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Re-tooling an american metropolis

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Title:
Re-tooling an american metropolis
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Hott, Robert
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Multimodal
Transit
High Speed Rail
Light Rail
Tampa
Dissertations, Academic -- School of Architecture and Community Design -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: re-tool v.tr. re-tooled, re-tooling, re-tools 1. To fit out (a factory, for example) with a new set of machinery and tools for making a different product. 2. To revise and reorganize, especially for the purpose of updating or improving.1 The American ideals inherent in the suburbs are the promise of space, affordability, convenience, and traditional family life; conversely the public realms of the suburban typology become disconnected from each other as well as the larger city. The Generic City condition in which the periphery is no longer captivated by the center from which it was created is pervasive in the American landscape.2 Public space within the city has been consumed by their auto-centric infrastructural requirements, creating a loss of activity and identity. "Lowly, unpurposeful and random as they may appear, sidewalk contacts are the small change from which a cities wealth of public life may grow3." Connecting people and places to one another and the metropolis that feeds them is essential for a properly functioning society.4 One example of an American city afflicted by auto-centrism and pedestrian marginalization is Tampa. The solution to Tampa's disconnection is a transit oriented development model in which there are localized areas of higher density that become nodes along a public transit route, thereby connecting areas of low density. By creating transportation nodes, places will become better connected in time and space. Establishing a more social form of transit in the Tampa Bay region will provide the opportunity for the creation of a secular cathedral of transportation. The Infrastructures we erect, just as the monasteries in the Middle Ages, must seek to enliven the communal and artistic traditions that make civilization and culture meaningful. The network of light rail connecting disjointed areas in Hillsborough will be linked to a high speed rail connecting major metropolitan areas across the state. This central downtown node will be manifested as a multi-modal station which incorporates multiple functions into an existing single use environment to densify the urban core of Tampa, create denser housing, and reconnect people to places. The main area of focus is the rail station and its overlap of program to create density and intensity so that connections with places and culture will be reinforced. The station will become a major public space of amenity and gathering point for the community.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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by Robert Hott.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.

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Re-Tooling an American Metropolis By Robert Shawn Hott of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Vikas Mehta, Ph.D. Daniel Powers, M. Arch. Eric Rice, M. Arch. Date of Approval: April 16, 2010 Keywords: Multimodal, Transit, High Speed Rail, Light Rail, Tampa Copyright 2010, Robert Shawn Hott

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This document is dedicated to Ashley and my parents, Bob and Adele whose support has made this thesis possible. Dedication

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i List of Figures....................................................................................................................................................iii Abstract............................................................................................................................................................ix Preface..........................................................................................................................................................xi Research Introduction.............................................................................................................................................1 History.....................................................................................................................................................3 Problems ................................................................................................................................................7 Solutions...............................................................................................................................................17 Implications For Tampa.........................................................................................................................26 Case Studies...................................................................................................................................................30 Euralille.................................................................................................................................................32 Stadelhofen Station..............................................................................................................................37 Yokohama Port Terminal ......................................................................................................................42 Pennsylvania Station............................................................................................................................46 Grand Central Terminal.........................................................................................................................48 The Site...........................................................................................................................................................51 Table Of Contents

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ii Program...........................................................................................................................................................75 Conceptual Design..........................................................................................................................................83 Schematic Design..........................................................................................................................................104 Final Design...................................................................................................................................................128 Conclusion..................................................................................................................................................151 References....................................................................................................................................................152

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iii List Of Figures Figure 1. Old Delhi Labyrinthine Street Network 4 Figure 2. The Commute 8 Figure 3. Strong sense of identity created by the Toronto skyline 14 Figure 4. Lost sense of identity in Tampa 15 Figure 5. Retooling an American Metropolis poster 17 Figure 6. Injection of public transit and pedestrian oriented environments 18 Figure 7. Overlaying light rail network over automobile infrastructure 18 Figure 8. Rail infrastructures existing presence in Ybor 20 Figure 9. Indian streetscape 23 Figure 9. Euralille TGV station 30 Figure 10. Stadelhofen Station 30 Figure 11. Yokohama Port Terminal Public Space 30 Figure 12. Penn Station 31 Figure 13. Grand Central Terminal 31 Figure 15. Euralille multi modal transit 32 Figure 14. Centrality of Lille in Europe 32 Figure 16. Euralille Masterplan 33 Figure 17. Euralille section and elevation 34 Figure 18. Euralille diagram 34 Figure 19. Euralille multi modal transit diagram 35 Figure 20. Euralille TGV station section 36 Figure 21. TGV station roof structure 36

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iv Figure 22. TGV station axonometric 36 Figure 23. Stadelhofen panorama 37 Figure 24. Stadelhofen site plan 38 Figure 25. Stadelhofen section diagram 38 Figure 26. Stadelhofen rail and platform waiting areas 39 Figure 27. Stadelhofen pedestrian access points 39 Figure 28. Stadelhofen cross section 40 Figure 29. Stadelhofen concourse 40 Figure 31. Stadelhofen diagram 41 Figure 30. Stadelhofen Figure 32. Stadelhofen Diagram 41 Figure 33. Yokohama Port Terminal Circulation Diagram 42 Figure 34. Yokohama Port Terminal 42 Figure 35. Yokohama Port Terminal Floor Modular Diagrams 43 Figure 36. Yokohama Port Terminal Bifurcation Diagram 44 Figure 37. Yokohama Port Terminal Bifurcated planes create circulation 44 Figure 38. Yokohama Port Terminal circulation of passenger and baggage 45 Figure 39. Penn Station concourse 46 Figure 40. Penn Station waiting room 46 Figure 41. Penn Station Duality of Structural and ornamental logic. 47 Figure 42. Grand Central Terminal 48 Figure 43. Grand Central Terminal circulation diagrams 49 Figure 44. Grand Central Terminal circulation diagram 50 Figure 45. Site pages intro 51 Figure 46. Regional Connections Tampa to Lakeland to Orlando 52 Figure 47. Commuter Connections 53 Figure 48. District Connections 54 Figure 49. South Tampa Districts 55 Figure 50. Downtown Tampa Perspective 56 Figure 51. South Tampa Land Use By Parcel 2009 57

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v Figure 52. South Tampa Areas of Growth 2009 58 Figure 53. South Tampa Existing Housing Density In Dwelling Units Per Acre 59 Figure 54. Site 1 Photo corner of Nebraska Ave. and Cass St. 60 Figure 55. Site 1 Photo the commuter cultures wasted landscape 60 Figure 56. Site 1 pedestrian boundaries 61 Figure 57. Site 1 pedestrian / path / automobile 62 Figure 58. Site 2 Photo Tampas historic Union Station 63 Figure 59. Site 2 Photo rail along Nuccio Parkway 63 Figure 60. Site 2 pedestrian boundaries 64 Figure 61. Site 2 pedestrian / rail / automobile 65 Figure 62. Site 3 Photo Existing infrastructural boundaries 66 Figure 63. Site 3 pedestrian boundaries 67 Figure 64. Site 3 pedestrian / bus / automobile 68 Figure 65. Connecting disjointed districts diagram 69 Figure 66. Redevelopment areas adjacent to site 70 Figure 67. Existing week day site activity 71 Figure 68. Pedestrian marginalization within the auto-centric culture 72 Figure 70. Implicit street space looking down Zack street 74 Figure 72. Site section heat island 74 Figure 71. Site sections 74 Figure 73. Rail infrastructure to be re-purposed for commuters 75 Figure 74. Blur public and private boundaries 75 Figure 75. Program relationship diagram 81 Figure 76. Approximate Program to scale with site 82 Figure 75. Pedestrian and light rail circulatory diagram 85 Figure 76. High Speed Rail as shading device 86 Figure 77. Organizational diagram 87 Figure 78. Creation of multiple spaces and functions from a single structural element 88 Figure 79. Conceptual diagram 88

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vi Figure 80. Conceptual diagrams, Roof, Plan, Section 89 Figure 81. Visual connectivity across physical boundaries 90 Figure 82. 1:200 Model_A 91 Figure 83. 1:200 Model_B 92 Figure 84. 1:200 Model_C 93 Figure 85. 1:200 Model_D 94 Figure 86. 1:200 Model_E 95 Figure 87. 1:200 Model_F 96 Figure 89. Conceptual model on existing site 1:100 scale 98 Figure 90. Conceptual model on existing site 1:100 scale 99 Figure 91. Conceptual model 1:100 scale_A 100 Figure 92. Conceptual model 1:100 scale_B 101 Figure 93. Conceptual cross section through Zack St. and Cass St. 102 Figure 94. 1:50 Model with existing and proposed context 103 Figure 95. Rhino + Grasshopper 104 Figure 96. Space into light concept model_A 105 Figure 97. Space into light concept model_B 106 Figure 98. Space into light concept model_C 106 Figure 99. Sectional kit of parts model as explorations in structural rhythm and circulation 107 Figure 101. Light exploration model_A 109 Figure 102. Light exploration model_B 110 Figure 103. Light exploration model_C 111 Figure 104. Light exploration model_D 112 Figure 105. Conceptual section model market 113 Figure 106. Conceptual model high speed rail 114 Figure 107. Conceptual model serial vision 114 Figure 108. Conceptual Section model light rail platforms 115 Figure 109. Conceptual model 1:16 scale_A 116

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vii Figure 110. Conceptual model 1:16 scale_B 116 Figure 111. Rhino+Grasshopper screen shot plaza rasterization 117 Figure 112. Plaza rasterization cut pattern 117 Figure 113. Final model plaza surface 117 Figure 114. Rhino+Grasshopper screen shot Surface Contours 118 Figure 115. Surface Contours cut pattern 118 Figure 116. Final Surface Contours 118 Figure 117. Rhino+Grasshopper screen shot Louver Rotation based on image Rasterization 119 Figure 120. Louver perspective 119 Figure 118. Louver elevation 119 Figure 119. Lobby Rendering 119 Figure 121. Rhino+Grasshopper screen shot Roof Design and Fabrication 120 Figure 122. Roof Design and Fabrication cut pattern 120 Figure 123. Roof surface 120 Figure 124. Light study model 1:16 scale 121 Figure 126. Light study model interior 1:32 scale 123 Figure 127. Light study model detail 1:32 scale 124 Figure 129. Rhino+Grasshopper screen shot Chair Design and Fabrication 125 Figure 128. Cafe Chair study #4 125 Figure 130. Cafe Chair study #5_A 126 Figure 131. Cafe Chair study #5_B 127 Figure 132. Cafe bench study model 127 Figure 122. Final Model 1:32 scale 128 Figure 123. Final Site Plan 129 Figure 124. Light Rail Platform Level Plan & Detail 130 Figure 125. Street Level Plan & Detail 131 Figure 126. High Speed Rail Concourse Level Plan & Detail 132 Figure 127. High Speed Rail Platform Level Plan & Detail 133 Figure 128. High Speed Rail Concourse Level Plan & Detail 134

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viii Figure 129. Program Diagrams level 1 & 2 135 Figure 130. Program Diagrams level 3 & 4 136 Figure 131. Circulation Diagrams level 1 & 2 137 Figure 132. Circulation Diagrams level 3 & 4 138 Figure 133. Final Model 139 Figure 134. Zack Plaza ground level 140 Figure 135. North elevation pano 140 Figure 136. Zack Plaza 141 Figure 137. Cass St. surface as ramp/seating/stair/wall 142 Figure 138. Cass St. Perspective 143 Figure 139. High speed rail entry as stair and waiting area 144 Figure 140. Corner of Cass St. and Nebraska Ave. 145 Figure 141. Zack High Speed Rail Entry 146 Figure 142. High Speed Rail Cass Entry render 147 Figure 143. High Speed Rail Main Lobby render 148 Figure 144. Pedestrian approach from downtown 149 Figure 145. Partial shade to full shade within the entry threshold 150

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ix v.tr. , 2. To revise and reorganize, especially for the purpose of updating or improving.1 The American ideals inherent in the suburbs are the promise of space, affordability, convenience, and traditional family life; conversely the public realms of the suburban typology become disconnected from each other as well as the larger city. The Generic City condition in which the periphery is no longer captivated by the center from which it was created is pervasive in the American landscape.2 Public space within the city has been consumed by their auto-centric infrastructural requirements, creating a loss of activity and identity. Lowly, unpurposeful and random as they may appear, sidewalk contacts 1 2 Metropolitan Architecture, Rem Koolhaas, and Bruce Mau. New York, N.Y.: Monacelli Press.,1254Re-Tooling an American Metropolis Robert Shawn Hott ABSTRACT

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x are the small change from which a cities wealth of public life may grow3. Connecting people and places to one another and the metropolis that feeds them is essential for a properly functioning society.4 The solution to Tampas disconnection is a transit oriented development model in which there are localized areas of higher density that become nodes along a public transit route, thereby connecting areas of low den sity. By creating transportation nodes, places will become better connected in time and space. Establishing a more social form of transit in the Tampa Bay region will provide the opportunity for the creation of a secular cathedral of transportation. The Infrastructures we erect, just as the monasteries in the Middle Ages, must seek to enliven the communal and artistic traditions that make civilization and culture meaningful. The network of light rail connecting disjointed areas in Hillsborough will be linked to a high speed rail connecting major metropolitan areas across the state. This central downtown node will be manifested as a multi-modal station which incorporates multiple functions into an existing single use environment to densify the urban core of Tampa, create denser housing, and reconnect people to places. The main area of focus is the rail station and its overlap of program to create density and intensity so that connections with places and culture will be reinforced. The station will become a major public space of amenity and gathering point for the community. 3 Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The death and life of great American cities. New York: Random House. 4 Calthorpe, Peter. 1993. The next American metropolis: ecology, community, and the American dream. New York: Princ eton Architectural Press

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xi Preface Writings relation to architecture affords only an uncertain mirror to be held up to evidence; it is rather in a wordless silence that we have the best chance to stumble into that zone compromised of space, light, and matter that is architecture.5Steven Holl 5 Holl, Steven. 1989. Anchoring: selected projects, 1975-1988. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press., 9

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1 Introduction Cities have a reciprocal relationship with their infrastructure. Often under-appreciated, infrastructure provides the framework for modern society to function. Transit infrastructure connects people from where they live to where they work and places of leisure. The journey must not add to the monotony of daily to the destination and choice in the modern commute is crucial. Many cities realized long ago that large investments in transportation infrastructure were important to the function of its citizens. Tampa, once on the correct path in public transit had a bustling streetcar network that connected people to downtown. Now the downtown is a pedestrian wasteland created by the auto-centric culture in which we live. The streetcar tracks have been torn up by automobile empires, and the interstate has bisected the districts of our cities and made them unnavigable by pedestrians. The general rule given to students of architecture is that you need more square feet of asphalt outside movement without automobiles, you get a pedestrian friendly environment. Research

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2 Through the examination of historical presidents of the growth of cities and their transportation infrastructure, this thesis seeks to investigate problems of connectivity and identity within the city. The places we live are becoming more disconnected from the traditional places we work and the places of leisure and technology. This thesis seeks to create a more socially tangible form of transportation that can connect people to places while still offering the appeal of a place to interact through technology. The solution that manifests itself for the region known as Tampa Bay, is to connect nodes of activity through a light rail network, and connect the city itself to other cities across the state. The network of public rail transportation will only work, however, if the stations are places in their own right, and not just park and ride lots. The creation of a place with its own identity and a pedestrian oriented environment with the ability for unforeseen and random human interaction to take place is crucial for the life of the space. Public epicenters need grandeur to prevail. They need a constant gravitational pull more compelling than periodic events. The implications for the creation of a new civic space in Tampa provides an opportunity for the creation of an architecture to be experienced through the senses.

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3 History A citys formation and evolution is fundamentally based upon economic, geographic and social forces. These forces do not always promote a healthy environment for living, working, and enjoying life. thousand years: industry, governance, commerce, safety, culture, companionship and religion.1 within groups, and then required governance. Specialized goods and services gave rise to industry and commerce. All of these combined is the culture of a people and the forces evolve over time to shape the city as we see them today. Reject the idea that architecture gives form to the city as its own object. Architecture acts no more directly on the city than the city determines what architecture must be the functions of architecture belong to the city, to the extent that they imply prescriptions, procedures, and norms 2 Cities have always been shaped by the most current transportation technology.3 When the most advanced form of transportation was walking and riding donkeys, the city developed a natural response 1 Garreau, Joel. 1991. Edge city: life on the new frontier. New York: Doubleday., 26. 2 Koolhaas, Rem, Stefano Boeri, Sanford Kwinter, Nadia Tazi, and Hans Ulrich Obrist. 2000. Mutations: Rem Koolhaas, Harvard Project on the City, Stefano Boeri, Multiplicity, Sanford Kwinter, Nadia Tazi, Hans Ulrich Obrist. Barcelona: ACTAR., 270 3 Garreau, 1991, 32

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4 around life based on such activities. A city evolves into an urban pattern such as Old Delhi or the inner city of Ahmadabad. These cities had to rely on walkability because there were no other major forms of transportation at the time. When new modes of transportation become available in developed cities, they must conform to the standard set by the old typologies. In the case of Old Delhi the only modern vehicles able to navigate these passages are motorcycles and auto rickshaws. These cities continue to retain the walkability and unique qualities of public space. Modes of transportation have profound impacts on city development and how people live. With the industrial revolution came an upheaval in which the majority of people no longer lived in and off of the countryside, or on eccentric hamlet lanes.4 The early industrialized city was wrought with pollution and disease while the suburbs promised the middle class a way to avoid the horrors of everyday city life. It is only natural for people to want to live in areas abundant with nature, but they also need to work in more dense areas with connectivity from work to home. Eventually the city spreads so far that more people live and work outside of the original city boundaries. 4 Ibid., 362 Figure 1. Old Delhi Labyrinthine Street Network

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5 In the industrialized age, the suburbs were viewed as an escape from the city and a way to live closer to nature. The colonial idyllic of owning a mansion in the countryside had been replaced by the industrial need for housing workers in the centers of commerce near factories.5 Suburbs arose partially because cities had been accused of separating our relationship to the environment and the land. People felt the need to be away from the congestion and negative stereotypes of the industrialized city. However this perceived abundance of nature within the suburban setting has a way of disconnecting society from the cultural landscape of the city. In the United States during the early 1890s, streetcar suburbs provided the amenities of a country life while still providing the convenience of public transportation to and from work. These utopian cities were the peak of the suburb as the ideal living situation with a balance of town, city and country life.6 Transportation hubs within communities became town centers. Much of this was relatively unplanned urban growth, but much denser and more successful than the typical post 1950s American suburb because they were not designed around private transportation. Walkability and public transportation in these cities were necessities until the 1930s when automobile production became cheap and affordable to the middle class. Since then, the car has been one of the most pervasive objects of American life. Sprawl and private car ownership seemed a perfect marriage because The government funding of transportation infrastructure geared toward privately owned vehicles has trumped the development of public space in our cities. Cities that began during the post industrial revolution, the age of the automobile, never had a chance for walkability and good public space. There was never a 5 6 Warner, Sam Bass. 1978. Streetcar suburbs: the process of growth in Boston, 1870-1900. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

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6 Uncontrolled development coupled with market forces in the form of abundant oil and cheap land around the peripheries of the central city pushed developers into horizontal urbanization, sprawling low quality houses on what used to be farmland. Growing populations and decreasing density increased commute times and distance between urban centers. This was made possible by affordable fossil fuels and expanded highway infrastructures which dominated the progression. If people are only given parking lots, freeways and publicly funded roads, then they will have no option but to invest in private transportation. Automobiles, along with housing, represent most peoples largest investments. land farther away. This leaves gaps between the developments and causes areas to spread. in spatial terms, much of the city is generated by default rather than intent. Creating a new cartography-a mutant form 7 There is a continuous desire for connectedness between culture, land, and cognition.8 An individuals balance for the needs of these things causes some sense of community and culture in the suburb. The complete social impact of suburbia may never truly be known. However, this typology is now a fundamental part of American life. The spread of cities is an unfortunate side effect of civilization. The best one can do is observing the typology as a necessary evil of contemporary cities and design around the existing environments. 7 Koolhaas, 2000, 193 8 Garreau, 1991, 363

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7 Problems The American ideals inherent in the suburbs are the promise of space, affordability, convenience and traditional family life but the public spaces have now become disconnected from each other as well as from the larger city. Traditional notions of geography based on proximity are becoming increasingly disassociated 9 In Tampa today there is a lack of connectivity through the sprawl. For the average commuter, the daily journey from the home to work has become an unsustainable necessity. There is a required private car ownership. There is also little identity to distinguish between the vast areas of low density. Downtown Tampa is the remnant of culture left behind by the vast expanse of low density that has spread from the center as a ripple, creating a edge city. For many the region known as Tampa has spread beyond downtown and now encompasses nearly the whole of Hillsborough County. 9 Koolhaas, 2000, 433

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8 Problems : Lack of connectivity between cities, regions, districts Today, we have moved our means of creating wealth, the essence of urbanism our jobs out to where most of us have lived and shopped for two generations.10 This has led to the increase of what Garreau calls edge cities. The edge city can be understood as having centerless and homogeneous growth emergent from some relic of the past. Not really a city in the traditional sense, it is only labeled as such by Garreau because it contains the functions of the conventional city, but more spread out. However, these Here Garreau implies all edge cities are merely larval forms and we have yet to see an adult, fully matured city. But one could also ask if these cities will ever grow up and not just out.11 A problem of the edge city condition in Tampa is that it lacks connectivity to the regions that created the suburban environment. More people live and work in the periphery than in the center. There is more housing in the edge city 12 This generates a condition of decay, in which the center becomes neglected and thus becomes devoid of life. The edge city is no longer captivated by the center from which it was created. As cities spread horizontally population densities fall. The average density of the United States has fallen 28 percent over the last 50 years due to this rapid horizontal development and as of 2000, 62 percent of the 10 Garreau, 1991, 4 11 Ibid., 9 12 Ibid., 31 Figure 2. The Commute

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9 cities.13 From Maine to Florida the interstate highway system has become a continuous band of suburban development and never once do you see undeveloped countryside.14 Horizontal urbanization also wastes infrastructure due to the suburbs location far from the center city, which increase commute times and reduces productivity. This has led to the creation of the modern commute, which is a negative aspect of daily life in the collective memory of society. The average suburbanite begins the commute in the garage, a space within the suburban environment devoted to the storage of the car and other miscellaneous junk. From there, the commuter combats many others within a network of roads in their attempt to get to work. Once the commute has ended, the typical workplace is surrounded by a vast sea of asphalt in which the suburbanite must search for a place to park where more space is wasted for storing the automobile. The journey is repeated at the end of the day and contributes to the monotony of the life of the suburban commuter. Private transportation is likely the second most expensive purchase someone will make after their not be worth its cost to society. In Tampa today, the only means of connectivity is by private automobile. The reliance of the automobile has led to a decentralization of goods, services and jobs which has led to the disconnection of regions and districts. There is no public space or architectural individuality that unites the edge cities, only 13 Berger, Alan. 2006. Drosscape: wasting land in urban America. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 14 Escape From Suburbia, DVD. Directed by Gregory Greene, Dara Rowland: Microcinema DVD, 2007

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10 automobiles and is very slow when traveling long distances.15 Tampa bay region expected population, employment, and housing growth, downtown area districts and landmarks are not easily connected.16 How to describe it? Imagine an open space, a clearing in the forest, a leveled city. There are three reason, in spectacular organizational diversity. Any one of the three may dominate: sometimes the road is lost to be found meandering on an incomprehensible detour; sometimes you see no building, only nature; then, equally unpredictably, you are surrounded only by building. In some frightening spots, all three are simultaneously absent.17 The quality of being nowhere that Koolhaas eludes can be attributed to the type of development prevalent in Tampa today. He attempts to identify the basic components of the current shape of the urban fabric. A type of social engineering has been employed in these abstract synthetic environments. In the centers, to shopping malls, social organization, habits, and mores of suburbia.18 15 Hillsborough Area Regional Transit, United States, Florida, and BRW Inc. 2001. Draft environmental impact statement: Tampa Rail Project. Tampa, Fla: Hillsborough Area Regional Transit., s-27 16 17 Metropolitan Architecture, Rem Koolhaas, and Bruce Mau. New York, N.Y.: Monacelli Press., 1254 18 Koolhaas, 2000

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11 sustaining public life. Most areas of Tampa are heavily oriented toward the automobile. Throughout Tampa, there is little attention to the elements of good pedestrian and bicyclist environments such as continuous sidewalks, crosswalks, street landscapes and bike lanes.19 A lack of life within a public space will result in these spaces feeling unsafe. However, the corporate spaces designed in Tampa today have often become a desolate and unappealing place because of the fear that deviant or homeless people will inhabit these spaces. The result is a space that few want to be in and the homeless often go there by default.20 A main aspect of the idea of the city is the communal feeling of safety, which one is safer inside than outside. Once that is lost people will no longer trust to live there.21 The spaces required for the functionality of the automobile, the interstates and roads are repressive to the quality of life of those outside the car. The ensuring of rapid automobile transportation circulation marginalizes the pedestrian. As middle-class and working-class people have moved to the suburbs, where they have private outdoor spaces, their way of living and use of public space has changed. On the functional life of the street.22 The pedestrians ability to navigate almost any terrain within the urban environment is diminished by the automobile. The suburbs lack of access to public space that allows for healthy public interaction, and rarely offers functions other than home, work, and business. People have lost the ability in the auto-centric culture to enjoy the journey, which has led to a destination oriented environment. These destinations accommodate for 19 Hillsborough Area Regional Transit, 2001, s-35 20 Carr, Stephen. 1992. Public space. Cambridge series in environment and behavior. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press., 15 21 Garreau, 1991, 48 22 Carr, 1992, 5

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12 the automobile with vast parking lots and garages which are larger than the destination itself. Shopping malls have replaced parks and squares that were traditionally the home of free speech the economic lifeblood once found downtown has moved to suburban shopping centers, which have substantially displaced the downtown business districts as the centers of commercial and social activity23 The Greek Agora was one early concept for palace of assembly. Citizens could gather freely to discuss politics and hear statements from the ruling bodies. The Agora evolved into a thriving place of commerce and public life. Merchants could gather and set up shops to collectively pool the public resource to sell goods and services. The centrality of the agora and the uses of the surrounding buildings established the relationship between commerce, government and leisure. However, the modern equivalent to the agora, since the 1960s, has been the shopping mall.24 The endless interiors, made possible by air conditioning, create a culture in which people feel they need conditioned and enclosed space. Shopping in our society has seen nature as unpredictable interference to commerce, thus retail centers have made natural light, air and scenery obsolete with air space, medieval cathedrals only constraint was to inspire awe25 By making interior pseudo public retail spaces larger and more comfortable with air conditioning, these large interior spaces used the equation 23 Koolhaas, 2000, 154 24 Garreau, 1991, 42 25 Neutra, Richard Joseph, and William Marlin. 1989. Nature near: late essays of Richard Neutra. Santa Barbara, Calif: Capra Press., 118

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13 greater comfort + greater willingness to spend an increasing amount of time indoors = greater likelihood to buy.26 Cold air is the basic fundamental constant of shopping centers. If architecture separates buildings, air-conditioning unites them. Air-conditioning has dictated mutant regimes of organization and coexistence that leave architecture behind. A single shopping center is conditioning sustains our cathedrals.27 Public epicenters should return to an architecture which main goal is to create a thriving public space instead of a singular purposed retail space, which has led to windowless, enclosed and air conditioned boxes away from the city. 26 Koolhaas, 2000, 128 27 Ibid.

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14 Problems : Loss of Identity within the city The environments identity cannot be de determined only by geographical and economic variables/ indicators, but by the image its inhabitants have of the place. The image of the city has within it the symbols of mankinds achievements. Within the edge city, the societal achievements are diluted. The perpetual sameness creates a lack of meaning and loss of identity. No emphasis of difference, history and memory. individual. Place memory is the epitome of the individual and societies collective connection with the man made and natural environment.28 The power of ordinary urban landscapes to nurture citizens public memory, to encompass shared time in the form of shared territory-remains untapped for most working 28 Hayden, Dolores. 1995. The power of place urban landscapes as public history. Cambridge, Mass: MIT., 46 Figure 3. Strong sense of identity created by the Toronto skyline

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15 peoples neighborhoods in most American cities29 There is little identity to distinguish between the vast areas of low density. While distinct districts exist, their relationship to the suburbs where most people now live has been severed through the physical and temporal distances between them. Towns and nodes are consumed by their regions and suffer from a lack of identity.30 Lack of differentiation between uses within the edge city also contributes to homogeneity. Will we ever be proud of this place?31 We will never be tempted to show our visiting friends and relatives the edge city because typically those friends also have a similar shopping center wherever they live as well. Places are given vague meaningless names, such as deer park and the preserve. No welcome signs in the edge city, everything is the same everywhere without differentiation.32 29 Ibid., 8 30 Calthorpe, Peter. 1993. The next American metropolis: ecology, community, and the American dream. New York: Princ eton Architectural Press., 120 31 Garreu, 1991, 9 32 Ibid., 6 Figure 4. Lost sense of identity in Tampa

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16 These vast areas of low density have common roots in the strip store typology. All the Fowler Avenues look the same. They have the same feel, low density and auto centric nature which is destructive to pedestrian movement. Therefore spaces for pedestrians have been designed to accommodate the most frequent mode of travel, the automobile. Homogeneity within this environment creates a lack of identity. sterile... lacked livability, civilization, community, neighborhood and even a soul.33 Alan Berger states in Drosscape relevant design methodologies when he calls for a design pedagogy that emphasizes the productive integration and reuse of waste landscapes throughout the urban world, and the creation of a new condition in which vast, waste, or wasteful land surfaces are modeled in accordance with new programs or new sets of values that remove or replace real or perceived wasteful aspects of geographical space34 In Tampa there is a possibility to rehabilitate a landscape with no meaning, which is at the geographical center of areas needing connectivity. There is a need to link distinct areas at several scales with their own sense of place. Currently the wasted landscape is a part of Tampas identity. 33 Ibid., 8 34 Berger, Alan. 2006. Drosscape: wasting land in urban America. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

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17 Solutions This thesis hypothesizes that connecting areas of different scales together through both rail and its subsequent stations will create a motivation for people to travel to places of civic and cultural beauty, help reduce congested roads and be a more sustainable form of transportation. Taking the existing postindustrial region that is Tampa and overlaying multiple of travel within the region and city, but also serve as an urban landmark suggestive of a progressive and sustainable culture. This thesis proposes the creation of a public space with multiple overlapping functions within the existing urban fabric of Tampa. This intervention into the infrastructural landscape will also be an injection of density into the underused areas with proximities to many other districts and social setting. The station will be a cathedral of modern transportation which denigrates the car. The redevelopment of the surrounding areas around the transit oriented development is also crucial in creating a healthy public environment within the multimodal station. Walkability to and from the Figure 5. Retooling an American Metropolis poster

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18 station, as well as the qualities of place are crucial to its success as an urban public space. Beyond these philosophical and ideological needs, as Tampas population and outlaying areas of development grow, there is an ever increasing need for a better transportation option. In the next 40 years there will be an estimated 300 35 To help offset this increase, the downtown station could potentially provide 53,000 trips per day from the light rail corridors, and 27,000 trips per day from the high speed rail.36 35 Hillsborough County Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2007. TRANSIT CONCEPT FOR 2050 FINAL REPORT 36 Ibid.Figure 7. Overlaying light rail network over automobile infrastructure Figure 6. Injection of public transit and pedestrian oriented environments

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19 Solutions : Connecting nodes within the homogeneity The central city no longer contains the majority of housing, business, or retail, but has become a vestige of art and culture. Reconnecting the uses of home and work with the perception of art in culture been designed for the automobile commute and has become a natural byproduct in American life. While providing a connection from edge city districts back to the citys core areas with public transit will inevitably lead to more people going to these places with less automobile congestion.37 Since the relocation of many homes and jobs to the suburbs, the downtown areas have been transforming into civic and cultural centers instead of centers of employment. People are now going downtown for the anti-suburban experience, seeking proximity to cultural richness.38 The Downtown area the adventurous and young seeking the kind of stimulation only a full-blown arts district can provide.39 The light rail commuter corridor will see approximately 53,000 people per day. The street car will connect Ybor, 40 The connection 37 Garreau, 1991, 31 38 Dittmar, Hank, and Gloria Ohland. 2004. The new transit town: best practices in transit-oriented development. Washing ton, DC: Island Press., 34 39 Garreau, 1991, 61 40 Calthorpe, 1993, 104

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20 centers for activity. Making connections at smaller scales will encourage pedestrian travel. This proposal at the largest scale connects Tampas city center to Downtown Orlando with high speed consumption per passenger per mile than automobile travel and reduced land usage for a given capacity compared to automobile infrastructure. The most active point of convergence is the central station in Tampas Downtown. All travelers arriving to or departing from Tampa via the high speed rail will pass through the downtown station. The design of this civic, infrastructural and public space will be the culmination of the body of research within this document. Solutions : Create Identity The multimodal transit station will create identity of place through the memory of experience for travelers and residents. Creating a memorable journey strengthens the identity of the destination. Turning the tangible manifestation of the built landscape into valued memories through the experience Figure 8. Rail infrastructures existing presence in Ybor

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21 of the user is necessary in civic spaces. Sudden changes in ambience of these spaces create individual identity within the whole. Perceived qualities of place can be looked at as a sequence of events. By quickly and easily experiencing many distinct areas, the sense of place and identity in each location is reinforced. If people can see the differentiation between places quickly and with ease, the differences become strengthened within the individuals memory. All memory is derived from our sensorial perception. Those environments rich in stimuli will create a more vivid experience. People form attachments to places based on material, social and architectural experience. The multimodal station will create a stage for society to act out its routine and allow individuals to form place memories. The individual memories formed add to the collective memory to create meaning. space. The reconditioning of geographical and temporal distance between existing nodes along a new path will change the nodes identity in relation to itself and others. Rail transit makes itself present through all our senses. It becomes a shared communal experience; unlike the often solitary automobile transportation prevalent in Tampa today. The highways allow users to bypass the poor and unwanted urban spaces. Conversely, with rail travel the riders experience a wide range of societys members. The people on the train are a cross section of all contemporary cultures. This intermingling will create a greater cultural awareness among those who have none. Solutions : Creation of Place Multimodal transit stations cannot merely connect existing places together by making themselves a nodes along a path; the station must be a place as well. The idea of place cannot be distilled into parts. It is not merely a collection of all its qualities, but how they interact with the self. How can spaces be

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22 made to supply the human requirements, from passive relaxation, through active engagement with others, to the discovery of the unknown41 In order to make a place with its own identity, many public spaces with a sense of grandeur have been incorporated into the program. inhabitants and users through the experiential qualities of the environment. The three main types of communal experience, and the experience of the transitory visitor. An environments ability to embrace people unfamiliar with its syntax of use and have space that accommodates groups as well as the daily user is vital in the understanding of what makes place.42 In the design of any public space there is a need to represent the individuals awareness of ones own personal space and the ability to be alone in a place. It is equally important to design for the communally shared experience of the social aspect of place. Having an atmosphere that permits social interaction is location to promenade before the opposite sex.43 The station and its retail components must also be thoroughly connected into the existing urban framework as well as new development yet to come. The retail areas must not be introverted or cut off from the activities of public transit. The public spaces must be put on display for those within the controlled spaces of the rail station to provide interest and visual communication across physical boundaries. Most of the people who arrive at the station will be there for the sole purpose of going somewhere else. The architecture must prepare the individual, who has little knowledge of their environment, to navigate 41 Carr, 1992, 12 42 Relph, E. C. 1976. Place and Placelessness. Research in planning and design, 1. London: Pion. 43 Garreau, 1991, 42

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23 successfully to their destination. The spaces need to accommodate a large number of people moving quickly. The design also needs to provide visitors the ability to wander greatly on the point of departure, and a multimodal station has the ability to orient the pedestrian in the urban context. This gives an opportunity the downtown for the visitor, but still recognize its value for orientation. Experience of the is visitor Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography44, French situationist Guy Debord, exploration of the built your reality by active inhabitation. To let yourself go when walking around the city and having no destination sets you free. Rapid passage through the various ambiences of the city. The rail station must in some way encourage a tourist to get lost within the city. 44 Bauder, Harald and Salvatore Engel-Di Mauro. 2008. Critical Geographies: A collection of Readings, B.C. Canada: Praxis Figure 9. Indian streetscape

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24 Solutions : Random Interactions of the communal needed stated by Relph. The deterministic quality of the path of the rail is sharply contrasted with the ability of the stations to offer random social occurrences and many possible paths. Camilo Vergara recalls the fondness of the memories acquired from riding the subway in New York in his book Subway Memories. He cites the diversity of the riders, ordinary commuters, musicians and theatre performers, the beggars, and the mentally unstable all of whom are impelled to act out their habitual procedures while on the train. The encounters and interactions amongst riders almost become a source entertainment. This leads mostly to small confrontations, from nudging, to delightful banter, to staring, to calculated avoidance and shouting matches He recalls the smells of the people, the destitute and the prosperous mingling together forming an ever changing olfactory environment.45 Solutions : The Indian Street Observations on the intensity of an Indian street are to be models for the retail and social spaces. Understanding architecture as experienced through the senses, symbolically and corporeally is fundamental to the design of public space. The multifunctional structure of the street provides an admixture of overlapping spaces that merge public and private, work and leisure, and holy and profane activities. Fixed shops as well as mobile retailers 45 Vergara, Camilo J. 2004. Subway memories. New York, NY: Monacelli Press., 9

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25 and service providers inhabit this labyrinthine environment.46 Indian street, The pedestrian has to weave a path by negotiating obstacles underfoot or in front...walking down the street cannot be a seamless, uninterrupted journey, but is rather a sequence of interruptions and encounters47 The exposed facades of most retailers and workshops allow the activities within to be advertised from and spill out onto the streets. The senses in the environment of the Indian street endure a constant assault. The smells and tastes of vendors cooking on the street. Spices used in cooking permeate the open shops. Ones visual sense is enlivened by the bright colors and intense play of light and shadow in the narrow and tall alleys. From the bartering, music, and religious sounds comes a rich auditory landscape. And last the haptic sense of touch and the tacit relation of ones body in the space. These sensorial cues can impact the body in space and create a distinct memorable environment. Since the urban landscape stimulates sensorial memory in designing any space one must come to a world that is objectively real48 and must empathize with the end user of the building.49 Architecture is our primary instrument in relating us with space and time, and giving these dimensions a human measure.50 46 Fyfe, Nicholas R. 1998. Images of the street: planning, identity, and control in public space. London: Routledge., 206 47 Ibid., 209 48 Neutra, 1989, 114 49 Ibid., 113 50 Pallasmaa, Juhani. 2005. The eyes of the skin: architecture and the senses. Chichester: Wiley-Academy., 17

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26 Implications for Tampa The implications of a new civic space in Tampa provide an opportunity for the creation of an architecture to be experienced through the senses, symbolically and corporeally. A public space that into a healthy pedestrian environment, the pedestrians can more easily become transit riders.51 Places for people enrich existing environments must make connections, work with the landscape and be composed of mixed uses and forms.52 However, the current population densities and level of development around the project site are currently not enough to support a multi-modal station of the nature proposed and should be development congruent with the rail development. The redevelopment of the vacant area to the north is already in the planning phases and has been titled the Encore development and is being considered for $38 Million federal grant. Encore will offer University of Tampa, The Performing Arts Center, the Tampa History Museum, St. Pete Times Forum and the cruise ship terminal. It will also include a middle school, a church, a park, and an African American history museum that will be housed in a 90-year-old church.53 However, this development does not reach the densities required cited by the Hillsborough regional planning commission. The MPO suggests that the 51 Dittmar, Hank, and Gloria Ohland. 2004. The new transit town: best practices in transit-oriented development. Washing ton, DC: Island Press., 30 52 Ibid., 31 53 Shovel-ready project in Tampa being considered for $38M federal grant, http://www.encoretampa.com/_downloads/EN CORE-shovel-ready-081809.pdf

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27 density should reach in some areas 60-80 dwelling units per acre within central business district station area by 2050.54 Hillsborough county is projected to grow by 400,000 people over the next 20 years and will likely double in population by 2050.55 The planners of developments such as Encore in Tampas downtown area have not realized the extent of the predicted population growth. This growth, if not planned to be absorbed increase the problem of sprawl within the region. How can transportation investments be used to further quality of life goals, economic development strategies and sustainable growth?56 goals for any transit oriented development in the Tampa Bay region.57 54 Hillsborough County Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2007. TRANSIT CONCEPT FOR 2050. appendix H.1., 3 55 Ibid., 1 56 Ibid., 1 57 Ibid., 1

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28 Implications for Tampa: MPO Transit Final Report Conclusions Alternative mobility options within congested corridors Greater travel capacity within major transportation corridors during peak hours Promotes transit supportive land use pattern and walkable mixed use neighborhoods Quick and convenient commutes between major residential areas and job centers Mix of transit service for local trips and long trips Integration of local and regional transit systems emerged from series of public focus groups to discover common values amongst local residents58 Give me more reliable travel times. Lets grow our small towns and save some open space rather than sprawling everywhere. parent to be safe, too. I want goods, services, and jobs to be more accessible, especially if I dont or cant drive. 58 Ibid., 4

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29 This thesis proposal of incorporating public rail transit at several scales into the urban fabric and increasing the density in regions existing underdeveloped regions will satisfy these goals and value statements. According to the Hillsborough county planning commission; by 2050 the downtown station could potentially see 53,000 trips per day from the light rail corridors, and 27,000 trips per day from the high speed rail.59 For a healthy pedestrian environment to exist, all other forms of transportation must yield to the person on foot or bicycle. Public rail lines going through suburban areas are often dominated by park and 60 The design of the public spaces in and around the station connecting to the districts around downtown must not be dominated by the typical park and ride typology prevalent in the design of other multi-modal transit stations. The automobile must be pushed to the fringe of the environment and parking structure must be surrounded by retail or other uses to avoid active street edges from being improperly used.61 59 Hillsborough County Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2007. TRANSIT CONCEPT FOR 2050 FINAL REPORT 60 Calthorpe, 1993, 104 61 Ibid., 112

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Case Studies Euralille TGV station and master plan Lille, France, 2002 Stadelhofen Station Santiago Calatrava Zurich, Switzerland, 1990 Yokohama port terminal Yokohama, Japan Figure 9. Euralille TGV station Figure 10. Stadelhofen Station Figure 11. Yokohama Port Terminal Public Space 30

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Pennsylvania Station McKim, Mead and White New York, 1910 Grand Central Terminal Warren and Wetmore New York City, 1913 Figure 12. Penn Station Figure 13. Grand Central Terminal 31

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Figure 14. Centrality of Lille in Europe Figure 15. Euralille multi modal transit Euralille Lille is at the center of nearly an area of 50 million people. Hypothesis that the experience of Europe will change beyond recognition through the combined impact of the tunnel that links Britain and the Europe, and the extension of the French TGV network to include London with high speed rail. 32

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Overlap of program and modes of transportation creates intensity. Station acts as a node along the path, but also a place in its own right.Figure 16. Euralille Masterplan33

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Figure 17. Euralille section and elevation Figure 18. Euralille diagramBuilding over the TGV station creates a bold architectural statement for the commuter who will always pass through the station. This allows Lille itself becomes an appendix for the journey of the passerby. The intervention that was required could not rely on the context of the city. The node along the path must also have the qualities of place because many riders will never leave the station. 34

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Overlap of program creates intensity. Infrastructure and program determined footprint. Injection of peripheral activities near the heart of the city Rise in land value due to the station, has driven the poor to the cities edge. Infrastructure of rail and roads determines the layout of buildings and movement patterns for pedestrians Figure 19. Euralille multi modal transit diagram35

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Originally the TGV station was to be buried. However, OMA quickly realized the object that was to permanently change the city of Lille should be exposed for all to observe. The station is on the stereotomic rail platform; embedded into the earth. Figure 20. Euralille TGV station section Figure 21. TGV station roof structure Figure 22. TGV station axonometric36

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Stadelhofen Station Small components re-establish human scale in large subterranean station Structural / material elements Repetition of elements gives the station an identity and offsets it from historic buildings which surround it. Formerly fragmented area gains cohesion from 300 meter datum cut into the landscape Figure 23. Stadelhofen panorama 37

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Calatravas intervention in Stadelhofen allows a formerly fragmented area to gain cohesion from 300 meter arc cut into the landscape. The new station carved out of existing hillside following natural topographical contours. The station is hidden from residents and allows for views of the city and has high transparency towards the urban environment. Figure 25. Stadelhofen section diagram Figure 24. Stadelhofen site plan38

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Figure 26. Stadelhofen rail and platform waiting areas Figure 27. Stadelhofen pedestrian access points39

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allows natural light to enter concourse retail area. As trains pass by overhead a thunderous roar echoes through the shadows of waiting passengers and trains. Figure 28. Stadelhofen cross section Figure 29. Stadelhofen concourse 40

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Figure 31. Stadelhofen diagram Figure 32. Stadelhofen DiagramThe structure allows the materials to express their true nature. The heavy interlocking concrete piers contrast the lightness of the steel. The repetition of small components re-establish the human scale in a large suburban rail station. Figure 30. Stadelhofen 41

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Yokohama Port Terminal Architecture is deployed on the functional programmatic relationship and circulation diagram. Figure 33. Yokohama Port Terminal Circulation Diagram Figure 34. Yokohama Port Terminal 42

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Figure 35. Yokohama Port Terminal Floor Modular Diagrams Floor planes become a continuous surface for vertical and horizontal circulation. Circulation and program arise from folded surfaces. Single surface can create multiple spaces and functions, aided by folding and material boundaries. 43

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Figure 36. Yokohama Port Terminal Bifurcation Diagram Figure 37. Yokohama Port Terminal Bifurcated planes create circulation44

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Figure 38. Yokohama Port Terminal circulation of passenger and baggage 45

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Pennsylvania Station The station gave value to an area that been dilapidated and neglected. Demolished in 1963 due to in part its own success. The station had caused such an increase in density around the site, property values deemed its site was suited for better purposes and the station was relocated underground. Also it cost too much to keep the ceiling clean. One entered the city like a god... one scuttles in now like a rat1 There is a dialogue between ornament and structure with the classicist philosophy of the waiting room vs. structure as ornament of the concourse.2The ornamental historic veneer of the waiting room is sharply contrasted with the clear expression of structural logic in the concourse.3The general waiting room was a place of theater and congestion of public life that needed a grand imperialistic feel. Structure is hidden behind 1 Parissien, Steven. 1996. Pennsylvania Station: McKim, Mead and White. London: Phaidon.,24 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. Figure 39. Penn Station concourse Figure 40. Penn Station waiting room2 3 46

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walls of thin stone veneer to convey heaviness and importance. Circulation is amorphous and uncertain. The The concourse however was a utilitarian machine. Forces are directly visible within the concourse. The circulation, trains, structure and light are immediately visible because they want to be. The stylistic architectural approach to the waiting room provides contrast with the functional nature of the concourse. The waiting room has ornamental Corinthian columns whereas the only ornaments within the concourse are massive clocks hung from the ceiling, functionally celebrating time itself.Figure 41. Penn Station Duality of Structural and ornamental logic.47

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Grand Central Terminal Importance of providing memorable entrance to the city. Intensity of place created through overlap of use. Played an integral part in shaping the urban landscape of Manhattan4 5 4 Powell, Ken. 1996. Grand Central Terminal: Warren and Wetmore. London: Phaidon Press., 4 5 Ibid.Figure 42. Grand Central Terminal 48

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Figure 43. Grand Central Terminal circulation diagrams is released by the monumental scale of the concourse. On the lower level there are concessions for the long distance travelers, above are places more suited for daily commuters needs. 49

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Figure 44. Grand Central Terminal circulation diagram50

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The Site Tampa, Florida 28 N. LatitudeFigure 45. Site pages intro51

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Figure 46. Regional Connections Tampa to Lakeland to Orlando This thesis proposal at the largest scale connects Orlando to Tampa through Lakeland, with a more ef riders going to and from Lakeland and Orlando.1 1 Hillsborough County Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2007. TRANSIT CONCEPT FOR 2050 FINAL REPORT.52

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by 2050, the downtown station could potentially see 53,000 trips per day from the light rail corridors. 2 3 2 Ibid. 3 Calthorpe, Peter. 1993. The next American metropolis: ecology, community, and the American dream. New York: Princeton Architectural Press., 104Figure 47. Commuter Connections53

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Overlapping layers of rail transit converging into one place.Figure 48. District Connections54

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Figure 49. South Tampa DistrictsThe site must be within walking distance of as many districts as possible. 55

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Site 1 at the center of 3 districtsdowntown, channelside, south nebraska and Ybor and easily connects to light rail Site 2 building between the existing union station, the causeway, over the station Site 3 adjacent to cemetery, will worsen the division between the north and south of the interstate, how will this site be connected to the light rail line?123Figure 50. Downtown Tampa PerspectivePROPOSED AREA OF REDEVELOPMENT 56

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Figure 51. South Tampa Land Use By Parcel 2009 Site 1 has the closest relationship to areas with differing uses. Adjacent to business, civic/institutional, industry and residential. Site 1 has the greatest chance to encourage street level, face to face interactions between real people. 57

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Figure 52. South Tampa Areas of Growth 200958

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Figure 53. South Tampa Existing Housing Density In Dwelling Units Per Acre 59

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Figure 54. Site 1 Photo corner of Nebraska and Cass Figure 55. Site 1 Photo the commuter cultures wasted landscape60

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Figure 56. Site 1 pedestrian boundaries61

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Figure 57. Site 1 pedestrian / path / automobile62

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Figure 58. Site 2 Photo Union Station Figure 59. Site 2 Photo rail along Nuccio Parkway63

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Figure 60. Site 2 pedestrian boundaries64

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Figure 61. Site 2 pedestrian / rail / automobile65

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Figure 62. Site 3 Photo Existing infrastructural boundaries66

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Figure 63. Site 3 pedestrian boundaries67

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Figure 64. Site 3 pedestrian / bus / automobile68

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Site 1 was chosen partly because it connects the three major districts adjacent to downtown. Creating a node within walking distance of four existing districts will attract more pedestrians. Figure 65. Connecting disjointed districts diagram69

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Figure 66. Redevelopment areas adjacent to site70

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Figure 67. existing week day site activity71

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Figure 68. Pedestrian marginalization within the auto-centric culture72

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Figure 69. 73

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Figure 70. implicit street space looking down Zack street Figure 71. site sections Figure 72. site section heat island74

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PROGRAM Figure 73. Rail infrastructure to be re-purposed for commuters Figure 74. Blur public and private boundaries75

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Quantitative Program Analysis Light Rail Platforms..................................................................................................................3@ 12,000 ft2 each Mezzanine...................................................................................................................3@ 7,000 ft2 each Rail..............................................................................................................................4@ 6,000 ft2 each Mechanical / Electrical.................................................................................................................8,000 ft2 Restrooms...................................................................................................................4@ 1,200 ft2 each Security / Info desk.......................................................................................................4@ 1,000 ft2 each Ticket vending areas.....................................................................................................12@ 200 ft2 each Elevators / Escalators.........................................................................................................................12 / 18 High Speed Rail Concourse...............................................................................................................................34,000 ft2 Platform..................................................................................................................2@ 17,000 ft2 each Rail...........................................................................................................................2@ 10,000 ft2 each Main Lobby................................................................................................................................5,200 ft2 Zack St. Lobby...........................................................................................................................4,200 ft2 Union Lobby...............................................................................................................................3,200 ft2 Mechanical / Electrical...............................................................................................................6,000 ft2 Restrooms .................................................................................................................3@ 1,400 ft2 each Security / Info desk........................................................................................................4@ 800 ft2 each Cafe.............................................................................................................................3@ 1,000 ft2 each Elevators / Escalators.........................................................................................................................24 / 20 76

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Market / Retail / Cafe..........................................................................................................................15,000 ft2 Bus Parking............................................................................................................8 lanes @ 1,000 ft2 each Covered Waiting area................................................................................................................7,600 ft22 Covered Bicycle Storage.................................................................................................................................500 Automobile Parallel parking......................................................................................................................80 spaces Garage.................................................................................................................................300 spaces 77

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Qualitative Program analysis Intensity of place is created by overlap of program and understanding the peak hours of every activity to achieve best use of infrastructure.1 and simultaneous peaks a maximum exploitation of the location and its infrastructure to create a 24 hour peak, a mosaic of heterogeneous 21st century life.2 Public space inviting and comfortable paths 6 minimum width Public park folds into station and retail areas Vertical and horizontal circulation elements stairs, ramps, escalators, elevators NFPA 130 High speed rail Aerial platform Less restrictive land use patterns 1 for Metropolitan Architecture, Rem Koolhaas, and Bruce Mau. New York, N.Y.: Monacelli Press., 1219-1225 2 Ibid., 122578

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Larger visual impact to create identity Creates shaded space below ticket services/fare collection areas luggage sorting areas Vertical and horizontal circulation elements natural light and ventilation multi leveled spaces for better orientation with the station and city. partial vegetative occupied roof light rail on grade or aerial platform Vertical and horizontal circulation elements stairs, ramps, escalators, elevators Support space for commuter rail platform Bicycle space overnight lockers/storage, bicycle lanes, encourage use of bicycles on trains 79

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Bus space 25 turning radius, 42 length, 9 height, 10 wide covered drop off area for several busses .... how many? Automobile space drop off area differentiated from the street short term parking parking garageun-monumental Retail space Very small stores ~500-1000 ft2 each, idea is to leave the station and explore. Indian concepts of street overlap of sensorial landscapes. Stores must comply with peak hours of different activities. Have a constant stream of pedestrians. bars, cafe, restaurant, newsstand, market, Common space meditation area in park, urban rooms adjacent to retail, community garden 80

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Figure 75. Program relationship diagram81

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Figure 76. Approximate Program to scale with site 82

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Conceptual Design Light and Nature the only sense that is fast enough to keep pace with the astounding increase of speed in the technological world is sight. But the world of the eye is causing us to live increasingly in a perpetual 1Homogeneous bright light paralyses the imagination in the same way that homogenization of space weakens the experience of being, and wipes away the sense of place.2In order to think clearly, the sharpness of vision has to be suppressed, for thoughts travel with an absent-minded and unfocused gaze.3 Clear vision leaves nothing to the imagination, importance of shadow in the environment, creates 1 Pallasmaa, 2005, 21 2 Ibid., 46 3 Ibid., 46 83

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Material and Texture Architecture of tactility and materiality, interlocking with the viewers senses, insightful details and revealing of space.4 Metal hardness of the train cars. by people within the community as art, not vandalism. Auditory buildings do not react to our gaze, but they do return sounds back to our ears.5 home. Smells of people. Scale Perception of scale is always by association. With our own bodies, scale of the train, scale of the city. Scale of the individual space. Scales of group space. Scale of the high speed rail Penn station as example of appropriate scale of civic buildings 4 Holl, Steven. 1989. Anchoring: selected projects, 1975-1988. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press., 11 5 Pallasmaa, 2005, 4784

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connecting greenscape across station to channelside surface as roof, as ground, as third realm for skateboarders/people watchers greenspace folds over LRT, becomes main circulation sorting area for LRT and HSR Figure 75. Pedestrian and light rail circulatory diagram85

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Figure 76. High Speed Rail as shading device Plaza and high speed rail relationship shade from HSR creates environmental comfort for plaza in front of retail surfaces delineate varied public program 86

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Figure 77. Organizational diagram high speed rail circulation from street, from public greenscape, from historic Tampa union station over the linear street. Zack street turns into pedestrian ave. with square, axiality with union station 87

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Figure 78. Creation of multiple spaces and functions from a single structural element Figure 79. Conceptual diagram88

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Figure 80. Conceptual diagrams, Roof, Plan, Section89

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Figure 81. Visual connectivity across physical boundaries Retail component and rail platforms, visual connectivity of control and loose space Alignment to Cass Ave. Depth of view alternates for people on platforms 90

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Figure 82. 1:200 Model_A 91

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Figure 83. 1:200 Model_B 92

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Figure 84. 1:200 Model_C 93

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Figure 85. 1:200 Model_D94

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Figure 86. 1:200 Model_E 95

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Figure 87. 1:200 Model_F96

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Figure 88. Structural aesthetic, honesty of materials 97

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Figure 89. Conceptual model on existing site 1:100 scale98

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Figure 90. Conceptual model on existing site 1:100 scale The site and program began as a kit of parts to be arranged by circulation, light, and the negative space created by adjacent buildings. 99

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Figure 91. Conceptual model 1:100 scale_A 100

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Figure 92. Conceptual model 1:100 scale_B101

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Figure 93. Conceptual cross section through Zack St. and Cass St. boundary. The visual proximity between control space of the commuter rail platform and the pseudo public consumer/retail space will add complexity and provide both realms with a burlesque show of the other for the delight of the voyeurs. 102

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Figure 94. 1:50 Model with existing and proposed context Negative space created between the buildings drove design of plazas and market spaces. The implied entry volume becomes the threshold to the city and needs to compete within the framework of existing and future buildings and public spaces. 103

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Schematic Design Parametric Design & Digital Fabrication Rhino + Grasshopper The Grasshopper plug-in for Rhino allows for parametric, generative modeling. Throughout the design and fabrication process Grasshopper has provided a means to further the design and production of systems within this thesis. In the design of this multimodal transit facility there is a strong need for smart components that adapt instantly with changes in the design. Grasshopper is instantaneously interactive when you change exploration in parametric and generative digital modeling and fabrication techniques as they relate to this thesis. These tools will also be valuable for future architectural explorations. GRASSHOPPERgenerative modeling for RhinoFigure 95. Rhino + Grasshopper104

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Figure 96. Space into light concept model_A105

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Figure 97. Space into light concept model_B Figure 98. Space into light concept model_C 106

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Figure 99. Sectional kit of parts model as explorations in structural rhythm and circulation107

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Figure 100. 108

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Figure 101. Light exploration model_A109

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Figure 102. Light exploration model_B110

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Figure 103. Light exploration model_C111

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Figure 104. Light exploration model_D112

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Figure 105. Conceptual section model market113

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Figure 106. Conceptual model high speed rail Figure 107. Conceptual model serial vision114

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Figure 108. Conceptual Section model light rail platforms115

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Figure 109. Conceptual model 1:16 scale_A Figure 110. Conceptual model 1:16 scale_B116

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Figure 111. Rhino+Grasshopper screen shot plaza rasterization Figure 112. Plaza rasterization cut pattern Figure 113. Final model plaza surface117

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Figure 114. Rhino+Grasshopper screen shot Surface Contours Figure 115. Surface Contours cut pattern Figure 116. Final Surface Contours 118

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Figure 117. Rhino+Grasshopper screen shot Louver Rotation based on image Rasterization Figure 118. Louver elevation Figure 120. Louver perspective Figure 119. Lobby Rendering119

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Figure 121. Rhino+Grasshopper screen shot Roof Design and Fabrication Figure 122. Roof Design and Fabrication cut pattern Figure 123. Roof surface120

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Figure 124. Light study model 1:16 scale121

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Figure 125. 122

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Figure 126. Light study model interior 1:32 scale123

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Figure 127. Light study model detail 1:32 scale124

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Figure 128. Cafe Chair study #4 Figure 129. Rhino+Grasshopper screen shot Chair Design and Fabrication125

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Figure 130. Cafe Chair study #5_A126

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Figure 131. Cafe Chair study #5_B Figure 132. Cafe bench study model127

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Final Design Figure 122. Final Model 1:32 scale128

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Figure 123. Final Site Plan129

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Figure 124. Light Rail Platform Level Plan & Detail130

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Figure 125. Street Level Plan & Detail131

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Figure 126. High Speed Rail Concourse Level Plan & Detail132

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Figure 127. High Speed Rail Platform Level Plan & Detail133

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Figure 128. High Speed Rail Concourse Level Plan & Detail134

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Figure 129. Program Diagrams level 1 & 2135

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Figure 130. Program Diagrams level 3 & 4136

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Figure 131. Circulation Diagrams level 1 & 2137

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Figure 132. Circulation Diagrams level 3 & 4138

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Figure 133. Final Model139

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Figure 134. Zack Plaza ground level Figure 135. North elevation pano140

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Figure 136. Zack Plaza 141

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Figure 137. Cass St. surface as ramp/seating/stair/wall142

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Figure 138. Cass St. Perspective143

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Figure 139. High speed rail entry as stair and waiting area144

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Figure 140. Corner of Cass St. and Nebraska Ave.145

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Figure 141. Zack High Speed Rail Entry146

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Figure 142. High Speed Rail Cass Entry render 147

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Figure 143. High Speed Rail Main Lobby render148

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Figure 144. Pedestrian approach from downtown149

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Figure 145. Partial shade to full shade within the entry threshold150

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Conclusion The under use of public space in Tampa can by no means be solved by a singular architectural this problem. This thesis set out to correct the lack of accessible, public and pedestrian space in Tampa. The multi-modal transit facility solution provides a means of social transportation from the disconnected regions around Tampa to the downtown core. The main focus was the design of the public pedestrian realm and how it reacts to privately controlled space. This thesis has achieved the goal of creating a secular cathedral of pedestrian space and transportation on what was previously only automobile surface parking infrastructure. Initial research, case studies, site analysis, program and typology analysis only informed what the project had to do to be successful. What the project could be was up to the designer. The explorations in digital fabrication, tectonic connections, light, sound, smell, touch and other purely architectural investigations were valuable to the advancement of the design. Some challenges faced were that of scale, resolution of small details, integration of vertical circulation elements and program development. Further analysis, integration of High Speed Rail into the existing Union Station and more investigations into Rhino & Grasshopper in order to fully express the design and construction. 151

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152 Bauder, Harald and Salvatore Engel-Di Mauro. 2008. Critical Geographies: A collection of Readings B.C. Canada: Praxis Berger, Alan. 2006. Drosscape: wasting land in urban America. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Calthorpe, Peter. 1993. The next American metropolis: ecology, community, and the American dream New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Carr, Stephen. 1992. Public space Cambridge series in environment and behavior. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Dittmar, Hank, and Gloria Ohland. 2004. The new transit town: best practices in transit-oriented development Washington, DC: Island Press. Encore Tampa. 2009. Shovel-ready project in Tampa being considered for $38M federal grant http://www.encoretampa.com/_downloads/ENCORE-shovel-ready-081809.pdf Escape From Suburbia DVD. Directed by Gregory Greene, Dara Rowland: Microcinema DVD, 2007 Florida Center for Community Design. SA+CD. 2009. University of South Florida. Hillsborough Community Atlas. http://maps.communityatlas.usf.edu/hillsboroughcommunity Frampton, Kenneth, and John Cava. 1995. Studies in tectonic culture: the poetics of construction in nine teenth and twentieth century architecture Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. References

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153 Fyfe, Nicholas R. 1998. Images of the street: planning, identity, and control in public space London: Routledge. Florida Department of Transportation. Interstate of Transit, http://fdot-srtna.c-b.com/fdotdocumentreview/ Documents/Study%20Summary%20-%20Interstate%20of%20Transit.pdf Garreau, Joel. 1991. Edge city: life on the new frontier New York: Doubleday. Building type basics for transit facilities Hoboken: Wiley. Hayden, Dolores, and Jim Wark. 2004. New York: W.W. Norton. Hayden, Dolores. 1995. The power of place urban landscapes as public history Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Hillsborough Area Regional Transit, United States, Florida, and BRW Inc. 2001. Draft environmental impact statement: Tampa Rail Project Tampa, Fla: Hillsborough Area Regional Transit. Hillsborough County Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2007. TRANSIT CONCEPT FOR 2050. appendix Hillsborough County Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2007. TRANSIT CONCEPT FOR 2050 FINAL REPORT Holl, Steven. 1989. Anchoring: selected projects 1975-1988. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press. Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The death and life of great American cities New York: Random House.

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154 Kahn, Louis I., and Dung Ngo. 1998. Louis I. Kahn: conversations with students. Houston, Tex:Architecture at Rice Publications. Koolhaas, Rem. 2002. Junkspace Obsolescence Vol.100 pp. 175-190. http://www.jstor.org/stable/779098 Koolhaas, Rem, Bruce Mau, Jennifer Sigler, and Hans Werlemann. 1995. Small, medium, large, extra. New York, N.Y.: Mona celli Press. Koolhaas, Rem, Stefano Boeri, Sanford Kwinter, Nadia Tazi, and Hans Ulrich Obrist. 2000. Mutations: Rem Koolhaas, Harvard Project on the City, Stefano Boeri, Multiplicity, Sanford Kwinter, Nadia Tazi, Hans Ulrich Obrist. Barcelona: ACTAR. Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass: The M.I.T. Press. Lynch, Thomas A. 1998. High speed rail in the U.S.: super trains for the millennium Amsterdam, Netherlands: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. Neutra, Richard Joseph, and William Marlin. 1989. Nature near: late essays of Richard Neutra Santa Barbara, Calif: Capra Press. Pallasmaa, Juhani. 2005. The eyes of the skin: architecture and the senses Chichester: Wiley-Academy Parissien, Steven. 1996. Pennsylvania Station: McKim, Mead and White London: Phaidon. Powell, Ken. 1996. Grand Central Terminal: Warren and Wetmore. London: Phaidon Press. Relph, E. C. 1976. Place and Placelessness. Research in planning and design 1. London: Pion. Tampa Bay Area Regional Transportation Authority. TBARTA. Vision-Maps http://www.tbarta.com/sites/

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155 The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Company, 2004. http://dictionary reference.com/browse/retool Trans-Florida Consultants, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Gibbs & Hill, and Florida. 1993. High speed ground transportation study, Tampa Bay-Orlando corridor Orlando, Fla.: Trans-Florida Consultants. Vergara, Camilo J. 2004. Subway memories New York, NY: Monacelli Press. Vuchic, Vukan R. 1999. Transportation for livable cities New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research. Warner, Sam Bass. 1978. Streetcar suburbs: the process of growth in Boston, 1870-1900 Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Zumthor, Peter, and Maureen Oberli-Turner. 1998. Thinking architecture Baden: L. Mller.


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Re-tooling an american metropolis
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ABSTRACT: re-tool v.tr. re-tooled, re-tooling, re-tools 1. To fit out (a factory, for example) with a new set of machinery and tools for making a different product. 2. To revise and reorganize, especially for the purpose of updating or improving.1 The American ideals inherent in the suburbs are the promise of space, affordability, convenience, and traditional family life; conversely the public realms of the suburban typology become disconnected from each other as well as the larger city. The Generic City condition in which the periphery is no longer captivated by the center from which it was created is pervasive in the American landscape.2 Public space within the city has been consumed by their auto-centric infrastructural requirements, creating a loss of activity and identity. "Lowly, unpurposeful and random as they may appear, sidewalk contacts are the small change from which a cities wealth of public life may grow3." Connecting people and places to one another and the metropolis that feeds them is essential for a properly functioning society.4 One example of an American city afflicted by auto-centrism and pedestrian marginalization is Tampa. The solution to Tampa's disconnection is a transit oriented development model in which there are localized areas of higher density that become nodes along a public transit route, thereby connecting areas of low density. By creating transportation nodes, places will become better connected in time and space. Establishing a more social form of transit in the Tampa Bay region will provide the opportunity for the creation of a secular cathedral of transportation. The Infrastructures we erect, just as the monasteries in the Middle Ages, must seek to enliven the communal and artistic traditions that make civilization and culture meaningful. The network of light rail connecting disjointed areas in Hillsborough will be linked to a high speed rail connecting major metropolitan areas across the state. This central downtown node will be manifested as a multi-modal station which incorporates multiple functions into an existing single use environment to densify the urban core of Tampa, create denser housing, and reconnect people to places. The main area of focus is the rail station and its overlap of program to create density and intensity so that connections with places and culture will be reinforced. The station will become a major public space of amenity and gathering point for the community.
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