Architecture as canvas
- Permanent Link:
- Architecture as canvas
- Blazenovic, Monika
- Place of Publication:
- [Tampa, Fla]
- University of South Florida
- Publication Date:
- Subjects / Keywords:
- Public Performance
Dissertations, Academic -- School of Architecture and Community Design -- Masters -- USF ( lcsh )
- non-fiction ( marcgt )
- ABSTRACT: Cities are increasingly becoming vessels of consumption, while various opportunities for production of space and public expression are taken away from the city's inhabitants. New architectural interventions often disregard a site's previously developed character and further aid in wiping away memories closely related to a city's cultural past. Banja Luka, the second largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, has been an important cultural center, even through years of unrest. Within the city's main plaza stands an unfinished concrete structure (Fig. 3), built with pre-war conceptions of a hotel. The structure's location within the city of Banja Luka has provided for a close connection with the city's inhabitants and has allowed them to relate to it directly on a daily basis. The city's youth has left traces of artistic expression on this structure; its interface with the countercultures of graffiti artists and skateboarders has created a unique testament of time which desires continued narration. With the post-war privatization of most properties within the city, and the increasing desire to live within the city center, construction cranes are appearing throughout the city's core, providing new residential towers and a high increase in places for consumption. The opportunities for production of space, for places where memories are preserved and created, are decreasing and threaten to affect the thesis site. Completion of the project as initially envisioned would disregard the existing interactive relationship established between the city's inhabitants and the structure. The beauty of artistic expression cultivated upon the structure longs to be preserved and augmented in order to enable the structure's autonomy. Recognition of the value of the existing built elements and the site's overall character is essential and requires purposeful evaluation in the unification process of the new and existing elements. The redefined space will become a monument to the activities which have echoed at the site through some of the toughest times the city's youth had to endure. "...the notion of monument I have sought to put forward here is bound up with the lingering resonance of poetry after it has been heard, with the recollection of architecture after it has been seen."1 The old and new will become individual halves of one self, united as they continue to play. 1 Solà-Morales Rubió, Ignasi, and Sarah Whiting. Differences: Topographies of Contemporary Architecture (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997), 71.
- Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
- Includes bibliographical references.
- System Details:
- Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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- System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
- General Note:
- Title from PDF of title page.
- General Note:
- Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.
- Statement of Responsibility:
- by Monika Blazenovic.
- Source Institution:
- University of South Florida Library
- Holding Location:
- University of South Florida
- Rights Management:
- All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
- Resource Identifier:
- E14-SFE0003400 ( USFLDC DOI )
e14.3400 ( USFLDC Handle )
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Architecture as canvas
h [electronic resource] /
by Monika Blazenovic.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
ABSTRACT: Cities are increasingly becoming vessels of consumption, while various opportunities for production of space and public expression are taken away from the city's inhabitants. New architectural interventions often disregard a site's previously developed character and further aid in wiping away memories closely related to a city's cultural past. Banja Luka, the second largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, has been an important cultural center, even through years of unrest. Within the city's main plaza stands an unfinished concrete structure (Fig. 3), built with pre-war conceptions of a hotel. The structure's location within the city of Banja Luka has provided for a close connection with the city's inhabitants and has allowed them to relate to it directly on a daily basis. The city's youth has left traces of artistic expression on this structure; its interface with the countercultures of graffiti artists and skateboarders has created a unique testament of time which desires continued narration. With the post-war privatization of most properties within the city, and the increasing desire to live within the city center, construction cranes are appearing throughout the city's core, providing new residential towers and a high increase in places for consumption. The opportunities for production of space, for places where memories are preserved and created, are decreasing and threaten to affect the thesis site. Completion of the project as initially envisioned would disregard the existing interactive relationship established between the city's inhabitants and the structure. The beauty of artistic expression cultivated upon the structure longs to be preserved and augmented in order to enable the structure's autonomy. Recognition of the value of the existing built elements and the site's overall character is essential and requires purposeful evaluation in the unification process of the new and existing elements. The redefined space will become a monument to the activities which have echoed at the site through some of the toughest times the city's youth had to endure. "...the notion of monument I have sought to put forward here is bound up with the lingering resonance of poetry after it has been heard, with the recollection of architecture after it has been seen."1 The old and new will become individual halves of one self, united as they continue to play. 1 Solà-Morales Rubió, Ignasi, and Sarah Whiting. Differences: Topographies of Contemporary Architecture (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997), 71.
Advisor: Michael Halflants, M. Arch.
x School of Architecture and Community Design
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Architecture as Canvas by Monika Blazenovic of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Date of Approval:
Dedication To a city that was full of life even when death seemed too
Acknowledgements I thank the following people for making the completion of my last year at SA+CD possible: my design decisions and knowing exactly when to make me feel the pressure I needed to feel in order to get this all done; committee member Vikas Mehta for being encouraging and having the ability to help me clarify and better understand ideas I had throughout thesis; committee member Josue Robles Caraballo for all the tremendous support he has the many trips he has made to USF and all the many times he has had to pay $5 for parking; Thesis I professor of old drawings I thought I may never be able to get; Ryan Clements for taking the time to show me around the Skatepark of Tampa and helping me understand the diverse culture of skateboarders; Eldar Spahic and Zulexxx for their help with skateboarding photography from the site; and my family for being supportive through this long
i List of Figures i i Abstract i v Introduction They 3 5 6 7 2 5 Program Character 2 5 Project Type 2 6 7 Supporting Ideas 3 Site Analysis 3 2 Pedestrian Movement 3 3 Visual Fields 3 8 Current Skateboarders Activity 4 Existing Forces 4 2 Scale of Existing Structures 4 4 Program Details 4 7 Initial Design Concepts 5 2 4 Understanding the Existing Structure 5 7 2 h 64 k 66 Time to Compare 6 Table of Contents Shaping Decisions at Plaza Entry 8 2 3 4 5 8
ii g Dedication Acknowledgements v 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 2 4 5 5 6 7 8 2 3List of Figures 4 5 6 7 8 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 7
iii 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
iv while various opportunities for production of space and public expression are taken away from the citys a sites previously developed character and further aid in wiping away memories closely related to a citys cultural city of Banja Luka has provided for a close connection with the citys inhabitants and has allowed them to relate to it of artistic expression on this structure; its interface with has created a unique testament of time which desires Completion of the project as initially envisioned would disregard the existing interactive relationship established beauty of artistic expression cultivated upon the structure longs to be preserved and augmented in order to enable existing built elements and the sites overall character is essential and requires purposeful evaluation in the activities which have echoed at the site through some of notion of monument I have sought to put forward here is bound up with the lingering resonance of poetry after it The old and new will become individual they Differences: Topographies of Contemporary Architecture Architecture as Canvas Monika Blazenovic ABSTRACT
Mitte pushing for an extreme makeover while diminishing some meter of its buildings and streets is taken strict hold of by 2 who are both directly and indirectly being forced out of the described as parasites and may not necessarily have the intent of being prescriptive but rather informative in still encourages a type of separatist approach which yet again gives an encouragement to hide away the life of the the thesis site currently has a pronounced right to use artists and skateboarders who not only found vibrancy culture of people such as those who bring entertainment Introduction
2 similar ideas in the city of Sarajevo whose spirit was 3Scar Construction the Series portrays his arguments 4 He found at the thesis site may be described as a remnant of the idea arises that the remnants of war do not need to be and incomplete structure have developed are strong cues of how architecture can in fact serve to develop new forms
3 The search devoted to an unearthing of memory and of a collection of events at the location of relevance: the The various scales of relationships the citys inhabitants well as the overall cultural desires of the city are examined be reused to aid in a new revitalization of the square by potential in aiding in the continuation of narration of the Todays growing community of sustainable thinkers may suggest that this approach is simply the best answer as completely demolishing any stable structure without trying to reuse elements of it would plainly be a negative move in regards to the already notorious traces of negative there is the need to recognize the extent of impact the structure has had on the citys inhabitants and how its community of this city are combined with further aspects The incomplete structure has lent itself as a canvas for partial reuse of some of the structural layout as desired 5 the fact that the latest plan includes a complete demolition of the incomplete structure to be replaced by another and how they have affected this built environment on different scales is examined further to help draw parallels Intervene They
4 between the architectural intervention approaches which architecture always imposes something on places and The validity of the statement and its extent will be tested Events of varying dimensions have affected this site and allow for a study of the character the site has developed is answered through a study of the various inhabitants of the city who have contributed to the character of the square and the Gr(o)und: Workshop 2002
5 %Â¡ en events involve the interface of the incomplete structure of the square with the counterculture of skateboarders The events portray the citys inhabitants manifested use of the built environment as a form of canvas for public technique of artistic expression while skateboarders leave
6 %Â¡ en The structures extroverted nature effectively portrays its It is never the same as the year before and brings new
7 %Â¡ en platform while the incomplete structures appeal welcomes the various characters the citys inhabitants take on from source of entertainment while its canvas of advertisements
7 The city was have opportunities for cultural involvement and frequent As an introduction to the citys plan to completely demolish the existing structure and why alternatives should be Faust portrays feelings resulting from loss one has been forced to encounter: 8 Banja Luka As described by Bojan Fajfrovics installation dedicated to future to the forgotten past without existing for a moment structures involvement in cultural desires of the citys
The hotel currently planned as replacement of the may be perfectly appropriate for a location which has not its place as one that can continue to offer entertainment and freedom for expression theyve grown to posses over presence all portray a complete disregard of character the valuable of celebrating as it portrays the long history of human involvement in culture during times when war structure has provided entertainment and allowed for tension release during times when the citys inhabitants by the sounds of grenades coming from distances which At a time when electricity was scarcely available to the
an assessment of linkage involving various aspects of to be the ability to clarify the deeper causes behind the diverse scales of strategic importance to the general problem of the thesis in the ways they produce a kind deviant ones provide insights just as effectively while they inform of issues generally opposing the established views Case Studies
%Â¡ en An appropriate beginning for various studies related to the thesis topic starts at the root of the issue of a forced loss such as that of Banja Lukas inhabitants who will be forced to face a drastic transformation of character within the a part of them through various interactions previously Part of an analysis of a culture of people who have been forced to lose an important aspect of their everyday lives The experimental workshop examines the culture of people After a culture of both the physical and metaphorical to describe the foundation of ideas that gives a structure the process of rethinking the past and remembering the about the fact that what is missed most is not the height of the citys previous structures but rather the most powerful connections they experienced through the direct level surroundings within the areas affected by the fall of More so interested in exploring the idea of eccentric installations being introduced to the citys inhabitants and examining the reactions received by a city forced to workshop participants concluded that these unfamiliar installations were not welcomed by the city or its individual
introduced to various locations throughout the affected area while the inhabitants reactions as well as overall the citys individuals as well as groups such as the higher structure holding a mirror to a security camera; a structure of all of the 8 installations was recorded and workshop participants found that the longest survival period of all The case study itself helps draw two major conclusions Manhattan and Banja Luka as both are places which have the plaza and incomplete structure over a period of more misfortune in regards to the number of lost lives and built overall effects of drastic changes imposed on the character out of its daily routines of normality is generally not able and others will lose a place they have willingly become a some were inevitably played with and generated a certain type of curiosity among strangers who unconsciously to conclude that societys general opinions and stands can be challenged and may change depending on how new elements are presented and wether they can be seen as positive aspects by society as much as by those who are If programmatic elements in the thesis subject were to call for platforms which are to become encouraging to activities diminished while seemingly introducing these elements which become receptive to several functions yet somehow example of such a creation while being threatened with the music devotees who are accustomed to seeing their favorite performers occupying the incomplete structures as art in order to allow for their becoming or could they generally be declared as truly dedicated for use by the efforts to place them contributed to [a] requisite amount
Mathematics Center by KPMB %Â¡ en portions of the existing incomplete structure and allowing is a great study from which ideas can be extracted and appropriately reprocessed when making design decisions The Center for Mathematics involved the adaptive reuse of one of the oldest buildings of the McMaster University Initial constraints included historic preservation laws which disallowed any alterations to the exterior faade of the aspects of the interior were previously intended for a very completely gutting the interior while still reusing structural Since the existing building envelope disallowed qualitative natural lighting to reach important spaces in the middle the middle of the structure allowing a completely new elevation to be the latest source of qualitative natural changing canvas as the experience of moving through the hallways is never the same and allows for animated
level as well as between different levels of the newly solution deals with the decision to make this center for tables and benches to encourage group study and recording mathematical notations yet susceptible to less through a more traditional means of directly applying a The Architecture of Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg
of the thesis related to the losses a citys inhabitants are gives insights about opportunities for a larger scale of way todays advertising billboards send a rather worthless on walls in major cities around the world so that enticing the ideas and motives of the organizers: mass produced cerebral pollution offering at absolute best non intellectual property is responsible for creating the born out of a need to salvage what precious public space is ability to disrupt; incite; excite; inspire and intrigue; to make comment; to make beautiful; to make real; to make %Â¡ en location: mixed together form the red cells of an excited living blood
bombards the citys inhabitants with a series of billboards covering the incomplete structure have a very direct connection with the life of the city while offering yet again the blame does not sit purely in the hands of the company trying to sell its coffee with some debatable graphic means not be to blame as much as the individual owners of the not be exposed to information which positively develops reason while the coffee giants ad always sits in the most competition as part of a goal to revitalize the Hardau district main square while allowing an entity such as the Diesel clothing company to control what that angle of the city
25 owned while continuing to serve the purpose of directly It can be a space of collective memory while continuing the The source of entertainment the incomplete structure has been able to provide has been a type of visual and performance while creating the artwork to later become desire for both the creation and consumption of the visual actors all came from Belgrade as if there were no talented various talents displayed through local public performances talented and eager performers who are in need of a place Program Character a place could become a government owned educational will be important in the end is its relationship to the public displays visual and performing art previously exhibited in Careful evaluation of hierarchy of relationships between
26 group of individual programmatic aspirations which could potentially become key to arriving at an overall assemblage monument The term itself is not at all meant to imply that the recognized value of celebrating the activities the site and incomplete structure have allowed to happen in the same location during years when the citys inhabitants needed it The structures and plazas character of being a form of formulation of various programmatic goals and objectives as related to how the structure can in fact become a Project Type %Â¡ en
27 Artists such as Borjana Mrdja creativity in various places including cracks of a concrete artery An artist can generate educational pieces which send a Tampas Franklin Street now offers an elongated wall Urban Charrette A lot of real estate property is being wasted in a prominent related to the thesis topic as the incomplete structures but its overall character suggests that it is a prime piece of real estate property only in terms of its location and the Urban Charrette The only way the structure is able to generate income is within the citys center while even further covering up the artists messages which may offer a much more valuable %Â¡ en
Although artists can deliver pieces of work which are for impeding the advancement of the overall values of a The display of artworks of any sort should be encouraged possibly one which may also be housed within the newly most current aspirations and research as related to the nature of the project should contribute to a more cohesive renounced but rather encouraged to use the spaces in a encourages the existence of the individuals who have skateboarding and snowboarding club organized in Banja formalities are unfortunately still organized and managed successfully gained approval for a snowboarding park on skateboarders are still struggling and awaiting the day when Banja Lukas government will recognize the positive
Although the idea of designing a skateboarding park in this available public spaces of the downtown region into spaces are quickly appearing to support the growing desires for aspect of the citys vitality seems to be diminishing as the ratio of places where people could create memories now being offset by places which become destinations of consumption while a street becomes merely a way to get As described within Henri Lefebvres The Production of Space production of meanings which shape our spatial perceptions The Survival of Capitalism relate to the development of capitalism the city of Banja Luka is moving towards as he further makes the argument that social production of urban space is balance between spaces of production and consumption The production of space The survival of capitalism: reproduction of the relations of production Supporting Ideas %Â¡ en needs to be carefully evaluated and while the number of
of uses allowing for a diversity of activities to become A problematic aspect lies in the reality that while the number buildings allow the inhabitants to experience or engage in any sort of performance aiding in the production of space as most of these structures are places of consumption in then leaves the structure not having created any form of The skateboarding club and its support spaces could use may occur will be further examined in the following section of site analysis where more groundwork for decisions will Further programmatic aspects will be elaborated on in the
32 qualities associated with a prerequisite for vibrancy within site is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of Site Analysis
33 Pedestrian Movement %Â¡ en core is currently most prominent within a section of the pedestrian and allows for a great freedom of movement The main pedestrian streets nature is very welcoming to becoming more and more commercialized as can be seen consumption except for those stops the citys inhabitants offsetting the effects of increased investments towards The music pavilion is an asset for the citys inhabitants as it provides free entertainment for the city on its inviting benches while the buildings transparent nature changes its state from being a place for practice to being a stage of performance for anyone who wants to stop by and performances to chess tournaments with plasma score displays for the audience makes it very probable that
36 production of space as memories are created with each The size of the music pavilion and its more static array of performances puts limitations on the city while it is The skateboarding parks nature could mimic that of the music pavilion in the sense that the structure could open
38 Visual Fields %Â¡ en to draw conclusions on how these surfaces could continue have had the most pronounced effects reaching not only all the people moving though the square and the movement as well as other pedestrians moving around the
Current Skateboarders Activity %Â¡ en currently provides the skateboarders with a larger free Events are usually organized by installing rails and other continue to use that part of the square as weather are down any time there is rain or other harsh weather familiar with the culture of skateboarders to realize that a simple railing installation is generally just not enough does not offer a variety of surfaces which can be enjoyed by skateboarders and is certainly not welcoming on days The sites reconsidered physical aspects can help bring a much more enjoyable experience for each type of
42 Existing Forces %Â¡ en within these two entities would enhance the downtown experience as only the music pavilion currently offers a music pavilions small scale and media difference needs to be enhanced with the existence of the skateboarding
44 A physical model portraying the general massing of the existing structure and its immediate surroundings within establish an initial sense of scale for structures at the site relationship to the adjacent historic hotel will be explored in detail in the future to help understand the buildings Scale of Existing Structures %Â¡ en
47 Program Details In order to gain a better understanding of the basic needs of about what really makes an enjoyable skateboarding park skateboarding park should accommodate a large number of skateboarding surfaces in order to become an enjoyable It is important to understand two basic types of They are best experienced by the skateboarder when another design concern depending on the surfaces sun
in turn are elements which mimic the look of previously a very peculiar abstraction incapable of escaping the The statement above relates to the thesis as a city which now help reverse that effect by having this skateboarding only another enclosed structure with no dialogue to the park should have a direct ability to connect with the rest of the citys inhabitants by allowing a direct experience of the As the skateboarding culture is generally considered a most expressive individuals to recognize the city as not their existence can do a greater good for the individual Henri Lefebvre Some ways to actively produce space at the site include making it possible for many to experience the beauty of educating on the creation of skateboarding platforms through a visually exposed workshop which can both present the beauty of the process of making in skateboarding and aspects which
should be sent by the structure or rather the entity housed time was not a fun time for them as their exposure was as part of an area which has historically been involved in organizations and artists which are trying to send an the beauty of freedom and the need for a change in the well as artists such as Mladen Miljanovic The entire atmosphere of the skateboarding performance can be enhanced by providing a few additional opportunities weather is not nice enough to sit or stand outside for but little amenities that make it desirable to stay and grow with a space of production will help not only with some Mladen Miljanovic The elements which have to be considered in further design augmented; the performance [space]; the [people] Henri Lefebvre
52 Initial Design Concepts main concern will be the arrival at a successful design which does not disregard any previous characters developed and will now encompass a live performance rather than the top of a carport structure currently at street level between the serve as a stage or accommodate the installation of a stage The performance will be able to be experienced from the historic hotel in order to enhance the experience skateboarding will be an internal and external activity while
53 the boundaries can be diminished and skateboarding events can encompass the entire built environment dedicated to The existing incomplete structure will be carefully examined in order to determine how it may be able to be reused and serve a purpose both of being a monument to activities
54 Preliminary Schematics explored in order to address one way of abstractly shaping A further detailed analysis of the incomplete structure as it was built is necessary and will inform of more concrete
57 Understanding the Existing Structure important to understand in further detail what the incomplete structure itself offered in terms of a usable After an elaborate and often discouraging search for found and made it possible to acquire scans of pieces of while serving as a reference as well as another design is comprised of a series of shafts in the locations where the different model stories are held in place by basswood later converted into individual light wells in order to lighten some of the darker portions towards the middle of the
suffered greatly in the amount of qualitative natural light concurrently in order to gain a better understanding of while also using them as underlays for much of the future The existing structures footprint within the plaza is shown
62 A Visit to the SPoT After gaining a better understanding of the physical form of the incomplete structure and preparing for future design top skateboarding venues on the East Coast of the United existed within the skateboarding culture of Banja Luka the generally small membership fees they require of their the purchase of a beverage while at the same time offering a type of spatial atmosphere and seating arrangement which allows for the enjoyment of the skateboarders
63 than places of consumption because buying skateboarding process for the activity to continue along with supplying
64 %Â¡ en itself can be very enjoyable for the skateboarder through the activitys amazing and sometimes painful adrenaline their newest trick and witness the one performed by the A place where space is produced out of this mix of excited human beings is sure to bring vibrancy to any part of the skateboarders will be enhanced while addressing the
66 %Â¡ en SPoT lead to the realization that any good skate park will change parts of its general layout at least on an annual skateboarding elements such as the bowl or vert ramp are considered more complex to build and skate and therefore at the SPoT are redesigned annually for the Tampa Am canvas for the skateboarder as well as other observers as These changes require support spaces which allow for easy crafting and installation of new elements and storage allow for easy adjustments to the material while allowing for another type of production of space within which new to what may be something they are not accustomed to
Time to Compare %Â¡ en After gaining a better understanding of general scales of various skateboarding platforms through the visit into consideration the general rigid palette the existing incomplete structure offers and try to imagine how these much more organic shapes and elements could differ in a half pipe or quarter pipe as well as the more complex the proportionally correct column spacing and ceiling height
How to Incorporate Program The previous exercise informed of several design decisions that could be made including that of having the vert ramp observers who are inhabiting that level to experience the It was important to make some initial decisions regarding structure seemed to make themselves very reusable within
%Â¡ en time to get a sense of the general scale of programmatic The incomplete structure offered more space on the upper amount of space each type of space may take up within the existing structures footprint as well as initial thoughts
82 Shaping Decisions at Plaza Entry %Â¡ en It was important to make initial decisions about how the as previously shown through the Visual Fields Diagram elements and seating be combined outside of the enclosed
83 %Â¡ en start to allow for a canvas of performance to show as one of the ramp sections would be incorporated into the space would be adjacent to the ramp section for convenient place from which the performance can we watched without
84 %Â¡ en It was time to further resolve a few design decisions and through this ground plan allowed for more resolution of physical model on the incomplete structure as an underlay secondary and therefore mostly occurring in the upper integrated within the upper levels to further aid in the
85 %Â¡ en
Tackling the design of the overall structure with all of of the East elevation and did not go into detail regarding the pipe could become an important element to incorporate the plaza did not make too much sense due to narrowing This model also explored the spatial characteristics of an could begin to be carved out in places where that seemed aid in understanding and graphically representing areas
complex and seemingly very value engineered portion of This portion of the plaza was also of importance due to its generous size and the fact that previous skateboarding for the full pipe and dually the entry into the skateboarding More considerations about structure were explored within
full pipe and another half pipe with a transition allowing for those who are not on skateboards to travel by the stair The model included an exploration of incorporating a bowl in another realm as those who may be passing or sitting
the spatial relationships as well as possible structural resolutions within a smaller section of the existing emphasized and showed the intended porosity between The model also portrayed the desired interconnectedness between different levels of the newly redesigned
Final Schematics it situates the new structure within the plaza and shows the interior portion of the skateboarding club as a lighter elements through shades a little darker than the unaltered are shown in shades of gray as the level interconnectedness Further design outcomes can be seen through a select ideas discussed in previous sections and superimpose two such examples onto the new structures most site by billboards calling for consumption of products and
References Images Cited: com I was here]
m Skate Musketeers [at site]
Literature Cited: The production of space The survival of capitalism: reproduction of the relations of production Differences: Topographies of Contemporary Cambridge: MIT Pres s Free Encyclopedia
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