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Lithic technology and obsidian exchange networks in bronze age sardinia, italy (ca. 1600-850 b.c.)

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Title:
Lithic technology and obsidian exchange networks in bronze age sardinia, italy (ca. 1600-850 b.c.)
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Freund, Kyle
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University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Mediterranean
Nuragic culture
Stone tools
Typologies
X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: The Sardinian Bronze Age (Nuragic period) and the factors which created and maintained an island-wide identity as seen through the presence of its distinctive nuraghi have received considerable attention; however the amount of research directly related to the stone tools of the era has been relatively limited despite the wealth of knowledge it is capable of yielding. This thesis hopes to contribute to Sardinian archaeology through the study of ancient technology, specifically obsidian lithic technology, by combining typological information with source data gleaned from the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). These data are integrated with statistical analyses breaking down the spatial distribution of nuraghi across the island through the use of distance-based methods, including k-means and kernel density analyses, which create a more comprehensive understanding of the island-wide political and social structure. This research will test the hypothesis that changes in the acquisition of obsidian raw materials were coupled with corresponding changes in how the obsidian was used. The results provide precedence for future work in Sardinia and create a model for integrating two types of analyses, sourcing and typological. By combining these results, it is possible to investigate how obsidian influenced the ancient economy as well as assess its cultural significance for people of the past.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Kyle Freund.
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ABSTRACT: The Sardinian Bronze Age (Nuragic period) and the factors which created and maintained an island-wide identity as seen through the presence of its distinctive nuraghi have received considerable attention; however the amount of research directly related to the stone tools of the era has been relatively limited despite the wealth of knowledge it is capable of yielding. This thesis hopes to contribute to Sardinian archaeology through the study of ancient technology, specifically obsidian lithic technology, by combining typological information with source data gleaned from the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). These data are integrated with statistical analyses breaking down the spatial distribution of nuraghi across the island through the use of distance-based methods, including k-means and kernel density analyses, which create a more comprehensive understanding of the island-wide political and social structure. This research will test the hypothesis that changes in the acquisition of obsidian raw materials were coupled with corresponding changes in how the obsidian was used. The results provide precedence for future work in Sardinia and create a model for integrating two types of analyses, sourcing and typological. By combining these results, it is possible to investigate how obsidian influenced the ancient economy as well as assess its cultural significance for people of the past.
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Lithic Technology and Obsidian Exchange Networks in Bronze Age Sardinia, Italy (ca. 1600 B.C.) by Kyle P. Freund A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Robert H. Tykot, Ph.D. Nancy White, Ph.D. Thomas J. Pluckhahn, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 1, 2010 Keywords: Mediterranean, Nuragic culture, St one tools, Typologies, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Copyright 2010, Kyle P. Freund

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Acknowledgments Many thanks to all the members of my co mmittee who have worked so tirelessly to see this through completion. Special thanks to Steven Reader for his patience and continued support. I would also like to acknowledge the Soprintendenza di Sassari for granting the permissions for the excavations a nd analysis of the materials. Thanks to Gary Webster and Joseph Michels for allo wing me to study the obsidian artifacts from Duos Nuraghes and the other Marghine sites, and the late directors of the Ortu Cmidu project, Miriam S. Balmuth and Patricia Phillips.

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i Table of Contents List of Figures ............................................................................................................... ..... iii Abstract ...................................................................................................................... ......... v Chapter 1: Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 Outline..................................................................................................................... 4 Chapter 2: Geographic and Cultural Background ............................................................... 6 Sardinian Prehistory ................................................................................................ 7 Obsidian Sources and Archaeological Sites ......................................................... 17 Monte Arci ................................................................................................ 17 Marghine Region ...................................................................................... 20 Duos Nuraghes (Borore) ............................................................... 20 Nuraghe Urpes .............................................................................. 24 Nuraghe San Sergio ...................................................................... 24 Nuraghe Serbine ............................................................................ 25 Nuraghe Ortu Cmidu (Sardara) ............................................................... 25 Chapter 3: Spatial Analyses .............................................................................................. 28 Methods................................................................................................................. 29 Results ................................................................................................................... 32 Discussion ............................................................................................................. 36 Chapter 4: Obsidian Sourcing Methods ............................................................................ 39 Determining Provenance ....................................................................................... 39 X-ray Fluorescence ............................................................................................... 40 Chapter 5: Sourcing Results and Discussion .................................................................... 45 Nuragic Period Obsidian Results .......................................................................... 45 Pre-Nuragic Obsidian Exploitation ....................................................................... 48 Exchange Networks .............................................................................................. 50 Chapter 6: Typological Methods ...................................................................................... 54 Relevant Typology ................................................................................................ 55 Chapter 7: Typological Resu lts and Discussion ............................................................... 58 Depositional Processes.......................................................................................... 58 Integration with Prev ious Analyses ...................................................................... 59

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ii Direct Causation.................................................................................................... 66 Indirect Causation ................................................................................................. 68 Chapter 8: Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 70 References .................................................................................................................... ..... 73 Appendix A. Table of Sardinian Prehistory ...................................................................... 82 Appendix B. Table with concise information about relevant sites used in this thesis ...... 84 Appendix C. List of attributes used in typological analysis ............................................. 86 Appendix D. Raw data from the artifacts th at were both sources and classified .............. 95

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iii List of Figures Figure 1.1 The Italian island of Sardinia (outlined in red) ............................................2 Figure 1.2 The simple tower of Nuraghe Madrone in Silanus ......................................2 Figure 1.3 The complex nuraghe Su Nuraxi in Barumini .............................................3 Figure 2.1 The Mediterranean .......................................................................................7 Figure 2.2 Late Bronze Age votive figurines, or bronzetti .........................................15 Figure 2.3 Map showing all of the relevant sites ........................................................18 Figure 2.4 Map of subsources at Monte Arci ..............................................................19 Figure 2.5 Regional topography of Sardinia ...............................................................21 Figure 2.6 Nuraghi aggregates and named megalithic tombs in the Marghine region .........................................................................................22 Figure 2.7 Plan of Duos Nuraghes ..............................................................................23 Figure 2.8 Plan and artistic rendering of Nuraghe Urpes ............................................25 Figure 2.9 Map showing the location of excavation units at Nuraghe Urpes .............26 Figure 2.10 Plan of Nuraghe Ortu Cmidu ...................................................................27 Figure 3.1 Map of known nuraghi on the island of Sardinia .......................................31 Figure 3.2 The k-means within-cluster sum of squares over a range of possible solutions .......................................................................................33 Figure 3.3 Distribution of th e seven optimum clusters (colors are arbitrary) .............34 Figure 3.4 The kernel density analysis showing high (dark) and low (light) density areas ...............................................................................................35 Figure 4.1 Density measurements cap able of distinguishing between several western Mediterr anean obsidian sources .......................................40

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iv Figure 4.2 An atom with multip le electron shell layers ..............................................42 Figure 4.3 A Bruker Tracer III -V portable XRF machine ..........................................42 Figure 4.4 Some examples of Nuragi c obsidian artifacts from Duos Nuraghes (note sections missi ng as a result of obsidian hydration dating) ........................................................................................43 Figure 4.5 Sourcing results showing the peaks for the various elements present in the sample ..................................................................................44 Figure 5.1 Plot of Rb/Nb versus Sr /Nb at Duos Nuraghes (geological reference materials shown) ........................................................................46 Figure 5.2 Plot of Rb/Nb versus Sr /Nb at Nuraghe San Sergio, Nuraghe Serbine, and Nuraghe Urpes (geological reference materials shown) ........................................................................................................46 Figure 5.3 Plot of Rb/Nb versus Sr/Nb at Nuraghe Ortu Cmidu (geological reference materials shown) .....................................................47 Figure 5.4 Obsidian source distri bution at other Nuragic sites ...................................48 Figure 5.5 Mediterranean sources ( polygons) and Neolithic archaeological sites (dots); Sardinian sites not shown .......................................................49 Figure 5.6 Early Neolithic obsidia n exploitation in Sardinia ......................................50 Figure 5.7 Primary reduction revealed by survey and excavation in the Sennixeddu area on the east side of Monte Arci ........................................52 Figure 6.1 Debitage classification scheme ..................................................................57 Figure 7.1 Examples of l unates from Ortu Cmidu ....................................................61 Figure 7.2 The distribution of artifacts at Duos Nuraghes ..........................................62 Figure 7.3 The distribution of artifacts at all sites .......................................................63 Figure 7.4 Frequency of different re touch locations at Duos Nuraghes .....................64 Figure 7.5 Frequency of ret ouched tool invasiveness at Ortu Cmidu .......................65 Figure 7.6 Breakdown of re touched artifacts by sour ce at Duos Nuraghes ................68

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v Lithic Technology and Obsidian Exchange Networks in Bronze Age Sardinia, Italy (ca. 1600 B.C.) Kyle P. Freund ABSTRACT The Sardinian Bronze Age (Nuragic peri od) and the factors which created and maintained an island-wide identity as seen through the presence of its distinctive nuraghi have received considerable at tention; however the amount of research directly related to the stone tools of the era has been relatively limited despite the wealth of knowledge it is capable of yielding. This thesis hopes to contribute to Sardinia n archaeology through the study of ancient technology, specifically obsidian lithic technology, by combining typological information with source data gl eaned from the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). These data are integrated with statistical analyses breaking down the spatial distribution of nuraghi across the island through the use of distance-based methods, including k-means and kernel de nsity analyses, which create a more comprehensive understanding of the island-wide political and social structure. This research will test the hypothesis that changes in the acquisi tion of obsidian raw materials were coupled with corresponding changes in how the obsidian was used. The results provide precedence for future work in Sardin ia and create a mode l for integrating two types of analyses, sourcing and typological. By combining these results it is possible to investigate how obsidian influenced the anci ent economy as well as assess its cultural significance for people of the past.

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1 Chapter 1: Introduction Sardinia is located in the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy and occupies an area of approximately 24,000 squa re kilometers (Figure 1.1). The Sardinian Bronze Age Nuragic period (ca. 1600-850 B.C. ) is named after the approximately 7,000 truncated cone-shaped residential stone structures called nuraghi which are found throughout the island. These structures are usua lly corbelled domes made of cut granite and basalt; they average approximately 12 m in diameter and origin ally rose to around 15-20 m high, although there is a wide range of variation (Balmuth 1984). Two types of nuraghi are present, simpl e (Figure 1.2) and complex (Figure 1.3). These likely represent a chronological progres sion with an increase in complexity over time. Simple towers had low doors, interior stairways a nd one or two chambers. Additional stories, chambers, and walls were added as time progressed. This is likely related to a concomitant outgrowth of social and econom ic stratification (Dyson and Rowland 2007). Nuragic obsidian lithic technology and the exchange networks which created and maintained an island-wide identity as seen through the presence of its distinctive nuraghi have received little attention despite the wealth of knowledge it is capable of yielding. The relative isolation of the island from outsi de influences compared to contemporaneous communities elsewhere in the Mediterranean provides a great opportunity to study indigenous Sardinian cultural de velopments. Islands are trul y fascinating places which raise issues of identity, isolation, connectivity, power, and resources (Pearson 2004). Several lines of inquiry are integrated in this thesis to test the hypothesis that changes in

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Figure 1.1. The Italian island of Sard inia (outlined in red) (a dapted from United States Geological Survey 2010) Figure 1.2. The simple tower of Nuraghe Madrone in Silanus (adapted from Balmuth and Rowland 1984:31) 2

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Figure 1.3. The complex nuraghe Su Nuraxi in Barumini (adapted from Balmuth and Rowland 1984:32) the acquisition of obsidian raw materials during the Chalcolithic and Nuragic in Sardinia are coupled with corresponding changes in how the obsidian was used. It will be shown that marked technological changes occurre d over these time periods and possible explanations for such variation will be expl ored. It is undeniable that stone technology was integrated into larger sy stems of interaction, which them selves can be analyzed to understand cultural change. A combination of theoretical paradigms will be evaluated, resulting in a new theoretical criterion whic h provides precedence for future work in Sardinia and creates a model for integrat ing two types of analyses, sourcing and typological. By combining these results, it is possible to i nvestigate ancient economies, exchange networks, and cultural values. 3

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4 Outline This thesis begins with a discussion of the geographic and cultural background of the Mediterranean as a whole, consequently se tting the stage for a more in-depth analysis of Sardinian prehistory and an overview of the relevant sites for this study. Chapter 3 uses two statistical techniques, k-means and kernel density estimation, to examine Nuragic settlement behavior. These techniques are used to quantify th e distribution of an archaeological point-pattern of Nuragic sites on Sardinia to test whether or not there is evidence for the presence of separate polities or regional centers during the Nuragic. This is significant because it expands the relevan ce of GIS software in archaeology as well as sets the stage for further ex amination of the Nuragic economic and political landscape under which obsidian exploi tation is addressed. This research provides one of the first comprehensive studies of Nuragic obsidian artifacts by combining typological analyses wi th source data gleaned from the use of Xray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Sourci ng analysis was conducted to determine if obsidian exploitation during the Nuragic diffe rred from that of earlier time periods. Obsidian sourcing methods, specifically XR F analysis, is addressed in Chapter 4, followed by a chapter discussing sourcing results obtained from an analysis of lithic artifacts from five sites on the island of Sardinia. This chapte r outlines current theories of obsidian acquisition and trade in the Neolith ic, Chalcolithic (Copper Age), and Bronze Ages. Such a combination of data is able to track the movements of ancient peoples and goods across the landscape during resource proc urement, whether it is directly from a quarry site in the Monte Arci region or th rough trade with neighboring villages through reciprocation. It will be s hown that down-the-line trade was the dominant mode of

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5 exchange during both Neolithic and Nura gic times, capable of reproducing and maintaining cultural solidarity. Typological analysis and the methods used in this research are explained in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 considers the typological re sults and juxtaposes them against earlier assemblages from the Neolithic and Chalcolith ic. The results from the spatial, sourcing, and typological analysis are combined in Chapter 8.

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6 Chapter 2: Geographic and Cultural Background This section provides the background da ta and chronologies necessary for the interpretation of the research, beginni ng with a broad overview of Mediterranean prehistory and ending with a survey of the relevant Sardinian archaeological sites. The Mediterranean is a vast area compri sing the land and islands bordering the Mediterranean Sea (Figure 2.1). The Mediterranea n Sea begins in the west at the Strait of Gibraltar and ends in the east near modern day Israel. For pu rposes of this survey, the Mediterranean will be considered the lands on the north side of the Mediterranean Sea as well as the various islands such as Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. North Africa and the southern Levant have been exclud ed as they do not directly relate to the covered topics. The climate is characterized by hot, arid summers and cool, wet winters. The topography is multifarious, ranging from mountai ns to plains. Vegetation consists of evergreen forests, shrublands and grasslands Today, much of the natural vegetation has been modified by humans as a result of agri culture, which includes crop plantation as well as livestock grazing. The natural vege tation has also undergone changes as a result of climate fluctuation. An important period of climate fluctuation occurred during the end of the Pleistocene and the beginning of the Ho locene. The study of foraminifers suggests that the influx of Atlantic waters into the western Mediterranea n Sea increased during periods of deglaciation in the last 18,000 years (Bolling/Allerid warm events) and decreased during periods of climate degrad ation (Younger Dryas cool event) before

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Figure 2.1. The Mediterranean (adapted from United States Geological Survey 2010) emerging as what is seen today (Abrantes 1988) These climate fluctuations are important because of the concomitant emergence of agriculture in the Mediterranean. The traditional prehistory of the Old World is divided into several broad time periods: the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neo lithic, Chalcolithic (Copper Age), and Bronze and Iron Ages. In the East Mediterranean howev er, there is very little evidence for prefarming adaptations distinct from the Late Palaeolithic; in only a few areas have Mesolithic horizons been recognized (P rice 1983). Because the relatively rapid introduction of agriculture and domestication reduces the visibili ty of the Mesolithic, it is common to designate pre-farming adapta tions in the East Mediterranean as Epipalaeolithic. Sardinian Prehistory In general, Sardinia is composed of ex tensive granites, schists, volcanic rocks, and limestone with thin layers of topsoil (Rowland 2001). The soil matrix consists of the 7

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8 ubiquitous brown soils and scattered ro cky soils which cover the island. These xerochrepts support ample deciduous forest c over, although the eff ects of agriculture have altered most of the landscape (Pietra caprina 1980). Sardinias geography is varied with a large range in elevati on. In general, there is a lack of natural rivers and lakes. Evidence of Palaeolithic occupati on first took form in 1979 (Cornaggia Castiglioni and Calegari 1979). Based on an an alysis of lithic evid ence as well as the geomorphological and pedologica l context from 10 sites, the earliest Sardinian occupation has been dated to the Lower Pal aeolithic. The lithics are characterized by tools with large striking platfo rms, unsophisticated retouch, and an overall lack of bifacial flaking (Martini 1992). Such claims of antiqu ity are not without sc rutiny. Cherry (1992) points out how unusual these dates are in that they do not fit with everything that is known about early human migration patterns. However, a well-excavated site at Corbeddu Cave does provide evidence of an Up per Palaeolithic pres ence. Sondaar et al. (1991) have dated Corbeddu Cave to as ear ly as 14,000-12,000 B.P. The lithic industry is characterized by very elementary technology wh ich lacks the complexity of assemblages found elsewhere in Europe during the same period (Martini 1992). Moreover, geomorphological evidence indicates that th e island of Corsica and Sardinia were connected at the time, thus making the possibility of Palaeolithic island habitation more plausible if a migration occu rred across the narrow channel between Italy and Corsica. Whether or not these Palaeolithic/Mesolithic pe ople were the ancestors of later Neolithic cultures is not clear, but current Neolithic di ffusion models seem to negate such a claim (Sondaar 1987). More evidence is needed to complement these findings and create a more comprehensive picture of early Sardinian peoples.

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9 The Sardinian Mesolithic (ca. 11000-6000 B.C.) was aceramic and is characterized by coastal co mmunities occupying seasonal camps and exploiting local marine resources. New types of wild fauna were hunted as a result of large-scale climatic changes at the end of the Pleistocene. The stone tool repertoire mostly consists of scrapers, although blades, microliths, and other retouched flakes have been recovered (Dyson and Rowland 2007). There is a genera l lack of Mesolithic archaeological evidence as these sites are ostensibly underwater as a resu lt of sea-level fluctuations at the start of the Holocene. The appearance of agriculture marks the transition into the Neolithic. Agriculture began in the Near East around 10,000 B.C. a nd was transferred to the Mediterranean through two alternative demographic scenarios. In the demic diffusion model, the spread of agriculture involved a massive movement of people, which implies a significant genetic input of Near Eastern genes (A mmerman and Cavalli-Sforza 1984). Under the cultural diffusion model, the transition to ag riculture involved the movement of ideas and practices rather than people. This model w ould not be accompanied by major changes at the genetic level. Studies i nvolving genetic information from extant populations in the Mediterranean and Near East intimate that the demic diffusion model most closely resembles the data, although a combination of cultural and demic diffusion is certainly possible, if not probable (Chi khi et al. 2002). It must be mentioned that there are limitations of DNA testing on modern populations, especially when making interpretations about ancient mobility. These include the fact that living Mediterranean inhabitants may not be descended from those of ancient times.

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10 Evidence suggests that the transmission of agriculture to the western Mediterranean occurred over water instead of land. By using population equations created by Ammerman and Cavalli-Sforza (1984), and assuming an annual rate of population growth of 1 percent, one can calcula te a rate of spread of 10 km/year, 30 times greater than the maximum observed ethnogr aphically. These results support demic diffusion by implying that agriculture coul d not have advanced by short distance settlement expansion whereby populations sl owly moved further in to peripheral lands (Zilho 2001). The punctuated nature of agri cultural development as well as the littoral proclivity seems to provide additional evid ence to support this hypot hesis. Assuming that the demic diffusion model is correct does not necessarily imply that agricultural diffusion was a package deal which included the diffusion of pottery, architectur e, grindstones etc. In fact, differences in environment, mobility and foraging economies led to various agricultural practices being adopted. An important aspect of Mediterranean prehistory regarding the diffusion of agriculture is insular populations. The Grotta Filiestru provides evidence of Neolithic peoples in Sardinia. The cave has preserve d botanical and faunal remains remarkably well. Domesticated plants and animals include emmer, einkorn, sheep, pigs and cows, all from the Early Neolithic. It is hypothesized that people here practiced mixed agriculture while still collecting wild plants and hun ting local fauna (Trump 1983). The Sardinian Neolithic is usually divided into several time periods based on an analysis of its pottery. The chronology is based on calibrated radiocar bon dates as publis hed by Tykot (1994). The earliest Neolithic phase is the Cardial (ca. 5800-5300 B.C.), which is characterized by an impressed ware with geometric designs in the form of bowls a nd jars. There is not a

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11 large variety of vessel shapes, and diagnostic pieces can be identified either by decoration or handle type. Cardial handles are best described as pier ced lugs. The second phase of the Neolithic is the Filiestru (ca. 5300-4700 B.C.). These levels usually contain an undecorated ware often with a red ochre slip or wash. Handles are large and horizontal. The Bonu Ighinu (ca. 4700-4000 B.C.) phase is delineated by decorated pottery with both small and vertical, or large and horizontal ha ndles. Flat bases are virtually absent. The Ozieri (ca. 4000-3200 B.C.) is the last Neolithic phase and includes distinctive curvilinear decoration of repeated stab lines, heavy inci sion with ochre incrustation, and recessed handles (Trump 1984). Although this overview describes diagnostic pottery types, it does not do justice to the complex va riety of pottery found in all periods of the Neolithic. The Chalcolithic (ca. 3200-2200 B.C.) in Sardinia is marked by the introduction of copper and includes two phases, Abealzu-F iligosa and Monte Carlo. Abealzu-Filigosa pottery is heavy, unrefined, and undecorated, which is in stark contra st to the relatively ornate Ozieri ware. At this time, there is ev idence of large-scale changes in habitation behavior in that previously dispersed populations seem to nuc leate in larger settlements. Lilliu (1988) has suggested that this relate s to an economic shift away from cultivation and towards pastoralism, although current diet ary evidence does not support the claim. Recent trophic analysis carried out by Lai ( 2008) using stable isotope analysis of human remains has shown that, The long-held opi nion that local Copper Age and especially Early Bronze Age societies relied more on herding than the Neolithic ones is not supported by the data. Lai (2008) goes furt her by suggesting that the contribution of plant foods actually increased during these periods. Changes in settlement behavior are

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12 more evident in the later Monte Carlo phase, whose diagnostic pottery has a large variety of forms, with a litany of or nate decorations (Webster 1996 ). This corresponds to the development of stone architecture such as hypogea (oven-shaped tombs) and seemingly fortified settlements in four distinct territorial facies: Ca mpidano, Oristanese, Nuorese, and Sassarese (Lo Shiavo 1986). These sociopolitical changes are likely precursors to later Bronze Age developments. The Sardinian Early Bronze Age begins with the Bonnanaro culture and is divided into two phases, A and B. Bonnanaro A ( ca. 2200-1900 B.C.) shares cultural affinities with earlier Chalcolithic phases both in materi al culture as well as in ritual behavior (Tykot 1994). Collective secondary burials from the Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic were reused by these peoples, which suggests an absence of elites if not a completely egalitarian political and social structure. The Middle Bronze Age Bonnanaro B (ca. 1900-1600 B.C.) saw the rise of the first proto-nuraghi, low stone platforms with internal corr idors and chambers (Webster 1996). These structures predate similar archit ecture in the Aegean region. The Middle Bronze Age marks the beginning of a significant shift in the way in which people interacted with their physical environment. Ho wever, it is not until the beginning of the Nuragic that these changes take full effect. The beginning of the Nuragic peri od dates to around 1600 B.C., roughly contemporaneous with the Middle Bronze Age of southern France, the Torrean culture of Corsica, and the Talayots of the Balearics (Tykot 1994). Early interpretations as to the beginning of the Nuragic dealt with large-scale migrations and conquering foreigners (Lilliu 1966). More recent a pproaches to the introduction of the Nuragic culture focus on

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13 a decentralization of previous hierarchies and a subsequent localization of authority. Lewthwaite (1986) suggests that agricultural depletion of the land as a result of intensive over-use caused a new emergent elite class to take control of capital investments including plow technology and livestock. The Nuragic I period (ca. 1600-1300 B.C.) saw the proliferation of nuraghi throughout the island. This was concomitant with a decrease in the use of caves and other open-air settlements (Lilliu 1988). It is crucial to recognize th at these structures did not arise out of a vacuum, but we re part of much wider emergence of monumental stone architecture which is seen in Greece (tholoi), Corsica (torri), and th e Balearics (talayots) (Figure 2.1). These architectural affinities do not necessarily imply a diffusion of ideas, but such parallel developments do have some relation to one another. The purpose of these nuraghi has been difficult to ascertain. Based on the material evidence, it is clear that they are residential dwe llings and not ritual or mortua ry structures. However, any theory describing these structur es as residences for an elite aristocracy is not supported by the evidence. They were likely fortifie d nuclear family homesteads which took on a variety of roles ranging from a residence, te rritorial marker, watchtower, and symbol of status and prestige for the entire community (Gallin 1991). The rise of Giants Tombs also occurred at this time. These are slablined, rectangular fune rary chambers with characteristic megalithic architecture, usually fronted by stone-lined semicircular entrance courts. While they contained comm unal burials, the number and capacity of these tombs suggests that they were only burial places for the elite, with ordinary residents being interred elsewhere (Dyson a nd Rowland 2007). The latter part of the Nuragic I saw the development of complex nur aghi with the concomitant expansion of

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14 encompassing villages. Complex nuraghi were constructed from scratch or as remodeling efforts of more simple ones. Webster (1996:29 ) implies that this increasing centralization marks the introduction of local chiefs who c onstructed and reified their power through regional exchange and monumental architectur e. Because of the broad similarities in Nuragic architecture and culture, it is certain that these communiti es interacted with surrounding villages and felt so me sense of common identity. The Nuragic II period (ca. 1300-1150 B.C.) is an era of increasing complexity and competition. The complex nuraghi which took form in the later Nuragic I began to expand, giving rise to the first Sardinian urban centers acting as region al foci of trade and exchange. Extra-insular trade also began to manifest itself on coastal sites as can be seen by the Mycenaean pottery and Cypriot oxhi de ingots which found their way into archaeological deposits. This probably occurred as occasional long-distance trade, with artifacts making it as far as Spain (Dyson a nd Rowland 2007). Early interpretations used core-periphery models to emphasize the role that Sardinia played in providing the raw materials for state-level societies of the eas t (Rowland et al. 1987). However it was later discovered through isotopic analysis that pe ople of Sardinia were actually importing these materials for their own use (Atzeni 1998). Metals are increasingly common at archaeol ogical sites during the Nuragic III (ca. 1150-850 B.C.). They usually come in the form of bronze weapons and votive figurines, or bronzetti (Figure 2.2). Curiously, th ere is little evidence of actual physical conflict or warfare. It is likely that these bronze artifacts represent an increasingly competitive landscape occupied by regional elites vyi ng for territorial power (Webster 1996).

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Figure 2.2. Late Bronze Age votive figurines, or bronzetti (adapted from Balmuth and Rowland 1984:45) The Nuragic IV (ca. 850-510 B.C.) period as defined by Tykot (1994) refers to the beginning of the Iron Age, a dynamic era of profound change. As the name implies, the introduction of iron technology occurred during this period. Unlike cultures farther east, iron technology did not displace bronze a nd copper in Sardinia; iron was quite rare (Webster 1996). What is perhaps more importa nt is the increasing East Mediterranean Phoenician influence. The Phoenicians be gan establishing coastal settlements on the southern coasts of Sardinia by around 750-650 B.C., slowly extending their dominion inland as time passed. Port settlements such as Cagliari, Sulcis, Nora, and Tharros 15

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16 became major centers of trade not only duri ng the Nuragic IV, but continuing into Punic and Roman times (Dyson and Rowland 2007). Despite the foreign presence, Nuragic culture continued to flourish. The relationship between the Phoenicians and the indigenous Sardinians is somewhat ambi guous. Although the Phoenicians maintained a standing military force, there is no evidence of conflict. Considering this, in addition to the presence of native materials in Phoe nician contexts (Ugas and Zucca 1984), it is reasonable to assume that the Nuragic-Phoenician interaction was peaceful, stimulated by mutual benefit through trade and exchange. I ndigenous Sardinian cultural interaction was not limited to the Phoenicians since artifac ts from mainland Italy are found in many Nuragic deposits. Overall, the Nuragic IV was an influential time as residents became exposed to the outside world on a scale not seen in previous generations. All of the relevant time periods are compile d into one table in Appendix A. Although the Nuragic saw numerous social and political developments, four types of raw material were continually used fo r tools in Sardinia during the Bronze Age: copper, chert, quartz, and obsidian. For this study, only the obsidian will be considered. Obsidian is an igneous rock and a type of volcanic glass which is usually black in color (Le Maitre 1989:97). It was named after the Roman consul, Obsidius, who was an avid collector of the material (Middlemost 1997:33) Igneous rocks are those rocks that have solidified from a molten state either within or on the su rface of the Earth (Le Maitre 1989). The introduction of metals such as c opper and bronze during the Bronze Age also occurred at this time. They were mined from indigenous deposits found throughout the island in the Sarcidano, La Nurra, Anglona, and Iglesiente regions. However, it has been

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17 shown that the introduction of metals did not drastically alter the predominance of stone technology for carrying out daily activitie s (Balmuth 1984). Although bronze axe heads are found, the use of metal te chnology principally served other defensive and ritual functions as can be seen in the bronze swor ds and bronzetti characte ristic of the Late Bronze Age. Early Bronze Age metals are usually recovered in tomb deposits and not in normal residences (Webster 1996). Neverthele ss, the introduction of metals could have altered the perception of st one in the ancient mind. Obsidian Sources and Archaeological Sites There are a number of obsidian sour ces and archaeological sites which are relevant for my research and must be discu ssed in some detail (see Figure 2.3). First, the region which contains the obsidian raw material utilized by ancient peoples is explained. The Marghine Region is examined next. This region contains four of the five analyzed archaeological sites. An additional site outside of the Marghi ne Region is discussed last. Monte Arci Monte Arci is a region in west-central Sardinia which contains the obsidian raw material used for stone tools from the beginning of the Neolithic period and continuing into the Nuragic era. Researchers have iden tified four subsources located in the Monte Arci area (Figure 2.4) and include SA, SB 1, SB2, and SC (Tykot 1997; Lugli et al. 2006). Secondary SC obsidian deposits have also been identified by Lugli et al. (2006) south of the main SC conglomerate. This region of Sardinia is by no means the only source of obsidian in the western Mediterrane an. Additional obsidian sources are found

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Figure 2.3. Map showing all of the relevant sites on the islands of Lipari, Palmarola, and Pa ntelleria. On Sardinia, however, only the obsidian from Monte Arci is known to have been exploited (Tykot 1996). 18

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Figure 2.4. Map of subsources at Monte Arci (adapted from Tykot 1997:469) 19

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20 Marghine Region The Marghine region covers approximat ely 400 square kilometers of basaltic upland plateau and is bordered on the north by the Goceano Mountai ns and the south by the Abbassanta Plain. To the east lies the Ti rso River valley and to the west lie the uplands of Planargia (Figure 2.5). The climat e is characterized by mild winters and hot dry summer, not unlike the rest of the Mediterranean. Rainfall is moderate, although summer droughts are common (Webst er 2001). The current vegetation consists of thinly covered scrub which is conducive to modern-d ay pastoralism, although in the past the plateau supported extensive oak forests. Duri ng the Nuragic, this region supported one of the largest clusters of nura ghi and their associated buria l tombs (Webster 2001). This entire region is separated from similar area s by a 2 km buffer zone in which there are no nuraghi, only megalithic tombs. Buffer zones such as this may be a common feature on the island, reflecting territorial boundaries (Webster 1991). Fo r my research, a cluster of nuraghi in the Borore locale (Figure 2.6) has been analy zed. The Borore locale is a roughly elliptical area of pa sture and mixed farmland which slopes gently to the southeast. The following sites were excavated as part of a larger regional survey carried out from 1980 through 1996, and the recovered materials were analyzed for my research. Duos Nuraghes (Borore) The west-central Sardinian site of Duos Nuraghes (Figure 2.7) is located in the Marghine region on a low knoll in the Borore locale at 400 m elevation (Webster 1996). It typifies a little-studied but important element of Nuragic culture, a simple nuraghe village. Occupation at the site spanned fr om ca. 1600 B.C.A.D. 1000. It is a Middle

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Figure 2.5. Regional topography of Sardinia (ada pted from Pracchi et al. 1971:47) 21

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Figure 2.6. Nuraghi aggregates and named megalithic tombs in the Marghine region (adapted from Webster 2001:3) Late Bronze Age residential complex composed of two centrally lo cated tholos nuraghi. Tower A is a single story "simple" nura ghe with some cultural remnants up until Medieval times. Tower B is a more comple x two-story nuraghe, constructed somewhat later than Tower A. Residential stone structures are located to the east and west of the nuraghi. In general, the West Village has suffered more from post-depositional erosion than the East Village perhaps due to the eastern circuit wall protecting against downslope erosion. Therefore, the East Village has been extensively excavated by digging 38 2-x-4 m trenches, thus reveali ng a cistern, circuit wall, and 14 buildings with foundations 22

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Figure 2.7. Plan of Duos Nuraghes (adapted from Webster 2001:7) containing artifacts spanning the sites occupation. Approxi mately 12 m northeast of the East Village wall, a carved stone stela was al so uncovered within a large stone structure with features suggesting a ci vico-ritual function (Webster 2001). Since lithic remains are present throughout the site a spatial analysis of technology is possible. All trenches were excavated following natu ral layers, although in especially thick strata arbitrary levels were maintained in 10 cm intervals. The majority of the deposits were recovered using trowels and hand pick s. The matrix was screened through a 7 mm mesh. 23

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24 Additional sites in the Borore locale have also been included. They are Nuraghe Urpes, Nuraghe San Sergio, and Nuraghe Serbine. Of these three sites, only at Nuraghe Urpes has there been excavation cond ucted outside of the nuraghe, hence these sites do not exemplify a representative sample like that of Duos Nuraghes. Nonetheless, they provide a comparative sample from which interpretations can be made. Nuraghe Urpes The site of Nuraghe Urpes includes a complex nuraghe which rests 600 m to the southeast of Duos Nuraghes. It is comprised of a central tower with four small corner towers and a bastion (Figure 2.8). There is a village to the northwest which contains a partially-intact stone wall su rrounding the settlement. A total of 33 1-x-1-m test units was opened in the village (Figure 2.9). Additiona l units were also excavated within the nuraghe (Webster 2001). The site likely dates to the Nuragic III a nd into the Iron Age, although additional occupational levels were found which extend to A.D. 900. Nuraghe San Sergio This sites nuraghe is the closest to Duos Nuraghes and has suffered from modern destructive procedures. It is a simple nuraghe with an adjacent village. A 2-x-2-m unit was excavated in the nuraghe which revealed a highly disturbed stratigraphy with a rich collection of artifacts (Webster 2001). Dating the site is difficult, but because of the simple architecture, it likely dates to the earlier porti on of the Nuragic.

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Figure 2.8. Plan and artistic rendering of Nura ghe Urpes (adapted from Michels and Webster 1987:29) Nuraghe Serbine The site of Nuraghe Serbine is located 2 km northeast of Duos Nuraghes and is an early example of Nuragic architecture. This proto-nuraghe has several chambers and is adjacent to a small village with a surrounding wall. Test units were excavated in several of the chambers. Based on architectural analys is, this site likely dates to the Nuragic I period (Webster 2001). This is the last of th e relevant sites in the Marghine region. An additional site is included called Nuraghe Ortu Cmidu. Nuraghe Ortu Cmidu (Sardara) The excavation of Nuraghe Ortu Cmidu, locat ed near the Pixina River, south of Monte Arci in the province of Cagliari, took place in 1975, 1976, and 1978 as part of a project which explored early Sardinian meta l working (Balmuth and Phillips 1986), and followed early work done at this site by Ta ramelli (1918). Ortu Cmidu likely dates to 25

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Figure 2.9. Map showing the location of excavati on units at Nuraghe Urpes (adapted from Michels and Webster 1987:30) the early phase of the Nuragic period and is a complex nuraghe 12 m in diameter. Figure 2.10 shows that it has a central tower, a courtyard with a well, and at least three subsidiary towers attached to the central one (Balmuth and Phillips 1986). The recovered artifacts come from both within and outside of the nuraghe. The excavators divided the site into 5x-5-m grid units and excavate d following 10 cm levels. A concise table with information about each site is includes in Appendix B. 26

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Figure 2.10. Plan of Nuraghe Ortu Cmidu (adapted from Balmuth and Phillips 1986:356) 27

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28 Chapter 3: Spatial Analyses This chapter provides further insight into the geographic and cultural background of Nuragic Sardinia through a settlement pattern analysis. It specifically tests whether or not there is evidence for the presence of se parate polities or and regional centers during the Nuragic. The landscape is studied thr ough an examination of the locations of a majority of the nuraghi on the island. Using several statistical techniques to identify clusters, it is shown that Nu ragic settlements are patterned in ways which have wider political implications, especially when it come s to the rising complexity and elite status. This provides precedence for later hypotheses which are put forth regarding changes in obsidian exploitation. The accession of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in archaeology is an outgrowth of its ever-increasi ng availability and ease of use (Kvamme 1999). It is by no means a new technology as it has been around si nce the 1970s, but this past decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of appli cations capable of being incorporated into archaeological research (Chapman 2006). This section describes ways to integrate GIS into archaeological research and discusses the theoretical implications that such developments can have for the analysis of th e political landscape of Nuragic Sardinia. By combining analyses in the R Statistical Package and GIS software, k-means cluster detection and kernel density estimation are used to demonstrate the suitability of these techniques for researchers in all areas of archaeology. A disc ussion of the statistics is followed by an analysis of Bronze Age Sardinia which will be used to address settlement

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29 patterning as well as document the presence or absence of emerging polities, site catchments, and regional centers. The study of archaeological space has always been a relevant topic for archaeologists and has usually taken two forms, intra-site and inter-site analyses (Kroll and Price 1991). Intra-site analysis has typi cally used ethnographic evidence to study the distribution of material artifac ts (Roberts and Partiff 1999), while inter-site analysis has been used to study settlement patterning and site distribution. Both types of studies can benefit from k-means and kernel density anal yses, although only intersite differences are examined here. These statistical techniques are not new, but their prevalence in the field of archaeology has been limited likely due to th e difficulty of obtaining the necessary data needed to run the analyses as well as the knowledge of how to move between two software environments. For example, R was used to run the statistical part of the study, while GIS portrayed the data in a way that was easy to understand and interpret. R is a command line statistical program which offers users numerous options to create and edit scripts. Scripts are sheets which contain a ch ain of commands which can be edited to fit the input data and are used to run complex sets of functions. Methods K-means and kernel density functions are cluster analyses which use point-pattern data to categorize and quantif y the distribution of points across a surface. The k-means function is a partitioning technique which assigns every point membership to one of a number of optimum clusters. Determining th e optimum number of clusters requires an

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30 examination of the within-cluster sum of s quares over a range of possible solutions. This necessitates an understanding of the nature of the data being examined to determine a range of possible optimum solutions which can be further narrowed down by looking for an elbow in the resulting curve (Everitt a nd Hothorn 2006). This will be illustrated later. After the optimum number of clusters is determined, the k-means function initially determines cluster centers through the selec tion of random points from the distribution which act as seeds. As new points are added to the cluster, the center is recalculated (Conolly and Lake 2006). Kernel density estimation is a non-pa rametric technique which places a probability density function, or kernel, over ev ery point and is capable of locating areas of statistically high and low point density (Conolly and Lake 2006). The user defines the radius of the kernel, or bandwidth, base d on previous knowledge of the data being analyzed. This technique, like others, suffers from scalar issues in which different results can be obtained based on different bandwidth definitions. It is th erefore necessary to understand the nature of the data, the relevant research questions, and experiment with several definitions to obtain accurate result s (Wand and Jones 1995). For this study, points represent archaeol ogical sites on the island of Sardinia (Figure 3.1). Each point ma rks the location of a nuraghe. Of the approximately 7,000 known nuraghi on the island (Lilliu 1988), 5,132 will be used in this study. The locations of the nuraghi were determined by using a map from Webster and Teglund (1992). The map did not distinguish between simple and complex nuraghi, thus it lumps two distinct construction types t ogether. Moreover, the locations of known nuraghi could be biased because of preservation issues re lated to both ancient and modern-day

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Figure 3.1. Map of known nuraghi on th e island of Sardinia construction as well as urban sprawl. While it is true that Nuragic architecture changed over time, there is no evidence to suggest a si gnificant abandonment of nuraghi as a result of new construction. Hence it is possible to a ssume that most of the structures were occupied, at least sporadi cally, throughout most of th e Nuragic period (ca. 1600-510 31

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32 B.C.). For these reasons this study is still capable of making inferences about ancient behavior. Results The map was scanned and subsequently brought into GIS by georeferencing the image (Figure 3.1). Georeferencing refers to defining the physical space a map occupies, and giving it coordinates. The attribute table of the point s and their coordinates was exported as a text file and brought into R for a k-means analysis. The optimum number of island-wide clusters was determined by ex amining Figure 3.2, which shows the withincluster sum of squares over a range of possibl e solutions from one to fifteen. This range is displayed because it best illu strates where there is a devia tion, or elbow, in the rate of change in the sum of squares at the number seven, thus indicating that this is the optimum number of clusters (Everitt and Hothorn 2006) Each point was assigned membership to one of the clusters using the kmeans func tion in R, and GIS was used to portray the results (Figure 3.3). However, it must be noted that point patterns characterized by a number of high-density clusters interspers ed between empty space may not be the most appropriate for the k-means function (Conolly and Lake 2006). It is difficult to determine if this is the case for the Nuragic period, although with a cursory examination of the points it is clear that ther e are areas with few to no poi nts which delineated cluster boundaries. Kernel density analysis provided further insight by identifying regions of significantly high and low point density using a 95 percent confidence interval. The entire island was used as the study area since this is the extent of the dist ribution of the nuraghi and would thus be the relevant area in wh ich to address archaeological questions.

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Figure 3.2 The k-means within-cluster sum of s quares over a range of possible solutions Although the study area is relatively large, a bandwidth of 5 km was used. This means that areas of high or low point density are de termined based on a 5 km radius surrounding each point. This complements the relatively la rge cluster detection area of the k-means 33

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Figure 3.3. Distribution of the seven optimum clusters (colors are arbitrary) analysis. The results are shown in Figure 3.4 where the high density hot zones are darkly shaded and the low density cold zones are lightly shaded. It is possible that the hot and cold areas are distri buted based on geographic features such as elevation or slope. For exam ple, areas with a steep slope might contain fewer sites; hence the cold areas might re flect the underlying geogr aphy and not other 34

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Figure 3.4. The kernel density analysis showing hi gh (dark) and low (light) density areas factors which would be archaeo logically relevant. Kernel density estimations can control for these factors by using logi stic regression to control fo r topographical features. Two regressions were run to see if the elevation (m) and/or slope (degrees) at all of the points could account for site distribution. Elevati on and slope were determined using a 30 m digital elevation model (DEM). Since both th ese variables were not normally distributed, 35

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36 a logarithmic transformation was computed. Th e dependent variable was a points status as a site. A random set of points was created us ing GIS, and their elevations were used as a dependent variable category. It was discovered that neither of these factors affected the distribution of the hot and cold areas based on an analysis of the coefficient of determination and a rejection of the null hypot hesis at a significance level of 0.05. The pvalues for slope and elevation were 0.664 a nd 0.636 respectively. Despit e this fact, it is possible that other ecological and geographic factors could a ffect the distribution of hot and cold areas, and further research is necessary to truly understand the complex relationship between topographical constraints and cultural choices. Discussion Many elements must be considered when explaining settlement patterning, and not all of them are easily identifiable. Envi ronmental variables that affect known site locations range from basic issues like fresh water sources, topography, agricultural productivity, and access to raw materials. On Sardinia, the lack of natural fresh water sources such as rivers and lakes made the creation of wells a necessity. The efficacy of this analysis lies in its flexibility to control for independent variables such as environmental constraints, thus allowing a re searcher to more acutely hypothesize about the cultural significance of site distribution. In this study, el evation and slope were shown to have a negligible effect on the distributi on of known nuraghi. Therefore, site selection was not statistically biased toward higher or lower elevation and slope. Moreover, the selection of sites was likely not biased toward fresh water sources since Sardinias lack of natural rivers and lakes made the creation of wells a necessity

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37 The kernel density analysis shows that th e areas of highest po int distribution are located in the west-central and northwestern parts of the islan d. This includes the area of Monte Arci, where known raw material sources, specifically obsidia n, are located (Tykot 1997). Furthermore, k-means clusters around the Monte Arci region contained the most number of points per cluster, which corrobor ates with results obtai ned from the kernel density analysis. Access to raw materials was likely an important part of ancient site distribution. Cultural choices unrelated to the physical environment must al so be considered. Blake (2001) highlights the ideological signif icance of the arrangement of nuraghi and their associated burial tombs. Burial evidence seems to sugge st that Nuragic peoples had at least some class structure as stated by Dyson and Rowla nd (2007:82), Given their size and limited number the Giants (burial) tomb s were probably only burial places for the elite. However, the material evidence must be placed into a larger context. Human agency employs material culture meaningfull y, thus architecture orders the environment into a landscape with meaning (Vavouranaki s 2006). Therefore, burial tombs could have been seen as the conceptual and physical boundaries of ancient te rritories. If these boundaries changed over time, one would expect the earliest pr oto-nuraghi of the Middle Bronze Age to be patterned differently than the later complex multi-towered nuraghi and their associated defensive structures (Webster 1996). Future studies would benefit from an analysis which distinguish es between simple and complex architecture. Moreover, an additional k-means analysis in each of th e seven regions would bring the scale of clustering down to a level more in line with burial placement. This would allow more context-specific interpreta tions to be formulated.

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38 Territoriality is commonly regarded as a characteristic feature of the Nuragic period and has been suggested to be eviden ce of the beginning of a chiefdom-level society (Bonzani 1992). Moreover, Webster (1 996) has suggested that the Nuragic political landscape was composed of a three-tier hierarchy of control based on ethnographic correlates and an analysis of th e size and complexity of nuraghi. The site clustering identified in this research supports th e possible presence of separate polities and regional centers, and/or a localized distri bution of resources (Roberts 1996). The political and economic structure of the Nuragi c likely consisted of a number of loosely structured polities or economic centers contro lled by emerging elites. While such claims may be too simple to explain a complicated entanglement of features, these results provide precedence for a more in-depth anal ysis of island-wide political and social relationships, which will be addressed later through an analysis of one aspect of the Nuragic economy, specifically obsidian exchange.

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39 Chapter 4: Obsidian Sourcing Methods This chapter introduces the methods utilized by archaeologists to determine the provenance (source) of obsidian artifacts. Dete rmining the source of raw material used in the creation of artifacts is usef ul for archaeologists interested in reconstructing ancient human mobility, trade networks, and economic systems. A number of artifacts from several Nuragic sites are an alyzed to determine if obs idian exploitation during the Nuragic differred from earlier time periods. Determining Provenance To identify the source of obsidian artifact s, several methods are available. The most cost-efficient method is visual inspection. Some obsidian sources can be distinguished based on an artifacts color, transparency, and presence of phenocrystic inclusions. Additional methods include calculating the artif acts density and comparing it with known measurements. Figure 4.1 shows an example of how density measurements can distinguish between seve ral western Mediterranean obs idian sources. Non-elemental analyses such as fission track ing and isotope analysis have also been shown to be effective in obsidian sourcing (Badalian et al. 2002; Gale 1981). The fourth option is elemental analysis. This method is the most precise and accurate, but several assumptions must be tested. One or more of the elements tested must be homogenous within the source as well as statistically different fr om any other source (Tykot 2003). If these

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Figure 4.1. Density measurements capable of di stinguishing between several western Mediterranean obsidian sources (adapted from Tykot 2004:31) prerequisites are met, then a choice must be made as to the appropriate type of analysis to be used. Factors such as time, cost, size of th e artifact, and destructiv eness of the analysis must be considered. A variety of elementa l analysis options are available including instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), proton induce d X-ray/gamma ray emission (PIXE/PIGME), inductively coupl ed plasma spectroscopy (ICP-S), ICP mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), scanning electron micr oscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), electron microprobe with wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), and a variety of XRF instruments. X-ray Fluorescence At the heart of XRF technology is the principle that pr imary X-rays shot at a sample create vacancies in the atoms on th e surface of the material which produce 40

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41 secondary, or fluorescent, X-rays which are char acteristic of the elements of which it is composed (Pollard et al. 2007). Figure 4.2 show s an atom with its various electron shell layers. This is where these vacancies are creat ed. It differs from other elemental analyses in that it is capable of recogni zing trace elements, a distinction critical to the sourcing of obsidian since different obsidian sources contai n different trace elements related to its initial volcanic formation. However, XRF is by no means limited to obsidian sourcing; it is also useful in the study of metals, glass, and ceramics. Si nce it is non-destructive, it is especially useful for archaeologists. For this study, a Bruker Tracer III-V porta ble XRF machine (Figure 4.3) was used to source 344 artifacts from the Marghine region: 242 from Duos Nuraghes and 102 from Nuraghe San Sergio, Nuraghe Serbine, and Nuraghe Urpes. An additional 144 artifacts from Ortu Cmidu were also sourced. Thes e artifacts are owned by the archaeological superintendency of Sardinia and were an alyzed in the archaeo logical lab on the University of South Florida campus in the spring of 2009. Permissions for analysis were granted to Dr. Robert Tykot. Previous de structive analyses, specifically obsidian hydration dating, were conducted on the artifacts from the Ma rghine region by Stevenson and Ellis (1998) as can be seen in Figure 4.4. A filter placed directly into the mach ine enhanced results for certain trace elements (Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb) already shown to be significant in Mediterranean obsidian sourcing (Tykot 2010). The artif acts were placed on the top of the machine and x-rayed for a period of three minutes. While the im mediate display on the computer screen (Figure 4.5) showed obvious differences between samples, the raw analytical data were calibrated against standard reference materi als to come up with actual concentrations.

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Figure 4.2. An atom with multiple electron shell layers (adapted from Griffiths 2003) Figure 4.3. A Bruker Tracer III-V portable XR F machine (photo by Robert Tykot) 42

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Figure 4.4. Some examples of Nuragic obsidian artifacts from Duos Nuraghes (note sections missing as a result of obsidian hydration dating (Stevenson and Ellis 1998)) (photos by Robert Tykot) 43

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Figure 4.5. Sourcing results showing the peaks for th e various elements present in sample USF 905 44 The results were ultimately compared with known geological samples by creating graphs depicting the elemental ratios of rubidium and strontium to niobium, just one way to visually match obsidian artifacts with geological samples.

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45 Chapter 5: Sourcing Results and Discussion This chapter presents the results obtained from XRF analysis and integrates these data within the larger picture of Sardinian prehistory. It also expands on previous Nuragic obsidian sourcing by Michaels et al. (1984). It will be s hown that Nuragic obsidian exploitation differs from that of earlier time periods, a conclusion which has broader economic and social implications. Nuragic Period Obsidian Results Overall, the pattern of obsidian acquis ition is roughly sim ilar at all of the observed sites. At Duos Nuraghes, type SA obsidian accounts for 14.5 percent of the assemblage, type SB1 is represented by ju st one artifact (0.4 pe rcent), type SB2 7.9 percent, while type SC domina tes at 77.2 percent (Figure 5.1). This pattern reemerges at the other sites in the Marghine region, with type SA accounting for 13.7 percent of the assemblage, type SB2 is represented by 10 artifacts (9.8 percent), while type SC dominates at 76.5 percent (Figure 5.2). At Ortu Cmidu, type SA actually accounts for more of the overall assemblage at 33.1 per cent, type SB2 is re presented by just one artifact (0.7 percent), while type SC dominates at 66.2 per cent (Figure 5.3). One must note Ortu Cmidus close proximity to the SA subsource which could explain its larger abundance. Moreover, secondary SC obsidian de posits identified by Lugli et al. (2006) are in close proximity to Ortu Cmidu. However, it is difficult to assume that the SC

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Figure 5.1. Plot of Rb/Nb versus Sr/Nb at Duos Nuraghes (geological reference materials shown) Figure 5.2. Plot of Rb/Nb versus Sr/Nb at Nura ghe San Sergio, Nuraghe Serbine, and Nuraghe Urpes (geological reference materials shown) 46

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Figure 5.3. Plot of Rb/Nb versus Sr/Nb at Nura ghe Ortu Cmidu (geological reference materials shown) subsource dominates the assemblage only because of its location, not when all other Nuragic sites in this stud y display the same pattern. In general, type SC obsidian overshadow s other subsources in the composition of these Nuragic assemblages. Type SB1 and SB2 were not a significant source of raw material while type SA is the second most common, comprising upwards of one-third of an entire assemblage. Similar studies on obsid ian at other Nuragic sites carried out by Michels et al. (1984) suppor t these findings (Figure 5.4), but one must note the low number of artifacts sourced at these other sites. 47

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T i r i Lo d du N iedd u D u os N u rag h es Marghine D om u Bec ci a Ortu Co m id u Ant i guri 0 20 40 60 80 100% SA SB SC8 10 9 10 144 13 242105 Figure 5.4. Obsidian source distributi on at other Nuragic sites (adapted from Michaels et al. 1984) Pre-Nuragic Obsidian Exploitation 48 During the Neolithic, trade of Sardinia n obsidian extended throughout the centralwestern Mediterranean (Figure 5.5) and was an important part of the ancient economy (Tykot 2002). The degree to which obsidian exportation was controlled by Sardinian residents is open for debate. It must certainly be expected that residents in the vicinity of Monte Arci were those mainly responsible for acquisition and primary reduction of the obsidian, followed by transport and exchange outside of the Monte Arci region. There is also no evidence that trade with the mainland was frequent enough to significantly affect local economies. What is curious is that th ese external obsidian trade networks did not continue into the Bronze Age. Regardless, the general pattern of Early to Middle Neolithic obsidian exploitation on Sardin ia, and the nearby island of Corsica, demonstrates a larger variety of obsidian sour ces being used than dur ing the Chalcolithic

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Figure 5.5. Mediterranean sources (polygons) and Ne olithic archaeological sites (dots); Sardinian sites not shown (adapted from Tykot 2002:619) and Nuragic. In particular, the SB subsources were utilized in mu ch greater abundance, while type SA was also much more common (Tykot 1996). Figure 5.6 shows the distribution of Early Neolithic obsidian e xploitation at archaeological sites throughout Sardinia. By the Late Neolithic, type SC obsidian begins to predominate at many archaeological sites, although it is not until Chalcolithic and Nuragic times that the SC subsource shows up in statistically higher quantities (Tykot 1996). 49

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Figure 5.6. Early Neolithic obsidian exploitation in Sardinia (adapted from Tykot 2007:220) Exchange Networks It has been argued that down-the-line obs idian trade was the dominant mode of raw material acquisition for Neolithic peopl es in Sardinia because of the broad geographic similarity in the purposes of obsidian usage and in the socio-economic circumstances in which it occurred (Tykot 1996; 2003; Tykot et al. 2008). Down-the-line trade is defined as a mode of exchange in wh ich residents close to a raw material source traded goods with those within their immediate contact z one, thus passing these goods 50 through several hands before the artifacts ar e eventually discarded (Smith 1987). Since this model necessitates cultura l interaction, the exchange of obsidian can be seen as a unifying mechanism which maintained an insu lar cohesiveness embedded in reciprocal trade. This does not mean that residents of a particular village had any knowledge of people elsewhere on the island or even a knowledge of where the obsidian quarry was

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51 located. It is just that those residents cl ose to the quarry, who were responsible for primary reduction, were engaged in activitie s which resulted in the pattering of the archaeological record. There appears to be no evidence that this model of obsidian acquisition changed from Late Neolithic to Nu ragic times. There is, however, a change in the quantitative distribution of the obsidian su bsources, resulting in the dominance of the SC subsource towards the end of the Neolithic and continuing into Nuragic times. This corresponds with the developm ent of SC reduction works hops located at the quarry, which can be seen by the high levels of standardized primary reduction (Figure 5.7) revealed by survey and excavation in the Se nnixeddu area on the east si de of Monte Arci (Tykot et al. 2006). These reducti on workshops created standard ized core blanks (Figure 5.7) which could be easily transported and reduc ed later. Stone tool standardization has been shown to indicate a competitive industr y, possibly requiring a regulatory control over the raw material (Torrence 1986:44). It is therefore plausible that an increased control of access at the quarry site, as seen at Sennixeddu, could have led to a trickledown effect into larger spheres of interacti on, thus resulting in the widespread dominance of one type of obsidian. Similar situations have been analyzed at sites such as Teotihuacan in Mexico. Santley (1980) outlines a multi-step pro cess of increasing economic and political complexity beginning with local elites managi ng part-time craft specialty activities, and then increasingly limiting access to the quarry site, eventually leading to a state-managed, vertically integrated mon opoly. This model addresses th e issue from a formalist perspective using Marxist princi ples (Marx 1977). While it is true that material culture relates to the rise of ideol ogical configurations, fields of discourse, attendant and

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52 Figure 5.7. Primary reduction revealed by survey and excavation in the Sennixeddu area on the east side of Monte Arci (photos by Robert Tykot) contingent upon structured economic princi ples (Foucault 1979), this model fails to account for the fact that non-western so cieties operate under different economic principles than traditional we stern societies (Sahlins 1972). Instead of arguing for any predetermined re lationship between structures of power and particular contexts of action, namely controlling obsidian di stribution, it is more appropriate to examine how the relationship between structure and context is set in motion by human action (Hodder 1989). It is plausi ble that emerging elites in the vicinity of Monte Arci used obsidian exchange as a wa y to create, solidify, and reify their power. The entire situation corresponds well with the results obtained from the spatial analysis, which demonstrates the possible existence of multiple Sardinian territories controlled by local elites. Obsi dian exchange could have been just one context in which these elites established power. If Bronze Ag e obsidian exchange was the only context for establishing power, then one would expect to find the most extravagant nuraghi in the

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53 proximity of Monte Arci, if it can be assu med that elites expressed their power through architecture. This is not the case; there are multiple regional cores with multiple peripheries likely with a variety of economic and social structures. Regardless of the structure of the Nu ragic economy, this changover to the dominance of SC obsidian could have led to changes in the reduction strategies employed throughout the island which can be quantif ied by typological anal ysis, although causal relationships may be difficult to determine. It may be better to consider this relationship as a dialectic between raw material acqui sition and its ultimate reduction for use. Nevertheless, this can be studied through typological investigation.

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54 Chapter 6: Typological Methods This chapter introduces the methods which were utilized to classify and analyze the same artifacts which were sourced using XR F. The measured attributes are capable of determining the reduction strate gies employed on the artifacts. In this way, it is possible to correlate an artifacts pr ovenance with how it was knapped. For this study, a total of 413 obsidian arti facts were classed into types and then analyzed. This included 228 artifacts from D uos Nuraghes and 71 from the other sites in the Marghine region. An additional 114 artif acts were analyzed from Ortu Cmidu. It must be pointed out that the number of artifact s which were chemically sourced is larger than the number of artifacts be ing typologically analyzed. This is due to the fact that some artifacts were too destroyed to be pr operly measured as a result of undergoing obsidian hydration dating. This destruction may have prohibited a typological analysis, but it did not preclude analysis using XRF. Artifact classification is a necessary com ponent of archaeological investigation. In lithic studies, it has usually taken the form of typology creation. Archaeologists must invariably create typologies whic h allow pertinent questions rele vant to their research to be answered. Dibble (2008:87) defines a typology as a classification of lithic objects according to various criteria, most often morphological ones. Morphological classification schemes are easy to create a nd are based on the recognition of certain attributes common to all forms. The choice of attributes can be rela ted to the perceived function of the artifact or they can be value-free measurements predicated on the

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55 recognition of certain featur es. Lithic assemblages are typically composed of two material types: tools which display some sort of intentional shaping or retouch and the debitage fashioned during the process of knapping. Often, the presence of highly formalized tools characteristic of many hunter-gatherer societies has left many archaeologists unaware of the explanatory potential of debitage analysis. Indeed, many sedentary communities have used stone in an ad hoc manner, expediently producing large amounts of debitage and informal retouched t ools. This should not deter researchers from attempting to examine the social and functi onal components of thes e artifacts (Andrefsky 2001). The sites for this study offer an exceptional opportunity to examine Nuragic lithic assemblages with suitable provenience, thus making it possible to us e debitage analysis to explore a myriad of issues. For purposes of this survey, only the obsidian artifacts have been analyzed because of the ability to co rrelate morphological attributes with source data gleaned from the use of XRF technology. Relevant Typology The process of debitage analysis describe d in Sullivan and Rozens (1985) article has been utilized to reconstruct ancient resi dential patterns, sociopolitical organization, and to identify typological changes through time and space. These data have been subsequently incorporated into the broader und erstanding of cultural, social, and political aspects of Nuragic culture. This typology attempts to avoid a priori presumptions about the artifacts in order to re duce any biases introduced by the researcher. The crucial conceptual power of this typology is the abil ity to distinguish between core reduction and tool production based on the varying proportions of debitage categories, thus allowing

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56 comparisons to be formulated. Tool production refers to the manufacture of tools through flaking, while core reduction refers to the pr ocess of flake removal for the purpose of the acquisition of the detached pieces (Andref sky 2009:66). Tool production is recognized archaeologically by the presence of a large percentage of broken flakes and flake fragments compared to the number of cores a nd complete flakes. The inverse is true of core reduction (Sullivan and Rozen 1985). A ssemblages were divided into several categories: retouched tools, proximal flakes, medial flakes, distal flakes, and angular waste. Retouched tools were further subdivided into shaped and unshaped tools, backed tools, and blades. Unshaped tools were distinguished from shaped tools by the recognition of a striking platform as well as by evidence of the original shape of the flake from which it came. The shape of a flake becomes indistinguishable when there is a significant amount of retouch, and thus a signifi cant energy output into the fashioning of a tool. One will note that the debitage categorie s are slightly different than those outlined by Sullivan and Rozen (1985), and further classify flake fragments into medial and distal categories (Figure 6.1). Broken flak es are classified as proximal flakes, thus allowing for additional analyses which can account for pos t-depositional processes such as flake breakage as a result of trampling. A complete list of attributes which were measured for purposes of this study are included in Appendi x C. One will note the subjectivity of some of the attributes with regard to an artifacts shape, but th ey were included to give a general description of the mo rphology of an artifact. Additional site formation processes must also be considered.

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Figure 6.1. Debitage classification scheme (adapt ed from Sullivan and Rozen 1985:759) 57

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58 Chapter 7: Typological Results and Discussion This section presents the results obtaine d from typological analysis and integrates these data with obsidian source information obtained through XRF. Appendix D displays the raw data from the pieces that were both so urces and classified. It is shown that the reduction strategies employed by Nuragic peoples are quite different from those of earlier time periods. These typological differences correspond with changes in the obsidian sources being exploited. Several theories are put forth as to the causes of these modifications. Depositional Processes All archaeological sites are influenced by depositional processes which affect the overall constitution of recovered material. This is certainly the case for Nuragic sites in Sardinia. The abandonment of an area is a crucial factor to acknowledge when discussing artifacts from an archaeological site. The nature of the abandonment event and the reasons behind it can be numerous, but two issu es must be considered: whether or not the event was expected and whether or not retu rn was anticipated. These two factors can affect the types of artifacts which are r ecovered. If abandonment occurred unexpectedly or return was anticipated, one is likely to find artifacts of social and sentimental importance, not just the refuse left behind as would be expected under planned abdication (Deal 2008). Additionally, the clean up of lithic material by past peoples is an important part of ancient life. It should not be a su rprise that people of the past cleaned up the

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59 garbage which accumulated over time. Intensel y used domestic areas are more likely to undergo cleaning than elsewhere. The size of a tool will also affect its probability of entering the record; smaller pieces are mo re likely to elude clean up (Keeley 1991). Regardless, these factors do not preclude one from making accurate interpretations about the makeup of a lithic assemblage, nor should it deter one from using this information to draw conclusions. Integration with Previous Analyses To appreciate Nuragic lithic technology, it is useful to juxtapose it against the comparatively formalized lithic assemblages and large-scale trade networks typical of the earlier Neolithic. Studies indicate that the Neolithic saw a shift in reduction strategies more oriented towards blade and microlit h production. Arrowheads, axes, and a small number of lunates are also found (Trump 1984) Geometric retouched pieces in the form of burins and scrapers dominated the assemblages (Lugli et al. 2006a; 2006b; 2008). These types of artifacts were created usi ng a tool production strategy, a subtractive process in which a core eventually become s one tool. Although the debitage from the creation of these tools has not been analy zed, the presence of t ools not created from flakes inherently makes their creation the result of a tool production strategy. The number of studies examini ng Chalcolithic lithic tec hnology is especially low. This is ostensibly due to the lack of caref ully dated sites with a suitable number of Chalcolithic obsidian artifact s which would warrant a typol ogical analysis. Based on the few descriptive analyses that have been conducted, it is known that Chalcolithic assemblages were dominated by the presence of blades and leaf-shaped arrowheads, a

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60 pattern which is not significantly different from that of Neolithic times (Melis 2000). However, another artifact is also prevalent, the lunate. Melis (2000) does not use the term lunate, but describes an artifact which is el liptical in shape, with a plano-convex or trapezoidal cross-section. A study of Nuragic lithic technology at Ortu Cmidu was carried out by Hurcombe (1992) and is one of the few an alyses of its kind. Mo rphological divisions initially separated the retouched tools into several categories including lunates (Figure 7.1). Use-wear analysis on the lunates, which I shall refer to as backed tools, indicated that the ultimate function of these tools was the scraping of plant material. Interestingly, both the backed edges and the acutely angled edges opposite the backing also displayed traces of use-wear. This would seem to run counter to previous interpretations which suggested that these artifacts were hafte d, and thus indicative of the presence of composite tools. Andrefsky (2005) defines back ing as the intentional dulling of an edge either by chipping, grinding, or abrading. Intere stingly, 11 of the 12 backed tools at Ortu Cmidu contain their backing on either the dist al or lateral margins. This differs from sites in the Marghine region in which nearly all backed tools contain backing on the proximal end. Regardless, it is clear that this tool form was common throughout the island in the Nuragic period. All of the studied lithic assemblages are also similar in the lack of blades. Under the trad itional definition of blade t echnology, an artifacts length perpendicular to the striking platform must be twice as long as its width (Bar-Yosef and Kuhn 1999). Only two retouched blades were discovered from Duos Nuraghes, one from Serbine, and one from Ortu Cmidu.

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Figure 7.1. Examples of lunates from Ortu Cmidu (adapted from Balmuth and Phillips 1986:388) At Duos Nuraghes, there is a broad distri bution of backed tools. Nine of the 17 structures, including the nuraghi contain backed tools, a nd 14 of 17 contain unshaped tools. This would seem to negate the existence of lithic craft specialization. Additional evidence for the lack of craft specialization is expressed by the dist ribution of artifacts throughout the site (Figure 7.2). All of the stru ctures display a broa dly similar collection of artifacts. None of the struct ures contain an inordinate am ount of debitage, cores, or other artifacts which would indicate specia lization. The residents of Duos Nuraghes, including those of the nuraghi seem to be responsible for their own lithic needs. Moreover, the reduction strategies employed th roughout the sites are ge nerally consistent 61

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Nuragh e A Nur a ghe B V i ll ag e 0 20 40 60 80 100% Cores Angular Waste Whole Flakes Proximal Flakes Medial Flakes Distal Flakes Retouched Tools39 15 168 Figure 7.2. The distribution of artifacts at Duos Nuraghes (Figure 7.3). Core reduction seems to be the preferred reduction stra tegy at all of the sites, with complete flakes making up an av erage of 40 percent of the assemblages. The relatively low number of cores may also i ndicate that primary re duction occurred at the quarry site or else depositional processes su ch as the throwing out of used cores may have affected the makeup of the assemblages. Another study from Nuraghe Urpes a nd Nuraghe Toscono suggests that obsidian artifacts were used for a range of cutting and scraping activities (Michels 1987). Michels goes as far as to classify these artifacts in to categories such as rasp-end, concave, and straight-edged scrapers. It is, however, overly simplistic to classify artifacts as concave or straight-edged when in fact many artifact s from all of the s ites display retouch on multiple edges of different shapes. The divers ity of morphological attributes at Duos 62

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Duos Othe r S ite s O r tu 0 20 40 60 80 100% Cores Angular Waste Whole Flakes Proximal Flakes Medial Flakes Distal Flakes Retouched Tools71 228 114 Figure 7.3. The distribution of ar tifacts at all sites Nuraghes does support Michels (1987) conclu sion that obsidian was used for a number of scraping and cutting activit ies. Figure 7.4 displays the frequency of different retouch locations on Duos Nuraghes arti facts. Unifacial retouch is the predominant class while parti-bifacial and bifacial classes are secondary. When co mbined, parti-bifacial and bifacial retouch frequency is ne arly identical to that of th e unifacial category. Platform retouch is indicative of the b acked tools as discus sed earlier. Retouch angles are just as diverse and range from steep to acute, likely indicating a variety of processing endeavors. This is supported by a more recent, detailed use-wear study of the obsidian assemblage from Duos Nuraghes (Setzer and Tykot 2010). 63

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58 Unifaci al Parti-Bifac i al Bifacial Platfo rm 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70Frequencies 35 25 27 Figure 7.4. Frequency of different retouch lo cations on Duos Nuraghes artifacts Unshaped tools comprise the bulk of the retouched category and were defined as tools in which the initial flake category was r ecognizable, whether that be a whole flake, medial flake, etc. For the comprehensively ex cavated sites, there ar e a larger percentage of unshaped tools at Duos Nuraghes (38 per cent), than at Ortu Cmidu (20 percent). Moreover, the invasiveness of the retouch was measured in 2 mm increments from marginal to invasive and is shown in Fi gure 7.5. The decreasing frequency of retouch invasiveness is characteristic of a reduc tion strategy where re-sharpening and tool maintenance was not a predominant activity. It seems that cores were expediently reduced, and the resulting debitage wa s retouched for the task at hand. The average size and weight of the Nuragic material also supports the core reduction interpretation. Not incl uding the cores, the averag e flake length to thickness 64

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M a rgina l M a r g i n a l -Se mi I n v Se miI nvasiv e Semi-Invasive-Inv Inv a s i v e 0 5 10 15 20 25 30Frequencies27 25 14 3 2 Figure 7.5. Frequency of retouched tool invasiveness at Ortu Cmidu ratio is 3.9 while the average weight is 1.0 g. When compared to flake length to thickness ratios of formalized assemblages from Upper Paleolithic France, which range from 4 to 8, it is clear that 3.9 is rather small (Blades 2003). The lack of cores and the relatively small size and weight of the artifact s seem to support a gradual abandonment event. There is nothing to indicate that the recovered artifacts are more th an refuse; no artifacts which appear to be of social or sentimental value ar e present. It is possible that the clean-up of domestic areas took place, which inadverten tly left behind many of the smaller pieces, but the diversity of artifact types found thr oughout the site indicat es that the lithic assemblage is a relatively complete collecti on of artifacts from a number of knapping and reduction events. 65

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66 Explaining the causes of t ypological differences over ti me is slightly more difficult. The abundance of workable obsidian from the Monte Ar ci region presented ancient peoples with a choice in raw material. The art of tool production appears to have been phased out as obsidian became a secondary aspect of life, something to think about when a task needed to be completed. The topic of causation has been addressed in a variety of ways and is central to many debates at the core of archaeological thought. While it is true that multivariate causation cannot be quantified in an absolute sense as many processualists have hoped, it should not discourage archaeologists from ma king inferences which are supported by the data. Renfrew (1978) provides an intriguing analysis of causa tion which provides the lens though which causation will be addressed in this context. Renfrew examines discontinuity in the archaeological record through an understa nding of the initial conditions which set cultural change in moti on. While the use of equations to quantify cultural change is prematur e if not outright nave, an understanding of the initial conditions under which cultural change occurs is central to any examination of causation. This analysis attempts to recognize possible initial conditions whic h created social and cultural discontinuity in Sardinia. They will be divided according to direct and indirect factors. Direct Causation The first explanation as to the cause of the changeover to a core reduction strategy in the Nuragic relates to the quality of raw ma terial. It is possible that the prevalence of SC obsidian required users to adapt to diffe rent reduction strategies because of its

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67 knapping quality. However, this model tends to portray individuals as unthinking in their response to outside influences. It is perhaps more appropriate to view culture change not as an unthinking response to environmental fact ors, but as a dialectic between an ancient understanding of the material world, c onscious human agency, and the unintended consequences of human choices (Robb 2005). It is very possi ble that the demand for SC obsidian increased, thus coercing those near th e quarry to increase its distribution, not the other way around. Moreover, the chronology doe s not support the notion that that the prevalence of SC obsidian required users to adapt to different reduction strategies because of its knapping quality. During th e Chalcolithic, lithic assemblages still contained artifacts which were very similar to those of the Neolithi c. If the increasing dominance of SC obsidian required users to ad apt to different reduc tion strategies, then Chalcolithic assemblages should be more similar to those of the Bronze Age. It is more plausible that an increase in plant use during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age (Lai 2008) led to changes in the type s of tools needed to fulfill users needs. SC obsidian may have been preferred for the creation of backed lunates, a tool which became prevalent in the Chalcoli thic and has been shown to be used for plant processing (Hurcombe 1992). This would certainly be supported by the source data from Duos Nuraghes. Twenty-four of the 25 backed t ools at Duos Nuraghes come from the SC subsource. Figure 7.6 displays the breakdown of retouched artifacts by source at Duos Nuraghes. These previous models stress the impor tance of materialistic conditions on the behavior of individuals and have introduced some hypothetical direct causes of lithic variation. However indirect influe nces must also be addressed.

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Uns ha p ed T o ol s S hape d To o ls Backe d To o ls Bl ade s 0 20 40 60 80 100% SA SB1 SB2 SC25 58 2 1 Figure 7.6. Breakdown of retouched artif acts by source at Duos Nuraghes Indirect Causation It must not be forgotten that the Ch alcolithic is so-named because of the introduction and proliferation of metal technology. The existence of copper deposits on Sardinia is well known, however their history of exploitation is not. It is probably not until the later half of the third millennium that metallurgy becomes a part of the cultural landscape (Lo Schiavo 2000; Muhly 1973). Even then, extensive use of copper for utilitarian purposes is not supported by the ma terial evidence and is highly unlikely. The introduction of bronze technology and the concom itant growth of metal foundries at sites such as Santa Barbara di Bauladu (Galli n and Tykot 1993) did affect how work was carried out. While metal was usually reserv ed for non-utilitarian purposes, there is 68

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69 evidence that bronze was used to create to ols such as axe heads. Therefore, the introduction of a new tool medium could have led to changes in the social and cognitive importance of obsidian in the ancient mind. This is temporally supported by the less dramatic changes in obsidian assemblages when metal was not extensively utilized during the Chalcolithic. As metal was furt her integrated into daily life during the Nuragic, then obsidian assemblages began to be modified. Considering the offhand way in which obsidian was reduced during the Nura gic compared with the more structured lithic production of earlier time periods, it seems that obsidian became less socially important, a medium which did not warrant the extra effort required to produce elaborate bifaces and arrowheads. Metals, not obsidia n, increasingly became the channel through which artistic, ritual, and some utilitarian representations manifested themselves. While obsidian did not become obsolete, it lack ed its former status and ambience. Several theories have been put forth w ith regard to cultural change related to obsidian typologies in prehistoric Sardinia. It must be expected that any monocausal explanation falls short of this goal in light of the comple x set of circumstances which drives social change. Regardless, this resear ch establishes a theore tical criterion capable of contributing to Sardinian archaeology.

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70 Chapter 8: Conclusions This research began with an introduction to the prehistory of Sardinia followed by a spatial analysis of a numb er of Bronze Age nuraghi f ound throughout the island. It was shown that both k-means cluster detection and kernel density estimations can be used in conjunction to address a variety of issues regarding the spatia l distribution of points. In this study, the points represented archaeologi cal sites, but this does not preclude an analysis of intra-site spa tial distributions where artifac ts represent points. It was demonstrated that the distributions of known nuraghi were affected by both environmental constraints as well as cultural choices. After control ling for environmental variables, several hypotheses we re put forth as to the nature of Nuragic political and economic structure. The densest clusters were located on the west si de of the island and encompassed the Monte Arci area. Access to raw materials was likely an important part of site selection. It is also likely that the clustering of s ites was related to the emergence of territories, perhaps controlled by emerging elites. This analysis was followed by an examinati on of obsidian lithic artifacts from five Nuragic (ca. 1600-850 B.C.) sites on the island of Sardinia. The geological sources of these artifacts were determined using XRF technology, with the resu lts showing that the SC subsource was the dominant obsidian type which comprised all of the assemblages. This pattern of acquisition has its roots in the Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic time periods, when it is likely that part-time workshops began to emerge which were capable of supplying the entire island with raw materials through dow n-the-line exchange. It is

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71 possible that emerging elites used this increased control of access to obsidian as a means of solidifying and reifying their power. Typological analysis was used to test wh ether this change in the composition of lithic assemblages was accompanied with corresponding changes in how the obsidian was used. It was demonstrated that Chalcolith ic assemblages were very similar to those of the Neolithic, however they differed from earlier times in the abundance of backed lunates, a tool used for plant processi ng (Hurcombe 1992). During the Nuragic, blade technology greatly diminished as assembla ges became dominated by the presence of backed lunates and expediently produced unsha ped tools. Core reduc tion strategies were utilized as cores were flaked and the resu lting debitage was selected for and further reduced according to the immediate needs. Additional evidence for ad hoc core reduction is seen in the high number of unshaped t ools compared with shaped tools. These unspecialized tools were used for a wide range of activities, which is seen in the high degree of variability in the retouch locations and angles. Interestingl y, there is an even distribution of lithic types throughout Duos Nuraghes, which supports the assumption that both the residents of the nuraghi as well as those of the village were responsible for their own technological demands. This also negates the presence of lithic craft specialization. Slight typological differences were evident across the island, but this could be due to the lack of comprehensive ex cavations conducted at sites other than Duos Nuraghes. In general however, Nuragic lithic technology is similar at all of the studied sites. It is therefore possible to accept the nu ll hypothesis which states that changes in the acquisition of obsidian raw materials during the Chalcolithic and Nuragic in Sardinia are coupled with corresponding change s in how the obsidian was used.

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72 The causes for this change in obsidian usage were explored on two levels, directly and indirectly. The most plausible direct cause of this change relate s to changes in diet with greater emphasis on agricu ltural products at the beginning of the Chalcolithic and continuing into the Nuragic. This could have led to changes in the types of tools needed to fulfill users needs, namely lunate technology. Indirect causes rela te to the introduction of metal technology which could have led to changes in the social and cognitive importance of obsidian in the ancient mind. In the future, archaeologists must devel op new theoretical models for interpreting results obtained from lithic analyses. This incl udes viewing material as behavior (Fletcher 1995). It must be remembered that archaeo logists deal with the remains of human behavior. Therefore, it must be an archaeo logists goal to address the decision-making processes behind the archaeological record. It is certainly tr ue that new technologies are changing the face of archaeological researc h, but they are nonetheless limited by the interpretive potential of th e people analyzing the data. Further studies would benefit from an analysis of non-obsidian artifacts, not necessarily limited to lithics. Neverthele ss, this study provides precedence for future work in Sardinia as well as provides a m odel for integrating two types of analyses, sourcing and typological. By combining these re sults, it is possible to investigate ancient economies, exchange networks, and cultural va lues. This project promotes a new set of economic theories capable of investigating the complex histories which typify Nuragic Sardinia as well as creates a model of cu ltural change able to investigate emerging complexity in a variety of situations.

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73 References Abrantes, F. 1988 Diatom productivity peak and increased circulation during latest Quaternary: Alborin basin (Western Mediterranean). Marine Micropaleontology 13:79-96. Ammerman A.J., and L.L. Cavalli-Sforza 1984 The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of Populations in Europe Princeton University Press, Princeton. Andrefsky, W., Jr. 2001 Emerging directions in debitage analysis. In Lithic Debitage: Context Form Meaning edited by W. Andrefsky, Jr., pp. 2-14. The Un iversity of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. 2005 Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2009 The analysis of stone tool proc urement, production, and maintenance. Journal of Archaeological Research 17:65-103. Atzeni, C. 1998 Compendio delle caratteristiche chimiche, metallografiche e iso tipiche dei reperti metallurgici di Baccu Simeone-Villanovaforru. Quaderni della Soprintendenza Archeologica di Cagliare e Oristano 15:150-171. Badalian, R., Bigazzi, G., Cauvin, M.C., Chataigner, C., Jrbashyan, R., Karapetyan, S.G., Norelli, P., Oddone, M. and J. L. Poidevin 2002 Provenance studies of obsidian artefacts from Armenian archaeological sites using the fission-track analysis. Geotemas 4:15-18. Balmuth, M.S. 1984 The nuraghi of Sardin ia: an introduction. In Studies in Sardinian Archaeology edited by M.S. Balmuth and R.J. Rowland, Jr., pp. 23-52. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. Balmuth, M.S., and P. Phillips 1986 Sardara (Cagliari): preliminary report of excavations 1975-1978 of the Nuraghe Ortu Cmidu. Notizie degli Scavi di Antichita 37:353-372.

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74 Balmuth, M.S, and R.J. Rowland Jr. 1984 Studies in Sardinian Archaeology The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. Bar-Yosef, O. and S.L. Kuhn 1999 The big deal about blades: lamina r technologies and human evolution. American Anthropologist 101(2):322-338. Blades, B.S. 2003 End scraper reduction a nd hunter-gatherer mobility. American Antiquity 68(1):141156. Blake, E. 2001 Constructing a Nuragic locale: The spatia l relationship between tombs and towers in Bronze Age Sardinia. American Journal of Archaeology 105(2):145-161. Bonzani, R.M. 1992 Territorial boundaries, buffer zones and so ciopolitical complexity: a case study of the nuraghi on Sardinia. In Sardinia in the Mediterranean: A Footprint in the Sea, edited by R.H. Tykot and T.K. Andrews, pp. 210-220. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield. Castiglioni, O.C., and G. Calegari 1979 Prima segnalazione del Pa leolitico in Sardegna. Natura 70:1-2. Chapman, H. 2006 Landscape Archaeology and GIS Tempus, Great Britain. Cherry, J.F. 1992 Palaeolithic Sardinians? Some questions of evidence and method. In Sardinia in the Mediterranean: A Footprint in the Sea, edited by R.H. Tykot and T.K. Andrews, pp. 2839. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield. Chikhi, L., R.A. Nichols, G. Barbujani, and M.A. Beaumont 2002 Y genetic data support the Ne olithic demic diffusion model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:11008-11013. Conolly, J., and M. Lake 2006 Geographic Information Systems in Archaeology Cambridge University Press, New York. Deal, M. 2008 Abandonment patterns at ar chaeological settlements. In Archaeological Concepts for the Study of the Cultural Past edited by A.P. Sullivan III, pp.141-157. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

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75 Dibble, H.L. 2008 Non-anthropological approaches to unders tanding lithic artifact and assemblage variability. In Archaeological Concepts for the Study of the Cultural Past edited by A.P. Sullivan III, pp. 85-107. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. Dyson, S.L., and R.J. Rowland, Jr. 2007 Archaeology and History in Sardinia fr om the Stone Age to the Middle Ages: Shepherds, Sailors, and Conquerors University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia. Everitt, B.S., and T. Hothorn 2006 A Handbook of Statisti cal Analyses Using R Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton. Fletcher, R. 1995 The Limits of Settlement Growth Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Foucault, M. 1979 Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison Penguin, Harmondsworth. Gale, N.H. 1981 Mediterranean obsidian source characterisation by strontium isotope analysis. Archaeometry 23(1):41-51. Gallin, L. 1991 Architectural evidence for the defensibility of the territor y of Sedilo (Oristano). In Nuragic Architecture in its Military, Te rritorial and Socio-economic Context, edited by B.S Frizell, pp.65-71. Skri fter Utgivna av Svenska Institute, Rome. Gallin, L. and R. Tykot 1993 Metallurgy at Nuraghe Santa Barbara (Bauladu), Sardinia. Journal of Field Archaeology 20:335-345. Griffiths, D. 2003 All things koi and H2O. Electronic document, http://www.koiquest.co.uk/What%20is%20an%20Atom.htm, accessed February 19, 2010. Hodder, I. 1989 Post-modernism, post-structuralism, and post-processual archaeology. In The Meaning of Things: Material Cu lture and Symbolic Expression edited by I. Hodder, pp. 64-78. Unwin Hyman, London.

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76 Hurcombe, L. 1992 New contributions to the study of the func tion of Sardinian obsidian artifacts. In Sardinia in the Mediterranean: A Footprint in the Sea, edited by R.H. Tykot and T.K. Andrews, pp. 83-97. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield. Keeley, L.H. 1991 Tool use and spatial patterning. In The Interpretation of Archaeological Spatial Patterning edited by E.M. Kroll and T.D. Price, pp. 257-268. Plenum Press, New York and London. Kroll, E.M., and T.D. Price 1991 The Interpretation of Archaeological Spatial Patterning Plenum Press, New York and London. Kvamme, K. L. 1999 Recent directions and developments in Geographical Information Systems. Journal of Archaeological Research 1:153-201. Lai, L. 2008 The Interplay of Economic, Climatic and Cultural Change In vestigated through Isotopic Analyses of Bone Tissue: The Case of Sardinia 4000-1900 B.C. Ph.D. dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa. Le Maitre, R.W. 1989 A Classification of Igneous Rocks and Glossary of Terms Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. Lewthwaite, J. 1986 Nuragic foundations: an alternative model of development in Sardinian prehistory, ca. 2500-1500 B.C. In Studies in Sardinian Archaeology III edited by M.S. Balmuth. BAR International Series 387, Oxford. Lilliu, G. 1966 Apporti pirenaici e del midi alle cultu re Sarde della prima et del Bronzo. Studi Sardi 19:51. 1988 La civilt dei Sardi dal paleolitico all'et dei nuraghi 3rd ed. Nuova ERI, Torino. Lo Schiavo, F. 1986 Il Museo Sanna di Sassari Banco di Sardegna, Sassari. 2000 Bronzi e Bronzetti del Museo "G.A. Sanna" di Sassari Imago Media, Piedimonte Matese.

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77 Lugli, C., E. Atzeni, G. Poupeau, F-X. Le Bourdonnec, S. Dubernet and A. Tourni 2006a Circolazione dell'ossidiana nel Neolitico a Ceramica Cardiale della Sardegna: il caso del riparo di Su Carr oppu (Carbonia-Cagliari). In Materie Prime e Scambi nella Preistoria Italiana pp. 579-582. Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protoistoria. Lugli, C., F-X. Le Bourdonnec, G. Poupeau, M. Bohn, S. Meloni, M. Oddone, and G. Tanda 2006b A map of the Monte Arci (Sardinia island, Western Med iterranean) obsidian primary to secondary sources. Implications for Neolithic provenance studies. Comptes Rendus Palevol 5:995-1003. Lugli, C., F-X. Le Bourdonnec, G. Poupeau, C. Congia, P. Moretto, T. Calligaro, I. Sanna, and S. Dubernet 2008 Obsidians in the Rio Saboccu (Sardinia, Italy) campsite: Provenance, reduction and relations with the wider Earl y Neolithic Tyrrhenian area. Comptes Rendus Palevol 7:249258. Martini, F. 1992 Early human settlement in Sardinia : the Palaeolithic industries. In Sardinia in the Mediterranean: A Footprint in the Sea, edited by R.H. Tykot and T.K. Andrews, pp. 4048. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield. Marx, K. 1977 Capital Vol. 1. Vintage, New York. Melis, M.G. 2000 LEt del Rame in Sardegna: Origin e ed Evoluzione Aspetti Autoctoni Soter Editrice, Sardinia. Michels, J.W. 1987 The lithic industry. In Studies in Nuragic Archaeol ogy: Village Excavations at Nuraghe Urpes and Nuraghe Toscono in West-Central Sardinia edited by J.W. Michels and G.S. Webster, pp. 39-44. BAR International Series 373, Oxford. Michels, J.W., E. Atzeni, I.S.T. Song, and G.A. Smith 1984 Obsidian hydration dating in Sardinia. In Studies in Sardinian Archaeology, edited by M.S. Balmuth and R.J. Rowland, Jr., pp. 83-114. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. Michels, J.W., and G.S. Webster 1987 Studies in Nuragic Archaeology: Vi llage Excavations at Nuraghe Urpes and Nuraghe Toscono in West-Central Sardinia BAR International Series 373, Oxford.

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78 Middlemost, E. 1997 Magmas, Rocks, and Planetary Developmen t: A Survey of Magma/Igneous Rock Systems. Addison Wesley Longman, England. Muhly, J.D. 1973 Copper and Tin: The Distribution of Mine ral Resources and the Nature of the Metals Trade in the Bronze Age Archon Books, Hamden. Pearson, M.P. 2004 Island prehistories: a view of Orkney from South Uist. In Explaining Social Change: Studies in Honor of Colin Renfrew edited by J. Cherry, C. Scarre, and S. Shennan, pp. 127-140. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge. Pietracaprina, A. 1980 Atlante Iconografico dei Suoli della Sardegna. Gallizzi, Sassari. Pollard, M., C. Batt, B. Stern, and S.M.M. Young 2007 Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pracchi, R., A.T. Asole, and M. Riccardi 1971 Atlante della Sardegna Vol. 2. La Zattera Editrice, Cagliari. Price, T.D. 1983 The European Mesolithic. American Antiquity 48(4):761-778. Renfrew, C. 1978 Trajectory discontinuity and morphogene sis: the implications of Catastrophe Theory for archaeology. American Antiquity 43(2):203-222. Robb, J.E. 2005 The extended artefact and the monumental economy. In Rethinking Materiality: The Engagement of Mind with the Material World edited by E. DeMarrais, A.C. Renfrew, and C. Gosden, pp. 131. McDonald Inst itute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge. Roberts, B.K. 1996 Landscapes of Settlement: Prehistory of the Present Routledge, London. Roberts, M.B., and S.A. Partiff 1999 Boxgrove. A Middle Pleistocene Hominid S ite at Eartham Quarry, Boxgrove, West Sussex. English Heritage Archaeological Report 17. English Heritage, London. Rowland, R.J., Jr. 2001 The Periphery in the Center: Sardinia in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds BAR International Series 970. Archaeopress, Oxford.

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79 Rowlands, M., M. Larsens, and K. Kristiansen 1987 Center and Periphery in the Ancient World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Sahlins, M. 1972 Stone Age Economics Aldine Atherton Inc., Chicago. Santley, R.S. 1980 Pricing policies, obsidian exchange, and the decline of Teoti huacan civilization. Mexicon 2:77-81. Setzer, T.J., and R.H. Tykot 2010 Considering the source: the importance of raw material ch aracterization and provenance in obsidian use-wear studies. In Monte Arci Obsidian in the Mediterranean. Advances in the Studies of Diffusion, Production Systems and their Chronology, edited by C. Lugli, in press. NUR, Ales. Smith, T.R. 1987 Mycenaean Trade and Interaction in the West Central Mediterranean BAR International Series 371, Oxford. Sondaar, P.Y 1987 Plesitocene man and extinctions of island endemics. Memoires de la Societe Geologique de France 150:159-165. Sondaar, P.Y., F. Martini, A. Ulzega, and G.K. Hofmeijer 1991 Lhomme Plistocne en Sardaigne. LAnthropologie 95:181-200. Stevenson, C.M., and J.G. Ellis 1998 Dating Sardinian Archaeological Obsidian. In Sardinian and Aegean Chronology edited by M.S. Balmuth and R.H. Ty kot, pp. 19-23. Oxbow Books, Oxford. Sullivan, A.P., III, and K.C. Rozen 1985 Debitage analysis and ar chaeological in terpretation. American Antiquity 50(4):755779. Taramelli, A. 1918. Lofficina fusoria di Ortu Commidu. Monumenti Antichi dei Lincei 25(2):107-130. Torrence, R. 1986 Production and Exchange of Stone Tools. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Trump, D.H. 1983 La Grotta di Filiestru a Mara (SS) Quaderni 13 della Soprintendenza di Sassari e Nuoro. Dessi, Sassari.

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80 1984 The Bonu Ighinu Project and the Sardinian Neolithic. In Studies in Sardinian Archaeology edited by M.S. Balmuth and R.J. Rowland, Jr., pp. 1-22. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. Tykot, R.H. 1992 The sources and distribution of Sardinian obsidian. In Sardinia in the Mediterranean: A Footprint in the Sea, edited by R.H. Tykot and T.K. Andrews, pp. 5770. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield. 1994 Radiocarbon dating and absolute chronology in Sardinia and Corsica. In Radiocarbon Dating and Italian Prehistory edited by R. Skeates and R. Whitehouse, pp. 115-145. Accordia Specialist Studies on Italy 3, London. 1996 Obsidian procurement and distribution in the central and western Mediterranean. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 9(1):39-82. 1997 Characterization of the Monte Arci (Sardinia) obsidian sources. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:467-479. 2002 Chemical fingerprinting and source traci ng of obsidian: The Central Mediterranean trade in black gold. Accounts of Chemical Research 35:618-627. 2003 Determining the source of lithic artifact s and reconstructing trade in the ancient world. In Written in Stone: The Multiple Dimensions of Lithic Analysis edited by P.N. Kardulias & R.W. Yerkes, pp. 5985. Lexington Books, Maryland. 2004 Neolithic Exploitation and Trade of Obsi dian in the Centra l Mediterranean: New Results and Implications for Cultural Interaction. In Acts of the XIVth UISPP Congress, University of Lige, Belgium, 2-8 September 2001 BAR International Series 1303. Archaeopress, Oxford. 2007 Early Neolithic obsidian trade in Sardinia : the coastal site of Santa Caterina di Pittinuri (Cuglieri OR). In Preistoria e Protostoria dellArea Tirrenica edited by C. Tozzi e M.C. Weiss, pp. 217-220. Felici Editore, Ghezzano. 2010 Sourcing of Sardinian Obsidian Collecti ons in the Museo Pr eistorico-Etnografico 'Luigi Pigorini' Using Non-De structive Portable XRF. In Monte Arci Obsidian in the Mediterranean. Advances in the Studies of Diffusion, Production Systems and their Chronology, edited by C. Lugli, in press. NUR, Ales. Tykot, R.H., M.D. Glascock, R.J. Speakman, and E. Atzeni 2008 Obsidian subsources utilized at s ites in southern Sardinia (Italy). Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium 1047:175-183.

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81 Tykot, R.H., C. Lugli, T. Set zer, G. Tanda, and R.W. Webb 2006 Surveying and excavating a prehistoric obsidian workshop in Sardinia (Italy): Studying the Chane Opratoire 71st Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Abstract published in IAOS Bulletin 35:9. Ugas, G., and R. Zucca 1984 Il Commercio Arcaico in Sardegna: Im portazioni Etrusche e Greche 620-480 B.C. A Viole, Cagliari. United States Geological Survey 2010 National map seamless server. Electronic document, http://seamless.usgs.gov, accessed February 11, 2010. Vavouranakis, G. 2006 Burials and the landscapes of Gour nia, Crete, in the Bronze Age. In Space and Spatial Analysis in Archaeology edited by E.C. Robertson, J.D. Seibert, D.C. Fernandez, and M.U. Zender, pp. 233-242. Universi ty of Calgary Press, Calgary. Wand, M.P., and M.C. Jones 1995 Kernel Smoothing. Chapman and Hall, London. Webster, G.S. 1991 The functions and social significance of nuraghi: a provisional model. In Nuragic Architecture in its Military, Terri torial and Socio-economic Context, edited by B.S. Frizell, pp.169-185. Skrifter Utgivna av Svenska Institute, Rome. 1996 A Prehistory of Sardinia 2300-500 B.C. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield. 2001 Duos Nuraghes A Bronze Age Settlement in Sardinia: The Interpretive Archaeology BAR International Series 949 Vol. 1. Archaeopress, Oxford. Webster, G.S., and M. Teglund 1992 Toward the study of colonial-native relati ons in Sardinia from c. 1000 B.C.-A.D. 456. In Sardinia in the Mediterranean: A Footprint in the Sea edited by R.H. Tykot and T.K. Andrews, pp. 57-70. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield. Zilho, J. 2001 Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization at the origins of farming in West Mediterranean Europe. Proceedings of the National Ac ademy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(24):14180-14185.

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82 Appendix A. Table of Sardinian Prehis tory (adapted from Tykot 1994:129)

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83

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84 Appendix B. Table with concise information about relevant sites used in this thesis

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85 Site Notes Duos Nuraghes 1600 B.C.A.D. 1000 Comprehensive excavation Two nuraghi (simple and complex) Village with 14 structures Nuraghe Urpes 1150 B.C.A.D. 510 B.C.? Extensive excavation Complex nuraghe Village with stone wall Nuraghe San Sergio 1600 B.C.? Poorly known One 2-2-m unit excavated inside nuraghe Simple nuraghe Adjacent Nuragic village Nuraghe Serbine 1600 B.C.? Poorly known Several units opened within nuraghe Proto-nuraghe Adjacent Nuragic village Nuraghe Ortu Cmidu 1600 B.C.? Comprehensive excavation One complex nuraghe No known village

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86 Appendix C. List of attributes used in typological analysis

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87 Cores 1. Site 2. USF Number 3. Trench Number 4. Unit Number 5. Structure Number 6. Feature 7. Level 8. Phase 1. Early Bronze Age 2. Middle Bronze Age 3. Late Bronze Age 4. Iron Age 5. Punico-Roman 7. Roman 8. Medieval 9. Modern 9. Raw Material 10. Type 1. Unidirectional Core 2. Bidirectional Core 3. Bifacial Core 4. Multidirectional Core 11. Weight (In Grams) 12. Source 13. Maximum Length (Perpendicular to Platform Physically or Not) 14. Maximum Breadth (Perpendicular to Max Length ) 15. Max Thickness 16. Plan 1. Short Quadrilateral 2. Quadrilateral 3. Short Trangular 4. Long Triangular 5. Short Irregular 6. Long Irregular 7. Elliptical 8. Indeterminate 17. Cross Section 1. Irregular 2. Biconvex 3. Lenticular 4. Plano Convex 5. Triangular 6. Sub-Triangular

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88 Appendix C (Continued) 7. Thirty-Sixty-Ninety Degree Triangle 8. Trapezoid 9. Circular 10. Rhomboid 11. Polygon 18. Cortex Present (In Percentages) 1.1 to 20 2. 20 to 40 3. 40 to 60 4. 60 to 80 5. 80 to 100 19. Flake Shape 1. Elongate 2. Intermediate 3. Expanding 20. Length of Longest Flake 21. Maximum Platform Length 22. Maximum Platform Breadth 23. Average Platform Angle Shaped/ Unshaped Tools 1. Site 2. USF Number 3. Trench Number 4. Unit Number 5. Structure Number 6. Feature 7. Level 8. Phase 1. Early Bronze Age 2. Middle Bronze Age 3. Iron Age 4. Punico-Roman 5. Roman 6. Medieval 7. Modern 9. Raw Material 10. Type 1. Unshaped Tool 2. Bi-Polar Unshaped Tool 3. Backed 4. Haft Point

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89 Appendix C (Continued) 5. Hydration Dated 11. Weight (In Grams) 12. Source 13. Maximum Length (Perpendicular to Platform Physically or Not) 14. Maximum Breadth (Perpendicular to Max Length ) 15. Max Thickness 16. Plan 1. Short Quadrilateral 2. Quadrilateral 3. Short Trangular 4. Long Triangular 5. Short Irregular 6. Long Irregular 7. Elliptical 8. Indeterminate 17. Cross Section 1. Irregular 2. Biconvex 3. Lenticular 4. Plano Convex 5. Triangular 6. Sub-Triangular 7. Thirty-Sixty-Ninety Degree Triangle 8. Trapezoid 9. Circular 10. Parallelogram 11. Polygon 12. Half Trapezoid 18. Termination 1. Feather 2. Hinge 3. Step 4. Overshoot 5. Bi-Polar 19. Cortex Present (In Percentages) 1.1 to 20 2. 20 to 40 3. 40 to 60 4. 60 to 80 5. 80 to 100 20. Dorsal Scar Pattern 1. Cortical 2. Irregular 3. Parallel

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90 Appendix C (Continued) 4. Convergent 5. Radial 6. Bi-Direction Proximal Distal 7. Bi-Directional Lateral Lateral 8. None 21. Platform Type 1. Cortical 2. Plain 3. Complex 4. Point 5. Abraded 22. Maximum Platform Length 23. Maximum Platform Breadth 24. Platform Ventral Angle 25. Platform Dorsal Angle 26. Primary Blank Type 1. Whole Flake 2. Proximal Flake 3. Distal Flake 4. Bipolar 5. Angular Waste 6. Core 27. Bulbar Thinning 1. Absent 2. Marginal (75% of Bulb Remaining) 3. Marginal to Semi-Invasive 4. Semi-Invasive 5. Invasive 28. Retouch Class 1. Unifacial Dorsal 2. Unifacial Ventral 3. Parti-Bifacial 4. Bifacial 5. Platform 29. Retouch Type 1. Simple 2. Step Stepped 3. Parallel 4. Pressure 30. Invasiveness of Retouch 1. Absent 2. Marginal (2 mm or Less) 3. Marginal to Semi-Invasive

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91 Appendix C (Continued) 4. Semi-Invasive 5. Invasive 31. Retouch Location 32. Edge Form 1. Straight 2. Convex 3. Concave 4. Notched 5. Denticulate 6. Serrated 7. Irregular 33. Retouch Angle Left 34. Retouch Angle Right 35. Retouch Angle Proximal 36. Retouch Angle Distal 37. Backing Type 1. Obverse 2. Inverse 3. Bi-Directional Obverse 4. Bi-Directional Inverse 5. Natural 6. Indeterminate 38. Edge Opposite Backing 1. Straight 2. Convex 3. Concave 4. Denticulate 5. Serrated 6. Irregular Flakes 1. Site 2. USF Number 3. Trench Number 4. Unit Number 5. Structure Number 6. Feature 7. Level 8. Phase 1. Early Bronze Age 2. Middle Bronze Age 3. Iron Age

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92 Appendix C (Continued) 4. Punico-Roman 5. Roman 6. Medieval 7. Modern 9. Raw Material 10. Type 1. Whole Flake 2. Proximal Flake 3. Medial Flake 4. Distal Flake 5. Longitudinal Flake 5. Hydration Dated 11. Weight (In Grams) 12. Source 13. Maximum Length (Perpendicular to Platform Physically or Not) 14. Maximum Breadth (Perpendicular to Max Length ) 15. Max Thickness 16. Plan 1. Short Quadrilateral 2. Quadrilateral 3. Short Trangular 4. Long Triangular 5. Short Irregular 6. Long Irregular 7. Elliptical 8. Indeterminate 17. Cross Section 1. Irregular 2. Biconvex 3. Lenticular 4. Plano Convex 5. Triangular 6. Sub-Triangular 7. Thirty-Sixty-Ninety Degree Triangle 8. Trapezoid 9. Circular 10. Parallelogram 11. Polygon 18. Termination 1. Feather 2. Hinge 3. Step 4. Overshoot 5. Bi-Polar

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93 Appendix C (Continued) 19. Cortex Present (In Percentages) 1.1 to 20 2. 20 to 40 3. 40 to 60 4. 60 to 80 5. 80 to 100 20. Dorsal Scar Pattern 1. Cortical 2. Irregular 3. Parallel 4. Convergent 5. Radial 6. Bi-Direction Proximal Distal 7. Bi-Directional Lateral Lateral 8. None 21. Platform Type 1. Cortical 2. Plain 3. Complex 4. Point 5. Abraded 22. Maximum Platform Length 23. Maximum Platform Breadth 24. Platform Ventral Angle 25. Platform Dorsal Angle Angular Waste/Shatter 1. Site 2. USF Number 3. Trench Number 4. Unit Number 5. Structure Number 6. Feature 7. Level 8. Phase 1. Early Bronze Age 2. Middle Bronze Age 3. Iron Age 4. Punico-Roman 5. Roman 6. Medieval 7. Modern

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94 Appendix C (Continued) 9. Raw Material 10. Type 1. Unshaped Tool 2. Bi-Polar Unshaped Tool 3. Backed 4. Haft Point 5. Hydration Dated 11. Weight (In Grams) 12. Source

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95 Appendix D. Raw data from the artifacts that were both sources and classified

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96 Site USFNum Type Source Duos 854 Retouched SA Duos 855 Retouched SC Duos 858 Retouched SB2 Duos 859 Retouched SC Duos 860 Retouched SC Duos 861 Retouched SC Duos 864 Retouched SC Duos 870 Retouched SC Duos 877 Retouched SB2 Duos 878 Retouched SC Duos 881 Retouched SC Duos 883 Retouched SC Duos 884 Retouched SC Duos 885 Retouched SC Duos 886 Retouched SC Duos 889 Retouched SC Duos 897 Retouched SC Duos 902 Retouched SA Duos 907 Retouched SC Duos 908 Retouched SC Duos 914 Retouched SC Duos 915 Retouched SC Duos 917 Retouched SC Duos 918 Retouched SC Duos 919 Retouched SC Duos 941 Retouched SB2 Duos 941.2 Retouched SC Duos 945 Retouched SC Duos 947 Retouched SC Duos 949 Retouched SB2 Duos 950 Retouched SC Duos 952 Retouched SC Duos 953 Retouched SA Duos 955 Retouched SC Duos 957 Retouched SC Duos 960 Retouched SC Duos 962 Retouched SC Duos 963 Retouched SC Duos 965 Retouched SC Duos 971 Retouched SC Duos 980 Retouched SC Duos 982.2 Retouched SC Duos 984 Retouched SC Duos 986 Retouched SC Duos 987.2 Retouched SC

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97 Appendix D (Continued) Duos 991.1 Retouched SC Duos 993 Retouched SC Duos 996 Retouched SA Duos 997.1 Retouched SB2 Duos 997.3 Retouched SA Duos 999 Retouched SC Duos 1000.1 Retouched SC Duos 1004.3 Retouched SC Duos 1004.4 Retouched SC Duos 1005.1 Retouched SA Duos 1007.2 Retouched SC Duos 1008 Retouched SC Duos 1009 Retouched SC Duos 1011 Retouched SC Duos 1013 Retouched SC Duos 1014 Retouched SC Duos 1015.3 Retouched SC Duos 1017.2 Retouched SC Duos 1018 Retouched SC Duos 1019.1 Retouched SA Duos 1020 Retouched SC Duos 1022 Retouched SC Duos 1023.2 Retouched SC Duos 1027 Retouched SC Duos 1042 Retouched SC Duos 1045 Retouched SC Duos 1053 Retouched SC Duos 1056 Retouched SC Duos 1060 Retouched SC Duos 1061 Retouched SC Duos 1064 Retouched SC Duos 1087 Retouched SC Duos 1090.1 Retouched SC Duos 1090.2 Retouched SC Duos 1092 Retouched SB1 Duos 1093 Retouched SC Duos 1094 Retouched SB2 Duos 847 (a) Retouched SC Duos 866 (a) Retouched SA Duos 866 (b) Retouched SC Duos 887 (a) Retouched SC Duos 845 Whole Flake SC

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98 Appendix D (Continued) Duos 849 Proximal Flake SC Duos 850 Proximal Flake SC Duos 852 Medial Flake SC Duos 863 Whole Flake SC Duos 865 Whole Flake SC Duos 867 Whole Flake SC Duos 868 Whole Flake SC Duos 873 Whole Flake SC Duos 874 Whole Flake SC Duos 876 Whole Flake SC Duos 879 Whole Flake SC Duos 880 Whole Flake SC Duos 882 Whole Flake SC Duos 888 Whole Flake SC Duos 890 Whole Flake SC Duos 891 Whole Flake SC Duos 892 Whole Flake SC Duos 893 Whole Flake SC Duos 894 Distal Flake SC Duos 895 Proximal Flake SC Duos 898 Whole Flake SC Duos 899 Whole Flake SC Duos 903 Whole Flake SA Duos 904 Whole Flake SC Duos 913 Whole Flake SC Duos 923 Whole Flake SC Duos 924.1 Whole Flake SC Duos 927 Whole Flake SC Duos 931 Whole Flake SC Duos 933 Proximal Flake SC Duos 936 Whole Flake SB2 Duos 937 Proximal Flake SA Duos 940 Whole Flake SB2 Duos 942.1 Whole Flake SB2 Duos 942.2 Whole Flake SA Duos 943 Whole Flake SC Duos 944 Whole Flake SC Duos 946 Proximal Flake SC Duos 948.1 Whole Flake SC Duos 948.2 Whole Flake SC Duos 951 Proximal Flake SC Duos 954.1 Distal Flake SC

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99 Appendix D (Continued) Duos 954.2 Whole Flake SC Duos 956 Whole Flake SC Duos 959 Whole Flake SA Duos 961 Whole Flake SA Duos 964 Proximal Flake SC Duos 966 Whole Flake SC Duos 967 Whole Flake SC Duos 969 Distal Flake SC Duos 970 Whole Flake SC Duos 972 Whole Flake SC Duos 978 Whole Flake SC Duos 979 Whole Flake SC Duos 981 Proximal Flake SA Duos 987.1 Whole Flake SC Duos 989 Whole Flake SC Duos 992.1 Whole Flake SC Duos 992.2 Whole Flake SC Duos 994 Whole Flake SC Duos 995 Whole Flake SC Duos 998 Whole Flake SC Duos 1001 Whole Flake SC Duos 1002 Medial Flake SC Duos 1003 Whole Flake SC Duos 1004.2 Whole Flake SC Duos 1005.2 Distal Flake SC Duos 1005.3 Whole Flake SC Duos 1006 Whole Flake SC Duos 1007.1 Whole Flake SA Duos 1007.3 Whole Flake SC Duos 1010 Medial Flake SC Duos 1012 Whole Flake SC Duos 1015.1 Whole Flake SC Duos 1015.2 Whole Flake SC Duos 1015.4 Whole Flake SC Duos 1015.5 Whole Flake SC Duos 1015.6 Whole Flake SC Duos 1016 Whole Flake SA Duos 1017.1 Whole Flake SC Duos 1019.2 Proximal Flake SC Duos 1023.1 Medial Flake SC Duos 1024.2 Proximal Flake SC Duos 1029 Whole Flake SC

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100 Appendix D (Continued) Duos 1036.1 Proximal Flake SC Duos 1036.2 Proximal Flake SC Duos 1038 Whole Flake SC Duos 1039 Whole Flake SA Duos 1040 Whole Flake SC Duos 1041 Whole Flake SC Duos 1044 Whole Flake SC Duos 1046 Proximal Flake SC Duos 1047 Whole Flake SC Duos 1048 Proximal Flake SC Duos 1051 Whole Flake SC Duos 1052 Proximal Flake SC Duos 1055 Whole Flake SC Duos 1058 Whole Flake SC Duos 1065 Proximal Flake SC Duos 1066 Whole Flake SC Duos 1088.2 Whole Flake SC Duos 1091 Whole Flake SC Duos 1097.1 Whole Flake SC Duos 1097.2 Whole Flake SC Duos 1098 Whole Flake SC Duos 1100 Whole Flake SB2 Duos 1101 Whole Flake SC Duos 1102.1 Whole Flake SA Duos 1103 Proximal Flake SC Duos 846 (a) Whole Flake SC Duos 846 (b) Whole Flake SC Duos 847 (b) Proximal Flake SC Duos 875 (a) Proximal Flake SC Duos 875 (b) Whole Flake SC Duos 887(b) Whole Flake SC Duos 848 Angular Waste SC Duos 853 Angular Waste SC Duos 856 Angular Waste SC Duos 857 Angular Waste SC Duos 869 Angular Waste SA Duos 872 Angular Waste SC Duos 896 Angular Waste SA Duos 905 Angular Waste SB2 Duos 906 Angular Waste SC Duos 932 Angular Waste SC Duos 958 Angular Waste SC

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101 Appendix D (Continued) Duos 968 Angular Waste SB2 Duos 982.1 Angular Waste SC Duos 988 Angular Waste SC Duos 991.3 Angular Waste SC Duos 997.2 Angular Waste SC Duos 1000.2 Angular Waste SC Duos 1000.3 Angular Waste SC Duos 1021 Angular Waste SC Duos 1024.1 Angular Waste SA Duos 1026 Angular Waste SA Duos 1089 Angular Waste SC Duos 1099 Angular Waste SC Duos 851 Core SC Duos 922 Core SC Duos 985 Core SC Ortu 11731 Retouched SC Ortu 11735 Retouched SC Ortu 11737 Retouched SC Ortu 11739 Retouched SA Ortu 11742 Retouched SC Ortu 11752 Retouched SA Ortu 11775 Retouched SC Ortu 11776 Retouched SC Ortu 11782 Retouched SC Ortu 11789 Retouched SC Ortu 11791 Retouched SC Ortu 11793 Retouched SC Ortu 11794 Retouched SC Ortu 11797 Retouched SA Ortu 11806 Retouched SC Ortu 11808 Retouched SA Ortu 11810 Retouched SC Ortu 11823 Retouched SC Ortu 11824 Retouched SC Ortu 11837 Retouched SC Ortu 11844 Retouched SC Ortu 11851 Retouched SC Ortu 11857 Retouched SC Ortu 11725 Medial Flake SC Ortu 11727 Distal Flake SC Ortu 11730 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11733 Whole Flake SC

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102 Appendix D (Continued) Ortu 11736 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11738 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11740 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11743 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11744 Proximal Flake SC Ortu 11745 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11746 Proximal Flake SA Ortu 11750 Proximal Flake SC Ortu 11751 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11753 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11756 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11757 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11758 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11760 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11761 Distal Flake SC Ortu 11763 Medial Flake SA Ortu 11764 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11765 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11767 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11769 Proximal Flake SA Ortu 11770 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11771 Proximal Flake SC Ortu 11772 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11773 Proximal Flake SB2 Ortu 11774 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11777 Proximal Flake SC Ortu 11778 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11779.1 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11779.2 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11780 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11781 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11785 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11786 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11792 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11795 Proximal Flake SA Ortu 11796 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11798 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11799 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11800 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11801 Medial Flake SA Ortu 11802 Distal Flake SC Ortu 11803 Whole Flake SC

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103 Appendix D (Continued) Ortu 11811 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11815 Distal Flake SC Ortu 11817 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11819 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11822 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11825 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11828 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11829 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11830 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11832 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11834 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11839 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11843 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11846 Proximal Flake SC Ortu 11848 Whole Flake SA Ortu 11849 Distal Flake SC Ortu 11850 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11852 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11853 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11855 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11858 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11859 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11860 Proximal Flake SC Ortu 11861 Whole Flake SC Ortu 11724 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11728 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11732 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11741 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11762 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11787 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11788 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11804 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11809 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11812 Angular Waste SA Ortu 11814 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11820 Angular Waste SA Ortu 11821 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11826 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11831 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11833 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11835 Angular Waste SA Ortu 11842 Angular Waste SC

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104 Appendix D (Continued) Ortu 11845 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11847 Angular Waste SC Ortu 11854 Angular Waste SC San Sergio 1067 Distal Flake SC San Sergio 1068 Whole Flake SA San Sergio 1069 Whole Flake SA San Sergio 1070 Proximal Flake SC San Sergio 1071 Whole Flake SC San Sergio 1072 Proximal Flake SC San Sergio 1073 Whole Flake SC San Sergio 1074 Proximal Flake SC San Sergio 1075 Whole Flake SA San Sergio 1076 Distal Flake SC San Sergio 1079 Whole Flake SC San Sergio 1082 Whole Flake SC San Sergio 1084 Distal Flake SC San Sergio 1086 Medial Flake SC San Sergio 1078 Retouched SC San Sergio 1081 Retouched SC San Sergio 1080 Angular Waste SC San Sergio 1083 Angular Waste SC Serbine 813 Whole Flake SB2 Serbine 815 Proximal Flake SB2 Serbine 820 Proximal Flake SC Serbine 821 Whole Flake SA Serbine 824 Distal Flake SA Serbine 825 Whole Flake SC Serbine 826 Whole Flake SC Serbine 828 Whole Flake SB2 Serbine 829 Proximal Flake SC Serbine 835 Proximal Flake SC Serbine 836 Proximal Flake SB2 Serbine 837 Proximal Flake SA Serbine 838 Whole Flake SC Serbine 839 Proximal Flake SC Serbine 840 Proximal Flake SC Serbine 841 Whole Flake SA Serbine 842 Whole Flake SC Serbine 844 Whole Flake SC Serbine 818 Retouched SC Serbine 823 Retouched SA Serbine 831 Retouched SC

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105 Appendix D (Continued) Serbine 833 Retouched SC Serbine 834 Retouched SB2 Serbine 1037.1 Retouched SC Serbine 1037.2 Retouched SC Serbine 817 Angular Waste SC Serbine 822 Angular Waste SC Serbine 827 Angular Waste SC Serbine 830 Angular Waste SC Serbine 832 Angular Waste SC Serbine 843 Angular Waste SC Serbine 819 Core SC Urpes 781 Whole Flake SC Urpes 786 Proximal Flake SA Urpes 790 Whole Flake SB2 Urpes 795 Whole Flake SC Urpes 796.1 Whole Flake SC Urpes 796.2 Distal Flake SC Urpes 796.3 Whole Flake SC Urpes 797.1 Whole Flake SC Urpes 797.3 Whole Flake SC Urpes 797.5 Medial Flake SC Urpes 799 Whole Flake SB2 Urpes 801 Whole Flake SC Urpes 810 Whole Flake SC Urpes 788 Retouched SC Urpes 794 Retouched SC Urpes 797.4 Retouched SC Urpes 798 Retouched SC Urpes 800 Retouched SB2 Urpes 782 Angular Waste SC Urpes 784 Angular Waste SC Urpes 785 Angular Waste SC