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The Third Realm: Suburban Identity through the Transformation of the Main Street by Alberto Rodriguez A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Vikas Mehta, Ph. D. Rick Rados, B. Arch. Susan Klaussmith, M. Arch. Josue Robles, M. Arch. Date of Approval: April 16, 2010 Keywords: Neighborhood, Third Place, Third Realm, Social Realm Copyright 2010, Alberto Rodriguez
DEDICATION To my parents and friends that have helped through the journey.
i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURE iii ABSTRACT viii CHAPTER 1: DESCRIPTION 1 CHAPTER 2: SITE SELECTION 8 Brief 8 Good Neighborhood 10 History 12 Interviews 14 Analysis 16 Design Thoughts 26 CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMMING 31 Brief 31 Analysis 33 CHAPTER 4: CASE STUDY 39 Brief 39 Bjarke Ingels Group [BIG Architects] 41 Slussen 42 City Hall 44 Mars 46 Kristine Jensens Tegnestue: Prag Boulevard 48
ii CHAPTER 5: CONCEPT DESIGN 50 Social Analysis 50 Concept 55 Conceptual Site Model 59 CHAPTER 6: PROJECT GRAPHICS 64 Process 64 Plans 71 Site [Pockets of focus] 71 Pocket Plans [The wall, The park, The Corner] 72 Detail Corner Plan 73 Sections 74 Section A-A 75 Section A-B 75 Section A-C 75 Section B-A 76 Section B-B 76 Section B-C 76 Models 77 Final model 77 Section model 82 Rendering 89 Community walk through 89 School walk through 96 CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION 100 REFERENCE 101
iii LIST OF FIGURES Fig. 1. Golf course street 12 Fig. 2. Event at CJs Tavern 12 Fig. 3. Corner store and Main iconic Church 12 Fig. 6. Garage sale at CJs Tavern 13 Fig. 4. Golf course 13 Fig. 5. Forest Hills Grocery 13 Fig. 7. Neigborhoods of interest diagram 16 Fig. 8. Boundary Diagram 18 Fig. 9. Access diagram 19 Fig. 10.Institutional Diagram 20 Fig. 11.Amenities Diagram 21 Fig. 12.Semi-public Space Diagram 22 Fig. 13.Third place diagram 23 Fig. 14.Physical boundary diagram 24 Fig. 15.Social reconfiguration diagram 25 Fig. 16.Street Analysis 26 Fig. 17.Public space analysis 27 Fig. 18.Public vs. semipublic analysis 28 Fig. 19.Overlaid street analysis 29 Fig. 20.Slussen Group, 39 Fig. 21.City Hall Group, 39
iv Fig. 22.Mars 39 Fig. 23.Prags Boulevard 40 Fig. 24.Slussen Main Diagrams 42 Fig. 25.Slussens overall design 43 Fig. 26.City Hall Diagram 44 Fig. 27.City Hall overall conceptual model 45 Fig. 28.Mars conceptual diagraming 46 Fig. 29.Mars view 47 Fig. 30.Prag Boulevard side walk 48 Fig. 31.Prag Boulevard outdoor room 48 Fig. 33.Prag Boulevard layer diagram 49 Fig. 32.Prag Boulevard, Stage Room 49 Fig. 34.Overall social value diagram [north is east ] 50 Fig. 35.West Linebaugh Avenue overall social value diagram [north is south] 51 Fig. 36.North Boulevard overall social value diagram 52 Fig. 37.Corner social value diagram [north is west] 53 Fig. 38.Adams Middle School social value diagram 54 Fig. 39.The three layer of the concept diagram 55 Fig. 40.The Third Place concept diagram 56 Fig. 41.The paths concept diagram 57 Fig. 42.The pockets concept diagram 58 Fig. 43.Overall concept model 59 Fig. 44.North Boulevard overall view of concept model 60 Fig. 45.The Corner view of concept model 61 Fig. 46.The Park view of concept model 62
v Fig. 47.The Wall view of concept model 63 Fig. 48.Master plan of North Boulevard 64 Fig. 49.Corner perspective street studies 65 Fig. 50.North Bvld. perspective street study 66 Fig. 51.Areas of interest for further study 67 Fig. 52.The Wall preliminary design of social place 68 Fig. 53.The Park preliminary design of social place 69 Fig. 54.The Corner preliminary design of social place 70 Fig. 55.Final Master plan of North Boulevard. 71 Fig. 56.Final Wall schematic floor plan 72 Fig. 57.Final Park schematic floor plan 73 Fig. 58.Final Corner plan [main design gesture, points where rendering are taken r shown as well as sections] 74 Fig. 59.Final Section A-A 75 Fig. 60.Final Section A-B 75 Fig. 61.Final Section A-C 75 Fig. 62.Final Section B-A 76 Fig. 63.Final Section B-B 76 Fig. 64.Final Section B-C 76 Fig. 65.Holistic model view 77 Fig. 66.Corner plaza view 78 Fig. 67.Holistc corner view 79 Fig. 68.Linebaugh Avenue axonometric view 80 Fig. 69.North Boulevard axonometric view 81 Fig. 70.Section axonometric 1 82
vi Fig. 71.Section axonometric 2 83 Fig. 72.Section axonometric 3 84 Fig. 73.Corner plaza 85 Fig. 74.Stage and amphitheater view 86 Fig. 75.Dining circulation view 87 Fig. 76.Inside dining servery space 88 Fig. 77.Street view of redesigned pool 89 Fig. 78.View of fountain on edge of plaza 90 Fig. 79.Outside dinning area view 91 Fig. 80.Entry for neighborhood view 92 Fig. 81.Market area view 93 Fig. 82.Store front view 94 Fig. 83.Church view of plaza 95 Fig. 84.Childrens bridge to dining 96 Fig. 85.Childrens entry to dining area and plaza 97 Fig. 86.Childrens view of plaza from entry 98 Fig. 87.Inside dining area 99
vii The Third Realm : Suburban Identity Through the Transformation of The Main Street Alberto Rodriguez ABSTRACT When one researches the city, the neighborhood appears as an indispensable building block. Kevin Lynch, In The Image of a City, suggests that neighborhoods are the basic element of the city and the main way most people structure their city 1 Furthering the idea of the neighborhood as a building block of the city, Sidney Brower discusses the need for different types of neighborhoods to allow for a diverse social setting to create diversity in the city. The research put forward by Lynch and Brower shows the idea of the neighborhood as a strong concept in older cities. However, the concept of the neighbor hood has become less apparent in the modern cities and should be revisited in order for the neighborhood to once again be a substantial entity in the city. In The Great Good Place, Ray Oldenburg discusses the idea of three realms of life and the balance needed to live a fulfilling life. The first realm centers on the domestic, the second on the productive, and most significantly, the third realm centers on the social as pect. 2 In modern neighborhoods, the idea and the architecture that make the social realm has been lost and must be reintroduced. The significance of reintroducing the third realm is the creation of a strong socially defined neighborhood and one that becomes a more identifiable part of the city. With the concept of the third realm in mind, this thesis posits the introduction of a fully integral layer of social programming that responds to a specific neighborhood condi tion. This way of conceiving the neighborhood and building upon the existing Main Street, the third realm will serve to facilitate a greater sense of neighborhood place.
viii 1.Lynch, Kevin. The Image of The City. cambridge: The MIT Press 1960. p. 47 2.Oldenburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafes, coffee shops, community centers, beauty parlors, general stores, bars, hangouts, and how they get you throught the day. Paragon house, New York, NY
1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Throughout history there have been various opinions regarding the city. Author of The Image of a City Kevin Lynch, poses that the city has five main elements consisting of path, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks. Lynch identifies that the district is the main element and the way most people structure their city. 1 The idea of neighborhoods as the basic building block of the city has been presented by other researcher such as in Good Neighborhoods by Sidney Brower. Brower states the basics for a city are varying types of neighborhoods. Furthermore, Brower defines neighborhoods as four types based on social and physical characteristics: Center city, small town, residential partnership and re treat. For example, San Francisco, Boston and New York feature the various types of social settings, but also create a holistic city. Having identified the neighborhood as the main structural element of the city, one must revisit the concept by looking within its context for a solution, one can remake the modern city. First, let us explore the idea of the city by reviewing Kevin Lynchs research. In The image of the City Lynch refers to his studies as a visual quality of the American city by studying the mental image of that city which is held by its citizens. 2 This concept allows the research to become a study on how an individual personally perceive a city. Further, Lynch follows by stating that We are not simply observers of this spectacle, but are our selves a part of it, on the stage with the other participants. Most often, our perception of the city is not sustained, but rather partial, fragmentary, mixed with other concerns. Nearly ev ery sense is in operation, and the image is the composite of them all. 3 With the perception
2 as a basis of Lynchs research on the city, Lynch formulates two main research methods, interviews and observations. The methods allowed lynch to research three main cities: Boston, Los Angeles, and Jersey City. Lynchs research identifies these components of a city: 1. Paths: Paths are the channels along which the observer customarily, occasionally, or potentially moves. They may be streets, walk ways, transit lines, canals, railroads. For many people, these are the predominant elements in their image. People observe the city while moving through it, and along these paths the other environmental elements are arranged and related. 2. Edges: Edges are the linear elements not used or considered as paths by the observer. They are the boundaries between two phases, linear breaks in continuity: shores, railroad cuts, edges of development, walls... 3. Districts: Districts are the medium-to-large sections of the city, conceived of as having two-dimensional extent, which the observer mentally enters inside of, and which are recognizable as having some common, identifying character. Always identifiable from the inside, they are also used for exterior reference if visible from the outside. Most people structure their city to some extent in this way, with individual difference as to whether paths or district are the dominant elements. It seems to depend not only upon the individual but also the given city.
3 4. Nodes: Nodes are points, the strategic spots in a city into which an observer can enter, and which are the intensive foci to and from which he is traveling... Some of these concentration nodes are the focus and epitome of districts, over which their influence radiates and of which they stand as a symbol. 5. Landmarks: Landmarks another type of point-reference, but in this case the observer does not enter within them, they are external. They are usually a rather simply defined physical object: building, sign, store, or mountain... 4 In particular, Lynch describes path and district as the main two elements which create public image. Later stating paths as the key influence as a network and where major paths lacked identity... the entire city image was in difficulty, 5 creating the sense that the path is a major organizing factor in most cities, as far as peoples perception. The path be ing the main organizing factor, Lynch states that districts or neighborhoods are the main structural element of the city image. Moreover stating districts as homogeneous zones ... primary reference areas... and useful organizing concepts... 6 which allow the person to perceive the city at a smaller scale and construct a city image from the neighborhood scale. Taking San Francisco as an example, there are 13 districts which one can perceive. At the same time the districts assemble the city image, which further emphasizes the concept of neighborhoods as the structural element of the city. Therefore, even as an old concept, the idea of neighborhood should be revisited for adaptation in the modern city. Analysis of the district or neighborhood should start researching the history and background of different typologies of neighborhoods. In Good Neighborhoods, Sidney
4 Brower gives a brief history of the creation of different neighborhood types. Brower starts by stating the norm at the time. Most houses served as stores, offices, and workshops Artisans lived in one-story or two-story house or shacks; typically, their workshop were in the back, there were offered for sale in the front, and the family lived upstairs. 7 These ideals however started to change due to overcrowding. Creating a social view of the cen ter as an underground city, so sluggish is the air, so profound the obscurity. And the thousands of people live, bustle, throng in the liquid darkness, like reptiles in the marsh. 8 Causing the wealthier society to move away from the grim reality that was the inner-core to the outskirts of the cities, creating new types of neighborhoods. The outer neighborhoods were not different from other past civilizations such as in Rome where the wealthy had their villas in the countryside to escape the hustle of the city life. But the main difference was that the wealthy in the United States saw suburbs as their main living location and commuted daily to the center city. Brower Identified the four main neighborhood types too foster dif ferent social climates as well as physical characteristics. 1. Center City: A part of the city that is lively and busy, with lots to see and do. It has a mix of many different people and uses, and it attracts visitors from other parts of the city and beyond. 2. Small Town: A part of the city that has the feeling of a small town, with its own institutions and meeting places. People who live here know one another and are able to recognize those who do not live there. 3. Residential Partnership: A separate residential part of the city, a place for family and home life. Residents go to other parts of the city for work, shopping, and entertainment. 4. Retreat: A part of the city where one feels removed from other people and their activities. People who live here tend to be independent and go their
5 separate ways. 9 Having looked at research behind city design and identifying neighborhoods as the building block of the city, there should be a better solution for the problem of the mod ern city. Rather than going back to the urban center or reviving the idea of the business center, the solution is to look at neighborhoods and how to reinstate them as the building block of the city. In recent times neighborhoods appear to have become a closed series of boxes, leaving dwellers with no sense of relationship architecturally or socially. Losing the neigh borhood may be a result of demand for rapid construction and affordable housing which creates the so called sprawling effect. However, the loss of the neighborhood is not only because of the economic aspect, but loss of the social aspect as well. Furthermore, within the modern neighborhood the idea and the architectural element which made the social realm have been lost. In part, the social change was due to the shifting views of the house from a work place to a refuge, reducing the need for a social life. With the social changes in the demographic of the city, Brower posed the argument that creating a good city is having various neighborhoods. Further explaining the loss of the social realm is Ray Oldenburg in The Great Good Place where he states ...The problem of place in America has not been resolved and life has become more jangled and fragmented. No new form of integral community has been found... 10 hence Oldenburgs three realms of life. The first being the domestic; second is the productive; and most importantly, the third realm being inclusively social. Oldenburg states by creating balance in the three realms, one is fulfilled and relaxed. Adding to Oldenburgs argument are examples of past civilizations such as the Greeks and the Romans where in the third realm is cherished asset (unfortunately, diminishing in favor in modern times). In addition, the physical constructs the third realm stated by Oldenburg as The third place is a generic designation for a great variety of pub lic places that host the regular, voluntary, informal, and happily anticipated gatherings of
6 individuals beyond the realms of home and work. 11 With such a strong historic precedence on neighborhood, the focus should be re viving the neighborhood through the third realm. Viewing the third realm as a new connec tive tissue that builds upon the existing construct of the third place, rather than a traditional view of the social space would create a new social realm fitting to the modern neighbor hood. Additionally, by utilizing the unique qualities of an individual neighborhood creates the potential for a set of ideals that might lead to a system for strengthening the main street in each specific neighborhood ultimately leading to the creation of a unique set of rules that transforms a neighborhood to an urban village. 12 These urban villages will have the third realm embedded as an essential layer of programing that can be added as called for by the neighborhoods and mold to each individual districts unique characteris tics. The loss of the third realm within the neighborhood has amplified the problem of modern city in recent times. However, instead of looking at the center city to create the social image we look at the bulk of the city which are the other neighborhoods identified by Brower. By addressing the problem at that scale, it might lead us to a solution that rein terprets the modern city. This thesis posits the introduction of a new or more fully integral layer of social programming that responds to a specific type of neighborhood condition where the sense of third place exists. A neighborhood-specific will encourage the cre ation proper social conditions for each neighborhood. Ultimately becoming more than a project for one neighborhood, the intervention can become a prototype reshaping the sense of neighborhoods throughout modern cities.
7 1. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of The City. cambridge: The MIT Press 1960. p.47 2. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of The City. cambridge: The MIT Press 1960. p.2 3. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of The City. cambridge: The MIT Press 1960. p.2 4. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of The City. cambridge: The MIT Press 1960. p.47-48 5. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of The City. cambridge: The MIT Press 1960. p.49 6. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of The City. cambridge: The MIT Press 1960. p.66 7. Brower, Sidney. Good Neighborhood a study of In-town and suburban Residential enviroments. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publisher, 1996. p.10 8. Brower, Sidney. Good Neighborhood a study of In-town and suburban Residential environments. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publisher, 1996. p.13 9. Brower, Sidney. Good Neighborhood a study of In-town and suburban Residential environments. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publisher, 1996. p.121-140 10. Oldenbburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafes, coffee shops, community centers, beauty parlors, general stores, bars, hangouts, and how they get you thought the day. Paragon house, New York, NY p.3 11. Oldenbburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafes, coffee shops, community centers, beauty parlors, general stores, bars, hangouts, and how they get you thought the day. Paragon house, New York, NY p.16 12. Sucher, David. City Comforts How to Build an Urban Village. Seattle, Washington: City Comfort, 1995.
8 CHAPTER 2: SITE SELECTION Having the site selection process based off of the specific idea of a generic cityis best described by Rem Koolhaas, as the city lying in the skirts of the city centers. 1 Tam pa, Florida is the best example of the generic city and location of the site. Tampa is a city rich in historic suburban neighborhoods which provides a canvas for the intervention of the third realm. Some of the historic neighborhoods are Sulfur Springs, Ybor City, Tampa Heights, Forest Hills, and Seminole Heights. With the great diversity of neighborhoods a thorough study of each neighborhood typology was required. Sydney Brower in Good Neighborhoods breaks the neighborhood typology into social and physical analysis leading to four typologies which are: The center city, the small town, residential partnership, and retreat. 2 Moreover, using Browers criteria of analyses, the research focuses on one particular type of neighborhood that best fits the exploration of the third realm as a social place. The research focuses on a small town typology, identi fying Seminole Heights and Forest Hills as best fit for the criteria of a small town. Narrowing the site selection to the two neighborhoods led to the analysis on the historic and social foundations of the neighborhoods. Seminole Heights social conditions showed a greater communal setting. The com munal setting was enhanced by the garden centers, a central street, and its historic set ting, creating opportunities for a social place to occur. Also, there are neighborhood held events in the communal places allowing for a stronger creation of place as a social aspect. However, the analysis of Forest Hills, uncovered the presence strong communal Brief
9 aspects. But, the deficit of communal space creates a lack of identity and sense of social place. Forest Hills was in need of a connective element to bring its great asset to the forefront of the neighborhood and reclaim some of its original rural community setting. Here the lack of social place led to the selection Forest Hills as the site for the imple mentation of The Third Realm. My research then turn to social analysis and specific site investigation which will be further be expanded below. Finally, Chapter 2 will navigate through research on site selection, as well as site analysis. It will elaborate on Sydney Browers criteria for analyzing neighborhoods and will emphasizing the small town. Following Sidney Browers analysis,the chapter documents the neighborhood selected through history, as well as specific site analysis. These supple ments will further identify the site and bring a new level of understanding of the social needs for the connective social element called The Third Realm. 1.O.M.A, Rem Koolhaas, and Bruce Mau. S,M,L,XL. New York: the monacelli press, 1995. 2.Brower, Sidney. Good Neighborhood a study of In-town and suburban Residential enviroments. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publisher, 1996.
10 GOOD NEIGHBORHOOD Sidney Brower Neighborhood Classification Methods --Ambience- The nature, mix and intensity of land uses and the appearance and form of the physical environment. --Engagement- The nature and extent of the interaction among residents and the presence of the facilities and features that foster or in habit these interaction. --Choicefulness- opportunity fir residents to choose alternative location, life styles, and living arrangements. Defining a Neighborhood --Kid on a bike test --Compact --Convenient --Coherent 4 Categories for Suburban Neighborhood Neighborhood is a unit and building block --Center City --Small town --Residentail Parternship --Retreat Characteristic of a Small Town It seems that some residents look for a places of engagement represented by the third place Physical People -Social center (main street or plaza) -Family-oriented -Locally owned business -Friendlier -Small and bounded -Down to Earth
11 -Amendities within Neigborhood -Settled -Legible -Secure jobs -Imageable -Community created -Walkability -Sheltered -Connected to public Transit -Focused on local issues -Local institution -Low Density 3 Setting Small town needs -Local attitude -Small Venues (hang out,store,and so on) -Ease of travel Application --Location: Readily accessible to roads --Land Use: Concentration of non-residentail uses --Housing: Home ownership and mix housing --Economic Developments: Local-serving institutions --Transportation: Easy access, walking environment, and reduced use of private cars in the neighborhood Urban Design: Manage of public space 1. Brower, Sidney. Good Neighborhood a study of In-town and suburban Residential environments. West port, Connecticut: Praeger Publisher, 1996.
12 History Forest Hills is a neighborhood designed around the Babe Za harias Golf Course, creating a very calm, quiet and family oriented neighborhood in the north quadrant of Tampa with a original popula tion of 10,000 residents in 1926. Having been designed around a golf course the organic nature of the course is evident in the block pattern, as well as the influence of Tampas existing grid, posing a formal dis tinction within the neighborhood. The distinction was further developed through the addition of the North Boulevard and Linebaugh Avenue bringing further amenities to the neighborhood. Having the amenities within North Boulevard and Linebaugh Avenue, allows the creation of third places and a social connection along the physical boundary. Some of the third places are the Forest Hills Grocery store; the CJs Tavern, Ginos Bar and Restaurant, Adams Middle School and For est Hills Elementary School. All of which add to a low scale interac tion and calmness within the neighborhood. Also, the schools and the store are the most valued third places in the neighborhood creating a stationary community which embraces neighborhood aging as a multigenerational community. By adding the third realm to the existing third places (social value spaces) one can further stitch together the physi Fig. 1. Golf course street Fig. 2. Event at CJs Tavern Fig. 3. Corner store and Main iconic Church
13 cal barrier of the roads. Also enhancing the community aspect of the neighborhood. Fig. 4. Golf course Fig. 5. Forest Hills Grocery Fig. 6. Garage sale at CJs Tavern
14 Interviews As a resident of Forest Hills neighborhood, I focused part of my site analysis on interviewing neighbors, as well as people that work at the third places supplying amenities in the neighborhood. This research tool was chosen as it allowed for more of an insight into the neighborhood from the perspective of its occupants and their needs. Creating a dialogue between the design and people, the analysis of these interviews through writing and observation began to establish a good sense of the social characteristic of the neigh borhood. The interviews took place at a gathering of about 10 people in Forest Hills at a neighbors house. Some subject have lived in Forest Hills for more than 50 years creating a certain bond with the neighborhood and its residents. While discussing the character of Forest Hills, it was apparent that the neighbors definition of the neighborhoods character within recent years was one of transition due to transients and vacant housing, but mainly due to the loss of the public nature of the golf course. Once the public course was priva tized, the neighborhood was no longer able to use it for its communal and social needs. They remembered the club house as an asset; a beautiful building that held community events. However, when it burned vandals, it was not rebuilt and the community lost an icon and a architectural element which brought identity to the vicinity. Furthermore, in regards to the discussion of character, there was a consensus that Forest Hills had the feel of a multi-generational community. For example there were people that left after high school graduation and returned to Forest Hills to bring up their families. Also there are individuals
15 that have not left the neighborhood and reside in their former parents house. A third kind that was present at the gathering were new residents that have moved into the community because of its welcoming sense. This characteristic could be strengthened with of traffic calming including reduced traffic speed along North Boulevard and linebaugh Avenue, the neighborhoods thoroughfares, to allow for more walkability and play areas along the streets by the schools for the children. The importance of the school was also discussed, a place of great memory and connection. All that had attend there had children who also attend there. For example one mother stated "my kids walk to Adams and they played there after hours because there was not much traffic. These resident placed a great deal of importance on the school as a social place and a setting for neighborhood interaction.
16 Site Analysis Two Neighborhoods that fit the criteria of a small town suburban neighborhood: 1. Old Seminole Heights: 1911 founded as street car suburb -Historic neighborhood creating strong community presence. -Local community association -Multi-generational -A settled community -Local clubs and events -The garden center serves as a public center for the community -Walkable surfaces -Gathering zone other than cen ter Area needed to create the small town Connection between Florida 2. Forest Hills: 1924 founded as re-subdivision of north side country club. Later renamed Forest Hills: Fig. 7. Neigborhoods of interest diagram
17 -Historic neighborhood creating strong community presence Local community association Multi-generational A settled community Area needed to create the small town Needed a center social space Walkable surfaces Gathering zones other than center
18 Neighborhood Analysis Classifying the neighborhood: Small Town: -Small and bound: Forest Hills is bound by main streets on all sides. It is further divided inside by interior main streets and associations. 1. Outer: Busch Boulevard Florida Avenue Armenia Avenue Fletcher Avenue 2. Interior Street: West Country Club North Boulevard. West Linebaugh Avenue 3. Association: Forest Hills Neighborhood Association Lower Forest Hills Association Fig. 8. Boundary Diagram
19 -Ease of access: Having a grid pattern along the major streets creates various access points. Three streets serve as the main access into Forest Hills and other secondary points of access. 1. Main Access: West Country Club Drive North Boulevard West Linebaugh Avenue Fig. 9. Access diagram
20 Institution within neighborhood: The neighborhoods schools include a connected elementary and middle school and a high school located five blocks away. However, the neighborhoods connection to the schools has not been fully established even though most of the communitys residents have graduated from all three schools. 1. Elementary: Forest Hills School elementary 2. Middle: John Quincy Adams Middle School 3. High: George D. Chamberlain High School Fig. 10. Institutional Diagram
21 -Amenities within Neighborhood: Most amenities are located within a five minute walk from each other. Also these amenities are located along the two main ac cess roads which are Linebaugh Avenue and North Boulevard. All amenities are sustained by the neighborhood and owned by the neighborhood 1. Amenities: Forest Hills Grocery CJs Tavern Ginos Bar and Restaurant A day care center 7-Eleven store Post Office Colombian restaurant Fig. 11. Amenities Diagram
22 Strong social activity: Churches have a strong presence in the neighborhood and cre ate strong social pockets in a semi-public space. Main icon: There are two main iconic churches at the corner of Linebaugh avenue and Boulevard. Fig. 12. Semi-public Space Diagram
23 Third places are the social gathering place for informal public life. 1 1. Third places in Forest Hills: Ginos Bar and Restaurant Forest Hills Grocery Adams Middle School track School pick up spaces Danny Del Rio Pool YMCA CJs Bar Cardinals fields Chamberlain High School 1. Oldenbburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafes, coffee shops, community centers, beauty parlors, general stores, bars, hang outs, and how they get you through the day. Paragon House, New York, NY Fig. 13. Third place diagram
24 Fig. 14. Physical boundary diagram
25 Fig. 15. Social reconfiguration diagram
26 Design Thought Design Thought#1: Widening the sidewalk on the main streets and creating new sidewalks where recreational activities occur. Rationale: The main street having more pedestrian movement need s sidewalks to be widened. In addition, widening the sidewalk will create interaction at the street level allowing for moment. Giving more space to the pedestrian takes away from the car space which helps retain calm ambiance. Secondly, adding sidewalks around the recreational spaces creates a safe, walkable surface to the park in the neighborhood, negating the need to drive. Fig. 16. Street Analysis
27 Design Thought#2: Create a central focus space where the residents can come together for different community activities. Rationale: The golf course has become a more restricted location in the neighborhood where only a select crowd can enjoy the recreational activ ity. This has taken away the neighborhood focal point. The neighborhood needs a central space that for the general public, molded by the users, but flex ible enough to allow a diversity of activities. A central space become a place where the community can show its character and change as the neighborhood changes. This uniqueness gives a great sense of place for the neighborhood. Then the central space can becomes a primary focus and meld into the identity of the neighborhood. Fig. 17. Public space analysis
28 Design Thought#3: Create a schools that are more open to the neighborhood and its activities. Rationale: The schools in Forest Hills are an elementary school connected by lunch room a middle and five blocks away from a high school. Community connec tion to the schools has not been fully establish even though most of the residents have attend all three. Archi tecturally opening the school to the neighborhood may bring residents together for social interaction, car rying the ambiance of the neighbor hood through therefore establishing a greater connection. Fig. 18. Public vs. semipublic analysis
29 Design Principle#4: Create a main street that give less right of way to vehicular traffic. Rationale: During interviews the main concern was the traffic at the main street intersection of Linebaugh Avenue and Armenia Avenue. This traffic acts as deterrent to pedestrian activity. Also the character of these two streets have changed due to the traffic. By adding more pedestrian space along these streets and reducing the right of way, the scale change will in turn reduce the traffic. This will induce more street activity and be less dangerous for the school children in the area. Fig. 19. Overlaid street analysis
30 Design Principle#5: Introduce a public use to the ponds and retention ponds in the neighborhood. Rationale: Along the main street there are various ponds to which the resident have no access because they fenced off and/or bank area. The natural and man-made features should have some a surface such as bank or shoreline where neighbors gather. For example such urban chalkboard bench and bike rack for a residents use. Moreover, having restored re tention ponds on the main street add to the beauty street neighborhood.
31 CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMMING Brief The Third Realm acts as a connective feature which builds upon the existing con struct of the third place. The programming would go hand in hand with the site analysis and would be more of a circulatory process where the site analysis influences the program ming and vice versa. In other word both analyses would be completed simultaneously. Due to its connection to the outside neighborhoods and its existing third place, the site research concludes that Forest Hills there has two main streets, North Boulevard and Linebaugh Avenue,chosen to be the location for The Third Realm intervention. Further more, the investigation focuses on the section of the street fronting Adams Middle School. The intervention will be an investigation of redefining the neighborhood streets and plazas to respond to new social demographics. The investigation identified the Adams Middle and Forest Hills Elementary school as the main third place. Analyses led to the discovery of programs common to the school and neighborhood. These commonalities will provide a foundation for more focused investigation into integrated space usage. Following the analysis of both programs, there where common programmatic ele ments between the school and the neighborhood. The elements shared between schools and neighborhood could be combined into one program of flex spaces, rather than single use spaces. Flex-spaces are spaces that are programed for one function, but adapt to varies others. Therefore, comprising the program into flex-spaces would mean bringing out these programmatic elements from the school and aligning them where the residents can easily access themalong the street. The spaces can serve as sustainable spaces
32 while inducing community growth and involvement. Furthermore, the program elements directly relate to community context and not just the existing schools. Programmatic ele ments will consequently be used throughout the day rather than only during school hours. This will create an increased pedestrian usage of the street, lessening vehicular traffic. This chapter will list the common programs that the school and the community shares. The list will be two sections: The private (school) and the parochial space (com mon program)that can be taken out of the school confines and used as flex-spaces for the school and neighborhood contexts.
33 Analyze KINDERGARTEN Each Total Classroom-6800 Sq.Ft 4800 Sq.Ft Student Toilet Rooms-640 Sq.Ft 240 Sq.Ft Material Storage Rooms-3360 Sq.Ft 360 Sq.Ft PRIMARY [1ST, 2ND, AND 3RD GRADE] Classrooms-22800 Sq.Ft 17600 Sq.Ft Teacher Planning Area (share with Kindergarten)-1200 Sq.Ft 200 Sq. Ft Student Toilet Rooms-2240 Sq.Ft 880 Sq. Ft INTERMEDIATE [4TH AND 5TH GRADE] Classrooms-16800 Sq.Ft 12800 Sq.Ft Teacher Planning Area1200 Sq.Ft 200 Sq.Ft Student Toilet Rooms [boys/girls]-1640 Sq.Ft 640 Sq.Ft 6TH GRADE GENERAL Classrooms-8680 Sq.Ft 5440 Sq.Ft MATH AND SCIENCE Classrooms-8680 Sq.Ft 5440 Sq.Ft Storage-Preparation Room 200 Sq.Ft 200 Sq.Ft 7TH/8TH GRADE MATHEMATICS
34 Classrooms-7680 Sq.Ft 4760 Sq.Ft "I can learn" Classroom-1800 Sq.Ft 800 Sq.Ft Intensive Math Classroom-1680 Sq.Ft 680 Sq.Ft SOCIAL STUDIES Classrooms-8680 Sq.Ft 5440 Sq.Ft SCIENCE Science Laboraties-71000 Sq.Ft 7000 Sq.Ft 8th Grade Physical Science Laboratory-11000 Sq.Ft 1000 Sq.Ft Storage-Preparation Rooms-4300 Sq.Ft 1200 Sq.Ft GIFTED CLASSROOMS Gifted Science Classroom-1800 Sq.Ft 800 Sq.Ft Gifted Math Classroom-1800 Sq.Ft 800 Sq.Ft Student Toilets Room [boys/girls]-240 Sq.Ft 80 Sq.Ft FOREIGN LANGUAGE Laboratory-1680 Sq.Ft 680 Sq.Ft READING RESOURCE Resource Room-1680 Sq.Ft 680 Sq.Ft TEACHER WORKROOM Workroom-1500 Sq.Ft 500 Sq.Ft Staff Toilet Rooms [men/women]-240 Sq.Ft 80 Sq.Ft ART Studio-11250 Sq.Ft 1250 Sq.Ft Material Storage Room-1120 Sq.Ft 120 Sq.Ft Kiln Room-2-[*] 55 Sq.Ft 105 Sq.Ft MUSIC Vocal Music Classroom-2-[*] 1650 Sq.Ft 3300 Sq.FT
35 Instrumental Music-12000 Sq.Ft 2000 Sq.Ft Orchestra Classroom-1780 Sq.Ft 780 Sq.Ft Material Storage Rooms-3-[*] 100 Sq.Ft 300 Sq.Ft PHYSICAL EDUCATION Teacher Planning Area-1100 Sq.Ft 100 Sq.Ft Material Storage Room-1200 Sq.Ft 200 Sq.Ft Fenced Storage Area-1[225 Sq.Ft] 225 Sq.Ft Kindergarten/Primary Playground-1SDHC standard Intermediate Playground-1SDHC standard Kindergarten/Primary Turf Area-122,500Sq.Ft Intermediate Turf Area-1260000Sq.Ft Gymnasium Floor-15,600 Sq.Ft 5600 Sq.Ft Gymnasium Seating[1000 Seating]-13048 Sq.Ft 3048 Sq.Ft Locker/Dressing Rooms[boys/girls]-21200 Sq.Ft 2400 Sq.Ft Shower/Drying Areas[boys/girls]-2140 Sq.Ft 280 Sq.Ft P.E Toilet Rooms[boys/girls]-2150 Sq.Ft 300 Sq.Ft P.E Storage Room-1300 Sq.Ft 300 Sq.Ft Teacher Planning Areas-2150 Sq.Ft 300 Sq.Ft Staff Shower/ Toilet Rooms-3-[*] 60 Sq.Ft 180 Sq.Ft Public Toilet Rooms-2600 Sq.Ft 1200 Sq.Ft Utility Field[softball practice] 160,000Sq.Ft Playcourts-4SDHC standard Running Track-1SDHC standard MEDIA CENTER Reading Room with Computer Area-2-[*] 5,360 Sq.Ft 10720 Sq.Ft Technical Processing Room-2-[*] 900 Sq.Ft 1800 Sq.Ft
36 Audio Visual [AV] Storage Room/CCTV Room-2-[*] 800 Sq.Ft 1600 Sq.Ft Teacher Workroom-1250 Sq.Ft 250 Sq.Ft Staff Toilet room-2-[*] 40 Sq.Ft 80 Sq.Ft Office-1120 Sq.Ft 120 Sq.Ft ADMINISTRATION Administrative Reception/Secretarial Area-1350 Sq.Ft 350 Sq.Ft Asst. Principal's Reception/Secretarial Area-1250 Sq.Ft 250 Sq.Ft Principal's Office-1200 Sq.Ft 200 Sq.Ft Assistant Principals' Office-2150 Sq.Ft 300 Sq.Ft Administrative Resource-1150 Sq.Ft 150 Sq.Ft School Resource Officer Office-1150 Sq.Ft 150 Sq.Ft Bookkeepers Office-1100 Sq.Ft 100 Sq.Ft General Office-1150 Sq.Ft 150 Sq.Ft Data Processing Office-2-[*] 100 Sq.Ft 200 Sq.Ft Production/Workroom-2-[*] 300 Sq.Ft 600 Sq.Ft Administrative Conference Room-2-[*] 300 Sq.Ft 600 Sq.Ft Clinic Rooms-4-[*] 100 Sq.Ft 400 Sq.Ft Clinic Toilet Room-3-[*] 40 Sq.Ft 120 Sq.Ft Clinic Toilet/Shower Room-3-[*] 50 Sq.Ft 150 Sq.Ft Administrative Storage Room-2-[*] 200 Sq.Ft 400 Sq.Ft Textbook Storage Room-2-[*] 400 Sq.Ft 800 Sq.Ft Staff Toilet Rooms [men/women]-4-[*] 80 Sq.Ft 320 Sq.Ft STUDENT SERVICES [GUIDANCE] Reception/Secretarial Area-1400 Sq.Ft 400 Sq.Ft Offices-8-[*] 150 Sq.Ft 1200 Sq.Ft Records Room-1200 Sq.Ft 200 Sq.Ft
37 Conference Room-1200 Sq.Ft 200 Sq.Ft Group Activity Room-1200 Sq.Ft 200 Sq.Ft FOOD SERVICE Student Dining Room-2-[*] 4100 Sq.Ft 8200 Sq.Ft Servery-2-[*] 850 Sq.Ft 1700 Sq.Ft Chair Storage Room-2-[*] 150 Sq.Ft 300 Sq.Ft Kitchen-2-[*] 1000 Sq.Ft 2000 Sq.Ft Receiving Area-2-[*] 25 Sq.Ft 50 Sq.Ft Kitchen Manager's Office-1300 Sq.Ft 300 Sq.Ft Cooler-2-[*] 110 Sq.Ft 220 Sq.Ft Freezer-2-[*] 215 Sq.Ft 430 Sq.Ft Dry Storage Room-2-[*] 200 Sq.Ft 400 Sq.Ft Faculty Dining Room-2-[*] 615 Sq.Ft 1230 Sq.Ft Faculty/Staff Toilet Rooms [men/women]-4-[*] 40 Sq.Ft 160 Sq.Ft Outside Student Dining Area-1[1500 Sq.Ft] 1500 Sq.Ft MULTI-PURPOSE/STAGE Multi-Purpose Room-2[*] 1500 Sq.Ft 3000 Sq.Ft Stage-2-[*] 720 Sq.Ft 1440 Sq.Ft Chair Storage Room-2-[*] 200 Sq.Ft 400 Sq.Ft Public Toilet Rooms [boys/girls]-4-[*] 450 Sq.Ft 900 Sq.Ft OTHER AREAS Student Toilet Rooms [boys/girls]-11960 Sq.Ft 1960 Sq.Ft CUSTODIAL Central Receiving-2-[*] 200 Sq.Ft 400 Sq.Ft Custodial Office-2-[*] 100 Sq.Ft 200 Sq.Ft Service Closets-18-[*] 20 Sq.Ft 360 Sq.Ft
38 Locker Rooms [men/women]-4-[*] 40 Sq.Ft 160 Sq.Ft Toilets Rooms [men/women]-4-[*] 40 Sq.Ft 160 Sq.Ft Flammable Storage Room-2-[*] 250 Sq.Ft 500 Sq.Ft Equipment Storage Room-2-[*] 200 Sq.Ft 400 Sq.Ft 1.DEPT., Hillsborough CO. Public Schools Planning and Construction. The new Planning and Con struction Department. http://126.96.36.199/aspmenu/info_pages/home.aspx (accessed Jannuary 12, 2010).
39 Brief CHAPTER 4: CASE STUDIES Case studies and analyses have been a significant component to the development of the urban design strategies and project concepts. Criteria for the case studies were developed to uniquely meld urban design and architec tural design into one common field. By looking at architectural design in the urban design aspects, and vice versa, the creation of one cohesive plan can be devised. With urban design and architecture in a common field as a basis of the research, the case study would have to be scaled from the macro to the micro in order to include involve processes and ideas of urban design as well as architecture. Following initial analysis, the criteria for the case studies developed into investigation of design projects of production rather than consumption. Through the process, research separates design characteristics that were based on the idea economic consumption. Instead the focus would subse quently be geared toward social production. Furthermore, the idea of social production would base itself on social benefit rather than economic benefit. As a response to the change in the modern cultural standards, which is cur rently based on consumptive developments, the criteria research and analy sis will be mainly focused on public space, building as social catalyst, street design, and how it relates to the modern social demographics. With these two Fig. 20. Slussen (Bjarke Ingels. Yes is More An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Conpenhagen, Denmark: BIG A/S, 2009.) Fig. 21. City Hall (Bjarke Ingels. Yes is More An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Conpenhagen, Denmark: BIG A/S, 2009.) Fig. 22. Mars (Bjarke Ingels. Yes is More An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Conpenhagen, Denmark: BIG A/S, 2009.)
40 main criteria ,the primary focus was precedence were: B.I.G Architects and Prags boulevard projects. Fig. 23. Prags Boulevard (Teg nestue, Kristine Jensens. Prags Boulevard Conpenhagen,2005. A+T In common 3 Collective Spaces, Spring 2006: 42-55)
41 Bjarke Ingels Group This case study involving B.I.G Architects and their understanding of process development of various scaled urban projects. Three main projects were choosen for the study which included Slussen, City Hall and Mars. The investigation looked at how the traditional plaza or street could be manipulated into forms of social spaces. One principal common to all B.I.G. Architects' projects was used as a basis for the conceptual design. The aspect was interweaving of various layer of programing. Allowing the social layer to be dominant, creating a common connection throughout all spaces.
42 Slussen In the urban design plan of slussen B.I.G. looks at the different levels of the program and divides them into three layers. These layers are: the Urban pla za-cars-bikes-pedestrians; metro-cars-shops; and being boats-busses-metrowater-shops. These elements further intertwine the layers where the program is comparable, creating a multi-level plaza. Also by intertwining the layers of the program, B.I.G. Architects creates a common ground between all three lay ers rather than a separation of function. Furthermore, creating a flexible public realm rather than a tight semi public space, permits the social realm to be domi nant at this intesection. Fig. 24. Slussen Main Diagrams (Bjarke Ingels. Yes is More An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Conpenhagen, Denmark: BIG A/S, 2009.)
43 Fig. 25. Slussens overall design (Bjarke Ingels. Yes is More An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Conpenhagen, Denmark: BIG A/S, 2009.)
44 City Hall The idea of a layer of social programming covering the squares adds an importance to the social aspect rather than the economical as pect. The programs as proposed by B.I.G. Architects would be a small outdoor amphitheater.and space for other social activities. Furthermore, current temporary program would be placed at the streets edge under the "flying carpet" creating a more dynamic life on the edge of the street. Moreover, having the surface curved up to cover the spaces forms a unique surface and activity zones. Having the town hall being the only standing structure on the square allows for it to become the main focus on the site. Adding a verti cality to a very horizontal square creates a visual landmark. Also the new square design becomes a secondary structure to the social function and the town hall become the main aspect of the square. Fig. 26. City Hall Diagram (Bjarke Ingels. Yes is More An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Conpenhagen, Denmark: BIG A/S, 2009.)
45 Fig. 27. City Hall overall conceptual model (Bjarke Ingels. Yes is More An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Conpenhagen, Denmark: BIG A/S, 2009.)
46 Mars B.I.G uses a horizontal matrix as the ground plane and identifying points where the program would change this plane creating a dynamic surface. This surface allows a cohesive union between public and functional space. The roof of the building becomes a usable social platform Fig. 28. Mars conceptual diagraming (Bjarke Ingels. Yes is More An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Conpenhagen, Denmark: BIG A/S, 2009.)
47 Fig. 29. Mars view (Bjarke Ingels. Yes is More An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Conpenhagen, Denmark: BIG A/S, 2009.)
48 Kristine Jensens Tegnestue: Prags Boulevard The Prags Boulevard case study was generally a street typology study. Located in Copenhagen Denmark, the architect, Kristine Jensens Tegnestue selected a run down street and created a social street with various outdoor programs. Further convert ing the social street by adding major nodes, or as Tegnestue called it outdoor rooms along the street she created pedestrian connection. The Prags Boulevard shows how apply various surfaces fosters a division of space may be created. These spaces be gan to add a greater level of rightaway to the pedestrian rather than to the car. Fig. 30. Prag Boulevard side walk (Tegnestue, Kristine Jensens. Prags Boulevard Conpenhagen,2005. A+T In common 3 Collective Spaces, Spring 2006: 42-55) Fig. 31. Prag Boulevard outdoor room (Tegnestue, Kristine Jensens. Prags Boulevard Conpenhagen,2005. A+T In common 3 Collective Spaces, Spring 2006: 42-55)
49 Fig. 32. Prag Boulevard, Stage Room (Tegnestue, Kristine Jensens. Prags Boulevard Conpenhagen,2005. A+T In common 3 Collective Spaces, Spring 2006: 42-55) Fig. 33. Prag Boulevard layer diagram (Tegnestue, Kristine Jensens. Prags Boulevard Conpenhagen,2005. A+T In common 3 Collective
50 Social Analysis Fig. 34. Overall social value diagram [north is east ] CHAPTER 4: CONCEPTUAL
51 Fig. 35. West Linebaugh Avenue overall social value diagram [north is south]
52 Fig. 36. North Boulevard overall social value diagram
53 Fig. 37. Corner social value diagram [north is west]
54 Fig. 38. Adams Middle School social value diagram
55 Concept Layers 1.Value Pockets 2.Routes 3.Third Place [Existing construct] Fig. 39. The three layer of the concept diagram
56 CONCEPT-Third Place Pool Adams Middle Forest Hills Elementary Forest Hills Store CJs Tavern Fig. 40. The Third Place concept diagram
57 CONCEPTPaths 1.Ped. 2.Bike 3.Bus 4.Car Fig. 41. The paths concept diagram
58 CONCEPT-Value Pockets 1. The Wallurban chalk broads, bus pavilion 2. The Waitbus pavilion, waiting area 3. The Parkrec. pavilion 4. The cornerdinning pavilion, reading pavil ion 5. The stageamphitheater 6. The Daycare Fig. 42. The pockets concept diagram
59 Conceptual Model Fig. 43. Overall concept model
60 Fig. 44. North Boulevard overall view of concept model
61 Fig. 45. The Corner view of concept model
62 Fig. 46. The Park view of concept model
63 Fig. 47. The Wall view of concept model
64 CHAPTER 5: GRAPHICS Process Fig. 48. Master plan of North Boulevard
65 Fig. 49. Corner perspective street studies
66 Fig. 50. North Bvld. perspective street study
67 Fig. 51. Areas of interest for further study
68 Fig. 52. The Wall preliminary design of social place
69 Fig. 53. The Park preliminary design of social place
70 Fig. 54. The Corner preliminary design of social place
71 Plans Fig. 55. Final Master plan of North Boulevard.
72 Fig. 56. Final Wall schematic floor plan
73 Fig. 57. Final Park schematic floor plan
74 Fig. 58. Final Corner plan [main design gesture, points where rendering are taken r shown as well as sections]
75 Sections Fig. 59. Final Section A-A Fig. 60. Final Section A-B Fig. 61. Final Section A-C
76 Fig. 62. Final Section B-A Fig. 63. Final Section B-B Fig. 64. Final Section B-C
77 Model Fig. 65. Holistic model view
78 Fig. 66. Corner plaza view
79 Fig. 67. Holistc corner view
80 Fig. 68. Linebaugh Avenue axonometric view
81 Fig. 69. North Boulevard axonometric view
82 Fig. 70. Section axonometric 1
83 Fig. 71. Section axonometric 2
84 Fig. 72. Section axonometric 3
85 Fig. 73. Corner plaza
86 Fig. 74. Stage and amphitheater view
87 Fig. 75. Dining circulation view
88 Fig. 76. Inside dining servery space
89 Rendering neighborhood walk through Fig. 77. Street view of redesigned pool
90 Fig. 78. View of fountain on edge of plaza
91 Fig. 79. Outside dinning area view
92 Fig. 80. Entry for neighborhood view
93 Fig. 81. Market area view
94 Fig. 82. Store front view
95 Fig. 83. Church view of plaza
96 Rendering School walk-through Fig. 84. Childrens bridge to dining
97 Fig. 85. Childrens entry to dining area and plaza
98 Fig. 86. Childrens view of plaza from entry
99 Fig. 87. Inside dining area
100 CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION The focus of the thesis was not the particular design but the idea of using the third realm as a catalyze for design. Moreover, taking the social aspects rather than the physi cal aspects of neighborhood to further enhance an ordinary neighborhood spaces.
101 REFERENCES Angelillo, Antnio. Siza Architecture writing. Edited by Luca Molinari. Translated by Mar cello Francone. milan: Skira editore, 1997. Arlt, Peter, Friedemann Derschmidt, Florian Haydn, Ursula Hofbauer, Barbara Holub, and Christa Kamleithner. Temporary Urban Spaces. Germany: Birhauser, 2006. Brower, Sidney. Good Neighborhood a study of In-town and suburban Residential enviro ments. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publisher, 1996. DEPT., Hillsborough CO. Public Schools Planning and Construction. The new Planning and Construction Department. http://188.8.131.52/aspmenu/info_pages/home.aspx (ac cessed Jannuary 12, 2010). Group, Bjarke Ingels. Yes is More An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Conpenha gen, Denmark: BIG A/S, 2009. Hiedkamp, Phillipp, Michael Erlhoff, and Iris Utikal. Designing Public Perspectives for the public. Edited by Till Beutling, Julianna Csepe, Shadi Heinrich, Mueller Miriam, Andreas MUller and Fabricio Rosa Marques. Translated by Dominic Bonfiglio, Katharina VoB and Andrew Schuyler Tompkins. germany: Birkhauser Verlag, 2008.
102 Lynch, Kevin. The Image of The City. cambridge: The MIT Press 1960. Oldenburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafes, coffee shops, community centers, beauty parlors, general stores, bars, hangouts, and how they get you throught the day. Paragon house, New York, NY O.M.A, Rem Koolhaas, and Bruce Mau. S,M,L,XL. New York: the monacelli press, 1995. Sucher, David. City Comforts How to Build an Urban Village. seattle, Washington: City Comfort, 1995. Tegnestue, Kristine Jensens. Prags Boulevard Conpenhagen,2005. A+T In common 3 Collective Spaces, Spring 2006: 42-55.
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The third realm :
b creating neighborhood identity through the transformation of the main street
h [electronic resource] /
by Alberto Rodriguez.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
ABSTRACT: When one researches the city, the neighborhood appears as an indispensable building block. Kevin Lynch, In The Image of a City, suggests that neighborhoods are "the basic element of the city" and the main way "most people structure their city"1. Furthering the idea of the neighborhood as a building block of the city, Sidney Brower discusses the need for different types of neighborhoods to allow for a diverse social setting to create diversity in the city. The research put forward by Lynch and Brower shows the idea of the neighborhood as a strong concept in older cities. However, the concept of the neighborhood has become less apparent in the modern cities and should be revisited in order for the neighborhood to once again be a substantial entity in the city. In The Great Good Place, Ray Oldenburg discusses the idea of three realms of life and the balance needed to live a fulfilling life. The first realm centers on the domestic, the second on the productive, and most significantly, the third realm centers on the social aspect.2 In modern neighborhoods, the idea and the architecture that make the social realm has been lost and must be reintroduced. The significance of reintroducing the third realm is the creation of a strong socially defined neighborhood and one that becomes a more identifiable part of the city. With the concept of the third realm in mind, this thesis posits the introduction of a fully integral layer of social programming that responds to a specific neighborhood condition. This way of conceiving the neighborhood and building upon the existing Main Street, the third realm will serve to facilitate a greater sense of neighborhood place.
Advisor: Vikas Mehta, Ph.D.
x School of Architecture and Community Design
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.