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Local environmental perceptions and cognitive and affective learning in a rural, andean community in mollepata, peru
h [electronic resource] /
by Luisella Mazzone-De-Angelis.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
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Thesis (M.S.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
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ABSTRACT: This study examines the linkages between environmental field trips and cognitive and affective gains in two groups of homogenous elementary-aged students in Mollepata, Peru. One group participated in an environmental field trip to a local, non-profit farm (Aprodes) to explore watershed and agricultural issues. The second group received the same content within the classroom setting. The research also examines the environmental perceptions of local residents via semi-formal open-ended interviews to assess their environmental awareness and their willingness to receive environmental education services from an outside organization. Data were collected both quantitatively and qualitatively via pre and post tests containing science content and environmental attitudes items; pre and post student journals and parent and teacher interviews. Data were analyzed within the framework of the United Nation's goals of environmental education in the Belgrade Charter (1975) and within the context of theories on human-nature relationships. Students in the field trip group scored slightly better in the cognitive portion of the tests though differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, slight gains in pro-environment attitudes occurred in the field trip group over the classroom groups though overall results for both groups were nearly identical. Parents and teachers are moderately aware of environmental problems within the town but do not equate agricultural problems of synthetic chemical usage or other agricultural related problems cited to broader watershed issues. They consistently desire for their children to receive advanced educations in the city so that they become better than their parents. Adults interviewed placed a high value on education and claimed to welcome an outside group providing environmental education to the entire community. The data indicates a need for additional environmental knowledge and awareness and that students in rural, Andean settings may benefit from structured classroom lessons paired with experiential experiences outside of the classroom. It is the researcher's firm belief that addressing cognitive and affective growth with regards to environmental education will collectively contribute to developing a world population that is aware and concerned for the environment and the knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivation and commitment to work toward solutions to and prevention of environmental problems.
Advisor: Philip Reeder, Ph.D.
x Geography & Env Sci & Policy
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Local Environmental Perceptions and Cogn itive and Affective Learning in a Rural, Andean Community in Mollepata, Peru By Luisella Mazzone De Angelis A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Department of Environmental Science and Policy College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Philip Reeder, Ph.D. Joseph Dorsey, Ph.D. Graham Tobin, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 12, 2010 Keywords: experiential learni ng, environmental attitudes, out-of-school excursions Copyright 2010 Luisella Mazzone De Angelis
Dedicacin Esta investigacin se dedica a la gente de Mollepata que me ha dado la bienvenida en su comunidad desde que era nia. sta es la misma ciudad que acogi a mi abuelo maternal, Horacio Tamayo Jordania desde la niez. A mi familia Tamayo, les agradezco a todos por su tiempo, paciencia, amor y apoyo. Mi encanto con el Cusco y con Mollepata en particular proviene directamen te de mi amor profundo por ustedes. Le agradezco especialmente a Tia Gloria Tamayo de Ramos por alojarme en su hogar y por alimentarme con cuentos y danzas tradiciona les (por Jim Morrison y Pink Floyd tambin) y por ser una de mis amigas ms estimadas y mi segunda madre. A mi prima Fanny Castelo Tamayo por sus traducciones exigen tes. A Enrique Castelo Tamayo por su amistad, confianza y apoyo eterno y a Maria Luz Castelo Tamayo por estimular algunas de las mismas preguntas que in tento contestar aqu. Otro agra decimiento especial va a mi prima Ingrid Roxana Tamayo Machicado por fa cilitar el acceso a los profesores, a los padres y a los estudiantes de David Saman ez Ocampo en Mollepata y por compartir su hogar y su mesa con mi hijo Andres y conmigo. Mi trabajo no hubiera podido ser realizado sin su entusiasmo y ayuda. Gracias a los nios de Mollepata por jugar conmigo y con Andres en su comunidad hermosa. A mis padres, Doris y Eduardo Gonzlez, gracias por su ayuda financiera y a mi mam particularmente por cultivar las relaciones profundas cuales ahora comparto con mi familia en Per. Soy infinitamente agradecida por ambos. A mi hijo, Andres, que no puede t odava leer estas palabr as, le agradezco por su amor incondicional y la energa y al egra que trae a todo lo que hace. Es verdaderamente contagioso y ha sido a menudo una fuente de gran fuerza durante esta investigacin. A mis mejores amigas, Rikki Jean Voss, Ka tie Culbert y Mishou Snchez y a mi nuevo amigo, Peter Torres Castro, por su apoyo incansable y simplemente por compartir los mejores das de mi vida conmigo. Por ultimo, un agradecimiento especial a mi primo y amigo, Luis Eduardo Castelo Tamayo, por compartir su amor por los diferentes parajes de Mollepata y por pres tarme sus alas de modo que pueda apreciar mejor los paisajes variados de su tierra querida cuales nunca hubier a descubierto sin l.
Acknowledgment I would like to acknowledge Dr. Philip Reeder of the Environmental Science & Policy Department at the University of South Florida Tampa Campus for the countless hours spent poring over and editing my thesis and making it a better body of work. I appreciate your willingness to work with me on the res earch of my choice and for helping find the way to secure funding and make it happen. To Dr. Dorsey of the Environmental Science & Policy Department at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg Campus, thank you for being so darn likeable, passionate and easy to talk to. You provoked me to think beyond my research and reminded me why I want ed to do it in the first place. To Dr. Tobin Associate Vice President of Academic A ffairs at the Univers ity of South Florida Tampa Campus, thank you for your willingne ss to come onboard my committee on short notice and for your kind words. Also, a special acknowledgment goes to Giovani Luciano, Director of Aprodes Cusco, for allowing me such easy and welcoming access to your farm. The work you are doing there is beautiful. I look forw ard to many future visits. To your technicians, a huge thank you for their willingness to take on a school group at a moments notice and for spending time with me and with the students to help us understand the mission of Aprodes and the value of our Mollepatan watershed. Lastly, I would be remiss not to me ntion The Florida Aquarium in Tampa, Florida where my passion for environmental educati on grew and eventually influenced this research. To my former boss and curre nt friend, Debbi Stone, Vice President of EducationI cannot thank you enough for the opportunity to teach about the natural world I so dearly love with teachers and st udents all over the state and for the time to complete my research in Peru. If not for your understanding and flex ibility, this research may have never become a reality.
i Table of Contents List of Tables iii List of Figures iv Abstract v Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Chapter 2: Literature Review 6 Environmental Field trip Effects on Related Content Retention and Affective Learning 6 Global Evolution of and Goals of Environmental Education 7 Human-Nature Relationships 9 Learning in Nature 12 The Benefits of Informal Field Trips fo r Student Learning 15 What Promotes Effective Learni ng within the Context of a Field Trip? 17 Key Experiences 17 Active Learning 17 Authentic Science 18 Chapter 3: The Study Area 20 Chapter 4: Research Design and Methodology 24 Research Design 24 Methodology 24 Sampling 25 Consent to Participate in Study 27 Quantitative Analysis 28 Qualitative Analysis 29 Chapter 5: Results and Analysis 32 Cognitive Data: Pre and Post Test Results 32 Affective Data: Pre and Post Test Results 36 Analysis of Pre and Post Journal Data 38 Analysis of Adult Interviews Data 41 Discussion 45 Future Considerations 47
Chapter 6: Conclusions 49 References 54 Appendices 57 Appendix A: Pre and Post Tests 58 Appendix B: Interview Questions for Parents and Teachers 60 Appendix C: Interview Responses for Selected Questions 61 Appendix D: Additional Photographs of Study Area 64 ii
iii List of Tables Table 1 Percent Corre ct on Pre and Post Test for Both Groups 33 Table 2 Pre and Post Test Re sults for Pro-Environment Statement Ratings for Field Trip Group (n=25) 37 Table 3 Pre and Post Test Results for Pro-Environment Statement Ratings for Classroom Group (n=31) 37 Table 4 Interview Responses for Selected Interview Questions (n=21) 41
iv List of Figures Figure 1 The Apurimac River as Seen from Mollepata 2 Figure 2 The Researcher's Son Exploring a Family-owned Orchard 11 Figure 3 Map of Peru 20 Figure 4 The Salkantay peak's melt water is Mollepata's primary source of water for dr inking and irrigation. 21 Figure 5 Research Fr amework for Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Data 25 Figure 6 Percent of Corr ect Post Test Student Responses for Core Content Related Items 34 Figure 7 "I agr ee" Percentages for Post Test Ratings for Selected ProEnvironment Statements for Field Trip and Classroom Groups 38
v Local Environmental Perceptions and Cogn itive and Affective Learning in a Rural, Andean Community in Mollepata, Peru Luisella Mazzone De Angelis ABSTRACT This study examines the linkages betw een environmental field trips and cognitive and affective gains in two groups of homogenous elementary-aged students in Mollepata, Peru. One group participated in an environmen tal field trip to a lo cal, non-profit farm (Aprodes) to explore watershed and agricu ltural issues. The second group received the same content within the classroom sett ing. The research also examines the environmental perceptions of local residents via semi-formal open-ended interviews to assess their environmental awareness and th eir willingness to receive environmental education services from an outside organization. Data were collected both quantitative ly and qualitatively via pre and post tests containing science content and environmen tal attitudes items; pre and post student journals and parent and teacher interviews. Data were analyzed w ithin the framework of the United Nations goals of e nvironmental education in the Belgrade Charter (1975) and within the context of theories on human-nature relationships. Students in the field trip group scored slightly better in the c ognitive portion of the tests though differences were not statistically signifi cant. Similarly, slight gains in proenvironment attitudes occurred in the fiel d trip group over the classroom groups though overall results for both groups were nearly id entical. Parents and teachers are moderately aware of environmental problem s within the town but do not equate agricultural problems of synthetic chemical usage or other agri cultural related proble ms cited to broader watershed issues. They consistently desi re for their children to receive advanced educations in the city so that they become better than their parents. Adults interviewed
vi placed a high value on education and claime d to welcome an outside group providing environmental education to the entire community. The data indicates a need for additional environmental knowledge and awaren ess and that students in rural, Andean settings may benefit from structured classroom lessons paired with experiential experiences outside of the classroom. It is the researchers firm belief that addressing cognitive a nd affective growth with regards to environmental education will colle ctively contribute to developing a world population that is aware and concerned for the environment and the knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivation and commitment to work toward solutions to and prevention of environmental problems.
1 LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL PERCE PTIONS AND COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE LEARNING IN A R URAL, ANDEAN COMMUNITY IN MOLLEPATA, PERU Luisella Mazzone De Angelis CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Historically, agricultural communities used traditional, organic methods of fertilizing their crops and avoiding insect pests. Today, in many of parts of the world, even rural communities like Mollepata, Peru, synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides are being used (M.L. Castelo, Personal communication, 2 009) with no regard for or knowledge of the potential long-term impact s on the local watershed. Traditional, non-toxic methods are being are being abandoned in favor of chemical farming techniques. Natural resource assets such as melt water from mountain top glaciers flush these chemicals throughout the local watershed in Mollepata, and eventually to the Apurimac River (See Figure 1). Besides providing wild life habitat, this river valley draws adventure-seeking tourists because of its high ly regarded rapids (Egg and Benites, 2006) and thus it is a source of in come for the local community. Some negative consequences of thes e new, chemically-based agricultural methods have been noticed by local residents, such as the disappearance of frogs, and the increase of crop damaging pests. Other consequences of chemical farming, such as soil and water contamination, are less immediat ely apparent, but are also damaging to the long-term sustainability of Mollepata. This research pr ovides a first step towards solutions for the disconnect between farming practices that utilize synthetic chemicals and the environments degradation (M. L. Castelo, personal communication, 2009).
With a background in environmental education and environmental science, the principal investigator for this research utilized the local elementary school as a starting point for the assessment of attitudes toward the environment and the reintroduction of environmentally friendly practices. How to justify such an effort without documented need or desire from the community presented a potential problem. Additionally, how to provide such education opportunities, if it was Figure 1. The Apurimac River as Seen from Mollepata determined to be feasible, was also a (L.E. Castelo, 2009) concern. After consulta tion with one of the school teachers in Mollepata, a solution was arrived at that allowe d us to address our desire to assess the students level of environm ental awareness, to educate the students in some of the basic concepts of environmenta l science, and in the long term, which is beyond the scope of this study, to potentially curb environmentally damaging agricultural practices in the future, and promote a hi gher level of environmental understanding. This research determines the rela tionships that exist between a short-duration environmental education field tr ip and cognitive and affective learning in a rural, Andean town in Cusco, Peru. Additionally, I determined parents and teachers perception of any environmental problems in the town and th eir openness to an outside group providing additional environmental learning opportunitie s to their children or students. By investigating the effects of out-of-school field trips, versus standard classroom instruction of basic watershed concepts, this research sought to as certain which learning method is most effective in promoting e nvironmental awareness and understanding for the study population. Additionally, teacher and parent attitudes toward the environment were assessed to gauge their level of unde rstanding and their at titudes towards the environment. The collection of this type of data as part of this research also bolsters 2
3 future efforts to provide environmental e ducation opportunities to the local community, via an outside group or agency, such as a non-governmental organization (NGO). Perus own Ministry of Education recognizes that learning is a communal process; that it does not take place onl y in the classroom. Learning, specifically with regards to the development of an environmental consciousness, is a socio-cultural phenomenon potentially taking place through associat ions with businesses, non-governmental organizations, indigenous groups, social and sporting clubs, univ ersities, artists studios, cultural and tourism centers and political parties, to name a few (www2.minedu.gob.pe). Within the last 30 years, farmers in Mollepata have begun using synthetic chemicals for pest control and for fertilizing their cr ops. For as many years, I have visited Mollepata, and have noticed environmental a nd social changes within the town, which became apparent approximately 10 years ago. Non-organic litter clogs the stream running near the town square, and is scattered along the streets. Disposable bags, plastic bottles and wrappers littering the town are now commonplace. More recently, local citizens reported that frogs have disappeared from the towns landscape, and that nonbeneficial insects have been infesting fru it trees, and other fruit and vegetable bearing plants. Add to this the gr adual disappearance of mountai n top glaciers in the region, through global warming, and the results are potentially disastrous for the population of Mollepata and other nearby communities, all of which rely heavily on glacial melt water for irrigation and drinking water supplies. Additionally, these same local citizens have not mentioned a potential connection between synthetic chemical usage and the disappearance of frogs or incr eased crop pests, perhaps indi cating a disconnect from the realities of their agricultural pursuits and degradation of the environment. If agriculture in Mollepata fails, the town will cease to exist in its current form. As my ancestral home, and as an important agricultural center, I ask, can I play a role in avoiding further environmental degradation? I contend that field trips in the loca l communitys natural ar eas, along with increased locally-based environmental education on the water cycle, water conservation, sustainable agriculture and global warming, fo r example, could potentially minimize the negative impacts of some of the above mentione d factors, and thus as sist in preserving the areas natural environment and the comm unitys livelihood. Putting this idea into
4 practice can start with assessi ng the level of environmental awareness that the local school children possess, and building upon this ba se of knowledge to eventually establish a tradition of sustainable practices with in the community. This, in addition to APRODES, a local farm that provides assistance to local gr owers from seed to product sales, could have a positive impact on sust ainable agricultural pr actices and watershed conservation in Mollepata. This research also adds to the littl e studied relationship betw een out-of-school learning experiences and cognitive and a ffective learning. While the ma jority of studies included in the current body of literature support that cognitive and affective gains do take place following field trip experiences, this field of research is relatively new. Most of the studies available have focused solely on sc ientific content know ledge gains with the complete exclusion of affective learning. This research addresses bot h areas of learning to add to the growing body of evidence and to ad dress the current researchs lack of data on affective learning. Research Questions The research questions for this thesis are: 1. Do short-duration field trips increase elementary school student science-related content retention and positive attitu des towards the environment? 2. Do parents and teachers in the commun ity recognize potential environmental threats and the consequences of watershed contamination? 3. Are parents and teachers likely to support efforts to increase environmental awareness in their children via outside sour ces working with the school? Objectives The overall objectives of the research are: 1. To determine if students participating in an out-o f-school environmental education field trip score better on cognitive content-related items and have a positive change in attitude towa rds the environment over thei r peers receiving only standa rd classroom curriculum.
5 2. To determine if parents a nd teachers of the students in the study perceive any environmental problems with regard to wate rshed issues and if they would look favorably on increased environmental education opportunities for their children via local community excursions. 3. To determine if parents and teachers will welcome an outside group (for example, a non-governmental organization) providing the above mentioned educational experiences to their children.
6 CHAPTER 2 THE LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this review of the liter ature is to provide an overview of what is currently known, and what questions remain, in areas related to retention and effective learning about the environment. The current state of knowledge related to the role that field experiences play in learning about the environment, human and nature relationships, informal learning and concepts of active learning are assessed as well. As a result of this review, the shortcomings and strong points of previous res earch in these areas become evident. It also delineates research needs, as indicated by the literature, with the aim to optimize and document field trip related cont ent retention, as well as positive affective learning outcomes. Additionally, this research provides a basis for recommending and implementing local, community based environmen tal learning strategies into the current school curriculum in Mollepata. Environmental Field Trip Effects on Re lated Content Retention and Affective Learning Science education is by and large restricted to indoor, formal classroom activities and science laboratories in the school setting. While these formal classroom experiences teach basic scientific concepts the real science processes a nd complexity of scientific discoveries are left out Add to this, formal educatio ns nearly complete ignorance of learning taking place outside of schools and what results is a student population disinterested in science (Braund and Reiss, 2006) and disconnected from the out-ofschool world as places of learning. School age students spend approximatel y 2/3 of their waking lives outside of the formal education environment, yet formal e ducation has largely igno red the potential for learning out there (Braund et al.., 2006). Ye t, all too often, stude nts and adults alike
7 perceive that learning stops once school le ts out. Educators should consider that an individuals education encomp asses all of their experiences in addition to the formal classroom setting (Braund et al., 2006). Field trips can serve as a bridge for the continuance of learning in a variety of environments and science related subject matter (Braund and Reiss, 2006) that can extend we ll beyond the formal school age years into adulthood. A case can be made for supplementing formal science education with informal out-ofschool visits to places such as farms, local water bodies and local natural areas. Over 20 million students worldwide attend informal environmental field trips to places such as aquariums, zoos or local nature centers in addition to receiving regular classroom instruction (Knapp and Barrie, 2001). Cogn itive and affective learning following field trips are well documented in the literature (Knapp and Barri e, 2001; Farmer et al., 2007; Bitgood, 1989; Braund et al., 2006; Hamilton-Ekeke, 2007) and support the inclusion of such excursions as supplements to the standard curriculum. In spite of this, some school districts across the United States and in Peru have severely limited the number of school year field trips. In Hillsborough County (the largest school distri ct in the state of Florida), for example, teachers are limited to only one or two field trips per school year (D. Gonzalez, Personal Communication, 2009). In Cusco, Peru, out-of-sc hool field trips are similarly limited to one school day per year (R. Tamayo, via email contact, 2009). One has to wonder how these limited experiences in the community via informal learning opportunities impact learning outcomes outlined by local or national learning standards and how these experiences may positively influence environmentally responsible behavior in the future. Global Evolution of and Goals of Environmental Education The evolution of environmental educa tion (EE) on the global stage formally began in 1972, with a report from the United Nations (UN) Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. This report ma rks the first formal recognition, known as Recommendation 96, of the need to establis h an international, interdisciplinary EE program targeting the general public of all ages in rural and urban communities and within formalized educational facilities and the community at large, each according to its
8 culture, abilities and resources. Recommendation 96 establishes program guidelines that include the inventory of current pedagogical practice and educational systems as well as the training and retraining of interdisciplinary professionals (including teachers). The exchange and discrimination of research on educational systems and experimentation in teaching as well as the development and evaluation of new approaches in EE are considered essential components of this gl obal change, along with the formation of an international panel of experts from different sectors of environm ental disciplines to encourage the exchange of experiences among countries with similar environmental and developmental conditions (p.2). Stemming from the identification of EE needs on a global scale, the UN subsequently adopted the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order (1974) which specifically, and for the first tim e, addressed problems of development and raw materials. Though concerned primarily w ith the development of equitable economic practices, this declaration includes the need for creation of indigenous technology, an end to natural resource waste and the sharing of modern science and technology to benefit developing countries and to promote better livi ng conditions with the end of realizing the human dignity of all peoples (p. 3). Through this declaration, the link between natural resources, economic development and quality of life was established within the international community. One year later, The Belgrade Charter (1975) set guiding principles, objectives and target populations for a common EE agenda. According to the United Nations Educa tional, Scientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO) Belgrade Charter: A Global Framework for Environmental Education (1975), environmental education should ex amine the total environment in terms of natural and man-made, ecological, political, eco nomic, technological, social, legislative, cultural and esthetic (p.4) components; should be life-l ong (both in and out-of-school), and interdisciplinary; should focus on active involvement seeking to prevent and solve environmental problems of the present and th e future; should consid er major threats to environmental integrity from a global perspe ctive while promoting the values and needs of local, national and international players in providing solutions; and should examine all development and growth from an envir onmental perspective (p. 4). In short, UNESCO calls for nothing less than a new global ethic (p.1) encompassing respect for
9 the perspectives, resources, needs and challenges of all States as well as the imperative need for the global community to consider hum anitys place in the biosphere with the end of pursuing equitable and sustainable use and management of the worlds collective natural resources to promote peace, coexisten ce and positive, comparable quality of life among all people (p.1). Here the call to acti on is for each nation to identify actions that will contribute to social and individual harmony the biosphere and human-made environment and the definition of a quality of lif e within the environmenta l context (p.2) Environmental education (EE) seeks to ch ange the behavior of individuals in how they interact and perceive the environment. U nderstanding environmental concepts and each persons place in the environment, promoting pro-environment valu es and behaviors and, ultimately, the creation of environmentally cons cious persons who take an active role in environmental protection in its social, econom ic and ecological context are the primary goals of this pedagogy (United States EPA, 2009). In a global context, the goal of environmental education is to develop a world population that is aware of, and concerned about, the environment and its associated problems and which has the knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivations and commitment to work individually and collectively toward solutions of current problems and preven tion of new ones (UNESCO, 1975, p.3). Environmental education carries the burdens of global sustainabilit y, the responsibility of motivating individual action and the promise of healthier and more equitably distributed natural resources. In spite of EEs lofty expecta tions as the most critical element[s] of an all-out attack on the worlds envir onmental crisis (UNESCO, 1975, p.2), this branch of education has largely acted independently of the context of humannature relationships. Human-Nature Relationships To achieve the goals of EE, one must examine how humans develop relationships with and learn in nature. By using human interper sonal relationship resear ch as the basis for how humans develop a relationship with natu re, Schultz (2002) identified 3 components of inclusion with nature. He describes inclusion with natu re as a persons understanding of her place in nature, the value placed on na ture and the consideration of how actions
10 impact the natural environment. The 3 co re components of inclusion with nature he identified are connectedness (the cognitive), caring (the affective) and commitment (action). He defines connectedness as the extent to which an individual includes nature within his/her cognitive repres entations of self (p. 67). Caring is the feeling of connection and affection to nature and commitme nt is what an indivi dual is willing to do or invest to continue the rela tionship with natu re (p.68-69). In an interpersonal relationship, individuals may develop a sense of interdependence with each other. This sense of interdepende nce is developed by identifying traits shared in common. Sometimes, this identification wi th an individual lead s to the feeling or belief that the self and the other are one (Schultz, 2002). This is the framework for understanding the connectedness or cognitive component of the inclusion with nature theory. The caring component of the human-nature relationship addresses the feelings of intimacy or closeness and affection with natu re via caring that occu rs between people. Intimacy is here defined as the sharing of onese lf with another or of oneself with nature. This sharing leads to a deep level of knowledge about the other allowing individuals to feel closeness and caring for the other (Schultz, 2002, p.68). In other words, just as two people might establish or deepen a relations hip by sharing the self with another, by sharing with nature, one can es tablish a relationship with or connect with nature in a way that develops feelings of caring about na ture. This caring co mponent implies an investment of time and energy and repeated po sitive interactions w ith nature (Schultz, 2002, p.68). This component seems of particular importance to the goals of EE because it implies that, if interpersonal and human-natur e relationships do develop similarly, then opportunities to experience nature must be positive, repeated and developed over time, an important consideration in this research which will only examine a one-day EE field trip. If people become more intimate as they spend ti me together, then the same is true for the feelings of intimacy towards nature that one might develop through repeated interactions according to Schultzs framework (p. 68). The third component of Schultzs incl usion with nature, commitment, receives only a cursory explanation but is related to the s econd component of caring. The strength of ones intention to continue the relationship involves a person s willingness to invest time
and resources into the relationship (p.69) as not ed above. This strength is relatable to an individuals commitment to act on behalf of nature and to make choices that are proenvironment even if these choices include a sacrifice on the part of the individual. Schultz summarizes the link between the 3 components as follows: Commitment cannot occur in the absence of caring. Caring cannot occur in the absence of connectedness. Commitment cannot occur in the absence of caring and connectedness (p.70). But if the result is the same (for example, making a pro-environment decision based on selfish motives like preservation of th e self) do the other 2 components have to be present? To this Schultz answers that a person with low inclusion in nature (not meeting all 3 components) can replace nature with technology, to some extent, to solve environmental problems that affect them (p 73). Nature continues to be a commodity rather than a partner. Schultz closes the analogy of interpersonal and human-nature relationships by stating that the only sure pa th to sustainability is through inclusion with nature (p. 74). This analogy is sympat hetic to Vinings (2003) review of how and why humans bond with animals such as pets, in their desire to simultaneously be part of nature (through interactions with other animal s) and to reconcile th eir feelings of shame (through caring for other animals) at the e xploitation of nature for selfish motives (industrialization, mass production of animal based foods). Figure 2. The Researchers Son Exploring a Family-owned Orchard (2009) 11
12 Learning in Nature In seeking to inform the scientific co mmunity on the utility and value of such a case study, it is necessary to delve in to the literature w ith regards to theories of learning in nature and how that might relate to learning theory in general. Environmental education research and practice have developed independently of a sound theoretical framework due to its lack of an identity (i.e. needing to be separate from other educational disciplines while considering how learning best takes place) Brody (2005) addresses this need by proposing a theory to inform curriculu m, research and teaching in EE to fill the lack of a sound methodological foundation. The main co mponents of his theory, developed over the course of 30 years expe rience in science, environmental and marine science education are that learning in nature requires direct experience, cognition, personal and social learning, affective devel opment and time. These core components encompass the thinking, feeling and acting pi eces of human experien ce, reminiscent to Schultzs (2002) connectedness, caring a nd commitment components of humans inclusion with nature. Brody offers that the theory of learning in nature is, that learning in nature is a result of direct experience(s) over time in wh ich personal and social knowledge and value systems are created through complex cognitive and affective processes. The main 3 components of thinking, feeling and acti ng are further broken down into physical, personal, social and time dependent categorie s explaining what is needed to optimize learning in nature. Acting involves the expe rience of being inside nature. Physically, this requires the direct experience of being outside with natu re as well as being aware of the various aspects of nature, from weather to landscape features. Personally, i ndividuals must have direct interaction with the physical setting vi a the senses by actively engaging in and with key aspects of the setting as well as being aware of them. Socially, individuals must interact with others while having these direct experiences in nature so that they may share ideas, compare and interpret information and learn from each other. With regards to time, individuals must reflect on their experi ences before, during a nd after to reflect on changes of ideas over time.
13 Thinking involves using and adding to what is currently known. The physical component involves the awareness of the sett ing by perceiving patterns, differences and similarities in nature to form new or add to existing knowledge. Personally, the learner is accepting or rejecting new ideas into exis ting knowledge systems by reviewing their existing understanding and attempting to match up new concepts to them. Socially, the sharing of ideas, the contra sting of new concepts a nd seeking confirmation or elaboration of individuals understanding is key in the process much as a scholarly scientific community shares ideas, critiques and elaborates on other scientists work. With regards to time, reflection involving predictions prior to experience, during the experience to reflect on what is happening and after the experience to rethink events will allow learners to think about why things happened the way they did and if their ideas changed in any way. Feeling involves the deve lopment of values about nature Physically, individuals must be aware of their feelings and values in re lation to the physical se tting as learners will associate feelings with the direct experi ence. Personally, the awareness of these feelings and values are impor tant in either gradually confirming or rejecting existing values or developing new ones. Socially, the willingness to share atti tudes, feelings and values with others as well as to accept thes e from others leads to a shared group value about nature. With regards to time, the learne r will reflect on her at titudes over time and recognize that these too may change. The ideas of Vygotzky, Piaget and Aus ubel tie in closely to Brodys (2002) categories of learning in nature. In general, they belie ved that people learn new concepts best when they have an existing schema or backgr ound knowledge based on experience to draw from. For meaningful learning, beyond rote memorization, to take place, a learner must be able to relate the new c oncept(s) to something they al ready know such as situations and problems they experience in their daily lives. Though the three differ on how best to initiate learning activities; activating prior knowledge th rough advance organizers, providing access to pieces of the big picture before the overall concept or through supported acquisition of knowledge by a cap able adult or peer (Brody, 2002) by scaffolding; their research points to what a student brings to the learning environment as key to the process of learning (Cakir, 2008). Ask any teacher and sh e will tell you that
14 students that come to them with a variety of life experiences encompassing educational, artistic, social, cultural and other realms fare better academically because they can understand the broad context of new information ev en as they work to learn the concepts. It is only when a learner has a system of related concepts that draw from the rich array of personal experience, classroom curriculum and to situations existing in the learners daily life, that she is able to accept new information into an existing schema or to reject the new information. Contrast this to Paulo Freires (19 93) conceptualization of education as a banking transaction and the disconnect between how we truly learn and traditional classroom pedagogy is stark if not painfully dull. Frei res banking concept works like this: Picture a bank. What does one do there? One makes deposits, occasionally withdrawals, but mainly it is a place to safely store mone y. Replace money with knowledge. Now imagine the teacher as the one making the de posits and the students as the bank itself, passively receiving information a nd storing it for as long as possi ble. This is similar to the expository style of teaching. Both have the teacher leading, talking and asking key questions while students take notes, answer when prompted and repeat back the information they have just heard. Freire suggests that this type of pedagogy reflects oppressive political systems and that these same political establishments work to maintain the status quo via expository teaching styles. A population that is used to being fed information and gladly regurgitates it in exchange for praise, accepta nce and success, keeps itself subjugated and dehumanized; thereby maintaining the governme nts elite powerful and in control. According to Freire, the focus on informati on retention keeps stude nts from developing critical thinking skills. These same skills ma y enable them to view themselves as in control of their environment and capable of changing the world. To alienate human beings from their own decision-making is to change them into objects, he writes. Objects exist in the world but are not active pa rticipants in the world. He advocates true solidarity between teachers and students by participating in communication which transforms teachers into students and vice ve rsa to facilitate the free exchange of information and ideas which so often can inspire revolutionary problem-solving.
15 Freires banking concept of traditional education conflicts directly with the goals of EE proposed by UNESCO (1975) which depe nds on a committed population to act on behalf of the environment. To breed confor mity is to deny human beings the power to make meaningful changes in their world (inc luding the natural environment) and to deny them the ability to engage in creative, innova tive problem-solving to equitably share and care for the Earths resources. In light of the predominance of this traditional pedagogical st yle in Latin American countries (Gonzalez-Gaudiano, 2007), it simply may not be reasonable to expect any changes in how one views the environment or ones willingness to act to improve or protect it when students and subsequently ad ults have been rendered helpless subjects through the political systems in which they live and learn. Peru itself with its history of colonization, rampant government corruption and secret military armies is a living example of the kind of oppression Freire sugges ts is infused even in classroom pedagogy. From this, one can conclude that meaningful EE is a process that must involve revolutionizing the way we teach and lear n and the way we participate in our governmental systems. Environmen tal education is, at its very core, a ca ll to civic action. The Benefits of Informal Fiel d Trips for Student Learning The majority of environmental education data that has been collected to date falls in the empirical realm. While this information is valuable in measuring cognitive, contentrelated gains, there is much left to be discovered when referring to qualitative measurements of changes in attitudes, feeli ngs towards the environm ent, likely indicators of future environmental activism and other affective learning information. Research on environmental education field trips indicates increased rela ted content retention (Knapp & Barrie, 2001; Farmer et al., 2007) and changes in affective domains of learning (Bitgood, 1989; Farmer et al., 2007) such as environmental awareness, positive attitudes towards the subject matter, positive memori es and positive attitudes to science that stimulate further learning (Braund et al., 2006). These gains are not limited to environmental or ecological field trips but have also been documented in physics excursions (Braund et al., 2006). Hamilton-Ekek e (2007) successfully demonstrated that the field trip method of inst ruction resulted in cognitive ga ins in ecology content versus
16 students taught the same concepts via the e xpository method of instru ction. The field trip method includes trips outdoors to local, communi ty areas for first-hand observation of the topic to be learned, while e xpository involves teacher-centere d instruction via lecture and question and answer sessions in which stude nts are passively list ening to information, taking notes and answering ques tions in the classroom. While some studies indi cate limited cognitive and behavioral impacts (Knapp & Poff, 2001), the case for further research into fiel d trip research focusing on both cognitive and affective learning via quantitati ve and qualitative methods is strong. The need for more qualitative studies in the fi eld of environmental education has been recognized by a variety of institutions and researcher s (Knapp & Poff, 2001; National Wildlife Federation, 1995; Dierking et al..). Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that how an individual feels about a topic, influences their acceptance, rejecti on or consideration of the topic. High levels of interest may l ead to gains on cognitive tests (Braund et al., 2006). If a positive feeling is associated with a field trip locale, it is more likely that a student will better retain the information presented at that location. Braund and Reiss (2006) list 5 ways in which out of classroo m experiences including school and home-initiated experiences such as visiting a zoo or reading printed media, enhance science learning. They are: Improved development and integration of concepts. 2. Extended and authentic practical work. 3. Access to rare material and to big science. 4. Attitudes to school science: stimulating further learning. 5. Social outcomes: collaborative work and responsibility for learning. Still, some researchers continue to snub their noses at the value of field trips maintaining that, at best, field trips suppor t the acquisition of l ittle science concept knowledge and, often times, foster the deve lopment of misconceptions about science (Braund et al., 2006).
17 What Promotes Effective Learning wi thin the Context of a Field Trip? If the goal of field trips is to create motiva tional experiences that also serve as effective curricular learning experiences, we must look to the research to find what factors influence effective field trip pl anning and situations. In partic ular, if effective field trips are to be judged based on students retention of related content knowledge and on positive affective outcomes, then the research establishes key components that increase the likelihood of these results. Key Experiences These experiences are evocative instances that stand out in a fiel d trip participants memory such as making a surprising discove ry, seeing a wild animal in its natural habitat, holding or feeding an animal, or so mething as simple as a spectacular sunset (Braund and Reiss, 2006). Research suggests that these key experiences may lead to related content retention as well as positive feelings towards the field trip site and towards the environment and wildlife. Nundy (1999) found that the strength of student memories appeared to rely on the degree to which the event lay outside of a students normal frame of reference. The more unique the experience, the more likely the student recalled the information associated with it Science taught in innovative and exciting ways promotes student enthusiasm which may in turn increase their desire to learn and understand more (Braund et al., 2006; Nundy, 1999). Classroom science is often presented as a regimented, step-by-step process with predictable answers leaving li ttle or no room for chance discoveries or outstanding experiences. The same can be said of traditional instruction in Latin America in which the teacher is the absolute instructor rega rdless of the curriculums goals (GonzalezGaudiano, 2007). No wonder students are turned off to science and increasingly reject scientific careers. In a fi eld trip situation, learning ma y occur serendipitously further enhancing the idea that learning can and does occur outside of the classroom and connecting the student with the place via an emotional experience (Braund et al., 2006). Active Learning
18 Students do not necessarily absorb knowledge simply by attending a field trip. Students need to be engaged in the scient ific process through phys ical and cognitive inquiry for learning to take place (McLoughlin, 2004). They should be allowed to explore and to use their bodies through activitie s that allow them to simulate ecological and biological processes. The activities a nd related concepts r ecalled most often by children participating in interpretive field tr ips are those that involved movement, active participation, simulations and animal encount ers (Vining, 2003). This active participation can take many forms including the sketching or photographing of intere sting features or animals, writing questions for us e in a post-trip assessment or for game show style games back in the classroom. Additionally, students can compose skits, poems or prose based on the information learned during the trip (McLo ughlin, 2004). Hamilton-Ekeke (2007) found that st udents using a guided discovery approach to learning about soil composition performed significantly better than the group receiving expository (teacher-led) instruction. Simila rly, Hamilton-Ekeke (2007) discovered that students receiving expository instruction in biological c oncepts performed below their peers receiving a discovery method of t eaching. Discovery method students better retained the biological concepts taught. Authentic Science Learning science stric tly in a classroom or laborat ory setting does not mimic the process that real scientists participate in. St udents need to be answering questions to reallife problems, finding possible solutions, testing them and realizing that there is no absolute end or right answer to this process (Bra und et al., 2006). Collaboration between teachers and scien tists before, during and after a field trip has been shown to increase field-based learni ng (McLoughlin, 2004). Working with local scientists answering authentic questions, using the methods, tools and processes they use and making observations in the field add auth enticity to students studies, increases teacher credibility and puts activitie s in context to the real world. Authenticity also implies processes th at differ from expository classroom instruction. Authentic learning is student centered and open-ended (Braund et al., 2006) allowing students to lead and guide thei r inquiries in much the same way real scientists question,
19 hypothesize and amend or confirm their beliefs without the notion that their hypothesis is absolute and uncontestable. This process hark ens back to the very roots of scientific exploration, specifically the biol ogical sciences born out of fieldwork and natural history studies. Field trips provide students the opportunity to link theory and observation (Hamilton-Ekeke, 2007). Additionally, informal science centers often have access to rare and genuine specimens and artifacts which allow students to experience the stuff of scientific musings and to form their own questions through genuine scientific thought (B raund et al., 2006). The same can be said of outdoor excursions in which children may find real specimens in their natural context. In short, field trip experiences bring science to life through partnerships between students, teachers, scientists and the local community.
CHAPTER 3 THE STUDY AREA Mollepata is a rural, agricultural town with a population of approximately 1,500 Spanish and/or Qechua speaking residents. Molle refers to a native tree and pata meaning height or hill. It is located within the jurisdiction of Cusco, Peru, best known as the cultural capital of the count ry and the l for the ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu. Mollepata is located 2,803 meters above sea level (asl), betweeFigure 3. Map of Peru the city of Cusco and the Machu ocation n Picchu ruins (see Figure 3 for hsloch, by an abundance of natural reso urces such as thermal baths, unregulated routes to these magnificent ruin s. Tourists primarily pass through in large approximate location), and encompasses a tota l area of 389 square kilometers (Fuc 2005). Its population of primarily mestizos (i ndigenous and Spanish descendants) relies on mountain top glaciers for th eir drinking and irrigation water, as does much of the country (Vargas, 2004). The area is characterized 20 snow covered peaks, such as the Salkantay towering at 6271 meters asl (Fuchsloch, 2005; see Figure 4), and virgin high altitude forest home to such species as the spectacled bear and the condor (L.E. Castelo, 2009). Some of the crops grown in Mollepata for later sale in the markets of Cusco and Lima include kiwicha, tara, quinua and menestras (Luciano, 2009). Two archeological treasures, the Inca cities of Machu Picchu and Choqekiraw, are located near the to wn (Fuchsloch, 2005), drawing in tourists seeking alternative and
21 touring buses and only small groups stay within the town on occasion (D. Tamayo, 2005). Peru is a remarkably biologically divers e country containing various climates, Figure 4. The Salkantay peaks melt water is Mollepatas primary source of water for drinking and irrigation (L. E. Castelo, 2009). 1,285,215.60 square kilometers. The annual aver age rainfall in Cusco, Peru is 671.2 mm (26.4 inches) with annual av erage temperatures of 12.3 degrees C (54.1 degrees F) ( www.worldclimate.com ecosystems and ecological regions within its political boundaries encompassing ). Eleven ecological regions are recognized in Peru. They are the cold sea, tropical sea, the coastal desert, equatorial dry forest, Pacific tropical forest, the steep sierra (in western Andean slope s between 1,000 to 3,000 mete rs asl), the Puna or high Andean plateau (to the south and ove r 3,500 meters above se a level, with great areas of thick scrub forest), the paramo (between upper forest line and permanent snow line; over 3,500 meters asl), high altitude rainforest (between 1,000 to 3,000 meters above sea level), low altitude Amazonian rainforest (bel ow 1,000 meters asl), and the palm savannah (Egg and Benites, 2006). A ll but 3 of these (desert, paramo and Amazonian rainforest) exist within Mollepata s jurisdiction (L.E. Castelo, 2009). Eightyfour of the one hundred and seventeen recogniz ed life zones worldwide exist in Peru as well as 28 of the 32 climatic zones contribu ting to the countrys amazing biological as
22 into 3 regions: Coast, Sierra and Rainforest. Mollep atas climate, altitude and 06 and Fundacion Telefonica, Geograf ia del Peru 2009). Peru is a biodiversity hot spot containing 20% of all bird species, 13% of all continental fish, 10% of all plant, mammal a nd amphibian species and 5% of all reptilian species on Earth (Fundacion Telefonica, Geografia del Peru). Yet, in spite of worldwide attention due to its biological diversity, water contamination is one of the most severe problems faced in Peru. The principal contri buting factors include industrial waste from mining, fisheries and petroleum; lack of adequate post-use water treatmen t facilities, indiscriminate use of agrochemicals and th e deterioration of river basins (Egg and Benites, 2006). Topographically, Peru contains the most tropical glaciers in all of Latin America, 18 in all. Perus loss of 20% of its 1,615 miles (2,600 kms) of glacier s in the central and southern Andes in the last 30 years has been attributed to global climate change. Glacier melt waters supply much of the countrys energy through powering hydroelectric plants, ral sert ater have the potential for flooding some rgas, ra ancy nts f as 8 well as cultural diversity (Egg and Benites, 2006). More broadly, Peru is generally divided vegetation place it in the Sierra among the Co rdillera Blanca (Egg and Benites, 20 which provide 70% of Perus energy. Glacial melt water is also used for agricultu irrigation, industry and to supply half of th e countrys population located in the de coastal regions with water. Increases in melt w areas and leaving others in drought situa tions. In 1998, a mudslide caused by melting ice near the Salkantay peak, visible from Mollepa ta, destroyed a hydroelectric plant (Va 2004). Peru also contains the tropics largest snow-capped mountain range, La Cordille Blanca, the White Range, which includes over 50 snow-capped peaks reaching 6,000 meters in height (Egg and Benites, 2006). Demographically, approximately 40% of the total population is indigenous with an estimated total population in 2007 of 27.9 million. In the same year, 53% of the population fell below the nationa l poverty line (The World Ba nk, 2007). Life expect for women and men is 74 years and 69 years, respectively. Nearly 1.3 million inhabita over the age of 15 are illiterate, most of thes e women. Child labor is not unheard o of every 100 children between the ages of 6 and 14 work to provide basic needs for themselves and/or their families (Fundaci on Telefonica, Geografia del Peru 2009).
23 l, in primary education has increased creased he e he ancestral town of my maternal grandpa rents via the Tamayo family. I g r tion and long-term sustainability. ShortStudents are expected to complete 6 y ears of primary and 5 years of secondary schoo after which time they may apply to techni cal institutes, public state-funded colleges, private colleges or begin working. The drop-out rates in the primary grades was 10.3% 2008. Spending for public education in the sa me year comprised 16.39% of government spending. From 2005 to 2007, the labor force with a from 9.20 % to 32.40 % while the labor force wi th a secondary education has de from 54.20 % to 31.80 % in the same time period (The World Bank, 2007). It is within this context that Moll epata is situated, a town whose very existence is both a time capsule of the results of Spanis h colonialism and a potential case study in t making of a dying town whose demise is being perpetuated by access to synthetic chemicals and non-biodegradable products as well as by the far-reaching tendrils of th tourism industry. Mollepata is t have been visiting Mollepata since I was a sm all child and have seen first hand changes caused by tourism, the introduction of non orga nic waste and the consequences of usin synthetic chemicals for agriculture. I have several family members that still own homes and orchards in Mollepata. Some of them have commented to me, without prompting, that frogs that were once abundant, to the point of having been used for medicinal purposes as well as for food, have disappeared from the town and that insect pests have become a real problem in the area, causing poor harvests particular ly in fruit-bearing trees. It is the ultimate goal of the author to address these issues by providing a forum through environmental education at the local school level that addresses and perhaps improves the ability of the community to con tinue its agricultural practices in a manne that is compatible with environmental pr otec term, the author wishes to assess whether th ere is evidence in cognitive and affective gains resulting from local environmenta l education field trips and support for environmental education on the part of local community members.
24 e Methodology s itive CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY Research Design I chose a community design for this res earch as I think it addresses the complex array of human interactions with the environment via cognitive and affective processes. This bottom-up approach focuses on local knowledge attitudes and perceptions to fram broader environmental problems and the contex t in which they occur. The quantitative and qualitative analyses applied to this cognitive and affective data are described in detail in the methodology below. In consideration of th e types of data collected, scienc e content tests, environmental attitudes surveys, journal writ ings and interview responses and the kinds of analyses I sought to undertake; the need for a framework by whic h to evaluate the validity and effectiveness of my methods became apparent. How is the data related and what does it mean for this study and in the broader context of the goals of environmental education? I chose UNESCOs (1975) Belgrade Ch arter goals for environmental education, to develop a world population that is aware of and concerned about, the environment and its associated problems, and which has the knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivations and commitment to work individually and collectiv ely toward solutions of current problem and prevention of new ones (UNESCO, 1975, p.3) as the framework for this research as they encompasses cognitive and affective c onsiderations. Additionally, I refer to the work of Schultz (2002) and Brody (2005) and their theories of how humans establish relationships with nature to eval uate and analyze my findings. Science content test results make up the bulk of my quantitative data and assess the study populations awareness and knowledge of environmental problems and address environmental problems. This portion of the research speaks to the cogn
25 Figure 5. Research Framework for Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Data considerations previously outlined. Environmental attitudes survey, student journal writings and interview results make up the qualitative data. Items included in th e attitudinal survey, journal writings and interviews address and assess the stu dy populations awareness and knowledge of environmental concepts and problems and th e necessary attitudes, motivations and may indicate commitment to work individually a nd collectively toward solutions of current problems and prevention of new ones. This portion of the research speaks primarily to the affective considerations previously outlined, with some cognitive aspects addressed via journal writings and interview questions. Sampling Students from the local public school in Mollepata, enroll ed in both of the 5th grade and 6th grade classrooms (for a tota l of four classrooms) part icipated in the study, with the total number of students part icipating being 68. One of the 5th grade classes, and one of the 6th grade classes, was randomly selected by blindly choosing a class roster to participate in an environmental field trip re lated to basic local watershed concepts and local agriculture (experiment al group). The remaining 5th and 6th grade classes received
26 only classroom instruction based on the sa me watershed and agricultural concepts (control group). A tota l of 35 and 33 students comprised each group for the field trip and classroom groups, respectively. Students from all classes were granted written permission in their native language to part explanation of the studys purpose, objectives Board (IRB) guidelines. Pare nts understood that participatio n was completely voluntary ix A), was administered to each student prior to the lessons Each student, in all but on e classroom, also responded to pts written, by me, prior to m itory relationships by participating in active, hands-on activ ities in their natu ral context. Along icipate by their parent(s) following detailed and risks according to Institutional Review and that there would be no negative conseque nces should they or their children choose not to participate. Similarly, they were in formed that students may or may not gain anything by participating in the study. The teachers of the four classes part icipating in the study assisted me with practical considerations such as scheduling, administ ration of post-tests and arranging meetings with parents. A pre-test (see Append field trip or classroom two journal prom y teaching the water unit via the expos method or via the field trip model. The firs t writing prompt read, Pretend you are a leaf, insect or piece of litter that has fallen in to the water on the Salkantay (mountain). Write about your travels in the water. The s econd prompt read, How can we help the environment? One classroom did not partic ipate in the pre-journal writing activity because they received a surprise visit from a Department of E ducation official who administered a surprise test to the class on th e day they were to complete the pre-journal writing activity, and hence they were not able to participate in this phase of the project. Two days after the instruction of the water unit and field trip for some of the classes, a post-test identical to the pre-test and identical final writing prompts were administered to all participating students. Two sets of journal writings were eventually eliminated from analysis because one class, mentioned above, di d not complete a pre-fi eld trip writing in their journal, and in another class the teach er failed to administer the post-writing assignment. Fortunately, one set of each of the field trip and classroom only groups completed the pre and post writing activ ity and were suitable for analysis. The experimental group walked to a local non-profit farm to learn about watershed issues such as water contamination, water filtration by the earth and plant and insect
27 e way, the group also stopped to discuss how water flows over the te rrain and to look at local snow-capped peaks which provide the area with the majority of its drinking water. Field trip activities were t eacher initiated but allowed tim e for students to explore the environment, ask questions and seek answer s. The control group learned the same academic content, using the same content topi cs, all within the classroom setting using expository delivery and standard classroom teaching practices. Standard classroom practices include teacher le d instruction and questioning, and the use of diagrams, pictures and props to illust rate watershed concepts. Access to students and their parents was gained through the researchers maternal cousin, a teacher at the school who had expressed an interest in participating in the study. Permission to interact with the students and teachers was obtained through the appropriate school officials prior to the be ginning of the study, as well as from the cuments a rd (IRB) equirements. All consent and assent documents had been previously composed based on by the IRB committee prior to use in the field. All d ivacy onsent to Participate in Study th childrens parents via written consent do s per Institutional Review Boa r IRB protocol, reviewed and approved subjects privacy has been maintained by the absence of names on interview transcripts, and the preand post-tests and journal entries. Pre and post tests, journal entries an interview transcripts were coded with a number and letter system to maintain the pr of each participant. All consent forms are stored in a locked room and no connection between names on consent forms, interviews an d other data are apparent. All data is stored similarly and will be destroyed by shredding once all nece ssary analysis and conclusions have been determined. C consent form for student participation was obtained individually from g tored A signed parents through IRB approved, Spanish langua ge forms following a small group meetin in the students homeroom classroom class wherein the studys purpose, procedures and student expectations were e xplained in the native language and questions and concerns were addressed. Contact information, possible risks and how the data will be used, s and subsequently destroyed was also shared w ith the parents. Similarly, consent forms for parent participation in individu al interviews were obtained at th is time.
28 Quantitative Analysis Quantitative data was collected through Spanish language, identical preand post-tests consisting of 14 content based items including multiple choice, short answer and false questions (see Appendix A). The test was administered immediately prior to field trip and classroom lessons and then again tw o days after the lessons were completed. Originally, the plan was to administer the pos t-tests immediately following the field trip or classroom lessons, but students go home mi dday to eat at home and do not return unt the following morning. The following day wa s the next logical choice, but upon arri at the school, I was informed that schoo true or il ving l had been cancelled that day due to a cluded test ided evelop 1975, p.3). transportation strike. Since many of the child ren that participated in the study use public transportation to travel to school from n earby communities, the principal decided to cancel school that day. The post-test was completed the ne xt day, two days after the completion of the pre-test. These tests were graded in a percen tage format (rounded to the nearest whole number to facilitate graphic represen tation) and analyzed as to th e significance, if any, in the mean test scores before and after the field trip, and before and af ter standard classroom instruction. Only tests with complete pre a nd post results for each student were in in the analysis. For example, some students were absent for the post te st and their pre was excluded. The Pre/Post tests were scor ed based upon whether the students prov the correct answers. Scores were then comp ared for the experimental and control groups by calculating percentage correct and statistical significanc e using unpaired t-tests. The percentage of field trip and classroom stude nts answering the questions correctly for the pre and post field trip or classroom tests for all 14 items questions is presented in the Results and Discussion section below. Eight of these content related items were then selected for further analysis because they best reflect the core information presented during the watershed lessons, and they relate to one of the global goals of EE to d a world population that ha s the knowledgeto work i ndividually and collectively toward solutions of current problems and pr evention of new ones (UNESCO These items assess basic waters hed concepts as well as know ledge of general and local impacts on the watershed by human action. Without a basic understanding of these
29 d and pe sticide products? c concepts, the broader goals of EE within the context of this research, to change the populations behavior and pe rception towards the environment, are unattainable. The following items from the science c ontent test address the groups awareness an knowledge and may indicate ab ility to solve and prevent environmental problems: What is the origin of drinking water in Mollepata? How does nature clean water? What is a watershed? What are some negative effects of using chemicals True or False. Farmers in Molle pata use synthetic chemicals and pesticides. True or False. People in fluence changes in the environment. True or False. The chemicals used in agriculture end up in the water. True or False. Garbage and the chemicals used in Mollepata reach the Apurima River. Qualitative Analysis Qualitative data were collected through Spanish language identical pre and post tests consisting of eight attitudinal items in which students selected I agree, I do not kno or I do not agree, for pro-environment statements such as, I enjoy spending time in nature (see Appendix A, page 2 of 2). The analysis of these pro-environment stateme consisted of calculating the percentage (rounded to the nearest whole number to facili graphic representation) by statement of each group choosing each rating. Students w left one or more statements blank or w h w, nts tate ho o chose two ratings for one statement were xcluded from the analysis. Further analysis consisted of selecti ng five of the eight es that indicate attainment or approximation of dys e statements that best reflect chang UNESCOs (1975) environmental educati on goals namely to develop a world population that is aware of, and concerned a bout, the environment and its associated problems, and which has the attitudes, motivations and commitment to work individually and collectively toward solutions of current problems and prevention of new ones. Additionally, these items speak directly to Schultzs (2002) in clusion with nature which encompasses a persons understanding of his/her place in nature, the value placed on nature and the consid eration of how actions impact th e natural environment. Bro
30 values were assesse d through calculating the percent per group ses eld trip or classr oom activities. Journa l responses consist of u s ts curriculum. They were also asked if they desire or expect their children to stay in and UNESCOs collective of post I agree selections for the following statements: My actions at home affect Mollepatas water (place in nature, how actions impact the environment). I like to spend time in nat ure (value placed on nature). I am motivated to do good things for th e environment (motivated to work for the benefit of the environment). It is important that people protect and preserve nature (e nvironmental awareness, values placed on nature). I would like to learn more about Moll epatas water (commitment to increase knowledge). Additional qualitative student data were also collected by analyzing journal respon taken before and after the fi written and/or illustrated responses to the following prompts: 1) Pretend you are a leaf, insect or piece of litter that fell into the waters of the Salkantay peak, where would yo go and what would you see? 2) How can I help the environment? Student journals before and after the field or classroom expe rience were analyzed to provide support for findings related to post-test results. Further qualitative data were collect ed via semi-formal interviews with students parents and teachers either at the school or at their homes. Twenty-one adults were interviewed individually to gather a more co mplete picture of the students performance on cognitive, as well as affective learning, a nd to provide support or opposition for the researchs long-term goal of providing environmen tal education services to the local school and/or to the community via an NGO, and to gauge the adults perceptions of environmental problems in town. Parents and teachers were in terviewed using a predesigned questionnaire (see Appendix B), with survey style and open-ended questions designed to assess perceived environmental problems within the community, if any, a well as to ascertain if there is a perceive d link between increased pests and poor fruit harvest and the use of synthetic chemicals in ag riculture. Interviews also assess if paren or teachers would be open to their ch ildren receiving environmental education
31 eed d in lived in other communities and rmation was colle cted as well such as the number of years n. Which ose re given the to them an d the interviews. A total of 21 parents and te achers participated in the terviews. included probing questions (not pre-desi gned) in response to nway Mollepata after completing secondary schooling as this may affect their perceived n for environmental education at the school leve l. Only one of the four participating teachers was included in the interview proce ss as she too has students attending the local school. Other teachers were not as enthusiastically involved in the study and hesitate committing to be interviewed. The other t eachers also not within Mollepata itself. Basic demographic info living in Mollepata, num ber of children in the school, a nd the parents occupatio parents were to be interviewed were selected by drawing 30 students names (of th participating in the study) of the possibl e 68. All interview ees we opportunity to participate or decline participation by presen ting and reading Institutional Review Board (I RB) approved consent form which includes permission to audio recor in Interview protocol interviewees unforeseen responses. Responses to select ed questions were organized by major expected themes (for example, when asked about perceived problems in the town, responses may have been coded as follows: water-related, harvest-re lated, contaminatio related and unexpected themes. Because these interviews are qualitative in nature, the themes noted above may or may not be presen t according to how in terviewees answered the questions. A table of common responses to core environmental perception questions is included to substantiate my conclusions and in an attempt to present the data in a that is meaningful to the reader.
32 CHAPTER 5 the eight selected core watershed curriculum items set. Next, all 14 pro-environment statement ee, selections for five selected statements RESULTS AND ANALYSIS I begin by presenting the quantitative analys is of all 14 content related items for the pre and post tests, and a bar graph of that were designated as the most important learning concepts. This is followed by a discussion of the findings related to this data ratings are similarly presented this is followed by a bar graph of post I agr in a table that includes all pre and post test responses, and for both groups. Further qualitative analys is of pre and post journal responses are presented in narrative form, and themes found in adult interviews are presented as tables, and this is followed by a discussion of these fi ndings. The discussion of each analysis is prefaced by a re-stating of the thesiss research questions. Cognitive Data: Pre and Post Test Results The data presented below in Table 1 and Figure 6, as well as Tables 2 and 3 and Figure 6, will assist in determin ing relationship related to res earch question #1. As stated in Chapter 4, Research Design and Me thodology, Research Question 1 states Do shortduration field trips increase elementary school st udent science-related content retention and positive attitudes towa rds the environment? Table 1 and Figure 5 i ndicate that based on mean test scores, students attending the field trip retained topic-specific content better than their classroom peers. The field trip attendee groups average overall score incr eased from 47% to 70% showing a higher increase than the classroom group in spite of the fact that the clas sroom group began at an advantage on the quantitative portion of the pre-test scoring an average of 56% vs. the field trips group 47% pre-test sc ore. This change, however, is not statistically significant as indicated by unpaired ttest calculations. The classroom group increased its percenta ge of correct responses on 9 of the 14
33 nd items. The greatest gains were on items relate d to the direction of water flow, and why objects float in water. The average correct response percentage increased by 40% a 43%, respectively. FT PRE FT POST CR PRE CR POST Content Related Items Answered correctly (%) Answered correctly (%) Answered correctly (%) Answered correctly (% ) 1 Origin of drinking water in Mollepata (MC) 91 89 85 85 2 Origin of water contaminants (MC) 29 71 64 61 3 Direction of water flow (MC) 77 86 24 64 4 Why objects float in water (MC) 40 54 30 73 5 Three states of water (MC) 71 89 100 94 6 How nature cleans water (SA) 6 9 0 9 7 Three agricultural products in Mollepata (SA) 97 100 97 100 8 Knowledge of watershed (SA) 0 11 0 12 9 Negative fertilizer effects of chemical products and s .(SA) 11 69 33 21 10Mollepatan farmers use chemicals and fertilizers .(TF) 29 94 79 85 11People influence environmental changes (TF) 46 86 42 55 12Chemicals used in agriculture end up in the water.(TF) 57 63 70 76 13Insects beneficial to agriculture may be harmed by synthetic chemical products.(TF) 71 83 82 89 14Garbage and chemical products used in Mollepata reach the Apurimac River.(TF) 29 71 73 52 AVERAGE TEST SCORES 47 70 56 63 n=35(Field trip) n=33(Classroom) Table 1. Percent Correct on Pre and Post Test for Both Groups FT=Field Trip CR= Classroom MC=Multiple Choice SA=Short Answer TF=True or False When analyzing content items i ndividually, the field trip group increased correct responses on 13 of the 14 items. Surprisingly, a decrease of 2% (from 91% to 89%) resulted on the first item which asks where the towns drinking water originates. This is surprising because we stopped and looked at the snow-capped peak in question, the Salkantay, during our walk to the field trip site (a local organic farm) and discussed specifically that most of the towns water co mes from the glacier. The decrease may have been caused by the students excitement to ge t to the farm, and because of the novelty of the experience itself (A fore ign teacher leading an excursion to a new location and
34 expecting them to stay with the group, listen, and follow directions). Classroom students saw only pictures of the Salk antay, and 85% of these students answered correctly for both the pre and post test, indicating no change in knowledge for this item. Another reason for the lack of change between pre and post test ay result from the fact that the students were al ready aw wns water came from the were considered integral to the core e the classroom group outscored the field e definition of a watershed. These two items required short answer responses, which can groups on this question m are of the fact that the to glacier, hence, there was less room for in creasing the level of knowledge on this topic because the students had already committed this information to memory. Figure 6. Percent of Correct Post Test Stud ent Responses for Core Content Related Items When examining eight of the content items that understanding of the watershed lessons, the field trip gr oup outscored the classroom group in four of the eight items. The cont ent of the items where the field trip group outscored the classroom group included: cont ent on the origin of the towns drinking water (multiple choice item, MC), the negative effects of chemicals and fertilizers (short answer item, SA), a true or false (TF) item on whether local farmers use chemicals and fertilizers, and another true or false it em on whether people influence environmental changes. Regarding the other four items, wher trip group, the question focused on such issues as how nature cleans water and th
35 micals used in agricultu re end up in the water and the other was garbage and chemical used in Mollepat a end up in the Apurimac River. Correct responses to the questions that were an swered by providing a wr itten response (short answer) were low, and equal or nearly equa l, for each group at 9% (Hw e c water) and 11% and 12% (Definiti on of a waters th ipgu clr the tr ue/false questions related to chemica used in agriculture ending up in the water, and garbage ending up in the Apurimac River, the classroom groups correct responses were 13% higher than the field trip groups for thh em, and 19% lower than the field trip groups for the ga y experience as ssroom her, s ane for students, but the data may indicates that my m y have b ineffec ce s well where the classroom group ocored sd tivelye data, wre the claom group outscored or scored equally on these questions, ma tt to their current schemThis is reed to disequilibrium in education theory. New concep ts mst be tied to previously learned and accepted co or rejected in a pe rsons schema (Carter, 2008). Perhaps these two concepts were so out side of their accepte d schem nowledge base for forming awareness of environmental problems and the understanding roup and be interpreted as being more challenging. The two other questions where the classroom group outscored the field trip group, were true or false questions. One of these statements was Che o natur leans hed), for e fi eld tr roup vers s the ass oom group, respectively. Regarding ls e c emicals in agriculture it arb ge and chemical products item. From m a cla teac hort sw r questions tend to be more challenging ethods of teaching these concepts ma een tive in both groups. This an b said for the true/false questions a uts or core equally on this style question. Alte rna th he ssro y indicate that stud ents had not yet had ime o assimilate this new knowledge in a. ferr as u ncepts before being accepted as fact a, that they had not fully understood and accepted it as fact. These two items form an important k of environmental concepts im perative if one is to meet the goals of environmental education within the context of the watershed le ssons. In spite of this the field trip g did outscore the classroom group both when looking at the average correct on all 14 items (70% field trip and 62% classroom) and on the 8 selected items (62% field trip 49% classroom). Affective Data: Pre and Post Test Results
36 ) I am motivated to do good things for the environment. 4) It is important that people pr otect and preserve nature, and 5) I would like to learn more about Mollepatas water. These particular items were selected b ecause they most accurately reflect the goals of environmental education, as previously men tioned. Broadly, these goals are to produce a population that is aware and c oncerned about the environment, that is motivated or committed to work for the well-being of the environment, and that is educated or skilled (UNESCO, 1975). Table 2 depicts the pre and po st field trip groups results for all eight pro environmental statements that they were asked to respond to regarding whether they agree, do not agree, or do not know about th e statements. Table 3 presents similar data, but for the classroom group. Figure 7, below, presents the I agr ee percentages for post test ratings for five selected pro-environment statements for both the field trip and classroom groups. field trip o s, d The overall results for pro-environmen t attitudes do not differ greatly between the field trip and classroom groups when all eight pro-environment statements taken are considered. However, when l ooking at five of the pro-enviro nment statements that were selected for further analysis, subtle differen ces emerge. The five statements that were further analyzed are: 1) My actions at home aff ect Mollepatas water. 2) I like to spend time in nature. 3 Pro-environment or I agree ratings were more frequently chosen by the group consistently for all survey items, with the largest difference belonging to the I think I could be a scientist, statement, where 44% more field trip students than classroom students chose I agree. This may be indicative of a trend uncovered in Knapp and Barries (2001) research which cites positive field trip experiences as being a common factor reported by persons who c hose scientific careers as adul ts. This wide gap was als seen in the I would like to be a farmer st atement where 35% more field trip student than classroom students agreed wi th that statement. It is interesting to note this increased desire to become a farmer in the field trip group, and the gene ral lack of desire indicate in the parents interviews for their children to stay in Mollepata and become farmers.
37 Field Trip PRE Field Trip POST Field Trip PRE Field Trip POST Field Trip PRE Field Trip POST Pro Environment Statements I agree. I agree. I don't know. I don't know. I don' t agree. I don't agree. 1 My actions at home affect Mollepata's water. 72% 64% 8% 16% 20% 20% 2 I like to spend time in nature. 92% 96% 4% 4% 4% 0% 3 I think that I could be a scientist. 28% 60% 56% 28% 4% 12% 4 I like science. 96% 84% 4% 12% 0% 4% 5 I am motivated to do good things for the environment. 100% 92% 0% 8% 0% 0% 6 It is important that people protect and preserve nature. 88% 88% 12% 4% 0% 8% 7 I would like to be a farmer. 60% 64% 28% 16% 12% 20% 8 I would like to learn more about Mollepata's water. 96% 100% 0% 0% 4% 0% Table 2. Pre and Post Test Results for Pro-Environment Statement Ratings for Field Trip Group (n=2 5) Classroom PRE Classroom POST Classroom PRE Classroom POST Classroom PRE Classroo m POST Pro Environment Statements I agree. I agree. I don't know. I don't know. I don't agree. I don't agree. 1 My actions at home affect Mollepata's water. 29% 39% 29% 39% 42% 23% 2 I like to spend time in nature. 97% 90% 3% 7% 0% 3% 3 I think that I could be a scientist. 16% 16% 65% 61% 19% 23% 4 I like science. 78% 87% 7% 3% 13% 10% 5 I am motivated to do good things for the environment. 81% 74% 7% 7% 13% 16% 6 It is important that people protect and preserve nature. 84% 74% 13% 19% 7% 7% 7 I would like to be a farmer. 39% 29% 32% 39% 26% 32% 8 I would like to learn more about Mollepata's water. 97% 90% 0% 7% 3% 3% Table 3. Pre and Post Test Results for Pro-Environment Statement Ratings for Classroom Group (n=31) Most interviewees claimed that they would like their children to, be better than them which implies that they desire their childre n to seek other occupations besides becom a farmer. In other words, parents would like to see their children become better than a farmer as it is a ha ing rd life. All adults interv iewed are farmers or were raised by farmers. he reality is that most of these students will remain in Mollepata after secondary to continue their academic education. Interestingly, though both groups began the pre test with a high percentage of I T education because they will not be able to afford
38 tually t mental oblems related to water, without connecting of me. the days n. Figure 7. I agree Percentages for Post Test Ratings for Selected Pro-Environm ent Statements for Field trip and Classroom Groups agree, answers to I like to spend time in nature: the clas sroom group ac decreased by 7% while the field trip group in creased by 4%, indicating that the field trip experience was likely slightly more positive than the classroom lessons and that, at leas the classroom group, did not make the connecti on between the topics we covered (water watershed, agriculture) and nature. Perhaps st udents dont consider a farm as being part of nature because it is manipulated by human s and because theyre around them so much of the time. The same may be true for the a dults interviewed later who cite environ problems related to water and agricultural pr the two. Results may have also been affected by the fact that I am a family member one of the participating teachers and student s subsequent desire to please Additionally, some students had the opportunity to casually interact with me on prior to the lessons as I was near the town s quare and as I explored the area on my ow Analysis of Pre and Post Journal Data Pre and Post student journals for two of the four classrooms participating were analyzed for changes in their pre and post e xperience writing. I focused primarily on the inclusion of basic watershed concepts for thei r pre-activity writing. I e xpected to see local watershed features such as springs, rivers and the local water rese rvoir and some mention of contamination such as lit ter. For post-experience writ ings, I expected to see an
39 increase in specific local watershed featur u d d s as cities or the ocean, and pro-environment at titudes. Presum fiep g w d e local watershed and that wa ter that originates frm lly end up in other distant watersheds and in the ocean by i t-test feas inr wri s. Othe f jou p you are a leaf, insect or pof lithat hfalle to thaters t e will you travel? wa uded in this analysis. For unknown r the second prompt: How can I help the e omplete or m ost-ngs t e cla ssroroure anzed fhe abdent 5A-8 of the field trip group writes: age ever e w it evaporates to the sky. It go es up intosky,s anmak sic One day my aunt threw garbage into watd motherd, T care the environment. My aunt pic ked upgarb andew it theh ca caus e I drink it and everyone does too. Her writing exemplifies the concepts an s tll stts w ide gain a result of the field trip to the local farm. Er inwrit she exh bas watershed concepts as she traces her leaf s downhill flow th s nearby tow disgusting, but she is hopeful even as she sees children playing in garbage es, incl sion of istant wa tershe feature such ably ld tri roups ill em onstrate a deeper understanding of th the S o alkantay may eventua ncluding more of the expected pos ture thei t ing nly irst rnal rompt: Pretend iece tter as n in e w of he Salkantay. Wher s incl easons, a large number of responses for nvironment? were either inc issi ng altogether. In all, 16 p writi for he field trip group and 17 from th om g p we aly or t ove mentioned themes for the watershed prompt. Stu chemical products dam ything. When they throw it in th ater, the rain d it es us k. the er an y m sai ake of the age thr into tras n. Water is very important to me be d idea hat a uden ould ally as arlie her ing, also ibits ic rough variou ns and later to Mollepatas reservoir. She goes on to mention that the reservoir is as, in her travels to the near by community of Chuiloconca, sh e sees a family picking up litter from the street. Not only does she seem to understand the potential of water from one community to reach other nearby communities, but she has taken a proenvironmental attitude in her tale of advo cacy and hope. Her pre-field trip writing only included watershed concepts so somewhere between then and two days following the field trip, she began to develop a conscious ness of stewardship and the effects of chemical products on our water cycle which were not present before.
40 Student 5A-14 began to develop a ba sic watershed concept in her post-writing and after her litters travels to the city of Cusco, approxima tely 2 hours away, expresses a pro-environment attitude when she writes: also I would like to say that I like the environment. When examined as a whole group, the field trip students who totaled 16 for this analysis, demonstrated growth of watershed concepts through 9 students writings. Six of the remaining 7 began with a basic concept of their local watershed and some even included the sea in their writing and did not show any further growth. e 17 demonstrated growth by including additional local and his may have caused the classroom group to retain the cognitive watershed information the field trip students showed growth in prom. Compare the field trip groups post-w ritings to the classroo m and the results are almost identical: 10 of th general watershed features a nd the remaining 7 showed no change in their watershed concepts. The only major difference is th at the classroom group included no proenvironment statements about liking na ture or picking up litter though among the students that showed no growth, two incl uded mention of water contamination. When I taught the classroom watershed lessons, I used props and real-world objects and pictures of local watershed features such as the Salkantay to illustrate the flow of water in the local watershed and when di scussing the use of chemical products on agricultural crops. St udents were engaged and on-t ask. They were excited to do buoyancy experiments with classmates. Additionally, they were able to spend more focused, organized time with me than the gr oup on the field trip. Though the field trip group technically did spend more time with me and out in nature, they had to be more strictly controlled than the classroom group for safety and to deliver the lessons intended. T just as well as the field trip group while environment attitudes as a resu lt of their novel, active experience out of the classroo Results may have also been affected by the fact that I am a family member of one of the participating teachers and students subsequent desire to please me. Additionally, some students had the opportunity to cas ually interact with me on th e days prior to the lessons as I was near the town square and as I explored the area on my own.
41 Analysis of Adult Interviews Data The data presented below in Table 4 will assist in determining relationships related to research question #2. As stated in Ch apter 4, Research Design and Methodology, Research Question 2 states, Do parents and teachers in th e community recognize any environmental threats and/or conseque nces of watershed contamination? Interview Question Answer Frequency Extended Responses Frequenc ucation y Table 4. Interview Responses for Selected Interview Questions ( n=21) Unexpected items italicized Interview responses were analyzed to answer the research questions regarding environmental perceptions and the groups willingness to accept environmental ed Are there environmental problems? Yes 16 Water-related Privatization 10 3 Harvest-related 2 Burns 3 Contamination 5 No 5 How is the water quality? Very good 5 A lot comes. Its chlorinated. Its fresh. Good 7 Not salty Regular 3 Bad 3 Insects and worms Very Bad 1 Why are there no Rats ate them. 3 frogs in Mollepata? Insecticides/Fumigation No answer 7 6 Car emissions Snakes 1 1 Mistreating environment Water scarcity Climate Change Burning of forests Too much sun 1 1 1 1 1 Are there agricultural problems? Yes 15 Insects or illness Chemicals Rain Too much sun Small crops/Low yield Hail 10 2 1 7 5 3 No 6
42 viewed (76%) re cognize some type of nvironmental problem in Mollepata. In genera l, it appears that adults are aware that Ten of the 21 interviewed 8%) perceive some sort of water-related problem. Water-related terms mentioned in tic ow ll ite. ay was nted to ter a perspective may from an outside group or agency. Responses to additional interview questions are included in Appendix C. Table 4 demonstrates that 16 adults inter e problems exist with water, harvests, burns a nd contamination. (4 response regarding environmental problems incl ude reabsorption of dirty water, sep tanks, springs, snow-capped peaks, rai n, canal, drainage, drought and hail. Interviewee 17 demonstrated the most comprehensive understanding or at least consideration of environmental pr oblems in Mollepata. He states: Nowadays, were seeing, were living it, so many things, since I was a boy, growing up here.There were springs all ov er the place andthe water flowedN theres not even a drop of water. Its dry. Imagine, for example, you could go a around this town and it was surrounded by snow-capped peaks. It looked all wh Now, you arent going to see thatThe Salkantay is go ing down too. Salkant covered in snow. It was pretty. And it always had a cloud over it but now you can see it clearly and I think, I imagine, that the contamination, since plastics appeared, disposable bottlesI think all of that according to my conv ersations with other people or that come from other countriesAccording to what that man comme meCan you believe this? He says that a disposable bottlemelts one square me dayWhen you throw the disposable bottle with the reflection of the suns raysIt heats up quickly and it melts more rapidly. He goes on to recount how, in his youth, farmers knew exactly when to plant almost to the day in expectation of rain. Now, the rain is sporadic or may not come at all or, perhaps, too much will come and drown out the crops. In his discussion, he mentions that the newer aluminum roofs are also contributing to the snow caps melting, that privatization of water may be a reality s oon and expresses what I would label as an animal rights ethic against hunting. As an asid e, this interviewee transports tourists and has the opportunity to interact with many nonPeruvian travelers so his
43 ctions with varied ideologies regarding the by e thermal springs and rivers, to turn a profit from these resources. The communitys dependence on melting snow is substantial and during th e dry, winter months (during which inteccurred) water is often scar ce in high altitude Andean communities. Interviewees mntioning priva tization were appalled by the thought of having to pay for water that already belos to them. The next two most mentioned expect ed environmenta e problem with plastic and garbage conination (29%) and harvest problems (10%). Other terms discussed by interview ce to theed t action, illness among farm workers, climate change, hunti ng, the disappearance of wildlife, population increase and poor soil for crop production. Sixt eeintervont ributed at least one term when posed with this particular questi on thoh 3 in ed examples of the interviewees answered no to this question. This may have been moblem w ith defining environment or of a language barrier, as many speak Qechua as a first langua ge and learn Spanish in school, than with the perception of enviroblems. For example, one woman interviewed asked, Environmental means what? After I explained by using terms such as water, land, forests, she offered tha ms because water often arrives dirty to the home and people dont know how to take care of thingscaus e all ov ity is perived by (57 %) as Very good oecause of its abundance, freshness and because it is chlori nated. For those answering Bad or Very bad, or Regular (not good or bad), th e reasons given included worms or insects sometimes found in the water, finding dead anim als in the towns reservoir and that water h 5 of problem. One woman answered that there were environmental problems with the have been expanded due to hi s intera environment. I expected to hear water, harvest te rminology most frequently, but was surprised the mention of water privatization by 3 pe ople. It appears that the government is considering privatizing the local communitys water resources, which includ the rviews o e ng l problems wer s tam ees included referen e n for governmen n iewees c ug terviewees need term environment prior to answering. Five re of a pro onmental pr t there are proble be e there s garbag er. Water qual ce r Good b is not chlorinated sufficiently or consis tently. No mention of contamination by agricultural chemicals or fer tilizers was recorded for 20 of those interviewed thoug them did, in a later question, cite having to use these chemicals as an agricultural
44 poor ed as a wn oads. All interviewees greed that they had not s een any of these animals sin ce childhood (most interviewees or ing ships associated with research question As stated in Chapter 4, Research Design and Methodology, Research Question 3 h I n agricultural products because they do not produce. According to her, the terrain is and no longer yields crops. Having to use chemicals su ch as fertilizer and insecticides in agriculture was cit problem because crops did not produce unless these were used. Interviewees also answered that non-beneficial insect pests and plant-borne illnesses as affecting crop yield to be problems. These, how ever, along with too much ra in, drought and too much sun, were not mentioned as environmental proble ms but belonged strictly to the realm of agriculture. Another question used to indicate perception of environmental problems in to referred to the frequency with which the interviewee sees frogs or t a were in their 30s or early 40s) and that they seldom heard their calls in the evenings after rains. When asked for reasons for th e amphibians disappearance, answers varied from someone telling them that rats had i nvaded the town and eaten them to the more plausible ideas that they had been killed by the use of insecticides and that they either ingested poisoned insects or were directly ki lled by these chemicals. The relatively recent increase of car emissions was also a suspected culprit in the animals avoiding Mollepata as were snakes, mistreatment of the envir onment, water scarcity, climate change, burn of forests and too much sun. Each of th ese terms was stated once, sometimes by the same interviewee. I was especially surpri sed to hear the terms climate change and mistreatment of the environment although this rural population does have internet access and frequent contact with foreigners which may account for their varied responses The discussion below illuminates the relation # states, Are parents and teachers likely to suppor t efforts to increa se environmental awareness in their children via outs ide sources working with the school? All interviewees, except for one, claimed openness to accepting an outside environmental education organization both at the school and community level thoug suspect his answer was more a reaction to ha ving outsiders providi ng services than a actual objection to increasing envi ronmental education in the town. It may also have been a language problem as his wife had to interjec t translations to him in Quechua during the
45 t will sibilities to their children such as leaving Mollepata to pursue a career e town g al rming a interview. They all agreed that education in general is very impor tant because i open up new pos and having easier lives than they have had. The desire for children to not end up like their parents and be better than us though geared more towards them leaving th to pursue a profession or highe r education, can broadly be in terpreted as parents wantin more opportunities for their children, period. Environmental education, if successfully implemented, has the potential to solve ma ny of the environmental and agricultur problems cited by interviewees, to create jobs in the pursuit of this and to make fa more viable and valued career choice. Discussion After the field trip and classroom lessons were completed, I fully expected, contrar my original hypothesis, for students in the cl assroom setting to have a greater increase in their cognitive gains because they were, by a nd large, engaged and interacting with me and discussing the content. Some native plant props were brought in for them to handle (kiwicha, tara, water, soil) but yet no better retention was observed. While it may have been expected that the novelty of my teach ing the lessons rather than their classroom y to ces on through al teachers may have proved to be a key experience, the results do not indicate such growth. Therefore, I reject this notion, though my presence as a newcomer from another country may have been enough of a distracti on to cause poor cognitive gains. However, this is not the impression I had while t eaching the lessons. I recall one student in particular being wildly enthus iastic about the concepts we were discussing and about becoming a scientist in particular. In light of the existing body of literature on the effects of out-of-school experien cognitive and affective learni ng, I expected that the experi mental group participating in the environmental education field trip w ould outperform its control group peers by scoring higher on related science content items on the pre and post test and by demonstrating marked positive environmental a ttitudes and feelings as indicated pre and post test quantitative and qualitative items, respectively. Furthermore, it was expected that, being a rural community w hose economic base is highly dependent on agriculture; parents will have perceived the relatively recent negative environment
46 ly on providing environmental education opportunities to Similarly, when looking at th e qualitative items assessing pro environment ted d re of e basic s did not e consequences in connection to changes in ag ricultural practices. Additionally, I expected that they would look favorab their school age children as a means to remedy the negative effects and to return to traditional or at least sustainable agricultural methods. Examining all of the selected data in the broader context of my original research questions, it appears that insignificant cogniti ve gains occurred, contrary to what was expected in the field trip group over the classroom group when analyzing the 8 core content items attitudes, there was virtually no difference between the group s. Students were promp to choose I agree; I dont know or I dont agree, to each of the statements. Both groups responded almost identically with a general d ecrease in I agree responses to desirable pro environment attitudes such as I am motivated to do good things for the environment. Many of the post-test decreases in I agree, responses were allocated to I dont know, in both groups. Possible explan ations for the lack of affective gains in both groups may be attributed to the shortduration of the experi ences (both only a few hours) as well as to classroom teachers l ack of involvement in the instruction and management of the groups. Lack of positive affective changes ma y be attributed to the need for positive and repeated interactions with nature for iden tification to take pl ace (Schultz, 2002 p.68). Even though the single most cited reason for persons who chose science careers was a field trip experience in one study (Knapp and Barrie, 2001), one day does not build a relationship with the environment. Also, the structure and organizati on of the field trip are important considerations (McLoughlin, 2004). I found it difficult to keep students from running ahead and to keep them from distractions even though we had discusse expectations prior to taking the trip. Admitte dly portions of the field trip took on mo an expository style pedagogy as the farm t echnician worked to explain som concepts to the students as they did not nor mally host student groups. Teacher attempt to help in this regard until well into the field trip at the farm and hung back in th group. The novelty of the experience, as student s are able to enjoy only one field trip a year may have been enough to cause the beha vior I observed; though I suspect that this was due to a combination of their general inde pendence in the natural setting (walking to
47 f d to would assume that a relationship had already en established. However, if an outsider, such as myself, steps into this relationship and ontrol their behavior while they are interacting with nature, this may have , may to more unique an experience (Nundy, 1999). Perhaps school a great distance on their own, running errands for the family) and the loose organization and discipline observed in some of the classrooms. Additionally, the lack o affective gains could also indicate that the experience was not a generally positive one though students continued to claim that th ey enjoyed time in nature on post test qualitative items. However, this may be an indi cation that their ideas about what nature is are not comparable to the places we visited or passed along the way. This is reminiscent of some of the in terviews in which the term environment ha be defined to interviewees. All but 3 particip ating students indicated in the pre test that they enjoy spending time in nature so one be attempts to c been enough to turn some of the students (n amely the boys who were the majority of the ones running ahead and becoming distracted) o ff to new information. I recall one of the most instrumental and helpful teachers men tioning that field trip s are largely frowned upon because most teachers agree that it is a waste of time due to students inattention and the lack of structure. Perhaps the fact that field trips have been disorganized and unstructured in the past with little expectation of academic gains on the part of students, lead the students to regard this experience as a day off rather than a learni ng opportunity regardless of the discussed expectations. Th e novelty of the experience, despite the aforementioned teachers enthusiasm and passion in discussi ng watershed topics wh ile at the farm have played a much greater ro le than previously expected Additionally, students tend recall information more readily the the field trip itself was not such a unique experience since students in this rural community have daily and nearly unlimited opportunities to walk, explore and connect with nature. Future Considerations Further work using the instruments or content developed here should consider using one standard format for all cognitive testing (for example, all multiple choice items) so to make no one item more challenging to answ er than another. Additionally, teaching as the
48 red irls and boys cognitive and each fective on versus the infl uence of parental knowle dge and attitudes. and ns ve field trip group the same classroom lessons and then following it up with the field trip while the classroom group gets follow-up cl assroom lessons would more accurately measure cognitive gains and better compensate for some of the distractions encounte during the field trip. Researching differe nces between g affective performance may illuminate the teaching style most favoring gains within group. Repeated experiences to field trip locations to include a day to explore and prepare with few teacher-lead activities ma y counter-act the negative effects of novel situations in which students ar e more concerned with exploration than content learning. A follow-up day in the classroom and then a s econd field trip to establish expectations and purpose for subsequent visits is also good practice. Future research in the effects of field trips should examine the role of a novel instructors versus the regular classroom teachers impact on cognitive and af outcomes. Long-term cognitive and affective effects of this short-duration study would further offer an interesting and necessary facet to the current available research. Similarly, linking parents interview responses to student cognitive and affective data may assist in differentiating the influence of experiential school-based experiences cognitive and affective gains Given more time and financial resour ces, I would have interv iewed more parents other sectors of the community to get a better understanding of their collective environmental consciousness, taken students on a pre-field trip visit, taught the same lessons to both groups within the classroom setting as well as provided follow-up lesso on basic watershed and agricultural concepts Additionally, I would have spent more time with students in the classroom and outdoor settings in an attempt to decrease any biases in results due to a novel teacher or of being related to one of the teachers. I belie that providing repeated experiences over a l onger period of time would also lead to greater gains in cognitive and affective learning.
49 ent connectedness gths and viability of a relationship. Why should it be any ully or s the field nvironmental education to o ccur through positive cogni tive and affective wth, a relationship with nature must be established over repeated positive experiences of tim e (Brody, 2005). Like any rela tionship, identification with CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS Schultzs (2002) work on inclusion w ith nature comes to mind when drawing broad conclusions on the interconnectedness of th e data collected. To repeat, commitm cannot occur in the absence of caring. Caring cannot occur in the absence of connectedness. Commitment cannot occur in the absence of caring and (p.70). This is how the quantitative and qualita tive data in this research complement and support each other. When a researcher uses only quantitative data to assess the effectiveness of an environmental experience, she neglects the comple x array of affective (value placed on nature, caring for nature, one s place in nature, motivation to act to benefit nature) and intellectual (awareness of environmental problems, skills and knowledge to address and prevent problems, commitment to act to benefit nature) considerations that make a person a whole hum an being. Humans form relationships with each other similarly to how we form them with nature. We consider our feelings, our thoughts and our actions as natu ral parts of our interpersona l relationships as well as when considering the stren different when our relationship with nature is in question? I conclude that the quantitative and qualitative components of my data do successf encompass the diversity of human intera ctions and address UNESCOs goals of environmental education though I would include uniform test items in future tests. F example, use all multiple choice or all true or false, for ease of comparing answers to like answers. Specifically, items in the pre and post science content tests as well as the journals, address skills and knowledge necessary for a basic understanding of Mollepata local watershed and agricultural problems. That result were not as dramatic for trip group when compared to the classroom gr oup may indicate that, indeed, for true and meaningful e gro over an extended period and concern for nature must be nurtured and encouraged through the mind AND heart if we are to expect a population that is aware, committed and active in the solving of current as well as future environmental prob lems. Without nurtur ing the feeling, caring
50 ning conclude that this research es e nd arch are: 1. Do short-duration field trips increase aspect of nature relationships, which is at the core of environmental education; and without taking a serious look at the governing and pedagogi cal constructs that breed conformity, we deny human beings the power to make meaningful changes in their world and to deny them the ability to engage in creative, innovative problem-solving (Freire, 1993) to equitably share and car e for the Earths resources. This research adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding experiential lear via environmental education field trips. A lthough cognitive test results do not show a statistically significant differe nce between field trip and classroom groups, the data does demonstrate that some growth occurred in the field trip group over the classroom group both in cognitive and affective terms. One may reasonably supports the notion that students who are exposed to active, authentic and novel experiences on a more frequent basis and over longer time periods, may demonstrate increased cognitive and affective gains. This, in my opinion, may also reasonably support the practice of increasing the frequency and quali ty of field trip experienc available to elementary aged students. Additionally, this research explores a seldom-studied rural, Andean population in th context of experiential learning and envir onmental perceptions. I believe communities such as the one in Mollepata are important re search centers as these are the communities that feed growing city populations. Wit hout the long-term protection of water a agricultural resources of this and other simila r communities, we will lo se essential natural processes such as water purif ication and melt-water from snow-capped peaks, resources for both sustenance and enjoyment and the rich cultural traditions that sustain them. Results from this population may be reason ably applied to other populations, as the expository pedagogical style discussed in th is work, is common in Latin and North America, as are severely limited field trip experiences in formal education settings. The research questions answered through this rese elementary school student sciencerelated content retention and positive attitu des towards the environment? Research question #1 was successfully answered through pre and post science content tests to quantitatively measure cognitive gain s; and pre and post e nvironmental attitude
51 surveys and student journal wr itings to quantitatively and qualitatively measure affective gains for both groups. Content reten r the field trip group over the for the field ts ata. topics h, al ater-related terms when moke (3 s s tive tion did in crease fo classroom group on post test measures though statistically this difference does not constitute a significant change. Greater positive affective changes towards the environment are also documented for post pro-environment statement ratings trip group. 2. Do parents and teachers in the community recognize potential environmental threats and consequences of watershed contamination? Research question #2 was successfully answered through quantitative and qualitative analysis of structured, open-ended one-on-one interviews with a small group of paren whose students attended I.E. David Samoza Ocampo elementary school in Mollep Subjects were interviewed on demographic, so cial, educational and environmental to assess their perception of environm ental problems within the community and specifically to assess the consequences of wa tershed contamination. From this researc it is reasonable to conclude that those interviewed recogni ze a variety of environment problems in Mollepata and that they do not recognize the consequences of watershed contamination. Eleven of the 21 adults in terviewed cited w asking about environmental problems in town. The remaining interviewees cited trash or plastic contamination (6 of 21); the burning of forests, garbage and the resulting s of 21) and harvest-related problems (2 of 21) However, none related any of these term to broader watershed contamination issues nor demonstrated an understanding of basic watershed principles in their discussions. Similarly, when asked about the disappearance of frogs and toads in Mollepata, many varied, plausible and somewhat implausi ble reasons were offered though only one considered the scarcity of water. The use of chemicals such as fertilizers and insecticides were repeated by several but no indication as to broader implications of these chemical usage or of the amphibians disappearance were offered. 3. Are parents and teachers likely to support efforts to increase environmental awareness in their children via outside sour ces working with the school? Research question #3 was successfully answered through quantitative and qualita analysis of structured, open-ended one-on-one interviews with a small group of parents
52 a. d assistance from private as e a nly y rd to watershed issues and if they would look hile ata, three interviewees problem as natural resources, water, soil, air. Howe r, harvest and whose students attended I.E. David Samoza Ocampo elementary school in Mollepat All but one interviewee claimed to welcom e environmental education via an outside group for both school children and the co mmunity in general. Additionally, all interviewed regarded education as very important or impor tant in the lives of their children. Mollepata has had a history of recei ving training an well as government sponsored programs and it is my belief that they would welcome any opportunity that may result in increased employment and/or opportunities for their children based on their interview responses. The overall objectives met by this research are: 1. To determine if students participating in an out-o f-school environmental education field trip score better on cognitive content-related items and hav positive change in attitude towa rds the environment over thei r peers receiving o standa rd classroom curriculum; 2. To determine if parents and teachers of the students in th e study perceive an environmental problems with rega favorably on increased environmen tal education opportunities for their ch ildren via local community excursions; 3. To determine if parents and teachers would also welcome an outside group (for example, a non-governmental organization) providing the above mentioned educational experiences to their children. When comparing the interview respons es to UNESCOs goals of environmental education, a need for further education, rela ted skills, and awareness was apparent. W interviewees all mentioned some type of environmental problem, the vocabulary of environmental education does not yet commonl y exist in the sample interviewed. For example, when asking about environmental problems in Mollep did not know what I meant by environment and were only able to come up with a after being prompted with words such ver, once I used these terms, they were able to discuss specific wate contamination related topics.
53 f ith would ge and ethics previously mentioned by UNESCO (1975). Addressing popul that has the knowledge, It is reasonable to co nclude that students in a rural Andean, environment may benefit from a combination of classroom and field tr ip experiences over an extended period o time to provide opportunities for students to explore independently and to identify w nature before measuring cogniti ve or affective gains. Adults in the community similarly benefit from repeated experiences perhaps alongside their children to develop the knowled cognitive and affective growth will collec tively contribute to developing a world ation that is aware and concerned for the environment and skills, attitudes, motivation and commitment to work towards solving and preventing environmental problems.
54 rnal of ce Pedagogy: A Literature Review. ence Education 3 (4), 193Ca n Ambiental para Docentes Perus Ministry of hool -Term Effect s on Ecological and Environmental Knowledge and Attitude Development. The Journal of he ip (15), 1869-1889. Instituto Nacional de Estadstica e Informtica. Perfil sociodemogrfico del Per References Braund, Martin and Reiss, Michael (2006) Towards a More Authentic Science Curriculum: The contribution of out-o f-school learning. International Jou Science Education 28 (12), 1373-1388. Brody, Michael (2005) Learning in nature. Environmental Education Research 11 (5), 603-621. Cakir, Mustafa (2008) Constructivi st Approaches to Learning in Science and Their Implications for Scien International Journal of Environmental & Sci 206. Carter, Susan (2008) Disequilibrium and Questioning in the Primary Classroom: Establishing Routines that Help Students Learn. Teaching Children Mathematics October 2008, 134-137. stelo, Maria Luz (2009) Pe rsonal Communication. Cusco, Peru. Castelo, Luis Eduardo (2009) Telephone Communication. Egg, Antonio Brack and Yauri Benites, Hector German (2006) Peru: Pais Maravilloso: Guia de Educacio Education, Embassy of Finland Farmer, James, Knapp, Doug and Benton, Gregory M. (2007) An Elementary Sc Environmental Education Fiel d Trip: Long Environmental Education 38 (3), Freire, Paulo (1993) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum Books. Fuchsloch, Maria Elena (2005) Resena Historica de Mollepata. Via email communication. Gonzalez-Gaudiano, Edgar (2007) Schooling and environment in Latin America in t third millennium. Environmental Education Research 13 (2), 155-169. Hamilton-Ekeke, Joy-Telu (2007) Relativ e Effectiveness of Expository and Field Tr Methods of Teaching on Students Achievement in Ecology. International Journal of Science Education 29
55 nd rips. he International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education 8 (2), 190-198. Schultz, P. Wesley (2002) Inclusion with Nature: The Psychology of Human-nature Relations. In P.Schmuck and P. W. Schultz (eds.), Psychology of Sustainable Development, 61-78. Boston, MA: Kluwer. Tamayo, Dario (2005) Vi a telephone communication. Tamayo, Roxana (2009) Via email communication. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (1975) The Belgrade Charter: A Global Framework for Environmental Education International Envir onmental Workshop. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. United Nations Conferen ce on the Human Environment (1972) Educational, Informational, Social and Cultural Aspects of Environmental Issues : Recommendation 96. Stockholm, Sweden. United Nations General Assembly (1974) Declaration on the Establishment of a New Economic Order 2229th Meeting. Vargas, Monica (2004) Global warming melts Peruvian Peaks. Reuters News Service Vining, Joanne (2003) The Connection to Other Animals and Caring for Nature. Human Ecology Review 10 (2), 87-99. Fundacion Telefonica Geografia del Peru (2009). www.educared.edu.pe Lima: INEI, 2008. Knapp, Doug and Barrie, Elizabeth (2001) Content Evaluation of an Environmental Science Field Trip. Journal of Science Education and Technology 10 (4), 351-357 Knapp, Doug and Poff, Raymond (2001) A Qualitative Analysis of the Immediate a Short-term Impact of an Envi ronmental Interpretive Program. Environmental Education Research 7 (1), 55-65. McLoughlin, Andrea Sabatini (2004) Engineering Active and Eff ective Field T The Clearing House 77 (4), 160-163. Nundy, Stuart (1999) The Fieldwork Effect: The Role and Impact of Fieldwork in t Upper Primary School. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2009) Environmental Education: Background and History. http://www.epa.gov/enviroed/eedefined.html The World Bank (2007) Peru at a glance. www.worldbank.org
56 World Climate www.worldclimate.com
58 Appendix A: Pre and Post Test Group_________ Date________________ 1. Where does most of the drinking wallepata come from? a. Rain b. Snow capped peaks c. Beneath the earth 2. Water pollutants may be: a. Natural b. Human-made c. Both 3. Water flows: a. From a lower to a higher elevation b. from a higher to lower elevation 4. Things float in water depending on: a. Their weight. b. Because they have air inside. c. what they are made of. 5. Water exists in three states. They are: a. solid, liquid, gas b. ice, water, st eam cold c. cold, warm, hot 6. How does nature clean water? 7. List 3 Mollepata agri cultural products. 8. What is a watershed? Do you live in one? 9. What are some negative effects of us icals and pesticide products? 10. Farmers in Mollepata use synthetic chem icals and pesticides. True or False 11. People influence changes in the environment. True or False 12. The chemicals used in agriculture end up in the water. True or False 13. The insects that benef it agriculture mma ged with the use of synthetic chemicals. 14. Garbage and the chemicals used in Mo llepata reach the Apurimac River. True or False ter in Mo ing chem ay be da
59 Appendix A: (Continued) Put an X in the box that most closely expresses your opinion. I agree. I do not know. I do not agree. My actions at home affect Mollepatas water. I like to spend time in nature. I think that I could be a scientist. I like science. I am motivated to do good things for the environment. It is important that people protect and preserve nature. I would like to be a farmer. I would like to learn more about Mollepatas water.
60 Appendix B: d Teachers llowing Consent to Participate.): 2. HIST How long have you lived in Mollepata? living? ENV Are there any environmental problems in Mollepata? they? 7. ENV How important are trees and plants in Mollep ata? Very Important, Important month, Once per week, Daily, Never h ich ones are native to this region? How many of your children go to I.E. David Samoza Ocampo? Their ages? st importa nt thing in your childs education? How important is your childs educati on to you? Very Important, Important, hy? 13. SOC Would you like your child to stay in Mollepata into adulthood? Why or why 14. SOC Are there any social services n eeded in Mollepata? What are they? hat kind of organization is it? e school? Very Important, Important, Some what Important, Not Important Why? be offered to the portant, Important Somewhat Important, Not Important u be open to an outside organization providing environmental programs at the school? In the community? d like to e community, agriculture or the school? ENV= ENVIRONMENT AG= AGRICULTURE EDU= EDUCATION SOC= SOCIAL Interview Questions for Parents an (All questions were read to participants and recorded on cassette fo 1. HIST Where were you born? 3. DEM What do you do for a 4. HIST What did your pare nts do for a living? 5. If so, what are 6. ENV How is the water quality in town? Very Good, Good, Bad, Very Bad Im portant, Somewhat Important, Not 8. ENV How often do you see frogs in the community? Once per year, Once per 9. AG What products are farmed here? W 10. AG Are there any problems with crop s/agriculture? What are they? 11. DEM 12. EDU What do you see as the mo Somewhat Important, Not Important W not? 15. SOC Are you a member of any organizations in town? Is so what are they? W 16. EDU How important is it to you that environmental educ ation be offered at th 17. EDU How important is it to you that environmental education community? Very Im Why? 18. EDU Would yo 19. OPEN Is there anything else you would lik e to talk about or that you share with me about th HIST= HISTORY DEM= DEMOGRAPHIC
61 nterview Responses for Selected Questions Interview Question Answer Tol Responses d by Interviewee Total Times Appendix C: I ta Terms Use Used 5. Are ther environment problems? 1 n, canal, draage, drought,il, snow peaks) 10 e al Yes 6 Water (rai in ha Harvest (products, crops) 2 Bu (forest, gare, smoke) 3 rns bag Camination (trh, plastic) 5 ont as 5 No 6. Ho w is the w quality? A lot comes. ater Very good 5 Its chlorinated. Its fresh. Good 7 Regular 3 Bad 3 Very Bad 1 7. Why are trees important? Money 0 Food 0 Shade 1 Fire 6 Medicinal 3 Furniture & Homes 6 Oxygen 5 Lungs of the Planet
62 Appendix C: (Continued) Interview Question Answer Total Responses Terms Used by Interviewee Total Times Used 8. Why are there no frogs here? Rats 3 Chemicals 7 NoAnswer 6 Car emissions 1 Snakes 1 Mi streating 1 environment Water scarcity 1 Climate Change 1 Burning forests 1 Too much sun 1 9. Are ther e agricultural Yes pro blems? Insects or illness 7 Chemicals (fertilizer, insecticide) 6 Too much rain 3 Too much sun 2 Lack of rain 7 Small crops, Low yield 2 Hail 1
63 Appendix C: (Continued) Interview Question Interviewee tal Times Answer Total Responses Terms Used by To Used 12. How important is yo educ Very Important 14 To find work or be a ur childs ation? professional 4 Important 7 Dont want them to end up d 9 like us. They shoul be better than us. Not be a farmer. 2 Som Important ewhat 0 Not Imortant p 0 19. What else youd like to share with meout the communi, school or agriculture? Need for Education 10 ab ty Environmental 3 Agricu ltural 2 Alt 2 du Values 1 Sex 1 Sps ecial Need 1 Ns Tourism 2 eed Job 3 Women 1 Noer answ 8
64 Appendix D: Additional Ph otographs of Study Area View of Mollepatas Town Square Typical Street View
Appendix D: (Continued) ic View from Neighborhood Street Local Elementary Schools Main Entrance Panoram 65
66 Appendix D: (Continued) View ents Students Depiction of Local Watershed from Journal Writing from Aprodes Farm Visited by Stud