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Faculty perspectives on doctoral student mentoring :
b the mentor's odyssey
h [electronic resource] /
by Carol Burg.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.
Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, mentoring has emerged as a research domain, however, the preponderance of mentoring research has been situated first, in the business or organizational settings and second, in the K-12 educational setting, focusing on protg experiences, using quantitative survey instruments to collect data. Thus, mentoring research literature includes a paucity of formal studies in the arena of graduate education. Situated in the higher education setting, this study investigated the perspectives of faculty-mentors who provided mentoring to doctoral students who completed the doctoral degree, employing the qualitative research methodology known as phenomenology, as an orthogonal but complimentary epistemology to previous quantitative studies. Located specifically in the College of Education of a large research university, the study asked 262 College of Education doctoral graduates to nominate College of Education faculty who provided mentoring to them during their degree pursuit. A total of 59 faculty were nominated as mentors. Six of the most frequently nominated mentors participated in two semi-structured interviews (Berg, 2004). The interviews addressed the mentor's experience of the mentoring endeavor, seeking to gather a description of their lived experience (Creswell, 1998) of mentoring and the meanings (Cohen & Omery, 1994) they garnered from it. The interviews yielded several shared perspectives on mentoring, including: a Gratifying Perspective, an Intentional Perspective, an Idiographic Perspective, a Teleological Perspective, and a Dynamic Perspective. Other noteworthy concepts that emerged from the mentors' data were: values, motivations, symbiotic relationship, and contextual negotiation. Implications for mentoring theory and practice as well as mentor development were described. The study contributed to development of a fuller phenomenological understanding of the perspectives of faculty-mentors in a mentoring relationship with doctoral students.
Advisor: James Eison, Ph.D.
x Higher Education Administration
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Faculty Per spective s o n Doctoral Student Mentoring b y Carol A. Burg A d issertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Adult, Career and Higher Education College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: James Eison, Ph.D. Deirdre Cobb Roberts, Ph.D. Valerie Janesick Ph.D. William Young, Ed.D. Date of Approval: March 31, 2010 Keywords: Teleological, Idiographic, Phenomenological, Orthogonal Contextual Negotiatio n Copyright Carol A. Burg 2010
Dedication : With Love and Gratitude To All M y Mentors Especially M y First Mentor: My Sister Rita M. Burg 1959 2007
Acknowledgements I wo uld like to express my deep appreciation to all the members of my dissertation committee Dr. James Eison, Dr Valerie Janesick Dr. William Young, and Dr. Deirdre Cobb Roberts for their assistance and valuable contributions to this study I also need to convey my deep respect and admiration for the faculty mentors who volunteered to participate in this study and who embody the ideals of effective mentoring, as evid enced by both their nomination by graduate students and by their self aware reflections on the nature of the mentoring experience. I would especially like to convey my profound gratitude to my mentors, Dr. Valerie Janesick, Dr. James Eison, Dr. Carol Mullen and Dr. Stuart Carrier : your exceptional support and caring throughout the nine years of my doctoral studies odyssey has been essential to my completing this formative journey. I must extend a very special note of thanks to Dr. Valerie Janesic k whose guidance and expertise in qualitative methods was as invaluable and as constant as the North Star always eme rging from the clouds as a steady beacon by which I could reset my bear ings and make a course correction for a successful arrival at the completion of the dissertation expedition And finally, my heartf elt thanks to all my friends and family especially my mother, Marie Burg for all of your encouragement throug hout the years of this endeavor. Y our love and support has been indispe nsable, and I am truly grateful for all of you.
i T ABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF FIGURES viii ABSTRACT i x CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 1 Introduction 1 Background: Personal Perspective 1 Rationale for Proposed Study 3 Purpose of T he Study 4 Exploratory Questions 5 Research Design 5 Definition of Terms 6 Literature Review 7 Delimitations of the Study 7 Theoretical Framework 8 Interview Method 9 Usefulness of T he Study 10 Limitations 11 Conclusion 12 From My Reflective Journal, May 25 2007 12 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 14 Introduction 14 Mentoring Origins 15 Mentoring as a Research Domain 16 Criticisms of Mentoring Research 20 Mentoring in Education 23 Mentoring in Higher Education 25 Mentoring of New Faculty in Higher Education 26 28 Who Gets Mentored and How 30 Benefits Students Receive from Mentoring 32 Mentoring From the Doctor al Faculty 35 Benefits to the Mentor from Mentoring 38 Motivations of the Mentor 40 Perceptions of the Mentor 42
ii Conclusion 45 From My Reflective Journal, October 29, 2007 46 CHAPTER 3 METHODS 49 Introduction 49 Exploratory Questions 49 Qualitative Research 50 The Process (Method) of the Research 51 The Relationship of the Researcher to That Being Researched / The Nature of Reality 52 The Role of Values in a Study 53 Theoretical Framework Phenomenology 54 Method of Data Collection 56 Operational D efinition of Mentoring 56 Participant Selection 59 Nomination Response Rate 60 Criteria for Inclusion, Exclusion and Selection of the N ominated F aculty M entors 61 Interview Format 63 Analysis / Description / Interpretation 70 Member Check 73 Researcher Field Notes and Reflective Journal 73 Role of the Researcher 74 Ethical Considerations 75 Informed Consent 79 Confidentiality 79 Consequences 80 Assumptions 80 Assumptions of the Qualitative Paradigm 81 Assumptions of Phenomenology 83 Personal Assumptions of the Researcher 84 Reliability Validity, Generalizabilty Bias 86 Specific Techniques of Verification W ithin This Study 89 Hardware and Software 90 Estimated Dissertation Timeline, Expenses, and Funding 91 Summary 94 Conclusion 95 From My Reflective Journal, September 23, 2008 95 From M y Reflective Journal, March 10, 2009 96 CHAPTER 4 PRESE NTATION OF THE INTERVIEW DATA 97 Introduction 97 The Setting 97 For t he Reader: Regarding Transcript Presentation Conventions 98 The Mentors 100
iii The First Case: Professor Jade Enjoyable 102 Prologue to Professor Jade Enjoyable From M y Reflective Journal October 18, 2009 102 Professor Jade Enjoyable Introduction 104 Professor Jade Her Self as Mentor 104 Professor Jade Her Experience of Mentoring 106 Professor Jade Benefits F rom Mentoring 107 Professor Jade What Mentoring Means for Her 110 Professor Ja de Her Negatives in Mentoring 114 Professor Ja de Her Teleology of Mentoring 116 Professor Ja de Her Motivations to Mentor 116 Professor Jade Her Values as a Mentor 117 Professor Jade Summary 119 Epilogue to Professor Jade From M y Reflective Journal October 18, 2009 B racketing: What Do I Think and How Do I Feel A bout Professor Jade? 121 The Second Case : Professor Jacob Transactional 1 22 Prologue to Professor Jacob Trans actional From M y Reflective Journal September 2, 2009 122 Professor Jac ob Transactional Introduction 123 Profe ssor Jacob His Self as Mentor 124 Professor Jacob His Experience of Mentoring 125 Professor Jacob Benefits from Mentoring 126 Professor Jacob What Mentoring Means for Him 129 Professor Jac ob His Teleology of Mentoring 134 Professor Jac ob His Negatives in Mentoring 135 Professor Ja cob His Motivations to Mentor 137 Professor Jacob His Values as a Mentor 139 Professor Jacob Summary 141 Epilo gue to Professor Transactional From M y Reflective Journal November 21, 2009 143 Bracketing: What Do I Think and How D o I Feel A bout Professor Jacob? 14 3 The Third C ase: Professor Hanna Contextual 144 Prologue to Professor Hanna Contextual From M y Reflective Journal December 5, 2009 144 Bracketing: What Do I Think and How Do I Feel A bout Professor Hanna ? 145 Professor Ha nna Contextual Introduction 146 Profes sor Hanna Her Self as Mentor 147 Professor Hanna Her Experience of Mentoring 148 Professor Hanna Benefits from Mentoring 149 Professor Hanna What Mentoring Means for Her 152 Professor Han na Her Negatives in Mentoring 161 Professor Han na Her Teleology of Mentoring 163
iv Professor Ha nna Her Motivations to Mentor 164 Professor Hanna Her Values as a Mentor 167 Professor Hanna Summary 170 Epilogue to Professor Hanna From M y Reflective Journal December 23, 2009 173 The Fourth Ca se: Professor Reeba Intentional 173 Prologue to Professor Reeba Intentional From M y Reflective Journal June 1, 2009 173 Bracketing: What Do I Think and How Do I F eel about Professor Reeba? From M y Reflective Journal 174 Professor Reeba Intentional Introduction 175 Professor Reeba Her Self as Mentor 176 Professor Reeba Her Experience of Mentoring 182 Professo r Reeba Benefits from Mentoring 183 Professor Reeba What Mentoring Means for Her 185 Professor Reeba Her Negatives in Mentoring 195 Professor Reeba Her Teleology of Mentoring 196 Professor Reeba Her Motivations to Mentor 197 Professor Reeba Her Values as a Mentor 200 Professor Reeba Summary 204 Epilogue to Professor Reeba From M y Reflective Journal January 3, 2010 206 The Fifth Case: Professor Jack Overscheduled 207 Prologue to Professor Jack Overscheduled From M y Reflective Journal July 2, 2009 207 Bracketing: What D o I Think and How Do I Feel A bout Professor Jack? From M y Reflective Journal 207 Professor Jack Overscheduled Introduction 20 8 Professor Jack His Self as Mentor 20 9 Professor Jack His Experience of Mentoring 212 Professor Jack Benefits from Mentoring 213 Professor Jack What Mentoring Means for Him 215 Professor Jack His Negatives in Mentoring 223 Professor Jack His Teleology of Mentoring 233 Professor Jack His Motivations to Mentor 235 Professor Jack His Values as a Mentor 236 Professor Jack Summary 240 Epilogue to Professor Jack From M y Reflective Journal January 14, 2010 242 The Sixth Case: Professor Donna Structural 243 Prologue to Professor Donna Structural From M y Reflective Journal June 8, 2009 243 B racketing: What Do I Think and How Do I F eel about Professor Donna? 244 Professor Donna Structural Introduction 250
v Professor Donna Her Self as Mentor 251 Professor Donna Her Experience of Mentoring 25 5 Professor Donna Benefits from Mentoring 256 Professor Donna What Mentoring Means for Her 260 Professor Donna Her Negatives in Mentoring 270 Professor Donna Her Teleology of Mentoring 273 Professor Donna Her Motivations to Mentor 274 Professor Donna Her Values as a Mentor 27 5 Professor Donna Summary 277 Epilogue to Professor Donna From M y Reflective Journal January 24, 2010 2 79 Conclusion 279 From My Reflective Journal, January 24, 2010 280 CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 283 Introduction 283 Verific ation and Transferability 286 Definition of Terms 2 88 Responses to the Exploratory Questions 289 A Gratifying Perspective 290 A Teleological Perspective 293 An Idiographic Perspective 297 An Intentional Perspective 299 A Dynamic Perspective 300 Model of the Study 302 Impact of the Study on the Researcher 304 Implications of the Study 309 Response to Criticisms of the Mentoring Research 309 Response to the Mentoring Literature 312 Implications For Research and Context s Other than Higher Education 314 Impl ications for Future Practice for Faculty Mentors of Doctoral Students 316 Implications for Future Practice for Doctoral Students 317 Impl ications for Future Practice for Institutions 318 Conclusion 320 Researcher Reflecti ve Journal, February 7, 2010 3 21 REFERENCES 3 2 2 APPENDICES 338 Appendix A: Interview Protocol 1 339 Appendix B: Interview Protocol 2 341 Appendix C: Nomination Form Sent to Graduates 342 Appendix D: Explanatory Letter to Interviewees 344
vi Appendix E: Estimated Dissertation Expenses 345 Appendix F: Consent Form for Interviewees 346 Appendix G: Member Check Form for Interviewees 347 Appendix H : Peer Review Form 348 Appendix I: Sample Interview T ranscript and Analysis 349 Appendix J : 351 Appendix K: Li st of Documents and Artifacts 3 5 2 ABOUT THE AUTHOR End Page
vii LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Advising vs. Mentoring Activities 58 Table 2: Departments with Number of Mentors Nominated 61 Table 3: 63 Table 4 : The Belmont Report Main Principles 75 Table 5 : Summary of the Ethical Principles for Research Involving Human Participants University of Plymouth, UK 76 Table 6 : Philosophical Assumptions of the Qualitative Paradigm with Implications for Practice 81 Table 7 : Criteria for Evalu ating Qualitative Research 86 Table 8 : Carol A. Burg Proposed Dissertation Timeline 89 Table 9 : D escription of the Mentors 98 Table10 : The Gratifying Perspective: Element s and Variables 293 Table 11 : The Teleological Perspe ctive: Elements and Variables 296 Table 12 : The Idiographic Perspe ctive: Elements and Variables 299 Table 13 : The Intentional Persp ective: Elements and Variables 301 Table 14 : The Dynamic Perspe ctive: Elements and Variables 303
viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 72 Figure 2 : Summary of Data Collection, Analysis, and Verification Procedures 88 Figure 3: Professor Jade: Her Mentor Self 117 Figure 4: Professor Jacob: His Mentor Self 139 Figure 5: Professor Hanna: Her Mentor Self 169 Figure 6: Professor Reeba: Her Mentor Self 203 Figure 7: Professor Jack: His Mentor Self 241 Figure 8: Profess or Donna: Her Mentor Self 278 Figure 9 : Model of the Study 305
ix Carol A. Burg A BSTRACT In recent years, mentoring has emerged as a research domain, h owever, the preponderance of mentoring research has been situated first, in the business or organizational settings and second, in the K 12 educational setting, focusing on protg experiences, using quan titative survey instruments to collect data Thus, mentoring research literat ure includes a paucity of formal studies in the arena of graduate education. S ituated in the higher education setting this study investigated the perspectives of faculty mentor s who provided mentoring to doctoral students who completed the doctoral degree, employing the qualitative research methodology known as phenomenology as an orthogonal but complimentary epistemology to previous quantitative studies Located specifically i n the College of Education of a large research university, the study asked 262 College of Educati on doctoral graduates to nominate College of Education faculty who provided mentoring to them during their degree pursuit. A total of 59 faculty were nominated as mentors. Six of the most frequently nominated mentors participated in two semi structured interviews ( Berg, 2004 ). The experience of the mentoring endeavor, seeking to gather a description of their lived experience ( Creswell, 1998) of mentoring and the meaning s (Cohen & Omery, 1994) they garnered from it. The interviews yielded
x several shared perspectives on m entoring including : a Gratifying Perspective, an I ntentional Perspective, an Idiographic Perspective a T eleo logical Perspective and a D ynamic Perspectiv e. Other noteworthy concepts that were: values, motivations, symbiotic relationship, and contextual negotiation Implications for mentoring theory and practice as well as mentor de velopment were described. The study contributed to development of a fuller phenomenological understanding of the perspectives of faculty mentors in a mentoring relationship with doctoral students.
1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Introduction Higher education faculty and graduate students generally view the relationship between a faculty dissertation advisor and doctoral student as an important part of doctoral educatio n. According to research on common practices in doctoral advising, the faculty advisor provides the doctoral student with information on the requirements of the se Rose & Schlosser, 200 7 ; Schlosser & Gelso, 2005; Weil, 2001). In some cases, however, the interaction between a student and faculty member goes beyond simply advising into a mentorin g relationship. In fact, one of the most commonly given pieces of advice to beginning graduate students is to find a mentor (Rose, 2003). Background: Personal Perspective As a lifelong learner, I have experienced several important mentoring relationships in my academic career, from undergraduate studies through doctoral studies. As an Indiana University School of Music undergraduate majoring in Classical Organ studies, I had the privilege for four years of having a one hour organ lesson every week
2 with a world class concert organist. However, my interaction with my Organ Professor was not confined to just the one hour music lesson at the organ console. I definitely benefited from a significant amount of mentoring by my Organ Professor that extended to discussions of organ music, theory and career suppor t in other professional venues. After earning my undergraduate degree, I applied the knowledge and experience gained in my mentored apprenticeship by working as a pro fessional musician and church choir director. My desire for career progress led me to secure employment with a private university, where I work ed as an administrator pursued a graduate degree, and experienced a second mentoring relationship The maste completed in this was somewhat u nusual in that it was a bona fide cohort model. In this curriculum and instruction program we had one core (primary) instructor throughout the entire 22 month duration of degree pursuit Partly due to this fact, as well as the fact that my core instructor was also a colleague who nurtured my capabilities in the creative arts, arts based research, and academic publication, a mentoring relationship developed and continues through the present. As a third in depth experience with mentoring, in my doctoral studies, I have experienced six years of mentoring f rom my previous major professor in my doctoral studies, which led to my gaining advanced competencies as an academic re searcher writer and as a reviewer and associate editor for refereed journals. After reviewing the literature on doctoral student mentoring, I realize that my experiences with mentoring may be unusual. Upon reflection, I found that my three sustained mentor ing relationships
3 decade of experience as a direct participant observer of the academic mentoring process. In contrast, I found it surprising to learn recently while rev iewing the literature on doctoral student mentoring that it is estimated that only one half to two thirds of students report ever being mentored in graduate school (Busch, 1985; Clark, Harden, & Johnson, 2000; Cronan Hillex, T., Gensheimer, Cronan Hillex,W .A., & Davidson, 1986; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Rose, 2003). One study found that 56% of students surveyed Jacob i, 1991, p. 514). With my own multiple experiences as a participant o bserver of mentoring, I had been operating under the false impression that mentoring in higher education was de rigueur The realization that academic mentoring is far from universal l ed me to a great deal of reflection, from which a cogent question has ar isen: Why do some coll ege faculty, such as those who enriched my own career as a student, choose to engage in mentoring? Indeed, mentoring is not specified in faculty contracts. In some institutions, faculty are not paid over the summer, and yet faculty still advise and in some cases mentor students over these months. Why do some faculty engage in service above and beyond the call of duty specified in their contracts? My own experiences with mentoring prompt me to explore this question a s a compelling interest in my doctoral studies. Rationale for This Study Mentoring has become a more widely researched topic over the past 30 years
4 an active con cern for the next generation that may be expressed through mentoring), people in the ear ly adult transition phase seek out mentoring) have provided impetus for the study of mentoring. However, the majority of research studies have focused on the business and organization settings, not education (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007). There is a d earth of research literature that focuses on the student faculty mentorin g relationship (Johns on, Rose & Schlosser, 2007). As a result of my experience of searching the literature I concur with this observation. In the context of education, there seems to be an abundance of research on mentoring involving teacher induc tion and principal induction but comparatively less at the higher education level. The majority of this research has focused on the perspecti ve and experiences of the teacher or principal inductee via quantitative self report surveys (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Merriam, 1983; Noe, Greenberger, & Wang, 2002; Rose, 2003). Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the perspectives on mentoring by selected doctoral faculty who recent doctoral graduates identify as mentors. As a result of illuminating t he perspectives of faculty who mentor, it was my hope that a greater understanding of the experiences of faculty who engage in mentoring relations hips with students including their motivations for mentoring and the significance mentoring holds for them, would emerge.
5 Exploratory Questions As I discussed above, a significant deficit in the mentoring literature regarding the perspective of the high er education mento r/doctoral advisor is evident: m ost mentoring studies in Higher Education have focused on the perspective of the student in the mentoring dyad and have used quantitative surveys to gather data from the students (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Merriam, 1983; Noe, Greenberger, & Wang, 2002; Rose, 2003). Research focusing on the perspective of the doctoral advisor is minimal, especially research employing a qualitative approach (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007). Scholars are suggesting fu rther research and more diverse methods to investigate and understand the perspectives and motivations of faculty who mentor (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Rose, 2003; Allen & Eby, 2003 ). T his leads to my exploratory question s : 1. What elements constitute selected doctoral faculty mentoring? 2. What variables influence those perspectives? Research Design Selection of the most effective research design for an in depth study of faculty doctoral candidate mentoring relationships m ust take into account specific structural and methodological issues identified from my review of the literature (Chapter Two) For example, issues arising out of the previous research designs involving mentoring include: 1. Many studies lack an operational de finition of mentoring and do not differentiate between mentoring and advising.
6 2. A theory base for mentoring is often lacking in prior studies. 3. Prior studies almost exclusively focus on the student perspective. 4. The studies have been largely quantitative see king to project and generalize findings rather than to achieve a more in depth, nuanced understanding of individual faculty perspectives. These design characteristics found in most preceding studies of faculty student mentoring relationships create gaps i n the literature that my study sought to address. The literature would be enlarged and enriched by a qualitative study that explores the key elements of an operationalized definition of mentoring and that examines the mentoring relationship from the perspective of the faculty mentor. Definition s of Terms The following definition s of terms are induc tively determined (see Chapter Three) from the discussion of the mentoring literature in Chapter Two : Mentoring : In this study, mentoring refers to a deliberate relationship between a doctoral faculty member and a doctoral student wherein the faculty member provides support that goes beyond the basic duties of advising with the intention of enhancing/promoting/supporting both the career and personal development of the student ( Aagaard & Hauer, 2003; Cohen, 1995; Hunt & Michael,19 83; Johnson, 2002; Johnson, 2007a ; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Paludi, Waite, Roberson, & Jones, 1988; Rose, 2003) Mentor : In this study, a mentor is a faculty member who has been identified by a student as participating in a relationship that provides support that goes beyond the basic
7 duties of advising with the intention of enh ancing/promoting/supporting both the career and personal development of the student ( Cohen, 1995; Johnson, 2002; Johnson, 2 007a ; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser 2007; Kram, 1985; Paludi, Waite, Roberson, & Jones, 1988). Advising : In this study, advising refers to the basic activities between a faculty member and a doctoral student that include providing information on program and degree requirements, providing technical guidance regarding these requirements, and monitoring r ough t he program ( Johnson, 2007a ; Weil, 2001). Literature Review Recognizi n b efore searching a ( Library Databases Search Strategies 2007, 1) I first bega n with the concepts and phenomena embedded in my research questions; second, I identified key search terms related to my concepts, operational definitions, and professional focus; third, I group ed and re group ed key search terms; and, finally, use d Boolean logic to structure database searches in World Cat alogue Education Resources Information Center ( ERIC ) Dissertation Abstracts International, Psych Info, and the EBSCO Database I employed this four part search strategy to assure reasonable coverage of the professional litera ture and, more importantly, to substantiate the nature and magnitude of the literature ga p that I ha ve identified in my preliminary research. Delimitations of the Study Scholars in the mentoring literature agree that mentoring i s influenced by the social context in which it occurs such as business, hard sciences, medici ne, nurs ing,
8 psychology, or education ; Scholars also agree that characteristics of mentorships in various academic disciplines may vary significantly (Green & Bauer 1995; Hunt & Michael, 1983; Knox, Schlosser, Pruitt, & Hill 2006; Schlosser & Gelso, 2005, 2001; Schlosser, Knox, Moskovitz & Hill, 2003; O'Neil & Wrightsman, 2001). For example, mentoring for a doctoral student in chemistry or physics may primarily focus on developing clinical laboratory experiments and research skills, whereas mentoring for a doctoral student in education may focus on developing more social science (non clinical) research and pedagogy skills; therefore, the developmental tasks for doctoral student protgs may be starkly different between disciplines (Johnson & Huwe, 2003). Because of this contextual variance by profession and discipline I will limit this study to C ollege of Education faculty at a large, Research I university locat ed in the American southern region since my own background and mentoring experience highlights non clinical educational research and pedagogy and thus provides me an initial basis for understanding the lived experiences of professors of education. For the purposes of Transition U niversity Theoretical Framework Scholars of mentoring agree that there is no single comprehensive theoretical framework th at unifies the study of mentoring (Mullen, 2005b). Rather, researchers tend to apply theoretical frames from their respective disciplines when studying any particular mentoring context (Mullen, 2005b); for example, researchers in the area of human developmen t might chose a theoretical framework such as generativity (Erikson, 1963),
9 whereas researchers in a business context might choose a systems theory framework (Senge, 1990). The theoretical framewo rk for this proposed study is the qualitative research para digm known as phenomenology realities (Leedy & Ormro d, 2001) by gleaning the essences (or elements ) of experiences into units of meaning (Creswell, 1998; L eedy & Ormrod, 2001; Kvale, 1996 .) A phenomenological study investigates the lived experiences (Creswell, 1998) of several people in regard to one conce pt or phenomenon (in th is case mentoring ) and seeks to reveal essential understandings ( elements ) phenomenon (Creswell, 1998). In Chapter Three, I will discuss in detail the assumptions and bias of the qualitative research paradigm, the theoretical framework of phenomenology, and of my self as the researcher and how these frames serve to define and delimit my study of faculty mentors In terview Method In order to select faculty who have men tored doctoral students, I obtain ed from Transition Un the contact information for students who have completed t heir doctorate within the past seve n years. I then mail ed the graduates a letter asking them to nominate facul ty who have provided them with sup port beyond the scope of advising and have acted as a mentor by supporting their personal and career developmen t. From the nominations, I select ed seven faculty me ntors to interview. I f faculty from my department were nominated as a mentor they were excluded from
10 interview selection in order to avoid a ny possible conflict of interest ; likewise, faculty who are members of my committee w ere excluded from participating in this study as interviewees for the same reason. For a more detailed description of the criteria for inclusion, exclusion, and selection, please see Chapter Three I conduct ed two interviews with each facult y mentor. Each interview was intended to last approximately one hour in length (although there was some variation to the length of the interviews) The protocol for the first interview, Protocol 1 (see Appendix A ) was developed inductively from my review of the mentoring literature, as I will discuss in Chapter Three. The interview protocol for the second interview, Protocol 2 (see Appendix B ) was also inductively developed from my review of the literature, as well as from the first interview with each participant Usefulness of the Study The purpo quantitative inquiry that involves randomly selecting a representative sample in order to statis tically generalize findings to a population. The study I am proposing is phenomenological, or focused on the perceptions of faculty who doctoral graduates identify as mentors, and might provide user or reader generalizability extent to which situation my hope that triangulation of the data from the notes, researcher reflective journaling) would yield coherent conclusions that hang
11 together (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001) for the reader, thus convincing the reader of the (Connelly & Clandinin, 1990 p.7) of the understandings reached in this study. Along with a more clarified description and understanding of the experiences mentors have, it was my aspiration that this study also provide awareness and understanding of what motivates some faculty to engage in mentorin g behaviors with their students; g doctoral st udents; as well as insight into the lived experience of the mentors, the benefits, the peril s, the hidden curriculum and the null curriculum (Eisner, 1994) that the f aculty mentors experienced. Ideas on how to reward mentors for this above and beyond the call of duty service to students and thereby provide more motivation to other faculty to ment or was another understanding I hoped to gain from this study Limitations The identifi cation of the faculty mentors was a possible limitation. I was at the mercy of the graduates to be forthcoming and accurate in their nominations. I was also beholden to the mentors to be forthcoming and accurate in sharing their mentoring experiences with me. As the researcher, and a main instrument of the research, I am a limitation, as well. With my practice of transparency (Rubin & Rubin, 2005) in discussing the m ethodology, the analysis of the data and my refle ctions it was my hope that I would
12 provide the reader s of the study with enough information to judge the trustworthiness, verisimilitude and transferability of the research as it applies to their own experi ences. Conclusion In conclusion, the perspective s of the faculty mentors in the mentoring relationship and their motivations for engaging in this altruistic (Allen, 2003), good organizational citizen behavior (McManus & Russel, 1997; Noe, et al, 2002) of mentoring is a gap in the mentoring literature that me rits further study. This study addressed another gap in the literature by taking a qualitative inquiry perspective (Johnson, et al, 2007; Merriam, 1983, Noe et al, 2002) that sought to identify and describe the nature of the faculty world view, using the phenomenological approach to members of the faculty protg dyads. It was my hope that a greater understanding of the authentic hum an stories of these mentors would be informative, interesting and inspiring to others. From my own valued experiences of receiving effective mentoring, coupled with the broadly positive research view that sees mentoring as a beneficial factor in guid ing doctoral stu dents to successful degree completion, I also aspire d to contribute research insights that I hope d would be useful in developing mentors and mentoring programs. From my Reflective Journal, May 25 2007: Jackson (pseudonym) a colleague and friend at the office, asked me today how I was doing since the departure of my mentor. He has checked in with me on this topic fairly regularly since my mentor left for another university. Since the st art of my doctoral
13 program, Jackson has typically asked how things ar e going, and offered co nstructive advice and s caring and compassionate. Jackson is also a scholar and an academic, and I feel comfortable discuss ing with him the issues of academia as well as the cascade of events monitoring my adjustment to doing my dissertation without her mentoring. I updated him on my latest challenges and progress; his feedback w as positive and supportive. experience t are in need of professional development. How about choosing one of our students and being a me th e mentor instead of the mentee what a concept!!!! Wha t he said rang true like a bell: I have reflected extensively on my ex student. As a result of reflection on my experiences both triumphs and failures I feel that I have gleaned a great deal about how to be an excellent, high performing men tee ( and about what mistakes not to make). The resonance of the ringing bell resolved into a calm silence, and that silence felt good, it felt right, and I knew he was right: my next task was to become a mentor. But how ? I have had such exceptional mentors, how can I learn to be a good mentor like they are, when they are no longer here?
14 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction The purpose of my study was to describe and explain the perspectives on mentoring by selected doctoral faculty whom re cent doctoral graduates identified as mentors. The exploratory quest ions addressed in this study were : 1. What elements constitute selected doctoral faculty erspectives on mentoring? 2. What variables influence those perspectives? This l iterature review give s an overview of the literature pertaining to mentoring in gene ral and then examine s the mentoring literature in the milieu of education, and higher education in specific. I highlight in particular three aspects of the literature pertaining to the mentoring of new faculty in higher education; the mentoring of graduate students from the and the mentoring of doctoral stude nts from the per spective of the faculty. At this juncture, it is appropriate for me to disclose my criteria for inclusion of the selected literature. There seems to be a disproportionate number of books and articles published about mentoring that are not b ased on empirical evidence, such as literature reviews, critical literature reviews, literature reviews to propose or build theory, commentary or position papers, and articles that claim many
15 assertions about mentoring but are based on ane cdotes or opinion rather than sound data collection, data analysis and research methodology. The literature I have chosen to review is empirical ly based in scientifically accepted methodologies I have given particular attention to research that has established or advanced mentoring theory. I have also noted methodological baselines, exceptions and advancements in the reviewed studies, as methodology is inescapably linked to epistemology. For the sake of clar ity and to attempt to est ablish an historical framework for mentoring research, I have als o written about the articles in relatively chronological order within each specific topic section Mentoring Origins The modern day term mentor (2004) epic The Odyssey Mentor was the elderly, wise and tr usted friend selected by Odysseus to look after the care and education of his son, Thelemac ho s, while Odysseus sojourned away from home to engage the Trojans in war. From this archetypal story emerged the idea of a mentor being an older, wiser man who assists in the development or learning (acquiring of wisdom) of a younger, less experienced man, and thus is consistent with early operational definitions of mentoring ( Levins on, Darrow, Klein, Levinson, & McKee, 1978 ; Merriam, 1983 ). A seldom mentioned epilogue to this main origin of the term mentor rela tes how, later, when Thelemac hos is old enough to e mbark on his own journey, Athen a Greek goddess of wisdom, assumes the familiar form of Mentor to guide and protect Thelemachos on his expedition. This rarely discussed addition to the common monocular origin of the term i mbues the original Mentor with parental ale (Johnson & Huwe, 2003 p. 5 ; Mullen, 2005b ) and in fact belies
16 the androcentric origins of the field of mentoring, in light of the fact that the old man, Mentor, is only mentioned a few times in the beginning of The Odyssey whereas throughout the majority of The Odyssey i t is in fact the goddess, Athen a disguised as Mentor, wh o aids and abets both Thelemac hos and Odysseus numerous times throughout the 24 books of The Odyssey ( Vandiver, 1999 ) Mentoring as a Research Domain Mentoring has become a more widely researched topic over t he past 40 years ( Crosby, 1999; Johnson & Huwe, 2003 ). One of the earliest impetuses for the study of mentoring was Eriks generativity which emerged out of his life span development research. Generativity includes an active concern for the next generation that may be expressed through mentoring. Social Learning Theory (1977) which states that learning occurs through observing and model ing other people, is another construct that some researchers also relate to the study of mentoring (Eby, Lockwood, & Butts, 2006 ; Jacob i, 1991 ; Noe, 1988 ) in that mentoring provides ample opportunity for mentors to model behaviors and for protgs to observe and emulate One study that provided impetus to the growing domain of mentoring research span development, focusing on 95 Harvard men for approximately 40 years investigating how men adjusted to major stressor events throughout their lives. The participants were interviewed at the beginning, middle and end of the study, with intervening annual or biennial surveys. Vaillant identifi ed 18 adaptive ego mechanisms that the subjects displayed in response to stress, and noted that the men who were most
17 successful and well adjusted were those who had engaged in sustained relationships in their personal and professional lives, such as a men torship. These men also reported engaging in behaviors that could be described as generativity behaviors which Vaillant labeled altruistic Many current researchers credit the 1978 study done by Levinson Darrow, Klein, Levinson, & McKee with promoting the expansion of mentoring as a research domain ( Johnson & Huwe, 2003; Johnson 2007a). (1978) landmark study of the s tages of adult development involved in depth interviews with 40 men between the ages of 35 to 45 years old. The subjects were demographically diverse, with occupations ranging from hourly factory workers to business executives Thro ugh their study, Levinson defined three distinct phases of mid life adult development: the novice phase ( early adulthood up to age 32, initiating career and relati onships); a settling down phase (ages 32 to 40, building upon career and relationships); and mid life transition phase ( ages 40 to 45, appraising young adulthood and coming to grips with middle and late adultho od). According to the Levinso n study a major task of the novice phase of plan (Levinson et al. 1978, p. 91), as et al. 1978, p. 98 ). T he most successful men interviewed in the Lev inson study had been mentored ; t hus, Levinson concluded that engaging in a mentor ship was a crucial developmental task for a young man and that not having a mentor ing relationship could prove to be a substan tial handicap to psychological and career development. By the end of the settling down phase (age 40), Levinson found that
18 the mentoring relationship usually dissolved, and then by the end of the mid life transition phase (age 45) the former protg had subsequently become a mentor to another young man. Levinson considered this transitioning from protg into mentor to be one of the essential developmental achievements of adulthood. Levinson also ties this ( 1963) concept of generativity; He considers good mentoring to be a positive contribution to society. Research findings from lifespan development studies such as Vaillant (1977) and Levinson et al. (1978) that prominen tly discussed mentoring propelled othe r researchers to investigate the developmental mentoring relationship as a phenomenon in itself. Soon thereafter, ( 1981 ) postulated a coherent theoretical framework for mentoring in which he describes three parameters of a mentor ing relationship : mutuality ( reciprocal support or depth of relationship); comprehensiveness (interaction across several venues, or breadth of relationship); and congruence (corresponding views on the purpose of the mentoring relationship). Set in the context of the traini ng of graduate students in the field of psychology (rather than the business context), see Wrightsman, 2001) work in mentoring provided conceptual foundations for future empirical studies in mentoring. I included in Interview Protocol 1 question #1 (Can you describe to me how you view your role as a mentor to doctoral students?), question #2 (Typically, what is the mentoring experience like for you?), question #3 (What type of activities do you typically engage in with doctoral students whom you mentor and what do you consider to be your most effective or important mentoring activities?) and questions #5 (How di d you learn to be a mentor?) with the thought that it may reveal the
19 mutuality and comprehensiveness in the reported experiences of the mentors in this study. Kathy Kram produced two research based studies that have provided some of the basic tenets of mentoring defined the four phases of the mentorship : initiation, cultivation, separation, and redefinition. Her landmark 1985 study theory that focused on the personal (what Kram labeled psychosocial ) dimension of a mentorship to include a vocational component Kram defined two general domains regarding the functions of a mentor : career and psychosocial In this study, Kram conducted in depth interviews of 18 mentor protg dyads. The participants were middle and upper level managers from a large northeastern utility company Her initial random sampling of 4,000 managers only yielded three middle managers who reported being mentored. She then approached the Human Resources managers at the company and asked them to identify people they had obs erved who were involved in a mentoring relationship in the company. known as snowball sampling In qualitative inquiry a non probability sampling strategy known as purposive sampling is often employed: the deliberate selection of subjects who are representative of the phenomenon under study ( Berg, 2004 ). Snowball sampling a spec ific type of purposive sampling, is typically employed in situations where subjects with the necessary attributes for study are difficult to locate. It involves asking relevant participants (other subjects, etc.) to refer other representative subjects to the researcher ( Berg, 2004 ). Other researchers who study mentoring have noted the difficulty of
20 obtainin g subjects, and have suggested using innovative sampling strategies to locate subjects who have participated in mentoring (Waldeck, Orrego, Plax, & Kearney, 1997) As a result of this sampling strategy, Kram was able to investigate the nature of mentoring as a developmental relationship, the mentoring relationship with in an organization, and the influence of organizational context on the mentoring relationship for18 mentor protg dyads. From her grounded theory (Glaser & Straus s 1967) data analysis, Kram found that a mentor fulfills the career functions of a mentorship when she or he provides sponsorship, exposure and visibility, coaching, protection, and challengin g assignments for the protg. The psychosocial functions of a mentorship are fulfilled when the mentor provides role modeling, acceptance and confirmation, counseling and friendship to the protg. and are considered reliable (Tenebaum, Crosby & Gliner, 2001) and have been empirically confirmed and validated across many different disc iplines (Johnson & Huwe, 2003). Tenenbaum, Cros by, & Gliner, (2001) surveyed 189 graduate students and found that their factor analysis career and psychosocial support ) and discovered a third mentor function: networking (facilitating connecting with other people in the discipline) Criticisms of Mentoring Research response to growing criticism from scholars regarding the apparent theoretical and methodological shortcomings of then referenced critical review of the mentoring literature in the disciplines of business,
21 education and adult development names several deficiencies in the research studies on mentoring, such as: absen ce of or even contradictory operational definition s of mentoring across disciplines; unclear definition of mentoring within studi es; positive bias in the e xtant literature on mentoring; overreliance on anecdotal reports rather than o n empirical evidenc e; t he lack of a theoretical base; and the need for more accurate and empirical assessments of the effectiveness of mentoring programs. Interestingly, these criticisms of the criticism of mentorin g scholars in more recent studies ( Allen & Eby, 2007; Eby, Rhodes, & Allen, 2007 ; Jacob i, 1991; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Mertz, 2004 ) Additionally the majority of mentoring research studies has focused on business and organization settings, not education (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007 ; Tenenbaum, Cro sby, & Gliner, 2001 ) as is reflected by three of the four landmark cases discussed above One may also notice in the aforementioned research studies the preponderance of male subjects: Vaillant (197 7) and Levinson (1978) used exclusively m ale subjects; in managers were male (Kram, 1978, p. 6), for a total of 78% male subjects. It stand s to reason that the focus of mentoring research in the context of business would include more males than females (at least until 1985) given the still somewhat nascent status of the feminist movement and the expansion of women nd positions of leadership. However, the historical deliberate exclusion of female participants in research studies (Kaspar & Ferguson, 2000; Taylor, Klein, Lewis, Gruenewald, Gurung, & Updegraff, 2000 ) has re cently registered concern with scholars who as a result, are
22 expanding mentoring studies to include the mentoring of diverse youth ( Liang & Grossman, 2007) and the mentoring of women and people of color in academia ( Sedlacek, Benjamin, Schlosser, & Sheu, 2007 ) and in the workplace ( Ragins, 2007) Regarding the literature on mentoring in general, there is a preponderance of focus on the protg. In their comprehensive content analysis of mentoring literature, (2008 ) found that 80.2% of research studies investigated the perspective of the protg. This research focus on the experiences of the protg has a corresponding trend in the educational mentoring literature, as well (Ehrich, Hansford, & Tennent, 2004; Johnson, 2007 b ) T he majority of the mentoring research that does address the higher education milieu concentrates on the mentoring of undergraduates and junior faculty members ( Creighton, Parks, & Creighton, 2008) Moreover in contrast to the thr ee early landmark studies discussed above which employed qualitative interview methods the vast majori ty of the research on mentoring in the business and educational setting s has focused on the perspecti ve and experiences of the protg via quantitative self repo rt surveys (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Merriam, 1983; Noe, Greenberger, & Wang, 2002; Rose, 2003). Thus, the few extant studies that have addr essed mentoring at the doctoral education level have primarily investigated the perspective of the doctoral student protg using quantitative, retrospective, self report surveys. Comparatively little research has been conducted on the experiences of the doctoral student faculty mentor ( Creighton, Parks & Creighton, 2008 ; Ehrich, Hansford & Tennent, 2004 ; Johnson, 2007 b ) and scholars are calling for this area to be
23 investigated and better understood (Mullen, 2007 b ) My study address es several gaps in the mentoring literature by : a) using i n depth qualitative interviews exploring the perceptions of b) doctoral student faculty mentors to c) elucidate their experiences as mentors, with the inten t of d) better understanding their experiences and motivations for engaging in the extra contractual activities of mentoring doctoral students. Mentoring in Ed ucation Among the literature on mentoring in the educational setting, the research on the student & Schlosser, 2007, p.50 ; Merriam, Thomas, & Zeph, 1987 ). This is consistent with the experience I had in searching the literature: I searched World Cat, ERIC, Dissertation Abstracts International, Psych Info, and EBSCO using various combinations of the descriptors mentoring education, higher education, stude nts, and faculty There appeared to be a good deal more research on mentoring in the educational setting revolving around teacher induction and assistant principal and principal induction than research addressing the higher education l evel. This seems log ical, considering the student teaching component of undergraduate teacher training, and that mentoring is often used by school districts as a mandatory part of teacher i nduction as well as the sheer number of primary and secondary schools (needing teacher s and leaders) versus the number of post secondary institutions in America. This observation is verified by scholars who report that two thirds of the mentoring literature in the context of education focuses on teacher induction or teacher practice ( Ehrich Hansford, & Tennent, 2004) and that formal mentoring programs in the K 12 arena are currently on the rise ( Bearman, Blake Beard Hunt, &
24 Crosby, 2007) For example, in 2006, the State of Florida, by statu t e, mandated continuing support of candidates for assistant principal and principal positions, as well as first year administrators in these positions ( Florida Statute 1012.986 William Cecil Golden Professional Development Program for School Leaders, 2006 ). Mentoring is one of these support mechanisms. One early study done in the K 12 educational environment by Noe ( 1988 ) served to advance mentoring theory. Noe surveyed 139 protgs (K 12 teachers) and 43 mentors in nine different school districts across America about several aspects of their assigned (f ormal) mentorships focusing on protg characteristics such as job involvement, locus of control, career planning, relationship importance, gender composition of the mentoring dyad, and the quality and amount of time the protg spent with the mentor. Noe found that the participants were inclined to have an internal locus of control, to exhibit high levels of job involvement and career planning, and to value relationships with peers and supervisors in their school. The protgs reported receiving significa ntly more psychosocial benefits than career benefits, and mixed gender dyads were more effective than same gender dyads. Factor analysis of the data Noe (1988) collected confirmed that mentor functions do seem to fall into career and psychosocial do mains, as reported by Kram (1985 ) ; more Mentoring Functions Scale (with sub often in the mentoring literature.
25 Mentoring in Higher Education Considering u ndergraduate and graduate education as large scale spheres for mentoring, the prevalence of mentoring is largely unknown ( Campbell, 2007 ; Jacob i 1991; Johnson & Huwe, 2003 ; Merriam 1983 ) The few studies that have noted the prevalence of mentoring in higher education have tended to be small in scope and specific to certain institutions, departments or disciplines, with the preponderance of st udies produced in the field of p sychology ( Johns on & Huwe, 2003) Reports on the frequency of mentoring range from 33 % for undergraduate students ( Jacob i, 199 1) to 66% for doctoral students in clinical p sychology programs (Clark, Harden, & Johnson, 2000). Jacobi (1991) noted that mentoring appears to be somewhat more common at the graduate level than at the undergraduate level. This begs the question : why then are there more studies done on mentoring at the undergraduate level than at the graduate level ? Perhaps one reason for th is is the prevalence of mentoring studies involving teacher education and induction ( Ehrich, Hansford, & Tennent, 2004) In 1978 Levinson et al. level ed a criticism against American higher education, stating, "our sys tem of higher education, though officially committed to fostering the intellectual and personal development of students, provides mentoring that is generally limited in quantity and poor i ( p. 334 ). T he same sentiment is echoed today by scholars such as Mullen (2007 b ), who mai ntains that even though mentoring is gaining exposure, there is still not enough of it being done in higher education and when it is attempted quality may be lacking
26 Mentoring of New Faculty in Higher Education Along with the mentoring of undergraduate students, a common research area for mentoring in higher education is the mentoring of new or junior faculty ( Creighton, Parks, & Creighton, 2008) And yet, the empirical research on faculty to faculty research and am biguous Merriam, T homas, & Zeph, 1987, p. 207 ; Mullen, 2008 ). Some of the benefits found to accrue to those junior faculty who had mentoring (as opposed to those who did not have mentoring) are: a higher level of career development, achievement of more s uccess, publishing more books, acquiring more grants, and achieving more leadership positions outside of academe ( Merriam, Thomas, & Zeph, 1987) In their 1991 quantitative survey, Sands, Parsona, & Duane found four mentor f unctions that comprised faculty to faculty mentoring: Friend, Career Guide, Information Source and Intellectual Guide Scholars offer the low success rate of tenure earning faculty as an indication of greater need for mentoring support for new and junior faculty ( Johnson 2008; Mullen, 2008 ); mentoring is especially indicated to support junior faculty from minority backgrounds ( Espi noza Herold & Gonzalez, 2007) Berk, Berg, Mortimer, Walton Moss, & Yeo, (2005) recognized that in the literature there are numerous diverse definitions of mentoring ( Allen & Eby, 2007; Eby, Rhodes, & Allen, 2007 ; Jacob i, 1991; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Mertz, 2004; ) and that mentoring is context specific (Green & Bauer 1995; Hunt & Michael, 1983; Knox, Schlosser, Pruitt, & Hill 2006; O'Neil & Wrightsman, 2001 ; Schlosser & Gelso, 2005, 2001; Schlosser, Knox, Moskovitz & Hill, 2003 ) In their study Berk et al.
27 assembled a committee of mentors who had mentored junior faculty at Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing with the intent to develop an instrumen t to evaluate these mentorships and provide feedback for supporting their endeavor for promotion and tenure. The committee of mentors obtained consensus on a context specific definition of mentoring as well as concre te, measurable responsibilities for academic nursing mentors. A second team of research ers developed these items into two scale s to measure specific outcomes of mentoring, producing two psychometrically sound and valid surveys for the protgs (ju nior Nurs ing f aculty) that measure mentoring outcomes in the context of academic nursing. Many mentoring scholars have noted even criticized the multifarious definitions of mentoring that occur between disciplines. Perhaps this proclivity many researchers seem to have for large scale generalization of one monolithic operational definition of mentoring is a vestige of quantitative research based on statistically inferring qualities of a sample to that of a population. Given the idiosyncrati c nature of disciplines, t here are many aspects of phenomena that may not lend themselves to this type of inferential statistics study In light of such a paradigm shift, the course of action taken by Berk, Berg, Mortimer, Walton Moss,& Yeo, (2005) in orde r to study academic nursing mentoring seems exemplary: develop an operational definition of mentoring and indicators that are valid for a specific context, and proceed with sound research methodology.
28 The quantity of extant research on the mentoring of doctoral students is considered limited (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Mullen, 2007a; Wilde & Schau, 1991). Most doctoral students view their relationship with their dissertation advisor as the "most important aspect" of their doctoral program (Ignash, 2007, p. 217; Katz & Hartnett, 1976 ). Luna & Cullen (1998) surveyed 109 graduate students at a large comprehensive university and found that 90 % of the students felt that having a mentor was not only imp ortant, but considered their relationship with faculty to be the most important determinant of quality in their graduate program. Many scholars agree that the mentoring relationship between a doctoral student and her or his mentor is an essential and impo rtant element in doctoral education ( Bennouna, 2003; Green & Bauer, 1995; Kelly & Schweitzer, 1999; Phillips & Pugh, 1993; Rose, 2005; Stripling 2004 Tenenbaum, Crosby, & Gliner, 2001; Waldeck Orrego Plax, & Kearney, 1997). Furthermore, the quality of doctoral student advising and mentoring can be crucial in the production of researchers (Tenebaum, Crosby, & Gliner, 2001 ; Walker, Golde, Jones, Bueschel, & Hutchins, 2008). Mentoring is perceived t o be instrumental in the successful completion of the do ctoral program and dissertation (Cohen, 1995 ; Mullen, 2007b ) and yet, mentoring for the doctoral student is frequently absent (Johnson, 2007a; Mullen, 2008). Supporting the efficacy of graduate level mentoring, Waldeck Orrego P lax, & Kearney (1997) surveyed 145 graduate students from 12 universities and found mentoring can be crucial to the suc cess and advancement of doctoral st udents. The non completion rate for doctoral students has been estimate d at approximately 5 0% ( Walker, Golde Jones, Bueschel, &
29 Hutchins, 2008 ). Many scholars call for greater mentoring for doctoral students to ameliorate this low degree completion rate ( A llen & Eby, 2007; Johnson, 2007a; Mullen, 2008 Nyquist & Woodford, 2000 ). In 1991, Judith Busch Wilde and Candace Schau followed up on survey of faculty mentors with a quantitative survey of doctoral student protgs that also included two open ended questions. Wilde & Schau (1991) asked faculty mentors in colleges of education across the United S tates to identify doctoral student prot gs. From their national sample of protgs, 177 doctoral student protgs responded to their mutuality, comprehensiveness and congrue nce (as was Busch, 1985), 1985 career component. The purpose of this 1991 survey was to investigate the presence gender and age as variables revealed any significant correlation. Their results confirmed the presence of Not only do many graduate students consider getting mentor ed to be important, they can experience finding a mentor to be troublesome. Waldeck, Orrego, Plax, & Kearney ( 1997 ) surveyed 145 graduate students in a variety of disciplines from 12 universities Their survey included both scaled and open ended responses. Besides revealing a demogra phic profile of the protgs and their mentors, overall, students
30 reported that they perceived their attempts to initiate a mentoring relationship with a The researche rs developed a typology of strategies used by graduate students to attempt However, once a mentorship was established, the students reported a high level of satisfaction with the relationship, describing it as a pleasant, productive, meaningful, close friendsh ip. Students also reported receiving more psychosocial mentoring support than career s upport. Who Gets Mentored and How 139 protgs (teachers) in the K 12 setting; however Green & Bauer collected data in the graduate school setting in this case, 233 newly entering doctoral students in hard sciences and engineering at 24 Midwestern universities. Their study was unusual in that it was longitudinal (occurring over two years) and collected data when the doctoral students entered their Ph.D. programs, and at the end of their first and second years in their programs. At the entrance of the students into the doctoral program, Green & Bauer program and commitment to a career in research all used in this study as in dicators of student potential. Green & Bauer found that in the doctoral education setting there was a
31 1988 study of K 12 teachers, which might also be viewed as support for the importance of mentoring in the doctoral education setting. More significantly, this study revealed clear empirical data showing that students with higher GRE verbal scores, higher commitment scores and more prior research experience reported more mentoring at the end of their first year of their doctoral program. Other scholars have also noted (Johnson, receive the most mentoring. This topic, as well as the idea of compensatory mentoring for graduate students seems like it might be fertile ground for more research. I included in Interview Protocol 1 question #4 (What motivates you to engage in these mentoring activities?) and In terview Protocol 1 questions #6 (Can ?) in an attempt to elicit comments from the mentors in my study addressing the apparent proficiency levels of the selected protgs. Most mentoring relationships are initiated by the protg (Johnson & Huwe, 200 3; Waldeck, Orrego, Plax, & Kearney, 1997). Rose (2003) contributed a significant advancement to mentoring theory with her development of the Ideal Mentor Scale an investigation rveyed 712 doctoral students fro m three large Midwestern Research I universities to develop a psychometrically sound instrument that students may use to identify the qualities they consider to be most indicated that almost every student agreed on two universal qualities that defined a
32 mentor: communication skills and provision of feedback. Rose also found three individual dimensions of a m entor were important to the students: integrity, guidance, and development of a personal relationship with the protg. The Ideal Mentor Scale might be helpful for graduate students to clarify the needs they have in a mentorship, and may be helpful in sele cting congruent student professor dyads for mentoring. The qualities mentors are looking for in the ideal protg might be a productive focus for an empirical investigation, as well. In Interview Protocol 1 I included a follow up probe to question #7 (Are there some general qualities of a p rotg that you look for?) that may reveal some findings in this area. Benefits Student s Receive from M entoring The benefits that students receive from mentoring are often assumed in the literature ; scholars have indicated the need for more empirical studies to confirm what is taken for granted ( Merriam 1983 ; Merriam, Thomas, & Zeph, 1987; Tenenbaum, Crosby, & Gliner, 2001) Additionally, a s previously discussed, most mentoring research has been done in the busine ss setting. Benefits that protgs experience in the business setting were investigated by Eby & Lockwood (2005) who interviewed 39 protgs who participated in a formal me ntoring program in a corporate business setting. The benefits the protgs reported inc luded benefits noted by Kram (19 85), as well as a few other benefits. Protgs reported benefiting in the assigned mentorship by or from: learning, friendship, acceptance, confirmation, counseling coaching, exposure & visibility in the or ganization, model ing of key behaviors, career planning, networking opportunities, work role clarification, enhanced job performance, and pride in being selected
33 In an early investigation of how student s might benefit from mentoring relationships Kelly & Schweitzer ( 1999) surveyed 670 graduate students from one large Midwestern university and found that students who were mentored earned better grades and received more fellowships. The students also had a significantly better perception of the academic climate in the u niversity; this was especially true for non Caucasian graduate students. Luna & Cullen (1998) surveyed 109 graduate students enrolled at a large comprehensive university using ) theory of mentoring. The va st majority of the st udents ( 83 %) indicated that it is important for graduate students to have mentors. Students were asked to identify who their mentor was and were other relatives. The larges t response s (16%). In the ir article, Luna & Cullen do not indicate that they included any definition does this mean academic advisor or dissertation advisor? This could explain why only 37% of the students indicated their mentor was an advisor or professor. Luna & Cullen did give a Exposure, and Chal lenging Work) and the four psychosocial functions (Role Modeli ng, Counseling, Acceptance and C onfirmation, and Friendship), however the response rates the students gave for the presence of these functions only ranged from 5 to 13%. This low response rate m ay reflect the lack of an operational definition of a in the surve
34 business and academic settings; a mentorship between spouse s family member s or friend s might p rovide other functions besides Sponsorship, Exposure, Challenging Work, et ce tera, and may well be worth investigating. In a survey of 205 faculty or staff mentors and 182 undergraduate protgs participating in a mentoring for retention and academic comp letion program at a large West Coast metropolitan university, Campbell & Campbell (2000) found that the undergraduate protgs evaluated the mentorship more positively than did the faculty/staff mentors. The protgs were also not aware that the mentor might enter the mentoring relationship to receive benefits as well. Gafney (2005) found a 5 0% overlap in the perceptions of the responsibili ties of the mentor between undergraduate and graduate protgs and their research mentor. The research involving the perceptions of the graduate students indicates that graduate students do seem to be aware of the reciprocal nature of the mentorship whereby the mentor also benefits (Sorensen, 1995). Possible reasons why undergraduate protgs in the Campbell & Campbell (2000) study were unaware of benefits to the mentor might be a result of the students being involved in a formal mentoring program designed for their support and degree completion with assigned mentoring dyads (as opposed to an informal voluntary mentoring agreement between a graduate student and a professor), or even developmental differences b etween the demographics of undergraduates and graduates; this might be a fruitful area for more investigation. The idea that graduate students benefit from mentoring has largely been assumed in the literature. In 2001 Tenenbaum, Crosby, & Gliner endeavored to empirically verify
35 the accuracy of (2001) quantitative, self report survey of 189 graduate students from nine departments ranging from the humanities to social & natural sciences ( graduat e students in Education w ere not included) at one large metropolitan university measured the graduate perceptions of mentoring functions provided by their mentor their satisfaction with their mentor and their working relationship, and the studen Until (caree r and psychosocial) remained a theoretical corners tone of mentoring research ; Tenebaum et al. found that a third mentoring function exist ed : networking (providing professional connections). They also found that career and network mentoring predicted satisfaction with the mentor and the working relationship. This study is one of the few that took a rigorous empirical look into the domain of academic mentoring providing empirical support that students do benefit from academic mentoring. Mentoring From t he Doctoral F acul ty M P erspective There is a paucity of extant research that gathers data directly from mentors regarding the costs and benefits of mentoring; scholars indicate more research on the outcomes for mentors is needed (Allen, Poteet, & Burroughs, 1997 ; Lentz & Allen, 2007 ) Most of the existing research studies on the benefits to the mentor are set in the business milieu; consequently scholars suggest there may be qualitative differences between mentorships that occur in the academic setting between stud ents and faculty (Eby, Durley, Evans, & Ragins, 2008) Benefits for the mentor that Kram (1985) found in
3 6 the business setting included: psychosocial and technical support from loyal employees, personal satisfaction from passing on knowledge and help to the next generation, and recognition by peers for talent development. An early exploration of the faculty of mentoring was conducted by Judith W. Busch in 1985. Busch (1981) theories of mentoring, and distributed the survey t o 1,088 professors at Research I universities (all of which had doctoral programs in Education ) in 40 different states The survey, designed to collect data on the faculty mentor was returned by 463 mentors (response rate: 42.5 the mentoring parameters of m utuality and comprehensiveness Busch also suspected lik e Kram (1985), a career component t o be present in the typical mentoring relationship. study revealed statistically significant relationships between variables such as age of the mentor (younger mentors reported more mutuality in their mentorships, while older mentors report ed more comprehensiveness). Busch also were the mselves mentored as students were significantly m ore likely to have protgs. 1985 survey, some professors included comments that begin to address the pe rceptions of the mentors, and are the refore relevant to my study: mentors felt that mentoring was important to the ir protgs, and to themselves; mentors felt they gained personal satisfaction from witnessing the progress of the protg; and mentors felt that mentoring stimulated themselves professionally to re main on top of their discipline. Some negatives mentioned by the mentors were: the time needed to sustain a mentorship and protgs becoming too dependent on the
37 mentor. Although these comments were not systematically captured and analyzed using explicit qualitative methodology, Busch considered them remarkable enough to report them in the discussion of her study. These sentiments continue d to be anecdotally rep orted in the literature over the years. What is needed is more data collected via sound methodology ( Merriam, Thomas, & Zeph, 1987; Tenenbaum, Crosby, & Gliner, 2001; Waldeck, Orrego, Plax, & Kearney, 1997 ). In my st udy I endeavored to expand on ting and analyzing qualitative data that specifically address the perceptions of the faculty mentors. One landmark study that augmented the theoretical foundations of mentoring was Principles of Adult Mentoring Scale Cohen developed the initial scale item s for The Principles of Adult Mentoring (PAM) Scale from an extensive review of the extant literature on mentoring, adult education and counseling He then executed a five stage review process involving national scholars in mentoring, educators who had published or presented nationally in the field of mentoring, and mentors from a large urban community college mentoring prog ram to validate the construct and content validity of the scale. The sca le also proved to be statistically reliable. Cohen sampled 123 professors from business, social & behavioral sciences, counseling & human services, humanities, life sciences/health, and physical sciences/math, as well as administrators in student service s and academic counselors at the Community College of Philadelphia. From his review of the literature and validation from experts, he found that the behavioral functions that mentors provid e to their
38 protgs fall into six categories (sub scales), which h e labeled: 1) relationship emphasis 2) i nformation emphasis 3) facilitative focus 4) confrontive focus 5) mentor model and 6) student vision Principles of Adult Mentoring Scale provided a valid and reliable way for mentors to assess their ski lls and competencies for mentoring adult students. One indication for future research recommended by Cohen (1993) himself was the area of dissertation mentors. My study supplement s qualitatively examining the perceptions of College of Education mentor professors in their experiences of mentoring doctoral degree completers The interview protocols used : their relationship with the protg, the information provided and exchanged with the vision. Benefits to the Mentor from Ment oring Benefits that purport to accrue to mentors in higher education are based largely on anecdotal reports; substantiation of benefits to higher education mentors that is based in empirical evidence is sorely lacking (Johnson, 2007b) Mo st of the extant research on benefits to mentors is fro m the business setting. Allen, Poteet, & Burroughs (1997) interviewed 27 mentors from municipal government; health care; and financial, communications, and manufacturing businesses who had been involved in an informal mentorship. They found that 92.5% of the mentors had themselves been mentored, and that benefits for mentoring as reported by the mentors grouped into two broad categories they labeled as: other focused benefits (benefits to protg's job) and self focuse d benefits ( building of a support network, self satisfaction,
39 and benefits to the mentor's job ). Mentors also reported some negative outcomes from the mentorship: the amount of time investment needed in order to mentor ; favoritism shown to the protg can create animosity among other workers in the organization; occasional exploitation of the relationship by the protg; and feelings of failure as a mentor In my study I endeavored to gather similar information from a different population: facul ty mentors in the higher education setting who have engaged in mentoring with students who have completed their doctoral degree. Eby & Lockwood (2005) interviewed 24 mentors & 39 protgs who participated in a formal mentoring program in the corporate sett ing (telecommunications and healthcare). Their findings agree d mentors in business organizations. Mentors reported their benefits from their assigned mentorship to be: personal learning, gain ing new insig hts on the organization, developing a rewarding friendship personal gratification, enhanced managerial skills, reflection on their own career, and a feeling of generativity Angeliadias (2007) investigated elementary school special education teachers, and found that they also reported the benefit of learning from their mentorships. In this study I also sought to explore what professor mentors report as benefits from their voluntary mentoring of doctoral students in a higher education context I included Interview Protocol 1 question #2 (Typically, what is the mentoring experience like for you?), and question #4 (What motivates you to engage in these [me ntoring] activities?) in an attempt to gath er specific data on what mentors perceive to be benefits of the mentorship.
40 Motivations of the Mentor R esearch that empirically v erifies the motivations of mentors is limited and scholars are calling for further examination of mentor motivations in the higher education setting ( Lentz & Alle n, 2007). Again, most of the extant research on mentor motivations is in the business setting. Allen (2003) surveyed 239 female mentors who were members of professional business associations with an intention to reveal any possible correlations between certain prosocial personality t raits (such as e as significant in that it used a number of predictors based on various theories of personality and mentoring, it compared the traits of mentors with non mentors, and it empirically revealed that some dispositional traits have predictive power even when fac tors derived from career (Kram, 1985) and life stage (Erikson, 1963; Levinson et al. 1978) theories are controlled Specifically, Allen found that mentors who exhibited the self enhancement motive showed a significant correlation with providing career mentoring ; the implication here is that mentors may derive enhancement of their own professional reputation entors who exhibited intrinsic satisfaction showed a significant correlation with providing psycho so cial mentoring ; this seems to support the idea that mentors with intrinsic motivation tend to develop the personal and relational aspects of a mentorship. A nd the motive to benefit others correlated with both career and psychosocial mentoring provided. Li ma (2004) also investigated the personality and motivational characteristics (e.g., intrinsic satisfaction career enhancement, benefit to others ) of mentors and also found, like Allen (2003) did, that the self enhancement and the benefit others motivation
41 was related to providing career mentoring, while the intrinsic satisfaction motive was Lima (2004) also found (unlike Allen) a relationship between the men intrinsic satisfaction motive unusual in that it was a quasi experimental design wherein 91 undergraduate student mentors were paired with student large metropolitan university: S tudents were paid to participate in a four week mentoring program (experiment) and were randomly assigned to mentoring pairs. Lima collected pre an d post test data, as well as weekly interval data ( after the mentoring sessions ) from multiple perspectives: from the mentor, the p rotg, and a peer reviewer Mentoring scholars have often called for a larger variety of mentoring studies such as quasi experimental and experimental designs ( Jacob i, 1991 ; Merriam, Thomas, & Zeph, 1987; Tenenbaum, Crosby, & Gliner, 2001) ; however the use of paid undergraduate subjects who are randomly assigned to mandatory mentoring dyads may be experimental conditions that limit the replication and generalizability of results to the context of adults who mentor voluntarily in the business and hi gher education settings, at least in regards to motivations for mentoring. Personality variables relating to motivation to mentor w ere also investigated by Lentz (2007) Lentz surveyed 93 mentoring dyads via online survey with most of the subjects empl oyed in various types of government jobs, and found a positive correlation between mentors who scored high on self efficacy measures and the providing of career mentoring. Mentors who had a higher learning goal orientation (i.e. who are predisposed to see k out new learning opportunities) also reported investing more effort and
42 involvement in the mentorship, and reported more benefit s such as personal learning, mentorship learning (learning about being a mentor) and mentorship quality. My study also endeavored to ntoring (Interview Protocol 1 question #4 (What motivates you to engage in these [mentoring] activities?) however through inductive qualitative interviews (rather than quantitative surveys and pe rsonality i nstruments) and focus ed on mentor professors in the higher education context, rather than on mentors in various business professions. By directly inquiring about professors motivations to mentor and having the opportunity for follow up and clarifying quest ions, I hope d that insight would be gained as to why these professors engage in extra contractual mentoring responsibilities with their protgs. Perceptions of the Mento r. The perceptions of the faculty mentors their experiences of voluntarily mentoring doctoral students is the centerpiece of my study. M ost mentoring studies that are situated in the education context examine the perceptions of the protgs, rather than the mentor ( Ehrich, Hans ford, & Tennent, 2004). What follows here is a review of selected salient literature addressing th e perspective of the mentor In 1995, Sorensen conducted a retrospective survey of 36 pairs of doctoral students and their mentor professors in a college of e ducation at one large research university. She found a positive correlation between the perceptions of the protgs and mentors: both parties reported significant agreement that psychosocial and career mentoring had occurred in their mentorships. One signi ficant finding was that the lower the mentors scored on a satisfaction with life survey, the higher the students rated their
43 satisfaction with the quality of the mentoring they received. Apparently, mentors who perceived themselves as less satisfied with t heir life situation tended to engage in more psychosocial and career mentoring activities with their students. Conversely, i n a survey of 205 faculty or staff mentors and 182 undergraduate protgs participating in a mentoring for retention and academic completion program at a large West Coast metropolitan university, Campbell & Campbell (2000) found a lack of congruence betwee n the perceptions of the faculty and the protgs, in that the fa c ulty mentors evaluated the mentorship less positively than did the undergraduate protgs, citing time availability and lack of student commitment as problematic. This may possibly be explained by the assigned mentoring situation in this study, and developmental di fferences between undergraduate and doctoral students. In one significant empirical study investigating mentor s positive m entoring experiences Allen & Eby (2003) surveyed 392 mentors who were accountants and engineers in the business setting specifically regarding their perceptions of their own learning and quality of the mentorship. A key finding was that when the mentor perceived similarity between his/her interests, valu mentors consistently reported satisfaction with their own learning and the quality of the mentorship. (However, gender similarity revealed no significant correlation.) This is similar to the cloning effect note d by Kra m (1985) : the propensity for mentors (in the business sector) to select protgs they perceive to be similar to themselves I was curious to see if m y interviews of professor mentors would reve al whether or not professors are likewise motivated by apparent similarity, or the desire to clone themselves
44 In an effort to discover how student affairs professionals might compliment support services to graduate students without duplicating efforts, Bair, Haworth, & Sandfort (2004 ) intervi ewed 128 doctoral faculty, doctoral students, administrators, alumni, and alumni employers seeking consensus on what the faculty roles seem to be in doctoral student education. Using purposive sampling and a semi structured interview protocol to gather the ir interview data, this team of researchers concluded through the constant comparative method of analysis ( Glaser & Strauss 1967 ) a congruence of four major thematic categories that describe the responsibilities and roles of doctoral faculty: selection an d retention of students defining and shaping of program culture, supporting scholarly activ ity and research productivity, and advising and mentoring students. In the interviews, faculty reported feeling a responsibility to develop the next individuals a responsibility that clearly goes beyond basic academic advising into the realm of mentoring My study extend ed this prior study by focusing on a clearly d efined concept of mentoring (vs. advising) to describe and thereby expand the understanding s of faculty who engage in mentoring. Angeliadias (2007) interviewed six elementary school special education teachers an d found that mentoring imparted to them perc eption s of their own growth as a mentor efficacy as an educator and mentor, enhanced commitment to education, increased job satisfaction, and enhanced teaching skills and sense of professionalism. The mentors in her study had all participated in a school district mentor training program. Since mentor training in higher education is notoriously absent ( Cohen, 1995 ; Eby, Rhodes, & Allen,
45 2007; Ehrich, Hansford, & Tennent, 2004 ; Galbraith & Cohen 1995 ) I was interested to see if the responses of the faculty mentors in my study differ ed significantly on some of these perceptions. Eby, Durley, Evans, & Ragins (2008) contributed to mentoring theory development by developing a valid and reliable instrument to conceptualize and me asure mentor s negative m entoring perceptions. Eby et al. surveyed 80 mentoring dyads involved in higher education administration or academia and found 12 types of negative experiences for mentors that generally fell into three genres: protg performance problems, interpersonal problems, and destructive relational patterns They found negative experiences for both the mentor and the protg to be inversely related to perceptions of relationship quality and fair exchange and directly related to thoughts of exiting t he relationship. The autho rs note, however, that even in good mentoring relationships, some negative exchanges may occur. In my study, I included a follow up probe to Interview Protocol 1, question #2 (Were there any negative experiences for y ou as a mento r?) to see if any substantive data arose in this area. Conclusion Thus, the empirical literature regarding the domain of mentoring in general and mentoring in higher education in particular may largely be characterized as research that is generally quantitative in nature relying predominantly on self report surveys that investigate the perspectives of the protg. The gap in t he research literature that my study endeavor ed to address is the experiences of the doctoral student faculty mentor
46 from a q ualitative perspective, with the intent to understand the personal experiences and perspectives of the mentor from a phenomenological viewpoint. Those scholars who have experienced mentoring doctoral students often consider the mentoring of students to b e a moral obligation (Weil, 2001) as well as a privilege (Johnson, 2008; Mullen, 2008). Higher education reformers are calling for increased and better mentoring of doctoral students (Mullen, 2008; Nyquist & Woodford, 2000; Walker, Golde Jones, Bueschel, & Hutchins, 2008). In response, my study endeavored to systematically collect and analyze data on the experiences of faculty mentors in an effort to understand their perceptions of their positive and negative mentoring experiences and motivations to engage in mentoring It is my hope that increased understanding of this phenomenon may illuminate the benefits, disadvantages and motivations that faculty mentors encounter, and thereby inform development of other faculty who might also endeavor to effectively m entor doctoral students to degree completion. Better understanding and support of faculty who engage in mentoring may also lead to increased number of doctoral degree completers ( Walker, Golde, Jones, Bueschel, & Hutchins, 2008) From my Reflective Journal October 2 9 2007: Perhaps it is necessary that I strike out on my own to accomplish my dissertation, in spite of how terrifying that situation initially appears to me. Perhaps it is a crucible for the penultimate formation of my own scholarly identity.
47 How could it possibly be necessary that she leave in order for me to l earn how to become a mentor? That seems like the hard way to learn how to be a mentor There must be clues, there must be tools she has left me along the way; I must search and re search and search again to find them. One thing I do know: I have always been able to find a guru a mentor in books at least, if nowhere else This student is re ady: according to the Zen proverb, when the student is ready the teacher (mentor) appears. I m ready! If my ne xt task is to become a mentor, does that mean that the final stage of my g rieving the loss of my mentor is now concluded ? I m ready I'm ready Rea dy for the laughing gas I'm ready Ready for what's next Ready to duck Ready to dive Ready to say I'm glad to be alive I'm ready Ready for the push In the cool of the night In the warmth of the breeze I'll be crawling around On my hands and knees She's ju st down the line ... Zoo Station Got to make it on time ... Zoo Station I'm ready Ready for the gridlock I'm ready To take it to the street Ready for the shuffle Ready for the deal Ready to let go Of the steering wheel I'm ready Ready for the crush
48 Alrig ht, alright, alright, alright, alright It's alright ... it's alright ... it's alright ... it's alright Hey baby ... hey baby ... hey baby ... hey baby ... It's alright It's alright Time is a train Makes the future the past Leaves you standing in the stati on Your face pressed up against the glass . I'm gonna be there ... Zoo Station Tracing the line ... Zoo Station I'm gonna make it on time ... make it on time ... Zoo Station Just two stops down the line ... Zoo Station Just a stop down the line ... Zoo Station
49 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Introduction In this chapte r, I describe the methods I use d to collect and analyze data pertaining to the experiences faculty mentors have when they mentor doctoral students who complete their degree s I also explicate the reasons supporting my choice of method; choice of operational definition of mentoring; selection of participants; as well as the data co llection, storage, and anal ysis. This explication includes an exploration of the epistemological underpinnings of research paradigms and a suggestion that the qualitative research paradigm, as an orthogonal complement to quantitative studies, provides an opportunity to address a gap in the literature by focusing on the untapped resource of faculty mentor perceptions of essential elements in the phenomenon of mentoring. Consideration of phenomenology as a theoretical framework further expand s structu re. Finally, this chapter address es framing topics arising from the methodological context of the study, including research aspects related to validity, reliability, trustworthiness and ethics. Exploratory Questions As I illustrated in previous chapters, there is a dearth of mentoring literature regarding the perspective of the higher education faculty mentor: The majority of mentoring studies in Higher Education have focused on the perspective of t he student in the mentorship an d have e mployed a quantitative methodological approach (usually
50 surveys) to collect data from the students (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Merriam, 1983; Noe, Greenberger, & Wang, 2002; Rose 2003). T he vie wpoint of the faculty mentor is only minimal ly represen ted in the research literature; research that utilizes qualitative approach es is also underrepresented in the research literature (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007). Additional exploration of the perspectives and m otivations of faculty, especially research using diverse methods (non quantitative methods) would expand the current knowledge base is this area ( Allen, 2003; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Mullen, 2007b ; Rose, 2003 ). T his leads to my exploratory question s : 1. What elements constitute selected doctoral faculty mentoring? 2. What variables influence those perspectives? Qualitative Research In this study I sought to describe and understand the experiences of participants who engage in the complex social phenomenon of mentoring (Berg, 2004; Creswell, 1998; Janesick, 2004) This is a noteworthy departure from the purposes of quantitative research which typically include s correlation, prediction or proof of cause and effect (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). In fact, quantitative and qualitative research are considered to be diverse paradigms The Merriam Webster Online Dictionary (2009) defines paradigm as : which theories, laws and generalizatio ns and the experiments performed in the support of a definition that seems to describe a quantitative perspective. From a qualitative perspective, Creswell (1998) defines paradigm
51 beliefs or assumptions that guide inquir ies these assumptions address : The nature of reality (the ontological) The relationship of the researcher to that being researched (the epistemological) The role of values in a study (the axiological) The pr ocess of the research (the methodological) (p. 74) From the aforementioned diverse approaches to the concept of paradigm we can begin to appreciate how quantitative and qualitative approaches to research might be orthogonal disparate, and complementary to each other. What follows is a discussion of a few of these differences. The Process (Method) of the Research Methodology a body of methods rules, and postulates employed by a discipline : a particular procedure or set of procedures Webster Online Dictionary, 2009). Given the diverse nature of differing paradigms, we can expect that methodologies between research paradigms might also be varied. Quantitative research attempts to employ random selection of representative subj ects in order to extrapolate findings to a larger population (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001); In qualitative research, purposive sampling is used to deliberately select subjects who are known to have experience with a particular phenomenon under study and the find ings may only to people who engage in the same or a similar phenomenon. In quantitative research designs, variables may be controlled perhaps in a rigorous clinical setting in order to see if a treatment variable causes any effect (Leedy & Or mrod, 2001); qualitative
52 studies may be done in a more naturalistic, uncontrolled setting where variables may emerge and t heir significance is understood through various inductive techniques (such as triangulation ) and interpreted vis vis the context of the phenomenon and the participants (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003). The R elationship of the R esearcher to T hat B eing R esearched / The N ature of R eality T he idea that significant meanings or understandings may emerge from interpretation of data is an indication that qualitative inquiry may be a dynamic process involving both the researcher and the interviewee (Janesick, 2004; Kvale, 1996; Rubin & Rubin, 1995) another significant departure from the quantitative approach to epistemology The Merriam Webster Online Dictionary (2009) defines epistemology as: he study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity S imply stated, epistemology concerns what knowl edge is, and how it is produced This is one reason why transparency of myself as researcher is relevant in this study. Instead of the idea that knowledge is some externa l Platonic fact (reality) to be proven or disproven through positivistic experiments (as in the quantitative paradigm) the qualitative research and phenomenology paradigms view knowledge (reality) as something that is created or understood by the partici pants (Berg, 2004; Kvale, 1996). In the qualit ative paradigm, it is accepted that the researcher is an integra l part of the research, and that all research (and researchers) are value laden (Berg, 2004; Denzin & Lincoln, 2003 ) Therefore, it is standard in social science and qualitative research practice that as the researcher, I di sclose my beliefs and biases as part of keep ing them in check in the research process (Janesick, 1999)
53 The R ole of V alues in a S tudy In the quan t it ative paradigm, research is thought to be objective and value free: the researcher does not influence the experiment in any way, and the experiment is isolated from intervening variables in the environment. This is consistent with the principles Isaac Newton suggested in his 1687 t reatise The Principia : Ma thematical Principles of Natural Philosophy ( in Cohen, Whitman & Budenz, 1999 ) wherein he postulated immutable, mechanistic laws void of influence by the observer regarding the movements of objects in motion (colloquially known as the or laws of mechanics ). However, when an object appr oaches the speed of light, relativity take effect as postulated by Albert Einstein (Einstein, 1916 /2005 ) ; Furthermore, Werner Hiesenberg (1927) proposed in his Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics that the presence of the research er does influence the measure ment of either the velocity or the location of an electron. These accepted scientific th eories seem to contradict the laws of classical physics: suddenly the context of the phenomenon (e.g., acceleration to the speed of light ) and the participant (e.g., the researcher) affect the experiment. The tenets of Relativity a nd Quantum Mechanics are than the laws of classical Newtonian physics; rat her quantum physics a nd classical physics are different paradigms wherein when applied to the respective domain of knowledge and knowledge production (epistemology). Furthermore, Kuhn (1970) described paradigms as incommensurable meaning there is no basis for direct comparison between paradigms and therefore it is meaningless to evaluate one paradigm as better than another.
54 The same is true regarding quantitative inquiry versus qualitati ve inquiry: neither paradigm is more correct than the other but rather, appropriate for producing the respective type of knowledge ( epistemo logy ) Qualitative inquiry seeks to describe or understand complex phenomenon (Berg, 2004; Creswell, 1998; Janesick, 2004); interviewing is one accepted methodology in this paradigm (Berg, 2004; Creswell, 1998; Janesick, 2004). The aim of my study was to u tilize the interview method to increase the current understanding of the lived experiences of professors who mentor doctoral students. By employi ng a qualitative approach I intended to provide a facet that is orthogonal yet complimentary to the largely quantitative research base on mentoring. Theoretical Framework Phenomenology Phenomenology was first posited as a philosophy of science and a research method by Edmund Husserl in 19 13. Husserl was originally trained in the positivist tradition as a mathematician but, after the death of his son in World War I offered phenomenology as a reform to the prevailing scientific thought of the day which he would restore its con tact with deeper human concerns (Cohen & Omery 1994, p. 138). objective scientists clarify and critique their unclarified fundamental concepts and 1994, p. 137). Th is clarity of scientific assumptions is the first of four basic constants of phenomenology known as the ideal of rigorous science philosophic radicalism the concept tha & Omery 1994, p. 137) The third constant is known as the ethos of radical autonomy and signifies the idea that humans are responsible for themselves, and for
55 (Cohen & Omery, 1994 p.138). The fourth constant is the respect for wonders which refers to the uniquely human characteristic of ego and the quality of the ego being aware ego and pure in Cohen & Omery, 1994, p.138). Since Huss e rl of thought have developed with slightly different research goals associated with each. menology has come to be known as the eidetic, or descriptive school, wherein the goal of the research is the description of the meaning of an experience from the viewpoint of the experiencer that reveals the essential structures of the experience. When the experiences of several people all reduce to the same structures, then a case can be made that these structures are common to the experience. phenomenology, which focused on the meaning made by individuals who engage in a certain experience, to include the larger context of the experiencer in the world. ossess es its meaning The hermeneutic school, therefore, enlarges the scope of interpretation to include such things as the culture of the experiencer. A third school of phenomenolog y is called the Dutch or Utrecht school, which combines features of both descriptive and interpretive phenomenology. Since I intend ed to both describe the meanings faculty mentors seem to make from their experiences as w ell as interpret the meaning of the interviews in the
56 specific context of higher education in America, this third orienta tion toward interpretation seemed applicable for this study Method of Data Collection To explore my exploratory questions, I selected a qualitative research design drawing from established phenomenological m odels beginning with a brief request (s ee Appendix C ) to re cent doctoral gradates from Transition of Education to identify any faculty members who have served as a mentor during his or her doctoral studies A fter obtaining informed consent from the nominated faculty mentors I conduct ed one pilot interview with a Transition U. College of Education faculty member whom a member of my d issertation committee identified as being a mentor, in order to pretest Interview Protocol 1 in terms of time feasibility and richness of data gathering. I then p roceed ed to interview six more nominated faculty mentors I conduct ed a second round of interviews with the faculty mentors with Interview Protocol 2 (see Appendix B ), which also included any clarifying questions arising from my analysis of the data from the individual faculty ( Janesick, 2004; Kvale, 1996). This provide d an opportunity for me to fol low up with any comment that needed further c larification (Janesick, 2004). Operational D efinition of M entoring This study also endeavored to address some of the previously described gaps and issues in the mentoring literature. One gap that is evident in the mentoring literature pertains to the operational definition of mentoring: this is often not well addressed or is missing completely in previously published studies (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Merriam, 1983). In order to operationalise the definition of mentoring, as well as
57 from several scholars paying particular attention to the qualities of mentoring versus advising relationships. Th ese qualities are summarized in Table 1. Thus, for use in this proposed study, advising was used to refer to the basic transactions between a faculty member and a doctoral student that include providing information on program and degree requirements, providing technical guidance regarding ress though the program ( Johnson, 2007a ; Weil, 2001) and mentoring was used to refer to a deliberate relationship between a doctoral faculty member and a doctoral student wherein the faculty member provides support that goes beyond the basic duties of advi sing with the intention of enhancing/promoting/supporting both the career and pers onal development of the student ( Cohen, 1995 ; Johnson, 2007a; Kram, 1985 ). This heightened awareness of advising versus mentoring activities was used to guide the dev elopment of Inte rview Protocol 1 (see Appendix A ), to guide any probing questions, as well as my anal ysis of the interviews. It was my intention that the experience of faculty who engage in these types of mentori ng behaviors listed in Table 1 (as opposed to purely advising behaviors) would be described in a richer, deeper, more nuanced manner in this study. Advising activities do not involve a close relationship ( Johnson, 2007a ). It is clear on Table 1 that in contrast to the commonly understood academic function of advising, mentoring activities are concerned with creating an intentional, comprehensive, enduring relationship This clarification from the literature between advising and mentoring serve d to g uide the interviews and concomitant
58 Table 1 Advising vs. Mentoring Activities Advising Activities Mentoring Activities Usually a structured role ( Johnson, 2007a ; Weil, 2001). The dyad participates in an enduring personal relationship [mentoring] ( Aagaard & Hauer, 20 03; Cohen, 1995; Hunt & Michael, 1983; Johnson, 2002; Johnson, 2007a ; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Paludi, Waite, Roberson, & Jones, 1988; Rose, 2003). May be assigned by the institution ( Johnson, 2007a ; Weil, 2001). Mentoring is reciprocal and mutual ( Busch, 1985; Cohen, 1995; Hunt & Michael, 1983; Johnson, 2002; Johnson, 2007a ; O'Neil & Wrightsman, 2001). Advisor p rovide s technical guidance functions ( Johnson, 2007a ; Weil, 2001). Mentor provides direct career assistance ( Cohen, 1995; Johnson, 2002; Johnson, 2007a ; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Kram, 1985; Paludi, Waite, Roberson, & Jones, 1988). Advisor p rovide s information on the program and degree requirements ( Johnson, 2007a ; Weil, 2001). Mentor provides social and emotional s upport (Cohen, 1995; Johnson, 2007a ; Kram 1985; Paludi, Waite, Roberson, & Jones, 1988).
59 Table 1 (continued) Advising vs. Mentoring Activities Advisor m onitor s ( Johnson, 2007a ; Weil, 2001). Offers a safe environment for self e xpression (Cohen, 1995; Johnson, 2007a ; Paludi, Waite, Roberson, & Jones, 1988). Advisor f acilitate s through the program ( Johnson, 2007a ; Weil, 2001). Mentor p rovides a range of crucial career and relational functions (Kram, 1985, Johnson, 2007a). Advisor s contact point with the large faculty ( Johnson, 2007a ; Weil, 2001). Mentor has d eliberate intent to shape and (Kram, 1985, Johnson, 2007a ). The interactions may be negative, neutral, insignificant or positive ( Johnson, 2007a ; Weil, 2001). The mentorship g enerall y produces positive career and personal outcomes (Kram, 1985, Johnson, 2007a). analysis with the intention of elucidating the difference be tween the two activities, and was consistent with my operational definition of mentoring. Participant Selection In order to identify faculty mentors in the Transition University College of Education I obtain ed a mailing l ist of doctoral students who graduated within the past seven years, mail ed them a br ief letter explaining my study and ask ed them to nominate any facult y member they have had in the Transition University College of Education who
60 had mentored them. This letter include d a nomination form and postage paid return envelope addressed to me. On the nominati on form I ask ed the graduates if I may inform the faculty members of the name of the student who has nominated them as mentors. If the graduates agree d, thi s would allow me to concretize the interview questions for the faculty mentors by informing them of the protgs who have identi fied them as mentors, thus providing more focused and specific reflections on the interview questions. Johnson, Rose & Schlosser (2007) suggest this methodological approach as an improvement over previous methods employed in mentoring studies. Nomination Response Rate The mailing list which I obtained from Transition University C ollege of Education included the names and addresses of 308 doctoral graduates from the previous seven years, ranging from 2002 thru 2008. Of these 308 nomination requests to graduates forwarding address. (If a nomination letter was returned with a forwarding address, I doctoral graduates who had the opportunity to participate in t he nomination process was 262. Gradu ates were allowed to indicate on the nomination form if no faculty member had mentored them during their doctoral studies at Transition University College of Education. The total number of returned nominations (including no mentor) was 86, yielding a parti cipation response rate of 32.82%. Graduates were allowed to nominate more than one mentor; as a result, the total number of nominations of mentors (with duplications) was 122. From these total responses, 59 discrete (unduplicated) mentors
61 were nominated. There were eight graduates who indicated that they had no mentor while at Transition University College of Education. The 59 nominated mentors represented eight departments from Transition University College of Education, as well as three non classifiable units (e.g., Graduate Studies etc. ). These departments, as well as the number of mentors nomi nated, are summarized in Table 2 Table 2 Departments with Number of Mentors Nominat ed Name of Department Number of M entors Nominated Secondary Education 12 Psychological & Social Foundations 1 0 Childhood Education and Literacy Studies 9 Adult, Career & Higher Education 8 Educational Leadership 6 Special Education 4 Educational Measurement & Research 3 Unclassifiable Departments 3 Nominees No Longer At T he Institution 4 Criteria for inclusion, exclusion and selection of the nominated faculty mentors A total of 59 discrete mentors were nominated; h owever, not all of the 59 mentors were eligible for participation in my study. In order to avoid any conflict of interest, I incorporated other criteria (Creswell, 1998) for my purposeful selection of faculty
62 mentors. I excluded any nominee who was a member of my major and cognate departments (Adult, Career and Higher Education; and Educational Leadership, respectively), as well any nominee who was on my dissertation committee. I also excluded nominees who were no longer at Transition University College of Education (either due to retirement or job change), as well as nominees who w ere at satellite campuses, as this would have necessitated approval of a multi site research study. I did not apply for a multi site study on my application to the Institutional Review Board (IRB), and therefore, I could not include these nominees as part of my study In order to select the (eligible) mentors whom I would ask to participate in my study, I listed the nominees in order of number of nominations (greatest to least) and sent the Explanatory Letter to Interview ees (see Appendix D ) to the s ix mentors who received the highest numbers of nominations The rationale for this is that triangulation of multiple nominations would seem to indicate a grea ter probability that the faculty mentor is indeed participating in mentoring activities with docto ral students. S eeing as there was no dramatic difference between the number of female (31) versus male (28) mentors nominated out of the grand total (59) nominees, I selected the three female and three male eligible nominees with the highest number of nominations to send my first requests to allow me to interview them (for two 45 60 minute interviews) regarding their experiences as a faculty mentor M y goal was to obtain a minimum of at least five faculty mentors to participate in my study All six of the top nominated mentors agreed to participate in my study. However, one of the male professors was not available for the second round of interviews and thereby attritioned out of my study. As a consequence of this, I included the pilot
63 interviewee in th e second round of interviews. This kept the number of participants at six, however it altered the gender mix to two male and four female faculty mentors. Table 3 summarizes the department and gender of the final six participants in the order of most nominations Table 3 Childhood Education and Literacy Studies Female Childhood Education and Literacy Studies Male Educational Measurement & Research Male Psychological & Social Foundations Female Secondary Education Female Childhood Education and Literacy Studies Female Interview Format The first interview I conducted was with a faculty mentor designated by a member of my committee and was a practice or pilot interview (Janesick, 2004; Kvale, 1996); as it turned out, she was also a mentor nominated by the graduates A pilot interview help s to determine the length I can expect the interview to take, as well as ascertain that my interview protocol is providing sufficiently rich data. After conducting the pilot interview, I uploaded the digital voice file to the transcription service and pai d extra for a 24 hour turnaround on the interview transcript. When I received the transcript the next day, I read the transcript while at the same time
64 listening to the digital voice file (Smith, Flowers & Larkin, 2009) This verification process assures t hat the transcriptionist has correctly transcribed the interview data. I found only a few, very minor corrections to be made to the transcription I repeated this data verification process with every interview transcript ion (Smith, Flowers & Larkin, 2009) and was pleased to find very few corrections were needed. For example: instead of Csikszentmihalyi hich I corrected in the transcription Since this was my pilo t interview, I then examined my data transcript to see if my interview P rotocol 1 (s ee appendix A ) or interview process needed any alteration or revision (Janesick, 2004; Kvale, 1996). As I was listening to the digital voice file and verifying the accuracy of the transcription (Smith, Flowers & Larkin, 2009) I copied and pasted phrases from the transcript into my researcher reflective j ournal. I then examined the key phrases I extracted from the data and noted several mentoring concepts and theories as we ll as other theories (educational and psychological) that were present in the protocol was sufficient to address the purpose o f my research and research questions and that a 60 minute interview w ould be adequate to collect rich data. I then proceeded to schedule the rest of the first round of interviews with the six nominated faculty mentors My rationale for interviewing six faculty mentors was to provide triangulation (De nzin & Lincoln, 2003; Janesick, 2003; Leedy & Ormrod, 2001; Merriam, 1998, Mullen, 2005 a ; Stake, 2003) of findings between participants to address validation issues for qualitative studies of this nature. Triangulation is the use of investigators and theories to provide
65 p. 202). In this study, I collect ed data (interviews) from six data sources (six different mentors). If multiple data sources respectively report a certain theme, then evidence for a common element in the phenomenon of mentoring may be supported via triangulation of this data. Thus, ces, ( Denzin & Lincoln, 2003 p. 8 ) I also ask ed participants for any documentation of their activities with their mentees (e.g., a copy of their curriculum vitae with student co authored papers and presen tations highlighted) which along with my researcher reflective j ournal and field notes, are other data source s that might provide triangulation. T o support the validity of the inquiry I followed a ( semi structured Berg, 2004) or semi standard (Rubin & Rubin, 2005) interview protocol (Rubin & Rubin, 2005) or schedu le (Berg, 2004) : Interview Protocol 1 (see also Appendix A ) 1. [ Name of doctoral student ] has nominated you as a mentor. Can you describe to me how you view your role as a mentor to [ name of student ? ] Or, if permission Can you describe to me how you view your role as a mentor to doctoral students? (This question arises from the mentoring lit erature which states that mentors make a deliberate decision to engage in a mentoring relationship: Aagaard & Hauer, 2003; Cohen, 1995 ; Hunt & Michael, 1983; Johnson, 2002; Johnson, 2007a ; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Paludi, Waite, Roberson, & Jones, 1988; Rose, 2003. It is also a typical
66 phenomenological quest ion to elicit description of the phenomenon of being a mentor : Creswell, 1998; Kvale, 1996; Janesick, 2004.) 2. When you were a mentor to [ name of student ] what was the mentoring name: Typically, what is the mentoring experience like for you? (This question is a representative phenomenological question providing description of the experience of mentoring : Creswell, 1998; Kvale, 1996; Janesick, 2004.) a. Follow up probing question: Were there any negative experiences for you as a mentor? 3. [ Name of doctoral student ] has nominated you as a mentor. (Or, if permission was not given to use t Think of a specific mentoring relationship that you felt worked well. ) What type of activities do you typically engage in with [ name of student ] (or: doctoral students ) whom you mentor ed and what do you consider to be your most effective or important mentoring activities? (This question arises from the literature referenced in this paper, which states that mentors make a deliberate decision to engage in a mentoring relationship: Aagaard & Hauer, 2003; Cohen, 1995 ; Hunt & Michael, 1983; Jo hnson, 2002; Johnson, 2007a ; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Paludi, Waite, Roberson, & Jon es, 1988; Rose, 2003. It is a phenomenological question that seeks to describe the experience of the participant: Creswell, 1998; Kvale, 1996; Janesick, 2004. It is also an experience/example question intended to elucidate facets of the mentoring experience for the mentor: Janesick, 2004 )
67 4. What motivated you to engage in these activities [with name of student if permission is given to use the name ] ? ( This question arises from the literature referenced in this paper, which states that the motivations for faculty to engage in mentoring are not yet well known or understood: Allen, 2003; Johnson, Ro se & Schlosser, 2007. It is a phenomenological question th at seeks to describe the experience of the participant: Creswell, 1998; Kvale, 1996; Janesick, 2004. It is also a structural/paradigmatic question that seeks to describe the experience of mentoring: Janesick, 2004 ) 5. How did you learn to mentor? (This quest ion has implications for the training of mentors in higher education. It is a phenomenological question that seeks to describe the experience of the participant: Creswell, 1998; Kvale, 1996; Janesick, 2004. It is also a structural/paradigmatic question th at seeks to describe the experience of mentoring: Janesick, 2004 ) 6. Can you describe how you decide d to be [ mentor?] / to be paper, which states that mentors make a deliberate decision to engage in a mentoring relationship: Aagaard & Hauer, 2003 ; Cohen, 1995 ; Hunt & Michael, 1983; Johnson, 2002; Johnson, 2007a ; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Paludi, Waite, Roberson, & Jones, 1988; Rose, 2003. It is a phenomenological question that seeks to describe the experience of the participant: Creswell, 1998; Kvale, 1996; Janesick, 2004. It is also a stru ctural/paradigmatic question that seeks to describe the experience of mentoring: Janesick, 2004 )
68 a. Follow up probing question: Are there some general qualities of a protg that you look for? b. Do you have any documents or artifacts from your mentoring relati onships that you can share with me? 7. Is there anything else you want to tell me at this time? (This question is a standard interview and phenomenological question: Creswell, 1998; Kvale, 1996; Janesick, 2004.) I follow ed up with probing questions when appropriate, for example, to provide clarification or to ask for an example to illustrate what the interviewee was saying (Berg, 2004; Kvale, 1996; R ubin & Rubin, 2005 ). I had all the first round interviews transcribed, as in the aforementioned descr ipt ion of the pilot interview process except that I did not pay extra for a 24 hour turn around on the transcripts ($2.00 per minute) as this was too cost prohibitive. I collected the first round of interview s over a period of 11 weeks, partly due to the time needed for the pilot testing proc edure of my Interview Protocol 1 as well as the peripatetic summer schedules of the 10 month contracted faculty mentors minute) that provides appro ximately a 2 week turnaround on the transcription; however as the end of the scheduled interviews drew near, I paid the intermediary price for a turnaround ($1.50 per minute) on the last few interview transcripts as I was anxious to have all the first round interview dat a on hand in order to begin the second round of data collection. I proceeded with an intermedi ate examination of the data from the first round of interviews, noting in my researcher reflective journal any mentoring and theoretical
69 themes that emerged (as previously described for the pilot interview), as well as any areas that I felt needed further detail or clarification from the interviewees (Janesick, 2004.) I found the second round of interviews to be an essential opportunity to gather further description and clarify a few comments by the interviewees in the first round of interviews, as well as verify that I understood certain meanings I felt the mentors were expressing. If I needed to clarify any comments from the second intervi ew, I sent a brief email to the mentor asking for clarification and included the appropriate section of the transcription. I included clarifying follow under the r espective Protocol 2 question listed here: Interview Protocol 2 (see Appendix B ) 1. In revisiting our first interview is there anything you wish to add to your statements on mentoring? 2. How would you define the term "mentor"? 3. In the ideal, what would help insure excellent mentoring? 4. When you think about your life as a mentor, what can you tell future mentors? Questions # 1 and # 4 in Interview Protocol 2 are standard qualitative and phenomenological second interview follow up questions (Janesick, 2004) aimed at gleaning any summative perceptions the participants might have of the phenomenon of mentoring. I included question # 2 ( ) in order to afford the interviewee a chance to step back for a moment and provide a contrasting deductive reflective aspect to the inductive interview process. I included Question # phenom enological perceptions that the interviewees might have (Kvale, 1996) regarding
70 current issues in the mentoring of doctoral students (Johnson, 2007a). Prior to the second interview (as with the first interview) I e mail ed the faculty mentor a copy of Inter view Protocol 2 for their perusal before the interview, in case they felt inclined to preview it I competed the second round of interviews in four weeks (during the month of September), largely due to the fact that the faculty mentors had resumed their re gular academic schedules and therefore were more easily contacted for an interview appointment Also by the conclusion of the second interview, I made sure to obtain a copy of their curriculum vitae as another possible data source, and ask ed them to highlight any publications or presentations in which they have collaborated with their students. Analysis / Description / Interpretation I bega n the analysis process with reflective journaling on my own experience of the phenomenon of mentoring in general, and my own experience of each of the interviews in particular (Creswell, 1998). This provides transparency for my self as researcher (Creswell, 1998; Eisner, 1 991; Janesick, 2004; Kvale, 1996 ; Merriam, 1998; Piantanida & Garman, 1999) and allows for bracketing a revelation and setting aside of my own personal prejudgments (Creswell, 1998) as a way of monitoring researcher bias. I analyze d each pair of interview transcript s (first a nd second round interviews for each faculty mentor) together as a single case in order to first build a phenomenological description and understanding of each of the six participants (cases) In regard s to the specific method I use d to analyze the data, I chose the method described by Kvale & Brinkmann (2009) in their book Inter Views (second edition) To make Kvale &
71 Brinkmann enumeration of the steps and the topic of my own inquiry into the following passage: Five steps are involved in this empirical phenomenological analysis. First (1) the whole interview is read through to get a sense of the whole. Then (2) the natural of the text, as they are expressed by the subj ects are determined by the researcher. Thi rd (3), the theme that dominates a natural meaning unit is re stated by the researcher as simply as possible thematizing the statements from The fourth (4) step consists of interrogating the meaning units in terms of the specific purpose of the study. [ T he guiding questions of this study What elements constitute the perspectives on mentori ng by selected doctoral faculty variables infl uence those perspectives? In the fifth (5) step, the essential, nonredundant themes of the entire interview [are] tied together into a descriptive statement. ( Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009, page s 205 207) As Kvale stated in the first edition of Inter Views condensation of the expressed meanings into more and more essential meanings of the experience [ is consistent with Creswell (1998) and many other scholars who have written reg arding inductive data analysis in qualitative research (Janesick, 2003; Merriam, 1998; Miles and Huberman, 1994 ; Smith, Flowers & Larkin, 2009 ) Figure 1 summarizes the steps I used in the phenomenological analysis for each faculty mentor.
72 Figure 1. I then analyzed the interviews for recurring themes within and between participants and synthesize d the data into appropriate composite conclusions regarding the description and understandin g of the exp eriences of the faculty mentors. I also made note of m entor experiences th at were not completely common among all participants and analyzed these for any meaning that might be added to the study (Miles and Huberman, 1994; Kvale, 1996). Mentor 1 Transcripts Meaning Unit Eliminated Meaning Unit Theme of Meaning Unit Emergent Central Theme Non Redundant Theme Meaning Unit Theme of Meaning Unit Emergent Central Theme Non Redundant Theme Meaning Unit Theme of Meaning Unit Emergent Central Theme Non Redundant Theme Meaning Unit Theme of Meaning Unit Emergent Central Theme Meaning Unit Theme of Meaning Unit Emergent Central Theme Non Redundant Theme Descriptive Statement for Mentor 1
73 Member Check After my analysis of both interviews for each participant, I emailed my phenomenological analysis and descriptive statement to each faculty mentor along with transcripts of their respective interviews. I n the descriptive statement I present e d each participant with the essential meanings that emerged from my analysis of their interviews, and ask them to confirm these essential meani ngs. This is known as a member check (Janesick, 2004) a nd is one method used to validate my analysis of the data. I also asked each interviewee to respond with any comment s they might have, thus providing an opport unity to add further comment s as a form of data gathering and tri angulation. Researcher Field Notes and Reflective Journal As the researcher, and a main instrument of the research (Janesick, 2004; Kvale, 1996 ; M erriam, 1998), I kept a journal of my thoughts, feelings and observations in the fieldwork throughout the stud y. During the interviews I also wro my interview notes bar of the interview notes and typically include body language and facial expressions that are not captured on the tape recording of the interview. N otes to myself field notes and refle ctive journaling on the interviews and interaction with participants in general may provide affective data that is not captured by the digital voice recorder. It may also reveal any bias I may have as the researcher. Janesick (1999) offers these recommendations of how researchers can benefit from the use of reflective journaling:
74 1. Journal writ ing allows for the refin ing the understanding of the role of the researchers through reflection and writing, much like an artist might do (p. 506) 2. Journal wr iting allows for deepening knowledge of whatever subject matter the researcher takes part in. (p. 523) 3. Journal writing allows participants in a research project an active voice. (p. 523) 4. Journal writing provides an additional data set to outline, describe, and explain the exact role of the researcher in any given project. (p. 523) It is in the practice of reflective journaling that a researcher may explore and verbalize her research assumptions, express and set aside (bracket) her own personal beliefs, and begin the data analysis process (Janesick, 1999 : Janesick, 2004 ). Role of the Researcher In a qualitative phenomenological study, the researcher is typically viewed as a main instrument of inquiry (Creswell, 1998; Eisner, 1 991; Janesick, 2004; Kvale, 1996 ; Merriam, 1998; Piantanid a & Garman, 1999 ). The researcher as the main research instrument is quite a departure from the assumptions of quantitative inquiry, wherein the researcher is viewed as a neutral and detached observer. Rather, in qualitative investigations (Piantanida & Garman, 1999 p. 140). As I have already discussed in the Ba ckground: Personal Perspective section above, I identify myself as a doctoral student, a lifelong learner, and a protg who has experienced several ye ars of mentoring at the
75 undergraduate and graduate level. This is the researcher self I bring to this stu dy that provide d a basis for my engagement and sense making in the study. In general, r eflective journaling and field notes may provide self understanding and self disclosure (Piantanida & Garman, 1999) which might further elucidate my self as the research er along the journey of the inquiry. Reflective journaling may also provide recollection, introspection and conceptual reflection (Piantanida & Garman, 1999) vis vis the collected interview data. My transparency (Rubin & Rubin, 2005) in discussing my self as the researcher and my refle ctions are part of what provides 1991, p.33). Any bias that surface d from my field notes and reflections was disclosed and discussed within the study. I attempt ed to give rich de scriptions of the interviewees in the hopes of providing a very humanistic description of the mentors and mentoring activities. Ethical Considerations The eth ical practice of research became a prominent issue in the Nuremberg war crimes trials of 1946 wherein concentration camp physicians and administrators were prosecuted for conducting experiments on prisoners without their consent. Since then, there have been numerous iterations of e thical protocols for conducting research studies. The Belmont Report ( 1979 ) is a landmark statement in the area of research ethics, and broadly summarizes the current issues that researches must be aware of when conducting research involving human subjects Ta ble 4 summarizes the tenets of T he Belmont Report :
76 Table 4 The Belmont Report Main Principles Principle Application to Research Respect for Persons Individuals should be treated as autonomous agents Persons with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection Subjects, to the degree that they are capable, must be given the opportunity to choose what shall or shall not happen to them The consent process must include three elements: o information, o comprehension, and o voluntariness. Beneficence Human subjects should not be harmed Research should maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms. The nature and scope of risks and benefits must be assessed in a systematic manner Justice The benefits and risks of research must be distributed fairly. There must be fair procedures and outcomes in the selection of research subjects. Retrieved January 22, 2009 from, http://research.u nlv.edu/OPRS/history ethics.htm.
77 In their Ethical Principles for Research Involving Human Participants ( n.d. ) the University of Plymouth (UK) further elucidates t he three major principles from T he Belmont Report T able 5 itemizes issues that are typically also present in qualitative studies Table 5 Summary of Ethical Principles for Research Involving Human Participants 1. Informed Consent: The researcher should, where possible, inform potential participants in advance of any features of the research that might reasonably be expected to influence their willingness to take part in the study. 2. Openness and Honesty : So far as possible, researchers should be open and honest about the research, its purpose and application. 3. Right to Withdraw : Where possible, participants should be informed at the outset of the study that they have the right to w ithdraw at any time without penalty. 4. Protection from Harm : Researchers must endeavour to protect participants from physical and psychological harm at all times during the investigation. 5. Debriefing : Researchers should, where possible, provide an acc ount of the purpose of the study as well as its procedures. If this is not possible at the outset, then ideally it should be provided on completion of the study. 6. Confidentiality : Except with the consent of the participant, researchers are required to e reporting of the research.
78 Table 5 Summary of Ethical Principles for Research Involving Human Participants (continued). 7. Ethical Principles of Professional Bodies : This set of principles is generic and not exhaustive of considerations which apply in all disciplines. Where relevant professional bodies have published their own guidelines and principles, these must be followed and the current principles interpre ted and extended as necessary in this context. Retrieved January 22, 2009 from, http://www.edu.plymouth.ac.uk/resine d/beginning/begresed.htm#Ethics. Beyond the purview of the actual data collection in a research study, th e American Educational Resear ch Association (AERA) describes ethical procedures for researcher s in general. The following is a list of ex ce r pt Ethical Standards (n.d. ) that are specific to a research study: Educational researchers must not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent authorship, evidence, data, findings, or conclusions. Educational researchers should attempt to report their findings to all relevant stakeholders, and should refrain from keeping secret or selectively communicating their findings. Educational researchers should report research conceptions, procedures, results, and analyses accurately and sufficiently in detail to allow knowledgeable, trained researchers to understand and interpret them. Educational researchers' reports to the public should be written straightforwardly to communicate the practical significance for policy, including limits in effectiveness and in generalizability to situations, problems, and contexts. In writing for or communicating with non researchers, educational researchers m ust
79 take care not to misrepresent the practical or policy implications of their research or the research of others. As the researcher, I endeavored to conduct the research in an ethical manner, being respectful of the participants in the study. Kvale (1996 ) designates three general areas for consideration when conducting a study involving interviews: informed consent, confidentiality and consequences What follows is a brief discussion of each of these issues as it relates to my study Informed Consen t : As par t of my research design, I applied to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for permission to conduct this research. Besides participating in mandatory research ethics training, I was required to provide an informed consent letter to each of the graduates and faculty mentors I ask ed to participate in my study. Th is informed consent letter explain ed the overall purpose and design of my investigation, as wel l describe d any possible risks or benefits to subjects as a result of their participation. It also explained that the ir participat ion in the study was voluntary, and that they could withdraw from the study at any time, should they wish to, w ith no repercussions. Since the subjects in this study were neither minors, nor did t hey belong to any vulnerable po pulations, each participant was asked to sign and return the informed consent statement to me as a requirement for participation in the interviews. Confidentiality : As an ethical consideration, the names of the in stitution a nd the mentors interviewed remain ed confidential and anonymous. The names of the graduates also remain ed confidential, unless they agree d on the informed co nsent statement to allow me to notify the faculty mentor of their name. In my research report, I provide enough basic demographic information about the institution and the mentors, but not
80 enough information as to make identification of the institution and participants possible. Under the protection of confidentiality and anonymity, it was my hope tha t the mentors would feel safe disclosing any negative experiences they may have had as mentors, thus further illustrating their experien ces as mentors. If a mentor did discus s a negative experience I react ed in a non judgmental way in an effort to build tr ust and create an environment of security so that the mentor would feel safe discussing something that may be a very important aspect to the mentoring experience. Regarding the transcribing of the interview recording, I also made sure that pseudonyms of th e interviewees were used in the interview thereby further protecting confidentiality. Consequences : This refers to the notion that participation in an investigation should not only have minimal to no risk of harm to the subject, but that participation s hould also provide some sort of benefit to the participant. Various benefits that a researcher may offer an interviewee are: a copy of the interview tape and transcript, a copy of the final research report, or even a modest gift after the completion of the interviews (Janesick, 2004), such as a $10.00 gift certificate to a local coffee shop. I offer ed all these benefits to the faculty mentors who participate d in this study. Assumptions In reference to the domain of research, Leedy & Ormrod (2001) define an For example, within the quantitative paradigm the concept that reality is a fixed singularity that exists apart f rom the existence of the researcher/subject is so self evident to quantitative researchers that we rarely find any statement of the nature of reality in quantitative research reports (that is, excluding quantum physics).
81 However, qualitative researchers ap proach research f ro m a different worldview that may be described as a different perspective a perpendicular or orthogonal perspective and therefore presume very different (perpendicular or orthogonal ) assumptions. Since assumptions influence methodology (h ow evidence is gathered) and epistemology (what is knowledge and how it is created), a discussion of the assumptions of qualitative inquiry is in order. Assumptions of the Qualitative Paradigm Creswell ( 1998) describes five philosophical assumptions tha t undergird the qualitative research paradigm In the section above labeled Qualitative Research I have discussed four of these assumptions: the ontological, the epistemological, the axiological and the methodological. Creswell labels the fifth assumption of the qualitative paradigm the rhetorical; this indicates that the style of language and the research terminology may differ and are particular to each paradigm. Since I have already discussed these assumptions, in Table 6, I 1998, p. 75) chart as a review and summary. The philosophical underpinnings (assumptions) of a paradigm ultimately delimits the type of research questions formulated, how evidence is gathered and analyzed, and what may be concluded as k ) Therefore it is important that researchers be aware of the assumptions and limitations of their research paradigm. When researchers understand the del imitations of one research paradigm, then the utility and importance of having another research paradigm is evident as another complimentary or orthogonal
82 Table 6 Philosophical Assumptions of the Qualitative Paradigm with Implications for Practice Assumption Question Characteristics Implications for Practice (examples) Ontological What is the nature of reality? Reality is subjective and multiple, as seen by participants in the study. Researcher uses quotes and themes in words of participants and provides evidence of different perspectives. Epistemological What is the relationship between the researcher and that being researched? Researcher attempts to lessen distance between himself or herself and that being researched Researcher collaborates, spends time in the field with participants, and Axiological What is the role of values? Researcher acknowledges that research is value laden and that biases are present. Researcher openly discusses values that shape the narrative and includes ow n interpretation in conjunction with interpretations of participants.
83 Table 6 Philosophical Assumptions of the Qualitative Paradigm with Implications for Practice (continued). Rhetorical What is the language of research? Researcher writes in a literary, informal style using the personal voice and uses qualitative terms and limited definitions. Researcher uses an engaging style of narrative, may use first person pronoun, and employs the language of qualitative research. Methodological What is the process of research? Researcher uses inductive logic, studies the topic within its context, and uses an emerging design. Researcher works with particulars (details) before generalizations, describes in detail the context of the study, and continually revises questions from experience in the field. From Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing from the five traditions by J.W. Creswell, 1998, p.75, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. perspective for gaining knowledge, as it addresses different research questions, evidence, and understandings. Assumptions of Phenomenology Since phenomenology is a subset of the qualitative paradigm, the aforementioned assumptions of qualitative research are also assumptions of phenomenology. Additionally, phenomenology assumes that human experiences contain meaning and that
84 within the multif arious details of the daily lived experience of, for example, a mentor, lies essential elements (meanings, experiences or structures) that are common between all mentors (Merriam & Associates, 2002). Thus, the aim of this phenomenological study is to ident ify the basic elements (essences or structures) of the experience of being a faculty mentor that are common among faculty mentors, thereby rendering a description of the experience and the meaning faculty mentors make of the experience (Leedy & Ormrod, 200 1). Personal Assu mptions of the Researcher In previous sections of this chapter I have explored various perspectives on the importance of uncovering assumptions and consciously examining how assumptions frame the worldview of the researcher. Concerning my own presence in the study in the formal role of self as researcher I concur with the aforementioned assumptions of the qualitative and phenomenological research perspectives. I have also reflected upon my own assumptions regarding mentoring, which are based on 12 years of experience in various higher education academic mentorships. What follows here are my personal assumptions based on this experience. Since I have never been a mentor, but rather always the protg, my personal assumptions about mentoring are informed by the experiences of a protg. 1. Mentoring is a developmental relationship wherein the protg seeks guidance and support from the mentor, to assist in actualizing certain p rofessional academic goals. 2. Since mentoring is a developmental relationship the protg typically experience s personal growth along with professional growth. I believe this
85 is facilitated due to an unspecified minimum degree of q uality of interaction and quantity of contact time that is shared The degree of quality and quantity of contact time may be highly variable, and yet still constitute a quality mentorship. 3. A developmental relationship indicates that the protg will be gaining new experience experience and knowledge. As such, undoubtedly the protg will make mistakes. The ment or may make mistakes, as well, as r elationships contain the op portunity for miscommunications and misunderstandings. Both parties would benefit from overt articulation of a mutual understanding to the effect that innocent mistakes might occur and will be forgiven in the interest of preserving a positive and productive working relationship 4. A mentorship is like any other relationship: the longer it continues, the more opportunity there is to discover things about each other that can potentially lead to interpersonal conflict or divergent perspectives. This is normal. If a protg trait or behavior needs correction, a mentor may try to address the issue in the most proactive, positive and constructive way possible; the protg should remain open and responsive to positive, constructive criticism. 5. Relationships require tim e and effort, which at times may be in short su pply Both protgs and mentors would benefit from mutually respectful commitments beyond the dissertation project and each contributes to a
86 mutual understanding of realistic expectations ab out work aspects such as time estimates for document production and turnaround times for feedback. 6. The mentor and protg have similar goals: the development of a student into a professional colleague. The protg should be happy to serve the mentor, just as the mentor serves the protg. 7. The obvious beneficiary of a mentorship is the protg; however, mentors can and should benefit from the mentorship, as well. As an experienced protg, I found that the reflective exercise of articulating my personal ass umptions provided me with an informed context for the investigation of the phenomenon of being a mentor; I am very curious about what it might be like to walk a and to gain insight into their world. Reliability, Validity, Generalizabilty, Bias As might be expected, just as the qualitative paradigm addresses research questions, methods and assumptions that differ from the quantitative paradigm, the qualitative research approach to criteria for evaluating a study also differ s from the quantitative approach (validity and reliability). In the quantitative paradigm, reliability refers to consistent results from multiple trials of the same experiment (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001); however, in the qualitative paradigm, exact replication of results is not expected between cases (Merriam & Associates, 2002). Rather, reliability is regarded as other they are consistent and dependable 27) with the design and execution of the study. In the qualitative paradigm, then, reliability addresses each and every component part of the research design (research question, methods, analysis,
87 interpretation, and conclusion) as each part builds upon the next in an appropriate and logical manner. Ultimately, the researcher must provide ample evidence to convince the demonstrated throughout the inquiry. External vali dity is the term that is used in the quantitative paradigm to describe generalizeability which is the ability to infer that the results of an experiment done on a randomly selected, small, but representative sample of subjects is also true for the larger population out of which the sample was drawn (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Since participants in qualitative studies are usually not randomly selected, in the qualitative paradigm it is more appropriate to expect reader or user generalizeability In this case, readers or users of the research, or persons who participate in a situation similar to th e phenomenon under investigation, determine to what extent and degree the research findings apply to their own situation (Merriam & Associates, 2002). In this study, stude nts, or even undergraduate students or mentors involved in adult education in general In the quantitative paradigm, internal validity refers to the condition where the experiment is designed well enough (variables are controlled and appropriate instrum ents are used to measure variables) to actually measure what is claimed to be measured so that conclusions regarding cause and effect may be accurate (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Although qualitative researchers do not use the term internal validity there are numerous criteria for evaluating the efficacy of a qualitativ e study. First, I present here in T able 7 several criteria used to evaluate qualitative research; then I will discuss the ones that
88 apply to this study. Creswell (1998) recommends that qualitativ e researchers eng age in at least two of these procedures of verification in a qualitative study. Table 7 Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research Purposefulness : The research question drives the methods used to collect and analyze data, rather than the other way around. Explicitness of assumptions and biases : The researcher identifies and communicates any assumptions, beliefs, values and biases [See also: Creswell, 1998; Merriam, 1998; Merriam & Associates, 2002] that may influence data collection and interpretation. Rigor : The researcher uses rigorous, precise, and thorough methods to collect, record, and analyze data (see also audit trail : Creswell, 1998 ; Merriam & Associates, 2002). The researcher also takes steps to remain as objective as possible throughout the project. Completeness gives readers a total, multifaceted picture of the phenomenon (i.e., thick description : See also: Creswell, 1998; Merriam & Associates, 2002). Coherence : The data yield consistent findings, such that the researchers can present a consistent conclusions ( triangulation : See also: Creswell, 1998; Merriam, 1998; Merriam & Associates, 2002), and any contradictions within the data art reconciled (See also: Creswell, 1998). Persuasiveness : The researcher presents logical arguments, and the weight of the evidence suggests one interpretation to the exclusion of others.
89 Table 7 Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research ( continued). Consensus : Other individuals, including the participants in the study ( member checks : See also: Creswell, 1998; Merriam, 1998; Merriam & Associates, 2002) and other scholars in the discipline ( inter rater reliability / peer review See also: Creswell, 1998; Merriam, and explanations. Usefulness : The project yields conclusions that promote better understanding of the phenomenon, enable more accurate predictions about future events, or lea d to interventions that enhance the quality of life. From: Practica l Research: Planning and Design, by P.D. Leedy & J.E. Ormrod, 2001, p. 164 165 Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Specific T echniques of Verification W ithin This Study I have explicitly discussed my assumptions and bia s es in the aforementioned biases are explicitly stated and monitored throughout the resea rch process (Creswell, 1998). I engaged in ongoing monitoring of my bias throughout the study by means of my researcher reflective journaling as well as the process of bracketing (revealing and setting aside of my personal prejudgments) as part of the phenomenological analysis process. In order to achieve consensus of findings, I engage d in member checks with the interviewees after each i nterview, including transparency of my analysis fin dings with each participant. As a further valid ity check, a peer reviewer review ed the transcripts and my concomitant analysis of the pilot interview and we then ascertain ed our consensus.
90 A dditionally, I rigorously use d transparent and established methods to collect and analyze the data, and report a thorough portrayal of the mentors I applied triangulation between data sources to arrive at coherent and persuasive conclusions. I construct ed a research design that is purposeful and appropriate for the investigation of the research questions; if greater understanding of the experience of being a mentor is gained, this should prove useful in designing better support for mentors, better mentor training programs, and better mentoring incentives. Figure 2 summarizes all the steps in my data collection analysis and verification procedures. Hardware and Software The recording device I used to record the interviews is an Olympus Digital Voice Recorder (DVR) model WS 300M. I acquired this particular model three years ago, after discussing interview data collection in our Qualitative Research Methods class. This DVR has 35 hours of recording time in the highest sound quality mode and can store up to 995 digital voice files. The small, handheld device plugs directly into a computer USB port so I can easily download the files and email the interview file to the transcriber for transcription. I have made it a point to practice using the DVR i n order to familiarize myself with the processes of recording, saving and storing different audio files. I also carried back up batteries to every interview, just in case one was needed (Janesick, 2004). For ease of data management, I use d the computer pro gram ATLAS .ti (qualitative analysis software) after I identified the initial meaning uni ts from the transcripts in my phenomenological analysis. This allow ed for the efficient extraction of any theme within and between respondents.
91 Figure 2. Summary of D ata C ollection, A nalysis, and V erification P rocedures Estimated Dissertation Timeline, Expenses and Funding With the intention of successful execution of my inquiry, I estimated a timeline for completion. Being a person who likes to set high goals and strive to reach them, m y first aspiration was to complete this study by December 2009. After searching both the Graduate School and Dissertation Handbook websites, I beca me aware of various deadlines I must take into account. Additionally, I realize d that some faculty may not be available for interviews over the summer months, so this is a cont ingency which I also took into consideration In light of these constraints and also allowing adequate time for qualitative an alysis (Janesick, 2004 ), in Table 8 is a timeline for completing this study that I felt was both realistic and attainable. While researching institutional dissertation deadlines, I also discovered a few dissertation costs of which I was not aware. These co sts are included in Estimated Pilot Interview Review of Pilot Data First Round of Interviews Preliminary Review of Data Second Round of Interviews Transcript Verification Mentor #1 Data Analysis Mentor #1 Textual Decription Mentor #1 Summary Mentor #1 Transcript Verification Mentor #2 Data Analysis Mentor #2 Textual Decription Mentor #2 Summary Mentor #2 Transcript Verification Mentor #3 Data Analysis Mentor #3 Textual Decription Mentor #3 Summary Mentor #3 Transcript Verification Mentor #4 Data Analysis Mentor #4 Textual Decription Mentor #4 Summary Mentor #4 Transcript Verification Mentor #5 Data Analysis Mentor #5 Textual Decription Mentor #5 Summary Mentor #5 Transcript Verification Mentor #6 Data Analysis Mentor #6 Textual Decription Mentor #6 Summary Mentor #6 Member Check with All Mentors Peer Review Cross Case Analysis Discussion of Emergetnt Perspectives Notable Exceptions Discussed
92 Table 8 Carol A. Burg Proposed Dissertation Timeline Dissertation Proposal Hearing and Approval March 2009 IRB Approval April 2009 Nominations of Faculty Mentors (Letters to Graduates) April 2009 Invitat ion to Participate and Selection of Faculty Mentors April May 2009 First Round of Interviews, Transcription and Analysis April July 2009 Second Round of Interviews, Transcription and Analysis August October 2009 Chapter 4 Presentation of Data October 2009 January 2010 Chapter 5 Analysis and Summ ary January February 2010 Peer Review Reliability Check February 2010 Dissertation Defense March 2010 Final Copy Completed April 2010 UMI Registration April 2010 Graduation May 2010 Dissertation Expenses (see Appendix E ). I assumed that other incidental expenses would arise over the course of the study, however, the estimate I have included here tends toward the more generous, rather than the more parsimonious, in an effort to include a little extra budget funds for unforeseen expenses. This ap proximation of expenses is commensurate with other estimates of the cost of qualitative dissertations (Janesick, 2004).
93 In the interest of securing external funding to support my dissertation, I explored several websites pertaining to grants and scholarsh ips. It has been an experience involving successive winnowing, as the opportunities for scholarships dwindled when I applied my personal parameters to the scholarship and grant pool. Since student loans are very generous at the graduate level, the majorit y of grants and scholarships now focus on the undergraduate student. There are some grants, fellowships and scholarships available for graduate / doctoral students, however many of them require the student to be a full time student, or that the student not currently have full time employment: I failed to meet all these criteria. I inquired at my place of employment regarding professional development funds; however, due to the current budget climate, these funds have been frozen and were unavailable for th e rest of this academic year. I explored a few personal measures to supply funding for my dissertation. First, I re examined my budget and applied constraints where possible. Second, I contacted an accountant for advice on how to adjust my federal withholding taxes in my paycheck. Previously I have received a generous tax refund every April; now I have a minimal tax refund with more take home cash each month. Third, I acknowledged the possibility that I might need to tap into my modest savings accou nt to bridge any remaining funding gap. As a last resort, I could apply for student loan funding. As a cost saving measure, I could have transcribe d the interviews myself. However, I currently have ten donitis in my forearms, so I was unable to do the tra nscription myself.
94 Summary This numbered list summari zes what my study include d : 1. Dissertation Committee approval of this study. 2. Institutional Review Board approval of this study. 3. A mailed explanatory letter (based on Janesick, 2004) and mentor nomination for Transition U. College of Education docto ral graduates (s ee Appendix C ) 4. Mailed explanatory letter (based on Janesick, 2004) to selected nominated faculty (s ee Appendix D) asking for consent and participation in the study (s ee Appendix F ). 5. One pilot /practice interview wi th a designated faculty mentor. 6. First and second rounds of interviews with nominated mentors ( See App endix A for Interview Protocol 1 and App endix B for Interview Protocol 2 .) At the conclusion of the second interview, I provide d them with a printed copy of their C.V. and ask ed each professor to highlight any activities (publications, presentations, etc.) they have participated in with doc toral students. 7. Compilation of qualitat ive data with the a ppropriate analysis (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009 ) 8. A member check (based on Jane sick, 2004) form (see Appendix G ) and copy of my phenomenological analysis and summary sent to each interviewee. 9. Peer review check (see Appendix H ) of my data analysis and findings (based on Janesick, 2004) 10. Reported insights and results, significance, and conclusions
95 Conclusion In this chapter I have addressed, both theoretically and procedurally, several methodological issues underpinning the successful execution of an investigation exploring the phenomenon of being a faculty mentor to doctoral students. The methodological component of this proposal addressed topics in four areas of endeavor. First, I described the development of my theoretically grounded exploratory questions and provided operational definitions of mentoring and associated key terms. Second, I sought to explain in detail the actual process o f the research, with emphasis on data collection, analysis, description, and interpretation within accepted research practices for framework (phenomenology) and qualitativ e research paradigms with attendant ethical qualitative paradigm and the phenomenological perspective, as well as my own personal assumptions underpinning the mentor protg rela tionship. I endeavored that this study would provide a meaningful and productive contribution to the research literature of perceptions of the faculty mentor who exceeds contractual obligations and engages in mentoring activities with doctoral students. From my Reflective Journal, September 23, 2008: I have successfully reorganized my dissertation committee with faculty who have either a familiarity with mentoring via a previous dissertation study conducted at Transition U niversity College of Education, or with qualitative inquiry. I feel comfortable w ith each of them individually, and as a synergistic group. I have confidence in their
96 scholarship and professionalism from previous interactions with them over the years of my coursework. I feel I am gaining a momentum now in my progress on my dissertation proposal, and that is a huge relief after my hiatus due to the recent unexpected death of my sister. I have many fond memories of her nurturing and companionship since she frequently was my care giver when I was young She never stopped being a big sister through our adult lives, as well. For me, it feels like the loss of another mentor. From my Reflective Journal, March 10, 2009: My dissertation proposal defense was successful what a relief! I was nervous, but not a s nervous as I thought I might b e I was quite sufficiently challenged by the insightful but probing questions my committee members asked. I could immediately see the merits of some of their questions / suggestions, and agreed to incorporate those on the s pot. Now that I have had time to relax and reflect, I can see merit in some other suggestions that I argued against. I will use a few of those ideas, as well. I have heard descriptions of the defense process that sounded adversarial (the student vs. the c ommittee). I did not expect my defense meeting today to be adversarial probably because I had trust in my committee members. However, just simply not knowing what would happen and how I would rise to the challenges did produce anxiety for me. It feels like I have just emerged from a dense jungle, the trees are thinning, and I can faintly see the horizon again: the first glim mer of a light at the end of my odyssey.
97 CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION OF THE INTERVIEW DATA Introduction The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the perspectives on mentoring by selected doctoral faculty who re cent doctoral graduates identified as mentors. The exploratory questions that guided the study were: 1. What elements constitute selected doctoral faculty rspectives on mentoring? 2. What variables influence those perspectives? As I discussed in Chapter 3, the strategies I used to collect data from the purposively selected faculty mentors were semi structured interviews (transcribed), research er field notes ( interview notes to self) from the participants (their curriculum vita and personal communications ). This chapter includes description s of the setting College of Education and of the mentors that include details that are relevant to this study but that are not revealing eno ugh to contravene confidentiality as well as phenomenological description s of the lived experience of mentoring for each interviewee drawing on various data sources (as described) The Setting All of the six mentors who participated in this study are faculty in the College of Education at Transition University, a large regionally accredited university located in the
98 southern region of the United States. For the sake of confidentiality I provide only general relevant information regarding this institution, and use the pseudonym Transition University The university was founded as a regional service institution circa 1950, however approximately 10 year s ago it was awarded Research I standing, and is currently categorized as a comprehensive doctoral research (RU/VH) institution according to the Carnegie Classification system (The Carnegie Foundation, 2009) one of only three top tier research universities in the state The university has over 1,800 instructional faculty for the curren t academic year with 182 of these residing in the College of Education providing instruction for 43 doctoral programs (in addition to ) The t otal enrollment at the university exceeds 47,000 students for the current academic year, including over 5,000 students enrolled in the College of Education, with over 2,200 of these students enrolled in the graduate division of the College of Education (A website on November 14, 2009 which, for the sake of confidentiality I do not reference in this manuscript .) For The Reader: Regarding Transcript Presentation Conventions Before we embark on th e Men odyssey, I feel a few comments are in order to facilitate for the reader the clarity of the quotes from the mentors. First, all shorter quotes by the mentors reported in this manuscript are framed with double quote marks such as: ; however, lengthy block quotes are not framed with quotation marks, but rather are indented from the left margin Second, sometim quotes t hey quote themselves or other people These quotes within their quotes are frame d wi Third when the mentor emphasizes a
99 word, it will appear in italics in their own voice, as I noted from my review of the interview digital voice files. F ourth, I have inserted any body language and pauses in speech into the quotes with brackets, such as: [smiles] and [pauses]. Fifth, occasionally I have inserted a wor d or phrase in insertions and I made sure that she got a couple publications And finally, spoken speech is rarely ever as precise and concise as is written speech; most people when they speak typically include several extra umm uhh and like and stray from the main point of their statement into tangential references. In or arduous for the reader, I have retained a few verbal idiosyncrasies (such as like preserve the voice of the mentors, but omitted excessively repeated words and tangential phrases t hat are simply obfuscatory and laborious to wade through. I have applied ellipses denote these omissions (American Psychological As sociation, 2001), that is: if I deleted a word or phrase within a sentence I indicate tha t with three ellipses, such as . .this. If I deleted a phrase between sentences, I indicate that with four ellipses, such as. . .this. b ased on my indicating, and end with an epilogue form my researcher reflective journa l. All of the
100 The Mentors In order to introduce the mentors to the reader, I begin with some basic demographic data about the mentors (summarized in Table 9 ) such as gender, approximate age, ethnicity, number of years as a professor, number of years as a professor at Transition University, how their mentorships with students are initiated (assigned or selected), and whether or not they had a mentor themselves as a doctoral student. These data were either reported in the interviews, or collected from their curriculum vita or personal communications to me. It is interesting to note that half of the mentors in this study did not have a mentor themselves; this is consistent with other research reporting that approximately only half of all graduate students receive mentoring (Cronan Hillex, et al, 1986; Jacobi, 1990). Next, I present individual descriptions of each of the six faculty mentors who participated in my s perspectives on mentoring how they experience mentoring and what meanings they seem to derive from the activity. Some of the data presented will be passages from my Researcher Reflectiv e Journal, and will be thus noted. Regarding the notes I took during the interviews (field notes / notes to myself), these largely consisted of details regarding the setti ng of the interview and details regarding facial and body language of the participant s, which I added into the appropriate place in each respective interview transcript for each mentor. In general, I observed body language that was consistent with the language and emotion each mentor was communicating at the time, which therefore
101 Table 9 Description of the Mentors Professor: Jade Jacob Hanna Reeba Jack Donna Gender: F M F F M F Age: Years as a Professor : 26 30 33 20 20 14 Years at University: 7 20 32 20 19 14 Did the mentor have a mentor? No Yes Yes Yes: 2 No No Ethnicity Caucasian Caucasian Caucasian Latina Caucasian Caucasian How the Mentorships are Initiated Selected Selected Selected Selected Assigned Selected contributed to increased trust in the authenticity of what each mentor related to me. As I engaged in the process of phenomenological analysis of the data, I remained a mentor? What meaning does mentoring seem to have for this person, or, how is ment data analysis for each mentor coherently coalesced into the following areas: 1) how they
102 rom 5) heir perceived purposes of mentoring: their and In Chapter Five I will present the results of my cross case analysis of the experiences of these faculty mentors, noting unity and significant differences in the elements and variables, as well as connections to and implications for the practice and theory of mentoring. The First Case: Professor Jade Enjoyable Prologue to Professor Jade Enjoyable From M y Refle ctive Journal, October 18, 2009 The first step in phenomenological analysis is to read the interview transcripts had not yet verified the second interview, I read the second transcript while listenin g to the audio file at the same time. I found minor word corrections to be made to the transcription, and added in any gestures or laughter or body language noted in my field notes / notes to myself that were not captured in the transcript; I also changed names stated in the interview to initials, in order to provide confidentiality to people Professor Jade mentioned during the conversation I decided that instead of just reading the first transcript thru (in preparation for phenomenological analysis) I wou ld also listen to that audio file as I read thru the first transcript. This takes more time than just reading the transcript, but I thought it would reading the transcript, and also be beneficial to the bracketing process. So, I have just closely listened to (while reading the transcript s of) both interviews with Professor Jade and re read my post interview notes in my reflective journal. Now, I
103 will write down my thoughts and feelings about my two conversations with Professor Jade and set them aside bracket them as a way of clearing my head and heart before analyzing the data. In reading my reflective journal, I began with some negative feeling s about Professor Jade First, after setting the appointment for the first interview, she rescheduled it the night before it was to take place. Then, as we walked back to her office to start the first interview (a week later), she informed me that she only had 30 minutes for the interview, instead of the 60 minutes I had explicitly requested I was immediately concerned about having enough time to collect data after all, this was my pilot interview, and was rather important in the scheme of my data collecti on. I would be making some important decisions based on the data I collected in this interview. I considered asking to reschedule the interview, but decided that, after years of interviewing people, I had ample experience interviewing, and that I could acc omplish the task at hand while managing a 30 minute time frame. My secon d concern was that so far, Professor Jade had not demonstrated a the interview, and then not h aving the amount of time for the interview that I requested. my mind as we were walkin g back to her office for the interview. I was worried that perhaps my purposive selection method had fallen short of selecting a good mentor, in this case. However, my method of selection was not rather, simply some one who had engaged in mentoring. I quickly decided to focus on the
104 task at hand data collection. At that moment, my gut told me that I was making the right decision to forge ahead with the interview, and let the data reveal whether or not it was a good in terview. All these tho ughts ran through my head in the 60 seconds it took us to walk to her office . . ( continued ) Professor Jade Enjoyable Introduction Professor Jade a woman, and wears yellow blond hair in a semi short, spunky cut coiffed into a playful style. For both of our interviews, she arrived in comfortable attire sporting vividly colorful a rtistic accents and sat in the chair behind her desk with aplomb. During the interviews she seemed intent on responding to my questions, and yet conveyed a relaxed sense of enjoyment and happiness, smiling and laughing frequently, beginning the first inte shelves were crammed with books; her desk held some minor clutter, amidst personal mementos in terview her phone rang; she picked up the receiver and dispatched the caller with alacrity (in less than 10 seconds), and then returned her full attention to me, giving the impression that she is used to juggling many things in the air at once, with all ea rnestness. [From my Reflective Journal and field notes, April 27, 2009 and September 11, 2009.] Professor Jade Her Self as Mentor Professor Jade is a veteran educator of approximately 35 years (as I gleaned from her curriculum vitae), with varying teach ing experience that ranges from the kindergarten and elementary levels through the university classroom. Although she has spent the last 25 years of her educational career as a university pro fessor, she often referred to herself
105 as a teacher during our int That's the kind of teacher I am Professor Jade still continues to see p art of her higher education identity teacher reached the pinnacle of achievement, and yet she concluded: You know, I'm still a teacher, although I As a mentor, among Professor Jade I say teachers are learning helpers, so are mentors: learning helpers During the course of our two interview conversations, I asked Professor Jade Help er, facilitator, teacher guide, listener, doer, mother / sister depending, grandmother depending These utterances are some of the motifs that appeared woven throughout the approximately two hours of interview dialogue that Professor Jade graciously sha red with me. The Jade discussion with me regarding mentoring. Professor Jade strongly identifies her mentoring I am a helper. Helping her protgs is an activity that is seamlessly integrated into her mentoring of students, as she described: I was doing some of my own research today and I came across this constant comparative methods, and it just was written so beautifully. I thought of two of my doctoral students that I would have to write right away to let them know about this, because I tho Mentoring, for P rofessor Jade does not only happen with current students; she also engages in mentoring with junior faculty, and newly graduated doctoral candidates. In
106 this passage, she described mentoring a new graduate: With respect to J., I knew that she needed mento ring because of specifics. She had already finished her doctorate, but she needed help in writing and I made sure that she got a couple publications [from her dissertation] Then she needed help in finding a job. I didn't find her a job, but I offered supp ort and gave her some directions Professor Jade strongly identifies her mentor self as a teacher a nd a helper and she extends her mentoring not only to students, but to colleagues and junior faculty as well. She concluded this particular mentoring acco unt by stating, It gives me such great pleasure and a good feeling about myself to be able to be of help to others at this stage in Jade Professor Jade Her Experience of Mentor ing When I asked her what the experience of mentoring is like for her, Professor Jade mentoring. She continued with: the experience is fantastic. I absolutely adore it. I love it so much that I started an advanced graduate roundtable writing group Jade voluntarily exceeded the requirements of her contract and implemented an on going writing support group for doctora l students is remarkable. Obviously, Professor Jade enjoys mentoring; I endeavored to find out more details regarding that. What, exactly, did she find so enjoyable about mentoring? One aspect of mentoring that Professor Jade finds so enjoyable are the pr otgs: I like the doctoral students, and I like to interact with them. I like to see them at
107 conferences and go out with them at night for dinner. I just like the camaraderie general, Professor Jade finds it pleasant and enjoyable to interact with d octoral students She stated, I'm a social being, so I just love being with the people whom I'm mentoring. We Jade is not only part of her identity, it is also part of what she enjoys grow and change, it gives me a wonderful feeli In addition to finding mentoring to be enjoyable and pleasant, Professor Jade also experiences mentoring as relatively easy to do I don't find it difficult. I certainly don't find it difficult at all. I just find it enjoyable and pleasant and I love to be helpful, so it is great. It just gives me a good feeling. Jade feel good in general, I don't find it tedious or that I can't fit it in or something like that. overwhelmingly a pleasant experience and easy to fit into her schedule and she enjoys intera cting with the protgs Professor Jade Benefits from Mentoring During the course of our conversation, I asked Professor Jade what benefits she thought she gained from mentoring. One of the benefits she mentioned was learning from her protgs, which fell into two variations: learning about herself, and learning from students how to help other students that is, learning how to be a better mentor She related that from her students she learned : Determination. I've learned to b ring that on to others. If this doctoral studen t can do it, you can do it also, OK? And then from S. another doctoral student, too: t From this we can see that Professor Jade enriches her mentoring skills repertoire by observing her pr otgs and consciously
108 applying what she learns. We also see that she is self aware of her mentoring style, and open to receiving insight from her students on how she can grow and improve, and be a more effective mentor. In the previous section I listed s everal quotes where she maintains it makes her It gives me such great pleasure and a good feeling about myself to be able to be t just makes me feel th at I can do this and I have achie ved something at this stage Jade a feeling of efficacy about herself, the sense that she is effective with her efforts. Efficacy about herself as a mentor, helper, and teacher seems to be another benefit she encounters while mentoring; and this is also undoubtedly a pleasant occurrence for her. Another benefit Professor Jade gets from mentoring is receiving. She related a story concerning one of her current doctoral students: One of my doc students cannot work with me this summer at the community center where I have this camp, because she's going to be writing. But, she just l help you at night, because ou see, you get things back from mentoring. Professor Jade gets things back r various mentoring efforts. It is not that she expects mentoring to be a transactional activity like some sort of quid pro quo. Rather, the serendipity of this event is apparent: Professor Jade was pleasantly surprised that one of her protgs volunteered to give back to her by helping her.
109 In fact, a pleasant affect was Professor Jade Well, other than feeling good and sharing [smile] and I think sharing is the most wonderful thing you ca n do, that's what I get out of [mentoring] benefit Professor Jade It gives me such great pleasure and a good feeli Jade mentoring creates happiness Professor Jade I attempted to draw out more details on this concept. Professor Jade responded with: When I was a cla I always give my ideas away, because then more come. I've emptied You know how some people don't want to give or share? It never bothered me, sharing Sharing, for Professor Jade encompasses giving and receiving; she feels that this is a benefit she derives from mentoring, and she enjoys the sharing (giving and receiving ). Professor Jade feels that she receives benefits from mentoring, however, these seem to be intangible or internal rewards. When I asked her about external or tangible o one gives me mor e pay. That is for sure. [laughs] That would be good. . I think that I am recognized in the department for my mentoring abilities. Professor Jade feels she reaps benefits from her mentoring activities such as: learning from her protgs, a good feelin g, a good feeling about herself (efficacy), pleasant serendipitous reciprocal help, a pleasant exchange of helpful ideas or other resources (sharing), and recognition from colleagues. She also finds this recognition to be rewarding.
110 Professor Jade What Mentoring Means for H er For Professor Jade mentoring is an endeavor comprised of a mosaic of facets. Part of mentoring for Professor Jade includes support for the protg in the areas of career and psycho social development. In the area of career suppor t, as mentioned earlier, Professor Jade shared stories about how she initiated a writing support group for her students and helped a new doctoral graduate publish an article from her dissertation and find a job. In general, she sees career support to inclu de assisting protgs with their research writing, publication and job procurement In the area of psycho social support, Professor Jade there is a lot of emotional support. When I asked her for details she said: [Student s] need freedom from worry and anxiety. They need to ha ve someone that they can trust. . A lot of them come to my house and say what it is that they are really concerned about. Then they'll know that I will help them in any way that I can. One showed up with a gorgeous bottle of wine on a Friday. [smile] She's not in this department, but I was on her committee. . and she needed some help. . We just sat there, and that's just what she needed. She had some problems. She was pregnant. She's married. She was living alone because her husband has his business in Colorado. She's trying to finish the dissertation. Blah, blah, blah. She ju st needed to chit what and that sort of thing. . and you can't just discount that. Professor Jade sees it appropriate to address the life issues of her students if they arise, and considers it to be part of her psycho social support system for them. Her responsive If they email me, they know I'll email
111 them back right away because I hate to say it I'm quick She makes her accessibility known to her students, and they ask when they are in need of help. Professor Jade reports that this is ver y There is support at all levels. Career and psycho social support for protgs is an integral part of mentoring for Professor Jade However, mentoring means much more than that to her. First of all, for Professor Jade mentoring is a relationship It's the whole relationship. . .It is a wonderful negotiation. It is a complex relationship. It's very complex. All human relationships are complex. It's give and take, give and take. reciprocal gi ve and take a negotiation between herself and the protg. In her definition of mentor, she used familial terms ( mother, sister, grandmother) which also indicate relationship. This relationship of reciprocal negotiation, for Prof, Jade also includes collaboration, as illustrated on her curriculum vitae, which lists numerous publications and presentations that she co authored with her protgs As she highlighted the copious collaborations with students on her C.V., she said collaborat For Professor Jade mentoring is also intentional deliberately does. In the course of her daily interactions with people, it is common for her How can I help this person? In that way it is intentiona l. It just doesn' t happen. . I find myself mentoring in many different ways as opportunities arise. I recognize these opportunities. Professor Jade recognizes the opportunity for mentoring, and then del iberately acts on it. This seems to happen naturally and easily for her in her daily routine.
112 Besides being intentional Professor Jade experiences mentoring to be individual : It is whatever the doctoral student or even a new assistant professor needs, and their needs vary considerably. idiographic (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), or concerned with the particular. To further explicate, she related: It depends upon the individual. Maybe that's why I'm a successful mentor. Everybody's different. As good teachers, we all know that differentiation of instruction is so important. Well, treating people differently according to their needs is important too. So, I think whatever they need, that's what I am there to give. Since mentoring is individual, Professor Jade sees this as affecting her role as the mentor: [Mentoring is] depending up on the role. So, that depends upon the person. So, that's why I mentioned sister, mother, grandmother, that sort of thing. I t all depends who I am with. therefore she adjusts her approach as she perceives necessary. Professor Jade sees mentoring as idiographic because it varies according to each perso And I also have a good sense, I think, at this point in my life as a professional, a former teacher, about what people need and how far I can go with that, with pushing them too. Mentoring, for Professor Jade is also a dynamic process You have to know what's your role, and it changes You
113 Professor Jade is aware of a dynamic of development in her students, and views her mentoring as dynamic as well: It's always different b ecause, we're talking about doc toral students now, they're growing So, as they grow, they're changing. Hopefully, we all are. So, when they start out here and their concerns, frustrations, anxieties, needs are here. Why the very next week, it might be something else, and that's a good thing because you can't just be static. She seems to be perfectly comfortable with this dynamic of changing needs of the protg, and sees that she changes as a mentor, as well. Professor Jade also sees mentoring as integrated into her daily routines, as well as into her mentor [Mentoring is] not separate and apart from [my everyday] I didn't realize how much I was doing, and how much I integrate it into my professional life. be holistic : My mentorin g occurs everywhere informally, semi gestalt it is me as a mentor T he time needed for mentoring is often cited as problematic by mentors; when I asked her about her perception of the time she invested into mentoring, she responded: My time, I haven't even thought of that. It's all one big picture. . I t's just part of my work; it's just part o Oh, I have to give so much time to so and But mentoring, I don't even think of it as extra it's just a part of my professional life. I've never even thought of it in amount of time. Not at a ll
114 Professor Jade does not see her time investment into mentoring to be problematic; in fact, she is hardly aware of how much mentoring she does, because it fits seamlessly into her daily activities. It also fits seamlessly into her self identity, as whe n she states: . I would not [consider it as not being a part of my job]. I'd feel divorced from my life's work. [smiles] I couldn't and I would never consider it. But I don't say to Now when I come here, I'm going to start o ut mentoring, blah blah, It doesn't happen that way. You just slide into things and you do it. And you're doing it well so you do it more. For Professor Jade mentoring is essential to her self concept as a professor. Perhaps one reason why Professor Jade seamlessly integrates mentioning into her quotidian activities is that mentoring is also effortless for her, as when she states: It's easy. It's easy. Maybe it shouldn't be easy. Maybe sometimes it's going to be hard. But, not often because so many peopl e go through the same thing with doctoral students. They're worried, they're concerned, their anxious. Otherwise, they wouldn't be speaking to me. For Professor Jade mentoring is easily and naturally integrated into her activities as a teacher and mentor; she cannot envisage mentoring as being separate from her life as a professor, a mentor or a person. It seems to be an essential component of her self image and work. Professor Jade Her Negatives in Mentoring I could see what Professor Jade meant when sh e said person always anyway ; she certainly was very positive and happy about her mentoring.
115 When I asked her if she had any negatives experiences as a mentor, she paused for a I cannot think of one. I really can't. Nope. Not one. Every one has been great. However, a short while later she did relate one situation that she found negative: T he only negative thing is if someone asks me to help them and I am not on their committee at all, I can't do it because that is going beyond my boundaries. You can't do that. These people always look embarrassed and upset. You know how it would be. And I have to tell them no, I am not on their committee. I can't help them. For Professor Jade not being in a position to help a student is a somewhat unpleasant experience. Additionally, my query caused her to reflect, and in our second interview she related two negative mentoring experiences. One involved a protg who no longer communicates with her since the mentorship dissolved. Professor Jade expressed some sadness that this relationship did not continue and evolve into a new phase of collegiality Her second negative mentoring experience revolved around a junior faculty member who was denied tenure due to lack of publications; Professor Jade felt bad for the faculty member, but also sad that the institution lost a professor that had much potential. She concluded these accounts with: I am now mentoring her. . She's written back to me a lot. I've sent her stuff that I'm working on. name. . N ot all mentoring stories turn out OK, and those are two instances where I feel that I could have done more. If she didn't accept it then, at le ast I would have tried. So, now I'm trying.
116 Negative mentoring experiences, for Professor Jade involve not being able to help someone, or the fracturing of a relationship a mentorship that does not transition into a new phase of collegiality. Allen, Potee t, & Burroughs, (1997) also found an occurrence of feelings of failure by the mentor as a negative experience. Another common negative reported by mentors is the lack of adequate time for mentoring; as I have already discussed, this is not an issue for Pro fessor Jade Professor Jade Her Teleology of Mentoring Professor Jade experiences mentoring to be teleological it is purposeful. For her, mentoring may be a daily part of her self concept and routine, but it also has a purpose, or a goal. Beyond the immediate goal of helping an individual with their particular need at the moment, she also sees the goal of mentorin he very best that that student can achieve and at the end achieve, so that they get a great job and that they are a good professor. achievement to their highest potential, t o become a competent professor and to attain employment after graduation. Professor Jade Her Motivations to Mentor Mentoring does take time, and effort. Sometimes, there are negative experiences that emerge in a mentoring relationship. Faculty are not required to mentor doctoral students, and if fact, receive no remuneration from the institution for doing so. Why, then do faculty volunteer to exceed their job requirements? I asked Professor Jade what motivated her to mentor. She replied: Why I do it is because they genuinely need help I'm back to that. Therefore, I am a helper. I also have a degree in guidance and cou nseling, so I think that might
117 help. I think I'm a good listener, a good paraphraser. I use Rogerian counseling techniques. She continued with: I do know my stuff with my work here. I think that's so I can share it. I can give it away. I enjoy it very much. . I like the doctoral students, and I like to interact with them. . I think we owe it to our fields, our discipline, to contribute back as much as we possib ly can, in the ways that we can, I really do. . T hat whole idea of academe has been so good to me. I mean, I love this place I was recruited to come here. . so I want to give back to it. Professor Jade help p eople and to contribute back to her profession, the enjoyment of sharing (giving and receiving),and her overall happiness with her job. Professor Jade Her Values as a Mentor I asked Professor Jade if she felt that mentoring was a job duty, or, was it replied: I think more in a broader sense, for me, in the sense of community of our discipline whatever our discip line we are at a University, we're higher education, but if I were in high school or whatever, it would be the same. For Professor Jade ranging from religion to ethics to economics. Simp
118 Professor Jade collegiality is also a value, as when she related the story of a colleague who was denied tenure: It just worried m e [that she was not publishing enough] What she did was beautiful, beautiful work. I t wasn't enough. Because she had to take charge of her department and la, la, la, it was too much. And she had a lot of family issues and whatever. So, it happened. She's gone. So, that disturbs me terribly and many people in [her] department . . I wonder if I should have said more then, like: I'll help you. She was not mentored by anybody in [her] department. So, that happened Why I am concerned about it is because she was worthy of [being tenur ed] here. relationship relationships, as when Professor Jade mother / sister depending, grandmother depending Jade is concerned with, as evidenced by her sadness over two failed mentoring as part of these relationsh ips. It seems clear that helping, sharing, and giving back to her profession are also part of her values : Here I am sitting with you; I came in specially to meet you because I care about this. You see, that's another thing. And I care about people who are getting their Ph D s and so I wanted to do this for whoever you were, and that's a form of mentoring in itself.
119 It is evident that Professor Jade values community (both formal and informal), collegiality with faulty and protgs, helping, sharing, and giving back to her profession and that she incorporates her values into her practice of mentoring. Professor Jade Summary To summarize: Professor Jade sees mentoring as a spectrum of relationship with characteristics that at times seem community like, collegial, or familial; this relationship includes reciprocal exchanges of help as well as negotiation and collaboration. She sees career and psycho s ocial support as part of her mentoring gestalt. When she mentors, it is often intentional (deliberate). She sees her mentoring as idiographic (particular to an individual and their needs), and dynamic (changing and growing). Her mentoring is holistically a nd effortlessly integrated into her personal and professional life, psyche and activities, and is an essential part of her personal and professional self concept that is, a fundamental element that she would not removed. Additionally, mentoring for her is teleological (has a purpose): to help people, to facilitate the growth potential of the protg to be the best they can be, to assist in developing a good professor, and to ultimately help the protg secure employment. Professor Jade sees herself as a te acher and a helper, and enjoys helping people. enjoyment of sharing (giving and receiving) with protgs, her enjoyment of mentoring, and her sense of fulfillment a motivation for Professor Jade to mentor, add one more thing: she feels a responsibility to contribute back to her field which has Jade it is evident that this responsibility is primarily a labor of love or joy. As a mentor, she values:
120 community, collegiality, helping, sharing, and giving back to her profession Figure 3 summarizes these aspects of Professor Jade self. Figure 3. Professor Jade: Her Mentor Self Professor Jade has encountered very few negative experiences in her mentoring. The few negative experiences that she did encounter involved either not being able to take the role of a mentor for a student, or a fractured relationship where in a mentorship did not transition into a new phase of professional collegiality, but rather, disintegrated. Overall, she experiences mentoring as an immensely positive, enjoyable and rewarding experience that is easily accomplished. She enjoys interacting with protgs, including doctoral students. She feels that she gleans several benefits from mentoring, such as: enjoyment, learning, a sense of efficacy, recognition as a mentor by her peers, an overall Helper Teacher Community Collegiality Helping Sharing Giving back to Profession Helping Meeting Needs Sharing Enjoyment Give back to Profession Loves Job Self Concept Motivations Her Values as a Mentor
121 positive affect (good feeling), and sharing (giving and receiving). She feels efficacious in her field, and she likes to share her expertise with others. She likes sharing, and in fact enjoys it, and she specifically enjoys sharing with doctoral students. Professor Jade self numerous pleasant aspects to mentoring as creating happiness and enjoyment in her professional life. Epilogue to Professor Jade From M y Refle ctive Journal, October 18, 2009. Bracketing: What Do I T hink and How Do I F ee l A bout Professor Jade ? (Continued from previous) . After both interviews with Professor Jade I was satisfied : I had gathered very solid data. And, I could tell that she was a n engaged and dedicated mentor. Both of these conclusions I drew from the interview data (my reflective journaling, my interview notes, and later, the transcripts), as well as my gut feeling as an experienced protg and interviewer. Additionally, she came in to the Transition Universit y College of Education just for my second interview, and talked more than an hour (making up for the short first interview). I like much but not every single idea of what she said; our philosophical approaches to education and mentoring are compatible. I do wonder about the rescheduling difficulty, though; perhaps she is random that way. If I were her protg and that happened frequently to our appointments, I would find it negative and stressful. It would be a challenge to me to work with someone who h ad that style. But, since I have not had the experience of being her protg, I do not know if that is indeed her style. And I will never know, so I must se t that idea aside out of my mind. A few details of what she talked about are inconsistent with my o wn ideas about
122 mentoring, but that is OK, too: I can approach these ideas with a spirit o f genuine curiosity, and investi gate them from different perspectives to gain insight into how she finds them to be good ideas. I can learn and benefit from dialogue o n disagreements. So, the data are what they are. That is the beauty of it, and my reprieve; I can only offer the evidence that is there, and debate it in a fair minded way. And with my transparency, the reader can decide for herself to agree with my concl usions, or not. Let the analysis begin! The Second Case: Professor Jacob Transactional Prologue to Professor Jacob Transactional From M y Reflec tive Journal, September 2, 2009. My second interview with Professor Jacob was just a rich as the first interview. This time instead of meeting in his office, we met in a small conference room at the end of the hall of office suites. He was working on ginning up some video casts for his online class he is teaching. He talked abo ut how that was a new learning curve for him the technology. This time he mentioned how time pressured he was with the start up of the new semester new classes, and new technology This was very different from our first interview that too k place over the summer break at that time he acted like he had all the time in the world. I thanked him for making the ti me to fit me into his schedule; he was very gracious about it. He again talked with me for over an hour. He still acted like he had all the time in the world to speak with me today, although he had communicated that Again, I got the feeling that he was a very warm and nurturing person. I think that was due just as much to the way he would talk with me as to what he actually said. He
123 ma de excellent eye contac t and his body language was completely relaxed and comfortable. More than that, his body language communicated that he was giving me his full attention. This is notable, considering how stressed he was over getting his video casts ma de for his class that day. As I reflect on this now (after the interview), I am gathering language to describe how I was experiencing the conversation with Professor Jacob and that is: in every respect in our exchange today he was totally present in the conversation and completely engaged in the exchan ge of ideas with me, which felt like a validation of me, a nascent researcher. Professor Jacob Transactional Introduction I was 10 minutes early for my first i nterview with Professor Jacob as I am with a ll my interviews. I waited in the department office, pacing nervously along the walls, reading whatever was posted. Professor Jacob came to the front office to guide me back to his office. As we walked back to his office, he excitedly stated, ch looking forward to talking with you about this! Your invitation to be interviewed has Professor Jacob grey hair and glasses. Our first interview transpired in his office, which was packed to the though; he walls. He sat comfortably behind his desk exud ing warmth and smil ing often. His voice was soft spoken and conversational, and seemed in slight contrast to breadth of his
124 responses which included a scholarly lexicon that he employed with a natural ease. [From my Reflective Journal, May 20, 2009.] Professor Jacob His Self as Mentor Professor Jacob history as an educator spans 35 years (as noted on his curriculum vitae), with te aching experiences that run the gamut from the elementary through the university levels. Although he has spent the last 29 years as a professor at the university level, he referred to himself as a teacher during our interviews, stating: I am a teacher. I have always been a teacher, and I think that things that I learned teaching first graders are things that still apply. You know that is a surprising admission, because we spend so much time around this new University, jacking ourselves up to be the research institution, and our productivity as researchers. I am really a teacher. In addition to being a teacher, Professor Jacob also sees himself as a helper, as when he Ultimately I'm the one that's helping them create themselves. He further described this helping rapport with protgs, as when he offers to his students: I can help you shape what you've brought to the [research] table, more sophisticated or smoother or whatev er the metaphor is in your knowing. Jacob to define the term Well, I think a mentor is a knowledgeable other. Teaching and helping students learn are motifs that Professor Jacob reiterated through both interv iews.
125 Profe ssor Jacob His Experience of Mentoring When I asked Professor Jacob what the mentoring experience was like for him, I asked what he meant by years that his mentoring has really developed: This is only recent. I've been [a doctoral mentor] f about 26 years. So I'm final ly getting it. It is the most wonderful feeling! ... It's kind of like one of ew lease on Professor Jacob feels like he has become proficient at mentoring, and enjoys immersing himself in like p lay. Currently, Professor Jacob is getting more enjoyment from mentoring than he did in the past. I wondered exactly what it is about mentoring that he found enjoyable, and he related : I love coming here because I get to work with these really smart peopl Doctoral students a re a lot of fun. They're real clever. They've sacrificed a lot, and peanuts for salary. So it should matter. They should have sacrificed for some big reason. So they're ready to have fun. I mean, they're ready to be important and have important things happen to them. It's great.
126 ind mentoring to be an effort. I do not think that it is easy though. It is thoughtful, takes time, and is Jacob experiences mentoring to be pleasant, enjoyable, and largely effortless. Professor Jacob Benefits from Mentoring When I asked Professor Jacob what benefits he felt he re ceived from mentoring, his first response involved learning from his protgs I've really become more aware of my own field, a nd the importance of persons of Besides gaining new knowledge from his protgs, Professor Jacob also finds it stimulating to refresh some of his prior content knowledge for his st So I'm getting to learn stuff or relearn it. You know that adage about you don't really learn it till you teach it? It's really true. Another benefit Professor Jacob feels he get as a result of mentoring is prestige: e a lot of prestige and I'm grateful that it's valued. But I also know that it's just teaching, it's just good teaching. . . So I'm glad that it's valued, and I'm glad that it He goes on to describe the recognition he gets from his peers in his own program and department: I was lucky enough to have a department chair who recognized that mentoring is time consuming and labor intensive work and rewarded me for that work. He is consistently telling me that he appreciates the work that I do with the doctoral great.
127 Professor Jacob gets recognition by colleagues for his mentoring, and that makes rom the quality of work that My students do beautiful work. And that's them, but I think I've got part of that. I get part of what they do. helps him to feel like an efficacious mentor. Besides imparting good feelings, mentoring also seems to create happiness for Professor Jacob as he described: You know, I've got 11 more years. If it could just stay like this for 11 years, I would retire a happy man. Stuff always happens in higher ed. There's no stasis. I think [mentoring] is one of the things that I want to try to hang onto. I can let a lot of stuff come and go. Deans come and go. Faculty come a nd go. I've learned that. But this is something that I've come to that I really would like to keep, so I'll do a lot to keep that I love it. It's not like work, you know? Professor Jacob least in some part, and apparently no small part, to his involvement in his mentoring I like my life a lot, and I think that a lot of the reasons that I'm a happy person is my involvement wi th students. . I don't Professor Jacob also spoke about the personal benefits he thought he gained from mentoring. Mentoring meets his needs for things such as friendship: I had a colleague who did a nat learned from that study was how dry and how unsatisfying my mentoring is.
128 When I compared what I did to what D. d id with her doctoral students they went to dinner together, they had parties together, they became fr iends I wanted that kind of a pay off. That's an emotional response, a ne eds based The more rational thing was: it's not appropriate; it's not what you're supposed to do. There are boundaries that you're crossing that are going to cost you. I decided to take the risk and cross wonderful However, he remains mindful of a delicate balance of being a mentor and being a friend, I think the challenge is: while we are friends, it's not a friendship of equality. Professor Jacob spoke candidly about how mentoring meets his needs as he described some technology support that he got from a protg : I think [mentoring is] needs based, and the needs work both ways. We exchange expertise. I wouldn't have gotten this on this laptop without J. He's right across the hall from me. He's tutoring me along with the vodcasting part of it. So it's nice in that regard. This reciprocal exchange of support which may also b e thought of as a transaction, or giving and receiving (sharing), is a theme that recurred in his conversations. In regard to other new challenges he was facing this semester, he indicated that he hoped to get support from his students, and stated: I'm ta king on a lot of new work this semester that has a huge learning curve . . I don't know what to do with that stuff. I can go to my Meeting the needs of students also imparts feeling of professional efficacy fo r Professor Jacob I feel very competent, I feel valued. I'm needed by these people in ways that I've never been needed.
129 from protgs, prestige and recognition by peers, receiving positive feedback that reinforces efficacy, friend ship, and reciprocal support for needs all certainly facilitate the Jacob Professor Jacob What Mentoring Means for Him For Professor Jacob mentoring is partly about career and psycho social support for the protg. There are competencies that he intentionally scaffolds for his protgs, such as: They have to know how to read and critique research. They have to know how to put a proposal together. They have to know how to get grants. They h a ve to know how to teach. And, I'm upping [the ante] that they have to co teach doctoral seminars so that on their own they're in front of doctoral students and they're handling research. And, they have to present at conferences. And, they hav e to make prof essional contacts. . So, I mean, there's little pieces that I check off in my head. So, that's skills based. Professor Jacob makes sure that his protgs encounter certain career building activities as part of his mentoring. He described psycho social It's the student and then the relationship and then how will we negotiate these competencies. And, you know, it's : h His psycho social support for the prot g life successfully navigate developmental milestones. Relationship is a key attribute of mentoring for Professor Jacob ; I have previously de scribed how he sees friendship as part of his mentoring. He also affirmed that his
130 I think that the [mentoring] relationship exists and it contextualizes everything. Like any relationship, these are multifaceted. Jacob sees that at times the mentoring relationship is more like First of all, I think that it's parental in terms of how I as a mentor set up space, set up routines and set up expectations. Those, of course, are negotiated but I am the heavy in those Jacob being seen as the nurturer and making opportunity structure available. . to create learning space for people's self It's all of the positive things about bonding socially in a productive way to make product. And we're very productive and t Negotiation is another facet to the mentoring relationship for Professor Jacob He further described his mentoring style: I'm her mentor. But I also have to be able to talk with her as two people who are negotiating a professional and impersonal kind of s pace together. . All this is honest communication about [how] you're learning new stuff. I want to know those things. You need to educate me. Let's negotiate, because I've got stuff and I can help you shape wh at you've brought to the table. Negotiation involves a give and take, similar to sharing, and Professor Jacob sees sharing implies a transaction and a reciprocal nature . . I think in real productive mentoring it needs to be He further explicated his vision of reciprocity:
131 I think everybody is selfish. I know I am selfish. I want it for me, me, me, me. I am a critical theorist and I am cynical, in intellectual ways not in daily ways, although that is probably tru e, too. I think that everything I do that appears selfless means that I get rewards back, or I would not do it. . I know that if I care about somebody, I get care back, and if I don't I am out of there. . I don't want to be presumed to care because I am a teacher. Screw that. When I care, it is effort and it is work and I want something for that work. Hmm, I better start a tally sheet [laughter]. I previously described how Professor Jacob when a protg helped him create a video for his class. In our second interview he described the arrival of some new protgs to his doctoral student research group, and commented: I am not sure what their gifts are yet. What are they bringing to the table that I'm going to learn? Because I do think that it needs to be reciprocal. I think that everybody does something to get something and my personal belief is that it's best when everybody wins. That we should al l have a take away. . The thing that I trust most wins Reciprocal learning and support are part of the negotiated mentoring relationship for Professor Jacob Collaboration with protgs is another featur e to the mentoring relationship that Professor Jacob believes is vital, as he related: W e do things together. We co present. We co write. We co research. . .That is, let's learn this stuff together. My students become experts. I lead them along. We
132 find an area together where they're interested and where their passion lies. Once we locate that and I set up some parameters about what research is, what methods are, what's credible sourcing, that kind of thing, then it becomes a matter of they outstrip my learning. That is, they become the leader and they teach me what they learn. . .W hen your student s [article] get Yeah, isn't it a bitch? We just have figure out how we're going to get over this, and get on with submitting it to somewhere else. It's terr Professor Jacob in his mentoring of doctoral students. Mentoring, for Professor Jacob is also holistically i ntegrated into his work day, as he explained, I spend a lot of time thinking about [mentoring] I see it as the major thing that I do here. It's really an undocumentable kind of an experience. I guess to feel sure about what I do, I do think about it a lot. . I integrate mentoring int o my daily routine. I think that's an accurate description because it happens every day. It happens all day, and it happen s sporadically through the day. It's just part of the work. It is the day. It is the day. I mean, that's how I see mys elf. Jacob sees mentoring as integrated into his daily professional life, as well as his professional self image. He also sees his mentoring as essential to his holistic image of his work and self, as when he stated, I don't know what I'd be if I didn't [mentor]. I can't imagine it. It's just so much of my reward structure for being here is Professor Jacob role without mentoring as part of the whole.
133 Professor Jacob also sees mentoring as dynamic r elationship that changes over time, as when he stated: But the huge part is the actual involvement in relationships that make change. We're changing each other. We're supporting each other, we're developing each others' in Part of what makes mentoring dynamic for Professor Jacob is that it is idiographic develops: I believe that there are competencies and that there are expectations, but all those are kind of like free floating signifiers and they become situated or instantiated on an individual case. So, absolutely true. I know that's true because it's even at the level of pe rformative aspects like confidence and independence. Jacob is concerned individuals. make s mentoring intentional for Professor Jacob who related: So yes, I' m putting myself in front of [the protg] to teach [the protg] something right now. So that is intentional. . We both agree to acquiesce to this kind of a pos ition. I'm going t o teach you, a nd the mentee says I'm going to learn. We sit in those postures for that moment, but then it just dissolves out and we are into the relationship again. I know that it is intentional, but my decision to set myself up as a teacher is automatic. Professor Jacob is aware when an opportunity for protg development arises and deliberately engages in mentoring in a way that feels organic to the relationship automatic, even effortless.
134 Professor Jacob His Teleology of Mentoring For Professor Jacob mentoring is also teleological it is purposeful. The purpose for mentoring is clear to Professor Jacob : I am very, very clear that my job and my first loyalty is to that student. . I want them to grow and develop and there's a goal at the end. W hen they leave here, I want them to be a functioning professor. They have to develop and they have to leave here ready to drop in to an assistant professor role. Professor Jacob purpose for mentoring is the development of the protg into a new professo r. He sees both professional and perso nal aspects to this, as he explained: interested in mentoring this total professor package thing. . to scaffold other peoples' acquisition of [knowledge]. And ultimately, you take away the scaffold and they ar e an He further explicated: I want this person to be me, my progeny in the field. . We have to replace ourselves. If I believe in my field and the importance of my field, then putting the next professors in place is what the job is about. If I don't, then somebody else's ideas and somebody else's policies and somebody else's ways of doing this stuff is going to be producing the next professor that will train the next teachers an d that will train the next professors. So yeah, it's inexorably part of the job. Professor Jacob sees mentoring as not only part of his job and a continuation of his discipline, but al so a promulgation of his particular approach to his discipline. Anothe r purpose that Professor Jacob sees in his mentoring is to assist his protgs with job placement:
135 I have upped to my responsibility in the profession, and I have increased my visibility and my productivity, in terms of papers, and in terms of conferences, and in terms of professional interactions. I have a very specific reason for doing it. It provides opportunity structure for my students, they have to be placed eventually. . My colleagues in the field need to be aware that we have a good factory her e, and that we are producing a good product, and that they would consider my students as potential colleagues eventually. So, my new visibility is about getting my students jobs. . What I figured out is that if I am not at a conference, then my name is not associated with my student, and I can't use that leverage to get them an interview. Once they are in, it is their job [to follow through] Professor Jacob clearly sees mentoring as providing opportunities for potential employment for his protgs. P rofessor Jacob His Negatives in Mentoring In our first interview Professor Jacob noted that a potential negative aspect to mentoring that might arise is the time investment needed for mentoring; however on that day he did not seem to be experiencing any particular difficulty with that, as he stated: Probably the only negative that I can be aware of is that it's very time intensive. The contact time is incredible and the access is broader. D. and J., the two students in that research group . can call me anytime call my cell phone. It's larger access than I am accustomed to. And that so far hasn't been negative. But I'm aware of the fact that it does take more time out of my life right now. And so far tha OK.
136 During the course of the secon d interview he was time pressured with the start up of a new semester and new course load and experienced the time investment for mentoring as somewhat negative: Today is a particularly bad day. My life is being consumed right now with work, and I love i t. I absolutely thrive on it, but it is causing a lot of anxiety. . And a large part of that is my mentoring commitments. And it's not just my students. I mean, we got a new faculty writing group that I participate in that I'm not delivering on. It's t oo much. It's consuming me right now. However, when I asked him if there were other times when mentoring was just part of his Usually, Professor Jacob experienced mentoring as fun and enjoyable, but occasionally there are times when his daily schedule gets overloaded. Nonetheless, he asserted the importance of mentoring and his commitment to it by aff irming: decide how you're going to use it. And if mentoring is something that is important to you, Another negative aspect to mentoring in general, according to Professor Jacob is bad mento rs I've become aware that some of our faculty actually don't mentor in the ways that I would support . . and are perhaps less able to make it happen for students. You really shouldn't work with doctoral students. You're a wonderful teacher. Stay with teaching. Don't do res And after lots of attempts of trying to include and you know bring them along on the journey, it's
137 not worki ng. And maybe some people... maybe we're different in what we are good at. Professor Jacob I fe el bad that some of my colleagues aren't good at this. I feel worse that there are major professors or students who are not being developed in a way that I support. he advised students to avoid working with professors tha t did not My ultimate responsibility is to my students. If I see them making choices that I think are unproductive for their intellectual development, they are going to hear about it, and so be Professor Jacob His Motivations to Mentor When I asked Professor Jacob what motivated him to mentor, he first talked about recognition b I get a lot of kudos for it. I think I'm revered for it. So, I think it's the reputation and the honor and the recognition. Those are very important to me. Professor Jacob enjoys the positive reinforcement he receives for mentoring. This appears know, we don' If the external rewards for mentoring are sparse, perhaps the motivations to mentor are more internal, as Professor Jacob continued: But then, there's also the internal states. It's gr atifying. I feel needed. I do it because I really like it. And, I don't know what I'd be if I didn't do it. It makes me special. It makes me needed. I feel proficient. It's all about me again.
138 As I previously discussed, Professor Jacob finds that one benefit to mentoring is that some of his needs get met. Professor Jacob explained how he enjoys helping protgs happiness, job satisfaction, pride and r ecognition Apparently, this is also a motivation for him to mentor. For example, mentoring makes him feel efficacious or proficient. Feeling Jacob Additionally, Professor Jacob mento rs because he enjoys it, and it gives him gratification or satisfaction. Mentoring also enhances his job satisfaction, as he explained: You know, I come to work every day. And I don't need to... I teach online, for God's sake. I like coming here again an d there were many years when I really didn't. Before this interview I knew I was changing in terms of mentoring. I knew that I was coming to work more but I hadn't connected those tw o events and it's pretty cool. Another motivation Professor Jacob related for mentoring relates to his own joy for learning and teaching You know, it's really something when you see somebody take off. I know it's that kin dergarten teacher kind of thing: w I just love to see the l ight bulb Well, it's no different. I mean, it's human interaction over a learning project. That's the biggest gig in the world. And, the payoff from that, at any level, is so intense that it keeps you coming back. Besides the joy of learning, Professor Jacob also finds the learning transaction, the
139 that for the world. Y ou know, I'm a sucker for that stuff, that recognition and the transactions that he receives from mentoring undoubtedly feed Furthermore, Professor Jacob professors. Contributing to his profession by producing t he next generation of professors is another motivation for him to mentor: Professor Jacob His Values as a Mentor Community, or relationship, is som ething that Professor Jacob values as part of terms that denote a type of community, in this case, a familial type of relationship. A large part of his recent enj oyment of his job and of mentoring he ascribed to his new approach to mentoring relationships: Up until about three years ago I kept my mentoring very site specific and very professional. I didn't have relationships with my students outside of the academic relationship. I think a lot of that had to do with my own fears and not being particularly good at relationships, that kind of stuff. his mentoring to include more friends hip, and that the payoff from that has been wonderful
140 Reciprocity is also something that Professor Jacob values as part of his mentoring This unconditional love that they have for their mentor. Well, you don't take that for granted. That's a gift and what does it mean and how do you use that is productive for both parties Reciprocity is similar to sharing (giving and receiving), at the heart of which is an exchange or a transaction. He also talked candidly about how he gets some of his needs met through mentoring, such as technology support from his protgs and friendship. He also values helping his students develop because he feels it is imperative to give back to the profession and sustain his discipline with future professors and teachers. Professor Jacob also values collegiality, and includes doctoral students in his worldview of who a colleague is: Mentors keep appointments, and it's really been hard lately. [laughs] That one is a tough one to admit. But mentors don't jerk their mentees around. You don't make an appointment and break it; you figur e a way to make the appointment . You know, there are manners about it. If you say you're going to do something, you do it. You turn a paper around in a timely way. You don't lose stuff, that housekeeping sort of thing. Professor Jacob sees that c ollegiality can also be relational and transactional, as he described one of his mentorships: She was a colle ge swimmer. And she was also the one that insisted I meet her kids, because they were such a wonderful part of her life. Yeah. It's good stuff.
141 my swim stroke -I help her w rite, she helps me get my triathlon training down. Professor Jacob Summary To summarize: Professor Jacob sees mentoring as an important relationship in his professional and personal life, with collegial and familial aspects that build a sense of community for him; this relationship includes several types of reciprocal transactions or collaborations that are negotiated and produce mutual benefits. He sees career and psycho social support as a foundational part of his mentoring gestalt. When he men tors, it to an individual and their needs), and dynamic (changing and growing). His mentoring is holistically integrated into his personal and professional life and activities, and is an essential part of his personal and professional self concept that is, a fundamental teleological (has a purpose): to facilitate the growth potential of the protg to be the best they can be, to assist in developing a good professor, and to ultimately help the protg secure employment. Professor Jacob sees himself as a teacher and a helper and finds teaching, learning and helping people to be enjoyabl e. He is motivated to mentor by his enjoyment of mentoring and by his desire to contribute back to his field by perpetuating his discipline and producing new professors. Part of his motivation to mentor includes meeting some of his own needs, such as recog nition and gratification, and his enjoyment of various transactions or sharing (giving and receiving) with protgs. He also mentors because it is
142 a large part of what makes his job enjoyable, and it provides him recognition and gratification. As a mentor, he values: relationship / community, collegiality, helping, reciprocity (transactions), and giving back to his profession Figure 4 summarizes these aspects of Professor Jacob self. Figure 4. Professor Jacob: His Mentor Self Professor Jacob rarely encounters negative experiences in his mentoring. Occasionally mentoring can become too time consuming which can produce some stress and anxiety for Professor Jacob He also finds it negative experiences mentoring as a greatly positive and enjoyable experience that is not difficult Helper Teacher Relationship Collegiality Helping Reciprocity / Transation Giving back to Profession Helping Gratification Recognition Transactions Meets His Needs Enjoyment Give back Loves Job Self Concept Motivations His Values as a Mentor
143 to accomplish. He enjoys interacting with protgs and doctoral students. He feels that he garners several benef its from mentoring, such as: learning, a sense of efficacy, recognition as a mentor by his peers and an overall positive affect (good feeling). Mentoring also meets some of his needs, and therefore he receives benefits from various transactions (sharing gi ving and receiving) that are part of the mentoring relationship, such as collaboration and friendship. Professor Jacob recognizes that his proficiency at mentoring has increased his job satisfaction and overall happiness. Epilogue to Professor Jacob From M y Reflective Journal, Novemb er 21, 200 9. After reading about bracketing in several phenomenological sources and finding only vague generalities about it, I felt like I ha d no specific idea about what it was or how to do it. However, all of the very brief descriptions said to read through the transcripts and then journal about your feelings and thoughts, so that is how I am proceeding. Bracketing: What Do I T hink and H ow Do I Feel A bout Professor Jacob ? I can now see how this bracketing process is beneficial. I have just listened to both interview audio files (while verifying the transcriptions) and reread my reflective journal entries that I wrote after my two interviews with Professor Jacob My impres sions of Professor Jacob during and right after those interviews were very warm and fuzzy. As I listened to our conversations, I could recall my experience of them how I felt drawn into the conversation by his authenticity and warmth. During the second int erview in particular, he started revealing some personal philosophies that, at the time, seemed somewhat callous to me. They seemed incongruous to how I was experiencing him in our two interviews. At one point during the interview, I actually said to him,
144 self depiction. Now, however, as I reflect on my re living of the interviews via listening to them, I can see that I was experiencing some transference during the interviews, and actually defending something about him that appeared a little negative to me at the time. Now I hear his self the table that seems a little too coarse to How does it fit into his presented persona as a whole? What does it mean in the context of Professor Jacob the Mentor? And, are there any connections to the mentoring process of bracketing that I am able to view the interview transactions from a more analytical perspective and uncover patterns of communications and interactions, enabling me to reflect critically on them, rather than be immersed in the human moment of th em. Let the analysis begin! The Third Case: Professor Hanna Contextual Prologue to Professor Hanna Contextual From M y Reflective Journal, December 5 2009. I have just finished listening to and verifying both interview s with Professor Hanna She also projects a warm and caring persona, just as the first two faculty mentors. She also enjoyed our conversation (as did the first two mentors), and thanked me during both interviews for the opportunity to reflect on her mentoring and discuss it. She described herself as a faculty person who was typically present in the department and available to students, and as the one who provid ed for students who had an unhappy meeting with the department head:
145 [the depart ment head] suggested [to the students] on, go over next door see Dr Hanna In reviewing Professor Jacob social support, he does not Hanna t alked about offering support to students crying in her office. Some possible questions arise from this that might merit investigation: Does the primarily female student population prefer to cry less/express emotionality less with male professors than femal e professors? Do male mentors report dealing with emotional students less than female mentors do? If so, what factors influence that? Does Professor Hanna facilitate this typ e of emotional sharing for students? Would some sort of basic training in a counseling technique (such as Rogerian counseling) help faculty who do not mentor, or who feel uncomfortable with mentoring, to have more confidence and inclination to mentor? Bra cketing: What Do I T hink and How Do I Feel A bout Professor Hanna Contextual? I think Professor Hanna is a skilled and dedicated mentor. I think she would be very empathic with all types of students, and would be especially good at providing psycho social support for any student who had to juggle family issues (either children or aging parents) with professional academic issues, especially women, since she herself successfu lly navigated that path as a professor. I feel grateful that she shared over two hours of her busy day with me and I appreciate the mentoring knowledge she shared with me. I personally gained insight into what it is like to be a mentor, and I find that in sight to
146 be very valuable, even if there are one or two little details of her mentoring style that I Conclusion: g any transference mentoring on how to be a mentor; when I use Professor Hanna remember her fondly. Let the analysis begin! Professor Hanna Conte xtual Introduction Professor Hanna is a Caucasian female, in her early a woman, with blond hair coiffed in a simple, semi short style. For both of our interviews, she arrived in comfortable attire that included an over b louse with a logo from the university where she earned her doctoral degree, and sat comfortably in the chair behind her desk. During the interviews she seemed interested in our discussion, and frequently paused to reflect before responding to my questions She smiled often, and had a witty sense of humor which instigated occasional laughter into our conversations. Her erview her cell phone rang; she quickly apologized and explained that she had elderly parents who might have an issue and that she needed to see if they were calling. I immediately replied that it was not a problem my mother is elderly, too, and I answer all of her calls as well. If it was a family member calling, she would handle the issue with expediency, and then apologize for the interruption and return her full attention to my questions, answering in her soft spoken and thoughtful style. [From my refl ective journal: June 10, 2009 and September 9, 2009]
147 Professor Hanna Her Self as Mentor When I asked Professor Hanna A Professor Hanna sees her self as mentor as providing support and scaffolding (a helper) to doctoral students, as she proceeded to explain: I think that once we have students who have jumped through all the necessary hoops to get into the program that part of our job as the professor is to do the appropriate support and scaffolding. And as with any scaffolding, the tricky part is knowing how much to provide and when to pull back. the point of having to think about both the qualifying exam and dissertat ion and graduate assistantships, and that prior to that point mentoring is more intermittent, mostly whenever the student drops in for help. She stated: committee then I'm their mentor. If I'm their major professor to me that is / slash / Scaffolding and support is a theme that Professor Hanna mentioned several times in our conversations. She related to me how the ideas of Mari Clay, a prominent reading recover y researcher, guide her mentoring style: [Mari Clay] said, first of all, when a student is having a problem always look to yourself first. What have I done? What haven't I done? What can I do? And then the second thing is don't ever do for a student what they can do for themselves. Those are my two biggies.
148 students: So one: if a student is not doing well at the doctoral level, if there's a problem, is it something that I cou ld have helped them with before or should help them with now? And [second] am I becoming. . .enabling? Is this somebody who should be being more independent and I'm really doing things for t hem that I should not be doing? Professor Hanna sees her mentoring self as providing help to the doctoral student through Professor Hanna Her Experience of Mentoring Mentoring for Prof essor Hanna is a generally pleasant and enjoyable experience, as she described: Ninety percent of the time I love [mentoring] i s like being a mom. It's feeling good about the fact that you have given advice that is well received. Most doctoral students are so anxious for advice just plain old advice. Professor Hanna and she feels that students appreciate her help. She continued to explain: I've been here at Transition U. for 32 year is one of the things that I will very, very, very much miss. Professor Hanna obviously enjoys doctoral students, and enjoys working with them, as she further described:
149 I do like [doctoral students ] Yeah, it was fun role while I was in i t, and it is fun to see them... to see the excitement. It really is like a second childhood of sorts, if things are going well. . the thrill of discovery. . a nd I love workin g with doctoral students. Part of what she enjoys is providing support and scaffolding, as she stated reason that I enjoy mentoring is because it makes me feel like I've been helpful and that I've fixed thing She concluded with [mentoring] is the part of the professional life Professor Hanna experiences mentoring as largely pleasant and enjoyable, will pre Professor Hanna Benefits from Mentoring When I asked Professor Hanna what benefits she felt she gleaned from mentoring, she described several types of learning. The first learning she discussed was learning about mentoring, as when she described: [I] step back and evaluate whether I got where I thought I was going to go. And that is always a learning experience. And did my words convey what I thought they were conveying. And I would judge that by whether the actions of the mentee went in the direction that was beneficial for them. Professor Hanna self evaluates her mentoring style and strategies, and concludes by their outcomes whether or not her mentoring was effective for that person. Another type of learning Professor Hanna related involved a doctoral student who wanted to do her dissertation on a topic that, not only did Professor Hanna have little interest in, but it was also a topic that Professor Hanna in that
150 initially it seemed to differ from the current conventional knowledge in the field of reading, as she related: And it's perfectly fine to differ in that, that wasn't the issue. But how was I going to mentor her? Should I be saying to her [laughing] You're not go ing to get anything out of that ? How could I de al with that situation? My greatest growth occurred from trying to find ways to support her and let her do the study she wanted to do and to find ways to still help her, even though it was an a rea that I would have put about 77th on my list of interest areas. Professor Hanna decided to take a risk and allow the student to pursue her idea. The results were excellent, as Professor Hanna described: Her dissertation made a huge impact on the field and taught me that well, one, that I had been right to let her [do that topic ]. But also to not think I knew so much. Because, look, it turned out way better than I ever would have hoped. So it was a really big learning experience for me. . what it ta ught me was that [laughs] I guess I don't know as much as I think, and certainly, we 're all growing and learning, so b e open. . So it was big. Professor Hanna felt that she gained both professional learning as a professor of reading as well as personal growth as a teacher by being open to new learning and growing. She mentioned another example of her professional learning from her students: Chapter T wo is always my favorite. If I don't learn something from a student's review of literature, they haven' t done a good job. And if that sounded [laughs] like putting it back on them, it is. . .it's going to teach me something. Professor Hanna finds both professional and personal learning to be one benefit she
151 receives from mentoring. She also considers reciprocal sharing and learning to be a benefit from mentoring, as she related: I think in terms of being a mentor, I've been a mentor in many other situations before I got to be a major professor for doctoral students. But I don't think that any of them were as rewarding as the doctoral student mentoring situation. And I even can tell you why, as I'm thinking about it now. Because it doesn't just provide for personal growth both ways, but intellectual growth b ecause of what they're teaching me when they g et to . .their dissertation phase. She further emphasized her reciprocal view of mentoring with : I would make sure that [mentees ] know that I feel anyway, that it really is mutual in terms of, yes, I've learned from my mentees. Did I learn from every single one of them? Probably. Could I tell you what I learned from each one? No. But be open to the process there's growth for you too. Another benefit Professor Hanna receives from mentoring is recognition f rom peers and students for her mentoring, as sh e described when: A doctoral student comes to me and says, "Do you have a couple of minutes, because so and so said you would be a good person to bounce this off of?" And that makes me feel like I was successful with the previous person, or this person wou ldn't be here. Since everyone knows, I haven't been taking on new doctoral students for two years, and yet that's still happening, so that makes me feel like I've done a good job. sor Hanna a feeling of efficacy that she has been effective and successful as a mentor to previous
152 students. And, undoubtedly, personal and professional learning and growth, recognition by peers and students, and a feeling of efficacy are positive affectiv e states for Professor Hanna thereby contributing from mentoring. Professor Hanna What Mentoring Means for Her As I have discussed, Professor Hanna sees her role as a mentor as providing support and scaffolding to students that includes both career and psychosocial support, as she further explicated: I think a mentor is someone who provides support an d within . the realm of support you could cer tainly do a continuum. In the best of all possible worlds the support is like a scaffold, whether it is personal, professional, goal setting, whatever, and as this student progresses in our program you are able to move away more and more and more and more [scaffold] As I gleaned from her curriculum vita, Professor Hanna has engaged in numerous mentoring activities to provide her protgs with career support, such as: hiring them to work on numerous very large research grants she was awarded, co presenting at conferences, and co authoring articles, books, and technical reports. Additionally, she described other activities she provides for her protgs, in conjunction with a colleague in her department, such as mock interviews for the students : With my collea gue J. K., we were just the best ever at doing mock interviews. When students had reached the stage where they were in fact applying for positions, or, if they were at least in the dissertation process, they would be invited to attend, they didn't have to I think every single student that we di d that with got their positions: The University of Wisconsin, Fresno State, and I think it
153 was NYU. . It helped students a great deal. They all told us that when they went. We have a student who went to Clemson and she said the interview there was almost exactly what we had asked. She felt so confident going in because of that. Another professional development activity that Professor Hanna engaged in with her colleague, J.K., was designed to help the student p repare for proposal and dissertation defenses. She described their strategy as thus: Also, J.K. and I have co chaired with several students. We play good cop/bad cop very, very well to the student's benefit. It's very comfortable when mommy and daddy agree. When it appears that mommy and daddy don't agree, then the student has to come up wit They don't want to upset mommy, and they don't want to upset daddy. We make sure that we start this off with both of us in the ro om. We don't tell them until later that it was staged. The former example of career support is rarely mentioned in the mentoring literature. The latter example is not one that I have ever encountered before in either the mentoring literature, or anecdotall y. From the perspective of a doctoral student, I appreciate the creativity of these career support approaches. Psycho social support is also a mainstay of Professor Hanna when [students] say it's too much. . I c an't handle all this, my response always is, if that's how you're feeling, you're absolutely right, let's talk about One aspect to this emotional support is the propinquity Professor Hanna maintained in the depart ment, as she described:
154 For the most part I was a faculty member who was here, I wanted to be here. Some of [the students who nominated me] I was just on the committee, I wasn't their major professor and some not even on the committee. But I tried to a lways be here to give advice, for them to cry. It's not always a happy experience in terms of w hat students are going through. She explained that when she was Advanced Graduate Department Coordinator in being the person with the tissues. As they walked out of [the department head's] off ice, the students were coming to my office to sit She further described her My style is also, I think my students would say less structured and more laid back even if there is a real problem. I kind of have students stop and take three Mentoring, for Professor Hanna is also about relationships, as she stated: mentoring relationship takes on familial tones, as when she stated that being a mentor Professor Hanna sees negotiating as an integr al part of her mentoring rel ationships, as she explained in the following example where a doctoral student comes to her with a problem with her major professor: This was when I was still the advanced graduate coordinator so that sticking my nose in was not an unreasonable thing to do And so, in terms of the mentoring
155 role, I didn't want to take over anything. I wanted to give the doc student the opportunity to tell me her perception of the problem so that I could mentor her into ways of resolving it. Because I don't care if you are i n my position, in your position, and all the positions in between: negotiation and compromise are part of your work life. In this case the student felt that the major professor was taking on too strong of a role in determining some things within the disser tation process. And I wasn't saying that she was or she wasn't, because that's very personal thing, too. What I was saying is here's how you go about dealing with this. I kind of called it in my mind, contextual negotiating. I definitely want to do the negotiating in their context of whatever it is, life and prof ession Professor Hanna sees contextual negotiating as a fundamental aspect to her mentoring, and when the context becomes dynamic and changes, she goes back to the d And when things happen, Even without any intervening event, Professor Hanna As I get to know them, I thin k the mentoring changes a research university. Professor Hanna process: Because we are one of the few departments that have an educational specialist program, there were some students that I probably would have provided lots of support and gotten them through the doctoral d issertation process, but it would
156 have taken much longer. Instead, I would now funn el [them] into the EDS program. Part of what makes mentoring dynamic for Professor Hanna is that she fully expects the student to grow and change throughout the doctoral pro gram, are she related: One of the things that would almost always come up in the intake interview of new doctoral students was here's this person that has not had day one of a course towards their doctoral program. They say, "For my dissertation I want to do bah bah bah bah." I pretty much always say, "You might end up doing that. Most people as they go through the process and learn more, they take on new interests. So while I would encourage you to look further into that as you take your courses, you sh only had one student who did their dissertation topic on the topic that they thought they would do it on when they walked through the door to start off. She concluded this example wi during at least the two years of coursework and so what they maybe want to do, they need Professor Hanna also sees mentoring as idiographic, needs, in What a student needs to be a successful professional that really does vary by the ind ividual . . She further clarified her meaning: B ecau se some people. . start off so self contained and so strong in what they are doing. They need a very minimum amount of mentoring. For o thers it's a stronger
157 amount. And that's the individual part. But certainly mentoring is support and the support is giv en along a continuum with need. . So that as they go to their new position, wherever it is, I feel comfortable that I have provided the support in the amount that they needed. Professor Hanna shared the story of a protg who lived two hours from the m ain campus, and who was to begin residency and graduate assistant teaching. Professor Hanna described the contextual negotiation she engaged in with the student to attempt to meet her individual needs, and yet provide some of the benefits of contact with t he main campus: So we talked a lot. We talked probably more than in many other situations because neither one of us wanted to cheat her of an experience that was going to help her as a professional, while still making sure that the decisions we were making were also productive for her personal life. And that's very tough. And so sometimes my role was, ell, what do I think is best for you? Flat out, what's the best thing for you to do? Forget I know anything about your personal life; what's the best for you as a professional, as my student? And then what else we could put in there to make it the best possible experience for her, w hile making dents into her [home] life, but not hurting it irrevocably. Through this process of contextual negotiation, both t he protg and Professor Hanna were pleased with the solution they devised: So this was not an easy decision and we worked on it for months. And what we worked out was that she would teach there, but she would do research with me as part of her assistantsh ip, so that she would be coming up here once a week during
158 that time and working with me, attending a seminar that we had with other doctoral students, also graduate assistants. . And so it was a unique so lution for [the protg] that we bo th felt . really facilitated her being able to finish in a more reasonable timeframe for her, and for both of us to feel good about the experience. As you can see from her previous examples where she negotiated solutions to or guided the new doctoral student to be open to new ideas for the dissertation, there are many times when mentoring, for Professor Hanna w as also deliberate, or intentional. She explicated : I'm going to say that at least 50 percent of the time [mentoring is] intentional. Mentoring is also done on the run at the point of need. As so many things are. At the point of need, running in the hall, a phone call, an email, quickly there's a problem and how to solve it without being the solver of the problem, but of mentoring the person to solve the problem. . But if I'm looking over a dissertation or thinking about the personalities on someone's committee and how I can mentor the doctoral student to broaden their scope to include all of the wonderful depth and breadth that is on their committee, that would be intentional. For Professor Hanna another aspect to intentional mentoring is recognition that not every doctoral student intends to become a professor, as she stated: It's one of the issues that has been di scussed in this department many, many, many, many times that we don't want to have our efforts at trying to bring in more national candidates, we don't want that to be at the expense of the people we get locally who in fact are going to stay here. . .A l ot of them stay either in the
159 classroom or in the district. And as we say, there's really not any thing wrong with that for them. Professor Hanna mentoring approach to their individual goals. Mentoring, for Professor Hanna also includes collaboration with the protgs, as she described: We do research together, we present at m eetings. Especially when I have my grants and my foundations so I can pay their way. We write together. I always make sure, and this was taught to me by my major professor, that the doc student's name goes first [on the publication]. Professor Hanna appare ntly enjoys collaborating with doctoral students, as she further explained: When I was first going up for tenure, the rules at the time you had to have a certain percentage of your publications had to be single authored. . And then, with collaboration, a certain number of times that you were first author. So I really hated that. I'm social. It was much more fun when I was collaborating. So if you look at my vita now, you will see all most everyth ing is done with somebody else. As I mentioned previously Professor Hanna doctoral students on numerous research grants, co presentations at conferences, and co authored articles, books, and technical reports. Professor Hanna also views mentoring as holistic, first, by ad dressing the whole student in his or her context:
160 And I think also like a mom when [mentoring is] working, there is a certain amount of involvement with the whole person. And, obviously, I don't shy away from that. The doctoral experience in our departme nt and, certainly my own doctoral experience, it doesn't take place in a vacuum. So you can't totally isol ate it from your personal life. She continued with an example: Also, sometimes for better or worse, the student's personal life is involved. I had a doctoral student whose husband was going through the school psych program at the same time that she was going through here. There were times when she was surpassing him in a variety of ways. That was causing problems for her that caused problems for her pr ofessional path, and so w e would talk about that. Professor Hanna mentoring as appropriate : ry high divorce rate during dissertations especially, for doctoral students. And I do keep that in mind to make sure that if that's a For Professor Hanna mentoring is also holistic, in the sense that it usually seems So, it is integrated into I guess you've made me realize that it's been a bigger part of my pro fessional life than I think I would Professor Hanna views mentoring as part of her professional gestalt, as she explained:
161 The opportunity to talk about this with you, both this time and last time, has allowed me to realize how much of my professional life it is, and how much I truly enjoy it. It's probably the best part. . m ost of the time, it's the part of the professional life tha I would never have thought that it happens daily. But pretty much, yeah, it happens almost every day when I am here, and sometimes I get c alls at home. So, yeah, it's, I couldn't separate it o ut now. Mentoring is an essential part of Professor Hanna t my experience as a professional would not have been anywhere near as rewarding without it Professor Hanna Her Negatives in Mentoring Professor Hanna However, there were a few situations she encountered that were negative, such as when students fail and have to leave the program. She stated: The thing I found the most difficult was when a stu dent had not done well. If the student was failing their qualifying exam, that was probably the worst . .In my 32 years here I have had two students who took the qualifying exams twice and failed twice, which means you're gone. And, talking to them aft erwards was probably one of the most difficult experiences. When students have a problem variety of r easons, that's the worst of it.
162 Another negative mentoring experience Pro fessor Hanna had was when a student plagiarized, as she related: The only other negative experiences are that there are some students who just don't do the work. It's very rare. There was a doctoral student, who was not mine, but I was the advance graduate coordinator. She was in a class of mine, she plagiarized big time, big time. I had just recently read the article that she was not at all citing . . Not only was it not cited, she lifted two pages solid. I wanted her out of the program. Her major profe ssor wanted her to stay in the program. It was a very negative experience. I'm not usually on that side of not being supportive. There were a lot of meetings. . It took a lot of time and I resented it. There were so many ramifications of that, that were angst producing. . That was my worst. That and the two students who couldn't continue in the program because they failed their qualifying exam twice. I asked Professor Hanna if she ever perceived her time investment into mentoring to be a burden. She replied: It is rarely a burden. But I would say 10 to 15% of the students, over the years, there are students who are problematic. Most of them don't finish. And meeting with them, being the bearer of bad news...[when students fail the qualifying exam twic e] i t's a burden to tell them, and you don't look forward to that. Students, who, because of times and problems in their life, you know, aren't going to make it, and they want to come see you because they t hink you can make magic happen: a burden.
163 Professor Hanna rarely finds her time investment into mentoring to be a burden. Rather, must leav e the program. Professor Hanna Her Teleology of Mentoring Mentoring, for Professor Hanna is teleological it has a purpose. Sometimes, the purpose for her mentoring is very general like providing support : There is always a purpose to my mentoring eve n i I'm experienced. This is a doctoral student who is inexperienced in a realm that I am aware of, and so I am going to offer assistance that will take the f orm of To me, if I tell you what to do, that is not necessari ly mentoring. It is giving you direction. I guess some people might consider that mentoring. If I talk to you about what you're thinking about and what the possibilities are, to me that is mentoring. However, for Professor Hanna part of the purpose of mentoring is determined by the individual goals of the protg: I definitely do not pre Oh, I want them to be the es into the program at a different level When the student graduates and leaves, they are very well prepared. In fact they can become solid professionals who then can mentor, whether it's in a district office, in their classroom, or the university. Professor Hanna
164 (working at the school district level, versus staying in the classroom, versus becoming a professor) helps to determine the specific purpose of her mentoring. Professor Hanna Her Motivations to Mentor When I queried Professor Hanna on what motivated her to mentor, her reply was quite illuminating: You get so much back from it when you have the little baby bird fly, fly. Especially when they just even outshine me, when they just really do such great work and you're so proud and you know that it's them. I mean, come on, mentoring i s nice but it's the person they are that allows them to be suc cessful. But it . makes me feel good to know that I was part of that. And students make their first national presentation and they were afraid to have put into AERA and IRA and we'll work together but then I want them to do most of the presentation. Or feeling. And we always do a recap afterwards and go through what might you have done differently and what did you think really worked . and that's as they move from be ing the protg to being a peer, that's what it's about. Professor Hanna a reciprocal transaction, a giving and receiving, and this is part of what moti For Professor Hanna progression f
165 Grat ification, according to Merriam mentoring, Professor Hanna sta ted: There is the satisfaction of producing, of being part of because no one does it by themselves part of the birthing process, of phenomenal professors who leave here and go all around the United S tates . and I was part of that. The gratification of Hanna to mentor. I inquired about anything else that might motivate Professor Hanna to mentor. She responded with: I suppos e there's some of that to help the profession but I think I'm good and I 'm going to retire and I want oh, if I say part of me lives on that's really hokey, but because I've been successful at my profession, I've been successful training teachers, I've been successful publishing, I've been successful doing researc h, I've been successful pro viding service, I enjoy mentoring others to at least take some of that pattern, make the changes they need to make but to have some of that pattern. So, I guess I do it because it's part of what makes me happy with my profession that I am giving back and passing on, passing on in a good way. Professor Hanna is also motivated by her enjoyment of mentoring, and by a desire to pass on some of her well garnered knowledge to the next generation of professors and reading teachers so that her knowledge may live on and that they may use it and build upon it. Mentoring also creates happin ess for Professor Hanna
166 I wondered what Professor Hanna her to expound on her comment. She respo nded with: When I used to teach undergraduates, which I haven't for a while but which I did for a good twenty something years, it really was about making them realize the importance of what they were entrusted with, just teaching reading to kids. I think t hat since most of my doctoral students are going to go the university route, or maybe the school district route where they can have a whole lot of influence too, I think that the kids will benefit when my students have at their heart helping the profession to help kids read at all levels. I commented to Professor Hanna that she seemed very passionate about literacy and Part of what motivates Professor Hanna to mentor is h er passion for helping people become literate, and she recognizes that does not only mean mentoring doctoral students to become professors, as she explained: [P the profession. S. N., who is on that list [of students who nominated me as a mentor], she is in one of the surrounding counties and she is a curriculum/reading person at the district level. She has made some phenomenal decisions that have really made a difference for both t eachers, reading coaches and kids that you don't get to make when you are a professor. She always wanted to stay at the district level. That was always her goal. So it is not about being at the universit y, it is about wanting to help . . with literacy and reading.
167 The desire to help new professors advance the field of literacy, and to help teachers help students with their literacy and reading is also a motivation for Professor Hanna to mentor. Additionally, Professor Hanna best job in the world. . .The reason it's the best job in the world is because you have the opportunity to reinvent yourself every year . And, I love working with doctoral Professor Hanna Her Values as a Mentor As I have previously illustrated via her comments, Professor Hanna finds one benefit of mentoring to be learning erature in it's going to teach me something John Dewey (1859 1952), who stated, Since growth is t he characteristic of life, quotes from Professor Hanna in which it is evident that, for her, learning is synonymous with growth; to reiterate, here is another such qu ote from Professor Hanna : I've learned from my mentees. Did I learn from every single one of them? Probably. Could I tell you what I learned from each one? No. But be open to the process there's growth for you One value that is part of Professor Ha nna of growth I have already stated one of her stories regarding mentoring new doctoral students who think they know their dissertation topic already on the first day of their doctoral studies. Here is Professor Hanna ve statement regarding these new doctoral students:
168 Students who haven't taken their fi I know what I'm going to do my dissertation on. Getting them to understand that we actually think they're going to learn and grow during at least the two years of coursework and so what they maybe want to do, they need to leave it open because we are hoping that something else is going to come in there. Professor Hanna also offered two accounts of doctoral students who wanted (initially) to do their dissertation in an area in which they already had several publications and national presentations. For the sake of brevity, I include the more detailed episode here: I had a student who . . knew so much about an area of great interest to me . and she had all this early intervention knowledge because sh e had been through all of [ Mari dissertation topics, all of them had to do with stuff that not only she already knew but that she had a better grasp of than I did. I told her that what I thought she should do in order to have growth is pick something that she needed to learn about instead of something that was within her comfort zone. I did not have to go further, but I was prepared to tell her she needed to get another major professor if she wanted to take the safe road and not have growth. I considered growth because if a dissertation doesn't open you up, ther e is something wrong with the whole process. But she got it right away and actually ended up taking what she knew about early intervention and doing a full year study at a middle school with struggling readers to see what she could apply and what she could n't. She came up with a program. Really, she did a great job. It was a wonderful dissertation. Even she said that this was definitely the right thing t base and go
169 Professor Hanna required that anoth er student engage in the same growth process: choose learning. Growth is evidently a value for Professor Hanna Community, or relationship, is also something that Professo r Hanna values as part of her mentoring gestalt. She used familial relationship/community terms to describe her Hanna also stated: [ Mentoring is] very much like being a mom. The outcome that you want is happy, healthy, self sufficient, productive children. The same thing would be true for when your doctoral student graduates and goes on with the rest of their career. For Professor Hann a her relationships with colleagues and students is a vital part of her professional and mentoring identity, as she stated: about your colleagues and it's about your doctoral students. And it's about your students, b ut especially doctoral students Reciprocity or sharing (giving and receiving) is also something that Professor Hanna values as part of her mentoring gestalt. She believes that the learning in the I would make sure that [mentees] know that I feel anyway, t hat it Reciprocal sharing is something Professor Hanna enjoys, as she explained: directions. . . I teach with stories. And For Professor Hanna helping (supporting and scaffolding) is also a core value in her mentoring gestalt. She enjoys helping protgs some of the reason that
170 I enjoy mentoring is because it makes me feel like I've been helpful and that I've fixed In order to help students, Professor Hanna realized that she needed to be present at the campus and accessible to students, as she explained faculty member who was here, I wanted to be here. . I tried to always be here to give advice, for them to cry. Professor Hanna also values giving back to her profession by helping to sustain the field of literacy and reading, both by creating new professors and supporting school district literacy pe It is not about being at the university it is about wanting to help. . with literacy and read Regarding collegiality, the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) describes collegiality as ( AAUP, 1999, 3). The AAUP further a quality whose value is expressed in the successful execution of these three functions [ teaching, scholarship, and service ] American Association of University Professors 1999, 4) Professor Hanna also values Collegiality and includes constructive collaboration in her mentoring of doctoral students we present at meetings. . .w e write Professor Hanna Summary To summarize: Professor Hanna sees mentoring as a relationship in her professional life, with collegial and familial aspects that extend to doctoral students; this relationship includes reciprocal sharing or collaborations that are contextually negotiated and produce mutual benefits. She sees career and psycho social support and scaffolding as a basic part of her mentoring gestalt. When she mentors, it is intentional (deliberate) at least 50% percent of the time. She sees her mentoring as idiographic (parti cular to an
171 needs). Her mentoring is holistically integrated into her professional life and activities, and is an essential part of her professional self concept that is, a fundamental element purpose): to help, support and scaffold the growth of the protg into a new professor, literacy leaders. Professor Hanna sees herself as a helper and finds su pporting and scaffolding (helping) the development of students to be enjoyable. She is motivated to mentor by her enjoyment of mentoring and by her de sire to contribute back to the field of literacy by producing new professors and school district literacy professionals, and by her desire to pass along some of her best accumulated wisdom to literacy professionals who can use and expand upon it. Part of h er motivation to mentor includes enjoyment of sharing (giving and receiving) with protgs and the fact that she finds mentoring gratifying (satisfying and pleasurable). She also mentors because it is an integral part of what makes her job enjoyable, and s values: growth, relationship / community, collegiality, helping, reciprocity (sharing), and giving back to her profession Figure 5 summarizes these aspects of Professor Hanna mentoring self Professor Hanna seldom encounters negative experiences in her mentoring. Only too time mentoring experiences include when students are in too deep of a dilemma and she is
172 Figure 5. Professor Hanna: Her Mentor Self unable to help them extricate themselves; when students fail out of the program and she has to deliver the bad news; when students have unreasonable expectations that she can tudents plagiarize. By and large, (90% of the time) she experiences mentoring as a greatly pleasant, enjoyable and rewarding experience. She enjoys interacting with protgs and doctoral students. She feels that she receives several benefits from mentoring such as: learning, reciprocal sharing and learning, a sense of efficacy, recognition as a mentor by peers and students, gratification and an overall positive affect (good feeling). Professor Hanna recognizes that mentoring is an essential part of her ove rall job satisfaction. Helper (support / scaffold) Relationship Collegiality Helping Sharing Giving back to Profession Growth Sharing Gratification Pass on Knowledge Enjoyment Give back to Profession Loves Job Self Concept Motivations Her Values as a Mentor
173 Epilogue to Professor Hanna From M y Reflective Journal, December 23 2009. It is interesting that Professor Hanna actually cited a theorist as a direct influence on her mentoring style (Mari Clay). She gave very clear examples of how she applied Enjoyable also cited a theorist (C arl Rogers) who provided her with skills for psycho social mentoring. Professor Jacob mentioned a mentoring researcher (Donna Alvermann) whose research influenced him to alter his mentoring style. I was not expecting this but expected that when I asked people how they learned to mentor that they would talk about a specific person or persons in their life that modeled some mentoring for them. But some of the mentors I interviewed said they did not have a itial response (after admitting that she did not have a mentor) not to mentor from her major professor by noticing support she needed but that he did not provide for her. I think this attests to the complexity of mentoring: generally it is not something that is simple and quickly learned. Since there are different facets to mentoring (scholarly expertise in a discipline, career support, psycho social support, networking) a pe rson might find mentoring modeled in various personifications. The Fourth Case: Professor Reeba Intentional Prologue to Professor Reeba Intentional F ro m M y Reflective Journal, June 1 2009. I arrived at the departmental office early (as usual) for my first interv iew with Professor Reeba The administrative assistant at the reception desk informed me that Professor Reeba would be with me in a moment. I did my usual pacing back and forth in the main office, reading everything on the walls, until Professo r Reeba emerged from the
174 department offices, greeted me and guided me back to her office in the faculty office suite. Since it was the middle of the summer term, we did not encounter anyone else in the faculty suite. I left the door ajar (since there would seem to be no ambient noise in the hallway) and began to set up the recorder and microphones for the interview as Professor Reeba pleasantly chatted with me. Her office is consistent with t he offices of the other faculty mentors I interviewed so far: a s omewhat small room with window s across the top of the outside wall providing ambient light; green metal book shelves over the desk crammed with books; the usual moderate am ount of clutter across the desk top and filing cabinets. However, on the one wall tha s drawings taped to the wall in fact they lined the whole wall beginning at approximately two and a half feet from the floor and extending up the wall to nearly six feet. I asked her if these oeuvres were done by her children; her answer was partly what I expected and partly a surprise. She replied that some of them were done by her children but that some and that when she would come to her office on Saturdays to work she would often have her children bring friends because it would help to keep her children more contentedly occupied while she did some office work. I thought that was a s mart idea, and a bit courageous bringing along more Bracketing: What Do I T hink and How Do I Feel A bout Professor Reeba Intentional? F ro m M y Reflective Journal, December 31 2009. Now that I have just listened to both interviews with Professor Reeba and reread my reflective journaling after her interviews, I prepare myself for analysis by asking
175 myself these bracketing questions. Professor Reeba is closer to me in age than the first three mentors. I wonder if this does not make me identify more with her than the other mentors. My answer to that is: not really. She is married, has children, and already has several years of experience as a professor; these dissimilarities to my situati on lead me to not thoroughly identify her as a peer. I admire her for engaging in so many life roles at once (professor, wife, mother, mentor). I think she is a dedicated and engaged mentor. I agree with most of her opinions on mentoring, but not every one of them. Conclusion: I seem to be feeling likewise about the other mentors finding many similarities in our approaches to mentoring, but not total agreement. I believe that this speaks to the variety of individual approaches to mentoring even within the s ame field of teacher education. There seems to be a common core of mentoring approaches, but always room for diversity. Perhaps that will be an overarching emergent theme in this study: diversity within unity. Let the analysis begin! Professor Reeba Intentional Introduction P rofessor Reeba for a woman, with dark locks of hair that flow past the tops of her shoulders. The apparent absence of any gray in her hair led me to think that she was younger than she actually is. For both of our interviews, she dressed in business casual attire and sat in the chair behind her desk. During the interviews she seemed fully engaged and interested in our discussion and frequently leaned forwa rd when telling a story or making a point. She smiled often, and commonly punctuated her narrative with gesticulations. During the first interview her office phone rang; she completely ignored the ringing phone as if it did not exist, and remained complet ely focused on our conversation without batting an eye.
176 [From my Reflective Journal and field notes, June 1, 2009, September 3, 2009 and December 31, 2009; and from a personal communication with Professor Reeba December 31, 2009.] As I gleaned from her cu rriculum vita, Professor Reeba spans 26 years beginning as a social studies teacher in the high school and vocational technical educational setting, with the last 19 of these years as a professor of social science education involving teacher education at all levels (pre service bachelors, masters, and doctoral). Professor Reeba Her Self as Mentor When I asked Professor Reeba a moment to think and then stated: I guess the first word if I'm doing a free association test that com es up would be because that's really all you can do. And in some cases, a mentorship experience will present itself, where it's new territory for you. It's not like you're always going back on your personal experiences and using those experiences to inform or to provide guidance or advice for the mentee. All you can do is guide. Some of it is based on your own personal experience. Some of it is based on your understanding of a field. It's taking opportunities and shuttling it people's way. She further explicated her role of guide: I don't have a problem with [the student] not N o that's not what I need or Reeba sees her role as a mentor as offering guidan
177 best for him/herself. She added: So it's looking for opportunities, making the opportunities happen and extending the invitation to people. Not that you can force them and I don't wa nt to do that Professor Reeba also sees her role as a mentor as being a conduit of opportunities for the protg, as she proceeded to explain: and you know. . just making those opp ort unities available I think is very important. area that Professor Reeba acts as a conduit of opportunities for protgs is publishing, as she described passing along an opportunity she received from a colleague who was guest editing an issue of a journ al: She i s going to be guest editor for Social Education in our field. . So she sent me an email saying would I contribute an artic Well, maybe I could but any problem with my forwarding this call for papers to my So I did. I forwarded it to all of our doctoral students and then several of them submitted developed a prospectus for her. . so I got a few of them on board on that. Professor Reeba related an other instance where she was a guest editor for a journal and Special Issue on Humanities in Latin American Studies I gave that opportunity to write -for the doctoral students to contribute to th at Reeba also passes along other information and opportunities, as she described: I was contacted yesterday by the Ophelia Project it's that project where they have that girl empowerment they just started one for boys. Now apparently there' s a post high school program that's for 18 to 24 year olds and I thought that
178 that would be a great leadership opportunity for a lot of our undergrads. I got the applications, I got th e emails and I sent it through Blackboard to all my undergrads but I als o to all our GA's, TA's and professors in our program so that they could shuttle it too. So my point being that sometimes being a conduit of information and just giving these opportunities that would not otherwise be available. As a mentor, Professor Reeba remains vigilant to pass along all types of opportunities that might assist protgs with their professional development. Another aspect to Professor Reeba as mentor is that of helper; she commonly helps her protgs by editing th eir manuscripts for publication and giving feedback, as she described: Then one of the doctor Here's the manuscript. Before I send it to Dr. K., any chance that you could take a look at this and give me So, of course. O f course. There is no question. Professor Reeba continues to help her protgs in this regard, even after they have graduated and moved into their own university teaching positions, as she related: One of m y former students who I think is one of the ones who nominated me for this p roject, J. O. who's at Alabama, he sent me an em ail about two days ago I've got a manuscript that I want to submit to such and such journal. I know you're really bus y, do You never have to ask tha So he did. I went to bed that night but it was bugging me so I got up at two o'clock in the morning, started the computer, did the tra cking changes and sent it back.
179 If protgs are not keeping up with a writing schedule, Professor Reeba has a habit of helping them get back on track, as she illustrated: I'm old school, so I still do this kind of calendar. And, I had it here for last Friday: [ a student] . . I will not go to sleep that day until I have done this, and it could b how's it goin g? How's the So, he wrote I've been at a wedd ing all week long and. . I let my diss ertation seven days. You cannot tell me that when you are on that airplane you couldn't be reading an article toward that. Another way the Professor Reeba helps students i s by facilitating other resources, such as part time jobs with tuition assistance, as she related in this episode where a talented How am I going to pay didn't have any mone Let me see what I can do about getting you a teaching job he Well, as you know, when you teach at the university you also got a tuition stipend so that was actually more important [tha n the salary]. It wasn't so much he was going to be paid for the class, which he did, but he was going to get this tuition voucher to pay for the doctoral level classes. So, I was able to facilitate that In the following passage, Professor Reeba described other ways in which she helps, relationship:
180 You know, really encouraging people to become members of the professional organizations, finding funding for them to actuall y go to the annual conferences, then, having them shadow me at a presentation, so that they could see what it would be like, before I co wrote a proposal with them, to then having them submit one on their own, to then sitting in the audience while they pre sented. I mean, that's an evolution, you kn ow, it's a gradual progression. as mentors is that of model ; Professor Reeba sees herself as modeling several professional goals and behaviors for her protgs, as she explicated: And you have to remember, that . just like and it doesn't work it doesn't work with mentoring either. You have to walk the walk and not just talk the talk. You really have to conduct yourself in an exemplary way. And I don't mean exemplary outstanding, I mean exemplary like by example. They need to be able to see you doing the things that you say you value, you know, and be true, in that way. She continued: I started reflec ting back on what my mentors did for me, and then I started to emulate that. The most prime example, prime example, were professional Professor Reeba shared a detailed explanation (listed above) of the steps she takes to model a successful co nference proposals and presentations for her protgs. Professor Reeba also models commitment and reliability for her students, as she related in this passage: My point is that I have a commitment to him. When I ask outline, I told h im I want to see your Table of Contents. Just let me see your
181 Table of Contents. How do you plan to outline this? If he doesn't send that to me, doo because I am not going to be happy, b ecause he can count on me to do that. I try to model that for them that if I promise them something, it's going to happen, you know? Or, an email e xplaining why I can't. Professor Reeba n schedule, but that she still expected a follow up communication on schedule. This responsive communication style is also something she models for her students, as she described: They also know that if I'm gone, whether I'm gone for the summer, or over Christmas break, or on a trip or whatever and they get an out of office reply, they know that out of office reply does not impact them because I will scan through for my doctoral students and their name pops out, I will check that and get back to them. They know that it will never be more than 48 hours that they will get a response from me on something. Now, that mea ns that then there's a burden on them. So if I write to them and I ask them for whatever, they know that it's got to be a two way street. But I never try to ask them for more than I would ask for myself because, you have to lead by example, I think. So, [s miles] I could be a pain in the ass. She added, M y personal philosophy is one that I shared with our GA's is that I check email a minimum of three times a day. Reeba summarized her modeling hat's where I was saying about wal king the walk. You know, you
182 Professor Reeba Her Experience of Mentoring By and large, the mentoring experience for Professor Reeba is pleasant, and she enjoys working with doctoral students, as she descr ibed: For the most part, every single one of the students I have worked with have been just a delight to get to know and see evolve, to see develop. They haven't always taken the path that I would have taken for them, but as long as they are happy and they are achieving what they want, I'm good with that Once again, Professor Reeba acknowledged in her narrative that sometimes the protg takes a different path than Professor Reeba envisioned, but that is acceptable to her. She M ost of the students that I've worked with are just very appreciative, very thankful, understand that this is a growing and learning opport unity for them, and 99.9% of everyo ne I've ever worked with has been that way. Although Professor Reeba is aware that mentoring does require a time investment, for the most part it is not onerous, and she largely finds mentoring to be easy, as she It takes only a little bit of eff ort to keep your eyes open for information [and opportunities] and pass them through daily routine: So it is a daily thing. It is a daily thing. It is a daily thing. And it really doesn't take a whole lot of time because I think that is what sometimes makes faculty members shy away from this. They think that it is a very time consuming thing. It is part of what you normally do. But it has to be conscious. You have to be aware that this ...you have to intern alize this as one of your jobs, if you will, one of your duties I have that kind of consciousness, that that's part of what I do, as part
183 of my job. It happens. It takes place. Mentoring, for Professor Reeba is also rewarding. The rewards are primari ly intangible, personal, or internal, as she expressed: It is very rewarding. It is a feeling like well, it is a lovel y thing to see people achieve, grow and develop and go on to do the things that they are capable of doing. So it is very rewarding to se e that. enjoyable experience of mentoring. Professor Reeba Benefits from Mentoring One benefit that Professor Reeba feels the she receives from mentoring is learning about how to be a better mentor, as she explained: I think I learned from my mentees, because they were not shy most of the time, telling me what it is that they needed, in some cases. In other cases, when something worked well they gave me their profuse thanks and appreciation. And, that kind of validated what I was doing to begin with. I think that also helped to teach me. Professor Reeba also finds keeping in touch with the reality of the K 12 classroom via her protgs to be a benefit, as she related, Doctoral students by and large are much more well versed in what's going on out there than we are . so, learning from them in Professor Reeba also garners professional learning from her protgs, as she explicated: When I read their dissertation proposals and their dissertations in general, their papers in class, and all that kind of stuff, they help me to keep up with the
184 research, because they're the ones that are researching. They're the ones that are, you know, l ooking at the freshest literature in the field, so that's one real obvious way, that I keep up with the literature in the field that way. Methodology is another one. When I took my statistics and methods courses in the late '80s, things have changed. I mea n, I remember sitting with littl e computer punch cards [laughs ] and feeding them in, that kind of thing. All of that has really changed, and students today are so much more sophisticated in analyses, both quantitative and qualitative. And every time I rea d a Chapter Three from a dissertation, you know, the Methodology portion, I always learn something new. So I lea rn about Methodology from them. Professor Reeba finds that, ust keeping abreast of developments in the field, learning about research methods and things like that Another benefit that Professor Reeba receives from mentoring is a good feeling, as she described: Being able to see them grow and develop and establish roots of their own elsewhere is incre dibly rewarding. So, knowing that they're happy and they're fantastic feeling, really. Pride in her Reeba gets from mentoring, a s she related: Doctoral students, who are incredible human beings, who love their discipline, or their field so much, that they want to deepen that, and extend that knowledge, and in many cases they want to go on to an institution of higher ed., and, you know,
18 5 it's almost like, when somebody has a kid, and they go on to do something, it's like an extension of you. So I love all of that. Pride in gratifying t o Professor Reeba and obviously adds to the positive affect mentoring creates for Professor Reeba as she further explained: So by the time he [the protg] graduated from here, he had a number of publications under his belt. He had started to craft his research agenda He did a beautiful job in his defense. It was wonderful going to commencement and hooding him. He is an amazing person. Efficacy is another benefit Professor Reeba feels she derives from mentoring, as she described: You know, most of the benefits [from mentoring] have been of an interpersonal nature, feeling like you've had a positive impact in people's lives. Feeling like, at least, a little corner of their success is dependent on s omething that you did for them. Reeba derives from mentoring. Professor Reeba What Mentoring Means for Her Part of mentoring, for Professor Reeba is developing core competencies that ultimately provide career support for protgs, such as writing for publication and conference presentations. She stated: I think publication opportunities are very important if you want a job in academia. I've done co authored pieces with a lot of my doctoral students. I think
186 presentations are very important. It could be really overwhelming for students to go to conferences and present for the first time. So sometimes I have them come and observe first. I am doing that right now with an undergraduate student of mine that I just got into our Master's program. I asked Professor Reeba to highlight all the entries on her curriculum vita that included co publishing and co presenting with protgs; there were numerous co authored entries. Additionally, Professor Reeba job placement to be part of her mentoring. She described a special event that she and her colleagues initiate every two to three years for current and former students: The National Council for the Social Studies is the main professional organization and conference that we have on a yearly basis. Every two or three years we host a reception for all of our students. All of my colleagues and I . we do enough fundraising that we can host a reception and th at reception typically costs two to three thousand dollars, because we'll buy food and drink. And we will invite the cognoscenti of Soci al Studies to this thing. . we're going to invite the Social Studies department chairs of the main universities in t he country who are really act ive. . The editors of the main social studies publications are going to be invited to this. Anybody who has a job advertisement this fall is going to get an invitation to this. And then we invite all of our doctoral students past and present.
187 Professor Reeba also sees providing psycho social support to protgs as in integral part of her mentor ing, as she described another support activity she initiates for protgs: There are times where you do absolutely put the career stuff aside and you have to talk about bringing balance to your life.... I just mentioned my wonderful colleagues; they all happen to be men. OK, so one of the things I started to note is that all of the women doctoral students, whether I was on their committee or not, would be coming to me wanting to chat about any number of issues. Which was completely fine. So I started host ing some breakfasts and some brunches at my house where I would have just the women folk come. And we would talk about those issues specific to women and being doctoral students and being career women and you know. Professor Reeba also described other vari eties of emotional support that she provides to protgs: We had the unfortunate double whammy of having two of our doctoral students lose their husbands during their doctoral program to an illness. . Can you imagine? And so there were issues. First of all, there were grieving issues. . The mommy guilt is [also] a huge issue. I happen to have children myself and so I think that sometimes, you know, it's important to just talk as a mother, to just talk as a wife, to just talk as a par tner, talk as a friend and just kind of say Look I'm not saying what I did was right, but let me share with you what I did and what h . .I have a very personal knowledge of what it's like to be in the throes of doctoral research and wr iting, and trying to somehow
188 get it together enough So that has helped me to help other people, who are going through different situations like that. Sometimes, in Professor Reeba social support also includes helping a protg in a fin ancial pinch, as she described: Some of it a lot of times has to do with fin ancial. . I can tell you that I have lent students money. . It has always been paid back. . S o some people might say, W to be truthful with you, but it's just the right thing to do. I can't imagine not knowing if somebody can make their rent or can buy a bag of groceries, I just can't imagine that. At other times, helping a student get to the next student loan disbursement can be as simp le for Professor Reeba as: back to our house. We had dinner, and then I just made sure th at I made so much food For Professor Reeba relationship is another prominent concept in her mentoring gestalt. She stated: As you know, Carol, from being in a doctoral program, it's one of the most intense experiences you will ever go through in your life. Intense in terms of your relationship with your facu lty, with your peers, your family has to be behind you. You've got another life, too. It's just a lot going on, and you can't just throw people into the deep end of the pool and think that they're going to make it OK . . I think it's an embarrassment i f we have a very high recruitment rate, but our retention rate and our graduation rate are low. So, we have to see it through. We have to see it through and to my mind the 'seeing it through' is not when they
189 graduate. The 'seeing it through' is life long Now, the mentor mentee relationship will morph and it will change, but it's all the way through. For Professor Reeba mentoring relationships seem to endure beyond graduation, as she that I still keep v ery much in touch with all of those folks [who nominated me for this study]. I'd say, at For Professor Reeba the mentoring relationship also has familial characteristics to it, as she explained: You know, you 're a professional and you're certainly on that kind of academic intellectual level, definitely. But, other times [mentoring] is nurturing. It is caring. It is parental. You have to encourage in some cases. In some cases people just need to hear: yes, I c an do this. Yes, I have the smarts to do this. Yes, my writing skills are strong enough for this, whatever it is. That's the caring and the kind of support that you have to show. She further described her familial approach to mentoring; And I think that t o a certain extent oftentimes a mentor/mentee relationship almost has paternal overtones or maternal overtones to it. . to a certain extent you do create a surrogate family. And that really speaks to the emotional bonds, not just the academic or intel lectual or professional . but that there are some very deep emotional, sustaining, familial almost, bonds that get established in good relationships. How do you quantify that? How do you articulate that? How do you find that? I don't know. But they're palpable, it's there. For Professor Reeba mentoring also involves negotiation. I have previously included statements she made describing how she felt comfortable giving protgs the
190 latitude to follow her advice, or not. In this passage she further descri bes her negotiation style: That give and take is really healthy and I think really good. A very sad situation would be if a mentee doesn't feel like they can challenge or do something different or whateve r. I think that would be a very sad, sad thing. So I think that that is great. I think that's very healthy. I think that those are all important learning things. Negotiation is also part There's also negotiation that has to be done when you collaborate with people. You have to negotiate all kinds of things. You know, your roles, the amount of time, the contributions, who's going to do what. Reciprocity is also a central element in Professor Reeba Previously I described how she expected a reciprocal commitment from students regarding accountability and communications; here is another example of how mentoring Especially in the case of colleges of e ducation, so many of our doctoral students are practitioners. And so many of my students were teaching at the same time, and they would . show me stuff that they did, so I would always learn from them. So the idea that it's a two way street. For Profe ssor Reeba collaboration is another important aspect to her approach to mentoring. She described in detail her collaborative style for writing for publication with one of her protgs: So we set up a very tight calendar timeframe of weekly check in points He would
191 do this. I would do that. We would trade and I had him watch how I wrote. I commented on his. Let him comment on mine. So we were able to publish this and I think it was really exciting for him to see his name in print in a fairly high profile p ublication. In fact, when he went to interview at the U. of A., that was definitely one of the key selling points to the committee is that he was able to participate in that kind of a project. nferences to present. . so When I first contacted Professor Reeba asking her to be a participant in this study, she responded, agreeing to participate. Along with sending me h er curriculum vita, she also included a chapter she had written for a book about mentoring (Professor Reeba personal communication, May 14, 2009). This is the chapter she refers to in her response to my interview question regarding how she views her role as a mentor: As I was doing the research for that chapter I came across the term mentoring That is a term, I think, that really kind of embraces my philosophy on mentoring. It is intentional. It is conscious. Now, there are many, many thi ngs that happen in a mentoring relationship that you don't necessarily think about very consciously. It is serendipity. It is something that happens in a hallway. It is something that happens in passing conversation. But, I would classify my particular vie w of it as intentional mentoring. I try to make very sure that when I see opportuniti Which of my doctoral students would benefit from this? Who could contribute to this? How can I position them
192 Professor Reeba feels that much of her mentoring is an intentional, conscious or Professo r Reeba previous similar sentiments of the mentors in this study (e.g., Professor Hanna reported Reeba the ground up is another example of the intentional and deliberate mentoring activities that Professor Reeba provides for her students. Profe ssor Reeba continued to describe how her mentoring is intentional, and also idiographic, or What does this person need that this person m ay not need as much of? You know, whether it is exposure at a conference. Whether it is a writing opportunity. Whatever it is. So it is intentional. I really try to take stock of who the doctoral students are; what their strengths are; what their needs are; and then I try to fashion the opportunities that I make available and ho w I interact with them a very conscious choice. Professor Reeba deliberately acts as a conduit, intentionally channeling activities and same time, she sees that some me ntoring activities can be done in a group. In the following passage she described a group mentoring activity she participates in with her departmental colleagues: In some cases we do some group mentoring of our doctoral students, for example.
193 The semest university level we oftentimes have a Saturday morning closed door workshop on teaching at the university level. . .that's a mentoring experience because it's much more than just how yo u construct a syllabus order. It's the behind the scenes kind of thing. We do that in a group forum because they all need to hear that. . But then the following semester they start to teach, and then their own teaching pers onalities come into play. So it might be that one individual is just much gentler and more soft spoken and is being taken advantage of or whatever. That kind of individual is going to need a different kind of a mentorship experience in terms of his or her teaching than someone else wh o, for whatever reason, is having a differe nt experience in the classroom. Although there may be some mentoring activities that can effectively be initiated in a group setting, the return to the idiographic needs of the protg appears to be the inevitabl e subsequent chapter in the mentoring odyssey, as Professor Reeba again illustrates in the following narrative: Then there are the personal situations. I have a doctoral student right now who is maybe the strongest writer in our program that we've ever had since we started admitting in 2000, and she's not graduated yet. She's had a number of personal issues. She requires a different kind of mentorship than someone who hasn't gone through all of that. So, yes, I think that there are some mentorship experienc es that can be more group level, and then beyond that you have to do it more on an individual basis. For Professor Reeba mentoring is also something that is holistically integrated
194 into her daily academic activities and routines, as she described: Daily. [Mentoring] is a daily occurrence. That is exactly right. It can be an article when I am doing my own lit review for a piece that I am working on. I'll come across something. And it is nothing to take an extra minute maybe to download an article, save it o n your desktop, open up an email, and then forward it and attach it to send it to somebody. That is a very classic thing. I have that kind of consciousness, that that's part of what I do, as part of my job. It happens. It takes place. Professor Reeba sees integrated into her professional gestalt Mentoring, for Professor Reeba is also essential as she described: It's definitely a part of my job, I feel, as an education professor. I just can't envision doing my job without doing that, especially once you have a doctoral program. You have to. I just don't know how else to do that. ry important part of Mentoring, for Professor Reeba is also a dynamic process; as protgs grow or as their life context changes, she adapts her mentoring strategy, as she explained: As we were saying, life happens and any of a number of is sues can happen over the course of a student's doctoral study. Unfortunately, in our particular program we have had a number of spousal deaths, you know, untimely deaths. We had a suicide. We had a brain tumor that came out of nowhere. We had Hepatitis A t hat came from a blood transfusion. . We had a couple of domestic abuse situations.
195 We certainly had births, and we had job layoffs and we had all the kinds of crises that occurred in people's lives. What other word can you use there but caring? You hav e to care for the person as a human being and find out what's going on new personal challenges. Sometimes, it's independent studies. Sometimes, it's extensions on assignments. S ometimes, it's incompletes. Sometimes, it's trying to find some funding for them. I don't know but you definitely have to do that. Professor Reeba as their life situation changes. Pr ofessor Reeba Her Negatives in Mentoring When I asked Professor Reeba if she had encountered any negative mentoring You know, overwhelmingly, every single Howev er, she reflected for a moment and then explained: I have had a student or two in the past that relied on me almost too much. And first of all it can become draining, you know in terms of your time and your energy. Like for example my students sometimes call me the APA Nazi, OK, [smiles] which is a horrible horrible thing to call me. But what that means is that for whatever reason when I am looking through a dissertation or manuscript or whatever, every single little irregularity p ops out. I'm a great proofreader . . so sometimes students are not as scrupulous in doing their work before they give it to me knowing that "Oh, Professor Reeba will just take care of it." [laughs] Ninety nine percent of students have done [their own pr oof reading]. I have had . two
196 students who are terrible in this regard. And, so that has been tough. So, this last time I might have read maybe, I don't know, five to ten pages and it was just terrible, the number of misspellings and you know, citati on problems. And, so I just stopped . And I just returned it to her and I said t You've got to take opportunity because I'm just tryi ng to be a good mentor for you Because she wants to get a university job. So, you can't do this. And, that's hard. That's a hard conversation to have. Primarily, Professor Reeba experiences mentoring as a positive event; occasionally a student is over reliant on her for APA format ed iting, and that can produce a negative experience for her. The time intensive nature of mentoring is not an issue for Professor Reeba although she did acknowledge that consuming, but Apparently, for Professor Re eba the rewards for mentoring outweigh the cost of the time investment. Professor Reeba Her Teleology of Mentoring Professor Reeba also views her mentoring as teleological, or having a purpose. She described her overall purpose in mentoring as to progress through the program, to do well in it, and to graduate. And so, whatever those She then proceeded to describe how, from her persp ective, the teleology of mentoring interacted with her When you have a teleological view of the world, there was a purpose, there was a design in mind when it was created, or whatever. . I think it ge ts back to that
197 intentionality issue. I do think that a good mentor thinks ahead about the goal of the mentorship experience. And here's where that individuality should come into play, because I think that it depends on the student. So, for example, some o f our doctoral students want to get their PhD because they want to go into leadership positions in the school system. They have no thought about going into higher ed. They really want to be more applied in their work. Those folks really need a different me ntorship experience, and in that case I might push more professional development opportunities, leadership development opportunities, that kind of thing, as opposed to other people who really definitely have their sights set on an institution of post secon dary ed where they're going to be a professor. I want them publishing right away. So, yes, I would say that it definitely has a purpose, there's a design and that it's in dividualized depending on what the final goal should be. According to Professor Reeba the purpose of her mentoring is to help protgs progress and successfully achieve their degree, and to help create the best educational professional that they can be ei ther as a school district leader or as a college professor. Professor Reeba Her Motivations to Mentor When I asked Professor Reeba what motivated her to mentor, she reflected for a moment and then responded: There are absolutely no external motivations or rewards for thi s work the way I see it. . If I were to show you what our faculty assignment looks like, in terms of what I am supposed to do with my time, nowhere on there is there anything to do with mentoring . . I choose to look at other instructional effort as code for
198 mentoring. That's not what it is, but I choose to interpret it that way. So I make sure that in my narrative every year I point that out that way. . Everybody has so many projects going on and so many different things happening that they really have to believe in it, they really have to think that it is an important thing. One motivation that provides Professor Reeba with impetus to mentor is the fact that she tant. She continued to reflect on her motivations: Some of it is what I see as a professional ethical duty. I see the professional and ethical kind of intertwined, so I can't really separate them. I just think it's a professional ethical duty to mentor people through the process, of the actual academic process while you're in school through if you want to get a job in ac ademia . We're kind of thrown together in this kind of family, it's like a pseudo family in many ways. So I just think that it's j ust the right thing to do. Another motivation for Professor Reeba to mentor is that she feels a professional duty and an ethical duty to guide protgs through the doctoral process, in general. She also sees it as a job duty and a duty to her discipline in particular: as well as a job duty. I think that in social studies education we are constantly trying to look for people who are leaders, who are curriculum developers, who can effect positive change. Every single year there's a new survey that's done with high school students which asked them what is the most boring subject in school, and social studies is always num ber one, even over math . . So obviously we need to pr epare people for this field to a ffect some change.
199 Professor Reeba is motivated to affect change in her discipline by mentoring her students to be better social science teachers and curriculum developers. She continued to reflect on her motivations and shared some stories of how she arrived in kindergarten in the American school system as an English language learner, and how challenging that was: I had a bunch of really rotten teachers, especially in the 1960s.When I was going through school, bilingual education still hadn't really caught on. People definitely went to a school that there were no other English language learners, it was tough. I also had some incredibly kind, thoughtful, wonderful teachers, who made a huge impact and made a huge difference in my life. . So, that is the power of a teacher. Tha t is the power of a teacher. So I think that those experiences certainly shape who I am as an educator, and they give me the impetus to pave the way for other people, encourage them, make this world a better place, as hoke y and as cheesy as that sounds. Pa rt of what motivates Professor Reeba to mentor is her desire to help people and help improve the world through education and teacher education. She also feels grateful for the mentoring she received at the hands of her mentors, and wants to return the bene fit: from very important and strategic mentoring opportunities, and so I need to give back in Additionally, Professor Reeba For the most part, every single one of the students I have worked with have been just a delight to
200 I do love my job. There are aspects of it that I love more than others. [laughs] I wish that there were aspects of it that were more valued than others as we were saying but I do. My husband and I talk about this all the time. We cannot imagine doing some thing else. . It's a great job . . I cannot imagine waking up every day and doing work that was meaningless th at at the end of the day, you earn money for your family which is certainly meaningful but that you don't really feel like you affected any kind of change in this world. I feel like I do. Overall, Professor Reeba gives her the opportunity to affect meaningful change in the world. Professor Reeba Her Values as a Mentor One of Professor Reeba of relationship, as evidenced by the numerous quotes I have included wherein she talks about mentoring being a it's like a pseudo family in many ways. Reeba If you really want to take this on as a relationship, your needs come after the student's, t As an extension of relationship, Professor Reeba also values community and collegiality, of which she considers doctoral students to be an integ ral part of, as she stated: I can tell you though, that being on tenure and promoti on review committees, it's a red flag if someone only has solo authored pieces, professional presentations, articles. That shows a lack of collegiality in my mind. . It's a shame because it's
201 very narcissistic. You really don't get to grow at all as a human being collaborate]. Every time that I collaborate and I mean every time, I learn something new from a colleague. And I'm counting doctoral students in that. I've learned something new from a colleague. Professor Reeba also values growth and collaboration, as can be seen by this passage, and several other quotes I have included, describing her collaboration style, and focus on the growth of her protgs. Perhaps Professor Reeba values collaborat ion may be summarized by her comment: You know, I think that certainly my research publication, grant, even teaching record [shows] a lot of collaboration. There's a lot of collaboration. I find that... Oh, I forgot who the name of the French of the phil os opher is... Montaigne, who It is good to rub our brains There's something about that rubbing of the brai ns that just sparks more stuff. And for Professor Reeba her value of collaboration includes reciprocity or sharing (giving and receiving) as she related in this passage: Most students are grateful to know that there's somebody that wants to assist and be supportive, and almost like share secrets of the trade. . .We did a Saturday morning brunch for all of our Doc toral students. It was optional to come, although I tell you, 99 percent of them came. We met in a conference room, [my colleague, Professor Sam,] closed the door, and he says OK. I am going to now share with you all the stuff that nobody else will tell And [Professor Sam] proceeded to ou tline all of these ... tricks of the trade, secrets of academia, and I don't know, he had a number of things. I think the students were just so thrilled that someone
202 took the time to first of all put this together . took the time to host this brunch, and then trust them with this insider knowledge, if you will. I think to a certain extent, mentorship is about that, isn't it? Isn't it insider knowledge and sharing that w orldview? Helping is another value that is e vident throughout Professor Reeba Perhaps Professor Reeba summarized by her comment: I don't know if it's a karma thing or what. When you share you often times get back. I like to share because I know that it makes other people's lives a little bit easier. If you want to do some deep psychological analysis, in some cases I didn't have the benefit of other people sharing with me sometimes when I was starting off in my profession. In other cases I was the direct beneficiary of a lot of sharing. So I like to emulate that. And i t's just the right thing to do. Yes, you just do. And i t comes back It really does. Like I said I don't know if it's a karmic thing or what but it just comes back. As I have already illustrated, Professor Reeba talked in detail about how she felt mentoring was a duty a job duty, a duty to her profession, and a duty to h er discipline to influence new and current social science teachers to affect positive change both at the school district and university level; giving back to her profession is another value that Professor Reeba engenders in her mentoring. Professor Reeba a lso values mentoring, and believes it is important. Here is another passage where Professor Reeba expressed this sentiment:
203 There is no financial remuneration for [mentoring] certainly. There is no one telling me to do it. It's not external, and that's o ne of the hardest things with mentoring relationships is that people really have to believe in it, and take it on in order to make it happen. She continued with: A lot of people just take it for granted or don't give it much thought. I don't know what the story is, but it' s really important in our field . . I would say that if it was really a valued thing it would be supported, either with time or money or something along those lines, and I don't see those support structures in place. So, really, it has to be something that wells up in the per son, and the person feels like his is an important par therwise, it's a time drain. She concluded with: Also, I also read whenever I see mentoring articles that come out. For examp le, the very latest issue of The Advocate . is a special issue on multiple mentors a nd I find that very interesting . . So, my point is, whenever I see stuff like that, I stop and I take a moment to read it. You know, I learn something new every ti me. So, I think that it's a duty to stay abreast of this and keep informing ourselves. Professor Reeba values mentoring, and makes an effort to read about mentoring and continue growing as a mentor.
204 Professor Reeba Summary To summarize: Professor Reeba sees mentoring as relationships that are important and easily integrated into her professional life, with collegial and familial aspects that extend to doctoral students; this relationship includes reciprocal sharing or collaborations that are negoti ated and produce mutual benefits for herself and her protgs. She sees career and psycho social support and help a s a basic part of her mentoring gestalt. When she mentors, it is frequently intentional. She sees her mentoring as idiographic (particular to needs). Her mentoring is holistically integrated into her professional life and activities, and is an essential part of her professional self that is, a fundamental elemen t that she Reeba Additionally, mentoring for her is teleological (has a purpose): to help people, to help protgs achieve their best, and to support their growth into school district social science leaders or a social science professors. Professor Reeba sees herself as a helper, guide, model, and conduit of opportunities, and finds helping and supporting the development of students to be pleasant, enjoyable, easy and rewarding. She is motivated to mentor by her feeling that is it a professional and ethic al duty and a duty to the discipline to contribute back to the field of social science by producing new professors and school district social science as a student an d help others. Part of her motivation to mentor is the fact that she believes passionately in mentoring and its importance. She also mentors because it is an integral part of what makes her job enjoyable. As a mentor, she values: mentoring, growth,
205 relatio nship / community, collegiality, helping, reciprocity (sharing), and giving back to her profession. Figure 6 summarizes these aspects of Professor Reeba self. Figure 6. Professor Reeba: Her Mentor Self Professor Reeba seldom encounters negative experiences in her mentoring and does not perceive that mentoring is too time consuming. Some of her rare negative mentoring experiences include when students become overly reliant on her for APA editing. By and large, she exper iences mentoring as a positive and enjoyable experience. She enjoys interacting with protgs and doctoral students. She feels that she receives several benefits from mentoring, such as: learning, reciprocal learning and sharing, a sense of efficacy, grati accomplishments and an overall positive affect (good feeling). Professor Reeba Helper Guide Model Conduit Relationship Collegiality Helping Reciprocity Giving back Growth Mentoring Believes in mentoring Payback Duty Professional Ethical Duty Helping Give back Loves Job Self Concept Motivations Her Values as a Mentor
206 recognizes that mentoring is an essential part of her overall job satisfaction Epilogue to Professor Reeba F ro m M y Refl ective Journal, January 3, 2010. There are several spectrum s of perspectives that seem to be emerging from the ew questions. One is the spectrum between intentional mentoring and serendipitous mentoring. Professors Jade, Hanna and Reeba have given some detailed examples of each end of this dichotomous continuum, as they have all events or activities that the y arrange for their protgs. Another spectrum of perspective that arises from the data is that mentoring is time intensive, but largely is not perceived as onerous or negative. Each mentor has reported a few negative experiences, and yet at the same tim e they all affirm that mentoring is mostly enjoyable, and that they would not want mentoring to be excluded from their daily work. Group mentoring vs. individual (idiographic) mentoring is another spectrum of mentoring activities that is emerging from the data, that is, some mentoring support may be common to most students, but then individual needs and goals rule the course of the mentoring. I am finding the description of these co mentoring/group activities that mentors engage in either with another facu lty mentor or with several colleagues in the department to be very intriguing, as my mentoring experiences have been one on one with my mentor. Reflecting on this, I can see how departmental synergy (or the lack thereof) could play a decisive role in produ cing group mentoring activities for students. Another emergent spectrum involves purposeful (teleological) mentoring.
207 change or evolve over the course of doctoral study (i.e., are dynamic); can be moderated by intervening life issues which can also introduce more changes; and are mitigated by I am interested to see how the data for the last two mentors will be similar or different to the first four mentors. The Fifth Case: Professor Jack Overscheduled Prologue to Professor Jack Overscheduled F ro m M y Reflective Journal, July 2 2009. I nervously paced ba ck and forth in the department, awaiting the arrival of Professor Jack This office suite was different from the previous office suites in that the a appearance of Professor Jack would make me late for anything after our interview; I was worried that he might h ave another commitment that would make him truncate our conversation time. He arrived a little more than five minutes late, apologetic for his tardiness. I was relieved that we could get started without further delay. Bracketing: What Do I T hink and H ow Do I Feel A bout Professor Jack Overscheduled ? From M y Reflective Journal, January 8, 2010 I have just listened to, while verifying, both transcripts for Professor Jack Professor Jack is clearly a very busy man with a very busy schedule. He described hi s department committees and duties he has, not the least of wh ich is providing the statistical expertise for several million dollar grant proposals. The fact that he was a little
208 late to our interview gives me no negative impression of him; rather, I am grateful that he took the time to meet with me a student he has never met before to assist with my data collection. I feel that Professor Jack is a dedicated and engaged mentor, and I wish that his schedule afforded him the opportunity to have more positive and synergistic experiences with his protgs, as the other mentors have described. His data w ill reveal his story; let the analysis begin! Professor Jack Overscheduled Introduction Professor Jack is a tall, slender man with a few wisps of gray sprinkled amidst his medium brown hair. For our first meeting his hair was a little long and wild, rem iniscent business style. For both interviews he arrived in business casual attire, sporting a tie. One of his ties was blue and covered with a print of what appeare d to be yellow golden mentioned that he had sent one of his protgs to present solo at the American Educational Research Association conference, even though they had collab orated on the schedule accommodations for my old dog, so I related to that completely. Both interviews took place in his office, which had a similar physical construct ion as the other stacked with books, and a window providing ambient natural light. For both interviews he sat behind his desk and responded in a soft spoken and thoug htful, deliberative style to my questions. During the first interview, a student entered his office to return a test he had been working on; Professor Jack accepted the test paper with a smile and a nod,
209 without missing a beat of his conversation with me, lending me the impression that Professor Jack was used to multitasking. (From my Reflective Journal, July 2, 2009 ; and September 23, 2009 .) Professor Jack His Self as Mentor Professor Jack is an accomplished educator with 20 years of experience as a professor at the university level, as I gleaned from his curriculum vita. The fact that no experience working in the K 12 school setting is reflected on his C.V. is one detail that makes Profes sor Jack unique from the other five faculty mentors in this study. In order to provide context to Professor Jack I want to mention two other details that I feel are relevant to ultimately understanding his particular case, as the details of his story unf old. First, it appears that there is a much lesser degree of voluntary choice in the process whereby Professor Jack is paired with his protgs, in comparison to the other five mentors in this s tudy. In my Interview Protocol 1 (see Appendix A ), I asked eac h mentors all reported that they had first gotten to know the students because the students had taken one of their classes and then asked them to be their mentor, asked them to b e on their committee or to be their major professor, in which case the mentor interpreted that as the student asking them to be their mentor. The faculty mentors assented, provided they felt only a few slight variations on that process, as reported by the mentors; the point is, the process was voluntary, consensual and mutual. The process whereby students are assigned to major professors in Professor Jack choice, as he described in the following passage:
210 I'm on the Admissions Committee. So once we admit students, we have a department meeting, and we vote to admit a student and then we decide. So we sit around the room, and there's probably two factors that pop up, the student's interest and the faculty's availability. So, let's say we're admitting four measurement students or four students who have an interest in measurement. It's likely that they won't all be paired up with me, because I won't be able to h andle four new students. So there would be some sharing, but let's say there were four students and one was more measurement, I might get that person. The statistics [student] might go to either J. or J. F. The evaluation [student] would go to L. The more specialized measurement [student] might go to Dr. C. So that's how the sorting goes, and then so much of our program is set that we have an orientation for all of our students. Then we meet with the students individually, and just s ort of develop the program of study and p rovide that guidance all along. Professor Jack did report that within his department it was a common occurrence that students might work on a research project with faculty other than their major professor. A mentori ng relationship might certainly arise from one of those situations. However, the assignment of a major professor dissertation advisor involves a protracted interaction between the faculty and the student that may extend over several years until the student finishes the degree, and is usually considered to be the foremost opportunity for a mentoring relationship in doctoral study, given the amount of time and interaction required to complete the program. As he d escribed, Professor Jack
211 limited information about the students, whereas for the other mentors, it is more a process of mutual consent informed by at least one semester of acquaintanceship. This another detail that makes Professor Jack different from the other mentors. In explaining his role as a mentor, Professor Jack was the only mentor who made a clear distinction between his role as an adviser as the student progresses through coursework versus his role as a mentor when his students begin the dissertation process: So at that point [through coursework], I wouldn't really consider myself a mentor. I'd consider myself more as an adviser. But there's that point where the student then decides that they want to continue on and do research in a particular area, and if I'm the Major Professor, then my role changes from an adviser to providing these other roles. . Professor J ack then continued to describe how he sees his role as a mentor to his protgs: And those roles are guiding them in the research and trying to communicate to them expectations and standards, communicate to them where I see how this research may f it into their future life. So it becomes teaching and guidance in the research, thinking about when they finish with the degree. What could they do with the degree. What do they need to do to make sure that they're employable. Part of Professor Jack or self is that of being a guide, as reflected in his see them through Jack to define the term l, I think the words that are used, the guide and someone who
212 provides that personal support, along with the skills, are some of the characteristics of a Jack the mentoring typically begins at the dissertation stage, and he sees his development as A lot of students just can't really, they're just not at that point where they can craft ideas and move forward. There's a little more guidance that's needed. An d it's Another aspect to Professor Jack self is that of a teacher, as he described his mentoring role: Part of it is that as the role of a mentor, it's not as efficient for sure, but there are a lot of benefits to get student s introduced to how do you put together ideas, even [article] rejections... You can learn a lot from when an art icle is being rejected. It gives us time to do teaching moments outside the classroom, so I think there are a lot of benefits to it. by Professor Jack Professor Jack His Experience of Mentoring Primarily, Professor Jack finds mentoring to be a pleasant and enjoyable experience, as he described: I think I've always enjoyed [mentoring], and probably even in my undergraduate where I went to a liberal arts college, and so our relationships with faculty were probably closer than in some places. I just enjoy the whole aspect of learning and developing and continuing to grow. I mean, I think it's probably a lifelong developmental process of continuing to grow.
213 Additionally, Professor Jack generally finds interacting with his protgs to be a pleasant I enjoy working with He related a mentoring occasion he specifically enjoyed that involved a student whose major was had a measurement focus: He was very energetic and eager to learn. And he committed himself to the dissertation process. . It was a very positive experience for me because he learned a lot about measurement. I could see him developing and just being so open to learning. He was just a very easy person to work wi th. That is, there wasn't resistance. I found it significant that Professor Jack summarized his enjoyment of mentoring in this fashion, because the frustrations and the negati ves he reported in relation to mentoring were greater in quantity and category than those reported by the other mentors in this study, as I will presently discuss. Professor Jack also finds mentoring to be a rewarding experience, as he explained, k that it is rewarding . I would say that you get [rewarded] through the students, Professor Jack Benefits from Mentoring When I asked Professor Jack about the benefits he felt he received form mentoring, his first response described learning from his protgs:
214 Whether it's lit reviews for dissertation s or even papers that I read. A lot of times I'll even write down some of the references that I mig ht not have seen because a lot of times they're writing in a lot of different areas. He offered another example of how he learns from his protgs. The student he refers to in the following passage is a former protg who recently attained his first facult y position. The former protg had contacted Professor Jack asking for input on his first grant proposal: There are certain things that students will bring to my attention, certain things. And even this guy up in North Carolina, he was in the instructio nal technology program. The guy is so wired with technology, and he is always shari ng different techniques. And his study, which I need to read that tonight, is on gaming, using games in education. So I know I'm going to be nefit from reading his [grant] pr oposal. Professor Jack considers reciprocal learning and sharing to be a benefit form mentoring, as he stated from them Jack continued to describe professional stimu lation and renewal the he felt he gained a result of mentoring: With the number of students that I've been involved with, they seem to have different strengths, they'll pick up something and they'll bring that in whether it be a new statistical skill. Some of them have been better at online instruction; some of them have tips on that. It really cuts across a lot of different areas: Research skills, interpersonal skills.
215 I t hink I pick up all sorts of things from them, just some of the quirkiness that they bring and learning about different people and how some of them are very different from myself in terms of how they view the world and their work styles and all that. As a self described introvert, Professor Jack feels that the opportunity to interact with his doctoral students is also an inter personal benefit. The other benefit that Professor Jack reported from mentoring was enjoyment and ng and from seeing the people he has m entored succeed: I do enjoy it, and ther Boy, this is working the way it should be, and it feels good, So yes, seeing people... Even this new faculty member who got this large grant, I felt very instrumental in helping her shape the i deas, and she's ecstatic t hat she got this grant. She feels like a superstar. I didn't tell her that once you have the grant, you then have to do it, and it becomes a big pain in the neck. But that initial rush of being recognized nationally for a grant is a real big plus. A feeling of efficacy is also a benefit Professor Jack derives from mentoring, as he ng that I can do it, and Professor Jack What Mentoring Means for Him Professor Jack sees career support as an intrinsic part of his mentoring, as he thinking about when they finish with the degree. What could they do with the degree. What do they need to do to make sure
216 He further explicated: Tha t's from day one . . When they come in we are provid ing a huge program of this would be a good thing to get involved in Sometimes if we have a search committee we might invite a student to be a part of that so that they get some exp erience. He offered other examples of the career support he provides to his protgs: Well, certainly the career part. All of these students th at are applying to these jobs now, they email me or call me up as far as they ask for advice. They often don't go with my advi Here's this University. They've offered me a job. Do you think that would be a good place for me? So, career advice is something I do on a fairly regular basis. For Professor Jack the career support is present from the beginning of the mentoring relationship, and often continues after the protg graduates, as he described; And then right now . . probably D., since he's been in the job market, I've been writing letters for him and talking to people who are thinking of employing him. And then others that... Yesterday I had a reference check. So it really continues on until they get a job and even past that point if they want to continue to do research. There have been some students that I have published with. After they have graduated, some of them have done post docs and I have continued to do research with them. Psycho social support is also a ce ntral element of Professor Jack style, as he stated: Sometimes it's a matter of... Students go through all sorts of challenges divorces
217 and job losses and... So part of it is listening to them on that and making sure that I'm at least aware o f it and at least being aware that it might be impacting their progress and their degree He further described the integral nature of his psycho social mentoring support for his students: The psycho social [support] it occurs throughout the entire process We have students who are at the point where they're over the limit. The Graduate school has sent out letters that they might not be, they are no longer in the program, they have to be readmitted. So, th Just t rying to make a plan for them and trying to get them from point A to point B. He concluded his thoughts on psycho Some of our students are from other countries. I always worry do they have enough support here that they can make Professor Jack psycho social needs and issues, and provides appropriate support. Professor Jack also views mentor ing as part of the learning process, h as he described in the following passage: There's just another opportunity to teach. When you write with each other you spend time thinking, discussing, analyzing, and rewriting. So, I think it's just another opportuni ty to continue the learning process. It's also a learning opportunity because a lot of times things come back and they're rejected. One student . J. F. and I work with him and he got two articles that came back and they were each rejected. Well, that's part of the game. So, we're going to continue
218 to work with him and try to use that as an opportunity. These things happen. You have to read the feedback, try to make the changes, and try again. For Professor Jack mentoring is another opportunity to teach an opportunity that frequently arises outside of normal classroom activities. For Professor Jack mentoring is also about relationship as he described: Well, my dissertation was on mentoring. And I think mentoring is a form of education, teaching. It is the full package. It builds on relationships. I have always been interested in relationships. I have studied parent, mom infant relationships and couple relationships. Mentoring is just another one of those relationships. To me they have always been ke y in learning. I very m uch buy into the way you learn especially re search is through this close relationship, that the subtleties of research are best learned worki ng closely with someone. That is what I said in my dissertation. That is what I believe. I t hink that is what the research does point out, that especially at the doctoral level, the courses are only a part of the whole process. So it is the working closely with students. Professor Jack sees mentoring as a relationship in general, and a learning r elationship, in particular. He offered further illumination to his perspective on doctoral student mentoring: Tenure and promotion is mainly now more about research and grants and teaching, but teaching defined very narrowly as teaching in a classroom or teaching online. It doesn't really include the mentoring. It seems odd, because doctoral education was supposed to be more on this ind ividual mentoring relationship.
219 Professor Jack sees the mentoring relationship as a learning relationship that is key to t he Jack also sees some parental aspects to the mentoring relationship, as he described: Being a parent of a 20 year old now, there are the similar frustrations of trying to encourage certain values and ways of doing things, and people making choices that go contrary to that. And it can be a little frustrating. Sometimes people come around and they decide to do it their own way, and it comes back, and maybe that wasn't the best way. So there's some learning from those mistakes, and being accepting of them even when they're having some struggles. Mentoring, for Professor Jack is also an intentional endeavor, as he related in the following passage: I would say it is intentional. I am s ensitive to that role that I play. It is very much right there in my head when I'm meeting with students. Or even, as I've thought about this mentoring and working on grants, that we have a lot of faculty that are newer that I've spent time with and trying to share some of the things that I've learned. Part of what makes mentoring intentional for Professor Jack is his realization that mentoring is also idiographic or individual to the specific needs of the protg, as he Doctoral ed ucation was supposed to be more on this individual He further explicated his idiographic approach to mentoring: Well I was thinking about . the first quest ion about my role as a mentor. As I look a cross the variety of students and I think because I am sort of t hinking more about recent ones, but if I went back in time that there are very different
220 roles and functions depending on the student. . I think the stories are different for different students, and I'm giving you mult iple stories that reflect multiple students, and certainly at multiple periods in my career. Professor Jack is cognizant of how his role as a mentor changes with the specific (idiographic) needs of the student. Another aspect to the mentoring relationship that Professor Jack is mindful of is that is it Sometimes the evolution is driven from within the We have a lot of variability as far as career orientation, age, their skills, what they are interested in, how steady and firm that is. Some students come Professor Jack sees that students grow and evolve through the doctoral study process, and that can create new interests that instigate change for the students. Other times, a change dynamic can have an external origin, as he stated: Students go through all sorts of challenges divorces and job losses and... So part of it is listening to them on that and making sure that I'm at least aware of it a nd at least being aware that it might be impacting their progress and their degree. Professor Jack current trajectory. Professor Jack also sees I probably came to the realization that I enjoy this part of what I do, and I would not want For Professor Jack mentoring is also a reciprocal proce ss. I have previously related several passa ges in which Professor Jack describes the reciprocal learning that he feels he benefits from as a result of partaking in a mentorship with his protgs. The
221 the follow ing passage, Professor Jack describes his approach to sharing: I think our students, and the junior faculty, and others do want some substance, whether it's our expertise in design, or statistics, or measurement. I think that's critical. Without something to give or share, the relationship wouldn't be complete. But just having the technical and expertise isn't enough, because sometimes you have to be a good listener, and try to understand where they're coming from, and what they need, and how to support th eir development. I think it's having expertise along with those interper sonal skills would be critical. For Professor Jack mentoring is not a one way transaction wherein he delivers directives or deposits knowledge into the protgs. Rather, he is sensiti ve to the indications from the students on how to meet their needs and assist their growth. He further explicated is reciprocal mentoring style: Well, I'm certainly getting a lot of feedback from students either through words or what they're producing to e ither adjust or make some changes. Sometimes, you have some information that you think a student can do X, Y and Z. Then, you find out that they really can't. So, there's some movement backwards in trying to figure out where they're at. I think I've gotten a little bit better at, maybe, withholding judgment because sometimes students come in and there's an appearance of some abilities that don't show up. I'm assuming less and trying to use a period of time where we can get a little bit more data to really h elp move them in certain directions. But, before I think I assumed a little bit too much and then acted on those assumptions and they weren't always accurate assumptions.
222 Remember, Professor Jack is assigned his protgs at the beginning of their doctoral studies, whereas the other mentors reported that they had first experienced their protgs as students in one of their classes, and then entered into the mentoring relationship consensually. This context would seem to indicate that Professor Jack has a little bit more basic groundwork to cover in his reciprocal exchanges and negotiations with his protgs as compared to the other mentors, at least, initially. Another facet to Professor Jack collabora ting with protgs. He shared an interesting perspective on collaboration: looking at the type of indicators that we wanted to be evaluated by, because care and collaborati on is one part of the co llege, that we thought that should be reflected in our work with students. In addition to collaboration being part of the values of his department and the College of Education, Professor Jack also embraces collaboration as part of h is role as a mentor, as he described co writing a paper for publication with a protg: role of a mentor; it's not as efficient for sure, but there are a lot of benefits to get students introduced to, how do you put to gether idea collaborating; he replied: I do, for the most part. And I do a lot of it. . I know you w anted to take a look at my vita but you can see that whether its collaboration, faculty faculty, faculty students, f aculty within our department, faculty outside of our department, faculty in our department outside, and students out side the department... I mean, there's probably e very combination on that list.
223 Upon inspection of his curriculum vita, I did indeed find numerous examples of Professor Jack collaborating with doctoral students on publications and presentations. Professor Jack His Negatives in Mentoring Professor Jack reported a few areas of negative mentoring experiences. The first area of negativity he described revolved around values. For Professor Jack it can be a as he descr ibed: Well, since the PhD is primarily a research degree, and it doesn't happen so much in our department, but Well I re ally don't want to it is sort of a hard place to start from because that is sort of what w e are all about. Now that can change, but I think there have b een some students who really, t hey maybe want an administrative position and the PhD was needed. So they didn't have that orientation. So it prob ably . has made the relationship not as much fun. Professor Jack values research. Another disconnect in values that Professor Jack experiences as negative revolves around the concept of quality, as he related: From a negative side, when I think of some students I have worked with, there can be a resi stance or an orientation. The orientation that drives me crazy will be something Well I am going to finish this in a year. And nobody is going to read my dissertation, so it doesn't matter if it is not that good I just want to be That orientation usually leads into trouble with the quality of the document. And because I am associated with it, it is not something that I feel comfortable with.
224 Professor Jack clarified what he meant by quality. For him, quality is not the same thing as perfection, as he explained : And it's really the values . when there's some orientation of thinking that nobody's going to read my dissertation, therefore, it's OK to do work that you know is not good. There's one thing when you do the best you can and maybe it's got problems versus you know that it's not good and your rationale is: Well, nobody's going to read it. That's just not a value that I think we want from any of our students, and I certainly don't want from any of my students. Professor Jack went on to explain that he finds it enjoyable to share in the developmental journey when a protg commits to the quality endeavor, however: idea of quality is pretty impo rtant, I think. Our department, overall, really aims to be the best, and we want to set high standards for our students. I mean, the dissertations are not perfect, but you really want to try to make it the best you can. Yeah, I would say that that's a big one. A disconnect or a conflict in values can create a negative mentoring experience for Professor Jack Another condition that seems to magnify the negativity of a disconnect in values is the number of students that are admitted to Professor Jack tment, as he detailed: The dilemma is that the College of E ducation tend s to admit way too many students for the faculty that we have. And some of the students that we admit, even within our program, may not have the orientations that are aligned with what we are all about. So there can be a little bit of a disconnect.
225 Professor Jack sees the number of students who are admitted to his department as an additional factor that can facilitate the occurrence of negative mentoring experiences. He explained, howev er, how the source of that factor is institutional: And that negative on mentoring [admitting too many students] is really not a function of students. But one of the things that I think has changed with my views of mentoring over time versus when I did my own dissertation on mentoring is the number of... I mean, you could see I came in today . I had students that I was going to meet with at 10 to get them set up for an exam . but everything got delayed because I got on the phone with . someone else that I'm trying to get her moving forward. So it's just too many students, just the numbers of students that we're trying to juggle. You can't do the type of mentoring that you want to do. There are just people that fall through the cracks. It is not just the disconnect in values between himself and protgs that can create negativity for Professor Jack ; he feels that the number of students al so precludes him from providing the quality of mentoring that he would prefer to do, and that is also a negativ e experience for him. He continued to describe the enrollment expectation for his department: I do think there is a numbers game here. We've had this dis cussion within our department how many students can reasonably be here where you have a fairly good idea of where they're at, what are their needs, and how can we support those. The university might like us to bring in ten students a year, but with four faculty and you don't want the newer faculty to have too many students. We were thinking that maybe it shouldn't be ten maybe it should be four and maybe it
226 should be two so that every other year you might be gaining one or two students. To me, that's the most critical part because you can only keep track of so many things and there's only so many hours in the day. In addition to the number of students admitted yearly to the department, Professor Jack also described the effect of a departmental colleague leaving on sabbatical: It's like when you're in a 7 Eleven and you pull out a soda, another drops in. So just when you think you're going to have some time to really maybe get back into a more comfortable meeting schedule or a pattern that you feel better about, something else drops in, whether it's J. being on sabbatical this year or someone else going on s abbatical, so that the pace has picked up a lot at the university. . Talking to students, maybe they feel like they're getting attention, and they're getting the mentoring that they would like If they sa Yes, I know what you're saying. I would li because in the long run, some time spent early on probably would pay bigger dividends later on. But we're in this rush mode. It's really n ot a negative. It's just the current reality. So, by saying that it doesn't fit easily into my daily routine, it doesn't mean that it's like I dread meeting with students, but I wish it c ould be a little bit different. Professor Jack summarized his concern s regarding the number of students admitted to his Another contributing factor that can introduce negative elements into mentoring for Professor Jack has to do with his experience of being
227 services to the institution, which therefore decreases the time he would like to devote to mentoring. He explained: Literally, you could spend every hour of the day and still not really do what you need to do. So the student that I need to call in a bit, she's down three hours from here so we don't meet face to face, but we do a lot over the phone. And she's had some personal challenges, but she's at that point where she has to finish. S o there are some deadlines. So just speaking to her over the phone and trying to get that all d one and teaching classes and . you just feel like you're running from one thing to the next. And whereas there might have been a time where it would be nice to sit down in a more relaxed way and catch up with people. So it's like there's not enough time to do that. So that's a frustration. Professor Jack continued: I think I have grown in some ways [as a mentor], but am I handling the [mentoring] relationship s the way I would lik e to? I would say: no. That is, I feel like ideally I know what I would like to do, and what I am doing is a lot less than what I ideally would like to do. . I don't have the time. I asked Professor Jack about some of the things th at he would like to do more of with his protgs, if he did have the time. He responded: Well, really keeping track of them a little bit better. That is I have a student right now, and I have . probably four I could dredge up, that I haven't heard fr om them in probably a month and a half. The last time I had a conversations with them we had said, and this is not only from me but the graduate school says, You're going t Well, we had talked Well,
228 what are the things that are on this li There are things that are on that list th at I know should have been done; so they are not done. I haven't heard from them, but what I would like to do is get on t he phone Hey, we got thi s list and So we spend time making up the list with the deadlines, but now I haven't had the opportunity to really call them up and check with them. Now, I'm sure if I check with them, I'm sure it's not good. But if I did have the time to call them up, then that might get them moving and doing it. There are several students that fall into that camp. So the students who are right here, they'll pop right in and it's not easy to avoid. The ones who are off campus and are in the same boat, He y, I want to call this but time has just run out. Professor Jack Professor Jack has too many things to do, and not enough time to d o them in the fashion that he would like to including mentoring He related: The challenge is really time. . B eing accessible [to the protgs] I think is key, but when you have the number o f students that we have plus, t here is a grant that is due t he 23rd. . Well, that's something new that's now going to be added in the queue, and it's time sensitive. Then we have courses that we do face to face. Now they want them online, so we have to do that. I'm on faculty council. I'm asked to do the tenure and promotion now. I'm on the University IRB. So there are a lot of things, and the numbers of students we have are probably too much for the number of faculty that we have. Standards are important, but you find that you're
229 working all the time and still n ot meeting or doing it the way you really w ant to do it. Professor Jack illustrated some of the specific needs that the institution seems to rely heavily on the professors in his department to fulfill: Then knowing that we have a fairly large demand outside of our department. When these grants need to be written almost every departme nt will come to the . department or the research department here. There's a section that has to be done on the methodology and the IES grants are very competitive and they have to have the cutting edge methodology, so they're going to come here. Knowing that's a fairly common thing, we have t Surprise: we need a couple weeks of your time to help write th at section and think through it Pr ofessor Jack further described the inundation he has been experiencing between mentoring, teaching and service to the institution: Like, I look at my schedule today; I have 11 o'clock to 1 to follow up on a qualifying exam that was done this summer. That's been a little delayed, but finally we're getting to that. Then at one o'clock, we're doing interviews on trying to develop an online course evaluation that I have to run over to the 21st Century Teaching, and then come back by four to talk with a student who was J.'s student who now we're going to transition. Then I have to fit in a conversation with a guy. So it's just too much overscheduled. It's like when you over schedule your kids. The enjoyment is y ou start wondering. That's just the way it is. Eve rything on that list that I gave you are things that have to be done, and they're critical. It's just there aren't enough hours in the day. Whereas sometimes you might want to have
230 a conversation with a student for a longer period of time to really sort so me things out, you're putting it on the clock, because you know you've got to move to another meeting The recent conversion of Transition University to a top tier research institution has also been a contributing factor to the time pressures. Professor Ja ck offered and Well, the trajectory is that when I got here 19 years ago, it was a very different type of institution. As it's moved up, and it's searching or trying to gain AAU status, there are cert ain indicators. You can see from the president, to the provost, to the graduate school, to our deans, there's a press now for: OK, if we want to reach this level, we have to do all of these things. But we don't have the resources like some of the AAU insti tutions, so we're trying to do a lot of things. Somewhat like when you train for a marathon, you push yourself, and you end up doing it. Sometimes you feel pain at the end, but you still do it. I could look back at when things started changing, but the las t two or three years, it's really ratcheted up. Whereas I feel like I have more of the skills, I probably have less of the time. If you go back in time to those earlier periods where you had less demands on your time. That's probably the biggest theme for today. Less control over my time, more demands. When the Dean says OK t's got to be written for your department to talk about what you're doing and how you do it and all your policies. We sort of know what we do and we do it anyway, but now we have got to formalize it into a document, which takes time. It's got to be done, but it's not something I would choose to do if I had a choice, so that type
231 of thing. That interferes. If I have to do that then I don't have the time t o maybe check on well where's this student I haven't seen . in three weeks. I have not heard from her and I haven't even emailed her. I've been thinking I need to send her an email to see what ended up happening because we had planned to have a conversation. Professor Jack students: Even the frustrations that I have, I'm wondering if it would be much diminished if other things could be cleared out. It's probably not a realistic thin g. Transition University is where it is now and it's not going back, so it's going to be this way. Right now, you may be aware, there a re some new policies about time to degree and it's an important indicator. A lot of our older students or t he students who were admitted to the programs many years ago, they were never pushed to be on this pace but now they are, so suddenly it's like the rules have changed. They've known about the rules, so it's not like it's changed overnight, but people have lives and suddenly they'r You have to finish this in nine months and if Having too many student or too many things to do and not enough time can also lead Professor Jack to alter his preferred teaching style, which he also experiences as negative: And I guess there can be an intersection. Wh en time is tight, and let's say a student has some gaps in writing. Because often times you will be given a document and you have to read it, edit it and try to provide feedback's so that it
232 makes sense. Whereas if you had more time, you could probably do a little bit more teaching. But sometimes it's just faster to do some quick editing on it and, you know, hope that next draft is better. Sometimes there are things that I will do for the student that I normally would have not done. It may take an hour for me to do it and it make take two hours if I do it in a combination of teaching. So it's the time. In our department, we probably a verage 50 dissertations a year. hav was the final area of mentoring frustration that Professor Jack discussed: There are some [students] that have some major [writing] problems. I would say that there is a minority of students who can write well and who write a nd edit their own work. I think what I try to co mmunicate to students is that, and, you know, I have an example in mind of someone who sent me something. I got it. And it's a Friday night and its one o'clock in the morning, and I am reading this first chap ter. And it was terrible. There were sentences that you could see had been copied and pasted [repeated] I calmed down. I made all the edits and th en I These are your tasks. One, get an APA Manual, because you violated every APA rule in this ten pages. And two, read what you write, because if you ha and there were a couple of other things. And he was very apologetic. He said he was rushed, and he wanted to get me something. But it's not a good use of my time. Professor Jack related other writing and proof reading lapses he has encountered while
233 And so I think some of our students have gotten into the habit of sending us first drafts. . I don't have the time to be wor king with first drafts and I don't think I should. Personally, I think people need to sit back after they've written something and review it . . I had one, and the guy had written a sentence. I think it had six words in the sentence, and four of them w ere the same word. Do you ever listen to what It's so funny, because the y'll come back and they'll go, Yeah, Or there will be a sentence that will be almost an entire page long. . In some ways the re is a positive part of that is that you can see the growth, but the challenge or maybe the frustration is sometimes when you've given feedback three times on the same issue, you would like to not see it on the fourth one. But some of our students do take four times. Professor Jack concluded his observations on protg writing deficits with: Sometimes [students will] say Well, I kne Some of them need to take a little more responsibility. That message is said many times, an d so it can be frustrating when it's not always, it's not addressed. Professor Jack reported a greater number and variety of negative mentoring experiences, his job. Pro fessor Jack His Teleology of Mentoring Mentoring, for Professor Jack is also teleological, or purposeful. Professor Jack recognizes that the goal of the protg is the initial influence that shapes his approach to the purpose of his mentoring, as he related: Part of it is a student that wants an academic job, there are certain things that I
234 probably put more emphasis on ver sus someone who is, say, working for the school system and they are going to continue on with that job. Once congruence on the ultimate purpose of the mentorship is established between the protg and Professor Jack he then begins to craft appropriate act ivities and experiences for the protg to garner the requisite skills to be a successful professor or school district leader: So, from there I think there are a variety of purposes. I've been trying to include more of the students on projects even when th ey can't be paid just so they can get a better sense of how they handle collaborative activities because that's a big thing in our department. I guess there are a lot of purposes. The classic mentoring, I would say, would fit in there with, what I would sa y, So, there are some specific things. Understanding policies and procedure, how to get through thi s, technical skills, what do [they] need to know. The purpose to the mentorship continues to adjust to the particular career stage and n eeds the protg progresses into, as Professor Jack elaborated: I think that there are a lot of purposes and it varies depending on the stage and the student. So, sticking with the concrete details of the guy from North Carolina, his purpose now as a new A ssistant Professor is to establish his career. He's at an institution that probably doesn't have the technical support. So, he's relying on the people that he knows from his home institution. So, I see the purpose as to help build his career to the point w here he'll be able to do more of this on his own. Even if he was here at Transition University, he would be working with methodologists because these grants tend to be on the technical side and not many
235 people outside of our area have those skills. So, it' s a logical thing to do. So, the purpose is just continuing to work with him and see how he grows. I'll probably do some articles with him and he's contacted me about just other things related to being an Assistant Professor, the tenure process. Professor Jack attainment of his or her goal of becoming a professor, a tenured professor, or a school district professional. Professor Jack His Motivations to Mentor When I asked Professor Jac k what motivated him to mentor students, he replied what I believe. . especially at the doctoral level, the courses are only a part of the whole Pr ofessor Jack believes that mentoring is an effective and primary teaching and learning strategy that is especially integral to the doctoral education process. Another motivation to participate in mentoring Professor Jack reported was his enjoyment of working with protgs, even though he recognizes his mentoring style is I enjoy working with students. I would say I have seen, maybe in our department, some of the relationships that th e faculty had with the students are, I probably set a few more boundaries than some, although I do talk to students from home . . But I wouldn't call up a student and I wouldn't expect a student to call me up to say, Hey, d What do you t hink about this or anything like that.
236 Despite the frustrations students can sometimes engender, Professor Jack basically enjoys working with them. Furthermore, when I would Jack basically likes his job, but as he The desire to help people learn and grow is another motivating factor that Professor Jack summarized with: Yeah, I would say that is primary. he viewed his mentoring as a service to the institution, or to his profession, or to his discipline, he responded: Definitely. I think it only helps us if we have a reputation as being good mentors a nd good developers of the talent that we have. So I think it is good for our department, which makes it good for our college. It makes it good for the university and ultimately good for the profession. That is probably the best way that we can support the profession, by training our students and educating them and making sure that they are prepared. It is a nice feeling when the students do feel that they can step into a job and feel confident. Professor Jack sees how his mentoring contributes to his depart ment, the college of education, the institution, and ultimately, his discipline and profession. Additionally, Professor Jack receives gratification ( been successful in facilitating a new professor or school district professional who is competent and confident. Professor Jack His Values as a Mentor Professor Jack sees mentoring as a contribution to his discipline, but not a duty, as he described in his narrative:
237 I think working with students and helping them develop so that they can contribute and do well in their profession, I think that is rewarding, and a benefit to the discipline. So that's what we do try to do. We want the students to be prepared such that th ey can do the things that they, t hey have lots of options. So I think that is a contribution. Duty sounds more like it's an obligation, and less of a choice. So I would see it as something that I value and voluntarily do. Professor Jack the negative aspects he reported as related to his mentoring endeavors. Professor Jack also values relationship as a medium teaching and learning in general, and the mentoring relationship in specific as he stated : And I think mentoring is a form of education, teaching. It is the full package. It builds on relationships. I have always been interested in relationships. I have studied parent, mom infant relationships and couple relationships. Mentoring is just another one of those relationships. To me they have always been key in learning. I very m uch buy into the way you learn especially re search is through this close relationship, that the subtleties of research are best learned worki ng closely with s omeone. Professor Jack also values research. He described how some students are in a research, and how that was problematic from his perspective. He further explicated how he valued research: I like students who will be engaged in research, value it, and try to publish. It will always serve them well, especially if they're going for an academic job. But, even
238 non academic jobs, there's an emphasis on trying to get publicati ons, applying for grants, having a record of scholarship is key. To me, that' a real positive thing of having students who are com mitted to writing, researching. That's something that I value. We need, as faculty, to publish [research] and we are committed to our students. It's a good marriage I think. Jack Another value that Professor Jack espouses is that of quality, as he related how problematic it was when students did not care if their dissertation was a quality product, That orientation usually leads into trouble with the quality of the document. And because I am associated with it, it is not something that I feel comfortable with. . That's just not a value that I think we want from any of our students, and I certainly don't want from any of my students. Additionally, I previously shared several examples of about his concern th at being Jack commitment to quality is something that he tries to share and model for his students, as he related: Yes, I try to share what I know and my experiences. I am hoping that I'm sharing. It's funny, because we had this discussion with the faculty, we tend to really get into things, and we love it [smile]. We're looking at journal articles and we're searching things out, and sometimes we have this assumption that the students are like that, I guess it goes b ack to an earlier point. Some of the students are not exactly like that, and some of them maybe fake it a little, others don't even fake it.
239 That's just their mindset. But being in an academic job, you have to really be always at that cutting edge and wanting to, even if you're not reading all of the articles, looking at the table of contents, what a re other people doing. And we're all like that in this department, as faculty members, we go well beyond. If we kn ow we need to know x, we go x plus some, whereas some of our students are like x minus. And so we've tried to share that, and maybe we've moved some students, but I think we can sometimes be frustrated that we're not getting them exactly at that same enthu siasm that we seek. And we share it as faculty members, so it' Oh, this is just I don't know if it was just the way we were all trained, or the fact that we are all here and got hired under the same set of rules, but it's something that we can relate to, and I think sometimes we have problems when we don't see that in our students. Part of quality, for Professor Jack means exceeding expectations, and Professor Jack makes an effort to model this for his students. the entire process until they finish value of helping for Professor Jack Another concept that Professor Jack values is growth, as when he described what a po sitive experience it was for him to mentor a doctoral student who was not majoring in measurement, learning. univ Yeah, and certainly this one up in North Carolina, he's not part of the University anymore and I would love for him to get the grant. So, anything I can do to Professor Jack also values his own growth as an individual and a
240 learner: I just enjoy the whole aspect of learning and developing, and continuing to grow. I mean, I think it's probably a lifelong developmental process of continuing to grow. . Then really sharing ou t with students and working with students that I've learned from them, and really even the students that have been challenging, it's sort of a another opportunity to grow. Professor Jack teresting variation on the value of growth, as he stated: In some ways there is a positive part of that is that you can see the growth, but the challenge or maybe the frustration is sometimes when you've given feedback three times on the same issue, you wo uld like to not see it on the fourth one. He shared another example of his propensity to find a silver lining in an apparent rain cloud: Well, we do have, have had and will probably always have students who are characters in some way. Being a character can manifest itsel f in ways that some some opportunities to see some things that yo u normally wouldn't see Professor Jack sees that even when a student can seem to be challenging, is can be another opportunity to learn about people and to grow. Professor Jack also values helping, as he described Professor Jack Summary To summarize: Professor Jack sees mentoring as a relationship in general and a learning relationship in particular, with some familial aspects that extend to doctoral
241 students; this relationship includes reciprocal sharing or collaborations that produce mutual benefits for himself and his protgs. He sees career help and psycho social support as a basic part of his mentoring gestalt. When he mentors, it is intentional. He sees part of his professional gestalt Professor Jack the department, the College of Education, the institution, and his discipline to produce new professors and school district professionals. Part of his motivation to ment or is the fact that he believes profoundly in mentoring and its effectiveness for helping and supporting the learning and development of students. He also mentors because he enjoys mentoring and finds it gratifying, and it is an integral part of what makes his job enjoyable. As a mentor, he values: relationship, helping, mentoring, growth, research, quality and giving back to his profession. Professor Jack has identified some factors that contribute to negative experiences in relation to his mentoring. One factor that can create negativity in his mentorships is a students have weak writing and proofreading skills. Other factors that contribute to negativity or frustration in his mentorships are having too many job duties to perform, and not enough time to do them or to do them well. He considers mentoring to be time
242 intensive. Despite these challenges, he still describes mentoring as a pleasant, enjoyable and rewarding experi ence. He feels that he receives several benefits from mentoring, such as: learning, reciprocal learning and sharing, a sense of efficacy, enjoyment and an overall positive affect (good feeling). Professor Jack recognizes that mentoring is an essential part of his overall job satisfaction. mentor self. Figure 7 Professor Jack: His Mentor Self Epilogue to Professor Jack From My Reflective Journal, January 14, 2010. Last November, suggested that I use a different pseudonym for Professor Enjoyable, rather than the Teacher Guide Helper Quality Research Growth Mentoring Contribution to Profession Helping Relationship Believes in Mentoring Enjoyment Gratification Helping Give back to Profession Loves Job Self Concept Motivations His Values as a Mentor
243 is necessary was completely convinced of the value of her idea I could clearly see the emergence of interviews and a emerged from their data. Most of their new names emerged rather evidently, such as when Professor Jack That's probably the biggest theme for today. Less control over my time, more demands. Considering all the negatives associated with mentoring that Professor Jack (Bolman & Deal, 1997, p. 378) that guides your daily actions may play for a mentor. The fact that Professor Jack values mentoring, conducting quality research, and lifelong learning and growth may be primary impetuses that keep him moving forward through negative experiences. Professor Jack frustrations that ema nate from the very things he values may help to explain how he manages to maintain a positive affect regarding his current situation of being overscheduled. I find it remarkable that in spite of numerous irritations and pressures, he still enjoys mentoring doctoral students, and his job. It would be very interesting to investigate further the details regarding what makes him resilient in this manner. The Sixth Case: Professor Donna Structural Prologue to Professor Donna Structural F rom M y Reflective Jou rnal, June 8, 2009. I arrived early this morning at the office suite for my first interview with Professor Donna ; I and the departmental receptionist at the desk in the hallway seemed to
244 includes a bottle of water for the interviewee) in the chair across from the door to Dr. Donna the posters on the walls. Professor Donna arrived promptly and I began to set up my recording equipment for our interview. Her office had a similar configuration to the o desk, filing cabinet, shelves loaded with books, and morning sunlight streaming in through the outside window. I noticed pictures of three young boys her sons, I learned, all between the ages of three and 10 years old. She gratefully accepted the bottle of water and relaxed into the chair behind her desk for our discussion. She seemed to devote her full attention to my questions, and often paused pensively for a moment to gather her thoughts before responding. I became aware of her con versational rhythm and settled comfortably into her moments of reflection, not wanting to disturb her thought process. Bracketing: What Do I T hink and H ow Do I Feel A bout Professor Donna Structural? F rom M y Reflective Journal, January 16, 2010 I have just listened to, while verifying, both transcripts for Professor Donna I think that Professor Donna is a dedicated and engaged mentor. I feel grateful that she took time out of her busy schedule to spend over two hours talking with me about her m entoring experiences my second interview with her almost never transpired due to her busy schedule. I realize that I have stated similar sentiments regarding the other mentors in this study; I feel that it is appropriate that I address this condition. But first, before I address my specific approach to bracketing, I feel that it would be illuminating for the reader to
245 discuss one fundamental issue surrounding the process of bracketing. Specifically, phenomenological researchers state that bracketing is one step in the data analysis process, and yet their descriptions or instructions on exactly how to execute bracketing are sparse and general. In November, 2009 I attended a defense of a phenomenological dissertation at the university at which I am enrolled; I was quite relieved to hear the defendant, Michael D. Smith, report the same absence in the literature regarding specific description of the bracketing process (Smith, 2009). In his book Phenomenological R esearch Methods Moustakas (1994) devotes half of a chapter to the process of bracketing, providing a little more detail that describes the bracketing process. He writes: I see [bracketing] as a preparation for deriving new knowledge, but also as an experience in itself, a process of setting aside predil ections, prejudices, predispositions, and allowing things, events, and people to enter anew into consciousness, and to look and see them again, as if for the first time. (p. 85) The most descriptive passage Moustakas offers for bracketing is as follows: I must practice the Epoche [bracketing] alone, its nature and its intensity require my absolute presence in absolute aloneness. I concentrate fully, and in an enduring way, on what is appearing there before me and in my consciousness. I return to the origina l nature of my conscious experience. I return to whatever is there in memory, perception, judgment, feeling, whatever is actually there (p. 87). . The challenge is to silent the directing voices and sounds, internally and externally, to remove from mys elf manipulating or predisposing influences and to
246 become completely and solely attuned to just what appears, to encounter the phenomenon, as such, with a pure state of mind. (p. 88) es it as: Letting the preconceptions and prejudgments enter consciousness and leave freely, being just as receptive to them as I am to the unbiased looking and seeing, This meditative procedure is repeated until I experience an internal sense of closure . until I feel an internal readiness to enter freshly, encounter the situation, issue, or person directly, and receive whatever is offered and come to know it as such. (p.89) Moustakas candidly discusses that bracketing is difficult to perfectly achiev e in every reflection and self dialogue, the intention that underlies the process, and the attitude and frame of reference, significantly reduce the influence of pre conceived thoughts, judgments, and biases. (p. 90) It has been through my reflective journaling that I have wrestled with gaining an understanding of bracketing; I have also come to understand some observations regarding my particular application of bra cketing that merit explication for the reader. Specifically, I feel that my execution of bracketing is mediated by four factors, which are: first, the fact that I do not just read the transcripts before bracketing but also listen to the interviews at the s ame time; second, how I experience listening to the interviews; third, how I engage in bracketing; and fourth, the amount of time that has elapsed between the analysi s.
247 As I have previously mentioned, scholars indicate that the first step in phenomenological analysis is to read through the entire interview transcript to get a Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009, p. 205). The total length of the combined interviews for each of the mentors in this study ranges from two hours to almost three hours, due to the fact that most mentors spent more than one hour talking with me for most of the interviews. When I read the transcript s, I also listen to both interviews. I listen to both interviews for one mentor consecutively, without interruption. How I listen to these interviews is very reminiscent to me of my former career as a professional classical organist, particularly, how I wo uld practice. It was not uncommon for me to sit at the organ console learning or practicing a fugue by J.S. Bach for four hours at a time, without pausing for a break. In fact, I used to have to set my watch alarm so that I would not practice through class es or meetings. So, sitting at an organ keyboard or computer keyboard for three or four hours at a stretch and listening intensely and absorbedly is a common practice for me. Additionally, four rigorous years of aural skills training at music school has p voiced contrapuntal masterpieces) and nuances (such as identifying who sang what wrong note in a choir.) Currently, I am not able to practice the organ for four hours every day, however, typically I do meditate for one hour every day longer, if my schedule allows. (More about meditation, momentarily.) Sullivan, 2000) I am immersed in a s I listen to the interviews. I experience more than just timbre (musical qualities) and melody of their voice, I hear
248 their breath, I feel their tempo and timing of fluid speech and pauses. For me, this is the most enjoyable part of the analysis process and before I know it, the mentor has finished their story. Because I take the extra time to not only read the transcript but to also listen to the transcript, and because that allows me to engage more deeply not only with th activation, it seems to result in a more vivid recall of the interview, the mentor, and how I felt at the time, as opposed to just reading the transcript. So, at this point in the phenomenological analysis process, I am remembering, even re experiencing, how impressed I was with the mentor, because there were aspects about each of them that I did find impressive. But I am also recalling elements of their men toring that I disagreed with, or found slightly disappointing or even startling. At this point in the process, I reread the journal entries I wrote after each interview; this also enhances my recall of the experience. Now begins the bracketing process, an d I ask myself: what do I think and how do I feel about this mentor? I close my eyes for several moments and view these memories remain in this meditative state until t hese recalled memories and feelings dissipate like white clouds evaporating out of the blue sky. What remains is: what do I think and how do I feel about this mentor now somewhere between two to four months after I have interviewed them? I had been worried about the amount of time that has elapsed between conducting
249 journaling, I feel that this passage of time has had no deleterious effects on my research process. Rath er, I feel that is has been a beneficial part of my analysis procedure. If I had engaged in the phenomenological analysis shortly after the interviews with the mentor, I believe that my perspectives on the mentors would have been unduly slanted toward the to not include them in my report. I believe that the passage of time has allowed me to reflect / journal on these negative elements and ultimately find the courage to integrate them into the story of my research. This passage of time has also allowed me to progress through more stages of the research, which for me has been a developmental process. (fill in the blank) is a dedicated and engaged mentor. I feel grateful that s/he took time out of her/his cannot draw any conclusion about these mentors regarding whe ther or not they were idiographic endeavor someone who may be a good mentor for me might be a horrible mentor for someone else. Furthermore, I could not make a good/bad judgment about a mentor without experi encing a good deal more of their mentoring beyond two to three hours of conversation. So it would be meaningless, if not imprudent, for me to offer any such comment about a mentor in this study. The bracketing process that I have here described does allow me, however, to distill my thoughts and feelings into rational comments that I can share with the reader, based on my 12 years of experience as a protg. What do I think about these mentors? What I can say is that the mentors in this study all happen to be dedicated: they think that
250 mentoring is important and make it a priority in their job routines. The mentors in this study all happen to be engaged: they make an effort to interact with their protgs and to engage in the mentoring endeavor. Those may be good qualities for a mentor to have, but according to the individuals involved. And how do I feel about the mentors? After the passage of a few months and after engaging in the bracketing process, I am poised to begin analyzing moment, my feeling now is gr atitude for their time and their help. I feel that the elapsed time and my bracketing process has facilitated my emotional disengagement from the mentors. Because bracketing is difficult to perfectly achieve (Moustakas, 1994), I reveal my current thoughts and feelings to the reader, and attempt to set them aside (to the extent that is humanly possible) and focus on the experience of the mentors. Let the analysis begin! Professor Donna Structural Introduction Professor Donna is a Caucasian woman, approximately 45ish years old, slightly taller than average for a woman, with brown hair that brushes the tops of her shoulders. Professor Donna professor; prior to that she worked as a school psychologist and a research scientist studying children with ADHD. Our first interview took place in her office at Transition University. She was nearly unable to meet with me for a second interview due to her schedule at the un iversity, and a health issue that had arisen with one of her sons which further complicated her daily schedule. For the second interview I offered to meet her at
251 her home near the university, for her convenience; she graciously agreed. We sat at a table ne stled in front of large bay windows in her dining room; morning sunlight streamed through the windows, accenting the ambient warmth of the pleasant dcor of her house. (From my Reflective Journal, September 24, 2009 .) Professor Donna Her Self as Mento r W hen I asked Professor Donna how she viewed her role as a mentor to her doctoral protgs, she responded: I think the first thing is that I try to help people get organized in terms of what they want to accomplish in their major of their program. . What I try to do as a thesis chair and a doctoral chair is try to help people get structured up and see that everything we're doing now is leading towards the goal of graduation and whatever they want to do beyond that. Professor Donna offered a few examples of how she tries to provide organization and structure for her students: I think that sometimes people feel overwhelmed as they contemplate finishing a degree. So I try to help them create a roadmap, so that they can have all the s teps laid out including when they're going to defend the thesis, finish their course work, take their qualifying exams. There's probably like 15 different steps, so I have them actually write out what the steps are that they need to complete, come up with a date by which they want to complete it, and talk about any roadblocks they are going to encounter and how they are going to overcome those roadblocks. So that's an exercise I do with them pretty early on. Professor Donna sees her role as a mentor as he lping students to create a framework for
252 completing all the steps to finish their degree, in general. She also seeks to help the students develop a framework for completing the stages of the dissertation, in particular: Also, creati ng a timeline for them, what I find is that . there's a lot of course work in this program and a lot of times people's own research, their . dissertation research, gets put on the back burner. So, I feel like another role as a mentor that I play is to help them keep that in the forefront of their minds. I create an Excel spreadsheet with them sort of breaking down all of the steps of the . dissertation, then we come up with a timeline. I'm usually on top of people in terms of calling them regularly and asking them how it is going, are they meeting their goals, those kinds of things. So I guess in one sense I try to help them with organization, from the point they're at to graduation and beyond graduation. She concluded her description of how she sees her role as a men tor as facilitating I feel like structuring people up and getting them organized and helping them to see that if you just do x, y, z you are going to get your goal . instead of [students] an amorphous thing that is so far away, like: There's no way I could ever write a dissertat Another aspect that Professor Donna sees in her mentoring role is that of providing career information and g uidance, as she explained: When people come into the program, I think there is a big teaching component to mentoring because they don't even realize what options would be available to them. . I have a lot of people coming straight out of college, and . they know they're interested in school psychology, but they don't even have any idea of all
253 the different options that are available to them. So, I think there's a process that you go through with the student of first teaching them what options are av ailable, and then helping them understand. So, I don't get a lot of people coming in who are like already seasoned professionals. They're pretty much right out of college, and pretty unaware of the different options that are o ut there for them. Professor D onna recognizes that because her protgs have less professional experience mentoring role typically includes helping the student become aware of and understand career optio ns that are available after their doctoral degree. When I asked Professor Donna The first thing that came to my mind is someone who guides you . . I really like the idea of being able to help a younger person see the She explained : Another important thing that I think I see myself doing as a mentor is talking to people about the bro ader context of their lives. . So, I think I've tried to help my students not only focus on becoming a [school] psychologist and finding their niche in terms of what they really love to study but also helping them look at the broader context of their l ives and say OK, what do I want for myself and what do I want professionally, and what do I want personally and how am I going to merge the two. Another facet Professor Donna see in role as a mentor is that of a guide. She concluded I try to emphasize to them that you really can have a balanced life in
254 Professor Donna also sees her role as a mentor as teaching students about the dissertation and helping students through the ste ps of conceptualizing and executing the dissertation, as she described: I feel like a lot of the dissertation mentoring is first off helping people to choose an idea, to choose to pursue a topic that's going to be doable. Is it going to be doable? Is it go ing to give you something that you want to work on after you leave here, like set up the foundation for a program of research? And have you arrived at this topic based on enough review of the literature that you really underst and what other people are doin g . . G etting them to take a big first step, in ter ms of reading what's out there. Professor Donna continued to describe how she helps her protgs through the dissertation process: So, structuring them up enough to know OK here's what you need to do f irst. And then once you read the literature, you're going to see this idea of the funnel. That research proceeds in a way where we're not just all coming up with our own ideas, but rather we're building on other people's research. Then teaching them about the funnel, you know, you start broad then get narrower. I also teach them when they write a literature review to think about it as like an attorney making an argument in court. Like, the argument is going to end up with: OK, so all these things have been done, and now the next logical step in this research is your question. Trying to give them that broader understanding of how research proceeds, what are the steps you should take. Also, I think a lot of times people come in and have no idea where to start in the process or how to proceed once they have the lit review done.
255 OK, you should write chapter one first, then It doesn't necessarily make any sense to write chapter one first because that's really a summary of two and 3. I encourage them to write 2 then 3, and then 1. I think also then when people get to the stage of analyzing their data that's a stopping point f or some people. h my gosh how can I d Most of my students get past that OK and I usually try to send them to their stats person to help them with that. But then once you have all of the information, all of your da ta and the analysis completed, how do you sit down and write chapter 5? I think you first have to sit down and think about what all this stuff means and then create an outline for yourself. She concluded her description of how she, teaches, helps and guides her students through I think what I'm trying to do is get them to see the bigger picture and then show them the smaller steps. Professor Donna Her Experience of Mentoring Professor Donna describes her experience of continued with I don't feel like this has been a real publish or perish institution, as a result I feel like I've been able to spend more time mentoring students, and I really enjoy mentoring. Donna w hat it is about mentoring that she finds enjoyable. She replied: I think I really enjoy having people become passionate about things that I'm passionate about. For example, I really love to work with families who have kids with special needs, that's my are a. I think when I 'm mentoring someone and see [protgs] start to get emerged in that literature and really see what's exciting
256 about it, and then go out and ta Wo w, that was I think to see what I love, someone else really finding the excitement in that is exciting for me. For Professor Donna the experience of mentoring is also gratifying, as she proceeded to elaborate: I also feel like at the age that I'm at now . I know so much more now than I kn ew when I was their age, it's . gratifying, to know that I'm helping them to see some of things that I learned along the way. Professor Donna finds mentoring to be pleasant, as well as rewarding and satisfying (gratifying). She also does not find mentoring to be a difficult endeavor, as she Professor Donna Benefits from Mentoring One benefit that Professor Donna feels that she gets fro m mentoring is learning W he Oh my gosh I never read this I'll ask people if I can have a copy of it. Everybody has everything electronically now so it's so much easier. learning from her protgs: My best student ever, she's up in Ohio now . I'd give her an assignment, she could do a way better job than I could have ever have done on it. There's a PowerPoint that she put together for one of my classes and I still use it today. It's such a great PowerPoint even though she did it ten years ago. I updated a couple of things. S he just has an unbelievable way of putting information together, synthesizing information. . So, every once in a while I run into som ebody like
257 when I read their work, I actually learn new things myself about how to approach a topic or how to put things together. Professor Donna added, own research because a lot of people that I'm working with now actually are doing research in the same area that I'm doing research i Professor Donna also learns from her protgs about how to improve her mentoring, as she related: I guess I've also learned from some of my mentees what not to do in situations. I've had mentees freak out at practicum sites and over respond emotionall y to those situations, and I've been able to lo I probably should have coached her not to respond this way a So now, I know for the future that this is something I really n eed to impart to students: I f this kind of thing h appens you don't freak. Call me Another benefit Professor Donna sees as a result of her mentoring is a synergistic reciprocal learning and sharing, as she related: And then also, in terms of moving ahead with my own research, now, I think the last time I spoke about how I have this research group going, and there's no way I could do all the things that I'm doing now without all of the students that are working with me. We have four different major projects going o n, all research based. I feel like as much as I give, I get back, in terms of having students who really understand the research process, are able to be active contributors to the group.
258 Professor Donna lving them in a research team and then assigns each a small part of the project. The students develop various skills while contributing back valuable components of the project. When the students in the research group hold Professor Donna accountable, she also considers that to be a benefit from mentoring, as she explicated: I think what that has done for me is when you work on research in isolation and you have your own schedule, so if it gets put on the back burner, it could sit there for several months and nobody's going to put it on the front burner unless you get up yours elf and do it. But, when you're working with a group of people, you have deadlines you have to meet. You have accountability. So, working with my research group has given me much greater accountability for completing my own research. So, that's definitely been a benefit because the more people that I have work with me, the more people I'm accountable to. Professor Donna finds it beneficial that this accountability from her students helps her to stay on track with her own research. Another benefit that Pro fessor Donna receives from mentoring is recognition from colleagues for being a good mentor, as she described: I've also had people come to me, one of my colleagues. We have a new colleague and one of my other colleagues came to me. That new colleague want ed some advice about mentoring and the other professor Well, why don't you go to Professor Donna because she
259 Obviously, recognition from pe ers also contributes a feeling of efficacy as a mentor for Professor Donna as well. Professor Donna also views mentoring to be rewarding and satisfying, as she it' s very rewarding to be involved, especially with people who are just beginning their gratification, another benefit Professor Donna gets form mentoring is enjoyment as she explained: It's really enjoyable to be a . mentor. It brings you a lot of personal satisfaction. It takes time to become a good mentor. You shouldn't expect yourself to be a really great mentor right away. You have to learn. You have to make some mist akes. She added, I feel like there's so many decisions you have to make at that time in your Part of what Professor Donna finds enjoyable are the doctoral students, as she described: I'm part of the selection team of choosing people who are going to come into our program. So, I feel like that's a great honor to have. We have such a selective program. We have about 100 people that apply every year and we only choose about eight people. So, it's highly selective. We get people that come all over the country. We get wonderful, wonderful students. It's really exciting to get to work with these people. I really feel honored.
260 Professor Donna enjoys working with her protgs, and finds that to be part of what is beneficial about mentoring. Professor Donna What Mentoring Means for Her For Professor Donna part of mentoring means providing career support to her protgs. I previously described how Professor Donna recognizes that her doctoral students have a nascent professional identity, and therefore she makes certain to provide career information and guidance As s on in their programs, you know, what they want to do when they finish. Career support for Professor Donna also means working with students throughout their program and providing them with developmental opportunities to gain the skills needed to be a school psychologist, professor and/or researcher, as she described: And I feel like what the students have learned working with me is, first off, how to build a study from the bottom up, conceptualize the study. They have engaged in the data collection with me, so they go with me to the families' homes and interview the families. They've transcribed th e data . And then, now, one student and I are working the project manager for that study he and I are learning Atlas.ti together. We're coding and he also is going to be coding f or his thesis, because he's doing a . qualitative thesis, so I feel he's learning from that. We're all going to sit down together and try to make sense of it. We've already presented at a conference. We're all working together on a publication Providi ng opportunities and scaffolding for doing research, publishing and presenting are all part of the career support that Professor Donna provides in her mentoring.
261 Professor Donna described other career support that she provides to her doctoral students: I actually probably do a lot of mentoring in one of my classes . there's some things that I feel like students are left to do on their own that they may not do a very good job of. For example, keeping their vita up to date as they're going through thei r program. We all make our own vita and then we know what it looks like. But, do we ever really look at other people's? Or, do we have people review our vitas? So, that's one of the things I do in that class. I also do things like manuscript reviews in tha t class. So, they would actually review real manuscripts. Then, they see the real reviews from the people who actually reviewed them and the editor's decision. Professor Donna I really like to tell students about the things that, perhaps, you didn 't read about in your typical journal article about pursuing a career in academia. For example, how do you negotiate for a position? For Professor Donna mentoring also includes providing psychosocial support to protgs. Here is one example she related: I had one student, J., who is absolutely stellar. She could probably write an article better than I could. She came in stellar; she is just really just a bright person. In some classes that I had her in I would have students return in assignments anonymo usly, so that kind of thing as I was reading their work, and I could always immediately tell which one was hers. Just head and shoulders above the rest, just really fabulous. She would come in and I don 't think I did this well and there were many occasions
262 where I would tell h You know, J., your own level of expertise and your ideas of how well you are doing are just so out of sync with each other; you're so good. You have to start believing that y ou're better because you are stellar I don't know if she was just modest, or if she really didn't believe what she did was that great, so I had many conversations with her to try to improve her o wn sense of confidence and self esteem. I have already indi cated that Professor Donna creates research groups with her students in order to facilitate the students learning the convolutions of the research process; here is one example where she provided psycho social support to a group of her students: If we go to conferences and maybe there's five of us presenting, and we're waiting in the room for people to come Oh my God, please don't let anybody Wow, we've done all this work and these peo ple really want to know about it, I mean they're not here to critique us. They're here because they're interested in what we've done and we know a lot more than t Not that it always makes people OK, great more people co I think I try to explain to them what I went through because I understand that for a lot of people that can be very nerve wracking, thinking that people are going to be questioning your results or whatever. It never is that way; people jus t want to learn from you. Professor Donna recognizes that it is not only crisis situations that indicate the application of psycho social support; occasionally the circumstances are a little more sanguine, or at least calm. She proceeded to describe her ap proach to more typical situations that indicated psycho social support:
263 All of the people that you mentioned who [nominated] me as a mentor, obviously all women, and as a woman myself I feel like I know some of the struggles that I've encountered having a family and balancing this type of career. . I have tons of Subway napkins in case people come in here and cry. That is when I usually have to give them a Subway napkin. Professor Donna continued by explaining formative events that shaped the development of her own psycho social sensitivities: An interesting thing happened to me. When I was first here, I had a graduate assistant that I've mentored throughout her time here. But this was in her first y ear of the program, and she had a young child who had asthma. She was really, really on top of things. She was always prompt. She always did her work. But there was one day she called me, and we were in the middle o f a big project, and she said, They're calling me from his school. I think I need t Other facult You really need to make sure your assistants are do I obviously told OK, do but I don't think I was that kind about it. I think since I've had my own children, and I realize how hard it is to balance, I think I've probably had more empathy for students who have children while they're here. I feel like I've really wanted to support them because it is difficult to balance. And I've had a lot of conversat ions with people . about : OK, so, let's problem solve how you're going to be able to write your chapter four on the weekends while you're child is there. Are there other people who ca n come and help you? How much time can you block off? What's the most productive way to finish this? So, I've
264 really tried. I think I have a good understanding of what it means to balance, and I think that I wouldn't be... I can see other faculty members Well, you have kids? Deal with it! So what? You're still a doctoral student. You've still got to do what you've I think I have had more compassion for the students because I realize how hard it can be. Professor Donna understands that balancing your home life with your doctoral education can be a difficult balancing act, and tries to provide psycho social support for her protgs in that regard. Another facet to Professor Donna mentoring is p artly about relationship, as she explicated: I think you have to have a good relationship with that person. You have to have trust. You have to be expert enough that you really know what you're doing to be able to really provide good guidance to a person. . I think also there has to be a caring aspect of the I actually care what happens to you, that I'm not just in it for myself, like I'm going to exploit whatever I can get out of you Professor Donna sees that caring is an ingredient of the mentoring relationship. She discussed another characteristic of her mentoring relationships: We're reading an article about Bruno Bettelheim. He's a very controversial figure in Psychology . . he was doing his work back in the 60's. But, we were reading teach It's not meant to punish and people often confuse the two. And I kind of feel with
265 a mentoring relationship, the person is kind of like your disciple. They're looking up to you, they're looking to you for guidance and you want to have a relationship that allows you to teach. I think that's really facilitated by the person fe eling comfortable talking to you, feeling like you have knowledge to impart to them, feeling like you're making the time for them. Professor Donna sees that mentoring is a relationship that includes teaching and caring; here she described another facet she feels can be involved in the mentoring relationship: I think to some degree I feel sort of like a parent with some of my students. Like I said I have students who are pretty far away from home, they're in their 20's. I'm in my 40's so I could be their mom There are times when people have come to talk with me about difficult things in a way that perhaps you would talk to a parent about, or someone that you felt you trusted and were close to. So yeah to le because I want to guide them in a direction that is going to lead them to self fulfillment. For Professor Donna the mentoring relationship is also reciprocal in nature, as she described earlier learning about current articles from ture reviews: Donna described other reciprocal exchanges in her mentorships: J ust having the opportunity to help people and have peo ple help you with your research . . I feel like as much as I give, I get back, in terms of having students who really understand the research process, are able to be active contributors to the group.
266 Professor Donna experiences a reciprocal exchange of help and learning in her mentorships. Mentoring, for Professor Donn a also means collaboration, as she explained: I like to involve students in publications. I don't really have a lot of single author publications. That's a difficult skill to learn. There's a science and an art to a publication. How do you go about choosin g the right journal for your research? I think that's part of the mentoring process as well. As I reviewed her curriculum vita, I noted numerous co authored publications and presentations Professor Donna has done with her students. She continued with anoth er example of her collaboration with students: We're starting a new project. I really like to do research that's community engaged. We're starting a new project where we're going to be interviewing parents whose kids went through a developmental screening in the community. We're going to be asking them about their satisfaction with the screening. The reason I undertook that project was, because I wanted my students to learn more about the community and the services that are available to kids and to have th ose connections in the community because I feel that's been very important for me in my research. Professor Donna concluded with: I love to collaborate. I like collaborating with students, and I like collaborating with people in the community and with other faculty. I just think you learn so much more that way. It's not like I couldn't do something on my own. I could easily do things on my own. But, I just think it's more fun to do things with other
267 people. Professor Donna enjoys collaborating with doctoral students, and considers it integral to learning and mentoring. Mentoring, for Professor Donna is also holistically integrated in to her work H olistic, as she described: think about the fact that it is mentoring. There's lots of things that we talked about throughout these interviews that I w ouldn't Oh, well, that's mentorin I think I recognize it more now. Professor Donna expanded upon the integrated nature of her mentoring: I regularly have people come by my office and I always have an open door policy. I regularly talk to people about what's going on, how things are going, etc. Also, I have regular meetings with my graduate assistants or my graduate assistant . . We ofte n talk about how things are going, where does she want to go with her thesis, the ideas that she has so far. So, I feel like it's something I do on a pretty regular basis. It's not like I set aside this hour each week for mentoring. I think it's just part of the regular flow of everyday activities. Professor Donna described, as other mentors in this study have, how some aspects of mentoring are so integrated into their daily job activities that they transpire without much conscious effort. For Professor Donna and the other mentors in this study, the mentoring that transpires without much conscious effort stands in contrast to the intentional mentoring activities they deliberately engage in. Previously, I have discussed the activities that
268 Professor Donna deliberately creates for her protgs, such providing them with support that she did not receive in graduate school and engaging them in information and deliberation regarding what particular career paths they might choose. Professor Donna further describe d her intentional mentoring with, She offered another example of her intentional mentoring: I have student who is in his fo urth year now. So, he's considerably more advanced and I asked him to actually serve as a project manager for me on one of the projects we're working on as a research group. And I did that because I wanted him to have more of a leadership role. . I kno w that he wants to pursue a career in academia But, I kind of set that up intentionally. And then also, there's been some opportunities that have come up recently for student leadership positions like in The National Association of School Psychologists. S o, I've nominated him for those, for The State Association of School Psychologists. So, I try to give him opportunities to get involved in more leadership kinds of roles knowing that he wants to go into a career in academia. Part of what makes mentoring in tentional for Professor Donna is that she sees that her mentoring is also idiographic specific to the needs of the protg. When I asked her to describe her most effective mentoring activities, she replied, between people. . when a person is in their first year, what they need in terms of Professor Donna also adapts her mentoring according to the specific career goal of the student, as she described:
269 I try to help people think about early on in their programs, you know, what they want to do when they finish. And I say that in particular, because if you want to go into academia you have to do certain things while you are here. And if you don' t do those things, it's going to make it much more difficult for you. Even if you do get a position in academia, it will make it more difficult for you to get tenure because you won't have pu blications under your belt. . you won't know the art and the sci ence of publishing. So I try to ask students when they choos e me to What do yo so that if you do want to go into academia, I want to make sure you are having the experiences you need right now to be s uccessful in getting a academic job. I try to go by what the student says they want . . I'm not trying to force people in a particular direction. I try to ask them where they want to go and help Professor Donna see s that mentoring is also idiographic as a result of changes that student can't even control. For example, they're using an archival database and they're having a difficult time actually accessing the database or the IRB process is taking longer She continued to discuss the unexpected changes that can be common for students: There's certainly times that things come up with students, or they really needed more time. So, there co You've been having a hard time reaching these goals, let's rethink this. What's going on with you right now? How
270 much time do you really have to devote to thesis each week? What do you think is holding you . So, there's definitely renegotiation. . I feel like graduate students have lives too. And I see other people sending the message to students that you better put graduate school first. And I'm not saying you shouldn't put your education first. But really, honestly, there's time when other things do have to come first. Your health or your family. . I've seen people come to class horribly sick, so the reality is when you set a schedule, sometimes it doesn't work out and you do have to renegotiate it. Professor Donna sees that her intentional mentoring design to meet the idiographic needs There are definitely times when the plan does not work out as planned. Additionally, Professor Donna thinks that mentoring is not difficult to think mentoring is easy and enjoyable. . I part of it. I would not be Donna also sees mentoring as an essential component of her job, which would not be as enjoyable without it. Professor Donna Her Negatives in Mentoring I asked Professor Donna what her perception of her time investment into mentoring was: did she find it onerous? She responded, No, not at all. . I wish I had more I think it's important not to take on too m any students. She then proceeded to recall a situation where time was a negative factor in her mentoring:
271 There was a year when almost everybody in a particular cohort, there were like eight or ten students in the cohort, almost all of them chose me as their thesis Oh, wow. This is so cool. Everybody like s me so much and it's so Then I realized I can't really effectively mentor all these people. . I found that when I had that many students, like six students at a time, it was difficult to balance everything. . There was a reason why you shouldn't take on too many students. . That was probably. . about ten years ago. . But actually, m No. I can't take on any more than I'm doing right now I'm getting better at it, though, because you really can' t do everything. Currently, Professor Donna does not perceive that she has too many students or not enough time for mentoring, but previ ously, there was a time when she did have a negative experience such as that. Another negative mentoring experience for Professor Donna occurs when students are lacking an aspect of the professional clinical disposition, as she explicated: One thing that's been hard for me is that I always expect that when we bring students into thi s program that they have particular, let sa y, a personality characteristic already that they are going to exhibit in their professional dealings with other people. So for example, showing empathy or, you know, not flying off the handle. [smiles] . And there have been some times when I have seen people that I have mentored not be as mature working out in the field and do ing some Wow! That's just... somebody really needs to talk to you about that But personally, I feel like I hav e a hard time doing that sometimes. I
272 feel like I have a hard time correcting things that I think a per son should have known already, e specially when it comes to interpersonal kinds of situations . . T hat I think is even harder to give people feedback on. Professor Donna finds it unpleasant to have to provide corrective feedback to students, especially when she feels that it should be a common practice. She continued: There was one situation where one of my students was in the field and they had like a suicide case. And, I felt like the way she responded to it in terms of working with the administrators at the school wasn't entirely professional. So I felt like she needed feedback about that, and I was glad that her onsite super visor in the school district was able to do that. Because I felt like she was quite defensive about it. So that was hard. The student responding to the corrective feedback with an inappropriate attitude can exacerbate the negativity of the situation for Pr ofessor Donna Another negative mentoring experience that Professor Donna encounters is when students have weak writing skills, as she described: Another, I guess, negative would be when I get someone who doesn't know how to write very well. . I can help them learn how to do APA style and how to use the funnel technique in terms of writing a literary review. But when I have somebody who doesn't write well, it's just a frustrating experience because I have to spend so much more time editing their work, me.
273 where people it's just so poorly Professor Donna Her Teleolog y of Mentoring When I asked Professor Donna if she thought her mentoring was purposeful, and what that purpose is, she responded with; Certainly I think that I have definitely grown myself through mentoring my students, because I've had to seek out new information myself so I could share it with them. I really tried to stay on top of what's going on in our field so that I can make sure that they know what is new and out there for them. For Professor Donna part of her purpose to her mentoring is to culti vate her own growth as a professional. She continued to explain: I think also, for me, I guess I can see several things. Mentoring brings me a lot of personal satisfaction. Teaching brings me satisfaction, and publishing brings me satisfaction but, I think I really like the interaction with people and feeling like I really helped someone, made a difference in their lives. Helping the protg is another purpose to Professor Donna that gratifying. Again, she continued : ng people to be solid researchers, to Another purpose to Professor Donna researcher or clinician. I asked h
274 Professor Donna Her Motivations to Mentor I asked Professor Structural what motivated her to mentor. She paused for a moment to reflect, and responded: I think the primary thing is just the enjoyment of having a positive influence on a young person's life. I don't feel like I'm selfishly motivated in terms of it's good that students help me with my research and it's going to help me be more pro ductive, but that's not really the reason I mentor people. Professor Donna finds mentoring to be enjoyable, and she finds it gratifying when she is able to positively influence students. She continued with: I certainly needed more mentoring when I was in graduate school and I want to make sure people have a better experience than what I had . . For example, I have seen some people who have come here subsequent to me . who really knew how to negotiate for what they wanted and needed when they came h ere in order to be successful. Research labs, additional money, additional startup funds, graduate assistance. I had no idea how to negotiate my position when I came in. I thought it was just like taking any other position. They tell you the salary and yo u say, "OK I'll take it," which is not what you should do. I feel like the other faculty members here really had someone they could go to, who once they got the call saying they got the position they could call their mentor and say, "Here's what they offer ed me, what should I do next?" I didn't have someone like that. I always teach all of my students how to negotiate for a position. What kinds of things you should ask for, how to do it, how do you word it to somebody so you do not seem like you're just mon ey hungry. You can OK I really
275 am interested in this position but here is what I think I need in order to be Then email them the th ings you need to be successful . . I didn't have the familiar relationships where I could call and say, "Oh my gosh, what do I do?" So I want to make sure that while my students are here that we have enough conversations that are p ersonal enough that they know, I'm going to call Professor Donna when this ha ppens. She's goi ng to be able to give me advice Another motivation for Professor Donna to mentor doctoral students is to try to help them have a better graduate education experience than she did. She continued: I also felt like I didn't have someone to OK here's the benefits of academia or here's some of the downsides of it, here's the pitfalls to watch out for. I want to provide that for other people so they have a better experience than I did. Part of Professor Donna is to provide help and guidance for her students, especially help and guidance that she would have liked to have received as a important that I try to get to my stude Donna is happy with her job, as she stated, absolutely love my job. . I really, really like being a with issues, as I'm helping to prepare people who are going to do a great job when they go out and work with children and families Professor Donna Her Values as a Mentor One concept that Professor Donna values as a mentor is that of research and the
276 importance of providing meticulous scaffolding to assist her students in learning the research process, as she stated: I definitely see that as part of my job. Not just to serve as someone's thesis chair. But also to teach them about the whole pro cess of doing research. And also for them to see the joy in doing research because when you find something you love to study, then it makes it so much fun. I'm sure you know as a dissertation student. I think to see what I love, someone else really finding the excitement in that Professor Donna also values relationship, and sees it as an integral method for teaching and learning, as she described If I don't keep in touch with a [student] on a regular basis, what can happe n? They just fade away and reappear two years later saying I want to finish my dissertation. I feel like my opportunity to really work with them is when they are here. I really try to get as much out of the time when they're here. Obviously, after they lea ve, I want to have established a relationshi p with them where it continues. She also stated. to have trust. Professor Donna also value s helping protgs, as s he described the effort s she makes to provide students with career information and guidance and then support the student through the entire degree process in a conscientious fashion: more mentoring when I was in graduate school and I want to make sure people have a
277 Additionally, Professor Donna is passionate about teaching her protgs to help families and children with issues, and she feels like her mentoring of doctoral students is a contribution to her profession, as she stat ed : I'm helping to prepare people who are going to do a great job when they go out and work with children and families. So, I mean I try to educate my students about the fact that there is a shortage of faculty in our area so that they're aware tha t there's lots of opportunities for academic positions out there if you're willing to move to another part of the country. . So I feel like I'm contributing to the disci pline that way. Professor Donna Summary To summarize: Professor Donna sees mentoring as a relationship that includes teaching as well as some familial and caring aspects that extend to doctoral students; this relationship includes reciprocal learning and helping, as well as collaborations that produce mutual benefits for herself and her protgs. She sees career help and psycho social support as a basic building block of her mentoring gestalt. When she mentors, it is developmental context and needs), and needs). Her mentoring is an essential part of her professional job that is, a fundamental professional routine, and easy to accomplish. Additionally, mentoring for her is psychologists, researcher/clinicians, or professors; and to continue her own growth Professor Donna sees herself as a teacher, helper and a guide to her protgs; she
278 also sees herself as providing structural organization and career guidance. She is motivated to mentor because she enjoys mentoring, and wants to help students, and she wants to help stude nts have a better graduate school experience than she did. Professor Donna also mentors because wants to contribute to her profession of school psychology by developing professionals who are needed to help families and children with issues. She also mentor s because she finds mentoring gratifying, and it is an integral part of what makes her job enjoyable. As a mentor, she values research, relationship, and helping; she also believes that it is a contribution to her discipline to produce new professors, rese archer/clinicians and school ps ychologists. Figure 8 summarizes these aspects of Professor Donna self. Figure 8. Professor Donna: Her Mentor Self Teacher Guide Helper Provide Structure Career Guidance Relationship Research Give Back to Profession Helping Helping Enjoyment Gratification Improve Students' Experience Give back to Profession Loves Job Self Concept Motivations Her Values as a Mentor
279 Professor Donna has identified some factors that contribute to negative experiences in her mentor ing. One factor that can create negativity in her mentorships is when students have weak writing skills. Other factors that contribute to negativity or frustration in her mentorships are students who have a professional disposition deficit, and the student becoming defensive upon correction. Overall, however, she does not find mentoring to be time intensive; she believes mentoring to be a largely easy endeavor, and describes mentoring as a pleasant, enjoyable, gratifying, and rewarding experience. She feels that she receives several benefits from mentoring, such as: learning, enjoyment, accountability, gratification, recognition, efficacy, and sharing / getting things back. Professor Donna recognizes that mentoring is an essential part of her overall job sat isfaction. Epilogue to Professor Donna F ro m M y Reflective Journal, January 24, 2010 mentors has some experiences that are unique unto themselves. Other experiences are common among them, although, to varying degrees. I feel like I have been weaving a picture of their individual odysseys, sorting through the strands of data, gathering the various colors of their themes, and then weaving their various adventures into a representative scene. My next task is to assemble each of their scenarios into a cogent tapestry. I th ink I need to meditate, before embarking on that journey. Conclusion In this chapter, I have described the setting of the six mentors the College of Education at Transition University, a large top tier research university located in the southern region of the United States including relevant demographic statistics I then
280 presented detailed account s of the data I collected from intervi ewing each of the six mentors twice. I arranged the emergent themes from the data into coherent themes, supported by ample evidence. I then summarized the evidence into a phenomenological description of the experience of each mentor, and the meanings each mentor appears to drive from their mentoring activities. Along the course of the analysis, I disclosed my thoughts and feelings as the researcher and co creator (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009) of the interview conversations. I also offered a transparent account of my experience of the mentors and of my application of the phenomenological analysis, including my own application of the bracketing process. In the next chapter, I will present a cross including common themes, t hemes that were prevalent but not entirely common, and n otable exceptions and details. I will also respond to criticisms of the mentoring research (which I have discussed in previous chapters), and discuss implications for mentoring research, as well as im plications for higher education institutions, mentors, faculty who are not mentors, and protgs. From My Reflective Journal, January 24, 2010 : For the last two and a half months every day I have come home from the office an d b ecome a hermit, cloistered in my house working through the phenomenological analysis of nearly 16 hours of interview data. I have declined all invitations to dinner and movies (except Thanksgiving and Christ mas with mom ) I even skipped my birthday. I have out. prepackaged or frozen foods for every meal, not wanting to take the time to cook (I am so over frozen dinners and cans of soup !) I have not walked my dog (good thing I have a big
281 back yard for her.) These aspects of the dissertation process have not been very much fun; I liken it to the hard labor pains of pregnancy. Completing the analysis of such a vast amount of data has been a milestone along my developmental odyssey. To have this I'm around the corner from anything that's real I'm across the road from hope I'm under a bridge in a rip tide That's taken everything I call my own One step closer to knowing One step closer to knowing I'm on an island at a busy intersection I can't go forward, I can't turn back Can't see the future It's getting away from me I just watch the tail lights glowing One step closer to knowing One step closer to knowing One step closer to knowing Knowing, knowing I'm hanging out to dry With my old clothes Finger still red with the prick of an old rose Well the heart that hurts Is a heart that beats Can you hear the drummer slowing One step closer to knowing One step closer to knowing
282 One step closer to knowing To knowing, to knowing, to knowing One Step Closer by U2
283 CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction This study describe d and explain ed the perspectives on mentoring by selected doctoral faculty who re cent doctoral graduates identified as mentors. The exploratory questions that guided the study were: 1. What elements constitute selected doctoral faculty on mentoring? 2. What variables influence those perspectives? For approximately the past 30 years, mentoring has been an expanding domain for research (Crosby, 1999) p iquing the interest of schola rs primarily in the business and organization settings (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007) Of the mentoring research that does address the educational setting, m ost of the extant studies have concentrated on the K 12 educational setting (Ehrich, Hansford, & Tennent, 2004) Research that has investigated mentoring in the higher education setting is sparse, and has mainly examined the experience of the graduate student (not the mentor) and employed a quanti tative research method such as self report, retrospect ive surveys (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Merriam, 1983; Noe, Greenberger, & Wang, 2002; Rose, 2003). This study addressed a gap in the mentoring research literature by investigating the perspectives of faculty mentors in the doctoral (higher) education setting and by employing a qualitative research methodology known as phenomenology to describe and understand the
284 experiences and me anings that mentors derive from their mentoring activities. Since the mentoring of doctoral students is not a cont ractual requirement for faculty, it was my hope that describing th e mentoring experience s and the meanings derived from the experience increase our understanding of what mentoring is like, how it may be mea ningful, which logically, might increase our understanding of why some faculty volunteer to go above and beyond the call of duty to mentor doctoral students. Another gap in the mentoring literature that this study addressed pertains to the operational definition of m entoring: this is often not well addressed or is missing co mpletely in previous research studies (Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007; Merriam, 1983) From my review of the mentoring literature, I described in Chapter Two my inductive process for arriving at a a ny faculty member in the Transition University College of Education who has been identified by a College of Education doctoral graduate as participating in a relationship that provides support that goes beyond the basic duties of student advising, with the intention of enhancing/promoting/ supporting both the career and personal development of the student. Additionally I informed the graduates that they could nominate any College of Education faculty member who m they felt fit this description the faculty member did not have to be their dissertation committee chair or a member of their dissertation committee. Next, I c ontacted 262 doctoral graduates from the College of Education at a large research university in the United States (Transition University), asking them to nominate any mentor they may have had during their doctoral program of study. Of the 262
285 graduates contacted 86 returned the mentor nomination form yielding a nomination response rate of 32.82%. I then proceeded to contact six of the most frequently nominated faculty mentors and request two one hour interviews with them to discuss their experiences of mentoring; they graciously agreed to talk with me. T o support the validity of the inquiry I followed a semi structured ( Berg, 2004) interview protocol (Rubin & Rubin, 2005), which I emailed to the professors prior to our interviews. In an effort to respond to one suggestion made i n the mentoring literature by three expert mentoring researcher s I asked the graduates who returned the nominations if they would allow me to inform the mentor (s) of their names Johnson, Rose & Schlosser (2007) suggest thi s methodological approach as an improvement over previous method s employed in mentoring studies as a means to concretize the interview questions for the faculty mentors by informing them of the protgs who have identified them as mentors, thus providing m ore focused and specific reflecti ons on the interview questions The fact that when I informed the interviewees at the beginning of the interviews of the names of the students who nominated them and that all the mentors concurred that they had indeed engag ed in mentoring activities with these students adds further validity and triangulation to my operational definition of mentoring for this study After conducting all the interviews, I then proceeded with a phenomenological analysis of the interview data which included identification of the meaning units present in the data as related to the specific topic of inquiry for this study, identification o f the emergent themes, and reduction of the themes into a phenomenological description of the mentoring experience In Chapter Four I presented this data that described how each faculty mentor viewed his or her mentor self and how they experienced the men toring
286 endeavor, including benefits they reportedly gained from mentoring as well as negative aspects to their mentoring experiences. I also presented data that described the meanings the faculty mentors derived from mentoring, including their perceived te leology (purpose) for mentoring, their values as mentors, and their motivations to mentor. I concluded the data presentation with phenomenological descriptions of the lived experience of mentoring for each interviewee, drawing on various data sources (inte rviews, curriculum vitae, personal communications, researcher field notes and reflective journal). This chapter proceeds with a discussion of verification and transferability as related to this study, and definitions of key concepts that will facilitate t engagement with and understanding of my synthesis of the emergent themes from the data as I address the exploratory questions. I will then present my responses to the exploratory questions, including a model of the study. Finally, I will discu ss the implications of the study, including the impact of the study on my self as researcher, and draw the study to a close with a concluding section. Verification and Transferability In Chapter Three, I explained in detail several techniques of v erification used within this s tudy At this time I would like to offer the reader some insights I have gleaned regarding the verification techniques of reflective journaling, bracketing, member checks and peer review as a result of reflecting on the concl uding of these processes. Throughout this study I have transparently shared with the reader my reflective journaling, as well as my process and deliberations of bracketing as one step in phenomenological data analysis. I can honestly say that these two pro cedures were
287 helpful to my research process and transformative for me as a researcher. Both of these processes allowed me to clarify for myself and increase my understanding of my role as the researcher. These processes also provided a forum for deliberat ion as I grappled with the bracketing process until I felt truly comfortable with my understanding of it. I have also completed member checks with all six mentors in this study. I emailed each mentor my phenomenological analysis of their interviews along with my textual description and summary of the mentoring experiences they shared with me. All of the six mentors in this study participated in the member check, and emailed me feedback indicating consensus with my analyses and descriptions. The following a re your write up ht do ) ofessor Jade, personal communication, January 26, 2010) ; (Professor Hanna, personal communication, February 4, 2010.) Their consensus with my analysis and interpretations adds furthe r validation to the verisimilitude of my findings, and has proven to be a valuable component of the checks and balances in my research method. und in this study also supports the validity of the co nceptual transferability (as opposed to empirical generalizability) for the readers of this study
288 in this study], their own personal and professional experiences, and the claims in extant literature. . to evalua te its transferability to persons and contexts which are more, or less, transferability presently, in the Implications sections. Definition of Terms In order to facilitate a conversation between myself and the reader regarding the findings of this study, I would first like to parse the exploratory questions that guided this study, specifically regarding the terms perspective elements and variables T o reiterate, the exploratory questions that guided this inquiry were : 1. What elements constitute selected doctoral faculty mentoring? 2. What variables influence those perspectives? The American Heritage Dictionary (2000) defines perspe ctive a mental view or outlook ubjective evaluation of relative significance; a point of view The term perspective is commonly used in certain research methods such as sociological perspective the particular way that sociologists as opposed to non sociologists, try to understand human social behaviour and the relationships this In the qualitative research paradigm in general, and in phenomenology in particular, the term perspective derived outlook based on beliefs and personal communication, February 3, 2010.) Therefore, in this study, a perspective is an outlook or app roach that a mentor uses in mentoring: for example, mentors take a teleo logical approach to mentoring they ask the protg what the purpose or goal of their doctoral education is,
289 and then mentor accordingly. In this study, a perspective can also be how the mentor experiences mentoring (e.g., grat ifying), especially if the experience of gratification is common to most or all of the mentors. In this study e lements are aspects to the perspective that are common to all the mentors. For example in the gratifying perspective, all the mentors reported that they found mentorin g to be pleasant, enjoyable, rewarding and beneficial I will also discuss aspects to the perspectives that are not unanimous among the mentors in this study, but are notable and worthy of disc ussion. Variables are aspects to the mentoring situation that having too many students or being overscheduled can decrease the gratifying perspective for the mentor, an d therefore would be variables At this time I would also like to reiterate the definitions for two other te rms I have previously described in Chapter Four as they figure prominently in Chapter Five. Specifically, i diographic on describes a research approach that is committed to understanding how particular experiential phenomena have been understood from the perspective of particular people, in a particular context. . [and that] experience is uniquely embodied, situated and Smith, Flowers, and Larkin, 2009, p. 29). Additionally, Merriam Webster defines t eleological as xhibiting or related to design or purpose, especially in nature ( Teleological 2009). Responses to the Exp loratory Questions In response to the exploratory question s: What elements constitute selected doctoral faculty and What variables influence
290 those perspectives? the data from the interviews reveal five perspectives that are common to al l six mentor s in this study: a Gratifying Perspective, a Teleological P erspective, an Idiographic Perspective, a Dynamic Perspective, and an Intentional P erspective. In the following section, I will discuss each perspecti ve with their respective elements and variables. A Gratifying Perspective pleasure ( Gratification 2009). The elements that were fou nd to comprise the gratifying perspective in this study were th e aspects reported by the faculty mentors that mentoring is: pleasant, enjoyable, rewarding and beneficial. All six mentors in this study reported that they found mentoring to be pleasant, enjoyable, and rewarding; additio nally they all reported receiving benefits as a result of engaging in mentoring. Most of the rewards satisfaction, or gratification Four of the six mentors also reporte d recognition by peers as reward for their mentoring. In terms of the benefits, all of the mentors in this study shared the following benefits as a result of mentoring: learning (professional and/or personal); sharing (reciprocal support); a feeling of efficacy as a mentor and/or a professor; and enjoyment, a general positive affect. Two phrases that may ge nerally sum up the gratifying perspective and that were frequently spoken by the mentors were: Variable s that may influence the gratifying perspective would be the perception of the time required for mentoring, and the negative mentoring experiences
291 they reported Both of these variables have the potential to decrease the experience of gratification for the mentors; however, there was little commonality reported by the mentors on both of these variables. In terms of their perception as to whether mentoring was tim e intensive or not, three mentors reported that mentoring was not time intensive, mentoring is All of the mentors reported some type of negative experiences related to their mentoring, and their negatives were varied. T he only negative variable that had any ent of student, unreasonable expectations by the student for the mentor to extri cate him/her out of a problem, over reliance on the mentor by the stude nt for APA editing, when students fail out of the program, and students who exhibit a disposition deficit and then react defensively upon correction. Other negative experiences mention ed by mentors that are not a direct result of the protg were: having too many students to mentor, being overscheduled with university duties and not having adequate time for mentoring, an d other faculty who are deleterious mentors for students. The lack of correspondence between the mentors on these variables truly speaks to the idiographic nature of mentoring: the mentoring experience is specific to the needs of the individuals involved and impinged upon by intervening environmental variables present in their particular contexts. Table 10 summarizes this data.
292 Table 10 The Gratifying Perspective: Elements and Variables Elements of the Gratifying Perspective: Jade Jacob Hanna Reeba Jack Donna Pleasant x x x x x x Enjoyable x x x x x x Rewarding x x x x x x Beneficial x x x x x x Mentoring: Enjoyment / Good Feeling x x x x x x Learning x x x x x x Efficacy x x x x x x Sharing / Get Things Back x x x x x x Recognition by Peers x x x x Variables of the Gratifying Perspective: Does the Mentor Find Mentoring to be Time Intensive? No Sometimes Rarely No Yes No Mentoring Experiences Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
293 A Teleological Perspective All of the mentors in this study took a teleological (purposeful) approach to their mentoring relationships: they for doctoral study, and then intentionally planned mentoring activities that would meet the idiographic (spe cific) needs of the protg in order to facilitate accomplishing that purpose. The mentors also had their own purposes for the mentoring relationship. The elements of the teleological es for the mentoring relationship. doctoral degree is idiographic (specific to the indivi dual) and dynamic (changeable, either as reported by the mentors, were; to become a professor to be come a school district professional to become a school psychologis t clinician or to attain job advancement. mentoring relationship. The two purposes unanimously reported by the mentors were: to help the student, and to create a good professor. Two purposes that were reported by four of the six mentors were: to facilitate the best achievement of the protg, and to develop local school district professionals. Two mentors saw their purpose for mentoring as helping the student to get a g ood job after graduation. Other purposes reported were: to On c e these purposes were established for the mentor, each mentor engaged in mentoring in a t e le ological fash ion intent ionally working toward facilitating
294 One reason why this is an important finding in the mentoring literature is because it describes an important area for possible conflict or negativity between the mentor and the protg. To illustrate, here is a hypothetical example: it is entirely possible that within certain fields, e.g., Educational Leadership or Higher Education Administration, that a professor might be supervising doctoral students who only want to be a school or coll ege administrator not a professor or a researcher. However, the mentor may prefer or wish to have students who want to become professors. This potentially may lead mentors to unduly influence protgs to change career paths a course of action fraught with peril for the student, as well as professional frustration and/or ethical peril for the mentor. Variables that may influence the teleological course of a mentorship are dynamics (changes) to the mentors and and the All of the mentors in this study recognized an awareness that doctoral degree pursuit changed the mentors adapt ed their teleological approach to the mentorship vis All of the mentors in this study also described values Deal 1997, p. 378) that guide daily actions The values that were com mon to all six mentors were: helping, relationship, and giving back to the profession. Four of the six mentors also valued collegiality and sharing. Three mentors valued growth the ued quality. Although the values of growth, research and quality were not unanimously reported b y the mentors the mentor s provided clear evidence (in Chapter Four) of their values for their doctoral degree: Professor Hanna valued
295 growth and described how in three mentorships the student would have to choose a dissertation topic that provided growth for the student or she would not be their mentor ; Professor Overscheduled described the difficulty he encountered in the mentorship when a student does not valu e research or quality as he did. teleological course of a mentorship. All of the mentors in this study reported the following motivations to mentor: helping, enjoyment, and giving back to the profession. Four of the mentors were motivated by gratification; three of the mentors found the sharing that transpires in mentoring to be a motivation to mentor. Two mentors reported that th eir belief th at mentoring was important was a motivating factor for them to mentor. As you can see, if a mentor values giving back to the profession and his/her motivation for mentoring is to give back to the profession and teleology ( purpose ) t o his or her mentoring is to create a good p rofessor, this might unwitting ly foster an inclination for the mentor to unduly influence a mentorship to fulfill the So clearly, values and motivations can i nteract with the teleological course of a mentorship, sometimes in a positive way (Professor Hanna valuing growth and insisting upon it ), sometimes creating difficulty for the mentor to execute his perceived purpose for mentoring (Professor Overscheduled valuing quality and research when the student did not ), or sometimes in a deleterious way for the protg (as in the hypothetical situation .) This data is summarized in Table 11
296 Table 11 The T eleological Perspective: Elements and Variables Elements of the Teleological Perspective: Jade Jacob Hanna Reeba Jack Donna The x x x x x x Help the Student x x x x x x Create a Good Professor x x x x x x Develop Local School Talent x x x x Best Achievement of the Protg x x x x Variables of the Teleological Perspective: Dynamics x x x x x x Dynamics x x x x x x Motivations : Helping x x x x x x Enjoyment x x x x x x Giving Back to the Profession x x x x x x Gratification x x x x Believes Mentoring is Important x x
297 Table 11 (continued) The Teleological Perspective: Elements and Variables : Helping x x x x x x Relationship x x x x x x Giving Back to the Profession x x x x x x Collegiality x x x x Sharing x x x x A n Idiographic Perspective All of the mentors in this study took an idiographic approach to their mentoring relationships: they all sought to address the specific needs of the individual protg. The idiographic elements that were common to all six mentors were career support, psychosocial support, relationship and collaboration. In order to p rovide appropriate career support, each mentor appraised the particular strengths and needs of a protg and then sought to meet those developmental needs, especially vis teleology or purpose, such as to become a professor, a s chool psychologist or a school district professional. All of the mentors viewed the one on one mentoring relationship a professor or researcher. Furthermore, all of the mentors also viewed one on one collaboration with protgs (co writing, co presenting, co publishing) as an key method for facilitating the acquisition of research and scholarship skills. Thus, all of the mentors employed individual relationship and collaboration to address the idiographic needs of protgs.
298 The six mentors also expressed an awareness of the specific psychosocial needs of the individual student, which might include emotional support and encouragement or professional socialization into the discipli ne, university or department. Additionally, one a short term loan. One notable concept that emerged from the data was that of contextual negotiation ound it common to negotiate a developmental plan with the protg, and then renegotiate the plan when either their career goal changed, or life unexpectedly intervened with emergencies and other set backs for the protg. The mentors provided contextualize d career or psychosocial renegotiation that address ed the specific personal needs of the student, in an effort to keep moving the student forward toward their goal. All the mentors took an idiographic approach t o their mentorships, but this does not precl ude mentoring transpiring as a group activity with several protgs at once, such advanced brunches for the female doctoral students in her department as well as her departmental session t hat provided beginning teaching assistants. But by and large, the preponderance of mentoring reported by these six mentors transpired on an idiographic basis, with the mentor meeting an i developmental needs. Variable teleology (career goal) of the student that would initially set the idiographic course for mentoring, and the in troduction o f a dynamic (student growth or life intervention) altering the career goal, thereby spurring the mentor s to make adjustments to their
299 mentoring in order to support the student or meet their new needs. This data is summarized in Tabl e 12 Table 12 The Idio graphic Perspective: Elements and Variables Elements of the Idiographic Perspective: Jade Jacob Hanna Reeba Jack Donna Career Support x x x x x x Psychosocial Support x x x x x x Relationship x x x x x x Collaboration x x x x x x Contextual Negotiation x x x x Variables of the Idiographic Perspective: x x x x x x Dynamics x x x x x x A n Intentional Perspective All six of the mentors in this study experienced mentoring to be intentional. The e lements of the intentional pe rspective are idiographic needs and career support. All of the mentors intentionally discerned the es (idiographic needs) and intentionally nt meet their goal (teleology).
300 The variables that can influence the Inte ntional Perspective are dynamics in the protg in d A dynamic of change from the environment (life issues) can also impinge upon the goals and the needs of the student. All six mentors shared mentoring stories that acknowledged how these variables can alter their intentions in mentoring. Although the me ntors found their mentoring to be largely intentional, t h is is not to say that mentoring is not serendipitous at times ; in fact most of the mentors in this study mentioned such occurrences, such as quick exchanges with students that happen while passing in the hallways intentional and 50% serendipitous. Professor Jade and Professor Reeba both described looking for articles for their own work and serendipitously running across research articles that would also be helpful to their students. But then as they both related, that becomes an intentional act when they download the article and email it to a student. protg s; often these opportunities serendipitously arise, such as opportunities to guest edit journals. But then she intentionally funneled these opportunities to students, according to their individual needs and purpose. Table 13 summarizes the Intentional Per spective. A Dynamic Perspective And finally, all of the mentors who participated in this study were all aware of dynamics (changes) as part of their mentoring experiences. The element of the Dynamic
301 Table 13 The Intentional Perspective: Elements and Variables Elements of the Intentional Perspective: Jade Jacob Hanna Reeba Jack Donna Career Support x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Variables of the Intentional Perspective: Dynamics x x x x x x Dynamics x x x x x x Perspective is protg growth. All the mentors reported that they experienced mentoring as dynamic and changing throughout the course of the mentorship. All six mentors expected that the protg would grow as a result of their learning experiences in their doctoral pro gram such as Professor Hanna advising brand new doctoral students not to be too decided upon their dissertation topic on their first day of their doctoral program. Varia bles of the Dynamic Perspective are: intervening life issues for the protg, changes of their growth or intervening life career goal (teleology ). Each of the six me ntors in this study discussed experiences they had with variables such as these, and the adaptations they would enact in their mentoring to make accommodations for the
302 negotiations. This data is summarized in Table 14 Table 14 The Dynamic Perspective: Elements and Variables Elements of the Dynamic Perspective: Jade Jacob Hanna Reeba Jack Donna Protg Growth x x x x x x Variables of the Intentional Perspective: Dynamics in x x x x x x x x x x x x Dynamics from Life Interventions x x x x x x Model of the Study This study investigated the perceptions and experiences of six faculty mentors who were nominated by doctoral graduates from the Transition University College of Education as having provided them with support that went beyond the basic duties of student advising, with the intention of enhancing/promoting/ supporting both the career and personal development of the student. T he exploratory questions that guided this inquiry were : 1. What elements constitute selected doctoral faculty mentoring? 2. What variables influence those perspectives?
303 The major findings of this study reveal that five perspectives were common to all the mentor s in this study: a Gratifying Perspective, a Teleological Perspective, an Idiographic Perspective, a Dynamic Perspective, and an Intentional Perspective. Elements (aspects to the perspectives that were common to all six mentors) and variables ( aspects to the mentoring situation that can influence th mentoring) respective to each perspective were also found and presented. From the above discussion of the five Perspectives found among the mentors in this study, we can see how the I ntentional P erspective, the I diographic P erspective and the T eleological P erspective can a ll in teract at the initiation of a mentoring relationship: needs and then intentionally endeavored to fu lfill the purpose and meet the needs of the student. Four of the six mentors described contextually negotiating a developmental path when a dynamic altered the er through stud ent growth or life issues), all of the mentors reported routinely adapt ing their mentoring to the new change dynamic in which may also include contextual re negotiation As you may see, the mentor and the protg are involved in an evolving relationship, each experiencing similar events (intentions, idiographic needs, purposes, dynamics and negotiation s ), but from different viewpoints. Not only is there interaction betwee n the various perspectives identified in this study (such as the Intention al, Teleogical and Idiographic P erspectives) for the mentor (and, logically, for the protg, too), but the mentors in this study have illustrated how the Dynamic Perspective can in
304 intentional plan to meet said goals and needs: the mentors related an expectation of student growth and an awareness of life issues, both of which can introduce a change dynam ic. All of the mentors discussed making mentoring adjustments vis vis the change dynamic, four o f the mentors described these adjustments as a negotiation or re negotiation. For the mentors in this study their Intentional, Teleogical, and Idiographic Perspectives were largely focused on meeting the needs and goals of the protg. illustrated in the Gratifying Perspective (pleasure, enjoyment, rewards and benefits.) From the earliest research on mentoring through the present, scholars have described mentoring as a reciprocal relationship (Cohen, 1995; Johnson, Rose & Schlosser, 2007 ; Kram, 1985; Levinson et al, 1978) primarily in reference to a mutual exchange of benefits in the mentoring dyad (Jacobi, 1991; Johnson, 2007a) The pleasure, enjoyment, rewards (such as a feeling of efficacy) and benefits (such as a positive affect) described by the mentors in this study suggest a more nuanced relationship that goe s be yond reciprocity, into more of a symbiotic relationship one that is not only mutually beneficial but also interdependent (Symbiosis, 2010), in light of the fact that all six of the mentors viewed mentoring as an essential component of their professional ro utine, and could not imagine accomplishing thei r job role without it. Figure 9 shows a dynamic model summarizing the emergent concepts found in this study. Impact of the Study on the Researcher Before I discuss the implications of this study on the theory and practice of mentoring, I feel it beneficial to relate to the reader the impact the study has had on me as a student, a
305 protg and as a soon to be junior faculty member who aspires to learn how to be a mentor. It was easy and natural for me during the interviews I had with the mentors in Figure 9 Model of the Study this study to interact with the mentors as a doctoral student As a student, I was impressed with their willingness to expend their time and effort to help a student they had never before met. I was also impressed with their descriptions of the initiative they took to engage with their protgs in a rich and meaningful developmental journey of doctoral degree pursuit, which included a proactive and responsive c ommunication style on the part of the mentor s I have frequently described these mentors as engaged and dedicated. These seem to be very good qualities as part of the chemistry for a positive mentorship experience (at least for the student); but when it co mes to a relationship (mentorship), there are many more qualities needed to promote a positive experience (for both parties). Idiographic (Specific) Intentional (Deliberate) Dynamic (Internal or External) Contextual Negotiation (Renegotiation) Teleological (Purposeful) Symbiotic Relationship Gratifying (for the Mentor) Idiographic (Specific) Intentional (Deliberate) Dynamic (Internal or External) Contextual Negotiation (Renegotiation) Teleological (Purposeful) Protg Mentor
306 As a student, I have learned from this study to be more deliberate regarding the between potential protg and potential mentor. I can see how it is very beneficial as a student to interact with a faculty member over the course of a semester class, being much more cognizant of what my needs and values are, and what the subtext of the faculty tions are regarding their needs, values, and rewards. In the future I will pay much more attention to this process and attempt to discern as many matches or mismatches between our chemistries as I can because there are many more idiographic characteristic s beyond dedication and engagement that comprise an all around positive mentoring experience. As an experienced protg, I did not find myself sitting in the interviews wishing that these mentors were my mentors; rather, I found myself reflecting on m y experiences in my previous mentorships. I am dumbfounded by how clueless I was as a protg about what my mentor s were experiencing, and what their perspectives were. Over my 12 year protg history I now realize that I experienced my mentor behaving in tentionally to meet my idiographic needs, I experienced my mentor asking me what I wanted to do after graduation (what my purpose was for my doctoral study ) I experienced my mentor negotiating a developmental path with me and then re negotiating that path when a dynamic interceded, but at the time I was unaware that my mentor was intentionally engaging in these perspectives (Perhaps that is one hallmark of a seasoned mentor: they make mentoring appear as an effortless effort.) And, if, on a rare occasion, I became vaguely aware of my mentors intentional actions, I certainly never considered their side of the perspective from my viewpoint, it was all about me. I do not consider myself self absorbed or without empathy for others; my only explanation for
307 totally immersing myself in my studies in order to grow into my next professional role After interviewing these mentors, I am now aware of how m indful my mentors were in deliberately en gaging me in these perspectives, the times where I rose to the opportunities, the times that I declined the opportunities, and the times where I simply Now, ( hypothetical ly) as a juni or faculty member, I am concerned about learning how to initially be at least a decent mentor since I have never been a mentor What personal experience might I draw upon in order to build my conscious competence as a mentor? For three years during my doctoral studies, I was assistant editor of a jour nal that only published articles on mentoring. My duties as assistant editor included reviewing article submissions and providing feedback to the authors on how to improve their art icles fo r publication in the journal. (I also review article submissions for an o ther educational journal; in my five years of reviewing articles for publications, I have only and that article was a re su bmission to the journal .) As I sit here at my desk, reflecting and writing, I realize that in the three years of reviewing mentoring articles for publication, I did not review one article that explored the perceptions of a seasoned mentor in the higher edu cation setting (and I was the reviewer who dealt with articles in the higher education setting.) In an effort to corroborate my memory, I turned around from my computer pulled the three years of journals off the shelf behind my desk and perused the tabl e of contents of the issues from those three years ; my memory was confirmed : there was no research article investigating the perceptions of a seasoned mentor in the higher education setting in any
308 of these journal issues (I did find one article that was an autobiographical account of a novice faculty member as a protg but it did not investigate the perceptions of the mentor.) What other avenues might I pursue in order to learn how to be a mentor? Turning to the extant research Ideal Mentor Scale and learn about the qualities that doctoral students most prefer in their mentors ; I consider that to be of some help in learning to be a mentor. I can also read 993) Principles of Adult Mentoring Scale which describes six behavioral functions mentors see themselves engaging in while mentoring adult students: that is certainly helpful in learning to be a mentor. There are publications by mentors that offer personal opinions and accounts of their own experiences; these could be very helpful, providing there is transferability between their mentoring context and mine. (One of the most prolific mentor writers is in the discipline of clinical psychology.) What would be even more helpful (to me) would be research that systematically investigates the perspectives of several mentors in a fashion that offers detailed and nuances descriptions of their experiences and understandings As a faculty member in the discip line of education who wants to learn how to mentor, I feel like the experience of interviewing these mentors not only provided me with insight into what mentoring is like for them and what makes it meaningful, but also lessons on how to be a mentor. I am very appreciative that they took the time from their schedules in order to share this special knowledge with me. I am sure that as I employ their advice, I will remember them fondly, and with gratitude.
309 Moreover, learning about the various perspecti ves that these mentors routinely detailed in their experiences of mentoring has provided me with new perspectives by which I can reframe (Bolman & Deal, 1997) my experiences as a protg and thereby use my protg experiences to begin to learn and understa nd about how to be a mentor. Having personal experience that I can somehow apply to the new setting of being a mentor does offer me some feelings of reassurance that I may not be entirely clueless as a mentor, after all. Implications of the Study In the f ollo wing section I will describe the implications this study has generated in regards to a response to criticisms in the mentoring literature (as previously described in Chapter Two), implications for research in mentoring, implications for future practice in mentoring, and i mplications for d epartments Colleges of Education and/or i nstitutions of higher education. Response to Criticisms of the Mentoring Research Scholars have criticized the largely p ositive findings in the mentoring literature (Allen & Eby, 2007; Eby, Rhodes, & Allen, 2007 ; Jacobi, 1991; Johnson, Rose, & Schlosser, 2007; Merriam, 1983; Mertz, 2004 ) In response to this criticism, first, it is important to remember that for all the mentors in this stu dy mentoring i s voluntary ev see s [mentoring] as some thing that [he] value Second, five of the six mentors in this study reported that their mentorships were initiated by mutual consent (voluntary) Additionally, al l the mentors in this study reported a gratifying perspective to their mentoring : mentoring is pleasant, enjoya
310 volunteer for an activity that is not pleasant or enjoyable. Thus, it logically follows that if researchers investigate mentors and protgs who volunteer for an activity which is pleasant, enjoyable, rewarding and beneficial that the research findings will be largely positive. However, scholars and researchers are also concerned with problem contexts, the research questions that arise from those contexts, and the discovery of new information that may advance knowledge. As you may recall, even though Professor Overscheduled feels his mentoring is voluntary, he has very little choice or previous knowledge of the and variety of negative mentoring experiences. This study seems to indicate an ar ea for investigation that may yield a more problematic outlook on mentoring, specifically, contexts where the mentor does not feel like his or her mentoring is voluntary (perhaps settings such as business or organization s medical school or nursing school) and situations where perhaps both the mentor and the protg have volunteered for a mentorship experience however the mentoring dyads are assigned and not determined by mutual consent (such as assigned senior junior faculty mentoring dyads, and assigned compensatory mentorships for youth, etc ) Locating and obtaining participation of such a specific group of people may prove to be exceedingly challenging, given the general difficulty of locating and recruiting r esearch participant s who engage in mentorin g (Waldeck, Orrego, Plax, & Kearney, 1997) Scholars have also criticized the a bsence of or even contradictory operational definitions of mentoring across disciplines in the literature (Allen & Eby, 2007; Eby, Rhodes, & Allen, 2007 ; Jacobi, 1991; Johnson, Rose, & Schlosser, 2007; Merriam, 1983;
311 Mertz, 2004 ) The perspectives of the mentor s in this study seem to shed some light on this apparent problem in the extant mentoring research. First, mentoring is idiographic meaning specific to the needs of the protg (and/or m entor ); and second, m e ntoring is t eleological or purpose driven according to the purpose of the protg (and/or m entor) This alone would be enough to explain contradictory operational definitions of mentoring across disciplines as the purposes for mentoring and the attendant skills needed to fulfill th ose purpose s have variation across disciplines Moreover mentoring is dynamic meaning t he purpose s and needs can change either due to protg growth or external environmental in terventions This would further complicate a uniform operational definition of mentoring across disciplines, because it indicates a possibility for constant change in the needs of the protg and the purpose of the mentoring. In light of the idiographic ally purpose driven and dynamic nature of mentoring, perhaps the expectation for a uniform operational definition of mentoring across disciplines is unrealistic. Consider, again, Professor Overscheduled: one might argue that since his doctoral students wer e assigned, that he therefore was not participating in a mentoring relationship. This assertion would be erroneous, due to several facts: first, I operationally defined mentors, protgs and mentoring in this study; second, I gathered data from protgs an d m entors who met those definition s ; and third, the protgs and mentors corroborated as operationally defined. This speaks to the importance of carefully and thoughtfully operationally de critics are precise in this regard, and perhaps the advancement of mentoring literature would better be served by e mphasizing the importance of idi ographically focused
312 operational defini tions, rather than a uniformity of definition across disciplines. The following quote from Professor Hanna illustrates how the idiographic purposes and needs of a mentorship can serve to conceptualize mentoring within a specific context, such as higher edu cation: There is always a purpose to my mentoring eve I'm experienced. This is a doctoral student who is inexperienced in a realm that I am aware of, and so I am going to offer assistance that will take the f orm of mentoring. To me, if I tell you what to do, that is not necessarily mentoring. It is giving you direction. I guess some people might consider that mentoring. If I talk to you about what you're thinking about and what the possibilities are, to me that is mentoring. Response to the Mentoring Literature The present study also expanded on several previous research studies, as I will 1985 survey of faculty mentors reported a few open end ed responses that indicated themes for further investigation, such as : the mentors felt they gained personal satisfaction from the protg s found mentoring to be professionally stimulating; these sentiments were reported in detail by the mentors in this study in the Gratifying study by providing a more nuanced description of how faculty mentors view their relationship with their protgs, the information and ben efits exchanged in the mentorship, and how mentors model scholarly skills for protgs. This study also paralleled Allen, Poteet & Burroughs 1997 study of mentors in the business setting in
31 3 that benefits from the mentorship did fall into two categories (b enefits for the protg and benefits for the mentor), however this study indicated that the benefits were not solely focused on job related issues, but rather included a more holistic development al scope such as enjoyment and efficacy Eby & Lockwood (200 5) and Angeliadias (2007) both found that mentors learned from mentoring; the present study related detailed descriptions of what exactly the faculty mentors felt they learned from mentoring doctoral students. ss setting found two motivations by mentors: a self enhancement motive and an intrinsic satisfaction motive. The motivation of enjoyment found in the mentors in this study seems to parallel the intrinsic satisfaction motive; However, the two other common m otivations reported in this study of helping the student and giving back to the profession do not seem to parallel self enhancement motive. Allen & Eby (2003) found that accounting and engineering mentors reported satisfact ion with the quality of the mentorship when they perceived similarity between their interests, values and personality and that of their protgs. One mentor in this study described the negative issues that arose in his mentorships when he perceived a disconnect between his value values of the mentor and the role values may play in any idiographic mentoring setting is finding that mentor s in the business setting have a propensity to clone themselves by selecting protgs that are similar to themselves in several regards, the mentors in this study did not convey any personal desire to turn the mentor s in this study expressed some concerned with influencing the next generation
314 of professors and teachers by promulgating their own educational ideas or approaches, but were more concerned with creating good professors, researchers and teachers. Implications For Research and Contexts Other T han Higher Education As I have just discussed in the previous section, there is a dearth of research that reports negative or unpleasant findings regarding mentoring. The findings of this study described several posit ive aspects of the Gratifying Perspective that the faculty mentors in this study experienced when they volunteered to mentor doctoral students. One implication from this study for future mentoring research is that a possible area for investiga ting and possibly finding negative mentoring experiences would be in educational, business or medical settings where either the mentor does not feel that the mentorship is entirely voluntary, such as when the mentoring is mandated by the employer, or the m entoring dyad is assigned. Possible venues for research in this area might include assigned mentoring d yads in the following contexts: assigned compensatory youth mentoring, mandatory mentoring of new teachers in the K 12 setting, mandatory mentoring of n ursing or medical students in their clinical settings; as well as mandatory pairing of mentor and protg in a business, organizational, or higher educational setting. The findings of this study pose possible exploratory questions s uch as: Is there a Grati fying Perspective for mentors in these assigned mentorships with assigned parings and what are the elements and variables of these perspectives? Do they see the mentorship as negotiated, collaborative or reciprocal, especially in nursing and medical setti ngs? Another possible are a for investigation might be mentors who volunteer to mentor and are assigned a protg, but receive some sort of remuneration for mentoring. If
315 mentors are paid to mentor (either as an assigned job duty, or from extra remuneratio n f ro m the school district) do they perceive a Gratifying Perspective at all in their mentorships, and if so what are the elements and variables of that perspective? Do mentors who are paid to mentor view mentoring as a relationship at all, or just a job duty? entoring, especially if the mentors are getting paid to mentor? Do mentors ( and protgs ) in other contexts clearly perceive a Teleological Perspective to their mentoring and if so, what are the elements and variables of that perspective? Are the purposes explicitly discussed and/ or negotiated between the participants? In business and organization settings, is one purpose for mentoring to increase bottom line profits for the corporation, especially of the mentorship is assigned by the corporation? Do nursi ng and medical mentors see one of the purposes for their mentoring as service to society or humanity? The findings of this study also suggest areas for investigation regarding sources of possibly conflict or negativity between the mentor and protg, such issues surrounding change dynamics, or conflict in the purpose (teleology) values, or motivations in the mentorship In mentoring contexts that involve specific clinical or vocational competencies (such as nursing, medicine, psychiatry, mechanics), are there fewer or less variety of idiographic needs of the protgs, and therefore less of an Idiographic Perspective in these mentorships? There are several emergent concepts from this study that are the focus of little to no empirically grounded research in the mentoring literature. Investigation of these
316 concepts in any mentoring context (K 12 education, undergraduate education, adult education, vocational education, business, nursing, medicine, etc.) would expand the mentoring literature in gene ral: 1) W hat are the perceived purposes (teleologies), motivations, and values of the mentoring participants, and how do these perceptions impact the mentorship? 2) What are the idiographic characteristics of mentoring in various contexts? 3) What is the r ole and extent of negotiation in various mentoring contexts? Is t he negotiation unrecognized, meaning implicit or unspoken, or explicitly recognized, discussed and navigated? And if so, how? Impl ications for Future Practice for Faculty Mentors of Doctoral Students Based on the findings of this study, there are several implications for mentors who are already involved in doctoral student mentoring. The following implications may also be especially helpful for people who are just learning or beginning to ment or. At the beginning of a mentorship, ascertain goal is for their degree pursuit his/her doctoral study is somewhat unfocused, as was mine, it would likely prove beneficial to engage the protg in some periodic dialogue until the protg seems comfortable with a clear goal for his/her doctoral study. Then, p eriodically check to see if your p changed. My initial goal evolved into a new goal by the time I reached the qualifying exams; and it has changed again slightly since then. explicitly discuss goal setting and periodically revisit g oals with the protg I think for me, the mental exercise of having to occasionally check in with my mentor and discuss long term goals would have expanded my myopia centered on just getting through th e degree, and helped me develop a long term vision. A s a mentor, endeavor to discern
317 your idiographic needs and then attempt to meet those needs as best you can. eriodically check to see if his/her needs have changed, and if the protg fe els like his/her needs are being met. If you feel like you could use some help at becoming a better mentor, c onsider learning about a counseling technique, such as Rogerian counseling, which includes conc epts such as active and empath ic listening, responding back to the protg by paraphrasing and demonstrating unconditional pos itive regard for the protg If you personally feel that relationships in general are challenging, and/or perceive that mentoring relations hips in particular might be challenging, observe colleagues who seem to be more comfortable or successful at mentoring, and then ask for their advice; the present study suggests they will likely find it pleasant and gratifying that you ask ed them to share their mentoring wisdom. If mentoring initially seems to be a monumental challenge, take heart: there is absolutely no need for you as the mentor to be the font of all mentoring knowledge. You need not have a predetermined master plan for the protg. Aski ng the protg what his or her purpose is takes the heat off of you as the mentor; then serve as guide and progress toward the goal When a change dynamic happens, negotiate a plan of action; re nego tiate as needed. M entor s do offer their best ideas, solutions, and help. Implications for Future Practice For Doctoral Students Based on the findings of this study, there are a few implications for doctoral student s who may currently be protgs, or want to become protgs. The following are
318 suggestions offered directly to doctoral students, based in the research findings of this s tudy. Specifically, m entoring is a symbiotic relationship. All relationships require some effort and nurturing; endeavor to periodically inventory your efforts to sustain and enhance your mentoring relationship with your mentor. Additionally, a symbiotic r elationship indicates that your mentor derives life enhancing gratification from the mentoring relationship, just as you do. Endeavor to ascertain your mentor needs, values motivations, rewards, benefits and enjoy ments of mentoring, and then get i nten tional about reciprocating some of those back to your mentor. It can be appropriate to negotiate with your mentor ; be forthcoming about your needs. Change happens; be proactive about re negotiating w ith your mentor. Determine your purpose or goa l for you r doctoral studies and discuss it with your mentor. Candidly discuss any doubts or changes you have about your needs or purpose. Be positive, proactive, and responsive regarding you r communications with your mentor, especially any formative feedback. iciently they are really busy. Protgs who evince empathy and respect will enrich the mentoring relationship. Implications for Future Practice for Institutions Based on the findings of this study, there are a few implications for institutional practice that might be implemented at the College of Education or university level (or both) revolving aro und building and sustaining a culture of mentoring. In order to create a culture of mentoring, the institutional leadership could promulgate an institutional vision in which mentoring figured prominently.
319 For example, the Dean of the College of Education might address the faculty with a visionary goal, such as state or national recognition of their graduates as outstanding recognition of their partnerships with local school d istricts, and state or national recognition as producers of transformational educational researchers (including doctoral students, junior faculty, and faculty), and explicate how mentoring at all levels can be a means to these ends This leadership vision might begin with an appeal to what the mentors in this study reported as their purpose s for mentoring: to facilitate the best achievement of the protg, to develop local school district talent, and to create good professors. Next, the Dean could illustra te how the values of this vision and of the College of Education are congruent with values expressed by mentors (e.g., the mentors in this study), such as: giving back to the profession, growth, quality, research, community (relationship), and collegiality The Dean could also illustrate congruence in motivations between the institution and mentors (as also found in this study), such as the motivation to give back to the profession, and the motivation for personal and institutional benefits and recognition. The Dean might use research findings, as well as testimonials from mentors, to illustrate these values and motivations (Testimonials should include extra details on the personal rewards, benefits and enjoyment for mentors.) Third the Dean could implemen t programs and structures to s upport mentoring and to h elp faculty learn to mentor where troubled mentors can process issues.
320 I have already discussed suggestions (previously ) ab out how to learn to mentor. T he mentors in thi s study had the following suggestions on how to ensure good mentoring in the future at Transition University They suggested : informal mentoring discussions among faculty, formal mentoring programs that avoided forced / bad pairings in the mentoring dyads, and incorporat ing mentoring a part of faculty assignments but let the assignment to mentoring dyads be voluntarily selected by the faculty. Finally, the Dean c ould also include some sort of reward for mentoring. This could range from publicly recognizing good me ntoring in the college demonstrating that mentoring is valued by leaders of the professional learning community to some sort of financial reward such as occasional load release time for mentors, or an annual mentoring award that included a financial gift along with recognition by peers. Conclusion In concluding this study, I have reached a milestone. Looking back I realize that I have completed a nine year odyss ey consisting of four years of do ctoral coursework and then five years of dissertation research and have come to realize the value of the impact of this journey on both my growth as a researcher and educator. I have realized tremendous value in moving beyond my experiences as a protg to study in depth the qualities and the dynamics of effective mentors and mentoring relationships. I believe this study is a distinctive success both on the level of my personal growth and on the level of a contribution to the field of mentoring I was gratified to receive positive feedback from the mentors in this study as well as the members of my dissertation committee as I processed the data through the rigors of phenomenolog y. I find that the modern mentor protg relationship in an academic setting still echoes the
321 qualities and the journey of restore homeostasis to his life. Researcher Reflective Journal February 7, 2010 . . It's not a hill, it's a mountain As you start out the climb Do you believe me, or are you doubting We're gonna make it all the way to the light . (Exce r pt from: I Know I'll Go Crazy if I Don't Go Crazy Tonight by U2)
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339 Appendix A Interview Protocol 1 1. [ Name of doctoral student ] has nominated you as a mentor. Can you describe to me how you view your role as a mentor to [ name of student ? ] Or, if permission Can you describe to me how you view your role as a mentor to doctoral students? 2. When you were a mentor to [ name of student ] what was the mentoring name: Typically, what is the mentoring experience like for you? a. Follow up probing question: Were there any negative experiences for you as a mentor? 3. Keeping in mind your mentoring experiences with [ name of student ] what type of activities did you typically engage in with [ name of student ] and what do you consider to b e your most effective or important mentoring activities? Think of a specific mentoring relationship that you felt worke d well; what type of activities did you typically engage in with doctoral students whom you mentor ed and what do you consider to be your most effective or important mentoring activities? 4. What motivated you to engage in these activities with the student [or name of student if permission is given to use the name ] ? 5. How did you l earn to mentor?
340 Appendix A (Continued) 6. Can you describe how you decide d to be [ ] mentor? Or, if Can you describe how you decide d ? a. Follow up probing question: Are there some general qualities of a protg that you look for? b. Do you have any documents or artifacts from your mentoring relationships that you can share with me? 7. Is there anything else you want to tell me at this time?
341 Appendix B Interview Protocol 2 1. In revisiting our first interview is there anything you wish to add to your statements on mentoring? 2. How would you define the term "mentor"? 3. In the ideal, what would help insure excellent mentoring? 4. When you think about your life as a mentor, what can you tell future mentors?
342 Appendix C Nomination Form Sent to Graduates College of Education Doctoral Degree Graduate: I am a doctoral candidate in the Department of Adult, Career and Higher Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. I am pursuing my dissertation topic on the perspectives of faculty who mentor doctoral students who complete the doctora l degree. The purpose of the study is to describe and explain selected faculty mentor s perspectives on the mentoring of doctoral students. In order to locate faculty in the College of Education, I am asking alumni who have graduated with their doct oral College of Education to nominate COE faculty mentors for participation in two interviews for this study by filling out the nomination form below. You may nominate ANY College of Education faculty member who you feel fits the definition of mentor (below); the faculty member does NOT have to have been your dissertation committee chair or a member of your dissertation committee. If you could please take a minute to fill out the form below a nd return it to me, I would greatly appreciate it. Your nomination will remain anonymous, unless you indicate otherwise on the form. Sincerely, Carol A. Burg Information About My Research Study Informed Consent 1. This study involves interviewing faculty regarding their mentoring experiences, and is therefore research. 2. The purpose of the study is to describe and explain selected faculty on the mentoring of doctoral students. 3. I expect the study to last fro m March 2009 thru May 2010. 4. The approximate number of faculty mentors to be interviewed ranges from five to 10 interviewees. 5. The procedure of the research involves asking College of Education to nominate faculty mentors. Facu lty mentors who consent to participate will then participate in two 1 hour interviews. 6. There are no foreseeable risks to either the students who nominate the mentors, or the faculty mentors. 7. Possible benefits to the faculty mentors are: they will receive copies of the interview transcripts, tapes and the research study. Also, s ignificant new finding s which relate to the faculty 8. Doctoral graduates may choose to remain completely anonymous. If they choo se to disclose their identity to myself and the faculty mentor, this information will only be known to me and the faculty mentor. 9. The confidentiality of the faculty mentors will be completely maintained throughout the study; only I will know their identiti es, which will remain anonymous in the study. 10. For questions about the research and the participants rights and any other issues arising from the research, please contact me Carol A. Burg, at: firstname.lastname@example.org 11. Participation in this study is completely v oluntary. Refusal to participate will not result in any penalty or loss of benefits. Participants are free to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits
343 12. There is no cost to you for participation in this research study. 13. The Uni versity of South Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB) may be contacted at: 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd, MDC035, Tampa, Florida, 33612; telephone: 813 974 5638. The University of South Florida Institutional Review Board / Department of Health & Human Serv ice may request to see my research records of this study. Nomination For m for Faculty College of Education For the purpose of this study, a mentor is defined a College of Education who has been identified by a COE doctoral graduate as participating in a relationship that provides support that goes beyond the basic duties of student advising, with the intention of enhancing/promoting/supporting both the career and personal development of the student. Below, College of Education faculty you have encountered that fills this description. You may nominate more than one faculty member, if you wish: ___________________________ _____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Your nomination will remain anonymous; however, it would enhance the focus of the interview responses if I may inform the faculty member of the name of the person who nominated him/her as a mentor. If you agree to let me inform the faculty mentor of who nominated him/her as a mentor, please: Print your name here: ___________________________________________________ I agree to participate in this study with Carol A. Burg. I realize that this information will be used for educational purposes. I understand I may withdraw from the study at any time. I und erstand the intent of the study. And sign your name here: __________________________________ _____________ Date: ____________________________ If there is NO faculty member whom you feel has acted as a mentor to you, please indicate so below with a check mark, and return this form in the envelope provided: ___ College of Education has acted as a mentor for me. Please return the nomination form by May 15 2009 in the envelope provided. Thank you very much for your participation! Carol A. Burg USF IRB #107792 626 7 th Ave. N. St Petersburg, FL 33701 Approved 4/7/09 email@example.com
344 Appendix D Explanatory Letter to Interviewees College of Education Faculty Member I am a doctoral candidate in the Department of Adult, Career and Higher Education at the University of So uth Florida in Tampa, Florida. I am pursuing my dissertation topic on the perspectives of faculty who mentor doctoral students to degree completion. The purpose of the study is to describe and explain selected faculty of doctoral students. Your participation is requested because a doc toral degree graduate of the College of Education has nomina ted you as someone who provided mentoring to him/her during the course of his/her doctoral studies. For the purpose of this study, a mentor is defined as: College of Education who has been identified by a COE doctoral graduate as participating in a relationship that provides support that goes beyond the basic duties of student advising, with the intention of enhancing/promoting/supporting both the career and personal development of the student. Participation in the study will require approximately two one hour in depth interviews. The interviews will, with your permission, be taped and transcribed. To maintain confidentiality, you will not be identified by name on the tape. I and/or a professional typist will be tr anscribing the tapes. A peer review reader will read the transcription of the tape; howev er, they will be able to identify faculty only as Faculty A, or Faculty B, etc. The audio files will be kept in a safe at my house. Each participant will be offered a copy of the audio files as well as a copy of the transcription s. The interviewees and I w ill be the only ones with access to the audio files. Once the interviews are transcribed from a copy of the audio file, the audio file will be returned to me and erased. The master audio file will remain in my possession and will be destroyed five years af ter the publication of the dissertation. Interviews will be arranged at the college at your convenience. The tentative schedule calls for one interview in May 2009 and another interview by September 2009. In addition, you may be asked to share relevant artifacts and documents. Your name and the name of the college and any other information gathered in this study will remain confidential and will only be used for educational purposes. I appreciate your thoughtful consideration of my request. I look forw ard to your participation in the study. Sincerely, Carol A. Burg USF IRB #107792 626 7 th Ave. N, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 firstname.lastname@example.org Approved 4/7/09
345 Appendix E Estimated Dissertation Expenses Digital Voice Recorder $100.00 ATLAS.ti Software $1 50.00 Field Notebook / Journal $10.00 Paper & Postage Expenses $250 .00 Travel Expenses for Interviews $150.00 Transcription of 12 1 hour Interviews $1,500.00 Manuscript Processing Submission Fee $100.00 Microfilming Fee $65.00 Copy Editing of Dissertation $300.00 Final Dissertation Copies $500.00 ProQuest UMI Fee $165.00 $10 Starbucks Gift Certificates for Interviewees $12 0.00 TOTAL $3, 410. 00
346 Appendix F Consent Form for Interviewees Information About My Research Study Informed Consent This study involves interviewing faculty regarding their mentoring experiences, and is therefore research. 1. This study involves interviewing faculty regarding their mentoring experiences, and is therefore research. 2. The purp ose of the study is to describe and explain selected faculty on the mentoring of doctoral students. 3. I expect the study to la st fro m March 2009 thru May 2010. 4. The approximate number of faculty mentors to be interviewed ranges from five to 10 interviewees. 5. The procedure of the research involves asking University College of Education to nominate faculty mentors. Faculty mentors who consent to participate will then participate in two 1 hour intervi ews. 6. There are no foreseeable risks to either the students who nominate the mentors, or the faculty mentors. 7. Possible benefits to the faculty mentors are: they will receive copies of the interview transcripts, tapes and the research study. Also, signific ant new findings which relate to the faculty 8. Doctoral graduates may choose to remain completely anonymous. If they choose to disclose their identity to myself and the faculty mentor, this information w ill only be known to me and the faculty mentor. 9. The confidentiality of the faculty mentors will be completely maintained throughout the study; only I will know their identities, which will remain anonymous in the study. 10. For questions about the research and the participants rights and any other issues arising from the research, please contact me, Carol A. Burg, at: email@example.com 11. Participation in this completely voluntary. Refusal to participate will not result in any penalty or loss of benefits. Parti cipants are free to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits 12. There is no cost to you for participation in this research study. 13. The University of South Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB) may be contacted at: 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd, MDC035, Tampa, Florida, 33612; telephone: 813 974 5638. The University of South Florida Institutional Review Board / Department of Health & Human Service may request to see my research records of this study. I, _________________________________________________________, (Please print your name above.) Agree to participate in this study with Carol A. Burg. I realize that this information will be used for educational purposes. I understand I may withdraw from the study at any time. I understand the intent of the study. Signed ______________________________________ Da te __________________ Please return this consent form by May 30 2009 in the envelope provided to: USF IRB #107792 Carol A Burg 626 7 th Ave. N. St. Petersburg, FL 33701 firstname.lastname@example.org Approved 4/7/09
347 Appendix G Member Check Form for Interviewees January 25, 2010 Dear _______________________________________________ Thank you for enjoyable and insightful interviews. Attached please find a draft copy of the verbatim transcripts of the interview and concomitant analysis. Please review the transcription / analysis for accuracy of responses and reporting of information. P lease feel free to contact via email at email@example.com should you have any questions. Thank you again for your willingness to participate in this study. Sincerely, Carol A. Burg firstname.lastname@example.org
348 Appendix H Peer Reviewer Form I, Ruth Slotnick Faculty Per spectives on Doctoral Student Mentoring with the researcher in capacities such as reviewing the analysis of transcripts and assisting in emerging issues. Signed: (Signature on File) ____________________ Date: ___ February 23, 2010 ________ ____________
349 Appendix I Sample Interview Transcript and Analysis Original Transcript Meaning Units Highlighted Prof Intentional 06.01.09 (The interview begins with a brief discussion of a n article Prof. Intentional wrote about mentoring.) Carol : [1:18] Thank you. First of all, can you describe to me how you view your role a s a mentor to doctoral students? Professor Intentional : [1:29] Well, I shared with you that chapter that I wrote on mentoring. [1:36] That was published not too long ago. Actually, very recently. As I was doing the research for that chapter I came across the term intentional mentoring. That is a term, I think, really kind of embraces my philosophy on mentoring. [1:58] It is Theme of Meaning Units Prof. Intentional sees her mentoring role as an intentional one. Emergent Central Theme Mentors see their mentoring role as an intentional one. Emergent Code Mentoring: Intentional
350 Original Transcript Meaning Units Highlighted intentional. It is conscious. Now, there are many, many things that happen in a mentoring relationship that you don't necessarily think about very consciously. . It is something that happens in passing conversation. [2:15] But, I would classify my particular view of it as intentional mentoring. I try to make very sure that when I see opportunities that come through, I think, "Which of my doctoral students would benefit f rom this? Who could contribute to this? How can I position them for a job later on? What does this person need that this person may not need . . So it is intentional. . I try to fashion the opportunities that I make available and how I interact with them, a very conscious choice. Theme of Meaning Units Prof. Intentional sees her mentoring role as an intentional one. Prof. Intentional sees part of her role as mentor as positioning her protgs for jobs later on. Prof. Intentional sees her mentoring role as an intentional one. Emergent Central Theme Mentors see their mentoring role as an intentional one. Mentors see part of their role as mentor as positioning protgs for jobs later on. Mentors see their mentoring role as an intentional one. Emergent Code Mentoring: Intentional Mentors: Protg Job Assistance Mentoring: Intentional Appendix I (Continued) Sample Interview Transcript and Analysis
351 Appendix J April 27, 2009 Prof Jade : I arrived at the faculty office suite at 8:50am for my 9:00am interview today. The secretary notified my interviewee, Prof. Jade, that I had arrived. As Prof. Jade was taking me back to her office, she mentioned that she had 30 minutes available for the in terview. My heart sunk into my stomach; I had clearly requested a 60 minute interview, which Prof. Jade agreed to provide. I started to panic: the purpose of the pilot interview was to ascertain that my interview questions were constructed adequately to garner the data I needed for my phenomenological study. The pilot interview was also to indicate any changes to the interview protocol, if needed, before I collected the bulk of the data. Should I reschedule the interview for another time when Prof. Jade h ad an hour available? By the time we reached her office, I had decided: No, I will go forward with the opportunity I have right now concentrate on doing the best interview that I can. I smiled, and replied to Pr of. Jade, I proceeded with the interview with intense focus, wanting to be sure I covered all the interview questions. Prof. Jade was enthusiastic, and equally focused until the phone in her office rang. She asked me if she should get that. I responded with a sort of wilted expression on my face. She turned around anyway and answered the phone, but was extremely brief, and talked less than 1 minute. I smiled and we resumed the interview. Always keep smiling with your participants! Precisely a t 9:30am Prof. Jade made it evident that she had to leave. I was happy to see that in 30 minutes I had indeed covered all my interview questions.
352 Appendix K List of Documents and Artifacts Professor Jade: Curriculum Vita : September 10, 2009 Personal Co mmunication: November 1, 2009; November 2, 1009 Article she wrote on hermeneutical research: November 15, 2009; January 26, 2010 Member Check: January 26, 2010 Professor Jacob: Curriculum Vita : June 19, 2009 Personal Communication: November 27, 2009 Mem ber Check: January 26, 2010 Professor Hanna: Curriculum Vita ; June 17, 2009 Personal Communication: December 9, 2009 Member Check: February 4, 2010 Professor Reeba: Curriculum Vita : May 14, 2009 Personal Communication: December 31, 2009 Article she wrote on mentoring: May 14, 2009 Member Check: January 26, 2010 Professor Jack: Curriculum Vita : September 23, 2009 Personal Communication: July 2, 2009; January 8, 2010 Member Check: February 6, 2010 Professor Donna: Curriculum Vita : June 23, 2009 Personal Communication: January 18, 2010 Member Check: February 5, 2010
ABOUT THE AUTHOR Carol A. Burg received her Bachelor of Science degree from Indiana University in Psychology and Music, and worked for many years as a music educator and professional organist and choir master. She earned a Master of Education degree in Curriculum and Instr uction from National Louis University. Her Master's thesis concentrated on Arts Based Educational Research and involved designing and making a quilt to explore formal and informal mentoring relationships. From her Master's thesis she has published a resear ch article in The Journal of Critical Inquiry into Curriculum and Instruction as well as a chapter in Emancipatory Educational Inquiry: Experience, Narrative, & Pedagogy in the International Landscape of Diversity (2010), and presented papers at several n ational conferences. She served as Assistant Editor for the journal Mentoring & Tutoring and reviews research articles for Teacher Education Quarterly She is also currently adjunct faculty at National Lou is University in Tampa, Florida.