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Empowered for practice :
b the relationship among perceived autonomy support, competence, and task persistence of undergraduate applied music students
h [electronic resource] /
by Julie Troum.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
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Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Includes bibliographical references.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among undergraduate applied music students' perceptions of autonomy support, competence, and task persistence. One assumption of self-determination theory was that competence would increase when social environment supported self-organization. A motivational-cognitive framework designed to promote sustained motivation in undergraduate applied music students was proposed. Three self-report scales administered in the form of a web survey were completed by undergraduate applied music students (N = 366) at six Florida universities. The scales were designed to measure perceived autonomy support, perceived competence, and perceived persistence in practice in the applied music studio setting. Internal consistency reliability estimates as measured by Cronbach's alpha were high for all three measures: perceived competence (α = .89), perceived autonomy support (α = 92), and perceived task persistence of musical practice (α = .87). All three constructs-perceived competence, perceived autonomy support, and perceived task persistence showed a significant positive correlation with each other. The use of perceived competence as a mediating variable in a hypothesized path model helps to illuminate the nature of the relationships among the three constructs. In the path analysis model, perceived autonomy support was found to have a significant direct effect on perceived task persistence. Thus, students who perceived that they had strong autonomy support in the applied studio setting were more likely to perceive themselves as more highly task persistent than students who perceived that they had less autonomy support. Also, in the path model, student perceived competence was found to moderately mediate the effect of their perceived autonomy support on perceived task persistence. Thus, in the investigation of the relationship between perceived autonomy support and task persistence, the path analysis also revealed that something in addition to perceived autonomy support, namely perceived competence, served to explain the relationship between perceptions of autonomy support and task persistence. It is hoped that this study may promote further understanding of the optimal conditions in higher education for the persistence of practice for applied music study.
Advisor: C. Victor Fung, Ph.D.
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Empowered for Practice : The Relationship Among Perceived Autonomy Support Competence and Task Persistence of Undergraduate Applied Music Stud ents by Julie F. Troum A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the de gree of Doctor of Philosophy School of Music College of T he Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: C. Victor Fung Ph.D. Constance V. Hines, Ph.D. Janet L.S. Moore, Ed .D. David A. Williams, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 9 20 10 Keywords: music education, motivation, music al practic e self regulation social context Copyright 20 10 Julie F. Troum
Dedicati on vii). This paper is d edicated to those applied studio teachers who acknowledge that satisfying practice is that which the student deems purposeful.
A cknowledgments I would first like to acknowledge the panel of experts who reviewed the research instruments and theoretical f oundation of this paper: Nadine Asin, Anja Grube Wax, James Kuczero Laszlo Marosi, Gary McPherson, Kristen Stoner, David Richard, and Ma a rt e n Vansteenkiste Secondly, I would like to thank Professor Kim McCormick at the University of South Florida for her insightful discourse in the area of app lied studio pedagogy Mihal y Csikszentmihalyi for meeting with me to discuss the principles of his flow theory and, Ed Deci for meeting with me to discuss the principles of his self determination theory I would als o like to recognize N ei l Gomes for his assistance with the web survey instrument software Finally, I would lik e to thank my husband, Mark and children, David and Jenna for taking good care of me during the dissertation process
i T able of Contents Lis t of Tables i v List of Figures v i Abstract v ii Chapter One: Introduction 1 Social Interaction in the Applied Studio Setting 2 Role of Intrinsic Motivation on Achievement 3 Autonomy Support 4 Autonomy Supportive versus Controlled Contexts 6 Musical Practice 6 Goal Setting 8 Facilitating Motivation Through Competence 10 Persistence in Practice 1 1 Self Regulated Deliberate Flow Model (SRDF) 1 3 Conceptual Framework 1 6 Statement of the Problem 20 Rationale of the Study 2 1 Purpose of the Study 2 2 Research Question s 2 3 Definition of Terms 2 4 Supporting Theories of SRDF 2 4 Main Constructs Measured in this Study 2 5 Delimitations 2 5 Chapter Two: Literature Review 2 7 Perceived Competence 2 8 Self Efficacy Theory 2 8 Social Contextual Influence s on Motivation 3 2 Autonomy Supportive Contexts 3 5 Controlling Contexts 3 7 Experiential Learning: Fostering an Environment for Engagement 3 9 The Humanistic View of Education 41 Self Regulated Learning (SRL) 4 3
ii Fostering Self Regulated Learning (SRL) with Teacher Provided Structure 4 6 Goal Setting 50 Acquisition of Expert Performance 5 5 Deliberate Practice 5 8 Concentrate on Explicit and Relevant Goals 5 8 Relevant Feedback 5 9 Extended Practice 60 Summary 60 Chapter Three: Method 6 3 Overview 6 3 Design 6 3 Participants 6 4 Measures 6 4 Demographic Data Form 6 5 Self Report Scales 6 5 Perceived Autonomy Support (LCQ Short Form) 6 5 Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP) 6 6 Perceived Competence (PC S ) 6 7 Content Validation of Instr uments 6 8 Pilot Study 6 9 Perceived Competence for Learning Scale (PCS) 6 9 Perceived Autonomy Support Scale (LCQ Short Form) 70 Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice Scale (TPMMP) 71 Means, Standard Deviati ons, Kurtosis, and Skewness 7 2 Data Collection Procedures 7 3 Data Analysis Procedures 7 5 Chapter Four: Results 7 8 Response Rate s 7 8 Description of Respondents 80 Factor Analysis of TPMMP 81 Internal Consistency of Measur es 8 3 Perceived Competence f or Learning Scale (PCS) 8 3 Perceived Autonomy Support Scale (LCQ Short Form) 8 4 Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice Scale (TPMMP) 8 5 Means, Standard Deviations, Kurtosis, and Skewness 8 6 Task Persistence 8 7 Perceived Competence and Perceived Autonomy Support 8 7 Question 1 8 7 Question 2 8 8 Question 3 91
iii Summary 91 Chapter Five: Summary, Discussion and Recommendations 9 3 Summary 9 3 Discussion 9 4 Implications of the Study 9 6 Recommendations to Applied Studio Teachers 9 6 Recommendatio ns to Applied Music Students 9 8 Recommendations to Music Educators 9 9 Recommendations for Further Research 100 References 10 3 Appendices 1 20 Appendix A: Electronic Consent Form 1 21 Appendix B: Demographics Questionnaire 1 22 Appendix C: Perceived Autonomy Support Scale Questionnaire 1 2 3 Appendix D: Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice Scale 1 2 4 Appendix E: Perceived Competence Scale Questionnaire 1 2 5 About the Author End Page
iv L ist of Tables Table 1 Item Total and Inter Item Correlation Matrix for Perceived 70 Competence for Learning Scale (PCS) Table 2 Item Total and Inter Item Correlation Matrix for Perceived 71 Autonomy Support Scale (LCQ) Table 3 Item Total and Inter Item Corr elation Matrix for Task 7 2 Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP) Table 4 Item Means, SD, Kurtosis, Skewness on PC, PA, and TP 7 3 Table 5 Survey Response Rate by Institution 7 9 Table 6 Selected Characteristics of Respondent Sample 80 Table 7 Factor Loadings for Task Persistence Measure of Music al 8 2 Practice (TPMMP) Table 8 Item Total and Inter Item Correlation Matrix for Perceived 8 4 Competence Scale (PCS) Table 9 Item Total and Inter Item Correlation Matrix for Perceive d 8 5 Autonomy Support Scale (LCQ) Table 1 0 Item Total and Inter Item Correlation Matrix for Task 8 6 Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP) Table 1 1 Item Means, SD, Kurtosis, and Skewness on PC, PA, and TP 8 7
v Table 1 2 Correlations among P erceived Competence Autonomy 8 8 Support, and Task Persistence Table 1 3 Decomposition of Zero Order Correlations in Path Analyses 90
vi L ist of Figures Figure 1 Supporting Theories in the Researcher Designed Active A gency 1 5 Model of Self Regulated Deliberate Flow (SRDF) Figure 2 Model of Self Regulated Deliberate Flow (SRDF) 1 6 Figure 3 Lewin Research Spiral (1948) 1 9 Figure 4 Hypothesized Path Model 2 3 Figure 5 Behavioral Outcomes of an Autonomy Supportive Context 3 6 Figure 6 Behavioral Outcomes of a Controlling Context 3 8 Figure 7 Sample Learning Contract of Proximal Subgoals for Applied Flute 5 3 Figure 8. Hypothesized Path Model with Path Coefficients 7 6 Figure 9 Scree Plo t of Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP) 81 Figure 10 Path Diagram of PA, PC and TP 8 9
vii Empowered for Practice: The R elationship Among Perceived Autonomy Support Competence and Task Persistence of Undergraduate Applied M usic Stud ents Julie F. Troum ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship s among undergraduate applied music student perceptions of autonomy support, competence and task persistence One assumption of self determination theor y wa s that competence would increase when the social environment support ed self organiz ation A motivational cognitive framework designed to promote sustained motivation in undergraduate applied music students wa s proposed. Three self report scales admini stered in the form of a web survey, were completed by undergraduate applied music students ( N = 366 ) at six Florida universities. The scales were designed to measure perceived autonomy support, perceived c ompetence and perceived persistence in practice in the applied music studio setting Internal consistency reliability estimates as measure d by Cronbach a lpha were high for all three measures: perceived competence ( = .89 ) perceived autonomy support ( = 92 ) and perceived task persistence of musical p ractice ( = .87 ) All three constructs perceived competence, perceived autonomy support, and perceived task persistence showed a significant positive correlation with each other. The use of perceived competence as a mediating variable in a hypothesized p ath model helps to illuminate the nature of the relationships among the three constructs. In
viii the path analysis model, perceived autonomy support was found to have a significant direct effect on perceived task persistence. Thus, students who perceived that they had strong autonomy support in the applied studio setting we re more likely to perceive themselves as more highly task persistent than students who perceived that they had less autonomy support. Also, in the path model, student perceived competence was found to moderately mediate the effect of their perceived autonomy support on perceived task persistence. Thus, in the investigation of the relationship between perceived autonomy support and task persistence, the path analysis also revealed that somethin g in addition to perceived autonomy support, namely perceived competence, served to explain the relationship between perceptions of autonom y support and task persistence. It is hoped that this study may promote further understanding of the optimal conditi ons in higher education for the persistence of practice for applied music study
1 C hapter 1 Introduction It is common for an undergraduate applied music student to have one applied studio teacher during the study of his or her principal instrument. T he applied studio teacher is responsible for developing a pedagogical approach to convey both the physical and mental aspects of musical performance within this one on one social contextual setting (Beheshti, 2009). Evidence suggests that s perceptions of the social context for learning are h ighly correlated with their lear ning behaviors (Ames, 1992; Maehr & Midgley, 1996; Stipek & Gralinski, 1996; Turner, et al., 200 2). It is important to examine this social interaction in the applied studio setting the role of intrinsic motivation on achievement, autonomy support and its contrary (controlled context), musical practice, goal setting, persistence in practice, and a model in self regulated deliberate flow in order to empower undergraduate applied musi c students to practice. B ehavioral aspects of the applied studio dyad are being sought to further examine the nature of the student teacher relationship. S tudent and teacher perceptions a re in great demand to further understand the applied studio setting from a behavioral perspective (Parkes, 2009) A new strand of the International Society of Music Education (ISME), The Forum for Instrumental and Vocal Teaching, was created to benefit the applied studio teacher in the areas of pedagog ical methods motiv ation, and interpersonal relationships between teacher and student. Columbia University, New York recently
2 launched an online publication for teachers, researchers, performers and composers called Musical Perspectives McPherson and Zimmerman (in press) w rote on the self regulative processes of teaching and music learning. The teacher learning behaviors (Ames, 1992). Student engagement is dependent on the style of interaction that is chosen b y the teacher It is therefore an important function of the teacher to design a type of learning environment and instructional activities that equip students with the ability to maintain relationships and create quality interactions that develop climates o f positive socio emotional support (Paris & Paris, 2001). Social Interaction in the Applied Studio Setting Musical motivation and the perceived competence of the musician are cultivated from the social interactions that occur in the learning environment of the applied studio setting Once these are internalized, they may have a continued impact on motivation, affecting commitment towards practice, and ultimately, level of expertise (Hallam, 2002). Examining the interactions that take place between the appli ed studio teacher and students in the applied studio setting and their relationship to individual competence and persistence in practice in the study of applied music is of critical importance for instructional purposes. Motivation is a key topic in educa tional psychology, having to do with the choice, intensity, and persistence to pursue a given learning activity (Maehr, Pintrich, & Linnenbrink, 2002). Hallam (2002) reviewed theories of motivation and then applied them towards the development of musical e xpertise. Her article, Musical Motivation:
3 Towards a Model Synthesizing the Research identified the social interactions between the individual and the environment that determine motivation. Hallam theorized that motivation in musical pursuits, musical mo tivation, is directly connected with the perception of their musical ability and prior learning experiences. Hallam recommended that further investigation was needed to determine how to sustain musical motivation and productive practice due to the level of commitment needed for a performing career. Furthermore, Maehr and o thers (2002) suggested that there was a need for a synthesized framework that incorporated motivational cognitive principles to facilitate motivation improv ing musical inst ruction. This research er directly respond ed to Hallam (2002) and Maehr and o thers (2002) by (a) integrating six educational learning theories and develop ed a model of self directed learning, entitled, Self Regulated Deliberate Flow (SRDF) which is pres ented later in this chapter and ( b ) describing a pedagogical approach for sustaining musical motivation during practice to be presented later in this chapter as well. T h e rest of this chapter present s certain factors educational psychologists believe d to have an impact on learning behaviors in an interpersonal context, and, what applied studio teachers and students can contribute towards motivating optimal practice Role of Intrinsic Motivation on Achievement The choice of learners to engage in academic t asks as well as their effort and persistence in academic tasks ha s b een directly related to their level of intrinsic motivation ( Young, 2005 ). Motivation that is intrinsic in value is that which is inherently rewarding to the individual. Factors that con tribute to intrinsic motivation are considered
4 achievement (Hallam, 2002; McPherson & Zimmerman, 2002; Schmidt, 2007). S elf determination theor ists hypothesiz ed that the social environment and classroom practices that define the interpersonal learning climate between teacher and student will affect individual motivation, development and performance. Furthermore a learning climate that promotes and supports individual co mpetence and autonomy in particular may facilitate enjoyment, intrinsic motivation and intentional action (Ryan, Kuhl, & Deci, 1997) Autonomy Support A learning clim ate that s upport s competence must also contain autonomy support to influence individua l persistence (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier & Ryan, 1991) According to self determination theory (SDT), motivation arises from an autonomy supportive environment in wh ich the instructor provides learner s with (1) positive feedback (2) rationale (3) choic e, (4) acknowledgement of the ir perspective and initiative, and (5) confidence in the ir ability (Gagne, 2003) One proposition of self determination theory (SDT) is that social contexts that support the basic needs of competence, and autonomy facilitate motivation and performance whereas social contexts that do not may lead to alienation with the instructor and diminished performance (Deci et al. 1991). In an autonomous supportive learning c ontext instructors provide opportunities for choice and studen t directed learning activities ( Deci, Eghrari, Patrick, & Leone, 1994 ). Students are fully involved in planning and choosing which tasks and which skills they will emphasize. Giving students
5 these personal choices have been found to be a strong motivationa l technique (Nolen & Nicholls, 1994). Students have shown a significant increase in engagement in learning when they assume responsibility and therefore, control over the process or product (Teel, Debruin Parecki, & Covington, 1998). Dewey (1935) stated, A significant step toward establishing what areas will be addressed during practice may be to consult the student as to his/her purpose, aims, interest a nd motivation for musica l study Students tend to accept intrinsic goals more readily in an autonomy supportive learning c ontext signifying that active involvement positively promotes intrinsic goals and a deep processing of content ( Vansteenkiste, et al., 2004 ). Furthermore, wh en students choose their own learning materials, they are more engaged, enabled (Roe, 1997) and produce more effort and persistence in using the applicable skills that improve expertise (Guthrie & Davi s 2003). Providing autonomy support in the applied st udio setting refer s to the freedom a n applied studio teacher allows the undergraduate music major to exercise control and make personal decisions regarding the goal setting of his/her music study. Once students recognized their personal role in the learnin g process, they can begin to set their own individualized goals (McCombs & Marzano, 1990). Developing musicians, such as undergraduate music majors, often need the persistence and perceived self competence to accomplish their immediate learning goals; howe ver, without an autonomous supportive environment they may be less likely to sustain the musical motivation to pursue defined goals and strategies (Sandene, 1997)
6 Autonomy Supportive vs. Controlled Contexts S elf determination theorists have identified t wo contrasting learning climates called contexts, in which individuals function : autonomy supportive and controlled. An autonomy supportive learning c ontext is one that endorses choice, is informational, encourages independent study and problem solving, and welcom es student perspective (Trouilloud, Sarrazin, Bressoux & Bois, 2006) In contrast, a controlled learning context is typified by compliance, high pressure, inflexibility, deadlines, and l ack of response to student perspective. Deci and Ryan (2008) em phasized that an interpersonal climate that is supportive and informational may positively affect intrinsic motivation rather than one that is controlling. A body of motivational research conducted with in the perspective of SDT found that controlled learni ng c ontexts reduce autonomy, decrease intrinsic motivation, and lead to alienation and poor performance (Deci et al., 1991). Lehmann, Sloboda, and Woody (2007 ) inferred that intrinsic motivation for musical study was reinforced in an environment that was perceived as allowing personal autonomy rather T here is a need to examine SDT as to whether a learning climate that is high in autonomy support is associated with a greater level of competence and persistence during an undergr aduate course in applied music study. Musical Practice U ndergraduate music majors accomplish much of their progress on an independent basis from the inside of a practice room. The pursuit of practice is a solitary activity which is performed voluntarily t o promote skill development. Jorgensen (2007) not ed
7 A significant concern based upon this observation, is whether ap plied music students in higher education are adequately prepared to initiate independent and responsible practice (Jorgensen, 2000) The applied studio teacher often makes an assumption that the student will demonstrate improvement at the next lesson thr ough practice (Kostka, 2002) Musical practice occurs in an uncontrolled solitary environment without the presence of a coach as provided in sports training (Lehmann, 1997). Chua and Koestner (2008) studied solitary behavior based on autonomous motivation. They found that if solitary activities are autonomous, they are self endorsed, producing positive outcomes. T he musician must be self determined to initiate practice by choice. Developing musicians must view the task of practice as personally relevant b efore willingly committing themselves to the amount of persistence that is needed to heighten associated with practice w ould ultimately influence how much time and eff ort they are willing to apply (Good, 1983). Presenting tasks in a way that learners identify as personally relevant to their progress may lead to more dedication and engagement in the activities involved in practice. Past field experiments showed that intr insic goal framing increased engagement and persistence at learning activities ( Vansteenkiste et al., 2006 ). Therefore, the i ndividual motives of students should be addressed when set ting the goals to meet their intrinsic needs (Ames & Ames, 1984 ; Caraway, Tucker, Reinke, & Hall, 2003; Deci et al. 1994; Dweck, 1986 ; Elliot, 1999; Hsieh, Sullivan & Guerra, 2007; Schunk, 1989).
8 Goal Setting Hallam (2002) posited that motivation to pursue musical activities was largely influenced by the self concept and goals present in the immediate environment. Although persistence in the musician is generally affected by the individual perception of ability and the expectancy for success, g oal setting establish es priorities needed for learning acquisition to take place Go al setting requires that the student has a clear understanding of the learning required and a vested interest in the outcome of the learning (Paris, Brynes, & Paris, 2001). Woody (2001) suggested that teachers c ould contribute to efficient musical practice by presenting structure and goal setting with a purpose. When student s are enlisted to self set their goals, they may be more personally committed in the required tasks (Bandura, 1997; Bandura & Journden, 1991). According to SDT personal goal setting ma y contribute to the personal well being of the student because it provides direct satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: competence, relatedness, and autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000) Abraham humanistic goal for education is congruent with SDT in terms of self fulfillment at the highest level of proposed hierarchy of needs ( Maslow, 1943; Maslow, 1968). Maslow (1970) described the characteristics of a pe ak experience effortless feeling of elation, intrinsic value, self validation, self justification, and a loss of time and space. C sikszentmihalyi (1990) posited that individual s enter a bec oming intrinsically motivated when their personal s kills are used to the utmost when accompanied by informed and immediate feedback (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990 1996)
9 When both intrinsic goals and autonomy support are present in the learning process, the these basic human needs are met, student persistence, performance and learning are facilitated, having a positive effect on the growth and well being of the individual (Ryan et al., 1997). Goal pursuits in academic settings, with in SDT, are primarily co ncerned with intrinsic and extrinsic motives. These motives determine d engagement and persistence (Vansteenkiste et al. 2006). Intrinsic motives are more internalized and inherently rewarding, whereas extrinsic motives are poorly i nternalized during engagement as they are controlled by reward (Guthrie & Davis, 2003). Extrinsic goals are those which are dependent on approval (Kernis, 2003). They were found to be associated with controlled (enforced) motives ( Sheldon & Kasser 1995). Goal orientation is defined as the motives or reasons students have for engaging in academic tasks (Ames, 1992; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Dweck, 1986; Hsieh et al. 2007). Studies suggested that conscious planning, such as goal directed activities that a re relev ant to the learner, must be internalized to reach an awareness of self in order to self direct the practice session (McCombs & Marzano, 1990). The established goals (goal content) should be connected to the intrinsic interest of the musician to influence h is or her continued persistence (Zimmerman, 1998). The intrinsic goal orientation of novice s from which they derived personal fulfillment in the performance task, may have the most significant impact on individual pursuit and commitment (Csikszentmihaly i, 1990). Internalization, under SDT, is a socialization process during which the learner adopts a new behavior based on the beliefs of the instructor or others. The degree to
10 which a learner internalizes a new behavior is dependent upon the instructor fa cilitation of competence, autonomy and relatedness -the tenets of SDT (Vansteenkiste et al., 200 6). The educator must provide meaningful rationale for spe cific goals before student s will internalize the activity as their own without pressure or coercion to respect the students right to choose (Deci et al., 1994). Deci and others ( 1994 ) suggest ed three separate steps behaver s perspective, and (c) conveying choice rather t (p. 124). Learning climates that incorporate internalization under SDT enlist researchers to explore autonomy supportive social contexts for learning (Deci et al., 1994). Applied music student s who self select to practice long hours in the pr actice room on the assigned lesson materials are regulating their behavior through identification. According to SDT, i dentification is the process of associating oneself with the value of a given activity and choosing to engage in the activity willingly wi th volition based upon its personal relevance. During this process, that is extrinsic in nature, the individual internalizes the importance of a particular activity and, subsequently chooses to engage in a particular behavior (Bla ck & Deci, 2000; Vansteenk iste et al., 2004). Facilitating Motivation Through Competence Studies conduct ed in educational psychology foun d that learners who intentionally direct, regulate and monitor their actions c ould effectively increase their expertise if they have a perceive d sense of competence (Maehr et al. 2002). Students have a need for competence to facilitate motivation, called competence motivation. It is
11 necessary for the instructor to support the learners need for competence to help them to feel effective when they interact in the learning environment ( Deci and Ryan 2008) Conroy, Elliot, and Coatsworth (2007) viewed the pursuit of competence as essential towards the improvement of skill or acquiring new skills in sports and exercise environments. Conroy and other s (2007) made three recommendations to increase perceived competence in sports: (a) offer opportunities to gain a sense of competence, (b) pay attention to how athletes evaluate their competence, and (c) consider how the sport or exercise setting is struct ured to emphasize effort. Persistence in Practice A ccording to expert performance research (EPR) improvement wa s achieved through extensive practice and m usical skill wa s directly correlated with the amount of musical practice during the lifetime of the musician (Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996 ; Hallam, 2002 ). Although p ersistence was measured under EPR, by the accumulation of practice a higher level of musical expertise was only obtained from sustained deliberate practice, during which musicians focus ed on s pecific goals with immediate feedback and repetition ( Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch Rmer, 1993 ; Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996 ) According to flow theory (FT) persistence is cultivated from the enjoyment experienced from the following elements: ( a ) clarity of goa ls that are designed for the activities, ( b ) immediate feedback to confirm the technique, ( c ) skills that are matched to the work /challenge ( d ) awareness and intense concentration on the selected activities at hand, ( e ) a lack of distraction and thoughts of failure ( f ) lack of self consciousness, ( g ) unaware of time passage, and ( h ) a self satisfying purpose for the activities is evident.
12 In order to sustain the amount of motivation deemed necessary for t he quantity of effortful practice during delibera te practice, self satisfaction from purposeful activities was a requisite according to the flow theory Measuring persistence in musical practice by those factors that contribute to sustained and engaging practice as delineated in the deliberate practice a pproach and the flow theory may develop further understanding on how to prepare students in advance of the practice session to promote quantity of practice The quantity of practice, effort and persistence were related to self efficacy. Without strong sel f efficacy, the learner c ould not demonstrate the necessary performance skills (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996). Higher self efficacy would lead to persistence thus fulfilling identified goals (Bandura, 1997; Pajares, 2003). The individual measure of self efficac y, called efficacy expectation, directly affected task performance in sports as well as in music ( Relich, Debus, & Walker, 1986 ; Schunk & Gunn, 1986). Efficacy expectation influenced what activities an individual pursue d and the level of persistence that t he individual applied toward the achievement of a task (Gould, Weiss, & Weinberg, 1981). Once learner s made the conscious choice to intentionally direct and monitor their own actions to increase their expertise, they were identified as self regulated learn ers. directed and self essential to effective practice (Chaffin & Lemieux, 2004, p.31). Self regulation theory posit ed that students who self regulate applied goal directed activities in the learning process (Doring, Bin g ham, & Bramwell Vial, 1997). The extent to which individual s
13 engaged in goal oriented behavior was a measure of their ability to self regulate ( Mc Combs & Marzano 1990). Self Regulated Deliberate Flow Model (SRDF) Based o n the findings of Maehr and others (2002), one important way applied studio teachers can contribute towards motivation in undergraduate applied mus ic students is by establishing a systematic structure and social climate for self directed independent practi ce so that l earners can direct, regulate and monitor the practice session The applied studio teacher can assist in planning for goal directed activities by developing an organizational framework for the practice session (Miksza, 2007) Cognitive t asks a nd strategies should be selected that are consistent with the intrinsic goals of the student to contribute toward adequate persistence of practice as t he individual continually screens an activity for relevance and risk to preserve intrinsic goals (McCombs & Marzano, 1990). Those tasks and strategies which conflict with the intrinsic goals may be rejected by the student as i rrelevant. Grounding research in instructional, psychological and motivational theories with respect to musical study may strengthen t he pedagogical approaches of the applied studio teache r Learning theories that apply to musical learning behavior can be constructed from outside of the field of music (Lehmann & Davidson, 2002; Taetle & Cutietta, 2002). This researcher has identified s ix existing cognitive and motivational learning theor ies that support a self regulating, autonomous supportive, goal directed study for undergraduate music major s: Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) (Sweller, 1988) Deliberate Practice (DP) (Ericsson et al., 1993) Flow State (F S ) (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990 1996 )
14 Goal Theory (GT) ( Mento, Steel, & Karren, 1987 ) Self Efficacy Theory (SET) (Bandura, 1986) and Self Regulated L earning Theory (SRL) (Winne, 1995 1996) Figure 1 re presents a researcher designed sequentia l model derived from the key aspects of each of these learning theo ries entitled, S elf R egulated D eliberate F low ( SRDF). The SRDF is a step by step cognitive process through which proximal (short term) goals are effectively adopted, evaluated, and modified actively during musical practice to meet the immediate needs of the musician The SRDF model portrays the m usician as fully involved in the learning process and is therefore an active agent An active agency model is one that is self selected to pursue o intentions (McCombs & Marzano, 1990, p. 53). SRDF is part of the researcher designed motivational cognitive framework designed to promote sustained musical motivation in undergraduate applied music stud ents. Figure 2 represents an abbreviated sequence of the nine steps in SRDF.
15 Figure 1. Supporting Theories in the Researcher Designed Active Agency Model of Self Regulated Deliberate Flow (SRDF) Note. CLT: Cognitive Load Theory; DP: De liberate Practice; F S : Flow State ; GT: Goal Theory; SET: Self Efficacy Theory; SRL: Self Regulated Learning Theory Sequence of Self Regulated Deliberate Flow CLT DP F S GT SET SRL 1. Internalize intrinsic goal content: Adopt proximal (short term) subgoals that meet/reflect present needs. X X X X X X 2. Eliminate any redundant or irrelevant tasks and distractions that impede progress. X X X X X X 3. Self monitor during informative feedback X X X X X X 4. Reflect (Evaluate) X X X X X X 5. Apply the neces sary strategies using metacognitive awareness X X X X X X 6. Apply the relevant strategies that resolve obstacles. X X X X X X 7. Repeat, refine and persist, focusing on internalized goals X X X X X X 8. Assess the status of proximal (short term) goals X X X X X X 9. Adopt new or modify original proximal (short term) subgoals that meet/reflect present needs. X X X X X X
16 Figure 2 Model of Self Regulated Deliberate Flow (SRDF) Conceptual Framework The capacity to learn aut onomously is highly valued in higher education (Stephen son & Laycock, 1993). The increased demand of academic tasks in higher education requires a high level of self efficacy and persistence (Fennollar, Romn & Cuestas, 2007; Ruban & McCoach, 2005). Those students who have a high level of self efficacy (personal capability to complete a given task ) are likely to adopt mastery (learning) goals to gain competence that lead to achievement in higher education (Hsieh et al., 2007). Deci and Ryan (2000) r ecogni z ed that s tudents have a basic need for competence before they apply themselves called competence motivation. How much students will
17 apply themselves depends on their perceived competence which describes their ability in a particular area of study (Conroy et al., 2007). Focusing on perceived competence from a motivational perspective may inform the applied studio teacher about how to encourage students to initiate, direct and sustain desired behaviors for progress in a higher education setting. Experimen tal and correlational research has shown that learning environments that contain autonomy support encourage academic competence, emotional well being and achievement ( Assor, Kaplan, & Roth, 2002; Black, & Deci, 2000 ; Fazey, & Fazey, 2001 ; Gagne & Deci, 20 05 ; Levesque, Zuehlke, Stanek, & Ryan, 2004; Niemiec, & Ryan, 2009 ; Ryan & Deci, 2000 ; Trouilloud et al., 2006; Vansteenkiste, Lens, & Deci, 2006; Sierens, Vansteenkiste, Goossens, Soenens, & Dochy, 2009 ; Vansteenkiste, Simons, Lens, Sheldon, & Deci 2004 ) Deci and Ryan (1985) posited that certain social and environmental conditions such as feedback, communication, and rewards, contribute towards intrinsic motivation u nder the C ognitive E valuation T heory (CET), a sub theory of SDT CET specifies that unle ss perceived competence is accompanied by autonomy, it will not influence intrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Most of th e research that has been conducte d within SDT in educational settings ivation and achievement with reliability in academic contexts other than in applied music study (Reeve, Deci, & Ryan, 2004 ; Deci & Ryan, 2008 ). L ittle is known about the relationship of autonomy support to competence and persistence in applied music study (Lehmann, 1997).
18 The established goals (goal content) of the musician, which are directly linked to the intrinsic interest of the musician, may influence their continued persistence (Vansteenkiste et al., 2006; Zimmerman, 1998). Those learners, who unde rstand their own capabilities and intrinsic needs before they practice, are more apt to apply the necessary effort to improve (Hsieh et al., 2007). When the developing musician is focused on the consciously chosen goals, they may be more likely to become i ntrinsically motivated to increase the amount of practice needed to achieve their immediate learning goals (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). A goal orientation that reflects the immediate needs of the developing musician may gradually increase the individual self competence necessary toward activating self regulated learning in the musical practice room. Planning and preparation for practice is one way in which the pedagogue may influence the effectiveness of the practice session (Woody, 2001). The pedagogue has a n opportunity to present a systematic way of planning for the achievement of mastery goals based on existing motivational theories that focus on the improvement of ability as reflected in the researcher designed a ctive a gency m odel of Self Regulated Delibe rate Flow ( s ee Figures 1 and 2). The applied studio teacher cannot as sume that undergraduate music students inherently possess motivation based upon their choice to become music majors. The self determination theory (SDT) (Ryan et al. 1997) suggested two preliminary steps that may foster self direction and independence. To apply these steps to the undergraduate applied studio setting, f irst, the applied studio teacher should become acquaint ed with the motives perspectives for study and perceived competen ce of the student when planning
19 for structured practice. Second, the applied studio teacher should involve the undergraduate applied music student in the decision making process to contribute toward autonomy support (Trouilloud et al. 2006) Assuming resp onsibility for how the learning objectives will be achieved autonomy and persistence and improve self efficacy judgment ( Deci et al., 1994; Huitt, 2001) T he Lewin Research Spiral (1948) i llustrate d a cycle of planning, action and fact finding that c ould be used towards maintaining relevant practice activities and goals E ach t ime the applied studio teacher and the applied music student meet, the goals can be reviewed and modified as needed ( s ee Figure 3) Figure 3. Lewin Research Spiral (1948)
20 Statement of the Problem According to Jorgensen (1995, 2000), applied music students in higher education are expected to hone their performance skills in practice sessions by self teaching. Applied music students are expected to demonst rate an improvement in ability at each subsequent lesson. Jorgensen (2000) noted that 108 of 141 (77%) applied music students in higher education re ported that they received little or no training from their applied studio teacher on practice behaviors Ko stka (2002) report ed that applied studio teachers assume that students use a practice routine yet found that many applied studio teachers d id not discuss a practice plan nor practice strategies with their students. Kostka surveyed 134 undergraduate and gra duate college students from sixteen institutions and found that less than half had a practice routine and that only 69% of students were provided with practice strategies by their applied studio teachers. It is apparent that applied music students are resp onsible for sharpening their performance skills, yet applied studio teachers often differ in their the applied studio setting (Jorgensen, 2000). According to Deci and Ryan (2000), under SDT, individuals had a propensity to self organize behaviors through the social environment to function effectively. An assumption of SDT is that in order to function, individuals required supports from the social environment to sel f organize. Furthermore, structure satisfied the need for to regulate their study activities ( Sierens et al., 2009).
21 defined as the belief in one ability knowledge, and skills to master the tasks at hand (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009) similar to feelings of efficacy may be supported by teachers who provide them with the relevant tools, challenging learning s p. 139). Withholding the necessary means by which individuals can self organize practice behaviors may ignore the individuals need for self initiation to direct their own learning (Deci et al., 1994; Deci & Ryan 2000). There is a need to addres s this problem regarding the lack of structure and strategic planning for practice if applied music students are expected to demonstrate improvement following practice. Rationale of the Study Studying self perceptions of competence, persistence and auton omy support in the undergraduate music major may promote further understanding of the optimal conditions in higher education that may influence the persistence of practice during applied music study. Fazey and Fazey (2001) posited these constructs to be es sential to understanding autonomy in the learning process after measuring the potential of 394 first year undergraduates in nonspecified majors for autonomy in learning as related to competence, self esteem, motivation and locus of control. The responden ts in the study portrayed the capacity for autonomy yet were concerned about their ability to function in higher education. The influence of social environmental conditions on motivation, and persistence of practice is not yet known as far as it can be de termined under SDT in the area of
22 applied music study C onsequently, it may be of interest to the applied studio teacher when predicting why certain students demonstrate higher achievement than others. Vansteenkiste and others (2004) posited that t he appl ication of an autonomous supportive learning environment may subsequently produce more dedicated and engaged students, promoting increased persistent practice, improved performance skills acquisition and depth of processin g. Up until now, the mediati ng rol e of perceived competence in the relationship between autonomy support and persistence has garnered little attention with respect to applied music study. Student perceptions were found to be highly correlated with their learning behaviors and motivational beliefs (Stefanou, Perencevich, DiCintio, & Turner, 2004). perceive their applied studio teacher to be autonomy supportive and the relationship to individual competence and persistence in practice in the study of app lied music may lead to insights on how to sustain motivation to achieve the degree of practice necessary for a performing career. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among undergraduate applied music student s perceptions of autonomy support, competence and task persistence In addition, the demographic variables of sex and age were explored in relation to persistence of practice
23 Research Question s The following research question s were addressed in this study : 1. What i s the degree of the relationship among perceived autonomy support, competence, and task persistence ? 2. To w hat extent d oes perceived competence mediate the relationship between perceived autonomy support and task persistence? 3. To what extent d o sex and age predict perceived task persistence? It was hypothes ized that the perceived competence of an applied music student mediates the relation ship between perceived autonomy and task persistence. Since autonomy and competenc e are necessary conditions to sustain intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation is necessary for persistence, it is likely that perceived competence mediate s the relation between perceived autonomy and task persistence ( Niemiec & Ryan, 2009) (see Figu re 4). Figure 4. Hypothesized Path Model Outcome variable = task persistence; mediating variable = perceived competence; predictor variable = perceived autonomy suppo rt
24 Definition of Terms The first s ix terms that a re defined below relate to those theories which are mentioned in the researcher designed Model of Self Regulated Deliberate Flow (SRDF) ( s ee Figure s 1 and 2) The three remaining definitions represent the main constructs that are being measured in this stu dy. Supporting Theories of SRDF Cognitive Load Theory (CL T ) re fer s to that which information during the acquisition of complex cognitive tasks (Sweller, 1988). Deliberate Practice (DP) is a form of structured practice designed by a teacher, during which the individual intentionally trains with concentration, immediate feedback repetition and refinement to attain a level of performance using goal directed activities (Erics son et al., 1993; Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996; Lehmann 1997 ; Miksza, 2007). is described as the state in which one is focused on enjoyment in th immersed in the relevant tasks that achieve the defined goals. Goal theory (GT) holds that through self evaluat ion, one influence s the learning process using self directed incentive s or guides (see Figure s 1 and 2 ). When goals contain a challenge, they increase motivation across domains including music (Bandura, 1997; Locke & Lathan, 1990; Mento, Steel, & Karren, 1987).
25 Self competence to apply and organize the necessary means by which to reach a selected outcome (Bandura, 1986). Self regulated learning (SRL) is defined as the choice of student s to engage in self directed learning thus requiring the autonomy of learners who intentionally direct, regulate and monitor their actions to increase their expertise. Main Constructs Measured in this Study Perceived autonomy is the degree to which students assess the ir control and choice of their behavior (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Perce ived competence is the degree to which students report their ability as adequately meeting the requirements of a given achievement behavior (Harter, 1987). Task persistence, pertain ing to the duration and factors contributing to a musician engagement in the activity of practice, is described as lengthy, focused, intensive, challenging, self satisfying, enjoyable, and dedicated. Delimitations of Study Participants were limited to undergraduate music majors within the state of Florida. The demographics of the respondent sample contained relevant characteristics along with t he number of participating institutions contributed to the generalizability of th e outcomes. The self report scales were deployed in the same sequence for each participant but could have been provided in a varied sequence through the web survey software to avoid a potential order effect on the data Each participant was prompted to complete t he demographic data form at the beginning of the web survey Presenting the
26 demographic data form as the final section of the instrument could have prevented personal data from influencing the self report scales.
27 Chap ter 2 Literature Review Performance achievement is generally the ultimate goal of applied studio instruction yet it cannot be realiz ed without an ample commitment to practice according to expert performance researchers. Persistence in musical activities, such as practice, is influenced by the feedback and individual competence the student deri ves from the complex social interactions th at take place in the applied studio setting (Hallam, 2002) P erceived competence, is necessary for motivation (Deci & Ryan, 200 0 ). What leads to the motivation for practice called musical motivatio n? How does the applied studio teacher foster the long term commitment of the student to sustain musical motivation? Based upon the studies of Jorgensen (2000) and Elliot and Dweck (2005), institutions of higher learning should address these questions thro ugh cognitive learning theories, such as self regulated learning to understand the importance of student initiative and responsibility and the social context of learning as people attain competence through self regulation T hese questions are addressed by the following topics in this chapter: Perceived Competence S elf Efficacy Theory Social Contextual Influences on Motivation, Autonomy Supportive and Controlling Contexts, Experiential Learning, Humanistic View, Self Regulated Learning, Goal Setting Acqu isition of Expert Performance and Deliberate Practice This chapter co ncludes with the structured regimen of practice t hat may guide
28 the applied music student toward optimizing and sustaining purposeful practice. Perceived Competence The construct of pe rceived competence wa s studied within SDT under autonomy supportive and controlling contexts to measure how sufficient individuals view ed their ability or skill. F eeling competen t and understanding the value of a task was necessary before individuals choos e to autonomously r egulate themselves (Deci & Ryan, 2008) Fazey and Fazey (2001), likewise, reported that a high self perception of competence is necessary to act autonomously and that autonomy is dependent on the self perceptions of competence for a part icular task. SDT theorists posit ed that developing perceived competence support ed or enhance d intrinsic motivation (Conroy et al. 2007). The roles of those who influence d perceived competence, such as the teacher or coach in social learning contexts wer e of interest due to the impact on achievement motivation (Elliot & Dweck, 2005) Self efficacy, which is discussed next, regarded the learners prediction on how well they c ould organize these skills to meet the requirements of a task (Bandura & Schunk, 198 1). Self Efficacy Theory The construct of self efficacy is used by social cognitive theorists to describe self beliefs in ability to be successful on specific tasks (Conroy et al. 2007) A social cognitive theory of human functioning, developed by clinic al psychologis t, Albert Bandura (1977) examined the influential role of self efficacy on individual differences in persistence. Since then, the measurement and application of self efficacy on human effort
29 have been well d ocumented across the domains in edu cation, health, sociology, management, and sports (Beck, 2008). Perceived s elf efficacy represents a belief in the sum of acquired skills to operate under a variety of conditions (Bandura, 1997) whereas perceived competence ap plies to the perception of ability and effectiveness pertaining to achievement within a specific setting (Trouilloud et al., 2006). Efficacy beliefs play a key role in the assessment of competence (Bandura, 1997) efficacy beliefs in their own competence and capacit y to master tasks on the long road to success determine how, and in what ways, they will be able to persist in the face of difficulty (McPherson & McCormick, 2006 p. 332 ). Replicating a previous study in 2003, McPherson and McCormick (2006) measured th e self efficacy of 686 musicians, aged between 9 19 years one day prior to their music examinations concluding that personal self efficacy was necessary toward s achievement in the performance based examinations McPherson and McCormick suggested that stud y ing self beliefs might further assist music researchers to better understand the process of how self assurance wa s developed when students encounter challenging tasks during musical study. An e xpectancy of success was i ory of achievement motivation (ATM) ATM identifies a causal judgment that affects perceived self efficacy based upon past performance failures or successes. Highly self efficacious individuals attributed achievement to effort, whereas, those who possessed a low sense of self efficacy attributed achievement to ability (Bandura, 1997).
30 Schmidt (2007) identifi e d a motivation construct which he titled, musical self efficacy (MSE) relat ing perce ptions of competence to the area of perform ance achievement He su rveyed 456 students in grades 6 12 in four school districts who performed in music ensembles on six separate motivation al constructs. The participants demonstrated a high level of self and group efficacy and a commitment to their ensembles Pajares ( 2003 ) reviewed the literature on self efficacy and motivation. Self efficacy could be influenc ed by actively engaging in a given task; however, tasks appear ed more difficult to individuals whose perceived competence wa s lower. These individuals most often attri bute d their task achievement to ability rather than effort, and consequently, we re unwilling to devote the necessary effort to gain expertise. Before participating in a difficult task, the individual often assess ed the risk of failure, governed by their se lf beliefs. Kurtz (2007), a former graduate of the New England Conservatory, wrote the book entitled, in which he described: ply personal failure (p. 9). Prediction of student behavior in school contexts has typically been associated with self beliefs, attitudes, and intentions by social psychologists. Self beliefs, that form efficacy judgment, we re though t to significantly impact academic motivation. Perceptions of self beliefs wer e influenced by these four sources: social comparisons, social persuasions, anxiety, and most of all, past experience s (Pajares, 2003). Bong and Clark (1999) reviewed the literat ure on self efficacy and academic self
31 concept. They foun d that individual s evaluate d themselves in comparison with past experiences including p ast performances and accomplishments in work related settings According to the attribution theory (AT) (Weiner 1980 1985 1986) these accumulated experiences and events represent ed a current self perception that interpret ed the potential Self efficacy judgment (SEJ) represent ed the perceived assessment of having the relevan t technical or musical skills to organize and apply to a given task (Maehr et al. 2002). Self efficacy judgments concerning academic tasks wer e formulated by evaluating aehr et al. 2002, p. 357). Bandura (1982) believed that the individual develop ed self efficacy from these sources: personal experiences, observation of others, and external influences. According to Maehr and others (200 2), self efficacy in music was the explicit judgments of having particular technical or musical skills necessary to perform or learn a specific The skill acquisition of a musician is often compared with that of an at hlete; both activities require the individual to meet physical and mental demands. In the domain of sports, self efficacy is most commonly cited to affect individual task performance (Smith, Kass, Rotunda, & Schneider, 200 6 ). Moritz, Feltz, Fahrback, and M ack (2000) performed a meta analysis of the relationship between self efficacy and performance in sport from 45 studies and obtained a .38 mean correlation in the strength of the relationship. The findings suggested that past performances we re the stronges t predictor of self efficacy. The decision to engage in a task wa s further enhanced by self efficacy. The amount of
32 effort applied toward the task wa s contingent on the expectation of completing the task and the associated reward for the task as in externa l rewards. External rewards for musicians, such as monetary compensation, social recognition and competition, also provide incentives for improvement as opposed to inherent enjoyment in the work itself (Ericsson et al., 1993). The expectancy value theory (EVT) state d that individuals assign judgment before they ascribe d themselves to engage in an activity based upon previous failure or successful experiences (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Atkinson, 1964 ; Rotter, 1982; Vroom, 1964). The attitudes we re that deve loped from previous experiences, in turn, might guide the individual toward an expectation of either success or failure in a given task or behavior. The expectancy value theory (EVT) differ ed from the attribution theory (AT) in that students w ould pursue a task based upon the reward that wa s associated with successfully completing the task (Feather, 1969; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). The theory for reasoned action posit ed that the will to pursue an activity wa s determined by the perceived outcome and the valuat ion of that outcome (Ajzen & Fishbein 1980). Ajzen (1991) then introduced the theory of planned behavior in which he added the construct of perceived behavioral control, by which the individual assesse d the probability of success based upon the ease or di fficulty of the task. Social Contextu al Influences on Motivation The conditions that foster motivation we re of interest to social psychologists who examine d environmental factors and social conditions for what undermines or enhances perceived competence a nd self efficacy Deci and others (1991) reported, after observing
33 students in classrooms, laboratory, and homes over the previous 20 years, that the way students perceive d the motivational learning climate strongly impact ed student outcomes. Motivation a nd perceived competence in musical pursuits are dependent on the social interactions that occur red in the educational environmen t of the applied studio setting; however there has been little research on the impact of the learning environment and musical m otivation (Hallam, 2002). Three decades of research concerning self determination theory (SDT) have explored how academic performance c ould be influenced by factors in the social environment. Individual motivation, development and performance we re depende nt on the contextual conditions in the learning climate in which the student functions. One subtheory of SDT, the cognitive evaluation theory (CET), specifically addressed the potential for intrinsic motivation in terms of social environmental factors (De ci & Ryan, 1985). CET posited that people needed autonomy and competence; therefore, social contextual factors that encourage autonomy and competence enhanced intrinsic motivation. When social factors diminished feelings of autonomy and competence, intrins ic motivation was decreased and people felt controlled (Gagne & Deci, 2005). Intrinsic motivation wa satisfaction rather than for others (Chaffin & Lemieux, 2004). The construct of intrinsic motivation, in the domain of education, wa inherent interest and enjoyment. Intrinsic motivation require d certain conditions to sustain it in the social environment some of which we
34 feelings, and o pportunities for self d towards autonomy (Ryan & Deci, 2000 p. 70 ). Sustainable motivation is called autonomous because it (Stone, Deci & Ryan, 2008, p. 4). Ryan and others (1997) described autonomy from an organizational perspective They posited that individuals to varying degrees, self onomy, the more one acts in accord with self endorsed values, needs, Intrinsic motivation for musical study flourished in a learning context that allowed for personal autonomy, although some applied studio teachers did not permit their students to have an active decision making role in their own learning development (Hallam, 1994; Lehmann et al. 2007). The use of intrinsic goals encourage d the likelihood of more dedicated and engaged musicians (Vansteenkiste et al. 2004) When both intrinsic goals and autonomy support we re present in the learning process, the we re fulfilled. When these basic human needs we re met, student persistence, performance and learning were facilitated. Students t end ed to accept intrinsic goals more readily in an autonomy supportive learning climate, signifying that active involvement positively promotes intrinsic goals and a deep processing of content (Vansteenkiste et al. 2004). The interpersonal learning climat e wa s conveyed by the orientation of the teacher towards autonomy support or controlling style (Deci & Ryan, 2008).
35 Autonomy Supportive Context s Autonomy refer red to processes that we re initiated and governed by the self, thus implying self regulation (R yan et al. 1997). An autonomy supportive context wa s one which instructors provide opportunities for choice and initiation to the student to direct their own learning. Furthermore, high pressure tactics we re avoided and immediate feedback wa s provided to motivate behavior (Deci et al., 1994). The interpersonal climate of an educational setting wa s reflective of the orientation of the teacher. Instructors who exemplif ied an autonomy supportive social environment were those who provide d opportunities for s elf initiation and choice ( Vansteenkiste et al., 2006 ). SDT posited that students in an autonomy supportive learning context were more apt to endeavor in goal pursuits than those in a controlled learning context in which the teacher direct ed all learning ( Ryan & Deci, 2000). The use of autonomous supportive learning satisfie d the basic psychological needs of stud ents and might subsequently produce more dedicated and engaged students, promoting increased persistent practice, improved performance skills acqui sition and depth of processing (Vansteenkiste et al., 2004). Figure 5 shows the behavioral outcomes that result from an autonomy supportive context under SDT
36 Figure 5. Behavioral Outcomes of an Autonomy Supportive Conte xt Vansteenkiste and others (2004) observe d 200 first year college students, who were given an intrinsic goal during their teacher education degree in an autonomy supportive vs. a controlling condition. They determined that college s tudents we re more li kely to persist and engage in a task when an intrinsic goal wa s presented to them in an autonomy supportive environment rather than one that is controlling. U ndergraduate music major s are required to study a principal instrument one on one with a member o f the applied music faculty during their degree program. Kennell (2002) referred to the relationship of student and teacher as an expert novice apprenticeship. Applied s tudio instruction provide d the transfer of desired skills, knowledge and capabilities overseen by the master teacher. A collaborative relationship between in structor and music student paved the way toward a less controlling environment in which the depth of learning wa s promoted.
37 Controlling Context s Controlling contexts involve d pressu ring individuals to behave in specific ways using coercive strategies through intimidation, coercive language, deadlines, inflexible conditions, and rewards to engage in study or an activity (Vansteenkiste et al., 2006) These strategies m ight have negativ e consequences toward well being and achievement including lowered self esteem and depression reported Grolnick and Ryan ( 1987) who studied 91 fifth grade children under controlling and noncontrolling settings. The controlling context in this study wa s impose d by coercing students to read the assigned text so they could rec all it for a forthcoming test. Stude nts were then intimidated by a statement like: (Grolnick & Ryan, 1987, p. 893). The detriments to student motivation, resulting from a teacher directed environment, are stated herein A controlled environment c ould be described as one in which the teacher direct ed the learning activities. Environmental constraint conditions, such as extrinsic reward systems, performance goals and social comparisons, tend ed to distract the learner from the task. Some examples of extrinsic reward systems we re: (a ) e xpected reward, (b) expected evaluation, (c) surveillance, (d) time limits, and (e) competition (Hennessey & Amabile, 1988). External pressure in the environment c ould adversely affect progress and enjoyment of work ; however, the desire for social recognit ion and competition m ight motivate some students to increase their level of musicianship and practice (Ryan &
38 Deci, 2000; Woody, 200 1 ) Figure 6 shows the behavioral outcomes that result from a controlled context under SDT Figure 6. Behavioral Outcomes of a Controlling Context Jorgensen (2000) summarized various studies, in the area of higher education, to examine if applied music students have the opportunity for independent and active learning. In one study he reviewed n ine piano students were asked to estimate the degree to which they demonstrated initiative by taking an active role in the lessons by estimating a percentage of active participation Students estimate d their active participation to be 36% of the lesson time Jorgensen concluded that the piano teacher dominated the majority of the activity and the initiative during the lessons. Jorgensen cautioned music educators that suppressing student responsibility to direct the learning process ignored pted theories about t he importance o f active participation from the student
39 Experiential Learning: Fostering an Environment for Engagement Experiential learning is a self initiated process during which the lea rner has full access to the relevant materials and the setting necessary for practical learning acquisition (Kolb, Boyatzis, & Mainemelis, 2000). Early educational philosophers and psychologists, Dewey (1933), Lewin (1948), and Piaget (1967) laid the found ation for the experiential learning theory (ELT) Kolb and Fry (1975) inspired by the work by Lewin (1948), designed a four stage continuous, experiential learning cycle of the adult learning process which they claimed could begin at any one of the follo wing stages : ( 1 ) concrete, ( 2) abstract, ( 3) reflection, and ( 4) active experimentation. The concrete stage represented knowledge that was derived from direct practical experience; the abstract stage represented knowledge acquired by knowing; the reflecti on stage referred to the meaning that is derived from practical experience; and active experimentation stage referred to putting knowledge into practice (Atherton, 2009). An instructor who employ ed an instructional approach, based upon ex periential learnin g theory, would ordinarily ask the student s what they want to learn, identify their concerns and assist the student s in finding the practical resources and contacts necessary to fulfill their individual needs (Rogers & Freiberg, 1994). ELT state d that stu dents w ould pursue a task with more persistence when it wa s relevant to their personal interests (Rogers, 1969). Promoting a positive learning climate means addressing the intrinsic needs of the learner. Educational philosopher, John Dewey (1933), emphasi zed the importance on the
40 that ar ose from the interpersonal instructor student contact. Dewey described this attitudinal climate more distinctly as the mental attitudes and habits of the instructor as (1933, p. 46). It may be helpful to understand how teachers may cultivate a posi tive attitudinal environment in which student needs are fulfilled and validated. Brown (2008) wrote a paper describing the model for student centered instruction in music education. One component of the model was to establish a discourse between the teach er and student that entails listening, acknowledging and validating student concerns and interests that include i nvolving the student as the decision maker This type of discourse may help to facilitate the learning process foster student independence an d acknowledge the student s capability. Student centered instruction is one example in which students make decisions and contribute strategies on how they may learn. When students take responsibility toward the learning process, they become more self suffi cient. Gumm (2003) wrote a book on m usic t eaching s tyle in which he discussed that one way the instructor validate d students concerns and needs wa s by cultivating a responsive relationship between teacher and student. He posit ed that a key goal of the tea cher may be to encourage students to function on their own A llowing the student s to provide their opinions, problem solve and make choices during the learning process validates their significant role.
41 The Humanistic View of Education A humanistic view o f education is one in which students have a choice in the tasks and activities that structure the learning process (Huitt, 2001). According to Rogers theory of learning (1969), that emphasized adult learners, experiential learning was facilitated when bot h the teacher and the adult learner were fully involved in the process. The teacher facilitator should select the learning climate, establish the points of emphases, and present an organizational framework in conjunction with the needs and ability of the a dult learner. The adult learner routinely direct ed contro l l ed, and assessed their own progress through self evaluation (Rogers, 1969; Rogers & Freiberg, 1994; Smith, 1997, 2004). Educational psychologists who embraced a humanistic view for education, suc h as Carl Rogers, theorized that the role of the teacher wa s as facilitator. According to (Kirschenbaum & Henderson, 1990, p. 305 ) Roge rs believed that the purpose of the environment was to engage the learner and that the attitude of the facilitator should reflect an understanding of the learner. Rogers and Freiberg (1994 ) identif ied three key skills of a facilitator of learning: (1) rea l ness, (2) prizing, and (3) (p. 160). Realness refer red to presenting oneself as a genuine person without a faade; prizing refer red to having an appreciation of the student as a separate person; and empathy refer red to an understanding, awareness and respect for the student point of view.
42 According to Rogers (1969), t he teacher facilitator must organize the resources and set a positive learning climate in which the student participate d fully in the process. Rogers and Freiberg (1994) agreed t hat in order for significant learning to take place, education should have personal relevance or meaning to the whole person. Meaning wa s we re being met by the instructor. Significance wa s met by whether the learne r wa s personally involved in the process. The YouthLearn Initiative at the Education Development Center [EDC], ( 2003 ) recommended that w hen developing a suppor tive learning climate there we re four areas that m ight bear consideration: (a) mission, (b) sys tematic organization, (c) collaborative interaction, and (d) policies for academic expectation. The academic progress of the student relie d on the support within this context. All four areas may have implications for the appli ed studio setting. For example t he mission of applied music study may contain concepts and values that define the core of the pedagogical method. Dewey (1933) describe d (p. 47). The instructor should tailored to the needs of the student (Dewey, 1933 p. 54 ), viewing the student s practical needs as the most urgent. The validation of the student s needs may avoid student s indifference to the planned curri culum (Dewey, 1933, p. 49). Assor, Kaplan, and Roth (2002) found that 862 elementary and secondary students could equally differentiate autonomy supportive or controlling teacher behaviors. Three ways teachers can seek student initiative emerged from this study, emphasizing the need for an autonomy support : (a) foster relevance for
43 each learning activity proposed, (b) allow student to voice dissatisfaction with learning tasks, and (c) choose tasks consistent with goals/interests of the student A collabora tive interaction and systematic organization m ight consist of the means through which the applied studio teacher and applied music student w ould communicate on the established responsibilities, and schedules using an approach of opinions and needs of the student we re valued and acknowledged (Dewey, 1933, p. 55). Similarly, Rogerian counseling, a type of psychotherapy named after psychologist, Carl Rogers, engage d open, active listening, and wa s applicable in education to acknowled ge student concerns, viewpoints and needs. According to Wiggins (2007), when students understood their role within the learning setting, they were fully engaged, becoming agents of their own learning. McCombs and Marzano (1990) called this development a as their behavior (p. 56). Self Regulated Learning (SRL ) Music performance has been a discipline that require d Expert music performers demonstrate d self regulated thinking, such as systematic planning practice sessions, strategies, problem solving and evaluation (Hallam, 2001). Winne and Hadwi n (1998) proposed a cognitive behavioral model of the four phases of self regulated learning: ( 1) task definition (assessment), ( 2) goal setting and planning (use of immediate resources), ( 3) enactment of strategies and ( 4) adaptation (application of
44 stra tegies) suggesting that after learners define d a task, they plan ned to address the task using study strategies, later adjusting the strategies based upon personal feedback Winne and Hadwin view ed a self regulated learner in terms of : (a) an agent for lea rning, (b) evaluat ing progress through reflection, (c) engage ment in reciprocal goal setting, (d) a clear focus on how to achieve goals, (e) appli cation of procedural knowledge to familiar obstacles, and (f) appli cation of metacognitive strategies. Sieren s and others (2009) considered self regulated learning to be a goal directed process that included self reflection and evaluation. Self regulation occu r r ed when the musician wa s aware of specific practice goals, receive d feedback and possesse d personal mo tivation ( Lehmann et al. 2007). Self reflection require d the musician to react and respond during the practice experience, a self regulating process called metacognition (McPherson & Zimmerman, 2002; Zimmerman, 1998). The concept of metacognition involve d the self monitoring of progress and self adjustment in performance following immediate feedback. Re evaluating wa s one way in which a person assesse d learning goals and efficiency (Schraw, 1998). Teaching students the metacognitive information and inform ation processing strategies that control led their individual performance m ight increase their competence, content absorption and the effectiveness of instruction when working independently (Glaser, 2000; Winne, 1995). Expert performers acquire d metacogni tive strategies to control their progress, such as planning and predicting. Students determine d working strategies that w ould assist them during individual practice through a p rocess of self monitoring, called
45 metacognitive awareness. Metacognitive awarene ss occur red when the learner internalize d the established learning goals and wa s willing to apply the necessary strategies toward the task (Winne, 1995) Once the music learner ha d developed a metacognitive awareness, practice time c ould be maximized by ap plying only those personal strategies that effectively achieve d a higher level of skill (Ericsson et al., 1993; L ehmann, 1997) Schraw ( 1998 ) posited that metacognitive knowledge wa s teachable. He reported specific studies in which instruction on metacogn itive skills contributed towards an improvement in learning. Metacognitive awareness, Schraw posited, with regard to procedural knowledge, refer red to the method or system of accomplishing tasks through self monitoring. Procedural knowledge refer red to the steps, sequences and actions required to perform a task. Those who possess ed a high degree of procedural knowledge tend ed to do well at sequencing and therefore function ed more efficiently at the given task Rohwer and Polk (2006) deemed r eflective and analytical skills necessary when student s were not under direct instructional supervision for efficient practice, based on multiple studies Professional musicians were found to be better at reflective skills than their younger counterparts. Metacognitive skill, as it pertain ed to musical study, wa s the Metacognitive awareness wa s accomplished through internalizing goals during which one wa s willing to apply the necessary strategies (Lehmann, 1997).
46 Er icsson and Lehmann (1996) determined that expert performers acquired metacognitive skills during extended intense practice, such as planning, anticipating, and reasoning during which music learners adapt ed as they improve d These adaptive strategies we re f ormulated to address obstacles that we re encountered during practice. Performance wa s improved when the student wa s taught skills for metacognitive regulation by the instructor (Schraw, 1998). Ross, Green, Salisbury Glennon, and Tollefson ( 2006) wrote a t heoretical framework of metacognitive self regulation based upon the past research on the relation of self regulation to achievement. Ross and others summarized that t he adjustment of monitoring wa s a metacognitive process. The refinement of strategies wa s crucial to exceed academically. Conscious changes we re made to instructional strategies as the ability to self monitor improved A s expertise improve d, so d id metacognitive knowledge therefore, more advanced students tend ed t o possess more metacognitive knowledge Fostering Self Regulated Learning (SRL) with Teacher Provided Structure According to Sierens and others (2009), c ognitive strategies might be used in an autonomy support ive environment to contribute structure to the learning process Sierens and colleagues hypothesized that those teachers who provided structure in form of clear guidelines and strategies fostered self regulated learning (SRL), and satisfied the Students enrolled in teac her education and secondary school ( N = 526 ) rang ed from 15 to 27 years of age, completed one scale questionnaire for each of the following construct s using a 5 point response scale : (a) perceived teacher
47 autonomy support, (b) perceived teacher structure, (c) cognitive strategy use, and (d) self regulation. The findings indicated that autonomy support ( r = .25), cognitive strategy use ( r = .59) and structure ( r = .35) and be Nielsen (1999) observed the strategy use of two advanced organists in their third year of college as they prepared for their final exams. The study revealed that gifted instrumental students used strategies duri ng the practice session such as pinpoint ing relevant areas for practice and organiz ing the learning materials Nielsen wrote a classification of learning strategies during pr actice identifying two categories : (a) primary and (b) support strategies. Primary strategies referred to selecting and organizing relevant learning materials in relation to existing knowledge and support strategies referred to concentration, managing anx iety, and efficiency. Leon Guerrero (2008) studied self regulation strategies used by 16 adolescent instrumental musicians while practicing in order to gain understanding on how instructors c ould direct students to be more productive. Students were able to verbalize 15 separate self regulating strategies during their practice sessions indicating their ability to self regulate The implications of the study were that it wa s beneficial to instruct students on how to utilize self regulatory processes during p ractice to assist students in the accomplishment of their goals. Another implication of this study was that music
48 educators encourage students to verbally reflect and evaluate during performance to better inform both the educator and the student of their s elf regulating strategies Kostka (2002) studied the attitudes and expectation for use of practic e time practice strategies and practice routines by surveying 127 college level applied studio teachers and 134 music majors. Applied s tudio teachers report ed that they expected students to use a practice routine yet less than half of the students actually use d one indicating that the planning and structuring of practice m ight not have been provid ed to them Kostka also found that although college level appl ied studio teachers reported discussing specific practice strategies with their students, only 59% of students reported this as accurate. Miksza (2007) examined the observed practice behaviors of 60 high school wind players in relation to performance achie vement. Students who demonstrated higher levels skill were those who were more organized during practice. Miksza recommended that applied studio teachers both formulate lesson plans that direct students in the application of strategies and model efficient and inefficient practice strategies when training instrumentalists. Lehmann and Davidson ( 2002) wrote an introduction to the research on skill acquisition in the New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning Both writers concurred that o ptimized practice was attributed to the advancement of musical skill. Furthermore, they postulated that it wa s imperative that the applied studio teacher provide a self guided system to the developing musician to promote efficiency and quality of practice.
49 Many i nstrumental students in higher education receive little or no training from their applied studio teachers on practice behavior. Jorgensen (2000) asked 141 students at his institution the extent to which they were satisfied with the efficiency of their prac tice He found that 2% of the students reported that they were always satisfied ; 42% stated that they were often satisfied; 50% reported that they were sometimes satisfied, while 6 % indicated that they were seldom satisfied Seventy seven percent of the st udents studied stated that they want ed to learn more about how to practice especially with respect to concentration and efficiency Based upon his findings, Jorgensen (2000) recommended that applied studio teachers allocate time towards observing students during practice to Helping students to independently direct and control their own learning process through metacognitive thought is conducive to an autonomous supportive environment. When the self directed musician cho se to apply metacognitive skills to achieve personal goals, the process wa s defined as self regulated learning (McCombs & Marzano, 1990). Typically, self regulated learners use d planning and self monitoring to adapt to a specific task Learners s ought self regu latory tools to satisfy their need for competence when adapt ing to a given task (Elliot & Dweck, 2005) They tend ed to possess bot h a high level of self efficacy and intrinsic mot ivation (Ross et al., 2006). If s tudents readily evaluate d their learning pro gress through reflection, they m ight be more inclined to engage in reciprocal goal setting of even more challenging and higher goals for the self (McCombs & Marzano, 1990).
50 Goal Setting Lehmann (1997) wrote an overview on how expertise is developed in mu sic through optimized practice. Goal setting and the evaluation of goal outcomes were viewed as most significant when striving for efficient practice. Mik sz a (2007) wrote on the importance of the quality of practice. S tudents who we re more organized in the ir practice tend ed to achieve at a higher rate therefore instructors should ensure that students be equipped with focused goals. Deci and others (1994) suggested focusing on goals that we re intrinsic in nature to encourage engagement and competence. Ban dura (1997) posited that individuals w ere more likely adhere to goals when those goals we re designed from their self interests. The more the goals we re self set, the more effort a student w ould be willing to fully commit to pursue them. According to Csiksz entmihalyi (1990), when goals match ed the intrinsic needs and abilit ies of the individual, they bec a me fully invested, and we re thereby empowered for persistent and meaningful independent practice When goals we re internalized, they we re self selected be cause the individual identified them with importance. An individual adopt ed these self selected goals to regulate their behavior through a process called identification. Identification wa s the process of associating oneself with the value of a given activi ty and choosing to engage in the activity willingly with volition based upon its personal relevance such as self selected goals During this process, the individual internalize d the importance of a particular activity and, subsequently, cho se to engage in a particular behavior (Black & Deci, 2000; Vansteenkiste et al. 2004; Vansteenkiste et al. 2006). Locke and Latham
51 (1990) wrote a goal ving specific goals is not sufficient; Specificity m ight be the key when identifying at tainable goals, including the amount of effort required to achiev e them. Specific goals m ight have a motivating effect by cultivating positive attitudes towards the required tasks to achieve them (Bryan & Locke, 1967). Subgoal based planning wa s allow ing m usicians to develop expertise using problem solving activities that focus on small, manageable, short term areas of study at a given time (Chaffin & Lemieux, 2004). The use of proximal subgoals help ed to provide incentives on smaller, attainable goals for immediate and present action (Bandura, 1997). Organized action, such as proximal subgoals, further perceived competence by demonstrating personal capability in the learning environment (Bandura & Schunk, 1981). Bandura and Schunk studied 40 children from six elementary schools using proximal and distal goals. They found that l ofty distal (distant) goals we re easily postponed and had no effect whereas proximal subgoals tend to progressively cultivate greater self satisfaction in mathematical performance Li kewise, t he use of proximal subgoals during applied music study m ight affect greater satisfaction during independent practice sessions Learning contracts were one way of managing learning goals and activities in higher education according to Stephenson and Laycock (1993, 2002). Stephenson and Laycock described the educational function of learning contracts in their book, Using
52 Learning Contracts in Higher Education Learning contracts we re negotiated between students and others to document clear intenti onal and achievable goals. Preparing the learning contract in collaboration with the students allow ed the teacher to participate and review the relevance in the development of student plans As a result, students recognized the roles of themselves and the teacher in the educational process Stephenson and Laycock (1993, 2002) posited that t he students benefitted by clarifying learning goals and developing a strong sense of ownership of their studies (p. 18 ). Learning contracts may also be consider ed in a n applied studio setting T he applied studio teacher and students should document proximal subgoals on a weekly basis at each applied music lesson in conjunction with the immediate needs of the students Each subgoal is time dated for the upcoming lesson, in the form of an assignment, with an associated focal point or task needed to achieve the said goal Figure 7 presents an example of a learning contract between an applied studio teacher and an undergraduate applied flute s tudent with the use of proximal goals
53 Figure 7 Sample l earning c ontract of p roximal s ubgoals for a pplied f lute Csikszentmihalyi ( 1979 1990 1996 ) postulated that it wa s essential that the selected goals m atch ed the skills and perceived capabilities of the individual to avoid boredom or frustration Musicians need ed to feel equipped to face obstacles and apply the necessary skills and strategies for success during practice; therefore, when designing goals it is important to consider the perceived capabilities of the individual, called perceived competence Surprisingly, if students ha d the skills and ability to master a task, they m ight still view it as unattainable due to their perceived level of competen ce (Bandura, 19 97 ). Once a goal has been adopted, it is essential to have feedback to maintain substantial motivation (Bandura, 1997; Bandura & Cervone, 1983; Becker, 1978; Strang, Lawrence, & Fowler, 1978; Troum, 2006 2009 ). Positive performance feedbac k, when it wa s informational in content, was found to enhance intrinsic motivation and contribute DATE TO DO GOAL/FOCUS /RELEVANCE 1/07/09 Hughes duet Breathing; phrasing 1/14/09 Demonstrated shape of mouth when breath is taken. Avoid resetting the embouchure by reducing the opening (aperture) and thereby reducing potential fatigue. 1/21/0 9 number of notes double tongued Develop the technique of double a light attack on the roof of the mouth. 1/28/09 to those with intervals; see bracketed areas Develop the technique of double alternating too koo 2/04/09 for 1 count Increase tempo applying double tonguing technique 2 /11/09 Continue work on double tonguing: all worksheets Replicate the sensation of double tonguing instead of focusing on the 2/18/09 Aviary Excerpt from Carnival of Animals Double each note to maximize work in the area of double ton guing 2/25/09 Scherzo from Double tongue as light as possible.
54 toward the need for competence (Deci & Ryan, 2008). On the day before he was being honored for his lifetime achievement by the National Flute Association, flu tist Sir James Galway at 70 years old was asked by the researcher what motivated him to pursue the ommunication, August 15, 2009). Social psychologists might hypothesize that Sir Galway received the positive feedback for his ability from those in his immediate learning environment which, in turn, enhanced his sustained musical motivation for practice. B andura (1997) asserted that the individual must have strong self efficacy to intensify the persistence necessary to meet challenging goals. Bandura stated that perseverance wa s greater when there wa s a stronger sense of personal efficacy. Pajares (2002) al so stated Those with high self efficacy tend ed to persevere despite adversity or obstacles. Students would intensify their efforts when they fe lt capable to meet presented challenges ; therefore, instructors might refrain from being highly critical when students attempt a new or challenging skill or the need for competence may be jeopardized ( Vansteenkiste et al. 2006) Overt criticism instead of belief in the capability was found to lower achievement and in various experimental and correlational research studies. In contrast, providing positive feedback promote d an environment of caring and respect for the student facilitating competence and intrinsi c motivation ( Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Building performance skills, called skill
55 acquisition is discussed in the following paragraphs within the wide bo dy of social cognitive research available on developing expert performance. A cquisition of Expert Performance Since the 1800s, expert performance researchers (EPR) ha d sought to research skill acquisition; however, in the 1990s, the expert performance movement emerged seeking to understand environmental, physiological and emotion al characteristics that contribute to expert task acquisition in many domains including chess, medicine, auditing, computer programming, bridge, physics, sports, typing, juggling, dance, and music. EPR p sychologists determined that improvement in skill was related to instructional training, extensive practice, acquiring strategies relevant to the task, individual motivation and informative feedback during practice (Ericsson, 1999, 2002; Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996). The review below synthesizes some of these aforementioned findings. What expertise researchers found wa wa s fulfilled through motivation, early opportunity, persistence and resource rather than biological factors. sistently superior performance on a specified set of re presentative tasks for a domain (p. 277) An expert musician was defined as an individual who possessed the ability to consecutively reproduce a musical performance with superior precision and express ivity (Ericsson et al., 1993). Lehmann and others formal practice accumulated over the life span (p. 39). Expert performance was
56 generalized to include those who demonstrated at least 10 years of experi ence across given domains (Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996; Hayes, 1981). Ericsson and others (1993) related hours of practice over the lifetime of the musician to achievement of musical skill: music teacher for 4,000 hours, professional musician for 8,000 hours and international violinist for 10,000 hours. As a youth pianist Misha Dichter practiced for 12 hours a day to develop his competence (Zimmerman, 1998). The key difference in skill acquisition among expert p erformers was attributed to the hours of indivi dualized training through repetition and refinem ent (Ericsson et al., 1993). Outliers, a recently released book by Malcolm Gladwell, includ ed sociological findings to address the conditions for academic and work related success. Gladwell (2008) found that achievement was related to natural ability, early experiences, timing, environment, cultural heritage and, most importantly, hard work. The musical group, T he Beatles was used as a model of musical success, noting the extraordinary number of performances the Beatles gave before their first break in 1964. The Beatles performed cited in Shaywitz, 2008, p. W10). Ericsson and others (1993) found that h igh levels of musical performance was mediated by a structured regimen called deliberate practice (DP) citing the explicit goal as improvement. Ericsson and others distinguished DP from play, claiming that i t was not inherently enjoyable due to its effort ful activity and lack of immediate reward Serena d dominated the sport of tennis over a
57 and I love to perform and being in front of the crowds and hearing them cheer for me. Ms. Williams was referring to practice as an unenjoyable and solitary experience relationship between the performer and an audience. Ericsson and others (1993) computed the amount of musical practice in the diaries of 10 advanced college violinists i n reference to how much time was spent on 12 specific activities that were related to the pursuit of musical study and 10 specific activities that were no t music related Participants were also asked to rate these activities with regard to relevance, effor t, and pleasure. The violinists who developed the highest level of expertise spent more time on music related activities. but recognized that practice required effort (p. 375). Lehmann (1997) hypothesized with Ericsson and others that these results would not have occurred without formalized practice, therefore, t he applied studio teacher might consider design ing relevant practice activities that m ight motivate the developing musician to selectively engage in DP (Lehmann, 1997) The key elements of DP were (a) set specific goals and strategies (b) concentrate d on technique (c) repe ti t ion of the task and (d) immediate informative feedback They wer e expanded further on DP by these topics : Concentrate on Explicit and Relevant Goals Relevant Feedback and Extended Practice.
58 Deliberate Practice Ericsson and o thers (1993) claimed that t he concept of DP refer red to the individualized training acti vities designed to improve individual performance expertise through repetition and refinement. The maximum benefits to DP we re acquired by concentrating on present goals and strategies, repeating the task, obtaining immediate and meaningful feedback and b y concentrating on technique and outcome T he prescribed activities for DP should be designed and monitored by an expert in the field A sustained amount of deliberate practice, called extensive practice, has been reported to lead to a higher level of musi cal expertise (Lehmann & Davidson, 2002). Concentrate on Explicit and Relevant Goals DP involve d identifying those key techniques that encode d information meaningfully and contribute d toward improvement of the task (Ericsson, 1996). Ericsson and others ( 1993) posited that t he training activities require d the musician to internalize relevant practice activities that specifically address ed intrinsic needs. According to Hallam (1995, 1998), these practice activities, should include a wide variety of st rategies i ndividual ized to the learner A metacognitive approach elicit ed students active participation in the learning process by maintaining their primary focus on those elements that we re critical and relevant to the task while allowing students to ev aluate and self monitor their personal progress. The musician acquire d and employ ed metacognitive strategies, such as control, planning and monitoring during extended practice. Knowing the relevance of the activity c ould be a source of motivation (Deci e t al., 1994). After an instructor present ed new material to a student, that student reconstruct ed
59 it for his or her own relevance. Material that wa s relevant, instead of redundant, wa s used to construct schemas. Once schemata we re established in working me mory, routines beca me a part of the toolbox of the student, requiring less time for processing problems. Over time, as students gain ed expertise, they identif ied which sources of information we re integral to the task and w ould likewise identif y the relevan t tasks in order to improve skill level (Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996). A cognitive load, based on Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), represent ed redundant or irrelevant tasks that we re T he reduction of cognitive load occur re d when irrelevant factors we re eliminated (Sweller, 1988). When learners we re provided with relevant sources of information, they proceed ed more efficiently through a given task. Consequently, when a learner wa s provided with redundant material, the cognit ive load wa s increased ( Sweller & Chandler 1991). Some examples of cognitive load pertaining to musical study we re irrelevant or redundant practice strategies and materials and unattainable goals (Sweller & Chandler, 1991; Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996; Merri nboer & Sweller, 2005). Relevant Feedback Once a goal has been adopted, it wa s essential to have feedback to maintain substantial motivation Explicit instruction that monitor ed diagnose d or inform ed the learner wa s imperative before there c ould be any r epetition of the task Repetition of an activity would not lead to improvement unless the subject wa s aware of said relevant feedback (Ericsson et al., 1993 ; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990 1996) 1994 p. 21) in an autonomy supportive context, thereby, intrinsic motivation would be
60 enhanced The factors contributing to ward persistence, motivating an individual to remain engaged in practice for an extended period of time are presented below under the heading of extended practice Exten ded Practice High levels of skill acquisition were related to engagement in pertinent practice activities along with effortful practice. This type of lengthy and focused practice, called extended practice, m ight result in neurological and other physiological adaptation (Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996). Maehr and others (2002) labeled the behavioral indicators of motivation, one of which was persistence. P ersistence was intrinsically motivated by self improvement and personal satisfaction, high self efficacy, achievement con nected with personal effort and extensive practice. Music educators recognize d that students who display ed indicators of continuing engagement or mo tivation we re demonstrating persistence. When musicians show ed persistence, they we re demonstrating continuing motivation (Maehr et al. 2002). When students f ou nd the process of practice rewarding, they we re expressing enjoyment in their own involvement ( Lehmann et al. 2007). Summary In summary, the literature showed that the motivational climate represent ed the context with in which students assess ed their own self determination toward achievement. The facilitator of learning, in this case, the applied studio teacher, has been fully charged with providing a supportive environment which carrie d the potential to increase or undermine autonomy, competence, and persistence necessary for musical skill acquisition. The tools and techniques that we re provided to the undergraduate music
61 major should ensure self regulation for self directed study during the time in which they we re isolated for independent practice if improvement of ability wa s expected The self regulated learner pursue d manageable subgoals that allow for self guided, persistent extended practice. Armed with short term proximal goals that meet their immediate intrinsic needs, students m ight develop the focused awareness and the purpose to intentionally persist in practice for the extended periods needed to hone their skills. Individual student perceptions have been used widely to predict and examine the classroom experience especially in relation to student motivation outcomes (Ames, 1992). d their engagement in teach er defined activities (Ryan, Connell, & Deci, 1985; Ryan & Grolnick, 1986). Good (1983) emphasized how tasks and activities we re designed and presented by the instructor influence d how much time students w ould invest. Students often demonstrate d effort bas ed upon their perceived competence and personal relevance. Deci and o thers (1991) proponent s of the self determination theory (SDT) believe d that sustainable motivation and performance we r e maximized within social contexts that provide d for autonomy and for feelings of c ompetence. In the remaining portion of this study participants in this study were asked to self report the teacher student interaction (learning climate) as well as their individual competence and persistence as it relate d to musical pra ctice during an undergraduate course of applied music study. It wa s hoped by learning the strength of the relationship between the main constructs of the study, applied studio teachers may become more
62 acutely aware of the impact of the social context of th e applied studio setting on the persistence of practice.
63 Cha pter 3 Method Overview The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among undergraduate applied music student perceptions of autonomy support, compe tence and task persistence Studies under the rubric of the self determination theory (SDT) have postula ted that social contexts that support the basic needs of competence and autonomy facilitate d motivation and performance. Measuring the degree to which perceived their applied studio teacher to be autonomy supportive and the relationship to individual competence and persistence in practice may lead to insights on how to sustain motivation to achieve the degree of practice necessary for a perform ing career. In addition, the demographic variables of sex and age were explored in relation to persistence of practice. report data gathered from three scale s administered in the form of a web survey, were analyzed to assess the strength of the interrelation of these constructs. Design A correlational research design w as used to determine the degree to which perceived autonomy support was related to perceived comp etence and task persistence in musical practice S elf report data on the constr ucts w ere collected using a web (online) survey A mean score for each respondent was comput ed for each of three constructs:
64 perceived autonomy support ( PA ), perceived competence (PC), and task persistence (TP). The predictor variable was PA and the crite rion variable was TP. The mediating variable, between PA and TP was hypothesized as PC A path analysis was used to compute the path coefficients. Participants A ll undergraduate music majors, whether enrolled in applied music vocal or instrumental study at two small private, one large private, and three large public universities in Central, North and West Florida were invited to participate in th e study. A total of 1,842 undergraduate music majors received an e mail through their undergraduate faculty ad visor at each institution inviting them to volunteer for participation in the study. A total of 366 undergraduate music majors, 18 64 years of age, responded to the invitation to participate in this study yielding a response rate of 20% All participants completed at least one semester of applied music study in order to take part in this study Measures Three instruments (self report scales) and a demographic data collection form administered as a web survey, entitled M usical P ractice Q uestionnaires were used for data collection purposes. A n electronic consent form (see Appendix A) accompanied the web survey The web survey was developed using online survey software by Select Survey. Select Survey enabled the researcher to preview, design, deploy a web su rvey and analyze data in an online format. Access to the data was restricted to the researcher designers by activating a high security level on the instrument. A description of the components of the Musical Practice Questionnaire ( web survey ) follows.
65 Dem ographic Data Form : This form (see Appendix B) was designed to obtain demographic information on sex, age, and primary instrument. S elf R eport S cales : Three self report scales designed to assess the undergraduate music major perception of a utonomy support, competence and task persistence ( s ee Appendi ces C E ) were included in the web survey. Two of the self report scales that measured perceived autonomy support and competence, the Learn ing Climate Questionnaire (LCQ) and the Perceived Comp et ence for Learning Scale (PCS) respectively, were adapted by the researcher specifically for applied music study Both self report scales were available to researchers for download by the authors, Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan as found on the SDT websi Determination Theory: http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT/ The following is a descrip tion of each of the three self report scales designed to measure perceived autono my support, task persistence of musical practice, and perceived competence. Perceived Autonomy Support (LCQ Short Form). The short form of the Learning Climate Questionnaire (LCQ Short Form ) was a 6 item, self report scale designed to measure perceived au tonomy support from an individual instructor at the college level. The short, 6 item vers ion of the LCQ (see Appendix C) was selected by the researcher over the long er 15 item version to keep all three self report scales of a similar length in the study. Both the 6 item and the 15 item versions were developed by the same authors at the University of Rochester available at the above website The participants were asked to indicate their extent of agreement or disagreement with each of six statements on the
66 LCQ related to their experience with their applied studio teacher using a 7 point response scale that ranged from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. The following adaptation was made by the researcher to the end of the first question as seen in q uotations to reference the topic of this study: I feel that my instructor provides me encourage questions, and listen to concerns. A scale score for each respondent was obtained by computing the mean of the individual This scale score was used for data analysis purposes. A higher scale score indicate d a higher level of perceived autonomy support. The internal consistency of the 6 item LCQ short form was just slightly lower ( = .91) than that of the longer 15 item version ( = .93 and = .94) for two different test administrations (Black & Deci, 2000 ). Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP) The Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP) (see Appendix D) wa s a 7 item, researcher constructed self report scale designed to measure the extent to which students self report effortfu l and sustained practice when practicing on an independent basis The scale beg an with the general followed by t he individual descriptors : ( 1) lengthy, (2) focused, (3) intensive, (4) challenging, (5) self satisfying, (6) enjoyable, and (7) dedicated Each of these descriptors contributes to the persistence of practice according to the deliberate practice approach (Ericsson et al., 1993; Lehmann 1997 ) and t o the flow theory ( Csikszentmihalyi 1990 ). P artic ipant s w ere asked to respond to each description of a practice session by indicating his or her
67 extent of agreement or disagreement with the one word descriptor using a 7 point response scale that ranged from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree A scale score for each respondent was obtain ed by comput ing the mean of the individual all 7 descriptors (items) on the scale This scale score was used for data analysis purposes. A higher mean score indicated a higher level of task persisten ce during musical practice. Perceived Competence (PC S ). The Perceived Competence for Learning Scale (PCS) i s a 4 item scale designed to measure feelings of competence in mastery of lesson materials in a specific college course ( s ee Appendix E) Each item was constructed to be task specific t o the area being studied ; in this case, applied music study. The four items relate d to (a ) confidence (b) capability (c ) ability to achieve goals outlined in the course and (d) how well the individual met the challenge. Participants were asked to respond to each statement using a 7 point response scale that ranged from 1 = N ot at all true to 7 = V ery true. A scale score for each respondent was obtain ed by ll four items on the scale This scale score was used for data analysis purposes. A h igher mean score indicate d a higher level of perceived competence Perceived competence was found to be positively related to persistence in completing academic tasks (Pin trich & DeGroot, 1990); therefore it was used as a predictor of persistence in this study. Moritz and others (2000) recommended that self efficacy similar to perceived competence should be assessed in a task specific manner to ensure validity and reliabi lity following their meta analysis review of self efficacy and sports performance.
68 Bandura (1997) suggested that a reliable sc ale should contain sufficient points to allow for the individual to differentiate while recording the strength of their belief in reference to a specified task. Williams and Deci (1996) expanded this instrument from four to five competence items to investigate the ability beliefs of medical students ; these researchers reported an internal consistency reliability estimate for the 5 it em scale of above = .80. Williams, Freedman and Deci (1998) foun d the same level of internal consistency while investigating the management of glucose levels among patients with diabetes. Content Validation of Instruments All three scale s were submitted for review to a panel of experts that consisted of three applied studio teachers one conductor, three social psychologists and two music educators. The purpose of the panel of experts was to review each of the scale s for adequacy of content coverage of the domain and the match between the item and the domain being measured and provide feedback as to whether any of the items were in need of modification or were not appropriate for measuring the construct. Social psychologists who we re listed on the facult y of the SDT site were also consulted to determine whether the instruments from the SDT site were applicable for the intended constructs. Based on the feedback received from this review process, all of the items within the self report scales were found app ropriate for the domain H owever the following changes regarding the structuring of the scales were suggested and applied R edundant questions were removed ; a stem for the task persistence scale was added for ease and clarity ; and a definition of practice sessions was added A n electronic format for
69 administering the survey was recommend ed and used instead of a hard copy format to reach the maximum number of participants Pilot Study During the spring semester of 2009, a pilot study w as conducted to test the administration of the web survey instrument with a small group of undergraduate music majors ( N = 26) who were enrolled in applied music study at a small private university in Central Florida. The e mail from the faculty advisor included a letter of in vitation to participate in the pilot study along with the link to the web survey instrument In the letter of invitation it was suggested that students m ight gain an increased understanding about why and how practice wa s pursued The pilot sample includ e d undergraduate music majors enrolled in applied music study ( N =26) between the ages of 18 and 38 years (M = 21.69, SD = 4.60), with a median age of 20 years. The sample breakdown by sex was 38% ( n = 1 0 ) male and 62% ( n = 16 ) female The primary instrumen t for subjects in the sample was 50% ( n = 13) instrumental ( non vocal ) and 50% ( n = 13 ) vocal. Internal consistency reliability and are reported below in Tables 1 3 Perceived C ompetence for Learning Scale (PCS) The inter item correlations and item total correlations for this 4 item scale are reported in Table 1. The item total correlations on the PCS were found to be high, rang ing from .79 to .94. The inter item correlations on the PCS ranged from .43 to .80. Cronbach alpha was = .84, indicating a relatively high degree of internal consistency among the items in this scale
70 Table 1 Item Total and Inter Item Correlation Matrix for Perceived Competence for Learning Scale (PCS ) Question # PC1 PC2 PC3 PC PC1 81 PC2 75 94 PC3 43 66 79 PC4 52 80 49 82 Note. All coefficients are significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed). PC = perceived competence; PC1 = quest ion 1 o n the scale. Perceived Autonomy Support Scale (LCQ short form). The inter item correlations and item total correlations for this 6 item scale are reported in Table 2. The item total correlations on the LCQ were found to be high, rang ing from 88 to 95 The inter item correlations on the LCQ were found to be high, rang ing from 73 to 90 Cronbach alpha was = .9 6 indicating a high degree of internal consistency among the items in this scale
71 Table 2 Item Total and Inter Item Correlation Matrix for Perceived Autonomy Support Scale (LCQ) Question# PA1 PA2 PA3 PA4 PA5 PA PA1 94 PA2 82 92 PA3 78 73 88 PA4 90 83 85 93 PA5 88 85 82 87 95 PA6 84 86 73 74 83 91 Note. Correlation is significant at the .01 level (2 tailed) PA = perceived autonomy support; PA1 = question 1 o n the scale Task Persis tence Measure of Musical Practice Scale (TPMMP) The inter item correlations and item total correlations for this 7 item scale are reported in Table 3 The item total correlations on the TPMMP were found to be high, rang ing from 76 to 89 The inter item correlations on the TPMMP were found to be moderate, rang ing from 5 0 to 87 Cronbach alpha was = .92, indicating a high degree of internal consistency among the items in this scale
72 T able 3 Item Total and Inter Item Correlation Matrix for Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP ) Question # TP1 TP2 TP3 TP4 TP5 TP6 TP TP1 76 TP2 51 84 TP3 55 71 78 TP4 52 58 68 79 TP5 50 75 55 65 86 TP6 58 70 52 58 85 88 TP7 71 70 57 59 70 .87 89 Note. All coefficients are significant at the .01 level (2 tailed). TP = task persistence; TP1 = question 1 o n the scale Means, Stan dard Deviations, Kurtosis, and Skewness An overall inspection of the item means revealed that individuals rated themselves highest in perceived competence and lowest in perceived task persistence. The item means also revealed a score above 4 o n all three variables. The levels of agreement for each 7 point scale w ere as follows: 1 = strongly disagree (LCQ and TPMMP) or not at all true (PCS), 4 = neutral (LCQ and TPMMP) or somewhat true (PCS), and 7 = strongly agree (LCQ and TPMMP) or very true (PCS). As wa s indicated earlier in the description of the scales, r score for each scale was the computed scale score (mean of ratings on the items on the scale ) which ranged from 1 to 7.
73 The item means and standard deviations are reported on all th ree scales in Table 4. In addition, measures of skewness and kurtosis for each of the scales are reported. Positive kurtosis values for the PC, PA indicate somewhat leptokurtic distributions for these variables. The PC and PA distributions were negatively skewed. However, these values wer e considered to be within reasonably acceptable ranges. Table 4 Item Means, Standard Deviation, Kurtosis, and Skewness on PC, PA and TP Measure M SD Kurtosis Skewness Perceived Competence (PC) 6.24 84 1. 2 9 1. 33 Perceived Autonomy Support ( PA ) 5.68 1. 53 1. 36 1.3 6 Task Persistence (TP ) 5.20 1. 10 0.50 0 53 Note. N = 2 6 Item means represents the average score on each measure that ranged from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. Data Collection P rocedures P articipant s consented to participate in the study by using the link provided in the invitation at the beginning of the web survey instrument They next proceeded to the first section of the survey the electronic consent form (see Appendix A) F ollowing the successful completion of the electronic consent form the participant was forwarded to section two, to complete the demographic data form (see Appendix B) Following the successful completion of the demographic data form t he participant was f orwarded to
74 section three to complete the t hree self report scale s (see Appendices C E) The first section of the instrument, the electronic consent form (see Appendix A), indicated that participation in the study was completely voluntary and confidentia l. No individual participant or applied studio was identified in the reporting of the results. In addition, the participants were informed that the study wa s being used to complete a dissertation study on the topic of musical practice. Specific instructio ns to complete each scale were provide at initiation. The web survey instrument program allowed the participant to proceed to the next section of the survey only when all responses for the current section were entered. Each section of the web survey instru ment advanced in the following sequence following full completion of all responses : (1) electronic consent form, (2 ) demographics data form (3 ) perceived autonomy support scale, (4 ) task persistence scale and (5) perceived competence scale The web surve y t ook the subjects approximately between 2 and 5 minutes each to co mplete. Individual participants were thanked for participating in the study following a successful completion of the survey Once all sections of the web survey instrument were completed b y the participant using the link provided, the data were exported into a Microsoft Excel file by the researcher using an access ID and password. The data generated from the web survey instrument were confidential and could not be linked to a specific parti cipant. The web survey was limited to one response for each participant. The number of respondents from each participating university was determin ed by creating a new link each time the
75 instrument w as deployed for use The names of the participating univer sities in which participants were enrolled a re reported in Chapter 4 Since the instrument was transmitted by e mail, it was anticipated that there would be no verbal or social interaction b etween subjects I t was therefore assumed that the participants w o uld not have influence d the responses of one an other. The researcher received IRB approval o n February 24, 2009 The instrument was launched for the pilot study on February 25 2009. The instrument for the main study was launched and data analyzed from Ma rch 2009 through November 2009. Data Analysis Procedures Data gathered by the web survey were retrieved and exported for the researcher using the online web survey software Select Survey, in the form of a Microsoft Excel file. Data analysis was performed by sorting the data by individual respon dent Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP) scale were subjected to factor analy tic procedures to determine the underlying fa ctor structure of this scale which was developed by the researcher within the context of this study. An exploratory common factor analysis model was utilized. Squared multiple correlations were used as the initial communality estimates. This correlation co efficient accounts for the amount of variance a given variable share d in common with all other variables in the data set. Principal axis factor extraction technique was the method used for factor extraction. The number of factors to be retained was determi ned by examination of eigenvalues, visual examination of the scree plot and interpret ability of the factor solution.
76 The analyses used to answer each of the research questions are specified below: Research Question 1 : What i s the degree of the relationshi p among perceived autonomy support competence task persistence? To answer this research question, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were computed. Research Question 2 : To w hat extent d oes perceived competence mediate the relation ship betwe en perceived autonomy support and task persistence? Perceived competence of applied music students was hypothesized to mediate the relation between perceived autonomy and task persistence. The hypothesized path analysis model that was employed assumed a w eak causal ordering of the variables (see Figure 8 ) The arrows indicate the hypothesized direction of causality among the variables. Figure 8 Hypothesized Path Model with Path Coefficients Outcome variable = task persist ence; mediating variable = perceived competence; predictor variable = perceived autonomy support
77 Perceived autonomy support i s an exogenous variable and perceived competence and task persistence a re endogenous variables in the hypothesized model Percei ved competence i s hypothesized to mediate the effect of perceived autonomy support on task persistence. Perceived autonomy support wa s hypothesized to have a direct causal effect on task persistence. Multiple r egressions analyses were employed to test the hypothes ized relationships in the path analysis model The direct and indirect effects of perceived autonomy support on perceived competence and task persistence were obtained using path coefficients (standardized regression coefficients). These path coeff icients were obtained by computing multiple regression equations in which the criterion variable was in turn, (a ) perceived competence with perceived autonomy support as the explanatory variable, and (b ) task persistence with perceived autonomy support and perceived competence as the explanatory variables. Research Question 3 : To what extent d oes sex and age predict task persistence? M ultiple regression analysis procedures were used to examine the relationship between demographic and predictor v ariable s sex and age, and the criterion variable, task persistence.
78 Chapter 4 Results In this chapter I reported the results of the data analyses conducted to address the research questions posed in this study. D ata analyses were conducted using the GradPack version SPSS 17.0 statistical processing software. First, t he response rate from the web survey instrument is report ed after which a description of the demographic characteristics of the respondent sample base d upon the demographic data collected is given Next, I report the results of an exploratory factor analysis of the Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP) conducted to examine the underlying factor structure of the scale. Reliability estimates of the self report scales used for data collection purpose s are reported. Internal consistency Finally, the results of the analysis of data conducted to address each of three research questions are pre sented. A summary of the results concludes the chapter. Response Rates An online form of data collection was used in this study. Although e mail surveys have shown superior efficiency and cost over postal surveys, response rates were declining for all typ es of surveys due to the overgrowth of survey research (Sheehan, 2001; Sax, Gilmartin, Lee & Hagedorn, 2008). Student survey response rates at higher
79 educational institutions have been found to vary between a low of 14% to a high of 70% (Porter & Umbach, 2 006). The link to the web survey instrument was sent to 1 842 undergraduate music majors from six institutions in the state of Florida for this study The survey had an overall response rate of 20% The response rate s ranged from 12% to 29% across the ins titutions T he response rate by each participating institution is reported in Table 5 Table 5 Survey Response Rate by Institution Survey Surveys Response Institution Links Sent Returned Rate (%) Florida State University 645 138 2 1 *Rolli ns College 116 26 2 2 *Stetson University 240 70 29 *University of Miami 406 68 17 University of North Florida 101 24 24 University of South Florida 334 40 12 Overall 1 842 366 20 Note. Private Institutions marked with *. Additional remarks that were inserted in the researcher provided cover letter by two of the six institutions m ight have reduced the number of respondents. For example, one s framing the participation in the study as homework. One of the larger institutions may have impacted the response rate by stating that there was no penalty if they chose not to participate.
80 Added statements as such were beyond the control of the research er and m ight have contributed towards a lower response rate Description of Respondents Selected characteristics of the respondent sample are reported in Table 6. The research sample included undergraduate music majors enrolled in applied music study ( N = 366) between the ages of 17 to 64 years ( M = 20.8, SD = 3.92) with a median of 20 years. As shown in Table 6, the majority of the sample ranged from 20 to 24 years ; over 93% were 24 years or less in age. The breakdown by sex was 58.2% female and 41.8% mal e. The primary instrument for the majority of the sample ( 68.9% ) was instrumental (non vocal) ; the primary instrument for the remaining 31.1% of the sample was vocal. Table 6 Selected Characteristics of Respondent Sample Characteristic n % Sex Male 153 41.8 Female 213 58.2 Age (In Years) Less than 20 131 35.8 20 24 212 57.9 25 29 14 3.8 30 34 2 0.5 35+ 7 2.0 Type of Primary Instrument Instrumental 252 68.9 Vocal 114 31.1 Note. N = 366
81 F actor Analysis of TPMMP The Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP) was developed by the researcher and was subjected to an exploratory common factor analysis to determine the underlying factor structure of this scale The principal axis facto r extraction method was used for factor extraction purposes. Based on an examination of the initial eig e nvalues and the scree plot (see Figure 9 ), the decision was made to retain only one factor. This factor account ed for 57.46 % of the common variance amon g the items on the scale Figure 9 Scree Plot of Task Persistence Measure of Musical Pr actice (TPMMP), N = 366
82 Since only one factor was retained, there was no t a need for factor rotation. The resultant factor solution is shown in Table 7. Table 7 Factor Loadings for Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TPMMP) My practice sessions can be described as: Factor Loadings 1. dedicated .82 2 intensive. .79 3 focused. .74 4 self satisfying. .73 5 en joyable. .67 6 challenging. .63 7 lengthy. .57 Note: N = 366 Results of the factor analysis suggest that there is one main underlying construct that is being measure d by this 7 item scale. The construct is labeled task persistence. The resultant factor also suggested that the deliberate practice approach (Ericsson et al., 1993; Lehmann, 1997 ) and the flow theory ( Csikszentmihalyi 1990 ) on which the TPMMP scale was based, measured the intended construct as de fined in this study The seven descriptors (items) of the TPMMP were derived from the two theories: ( a) d eliberate practice (extensive practice): lengthy, focused, intensive, and ( b) flow theory: challenging, self satisfying, enjoyable, dedicated. Extended practice under the del iberate practice approach represented lengthy and focused practice, demonstrating sustained
83 motivation posited to improve a high level of skill acquisition whereas the flow theory emphasized continuing engagement through the personal satisfaction that was derived from purposeful and relevant activities pursued during the practice session In ternal Consistency of Measures Internal consistency reliability estimates were computed for each of the three and are reported below. The item total and inter item correlations for each of the three scal es are reported below in Tables 8 9 and 1 0 Perceived Competence Scale (PCS). The inter item correlations and item total correlations for this 4 item scale are reported in Table 8. The it em total correlations on the PCS were found to be high, ranging from .86 to .89. The inter item correlations on the PCS were found to be high, ranging from .60 to .77. Cronbach alpha was = .89, indicating a high degree of internal consistency for the items in this scale. The = .80 (Williams & Deci, 1996; Williams, Freedman, & Deci, 1998)
84 Table 8 Item To tal and Inter Item Correlation Matrix for Perceived Competence Scale (PCS) Question # PC1 PC2 PC3 PC PC1 .87 PC2 .77 .86 PC3 .60 .63 .86 PC4 .66 .65 .76 .89 Note All coefficients are signifi cant at the .01 level (2 tailed). PC = perceived competence; PC1 = question1 o n the scale. Perceived Autonomy Support Scale (LCQ short form). The inter item correlations and item total correlations for this 6 item scale are reported in Table 9. The item t otal correlations on the LCQ were found to be high, ranging from .76 to .90. The inter item correlations on the LCQ were found to be moderate to high, ranging from .49 to .83. Cronbach alpha was = .92, indicating a high degree of internal consistency f or the items in this scale. (Black & Deci, 2000; Williams & Deci, 1996; Williams, Wiener, Markak i s, Reeve, & Deci, 1994) were reported above = .90.
85 Table 9 Item Total and Inter Item Correla tion Matrix for Perceived Autonomy Support Scale ( LCQ ) Question# PA1 PA2 PA3 PA4 PA5 PA PA1 .76 PA2 .59 .87 PA3 .55 .79 .85 PA4 .49 .66 .70 .8 3 PA5 .63 .73 .68 .73 .90 PA6 .61 .69 .66 68 .83 .88 Note. All coefficients are significant at the .01 level (2 tailed) PA = perceived autonomy support, PA1 = question 1 o n the scale. Tas k Persistence Measure of Musical Practice Scale (TPMMP). The inter item correlations and item total correlations for this 7 item scale are reported in Table 10. The item total correlations on the TPMMP were found to be high, ranging from .67 to .84. The in ter item correlations on the TPMMP were found to be moderate but acceptable, ranging from .32 to .75. Cronbach alpha was = 87, indicating a relatively high degree of internal consistency for the items in this scale.
86 Table 1 0 Item Total and Inter Item Correlation Matrix for Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice ( TPMMP ) Question # TP1 TP2 TP3 TP4 TP5 TP6 TP TP1 .67 TP2 .32 .77 TP3 .49 .69 81 TP4 .39 .48 .63 .69 TP5 .38 .56 .48 .37 .78 T P6 .35 .47 .38 .36 .75 .74 TP7 .56 .57 .63 .50 .57 .58 .84 Note. All coefficients are significant at the .01 level (2 tailed). TP = task persistence in practice, TP1 = que stion 1 o n the scale. Means, Standard Deviations, Kurtosis, and Skewness Means and standard deviations as well as m easures of skewness and kurtosis for each of the scales are also reported (see Table 11) An overall inspection of the reported means for e ach scale revealed that individuals rated themselves highest in perceived competence and lowest in perceived task persistence. The scale means also revealed a score above neutral (above 4) for all three construct s. The levels of agreement for each 7 point scale w ere as follows: 1 = strongly disagree ( LCQ and TPMMP ) or not at all true ( PCS) 4 = neutral (LCQ and TPMMP) or somewhat true (PCS) and 7 = strongly agree ( LCQ and TPMMP ) or very true ( PCS ).
87 Task Persistence (TP) The overall m ean score for the per ceived task persistence scale was 4.94. Individuals rated their practice sessions highest in terms of challenge (5.35) and lowest in terms of length (3.99). TP had a positive kurtosis value of .50 and had a negative skewness of .63, both falling within ac ceptable range s. Perceived Competence (PC) and Perceived Autonomy Support (PA) Report the means and SDs for these scales. Positive kurtosis values for PC = 1.89, PA = 1.57, indicat ed a leptokurtic (peaked) distribution The negative skewness values PC = 1.29, PA = 1.32, indicat ed a negatively skewed distribution Kurtosis and skewness fell within acceptable ranges for perceived competence and perceived autonomy support. Table 1 1 Item Means, Standard Deviation, Kurtosis, and Skewness on PC, PA and TP Me asure M SD Kurtosis Skewness Perceived Competence (PC) 6.01 1.03 1.89 1.29 Perceived Autonomy Support ( PA ) 5.59 1.34 1.57 1.32 Task Persistence (TP ) 4.94 1.11 .50 .63 Note. N = 366 Measure means represents the average score on each mea sure that ranged from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. Question 1: What i s the degree of the relationship among p erceived a utonomy s upport c ompetence and task persistence ? To determine the relationship among perceived competence, autonomy support, and task persistence Pearson product moment correlation coefficients w ere comput ed
88 using mean scores from each of the three measures. All three constructs perceived competence autonomy support and task persistence were significantly correlate d with each another ( p < .001) The correlation coefficients ranged from .40 to .49 (see Table 12) As expected, perceived autonomy, competence and task persistence were positively correlate d; h owever, the correlations were moderate. Perceived autonomy acc ounted for 24 .3 % of the variance in perceived competence while p erceived autonomy support accounted for 17. 7 % of the variance in task persistence. Table 1 2 Correlations among Perceived Competence, Autonomy Suppor t and Task Persistence Variable P C PA Perceived Autonomy Support ( PA ) .49 Task Persistence (TP ) .40 .42 Note. N = 366 p < 01 PC = perceived competence; PA = perceived autonomy support; TP = task persistence Question 2: To what extent d oes perceived competenc e mediate the relationship between perceived autonomy support and task persistence? Perceived competence of applied music students was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between perceived autonomy support a n d task persistence. A path analysis was ut ilized to test this hypothesis. Perceived autonomy s upport is the exogenous variable in the model P erceived competence and task persistence are the endogenous variables. Perceived autonomy support is hypothesized to have a causal effect on
89 perceived compe tence and task persistence. One path in the model leads directly from perceived autonomy support to task persistence. This path reflects the direct effect of perceived autonomy on task persistence. A two stage path leads from perceived autonomy support to perceived competence and then to task persistence. The product of the path coefficients for these two paths yield s the magnitude of the indirect effect of perceived autonomy support as mediated by perceived competence on task persistence. The intercorrelat ions among the variables in the path model are reported in Table 12. Two regression models were run using multiple regression analyses. I n the first regression model, p erceived autonomy support was regressed on perceived competence The R value indicated that perceived autonomy support, accounted for 24 .3 % of the variance in the outcome variable, perceived competence. The resultant r elationship is statistically significant, R = .243, p < .001 The F value for the overall regression equation was F ( 1, 364) = 116.80, p < .001. The path coefficient was statistically significant, 0.49, p < .001 The path diagram is shown below in Figure 10 Figure 10 Path Diagram of PA, PC and TP Outcome variable = task persistence; media ting variable = perceived competence; predictor variable = perceived autonomy support
90 In the second regression model perceived autonomy support and perceived competence, were regressed on perceived task persistence T he overall regression model was sign ificant, R = 23 p < .001. The direct path from perceived competence to task persistence was statistically significant ( = .25, p < .001 ) The direct path from perceived autonomy support to task persistence was also statistically significant ( = .30, p < .001). Thus, t he direct path from perceived autonomy support to task persistence shows a zero order correlation of .42 ( see Table 12) and a significant path coefficient of .30 The final step of the path analyses was to determine the indirect path from perceived autonomy support to task persistence through perceived competence. The product of both path coefficients fr om pe rceived autonomy support to perceived competence a nd fr om perceived competence to task persistence was computed to obtain the indirect path coefficient of .12. Table 13 shows the decomposition of the zero order correlations. Table 13 Decomposition of Zero Order Correlations in Path Analyses Direct Indirect Pairs of Variables Causal Causal Total Effect Effect Effects r xy Perceived Autonomy Support, Perceived Competence .49 none .49 .49 Perceived Autonomy Support, Task Persistence .30 .12 .42 .42 Note. N =366
91 As is shown in Figure 10 the direct path from perceived autonomy to task persistence shows a zero order correlation of .42 and a significant path coefficient of .30. The indirect path from perceived autonomy support to task persistence through perceived competence yielded a significant path coefficient of .12. Thus, as is shown in Table 13, the zero order correlation of .42 between perceived autonomy support an d task persistence is composed of a direct causal effect of .30 and an indirect causal effect of .12. The results suggest that the correlation between perceived autonomy support and task persistence is accounted for by a strong direct effect of perceived a utonomy support on task persistence and a somewhat moderate indirect (mediating) effect of perceived competence on task persistence. Question 3: To what e xtent d oes s tudents sex and a ge p redict perceived t ask p ersistence ? Multiple regression analyses w ere conducted to determine the strength of the relationship between sex and age and the criterion variable, task persistence The combination of a ge and sex accounted for 1.8% of the variance in task persistence, R = .133, R = .018, p < 05. Age accounted fo r 1.7% of the variance in task persistence r = .13 2 r = 0 17 p < .05 while s ex showed no statistical significan ce with task persistence, r = .01 4 r = .00 0 p .05 Summary Based on the analys e s of the self report data that w ere collected from unde rgraduate music majors ( N = 366) at three public and three private universities in Florida perceived autonomy support was found to have a strong direct causal effect on
92 perceived task persistence while perceived competence was found to play a moderate med iating role between perceived autonomy support and perceived task persistence in musical practice, supporting the hypothesis. Thus, students who perceived that they had strong autonomy support in the applied studio setting are more likely to perceive thems elves as more highly task persistent than students who perceived that they had less autonomy support. Also, in the path model, student perceived competence was found to moderately mediate the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived task persisten ce. Thus, in the investigation of the relationship between perceived autonomy support and task persistence, the path analysis also revealed that something in addition to perceived autonomy support, namely perceived competence, served to explain the relatio nship between perceptions of autonomy support and task persistence. Finally, a ge was found to have a statistically significant relationship with perceived task persistence (p < .05) but the practical significance was very small
93 Chapter 5 Summary, Discu ssion and Recommendations Summary The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among undergraduate applied music student perceptions of autonomy support, competence and task persistence The resultant Pearson product moment c orrelatio n coefficients show ed s ignifica nce among perceived autonomy support, perceived competence, and perceived task persistence ( p < .001) Results of a path analysis suggest that perceived autonomy support bore a substantive direct effect on perceived task pers is tence and perceived competence was found to moderately mediate the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived task persistence. Age show ed a statically significant but substantively weak relationship with perceived task persistence Sex difference s are often studied in relation to perceptions of competence, academic achievement regulate (Pajares, 2002) In this study, sex and age were both examined in relation to persistence of practice. Sex did not show a significan t relationship with task persistence. Age shared only 1.7% of the variance in task persistence This suggests that these demographics have little influence on perceived task persistence compared with perceived autonomy support and perceived competence
94 Di scussion The literature on SDT posited that autonomy and competence were both necessary conditions to sustain persistence (Deci & Ryan, 2008). I t was hypothesized in this study that perceived competence mediated the relation ship between perceived autonomy support and task persistence M ultiple regression analyses show ed that p erceived competence mediated the relationship between perceived autonomy support and task persistence moderately ( = .12 ) The correlation between perceived autonomy support and task persistence is accounted for by a strong direct effect between perceived autonomy support on task persistence This may suggest that t hose social contexts which support the basic needs o f competence and autonomy w ould likely facilitate intrinsic motivation which is necessary towards persistence in musical practice The review of the literature on educational and psychological learning theories resulted in a new cognitive motivational mode l SRDF ( s ee Figure s 1 and 2) for the practice session. A pplied studio teachers may apply relevant pedagogical approaches that could aid in the self determination of the undergraduate music major within the learning climate of the applied studio setting. Un less instructors become aware of the importance of autonomy and competence on persistence, they may not value or contribute to wards enhanc ing these self perception s Jorgensen (2002 2007), Kostka (2002), and Miksza (2007) endorsed preparing students to pr actice as a component of applied music instruction. Jorgensen (2007) posited that one of the most important objectives in musical training is to develop a repertory of practice strategies D ocumenting the required tasks, strategies, assignments
95 and short term goals represent s a written resource for engaging in practice ( s ee Figure 7) Sierens and others (2009) reported that teachers who provided systematic structure in the form of guidelines and strategies, fostered self regulated learning (SRL) necessary for competence. SRL was correlated with p erceived a utonomy support ( r = .25), cognitive strategy use ( r = .59) and structure ( r = .35) Based on the significant correlation between perceived autonomy support and competence in the present study ( r = .49) s tructuring practice along with strategies in an autonomy supportive environment may help to increase perceived competence in undergraduate applied music students necessary for persistence in musical practice Applied music students initially seek a parti cular instructor for their ability as a performer; therefore, they are more likely to internalize extrinsic sources of motivation from the instructor who is capable of communicating the rationale behind the learning process and assigned activities. Consist ent with the literature cited on SDT deliberate practice (DP) and the flow theory (FT) p rovisions for enhancing autonomy and competence should include meaningful rationale for learning activities acknowledging the role of the student in the learning pro cess, and challenging tasks that are relevant to the intrinsic needs of students As discussed in chapter s one and two, the educator must provide meaningful rationale for specific goals before students w ould internalize the activity as their own (Deci et al., 1994). Step one of the SRDF model is to i nternalize intrinsic goal content: a dopt proximal (short term) subgoals that meet/reflect present needs ( s ee Figure s 1 and 2)
96 Implications of the Study Based upon the results of this study and the principles of SDT, the applied studio teacher might consider cultivating an autonomy supportive context for the applied studio setting, such as establish ing a relationship that promotes a regular exchange of ideas with mutual respect (Lehmann et al. 2007) informati onal f eedback and a systematic structure for independent practice Since competence was found to mediate the relation between perceived autonomy support and task persistence, finding ways to enhance perceived competence may be beneficial. One technique th at was emphasized in SDT, FT, and DP was the importance of instructor feedback. Sierens and others (2009) described optimal feedback as c ompetence relevant feedback p. 59) in that the content is informational sincere, and non judgmental (Stone, Deci & Ryan, 2008 p. 27). A second technique to improve perceived competence discussed under SDT, was e xpress ing co nfidence in as part of an autonomy supportive environment Thirdly, structure, such as providing learners with how to accompli sh their goals, may help students to follow through with self regulation and thus satisf y the need for competence (Sierens et al., 2009) Recommendations to Applied Studio Teachers The b asic psychological needs of undergraduate applied music students su ch as autonomy and competence, may be re flect ed in the amount of persistence th at is appl ied during practice sessions Individuals rated themselves lowest in task persistence ( M = 4.94 ) and highest in perceived competence ( M = 6.01 ) Since perceived autono my support was significantly correlated with task persistence ( r = .42 p < .001), and perceived aut onomy support has accounted
97 for 17. 7 % of the variance in task persistence, t he applied studio teacher may facilitate persistence by encouraging self regulat ion and self monitoring to put the learner in control of practice (Glaser, 2000). The r esults of this study are consistent with the implications from the literature and therefore, principles suggested in this body of the literature not specific to music l earning may be applicable to applied music studio settings The strength of the correlation s between perceived autonomy support and task persistence ( r = .42) and between p erceived competence and task persistence ( r = .40) s uggest that a pplied studio teach ers should consider the following to foster an environment for engagement : ( a ) acknowledge that individuals are enabled towards change an d growth (Reilly & Lewis, 1983) ( b ) recognize that students naturally seek to organiz e the resources they are provided within the undergraduate applied studio setting in order to satisfy the requirements of the course ( c ) p rovide strategies to assist the student with resources when obstacles are encountered during independent practice sessions (d) provide clear, attaina ble and relevant proximal goals and do cument them on a weekly basis ( s ee Figure 7 ) and ( e ) consider t he intrinsic objectives of undergraduate applied music students when selecting the proxim al goals and practice materials The applied studio teacher may be more likely to recognize and validate the intrinsic needs of the student, such as individual concerns and self interests, by active communication. In support of the cognitive load theory (CLT), practice materials and expectations that appear redundant o r irrelevant to the immediate goals might be considered a threat to progress. Sample practice strategies may assist students when effectively responding to obstacles that may occur during
98 practice. The emphasis on performance achievement over the intrinsic goals may likely reduce the level of personal commitment. A controlling context was found to decrease intrinsic motivation and, consequently lower persistence (Deci & Ryan, 2000) Ryan and others (1997) related autonomy to the inherent abilit y of individuals to purposefully direct themselves in Perceived autonomy support was found to have a direct effect on persistence in the multiple regression analysis ( = .30 p < .001 ). According to cognitive load theory (CLT) and SDT, some of the ways to foster an autonomy support ive context include : (a) removing redundant tasks and materials that may contribute towards cognitive load ( b ) v erify ing that the assignments and expectatio ns are attainable ( c ) acknowledging student perspectives and personal goals before charting the expectations ( d ) a void making comparisons with other students with in the applied studio setting and ( e ) avoid coercive statements or consequences Recommen dations to Applied Music Students. The key elements of the deliberate practice approach (DP) w ere found to promote individual progress in the domains of sport, medicine, chess, and others (Ericsson et al., 1993). The literature supported the importance of metacognitive awareness on competence, content absorption and effectiveness of instruction (Glaser, 2000; Winne, 1995). Since the results of this study support the literature in DP, t h is researcher has adapted and expand ed on the principles of DP to inco rporate the theory of optimal experience from the flow theory (FT) specifically for applied music students It would be reasonable to encourage autonomous
99 self regulat ion during the applied music practice session in the following sequence : ( 1 ) identify su bgoals for immediate attention and focus, (2) s eek self recording or peer feedback, ( 3 ) f ocus on techniques that a ccomplish the repair ( 4 ) strategize to repair obstacles ( 5 ) r epeat and refine, and ( 6 ) e valuate and compare progress to goals (Troum, 2006 2009 ). The literature on goal theory (GT) suggested th e importance of goals across domains as an incentive to learning. Goal setting and the evaluation of goal outcomes were viewed as most significant when striving for efficient practice (Lehmann, 1997) R eflect ing adjust ing and record ing the immediate goals under the supervision of the applied studio teacher as specifi ed in the SRDF model ( s ee Figure s 1 and 2) may help in maintain ing individual focus on the tasks at hand A n understand ing of the tasks involved to ward achiev ing the assigned goals as well as the relevance of said goals may increase individual satisfaction Satisfying practice is t hat which student s deem purposeful. Recommendations to Music Educators Each step that was incorporated in t h e SRDF model (Figure s 1 and 2) was uniformly supported by six learning theories which were posited to increase motivation across domains. Tollefson (2000) recommended that pre service and in service educational training should include motivation theory to both engage the student and encourage student competence. T use theories of motivation to analyze their interactions with students and to develop llingness to expand effort in ach ievement In addition, courses on practice motivation may e mpower music educators to direct undergraduate applied music students
100 to realize their individual capabilities and evolve as self regulated l earners in the practice room. A large number of studies under SDT implied that perceived autonomy support, perceived competence, and relatedness promoted intrinsic motivation in the classroom ( Levesque et al 2004 ). Since perceived autonomy support, compe tence, and task persistence showed a statistically significant relationship in this study ( p < .001), applied studio teacher preparation might include the pedagogical approaches toward establishing an autonomy supportive context in the classroom and in the applied studio dyad. Recommendations for Fu r t her Research T here are few known studies available on the role of competence in achievement motivation towards applied music study to support new techniques, tools and contexts that foster competence motivat ion in undergraduate applied music students Kennell (2002) s tated The scarcity of experimental studies dealing with the instruction techniques of studio instruction demonstrates that our understanding of studio music 49). Th e present study used a correlational design to examine relationships among perceived autonomy support, competence and task persistence. Since correlation does not establish causation, a n experimental causal comparative design is needed to investiga te the causal effect of cognitive strategies for practice on the dependent variables, competence and persistence in undergraduate applied music students. SDT posited that individuals have a fundamental need to self behavior ( Deci & Ryan, 2000) Documenting relevant proximal goals and strategies
101 contributes toward the systematic structure that may assist students toward the self regulation of practice ( Maehr et al., 2002; Mik sz a, 2007) It would be worthy to pursue a study us ing t wo treatment groups subjected to an autonomy supportive learning environment one group with written structure and practice strategies and the other group would use uncontrolled verbal structure and practice strategies. Group I (with structure) would receive recorded (written) documentation of relevant proximal goals and tasks along with the model of self regulated deliberate flow (SRDF) ( s ee Figure s 1 and 2) Group II (without structure) would receive relevant proximal goals and tasks transmitted ver bally with an undocumented structure The basic human needs framework of the self determination theory was found to apply across cultures (Ryan & Deci, 2006 ; Stone et al., 2008 ) ; therefore, research samples with varied social characteristics, such as ethn icity, national origin, and social economic status, should be obtained for further comparisons In addition the majority of the sample in this study was limited to a narrow age range, but SDT was posited across the entire age span (Deci et al., 1991) ; the refore, samples from age groups other than undergraduates, should be sought. Future studies on the main constructs could be verified by data triangulat ion with an observational method S tudent completed practice records /recordings that document the quant ity of practice and practice behaviors could be compared with app lied studio teacher or primary researcher observation of performance skill Subsequently, comparisons c ould be made between the self reported student perceptions and the behavioral data for r eliability One such example of data triangulation is a study that evaluated the quantity of practice with the quality of performance skill using record ed
102 practice sessions and instructor evaluati ons of performance skill (Williamon & Valentine, 2000). Jor gensen (2000) learned that a majority of applied music students expressed the need for training for practice. Kostka (2002) posited that the addition of structure during practice might result in a more pleasurable experience and long term musical study. T h e relationship of structure to the self satisfaction of practice may be of interest for further investigation concerning the quantity of practice that follows A h igh level of self regulation is advantageous in music performance according to McPherson and McCormick ( 2006 ) Since applied studio teachers generally expect undergraduate music students to be autonomous and therefore, self regulating during independent practice, the extent to which applied music students report that they are self regulated learne rs may be a valid construct to measure and investigate further Studying the causal comparative and correlational results of structure on the enjoyment of practice, the extent of self reported self regulation, and a goal directed praxis on perceived compe tence and task persistence may impart new perspectives on the training of undergraduate applied music students and music educators Furthermore, i t is hoped that these future studies may also inspire more widespread application of motivational learning the or y towards productive practice and performance skill acquisition.
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121 Ap pendix A: Electronic Consent Form Dear Instrumental and Vocal Student, You have been selected to participate in a 5 minute study on the topic of musical practice as an undergraduate music student who has completed at least one semester of applied vocal or instrumental study with an applied music instructor. Your university has approved this dissertation study to encourage research in the area of mu sical practice and expertise. You may gain more understanding about why and how you pursue practice by completing the three questionnaires that follow. Your participation in this study is completely voluntary and confidential. Click the Next button belo w to begin the online questionnaires. Best wishes on your musical progress, Julie F. Troum, researcher Ph.D. Candidate in Music Education, University of South Florida Page 1
122 A ppendix B: Demographics Questionnaire M usical Practice Questionnaires Page 2 1. Select Gender : Male Female 2. Age: Please type your age using numerals below: 3. Primary Instrument: Vocal Instrumental (no voice)
123 Appendix C: Perceived Autonomy Support ( LCQ ) Musical Practice Question naires Page 3 Perceived Autonomy Support This questionnaire contains items that are related to your experience with your applied music instructor. Instructors have different styles in dealing with students, and I would like to know more ab out how you have felt about your encounters with your instructor. Your responses are confidential. Please be honest and candid. 4. Learning Climate strongly disagree 1 2 3 neutral 4 5 6 strongly agree 7 a) I feel that my appl ied music instructor provides me with choices and options about what I practice. b) I feel understood by my applied music instructor. c) My applied music instructor conveys confidence in my ability to do we ll in the course. d) My applied music instructor encourages me to ask questions. e) My applied music instructor listens to how I would like to do things. f) My applied music instruc tor tries to understand how I see things before suggesting a new way to do things. strongly disagree 1 2 3 neutral 4 5 6 strongly agree 7
124 Appendix D: Task Persistence Measure of Musical Practice (TP MMP ) Musical Practice Questionnaires Page 4 Task Persistence Directions: Indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following statements by selecting one number from 1 7. Choose the number that corresponds to the personal commitment you apply toward your practice sessions. Please be as accurate as possible in indicating your personal responses. Definitions: "Practice Sessions" is defined as the time spent privately working on your lesson assignments. 5. My practice sessions can be described as: strongly disagree 1 2 3 neutral 4 5 6 strongly agree 7 a) lengthy. b) focused. c) intensive. d) challenging. e) self satisfying. f) enjoyable. g) dedicated. strongly disagree 1 2 3 neutral 4 5 6 strongly agree 7
125 Appendix E : Perceived Competence (PCS) Page 5 Perceived Competence Directions: Please respond to each of the following items in terms of how true it is for you with respect to your learning in your applied music course. Please be as ac curate as possible in indicating your personal responses using the scale. 6. Perceived Competence not at all true 1 2 3 somewhat true 4 5 6 very true 7 a) I feel confident in my ability to learn the lesson materials. b) I am capable of learning the lesson materials in this course. c) I am able to achieve my goals in this course through practice. d) I feel able to meet the challenge of performing well in this course.
126 About the Author At the time of publication, Julie F. Troum is the general music instructor at Lake Mary Montessori Academy in Central Florida. She has served as adjunct faculty in the area of elementary music methods at the University of Central Florida in Orlando from 2004 2008 and at Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida in 2008 T he preliminary proposal of this paper was presented at S EMPRE in Sheffield, England in 2007, at ISME : World C onference in Bologna, Italy in 2008 and at the 2 nd European Conference of Developmental Psychology of Music in London in 2008. Following her guest speaking engagement at the Chicago Flute Club Flute Festival in November of 2009 and at the New York Flute F air in March of 2010 Dr. Troum has Self cognitive approach towards organized practice along with ways to encourage musica l persistence Born in Chicago, Illinois, as Julie Faith Cohen, she now resides in Orlando, Florida, with her husband, Mark S. Troum, Esquire.