y ( R a s c hke e t a l 1999) A t hor ough l i t e r a t ur e r e vi e w pr oduc e d on l y t he s e t w o s t r a t e gi e s t ha t s ol e l y f oc us e d on t e a c hi ng l e t t e r na m e s t o young c hi l d r e n W hi l e bot h i nt e r ve nt i on s t udi e s r e por t e d a c c e pt a bl e out c om e s t he us e o f t he m ne m oni c i nt e r ve nt i on w a s c hos e n a s i t w a s de t e r m i ne d by t he P I t o be m or e pa r e nt f r i e ndl y a n d l e nt i t s e l f m or e e a s i l y t o t he c r e a t i on of a l e s s on pl a n a nd pa r e nt t r a i n i ng. P a r e nt s a s a R e s our c e P a r e nt s a r e a n e xc e l l e nt r e s our c e t o ut i l i z e t o a dva nc e c hi l dr e n s e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s A m ul t i t ude of r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e s t ha t f a m i l y i nvol ve m e nt di r e c t l y r e l a t e s t o s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt a c a de m i c a l l y ( E ps t e i n, 2002; F a nt uz z o e t a l 2004; H e nde r s on & M a pp, 2002) T he f i ndi ngs w i t hi n t hi s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h a r e c om pe l l i ng e nough t ha t t he U S gove r nm e nt i nc l ude d a pa r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt s e c t i on w i t hi n t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ( N C L B ) P a r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt i n r e a di ng a c t i vi t i e s ha s be e n f ound t o ove r c om e e c onom i c e t hni c r a c i a l a nd e duc a t i ona l ba c kgr ounds t o i m pr ove c hi l d r e n s r e a di ng a c t i vi t i e s ( A r nol d e t a l 2008; E ps t e i n, 19 96) V e r y f e w s t udi e s ha ve e xa m i ne d pa r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt a t t he p r e s c hool l e ve l A r nol d a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2008) e xpl or e d t he e xi s t i n g l i t e r a t ur e ba s e a nd f ound on l y f ou r s t udi e s t ha t i nve s t i ga t e d pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt a nd pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n s e m e r gi ng a c a de m i c s ki l l s T hr e e o f t he f our s t udi e s f oc us e d pr i m a r i l y on t e a c he r r a t i ngs of pa r e nt

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22 i nvol ve m e nt a nd onl y r e por t e d c o r r e l a t i ons be t w e e n t e a c he r pe r c e pt i ons r a t i ngs of pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt a nd c hi l d r e n s pe r f or m a nc e on e a r l y a c a de m i c s ki l l t a s ks ( M a nt z i c opoul os 1997; M a r c on, 1999; T a yl o r & M a c hi da 1994) M a nt z i c opoul os ( 1997) e xa m i ne d t he c ont r i but i on of m ul t i pl e f a m i l y va r i a bl e s ( i e m a t e r na l e xpe c t a t i ons hom e l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s m a t e r na l s c hool i nvol ve m e nt a nd pa r e nt i ng s t yl e ) on c hi l dr e n s p r e a c a de m i c c om pe t e nc e P a r t i c i p a nt s w e r e 93 c hi l dr e n e nr ol l e d i n H e a d S t a r t a l ong w i t h t he i r m ot he r s C hi l dr e n s pr e a c a de m i c c om pe t e nc e w a s a s s e s s e d t hr ough f our s e pa r a t e m e a s ur e s A l l a s s e s s m e nt m e a s ur e s w e r e gi ve n dur i ng t he s pr i ng s e m e s t e r of t he s c hool ye a r S t ude nt s w e r e gi ve n t he K a uf m a n A s s e s s m e nt B a t t e r y f or C hi l dr e n A c hi e ve m e nt B a t t e r y ( K A B C A c hi e ve m e nt ; K a uf m a n & K a uf m a n, 1983) A n a ddi t i ona l m e a s ur e of pr e a c a de m i c c om pe t e nc e w a s t he P i c t or i a l S c a l e of P e r c e i ve d C om pe t e nc e a nd S oc i a l A c c e pt a nc e f or Y oung C hi l dr e n ( H a r t e r & P i k e 1984) T hi s s c a l e c a n be a dm i ni s t e r e d t o bot h c hi l dr e n ( gr a de s pr i m e r t o 2) a nd t e a c he r s T hi s pr ovi de d t w o a ddi t i ona l da t a c ol l e c t i on s our c e s T he f i na l m e t hod of da t a c ol l e c t i on f or pr e a c a de m i c c om pe t e nc e w a s C hi l dr e n s S c hool A dj us t m e nt r a t i ng f or m ( S t i pe k 1991) w hi c h w a s c om pl e t e d by t he m o t he r s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s P a r e nt i nvol ve m e nt w a s qua nt i f i e d us i ng t he P a r e nt / F a m i l y I nvol ve m e nt I n de x ( P F I I ; C one D e l a w ye r & W ol f e 1985) w hi c h w a s c om pl e t e d by t he c l a s s r oom t e a c he r R e s ul t s f ound t ha t t e a c he r r a t i ngs o f m a t e r na l s c hool i nvol ve m e nt p r e di c t e d c hi l dr e n s s c hool a dj us t m e nt r a t i ngs but m a t e r na l i nvol ve m e nt w a s not f ound t o he l p pr e di c t pr e a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt t e a c he r r a t e d or s e l f r a t e d c om pe t e nc e ( M a nt i z i c opoul os 1997) T he l a c k of s i gni f i c a nt r e s ul t s c oul d be due t o pr obl e m s w i t h ha vi ng t he t e a c he r r a t e pa r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt

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23 A s e c ond s t udy a l s o e xa m i ne d t e a c he r r a t i ngs of p a r e nt i nvol ve m e nt ( M a r c on, 1999) S i xt y t w o t e a c he r s r a t e d t he pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt of 708 pr e dom i na nt l y l ow i nc om e f a m i l i e s T he r a t i ngs t ook pl a c e ove r t w o ye a r s r e s ul t i ng i n t w o c ohor t s o f pr e s c hool e r s T he s e t w o c ohor t s w e r e not f ound t o d i f f e r s i gni f i c a nt l y on a ny s t udy c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd t he r e f or e da t a w e r e c om bi ne d. A s i m pl e f ou r que s t i on, ye s no r a t i ng s c a l e of pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt w a s us e d, t ha t a s s e s s e d c ont a c t w i t h t he s c hool i n t he f ol l ow i ng f or m s : ( 1) a t t e nda nc e of a pa r e nt t e a c he r c onf e r e nc e ( 2) hom e vi s i t by t he t e a c he r ( 3) e xt e nde d c l a s s vi s i t by t he pa r e nt a nd ( 4 ) he l pi ng w i t h c l a s s a c t i vi t i e s T he a ns w e r s t o t he f ou r que s t i ons w e r e t he n c l a s s i f i e d i nt o l ow m e di a n, or hi gh i nvol ve m e nt I nvol ve m e nt w a s a l s o c l a s s i f i e d i nt o a c t i ve ( vi s i t i ng t he c l a s s ) a nd p a s s i ve ( r e c e i vi ng a hom e vi s i t ) c a t e gor i e s D a t a on a c a de m i c s ki l l s w e r e c ol l e c t e d vi a t he c hi l d s r e p or t c a r ds R e s ul t s s how e d t ha t t e a c he r r a t i ngs of pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt w e r e s i gni f i c a nt l y r e l a t e d t o t e a c he r r a t i ngs of c hi l dr e n s l a ngua ge de ve l opm e nt a nd e m e r ge nt a c a de m i c s ki l l s N o di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound w he n a na l yz i ng t he da t a by ge nde r T he c hi l dr e n w hos e pa r e nt s w e r e m or e i nvo l ve d ( a c t i ve l y o r pa s s i ve l y) w e r e m or e l i ke l y t o di s pl a y gr e a t e r m a s t e r y of ba s i c s c hool s ki l l s i n a l l s ubj e c t a r e a s ( i e hi ghe r gr a de s ) A t hi r d s t udy e xa m i ne d pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt i n pr e s c hool by ha vi ng t e a c he r s r a t e s pe c i f i c be ha vi or s of i nvol ve m e nt T e a c he r s c om pl e t e d a f i ve i t e m que s t i onna i r e r a t i ng pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt i n s pe c i f i c a c t i vi t i e s ( i e vol u nt e e r s i n c l a s s r oom a t t e nds pa r e nt m e e t i ngs w or ks i n c l a s s r oom r e s ponds t o r e que s t s f or i n f or m a t i on a nd f ol l ow s t hr ough w i t h a c t i vi t i e s s ugge s t e d by t he t e a c he r ) T he s e qu e s t i onna i r e s w e r e c om pl e t e d on a t ot a l of 63 H e a d S t a r t s t ude nt s t h r oughout t he ye a r C hi l d out c om e s w e r e a s s e s s e d vi a t he T e a c ha bl e P upi l S u r ve y ( K o r nbl a u, 1982 ) a r a t i ng s c a l e of c l a s s r oom be ha vi or a nd t he

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24 D e ve l opm e nt a l I ndi c a t or s f or t he A s s e s s m e nt of L e a r ni ng R e vi s e d ( D I A L R ; M a r de l l C z udnow s ki & G ol de nbe r g, 1983 ) T he D I A L R a s s e s s e s l a ngua ge m ot or s oc i a l s e l f he l p a nd c onc e pt ua l de ve l opm e nt t hr o ugh va r i ous t a s ks B ot h m e a s ur e s a l ong w i t h t he t e a c he r r a t i ng s c a l e s w e r e gi ve n a t t he be gi nni ng a nd e nd of t he s c hool ye a r R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h ga i ns i n l e a r ni ng s ki l l s a nd c l a s s r oom be ha vi or s A f our t h s t udy di r e c t l y m e a s ur e d pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt be ha vi or s i n H e a d S t a r t c l a s s r oom s a nd a t hom e ( F a nt uz z o, e t a l 2004 ) T he l e ve l of pa r e nt a l i nvol ve m e nt i n 144 f a m i l i e s of c hi l d r e n be t w e e n t he a ge s of f ou r a nd s i x w a s s ur ve ye d us i ng t he F a m i l y I nvol ve m e nt Q ue s t i onna i r e ( F I Q ; F a nt uz z o & T i gh e 2000) a nd i nf o r m a t i on on a c hi l d s voc a bul a r y s ki l l s w a s m e a s ur e d us i ng t he P e a body P i c t ur e V oc a bul a r y T e s t T hi r d V e r s i on ( P P V T I I I ; D unn & D unn 1997 ) T he F I Q ha s pr i m a r y c a r e pr ovi de r s i ndi c a t e t he e xt e nt of t he i r i nvol ve m e nt i n t hr e e b r oa d a r e a s : ( 1) s c hool ba s e d i nvol ve m e nt ( 2) hom e ba s e d i nvol ve m e nt a nd ( 3) hom e s c hool c o nf e r e nc i ng. S c hool ba s e d i nvol ve m e nt e nc om pa s s e s be ha vi or s s uc h a s vol unt e e r i ng i n t he c l a s s r oom or c ha pe r oni ng f i e l d t r i ps H om e ba s e d i nvol ve m e nt i nc l ude s be ha vi or s w he r e t he pa r e nt a c t i ve l y pr om ot e s l e a r ni ng i n t he hom e f o r e xa m pl e c r e a t i ng s pa c e f or l e a r ni n g a c t i vi t i e s or go i ng t o t he l i b r a r y. F i na l l y, hom e s c hool c onf e r e nc i ng de s c r i be s f r e qu e nc y of c om m uni c a t i on w i t h t he c hi l d s t e a c he r a bout pr og r e s s or how t o e nr i c h t he hom e e nvi r o nm e nt C or r e l a t i ons of r e c e pt i ve voc a bul a r y a nd s c hool i nvol ve m e nt f oun d t ha t a s t r ong r e l a t i ons hi p e xi s t s be t w e e n hom e ba s e d i nvol ve m e nt a nd r e c e pt i ve v oc a bul a r y. S c hool ba s e d i nvol ve m e nt a nd hom e s c hool c onf e r e nc i ng yi e l de d m ode r a t e c or r e l a t i ons i ndi c a t i ng a m ode r a t e r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n t he s e f a c t or s a nd s c hool i nvol ve m e nt

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25 A r nol d a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2008) e xa m i ne d t he i nvol v e m e nt of 163 f a m i l i e s i n t he i r pr e s c hool c hi l d s a c a de m i c de ve l opm e nt T he c hi l dr e n w e r e be t w e e n t he a ge s of t hr e e a nd f i ve ye a r s a nd a m a j or i t y c a m e f r om l ow i nc om e hom e s ( 74. 8 % ) P a r e nt i nvol ve m e nt w a s ga t he r e d f r om t he pr e s c hool t e a c he r vi a t he P a r e nt T e a c he r I nvol ve m e nt Q ue s t i onna i r e E a c h c hi l d s pr e l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt w a s de t e r m i ne d by t he P P V T R ( D unn & D unn 1981 ) t he E O W P V T R ( G a r dne r 1990) a nd t he A udi t o r y S ki l l s a nd P r i nt C onc e pt s s ubt e s t s of t he D e ve l opi ng S ki l l s C he c kl i s t ( D S C ; M c G r a w H i l l 1990) R e s ul t s s how e d t ha t pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt w a s pos i t i ve l y c or r e l a t e d w i t h l e ve l s of pr e l i t e r a c y s ki l l s a nd t hi s r e l a t i ons hi p r e m a i ne d s i g ni f i c a nt w he n s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us w a s c ont r ol l e d. T he s e f i ndi ngs s uppor t t ha t pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt i n p r e s c hool i s r e l a t e d t o pr e l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt ( A r nol d e t a l 2008 ) I n e xa m i ni ng t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t he s e f i ndi ngs a s c a r c e l y e xa m i ne d t op i c w i t hi n t he f i e l d i s how t o i m pr ove c a r e gi ve r s i nvol ve m e n t w i t h t he i r c hi l d r e n dur i ng t he pr e s c hool ye a r s t o i nc r e a s e t he s e be ne f i t s A r nol d a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2008) s ugge s t t ha t f ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d f oc us on ge t t i ng c a r e gi ve r s i nvol ve d i n hom e ba s e d a c t i vi t i e s f o r l i t e r a c y a nd ot he r t ype s of de ve l opm e nt T he r e f or e t he pu r pos e of t he c ur r e nt s t udy i s t o e xa m i ne a n e a r l y l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i on t ha t i s c a r r i e d out by t he c a r e gi ve r f or e f f i c a c y i n i nc r e a s i ng t he i r pr e s c hool c hi l d s a c a de m i c s ki l l s B e ne f i t s T he r e a r e m a ny be ne f i t s t o ut i l i z i ng c a r e gi ve r s ove r ot he r r e s our c e s s i nc e c a r e gi ve r s a r e m a j or s t a ke hol de r s i n t he i r c hi l dr e n s e duc a t i on ( C hr i s t e ns on & B ue r kl e 1999) C os t e f f e c t i ve ne s s pot e nt i a l f or be ne f i t i ng ot he r c hi l dr e n i n t he f a m i l y c onve ni e n c e of i n hom e i nt e r ve nt i on, a bi l i t y t o not e ne e de d c ha nge s i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on

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26 i m m e di a t e l y, a nd t he a voi da nc e of r e m ovi ng a c hi l d f r om t he c l a s s r oom t o i m pl e m e nt t he i nt e r ve nt i on a l l f a l l i n t o t he be ne f i t s of pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt e d i nt e r ve nt i ons ( G a ng & P oe c he 1982) W hi l e t he s e be ne f i t s w e r e w r i t t e n w i t h t he e l e m e nt a r y c hi l d i n m i nd, t he s e s a m e ga i ns a ppl y t o t e a c hi ng c a r e gi ve r s t o w or k w i t h t he i r pr e s c hool a ge d c hi l dr e n. B ar r i e r s T he r e a r e s om e ba r r i e r s t o ut i l i z i ng c a r e gi ve r s s uc h a s c a r e gi ve r s not ha vi n g know l e dge on how t o de l i ve r i ns t r uc t i on, not ha vi n g know l e dge of how t o a s s i s t t he i r c hi l d s l e a r ni ng a t hom e or l ow c a r e gi ve r s e l f e f f i c a c y i n he l pi ng t he i r c hi l d i n s pe c i f i c s ubj e c t s ( F i a l a & S he r i da n 2003; P e r s a m pi e r i G o r t m a ke r D a l y, S he r i da n, & M c C ur dy, 2006) A not he r ba r r i e r t ha t c a n a r i s e i s i f pa r e nt s d o not f e e l i t i s pa r t o f t he i r r o l e t o he l p w i t h e a r l y l i t e r a c y ( A nde r s on, C r oni n, & F a ga n, 1 998) W i t h a de qua t e s uppor t a nd t r a i ni ng pa r e nt s c a n ov e r c om e pos s i bl e ba r r i e r s a nd i m pl e m e nt e f f e c t i ve i n t e r ve nt i ons ( D uva l l & W a r d 1997; G a ng & P oe c he 1982; W e i ne r S he r i da n & J e ns on, 1998 ) D uva l l a nd W a r d ( 199 7) e xa m i ne d t he d i f f e r e nc e s i n l e a r ni ng r a t e s pe r f or m a nc e on s t a nda r di z e d a c a de m i c t e s t s a nd l e ve l o f a c a de m i c e nga ge d t i m e be t w e e n e l e m e n t a r y s t ude nt s w ho w e r e hom e s c hool e d a nd t hos e i n publ i c s c hool s F our s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s w ho w e r e hom e s c hool e d w e r e m a t c he d on m ul t i pl e va r i a bl e s ( i e ge nde r a ge S E S di s a bi l i t y t ype W oodc oc k J ohns on T e s t s of A c a de m i c A c hi e ve m e nt R e vi s e d s c or e s ) w i t h s t ude nt s f ound i n t he e l e m e nt a r y publ i c s c hool W i t h pa r e nt s r e c e i vi ng onl y t he ba s i c s uppor t of m a t e r i a l s f r om t he hom e s c hool c oa l i t i on i n t he a r e a s t ude nt s w ho w e r e hom e s c hool e d out pe r f or m e d t hos e i n publ i c s c hool i n r e a di ng, w r i t i ng a nd m a t h. I n e xa m i ni ng t he r a t e s of gr ow t h s t ude nt s w ho w e r e hom e s c hool e d s how e d gr e a t e r i nc r e a s e s i n l e a r ni ng, m o s t l i ke l y due t o hi ghe r l e ve l s of

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27 a c a de m i c e nga ge d t i m e O ve r a l l s t ude nt s w ho w e r e hom e s c hool e d by a pa r e nt ha d r a t e s of a c a de m i c e nga ge m e nt t w o a nd a ha l f t i m e s t he i r m a t c he d pe e r s W e i ne r a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 1998) i nve s t i ga t e d a pa r e n t i m pl e m e nt e d i nt e r ve nt i on t o a s s i s t j uni or hi gh s t ude nt s w i t h c om pl e t i ng t he i r m a t h hom e w or k w i t h a c c ur a c y. F i ve pa r e nt c hi l d dya ds pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on t ha t t ook pl a c e f or s e ve n t o t e n da ys T r a i ni ng t he pa r e nt s i nvol ve d c onduc t i ng t hr e e i nt e r vi e w s w i t h e a c h pa r e nt t o: ( 1 ) di s c us s t he pr obl e m a nd i de nt i f y w ha t t he pa r e nt w oul d l i k e t o s e e ( 2 ) de ve l op a n i nt e r ve nt i on a nd ( 3) e va l ua t e t he i nt e r v e nt i on P a r e nt s w e r e f ou nd t o i m pl e m e nt t he t r e a t m e nt c or r e c t l y a bout 93 % o f t he t i m e T he r e s e a r c he r s s uppor t e d pa r e nt s by p r ovi di ng i nt e r ve nt i on c he c kl i s t s t o a s s e s s c om pl e t i on of a c t i vi t i e s a nd c he c ki ng i n w i t h t he m by phone onc e a w e e k. I nt e r ve nt i on I nt e gr i t y E ns ur i ng t he i nt e gr i t y of a n i nt e r ve nt i on c onduc t e d a t hom e i s vi t a l t o a f f i r m i ng t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on. I nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y r e f e r s t o how w e l l t he or i gi na l i nt e r ve nt i on pr ot oc ol i s f ol l ow e d w he n i m pl e m e nt e d ( R oa c h & E l l i ot t 2 008) A r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e ha s f ound a s i gni f i c a nt m ode r a t e c or r e l a t i on ( r = 51 58) be t w e e n i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd t r e a t m e nt out c om e s ( G r e s ha m e t a l 1993) p r ovi di ng s uppor t t ha t i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y da t a c ol l e c t i on s houl d be a n i m por t a nt c om pone nt o f a ny i nt e r ve nt i on r e s e a r c h. I nt e r ve nt i on i nt e g r i t y ha s of t e n be e n r e f e r r e d t o a s t he de gr e e t o w hi c h a n i nt e r ve nt i on i s i m pl e m e nt e d a s pl a nne d ( G r e s ha m e t a l 1993; R oa c h & E l l i ot t 2008) H ow e ve r s om e r e s e a r c he r s ha ve e xpa nde d t hi s de f i ni t i on s o t ha t t he que s t i on, W a s t he i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt e d w i t h i nt e gr i t y? c a nnot be a ns w e r e d i n a di c hot om ous w a y.

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28 A f t e r r e vi e w i ng t he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e P e r e pl e t c hi kova a nd K a z di n ( 2005 ) s ugge s t e d t ha t t he r e a r e t h r e e i m por t a nt a s pe c t s of i nt e gr i t y: ( 1 ) t r e a t m e nt a dhe r e nc e ( 2) i nt e r ve nt i oni s t c om pe t e nc e a nd ( 3) t r e a t m e nt di f f e r e nt i a t i on. A dhe r e nc e r e f e r s t o m uc h of t he or i gi na l de f i ni t i on, c ove r i ng how c l os e l y t he s pe c i f i c s t e ps of a n i nt e r ve nt i on w e r e f ol l ow e d. I nt e r ve nt i oni s t c om pe t e nc e i s c ha r a c t e r i z e d by t he i m pl e m e nt e r s s ki l l s de c i s i ons t i m i ng, a nd j udgm e nt du r i ng i m pl e m e nt a t i on. T r e a t m e nt di f f e r e nt i a t i on r e f e r s t o t he de gr e e t o w hi c h t he i nt e r ve nt i on i s di f f e r e nt f r om a nd ke pt di s t i nc t o f ot he r pr a c t i c e s T hi s l a s t c om pone nt m a y be t he m os t i m por t a nt i n de t e r m i ni ng w he t he r a n i nt e r ve nt i on i s e f f e c t i ve I nt e r ve nt i on i nt e g r i t y c a n be e nha nc e d i n t he hom e t hr ough t w o m a i n c om pone nt s O ne c om pone nt i nvol ve s m oni t o r i ng t he pr oc e dur e s T hi s ha s be e n pr ove n e f f e c t i ve w i t h pa r e nt s by us i ng pr oc e dur a l c he c kl i s t s vi de ot a pi ng, a nd phone c a l l s ( H ook & D uP a ul 1999; P ow e l l S m i t h S t one r S hi nn & G ood, 2000) T he s e c ond i m por t a nt c om pone nt i s pr ope r t r a i ni ng of t he pa r e nt s ( P e r s a m pi e r i e t a l 2006) T he m or e di r e c t t r a i ni ng m ode l s s uc h a s i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k or m ode l i ng, t e nd t o i m p r ove i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y w i t h pa r e nt s ( S t e r l i ng T ur ne r W a t s on, W i l dm on, W a t ki ns & L i t t l e 2001) P a r e nt s ha ve be e n e f f e c t i ve l y t a ught t o i m pl e m e nt a r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on f o r t hi r d gr a de s t ude nt s ( G a ng & P oe c he 1982) G a ng a nd P oe c he ( 1982) t r a i ne d t he m ot he r s of t hr e e boys w ho w e r e be l ow gr a de l e ve l i n r e a di ng t o i m pl e m e nt a phoni c s ba s e d r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on, f our t i m e s a w e e k f o r s e ve n w e e ks P a r e nt s w e r e t r a i ne d t h r ough m ode l i ng a nd i ns t r uc t i on i n how s t ude nt s l e a r n a nd w ha t i s a n a ppr opr i a t e e nvi r onm e nt t o t ut or i n A n obs e r ve r w a s pr e s e nt a t i ni t i a l s e s s i ons t o m oni t or i nt e gr i t y. A f t e r s e s s i ons w e r e c om pl e t e d t he obs e r ve r w oul d pr ovi de c o r r e c t i ve f e e dba c k. A s pa r e nt s m a i nt a i ne d 90%

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29 a c c ur a c y i n i m pl e m e nt a t i on, t he ob s e r ve r w a s gr a d ua l l y r e m ove d f r om s e s s i ons O ve r t he c our s e of t he i n t e r ve nt i on pe r i od, pa r e nt s a ve r a ge d 97% c o r r e c t t ut o r i ng be ha vi or s A s f a r a s de ve l opm e nt of r e a di ng s ki l l s t w o of t he s t ude nt s s how e d r a t e s of gr ow t h t ha t w e r e gr e a t e r t ha n t he m a i ns t r e a m s t ude nt s T he t hi r d s t u de nt s how e d ga i ns t ha t w oul d be e xpe c t e d i n t he m a i ns t r e a m e nvi r on m e nt T hi s c ou l d ha ve be e n due t o t he f a c t t ha t he di d not t a ke hi s m e di c a t i on f or hype r a c t i vi t y t he m or ni ng of t he pos t t e s t O ve r a l l t he r e s ul t s s uppor t t ha t pa r e nt s c a n i m pl e m e nt a n e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on w i t h hi gh l e ve l s of i nt e gr i t y w he n s pe c i f i c s t r a t e gi e s a r e i n pl a c e S um m a r y B ot h r e s e a r c h a nd l e gi s l a t i on a r e m ov i ng t ow a r d t h e us e of e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i ons t o he l p l e s s e n t he pr obl e m s w i t h i l l i t e r a c y i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s A good f ounda t i on of pr e l i t e r a c y s ki l l s c a n he l p pr e ve nt t he M a t t he w E f f e c t w he r e s t ude nt s w ho s t r uggl e w i t h i ni t i a l r e a di ng s ki l l s f a l l f ur t he r a nd f u r t he r be hi nd t he i r pe e r s a s t i m e pa s s e s T he N a t i ona l E a r l y L i t e r a c y P a ne l ( 2008 ) ha s s um m a r i z e d e a r l y l i t e r a c y r e s e a r c h a nd f ound t ha t phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s l e t t e r know l e dge a s w e l l a s t he a bi l i t y t o r a pi dl y na m e l e t t e r s a nd obj e c t s a nd t he a bi l i t y t o w r i t e one s na m e pr e di c t f u t ur e s c hool s uc c e s s T he N a t i ona l R e a di ng P a ne l ( 2000 ) a l s o f ound t ha t pho ne m i c a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r know l e dge w e r e pr e di c t i ve of f ut u r e l i t e r a c y s uc c e s s A s s uc h c hi l dr e n not pos s e s s i ng t he s e s ki l l s a t t he be gi nni ng of ki nde r ga r t e n a r e a t gr e a t e r r i s k f o r a c a de m i c di f f i c ul t i e s a nd pr obl e m s w i t h r e a di ng. T he s e s ki l l s t ypi c a l l y de ve l op dur i ng pr e s c hool C a r e gi ve r i nvol ve m e nt a t t hi s s t a ge of de ve l opm e nt ha s pr ove n t o be e f f e c t i v e a nd c a r e gi ve r s c a n be s uc c e s s f ul l y t a ught i n he l pi ng t he i r c hi l dr e n i f gi ve n t he c or r e c t t ool s I t i s i m por t a nt t o e f f e c t i ve l y t r a i n a nd m oni t or c a r e gi ve r s w ho m a y be c onduc t i ng i nt e r ve nt i ons out s i de of s c hool a s

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30 i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y i s vi t a l t o va l i da t i ng t ha t out c om e s r e s ul t f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on t ha t w a s put i nt o pl a c e P ur pos e of t he P r e s e nt S t udy T hi s s t udy be gi ns t o a dd r e s s t he l i m i t a t i ons a nd ga ps i n t he l i t e r a t ur e on how c a r e gi ve r s c a n be i nvol ve d i n t he i r pr e s c hool c hi l d r e n s a c a de m i c l i ve s C ur r e nt l y t he r e a r e onl y f ou r a r t i c l e s i n pe e r r e vi e w e d j our na l s t ha t a ddr e s s pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt a nd i t s r e l a t i on t o p r e s c hool e r s a c a de m i c de ve l opm e nt ( A r nol d e t a l 2008) W i t h l e gi s l a t i on a dvoc a t i ng f or g r e a t e r c a r e gi ve r i nvol ve m e nt i n a c hi l d s e duc a t i on, i t i s i m po r t a nt t o know t he w a ys i n w hi c h a c a r e gi ve r c a n be c om e i n vol ve d w i t h hi gh l e ve l s of s uc c e s s f or t he c hi l d. T hi s s t ud y e xa m i ne d how a c a r e gi ve r l e d i nt e r ve nt i on i m pa c t s pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n s e a r l y l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt C a r e gi ve r s i m pl e m e nt e d a n i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge i n t he i r hom e t ha t f oc us e d on de ve l opi ng phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e a r ni ng t he na m e s of l e t t e r s I nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y w a s m oni t or e d t o de t e r m i ne how w e l l t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d a nd s oc i a l va l i di t y da t a w a s ga t h e r e d t o a ddr e s s a ny ba r r i e r s t o f ut ur e i m pl e m e nt a t i on.

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31 C H A P T E R T H R E E R E S E A R C H M E T H O D S T hi s c ha pt e r f oc us e s on t he m e t hods e m pl oye d i n c ond uc t i ng t he pr e s e nt s t udy. F i r s t pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd de l i m i t a t i ons s e t t i ngs a nd m e a s ur e s a r e de s c r i be d. N e xt t he r e s e a r c h de s i gn w i l l be di s c us s e d, f ol l ow e d by a de s c r i pt i on of t he pr oc e dur e s T he di s c us s i on of pr oc e dur e s i nc l ude s e t hi c a l c ons i de r a t i ons p a r t i c i pa nt s e l e c t i on, ba s e l i ne pe r i od, c a r e gi ve r t r a i ni ng i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd s oc i a l va l i di t y a nd t he f ol l ow up pha s e T hi s c ha pt e r c onc l ude s w i t h a pr e s e nt a t i on o f t he da t a a na l ys e s us e d f or t he pu r pos e s of a ddr e s s i ng t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons P a r t i c i pa nt s S e ve n c a r e gi ve r c hi l d dya ds w e r e s e l e c t e d f r om a pool of t e n pos s i bl e dya ds e nr ol l e d i n a H e a d S t a r t c e nt e r i n H i l l s bor ough C o unt y. A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s m e t t he f ol l ow i ng c r i t e r i a : ( 1 ) bot h c a r e gi ve r a nd c hi l d a r e f l ue nt i n E ngl i s h, ( 2) c hi l d i s e nr ol l e d i n t he H i l l s bor ough C ount y H e a d S t a r t pr og r a m ( 3) c hi l d i s e l i gi bl e t o e nr ol l i n ki nde r ga r t e n i n F a l l 2009, ( 4) t he c hi l d s c or e s be l ow 10 f i r s t s ound s a nd 10 l e t t e r s on D I B E L S F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y a nd D I B E L S L e t t e r K now l e dge a s s e s s m e nt s r e s pe c t i ve l y, a nd ( 5) t he c a r e gi ve r ha s a c ons i s t e nt phone num be r A ddi t i on a l l y, t he c a r e gi ve r m us t ha ve c ons e nt e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy a nd a gr e e d t o i m pl e m e nt t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge T o e nr ol l i n H e a d S t a r t t he c hi l d s s uppor t s ys t e m ( pa r e nt ( s ) / gua r di a n( s ) ) m us t ha ve a n i nc om e t ha t f a l l s be l ow t he f e de r a l pove r t y l i ne N o c om pa r i s on hi ghe r s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us gr oup w i l l be us e d a s r e s e a r c h ha s a l r e a dy w e l l e s t a bl i s he d t he de f i c i t s i n s ki l l s of bot h s t ude nt s f r om l ow s oc i oe c onom i c ba c kg r ounds a nd s t ude nt s w ho qua l i f y f o r t he H e a d S t a r t pr ogr a m ( Z i l l e t a l 200 3)

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32 T he H i l l s bor ough C ount y H e a d S t a r t pr og r a m of f e r s s e ve r a l opt i ons f or f a m i l i e s t o e nr ol l t he i r c hi l d r e n. W or ki ng f a m i l i e s c a n a ppl y t o ha ve t he i r c hi l d r e n i n t he f ul l da y/ f ul l ye a r p r ogr a m A n a ddi t i ona l pr og r a m of f e r s s e r vi c e s pa r t da y f o r t he a c a de m i c s c hool ye a r C om bi ne d, t he s e t w o pr og r a m s pr ovi d e s e r vi c e s t o ove r 3 000 c hi l d r e n a ge s 0 5 ( H i l l s bor ough C ount y H e a d S t a r t 2008) A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy w e r e e nr ol l e d i n t he f ul l da y/ f ul l ye a r p r ogr a m P ar t i c i pant A t t r i t i on S e ve n c a r e gi ve r c hi l d dya ds w e r e i ni t i a l l y r e c r ui t e d a nd da t a w e r e ga t he r e d on a l l s e ve n c hi l dr e n t hr ough t he ba s e l i ne pha s e A l l s e v e n c a r e gi ve r s w e r e t r a i ne d a nd be ga n t he i nt e r ve nt i on s hor t l y a f t e r t he t r a i ni ng. O ne pa r t i c i pa nt de c l i ne d c ont i nue d pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy f i ve w e e ks i nt o t he i nt e r v e nt i on pha s e a nd r e t ur ne d t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge t o t he P I w i t h no l e s s ons c om pl e t e d. D e s pi t e r e pe a t e d a t t e m pt s m a de by t he P I a nd t he c l a s s r oom t e a c he r t he c a r e gi ve r c oul d not be r e a c he d f or f ol l ow up. D ue t o t he f a c t t ha t t h i s dya d w i t hdr e w f r om s t udy pa r t i c i pa t i on, da t a f r om t he dya d w e r e not i nc l ude d i n a na l ys i s D e m ogr a phi c i n f or m a t i on pe r t a i ni ng t o t he r e m a i ni ng s i x pa r e nt c hi l d dya ds c a n be f ou nd i n T a bl e 1 A ne c d ot a l c om pa r i s ons of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t o t he t ypi c a l popul a t i on s e r ve d by H e a d S t a r t r e ve a l e d t ha t t he s a m pl e w i t h i n t hi s s t udy a ppe a r s t o r e pr e s e nt t he b r oa de r popul a t i on w i t h r e ga r d t o r a c e / e t hni c i t y, s i ngl e pa r e nt hom e s a nd s oc i oe c on om i c s t a t us

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33 T a bl e 1 P ar t i c i pant D e m ogr aphi c I nf or m at i on C hi l d P ar e nt A ge R ac e / E t hni c i t y Si bl i ngs R a c he l R honda 4 8 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 2 younge r gi r l s W e s l e y W e ndy 5 0 H i s pa ni c 2 ol de r gi r l s 1 ol de r boy J e nni f e r J a ne t 4 6 C a uc a s i a n 1 younge r boy T a nne r T i na 5 3 A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n 2 ol de r gi r l s M e l a ni e M a r y 5 1 B i R a c i a l ( H i s pa ni c & C a uc a s i a n) 1 ol de r gi r l 1 younge r gi r l a nd boy B r e nna B e t ha ny 4 9 B i R a c i a l ( A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n & C a uc a s i a n) 1 ol de r boy a nd 1 younge r gi r l N o t e A l l n a m e s a r e p s e u d o n y m s A g e s r e p r e s e n t a g e a t b e g i n n i n g o f i n t e r v e n t i o n S e t t i ngs D a t a c ol l e c t i on w i t h t he D I B E L S L K a nd F S F m e a s ur e s dur i ng a l l pha s e s t ook pl a c e i n t he c hi l d s H e a d S t a r t c l a s s r oom t w o t i m e s e a c h w e e k, onc e dur i ng M onda y or T ue s da y a nd onc e dur i ng T hur s da y o r F r i da y. T he P r i nc i pa l I nve s t i ga t or ( P I ) o r t he pr oj e c t a s s i s t a nt t ook e a c h c hi l d out i nt o t he ha l l w a y t o c onduc t e a c h a s s e s s m e nt C a r e gi ve r t r a i ni ng w a s o f f e r e d i n t hr e e l oc a t i ons : a c onf e r e nc e r oom a t U S F a t t he H e a d S t a r t C e nt e r or i n a c om m on a r e a o f t h e hom e ( i e ki t c he n, l i vi ng r oom ) T he s e t r a i ni ng s e s s i ons w e r e s c he dul e d a t a t i m e t ha t w a s c onve ni e nt f or t he c a r e gi ve r a nd t he P I

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34 M e a s ur e s I nde pe nde nt V ar i abl e C a r e gi ve r s w e r e t a ught t o i m pl e m e nt a pr e l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge f oc us i ng on i nc r e a s i ng l e t t e r na m i ng a bi l i t i e s a nd phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s pe r f or m a nc e i n t he i r c hi l dr e n. C a r e gi ve r c hi l d dya ds i nvol ve d i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on e nga ge d i n t w e nt y s e ve n, f i f t e e n m i nut e s e s s i ons ( t hr e e a w e e k f or ni ne w e e ks ) D ur i ng t he s e s e s s i ons c a r e gi ve r s f ol l ow e d a s pe c i f i c l e s s on pl a n t ha t de t a i l s a m ne m oni c de vi c e us e d t o t e a c h l e t t e r na m e s ( R a s c hke e t a l 1999 ) a nd c om pl e t e d a n ons e t i de n t i f i c a t i on a c t i vi t y w he r e t he c hi l d a t t e m pt s t o ge ne r a t e w or ds t ha t be gi n w i t h t he s a m e s ound ( i e m ous e a nd m oon) C a r e gi ve r s be ga n t he s e s s i on by r e c or di ng how m a ny l e t t e r s t he c hi l d c oul d c or r e c t l y i de nt i f y on f l a s hc a r ds C a r e gi ve r s t he n t a ught t he n a m e of a ne w l e t t e r t o t he i r c hi l d. C a r e gi ve r s c or r e c t e d a ny i na c c ur a t e r e s pons e s f r o m t he c hi l d us i ng a s c r i pt gi ve n t o t he m T he s e s s i ons c onc l ude d w i t h c a r e gi ve r s e nga gi ng i n a phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a c t i vi t y t ha t r e qui r e d t he c hi l d t o a ns w e r que s t i ons a nd pr o duc e w or ds t ha t be gi n w i t h a s pe c i f i c s ound. D e pe nde nt V ar i abl e s D y nam i c I ndi c at or of B as i c E ar l y L i t e r ac y Sk i l l s T he D yna m i c I nd i c a t or s of B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s ( D I B E L S ; K a m i ns ki C um m i ngs P ow e l l S m i t h, & G ood 2008) a r e c ha r a c t e r i z e d by be i ng s e ns i t i ve t o s m a l l c ha nge s i n s t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e ove r s hor t pe r i ods of t i m e ( i e dyna m i c ) T h i s br i e f m e a s ur e i s w e l l s ui t e d t o f r e que nt l y m on i t or p r ogr e s s t ow a r d a be nc hm a r k or goa l T he D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt s a r e c ons i de r e d i ndi c a t or s a s t he y m e a s ur e ke y be ha vi or s t o i nd i c a t e ove r a l l pe r f o r m a nc e i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s ( K a m i n s ki e t a l 2008) T w o ne w m e a s ur e s

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35 w i l l be us e d i n t hi s s t udy: ( 1 ) D I B E L S F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y, a nd ( 2) D I B E L S L e t t e r K now l e dge T he r e a r e t w o m e a s ur e s t ha t pr e da t e d t he s e ne w m e a s ur e s a nd t he s e de s e r ve a br i e f d i s c us s i on a s t he de ve l opm e nt of t he ne w m e a s ur e s w a s he a vi l y i nf l ue nc e d by t he e s t a b l i s he d m e a s ur e s D I B E L S I ni t i al Sound F l ue nc y T he pr e c ur s or t o F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y i s I ni t i a l S ou nd F l ue nc y ( I S F ; K a m i ns ki & G ood, 1998) I ni t i a l S ound F l ue nc y a s s e s s e s a c hi l d s phone m i c a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s by e xa m i ni ng hi s or he r a bi l i t y t o r e c ogni z e a nd pr od uc e t he i ni t i a l s ound o r g r oup o f s ounds of a n o r a l l y pr e s e nt e d w or d T hi s pr obe i s s c or e d b y t i m i ng t he dur a t i on i t t a ke s f or a c hi l d t o r e s pond t o que s t i ons by i de nt i f yi ng o r pr o duc i ng t he c or r e c t s ound. T he t i m e i s t he n c onve r t e d t o a s c or e of c o r r e c t i ni t i a l s ounds p e r m i nut e A n a s s e s s m e nt of t he r e l i a bi l i t y a nd va l i di t y o f t hi s m e a s ur e w a s c onduc t e d us i ng a s a m pl e of 86 ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s ( H i n t z e R ya n, & S t one r 2003) A l l a s s e s s m e nt s w e r e c om pl e t e d w i t hi n t hr e e da ys f o r e a c h pa r t i c i p a nt w i t h pa r t i c i pa nt s t a ki ng b r e a ks i n be t w e e n a s s e s s m e nt s R e l i a bi l i t y w a s a s s e s s e d vi a t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on of a n a l t e r na t e f or m of t he I S F R e s ul t s s how e d t ha t I S F ha d a n a l t e r na t e f or m r e l i a bi l i t y of 86 ( H i nt z e e t a l 2003) C onc ur r e nt va l i di t y w a s e xa m i n e d by c om p a r i ng pe r f o r m a nc e on t he I S F t o s c or e s of t he C om pr e he ns i ve T e s t o f P hono l ogi c a l P r oc e s s i ng ( C T O P P ; W a gne r T or ge s e n, & R a s hot t e 1999) P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s a nd P honol ogi c a l M e m or y C om pos i t e s A c or r e l a t i on of 60 w a s f ound be t w e e n I S F a nd t he C T O P P P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s C om pos i t e s c or e a nd a 46 c or r e l a t i on w a s f ound b e t w e e n I S F a nd t he C T O P P P honol ogi c a l M e m or y C om pos i t e s c or e D i s c r i m i n a nt va l i di t y f or I S F w a s de t e r m i ne d by c om pa r i ng s c or e s t o t he C T O P P R a pi d N a m i ng C om pos i t e C or r e l a t i ons b e t w e e n t he s e

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36 m e a s ur e s w e r e l ow ( 20 ) pr ov i di ng s uppor t t ha t I S F m e a s ur e s a s pe c i f i c s ki l l a nd doe s not a ppe a r t o ove r l a p w i t h ot he r s ki l l s W hi l e I S F ha s de m ons t r a t e d a de qua t e a l t e r na t e f or m r e l i a bi l i t y, a nd c onc ur r e nt va l i di t y pr a c t i t i one r s ha ve r e por t e d t ha t i t i s di f f i c ul t t o a dm i ni s t e r a nd ot he r r e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t i t i s o ne of t he l e a s t r e l i a bl e D I B E L S m e a s ur e s ( C um m i ngs G ood, K a m i ns ki & O N e i l 2008) T he s e r e a s ons ha ve pr om pt e d t he c r e a t i on of a ne w t e s t ( D I B E L S F S F ) t o a s s e s s t he a bi l i t y t o i de nt i f y a nd pr oduc e t he i ni t i a l s ound of a w or d D I B E L S F i r s t Sound F l ue nc y T he D I B E L S F S F w a s de s i gne d t o m e a s ur e a l e ve l of phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s know n a s ons e t r i m e a w a r e ne s s ( C um m i ngs G ood K a m i ns ki & O N e i l 2007 ) T hi s s ki l l i s a pr e c ur s or t o ph one m i c a w a r e ne s s ( S i nde l a r L a ne P u l l e n & H uds on, 2002) T he m e a s ur e w a s c r e a t e d t o ove r c om e s om e of t he p r o bl e m s t ha t ha ve be e n f ound w i t h t he D I B E L S I ni t i a l S ound F l ue nc y ( I S F ) a dm i ni s t r a t i o n a nd s c or i ng. T he m e a s ur e ha s be e n c om pa r e d w i t h ot he r m e a s ur e s t ha t a t t e m pt t o ga ug e a s t ude nt s pr ogr e s s i on t ow a r d l i t e r a c y ( C um m i ngs e t a l 2007) I n c om pa r i s on t o D I B E L S I S F a nd t he P i c t ur e N a m i ng A l l i t e r a t i on a nd R hym i ng t a s ks of t he I ndi vi dua l G r ow t h a nd D e ve l opm e nt I ndi c a t or s f o r E a r l y L i t e r a c y ( E L I G D I s ; M i s s a l e t a l 2007) D I B E L S F S F s how e d t he gr e a t e s t s e ns i t i vi t y of gr ow t h dur i ng pr e ki nde r ga r t e n, pr e d i c t i ng a n a ve r a ge gr ow t h of 0. 50 f i r s t s ounds i de nt i f i e d pe r m i nu t e e a c h w e e k ( C um m i ng s e t a l 2007) T e c hni c al ade quac y of D I B E L S F S F C um m i ngs a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2007) f ound a de qua t e t e s t r e t e s t r e l i a bi l i t y f or D I B E L S F S F i n t he i r s a m pl e of 73 pr e ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s E a c h a s s e s s m e nt pe r i od c ons i s t e d of a dm i ni s t e r i ng one F S F pr obe O ne m ont h a l t e r na t e f or m r e l i a bi l i t y w a s f ound t o be 86. I n e xa m i ni ng t he va l i di t y of D I B E L S F S F

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37 i t w a s f ound t o c or r e l a t e hi ghl y w i t h ot he r D I B E L S m e a s ur e s a s w e l l a s w i t h t he A l l i t e r a t i on a nd R hym i ng t a s ks of t he E L I G D I D I B E L S F S F w a s a l s o f ound t o pr e di c t l a t e r D I B E L S s c or e s on hi ghe r l e ve l phone m i c a w a r e ne s s t a s k s ve r y w e l l ( N ons e ns e W or d F l ue nc y r = 53, P hone m e S e gm e nt a t i on F l ue nc y r = 71) A dm i ni s t r at i on and Sc or i ng of D I B E L S F SF D I B E L S F S F w a s de s i gne d t o be a dm i ni s t e r e d dur i ng t he pr e ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r t hr o ugh t he f a l l a nd w i nt e r of ki nde r ga r t e n S t ude nt s a r e a s ke d t o i de nt i f y t he f i r s t s ound i n a w or d pr e s e nt e d or a l l y by t he e xa m i ne r S t ude nt s ge t t w o poi nt s f or pr ovi di ng onl y t he f i r s t phone m e of t he w or d a nd one poi nt f or p r ovi di ng t he f i r s t t w o o r t hr e e phone m e s T he s t ude nt doe s not r e c e i ve c r e di t f or r e pe a t i ng t he w or d o r pr ov i di ng m o r e t ha n t h r e e p hone m e s T he r e s pons e s t ha t oc c ur w i t hi n one m i nut e r e c e i ve s c or e s D I B E L S L e t t e r N am i ng F l ue nc y T he L e t t e r K now l e dge a s s e s s m e nt w a s c r e a t e d t o c l os e l y r e s e m bl e t he D I B E L S L N F pr obe s T he r e f or e a n unde r s t a ndi ng o f L N F pr ovi de s a s ol i d unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he c onc e pt s a nd s c or i ng of t he ne w L K m e a s ur e L e t t e r N a m i ng F l ue nc y pr ovi de s a m e a s ur e of r i s k f or pr obl e m s i n f ut ur e l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt I t w a s de s i gne d t o be g i ve n t hr oughout t he ki nde r ga r t e n ye a r a nd f or t h e F a l l a s s e s s m e nt pe r i od i n f i r s t gr a de S t ude nt s a r e pr e s e nt e d w i t h a pa ge t ha t ha s uppe r a nd l ow e r c a s e l e t t e r s a r r a nge d i n a r a ndom or de r i n r ow s a c r os s t he pa ge S t ude nt s a r e gi ve n one m i nu t e t o pr oduc e a s m a ny l e t t e r na m e s a s t he y c a n, a nd c or r e c t r e s pons e s w i t hi n t he m i nut e a r e a dde d t o c om e up w i t h t he s c or e ( G ood e t a l 2004) H i nt z e a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2003) a l s o e xa m i ne d t he r e l i a bi l i t y a nd va l i di t y of L N F by us i ng a l t e r na t e f or m s a nd c om pa r i ng r e s ul t s t o t he C T O P P A l t e r na t e f o r m r e l i a bi l i t y w a s

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38 ve r y good ( 94) a nd c or r e l a t i ons m e a s ur i ng c onc ur r e nt va l i di t y w i t h t he R a pi d N a m i ng, P honol ogi c a l A w a r e ne s s a nd P honol ogi c a l M e m or y C om pos i t e s w e r e 58, 53 a nd 52 r e s pe c t i ve l y. A not he r s t udy e xa m i ne d t he pr e di c t i v e va l i di t y of L N F i n a s a m pl e of 60 ki nde r ga r t e n s t ude nt s a t t w o s c hool s ( G ood e t a l 2004) T he L N F p r obe w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d a t t he W i nt e r a nd S p r i ng be nc hm a r ks a t bot h s c hool s a nd s c or e s w e r e c om pa r e d t o s c or e s on N ons e ns e W or d F l ue nc y a t t he W i nt e r a s s e s s m e nt pe r i od of f i r s t gr a de R e s ul t s s how e d c or r e l a t i ons of r = 61 77 w i t h a m e di a n c o r r e l a t i on o f r = 72 W i t h t he s t r ong ps yc hom e t r i c pr ope r t i e s of D I B E L S L N F onl y m i nor c ha nge s w e r e m a de t o be gi n t he c r e a t i on o f t he L e t t e r K now l e dge ( L K ) a s s e s s m e nt f or pr e K i nde r ga r t e ne r s D I B E L S L e t t e r K now l e dge D I B E L S L e t t e r K now l e dge i s a n a da pt a t i on o f t he L N F pr obe s t o be m o r e s ui t a bl e f or a dm i ni s t r a t i on a t t he pr e K l e ve l T he s e pr obe s c ons i s t of f ou r pa ge s w i t h 13 r a ndom l e t t e r s on e a c h pa ge t ha t a r e pr i nt e d i n a s l i ght l y l a r ge r f ont t ha n t he L N F p r obe s G i ve n t ha t t he L K p r obe i s a dm i ni s t e r e d a nd s c or e d i n t he s a m e m a nne r a s t he L N F pr obe t he da t a on L N F c a n be ge ne r a l i z e d t o t he L K m e a s ur e w i t h a f e w pr e c a ut i ons I t i s i m por t a nt t o r e m e m be r t ha t w he n t he num be r of opt i ons t o r e s pond i s de c r e a s e d, t he r e l i a bi l i t y of t he m e a s ur e w i l l be l ow e r e d. A l s o, t h e pe r f or m a nc e o f younge r c hi l dr e n ( i e p r e s c hool e r s ) i s l e s s s t a bl e t ha n ol de r c hi l d r e n, l e a di ng t o m or e va r i a t i on a nd l e s s r e l i a bi l i t y. I nt e r v e nt i on I nt e gr i t y D oc um e nt a t i on of i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e g r i t y w a s a l s o i nc l ude d i n t he s t udy. L e s s on pl a n c om pl e t e ne s s ( i e f ul l y f i l l e d out s he e t s ) w a s e xa m i ne d a l ong w i t h t he num be r of s e s s i ons c om pl e t e d e a c h w e e k. A n e xa m pl e l e s s on pl a n c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x C

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39 E a c h of t he f ou r s e c t i ons of t he l e s s on ( l e t t e r c he c k ne w l e t t e r l e t t e r r e vi e w a nd s ound pr a c t i c e ) ha s s t e ps t o be c om pl e t e d ( i e c he c ke d of f f i l l e d out c i r c l e ye s or no) T he num be r of s t e ps f or e a c h l e s s on va r i e s be t w e e n 58 a nd 64. T o c om pe ns a t e f o r t hi s di f f e r e nc e pe r c e nt a ge s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d t o qua nt i f y t he l e ve l o f i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y. T he f or m ul a t ha t w a s us e d f or c a l c ul a t i ng i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y f o r e a c h s e s s i on w a s : # $ % & '( ) '* ( # + % % '/ % + 0 ' ' ' 1 '2 3 3 ' # $ % & '( ) '4 ( 5 '/ % + 0 '6 ( 0 0 7 $ % Soc i al V al i di t y S oc i a l va l i di t y r e f e r s t o t he i m pl e m e nt e r s j udgm e nt or a f f i ni t y t ow a r d t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd c a r r yi ng i t out ( W i t t & E l l i ot t 19 85) O ne m e a s ur e t ha t ha s be e n us e d t o qua nt i f y t hi s c ons t r uc t i s t he I nt e r ve nt i on R a t i ng P r of i l e ( I R P ; W i t t & M a r t e ns 1983) T he f or m ha s a L i ke r t s c a l e r e s pons e f or m a t f r om 1 ( S t r ongl y di s a gr e e ) t o 6 ( S t r ongl y a gr e e ) T he f o r m w a s or i g i na l l y c r e a t e d t o a s s e s s t he a c c e pt a bi l i t y of i nt e r ve nt i ons t ha t w e r e t o be i m pl e m e nt e d by c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s A n a l t e r e d f o r m o f t he I R P 15 w a s us e d t o c ol l e c t da t a r e ga r di ng i nt e r ve nt i on a c c e pt a bi l i t y. T he o r i gi na l f or m c ons i s t e d of f i f t e e n que s t i ons H ow e ve r t w o que s t i ons w e r e not e a s i l y a l t e r e d t o be c om e a que s t i on t o a s k a c a r e gi ve r a nd t he s e i t e m s w e r e r e m ove d. T he r e f or e t he f o r m us e d i n t hi s s t udy ha s t hi r t e e n que s t i ons t ha t p r ovi de a t hor ough a s s e s s m e nt of how t he i m pl e m e nt e r r a t e s t he i nt e r ve nt i on T he f u l l y a da pt e d f or m c a n be e xa m i ne d i n A ppe ndi x D F ur t he r i n f or m a t i on r e ga r di ng s oc i a l va l i di t y w a s g a t he r e d vi a a s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w w i t h e a c h pa r e nt T h e f o r m us e d f or a l l i nt e r vi e w s c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x E T he i nt e r vi e w c ons i s t e d of ni ne que s t i ons t ha t ga t h e r e d i nf or m a t i on on pa r e nt pe r c e pt i ons

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40 of t he i nt e r ve nt i on a s w e l l a s r e c om m e nde d c ha nge s t o m a ke t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge e a s i e r t o i m pl e m e nt o r m o r e f un t o c a r r y out w i t h t he i r c hi l d. D e s i gn A m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne a c r os s pa r t i c i pa nt s de s i gn w a s us e d i n t hi s s t udy t o a na l yz e t he da t a a nd t e s t hypot he s e s T he de s i gn i nc l ude d t hr e e pha s e s f or e a c h c hi l d: ba s e l i ne i nt e r ve nt i on f o r ni ne w e e ks a nd f o l l ow up. C a r e gi ve r c hi l d dya ds be ga n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e a t t he s a m e t i m e T hi s s t udy ha d s i x pa r t i c i p a nt s w ho be ga n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a t f our di f f e r e nt poi n t s l e a di ng t o f ou r s e pa r a t e ba s e l i ne s A m i ni m um o f t h r e e ba s e l i ne s i s r e c om m e nde d f or t hi s t ype o f de s i gn ( K a z di n 198 2) D a t a c ol l e c t i on t hr oughout a l l pha s e s c ons i s t e d of pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng w i t h bot h D I B E L S m e a s ur e s F or t he pur pos e s of t hi s s t udy, vi s ua l a na l ys e s a nd t r e ndl i ne s w e r e u s e d t o de t e r m i ne s t a bi l i t y or de c r e a s i ng t r e nd, c ha r a c t e r i z e d by t he a bs e nc e of s l ope i n t he da t a poi nt s or de c r e a s i ng s l ope ( K a z di n, 1978) P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r a ndom l y a s s i gne d t o be gi n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e P a r t i c i pa nt s e nt e r e d t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e a t f our di f f e r e nt poi n t s w i t h one pa r t i c i pa nt e nt e r i ng i ni t i a l l y f ol l ow e d by t w o pa i r s o f pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd f i na l l y t he l a s t pa r t i c i pa nt W hi l e w a i t i ng t o be gi n t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e t hos e pa r t i c i pa nt s r e m a i ni ng i n ba s e l i ne w e r e s t i l l a s s e s s e d t w i c e w e e kl y. T he pur pos e of t h e ba s e l i ne pha s e w a s t o r e duc e t hr e a t s t o i n t e r na l va l i d i t y, s uc h a s hi s t or y, m a t ur a t i on, t e s t i ng, a nd i ns t r um e nt a t i on t h r e a t s ( B a r l ow H a ye s & N e l s on, 1984 ) C ha nge s i n be ha vi or of s t ude nt s w ho a r e i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e t ha t di d not oc c ur w i t h s t ude nt s w ho r e m a i ne d i n ba s e l i ne pha s e s pr ovi de s c onf i de nc e t ha t a ny obs e r ve d c ha nge s w o ul d be due t o e f f e c t s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( C oope r H e r on & H e w a r d, 1987) T he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e l a s t e d f o r ni ne w e e ks f or e a c h c a r e gi ve r c hi l d dya d, w i t h f o l l ow u p oc c ur r i ng a pp r oxi m a t e l y t w o w e e ks

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41 a f t e r c om pl e t i on of t he i nt e r ve nt i on T he f ol l ow up pha s e c a n s uppor t m a i nt e na nc e of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge s e f f e c t s N o i nt e r ve nt i on w a s i n pl a c e dur i ng t hi s pha s e but da t a w e r e s t i l l c ol l e c t e d t w i c e pe r w e e k. T hi s de s i gn a l l ow e d f or i ni t i a l de m ons t r a t i on of e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s pr i or t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on de m ons t r a t i on of i n t e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on, a nd a n a s s e s s m e nt of i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s a t f ol l ow up P r oc e dur e E t hi c al C ons i de r at i ons T he s t udy w a s s ubm i t t e d t o t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da D i vi s i on of R e s e a r c h I nt e gr i t y a nd C om pl i a nc e I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d ( I R B ) f or a ppr ova l a nd c ons e nt f or pa r t i c i pa t i on w a s s ought f r o m t he H i l l s bor ough C o unt y H e a d S t a r t D i vi s i on of C hi l dr e n s S e r vi c e s T he s t udy be ga n onc e a ppr ova l i s r e c e i ve d f r om bot h a ge nc i e s T he r e s e a r c he r m a de e ve r y e f f o r t t o e ns ur e t ha t pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e t r e a t e d e t hi c a l l y a nd t ha t c onf i de nt i a l i t y w a s m a i nt a i ne d. I nf o r m e d c ons e nt w a s obt a i ne d f r om t he c a r e gi ve r pa r t i c i pa nt s S t ude nt s w e r e i de nt i f i e d by num be r f or da t a e nt r y pur pos e s D a t a w a s ke pt i n a l oc ke d f i l e c a bi ne t i n t he pos s e s s i on of t he P I a nd na m e s w i l l be c ha nge d i n a ny f ut ur e ve r ba l or w r i t t e n p r e s e nt a t i on of t he r e s e a r c h. T r ai ni ng i n D I B E L S A dm i n i s t r at i on B ot h t he P I a nd t he pr oj e c t a s s i s t a nt r e c e i ve d ba s i c t r a i ni ng i n a dm i ni s t e r i ng m ul t i pl e f o r m s of D I B E L S pr obe s du r i ng t he i r g r a dua t e s t udi e s I n a ddi t i on t o t hi s t r a i ni ng t he P I ha s r e c e i ve d t r a i ni ng w i t h r e ga r ds t o t he ne w D I B E L S m e a s ur e s T r a i n i ng of t he P I w a s c onduc t e d by a pe r s on f r om t he D yn a m i c M e a s ur e m e nt G r o up w ho i s know l e dge a bl e of bot h m e a s ur e s T he P r oj e c t A s s i s t a nt w a s t r a i ne d by t he P I us i ng t he D yna m i c M e a s ur e m e nt G r oup s t r a i ni ng m a t e r i a l s T r a i ni ng c ons i s t e d of one 60 m i nut e

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42 s e s s i on w he r e t he a s s i s t a nt de m ons t r a t e d 98% a nd 100% a c c ur a c y on t he D I B E L S F S F a nd L K m e a s ur e s r e s pe c t i ve l y, be f or e be i ng a l l ow e d t o c ol l e c t da t a f or t hi s s t udy. P ar t i c i pant Se l e c t i on A f t e r ga i ni ng a c c e pt a nc e f r om t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on o f H i l l s bor ough C ount y H e a d S t a r t s oc i a l w or ke r s a t a l oc a l H e a d S t a r t c e nt e r w e r e c ont a c t e d a nd gi ve n i n f or m a t i on a bout t he s t udy i n t he f o r m o f a ha ndout T hi s ha n dout a l s o de t a i l e d how t o ge t i n t o c ont a c t w i t h t he P I T he s oc i a l w or ke r s t he n di s t r i b ut e d t he s e ha ndout s t o pa r e nt s w ho t he y kne w m e t t he f ol l ow i ng c r i t e r i a : ( 1) bot h c a r e gi ve r a nd c hi l d a r e f l ue nt i n E ngl i s h, ( 2) c hi l d i s e nr ol l e d i n t he H i l l s bor ough C ount y H e a d S t a r t p r ogr a m ( 3 ) c hi l d i s e l i gi bl e t o e nr ol l i n ki nde r ga r t e n i n F a l l 2009 a nd ( 4) t he c a r e gi ve r ha d a c ons i s t e nt phone num be r T he s oc i a l w or ke r s i nf or m e d t he c a r e gi ve r s t ha t t he r e s e a r c h w oul d i nvol ve t he c a r e gi ve r pr ovi di ng a l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge t ha t c oul d i m pr ove t he i r c hi l d s s ki l l s i n pr e pa r a t i on f or ki nde r ga r t e n A ge ne r a l de s c r i pt i on of w ha t w oul d be r e qui r e d o f c a r e gi ve r s w a s pr ovi de d ( i e t i m e a c t i vi t i e s ) i n t h e c ont e nt of t he ha ndout C a r e gi ve r s or s oc i a l w or ke r s ( w i t h a s i gne d c a r e gi ve r f or m ) c ont a c t e d t he P I t o l e t he r know t he y w oul d l i ke t he i r c hi l d t o be a s s e s s e d. T he c hi l d of a ny c a r e gi ve r w ho w a s i nt e r e s t e d w a s a s s e s s e d by t he P I w i t h t he D I B E L S F S F a nd L K p r obe s t o s e e i f t he c hi l d m e t t he i nc l us i on c r i t e r i a I f t he c hi l d s s c or e s f e l l be l ow t h e de s i gna t e d c ut poi nt s ( F S F a nd L K l e s s t ha n 10) t he c a r e gi ve r a nd t he e xa m i ne r m e t t o de s c r i be t he pr og r a m i n de t a i l a nd obt a i n i nf or m e d c ons e nt A n e x a m pl e of t he i nf o r m e d c ons e nt f or c a r e gi ve r s i s i n A ppe ndi x A T he f i r s t s e ve n dya ds t ha t m e t i nc l us i on c r i t e r i a w e r e i nc l ude d i n t he s t udy.

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43 B as e l i ne P e r i od T he ba s e l i ne pe r i od o f da t a c ol l e c t i on i nvol ve d t he c hi l d r e c e i vi ng t ypi c a l c l a s s r oom a nd hom e a c t i vi t i e s f or hi s or he r e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l i ns t r uc t i on S t ude nt s w e r e a s s e s s e d w i t h bot h D I B E L S F S F a nd L K p r obe s t w i c e a w e e k dur i ng t he ba s e l i ne pe r i od. D a t a w i l l be c ol l e c t e d t w i c e a w e e k w i t h a t l e a s t o ne da y i n be t w e e n a s s e s s m e nt dur i ng a l l pha s e s of t he s t udy. A l l c a r e gi ve r c hi l d dya ds be ga n ba s e l i ne a t t he s a m e t i m e T he c ha nge t o i nt e r ve nt i on f r om ba s e l i ne oc c ur r e d a f t e r s i x w e e ks s i nc e no s t a bl e t r e nd w a s e vi de nt f o r a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s F or t h i s s t udy, s t a bi l i t y w a s de f i ne d a s ha vi ng t he l a s t t h r e e da t a poi nt s be w i t hi n 1 uni t ( f i r s t s ound o r l e t t e r ) o f t he c um ul a t i ve m e a n of t he ba s e l i ne pe r i od A f t e r t he s i x w e e k ba s e l i ne pha s e pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e l e c t e d r a ndom l y t o e nt e r t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e A t f i r s t one c a r e gi ve r c hi l d dya d be ga n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a nd t he n f our pa r t i c i pa nt s e nt e r e d i n t w o pa i r s a nd t he n f i na l l y t he l a s t pa r t i c i pa nt be ga n t he i nt e r ve nt i on. T he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d f o r e a c h dya d s e que nt i a l l y: ba s e l i ne da t a c ol l e c t i on c ont i nue d unt i l a not he r t w o dya ds e nt e r t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a nd t he s e dya ds pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on t r a i ni ng a nd be ga n t he i nt e r ve nt i on, w hi l e t he r e m a i ni ng pa r t i c i pa nt s c ont i nue d a t ba s e l i ne T hi s pr oc e s s c ont i nue d unt i l a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e or f o r t he f i r s t s i x w e e ks w hi c he ve r c om e s f i r s t O ne i m por t a nt not e i s t ha t a c a de m i c pe r f o r m a nc e da t a a r e not t ypi c a l l y c om pl e t e l y s t a bl e m a ki ng t r e nds di f f i c ul t t o de c i phe r W hi l e t h i s m a y m a ke da t a a n a l ys i s m or e di f f i c ul t K a z di n ( 1982) s ugge s t s t ha t t he s e t r e nds r a r e l y i m pe de t he a bi l i t y t o de t e r m i ne i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s i n a m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn i f t he e f f e c t s a r e s t r ong.

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44 C ar e gi v e r T r ai ni ng A f t e r i t w a s de t e r m i ne d t ha t a c hi l d w oul d m ove f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on t he P I t r a i ne d t ha t c hi l d s c a r e gi ve r t o i m pl e m e nt t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge w i t h hi s or he r pa r t i c i pa t i ng c hi l d. T he t r a i ni ng w a s s c r i pt e d t o e ns ur e e qui va l e nt c ont e nt a c r os s e a c h c a r e gi ve r t r a i ni ng. A c opy o f t he c a r e gi ve r t r a i ni ng s e s s i on c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x B T he t r a i ni n g c ons i s t e d of one 60 90 m i nut e s e s s i on i n a pl a c e of t he c a r e gi ve r s c hoos i ng ( e i t he r U S F H e a d S t a r t o r t h e c a r e gi ve r s hom e ) T he t r a i ni ng c ons i s t e d of i ns t r uc t i on, m ode l i ng, r ol e p l a y a nd f e e dba c k. T he s e m e t hods ha ve be e n s how n t o i nc r e a s e i nt e r ve nt i o n i nt e g r i t y ( S t e r l i ng T ur ne r W a t s on, W i l dm on W a t ki ns & L i t t l e 2001) C a r e gi ve r s w e r e t r a i ne d on pr ovi di ng c or r e c t i ve a nd s pe c i f i c f e e dba c k, ke e pi ng t r a c k of c or r e c t l y na m e d l e t t e r s t e a c hi ng l e t t e r na m e s us i ng a m ne m oni c s t r a t e gy, a nd f a c i l i t a t i ng a c t i vi t i e s t ha t f oc us on t he ons e t / r i m e l e ve l o f phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s D ur i ng t he f i r s t ni ne s e s s i ons phonol o gi c a l a w a r e ne s s a c t i vi t i e s ha d t he c hi l d c om pa r e w he t he r t w o w o r ds ha ve t he s a m e ons e t D ur i ng t he m i ddl e ni ne s e s s i ons t he c hi l d w a s a s ke d t o pr od uc e f u l l w or ds t ha t s t a r t w i t h t he s a m e s ound. T he a c t i vi t y dur i ng t he f i na l ni ne s e s s i ons ha d t he c hi l d pr oduc e onl y t he ons e t of a w o r d ( S i nde l a r e t a l 2002) C a r e gi ve r s w e r e gi ve n t he oppor t uni t y a nd e nc our a ge d t o a s k que s t i ons a nd r e c e i ve d f e e dba c k o n a m oc k s e s s i on t he y c onduc t e d w i t h t he p r i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or C a r e gi ve r pa r t i c i pa nt s a l s o r e c e i ve d a c a l e nda r t o s c he dul e i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i ons a nd f ol l ow up phone c a l l s ( t o c he c k f or i m pl e m e nt a t i o n i nt e gr i t y) t w i c e a w e e k. I nt e r v e nt i on P r oc e dur e T he m a t e r i a l s ne e de d f o r t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge w e r e c om pi l e d i nt o a t hr e e r i ng bi nde r f or e a s e of us e T he y i nc l ude l e s s on pl a ns f or e a c h s e s s i on, l e t t e r f l a s hc a r ds a nd

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45 pi c t ur e f l a s hc a r ds f or t he m ne m oni c s t r a t e gy. T he s e m a t e r i a l s w e r e pr ovi de d t o e a c h c a r e g i ve r by t he P I F or e a c h i nt e r ve nt i on s e s s i on, t he c a r e gi ve r w a s i n s t r uc t e d t o s i t w i t h t he i r c hi l d i n a qui e t l oc a t i on i n t he i r hom e w i t h m i ni m a l di s t r a c t i ons ( e g. a w a y f r om t e l e vi s i on, r a di o, w i ndow s ) S e s s i ons s houl d ha ve oc c ur r e d t h r e e t i m e s pe r w e e k f or br i e f a m ount s of t i m e l a s t i ng a ppr oxi m a t e l y 15 20 m i nut e s D ur i ng t he f i r s t t w o a c t i vi t i e s t ha t f oc us on l e t t e r na m i ng, c a r e gi ve r s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o pl a c e m a t e r i a l s w he r e i t i s e a s y f o r t he c hi l d t o s e e T he s e s s i ons w e r e i de nt i c a l f or e a c h dya d a nd f ol l ow e d t he s a m e s e que nc e of l e t t e r i nt r oduc t i on a nd s ound p r a c t i c e C a r e gi ve r s f i r s t i ndi vi dua l l y he l d up t he 26 l e t t e r f l a s hc a r ds r e c or di ng w hi c h l e t t e r s w e r e a c c ur a t e l y i de nt i f i e d a nd w hi c h w e r e no t C a r e gi ve r s t he n t a ught a ne w l e t t e r na m e us i ng a m ne m oni c s t r a t e gy ( R a s c hke e t a l 1999) T he l e t t e r t o be t a ught de pe nde d on w hi c h s e s s i on of t he i nt e r ve nt i on t he c a r e gi ve r w a s c onduc t i ng. T hi s p r oc e s s r e qui r e d c a r e gi ve r s t o pr e s e nt a f l a s hc a r d w i t h l e t t e r s on i t a l ongs i de a f l a s hc a r d w i t h a p i c t ur e r e p r e s e nt i ng a m ne m oni c F o r e xa m pl e f or t he l e t t e r B one f l a s hc a r d w oul d ha ve t he c a pi t a l ( B ) a nd l ow e r c a s e ( b) a nd t he ot he r w oul d ha ve a pi c t ur e of a be e T he c a r e gi ve r w oul d s a y, A be e goe s buz z T he c hi l d w oul d t he n r e pe a t t he ph r a s e a nd t he c a r e gi ve r a nd c hi l d w oul d i de nt i f y t he na m e o f t he l e t t e r T hi s w oul d be r e pe a t e d s e ve r a l t i m e s w hi l e t he c a r e gi ve r f a de s t he pr om pt ( i e w hi s pe r i ng t he pr om pt t he n s a yi ng none a t a l l ) A f t e r t hi s up t o t hr e e l e t t e r s w e r e r e vi e w e d t ha t ha d be e n p r e vi ou s l y l e a r ne d ( i e t he l e t t e r s t a ught i n t he t hr e e pr e vi ous s e s s i ons ) T he s e c ond ha l f o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge i nvol v e d c a r e gi ve r s he l pi ng t he i r c hi l dr e n t o i de nt i f y di f f e r e nc e s a nd s i m i l a r i t i e s i n ons e t s of w or ds T he i ni t i a l s t a ge ha d

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46 pa r e nt s pr e s e nt t w o w or ds a nd ha d t he c hi l d c om p a r e w he t he r t he s e be gi n w i t h t he s a m e s ound ( i e D o m a t a nd m ous e s t a r t w i t h t he s a m e s ound? ) T he s e a c t i vi t i e s i nc r e a s e d i n di f f i c ul t y t hr ough t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e by ha vi ng t he c hi l dr e n pr oduc e w or ds t ha t s t a r t w i t h t he s a m e s ound a s a gi ve n w or d ( i e N a m e a l l t he w or ds you c a n t hi nk of t ha t s t a r t t he s a m e a s t ur t l e ) a nd f i na l l y p r oduc e t he s i ngl e s ound t ha t i s t he ons e t ( i e T e l l m e t he f i r s t s ound i n s i t ) C a r e gi ve r s r e c or de d t he i r c hi l d s a ns w e r s a t e a c h s t e p a nd r e por t e d a ny di f f i c ul t i e s w i t h di s t i ngui s hi ng l e t t e r s a nd s ounds C a r e gi ve r s w e r e a l s o i ns t r uc t e d t o pr ovi de s pe c i f i c f e e dba c k t o t he i r c hi l d f o r t r yi ng h a r d a nd doi ng good w or k ( i e I l i ke how you c a m e up w i t h s o m a ny w or ds t ha t s t a r t t h e s a m e a s z oo. I l i ke how you w or ke d ha r d t o l e a r n t ha t l e t t e r na m e ) I nt e r v e nt i on P has e T he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt l a s t e d ni ne w e e ks T he i nt e r ve nt i on oc c ur r e d t hr e e t i m e s pe r w e e k i n 15 20 m i nut e s e s s i ons T he i nt e r ve nt i ons w e r e pl a nne d t o t a ke pl a c e i n a n a r e a i n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s hom e w he r e t he r e a r e f e w di s t r a c t i ons but t he c a r e gi ve r pa r t i c i pa nt o f e a c h dya d de t e r m i ne d t he l oc a t i on. P r og r e s s m oni t or i ng da t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d t w i c e w e e kl y by t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or a nd t r a i ne d pr oj e c t a s s i s t a nt a t t he c hi l d s H e a d S t a r t c l a s s r oom us i ng bot h D I B E L S F S F a nd L K p r obe s T he c hi l d r e c e i ve d no e r r o r c or r e c t i on dur i ng t he s e s e s s i ons ot he r t ha n t ha t s c r i pt e d by t he D I B E L S pr obe di r e c t i ons P a r t i c i pa t i ng c hi l dr e n r e c e i ve d r e i nf or c e m e nt i n t he f o r m o f ve r ba l pr a i s e f or c om pl yi ng w i t h t he e xa m i ne r s r e que s t s

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47 P r oc e dur al I nt e gr i t y I nt e r ve nt i on i nt e g r i t y w a s m oni t o r e d t h r oughout t h e i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e T he l e s s on pl a ns s e r ve d a s a c he c kl i s t t o de t e r m i ne w h e t he r t he a l l t he c om pone nt s of e a c h s e s s i on w e r e c a r r i e d out C a r e gi ve r s r e c or de d t he d a t e of t he i nt e r ve nt i on, t he be gi nni ng a nd e ndi ng t i m e t he a c t i vi t i e s c om pl e t e d w i t h t he i nf or m a t i on f or e a c h a c t i vi t y t o be f i l l e d i n a n e va l ua t i on of t he s e s s i on ( i e i nd i c a t i on of how t he s e s s i on w e nt ) a nd a ny que s t i ons t he c a r e gi ve r ha d w hi l e c onduc t i ng t he s e s s i on. A s a m pl e l e s s on pl a n c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x C T he P I c ol l e c t e d t he s e l e s s on pl a ns f r om t he c hi l d w he n t he y m e t f or t he f i r s t pr ogr e s s m oni t or i ng s e s s i on e a c h w e e k. I f t he c hi l d di d not ha ve t he c he c kl i s t s t he P I c a l l e d t he c a r e gi ve r t o r e m i nd t he m t o s e nd t he c he c kl i s t s on t he ne xt a s s e s s m e nt da y. I f t he l e s s on pl a ns w e r e c ons i s t e nt l y not be i ng r e t ur ne d t he P I vi s i t e d t he c hi l d s c a r e gi ve r w he n t he y c a m e t o pi c k up t he i r c hi l d f r o m H e a d S t a r t A ddi t i ona l l y, t he P I c a l l e d t he c a r e gi ve r s t w i c e a w e e k du r i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e t o a s s e s s i m pl e m e nt a t i on a nd a ns w e r a ny que s t i ons t he c a r e gi ve r w r ot e on t he l e s s on pl a n s he e t s or ha d dur i ng t he c onve r s a t i on. A l s o, a ny i nc ons i s t e nc i e s on t he l e s s on pl a ns w e r e a ddr e s s e d dur i ng t he s e phone c a l l s F ol l ow U p P has e I n t he w e e ks a f t e r t he e nd of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e m a i nt e na nc e of i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s w e r e e va l ua t e d w i t h t he c ol l e c t i on of da t a u s i ng t he t w o D I B E L S a s s e s s m e nt s ( F S F a nd L K ) T he s e a s s e s s m e nt s c ont i nue d t o be a dm i ni s t e r e d t w i c e a w e e k unt i l t he P I c ol l e c t e d t w o w e e ks ( 4 da t a poi nt s ) of a s s e s s m e nt da t a f r om l a s t pa r t i c i pa nt t o c om pl e t i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e

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48 T o ga t he r da t a r e ga r di ng t he s oc i a l a c c e pt a nc e a nd c a r e gi ve r pe r c e pt i ons of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge a s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r v i e w w a s c onduc t e d by t he P I w i t h t he c a r e gi ve r s T he i nt e r vi e w s t ook pl a c e i n t he c a r e gi ve r s hom e a t a t i m e a gr e e d upon by t he c a r e gi ve r a nd t he P I T he que s t i ons f or t he i n t e r vi e w c a n be f ound i n A ppe ndi x E T he s e i nt e r vi e w s ga t he r e d i nf o r m a t i on r e ga r di ng t he c om pone nt s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge t ha t w e r e pe r c e i ve d t o be t he m os t he l pf ul or e f f e c t i ve a s w e l l a s ba r r i e r s a nd di f f i c ul t i e s w i t h i m pl e m e nt i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge J us t pr i or t o t he i nt e r vi e w be i ng c onduc t e d, t he m odi f i e d ve r s i on o f t he I R P 15 w a s f i l l e d ou t ( A ppe ndi x D ) A t t he e nd o f t he i nt e r vi e w t he c a r e gi ve r s r e c e i ve d books f or t h e i r c hi l d, a s m a l l t oy f o r t he i r c hi l d a nd a $100 W a l m a r t gi f t c a r d t o t ha nk t he m f o r t he i r p a r t i c i pa t i on. D at a A nal y s i s D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d f r om t he D I B E L S F S F a nd L K a s s e s s m e nt i nf or m a t i on. T he a s s e s s m e nt da t a a r e di s pl a ye d gr a phi c a l l y w i t h f i v e da ys pe r w e e k ( no w e e ke nds ) t o i ndi c a t e pe r f or m a nc e du r i ng ba s e l i ne i n t e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s of t he s t udy. D a t a w e r e c om pa r e d a c r os s pha s e s a nd t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c ons t r uc t e d t o de t e r m i ne di f f e r e nc e s i n r a t e of g r ow t h i n e a c h pha s e T he c h a nge i n l e ve l a c r os s pha s e s a l s o w e r e e xa m i ne d, a s de s c r i be d by K a z di n ( 19 82) H ow e ve r be c a us e s udde n c ha nge s i n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e i n a c a de m i c da t a a r e r a r e a n a l t e r na t i ve de f i ni t i on o f l e ve l w a s us e d i n t hi s s t udy. T he m e a n pe r f o r m a nc e on e a c h D I B E L S m e a s ur e dur i ng t he l a s t 2 w e e ks ( 4 da t a poi nt s ) of e a c h pha s e w e r e c om pa r e d. T hi s r e s ul t s i n a c om pa r i s on be t w e e n t he l a s t t w o w e e ks of ba s e l i ne a nd t he l a s t t w o w e e ks of t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e a nd a c om pa r i s on be t w e e n t he l a s t t w o w e e ks of i n t e r ve nt i on a nd t he l a s t t w o w e e ks of t he f ol l ow up pe r i od.

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49 D a t a w e r e a l s o e xa m i ne d t hr ough t he us e of non o ve r l a ppi ng da t a poi n t s T he f ol l ow i ng f o r m ul a w a s us e d: A hi ghe r pe r c e nt a ge o f non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi n t s i ndi c a t e s a s t r onge r e f f e c t f or t he i nt e r ve nt i on w he r e a s a l ow e r pe r c e nt a ge i ndi c a t e s m or e ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s a nd w e a ke r i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s ( S t a pe 2000) F ur t he r a na l ys e s i nc l ude d t he us e of hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l i ng t o ga t he r e vi de nc e r e ga r di ng t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( V a n de n N oor t ga t e & O nghe na 2003) E f f e c t s i z e s f or t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge w e r e c a l c ul a t e d a l ong w i t h t e s t s of s i gni f i c a nc e S pe c i f i c a l l y, a t l e ve l 1 t he D I B E L S F S F a nd L K s c or e s w e r e m ode l e d a s a f unc t i on of t he pha s e s T hi s w a s r e pr e s e nt e d a s : E ar l y L i t e r ac y Sk i l l ( Y i j ) = 0 j + 1 p h a s e j + 2 t i m e j + 3 p h a s e t i m e j + e i j L e ve l 2 w a s r e pr e s e nt e d by t he f ol l ow i ng e qua t i on s : 0 j = 0 + u 0 j 1 j = 1 + u 1 j 2 j = 2 + u 2 j 3 j = 3 + u 3 j T o e xa m i ne t he l e ve l of i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y e a c h l e s s on pl a n s he e t w a s e xa m i ne d f or c om pl e t e ne s s t o i ndi c a t e w he t he r t he pr oc e dur e w a s f ol l ow e d f or e a c h c om pone nt T he t ot a l num be r of s t e ps f or e a c h l e s s on c om pl e t e d w a s di vi de d by t he t ot a l pos s i bl e s t e ps t o ge ne r a t e a pe r c e nt a ge of i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y T he s e pe r c e nt a ge s w e r e a ve r a ge d a c r os s t he 27 s e s s i ons t o ge ne r a t e a n ove r a l l l e ve l o f i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y. # $ % & '( ) '. 5 5 '+ ( 7 8 0 '5 $ ( 9 % ': % ': 7 ; : % 0 '$ 5 0 % 7 8 % '+ ( 7 8 '''''1 ''2 3 3 ''4 ( 5 '8 # $ % & '( ) '. 5 5 '+ ( 7 8 0 '7 8 ': % '7 8 % & 9 % 8 7 ( 8 '+ : 5 0 %

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50 A l s o, t he i ndi vi dua l s e s s i on pe r c e nt a ge s e a c h w e e k w e r e a ve r a ge d a nd w e r e c or r e l a t e d w i t h t he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne f o r s c or e s on e a c h o f t he D I B E L S m e a s ur e s us i ng t he P e a r s on P r oduc t M om e nt c or r e l a t i on. T hi s ga ve a n i ndi c a t i on of w he t he r t he l e ve l o f i nt e gr i t y va r i e d w i t h t he l e v e l of pe r f o r m a nc e on p r e l i t e r a c y t a s ks T he I R P r a t i ng s c a l e yi e l ds t ot a l s c or e s r a ngi ng f r o m 13 t o 78. T he s e s c or e s w e r e c or r e l a t e d w i t h t he s l ope of t he D I B E L S s c or e s on bot h m e a s ur e s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e D a t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng t he P e a r s on P r od uc t M om e nt c or r e l a t i on T he i nf o r m a t i on ga t he r e d f r om t he c a r e gi ve r s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w s w a s e xa m i ne d f or t he m e s r e ga r d i ng be ne f i t s a nd ba r r i e r s t o i m pl e m e nt a t i on a s w e l l a s w ha t c om pone nt s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge t he c a r e gi ve r s f ound m os t he l pf ul T hi s i n f or m a t i on c a n he l p i nf or m f ut ur e e f f or t s t o i nc l ude c a r e gi ve r s i n i m p l e m e nt i ng hom e ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons

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51 C H A P T E R F O U R R E S U L T S T hi s c ha pt e r i nc l ude s a di s c us s i on of m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne e a r l y l i t e r a c y da t a f o r t he s i x c hi l d pa r t i c i pa nt s a l on g w i t h a na l ys e s of da t a g a t he r e d on i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd s oc i a l va l i di t y. C ons i s t e nt w i t h s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn s t udi e s t he da t a pr e s e nt e d i n t h i s c ha pt e r w i l l f i r s t be d i s c us s e d t hr ough vi s ua l a na l ys i s a nd de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he r e s ul t s of hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m od e l i ng a na l ys i s w i l l be di s c us s e d. T he c ha pt e r a l s o r e vi e w s da t a ga t he r e d on t he i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd s oc i a l va l i di t y of t he s t udy a s w e l l a s t he m e s ga t he r e d f r om t he i n t e r vi e w s w i t h t he pa r e nt s V i s ua l A na l ys i s a nd D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s I n or de r t o e xa m i ne t he i m pa c t t he pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt e d e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge ha d on s t ude nt s e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s r e s ul t s w e r e vi s ua l l y a na l yz e d t o de t e r m i ne t he c ha nge i n l e ve l s of pe r f o r m a nc e t r e ndl i ne s a nd va r i a bi l i t y a c r os s pha s e s A gr a phi c a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he da t a on t he F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y M e a s ur e s ( F S F ) f or e a c h c hi l d i s pr ovi de d i n A ppe ndi x F T he da t a ga t he r e d f r om t he L e t t e r K now l e dge ( L K ) m e a s ur e f or e a c h c hi l d a r e pr ovi de d i n A ppe ndi x G E xa m i n a t i on of t he gr a phs of t he F S F a nd L K da t a r e ve a l e d c ons i de r a bl e va r i a bi l i t y a c r os s pa r t i c i pa nt s i n a l l t hr e e pha s e s F or t hi s r e a s on, da t a f o r e a c h c hi l d w i l l be di s c us s e d i ndi vi dua l l y. T o f a c i l i t a t e t hi s di s c us s i on, e a c h c hi l d w a s gi ve n a ps e udonym C hi l d 1 R ac he l F SF R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he va r i a bi l i t y o f da t a poi nt s a nd t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e i n F S F f or e a c h pha s e ( i e b a s e l i ne i nt e r ve nt i on, a nd f ol l ow up)

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52 f or R a c he l a r e p r e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 2. A n i nc r e a s e i s obs e r ve d i n m e a n l e ve l o f F S F f r om t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 0 18) t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on p ha s e ( M = 3 06) T h i s i s a n i nc r e a s e i n m e a n da t a of 2 88 F S f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e B e c a us e s udde n ga i ns i n a c a de m i c s ki l l s a r e unl i ke l y t o r e s ul t a t t he be gi nni ng o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e t he m e a ns f r om t he e nd of e a c h pha s e w e r e c om pa r e d ( l a s t t w o poi nt s i n e a c h pha s e ) F r om t he e nd of t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 0. 00 ) t o t he e nd of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 7 50) t he r e w a s a n i nc r e a s e i n l e ve l o f 7 50 i n f i r s t s ound s pe r m i nut e A c om pa r i s on of d i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s a l s o w a s c onduc t e d. R a c he l s m e a n F S F s c or e c ont i nue d t o i nc r e a s e f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 3 06) t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e ( M = 5 56) r e s ul t i ng i n a t ot a l m e a n i nc r e a s e of 2 50 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nu t e W he n c om pa r i ng t he m e a ns of t he l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s t he m e a n f i na l s c or e s i nc r e a s e d f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 7 50) t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e ( M = 9 50) a n i nc r e a s e of 2. 00 f i r s t s ounds pr oduc e d i n one m i nut e O ve r a l l t he R a c he l s da t a de m ons t r a t e i nc r e a s e s i n t he m e a ns l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e f r om e a c h pha s e a nd i nc r e a s e s i n t he va r i a bi l i t y of s c or e s w i t h t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s ha vi ng l a r ge r s t a nda r d de vi a t i on s T a bl e 2 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or F i r s t Sound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) Sk i l l s f or R ac he l P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 0. 18 0. 41 0 1 I nt e r ve nt i on 3. 06 3. 19 0 12 F ol l ow up 5. 56 3. 40 0 10

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53 A ddi t i ona l a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d t o a i d i n i nt e r pr e t i ng t he F S F da t a f or R a c he l A c a l c ul a t i on of pe r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s s how e d t ha t 61. 11 % o f t he da t a poi nt s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e di d not o ve r l a p w i t h poi nt s i n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e L i ne a r t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c r e a t e d f or e a c h pha s e of da t a t o e xa m i ne a ny c ha nge s i n r a t e s of gr ow t h a c r os s pha s e s T he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne f or e a c h pha s e i s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 3. A c om pa r i s on a c r os s pha s e s r e ve a l s t ha t R a c he l s r a t e of gr ow t h i nc r e a s e d a c r os s e a c h pha s e pr ovi di ng f ur t he r s uppor t f or t h e i nc r e a s e i n s c or e s a c r os s pha s e s T a bl e 3 R at e s of F SF G r ow t h f or R ac he l A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 03 I nt e r ve nt i on 0 15 F ol l ow up 0 26 L K R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he va r i a bi l i t y o f da t a poi nt s a nd t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e on l e t t e r know l e dge t a s ks f or e a c h pha s e f or R a c he l a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 4. S i m i l a r t r e nds w e r e not e d w i t hi n R a c he l s da t a be t w e e n pe r f o r m a nc e on t he L K a nd F S F a s s e s s m e nt s W he n c om pa r i ng ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on, t he m e a n l e ve l of l e t t e r s na m e d i n one m i nu t e f o r R a c he l i nc r e a s e d f r om t h e ba s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 0 27) t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 2 33) T h i s i s a n i nc r e a s e i n m e a n da t a of 2. 06 i n l e t t e r s na m e d pe r m i nut e I n c om pa r i ng t he e nd of t he ba s e l i ne p ha s e ( M = 0 00) t o t he e nd of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 5 00) t he r e w a s a c ha nge i n l e ve l of 5. 00 i n l e t t e r s c or r e c t l y na m e d i n one m i nu t e

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54 I n e xa m i ni ng di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s R a c he l s m e a n s c or e on l e t t e r know l e dge a s s e s s m e nt s i nc r e a s e d f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 2. 33) t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e ( M = 4. 56 ) a m e a n i n c r e a s e of 2. 23 l e t t e r s pe r m i nut e ove r t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e T he m e a n da t a f r o m t he l a s t t w o poi nt s o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( M = 5. 00) a nd f ol l ow u p ( M = 6 00) pha s e s r e ve a l e d a s m a l l a ve r a ge i nc r e a s e of 1 0 0 i n l e t t e r s na m e d pe r m i nut e T a bl e 4 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dg e ( L K ) S k i l l s f or R ac he l P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 0. 27 0. 47 0 1 I nt e r ve nt i on 2. 33 2. 17 0 6 F ol l ow up 4. 56 2. 60 0 8 P e r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a po i nt s a nd t r e n dl i ne s a l s o w e r e c a l c ul a t e d on t he l e t t e r know l e dge a s s e s s m e nt da t a A c a l c ul a t i o n of pe r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s s how e d t ha t 61. 11 % o f t he da t a poi nt s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e di d not ove r l a p w i t h poi nt s i n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e L i ne a r t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c r e a t e d f o r e a c h pha s e of da t a t o e xa m i ne a ny c ha nge s i n r a t e s of g r ow t h a c r os s pha s e s T he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne f o r e a c h pha s e i s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 5 C h a nge s i n r a t e s of g r ow t h i n L K w e r e ve r y s i m i l a r t o c ha nge s i n r a t e s o f gr ow t h of F S F w i t h a n i nc r e a s e i n g r ow t h oc c ur r i ng a t e ve r y pha s e

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55 T a bl e 5 R at e s of L K G r ow t h f or R ac he l A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 01 I nt e r ve nt i on 0 06 F ol l ow up 0 26 C hi l d 2 W e s l e y F SF R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he va r i a bi l i t y o f da t a poi nt s a nd t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e i n F S F f or e a c h pha s e a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 6 T he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ha d t he gr e a t e s t l e ve l of va r i a bi l i t y w i t h r e ga r ds t o F S F s c or e s w hi l e t he m e a n s c or e s i nc r e a s e d a c r os s a l l pha s e s A n i nc r e a s e of 16. 12 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nu t e w a s obs e r ve d be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne ( M = 16. 75) a nd i n t e r ve nt i on ( M = 32 87) pha s e s T he i nc r e a s e i s e ve n gr e a t e r w he n c om pa r i ng t he f i na l t w o da t a poi nt s f r om e a c h pha s e A n i nc r e a s e of 22. 00 f i r s t s ounds pr oduc e d i n one m i n ut e oc c ur r e d be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 21 50) a nd t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 43. 50) D a t a a l s o w e r e c om pa r e d be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s W e s l e y s m e a n F S F s c or e i nc r e a s e d a not he r 9 70 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 32 87) t o t he f ol l ow up ph a s e ( M = 42 57) W hi l e pha s e m e a ns s how a n i nc r e a s e da t a c om pa r i ng t he a ve r a ge of t h e l a s t t w o a s s e s s m e nt s i n e a c h pha s e s how a s l i ght de c r e a s e ( 2. 50 ) be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( M = 33 50) a nd f ol l ow up ( M = 41. 00) pha s e s O ve r a l l c om pa r i s ons of W e s l e y s da t a a c r os s pha s e s e xhi bi t c ha nge s i n

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56 va r i a bi l i t y a c r os s e a c h pha s e i nc r e a s e s i n a ve r a ge f i r s t s ound f l ue nc y s c or e s a nd a l a r ge i nc r e a s e t he n s m a l l de c r e a s e w he n c om pa r i ng f i na l da t a poi nt s of a pha s e T a bl e 6 D e s c r i p t i v e St at i s t i c s f or F i r s t Sound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) Sk i l l s f or W e s l e y P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 16. 75 6. 03 4 23 I nt e r ve nt i on 32. 87 7. 98 22 47 F ol l ow up 42. 57 3. 69 38 49 D a t a w e r e a l s o s ubj e c t e d t o t he a na l ys e s of non ov e r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s a nd t he c o ns t r uc t i on of t r e ndl i ne s A c a l c ul a t i on of pe r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi n t s r e ve a l e d t ha t 86. 67 % of t he da t a poi nt s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e di d not ove r l a p w i t h poi nt s i n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e L i ne a r t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c r e a t e d f or e a c h pha s e of da t a t o e xa m i ne a ny c ha nge s i n r a t e s of gr ow t h a c r os s pha s e s T he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne f or e a c h pha s e i s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 7 A c om pa r i s on a c r os s pha s e s e vi de nc e s a s m a l l i nc r e a s e f r om ba s e l i ne t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( 0. 09 ) w i t h r e ga r ds t o s l ope a nd a l a r ge de c r e a s e i n gr ow t h be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up ph a s e s ( 0. 88) T a bl e 7 R at e s of F SF G r ow t h f or W e s l e y A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 42 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 51 F ol l ow up 0. 37

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57 L K R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he v a r i a bi l i t y o f da t a poi nt s a nd t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e i n L e t t e r K now l e dge f o r e a c h pha s e f or W e s l e y a r e p r e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 8. W e s l e y s know l e dge of l e t t e r s i nc r e a s e d t hr oughout a l l t hr e e pha s e s A n i nc r e a s e i n m e a n s c or e of 6. 43 c or r e c t l e t t e r s pe r m i nut e w a s f ound be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 5 17) a nd t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 11 60) T he m e a n of t he f i na l poi nt s o f t he ba s e l i ne pha s e a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e w e r e a l s o c om pa r e d, w i t h a n i nc r e a s e of 11. 50 l e t t e r s pe r m i nut e be i ng f ound ( ba s e l i ne M = 6 50; i nt e r ve nt i on M = 18. 00) A n e va l ua t i on of t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up ph a s e s f ound i nc r e a s e s i n a l l m e a n c om pa r i s ons T he i nc r e a s e of t he ove r a l l m e a ns be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s w a s 9. 97 l e t t e r s na m e d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e ( i nt e r ve nt i on M = 11. 60; f ol l ow up M = 21. 57 ) T he l e ve l of c ha nge i n t he m e a ns of t he l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s f r om e a c h pha s e w a s not a s l a r ge r e ve a l i ng a n i nc r e a s e of onl y 5 00 l e t t e r s na m e d pe r m i nut e ( i nt e r ve nt i on M = 18 00; f ol l ow up M = 23 00) T a bl e 8 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dg e ( L K ) S k i l l s f or W e s l e y P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 5. 17 2. 62 2 10 I nt e r ve nt i on 11. 60 4. 70 5 20 F ol l ow up 21. 57 3. 16 18 28 T he pe r c e nt a ge of da t a poi nt s t ha t di d not ove r l a p be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on ph a s e s f or W e s l e y s L e t t e r K now l e dg e s c or e s w a s 60% T he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne s f or e a c h pha s e i s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 9. I n c ont r a s t t o t he s i gni f i c a nt dr op i n r a t e

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58 of gr ow t h f ound i n t he F S F t r e ndl i ne s W e s l e y s r a t e of g r ow t h w i t hi n t he L e t t e r K now l e dge s c o r e s s how s a n i nc r e a s e be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s a nd onl y a s m a l l de c r e a s e be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd f o l l ow up pha s e s T a bl e 9 R at e s of F SF G r ow t h f or W e s l e y A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 11 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 29 F ol l ow up 0. 21 C hi l d 3 J e nni f e r F SF R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng m e a n l e ve l s of pe r f or m a nc e a nd t he va r i a bi l i t y of da t a poi nt s f or F S F w i t hi n e a c h pha s e f o r J e nni f e r a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 10 T he f ol l ow up pha s e ha d t he gr e a t e s t l e ve l of va r i a bi l i t y w i t h r e ga r ds t o F S F s c or e s w hi l e t he m e a n s c or e s i nc r e a s e d a c r os s a l l pha s e s A s m a l l i nc r e a s e of 3. 08 f i r s t s ounds pr oduc e d i n one m i nut e w a s not e d be t w e e n ba s e l i ne ( M = 1 25) a nd i nt e r ve nt i on ( M = 4 33) pha s e s A s l i ght l y l a r ge r i nc r e a s e of 6 00 f i r s t s ounds w a s not e d w he n c om pa r i ng t he l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s f r om t he ba s e l i ne ( M = 0 00) a nd i nt e r ve nt i o n ( M = 6. 00 ) pha s e s W he n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s w e r e c om pa r e d, J e nni f e r s m e a n F S F s c or e i nc r e a s e d by 12. 30 f i r s t s ounds pr oduc e d pe r m i nut e ( M = 4. 33 i nt e r ve nt i on; M = 16. 43 f ol l ow up) I n a ddi t i on w he n c om pa r i ng t he m e a n of t he l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s f r om e a c h pha s e a n i nc r e a s e of 25 00 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e w a s f ound be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( M = 6 00) a nd f o l l ow up ( M = 31. 00 ) pha s e s O ve r a l l l i t t l e di f f e r e nc e w a s

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59 obs e r ve d i n J e nni f e r s da t a ga t he r e d dur i ng t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e w i t h a c ha nge i n m e a n pe r f o r m a nc e a nd va r i a bi l i t y oc c ur r i ng dur i ng t he f ol l ow up pha s e T a bl e 10 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or F i r s t Sound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) Sk i l l s f or J e nni f e r P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 1. 25 2. 14 0 6 I nt e r ve nt i on 4. 33 2. 74 0 10 F ol l ow up 16. 43 10. 85 4 33 P e r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a po i nt s a nd t r e n dl i ne s w e r e a l s o c a l c ul a t e d on t he F S F da t a f or J e nni f e r A c a l c ul a t i on of pe r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi n t s r e ve a l e d t ha t 33. 33 % of t he da t a poi nt s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e di d not ove r l a p w i t h poi nt s i n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e L i ne a r t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c r e a t e d f or e a c h pha s e of da t a t o e xa m i ne a ny c ha nge s i n r a t e s of gr ow t h a c r o s s pha s e s T he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne f or e a c h pha s e i s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 11 A c om pa r i s on a c r os s pha s e s e vi de nc e s a s m a l l i nc r e a s e f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s ( 0. 06) but a l a r ge i nc r e a s e i n r a t e o f g r ow t h be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow u p p ha s e s ( 1. 33) T a bl e 11 R at e s of F SF G r ow t h f or J e nni f e r A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 09 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 15 F ol l ow up 1. 48

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60 L K R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he va r i a bi l i t y o f da t a poi nt s a nd t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e i n c or r e c t l e t t e r s na m e d pe r m i nut e f or e a c h pha s e f or J e nni f e r a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 12 J e nni f e r s e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s i n t he a r e a o f c or r e c t l y na m i ng l e t t e r s i nc r e a s e d t hr ough a l l t hr e e pha s e s w i t h va r i a bi l i t y i n t he da t a r e m a i ni ng f a i r l y c ons i s t e nt W he n c o m pa r i ng m e a n ba s e l i ne pe r f o r m a nc e ( M = 9. 83) t o m e a n i nt e r ve nt i on pe r f or m a nc e ( M = 22 33) a n i nc r e a s e of 12 50 l e t t e r na m e s pe r m i nut e w a s f ound. W he n c om pa r i ng t he m e a n pe r f or m a nc e du r i ng t he l a s t w e e ks of t he ba s e l i ne ( M = 14 00) a nd i nt e r ve nt i on ( M = 35 50 ) pha s e s a l a r ge r i nc r e a s e o f 21. 50 i n L K w a s f ound D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow u p pha s e s i n t he L e t t e r K now l e dge da t a w e r e a l s o e xa m i ne d. C om pa r i s on s of m e a n l e ve l o f pe r f or m a nc e e vi de nc e d s m a l l e r ga i ns t ha n di f f e r e nc e s f ound be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on. T he i nc r e a s e of t he ove r a l l m e a ns be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve n t i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s w a s 15. 53 c or r e c t l e t t e r na m e s pe r m i nut e ( i nt e r ve nt i on M = 2 2. 33; f o l l ow up M = 37. 86) H ow e ve r w he n c om pa r i ng t he m e a n of t he l a s t da t a poi nt s w i t hi n e a c h pha s e a s m a l l d i f f e r e nc e o f 8. 00 l e t t e r s pe r m i nut e w a s f ound ( i nt e r ve nt i on M = 35. 50; f ol l ow up M = 43 50) T a bl e 12 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dg e ( L K ) S k i l l s f or J e nni f e r P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 9. 83 4. 75 1 16 I nt e r ve nt i on 22. 33 6. 36 11 37 F ol l ow up 37. 86 4. 63 31 45

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61 A hi gh pe r c e nt a ge ( 88 89% ) of t he da t a poi nt s i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e di d not ove r l a p w i t h t he ba s e l i ne pha s e D a t a f or t he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne s f or e a c h pha s e of L K s c or e s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 13 O f not e t he r a t e of J e nni f e r s g r ow t h a c r os s t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s doe s not di f f e r s i gni f i c a nt l y. T he l a r ge s t c ha nge w a s not e d i n t he f ol l ow up pha s e w he r e t he r a t e of gr ow t h i s doubl e w ha t w a s obs e r ve d dur i ng ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s T a bl e 13 R at e s of L K G r ow t h f or J e nni f e r A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 33 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 32 F ol l ow up 0. 66 C hi l d 4 T anne r F SF R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he va r i a bi l i t y w i t hi n T a nne r s da t a a nd t he m e a n l e ve l of h i s pe r f o r m a nc e i n F S F f or e a c h pha s e a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 14. T he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ha d t he g r e a t e s t l e ve l of va r i a bi l i t y w i t h r e ga r ds t o F S F s c or e s w hi l e t he m e a n s c or e s i nc r e a s e d a c r os s a l l pha s e s A n i nc r e a s e of 9. 53 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e w a s obs e r ve d be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne ( M = 0 00) a nd i nt e r ve nt i on ( M = 9 53) pha s e s T he i nc r e a s e i s e ve n gr e a t e r w he n c om pa r i ng t he m e a n of t he f i na l t w o da t a poi nt s f r om e a c h pha s e A n i nc r e a s e of 29 50 f i r s t s ound p r oduc e d p e r m i nut e oc c ur r e d i n c ha nge i n l e ve l be t w e e n t he b a s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 0 00) a nd t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 29 50)

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62 T a nne r s da t a f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f o l l ow up pha s e s w e r e c om pa r e d t o e xa m i ne di f f e r e nc e s T a nne r s m e a n F S F s c or e i nc r e a s e d a not he r 6. 72 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e f r om t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 9 53) t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e ( M = 16. 25 ) W hi l e pha s e m e a ns s how a n i nc r e a s e da t a c om pa r i ng t he a ve r a ge of t he l a s t t w o a s s e s s m e nt s i n e a c h pha s e s how a l a r ge de c r e a s e ( 10. 50 ) be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( M = 29 50) a nd f ol l ow up ( M = 19. 00 ) pha s e s I n ge ne r a l c om pa r i s ons of T a nne r s da t a a c r os s pha s e s e vi de nc e c ha nge s i n va r i a bi l i t y, i nc r e a s e s i n m e a n F S F s c or e s a nd a l a r ge i nc r e a s e t he n s m a l l de c r e a s e w he n c om pa r i ng t he m e a ns of f i na l da t a poi nt s of e a c h pha s e T a bl e 14 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or F i r s t Sound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) Sk i l l s f or T anne r P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 0. 00 0. 00 0 0 I nt e r ve nt i on 9. 53 10. 94 0 32 F ol l ow up 16. 25 6. 67 6 25 T o f u r t he r c l a r i f y d i f f e r e nc e s f ound i n t he da t a T a nne r s pe r f or m a nc e s c or e s w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng pe r c e nt a g e of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s a nd c r e a t i on of t r e ndl i ne s A c a l c ul a t i on of pe r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s r e ve a l e d t ha t 70 59% o f t he da t a poi nt s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e di d not ove r l a p w i t h poi nt s i n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e L i ne a r t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c r e a t e d f o r e a c h pha s e of da t a t o e xa m i ne a ny c ha nge s i n r a t e s of gr ow t h a c r os s pha s e s T he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne f o r e a c h pha s e i s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 15. A c om pa r i s on a c r os s pha s e s e vi de nc e s a l a r ge i nc r e a s e f r om t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( w he r e no gr ow t h w a s e vi de nt ) t o t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e ( 0 7 8) but t he n a l a c k of gr ow t h dur i ng t he f ol l ow up pha s e w he r e t he g r ow t h r a t e w a s s i m i l a r t o ba s e l i ne l e ve l s

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63 T a bl e 15 R at e s of F SF G r ow t h f or T anne r A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 00 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 78 F ol l ow up 0. 05 L K R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he va r i a bi l i t y o f da t a poi nt s a nd t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e i n L K f or e a c h pha s e f or T a n ne r a r e p r e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 16 S i m i l a r t r e nds w e r e not e d w i t hi n T a nne r s da t a be t w e e n t h e L K a n d F S F pe r f or m a nc e W he n c om pa r i ng ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on t he m e a n l e ve l of l e t t e r s na m e d i n one m i nut e f or T a nne r i nc r e a s e d f r o m t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 9 2 9) t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 24. 35) T hi s i s a n i nc r e a s e i n m e a n da t a of 15. 06 i n know l e dge of l e t t e r na m e s I n c om pa r i ng t he m e a ns f r om t he e nd of t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 15 00) t o t he e nd of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 41 00) t he r e w a s a s i z e a bl e i nc r e a s e i n l e ve l of 26. 00 l e t t e r na m e s pr oduc e d pe r m i nut e I n e xa m i ni ng di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he i n t e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s T a nne r s m e a n s c or e i n L K i nc r e a s e d f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 24 35) t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e ( M = 44 75) a m e a n i nc r e a s e of 20 40 l e t t e r s pe r m i nu t e ove r t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e T he m e a n da t a f r om t he l a s t t w o poi nt s o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( M = 41. 00 ) a nd f ol l ow up ( M = 47. 0 0) pha s e s r e ve a l e d a s m a l l m e a n i nc r e a s e of 6. 00 i n L K pe r f o r m a nc e O ve r a l l T a nne r e vi de nc e d l a r ge ga i ns i n l e t t e r na m i ng a bi l i t y a c r os s a l l t hr e e pha s e s

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64 T a bl e 16 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K no w l e dg e ( L K ) S k i l l s f or T anne r P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 9. 29 3. 41 3 16 I nt e r ve nt i on 24. 35 10. 92 11 43 F ol l ow up 44. 75 4. 13 37 50 P e r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a po i nt s a nd t r e n dl i ne s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d on t he L K a s s e s s m e nt da t a a s w e l l A c a l c u l a t i on o f pe r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s s how e d t ha t 82. 35% of t he da t a poi nt s du r i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e di d not ove r l a p w i t h poi nt s i n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e L i ne a r t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c r e a t e d f or e a c h pha s e of da t a t o e xa m i ne a ny c ha nge s i n r a t e s of gr ow t h a c r os s pha s e s T he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne f or e a c h pha s e i s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 17 C ha nge s i n r a t e s o f gr ow t h i n p r oduc i ng l e t t e r na m e s w e r e ve r y s i m i l a r t o c ha nge s i n r a t e s o f gr ow t h of F S F a s s e s s m e nt s c or e s w i t h a n i nc r e a s e i n gr ow t h be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s a nd a de c r e a s e i n gr ow t h dur i ng t he f ol l ow up pe r i od. T a bl e 17 R at e s of L K G r ow t h f or T anne r A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 13 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 79 F ol l ow up 0. 38

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65 C hi l d 5 M e l ani e F SF R e s ul t s M e l a ni e s da t a a r e de s c r i be d r e ga r di ng m e a n l e ve l of pe r f o r m a nc e of F S F a nd va r i a bi l i t y w i t hi n t he da t a i n T a bl e 18. I nc r e a s e s w e r e not e d i n m e a n s c or e s t hr ough e a c h pha s e w i t h onl y a s l i ght i nc r e a s e i n va r i a bi l i t y dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e W he n c om pa r i ng M e l a ni e s m e a n pe r f or m a nc e dur i ng t h e ba s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 4 36) a nd t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 13 43) a ga i n of 9. 07 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e w a s de m ons t r a t e d. H ow e ve r w he n c om pa r i ng t he a ve r a ge o f t he l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s f r om e a c h pha s e M e l a ni e s m e a n ba s e l i ne ( M = 9 50) w a s 1 50 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e hi ghe r t ha n t he m e a n f r om t he e nd o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 8. 00) C om pa r i s ons of t he da t a poi nt s i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s e vi de nc e d i nc r e a s e s w he n e xa m i ni ng bot h ove r a l l m e a ns of pha s e s a nd w he n c om pa r i ng a ve r a ge f i na l da t a poi nt s M e l a ni e s m e a n f ol l ow u p s c or e ( M = 18 60) w a s 5 17 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e hi ghe r t ha n he r m e a n i nt e r ve nt i on s c or e ( M = 13 43) A hi ghe r i nc r e a s e w a s not e d w he n c om pa r i ng t he m e a n of t he f i na l t w o da t a poi nt s f r om e a c h pha s e M e l a ni e s m e a n s c or e a t t he e nd of t he i n t e r ve nt i o n pha s e w a s 8. 00 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e a nd he r m e a n f ol l ow up s c or e w a s 17. 50 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e yi e l di ng a n i nc r e a s e of 9. 50 i n s ki l l s p r oduc i ng f i r s t s ounds O ve r a l l M e l a ni e s da t a a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i nc r e a s e s a c r os s t he pha s e s w i t h s i m i l a r va r i a bi l i t y i n e a c h pha s e T he s i ngl e e xc e pt i on i s t he f i ndi ng of de c r e a s i ng m e a n f i na l s c or e s be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s

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66 T a bl e 18 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or F i r s t Sound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) Sk i l l s f or M e l ani e P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 4. 36 3. 86 0 11 I nt e r ve nt i on 13. 43 5. 46 7 24 F ol l ow up 18. 60 2. 89 14 21 T o f u r t he r c l a r i f y d i f f e r e nc e s f ound i n t he da t a M e l a ni e s pe r f or m a nc e s c or e s w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng pe r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi n g da t a poi nt s a nd c r e a t i on of t r e ndl i ne s A c a l c ul a t i on of pe r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s r e ve a l e d t ha t a l i t t l e ove r ha l f ( 57. 14% ) of t he da t a poi nt s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e di d not ove r l a p w i t h poi nt s i n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e L i ne a r t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c r e a t e d f or e a c h pha s e of da t a t o e xa m i ne a ny c ha nge s i n r a t e s of gr ow t h a c r os s pha s e s T he s l op e of t he t r e ndl i ne f or e a c h pha s e i s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 19 A c om pa r i s on a c r os s pha s e s de m ons t r a t e s t ha t M e l a ni e s gr ow t h de c r e a s e s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a nd t he n i nc r e a s e s s l i ght l y dur i ng t he f o l l ow up pha s e T a bl e 19 R at e s of F SF G r ow t h f or M e l ani e A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 22 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 12 F ol l ow up 0. 06

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67 L K R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he va r i a bi l i t y o f da t a poi nt s a nd t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e on L K a s s e s s m e nt s f or e a c h pha s e a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 20 I n c om pa r i ng ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s M e l a ni e s m e a n l e ve l of pe r f o r m a nc e i nc r e a s e d. M e a n pe r f or m a nc e dur i ng t he ba s e l i ne p ha s e ( M = 7 9 3) a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 16 57) s how e d a n i nc r e a s e i n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e of 8 64 l e t t e r s na m e d pe r m i nut e T hi s i nc r e a s e w a s m a gni f i e d w he n t he m e a ns of t he l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s f r om e a c h pha s e w e r e us e d. W he n e xa m i ni ng t he m e a ns of t he l a s t t w o d a t a poi nt s a n i nc r e a s e of 15. 00 l e t t e r s na m e d pe r m i nut e w a s f ound be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 8 00) a nd t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 23. 00) D i f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow u p pha s e s w e r e a l s o e xa m i ne d. M e l a ni e s m e a n s c or e i nc r e a s e d 1 0. 43 uni t s i n l e t t e r know l e dge f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 16 57) t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e ( M = 27 00) T hi s l a r ge ga i n i s not r e f l e c t e d w he n t he m e a n of t he l a s t t w o da t a poi nt s f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s a r e c om pa r e d. U s i ng t hi s a na l ys i s a ga i n of onl y 2 50 l e t t e r s na m e s pe r m i nut e w a s f ound be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 23 00) a nd t h e f ol l ow up pha s e ( M = 25. 50 ) T a bl e 20 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dg e ( L K ) S k i l l s f or M e l ani e P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 7. 93 3. 20 1 13 I nt e r ve nt i on 16. 57 5. 06 7 25 F ol l ow up 27. 00 5. 66 18 33

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68 T he pe r c e nt a ge of da t a poi nt s t ha t di d not ove r l a p be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s f or M e l a ni e s L K s c or e s w a s 78. 57% L i ne a r t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c r e a t e d f or e a c h pha s e of da t a t o e x a m i ne a ny c ha nge s i n r a t e s of gr ow t h a c r os s pha s e s T he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne f o r e a c h pha s e i s r e po r t e d i n T a bl e 21. M e l a ni e s r a t e of gr ow t h w a s ve r y s m a l l i ni t i a l l y i nc r e a s e d by 0 34 du r i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a nd t he n r e t ur ne d t o l e ve l s r e s e m bl i n g ba s e l i ne dur i ng t he f ol l ow up pe r i od T a bl e 21 R at e s of L K G r ow t h f or M e l ani e A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 03 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 37 F ol l ow up 0. 02 C hi l d 6 B r e nna F SF R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng m e a n l e ve l s of pe r f or m a nc e a nd t he va r i a bi l i t y of da t a poi nt s f or F S F a s s e s s m e nt s w i t hi n e a c h pha s e a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 22. M a t c hi ng a pa t t e r n of m a ny ot he r c hi l dr e n w i t hi n t he s t udy, B r e nna s da t a s how a n i nc r e a s e i n m e a n s c or e s of F S F t hr ough a l l t h r e e pha s e s w i t h a n i nc r e a s e d va r i a bi l i t y i n s c or e s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e I n c om pa r i ng m e a n ba s e l i ne pe r f or m a nc e ( M = 0 00) t o m e a n i nt e r ve nt i on pe r f or m a nc e ( M = 9. 21) a ga i n of 9. 21 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e w a s not e d. W he n c om pa r i ng t he m e a ns of t he l a s t da t a poi nt s i n e a c h pha s e a ga i n of 20. 00 f i r s t s ounds pr oduc e d i n one m i nut e w a s not e d be t w e e n ba s e l i ne ( M = 0 00) a nd t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 20 00)

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69 D a t a w e r e a l s o c om pa r e d be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s B r e nna s m e a n F S F s c or e i nc r e a s e d a not he r 6. 79 f i r s t s ounds pe r m i nut e f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 9 21) t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e ( M = 16 00) W hi l e pha s e m e a ns s how a n i nc r e a s e da t a c om pa r i ng t he a ve r a ge of t h e l a s t t w o a s s e s s m e nt s i n e a c h pha s e s how a s l i ght de c r e a s e ( 2. 50 ) be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( M = 2 0 00) a nd f ol l ow up ( M = 17. 50) pha s e s T a bl e 22 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or F i r s t Sound F l ue nc y ( F S F ) Sk i l l s f or B r e nna P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 0 0 0 0 I nt e r ve nt i on 9. 21 9. 48 0 26 F ol l ow up 16. 00 2. 24 13 19 A ddi t i ona l a na l ys e s w e r e c onduc t e d t o a i d i n i nt e r pr e t i ng t he F S F a s s e s s m e nt da t a A c a l c ul a t i on o f pe r c e nt a ge o f non ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s s how e d t ha t 78 57% of t he da t a poi nt s dur i ng t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e di d n ot ove r l a p w i t h poi nt s i n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e L i ne a r t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c r e a t e d f or e a c h pha s e of da t a t o e xa m i ne a ny c ha nge s i n r a t e s of gr ow t h a c r os s pha s e s T he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne f or e a c h pha s e i s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 23. A c om pa r i s on a c r os s pha s e s r e ve a l s t ha t B r e nna s r a t e of g r ow t h i nc r e a s e d f r om t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( s how i ng o n a ve r a ge no g r ow t h) t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e A m ode r a t e de c r e a s e i s not e d f or r a t e o f g r ow t h dur i ng t he f ol l ow up pha s e

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70 T a bl e 23 R at e s of F SF G r ow t h f or B r e nna A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 00 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 63 F ol l ow up 0. 25 L K R e s ul t s D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s s um m a r i z i ng t he va r i a bi l i t y o f da t a poi nt s a nd t he m e a n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e on t he L K a s s e s s m e nt f or e a c h pha s e f or B r e nna a r e pr e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 24. B r e nna s m e a n pe r f o r m a nc e i n know l e dge of l e t t e r s i nc r e a s e d t hr oughout a l l t hr e e pha s e s A n i nc r e a s e i n m e a n s c or e o f 2 64 l e t t e r s na m e d i n one m i nut e w a s f ound be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( M = 5 00) a nd t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 7. 64) T he m e a n o f t he f i na l poi n t s of t he ba s e l i ne pha s e a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a l s o w e r e c om pa r e d, w i t h a n i nc r e a s e of 9. 50 l e t t e r s pe r m i nut e be i ng f ound ( ba s e l i ne M = 5 50 L K ; i nt e r ve nt i on M = 15. 00) I n e xa m i ni ng di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s B r e nna s m e a n s c or e i n L K i nc r e a s e d f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( M = 7 64) t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e ( M = 23 20) a m e a n i nc r e a s e of 1 5. 56 l e t t e r s pe r m i nut e ove r t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e T he m e a n da t a f r om t he l a s t t w o poi nt s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( M = 15. 00) a nd f ol l ow up ( M = 25 00) pha s e s r e ve a l e d a s l i ght l y s m a l l e r m e a n i nc r e a s e of 10. 00 i n L K pe r f or m a nc e

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71 T a bl e 24 D e s c r i pt i v e St at i s t i c s f or L e t t e r K now l e dg e ( L K ) S k i l l s f or B r e nna P has e M SD M i n. M ax B a s e l i ne 5. 00 2. 25 0 9 I nt e r ve nt i on 7. 64 5. 18 0 18 F ol l ow up 23. 20 3. 03 19 27 P e r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a po i nt s a nd t r e n dl i ne s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d on t he L K da t a a s w e l l A c a l c ul a t i on of pe r c e nt a ge of no n ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi n t s s how e d t ha t 35. 71% o f t he da t a poi nt s du r i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on p ha s e di d not ove r l a p w i t h poi nt s i n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e i ndi c a t i ng a m a j or i t y of poi nt s di d ove r l a p be t w e e n t he t w o pha s e s L i ne a r t r e ndl i ne s w e r e c r e a t e d f o r e a c h pha s e of da t a t o e xa m i ne a ny c ha nge s i n r a t e s of gr ow t h a c r os s pha s e s T he s l ope of t he t r e ndl i ne f o r e a c h pha s e i s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 25. T a bl e 25 R at e s of L K G r ow t h f or B r e nna A c r os s P has e s P has e Sl ope B a s e l i ne 0. 08 I nt e r ve nt i on 0. 29 F ol l ow up 0. 57 C ha nge s i n r a t e s of gr ow t h i n L K i nc r e a s e d c ons i de r a bl y i n e a c h pha s e w i t h t he l a r ge s t c ha nge i n r a t e of gr ow t h oc c ur r i ng be t w e e n t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s ( 0. 28 r a t e of g r ow t h i nc r e a s e )

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72 H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng A pr e vi ous l i m i t a t i on of m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne a c r os s s ubj e c t de s i gns w a s t he a bs ol ut e r e l i a nc e on de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd gr a phs i n o r de r t o p r e s e nt a nd a na l yz e da t a T hi s dr a w ba c k l e d t o r e l i a nc e on i n f e r e nc e s f r om t he da t a t o de t e r m i ne e f f e c t i ve ne s s i ns t e a d of c a l c ul a t i ng a m e a s ur e of e f f e c t ( V a n de n N oor ga t e & O nghe na 2003 ) T o de t e r m i ne i f t he e f f e c t s not e d i n t he g r a phs a nd de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s w e r e s i gni f i c a nt t he da t a w e r e a na l yz e d us i ng m ul t i pl e ba s e l i n e hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l i ng ( H L M ) O r i g i na l l y, H L M w a s de s i gne d t o be a ppl i e d t o da t a s e t s w i t h a g r e a t e r num be r o f pa r t i c i pa nt s but r e s e a r c h s uppor t s i t s a ppl i c a t i on t o s i ngl e c a s e de s i gns t o pr ovi de a m e t hod f or s ynt he s i z i ng r e s ul t s a c r os s c a s e s T hu s e s t i m a t e s of s i ngl e e f f e c t m a gni t ude s i n i ndi v i dua l c a s e s t udi e s c a n be i nc r e a s e d w he n t he s t r e ngt h f r om m ul t i pl e c a s e s a r e s ha r e d by ut i l i z i ng H L M ( V a n de n N oor ga t e & O nghe na 2003) C ons e que nt l y, t h i s m e t hod of da t a a na l ys i s w a s c hos e n t o s t r e ngt he n t he c onc l us i ons r e s ul t i ng f r om t hi s s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn s t udy. B y uni t i ng t ha t r e s ul t s f ound f r om e a c h i ndi vi dua l t hr ough t he us e of H L M gr oup pa r a m e t e r s c oul d be e s t i m a t e d a nd i ndi vi dua l pa r a m e t e r s c oul d be t e s t e d m or e e f f i c i e nt l y. W i t hi n t hi s s t udy, t he hi e r a r c hi c a l m ode l w a s e m pl oye d t o de t e r m i ne t he a ve r a ge c ha nge i n l e ve l be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s t he a ve r a ge c ha nge be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s t he va r i a nc e i n ba s e l i ne l e ve l s t he va r i a nc e i n t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t s ( c ha nge s f r om b a s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on a nd c ha nge s f r om ba s e l i ne t o f o l l ow up) a nd va r i a nc e i n r a t e s of gr ow t h w i t hi n e a c h pha s e D a t a f or F S F a nd L K w e r e a na l yz e d i n i de nt i c a l m ode l s ( de s c r i be d be l ow ) but a s e nt i r e l y s e pa r a t e ne ve r i nc l udi ng da t a f r om one e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l i n t he m ode l f or t he ot he r e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l A t l e ve l one e a r l y l i t e r a c y s c or e s w e r e m ode l e d a s a f unc t i on of t he s pe c i f i c pha s e of t he s t udy t he s t ude nt

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73 w a s i n. T w o m ode l s w e r e us e d, one t o i nde x c ha ng e s be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i o n pha s e s a nd t he o t he r t o e xa m i ne c ha n ge s be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s T he f i r s t m ode l ( M ode l 1 be l ow ) r e pr e s e nt s t he a na l ys i s c om pa r i ng t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s F or e a c h c hi l d a t L e ve l 1: E ar l y L i t e r ac y Sk i l l ( Y i j ) = 0 j + 1 i n t e r v e n t i o n j + 2 t i m e j + 3 p h a s e t i m e j + e i j w he r e 0 i s t he l i t e r a c y s ki l l dur i ng ba s e l i ne f or c a s e j 1 i s t he s hi f t i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l l e ve l f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on 2 i s t he s hi f t i n r a t e of gr ow t h of t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l f r om ba s e l i ne t o i n t e r ve nt i on a nd 3 r e pr e s e nt s t he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n pha s e s a nd t i m e A t L e ve l 2 e a c h of t he c oe f f i c i e nt s f r o m t he L e ve l 1 m ode l w a s a l l ow e d t o va r y a c r os s pa r t i c i pa nt s : 0 j = 0 + u 0 j 1 j = 1 + u 1 j 2 j = 2 + u 2 j 3 j = 3 + u 3 j w he r e 0 i s t he a ve r a ge ba s e l i ne l e ve l o f t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l a nd u 0 j i s t he de vi a t i on of a pa r t i c ul a r pa r t i c i pa nt ( j ) f r om t he a ve r a ge va l ue I n t he s e c ond e qua t i on, 1 i s t he a ve r a ge s hi f t f r o m ba s e l i ne t o i n t e r ve nt i on a nd u 1 j i s t he de vi a t i on of a pa r t i c ul a r pa r t i c i pa nt f r o m t he a ve r a ge va l ue W i t hi n t he t hi r d e qua t i on, 2 i s t he a ve r a ge s l ope dur i ng ba s e l i ne a nd u 2 j i s t he de vi a t i on of a pa r t i c u l a r pa r t i c i pa nt f r om t he a ve r a ge va l ue F i na l l y, 3 i s t he c ha nge i n s l ope a nd u 3 j i s t he de vi a t i on of a pa r t i c ul a r pa r t i c i pa nt f r om t he a ve r a ge va l ue

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74 T o e xa m i ne c ha nge s be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s M ode l 2 be l ow w a s us e d. F or e a c h c hi l d a t L e ve l 1: E ar l y L i t e r ac y Sk i l l ( Y i j ) = 0 j + 1 f o l l o w u p j + 2 t i m e j + 3 p h a s e t i m e j + e i j w he r e 0 i s t he l i t e r a c y s ki l l dur i ng ba s e l i ne f or c a s e j 1 i s t he s hi f t i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l l e ve l f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up, 2 i s t he s hi f t i n r a t e of gr ow t h of t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up a nd 3 r e pr e s e nt s t he i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n pha s e s a nd t i m e A t L e ve l 2 e a c h of t he c oe f f i c i e nt s f r o m t he L e ve l 1 m ode l w a s a l l ow e d t o va r y a c r os s pa r t i c i pa nt s : 0 j = 0 + u 0 j 1 j = 1 + u 1 j 2 j = 2 + u 2 j 3 j = 3 + u 3 j w he r e 0 i s t he a ve r a ge ba s e l i ne l e ve l o f t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l a nd u 0 j i s t he de vi a t i on of a pa r t i c ul a r pa r t i c i pa nt ( j ) f r om t he a ve r a ge va l ue I n t he s e c ond e qua t i on, 1 i s t he a ve r a ge s hi f t f r o m ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up a nd u 1 j i s t he de vi a t i on of a pa r t i c ul a r pa r t i c i pa nt f r om t he a ve r a ge va l ue W i t hi n t he t hi r d e qua t i on, 2 i s t he a ve r a ge s l ope dur i ng ba s e l i ne a nd u 2 j i s t he de vi a t i on of a pa r t i c ul a r pa r t i c i pa nt f r om t he a ve r a ge va l ue F i na l l y 3 i s t he c ha nge i n s l ope a nd u 3 j i s t he de vi a t i on o f a pa r t i c u l a r pa r t i c i pa nt f r om t he a ve r a ge va l ue O f not e w he n e xa m i ni ng r e s ul t s a de c i s i on w a s m a de t o i nc r e a s e t he a l pha l e ve l r e qui r e d f or s i gni f i c a nc e f r om p = 0. 05 t o p = 0. 10 T hi s de c i s i on w a s m a de i n a n e f f or t t o a c c ount f or t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e us e d w i t hi n t he s t udy ( G l a s s & H opki ns 1996)

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75 H i e r ar c hi c al L i ne ar M ode l i ng f or F SF T a bl e 26 p r e s e nt s a s um m a r y of t he f i xe d e f f e c t s a nd va r i a nc e c om pone nt s f or F S F f o r M ode l 1 ( ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s ) A gr a phi c a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on c a n be f ound i n F i gur e 3 A c c or di ng t o t he m ode l t he i ni t i a t i on of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pr oduc e d a n a ve r a ge e f f e c t s i z e 1 of 1. 48 ( S E = 2 49, p = 0. 59 ) i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he r e w a s not a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e i n t he a ve r a ge nu m be r o f f i r s t s ounds pr oduc e d c or r e c t l y a s c om pa r e d t o t he ba s e l i ne pha s e T he a ve r a ge c ha n ge i n r a t e of g r ow t h be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e w a s 0. 21 un i t s pe r da y ( S E = 0 15, p = 0. 19 ) i ndi c a t i ng t ha t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge i n t he r a t e of gr ow t h w a s not p r e s e nt be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s W he n e xa m i ni ng t he va r i a t i on di f f e r e nc e s i n c ha nge i n gr ow t h ( i e s l ope ) a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e w a s f ound be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s ( 0. 08; S E = 0. 06, p = 0 10) I n c ont r a s t t he va r i a nc e i n t he c ha nge be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on w a s 26. 26 ( S E = 22. 78, p = 0. 12 ) i ndi c a t i ng no s i gni f i c a nt va r i a nc e a m ong pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s hi f t R e s ul t s a l s o i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he a ve r a ge va r i a t i on w i t hi n pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s 41. 14 ( S E = 50. 67, p = 0 21) T h i s c onf i r m s t he va r i a t i on w hi c h w a s e vi de nt i n vi s ua l a na l ys i s ( F i g ur e s 1 a nd 2) a nd de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s w i t h f l uc t ua t i on i n e a c h c hi l d s s c or e s e vi de nt w i t h i n e a c h pha s e

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76 T a bl e 26 C ov ar i anc e and F i x e d E f f e c t s f or F SF f r om B as e l i ne t o I nt e r v e nt i on P a r a m e t e r E s t i m a t e S E T e s t S t a t i s t i c P F i xe d E f f e c t s t P r e di c t e d va l ue a t f i r s t i n t e r ve nt i on p oi nt 5. 01 2. 98 1. 68 0. 137 A ve r a ge c ha nge f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on 1. 48 2. 62 0. 56 0. 592 A ve r a ge ba s e l i ne s l ope 0. 09 0. 06 1. 42 0. 169 A ve r a ge c ha nge i n s l ope f r o m ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on 0. 21 0. 15 1. 43 0. 187 V a r i a nc e C om pone nt s z V a r i a t i on i n ba s e l i ne 40. 65 28. 44 1. 43 0. 077* V a r i a t i on i n ba s e l i ne s l ope s 0 . V a r i a t i on i n c ha nge f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on 26. 26 22. 78 1. 15 0. 125 V a r i a t i on i n c ha nge i n s l ope f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on 0. 08 0. 06 1. 30 0. 097* W i t hi n pe r s on va r i a t i on 18 33 4 32 4 25 < 0. 0001* S e r i a l de pe nde nc y e r r o r s 0. 58 0. 10 5. 72 < 0. 0001* N o t e A n i n d i c a t e s a p v a l u e o f 0 1 0 o r l e s s

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77 F i gur e 3. H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng of F S F D a t a i n B a s e l i ne a nd I nt e r ve nt i on P ha s e s T a bl e 27 c ont a i ns t h e f i xe d e f f e c t s a nd va r i a nc e s f r om M ode l 2 f o r F S F r e pr e s e nt i ng t he c ha nge s f r om t he ba s e l i ne t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e T he gr a phi c a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he da t a c a n be f ound i n F i gur e 4. I n c om pa r i ng t he ba s e l i ne a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s t he a ve r a ge i nc r e a s e i n e f f e c t w a s 9. 20 ( S E = 8. 34, p = 0 31) a ga i n i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he r e w a s not a s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s f or t he a c qui s i t i on of f i r s t s ound f l ue nc y T he a ve r a ge c ha nge i n r a t e of g r ow t h be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s w a s 0. 17 uni t s pe r d a y ( S E = 0 38, p = 0. 67 ) w hi c h w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt V a r i a nc e e s t i m a t e s of 40 6 5 ( S E = 28. 44, p = 0 07) a t ba s e l i ne a nd F i r s t S o u n d s p e r M i n u t e 5 0 1 1 4 8 0 0 9 + 0 2 1 = 0 3 0 1 D a y 1 D a y 0 0 9

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78 65. 39 ( S E = 49. 44 p = 0. 09 ) i n t he c ha nge f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up i nd i c a t e d t ha t t he r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt l e ve l of va r i a nc e a m o ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a t t he s e poi nt s T a bl e 27 C ov ar i anc e and F i x e d E f f e c t s f or F SF f r om B as e l i ne t o F o l l ow U p P a r a m e t e r E s t i m a t e S E T e s t S t a t i s t i c P F i xe d E f f e c t s t P r e di c t e d va l ue a t f i r s t f ol l ow up poi nt 9. 60 9. 30 1. 03 0. 358 A ve r a ge c ha nge f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up 9. 20 8. 34 1. 10 0. 305 A ve r a ge ba s e l i ne s l ope 0. 10 0. 14 0. 72 0. 521 A ve r a ge c ha nge i n s l ope f r o m ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up 0. 17 0. 38 0. 44 0. 669 V a r i a nc e C om pone nt s z V a r i a t i on i n ba s e l i ne 17. 3 8 49. 45 0. 35 0. 363 V a r i a t i on i n ba s e l i ne s l ope s 0 . V a r i a t i on i n c ha nge f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up 65. 39 49. 44 1. 32 0. 930* V a r i a t i on i n c ha nge i n s l ope f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up 0. 12 0. 17 0. 68 0. 248 W i t hi n pe r s on va r i a t i on 41. 14 50. 67 0. 8 1 0. 208 S e r i a l de pe nde nc y e r r o r s 0. 85 0. 19 4. 48 < 0. 001* N o t e A n i n d i c a t e s a p v a l u e o f 0 1 0 o r l e s s

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79 F i gur e 4. H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng of F S F D a t a i n B a s e l i ne a nd F ol l ow U p P ha s e s I n s um m a r y, t he s e da t a i ndi c a t e t ha t w i t h r e ga r d t o t h e e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l of f i r s t s ound f l ue nc y: ( a ) t he r e w e r e no s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s f ound be t w e e n a ve r a ge num be r of f i r s t s ound pr oduc e d by s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s w h e n c om pa r i ng t he ba s e l i ne a nd i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s or t he ba s e l i ne a nd f ol l ow up p ha s e s ( b) t he r e w a s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e i n t he va r i a nc e of c hi l d r e n s l e ve l s dur i ng t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( c ) t he r e w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n va r i a nc e of c hi l d r e n s gr ow t h f r o m t he ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a nd i n t he c h a nge i n l e ve l f r om t he ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up pha s e a nd ( d) t he r e w a s s i gni f i c a nt va r i a t i on w i t h i n pa r t i c i pa nt s s c or e s i n s om e a r e a s not a c c ount e d f or by t he i nt e r ve nt i on 9 6 0 9 2 0 F i r s t S o u n d s p e r M i n u t e 1 D a y 0 1 0 1 D a y 0 1 0 + 0 1 7 = 0 2 7

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8 0 H i e r ar c hi c al L i ne ar M ode l i ng f or L K A s um m a r y of t he f i xe d e f f e c t s a nd va r i a nc e c om p one nt s f or t he da t a on l e t t e r know l e dge ( L K ) i s l oc a t e d w i t h T a bl e 28 w i t h a gr a phi c a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on i n F i gu r e 5 A c c or di ng t o t he m ode l e m pl oye d ( M ode l 1) t he i nt r oduc t i on of t he i n t e r ve nt i on pr oduc e d a n a ve r a ge e f f e c t s i z e of 0. 95 ( S E = 1. 35 p = 0 5 1) i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he r e w a s not a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e i n t he a ve r a ge nu m be r of l e t t e r s na m e d p r oduc e d c or r e c t l y pe r m i nut e a s c om pa r e d t o t he ba s e l i ne pha s e H ow e v e r t he c ha nge i n t he a ve r a ge r a t e o f gr ow t h be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd i n t e r ve nt i on w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt ( 0. 24; S E = 0. 11, p = 0. 05 ) W i t h r e ga r d t o va r i a nc e i n L K da t a no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt l e ve l s of va r i a t i on w e r e f ound a t ba s e l i ne ( 16. 70; S E = 14 61, p = 0. 13 ) or i n s hi f t i ng f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on ( 2. 77 ; S E = 6. 58 p = 0 3 4) S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt l e ve l s of va r i a t i on w e r e f ound i n t he c ha nge i n r a t e of gr ow t h f r o m t he ba s e l i ne pha s e t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e ( 0. 05; S E = 0. 04 p = 0. 08 )

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81 T a bl e 28 C ov ar i anc e and F i x e d E f f e c t s f or L K f r om B as e l i n e t o I nt e r v e nt i on P a r a m e t e r E s t i m a t e S E T e s t S t a t i s t i c P F i xe d E f f e c t s t P r e di c t e d va l ue a t f i r s t i n t e r ve nt i on poi nt 8. 33 1. 90 4. 38 0. 009* A ve r a ge c ha nge f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on 0. 95 1. 35 0. 71 0. 512 A ve r a ge ba s e l i ne s l ope 0. 11 0. 05 2. 36 0. 058* A ve r a ge c ha nge i n s l ope f r o m ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on 0. 24 0. 11 2. 29 0. 058* V a r i a nc e C om pone nt s z V a r i a t i on i n ba s e l i ne 16. 70 14. 61 1. 14 0. 123 V a r i a t i on i n ba s e l i ne s l ope s 0. 00 0. 00 0. 32 0. 374 V a r i a t i on i n c ha nge f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on 2. 75 6. 58 0. 42 0. 3 38 V a r i a t i on i n c ha nge i n s l ope f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on 0. 05 0. 04 1. 37 0. 085* W i t hi n pe r s on va r i a t i on 11. 86 1. 54 7. 71 < 0. 0001* S e r i a l de pe nde nc y e r r o r s 0. 16 0. 10 1. 65 0. 098* N o t e A n i n d i c a t e s a p v a l u e o f 0 1 0 o r l e s s

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82 F i gur e 5. H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng of L K D a t a i n B a s e l i ne a nd I nt e r ve nt i on P ha s e s T a bl e 29 c ont a i ns t he f i xe d e f f e c t s a nd va r i a nc e s f r om M ode l 2 f o r L K r e pr e s e nt i ng t he c ha nge s f r om t he ba s e l i ne t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e T he gr a phi c a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he da t a c a n be f ound i n F i gur e 6. I n c om pa r i ng t he ba s e l i ne a nd f ol l ow up pha s e t he a ve r a ge i nc r e a s e i n e f f e c t w a s 9 45 ( S E = 4. 93, p = 0 09) i ndi c a t i ng a s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd f ol l ow up pha s e s f or t he a c qui s i t i on of l e t t e r na m e s T hi s s u gge s t s t ha t on a ve r a ge c hi l d r e n c or r e c t l y na m e d 9. 45 m or e l e t t e r s dur i ng t he f ol l ow up pha s e t ha n t he y w oul d be pr e di c t e d f r om t he ba s e l i ne pha s e a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e T he a ve r a ge c ha nge i n r a t e of gr ow t h f r o m ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up a l s o w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt ( 0. 26; S E = 0. 11 p = 0. 07) i ndi c a t i ng t ha t on a ve r a ge L e t t e r s N a m e d p e r M i n u t e 1 D a y 1 D a y 0 9 5 8 3 3 0 1 1 0 1 1 + 0 2 4 = 0 3 5

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83 c hi l dr e n s gr ow t h w i t h r e ga r d t o l e t t e r na m i ng w a s a c c e l e r a t e d 0. 26 uni t s ove r t he ba s e l i ne r a t e of gr ow t h. N o s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e w a s f ound i n t he c ha nge of s l ope s f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up pha s e s ( 0. 01; S E = 0 04, p = 0. 34) H ow e ve r a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge w a s f ound i n t he c ha nge i n l e ve l f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up pha s e s ( 110. 13; S E = 73. 19 p = 0. 07 ) T he a ve r a ge va r i a t i o n w i t hi n pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s 9. 04 ( S E = 1. 40; p < 0. 0001 ) i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he r e w a s l e s s f l uc t ua t i on w i t hi n e a c h c hi l d s s c or e s t he s e pha s e s t ha n w a s f ound w i t h t he F S F da t a

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84 T a bl e 29 C ov ar i anc e and F i x e d E f f e c t s f or L K f r om B as e l i n e t o F o l l ow U p P a r a m e t e r E s t i m a t e S E T e s t S t a t i s t i c P F i xe d E f f e c t s t P r e di c t e d va l ue a t f i r s t f ol l ow up poi nt 13. 92 2. 72 5. 12 < 0. 0001* A ve r a ge c ha nge f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up 9. 45 4. 93 1. 92 0. 092* A ve r a ge ba s e l i ne s l ope 0. 12 0. 03 3. 40 0. 002* A ve r a ge c ha nge i n s l ope f r o m ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up 0. 26 0. 12 2. 27 0. 074* V a r i a nc e C om pone nt s z V a r i a t i on i n ba s e l i ne 13. 11 8. 94 1. 47 0. 071* V a r i a t i on i n ba s e l i ne s l ope s 0 . V a r i a t i on i n c ha nge f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up 110. 13 73. 19 1. 50 0. 066* V a r i a t i on i n c ha nge i n s l ope f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up 0. 01 0. 04 0. 40 0. 345 W i t hi n pe r s on va r i a t i on 9. 04 1. 40 6. 47 < 0. 0001* S e r i a l de pe nde nc y e r r o r s 0. 15 0. 12 1. 20 0. 230 N o t e A n i n d i c a t e s a p v a l u e o f 0 1 0 o r l e s s

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85 F i gur e 6. H i e r a r c hi c a l L i ne a r M ode l i ng of L K D a t a i n B a s e l i ne a nd F ol l ow U p P ha s e s I n s um m a r y, w i t h r e ga r d t o t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l of l e t t e r know l e dge f l ue nc y: ( a ) s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound i n a ve r a ge c ha nge a nd i n va r i a nc e o f t he s hi f t i n s l ope s f r o m t he ba s e l i ne pha s e t o t he i nt e r v e nt i on pha s e ( b) s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound i n t he a ve r a ge c ha nge i n l e ve l a nd va r i a nc e f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up ( c ) s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt v a r i a nc e w a s f ound w i t hi n e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt ( d) no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s w e r e f ound i n t he a ve r a ge c ha nge f r om t he ba s e l i ne pha s e t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on or va r i a t i ons i n t ha t c ha nge ( e ) no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt va r i a t i ons w e r e f ound i n t he ba s e l i ne da t a or t he c ha nge i n r a t e of gr ow t h f r om L e t t e r s N a m e d p e r M i n u t e 1 D a y 1 D a y 0 1 1 0 1 1 + 0 2 6 = 0 3 7 1 3 9 2 9 4 5

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86 ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up a nd ( f ) t he r e w a s s i gni f i c a nt va r i a t i on w i t hi n pa r t i c i pa nt s s c or e s i n s om e a r e a s not a c c ount e d f or by t he i nt e r ve nt i on. I nt e r ve nt i on I nt e gr i t y T he i nt e gr i t y of i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on w a s e xa m i ne d by e va l ua t i ng t he c om pl e t e ne s s of e a c h l e s s on pl a n a s w e l l a s e v a l ua t i ng w he t he r e a c h l e s s on pl a n w a s f i l l e d out c or r e c t l y. A l l pa r e nt s c om pl e t e d a l e s s on pl a n f or e a c h s e s s i on t he y m e t w i t h t he i r c hi l d. E a c h l e s s on pl a n ha d bl a nks t ha t r e qui r e d pa r e nt s t o r e c or d : ( 1 ) s e s s i on l ogi s t i c s ( i e da t e t i m e s t a r t e d, t i m e f i ni s he d) ( 2) c om pl e t i on of s e s s i on a c t i vi t i e s ( i e l e t t e r c he c k, t e a c hi ng a ne w l e t t e r r e vi e w i ng, a nd s ound pr a c t i c e ) a nd ( 3) a L i ke r t s c a l e r a t i ng of t he s e s s i on, a l ong w i t h bl a nks t o w r i t e a n y c onc e r ns or p r obl e m s A n e xa m pl e l e s s on pl a n c a n be f oun d i n A ppe ndi x C A na l ys i s of t he l e s s on pl a ns i ndi c a t e d t ha t a l l pa r e nt s di d not i m pl e m e nt t he i nt e r ve nt i on w i t h t he s a m e l e ve l of i nt e gr i t y. D a t a s um m a r i z i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y by pa r t i c i pa nt i s p r e s e nt i n T a bl e 30. P a r e nt s c om p l e t e d f r om 20 t o 27 l e s s ons w i t h m os t c om pl e t i ng a t l e a s t 25 l e s s ons ( M = 25. 17) T he c o m pl e t i on of i ndi vi dua l l e s s on pl a ns r a nge d f r om 7. 81 % t o 100% T he c om m e nt s s e c t i on a t t he e nd of t he l e s s on pl a n s how e d pa t t e r ns a c r os s pa r t i c i pa nt s R a c he l s m ot he r of t e n l e f t t hi s s pa c e bl a nk or w r ot e a s i m pl e phr a s e t o i ndi c a t e how t he s e s s i on w e nt ( i e goo d ok ) W e s l e y s m ot he r o f t e n i ndi c a t e d s e c t i ons t ha t w e nt w e l l f o r hi m i n e a c h l e s s on a nd on oc c a s i on, w r ot e not e s t o t he r e s e a r c he r a s ki ng f or ot he r m a t e r i a l s or a c t i vi t i e s s he c oul d do w i t h hi m t o ke e p hi m l e a r ni ng. J e nni f e r s m ot he r w r ot e de t a i l e d no t e s t h a t i nc l ude d not on l y he r da ught e r s pe r f or m a nc e on t a s ks but a l s o w he r e s he ha d t r ou bl e i n w or ki ng w i t h he r da ught e r be c a us e s he w a s uns ur e of w ha t t o do. T he m ot he r s of T a nne r M e l a ni e W e s l e y, a nd

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87 J e nni f e r of t e n w r o t e pos i t i ve c om m e nt s a bout t he i nt e r ve nt i on pr og r a m or i ndi c a t e d t he i r ha ppi ne s s w i t h t he i r c hi l d s p r ogr e s s t hr ough s m i l e y f a c e s B r e nna s m ot he r r a r e l y f i l l e d i n t he bl a nks w i t h a ny c om m e nt T a bl e 30 L e s s on P l an C om pl e t i on D at a L e s s ons C om pl e t e d A v e r age P e r c e nt C om pl e t e M i n M ax R a c he l 20 55. 31 46. 88 98. 44 W e s l e y 27 98. 84 92. 19 100 J e nni f e r 27 94. 73 76. 56 100 T a nne r 26 94. 19 92. 19 100 M e l a ni e 25 87. 78 7. 81 100 B r e nna 26 94. 84 87. 5 100 T he l e s s on p l a ns pr ovi de d a ddi t i ona l i nf or m a t i on a bout i nt e gr i t y of t he i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt a t i on F o r i ns t a nc e pa r e nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o i m pl e m e nt t he i nt e r ve nt i on t hr e e t i m e s t hr oughout t he w e e k, w i t h onl y one s e s s i on oc c ur r i ng pe r da y. S om e t i m e s pa r e nt s c onduc t e d t w o s e s s i ons on one da y or c onduc t e d m o r e i nt e r ve nt i ons pe r w e e k t ha n w ha t w a s o r i gi na l l y pl a nne d W he n t he r e s e a r c he r not i c e d t hi s pa r e nt s w e r e c ont a c t e d by phone a nd pr om pt e d t o i m pl e m e nt t he i nt e r ve nt i on on t he pr e s c r i be d s c he dul e but w e r e a l s o a s k e d t o be hone s t i n r e c or di ng t he da ys t he i n t e r ve nt i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d.

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88 O ve r a l l t he l e s s on pl a ns i ndi c a t e d va r i a t i on i n ho w m a ny l e s s ons w e r e c om pl e t e d a s w e l l a s t he qua l i t y o f c om pl e t i on T hi s va r i a nc e l e d t o a n a na l ys i s of t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n i n t e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd c hi l d out c om e s R e l at i ons hi p be t w e e n I nt e r v e nt i on I nt e gr i t y and C hi l d O ut c om e D at a A P e a r s on s P r oduc t M om e nt a na l ys i s w a s e m pl oye d t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n c hi l dr e n s a ve r a ge w e e kl y s c or e s on t he F S F a nd L K m e a s ur e s a nd i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y, de f i ne d a s t he m e a n of t he l e s s on pl a ns c om pl e t e d dur i ng t ha t s a m e w e e k. T he da t a f r om t he c or r e l a t i ons f or bot h m e a s ur e s a r e p r e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 31. I n a gr e e m e nt w i t h pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e ( R oa c h & E l l i ot t 2008 ) s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i ons w e r e f ound be t w e e n out c om e m e a s ur e s a nd t he f i d e l i t y of i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y T a bl e 31 C or r e l at i on s f or I nt e r v e nt i on I nt e gr i t y and C hi l d O ut c om e s F S F L K I nt e r ve nt i on I nt e gr i t y 0. 27; p= 0 04 0. 31; p= 0. 02 S oc i a l V a l i di t y T o e xa m i ne t he pa r e nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i nt e r ve nt i on, t w o m e t hods of da t a c ol l e c t i on w e r e e m pl oye d. T o ga t he r qua nt i t a t i ve d a t a t he pa r e nt s c om pl e t e d a m odi f i e d ve r s i on of t he I nt e r ve nt i on R a t i ng P r of i l e ( I R P 15; s e e A ppe ndi x D ) T he r a t i ng g i ve n by e a c h pa r e nt c a n be f ound i n T a bl e 32 T ot a l r a t i ngs c oul d f a l l be t w e e n e i ght a nd 78. A s c a n be s e e n i n T a bl e 32 pa r e nt s r a t e d t he i nt e r ve nt i on a s hi ghl y a c c e pt a bl e ove r a l l F o r a c om pl e t e br e a kdow n of how pa r e nt s a ns w e r e d e a c h que s t i on, s e e T a bl e 33

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89 T a bl e 32 Soc i al V al i di t y R at i ngs f r om t he M odi f i e d I R P 15 P ar e nt I R P 13 R at i ng P a r e nt 1 74 P a r e nt 2 77 P a r e nt 3 73 P a r e nt 4 70 P a r e nt 5 72 P a r e nt 6 77 T a bl e 33 Soc i al V al i di t y R at i ngs i n R e s pons e t o E ac h I R P Q ue s t i on Q u es t i o n s D i s ag r ee Sl i g h t l y D i s ag r ee Sl i g h t l y A g r ee A g r ee St ro n g l y A g r ee 1 A c cep t ab l e i n t erv en t i o n 5 1 2 3 4 6 2 Mo s t p aren t s w o u l d fi n d i t ap p ro p ri at e 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 T h i s i n t erv en t i o n w as eff ect i v e 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 W o u l d s u g g es t t o o t h er p ar en t s 3 5 1 2 4 6 5 B eh i n d en o u g h t o n e ed i n t erv en t i o n 4 5 2 6 1 3 6 Mo s t p aren t s w o u l d fi n d s u i t ab l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N o n eg at i v e s i d e e ffe ct s 4 1 2 3 5 6 8 A p p ro p ri at e fo r a v ari et y o f ch i l d ren 3 1 2 4 5 6 9 In t erv en t i o n w as f ai r 3 1 2 4 5 6 1 0 In t erv en t i o n w as re as o n ab l e 5 1 2 3 4 6 1 1 L i k ed t h e p ro ced u r es 3 4 5 1 2 6 1 2 G o o d w ay t o h an d l e ch i l d s co n c ern 3 1 2 4 5 6 1 3 B en efi ci al fo r my ch i l d 1 2 3 4 5 6 N o t e N u m b e r s i n t h e t a b l e r e p r e s e n t t h e I D n u m b e r f o r e a c h p a r e n t A s c a n be s e e n i n T a bl e 33 m os t pa r e nt s s t r ongl y a gr e e d w i t h s t a t e m e nt s on t he m odi f i e d I R P H ow e ve r t he f i f t h que s t i on r e ga r di ng w he t he r t he i r c hi l d w a s be hi nd e nough t o w a r r a nt t he us e of t he i n t e r ve nt i on ge ne r a t e d a va r i e t y o f r e s pons e s f r om pa r e nt s f r om s l i ght l y di s a gr e e t o s t r ongl y a gr e e T he m os t pos i t i ve r e s pons e s w e r e gi ve n

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90 t o i t e m s i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he i n t e r ve nt i on w oul d be f ound a ppr opr i a t e a nd s ui t a bl e by ot he r pa r e nt s a nd t ha t t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s be ne f i c i a l f o r t he c hi l d R e l at i ons hi p be t w e e n Soc i al V al i di t y and C hi l d O u t c om e D at a A P e a r s on s P r oduc t M om e nt a na l ys i s w a s e m pl oye d t o e xa m i ne t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n c hi l dr e n s a ve r a ge w e e kl y s c or e s on t he F S F a nd L K m e a s ur e s a nd t ot a l pa r e nt r a t i ng of s oc i a l va l i di t y ga t he r e d f r o m t he m odi f i e d I R P 15 T he da t a f r om t he c or r e l a t i ons f or bot h m e a s ur e s a r e p r e s e nt e d i n T a bl e 34. I n c ont r a di c t i on t o pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e ( V on B r oc k & E l l i ot t 1987; W o l f e 1978 ) s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt c or r e l a t i ons w e r e not f ound be t w e e n out c om e m e a s ur e s a nd t he i m pl e m e nt e r s ( i e pa r e nt ) r a t i ng of s oc i a l va l i di t y. T a bl e 34 C or r e l at i on s f or Soc i al V al i di t y and C hi l d O ut c om e s F S F L K S oc i a l V a l i di t y 0. 36; p= 0 48 0. 69; p = 0 13 S e m i S t r uc t u r e d I nt e r v i e w s I nf or m a t i on r e ga r di ng t he s oc i a l va l i di t y of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge w a s a l s o ga t he r e d qua l i t a t i ve l y t hr ou gh s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w s S e ve r a l t he m e s e m e r ge d t hr oughout t he s i x i nt e r vi e w s a nd a r e r e por t e d i n t he f ol l ow i ng pa r a gr a phs P a r e nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t f o r t he m os t pa r t t he i r c hi l dr e n l ove d doi ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on w i t h t he m J e nni f e r s m ot he r ( P a r e nt 3 ) s ha r e d t ha t S he w ou l d gr a b t he not e book a nd a s k t o pl a y e ve r y ni g ht o f t he w e e k W e s l e y s m ot he r ( P a r e nt 2) s t a t e d e ve n w he n i t w a s ha r d f or hi m he ke pt t r y i ng. H e e nj oye d t he c ha l l e nge

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91 W i t h r e ga r ds t o w ha t he l pe d t he pa r e nt s c om pl e t e l e s s on s t he pr e pa c ka ge d m a t e r i a l s a nd pr e m a de l e s s on pl a ns m a de c onduc t i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on e a s i e r B r e nna s m ot he r ( P a r e nt 6) i ndi c a t e d t ha t c om pl e t i ng l e s s ons w e r e pr e t t y e a s y. A l l t he m a t e r i a l s w e r e r i ght t he r e a nd you j us t r e a d t he l e s s on. J e nni f e r s m ot he r ( P a r e nt 3) w a s t he onl y pa r e nt w ho r e po r t e d us i ng t he i nc l ude d vi de o a nd s he r e por t e d i t w a s ve r y he l pf ul Y ou [ t he P I ] p r ovi de d a g r e a t e xa m pl e of how t o t e a c h i t T he m os t he l pf ul s e c t i on of t he t r a i ni ng s e s s i on w a s t he m ode l i ng a nd f e e dba c k por t i on w he r e t w o s e s s i ons w e r e c onduc t e d, one by t he r e s e a r c he r a nd one by t he pa r e nt T a nne r s m ot he r ( P a r e nt 4 ) s t a t e d t ha t a f t e r t he t r a i ni ng s he f e l t c onf i de nt a bout w h a t I ne e de d t o do. D i f f i c ul t i e s r e ga r di ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd i t s i m pl e m e nt a t i on w e r e a l s o di s c us s e d w i t hi n t he i nt e r vi e w T he p r i m a r y a r e a w he r e t he i nt e r ve nt i on ne e de d t o be i m pr ove d w a s t he s ound pr a c t i c e i n l e s s ons 10 18. E ve r y pa r e nt i ndi c a t e d a ne ga t i ve r e a c t i on t o t ha t por t i on of t he i n t e r ve nt i on. S ound pr a c t i c e i n l e s s o ns 10 18 w a s de s c r i be d a s ha r d t o unde r s t a nd ( P a r e nt 1) di f f i c ul t t o he l p m y c hi l d w i t h ( P a r e nt 2) unc l e a r ( P a r e nt 3) f r us t r a t i ng f o r m y c hi l d ( P a r e nt 4 ) s ki ppe d be c a us e i t w a s t oo ha r d ( P a r e nt 5 ) a nd [ m a ki ng] no s e ns e ( P a r e nt 6) O t he r pr obl e m a r e a s w e r e r e m e m be r i ng t o t ur n i n t he l e s s on pl a ns w hi c h w a s r e por t e d by P a r e nt s 1, 5, a nd 6, a nd f i ndi ng t he t i m e t o s i t dow n a nd c om pl e t e t he l e s s ons w hi c h w a s r e por t e d by P a r e nt s 1 a nd 5. E ve r y pa r e nt i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he y w oul d us e t he i nt e r ve nt i on a ga i n o r s ugge s t i t t o a f r i e nd or r e l a t i ve a s t he y f ound i t t o w or k f o r t he i r c hi l d a nd f ound t he i nt e r ve nt i on t o be a f un w a y t o t e a c h t he i r c hi l d. A not he r r e l a t e d t he m e t ha t a ppe a r e d w i t hout a ny p r om pt i ng w a s t he i nc r e a s e i n pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa t i on i n e a r l y a c a de m i c s ki l l a c t i vi t i e s not i nc l ude d w i t hi n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pr og r a m P a r e nt s 2 3 5 a n d 6 s ha r e d t ha t t he y w e r e now

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92 e nga gi ng i n m or e a c t i vi t i e s w i t h t he i r c hi l d s uc h a s r e a di ng a t be dt i m e o r t e a c hi ng num be r s a nd how t o w r i t e t he c hi l d s na m e B ot h J e nni f e r s m ot he r a nd B r e nna s m ot he r r e por t e d m a i nt a i ni ng t he s a m e s c he dul e e ve r y ni gh t by r e a di ng t o t he i r c hi l dr e n a nd a s ki ng t he m que s t i ons a bout t he book w he n t he y w e r e not c om pl e t i ng a l e s s on. O ve r a l l t he r a t i ng s c a l e a nd i n t e r vi e w da t a i nd i c a t e d t ha t t he i n t e r ve nt i on w a s a c c e pt a bl e t o t he pa r e nt s us i ng t he p r ogr a m M or e i m por t a nt l y, pa r e nt s f e l t t ha t t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge w a s e f f e c t i ve a t i m pr ovi ng t h e i r c hi l d s s ki l l s i n na m i ng l e t t e r s a nd f or m i ng s ounds F i na l l y, a n uni nt e nde d but ve r y p os i t i ve e f f e c t r e por t e d by f our of t he s i x pa r e nt s w a s a n i nc r e a s e i n ot he r e a r l y a c a de m i c s ki l l a c t i vi t i e s t ha t pa r e nt s i ni t i a t e d i n or de r t o f ur t he r pr e pa r e t he i r c hi l dr e n f or ki nde r ga r t e n.

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93 C H A P T E R F I V E D I S C U S S I O N S um m a r y of R e s ul t s N um e r ous s t udi e s ha ve c l e a r l y i ndi c a t e d t he i m po r t a nt i nf l ue nc e t ha t l i t e r a c y ha s on s t ude nt s out c om e s i n s c hool a nd l a t e r i n l i f e E m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h de m ons t r a t e s t ha t i nt e r ve nt i ons f oc us i ng on i m pr ovi ng l i t e r a c y s ki l l s c a n be e f f e c t i ve w he n i m pl e m e nt e d by pa r e nt s of c hi l dr e n i n g r a de s c hool H ow e ve r r e s e a r c h ha s ye t t o be c onduc t e d w i t h a pr e s c hool popul a t i on of c hi l dr e n w i t h t he i nt e nt of i nvol vi ng pa r e nt s e xt e ns i ve l y i n t he i m pl e m e nt a t i on of e a r l y l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i ons T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a n i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge de s i gne d t o i nc r e a s e t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s of phono l ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng i n pr e s c hool c hi l d r e n f r om l ow i nc om e hom e e nvi r on m e nt s I t w a s hypot he s i z e d t ha t t he c hi l d r e n of pa r e nt s w ho i m pl e m e nt e d t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge w i t h i nt e g r i t y w oul d e vi de nc e i nc r e a s e s i n bot h phonol o gi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng a bi l i t y a s m e a s ur e d by t he D I B E L S P r e K m e a s ur e s T hi s c ha pt e r i nc l ude s a di s c us s i on of t he r e s ul t s r e l a t e d t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons t ha t gui de d t hi s s t udy. T he c ha pt e r c onc l ude s w i t h i m pl i c a t i ons f o r f ut u r e r e s e a r c h, l i m i t a t i ons of t he s t udy a nd i m pl i c a t i ons f or p r a c t i c e St ude nt O ut c om e s T he m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne da t a f r om t hi s s t udy w e r e a n a l yz e d t hr ough t he us e o f vi s ua l pr e s e nt a t i on, de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s a nd hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l i ng W hi l e va r i a bi l i t y w a s obs e r ve d i n e a c h c hi l d s r e s pons e t he r e w a s e vi de nc e of a pos i t i ve c ha nge i n t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s o f f i r s t s ound f l ue nc y ( F S F ) a nd l e t t e r know l e dge ( L K ) f l ue nc y. T hi s gr ow t h w a s m os t e vi de nt w he n c om pa r i ng da t a f r om t he ba s e l i ne a nd f o l l ow up

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94 pha s e s I n e xa m i ni ng t he F S F s c or e s a n a ve r a ge i n c r e a s e i n l e ve l of 9 20 f i r s t s ounds w a s f ound, a l t hough t he de gr e e of va r i a bi l i t y i n t hi s s hi f t r e s ul t e d i n a s t a t i s t i c a l l y non s i gni f i c a nt f i ndi ng I n c ont r a s t t he a ve r a ge c ha nge i n L K s c or e s be t w e e n ba s e l i ne a nd f ol l ow up w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt w i t h t he a ve r a ge i nc r e a s e a c r os s pa r t i c i pa nt s be i ng 9. 45 l e t t e r s pe r m i nut e R e l e va nc e t o R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on O ne I s t he pa r e nt l e d i nt e r ve nt i on a n e f f e c t i ve m e t hod f or i m pr ov i ng a c hi l d s e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s ( phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r n a m i ng) ? F or W e s l e y, J e nni f e r T a nne r a nd B r e nna ( C hi l d r e n 2, 3, 4, a nd 6) i m p r ove m e nt w a s not e d t hr ough vi s ua l a na l ys i s a nd de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s i n t he a bi l i t y t o p r oduc e f i r s t s ounds f l ue nt l y. A l s o, t he r a t e s o f gr ow t h t hr ough t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e w e r e hi ghe r t ha n t hos e doc um e nt e d a s a s t a nda r d f or F S F ( C um m i n gs e t a l 2007) I n a n a s s e s s m e nt of t he s e ns i t i vi t y of t he m e a s ur e t he a ve r a ge g r ow t h pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n on t he F S F m e a s ur e w a s 0. 10 f i r s t s oun ds pe r da y. W e s l e y, T a nne r a nd B r e nna e vi de nc e d r a t e s of g r ow t h a bove 0. 50 t h r ough t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e i ndi c a t i ng t ha t t he y w e r e a bl e t o pr oduc e on a ve r a ge one ne w s ound pe r m i nut e e ve r y t w o da ys H ow e ve r t h i s i m pr ove m e nt c om bi ne d w i t h pe r f o r m a nc e o f t he ot he r t w o pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he s t udy, di d no t yi e l d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s i n t he H L M a na l ys i s R a c he l a nd M e l a ni e ( C hi l dr e n 1 a nd 5) di d not e xhi bi t pos i t i ve r e s pons e s s i m i l a r t o t he ot he r f our c hi l d r e n t o t he f i r s t s ound f l ue nc y i nt e r ve nt i on c ont r i bu t i ng t o i ns i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t s on t he i r F S F pe r f or m a nc e F or R a c he l t he i nt e r ve nt i on a ppe a r s t o ha ve c r e a t e d s om e va r i a bi l i t y i n he r pe r f or m a nc e t ha t w a s not obs e r ve d dur i ng ba s e l i ne M e l a ni e s da t a di s pl a y a hi gh

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95 pe r c e nt a ge of ove r l a ppi ng da t a poi nt s be t w e e n pha s e s di s c our a gi ng c onf i de nt c l a i m s t he i nt e r ve nt i on ha d a ny i m pa c t F or t he L e t t e r K now l e dge a s s e s s m e nt W e s l e y, J e nni f e r T a nne r M e l a ni e a nd B r e nna ( C hi l dr e n 2 3 4 5 a nd 6 ) a l l l e a r ne d a t l e a s t a s m a ny l e t t e r na m e s a s i s r e q ui r e d t o be c ons i de r e d i n t he L ow R i s k c a t e gor y i f t he y w e r e gi ve n t he F a l l a s s e s s m e nt of L N F i n ki nde r ga r t e n. A l s o, J e nni f e r a nd T a nne r e vi de nc e d ve r y l a r ge ga i ns t ha t i f m a i nt a i ne d, w oul d m e e t c r i t e r i a f o r t he k i nde r ga r t e n W i nt e r be nc hm a r k i n D I B E L S L N F of 27 l e t t e r s na m e d i n one m i nu t e A ga i n R a c he l di s pl a ye d c on s i de r a bl e va r i a bi l i t y i n he r pe r f or m a nc e m a ki ng i t di f f i c ul t t o di s t i ngui s h t r e n ds i n he r da t a a nd dr a w c onc l us i ons on t he e f f e c t s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge W he n H L M w a s us e d t o a na l yz e t he L K da t a s e ve r a l a r e a s w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt T he f i r s t w a s t he c ha nge i n s l ope f r om ba s e l i ne t o i nt e r ve nt i on r e ve a l i ng t ha t w he n a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s da t a w e r e c om p i l e d, t he c ha nge i n s l ope w a s 0. 24 ( p= 0. 05 ) A not he r f i ndi ng w a s t ha t t he s hi f t i n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up w a s s i gni f i c a nt w i t h t he a ve r a ge c ha nge f or pa r t i c i pa nt s be i ng a ga i n of 9 45 ( p= 0 09) l e t t e r s na m e d pe r m i nut e T o pl a c e t he s e f i ndi ngs i n pe r s pe c t i ve i f a c hi l d be ga n by know i ng z e r o l e t t e r na m e s f l ue nt l y, c om pl e t i ng t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on a nd m a i nt a i ni ng t he l e ve l o f pe r f or m a nc e a t f ol l ow up w oul d pl a c e a c hi l d i nt o t he L ow R i s k r a nge of s c or e s W i t hou t t hi s i n t e r ve nt i on, t he s e s t ude nt s w oul d l i ke l y f a l l i nt o t he A t R i s k r a nge a nd f a i l t o m e e t e a r l y l i t e r a c y be nc hm a r ks T hi s s hi f t i n l e ve l of pe r f o r m a nc e i s m e a ni ngf ul be c a us e c hi l dr e n w ho f a l l i n t he L o w R i s k c a t e gor y a t t he f i r s t be nc hm a r k ha ve a n 80% c ha nc e t o a c hi e ve t he s e c ond be nc hm a r k ( C um m i ngs e t a l 2008) T he di f f e r e nc e s obs e r ve d i n out c om e s be t w e e n ph onol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r know l e dge a l t hough s m a l l c oul d be a t t r i but e d t o s e ve r a l f a c t or s F i r s t m a ny pa r e nt s

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96 s t r uggl e d dur i ng t he t r a i ni ng s e s s i on i n unde r s t a ndi ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s T hi s c onc e pt c oul d be c ons i de r e d m or e a bs t r a c t t ha n l a b e l i ng l e t t e r s m a ki ng i t m or e d i f f i c ul t t o t e a c h t o pa r e nt s a nd pos s i bl y l e a di ng t o m or e di f f i c ul t i e s w he n pa r e nt s w e r e a s ke d t o t e a c h t hi s s ki l l t o t he i r c hi l d S e c ond gi ve n t he l e s s on pl a n de s i gn, m or e t i m e w a s m os t l i ke l y s pe nt on l e a r ni ng ne w l e t t e r na m e s t ha n on t he S ound P r a c t i c e s e c t i on, w hi c h f oc us e d on phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s O ve r t he c our s e of t he i nt e r ve nt i on, t he va r i a t i on i n t i m e s pe nt pr a c t i c i ng t he s e pa r a t e s ki l l s c oul d ha ve pl a ye d a r o l e i n t he di f f e r e nc e i n c hi l d pe r f or m a nc e A f i na l but r e l a t e d f a c t or w e r e t he p r obl e m s a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he S ound P r a c t i c e s e c t i on w i t hi n l e s s ons 10 18. I n r e l a t i on t o pa r e nt s di f f i c ul t y w i t h t hi s s e c t i on, t he i nt e r ve nt i on i n t e gr i t y w a s l ow e r t hr oughou t t ho s e l e s s on s r e s ul t i ng i n c hi l dr e n ge t t i ng l e s s e xpos ur e t o t he s e pr a c t i c e a c t i vi t i e s R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T w o G i ve n t he e vi de nc e ba s e d pr a c t i c e s us e d t o i nc r e a s e i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e g r i t y ( i e vi de o t a pe d de m ons t r a t i on, pr e m a de l e s s on pl a ns ) w a s t he i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt e d w i t h i nt e gr i t y? F our out of t he s i x pa r e nt s c om pl e t e d t he i nt e r ve nt i on l e s s on pl a ne s w i t h a ve r a ge c om pl e t i on r a t e s a bove 90% A f i f t h pa r e nt c om pl e t e d on a ve r a ge 87. 78 % o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on pr ot oc ol T he f i na l pa r e nt di d not i m pl e m e nt t he i nt e r ve nt i on w i t h i n t e gr i t y, c om pl e t i ng j u s t a bove 50% of t he l e s s ons c or r e c t l y W i t h f i ve out of s i x pa r e nt s c om pl e t i ng t he l e s s ons a t or a bove 85% t he i n t e r v e nt i on w a s i m pl e m e nt e d w i t h i nt e gr i t y i n m os t c a s e s H ow e ve r i t i s of not e t ha t c om pl e t i on r a t e s of i ndi vi dua l l e s s on pl a ns va r i e d, e s pe c i a l l y dur i ng t he m i ddl e pha s e of t he i n t e r ve nt i on. I n c om pa r i s on t o pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h, t he s e r a t e s of i nt e g r i t y a r e hi ghe r t ha n ot he r s a m pl e s w i t h s i m i l a r i nt e r ve nt i ons

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97 A pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt e d i n t e r ve nt i on f or 32 ki nde r g a r t e n c hi l dr e n a t r i s k f or dys l e xi a f o und a n a ve r a ge r a t e of 66% f or i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a s m e a s ur e d by t he num be r of l e s s ons c om pl e t e d di vi de d by t he t ot a l nu m be r o f l e s s ons w i t hi n t he i nt e r ve nt i on pr og r a m ( va n O t t e r l oo, va n de r L e i j & V e l dka m p 2006 ) W he n t he qua l i t y of t he i n t e r ve nt i o n w a s e xa m i ne d t hr ough vi de ot a pe d l e s s ons i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y r os e t o 74 % a l e ve l s t i l l be l ow w ha t w a s f ound i n t hi s s t udy. W i t hi n O t t e r l oo a nd c ol l e a gue s s t udy, va r i a bi l i t y w a s f ound be t w e e n pa r e nt c hi l d dya ds i n a dhe r e nc e t o t he i n t e r ve nt i on p r ot oc ol w i t h t w o t hi r ds of pa r e nt s c om pl e t i ng a l l l e s s ons a nd t he r e m a i ni ng t hi r d c om pl e t i ng be t w e e n t w o a nd 12 w e e ks of t he 14 w e e k p r ogr a m T he i nf o r m a t i on ga t he r e d w i t hi n t he c ur r e nt s t udy e xc e e ds t he ove r a l l r a t e of i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y f ound i n O t t e r l oo a nd c ol l e a gue s ( 2006) s t udy but a ppe a r s t o be s i m i l a r t o t he i r f i ndi ngs r e ga r di ng va r i a bi l i t y i n a d he r e nc e S e ve r a l f a c t or s t ha t m a y e xpl a i n t he di f f e r e nc e s i n i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y be t w e e n t hi s s t udy a nd t he O t t e r l oo e t a l ( 2006) r e s e a r c h c a n be f o und w i t hi n t he l i t e r a t ur e F a c t or s t ha t c ont r i but e t o i nc r e a s e d i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y i nc l ude : ( 1) r e duc i ng t he l e v e l of c om pl e xi t y of t he i nt e r ve nt i on, ( 2) e ns ur i ng t ha t t hos e i n c ha r ge of i m pl e m e nt i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on ha ve t he ne c e s s a r y s ki l l s a nd t i m e a nd ( 3 ) i m pl e m e nt i ng a n i nt e r ve nt i on t ha t t he c hi l d doe s not r e s i s t s i gni f i c a nt l y ( E l l i ot t W i t t K r a t oc hw i l l & S t oi be r 2002) T he h i ghe r l e ve l of i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y f ound w i t hi n t hi s s t udy m a y be r e l a t e d t o t he i nc l u s i on of t he s e f a c t or s w he n t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s de s i gne d. S t r a t e gi e s us e d w i t hi n t hi s s t udy i nc l ude d: ( 1 ) pr ovi d i ng s c r i pt s f or pa r e nt s w i t h i n l e s s on pl a ns a nd pr ovi di n g l e s s on pl a ns i n e a s y t o unde r s t a nd f or m a t s ( 2) p r ovi di ng t r a i ni ng a nd f ol l ow up s upp or t f o r pa r e nt s c om pl e t i ng t he i n t e r ve nt i on, a nd ( 3) e ns ur i ng t ha t a c t i vi t i e s w oul d be e nga gi ng f o r a pr e s c hool c hi l d a nd

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98 a l s o i nc l udi ng pr om pt s f or pa r e nt s t o p r a i s e t he i r c hi l dr e n t o m a ke t he e xpe r i e nc e m o r e r e w a r di ng. F ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d e xa m i ne f a c t or s t ha t c ont r i but e t o or pr e di c t pa r e nt a dhe r e nc e t o i nt e r ve nt i on p r ot oc ol s i n a n e f f o r t t o c l a r i f y w hi c h s t r a t e gi e s l e a d t o t he gr e a t e s t l e ve l of i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e g r i t y. R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on T hr e e W ha t i s t he s t r e ngt h a nd di r e c t i on o f t he r e l a t i ons h i p be t w e e n i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd ou t c om e s on phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng a s s e s s m e nt s ? A s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 31 t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd out c om e s w a s r = 0. 27 ( p = 0. 04 ) f o r t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a s s e s s m e nt ( F S F ) a nd r = 0. 31 ( p= 0 02) f o r t he l e t t e r na m i ng a s s e s s m e nt ( L K ) T hi s i ndi c a t e s a s m a l l but s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e l a t i ons hi p w he r e i nc r e a s e s i n i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y a nd i nc r e a s e s i n s c or e s on t he a s s e s s m e nt m e a s ur e s of t e n c o oc c ur T he s e c or r e l a t i ons a r e s l i ght l y l ow e r t ha n w ha t ha s be e n doc um e nt e d i n l a r ge r m or e w e l l c ont r ol l e d s t udi e s w hi c h c om m onl y r e por t a c or r e l a t i on of r = 0 41 0 58 ( R oa c h & E l l i ot t 2008) T he l ow e r t ha n a nt i c i pa t e d c or r e l a t i ons f ound i n t h i s s t udy c oul d be a t t r i but e d t o t he va r i a bi l i t y i n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s out c om e da t a Y ounge r c hi l dr e n t e nd t o pe r f or m a c a de m i c s ki l l s w i t h gr e a t e r va r i a bi l i t y t ha n ol de r c hi l dr e n ( P l ons ke r P e t r os i no, & C ol c or d, 2001) a nd t hi s f a c t w a s obs e r ve d w i t hi n t he da t a ga t he r e d i n t hi s s t udy. E ve n w i t h a c ons i s t e nt l e ve l of i nt e r v e nt i on i nt e gr i t y t he va r i a bi l i t y i n c hi l d pe r f o r m a nc e w oul d l ow e r t he c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he t w o m e a s ur e s A not he r pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i on f or t he l ow c or r e l a t i o ns c oul d be t he us e of l e s s on pl a n c om pl e t i on a s a m e a s ur e of i nt e gr i t y. T hi s t yp e of m e a s ur e r e l i e s e nt i r e l y on pa r e nt r e por t i ns t e a d of c onf i r m i ng i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e g r i t y t hr ough a not he r f or m a t s uc h a s vi de o

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99 or a udi o t a pi ng T he s e m e a s ur e s w e r e not ut i l i z e d w i t hi n t hi s s t udy due t o pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h doc um e nt i ng di f f i c ul t i e s w i t h ha vi ng pa r e nt s r e c or d s e s s i ons ( C or be t t 2008) T he us e of l e s s on c om pl e t i on a s a m e a s ur e of i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y m a y not ha ve f ul l y c a pt ur e d t he a s pe c t s of how t he pa r e nt s c a r r i e d out t he i nt e r ve nt i on T he l e s s on pl a n c om pl e t i on doe s not c a pt ur e t he f e e dba c k a nd gui d a nc e pa r e nt s pr ovi de d f o r t he i r c hi l dr e n w he n t he y s t r uggl e d w i t h a c t i vi t i e s or p r o vi de d a n i nc or r e c t a ns w e r a c onc e pt t ha t c oul d be t e r m e d t he qua l i t y of t he i nt e r a c t i ons T he qua l i t y of t he i nt e r a c t i on c oul d be m or e r e l a t e d t o i nt e r ve nt i on out c om e s t ha n t he qua nt i t y of i nt e r ve nt i on r e c e i ve d by t he c hi l d. U nf o r t una t e l y, t he m e a s ur e us e d w i t hi n t hi s s t udy onl y c a pt ur e d t he qua nt i t y o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on e a c h c hi l d r e c e i ve d. I n a ddi t i on l e s s ons w e r e c om pl e t e d by pa r e nt s w ho m a y not ha ve r e s ponde d hone s t l y t o c om pl e t i ng a l l s t e ps on t he l e s s on pl a n. F ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d i nc l ude m ul t i pl e m e t hods of a s s e s s i ng i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y t o de t e r m i ne i f a s t r onge r r e l a t i ons hi p e xi s t s be t w e e n pa r e nt i m p l e m e nt e d l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i ons f or pr e s c hool e r s A n a ddi t i ona l be ne f i t of a l i ne of r e s e a r c h s uc h a s t hi s w oul d be de t e r m i ni ng w hi c h m e t hods o f m oni t or i ng i nt e r ve n t i on i nt e gr i t y ha ve t he g r e a t e s t va l i di t y f or t he c ons t r uc t R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on F our W ha t i s t he l e ve l o f i nt e r ve nt i on a c c e pt a bi l i t y of t h e e a r l y l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i on a s r a t e d by t he I nt e r ve nt i on R a t i ng P r o f i l e ( W i t t & E l l i ot 1985 ) ? P a r e nt s r a t e d t he i n t e r ve nt i on pos i t i ve l y w i t h a s m a l l r a nge i n r a t i ngs f r om 70 t o 77 be i ng r e por t e d. M a ny r a t i ngs w e r e ve r y c l os e t o t he hi ghe s t pos s i bl e r a t i ng on t he m e a s ur e w hi c h w a s 78. I ndi vi dua l pa r e nt s r a t i ngs c a n be f ound i n T a bl e 32 W he n r a t i ngs w e r e a ve r a ge d a c r os s t he s i x pa r e nt s t he a v e r a ge I R P r a t i ng w a s 73. 83

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100 de m ons t r a t i ng a hi gh l e ve l of s oc i a l va l i di t y f or t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on. E a c h pa r e nt s r e s pons e t o t he i ndi vi dua l I R P i t e m s i s pr ovi de d i n T a bl e 33 I t i s not e d t ha t t he r e w e r e onl y a f e w r a t i ngs of S l i gh t l y D i s a gr e e a nd D i s a gr e e T h e s e r a t i ngs of S l i ght l y D i s a gr e e a nd D i s a gr e e a r e e xpl or e d f ur t he r be l ow R a c he l s m ot he r di s a gr e e d w i t h t he s t a t e m e nt t ha t t he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s e f f e c t i ve w hi c h i s i n l i ne w i t h R a c he l s pe r f o r m a nc e of e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l m e a s ur e s H e r l ow r a t i ng i n t hi s a r e a c oul d ha ve c ont r i but e d t o he r ve r y l ow c om pl e t i on r a t e s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on l e s s ons w hi c h m a y ha ve ha d a n i m pa c t on R a c he l s pe r f or m a nc e i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng. T a nne r s m ot he r i nd i c a t e d S l i ght l y D i s a gr e e t o t w o i t e m s : ( 1) t ha t he r s on w a s be hi nd e nough t o r e qui r e i nt e r ve nt i on a nd ( 2) t ha t t he r e w e r e no ne ga t i ve s i de e f f e c t s A l l o t he r r a t i ng s by pa r e nt s w e r e pos i t i ve w i t h t he m a j or i t y of r e s pons e s be i ng S t r ongl y A gr e e T a n ne r s m ot he r l i ke m a ny ot he r pa r e nt s i n t he s t udy, di d not be l i e ve he r c hi l d w a s be hi nd w i t h r e ga r ds t o e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s T hi s c oul d be a t t r i but e d t o a l a c k o f c om p a r i s on po pul a t i on ( i e not know i ng ot he r c hi l dr e n a r ound T a nne r s a ge ) or be c a us e pr ogr e s s da t a w e r e not r e gul a r l y s e nt hom e t o pa r e nt s r e ga r di ng t he i r c hi l d s e a r l y l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt W he n a s ke d a bout t he ne ga t i ve s i de e f f e c t s f or T a nne r du r i ng t he s e m i s t r uc t ur e d i nt e r vi e w T a nne r s m ot he r de s c r i be d t ha t oc c a s i ona l l y T a nne r be c a m e f r us t r a t e d w he n h e c oul d not r e m e m be r a l e t t e r o r ge ne r a t e a c or r e c t s ound. S he di d f ol l ow t hi s s t a t e m e nt by s t a t i ng t ha t t hi s w a s not a f r e que nt oc c ur r e nc e ( i e onc e e ve r y t w o w e e ks ) R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on F i v e W ha t qua l i t i e s of t he e a r l y l i t e r a c y i nt e r ve nt i on ( e g. l e s s on pl a ns t r a i ni ng s e s s i on, f ol l ow up s uppor t ) do pa r e nt s pe r c e i ve t o be t he m os t he l pf ul ?

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101 D ur i ng t he s e m i s t r uc t u r e d i nt e r vi e w s pa r e nt s l i s t e d m ul t i pl e c om pone nt s t ha t w e r e he l pf ul i n c om pl e t i ng t he l e s s ons w i t h t he i r c hi l d. W he n f i r s t a s ke d a bout w ha t m a t e r i a l s he l pe d t he m pa r e nt s i ndi c a t e d t he l e s s on pl a ns w e r e gr e a t ( i e e a s y t o f ol l ow s i m pl e ) T he i nt e r ve nt i on w a s a l s o pr a i s e d f or be i ng pa r e nt f r i e ndl y i n t ha t pa r e nt s j us t pi c ke d up t he t hr e e r i ng bi nde r a nd w e r e r e a dy t o go i n l e s s t ha n a f e w m i nut e s J e nni f e r s m ot he r a l s o s t a t e d t ha t t he vi de o i nc l ude d he l pe d he r t o i m pr ove he r s ki l l s a s a t e a c he r a nd c l a r i f i e d how t he m i ddl e s e s s i ons ( l e s s ons 10 18) of t he i nt e r ve nt i on s houl d be t a ught f o r s ound p r a c t i c e S he w a s t he onl y pa r e nt t o w a t c h t he vi de o. T he c om pone nt s of t he t r a i ni ng t ha t w e r e r e por t e d t o be t he m os t he l p f ul w e r e t he r ol e pl a yi ng s e c t i on, e s pe c i a l l y t he f e e dba c k gi ve n t o pa r e nt s A l l pa r e nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t a f t e r t he t r a i ni ng, t he y f e l t m o r e c om f o r t a bl e i n c om pl e t i ng t he l e s s on pl a ns on t he i r ow n O nc e pa r e nt s ga ve t he i r i ni t i a l i m p r e s s i ons on w ha t w a s m os t he l pf ul a ddi t i ona l que s t i ons w e r e us e d t o pr obe f or s pe c i f i c i nf or m a t i on. W he n a s ke d a bout t he c he c k i n phone c a l l s a l l pa r e nt s r e por t e d t ha t t he y w e r e he l pf ul a nd t ha t t w o t i m e s a w e e k w a s not t oo of t e n t o c a l l T he l a yout o f t he l e s s on pl a ns t h e r e vi e w s e s s i ons e m be dde d i n t he l e s s ons a nd t he pr e m a de f l a s hc a r ds w e r e a l l vi e w e d a s ve r y he l pf ul N o c om pone nt w a s m e nt i one d a s be i ng not he l p f ul R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on Si x W ha t i s t he s t r e ngt h a nd di r e c t i on o f t he r e l a t i ons h i p be t w e e n t he l e ve l o f i nt e r ve nt i on a c c e pt a bi l i t y a s r a t e d by t he I nt e r ve nt i on R a t i ng P r of i l e a nd t he out c om e s on phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng a s s e s s m e nt s ? A s r e por t e d i n T a bl e 34 t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s oc i a l va l i di t y r a t i ngs a nd out c om e s w a s r = 0. 36 ( p = 0. 48 ) f o r t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a s s e s s m e nt ( F S F ) a nd

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102 r = 0. 69 ( p= 0. 13 ) f or t he l e t t e r na m i ng a s s e s s m e n t ( L K ) N e i t he r c or r e l a t i on i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt A l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e f or t hi s r e s e a r c h que s t i on c oul d be e xpl a i ne d by t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e a nd ve r y r e s t r i c t e d r a nge o f t he s oc i a l va l i di t y r a t i ngs ( G l a s s & H op ki ns 1996 ) T o ge ne r a t e a s t r ong r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s oc i a l va l i di t y a nd i nt e r ve nt i on out c om e s a gr e a t e r num b e r of obs e r va t i ons s uc h a s m or e f r e que nt r a t i ngs be i ng c ol l e c t e d or i nc r e a s i ng t he s a m pl e s i z e w oul d be r e qui r e d t o i nc r e a s e pow e r a nd i nc r e a s e t he l i ke l i hood t ha t a g r e a t e r r a nge o f s oc i a l va l i di t y r a t i ngs w oul d be f ound A s t r ong c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he s e t w o va r i a bl e s i s onl y pos s i bl e w he n t he va r i a t i on i n s oc i a l va l i di t y i s s uf f i c i e nt ( O t t e r l o o e t a l 2006 ) I m pl i c a t i ons f or R e s e a r c h T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e s e ve r a l a r e a s t ha t w a r r a nt f ut u r e i nve s t i ga t i on. F i r s t t he c hi l dr e n s di f f e r i ng r e s pons e s t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on s ugge s t t ha t a s i m i l a r s t udy s houl d be c onduc t e d w i t h a l a r ge r s a m pl e t o be t t e r de t e r m i ne i f s m a l l e f f e c t s a r e p r e s e nt O ne pos s i bl e e xpl a na t i on i s t ha t s m a l l e f f e c t s o f t h e i nt e r ve nt i on w e r e pr e s e nt w i t hi n t he da t a but t he pow e r o f t hi s s t udy s de s i gn w a s not a bl e t o de t e c t t he m ( G l a s s & H opki ns 1996) F ut ur e r e s e a r c h c oul d s t r e ngt he n t he pow e r of t he s t udy de s i gn by i nc r e a s i ng t he s a m pl e s i z e a nd i m pr ovi ng t he m e a s ur e s ut i l i z e d f or a s s e s s i ng bot h s ki l l gr ow t h a nd i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y i n or de r t o de c r e a s e m e a s ur e m e nt e r r or ( G l a s s & H opki ns 1996) F ut ur e r e s e a r c h a l s o s houl d e xa m i ne c om pone nt s o f t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on s e pa r a t e l y t o de t e r m i ne t he i r e f f e c t i ve ne s s s i nc e s om e c hi l dr e n r e s ponde d m or e pos i t i ve l y t o one ha l f of t he i nt e r ve nt i on i n c om pa r i s on t o t he ot he r A s t udy of s e pa r a t e c om pone nt s c oul d a l s o c onf i r m w he t he r e i t he r ha l f o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on i n f l ue nc e d t he gr ow t h on t he ot he r e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l C ur r e nt l y, no e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s ha ve be e n publ i s he d e xa m i ni ng t he

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103 r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n i nc r e a s i ng phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s a nd how t hi s m a y or m a y not i m pa c t l e t t e r na m i ng a bi l i t y. A l s o, no e m pi r i c a l s t udi e s ha ve e m e r ge d t ha t i nve s t i ga t e how i nc r e a s e s i n l e t t e r na m i ng s ki l l m a y i m pa c t gr ow t h i n phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s s ki l l s F ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d t a ke i nt o a c c ount f i ndi ngs f r om t hi s s t udy t ha t s om e c hi l dr e n i m pr ove d dur i ng t he ba s e l i ne pos s i bl y f r o m : ( 1) ou t s i de i nf l ue nc e s ( i e pa r e nt s e nga gi ng i n ot he r hom e l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s ) or ( 2 ) t he f e e dba c k i nc or por a t e d i n t o t he i ns t r uc t i ons f or t he F S F a s s e s s m e nt B e c a u s e t w o s t ude nt s i m pr ove d r a pi dl y a f t e r t he i ni t i a l s ur ve y l e ve l a s s e s s m e nt s of f i r s t s ound f l ue nc y, i t i s a dvi s e d t ha t pr i or t o i nc l udi ng a c hi l d i n a s t udy, e xpos e t he m t o t he a s s e s s m e nt ove r s e ve r a l da ys T h i s m a y de c r e a s e t he l i ke l i hood o f a l a r ge i nc r e a s i ng t r e nd du r i ng t h e ba s e l i ne pha s e A ddi t i ona l l y, f ut ur e s t udi e s s houl d e m pl oy m ul t i pl e m e t hods f or m e a s ur i ng i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y. I n de s i gni ng t he l e s s on pl a ns a c onc e r t e d e f f or t w a s m a de t o ba l a nc e be t w e e n m a ki ng t he m e a s y f or pa r e nt s t o c om pl e t e a nd r e duc i ng t he l i ke l i hood t ha t pa r e nt s w oul d c om pl e t e t he l e s s on pl a n w i t ho ut c onduc t i ng t he l e s s on w i t h t he i r c hi l d. I n t e gr i t y c oul d a l s o be i m p r ove d by c ol l e c t i ng l e s s on pl a ns m or e f r e que nt l y a nd m a i nt a i ni ng m or e c ons i s t e nt phone c ont a c t be t w e e n t he P I a nd t he pa r e nt s S t a yi ng i n c ont a c t w i t h pa r e nt s pr ove d di f f i c ul t a t t i m e s a s f a m i l i e s w oul d l os e t he i r t e l e phone s e r vi c e or c ha nge phone num be r s w i t hout not i f yi n g t he P I F ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d e xa m i ne ot he r m e t hods f o r m a i nt a i ni ng c om m uni c a t i on, s uc h a s e m a i l o r m e e t i ng a t t he pr e s c hool w he n t he pa r e nt c om e s i n t o d r op o f f o r pi c k up t he i r c hi l d, i n o r de r t o i m p r ove i nt e r ve nt i on i nt e gr i t y. A f i na l a nd une xpe c t e d t opi c unc ove r e d by t hi s r e s e a r c h, w a s t he i nc r e a s e i n ot he r hom e l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s r e por t e d by f ou r o f t he s i x pa r e nt s T he s e a c t i vi t i e s m a y ha ve

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104 c ont r i but e d t o t he pe r f o r m a nc e on phonol og i c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng t a s ks i ns t e a d of or i n a ddi t i on t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge F ut ur e r e s e a r c h s houl d m oni t o r t he s e a c t i vi t i e s a s w e l l a nd e xa m i ne f a c t or s t ha t pr om pt t he s e e xt r a e f f or t s i n pa r e nt s I m pl i c a t i ons f or P r a c t i c e T he i nt e r ve nt i on us e d i n t hi s s t udy r e pr e s e nt s a f i r s t a t t e m pt a t i nc r e a s i ng pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt i n p r e s c hool c hi l dr e n s e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l de ve l opm e nt S c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s c oul d us e t hi s pr ogr a m w i t h pa r e nt s of pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n a s a m e a ns of pr e ve nt i ng t he s e c hi l dr e n f r om e xpe r i e nc i ng f a i l u r e upon e nt e r i ng ki nde r ga r t e n due t o de f i c i t s i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s B y e nc our a gi ng a l l pa r e nt s t o us e a pr og r a m s uc h a s t hi s c hi l dr e n c a n be p r ovi de d a s pr i ngboa r d f o r ki nde r g a r t e n. E m pl oyi ng a pr ogr a m s i m i l a r t o t he one i n t h i s s t udy ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o p r e ve nt t h e M a t t he w E f f e c t w he r e s t ude nt s w ho i ni t i a l l y s t r ugg l e w i t h a c qui r i ng r e a di ng s ki l l s c ont i nue t o l e a r n ne w r e a di ng s ki l l s a t a s l ow e r r a t e t ha n t he i r pe e r s ( S t a novi c h, 1986) S t ude nt s i n t hi s s i t ua t i on o f t e n f a l l f ur t he r a nd f ur t he r be hi nd t he i r pe e r s i n r e a di ng, l e a di ng t o a hi ghe r l i ke l i hood of l ong t e r m ne ga t i ve out c om e s s uc h a s not c om pl e t i ng hi gh s c hool a nd be i ng i m p r i s one d ( A r ka ns a s L i t e r a c y C ounc i l 2005) I n a ddi t i on t o us i ng t h i s i nt e r ve nt i on a s a pr e ve nt i o n s t r a t e gy, t he pr ogr a m a l s o c oul d be i m pl e m e nt e d a s a t a r ge t e d i nt e r ve nt i on pr ogr a m f or c hi l dr e n w ho a r e a l r e a dy e xpe r i e nc i ng de f i c i t s i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l de ve l op m e nt T hi s r e c om m e nda t i on i s s uppor t e d gi ve n t he i nt e r ve nt i on s e f f e c t i ve ne s s a t i nc r e a s i ng l e t t e r na m i ng a bi l i t y a nd t he oc c a s i ona l i nc r e a s e s i n f i r s t s ound f l ue nc y s e e n i n s om e c hi l d pa r t i c i pa nt s T he i nt e r ve nt i on pr og r a m ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o f i l l a ne e d w i t hi n t he l i t e r a t ur e s i nc e f e w e vi de nc e ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons ha ve be e n f ou nd f o r t e a c hi ng l e t t e r na m e s t o c hi l d r e n.

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105 I nt e r ve nt i ons us i ng pa r e nt s a s di r e c t i m pl e m e nt e r s of i nt e r ve nt i on i s bot h pr a c t i c a l a nd e f f e c t i ve f o r c hi l d r e n w ho m a y be de l a ye d i n t he s ki l l a r e a s of phonol o gi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd a bi l i t y t o f l ue nt l y na m e l e t t e r s T hi s pa r e nt t r a i ni ng c oul d be i m pl e m e nt e d by a w i de va r i e t y of e duc a t i on pr o f e s s i ona l s f a c i l i t a t i ng i m pl e m e nt a t i on on a l a r ge s c a l e T he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he one t i m e t r a i ni ng on i m pl e m e nt a t i on i nt e gr i t y i ndi c a t e s t ha t t hi s m e t hod a l ong w i t h t he r e m i nd e r phone c a l l s m a y be e nough t o e nc our a ge pa r e nt s t o c om pl e t e t he i nt e r ve nt i on w i t h f i de l i t y. H ow e ve r s om e pa r e nt s m a y ne e d f u r t he r t r a i ni ng a nd f e e dba c k, s uc h a s R a c he l s m ot he r t o i nc r e a s e i nt e gr i t y t hr oughout t he i nt e r ve nt i on. A not he r pos i t i ve a s pe c t of t h i s pr ogr a m i s t ha t t he m a t e r i a l s w e r e r e l a t i ve l y i ne xpe ns i ve t o de ve l op a nd r e pr oduc e T he pr i m a r y e xpe ns e of t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on w a s phot oc opyi ng of m a t e r i a l s t ypi c a l l y a s m a l l c os t f or e duc a t or s w ho ha ve a c c e s s t o a c opi e r A f t e r t he c opi e s a r e m a de ve r y f e w a ddi t i o na l c os t s a r e i nc ur r e d ( i e t hr e e r i ng bi nde r s not e c a r ds ) T he r e f or e t he i nt e r ve nt i on de ve l ope d f or t hi s s t udy i s a n e xa m pl e of a c os t e f f e c t i ve m e t hod f or pr e s c hool s t o i nc r e a s e pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt a s i s m a nda t e d by l a w i n S e c t i on 111 8. I m pl e m e nt a t i on or e ndor s e m e nt of t hi s pr og r a m by pr e s c hool s t a f f r a t he r t ha n a n e xt e r na l r e s e a r c he r or c ons ul t a nt w oul d ha ve s e ve r a l be ne f i t s ove r t he w a y t h i s s t udy w a s de s i gne d. M a t e r i a l s c oul d be c ol l e c t e d m or e f r e que nt l y a nd pa r e nt s c oul d be r e m i nde d t o s e nd i n m a t e r i a l s t hr ough not e s hom e a nd f a c e t o f a c e c ont a c t s A l s o, f e e dba c k c oul d be pr ovi de d m or e r e gul a r l y t o pa r e nt s w ho w e r e not i m pl e m e nt i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on w i t h hi gh l e ve l s of i nt e gr i t y r e c e i vi ng e xt r a t r a i ni ng a t t he i r c hi l d s s c hoo l w he n t he y e i t he r dr oppe d of f o r pi c ke d up t he i r c hi l d. F i na l l y c hi l dr e n c oul d be a s s e s s e d on a m or e c ons i s t e nt

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106 s c he dul e w i t h da t a c ol l e c t i on oc c ur r i ng on a ny da y t he c hi l d a t t e nds a s oppos e d t o w he n t he P I w a s a bl e t o be p r e s e nt a t t he H e a d S t a r t C e nt e r L i m i t a t i ons T he f i ndi ngs o f t hi s s t udy m us t be i nt e r pr e t e d w i t h r e s pe c t t o s e ve r a l l i m i t a t i ons L i m i t a t i ons of t hi s s t udy i nc l ude m a t ur a t i on pr a c t i c e e f f e c t s s t a t i s t i c a l r e gr e s s i on, i m pl e m e nt a t i on bi a s a nd l i m i t e d ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y A m ul t i pl e ba s e l i ne de s i gn w a s ut i l i z e d i n or de r t o r e duc e t he e f f e c t s of m a t ur a t i on, how e ve r i t s houl d s t i l l be c ons i de r e d w he n e xa m i ni ng t he s e r e s ul t s T he s c or e s obt a i ne d f r om c hi l d r e n i n t hi s s t udy m a y ha ve i m pr ove d due t o t he pa s s a ge of t i m e w i t hout a s s i s t a nc e f r om t he i nt e r ve nt i on. T he e f f e c t s of m a t ur a t i on a r e di f f i c ul t t o r ul e out g i ve n t he va r i a bi l i t y w i t h i n e a c h s t ude nt s pe r f or m a nc e on bo t h t a s ks P r a c t i c e e f f e c t s a l s o m a y ha ve i n f l ue nc e d out c om e s f or t he c hi l dr e n i n t hi s s t udy ( G l a s s & H opki ns 1987) G r o w t h dur i ng t he ba s e l i ne pha s e c oul d be a t t r i but e d t o t he bui l t i n c o r r e c t i on m e t hods w i t hi n t he a dm i ni s t r a t i on i ns t r uc t i ons of t he D I B E L S pr obe s T hi s e f f e c t a ppe a r s t o be e s pe c i a l l y c l e a r i n t he F S F da t a of W e s l e y ( C hi l d 2) H ow e ve r t hi s l e ve l of s uppor t di d not p r ovi de e nough s t r uc t ur e a nd a s s i s t a nc e f or t he ot he r s t ude nt s A not he r l i m i t a t i on t o be c ons i de r e d w he n i nt e r p r e t i ng t he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy i s s t a t i s t i c a l r e gr e s s i on. T he c hi l dr e n s e l e c t e d f or t hi s s t udy ha d t o pe r f or m be l ow a c e r t a i n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e t o be i nc l ude d a s pa r t i c i pa nt s T he s e s t ude nt s m a y ha ve i m pr ove d s i m pl y due t o r e gr e s s i on t ow a r d t he m e a n, w hi c h i s a not he r r e a s on w hy pos i t i ve c ha nge s c a nnot be a t t r i but e d s ol e l y t o t he e f f e c t s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on.

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107 I m pl e m e nt a t i on bi a s a l s o m a y i n t e r f e r e w i t h t he i nt e r pr e t a t i on of r e s ul t s I m pl e m e nt a t i on bi a s i s t he l i ke l i hood t ha t a l l pa r e nt s di d not i m pl e m e nt t he i nt e r ve nt i on pa c ka ge w i t h t he s a m e l e ve l of i nt e gr i t y T hi s w a s m or e l i ke l y t o oc c ur a s t he num be r of i nt e r ve nt i on i m pl e m e nt e r s ( i e pa r e nt s ) i nc r e a s e d. M ul t i pl e c om pone nt s w e r e pl a c e d i n t he de s i gn t o a t t e m pt t o m i n i m i z e t hi s e f f e c t i nc l ud i ng, ( 1 ) i nd i vi dua l c a r e gi ve r t r a i ni ng ( 2) vi de ot a pe d de m ons t r a t i ons ( 3 ) s uppor t a nd f e e dba c k f r om t he pr i m a r y i nve s t i ga t or a nd ( 4) c a l c ul a t i on of t he i nt e gr i t y of e a c h l e s s on. H ow e ve r t he s e m e a s ur e s c a nnot a c c ount f or t he a l l va r i a bi l i t y i n pa r e nt s a dhe r e nc e t o t he i nt e r ve nt i on p r ot oc ol F i na l l y, t he s e l e c t i on of c hi l d r e n f r om l ow i nc om e hom e s l i m i t s ge ne r a l i z a bi l i t y. B e c a us e a t r ue r a n dom s a m pl e c oul d not be us e d a nd a s pe c i f i c de m ogr a phi c w a s ut i l i z e d, f i ndi ngs s houl d onl y be e xt e nde d t o c hi l dr e n w ho a t t e nd H e a d S t a r t a nd w i l l be a t t e ndi ng ki nde r ga r t e n i n t he ne xt s c hool ye a r C a ut i on s houl d be us e d w he n e xt e ndi ng r e s ul t s t o c hi l dr e n a nd pa r e nt s w ho a r e not de m og r a phi c a l l y s i m i l a r t o t he s a m pl e us e d w i t hi n t hi s s t udy. C onc l us i ons T hi s s t udy e xpl or e d t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a pa r e nt i m pl e m e nt e d e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s i nt e r ve nt i on on t he phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s a nd l e t t e r na m i ng a bi l i t y of s i x c hi l dr e n e nr ol l e d i n a H e a d S t a r t c e nt e r w ho w oul d t r a ns i t i oni ng t o ki nde r ga r t e n f o r t he ne xt s c hool ye a r W hi l e pos i t i ve t r e nds w e r e f ound i n a c qui s i t i on of f i r s t s ound f l ue nc y, w he n a ggr e ga t e d t hr ough hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l i ng, t he e f f e c t w a s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt I n c ont r a s t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt f i nd i ngs w e r e f ound f or t he e f f e c t of t he l e t t e r na m i ng po r t i on o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on i n t he f ol l ow i ng a r e a s : ( 1) t he c ha nge i n r a t e o f gr ow t h f r om t he ba s e l i ne t o t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e ( 2) t he s hi f t i n l e ve l of pe r f or m a nc e

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108 f r om ba s e l i ne t o f ol l ow up a nd ( 3) t he c ha nge i n r a t e of gr ow t h f r om t he ba s e l i ne t o t he f ol l ow up pha s e T he va r i a bi l i t y i n e f f e c t i ve ne s s a c r os s e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt de m ons t r a t e s a ne e d f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h be f or e t hi s i nt e r v e nt i on p a c ka ge c a n be pr om ot e d a s a n e vi de nc e ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i on f or pr e s c hool c hi l dr e n a nd t he i r pa r e nt s H ow e ve r t hi s m e t hod of i n t e r ve nt i on s how s pr om i s e i n ut i l i z i ng vi t a l r e s our c e s i n a c hi l d s l i f e t o i nc r e a s e pa r e nt i nvol ve m e nt i n s c hool i ng a nd i m p r ove e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s

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109 R E F E R E N C E S A da m s M J ( 1990) B e gi nni ng t o r e ad: T hi nk i ng and l e ar ni ng about pr i nt C a m br i dge M A : M I T P r e s s A l l hus e n, V B e l s ky, J B oot h L a F o r c e C B r a d l e y, R B r ow ne l l C A B ur c hi na l M C a m pbe l l S B C l a r ke S t e w a r t K A e t a l ( 2005) D u r a t i on a nd de ve l opm e nt a l t i m i ng of pove r t y a nd c hi l d r e n s c o gni t i ve a nd s oc i a l de ve l opm e nt f r om bi r t h t h r ough t h i r d g r a de C hi l d D e v e l opm e nt 76 ( 4 ) 795 810 A nde r s on, J C r oni n, M & F a ga n, W T ( 1998) I ns i ght s i n I m pl e m e nt i ng F a m i l y L i t e r a c y P r ogr a m s I n E S t ur t uve nt P L i nde r W L i ne k, & J D uga n ( E ds ) L i t e r ac y and C om m uni t y ( pp. 269 281 ) T e xa s : T h e C ol l e ge R e a di ng A s s oc i a t i on. A r ka ns a s L i t e r a c y C ounc i l s ( 2005) A dul t i l l i t e r ac y : I t s c os t t o us al l R e t r i e ve d A ugus t 3, 2008 f r om ht t p: / / w w w a l t r us a w m a r c om / F a c t s A bout A dul t L i t e r a c y. pd f A r nol d, D H Z e l j o A D oc t or of f G L & O r t i z C ( 2008) P a r e nt i nvol ve m e nt i n pr e s c hool : P r e di c t or s a nd t he r e l a t i on of i nvol ve m e nt t o pr e l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 37 ( 1) 74 90 A t w a t e r J M ont a gna D C r e i ght on, M W i l l i a m s R & H ou S ( 1993) C ode f or i nt e r ac t i v e r e c o r di ng of c ar e gi v i ng and l e ar ni ng e nv i r onm e nt s 2. K a ns a s C i t y, K S : E a r l y C hi l dhood R e s e a r c h I ns t i t ut e on S ubs t a nc e A bus e B a r l o w D H H a ye s S C & N e l s on, R O ( 198 4) T he s c i e nt i s t pr ac t i t i one r : R e s e ar c h and ac c ount abi l i t y i n c l i ni c al and e duc at i onal s e t t i ngs N e w Y or k: P e r ga m on P r e s s B a t e s S L ( 2005) E vi de nc e ba s e d f a m i l y s c hool i nt e r ve nt i ons w i t h pr e s c hool c hi l d r e n Sc hool P s y c hol ogy Q uar t e r l y 20 ( 4) 352 370

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110 B l a c hm a n, B A ( 1994 ) E a r l y l i t e r a c y a c qui s i t i on: T he r ol e of phonol ogi c a l a w a r e ne s s I n G P W a l l a c h & K G B ut l e r ( E ds ) L anguage l e ar ni ng di s abi l i t i e s i n s c hool age d c hi l dr e n and adol e s c e nt s ( pp. 253 274 ) N e w Y or k: M e r r i l l B r ooks G unn, J & D unc a n, G J ( 1997 ) T he e f f e c t s of pove r t y on c hi l dr e n F ut ur e of C hi l dr e n, 7 ( 2) 55 71 B unn, R B ur ns M K H o f f m a n, H H & N e w m a n, C L ( 2005 ) U s i ng i nc r e m e nt a l r e he a r s a l t o t e a c h l e t t e r i de nt i f i c a t i on t o a p r e s c hool a ge c hi l d. J our nal of E v i de nc e B as e d P r ac t i c e s f or Sc hool s 6 ( 2 ) 124 1 33. C hr i s t e ns on, S L & B ue r kl e K ( 1999) F a m i l i e s a s e duc a t i ona l pa r t ne r s f or c hi l dr e n s s c hool s uc c e s s : S ugge s t i ons f or s c hool ps yc hol ogi s t s I n C R R e ynol ds & T G ut ki n ( E ds ) T he handbook of s c hool ps y c hol ogy ( 3r d e d. pp. 709 744 ) N e w Y or k: J ohn W i l e y & S ons C one J D D e l a w ye r D D & W ol f e V V ( 198 5) A s s e s s i ng pa r e nt pa r t i c i pa t i on: T he P a r e nt / F a m i l y I nvol ve m e nt I nde x E x c e pt i onal C hi l dr e n, 51 ( 5) 417 424. C oope r J O H e r on, T E & H e w a r d, W L ( 198 7) A ppl i e d B e hav i or A nal y s i s N e w Y or k: M a c m i l l a n. C or be t t R R ( 2008) E f f e c t of a par e nt r e adi ng i n t e r v e nt i on on e l e m e nt ar y age d c hi l dr e n s r e adi ng f l ue nc y ( U npubl i s he d m a s t e r s t he s i s ) U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da T a m pa F L C um m i ngs K D G ood, R H K a m i ns ki R A & O N e i l M E ( 2007 ) T e c hni c al ade quac y of D I B E L S F SF ( T e c hni c a l R e por t N o. # 3) E uge ne O R : D yna m i c M e a s ur e m e nt G r oup.

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111 D a l y, E J I I I C ha f oul e a s S & S ki nne r C H ( 2005) I nt e r v e nt i ons f or R e adi ng P r obl e m s : D e s i gni ng and E v al uat i ng E f f e c t i v e St r at e gi e s N e w Y or k, N Y : T he G ui l f or d P r e s s D a l y, E J I I I W r i ght J A K e l l y, S Q & M a r t e ns B K ( 1997 ) M e a s ur e s of e a r l y a c a de m i c s ki l l s : R e l i a bi l i t y a nd va l i di t y w i t h a f i r s t gr a de s a m pl e Sc hool P s y c hol ogy Q uar t e r l y 12, 268 280 D unn, L M & D unn, L M ( 1997) P e abody P i c t ur e V oc abul ar y T e s t T hi r d E di t i on. C i r c l e P i ne s M N : A m e r i c a n G u i da nc e S e r vi c e D unn, L M & D unn, L M ( 1981) P e abody P i c t ur e V oc abul ar y T e s t R e v i s e d. C i r c l e P i ne s M N : A m e r i c a n G ui da nc e S e r v i c e D uva l l S F & W a r d D L ( 1997 ) A n e xpl or a t o r y s t udy of hom e s c hool i ns t r uc t i ona l e nvi r onm e nt s a nd t he i r e f f e c t s on t he ba s i c s ki l l s of s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s E duc at i on & T r e at m e nt of C hi l dr e n, 2 0, 150 172 E hr i L C & R obe r t s T ( 2006 ) T he r oot s of l e a r ni ng t o r e a d a nd w r i t e : A c qui s i t i on of l e t t e r s a nd phone m i c a w a r e ne s s I n D K D i c ki ns o n & S B N e um a n ( E ds ) H andbook of E ar l y L i t e r ac y R e s e ar c h ( pp. 113 13 1) N e w Y o r k, N Y : G ui l f or d P r e s s E l l i ot t S N W i t t J C K r a t oc hw i l l T R & S t o i be r K C ( 2002 ) S e l e c t i ng a nd e va l ua t i ng c l a s s r oom i nt e r ve nt i ons I n M R S hi nn H M W a l ke r & G S t one r ( E ds ) I nt e r v e nt i ons f or A c ade m i c and B e hav i or P r obl e m s I I : P r e v e nt i v e and R e m e di al A ppr oac he s ( pp. 243 294 ) B e t he s da M D : N A S P P ub l i c a t i ons E ps t e i n, J L ( 2002 ) S c hool f a m i l y a nd c om m un i t y pa r t ne r s hi ps : C a r i ng f or t he c hi l dr e n w e s ha r e I n J L E ps t e i n, M G S a nde r s B S S i m on K C S a l i na s N

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112 R J a n s or n, & F L V a nV oor hi s ( E ds ) Sc hool F a m i l y and C om m uni t y P ar t ne r s hi ps : Y our H andbook f or A c t i on ( pp. 7 29 ) T hous a nd O a ks C A : C or w i n P r e s s E ps t e i n, J L ( 1996 ) P e r s pe c t i ve s a nd pr e vi e w s on r e s e a r c h a nd pol i c y f or s c hool f a m i l y a nd c om m uni t y pa r t n e r s hi ps I n A B oot h, & J F D unn ( E ds ) F am i l y s c hool l i nk s H ow do t he y af f e c t e duc at i onal out c om e s ? ( pp. 209 246 ) M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um E va ns G W ( 2004) T he e nvi r onm e nt of c hi l dhoo d pove r t y. A m e r i c an P s y c hol ogi s t 59 ( 2) 77 92 F a nt uz z o J M c W a yne C P e r r y M A & C hi l d s S ( 2004) M ul t i pl e di m e ns i ons of f a m i l y i nvol ve m e nt a nd t he i r r e l a t i ons t o be ha vi or a l a nd l e a r ni ng c om pe t e nc i e s f or u r ba n, l ow i nc om e c hi l dr e n Sc hool P s y c hol ogy R e v i e w 33 ( 4 ) 467 480 F a nt uz z o, J T i ghe E ( 2000) F a m i l y I nvol ve m e nt Q ue s t i onna i r e : A m ul t i va r i a t e a s s e s s m e nt i n e a r l y c hi l dhood e duc a t i on. J our nal o f E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 92 ( 2) 367 376 F i a l a C L & S he r i da n S M ( 2003 ) P a r e nt i nvo l ve m e nt a nd r e a di ng: U s i ng c u r r i c ul um ba s e d m e a s ur e m e nt t o a s s e s s t he e f f e c t s of pa i r e d r e a di ng. P s y c hol ogy i n t he Sc hool s 40 ( 6) 613 626. F e de r a l I nt e r a ge nc y F o r um on C hi l d a nd F a m i l y S t a t i s t i c s ( 2000) A m e r i c a s c hi l dr e n: K e y nat i onal i ndi c at or s W a s hi ngt on, D C : A ut ho r G a ng, D & P oe c he C E ( 1982) A n e f f e c t i ve p r ogr a m t o t r a i n pa r e nt s a s r e a di ng t ut or s f or t he i r ow n c hi l dr e n. E duc at i on and T r e at m e nt o f C hi l dr e n, 5, 211 232

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119 S t i pe k, D ( 1 991) P ar e nt que s t i onnai r e U ni ve r s i t y of C a l i f o r ni a L os A nge l e s : U npubl i s he d m a nus c r i pt T a yl or A R & M a c hi da S ( 1994) T he c ont r i but i ons of pa r e nt a nd pe e r s u ppor t t o H e a d S t a r t c hi l d r e n s e a r l y s c hool a dj us t m e nt E ar l y C hi l dhood R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 9 387 405 T oppi ng, K & L i nds a y, G A ( 1992 ) T he s t r uc t u r e a nd de ve l opm e nt of t he P a i r e d R e a di ng a ppr oa c h. J our nal of R e adi ng R e s e ar c h, 15 120 136 T or ge s e n, J K & B ur ge s s S R ( 1998) C ons i s t e nc y of r e a di ng r e l a t e d phonol ogi c a l pr oc e s s e s t hr oughout e a r l y c hi l dhood: E vi de nc e f r om l ongi t udi na l c o r r e l a t i ona l a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l s t udi e s I n J J M e t s a l a & L C E hr i ( E ds ) W or d r e c ogni t i on i n be gi nni ng l i t e r a c y ( pp. 161 188) M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s T r e i m a n, R & K e s s l e r B ( 2003) T he r ol e o f l e t t e r na m e s i n t he a c qui s i t i on of l i t e r a c y. I n R K a i l ( E d. ) A dv anc e s i n c hi l d de v e l opm e nt an d be hav i or ( V ol 31, pp. 105 135) S a n D i e go, C A : A c a de m i c P r e s s V a n de n N oor ga t e W & O nghe na P ( 2003) C o m bi ni ng s i ngl e c a s e e xpe r i m e nt a l da t a us i ng hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l s Sc hool P s y c hol ogy Q uar t e r l y 18 ( 3) 325 346 V a n O t t e r l oo, S G va n de r L e i j A & V e l dka m p, E ( 2006) T r e a t m e nt i n t e gr i t y i n a hom e ba s e d pr e r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on pr og r a m m e D y s l e x i a, 12 155 176 V on B r oc k, M & E l l i ot t S M ( 1987) T he i n f l ue nc e of t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t i ve ne s s i nf or m a t i on on t he a c c e pt a bi l i t y of c l a s s r oom i nt e r ve nt i ons J our nal of Sc hool P s y c hol ogy 25 131 1 44. W a gne r R K T o r ge s e n, J K & R a s hot t e C A ( 1999) C om pr e he ns i v e t e s t of phonol ogi c al pr oc e s s i ng ( C T O P P ) A us t i n, T X : P r o E d.

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120 W e i ne r R S he r i da n, S M & J e ns on, W R ( 199 8) E f f e c t s o f c onj oi nt be ha vi or a l c ons ul t a t i on a nd a s t r uc t ur e d hom e w o r k pr og r a m o n m a t h c om pl e t i on a nd a c c ur a c y i n j uni or hi gh s t ude nt s Sc hool P s y c hol og y Q uar t e r l y 13 281 309. W hi t e hur s t G J ( 1992) St ony B r ook f am i l y r e adi ng s ur v e y S t ony B r ook, N Y : A ut ho r W i t t J C & E l l i ot t S N ( 1985 ) A c c e pt a bi l i t y of c l a s s r oom i nt e r ve nt i on s t r a t e gi e s I n T R K r a t oc hw i l l ( E d ) A dv anc e s i n s c hool ps y c hol ogy ( V ol 4, pp. 251 288 ) M a hw a h, N J : E r l ba um W i t t J C & M a r t e ns B K ( 1983) A s s e s s i ng t he a c c e pt a bi l i t y of be ha vi or a l i nt e r ve nt i ons us e d i n c l a s s r oom s P s y c hol ogy i n t h e Sc hool s 20, 510 517 W ol f M M ( 1978) S oc i a l va l i di t y: T he c a s e f or s ubj e c t i ve m e a s ur e m e nt or how a ppl i e d be ha vi or a na l ys i s i s f i ndi ng i t s he a r t J our nal of A p pl i e d B e hav i or A nal y s i s 11 203 214. Z i l l N R e s ni c k, G K i m K M c K e y, R H C l a r k, C P a i S a m a nt S C onne l l D V a de n K i e r na n, M O B r i e n R & D E l i o, M A ( 2001) H e ad St ar t F A C E S : L ongi t udi nal f i nd i ngs on pr ogr am pe r f or m anc e : T hi r d pr ogr e s s r e por t W a s hi ngt on, D C : U S D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s A dm i ni s t r a t i on on C hi l d r e n, Y out h a nd F a m i l i e s C om m i s s i one r s O f f i c e of R e s e a r c h a nd E va l ua t i on a nd t he H e a d S t a r t B ur e a u. Z i l l N R e s ni c k, G K i m K O D onne l l K S or ongon, A M c K e y, R H S a m a nt S C l a r k, C O B r i e n R & D E l i o M A ( 2003) H e ad St ar t F A C E S 2000 : A w hol e c hi l d pe r s pe c t i v e on pr ogr am pe r f o r m anc e : F our t h pr ogr e s s r e por t W a s hi ngt on, D C : U S D e pa r t m e nt of H e a l t h a nd H um a n S e r vi c e s

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121 A dm i ni s t r a t i on on C hi l d r e n, Y out h a nd F a m i l i e s C om m i s s i one r s O f f i c e of R e s e a r c h a nd E va l ua t i on a nd t he H e a d S t a r t B ur e a u.

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A ppe ndi x A : C ons e nt F or m 123 D e a r P a r e n t o r L e g a l G u a r d i a n : T h i s l e t t e r p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a r e s e a r c h s t u d y t h a t w i l l b e c o n d u c t e d i n t h e H e a d S t a r t C l a s s r o o m b y i n v e s t i g a t o r s f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a O u r g o a l i n c o n d u c t i n g t h e s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f a p a r e n t i m p l e m e n t e d e a r l y l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t y o n c h i l d r e n s e a r l y l i t e r a c y s k i l l s W h o W e A r e : A s h l e y S u n d m a n a d o c t o r a l s t u d e n t i n t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a ( U S F ) i s t h e P r i m a r y I n v e s t i g a t o r f o r t h i s s t u d y S h e i s s u p e r v i s e d b y D r B r a d l e y K l u g a p r o f e s s o r i n t h e S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y P r o g r a m a t U S F W e a r e p l a n n i n g t h e s t u d y i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e H e a d S t a r t p r o g r a m t o m a k e s u r e t h a t t h e s t u d y p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l b e u s e f u l t o t h e p r o g r a m W h y W e a r e R e q u e s t i n g Y o u r C h i l d s P a r t i c i p a t i o n : T h i s s t u d y i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d a s p a r t o f a p r o j e c t e n t i t l e d D e v e l o p i n g P r e l i t e r a c y S k i l l s i n P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n : T h e U t i l i z a t i o n o f P a r e n t s a s a V i t a l R e s o u r c e Y o u r c h i l d i s b e i n g a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e h i s o r h e r s c o r e s o n t w o e a r l y l i t e r a c y s k i l l a s s e s s m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t h e o r s h e i s a t r i s k f o r n o t a c q u i r i n g s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o e a s i l y l e a r n h o w t o r e a d S i x a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r p a r e n t s w i l l a l s o b e a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y W h y Y o u r C h i l d S h o u l d P a r t i c i p a t e : W e n e e d t o l e a r n m o r e a b o u t h o w p a r e n t s c a n h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n i m p r o v e t h e i r r e a d i n g s k i l l s T h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s w e w i l l b e u s i n g h a v e b e e n e f f e c t i v e w h e n u s e d b y t e a c h e r s t o h e l p c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r p r e r e a d i n g s k i l l s T h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w e c o l l e c t f r o m s t u d e n t s m a y h e l p i n c r e a s e o u r a w a r e n e s s o f h o w p a r e n t s c a n h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n i m p r o v e t h e i r r e a d i n g s k i l l s I t i s n o t c e r t a i n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l i m p r o v e y o u r c h i l d s r e a d i n g s k i l l s P l e a s e n o t e t h a t y o u a n d y o u r c h i l d w i l l r e c e i v e c o m p e n s a t i o n o f $ 1 0 0 i n t h e f o r m o f a W a l m a r t g i f t c a r d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y I n a d d i t i o n y o u w i l l b e p r o v i d e d w i t h a s m a l l t o y a n d s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n s b o o k s a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s t u d y T h e $ 1 0 0 w i l l b e d i v i d e d u p i n t o $ 1 0 p e r w e e k i f y o u d e c i d e t o d e c l i n e p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s t u d y ( i e i f y o u p a r t i c i p a t e f o r 5 w e e k s y o u w i l l r e c e i v e a $ 5 0 g i f t c a r d ) W h a t P a r t i c i p a t i o n R e q u i r e s : I f y o u c o n s e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y y o u w i l l b e a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a 9 0 m i n u t e t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d b y t h e P r i m a r y I n v e s t i g a t o r a t a l o c a t i o n t h a t w i l l b e c o n v e n i e n t f o r y o u ( i e y o u r h o m e t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a ) Y o u w i l l b e a s k e d t o d o t h e e a r l y l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s f o r 1 5 2 0 m i n u t e s a d a y 3 d a y s a w e e k T h e i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d w i l l l a s t 9 w e e k s I n a d d i t i o n t o d o i n g t h e r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y w i t h y o u y o u r c h i l d w i l l e n g a g e i n b r i e f e a r l y l i t e r a c y s k i l l s a s s e s s m e n t s 2 t i m e s a w e e k f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 m o n t h s T h e s e t e s t s r e q u i r e t h a t y o u r c h i l d n a m e l e t t e r s a n d s a y t h e b e g i n n i n g s o u n d s o f w o r d s f o r t h e P r i m a r y I n v e s t i g a t o r f o r l e s s t h a n 5 m i n u t e s p e r s e s s i o n a n d w i l l t a k e p l a c e i n t h e H e a d S t a r t c l a s s r o o m d u r i n g r e g u l a r s c h o o l h o u r s P l e a s e N o t e : Y o u r d e c i s i o n t o a l l o w y o u r c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y m u s t b e c o m p l e t e l y v o l u n t a r y Y o u a r e f r e e t o a l l o w y o u r c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y o r t o w i t h d r a w h i m o r h e r a t a n y t i m e Y o u r d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e o r t o w i t h d r a w p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t a n y p o i n t d u r i n g t h e s t u d y w i l l i n n o w a y a f f e c t y o u r c h i l d s s t u d e n t s t a t u s h i s o r h e r g r a d e s o r y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h H e a d S t a r t U S F o r a n y o t h e r p a r t y C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f Y o u r C h i l d s R e s p o n s e s : T h e r e a r e n o k n o w n r i s k s t o y o u r c h i l d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s r e s e a r c h Y o u r c h i l d s p r i v a c y a n d r e s e a r c h r e c o r d s w i l l b e k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l t o t h e e x t e n t o f t h e l a w A u t h o r i z e d r e s e a r c h p e r s o n n e l e m p l o y e e s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h

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A ppe ndi x A : C ons e nt F or m 124 a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s t h e U S F I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e v i e w B o a r d a n d i t s s t a f f a n d o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i n g o n b e h a l f o f U S F m a y i n s p e c t t h e r e c o r d s f r o m t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t b u t y o u r c h i l d s i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s w i l l n o t b e s h a r e d w i t h s c h o o l s y s t e m p e r s o n n e l o r a n y o n e o t h e r t h a n u s Y o u r c h i l d s c o m p l e t e d a s s e s s m e n t s a n d r e c o r d i n g s w i l l b e a s s i g n e d a c o d e n u m b e r t o p r o t e c t t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f h i s o r h e r r e s p o n s e s O n l y w e w i l l h a v e a c c e s s t o t h e l o c k e d f i l e c a b i n e t k e p t b y t h e P r i m a r y I n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t w i l l c o n t a i n : 1 ) a l l r e c o r d s l i n k i n g c o d e n u m b e r s t o p a r t i c i p a n t s n a m e s a n d 2 ) a l l i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d f r o m a s s e s s m e n t s a n d s u r v e y s A l l r e c o r d s f r o m t h e s t u d y ( c o m p l e t e d s u r v e y s a s s e s s m e n t s r e c o r d i n g s ) w i l l b e d e s t r o y e d i n f o u r y e a r s W h a t W e l l D o W i t h Y o u r C h i l d s R e s p o n s e s : W e p l a n t o u s e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h i s s t u d y t o i n f o r m e d u c a t o r s a n d p s y c h o l o g i s t s a b o u t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e p a r e n t r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y o n c h i l d r e n s r e a d i n g s k i l l s T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y m a y b e p u b l i s h e d H o w e v e r t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m y o u r c h i l d w i l l b e c o m b i n e d w i t h d a t a f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n T h e p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s w i l l n o t i n c l u d e y o u r c h i l d s n a m e o r a n y o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u l d i n a n y w a y p e r s o n a l l y i d e n t i f y y o u r c h i l d Q u e s t i o n s ? I f y o u h a v e a n y q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y p l e a s e c o n t a c t A s h l e y S u n d m a n ( 4 0 7 ) 2 2 2 8 6 4 5 I f y o u h a v e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t y o u r c h i l d s r i g h t s a s a p e r s o n w h o i s t a k i n g p a r t i n a r e s e a r c h s t u d y y o u m a y c o n t a c t a m e m b e r o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h I n t e g r i t y a n d C o m p l i a n c e o f t h e U S F a t ( 8 1 3 ) 9 7 4 9 3 4 3 W a n t Y o u r C h i l d t o P a r t i c i p a t e ? T o p e r m i t y o u r c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y p l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e a t t a c h e d c o n s e n t f o r m S i n c e r e l y A s h l e y S u n d m a n M A D o c t o r a l S t u d e n t S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d S o c i a l F o u n d a t i o n s U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a C o n s e n t f o r C h i l d t o T a k e P a r t i n t h i s R e s e a r c h S t u d y I f r e e l y g i v e m y p e r m i s s i o n t o l e t m y c h i l d t a k e p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h i s i s r e s e a r c h I h a v e r e c e i v e d a c o p y o f t h i s l e t t e r a n d c o n s e n t f o r m f o r m y r e c o r d s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ P r i n t e d n a m e o f c h i l d D a t e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S i g n a t u r e o f p a r e n t P r i n t e d n a m e o f p a r e n t o f c h i l d t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e s t u d y S t a t e m e n t o f P e r s o n O b t a i n i n g I n f o r m e d C o n s e n t I c e r t i f y t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s h a v e b e e n p r o v i d e d w i t h a n i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t f o r m t h a t h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a s I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e v i e w B o a r d a n d t h a t e x p l a i n s t h e n a t u r e d e m a n d s r i s k s a n d b e n e f i t s i n v o l v e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y I f u r t h e r c e r t i f y t h a t a p h o n e n u m b e r h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d i n t h e e v e n t o f a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S i g n a t u r e o f p e r s o n P r i n t e d n a m e o f p e r s o n D a t e o b t a i n i n g c o n s e n t o b t a i n i n g c o n s e n t

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A ppe ndi x B : P a r e nt T r a i ni ng S e s s i on C he c kl i s t 125 P a r e n t T r a i n i n g P r o t o c o l M a t e r i a l s : T r a i n i n g M a n u a l C o m p l e t e d b i n d e r w i t h l e s s o n p l a n s f l a s h c a r d s p i c t u r e c a r d s e t c f o r p a r e n t P r i m a r y I n v e s t i g a t o r s M a n u a l E x t r a l e s s o n p l a n s D V D o r V H S t a p e o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n N o t e b o o k p a p e r O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n : T o l e a r n a b o u t t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e s t u d y a n d h o w t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l b e g a t h e r e d ( a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p r o b e s s e m i s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w e t c ) T o l e a r n h o w t o i m p l e m e n t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n T o w a t c h t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n m o d e l e d T o p r a c t i c e a n d r o l e p l a y t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n T o o b t a i n 8 5 % a c c u r a c y o n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d c o m p l e t i n g t h e l e s s o n p l a n s h e e t T o a n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d t h e s t u d y R e v i e w o f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o j e c t W h a t w e h o p e t o l e a r n f r o m t h e s t u d y : o R e a d i n g i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o a c h i l d s s u c c e s s a n d w e k n o w h o w i m p o r t a n t p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i s t o c h i l d s s u c c e s s B u i l d i n g b l o c k s f o r g o o d r e a d i n g s k i l l s b e g i n e a r l y b e f o r e e n t e r i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n W e a r e e x a m i n i n g a w a y t o u s e p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t t o i m p r o v e t h e s k i l l s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a c h i l d c a n s t a r t r e a d i n g o T h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l b e c o l l e c t e d f r o m s t u d e n t s m a y h e l p i n c r e a s e o u r a w a r e n e s s o f h o w p a r e n t s c a n h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n i m p r o v e t h e i r e a r l y r e a d i n g s k i l l s B e n e f i t s a n d P o t e n t i a l B e n e f i t s o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n o T h e p a r t s o f t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n h a v e b e e n p r o v e n e f f e c t i v e w h e n u s e d b y t e a c h e r s t o h e l p c h i l d r e n l e a r n t h e n a m e s o f t h e i r l e t t e r s a n d b e g i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e b u i l d i n g b l o c k s f o r e a r l y r e a d i n g o T h e s e b e n e f i t s m a y a l s o o c c u r w h e n p a r e n t s u s e t h e s e p r a c t i c e s o Y o u w i l l b e c o m p e n s a t e d $1 00 0 0 f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f a W a l M a r t g i f t c a r d a n d y o u r c h i l d c a n r e c e i v e a s m a l l g i f t ( u n d e r $ 6 o f y o u r c h o i c e Y o u w i l l a l s o r e c e i v e s o m e c h i l d r e n s b o o k s t h a t y o u c a n u s e t o r e a d t o y o u r c h i l d

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A ppe ndi x B : P a r e nt T r a i ni ng S e s s i on C he c kl i s t 126 I n f o r m e d C o n s e n t o A l l o w t i m e t o r e a d c o n s e n t o R e v i e w s a l i e n t p o i n t s o A n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n s R e v i e w o f P a r e n t I m p l e m e n t a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s D i s c u s s i o n o f e a c h c o m p o n e n t o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o Q u i e t a r e a f r e e f r o m d i s t r a c t i o n s ( T V p e o p l e m o v i n g i n a n d o u t ) o U s e o f A l p h a b e t F l a s h c a r d s R e c o r d i n g c o r r e c t a n d i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s o n l e s s o n p l a n o U s e o f L e t t e r n a m i n g s t r a t e g y w i t h p a i r e d i m a g e P a r e n t b e g i n s s e s s i o n G e t s a l l m a t e r i a l s p r e p a r e d ( p u l l s o u t f l a s h c a r d s f i n d s c o r r e c t l e s s o n i n b i n d e r ) F i l l s o u t t o p o f l e s s o n p l a n ( d a t e t i m e s t a r t e d n a m e s ) T e l l s c h i l d t o c o m e a n d s i t d o w n o S h o w s e a c h f l a s h c a r d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o c h i l d R e c o r d s c o r r e c t a n s w e r s w i t h a c h e c k a n d i n c o r r e c t a n s w e r s w i t h a n X o T e a c h e s n e w l e t t e r a s i n d i c a t e d o n l e s s o n p l a n W a l k t h r o u g h o f s t e p b y s t e p p r o c e d u r e a n s w e r i n g a n y q u e s t i o n s o R e v i e w o f L e t t e r s W a l k t h r o u g h o f s t e p b y s t e p p r o c e d u r e a n s w e r i n g a n y q u e s t i o n s o S o u n d P r a c t i c e W a l k t h r o u g h o f s t e p b y s t e p p r o c e d u r e a n s w e r i n g a n y q u e s t i o n s E m p h a s i z e t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t i s t h e s o u n d n o t t h e l e t t e r u s e d ( e g p h = / f / a n d f = / f / ) P I m o d e l s a t y p i c a l s e s s i o n u s i n g t h e a b o v e s t e p s o I n c l u d e s m o d e l i n g p r a i s e a n d s p e c i f i c f e e d b a c k P a r e n t R o l e P l a y P I p r o v i d e s p a r e n t w i t h f e e d b a c k Q u e s t i o n s a n s w e r e d P r o b l e m S o l v i n g o P l a n w h e n a n d w h e r e t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n w i l l t a k e p l a c e o P I m o d e l s t h e u s e o f t h e i n c l u d e d c a l e n d a r t o p l a n s e s s i o n s o B r a i n s t o r m b a r r i e r s a n d h o w t h e y m i g h t b e o v e r c o m e

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A ppe ndi x C S e ssi o n 4 127 L e ss o n Pl a n Par ent s N a m e: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ C hil ds N a m e: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ D at e: ___ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ B egi n T i m e: __ __ __ ___ __ __ E nd T i m e: __ __ __ __ __ __ L e tter C h ec k: A a _ F f _ K k _ P p _ U u _ Z z _ B b _ G g _ L l _ Q q _ V v _ ! C c _ H h _ M m _ R r _ W w _ ! D d _ I i _ N n _ S s _ X x _ ! E e _ J j _ O o _ T t _ Y y _ ! D o y ou h av e a m ark f or eac h l et t er ? Yes N o N ew L e tter f o r t o d ay: S s Sent enc e f or let t e r: E s c a lat o rs ar e m ov i ng s t airs T e ac h in g S s : ___ H old up t h e S s c ard an d, nex t t o it t he pic t ur e of an es c alat or. ___ Say : H e re a re t w o l et t ers an d he re is a p ic t u re. Ev ery t i m e y ou s e e t hes e let t ers and t h is pic t ur e y ou are t o s ay out lo ud, Es c alat or s are m ov i ng s t ai rs W hat a re y o u g oin g t o s ay w he n y o u s ee t h es e le t t ers and t his pic t ur e?" o D i d y ou r c hil d re pe at t he s ent enc e c orr ec t ly ? Ye s N o o D i d y ou pra is e y o ur c hil ds ef f ort s ? Ye s N o Say : T h e na m e of t his l et t er is in t he s ent e nc e. T he n a m e of t his let t er is S. W h at is t he na m e of t his l et t er? o D i d y ou r c hil d s ay t he n a m e of t he let t e r c orr ec t ly ? Ye s N o Say : Ok h ere is t h e pic t u re a nd h er e ar e t he let t e rs (poi nt t o eac h on e) Ev ery t im e y ou s e e t his pic t u re o r t hes e let t ers I w ant y o u t o s ay t he s e nt enc e Es c a lat o rs are m ov in g s t airs a nd S. D o t hat f or m e. o D i d y ou r c hil d s ay t he s e nt enc e a nd let t e r na m e c orrec t ly ? Ye s N o o D i d y ou pra is e y o ur c hil ds ef f ort s ? Ye s N o Say : N o w w e ar e go in g t o prac t ic e s o m e m or e. F i rs t I am g oin g t o s ay it w it h y ou t hen I w ant y o u t o do it a ll by y ou rs elf R e p ea t ea c h st e p u n ti l yo u r c h i l d h a s r es p o n d ed c o r r ec tl y ___ 1. H old up b ot h c ar ds a nd s ay t h e s ent e nc e a nd let t e r na m e w it h y o ur c hi ld ___ 2. H old up b ot h c ar ds a nd w his pe r t he w o rds w hile y our c h ild s ay s it (T ak e a wa y t h e p i ct u r e) ___ 3. H av e y o ur c hi ld w h is pe r t he s e nt enc e a nd s ay t he let t er na m e. ___ 4. H av e y o u c hil d s ay t he l et t er n a m e. o D i d y ou r c hil d c orr ec t ly c o m p let e a ll s t eps ? Ye s N o L e tter R evi e w T h e t hr ee l et t ers f ro m p r ev i ous s es s i ons s h oul d b e A a M m an d T t H old u p t he A a c ar d an d t he pic t ur e of an ele ph a nt As k y our c hil d, D o y o u re m e m b er t he s ay in g f or t his let t er ? Pl eas e t ell m e it and t he n a m e f or t his let t e r.

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A ppe ndi x C c ont i nue d S e ssi o n 4 128 o D i d y ou r c hil d re m e m b er t h e s ay in g A n a pe is bi g ? Ye s N o o D i d y ou r c hil d re m e m b er t h e let t er n a m e? o D i d y ou giv e p rais e or c o rrec t i on as ne ede d? Ye s N o Ye s N o H old u p t he M m c a rd a nd t h e pic t u re of a h ap py f ac e. As k y ou r c hil d, D o y ou re m e m b er t he s ay in g f or t his let t er ? Pl eas e t ell m e it and t he n a m e f or t his let t e r. o D i d y ou r c hil d re m e m b er t h e s ay in g I a m h ap py ? Ye s N o o D i d y ou r c hil d re m e m b er t h e let t er n a m e? o D i d y ou giv e p rais e or c o rrec t i on as ne ede d? Ye s N o Ye s N o H old u p t he T t c ard an d t he pic t ure of a T V. As k y our c hi ld, D o y ou r e m e m be r t he s ay ing f o r t his let t er ? Pl eas e t ell m e it a nd t h e na m e f or t his let t e r. o D i d y ou r c hil d re m e m b er t h e s ay in g W e lik e t o w a t c h T V. ? Ye s N o o D i d y ou r c hil d re m e m b er t h e let t er n a m e? o D i d y ou giv e p rais e or c o rrec t i on as n e ede d? Ye s N o Ye s N o S o u n d Pr a cti c e As k D o m at a nd m o u s e s t art w it h t he s a m e s o un d?(c orr ec t ans w er is Y ES ) o D i d y ou r c hil d s ay Y ES ? Ye s N o o D i d y o u p r o vi d e p r ai se o r c o r r ec ti o n as n e e d e d ? Ye s N o As k D o si t a nd t a n s t art w it h t he s a m e s o u n d? (c orrec t a ns w e r is N O) o D i d y ou r c hil d s ay N O ? Ye s N o o D i d y o u p r o vi d e p r ai se o r c o r r ec ti o n as n e e d e d ? Ye s N o As k D o d o g an d b at s t art w it h t h e s a m e s ou nd ? (c orr ec t ans w er is N O) o D i d y ou r c hil d s ay N O ? Ye s N o o D i d y o u p r o vi d e p r ai se o r c o r r ec ti o n as n e e d e d ? Ye s N o As k D o a p p l e an d ac t s t art w it h t he s a m e s ou nd ?(c o rrec t a ns w e r is YE S) o D i d y ou r c hil d s ay Y ES ? Ye s N o o D i d y o u p r o vi d e p r ai se o r c o r r ec ti o n as n e e d e d ? Ye s N o As k D o e ye a nd r ea d s t art w it h t he s a m e s o un d? (c orrec t a ns w e r is N O) o D i d y ou r c hil d s ay N O ? Ye s N o o D i d y o u p r o vi d e p r ai se o r c o r r ec ti o n as n e e d e d ? Ye s N o H o w d o y o u t h i n k t h e se ssi o n w as ? 1 2 3 4 5 Ba d OK Great W h y ? A n y c o n c er n s o r p r o b l e m s ? I f t he r e a r e a ny que s t i ons pl e a s e c ont a c t A s hl e y a t 407 222 8645 or a t a s undm a n@ m a i l us f e du

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A ppe ndi x D 129 I nt e r ve nt i on R a t i ng P r of i l e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r ee D i s a g r ee S l i g h t l y D i s a g r ee S l i g h t l y A g r ee A g r ee S t r o n g l y A g r ee 1 T h i s w as an ac cep t ab l e i n t erv en t i o n fo r my ch i l d s k i n d erg art en r ead i n es s 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 Mo s t p aren t s w o u l d fi n d t h i s i n t erv en t i o n ap p ro p ri at e fo r i n cr eas i n g t h ei r ch i l d s earl y read i n g s k i l l s 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 T h i s i n t erv en t i o n d i d p ro v e ef fect i v e i n i n creas i n g my ch i l d s e arl y r ead i n g s k i l l s 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 I w o u l d s u g g es t t h e u s e o f t h i s i n t erv en t i o n t o o t h er p aren t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 My ch i l d s earl y read i n g s k i l l s w er e b eh i n d en o u g h t o w arr an t u s e o f t h i s i n t erv en t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 Mo s t p ar en t s w o u l d fi n d t h i s i n t erv en t i o n u s efu l fo r h el p i n g ch i l d ren w i t h t h ei r ea rl y re ad i n g s k i l l s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T h i s i n t erv en t i o n d i d n o t r es u l t i n n eg at i v e s i d e effe ct s fo r my ch i l d 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 T h i s i n t erv en t i o n w o u l d b e ap p ro p ri at e fo r a v ari et y o f ch i l d ren 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 T h i s i n t erv en t i o n w as a f ai r w ay t o i n cre as e my ch i l d s earl y l i t era cy s k i l l s 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 0 T h i s i n t erv en t i o n w as re as o n ab l e fo r i n cr eas i n g my ch i l d s earl y l i t era cy s k i l l s 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 I l i k ed t h e p ro ced u r es u s ed i n t h i s i n t erv en t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 T h i s i n t erv en t i o n w as a g o o d w ay t o h an d l e my ch i l d s earl y l i t era cy co n cern s 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 3 O v eral l t h i s i n t erv en t i o n w as b en e fi ci al t o my ch i l d 1 2 3 4 5 6

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A ppe nd i x E 130 S e m i S t r uc t u r e d I nt e r v i e w Q ue s t i ons : T he i nt e r vi e w e e w i l l be t ha nke d f or t he i r pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy a nd f o r t a ki ng t i m e t o c om pl e t e t hi s i nt e r vi e w T he y w i l l a l s o be i nf or m e d t ha t t he pu r pos e of t hi s i nt e r vi e w i s t o ga t he r m o r e i nf o r m a t i on a bout t he i r t hought s on t he i nt e r ve nt i on a nd how i t c oul d be i m pr ove d. T he i nt e r vi e w e e w i l l a l s o be i nf or m e d t ha t t he y w i l l not be i de nt i f i e d i n a ny w a y, a nd i f t he y p r e f e r a n a l t e r na t e na m e c a n be u s e d t hr oughout t he i nt e r vi e w r e c or di ngs 1. W ha t a r e your t hought s on t he e a r l y r e a di ng s ki l l s pr ogr a m ? 2. W ha t w a s your c hi l d s r e a c t i on t o t he e a r l y r e a di n g s ki l l s pr ogr a m ? 3. W ha t w e r e s om e of t he t hi ngs you f ound he l p f ul i n c om pl e t i ng t he l e s s ons ? 4. W ha t w e r e s om e of t he t hi ngs you f ound he l p f ul d ur i ng t he t r a i ni ng? 5. W ha t w e r e s om e of t he ba r r i e r s you f ound i n t r yi n g t o c a r r y out t he l e s s ons ? 6. W ha t c oul d ha ve be e n done t o l e s s e n t he s e ba r r i e r s ? 7. W ha t c oul d be i m p r ove d t o m a ke c a r r yi ng out t he i nt e r ve nt i on e a s i e r or m or e f un? 8. W ha t w oul d you c ha nge a bout t he e a r l y r e a di ng s k i l l s pr ogr a m ? 9. W oul d you us e pr og r a m a ga i n w i t h a not he r c hi l d or s ugge s t i t t o a f r i e nd o r r e l a t i ve ? W hy or w hy not ? T ha nk you f o r you r t i m e T he i nt e r vi e w e e w i l l r e c e i ve t he gi f t c a r d t oy ( s ) a nd c hi l dr e n s books a t t he e nd o f t he i nt e r vi e w

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A ppe ndi x F F i gur e 1 131 F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y A c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt s F i r s t S ounds P e r M i nut e D a y i n S t udy C hi l d 1 R a c he l C hi l d 2 W e s l e y C hi l d 3 J e nni f e r

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A ppe ndi x F F i gur e 1 c ont i nue d 132 F i r s t S ound F l ue nc y A c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt s D a y i n S t udy F i r s t S ounds P e r M i nut e C hi l d 4 T a nne r C hi l d 5 M e l a ni e C hi l d 3 B r e nna

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A ppe ndi x G F i gu r e 2 133 L e t t e r K now l e dge P e r f or m a nc e A c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt s C hi l d 1 R a c he l C hi l d 2 W e s l e y C hi l d 3 J e nni f e r L e t t e r s N a m e d P e r M i nut e D a y i n S t udy

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A ppe ndi x G F i gu r e 2 c ont i nue d 134 L e t t e r K now l e dge P e r f or m a nc e A c r os s P a r t i c i pa nt s C hi l d 4 T a nne r C hi l d 5 M e l a ni e C hi l d 3 B r e nna D a y i n S t udy L e t t e r s N a m e d P e r M i nut e


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Sundman, Ashley N.
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Developing pre-literacy skills in preschool children :
b the utilization of parents as a vital resource
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by Ashley N. Sundman.
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[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
2009.
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Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2009.
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Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of a parent-implemented intervention on preschool children's development of letter-naming and phonological awareness skills. Six parent-child dyads with children enrolled in a Head Start Program in West Central Florida were selected to participate in the study. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the impact of an intervention package that included activities focusing on: (1) using mnemonics to learn letter names and (2) developing phonological awareness of the onsets of words through parent questioning and feedback. Phonological awareness development was measured using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills First Sound Fluency (DIBELS-FSF) and letter-naming ability was measured using the DIBELS Letter Knowledge (DIBELS-LK) probes. Results showed that five of the six students responded favorably to the intervention, increasing their growth rate on at least one of the two measures. The final child showed little change in trends across the phases. Additionally, data was collected regarding intervention integrity of intervention implementation as well as social validity, or the acceptance and usefulness, of the intervention. Intervention integrity data revealed that the majority of parents completed the intervention with high levels of fidelity, although variability across parents was noted. Social validity data indicated that the parents found the program helpful and effective. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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Advisor: Kathy L. Bradley-Klug, Ph.D.
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Early literacy
Caregiver-led intervention
Treatment integrity
Head Start
Parental involvement
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