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Life in the florida everglades :
b bioarchaeology of the miami one site
h [electronic resource] /
by Cristina Echazabal.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
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Thesis (M.A.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
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ABSTRACT: The bioarchaeology of prehistoric south Florida has been an area of archaeological interest for the last century because of the interplay between ancient populations and the unique environment of the Everglades. The purpose of this study is to analyze the pathology, demography and mortuary practice of the ancient Southeast Florida aboriginal population at Miami One to assess the similarity of Miami One to other south Florida populations during the prehistoric period. The Miami One site (8DA11) is one of many related sites located along the shore of the Miami River. It was continuously occupied from the Late Archaic (ca.1000 B.C.) through the Glades II period (1000 A.D.). Archaeological material associated with the Glades III period (ca. A.D. 1200) was also present. A large quantity of human remains was recovered and half of this collection is being temporarily housed at the University of South Florida. The burials were secondary and commingled in nature, having been recovered from solution holes which served as natural ossuaries. A total of forty-nine adults and fourteen juveniles are reported. Nineteen cases of osteoarthritis related to age and injury are described. Thirty-two cases of infection are described, including periostitis, osteomyelitis, and a possible treponemal infection. Seven cases of trauma are also present. Radiographic evidence demonstrates a low frequency of metabolic disruptions in the population. Dental pathology consists mostly of severe attrition, abscessing, calculus and very few caries, all consistent with a hunter-gatherer subsistence pattern. Mortuary data, including demography, pathology, type of burial, burial location and burial artifacts, are compared to that of five other contemporaneous sites and an earlier site associated with the Glades culture in southeast Florida. The data gathered in this study are consistent with those of the six additional sites, indicating that the local culture is indeed part of the larger Glades culture assigned to southeast Florida and that these groups are culturally heterogeneous.
Advisor: Erin H. Kimmerle, Ph.D.
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Life in the Florida Everglades: Bioarchaeology of the Miami One Site by Cristina Echazabal A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Erin H. Kimmerle, Ph.D. Nancy White, Ph.D. Robert H. Tykot, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 7, 2010 Keywords: mortuary practice, paleodemography, paleopathology, physical anthropology, South Florida Copyright 2010, Cristina Echazabal
Dedication For my parents, Damaris Gonzalez and Albe rto R. Echazabal, whose profound love and support give me strength. Los amo.
Acknowledgements I would like to express my gr atitude to the faculty and st aff of the University of South Florida Anthropology Department. I wo uld like to thank my advisor, Erin H. Kimmerle, for her guidance and support, and my committee members, Nancy White and Robert Tykot, for their editorial advice througho ut this process. The study of the Miami One skeletal collection was made possible by R obert S. Carr and the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc. Funding fo r my studies was provided by the Diverse Student Success Fellowship. Rod Hale, from the USF Graduate School, provided endless encouragement and was instrumental in ensu ring my continued fina ncial support through the fellowship. Funding for lab supplies a nd materials that I used in the new Bioarchaeology Lab in the USF Anthropol ogy Department was provided in part by Griffin Award Committee of the Florida Archaeological Council, Inc. In addition, I gratefully acknowledge the invaluable contributions of several individuals to my success. Matt and Liotta Dowdy donated their time and resources to provide me with radiographs necessary for th is study. Tom Hyre gave up much of his free time to provide me with excellent editor ial advice, much needed humor and cheerful cyber-company during many long work nights. Kimmerles biological anthropology students were a great source of moral support, academic resources and necessary diversion. Finally, I would like to express my eternal gratitude to my parents, family and friends, who never cease to encourage me and are always there to celebrate my victories and stand by me during my trials. They are my light and my shelter.
Table of Contents List of Tables..........................................................................................................ii List of Figures..........................................................................................................v Abstract..................................................................................................................vi Chapter One: Introduction.......................................................................................1 Southeast Florida Environment and Culture during the Glades Period.........................................................................................3 South Florida and the Everglades....................................................4 The Everglades Population..............................................................7 The Glades Period........................................................................................9 The Material Culture of the Glades People....................................12 External Cultural Influence............................................................13 Habitation Sites and Subsistence Patterns.....................................14 Ceremonial and Mortuary Practice................................................16 Chapter Two: Environmental Archaeology...........................................................19 Critique of the Ecological Approach.........................................................24 Environmental Archaeology in Ancient Florida........................................27 Chapter Three: Methods and Materials..................................................................31 Miami One (8DA11)..................................................................................31 Previous Archaeological Research: Comparative Sample.........................38 Santa Maria (8DA2132).................................................................38 Brickell Point (8DA12) and the Miami Circle and Icon-Brickell Parcel (8DA98)........................................................42 Brickell Bluff (8DA1082)..............................................................46 Flagami South (8DA1053).............................................................47 Margate-Blount (8BD41)...............................................................48 Windover (8BR248).......................................................................49 Data Collection for the Miami One Research............................................51 Paleodemography.......................................................................................52 Paleopathology...........................................................................................54 Dental Pathology............................................................................55 Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders.............................................57 Degenerative Joint Disease and Osteoarthritis..............................57 Infectious Disease..........................................................................58 Trauma...........................................................................................59 i
Mortuary Variability..................................................................................60 Chapter Four: Results............................................................................................62 Taphonomy................................................................................................62 Demography...............................................................................................64 Pathology...................................................................................................70 Infectious Disease..........................................................................70 Degenerative Joint Disease and Osteoarthritis..............................73 Trauma...........................................................................................75 Dental Pathology............................................................................78 Pathology of Comparative Sample............................................................78 Mortuary Practice in the Comparative Site Sample...................................87 Chapter Five: Discussion.......................................................................................91 Miami One (8DA11)..................................................................................91 Infectious Disease......................................................................................93 Degenerative Joint Disease and Osteoarthritis..........................................95 Trauma.......................................................................................................97 Dental Pathology........................................................................................99 Mortuary Practice.....................................................................................100 Chapter Six: Conclusion......................................................................................105 Bibliography........................................................................................................110 Appendices...........................................................................................................120 Appendix A: Summaries for each excavation unit in feature 164/500..............................................................................121 ii
List of Tables Table 1.1: Summary of central a nd south Florida Contact-period cultures and their geographic locations................................................10 Table 1.2: Archeological periods in south Florida based on radiocarbon dating...............................................................................11 Table 3.1: Site summary of burial data from Miami One and comparative sites..................................................................................32 Table 3.2: Icon Brickell Pa rcel mortuary summary...............................................44 Table 3.3: Discrete age ranges a nd their correspo nding categories.......................54 Table 3.4: Pathology variables a nd associated characteristics...............................56 Table 4.1: Adult minimum number of individuals for feature 164........................65 Table 4.2: Demography summary of age by unit of feature 164 ..........................66 Table 4.3: Demography summary of adults by unit of feature 164 by sex...................................................................................................68 Table 4.4: Summary of pathologies.......................................................................72 Table 4.5: Dental pathology in Miami One...........................................................79 Table 4.6: Dental pathology from Miami One and comparative sites......................................................................................................81 Table 4.7: Summary of pathologies for Miami One and comparative sites..................................................................................81 Table 4.8: Cases of infection in Miami One and comparative sites......................83 Table 4.9: Cases of osteoarthritis a nd degenerative joint disease due to advanced age in Miami One and comparative sites.............................84 Table 4.10: Cases of trauma in Mi ami One and comparative sites.......................85 iii
Table 4.11: Summary of mortuary practice at Miami One and comparative sites.................................................................................88 iv
v List of Figures Figure 1.1: Florida environments duri ng the Glades periods and today..................2 Figure 1.2: South Florida populations.....................................................................5 Figure 3.1: The site of Miami One.........................................................................33 Figure 3.2: Feature 164..........................................................................................34 Figure 3.3: Location of Ar chaic and Glades sites in south Florida from which comparative skeletal remains are described.............................39 Figure 4.1: Bones darken ed by heat exposure.......................................................63 Figure 4.2: Demography summary of age by unit of feature 164..........................67 Figure 4.3: Demography summary of adults by unit of feature 164 by sex...............................................................................69 Figure 4.4: Juvenile minimum number of individuals by age cohort....................71 Figure 4.5: Left femur exhibiting possible treponemal infection..........................74 Figure 4.6: Close up of femur exhi biting abnormal bone growth due to possible treponemal infection..................................................74 Figure 4.7: Left lunate exhibi ting severe osteoarthritis likely activity-related..........................................................................76 Figure 4.8: Unsided fibula exhibiting myositis ossificans traumatica ...................77 Figure 4.9: Right tibia exhibiting myositis ossificans traumatica .........................77 Figure 4.10: Summary of caries from the Miami One teeth..................................79 Figure 4.11: Summary of pathol ogies from Miami One and comparative sites...............................................................................82
Life in the Florida Everglades: Bioarchaeology of the Miami One Site Cristina Echazabal ABSTRACT The bioarchaeology of prehistoric so uth Florida has been an area of archaeological interest for the last century because of the interplay between ancient populations and the unique environment of the Everglades. The purpose of this study is to analyze the pathology, demography and mortua ry practice of the ancient Southeast Florida aboriginal population at Miami One to assess the similarity of Miami One to other south Florida populations during the prehistoric period. The Miami One site (8DA11) is one of many relate d sites located along the shore of the Miami River. It was continuously occupied from the Late Arch aic (ca.1000 B.C.) through the Glades II period (1000 A.D.). Archaeological material associated with the Glades III period (ca. A.D. 1200) was also present. A large quantity of human remains was recovered and half of this collection is being tem porarily housed at the Universi ty of South Florida. The burials were secondary and commingled in nature, having been r ecovered from solution holes which served as natural ossuaries. A total of forty-nine adults and fourteen juveniles are reported. Nineteen cases of os teoarthritis related to age and injury are described. Thirty-two cases of infecti on are described, including periostitis, osteomyelitis, and a possible treponemal inf ection. Seven cases of trauma are also present. Radiographic evidence demonstrates a low frequency of metabolic disruptions vi
vii in the population. Dental pathology consists mostly of severe attrition, abscessing, calculus and very few caries, all consistent with a hunter-gatherer subsistence pattern. Mortuary data, including demography, pathol ogy, type of burial, burial location and burial artifacts, are compared to that of five other contem poraneous sites and an earlier site associated with the Glades culture in southeast Florida. The data gathered in this study are consistent with those of the six additional sites, i ndicating that the local culture is indeed part of the larger Glades culture assigned to southeast Florida and that these groups are culturally heterogeneous.
Chapter 1 Introduction The archaeological culture area of south Florida, whose boundaries were defined by Goggin (1947:119), has been of interest to scholars, including archaeologists, for well over a century (e.g. Goggin 1947; McNicoll 1941; Milanich 1994, 1995). This interest is due in part to the unique environment to which the regional p opulation adapted very efficiently. Osteological rese arch regarding the lifestyle of the local populations has increased in the last several years as more archaeological projects and reports have resulted in publications (e.g. Isan 1983; Ca rr et al. 1984; Carr and Ricisak 2000; Isan et al. 1993, Iscan et al. 1995). The Late Arch aic (2000 to 500 B.C.) and Glades (500 B.C. to A.D. 1600) periods are represented by a se ries of related sites along the Miami River and farther inland into the Ev erglades (Figure 1.1). Miam i One (8DA11) is located on the Miami River and has yielded hundreds of skeletal remains along with some archaeological material. The focus of this study is on the human remains from the Miami One site, which were found in solution holes serving as na tural ossuaries. These remains are being temporarily housed at the Anthropology Department of the University of South Florida. This study consists of anal ysis of the paleodemography and paleopathology of the population represented by these remains, spa nning roughly from the La te Archaic to the Glades II (2000 B.C. to A.D. 1200) period. The in formation gathered is compared to data 1
Figure 1.1. Florida environments during the Glades period and today (adapted from Felmley 1991: 17). 2
from other contemporaneous arch aeological sites in th e area, as well as an earlier site, to assess a change through time in subsistence patterns and evident pathologies. The comparative sites are Santa Maria (DA2132), the Icon-Brickell Parcel (DA98), Brickell Bluff (DA1082), Flagami South (DA1053) Margate-Blount (BD41) and Windover (BR246). The information gathered is also us ed to discuss burial practice. Demography, pathology, type of burial, body position and grav e inclusions are take n into account in discussing whether an indivi duals status can be discer ned. This study is conducted under an environmental framework in whic h the local environment and available resources play a central role in cultural adap tation. Successful adaptation in this study is discussed in terms of the skeletal remains rather than technology. The following chapter is an introduction to the Glades population and their descendants, the Tequesta, as well as their natural environment. Chapter two discusses environmental archaeology and previous bioarcha eological research in Florida. Chapter three presents the materials and methods us ed in this study, followed by an overview of the lab protocol and the variables used fo r analysis: paleodem ography, paleopathology and mortuary practice. Chapters four and fi ve present the results and discussion of the demographic and pathologic and mortuary findings. Southeast Florida Environment and Cu lture during the Glades Period The people of southeast Florida were known by the Spaniards as the Tequesta during the Contact-period. The Tequesta and their pre-Contac t ancestors are collectively referred to as the Glades population. This group is defined by their occupation of the Everglades and the area proximal to the Miam i River (Figure 1.1). The archaeological 3
material associated with the Tequesta and their ancestors is known as the Glades culture (Milanich 1995). In the following sections, I introduce the evol ution of the local environment during prehistoric times and presen t a review of the Glades people and their culture as evidenced by the archaeological record. South Florida and the Everglades The area referred to as south Florida is difficult to define. In fact, Griffin (2002:1) begins his book on the archaeology of the Everglades by stating that many sources fail to define it successfully, and even those that do vary greatly among one another, though they all include the Everglades region in its entirety. Most definitions are based on ecology, topology and climate, but th ere is no consensus. This study uses Goggins definition of the Glades area as the southern tip of the state south of Boca Grande Pass on the west coast, and below Fo rt Pierce on the east coast [which] comprises all of tropical Florida, and the local culture reflects this environmental influence (Goggin 1947:119; see Figure 1.2). The environment in south Florida has cha nged considerably ove r the last several millennia, well before human habitation. Between 19,000 and 14,000 B.C., sea levels were low and the coastline retreated as mu ch as 130 m from modern-day shores. The southern Florida peninsula would have been arid and dry. The Holocene brought about a rapid sea level rise between 12,000 and 5,000 B. C., after which time the increase became more gradual. This rise was most likely asso ciated with a rise in temperatures starting 15,000 years ago (Milliman and Emery 1968:1123). According to Milanich, archaeologica l evidence indicates that Florida was inhabited prior to 12,000 years a go (10,000 years B.C.) at the st art of the Paleo-Indian 4
Figure 1.2. South Florida populations (adapted from Gr iffin 2002:163). 5
Period. He states that the end of the Ice Age brought about changes in climate which were favorable to a rapid increase in th e human population (Milanich 1994:33). During the Middle Holocene, the climate in south Fl orida became moister a nd similar to current conditions (Milanich 1994:63; Widmer 1988:165). With the formation of Lake Okeechobee around 3,500 B.C. and other inland s ources of freshwater, rainfall increased, giving way to the development of wetland vegetation in the Everglades and ultimately, freshwater and brackish water peats (Widmer 1988:165). However, the coastline did not become suitable for human occupation beyond seasonal procurement until about 700 B.C., during the Late Archaic, when the rise of sea level slowed down and the coastal environment began to resemble current conditio ns. Archaeological evidence for this is largely obscured by the rising sea level a nd modern developments (Milanich 1994:298; Widmer 1988:187-188, 213-214). According to Schwadron (2006), the Florid a Glades is the largest archeological region in south Florida. It encompasses th e Everglades, the Big Cypress Swamp, located on the west, and Ten Thousand Islands, loca ted to the south and including the Keys (Figure 1.1). Southeast Florid a is largely shaped by the Everglades, a subtropical wetland 1.5 million acres in size, which covers th e bottom half of the Florida peninsula (Schwadron 2006). This marshland is very environmentally diverse (Milanich 1994) with nine distinct ecosystems and a large estu ary system, which serves as a nursery for a variety of marine species and provides prot ection against hurricanes (NPS 2007). Annual precipitation ranges from 113 to 138 cm with a wet season from April to October (Griffin 2002: 3-4). According to Gr iffin, fires would have been common during the dry season, both naturally occurring, as evid enced by charcoal deposits in the peat, and as a result of 6
human activity. However, fire is important in this kind of environm ent to maintain the local flora (Griffin 2002:26). Griffin goes on to state th at hurricanes and tropical cyclones would have also been as common in prehistoric times as they are today (Griffin 2002:24-26). Storm surges can potentially cause more damage than wind and water alone, physically changing the landscape and altering salinity levels in the marshland, which can affect food and water sources. Freezes we re less common but w ould have provided a temporary spike in available food as fish di ed from low water temperature (Griffin 2002: 23). The Everglades Population Researchers (e.g. Pepe and Jester 1995; Russo & Heide 2002:80) suggest that regions east and south of Lake Okeechobee were populated by two different groups: the Coastal Archaic which utilized fiber-tempered pottery and the aceramic Glades Archaic located inland in the Everglades. The Everglades were extensively occupied by prehistoric and Contact-period populations. Within the swamp, there are pockets of higher ground in the form of palm tree islands, which are th e location of many archaeological sites dating back to the Late Archaic and pos sibly earlier (Milanich 1994, 1995; NSP 2007). These sites were inhabited by the ancestors of the Contact-period (ca. A.D. 1400) people whom the Spanish expl orers knew as the Tequesta during the sixteenth century. The Tequest a settled on the banks of the Miami River (Figure 1.2). Goggin (1950:13) refers to them as a domina nt group in south Florida along with the Calusa. McNicoll (1941:11) states that the Tequesta was the term sometimes used to 7
refer to all East Coast Caloosas but was most appropriately used to describe the Biscayne population whose chief was related to the Calusa chief. According to Widmer (1988:191), populati on growth in south Florida probably occurred at a rate of 1.0%, and doubled about every seventy years. Griffin (2002:55) states that the limited carrying capacity of the local resources may have been a reason why the Tequesta (and their an cestors) did not develop a large population. McNicoll (1941:17) surmises that the population of th e whole peninsula probably never exceeded 10,000. Settlement patterns, resource procurement and social organization during the Glades Periods (500 B.C. to A.D. 1600) were heavily influenced by the climatic change, which gave rise to a bracki sh water environment as well as more abundant freshwater sources. This environmental change came around 1,000 B.C. when it completely reshaped cultural adaptation into what G oggin referred to as the Glades Tradition (Goggin 1949; Widmer 1988:213-214). Accordin g to Goggin (1952), the Glades people lived in small groups of about twenty to th irty people. Subsiste nce was nonagricultural and based on tropical plants, including roots and fruits, marine and estuarine animals, small terrestrial animals and fowl (M ilanich 1995:29-30; Griffin 2002:165; Goggin 1952). Goggin points out the close relationshi p between the Glades people and their environment, as procurement was seasonally spec ific. He also states that diet was quite varied and heavily depended on a wide range of marine resources ranging from shellfish, which he surmises were systematically [tes ted]to determine [which] were suited for food, to sharks and whales (Goggin 1949:28-29). Milanich (1995:53) states that archaeol ogical evidence places the Glades culture throughout the southern portion of Florida, except on the Lake Okeechobee Basin on the 8
north and the territory of the Calusa to the west. Evidence of Tequesta culture localizes them in the Miami-Dade area, with the main village on the Miami River. According to Widmer (1988:223), there is no evidence that the socio-political organization of the Glades people was as complex as that of the Calusa, a coastal chiefdom that occupied the southwester portion of the Flor ida peninsula from Charlott e Harbor southward and who were first encountered by Ponce de Leon in 1513. The Tequesta did not control any other southeast groups such as the Ais, Guacata, Hobe, Jeaga, Santaluces and the Matecumbe of the Florida Keys, which the Spanish also re ferred to as Los Martires (Table 1.1). In fact, the Tequesta were likely subject to the Calusa with whom they may have maintained tenuous relationships through marriage (Milanich 1995:52-62, Widmer 1988:5). The Glades Period It is important to contextualize the Miam i One site and its population within the Glades area. The chronology of the Glades periods and a brie f description of the Glades culture are discussed in the fo llowing sections. The chronologi cal sequence in the Glades area (Table 1.2) was based by Goggin on the sequence at Upper Matecumbe Key, where he worked alongside Frank Sommer (Goggi n 1947:120; Griffin 2002:136). According to Griffin (2002:329-331), the Glades I period began about A.D. 500 to 750 and the Glades II period began about A.D. 750 and ended ar ound A.D. 1200. The Glades III period is defined by both pottery and European contact and extends from A.D. 1200 to about A.D. 1750 (Griffin 2002:332; Carr 1990:251). Sites, seasonal and permanent, are largely marked by the presence of shell middens along coastal and estuarine environments (McGoun 1993; Milanich 1995:30). 9
Table 1.2. Archaeological periods in south Fl orida based on radioc arbon dating (adapted from Goggin 1947; Griffin 2002; Milanich 1994; Widmer 1988). Dates Glades Period Subperiods Central Gulf Coast A.D. 1600 -1750 Glades IIIc Safety Harbor A.D. 1400-1600 Glades IIIb A.D. 1200-1400 Glades III Glades IIIa Weeden Island II A.D. 1100-1200 IIc Weeden Island I A.D. 900-1100 IIb A.D. 750-900 Glades II IIa A.D. 500-750 I late 500 B.C.-A.D. 500 Glades I I early 2000 -500 B.C. Archaic Late Pre-Weeden Island 11
The Material Culture of the Glades People The following section is a general descrip tion of the material culture associated with the Glades periods. The material culture reviewed here includes pottery, shell and bone tools as well as wooden artifacts. Res earchers use the form, f unction and design of these artifacts to esta blish their cultural association and chronology. The chronology of the Glades periods was defined based largely on ceramic temper and decoration styles. Decorations we re linear or curvilinear incised, tooled and pinched (Goggin 1947:120; Griffin 2002; McGoun 1993). According to Goggin (1947:120), during the Glades I period, the Gl ades Plain pottery was grit-tempered and undecorated. This grit-tempered pottery be gins to exhibit inci sed designs during the Glades II period. At this time, Belle Glades another pottery type, was also found mostly in the north and the west coast. Pottery d ecoration largely disappears in the Glades III period except in the lower east coast, wher e Surfside Incised, Glades Tooled and Biscayne Check-Stamped are found (Goggin 1947: 120). Limestone and sandstone were common raw materials for stone tools (Milanich 1994:301) and were used for such tools as hammerstones and gr inding slabs (Griffin 2002:117-121). Chert and flint were not found locally; therefore their presence is most likely due to trade (Milanich 1994:300-301). Ch ert points were possibly traded from the Tampa Bay area, along with stone celts and flint knives (Griffin 2002:118). Griffin (2002:93-117) and Milanich (1994:302) descri be the use of bone and shell. Shell tools were widely used in place of stone (Milanich 1994: 302), such as an abundant number of dippers made of Busycon shell, as well as receptacles, spoons, picks, hammers, adzes, celts and knives made from Busycon Strombus and other species 12
(Griffin 2002:97-108). Perforated sh ells were used as net sinkers. Shell was also used in the construction of features such as embank ments, canals and enclosures. Bones from various terrestrial mammals and marine speci es were fashioned into a number of tools such as chisels, awls, hooks and points. Sharks teeth were modified to be used as tools. Personal adornments consisted of shell bead s as well as shell, bone and stone pendants and gorgets. Perforated fish vertebrae, fish, bear and porpoi se teeth and bone pins were also used. During the Glades II period, bone ornaments were undecorated or incised. During the Glades III period, bone and sh ell decoration become more common in addition to the use of wood. Portable art a nd ceremonial artifacts in the form of animal and anthropomorphic figurines and carved or painted wood a nd stone tablets also became part of the material cult ure of the Glades people (Griffin 2002:121-122; Milanich 1994:304-308). External Cultural Influence Several aspects of the material cultur e indicate that the Glades people were influenced by other southeastern cultures. According to Goggin (1947:120) and McGoun (1993) some tools may suggest a grow ing trade network between the east and west coast of the peninsula. McGoun (1993) al so states that the pottery design patterns of the east coast and west coast become sim ilar during the Glades II period, suggesting increasing contact. Goggin states that shell tools, including the use of whole Busycon began in the west coast and were later adopted in the east coast. Luer (1995: 301) also reported on a platform pipe found at the si te of Ortona in Glades County which resembles a Hopewell-style platform pipe and probably dates to the Hopewell horizon 13
(ca. AD 1-350) [which] falls within the Glades I period. Luer stat es that many aspects of ceremony such as the platform pipes were shared by southeast and midwest populations. The Midwestern mound-building cu lture known as Hopewell developed an exchange pattern that reached its peak in the period between 1 and 400 A.D. (Brown 1977:172). The site of Ortona is located on the northern, inland border of the Glades area. It is closer to the Belle Glades area on the Lake Okeechobee basin and just southwest of Fort Center. However, Luer reports that a Hopewell-style platform pipe was also found the site of Hialeah #2, in the Miami-Dade area. This platform pipe was briefly described by McLellan ( 1984). As part of the disc ussion in his chapter on the Glades ceremonial complex, Goggin (1947:120-121) states th at secondary burial mounds with grave goods may be a result of contact with various cultures in central, Gulf and northwest Florida. Habitation Sites and Subsistence Patterns Milanich (1994) tells us that shell and earth middens were common along the coast throughout the Glades periods, and perhaps as early as the Archaic period, and were probably used for a very long time. Many of these middens were located in places where freshwater rivers met the Atlantic Ocean, such as near the mouth of the Miami River, a prime occupational location. Some sites also contain constructions made from shells such as ramps and embankments. Milani ch (1994:308-309) points out that there are places in which dark earth middens are more common than shell middens, such as within the Everglades National Park. Middens in south Florida can represent either permanent villages or seasonal occupation sites, such as those on Pine Island, in Calusa territory 14
(Carr 1990). There is sufficient evidence that the Tequesta constructed large structures, which may have included houses (Griffin 2002; 293) An example of a large structure is the famed Miami Circle in Dade County (Carr & Ricisak 2000). Furthermore, Luer talks about lengthy aboriginal canals in southern Florida, all apparently dug to facilitate canoe travel found in the areas of Pine Island, Lake Okeechobee and Ten Thousand Islands (Luer 1989:89). These canals, he argued, were common in south Florida and more than facilitating travel, they woul d have contributed to the di stribution of goods, including tribute. They also would have stim ulated contact among regional groups. Subsistence was largely based on various sp ecies of freshwater and marine fish, shellfish, sharks, sea turtles, mammal s and lizards (McGoun 1993; Milanich 1994; 1995:29-30). The remains of several shark spec ies such as bull shark, tiger shark, lemon shark and Atlantic sharpnose sharp were reported by Wing and Loucks (1982) among many other marine species in the Granada site Because of the large number of marine species found and the relatively small percenta ge of mammal, reptilian and avian species, these authors concluded that fishing was clearly the predominant economic activity (Wing and Loucks 1982:278). Edible plant species included saw palmetto, cabbage palm, mastic, yucca, prickly pear, sea grap es, hogplum and cocoplum, along with the sprouts of mangrove and acorns. According to Griffin, beginning during this period until European contact, subsiste nce patterns were stable and unchanged, evidencing a successful adaptation to the environment. 15
Ceremonial and Mortuary Practice According to Goggin, mortuary evidence dur ing the Glades II period consists of supine primary burials with no grave goods. Secondary burials and burial mounds with some grave goods are not seen until the Glades III period. Goggin indicates that burial mounds may have been the result of increase contact with othe r cultures such as Weeden Island II, Fort Walton and Safety Harbor (Goggin 1947:120-121). Burial mounds began to appear as early as 3000 years B.C., dur ing the Archaic period, in the Southeast and evolved into various forms during the Woodl and period (100 B.C. to 900 A.D.) (Dvila Cabrera 2005:88) which corresponded with the Glades I period in south Florida. Few burial artifacts were recovered from Miami One and none are dated to any specific cultural period. However, most burials were secondary and dated earl ier than the Glades III period. Flagami South (DA1053) and Margate-Blount (BD41) also contain secondary burial and were occupied prio r to the Glades III period (I can et al. 1995; I can 1983). The site of Brickell Bluff (D A1082) is dated to the Late Archaic and contains a mound (I can et al. 1993). Felmley (1991) conducted a study of buria l practices in the Southeast which included forty burials in Miami-Dade a nd Broward Counties. Felmely (1991:69) concluded that primary, both extended and fl exed, and secondary burials were present during the Late Archaic Period, but secondary burials increased drastically (from 33% to 60%) during Glades periods probably as a result of an increased use of charnel houses. This contradicts Goggins earlier conclusions She further states that there is no differential treatment based on sex or age. She also contradicts G oggins conclusion that burial goods were absent during the Late Archaic and early Gl ades Periods. She further 16
states that grave goods were more commonly found in primary extended burials during the Glades I period (Felmley 1991:85). It is important to note that preservation plays a role in the potential absence of grave goods ma de of perishable material such as wood. Felmley concludes that there is a possibl e emergence of status difference during the Late Archaic and Early Glades period as evidenced by the presence of formal cemeteries and the inclusion of goods in child graves. Furthermore, Felmley speculates there was an increase in the political power of the chief based on his or her religious and ceremonial influence during the same time (Felmley 1991:85-86). During the Glades II and II periods, Felm ley notes the beginning of use of constructed sand mounds near habitation sites as well as discrete cemeteries within habitation middens. Primary and secondary buria ls are still present and, in some cases, they appear to be concurrent (Felmley 1991: 86). She speculates that the high density of burial sites along the coast might be indicative of the development of local or regional centers and the site present at the mouth of the Miami River clearly functioned as the seat of the regional Tequesta chief in the late prehistoric period (Felmley 1991:87). Other aspects of ceremonia l life are described by Mc Nicoll (1941) through the ethnographic accounts of missionaries who also describe aspects of daily life and the process of Christianization. It is important to note that th ese historical accounts were based on observations of a descendant popula tion of the Glades people and can therefore not be said to be accurate portrayals of the Glades people prior to contact. One account offered by a Quaker describes a celebration in which the scalps of conquered enemies were perched on poles around which the Tequesta danced for three days and nights. Further descriptions indicat e a religion of sun and moon worship. McNicoll also 17
18 indicates that there may have been some i dol worship, as evidenced by an interaction between the Calusa chief Carlos and the mi ssionaries in which he refused to remove some idols. McNicoll describes a ceremonial black drink, made from the boiled leaves of the caseena plant which is part of a night time ceremony. This ceremony included ritualistic dance in which men and women app ear to have prescribed roles. He also described peculiar customs of removing the bone s of the cacique to be kept as an object of veneration; in the coffin of these relics they also put the bones of a seacows head (McNicoll 1941:18-20). The practice of dismembering the c aciques, placing them in a box and carrying them back to the caciques house to be venerated by th e rest of the town is also noted by Parks (1982). Another aspect of Tequesta culture no ted by McNicoll (1941 ) and Parks (1982) based on ethnographies is the presence of human sacrifice. Parks (1982) cites ethnographies from Spanish prie sts pointing specifically to the sacrifice of children whenever someone of importance, such as a chief, died. There is currently no archaeological evidence to support that this practice occurred among the ancestors of the Tequesta prior to contact.
Chapter 2 Environmental Archaeology The Everglades provide a unique oppor tunity to study how the environment influenced the cultural adaptations of prehistoric south Florida populations. I can and coworkers (1995:54) have stated that the Glades tradition is typifi ed by their material culture and subsistence patterns as influenced by the natural environment. I can (1983:163) also offers the opi nion that any theoretical de velopment on the biology of the prehistoric Indians and their adaptation to their environment can only be possible when the descriptive biology of the populati on is known. Environm ental archaeology is an interdisciplinary study of the geographi cal space occupied by prehistoric populations as well as their interaction with the envir onment. This interdisciplinary approach involves archaeology, cultural anthro pology, ecology, geology and geomorphology (Reitz et al. 1996; Smyntyna 2003; Trigger 1971). Reitz and co-workers (1996) state that the central focus of environmental ar chaeology lies within taphonomic and methodological issues. Concepts relating to behavior and culture are also included in this framework. These concepts include issues such as health, diet, settlement patterns, subsistence patterns and economic developmen t. The primary goal of environmental archaeology is not classification but interpreta tion. Reitz and co-workers (1996:4) further subdivide environmental archaeo logy into four subfields: earth sciences (Scudder 1996; Stein 1996), archaeobotany (Cooke et al. 1996; King and King 1996; Pearsall 1996), zooarchaeology (DeFrance et al. 1996; Neusius 1996; Zeder et al. 1996), and 19
bioarchaeology (Larsen et al. 1996 ). However, Albarella (2001:4) states that there is still a division, which must be addressed, between archaeologists who study material culture and those who study biological samples and geological issues. Albarella (2001:10) further states that environmental archaeology was a consequence of the separation of the cultural and natural wo rld in archaeology. The study of environmental archaeology and the development of its theoretical backbone have been largely ca rried out within the study of prehistoric hunter-gatherer groups (Smyntyna 2003; Trigger 1971). Coastal environments and the subsistence patterns and adaptation of coas tal populations have been discussed more thoroughly in the last decade (Byrd 1996; Russo and Quitmyer 1996; Sanger 1996; Walker 2000). A history of archaeological theory is br iefly presented here to understand how environmental archaeology evolved and why it is relevant to the present study. Trigger (1971:321) states that prehistoric culture studies began with the idea that societies developed in a fixed sequence of st ages, a concept known as unilineal evolution. According to Smyntyna (2003:44-45), uniline al evolution was based on the assumption that the geographical environment in which a cu lture thrived at a particular time limited the peoples behavior to a pr edictable and strict pattern which fit into a predefined cultural stage. This view was held by some researchers even to the middle of the 20th century, when Meggers (1954) discussed the lim its that environment places on how far a culture can develop. Meggers states that environment is an important conditioner of culture (Meggers 1954:801). The same author also states that subsistence is largely dependent on the physical environment in which a culture develops and therefore subsistence, appears also to be largely res ponsible for the level of development attained 20
by the culture it supports (Meggers 1954: 822). This interdependence between subsistence, environment and cultural developm ent led the author to conclude that the level to which a culture can develop is depe ndent upon the agricultural potentiality of the environment it occupies (Meggers 1954:822). Meggers states that in areas with no agricultural potential, such as swamps, subsistence is derived from hunting, fishing and gathering by highly nomadic groups. This type of subsistence pattern has a very definitely limiting effect on the culture, k eeping it on a simple level that permits the satisfaction of basic needs a nd little more (Meggers 1954:8 06). Meggers description of subsistence in the swamp would apply to the Glades people of south Florida. By the end of the 19th century, however, archaeologists began to turn their interest to diffusion in an effort to stu dy how artifact classes originated and how each technology spread (Trigger 1971:321). One approach to diffusion was strictly geographical and only investigated population distribution (e.g. Sabloff and Willey 1967; Willey 1953). Another approach, emerging during the 1920s, centered on economy and sparked an interest in the availability of resources and how they were exploited by different populations. This economic approach, with borrowed ecological concepts, encouraged the empirical study of archaeologi cal sites by studying th e remains of plants and animals (Trigger 1971:322; King and Ki ng 1996; Neusius 1996). However, Trigger (1971:322) recognized the growi ng concern stated by some sc holars that this approach was limited to discerning subsistence and that it would be difficult to make inferences about the culture. This concer n is voiced by Hawkes (1954:161) when he states that it would be difficult to understand the mind of a people from their material culture, 21
meaning that he doubted that archaeological studies of material culture could provide insight into implicit ideological systems. Archaeologists turned to Ma rxist theory where economy is at the center of social and ideological structures. Therefore, by studying artifact assemblages to understand economic structures, archaeologists infer the socio-political and ideological components of a culture (Trigger 1971:323). The study of artifact assemblages as a basis for making inferences about culture and cultural adap tation is central ch aracteristic of the processualism of New Arch aeology, a heavily methodological school of thought which arose during the mid-20th century (Binford 1962, 1983). The processual approach to archaeology was functionalist a nd sought general laws to explain how culture works. The study of ancient environments and subsistenc e patterns were central to the pursuits of New Archaeology. The need to study the natu ral environment in which ancient cultures developed and the processes of site formati on led archaeologists to work closely with scientists in biological and physical fields, making processual archaeology a multidisciplinary approach. An example of the increasing importance of methodology and empiricism in processual archaeology can be seen in Hirshberg and Hirshbergs (1957) critique of Meggers c onclusions about the environm ental limitations of cultural development. They argue that the lack of measurable variab les in Meggers work prevents the testing of her conclusion and therefore, her law of environmental limitation of culture can not be empirically accepted. The interest in economic structures a nd the relationship between populations and their environment, brought a bout by New Archaeology and Marx ist theory, gave rise in the middle of the 20th century to a methodological approach known as environmental 22
archaeology (Trigger 1971, Smyntyna 2003:47). Dean a nd Doyel (2006:1) begin their volume by stating just how much influence environmental factor s actually have on culture, and vise versa, must be ascertained empiricall y. Economic anthropology and environmental archaeology are often used in tandem to discuss natural environment and subsistence strategies (Sandweiss 1996; Wa gner 1996). The study of prehistoric natural environments, including climate and topogra phy along with the flora and fauna, became a focus in the 1960s (Smyntyna 2003:47, i.e. Cooke et al. 1996; DeFrance et al. 1996; King and King 1996; Neusius 1996; Pearsall 1996; Zeder et al. 1996). Smyntyna states that by the 1970s, archaeologists had explored the connection between environmental change, subsistence strategies, biological (morphological), and materi al adaptations (Hutchinson 2004; Larsen 2001; Larsen et al. 1996). Soafer (2001:126) discusses the dynamic relationship between environmental archaeology and oste oarchaeology, the archaeological study of human remains, and states that they are mutually dependent. As part of the study of subsistence strategy, there was also a growing interest in understanding procurement strategies for raw ma terials, especially flint, as a way to understand mobility, settlement patterns and economic development (Smyntyna 2003:50). Procurement strategies for raw materi als and other resources were the focus of processual archaeology during the 1960s (Neusius 1996; Sobolik 1996). Adaptation to the environment is a cent ral issue in environmental archaeology discussed in all of the studies presented in this text. Smyntyna (2003) attributes the study of territory and adaptation to middle-range theory, an approach that sprang from processual archaeology when Bi nford studied living cultures to gain insight about human behavior in past environments (Binford 2009: 20-21). Adaptation is defined by 23
Smyntyna as the process of acclimating to living conditions (Sm yntyna 2003:51). This is similar to Hawkes (1954:157) who indirectly defined adaptation as the creation of an assemblage of artifacts that fulfill a specific purpose and are normally followed by another kind of evolution, toward an ever more efficient realiza tion of such a purpose. Hawkes (1954:157) in turn define d efficiency as efficient fo r the general survival of a human group in its physical e nvironment at whatever period. Adaptation can refer to the collective behavior of a society within an environment and with other social groups as well as the individual behavior of the members of a group (Trigger 1971). Binford (1962:218) states that culture is the extra-somatic means by which humans adapt to their total environment both physical and soci al. Culture became an adaptive agent and cultural change was linked to needs arising from changi ng environmental conditions (Trigger 1971; Smyntyna 2003). Binford (1962: 218) explains the close relationship between adaptation and environment when he states that technology [consists of] tools and social relationships whic h articulate the organism w ith the physical environment and therefore, technology mu st be viewed as closely re lated to the nature of the environment. In the case of Miami One, the local population successfully exploited terrestrial and marine resources in an estuary over an extended period time. This subsistence pattern led to specific cultural adapta tions to the Everglades environment. Critique of the Ecological Approach Winterhalder (1980) critiques the terms and concepts used in the ecological approach. He agrees that environmental factors affect human evolution and adaptation but states that the problem lies within the descriptions of ecological features and the 24
presentation of the environment in which cu ltures develop as static. Another problem with the ecological approach is that anthropological writing traditionally lacks descriptions of environments that can be aligned to e nvironmental archaeology theory because they lack the ecological history that gave rise to adaptations (Winterhalder 1980:136). He also states that in the 1970s, as environmen tal archaeology was growing, some scholars ignored the environmental aspect of culture ecology. The first, and perhaps most basic, of Winterhalders critiques (Winterhalder 1980:138) is the potential mismatch of particul ar adaptations to their contemporaneous environments. Environments are ever-changing. Adaptations are responses to changes in environments but they do not happen at the same rate. These adaptive behaviors are based on information gained from observations of past environments and transmitted over generations. Changing behavi oral patterns is a process that may not match the rate of environmental change, especi ally in instances in which this latter change happens quickly or unpredictably, such as in th e case of cataclysmic events. Attempted adaptations can in fact fail to maintain or improve survival of a group; this is a key element of Hawkes (1954) definition. Cultura l adaptations are cert ainly more flexible and occur more rapidly than genetic adap tations but Winterhalder warns against overestimating this flexibility. There is al so the possibility of missing part of the adaptive processes in a dynamic environmen t that cannot be accurately and completely perceived and reconstructed by the anthropol ogist (Winterhalder 1980: 139). Overuse of diffusionism or migration to e xplain drastic changes in asse mblages is another potential problem in the application of the ecological approach. Winterhalder (1980:139) asserts that rapid changes in environment which are not necessarily cataclysmic in nature are 25
possible, and populations may be capable of successfully adapting just as quickly by drastically changing their technological asse mblages. He also critiques the use of typologies to describe the environment wit hout studying the process of change; a practice which obscures the relationship between populations and their environment and therefore, their adaptiv e process to that e nvironment (Winterhalde r 1980:139). Finally, as a means to counteract thes e problems, Winterhalder (1980: 142-163) defines a series of terms and concepts such as social etho logy, hazard research, evolutionary ecology, evolutionary (population) biol ogy, spatial heterogeneity concep ts and temporal variability concepts in an attempt to pr ovide tools for environmental descriptions th at are more appropriate to theory in the study of populati ons and cultural adapta tion. Winterhalders critique of the ecological approach is importa nt because it focuses on considerations that are necessary for the useful application of the environmental archaeology framework on bioarchaeological research. According to Trigger (1971:332) the most notable contribution archaeology can make, via an ecological approach, is to expos e the interaction betw een cultural variables such as economic and social structures, in sp ecific natural environments. Environmental archaeology is a useful th eoretical framework for studyi ng the ecological relationship between people and the environments to whic h they have adapted. A multidisciplinary approach allows archaeologists to use theo ry and methodology from a wide variety of fields that are highly releva nt to this relationship study. Cultures do not develop and evolve outside of their environments. Envir onmental factors and change are at the core of cultural and biological adap tation. Ecology substantially influences adaptive processes and therefore, it can not be ignored or underrepresented in archaeo logical studies. The 26
environmental influence on the cultural adap tation of the Miami One population, as well as the rest of the Glades people, is evident in their archaeological and osteological record. Environmental Archaeology in Ancient Florida Environmental archaeology research ha s been used around the world to study peoples ability to use culture as a means of adapting to very different environments (for example, Haberle 1991; Moody et al. 1996; Sleight 1965; Woollett 2007). A wide variety of topics are covered in these studi es, including subsistence strategies, resource procurement and diet. For instance, Ma rquardt (1996) has extensively studied environmental archaeology in the Calusa territo ry of southwest Florida. He argues how he uses the multidisciplinary approach pr ovided by environmental archaeology to make four major discoveries. The four discove ries discussed by Marquardt are that the estuarine environment to whic h the local culture adapted fo rmed 4000 years earlier than previously thought; fish, instead of shellfish, were the dietary staple of the population; the coastline has been inhabited year-round since anci ent times; and sea-level fluctuations were more complex in ancient times than pr eviously thought. All of these discoveries were made by taking into consideration concepts such as subsistence strategies, procurement and statistical analysis of bioma ss as well as drawing from other fields such as geology, zoology and ecology for a true multidisciplinary approach. Russo and Quitmyer (1996) also discuss seasonality and marine resource procurement in southwest Florida during the Middle and Late Archaic periods. Russo and Quitmyer conclude that marine resource procurement strategies prev iously thought to have been seasonal were actually year-round strategies and groups who pa rticipated in these strategies occupied 27
coastal sites throughout the year. They further conclude that the year-round exploitation of marine and estuarine resources allowed coastal populations in southwest Florida to remain permanently located at the coast dur ing the Middle and Late Archaic periods. This early sedentism contrasts the previ ous notion that Florid a populations did not become sedentary until the introduction of agriculture (Russo and Quitmyer 1996). Larsen (2001) summarizes much of the bioarchaeological research conducted in contact-era Florida resulting fr om the La Florida Bioarchaeological Project, of which he has been a lead researcher sinc e the 1980s. The initial goal of this collaborative project was to examine the effect of contact and missionization on a populati on off the coast of Georgia. However, the project developed into an examination of the effects of colonization in different Flor ida populations and a comparis on to pre-contact populations (Larsen 2001:xv). Topics include skeletal an alysis of health, diet, lifeway, mortuary practice and eventual extinction of mission populations. Within this volume, Walker (2001:277) states that generall y the shift from a hunting-ga therer based subsistence to agriculture brought about an increase in inf ectious disease, including endemic syphilis. However, the shift seems to have had no e ffect on iron levels in the diet (Walker 2001:278). Schultz and co-workers (Schultz et al. 2001:222) cont radict Walkers statement on iron levels in the diet by st ating that Contact-pe riod populations suffered from both infection and malnutrition. Activity-related changes were noted by Larsen and co-workers (2001:75) who discussed the behavi oral changes that accompanied the dietary shift to maize. Larsen and co-workers stat e that men and women we re forced to perform hard physical labor for the Spanish and these new activity patterns ar e evident in Contactperiod skeletal samples. Worth (2001:15) st ates that the most significant biological 28
consequence of missionization in Spanish Fl orida was the extincti on of all missionized native populations; however Ruff and Larsen ( 2001:141) state that missionization did not affect all populations equally. Hutchinson (2004:7) bases his study of the peninsu la Florida Gulf coast population largely on the Palmer population of Sarasota County because with more than 400 human burials, it is the largest systematically excavated coastal mortuary site in the southeastern United States. The Palmer site is a Late Archaic shell midden dated between 2150 and 1400 B.C. (Russo and Quitmyer 1996). The populations diet was also reconstructed to gather subsistence data Hutchinson begins by asserting coastal populations in Florida have reli ed on marine resources, as we ll as plants and terrestrial animals, since the Early Archaic period in 8,000 B.C. This subsistence strategy was successful until at least 1,600 A.D. (Hutchin son 2004: 42). Hutchinson further states that, prior to start of agriculture in Florida, Florida Gulf coast populations exhibited the same aspects of complexity as Mississippian cultures. These aspects include warfare, social stratification, large settlements a nd mound complexes (Hutchinson 2004:42). An osteological study of the Palm er collection showed a low fr equency of caries but a high frequency of dental chipping, premor tem tooth loss, hypoplasias and porotic hyperostosis. Only six percent of the populati on showed signs of periosteal reaction to infection; however thirteen members of the population showed signs of possible treponemal infection. Eleven percent of adu lts suffered from osteoarthritis and four percent of the population showed long bone fr actures, which often healed improperly. Last, Hutchinson (2004:92) compares his findings at the Palmer site to those of other Florida populations. Hutchins on concludes that there is a low frequency of caries in 29
30 prehistoric Florida but caries increase afte r European contact a nd the introduction of maize. He also states that enamel hypoplasia s increase over time, likel y as a result of the dependence on maize (Hutchinson 2004:143). Hu tchinson argues that prehistoric coastal populations suffered from a higher inciden ce of porotic hyperost osis than inland populations. Osteoarthritis was higher for prehistoric Gulf coast populations than inland populations; however, post-contact inland popul ations suffered a high incidence of osteoarthritis likely resulting from phys ical labor performed at Spanish missions (Hutchinson 2004:144). The incidence of infection increased after missionization (Hutchinson 2004:145). Ashley Gelman (2005) completed a prel iminary bioarchaeological report on a portion of the Miami One (DA11) collection in 2005. According to her findings, there were several primary and secondary burials of adults and juveniles. One of the reported burial methods was of vertical stones placed in circles into which human remains were placed. It is unclear whether the remains in these circles constituted primary burials or commingled secondary burials. At least four primary burials were found in feature 164, a natural solution hole that serv ed as an ossuary. There was no apparent difference between the mortuary practice of adults versus those of children, or of males versus females.
Chapter 3 Materials and Methods This chapter provides a description of the sample from Miami One (8DA11) and six additional sites used as comparative sample for demography, pathology and burial practices in southeaste rn Florida (Table 3.1). Four of the sites, Santa Maria (8DA2132), Icon-Brickell Parcel (8DA98), Brickell Bl uff (8DA1082) and Flagami South (8DA1053) are within 20 kilometers of the Miami One s ite and have been dated to between the Late Archaic and Glades periods. The Icon-Bricke ll Parcel is now considered a component of Brickell Point (8DA12) thus both sites ar e considered together. Margate-Blount (8BD41) is about 35 miles north but provides info rmation relevant to the Glades population and culture. Windover (8BR246) is an Early to Middle Ar chaic site about 200 miles north and is included as a comparativ e sample to discuss changes in subsistence over time. The second part of the chapter desc ribes the data collection process as well as the methods for analysis used in this study. Miami One (8DA11) A pre-Columbian site known as Miam i One (8DA11), located in downtown Miami, was excavated by New South Associat es in conjunction with the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc. between 2003 and 2007 (Figures 3.1 and 3.2). All the archaeological material and skel etal remains recovered from the site were housed at the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy, Inc. laboratory, from which USF obtained 31
Figure 3.2. Feature 164 (adapted from figure 3.1) 34
them during the fall of 2007 to be temporar ily held in the USF Anthropology Department while we conducted further osteological study. The focus of the present study is on the skeletal remains from feature 164. Feature 164 was preliminarily analyzed by Ashley Gelman (2005), but excavation of the feature had not been completed; ther efore, her analysis doe s not include all the remains in the feature. Her report included ot her features not presen ted in this study. The present study is a more complete analysis of all the remains extracted from feature 164, including the ones analyzed by Gelman. All of the human remains from feature 164 were heavily fragmented and commingled. Some remains were still encased in the soil matrix at the time of this study and most others were wrapped in foil paper by the excavators to preserve their in tegrity. Some of the bones we re clean and had preliminary analysis notes written by an unidentified person on the bags. The field notes included location information and preliminary field identification of elements, side and any possible pathology. All skeletal remains showed some degree of root damage, soil staining and extreme weathering. Most of them have mold present. The site of Miami one was occupied from the Late Archaic (ca. 1000 B.C.) to the Glades II (ca. A.D. 1000). Contact-period artifacts have been recovered but are not discussed in this study. The site yielde d a number of interments, both primary and secondary, as well as information about path ology, demography and mortuary practice. The interments were made in natural solu tion holes where the limestone dissolved and the resulting cavities were filled with red sand which blew across the Atlantic Ocean. These solution holes were labeled as featur es during the excavati on. Each feature was subdivided into arbitrary excavation units in or der to remove the remains in an organized 35
fashion. No other type of feature was labele d at the time of this study. The rest of the site consists of hard limestone covered in a relatively thin layer of sand. The area also served as an occupation site comple te with hearths and shell middens. The archaeological report of the entire si te was not available at the time of the present study. The only bioarc haeological report available at the time of the present study was completed in 2005 by Ashley Gelm an and pertained only to the remains excavated thus far. Gelman (2005: 2-3) describes feature 164 as a small ravine located in the southeast corner of parcel D with bur ial methods that included circles of vertical stones within which human remains are inte rred. Gelmans report discussed six numbered features, including feature 164. Her report rev ealed primary and secondary (ossuary) burials of adults and juveniles. At least four pr imary individual burials were also reported. According to Gelman, the small number of primary interments suggests a differential treatment of potentially importa nt members of the community; however, there is little information to this end as chronology and exact location of the burials is unclear. Grave artifacts, such as a ritual stone pipe and a carved bone canoe, were also recovered from the large ossuaries at the site, as was a complete canine burial (Gelman 2005:1). However, these were not part of the collecti on on loan to USF; ther efore, they were not analyzed for this study. Two undecorated potte ry sherds were found among the skeletal remains in the collection but there are no not es indicating whether or not they were associated with the remains. The level of fragmentation precluded an assessment of stature; however, adults are robust, with thick mu scle attachments (Gelman 2005:4). Gelman reported a minimum number of individuals (MNI) of n= 124; including eighty-six adults (n=86) and 36
thirty-eight juveniles. Gelm an stated that based on the present study and future studies, the final MNI for the entire site is estimated to be over five hundred individuals. Due to the level of fragmentation, th ere is the potential for signi ficant under-representation. Preliminary pathology observations by Ge lman (2005) show a low frequency of nutritional deficiencies, with no examples of por otic hyperostosis or cribra orbitalia. The lack of such pathologies indi cates that the population at the site had a sufficiently healthy diet. Faunal remains identified as fish, manatee, conch, turtle and deer were part of this diet (Gelman 2005:4). Though so me periodontal disease is present, the frequencies of enamel hypoplasias and caries are low. Osteoarthritis and pe riostisis are common (Gelman 2005:4). Unusual pathologies f ound in the Miami One remains include an osteochondroma located on an adult femur, an auditory exostosis on another adult, and several instances of bone remodeling resulti ng from infection in long bones, including a case of possible treponemal infection. A healed fracture was observed on an adult fibula (Gelman 2005:4-5). The present study concentrates on the hum an skeletal remains of feature 164, which includes sub-feature 500 and is the larg est burial feature at the site. Sub-feature 500 was verbally described to me by one of the excavators as being a small depression at the bottom of feature 164 into which bones may ha ve naturally percolated from all levels of feature 164. Therefore, sub-feature 500 w ill be considered an inseparable portion of feature 164, thus only this latt er feature designation will be used. Feature 164 was used for the present study because it contains the de nsest concentration of commingled skeletal remains reported at the site and presumably, the largest cross sect ion of the population. Gelmans (2005:3) preliminary inventory of this feature reported twen ty-eight adults and 37
fourteen juveniles. These figures included three males, one female, two adults over 45 years of age, one young adult between 20 and 30 years of age, and a juvenile with an age estimation between perinate and 9 years 12 mo. However, excavations had not been completed at the time of Gelmans report. The present study will encompass all the skeletal remains extracted fr om feature 164, and offer a comp lete inventory, demographic profile and discussion of pathologies. Previous Archaeological Rese arch: Comparative Sample The following section reviews the data from six sites used in this study as a comparative sample (Figure 3.3). Sant a Maria (8DA2132), Icon-Brickell Parcel (8DA98), Brickell Bluff (8DA1082) and Fl agami South (8DA1053) are archaeological sites with human remains in the vicinity of the Miami One site. The Icon-Brickell Parcel and Brickell Point (8DA12) are consider ed together. Marg ate-Blount (8BD41) is about 35 miles north but provides a gr eat deal of information rele vant to the Glades population and culture. Windover (8BR246), dated to be tween the Early and Middle Archaic, is about 200 miles north and is included to discuss changes in subsistence over time. Santa Maria (8DA2132) The site of Santa Maria (8DA2132), as described by Carr, I can and Johnson (1984) is a Late Archaic cemetery located 2.5 km south of the Miami River. It was a habitation site with a midden and a cluster of graves about fifty meters west where burials were placed into naturally-occurring solution holes and then intentionally 38
Figure 3.3. Location of Archaic and Glades sites in south Florida from which comparative skeletal remains are described (adapted from I can 1993:278). 39
covered with limestone slabs. Four buria ls and one burial feat ure, containing six individuals, were placed in naturally occurring solution holes with limestone slabs placed on top. They were primary in nature The radiocarbon dates from bone, soil and shell samples placed the site between 1,000 B.C. and A.D. 780. The six individuals were described as adults. There were two females, one male a nd four individuals whose sex was not estimated. The first burial described was th at of an individual represented only by both femora and an unspecified number of metatarsal s. Sex and age were not estimated. This individual was buried in a pr one position. The second burial described was that of an individual buried in a primary and partia lly flexed position. Two bone beads and an unmodified sharks tooth were associated with the burial. A partial skull and unspecified number postcranial bones from this burial were analyzed. The individual was estimated to be a female between 25 and 30 years of ag e. The age was based on dental attrition and cranial suture closure. The third buria l described was primary and contained two individuals. One individual was represented only by a craniu m estimated to be that of a male between 30 and 35 years of age, based on de ntal attrition and cranial suture closure. The face bones and mandible were missing. Th e second individual was estimated to be a female based on cranial and post cranial feat ures. The age was estimated at between 30 to 35 years based on dental attrition and cran ial suture closure. This individual was represented by a partially complete skull a nd a complete mandible. The postcranial remains consisted of a partially preser ved upper body. The lower body was destroyed by construction equipment. The cranium of the male individual was found on the lower chest portion of the female individual. The only grav e artifact associated with this burial was a 40
flat limestone rock which may have been a pendant. It was extremely degraded and located 20 cm north of the female cranium. The fourth burial desc ribed contained only one individual identified by maxillary molars and unidentified bone fragments. The age was estimated between 25 and 30 years based on molar size and degree of dental attrition. No burial artifacts were associated with this burial. The last burial was labeled feature R and it consisted of a single individual whos e age and sex were not estimated. This individual was represented by a tibia and fragments of foot bone s. The rest of the bones were destroyed by construction equipment. The only associated burial artifact was a shell celt or scraper. Aside from moderate to severe dental attrition, the patholog ies observed included periodontitis, infection and severe arthritis. Periodontitis was common. One individual exemplified this because bone resorption wa s observed on the alveol ar process around all the teeth, with an average distance of 5 mm from the cemento-enamel junction. One individual had a small groove between a second a nd third molar, attributed to the use of a toothpick-like implement to remove food partic les. One individual exhibited periostitis associated with osteomyelitis on the femora, the tibiae, the left ulna and the frontal bone. All had evidence of involucra and multiple cloacae but there was no sequestra observed. The male skull, found with a female individu al, exhibited what the authors concluded to be sharp force trauma in the form of a cut about 12 cm long between the squamosal and sagittal sutures of the right parietal bone. The authors sa w no signs of healing around the trauma and thus concluded that the trauma was perimortem. No caries or nutritional deficiencies were reported. Tunnels or incomplete tunnels mostly observed on some cranial bones are not associated with any pathology or cultural prac tice and thus may be 41
attributed to root damage or insect activity (Carr et al 1984:182-184). An interesting characteristic of all the burials is that th e cervical vertebrae were absent. The only complete burial, a female, was missing both f eet, but the investigat ors thought it unlikely that the absence was due to preservation. Th ese two characteristics may be part of a burial practice (Carr et al. 1984:186-187). Brickell Point (8DA12) and the Miami Circle and Icon-Brickell Parcel (8DA98) Excavation of the Brickell Po int site (8DA12) began in 1998. The site dates from the Glades I (500 B.C-A.D. 740) to the Glades II (A.D. 740-1200) periods. The Miami Circle, evidence of a large circular structure of ancient origin, is located within the site. Several midden-filled circular and oval-shaped holes found in the limestone were debated to be either natural formations or post-holes for an aborigin al structure (Carr and Ricisak 2000:261); however, unlike the post-holes, the na tural solution holes were irregularly shaped (Carr and Ricisak 2000:278). As mo re of the site was uncovered and dozens more of these holes found, it became evident that some were arranged in a circular pattern about 11.5 m in diameter. This pa ttern became known as the Miami Circle. Similar patters were uncovered at the Sant a Maria Site (DA2132) (Carr and Ricisak 2000:261). According to Carr and Ricisak, the Miami Circle is most likely the remnant of a prehistoric structure akin to those found in sites across the Southeast. However, the post-holes found across the Southeast were not cut into limestone but rather made in soil. There are about 200 holes within the circle and many more outside of it but no clear associations between these holes and the ones in the circle have been established. Pottery was mostly undecorated, but decorations associ ated with the Glades area were also found 42
at the site. These Glades area pottery t ypes included Key Largo Incised, Fort Drum Incised and St. Johns Check Stamped. Sample s of Deptford Linear Stamped were also found at the site (Carr and Rici sak 2000:276). Given the almost complete lack of Glades III ceramics, the researchers concluded that there was no activity at the site during the Glades III. Lithic artifacts, including ch ert flakes, were abundant. The articulated remains of a shark, a dolphin cranium and the carapace of an adult sea turtle were found within the circle but radio carbon dating showed that they were interred between A.D. 1,330 and 1,680 (Carr and Ricisak 20 00:278-281; Elgart 2006:179). The site of Icon-Brickell Parcel (8DA98) is located south of the Mi ami Circle Park, west of Biscayne Bay, east of Brickell Avenue and no rth of Brickell Park in the city of Miami. It is now included with the Br ickell Point Site (Carr et al. 2008:5-6). Therefore, remains found in both sites are consid ered together in this st udy (Table 3.2). Many non-local ceramics and artifacts were f ound at the site, most of wh ich originated in northern Florida. Skeletal elements were found througho ut the site, including an atlas (C1) and an axis (C2) found within the Circle (Elgar t and Carr 2006:241). A total of twelve individuals were found, includi ng nine adults and three juve niles. Two of the burials were possibly primary and the rest were labe led secondary because of their commingled nature (Table 3.2). Among the adults, there we re three males, three females, one possible female and two individuals of undetermined sex. Pathologies observed included one adult ulna with osteoarthritis, three vertebr ae with osteophytes, six cas es of infection, one case of periodontitis, one possi ble case of porotic hyperostosis three instances of caries and eighteen instances of linea r enamel hypoplasias (LEH). Th e possible case of porotic 43
hyperostosis is unconfirmed as no radiograp hic analysis is re ported. The eighteen instances of LEH represent at least four i ndividuals. There are a number of partially articulated shark vertebrae throughout the site, some of which are in association with the burials perhaps as offerings. Brickell Bluff (8DA1082) The site of Brickell Bluff (8DA1082) as described by I can et al. (1993) is a Late Archaic cemetery and midden about 5 km sout h of the Miami river. Radiocarbon dates indicate a chronology of about 2,000 to 500 B.C. The cemetery consisted of secondary bundle burials. Four individuals were studied from this site: one adult was between 20 and 24 years of age, one adult was between 35 and 40, one adult was over 50, and one juvenile was between 5 and 7. Age estimations were based on occlusal wear of the molars. Sex estimations were only possibl e for two individuals: one male and one female. The male was estimated to be about 172.3 cm tall. This estimation was based on a humeral fragment and is, therefore, subject to error. No grave artifacts were found in association. The remains were heavily fr agmented and it was impossible to assess whether they were buried at the same time. Though one parietal fragment was thinned and possibly a result of nutritional deficien cy, radiographic examination did not show evidence of radial striation. One instance of cribra orbitalia was described, which is also possibly associated with nutriti onal deficiency or parasite infection. No abscessing or caries were found, suggestive of a hunger-gat herer society, but three instances of hypoplasias were described. Four incisors were shovel-shaped and one exhibited double shoveling on both lingual and labial aspects. Dental wear was not explicitly described 46
but it was used to estimate age at death. This suggests that dental wear was prevalent and to various degrees (I can et al. 1993:279). Flagami South (8DA1053) The site of Flagami South (8DA1053) as described by I can, Kessel and Carr (1995) is a Late Archaic (1500-500 B.C.) through Glades II (A.D. 750-1200) cemetery with a nearby midden. The site was origina lly dated as Glades I (500 B.C.-A.D. 750) to Glades III but shell tools found in an inte rment and submitted to radiocarbon testing yielded a much earlier date. However, radioc arbon dates obtained from shells are known to be unreliable. I can, Kessel and Carr (1995:56) state that the absence of stratified soil in south Florida for dating leaves the bur den on artifact typology and radiocarbon dating as the primary indicator of temporal associa tion. Unlike the previous two sites, this cemetery is located 16 km from the coast. The bones were heavily fragmented. The burning on the bones was attributed to peat fires in the early twentie th century after the area was drained. The MNI was sixteen, incl uding two males and four females. Sex could not be estimated for ten of the individu als. Age estimations were possible for 14 individuals: three infants, one juvenile and ten adults, tw o of whom were over 50 years of age. One adults stature was estimated to be 174.7 4.6 cm. All maxillary central incisors were shoveled shaped. Dental attrition was severe. There was one instance of caries and one instance of hypoplasia. Pat hologies reported were three cases of periostitis, one case of arthritis two cases of degenerative jo int disease, one case of a healed fracture, one case of periodontitis and one case of alveolar resorption. The burials were described as secondary bundle burials. Toothwear resulted from sandy shellfish or 47
gritty roots and the low incidence of caries was consistent with a cultural expression of a hunting and gathering life style with its diet of shellfish (I can et al. 1995:57). According to the authors, pathologies were few and minor. Their findings were consistent with a small pre-contact population with the expected low stresses of their life style (I can et al. 1995:58). Margate-Blount Site (8BD41) The Margate-Blount (8BD41) site, as described by I can (1983) and Williams (1983) is a habitation and burial mound site dating from the Glades Periods through Contact. It is also considered a ceremonial complex. Primary and secondary burials were found. Most of them were recovered from a mo und in the southern section of the site. Mortuary practice was described by Williams (1983). Wooden ar tifacts were found associated with three of the burials. The fo rty-nine individuals we re described as being typical of the area. The demography was re ported as follows: twenty males, twenty-two females, seven individuals of undetermined sex, and eight individuals under 20 years of age. Males and females were almost equally represented, but there was an underrepresentation of juveniles, with only 16.3% (8/49) of the population aged as less than twenty years old (I can 1983:156). Periodontal diseas e was not severe, and caries were only found in one individual. Calculus an d attrition were moderate to severe. One individual exhibited osteoart hritis, including osteophytosis; a healed fracture on the distal epiphysis of the right ulna; peri ostitis on the distal end of the left humerus, the ulnar shaft and both femoral shafts; and degenerative joint disease on the temporomandibular junction, articular surfaces of the cervical vertebrae, the distal epiphysis of the right ulna, 48
radii, and elbow joints. The periostitis was not considered severe. One left tibia showed signs of possible treponemal infection. The anterior portion of the tibia was sabershaped, a term used to describe a bowing of the long bone (Isan 1983:157). Isan (1983:163) states that the popul ation appears to have been very similar to other prehistoric Florida groups, though some what more robust and shorter. Windover (8BR246) Windover (8BR246) is an important Earl y Archaic mortuary pond located in Brevard County. Doran (2002:2) describes it as a shallow pond underlain by intact peat into which burials were placed during the Early and Middle Archaic time. It was discovered in 1982 during a development project which included drainage. The burials began to take place around 6,000 B.C. The environment within the peat is stable, anaerobic and with a neutral pH, which led to excellent preservation. The peat also protected the skeletons from scavenger and root damage. It is unclear whether the burials were placed in the pond while the peat was cove red in water or seasonally, at a time when the peat was exposed (Doran 2002:8-10). Burial s were placed in shallow pits and away from the tree edge. It is possible that stakes visible above the water were used to anchor and mark burial sites within the pond. The MNI for the site is 1 68 individuals. There were 101 adults and 67 juveniles. Among the adults, forty-seven were males, fo rty-seven were females and seven were of undetermined sex. Out of the 168 indivi duals, 58 were found out of context due construction at the site. The remaining individuals were found in situ Of these 110 individuals found in situ, 70 were adults and 40 were juveni les. Of the seventy adults, 49
thirty were female and forty were male (D ickel 2002:75). Osteologi cal analysis was not completed at the time of this study. Age and sex do not appear to be contributing factors in the pattern or distribution of graves. Grave good included bone a nd antler artifacts, wood artifacts and rarely stone and shell tools. It is unclear whether ground fish bones found near some pelvises were food offerings or ingested food. Age and sex did not appear to be contributing factors for the in clusion of artifacts in the graves; however, there are classes of artifacts which appear to have specific age and sex associations. For instance, bone tools were mostly associat ed with males while unmodified bones were mostly found with female burials. Lithics were rare and associated only with males and juveniles. Some juveniles were found with ar tifacts they were unlikely to have used in life. This was the case of a young child found with a stone pestle. Burials were primary and flexed. Some burials were found commingled and partially articulated. Burials are not suspected to have been secondary because many were still partially articulate d or found with some adherent brain tissue. The commingled nature of some remains is likely due to displacement after burial. Fifty-eight (n=58) burials were completely articulated. Nine ty-five percent (95.0% or 55/58) of these articulated burials were flexed. Only five percent (5.0% or 3/58) were extended. These burials were of two males and one female. Of the two males, one suffered a traumatic death, with a perimortem puncture on the pelv is and an embedded projectile point. The head and first cervical vertebra were missing from this individual. The authors believe that these body parts were removed prior to burial (Dickel 2005:75). All flexed burials were on their side. Sixty-four percent (63.7% or 37/58) of these were placed on their left side with the head facing north. Burials tended to be in clusters marked by a wooden 50
stake and branches in the shape of an i nverted cone were placed over the burials, presumably to protect them from scavengers. Dickel (2002:78) beli eves that the stakes marked clusters occupied by clans or families rather than individuals. Life expectancy for females was lower than for males between the ages of fifteen and sixty-five and greatest survivorship for the population appeared to be between the ages of twenty and thirty. Life expectancy at the site was relatively high (Doran 2002). Subsistence at the site du ring the Early Archaic was based primarily on abundant and diverse riverine, pond and marsh resources coup led with the utilizati on of large and small terrestrial resources (Doran 2002: 10). There is little or no evidence to suggest that marine resources were exploi ted until the Middle Archaic, probably as a response to population growth. The combination of marine freshwater and terrestrial resources was successfully exploited in sout h Florida until the time of European contact (Doran 2002:10). Data Collection for the Miami One Research The present study focuses on all the skelet al remains extracted from feature 164, including those preliminarily analyzed by Ashl ey Gelman, and contains a more extensive analysis of demography and pathology than that provided by Gelman at the time of her report. During data collecti on for this study, the bones we re brushed to remove any adherent soil. Teeth and bones exhibiting pa thology were washed and dried prior to analysis. Skeletal remains were inventorie d and analyzed using the USF Forensic and Bioarchaeology Lab Protocol (K immerle 2007), which includes data collection forms. Since most of the burials were commingled, commingled remains forms were used for 51
most field specimen numbers. Each case was inventoried and data was collected to the exactitude possible, including age, sex, ta phonomy and pathology based on the standards of data collection presented by Kimmerle (2007) and outlined by Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994). The minimum number of individuals form was included in cases where the presence of more than one individual wa s established by the present study. Field specimen numbers were filed with all invent ory forms along with a protocol sheet, a taphonomy form and, whenever applicable, pathology, dental metrics adult sex adult age and juvenile forms. Once inventoried, frag ments exhibiting pathology were photographed and radiographed. After notes on each field specimen were completed, the remains were placed back in their original bags and boxes. As part of this study, a demographic prof ile was constructed based on the sex and age of all individuals comple te enough to allow such estimation using Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994), Brooks and Suchey (1990) Isan et al. (1984, 1985), Meindl and Lovejoy (1985) and Meindl et al. (1985). The severely frag mented nature of the remains prevented the use of specific age ranges; th erefore, age cohorts were used instead. Individuals were classified as adults or juveniles. Age ranges were estimated whenever possible, such as in cases of complete or al most complete juvenile remains, using size scales based on Baker (2005) and information from Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994), Stewart (1979) and Ubelaker (1999). Pathol ogy was reported in the form of differential diagnoses based on Ortner ( 2003) as well as Mann and Murphy (1990), which include anthroscopic observations, phot ographs and radiographs. All observations were recorded in the appropriate forms and included in each case file. 52
Paleodemography For the purpose of this study, the most common elements (MCE) present was used to determine the demography of feature 164. It is important to note that the use of arbitrary units in secondary commingled burials, such as in the case of excavation of Miami One, makes it difficult to assess the num ber of units in which all of the skeletal remains of one individual may be found. Th e remains of any single individual may be spread across a large space, making the identifi cation of complete individuals impossible. The lack of clear stratigraphy exacerbates this problem. Therefore, the use of MCE for the entire feature, along with sex and age es timations whenever possible, results in a more accurate demographic estimate. Age ranges consist of adult versus juveniles except in cases where age can be further defined by the use of other features such as cranial suture s and epiphyseal union (Table 3.3). Size, morphology, cranial sutures, dentition, ep iphyseal union and length of bone are the defining characteri stic distinguishing juveniles from adults (Baker 2005). Adult age estimations are based on cranial sutures (Meindl & Lovejoy 1985), and pubic symphysis (Meindl et al. 1985, Brooks and Suchey 1990). The present collection, however, only allows for the use of some cran ial sutures, dental attrition and epiphyseal union. Sex in adults was estimated based on vari ous morphological traits. In the absence of complete skeletons, the pelvis has the most helpful features in estimating sex. Cranial and post-cranial traits described by Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) Krogman (1962) and Phenice (1969) were used to estimate sex in the adults of the pres ent study. Features on the skull, such as the size of the mastoid process, the sharpness of the supraorbital 53
Table 3.3. Discrete age ranges and their correspondi ng categories. Discrete Age Ranges Age Categories Traits for Age Estimation 0-5 6-10 11-20 Juvenile Size, morphology, cranial sutures, dentition, length of bones 20-35 Young Adult 35-50 Middle Adult 50+ Old Adult Cranial sutures, dental attrition, ribs, pubis margin, the prominence of the glabella and th e nuchal lines and the degree of openness of the gonial angle, are used for estimating sex according to Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994), France (1998) and Krogman (1962). Attributing sex to juve nile remains is unreliable because most traits develop during pubert y and thus tend to be subtle in younger individuals; therefore, sex estimations are indeterminate for this group. Paleopathology Once demography is established, paleopa thology is studied to analyze the populations morbidity and health characteristics. According to Chamberlain (2006:13), the type of pathology seen in a population is directly related to th eir demography. Some diseases are specific to certain age groups and might differ among the sexes while others, such as infectious disease, are direct ly dependent on population size and density. Pathology related to malnutrition, whether widespread or confined to a certain group, provides evidence of decreasing resources or differential access to them. The timing of 54
such nutritional insults can pr ovide evidence of seasonal change s if such insults appear to occur concurrently across a vast number of the population. For the pur pose of this study, pathological definitions are based on thos e in Mann and Murphy (1990), Aufderheide and Rodrguez-Martn (1998) and Ortner (2003). The pathological condi tions considered in this study are caries attriti on, periodontitis (o r abscessing), hypoplasias, porotic hyperostosis, Harris lines, osteoarthritis (OA), periostitis and osteomyelitis. Trauma, in the form of fractures, is also considered (T able 3.4). Caries, a ttrition, periodontitis and hypoplasias are dental pathologies. Dental Pathology Caries are defined by Aufderheide and R odrguez-Martn (1998:402) and Ortner (2003:590) as a demineralization of the enamel due to acid-producing bacterial activity on the crown or roots. It is also described as infectious and transmi ssible. Ortner warns against confusing normal fissures and pits on the crown surface with ca ries. Attrition is a destruction of the enamel, e xposing the secondary dentin. If secondary dentin is not formed fast enough and the attrition reaches the pulp cavity, infection may occur (Ortner 2003:604). Periodontitis, as it a ffects bone, is described as a localized or general resorption of the alveolar pro cess, associated with abscessi ng and tooth loss (Aufderheide and Rodrguez-Martn 1998:401; Ortner 2003:593-594). Peri odontitis can be associated with advanced caries or se vere attrition. Hypoplasias are a disruption of enamel formation due to infectious disease and metabo lic as well as endocrine disorders. The disruption of enamel formation causes permanent hypoplastic lines across teeth (Aufderheide and RodrguezMartn 1998:405; Ortner 2003: 595). Aufderheide and 55
Table 3.4. Pathology variables and associated characteristics. Disease Category Pathology Variables Observable Characteristics Caries Demineralization of the tooth enamel creating funnelshaped lytic lesions Attrition Secondary dentin exposure across occlusal surface of teeth Periodontitis (Abscessing) Severe resorption of alveolar process which results in an abnormal amount of space between the alveolar process and the cementoenamel junction of a tooth Hypoplasias Transverse hypoplastic lines, fine pores on the enamel Porotic Hyperostosis Only visible in radiographs, expanded diple Metabolic/ Nutritional Harris Lines Transverse lines at the ends of long bones, evident radiographically Trauma or Age-related Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Osteophytes, lipping, eburnation and porosity; resulting from old age or trauma Periostitis Peripheral bone inflammation involving layers of bone with an irregular surface, woven bone with a porous-like surface Infectious Osteomyelitis Periosteal bone deposition around a cortical defect, may include sclerotic response and a sequestrum, involucrum and cloacae Ante-mortem Trauma Fracture Partial or complete discontinuity of a bone (preor perimortem), bony callus, improper healing (angulation, overlap), myositis ossificans traumatica 56
Rodrguez-Martn (1998:405) indicates that for the defect to occur, the stress to which the individual is subject to mu st be severe enough for energy to be diverted from the ameloblastic process. Ortner states that for the defect to be visibl e in adult dentition, the insult must occur before the individual reaches the age of six and enamel production for the permanent dentition ceases. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Porotic hyperostosis is a general term used to descri be a porous enlargement of bone tissue (Ortner 20003:55). Though the term is usually us ed in direct association with anemia, Ortner warns against this us age without radiographi c evidence to support the association. Porotic hyperostosis re sulting from anemia produces a raylike arrangement of the abnormal bone only evid ent in radiographs (Ortner 2003:55). Aufderheide and Rodrguez-Martn (1998:522) de scribe Harris lines as transverse lines of radiodensity at the ends of long bones. The authors describe the process of formation as a decrease in the rate of cartilage cell division in th e growth plates of long bones during a period of metabolic stress. The pro cess of mineralization continues despite the slower rate of cell division. Th is causes segments of increased mineralization that can be observed radiographically. Nutri tional deficiency is an example of a metabolic insult that may result in Harris lines. Degenerative Joint Disease and Osteoarthritis Aufderheide and Rodrguez-Martn (1998:93-96) describe degenerative joint disease (DJD) and Ortner (2003: 546-547) describes osteoarthrit is (OA) using very similar 57
terms. Both conditions consist of a break down of cartilage in the jo ints resulting in bone contact. This bone contact can lead to scle rosis or reactive bone formation. Eburnation is a reactive bone formation of the subchondral bone. Primar y osteoarthritis results from biomechanical stress or trauma and is associat ed with advanced age. Secondary arthritis occurs earlier in life as a result of other pathological conditions. Mann and Murphy (1990:18-20) group the two conditions together a nd add that they result in synovial lining ossified as outgrowths known as osteophytes. A breakdown of the margins around the joints and macroporosity, especi ally on vertebral bodies, are also commonly observed in cases of degenerative joint di sease and osteoarthritis. Infectious Disease Periostitis is described by Ortner (2003: 206) as a periosteal bone reaction as a result of pathology. Ortner notes that such pathology is not restri cted to infection. During this periosteal bone reaction, wove n bone is created and later remodeled into lamellar bone. The surface of the bone may appear porous due to irregular orientation of collagen fibers or increase va scularity in the area. Ortner (2003:208) further states that periostitis can be a condition by itself or the result of a separate condition, such as syphilis. Since many diseases may result in pe riostitis, diagnosis of specific pathologies in archaeological contexts is very difficult. Osteomyelitis results from an introduction of infection into the bone marrow, usually from pyogenic bacteria, resulting in inflammation of bone (periostitis) and bone marrow (Auf derheide and Rodrguez-Martn 1998:172; Ortner 2003:181). Ortner also states that other infectious agents such as fungi and viruses can also result in osteomyelitis. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is the result 58
of infection somewhere else in the body, tr ansmitted by blood. Acute osteomyelitis is the result of direct contact with the bacteria such as through traumatic injury (Aufderheide and Rodrguez-Martn 1998:172). Radiogra phs are helpful in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Trauma Ortner (2003:120) describes a fracture as any traumatic event that results in the partial or complete discontinuity of a bone. Abnormal stress must be applied to a bone in order to cause a fracture. Fracture classifications include tension, compression, twisting, bending and shearing. Tension fractures result fr om too much tension being applied to the bone from a tendon. Compressi on fractures result from a sudden impaction of excessive force. Twisting fractures happen as a result of twisti ng the bone in a spiral motion at one end while the other is stati onary. Bending fractures are the most common and happen as a result of falls or blows. Shearing fractures occur when opposing forces are applied in different planes (Ortner 2003:120-124). A fracture can be complete, in which it discontinues the bone entirely, or incomplete, in which the break does not completely separate the bone. The hea ling process begins immediately with the formation of a blood clot and then the formati on of a fibrous callus a bout a week after the break. This callus unites the broken ends of the bones, both internally and externally, and provides visual evidence that a fracture occurred and healed (Ortner 2003:126-127). Fractures that do not heal properly will show angulation, in which the two ends of the bones reattach at an unnatural angle, or overlap, in which th ey two ends reattach side-byside. Necrosis of the bone tissue may also occur. In some cases, muscle tissue in the 59
vicinity of the fracture is damaged and bone is produced directly within it. The bone formation from the muscle can attach to the bone shaft or remain separate. This condition is known as myositis ossificans traumatica (Ortner 2003:133-134). Mortuary Variability The mortuary variables discussed in this study include the type, position and location of burials; the associated burial artifact s; and the exclusion of skeletal elements. Demographic differences in the distribution of burials and the inclusion of artifacts are also discussed. Primary burials are defined in this study as those in which the individual is interred immediately afte r death without any modifica tion to the body. Secondary burials are those in which the body is modified prior to burial. In the case of Miami One and the comparative site sample, modificati on consists of removing flesh from the body either with the use of tools or by exposure to the natural elements. Neither the Miami One site nor the comparative site samples show any evidence of which of these two mechanisms resulted in the removal of the fles h. Burial positions considered in this study are either extended (supine), in which the body is laid out with limbs extended, or flexed, in which the body is placed on its side with knees drawn to the chest. The burials at Miami One and the comparative site sample ar e located within solution holes serving as natural ossuaries, buri al mounds or ground interments. Grav e artifacts considered in this study are lithics, shell, bone, wood and plant matter. Faunal remains consist of animal bone, modified and unmodified. Modified bone artifacts include t ools, ornaments and weapons. Unmodified faunal remains consist of faunal remains which were part of the middens or animals found directly associated with the burial as possible offerings. 60
61 Limestone slabs used at two of the sites to cover graves are incl uded with the lithic artifacts. Wooden stakes found in one site are considered with the wooden artifacts. Plant matter consists of fiber mats and seed s recovered from one site. The deliberate removal of skeletal elements or the intermen ts of only the skull ar e considered in this study.
Chapter 4 Results Chapter four is a summary of the results obtained after the inventory and analysis of the Miami One skeletal remains from feature 164. These remains include those which were preliminarily observed by Gelman as well as those with only field observations written by the excavators. The taphonomy s ection describes post-mortem damage found on all the remains. The demography section lists the number of adult males and females as well as juveniles discerned from the inventory. The pathology section summarizes findings from both radiographs and observations of the types and po ssible etiologies of pathologies found among the remains. Patholog ical conditions reported in sites used as a comparative sample were presented in the previous chapter and are reviewed below. Taphonomy All of the skeletal remains recovered fr om Miami One and presented here show evidence or root etching, postmortem and excavation breakage and mold. There are also a few instances of unusual taphonomy. For inst ance, one group of fragments in unit 220 (FS 1344) is covered in green moss. Mo ss and mold are indicative of the humid conditions at the site and dur ing storage. Some elements in units 216 (FS 1188), unit 217 (FS 1041) and unit 220 (FS 1089) have been blac kened as a result of heat exposure but have not been burned directly (Figure 4.1). A few elements show damage from small crustaceans and insects. One tibia in unit 252 (FS 2964 B2) exhibits small carnivore tooth 62
Figure 4.1. Bones darkened by heat exposure. 63
marks. There is one cranial fragment from unit 869 (FS 4014 A1) with what appears to be an artificially drilled, perfectly circular hole and two other similar lesions that do not trespass the diple. This may be due to inf ection. Alternately, it is possible that the circular defect was made post-mortem by a derm estid beetle. If this is the case, the other two lesions may be a result of the same insect activity. Mold, moss, root damage, insect activity and scavenger damage are a result e xposure or partial exposure of the remains. Even interred, the conditions of the site allowed for humidity, plants, insects and rodents to have access to the skeletal remains. Se veral shell and small fi sh vertebrae and a few unidentified faunal bones were found in conjunc tion with some of the remains, most often in bags labeled loose in context. There is no evidence to indicate whether the presence of these faunal remains were directly associated with the burials or as result of the use of the solution hole to dispose of daily refuse. Demography The final count for the minimum numbe r of individuals based on the most common elements (MCE) present is n=63 (Tab le 4.1). The breakdown is as follows: n=49 adults or 77.8% (49/63) of the population, and n=14 ju veniles or 22.2% of the population (14/63) (Table 4.2; Figure 4.2). Se x estimations are as follows: n=26 males and n=20 females; n=27 indeterminate (Table 4.3; Figure 4.3). Minimum number of individuals per unit yielded a higher number of individuals than the MNI established for all of feature 164. This is a result of the difficulty of discerning th e number of units in which one single individual may be found due to the commingled nature of the burial and lack of clear stratigraphy as explained in the previous chap ter. The juveniles are divided 64
Table 4.2 Demography summary of age by unit of feature 164. Unit MNI Adults n Juveniles n 207 1 100.0% 1/1 0 0 211 4 25.0% 1/1 75.0% 3/4 212 8 50.0% 4/8 50.0% 4/8 213 8 37.5% 3/8 62.5% 5/8 214 2 50.0% 1/2 50.0% 1/2 215 4 50.0% 2/4 50.0% 2/4 216 21 76.2% 16/21 23.8% 5/21 217 13 76.9% 10/13 23.1% 3/13 218 1 100.0% 1/1 0 0 219 7 71.4% 5/7 28.6% 2/7 220 8 87.5% 7/8 12.5% 1/8 222 7 71.4% 5/7 28.6% 2/7 252 4 50.0% 2/4 50.0% 2/4 254 5 60.0% 3/5 40.0% 2/5 255 2 50.0% 1/1 50.0% 1/1 869 6 83.3% 5/6 16.7% 1/6 893 4 75.0% 3/4 25.0% 1/4 extra 3 100.0% 3/3 0 0 Total 108 73 35 MNI per unit yielded a much higher number of individuals than the MCE method used to establish the MNI for Feature 164 66
Table 4.3. Demography summary of a dults by unit of feature 164 by sex. Unit MNI Males n Females n Indeterminate n 207 1 100.0% 1/1 0 0 0 0 211 1 0.0% 0 0 0 100.0% 1/1 212 4 0.0% 0 0 0 100.0% 4/4 213 3 66.3% 2/3 33.3% 1/3 0 0 214 1 0.0% 0 0 0 100.0% 1/1 215 2 0.0% 0 50.0% 1/2 50.0% 1/2 216 16 62.5% 10/16 37.5% 6/16 0 0 217 10 60.0% 6/10 20.0% 2/10 20.0% 2/10 218 1 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 100.0% 1/1 219 5 0.0% 0 20.0% 1/5 80.0% 4/5 220 7 14.3% 1/7 42.9% 3/7 42.9% 3/7 222 5 20.0% 1/5 40.0% 2/5 40.0% 2/5 252 2 0.0% 0 100.0% 2/2 0.0% 0 254 3 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 100.0% 3/3 255 1 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 100.0% 1/1 869 5 60.0% 3/5 20.0% 1/5 20.0% 1/5 893 3 33.3% 1/3 33.3% 1/3 33.3% 1/3 extra 3 33.3% 1/3 0.0% 0 66.7% 2/3 Total 73 26 20 27 68
into six cohorts as follows: undetermined, fetal, perinatal, 1-5 years of age, 6-10 years of age and 11-20 years of age (Figure 4.4). Mandible fragments that comprised only the mental eminence were labeled as midline during data collection. For the inventory, mi dline fragments of mandibles and mandibles that are complete or near complete are liste d under the left colum n. There are at least thirty individuals represented by teeth, both loose and in their so ckets. A list of units and field specimen numbers with a description of each units c ontents is included in the appendix. Pathology Fifty-eight cases (n=58) of pathology, represented by fifty-six bones (n=56) are present (Table 4.4). There were thirty-two bones with infection (n=32), nineteen bones with osteoarthritis (n=19) and seven bones with trauma (n =7). Radiographic evidence did not show any evidence metabolic or nutritio nal disorders such as iron deficiency or Harris Lines nor did it result in change to the diagnoses determined by direct observations. Infectious Disease According to Ortner (2003:51), periostosis is a descriptive term for a periosteal bone formation without a specific diagnosis or explanation for how the inflammation occurred. Periostosis is pres ent in nine cases (n=9). Pe riostitis is a bone inflammation that may result from non-specific infection and affects the outer bone table (Ortner 70
Table 4.4. Summary of pathologies. Bone Total Infection n Degenerative n Trauma n Cervicals 5 0 0 0 5/5 0 0 Carpal 1 0 0 100.0% 1/1 0 0 Femora 3 100.0% 3/3 0 0 0 0 Fibulae 6 100.0% 6/6 0 0 0 0 Humeri 2 50.0% 1/2 0 0 50.0% 1/2 LBF 1 100.0% 1/1 0 0 0 0 Lower Arms 1 100.0% 1/1 0 0 0 0 Lower Limbs 2 50.0% 1/2 0 0 50.0% 1/2 Lumbar 1 0 0 100.0% 1/1 0 0 Mandibles 2 50.0% 1/2 50.0% 1/2 0 0 Manubrium 1 100.0% 1/1 0 0 0 0 MC or MT 1 100.0% 1/1 0 0 100.0% 1/1 Metacarpal 1 0 0 100.0% 1/1 0 0 Radii 3 33.3% 1/3 0 0 66.6% 2/3 Ribs 5 80.0% 4/5 20.0% 1/5 0 0 Scapula 1 0 0 100.0% 1/1 0 0 Skull 4 100.0% 4/4 0 0 0 0 Tarsal 1 0 0 100.0% 1/1 0 0 Thoracics 2 50.0% 1/2 50.0% 1/2 0 0 Tibiae 8 75.0% 6/8 25. 0% 2/8 12.5% 1/8 Ulnae 8 37.5% 3/8 50. 0% 4/8 12.5% 1/8 Totals 56 32 19 7 72
2003:53). The periostitis in fourteen of the cas es (n=14) is attributed to osteomyelitis. One case of osteomyelitis also exhibits myositis ossificans traumatica In this case, the trauma which caused the myositis ossificans traumatica may have been the entry point for the pyogenic bacteria. A heavily fragment ed tibia, possibly a left, with severe osteomylitis may be indicative of treponemal infection (Figures 4.5 and 4.6). Only one case of periostitis in a fibular shaft (FS 3841 D1) appears to have st arted healing at the time of death. One case of osteomyelitis in a radial shaft (FS 2983 P2) healed prior to death. The single case of juvenile pathology is a severely deformed distal ulnar shaft (FS 4341 G3) of a child about five years of age exhibiting osteomyelitis possibly resulting from a fracture. Degenerative Joint Disease and Osteoarthritis The most common pathology encountered was osteoarthritis (OA) to various degrees. Only severe instances were incl uded in the pathology inventory. Cases in which the defect was mild or questionable we re noted in the general inventory but not included in the pathology inve ntory so as to prevent overr epresentation due to possible observation error. Of the nine teen recorded instances (n=19), there were five cervical vertebrae (n=5), four ulnae (n=4) and two tibi ae (n=2). There was one case of a juvenile ulna with osteomyelitis and resulting OA (n =1). The cervical vertebrae exhibited destroyed margins, compression of the body, macroporosity and osteophytes, all common features of osteoarthritis of the vertebrae due to advanced ag e. Two of the vertebrae are consecutive and belong to the same individual. The four ulnae exhibit signs of OA on the 73
Figure 4.5. Left femur exhibiting possible treponemal infection. Figure 4.6. Close up of femur exhibiting abnormal bone growth due to possible treponemal infection. 74
proximal epiphysis only. Both tibiae exhibited deformations on the medial surface of the proximal portion of the shaft. One carpal, a lunate, was severely affected (Figure 4.7) with an area of macroporosity that was cl early defined by a margin of eburnation, or callus. The area of macroporosity is roughl y oval in shape and approximately 11.3 mm by 10.2 mm in size. The carpal also has large spicules and macroporosity along the margin. This is likely to be a case of activ ity-related primary osteoarthritis as opposed to advanced age. Trauma There were only seven bones, representing seven different individuals, found to have trauma, including four fractured long bones, tw o cases of myositis ossificans traumatica, and one fractured metacarpal or metatarsal There were 874 adult and juvenile long bones identified in this study. The total numbers for each long bone were 181 humeri, 140 radii, 119 ulnae, 183 femora, 121 tibiae and 130 fibulae. The four fractured long bones consisted of one humerus (1/181, 0.55 %), one ulna (1/119, 0.84%) and two radii (2/140, 1.4%). Three of the long bones had fr actured along the shaft and were misaligned as they healed; they attached side-by-side instead of end-to-end, s hortening the length of the limb. One proximal ulna (FS 3888 U1) is highly degraded but appears to have a healed fracture with an associated callus. The metacarpal or metatarsal (FS 3451 B2) also shows signs of infection along with th e fracture. There are two cases (n=2) of myositis ossificans traumatica : an unsided fibula with an exostosis on the medial shaft (Figure 4.8) and a right tibia w ith an exostosis on the superi or anterior shaft, near the tibial tuberosity (Figure 4.9). 75
Figure 4.7. Left lunate exhi biting severe osteoarthri tis likely activity-related. 76
Figure 4.8. Unsided fi bula exhibiting myositis ossificans traumatica. Figure 4.9. Right tibia exhibiting myositis ossificans traumatica. 77
Dental Pathology Out of the 187 teeth representing thirty (n =30) individuals, thre e (n=3) teeth were loose juvenile teeth of unknown association. The MNI was based on duplicate teeth and dental wear patterns. The total number of teeth described was n=187 (Table 4.5). There were 130 mandibular teeth and fifty-seven maxillary teeth. Teeth embedded in the mandibles consisted of 35.8% of the sample (67/187). Teeth exhibiting abscessing consisted of 18.2% of all teeth (34/187). Caries were found in 6.4% of all teeth (12/187) and hypoplasias in 2.1% of all teeth (4/187) The twelve caries were found on the following: maxillary first premolar (1/ 11, 9.1%) and second premolar (1/16, 16.7%); and mandibular first premolar (1/18, 5.6%), first molar (4/23, 17.4%), second molar (2/25, 8.0%) and third molar (3/15, 20.0%) (Figure 4.11). The hypoplasias were found on mandibular teeth consisting of a canine (1/ 11, 9.1%), a second premolar (1/22, 4.5%), a first molar (1/23, 4.4%) and a third molar (1 /15, 6.7%). Of the four instances of hypoplasias, two were linear enamel hypoplasia s (LEH), measureable at 4.2 mm and 3.5 mm. None of the juvenile dentition (n=3 ) showed any signs of caries or hypoplasias. Pathology in the Comparative Site Sample The following section summarizes the pa thologies found in Miami One (DA11) in comparison with four other sites: Santa Maria (DA2132), Icon-Bric kell Parcel (DA98), Flagami South (DA1053) and Margate-Blount (BD41). Brickell Bluff (DA1082) is not included as the only pathologies reported were one case of cr ibra orbitalia, one case of porotic hyperostosis and three hypoplasias. A parietal fragment with macroporosity did not exhibit the expanded diple in radi ographs associated with anemia. 78
Table 4.5. Dental pathology in Miami One Pathology Mandibular n Maxillary n Total Periodontitis 76.5% 26/34 23.5% 8/34 34 Caries 83.3% 10/12 16.7% 2/12 12 Hypoplasias 100.0% 4/4 0 0 4 Summary of caries from the Miami One teeth0 1 2 3 4 PM1PM2M1M2M3 ToothNumber of cases (n) Maxillary Mandibular Figure 4.10. Summary of caries from the Miami One teeth. 79
Windover (BR246) was not included as no skeletal analysis was availa ble at the time of this study, though one case of perimortem trauma to a pelvis with an embedded projectile point was reported. Berbesque and Doran (2008:355) reported a slightly higher prevalence of LEH in males than females and stated that this may be due to sociocultural factor that impacts the male ch ildren more than the female children of this population. No Harris lines were reported at a ny site. An overview of dental pathologies reported for the above mentioned sites is provided first (Table 4.6), followed by an overview of osteoarthritis, infection, trau ma and Harris lines (Table 4.7, Figure 4.11). The pathologies are reported by bone since the cases are not always directly associated with any single individual. These overvi ews are followed by summaries of infection (Table 4.8), osteoarthritis a nd degenerative joint disease resulting from advanced age (Table 4.9), and trauma (Table 4.10) by skeletal element and side. At Santa Maria (DA2132), dental attrition was moderate to severe and periodontitis was common. No caries or hypoplas ias were reported. The only case of osteoarthritis (n=1) was reported in one indi vidual exhibiting severe osteophytosis on the left inferior articular facet of the atla s. There were six bones from one individual exhibiting infection associated with osteomyeliti s. All six bones were severely affected and had cloacae and involucra. A possible case of trauma was reported on a male cranium with a cut on the right parietal. At the Icon-Brickell Parcel (DA98), six cases of attrit ion, three cases of caries, eighteen cases of hypoplasias and one case of periodontitis were reported. The eighteen cases of hypoplasia (n=18) represented at least fo ur individuals. There were four cases of 80
There were six cases of infection (n=6) repo rted. The only case of infection discussed was that of a second or third metatarsal that was fracture and subsequently healed; however, the bone appears to have suffered a bacterial infection wh ich may have also healed. The other cases of infection may be periostitis but no skeletal elements were identified. One case of porotic hyperostosis was unconfirmed by radiographic analysis. The data for Flagami South (8DA1053) indi cate severe dental attrition, one case of caries, one case of hypoplas ias (n=1) and two cases of pe riodontitis. There were three cases of osteoarthritis represented by a proximal ulna, th e acromial end of an unsided clavicle and an unsided femoral head. The th ree cases of infection were represented by periostisis on the acromial e nd of an unsided clavicle a nd periostitis of two unsided tibiae. The two clavicles represent two di fferent cases. One metatarsal exhibited a healed fracture on the distal end. At the site of Margate-Blount (BD41), w ear was moderate to severe. Only one case of caries was reported. One individual was described as having osteoarthritis throughout the body, degenerative join t disease, osteitis a healed fracture on the distal epiphysis of the right ulna, a nd periostitis on the distal end of the left humerus, both ulnar shafts and both femoral shafts. The authors did not specify whether the osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease are due to advanced age, activity or trauma. However, because the OA and DJD are found throughout the body, it was likely due to advanced age. The periostitis was not considered severe. A nother individual at Ma rgate-Blunt (BD41) exhibited a possible case of tre ponemal infection on a left tibia This tibia was described as having saber-shaped anterior crest (I san 1983:157) associated with treponemal 86
infection. osteoarthritis (n=4) represented by three vertebrae with osteophytes and one ulna with osteoarthritis. Mortuary Practice in the Comparative Site Sample Mortuary practice information from Miam i One and the comparative site sample provides insight into burial patte rns and change of practices over time in south Florida (Table 4.11). The present study did not incl ude burial artifacts f ound at Miami One, nor did it contain enough information about grave po sitions or the chronology of burials to discuss mortuary practice in depth. Like Miami One, all the Late Archaic and Glades period sites were burial sites accompanied by a midden. This means that burials were conducted in the vicinity of habitation sites. Margate-Blount, dated from the Late Archaic though the Glades period, was th e only site at which a burial mound was observed. The Windover cemetery, an Early to Mi ddle Archaic site classified as a burial pond, is the only wet site considered in this study because of its large size and wealth of burial information. All burials at Windover were primary. Commingled remains are attributed to peat-slides w ithin the pond since many of th e remains are still partially articulated, a feature not seen in secondary burials. At the Late Archaic through Glades period sites, secondary bundle burials are most common but primary extended and flexed burials are also observed at three of the six sites. At Santa Maria, the graves were situated in natural solution holes and covered by limestone slabs about 50 m we st of the midden. Two bone beads and an unmodified sharks tooth were found with one of the burials. A flat limestone rock which may have been a pendant was found with anot her burial. A celt or scarper made from 87
shell was found with a third burial. All burials were missing the cervical vertebrae. One female was missing both feet but excavators did not believe this was due to preservation. At the Brickell-Point Parcel, there are a number of partially articu lated shark vertebrae throughout the site. Some of these articulated shark burials are in association with the human burials, perhaps as offerings. One hu man burial may have been associated with limestone slabs. There are three secondary cranium-only burials and one primary burial with a missing cranium. Brickell Bluff was a mortuary site with an associated midden. Bundle burials were interred in shallow graves No grave artifact s were reported. At Flagami South, individuals were interred in bundle burials. Thr ee shell artifacts were found in associating with the burials but ther e is no information about the nature of the artifacts or the individuals with whom they were associated. At Margate-Blount, three primary and sixteen secondary burials were found within a mound adjacent to a habitation area. At least one burial was flexed. Three of the burials were associated with wooden remains. One of these wooden re mains was a paddle found on top of a primary burial. Two burials were found with limestone slabs placed atop. One juvenile burial was found at the feet of a primary extended burial. The ribs and vertebr ae of this juvenile were arranged in a circle around the cranium. The left scapula, left clavicle and an unsided pelvic bone were placed underneath th e cranium and the long bones were placed beside it. Many shell, bone and lithic ar tifacts were recovered from the mound but none in clear association with any burials. At the mortuary pond of Windover, primary, flexed burials were placed in shallow pits within the ponds peat layer; however, it is uncle ar whether burials occurred 89
90 while the peat was covered with water or during seasons in which the peat was exposed. Wooden stakes were used to anchor the burials. Many burials were wrapped in fiber mats, a practice most commonly encountered in juvenile burials. There appears to be no correlation between the sex and age of an indi vidual and the number of associated burial artifacts; however, certain type s of artifacts, such as tools, are associated with age and sex. For instance, most types of bone tools were mostly associated with males. Unmodified bones and bone adornments were mostly found with female burials. Lithics were rare and associated only with males and juveniles. Some juveniles were found with artifacts they could not have used in life. For instance, a young child was found with a stone pestle. As table 4.11 shows, there are some similarities and differences, which will be discussed in the following chapter, betw een the Miami One data and those for the other sites.
Chapter 5 Discussion Prehistoric human life in s outh Florida was somewhat arduous but not austere. The Glades people had a variety of resources within their reach to provide for a healthy diet. At Miami One, pathologi es were present but evidence suggests that relatively few individuals were substantially incapacitated. Osteoarthritis a ppears to have been mostly associated with advanced age as opposed to injury, though activity may have been a considerable cause since th e population was very physically active. Infection was widespread, but few cases were considered severe. Among all the cases of infection, only two were likely related to treponemal infection. There were few cases of trauma reported across sites and most of them heal ed prior to death; however, treatment for broken bones appears to have been lacking, le ading to infection and possibly death in a few cases. Pathologies associated with malnutrition were few. Miami One (DA11) According to the inventory of Miami One human skeletal remains presented in the previous section, 12.6% (63/500) of the expect ed population of the site was buried within feature 164. From the minimum number of i ndividuals estimated in the present study, adults comprise 77.8% (49/63) and juvenile s comprise about 22.2% (14/63). The number of juveniles may be underestimated due to the poor preservation of juvenile remains. Sex estimation indicates that the population was clos e to a 1 to 1 ratio. The minimum number 91
of individuals for feature 164 was establis hed using the minimum count of elements (MCE). Preliminary pathology observations by Gelman (2005) show a low frequency of nutritional deficiencies, with no examples of porotic hyperostosis or cribra orbitalia. Her observations were consistent with the findings of my study. Gelman states that faunal remains identified as fish, manatee, conch tur tle and deer indicated a healthy diet, which is consistent with the low incidence of nutritional insults. Though some periodontal disease is present, the frequencies of enam el hypoplasias and caries are low. According to Gelman (2005:4), the most common forms of pathology are dental wear, osteoarthritis and periostisis. Other examples of unus ual pathologies in the Miami One remains reported by Gelman (2005:4-5) were an oste ochondroma located on an adult femur, an auditory exostosis on an adult and several instances of bone remodeling resulting from infection in long bones, including a case of possible treponemal infection. A healed fracture was found on an adult fibula (Gelman 2005:4-5). The present study found evidence of infection, includi ng treponemal infection, osteoa rthritis and trauma. The commingled nature of th e site and the artificial bounda ries created by arbitrary excavation units prevent an accurate count of individuals whose remains were spread among multiple units or the number of units in which any single individual may be represented by scattered remains. It is also difficult to establish the number of individuals who lived at the si te during any given time period. However, the data clearly show that the site was continuously used over an extended amount of time. The minimum number of individuals indicates that the populat ion was consistent with that of other area sites. Miami One, together with nearby sites, was home to a considerably large population and constituted a cultural center for the Glades people in the bay area. 92
Infectious Disease Evidence of infection was present in thirty-two cases, one of which was a juvenile. This juvenile case comprises 3.1 pe rcent (1/32) of record ed infections and 7.1 percent (1/14) of the total j uvenile population. This fragment was a highly deformed distal ulna. Among the adults, eighteen of the nineteen cases were active at the time of death. Only one instance of infection was healed by the time death occurred. One had only begun the healing process; therefore, inf ection may have often led to death. There were two instances of infecti on resulting from fractures. Osteomyelitis is caused by pus-producing bacteria and manifests itself as an inflammation of bone and bone marrow. It can often affect the outer surface of the bone thereby triggering periostitis as well (Ort ner 2003:55). The most common form of the disease, acute hematogenous osteomyelitis, is indirect contamination from somewhere else in the body and involving pyogenic bacteria, whereas the second most common, acute osteomyelitis, is from direct contamina tion at the site of trauma (Aufderheide and Rodrguez-Martn 1998:172; Ortn er 2003:181). Osteitis is on ly evident radiographically in one possible case of treponemal infection. There were fourteen cases of osteomyelitis reported in this study. Some cases of osteomyelitis are accompanied by specific features such as snail tracks and cloacae, both of which are related to pus and pus discharge (Mann and Murphy 1990: 117-118). Cloacae are evident in at least one case at the Miami One sample and snail tracks ar e observable in all cases. One case of osteomyelitis was also accompanied by myositis ossificans traumatica and will be further discussed in the trauma section. Osteomyeliti s was reported in six bones at Santa Maria, all belonging to one individual. All six bone s had cloacae, indicati ng a severe case of 93
infection. Aside from Miami One, periostitis was at the Icon-Bri ckell Parcel, Flagami South and Margate-Blount. The severity of the condition was only reported for MargateBlount, where all ten cases were bones belong ing to one individual and the condition was not considered severe by the author. The othe r sites did not specify severity or number of individuals affected but it was clear that peri ostitis is more common than osteomyelitis at Miami One and all comparative sites. There was only one reported case of osteomyelitis in feature 164 possibly associated with treponemal infection, represen ting at least one me mber of the population (1.6%) of the adult population. This was the cas e of a left tibia represented by several fragments. The tibia shows a considerable de gree of bowing and very active infection. Ortner (2003:275) states that this bowing usually begins prior to the age of fifteen and is similar to saber tibia resulting from congenital syphilis. Radiographically, some osteitis was evident especi ally at the midshaft. There are four types of treponemal inf ection. According to Ortner (2003:274), these infections are caused by treponeme bacteria which a ffect mostly the bone and can be found worldwide but specific syndromes, w ith the exception of syphilis, tend to be geographically bound. Pinta ( Treponema carateum ) is most commonly seen in parts of Central and South America and is the only fo rm that does not affect the bone. Yaws ( Treponema pertenue ) is endemic and seen in juveniles, but lesions are very rare. The symptoms can be confused with those of e ndemic syphilis (bejel). Endemic syphilis is considered to be intermediate between yaws a nd venereal syphilis. It is not always lethal. Venereal syphilis (Treponema pallidum ) is the only type that is transmitted sexually and can be passed on from mother to child after the 16th week of pregnancy (congenital 94
syphilis). This form of syphilis affects bone to a larger degree than yaws; however, it is still rare and only occurs years after the ini tial infection, during th e tertiary stage (Mann and Murphy 1990:143-145; Aufderheide and Ro drguez-Martn 1998:157). The type of treponemal infection involved here is uncertai n, but pinta can be safely ruled out as it is the only one that does not leave osteological evidence. Treponemal infection is known to affect the cranium, however no instances were observed in the skeletal remains of feature 164. This pathology is also reported at Marg ate-Blount, where another tibia is described as saber-shaped. None of the other comp arative sites report any cases of treponemal infection; therefore, this pathology was likely not comm on in south Florida. Degenerative Joint Disease and Osteoarthritis In the present study, osteoarthritis (OA) due to age is the most common pathology. It involves bone remodeling and affect s individuals starting at thirty to thirtyfive years of age. Larson (1997) states, in a 1992 study of North American native populations, that no clear association was establ ished between the levels of osteoarthritis in hunter-gathers versus agri culturalists, but Ortner (2003) asserts that stress due to a demanding physical lifestyle is a major fact or in the prevalence of the condition. Osteoarthritis of the joints is known as degene rative joint disease (D JD). Only nineteen cases of OA and DJD were included in the pathology inventory of feature 164, but mild cases were seen mostly in vertebrae, whic h is consistent with Mann and Murphys (1990) assertion that in cases of OA, the spine is of ten affected. In the case of the left lunate, eburnation is also present as a clearly defined margin around an area of macroporosity. Mann and Murphy (1990:19) desc ribe eburnation as a callus rich in blood vessels 95
followed by an extensive remodeling producing thick polish bone which is preceded by subchondral bone being exposed. The osteophyte s seen along the margins of the lunate and many of the vertebrae are ossified cartilage However, the severity of the defect in the lunate may be indicative of OA resulting from repeated activity rather than age. A few of the affected bones show eviden ce of occupational stress, such as the lunate described above. It is often difficult to differen tiate between osteoarthritis resulting from advanced age and cases resulting from injury and other causes especially when the individual in questi on is not present as a comple te skeleton. In cases of advanced age, the defect would be widespread, whereas injury would restrict the defect to the location of the insult (Mann & Murphy 1990: 18-19). The severity of OA in an individual as well as the location may impe de normal function and the individual may require assistance for daily activities; how ever, the individual would not have been entirely incapacitated. There was only one case of possible OA which may have resulted from injury. This was the case of a juvenile ulna exhibiting a deformity consistent with osteomyelitis. In the comparative site sample, OA wa s reported at the sites of Santa Maria (DA2132), the Icon-Brickell Pa rcel (DA98), Flagami South (DA1053) and MargateBlount (BD41). At Santa Maria, the only case reported was an atlas severely affected by osteophytosis. At Icon-Brickell, three of the four cases were vert ebrae that exhibited osteophytes. The fourth case was an unsided ulna. The three cases reported at Flagami South were on joints (DJD). At Margate-Bl ount, there were ten re ported cases of OA but they ere all from a single individual exhibiting the pathology throughout the body. The mandible was affected at both temporomandi bular junctions. The neck vertebrae and 96
sternoclavicular joint in the chest were al so affected. Both arms exhibited OA on the distal end of three of the four lower arm bones, at the wrists. One of the elbow joints was also listed. The distal ends of both femora were also affected, at the ankle, as well as joint between the talus and the calcaneus in one foot. The widespread nature of the OA in this individual is an indication that it is du e to advanced age. It is possible that this individuals movements may have been impair ed, especially at the neck and hands. Few individuals in the comparative sample a nd none in the Miami One sample were found complete enough for such an assessment. Howeve r, the locations of mo st of these insults and the fact that they are unaccompanied by trau ma are indicative of age. Osteoarthritis appears to have been relatively common in the south Florida population, largely as a result of age. The number of cases reported from each site indicate that the lifestyle not overly stressful as to result in many cases of trauma or trauma-related osteoarthritis. Trauma There were seven cases of trauma. Out of the seven recorded cases, six were on long bones and three were set improperly. The six long bones affected were a right humerus, a right ulna, two left radii and tw o unsided lower arm bones. The three long bones that healed improperly are the right humerus and the left radii. The seventh case of trauma, on a metacarpal or a metatarsal, also exhibits signs of infection. The juvenile distal ulna exhibiting infecti on mentioned earlier may have also resulted from a fracture. There is no evidence to suggest that these in juries were treated in any special way, as with a splint, to prevent infection or misalignment while healing. One of the misaligned fractures is a left radius in which the proximal and distal halv es attached side by side with 97
an overlap of 31 mm, thereby noticeably decreas ing the length of the limb. The other left radius had a similar condition with an overlap of 20 mm. There are two cases of myositis ossificans traumatica which Mann and Murphy (1990:113) describe as resulting from injury and leading to the ossifica tion of muscle, tendons or ligaments and Aufderheide & Rodriguez Martin (1998:26) state that occasionally the cause is a crushing injury of muscle against bone. They also state that the most common bones are affected are femur, shoulder and pelvis (Rodriguez Martin 1998:26). This is not the case with the two affected bones in this coll ection. It is most common on the posterior femur and tibia, though the two cases in this study were superior an terior tibia and the midshaft of a radius or ulna. The tibia also exhibited signs of osteomyelitis. No cases of myositis ossificans traumatica were reported at any other site. Each site from the comparative sample, except for Brickell Bluff, reported at least one case of trauma. At Santa Maria, a possi ble case of sharp-force trauma was reported on a right parietal. At the Icon-Brickell Parcel and Flagam i South, the trauma reported consisted of two healed metatarsals. At Ma rgate-Blount, a healed fracture on the distal right ulna was reported. This fracture wa s observed on an individual with severe osteoarthritis and mild periostitis throughout the body. A pelvic bone with an embedded projectile point that may have led to death was reported at Windover. It appears that trauma was also not common in south Florida. However, the lack of treatment often resulted in bones resetting improperly, possibl e infection and possibl e osteoarthritis. 98
Dental Pathology The type of food consumed by the Glades people is evidenced by the incidence of caries and attrition. How sufficiently nutri tious their diet was is evidenced by the incidence of hypoplasias, Harris lines and cribra orbitalia, all of which are associated with nutritional deficiency. Ca ries are a result of acid-produc ing bacteria associated with starchy diets. They are more common among ag ricultural societies; therefore, they are not expected to be present in high numbers am ong the Glades people. There were twelve cases of caries reported at Miami One. The percentage of caries (6.4%) was higher than that of the Icon Brickell Par cel (1.0%), where only three caries were reported. There were no caries found at Santa Maria and Brickell Bluff. Only one case of caries was reported at both, Flagami South and Margate-Bl ount. Severe attriti on is indicative of a gritty diet and was reported at Miami One, Santa Maria and Flagami South. The IconBrickell Parcel and Margat e-Blount have no reports on th e severity of attrition. Periodontitis, which is associated with both car ies and attrition, was observed in thirtyfour cases (18.2%) at Miami One. The data from the site of Santa Maria does not report a number of cases but periodontitis is descri bed by the researchers as common. The incidence of periodontitis was very low at the Icon-Brickell Parcel, where only one case was reported (<1%). Only two cases were repo rted at Flagami South. A number of cases are not available from the Margate-Blount site but periodontitis was not described as severe by the authors. Four cases of hypoplasias and no eviden ce of porotic hyperostosis or cribra orbitalia were reported at Miami One. Th is indicates that th e population had few nutritional deficiencies. These data are consistent with Gelmans (2005) preliminary 99
inventory and assessment that the populati on consumed a sufficient diet and suffered from few nutritional deficiencies. Hypoplas ias were observed in two percent (2.1%) of the Miami One teeth analyzed in the study. The Icon-Brickell Parcel reported eighteen cases of linear enamel hypoplasias (6.3%) repres enting at least four individuals. Flagami South reported one case of hypoplasia. No cases were reported at Sa nta Maria, Margate Blount or Brickell Bluff. At Windover, a higher incidence of hypoplasias as reported for males, which was attributed to a possible sociocultural factor. To analyze possible nutritional deficiencies furt her, the distal epiphyses of several long bones were radiographed. These radiographs show no signs of Harris lines. Harris lines were not reported at any site in the comparative samp le. The data on the incidence of hypoplasias, Harris lines and cribra orbitalia in Miami One and the comparative sites indicate that the south Florida populations diet was nutritious enough to prevent widespread metabolic disorders associated with nutritional deficiency. Mortuary Practice All of the burials in feature 164 are secondary and commingled, but there is no information about body positions or the timing of interments. Demographic distribution does not show any evidence of differential buria l treatment of adults versus juveniles or males versus females. The types of pathol ogy did not appear to be a consideration in burial practice. Though Gelman reported that there were at l east four single burials in feature 164, no such evidence was found among th e sample. There were also very few burial artifacts associated with the burials and none were available for analysis during this study. There is also no evidence of soci al stratification in any burial practice. 100
All the Late Archaic and Glades period sites discussed in this thesis and containing human burials, including Miami One, were burial sites accompanied by a midden. Burials were placed near habitation s ites. Margate-Blount, dated from the Late Archaic though the Glades period, was th e only site at which a burial mound was observed. Windover is an Early to Middle Archaic site where burials were placed in a pond. It is the only wet site considered in th is study because of its large size and wealth of burial information. All burials at Windove r were primary. Commingled remains are attributed to peat-slides w ithin the pond since many of th e remains are still partially articulated, a feature not seen in secondary burials. At the Late Archaic through Glades period sites, secondary bundle burials are most common but primary extended and flexed burials are also observed at three of the six sites. At Miami One, several shells, fish vert ebrae and at least tw o pieces of pottery were included with the remains. There is no evidence to suggest that any of them are directly associated w ith any burial and are likely part of the midden. A stone pipe and a carved bone canoe were associated with bur ials. Bone and bone artifacts were found associated with burials at Santa Maria, the Icon-Brickell Parcel a nd Windover. At Santa Maria, bone beads and an unmodified shark s tooth were found with burials. The IconBrickell Parcel (8DA98) shows three instances of articulated or partially articulated fish vertebrae found near one prim ary burial and two secondary burials. The only clear association came from one of the secondary burials where two articulated sets of fish vertebrae were found. Many burials at Windove r were found with bone tools, personal adornments made from bone and unmodified bone. Shell tools were found associated with burials at Santa Maria, in the form of a shell celt or scraper, and Flagami South in 101
the form of three unspecified artifacts. Very few shells were found at the site of Windover. This scant inclusion of shells in the burials may be a reflection of the little use of marine resources in the Glades area duri ng the Early Archaic. Wooden artifacts were only found at Margate-Blount where they were associated with three burials. One of these wooden artifacts was a paddle placed atop a primary burial. Wooden stakes found at Windover were most likely used to anchor the burials to the bottom of the pond and perhaps also served as grave markers. Li me stone slabs covering all burials at Santa Maria, at least one burial at Brickell-Bluff, two burials at Margate-Blount. They likely served to protect and mark the burials, much like the wooden stakes used at Windover. There were no lithic inclusions at the Glades period sites and very few at the Windover site. All lithics at the Windover site were associated with male or juvenile burials. Brickell Bluff was the only site where there were no burial goods associated. Windover certainly had many more burial ar tifacts associated with the bur ials than the Late Archaic and Glades period sites. Th e only exception was the higher pe rcentage of shell and shell artifact inclusions at the La te Archaic and Glades period sites than at Windover. The higher number of artifacts recovered from Windo ver, especially perishable artifacts like wood and fiber matting, may have been a resu lt of better preservation at the site. None of the Glades period sites reporte d a differentiation of burial distribution patterns or inclusion of burial artifacts based on sex or ag e. At Windover, there was no indication of burial distributi on patterns or inclusion of bur ial artifacts based on age or sex; however, there was an apparent pattern of distribution of types of artifacts bases on age and/or sex. Juveniles were most often found wrapped in fiber mats. Most types of bone tools were found with males, whereas unmodified bones and bone adornments were 102
found mostly with females. Some juvenile s were found with artifacts they were not likely to have used in life. The data from the sites presented in this study suggest that there is a possibility that age and sex distribution among artifact type s was restricted to the Early and Middle Archaic and this practi ce may have been abandoned during the Late Archaic and Glades periods. There were no records of secondary s kull burials or burials with deliberate exclusion of certain bone elements at Miami One. At Santa Maria, all the burials were missing the cervical vertebrae and one primar y burial of a female exhibiting severe osteomyelitis is missing both feet, reported to have been intentional and not a result of poor preservation. The research ers believed that the exclusio n of the vertebrae and feet may have been a way to deter the dead from any return to the world of the living (Carr et al. 1984:187); however, there is no evidence to suggest th is was the case. A male cranium exhibiting possible sharp-force trauma was found on the lower chest of a female burial. It is unclear whethe r the post-cranial remains were absent as part of a burial practice or as a result of construction at the site. No relationship between the two individuals was established. The Icon-Brickell Parcel has three secondary cranium-only burials and one primary burial with a missing cranium. At Margate-Blount, a juvenile was found with ribs and vertebrae arranged in a circle around the skull. The left scapula, left clavicle and an unsided pelvic bone were placed underneath the cranium and the long bones were placed beside it. Finally, at Windover, one adult male found with an embedded projectile point in the pelvis wh ich may have led to death was found to be missing the skull and first vertebra. Research ers at the site believe they were removed prior to burial. The removal of certain sk eletal elements, specifically the skull and 103
104 vertebrae, and the burial of crania without post-cranial remains were observed at sites ranging from the Early Archaic though the Glades III period. There is no archaeological evidence at any of the above sites to account for these buria l practices.
Chapter 6 Conclusion South Florida archaeology has been the subject of study for over a hundred years; however, bioarchaeology as a separate area of interest ha s grown considerably in the years since Larsen (2001) and Hutchinson (2004). Environmental archaeology is a particularly useful theoretical framework for south Florida bioarchaeo logy as it takes into account changing environments, fluctuating availability of resources and the cultural adaptations that allow survival and dispersi on of populations in ge oecologically defined regions. The Everglades region provides a unique opportunity to study the lifeway and development of a hunger-gatherer culture with a heavy reliance on marine resources in a temperate estuarine environment. The present study compares the human remains from Miami One (DA11) to those from Santa Maria (DA2132), the Ic on-Brickell Parcel (DA98), Brickell Bluff (DA1082), Flagami South (DA1053), Margate-Blount (BD41) and Windover (BR246). Santa Maria, the Icon-B rickell Parcel, Brickell Bluff, Flagami South and Margate-Blount are dated from th e Late Archaic through the Glades Period. Windover is an Early to Middle Archaic site an d is included in the comparative sample to discuss a change of mortuary practice over time. The analysis of the sites presented here, including Miami One (DA11), has indicated similar lifeway and pathological conditions among the population of the area. Subsistence is largely hunte r-gatherer with a heavy relian ce on marine resources. The diet of the Miami One population consisted of several species of tropical plants along 105
with small terrestrial mammals and marine species. The marine species included shellfish, fish and some mammals. This diet was sufficient enough to prevent nutritional deficiencies. The skeletal remains showed fe w insults related to metabolic disorders such as anemia. The site of Miami One and the comparative site sample do not exhibit a high incidence of hypoplasias or cribra orbitalia. There were no Harris lines observed at Miami One. Severe toothwear at Miami One at most of the comparative sites is a result of sediment inclusion in the diet. This high level of attrition is associated with huntergatherer societies and commonly seen among coastal groups who rely heavily on marine resources. This severe attrit ion is manifested in crowns wh ich have been worn flat and consequently show extensive exposure of secondary dentin. Osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease are very common at Miami One skeletons and the comparative sites, largel y as a result of aging. Miami one had the highest number of cases. The second highest number of cases was observed at MargateBlount, though they were all attributed to a single individual with OA and DJD throughout the body. A few cases at Miami On e are related to healed fractures or occupation stress, such as the case of a seve rely deformed lunate, a wrist bone, showing an area of macroporosity borde red by eburnation and surrounded by spicules. Though severe OA would have restricted movement a nd activity of the affected person, few cases at Miami One and the comparativ e sites are this advanced. Infections at Miami One and the comparative sites include osteomyelitis and periostitis. Thirty-two cases were observed at Miami One. All comparative sites that reported pathologic conditions include at least one instance of infection. There is one possible instance of undifferentiated trepone mal infection at Miami One and Margate106
Blount. At Miami One, the possible case of treponemal infection was observed on a left tibia with bowing, osteitis and periostitis re lated to active osteom yelitis. At MargateBlount, a left tibia exhibited very similar ch aracteristics. Cases of bone inflammation in which infection may not have been the mechanism were described as periostosis. Trauma in the form of fracture was obser ved in seven cases at Miami One. Three of these cases were misaligned during the he aling process. This is evidence that treatment of fractures was either absent or insufficient. A few traumatic injuries resulted in permanent damage such as OA, myositis ossificans traumatica and shortening of the limbs. Further, there is no evidence to suppor t that injuries were due to accidents or conflict, whether internal or external. There is no archaeological evidence, such as weapons or trophies, at Miami On e to indicate warfare. Mortuary practice at Miami On e consists of the use of na tural solution holes in the limestone as ossuaries for commingled remains. Few primary burials were found at the site and none are reported in feature 164. Burial artifacts are sparse and none were analyzed for the present study. A stone pipe and carved bone canoe were recovered from Miami One. It is not clear whether faunal remains found with the skeletal remains at Miami One were directly associated with bur ials or the product of interments being placed within the midden. However, faunal rema ins have been directly associated with burials at some of the comp arative sites. The Icon-Brickell Parcel contains a few articulated shark vertebrae and some were f ound in direct association with burials. A sharks tooth and bone beads were found with bur ials at Santa Maria. According to the last bioarchaeological repor t of Miami One, limestone slabs were found atop some primary burials; however, the use of slabs wa s not reported for feature 164. The use of 107
limestone slabs are reported at Santa Maria and Margate-Blount. Neither Miami One nor the comparative sites showed any evidence of a differentiation of men and women or adults and juveniles in burial practice. The site of Windove r is dated to a much earlier period (Early to Middle Archaic) and is the on ly wet site considered in the present study. Individuals were interred w ithin the ponds peat, which provided the proper chemical and physical conditions for excellent preservation of both the skeletal remains and the burial artifacts. The pattern of burial distribution at Windover and the inclusion of burial artifacts do not appear to be based on age or sex; however, the t ypes of burial artifacts associated with the burials show such a patter n. At Santa Maria, th e Icon-Brickell Parcel and Margate-Blount, some burials are lacking certain skeletal elements, most often the crania and vertebrae. The Icon-Brickell parc el also reports cranium-only burials. At Windover, the only individual reported to ha ve evidence of perimortem sharp-force trauma was missing the cranium and first cerv ical. Researchers believe these elements were removed prior to burial. The mortuary data suggest that th e inclusion of burial artifacts in interments has not changed sin ce the Early Archaic; however, Late Archaic and Glades sites do not show any pattern of burial distributio n or burial artifact association based on age or sex as observed at Windover. The study of the Miami One site will add to the knowledge of life and health in south Florida thus creating a more complete picture of the population known as the Tequesta and their ancestors. The Everglades is the unique environment to which this population successfully adapted. Environm ental archaeology is the appropriate framework for this study because of the visc eral relationship between the people and their 108
109 natural environment. The Glades culture is the result of an adaptiv e process that allowed the Glades people to survive in this unique environment for nearly two millennia.
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Appendix A Unit 207 The minimum number of individuals (MN I) in this unit is one adult, possibly a male. This assessment is based on four crania l, one femur, one ilium, one mandible, one radius and two metacarpals. The mandible is edentulous and indicative of a male individual. There are no pa thologies present. The bones are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 211 The MNI of this unit is one adult and thr ee juveniles. All a dults are unsexed. The three juveniles are aged as follows: 1 year 4 months, 18 months 6 months and 2 years 8 months; all based on teeth. Th e rest of the juvenile rema ins are unaged. There are no pathologies present. The bones are brown and beige in color w ith some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 212 The MNI of this unit is four adults and f our juveniles. All adults are unsexed. The MNI is based on three left hu meri and five left petrous portions. Among th e teeth, there were three shovel-shaped adult incisors. The four juveniles are aged as follows: one is fetal to perinatal, one is between one and four years of age, one is between five to ten years old and one is between elev en to twenty years old. The rest of the juvenile remains are unaged. One rib fragment, possibly a left, shows signs of periostitis and a juvenile ulna show signs of osteomyelitis and osteoarthritis (OA) possibly as a result of a fracture. The bones are brown and beige in color with so me adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of root etchi ng. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. There ar e also fish vertebrae present and other faunal remains. Unit 213 The MNI for this unit is three adults a nd five juveniles. There is one female represented by a distal right humerus with a biepicondylar breadth of 57.9mm. Two male individuals are represented by two mandible fragments. The MNI is based on three right radii, three right tibiae and three left fibulae. Other duplicated elements were two left radii along with two right and two left ulnae. The juveniles are aged as follows: two fetal to perinatal based on two left ulnae, one between one and four years old, one between five and ten years old and one between eleven and twenty years old. The rest of the juvenile remains are unaged. There are tw o instances of infecti on; in a fibula and a cranial fragment. Two cervical vertebrae a nd two proximal ulnae show signs of severe osteoarthritis. The bones are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of r oot etching. Some bones ha ve been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. 121
Appendix A (Continued) Unit 214 The MNI for this unit is one adult and one juvenile. Th is unit consists of two bags of unsorted remains which included long bone fragments, cranial fragments and teeth. Remains are unsexed and juvenile re mains are unaged but were classified as juvenile based on size. There are no pathologies present. The bones are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt a nd mold. All the bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 215 The MNI for this unit is two adults and two juveniles. The remains include one almost complete cranium in several pieces re presenting a female individual. The MNI is based on two right superior mandibular ramii. Other identified remains include long bone fragments, vertebrae, teeth and a distal phalange. The juvenile remains are represented teeth and aged betw een one and four years old. No pathologies are present. The bones are brown and beige in color with so me adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of root etchi ng. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 216 The MNI for this unit is of 11 adults and 5 juveniles. There are 10 male individuals represented by one frontal with both orbitals with blunt margins, an additional orbital with a blunt margin, one frontal bone with a large glabella and seven mandibles. There are six females represented by three mandibles and three temporals with small mastoid processes. The five juveniles are aged as follows: two perinatal to fetal individuals represented by two left humeri, one individual be tween one and four years of age, one between five and ten years of age and one between eleven and twenty years of age. The rest of the juvenile remains are unaged. There are five cases of infection represented by two femurs, one fibula and one tibia with osteomyelitis and one rib showing bone reformation due to infection. Five cases of degeneration are represented by one rib, one scapula, one thoracic, one tibia and one ulna. The ulna, a left, may also show signs of periostitis and fits with a left radius with signs of trauma. This ulna has a healed fracture where the shaft fragments a ttached side by side with a 31mm overlap. Another proximal right ulna shows a healed fracture. The bones are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. A ll the bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some ex cavation damage is also evident. Some bones also show signs of carnivore tooth marks. Unit 217 The MNI is for unit is of ten adults and three juveniles. The adults are represented by ten left humeri. The two females are represen ted by a left humerus with a biepicondylar breadth of 61.5 mm and a mandi ble. The six males are represented by a blunt orbital margin and four mandibles. The three juveniles are aged as follows; one is fetal to perinatal, one is between one and four years of age, one is between five and ten 122
Appendix A (Continued) years of age and one is between eleven and twen ty years of age. There are eight cases of infection represented by one long bone fragme nt, one fibula and one right ulna exhibiting periostitis; one mandible, one manubrium, one rib and one thoracic exhibit undefined sings of infection; one tibia is heavily bowed with severe osteomyelitis and may represent a possible case of treponemal infection. There are three cases of trauma represented by one lower arm bone shaft, one left radius and one right tibia. The left radius was fractured at the distal one third of the shaf t and reset improperly as the resulting two shaft pieces healed side by side with an overlap of approximately 20mm. The lower arm bone and the right tibia suffered trauma which result ed in myositis ossificans. In the case of the tibia, the defect was located on the proxi mal end below the epiphysis. The bones are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All th e bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 218 The MNI for this unit is of one unsexed adult represented by an unsided humeral shaft, a left femur and several unidentified fr agments. The humeral shaft shows signs of an unidentified infection. The bones are brow n and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 219 The MNI for this unit is of five adults and two juveniles. The five adults are represented by five right humeri. There is on e female individual represented by one right humerus with an epicondylar breadth of 52mm. The two j uveniles are represented by one perinatal left ulna and one left femur between one and four y ears of age. There are three cases of infection represented by one lower arm bone and one femur with periostitis and one tibia showing osteomyelitis. Two cases of osteoarthritis are represented by a right fifth metacarpal and one right talus. The bones are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show si gns of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 220 The MNI for this unit is seven adults and one juvenile. The six adults are represented by seven left tali. Three female s are represented by a fr ontal bone with thin orbital margins and two mandibles. One ma le is represented by a mandible. No pathologies are present. The bones are brown an d beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 222 The MNI for this unit is of five adults and two juveniles. The five adults are represented by five left mandi bles. Two females are represented by one unsided humerus with a biepicondylar breadth of 62.5mm and one right humerus with a biepicondylar 123
Appendix A (Continued) breadth of 56mm. One male is represente d by one frontal bone with a blunt orbital margin. The two juveniles are represente d by two right humeri between five and ten years of age. There are five cases of inf ection represented by one right fibula, one lower arm bone fragment, one radial shaft, one rib and one tibial shaft exhibiting evidence of osteomyelitis. One case of trauma is represented by a fractured distal humeral shaft that did not heal properly. The bone s are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 252 The MNI for this unit is of two adults and two juveniles. The two adults are represented by two right ulnae and two right tibiae. Two fe males are represented by one mandible and one left temporal with a small ma stoid process. The two juveniles are aged as follows: one is between one and four year s of age and one is between five and ten years of age. There is one instance of inf ection represented by an unsided ulna with evidence of osteomyelitis. The bones are brow n and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is al so evident. One of the right tibiae shows sings of rodent tooth marks and a circular taphonomic defect. Unit 254 The MNI for this unit is of three adults and two juveniles. The three adults are represented by three atlases. All adults are unsexed. The juveniles are aged as follows: one is between one and four years of age and one is between five and ten years of age. One case of infection is represented by fi ve fibular fragments exhibiting evidence of periostitis. One metacarpal or metatarsal shows abnormal bone growth possibly due to a fracture accompanied by an active infection. The bones are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 255 The MNI for this unit is of one adult and one juvenile. The adult is unsexed and the juvenile is unaged. They are represen ted by several fragments, few of which are sided. There are no pathologies present. The bones are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bone s show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 869 The MNI for this unit is five adults and one juvenile. The four adults are represented by five mandibles. The juvenile is represented by a fetal left humerus. There are five cases of infection re presented by an unsided fibula and two cases of unidentified bone fragments showing evidence of periostis is; two cases of abnormally thick cranial ones. One mandibular condyle is heavily deformed and shows evidence of severe OA possibly the result of a fracture. The bones are brown and beige in color with some 124
125 Appendix A (Continued) adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show si gns of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Unit 893 The MNI for this unit is three adults and one juvenile. The adults are represented by three left mandible fragme nts. One male individual is represented by a mandible fragment. One female individual is represented by a left te mporal with a small mastoid process. The juvenile is re presented by a few teeth and a long bone fragment, and is aged between five and ten years old. There are no pathologies present. The bones are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones show signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and some excavation damage is also evident. Miscellaneous Units Units 732, 860 and 880 are represented by a long bone fragment, teeth and a right humerus respectively and have an MNI of 3. There are also teeth, a left temporal and bone fragments not associate with a unit. The temporal has a large mastoid process indicative of a male. There are no patholog ies present. The bones are brown and beige in color with some adherent dirt and mold. All the bones sh ow signs of root etching. Some bones have been broken post mortem and so me excavation damage is also evident.