USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

From airport to spaceport :

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
From airport to spaceport : designing for an aerospace revolution
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Selvidge, Paula
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture
Transportation
Travel
Technology
Aerotropolis
Dissertations, Academic -- School of Architecture and Community Design -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: "Airports will shape business location and urban development in the 21st century as much as highways did in the 20th century, railroads in the 19th and seaports in the 18th" - John D. Kasarda, Ph.D. Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina http://www.aerotropolis.com/author.html I say, spaceports will shape the urban development of the 21st century, more than airports, bringing about an aerospace revolution. Just as new technologies triggered the global revolutions of the past, so the invention of reusable spacecraft will revolutionize transportation. The invention of such spacecraft suggests the need for a different kind of transportation hub: a spaceport. Not unlike an airport, a spaceport would be a center for transportation, but both terrestrial and extraterrestrial. Commercializing space travel would improve the efficiency of world travel and impact the cultural perspective of the world at large. This new transport nexus would not only need to accommodate new modes of operation, but would need to respond to the emerging global society. An all-inclusive spaceport, it would become a city unto itself. A study of the changing world and the spiraling correlation between technological advancement and cultural development, in relation to the architecture of transport facilities, is the focus of the following thesis investigation. A correlative study of airports, airport terminals, and the evolution of airports into aerotropoli due to globalization, provides the ground work for the development of an urban spaceport. Restrictions and opportunities relevant to spaceport and aerospace terminal design are explored. An extensive investigation in the field of urban planning, transportation, and space travel, along with some speculation, reveals the implications that a commercial space program might have on society and architecture. Then, research into the programming and design of spaceports acts as a spring-board for the design process. Though no commercial spaceports exist as of yet, a conceptual study provides insight into the extraterrestrial side of the operations. Finally, a spaceport masterplan and aerospace terminal that responds to the needs and concerns of the global community, as well as attempts to fulfill its dreams, is proposed as a precedent for redevelopment and implementation in the near future.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Paula Selvidge.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0003445
usfldc handle - e14.3445
System ID:
SFS0027760:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

From Airport to Spaceport: Designing for an Aerospace Revolution by Paula Selvidge A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of The Arts University of South Florida Major Professor: Theodore Trent Green, R.A. Mark Weston, M.Arch. Howard R. Klein, M.B.A. Date of Approval: April 13, 2010 Keywords: architecture, transporta tion, travel, technology, aerotropolis Copyright 2010, Paula Selvidge

PAGE 2

DEDICATION To the most understand and supportive fiance in the universe: Marc S.A. Glasgow may he rest in peace. He inspired me to take on the world and conquer it. His consistent faith in me carried me through the rough times and gave me the strength to persevere even after his death. I will love him always and miss him dearly. This is for you. Marc S.A. Glasgow September 23, 1965 September 20, 2009

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks to my great architecture friends w ho stuck by me in the trenches during these years. Thanks to the greatest architecture professors Ive had the honor to learn from: Steve Cooke, Jin Baek, Stanley Russell, Joseph Toph, Ron Dulaney and Vikas Mehta, and a special thanks to my thesis chai r, Theodore Trent Green, and the committee members, Mark Weston and Howard Klei n, who guided me through this confounded process, so that I might emerge a successful architecture student. Finally, a heartfelt thank you to those whose invaluable input I could not have done it without: Richard Todd, Sam Ximenes, President of Exploration Archit ecture, Peter Salomonsson, Kiruna Airport Manager of Spaceport Sweden, and William Mitchell of the Nastar Center.

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................................iv LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................v ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................xi INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................2 Brief History of Transportation Technology: Causes and Effects ..........................2 Seafaring Vessels: Begin of Cross-Culturation ..........................................2 Locomotives: Industrial Revolu tion Prioritizes Efficiency ........................4 Automobiles: Privatiza tion Prompts Urban Sprawl ....................................7 Aeroplanes: International Commerce Demands Efficiency .....................10 Reusable Launch Vehicles and Spaceplanes: Innovation Saves Time .....13 On the Edge of an Aerospace Revolution .............................................................16 How Spacecraft and Spaceplanes Might Effect Civilization ....................16 What is a Spaceport? .............................................................................................19 Spaceports Today ......................................................................................20 U.S. Space Activity ...................................................................................20 Emergence of Commercial Spac eports: A New Perspective ....................21 Spaceports: Vision of the Future ...............................................................24 PERCEDENT STUDY RESEARCH ...............................................................................29 Airport Typology ..................................................................................................29 Precedent Study Airport ........................................................................................37 Kansai International Airport .....................................................................37 DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH ..................................................................................44 Aerotropolis and the Airport City .........................................................................45 Globalization and Terrestrialism ...........................................................................49 i

PAGE 5

SPACEPORT RESEARCH ..............................................................................................52 Government Regulations ......................................................................................52 Spaceport America ................................................................................................54 Space Flight Training: Nastar Center ...................................................................59 PROGRAM .......................................................................................................................63 Design Problem .....................................................................................................63 Design Plan ...........................................................................................................64 Program Components and Spaces .........................................................................64 Spaceport Masterplan Components ..........................................................65 Aerospace Terminal Spaces ......................................................................66 PROJECT SITE................................................................................................................69 Site Criteria ...........................................................................................................69 Site Analysis.........................................................................................................74 Site Selection ........................................................................................................87 DESIGN RESTRICTIONS & OPPORTUNITIES ...........................................................91 Site Limitations .....................................................................................................91 Space Vehicle Design Limitations ........................................................................91 Design Opportunities: Form, Stru cture, Materials and Character ........................92 Time Restrictions ..................................................................................................93 SUMMARY OF INTENT ................................................................................................94 Transformation of Research Into a Design ...........................................................94 DESIGN CONCEPTS ......................................................................................................95 Initial Design Ideas ...............................................................................................95 Masterplan Development ......................................................................................95 Aerospace Terminal Conceptual Design ............................................................104 SCHEMATIC DESIGN ..................................................................................................110 Exploration of Terminal Forms ..........................................................................110 Evolution of the Concept ....................................................................................114 FINAL DESIGN GRAPHICS ........................................................................................119 Precedent for a Commercial Spaceport and Aerospace Terminal ......................119 ii

PAGE 6

Final Spaceport Masterplan ................................................................................119 Final Aerospace Terminal Complex ...................................................................125 DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................147 REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................150 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...........................................................................................................153 iii

PAGE 7

LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Travel Time Comparison fo r Different Modes of Transportation .......................28 Table 2: Airport Gate Statistics as of 2008 ........................................................................66 iv

PAGE 8

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Diagram Showing Project Research Subjects ......................................................1 Figure 2: Mesolithic vessel, found in Pesse, Netherlands ...................................................2 Figure 3: Port Scene with the Embarka tion of St Ursula 1641 by Claude Lorrain .............3 Figure 4: San Francisco Harbor 1908 ..................................................................................3 Figure 5: San Francisco Harbor Today ................................................................................4 Figure 6: Pier 39, San Francisco Harbor ..............................................................................4 Figure 7: Typical Wagonway in the 1800s ..........................................................................5 Figure 8: Early 1800s Steam Locomotive ...........................................................................5 Figure 9: North American Rail Syst em created by Radical Cartography ............................6 Figure 10: Grand Central Station, NY, 1920 .......................................................................7 Figure 11: Interior of Grand Central Station, NY ................................................................7 Figure 12: Karl Benz Motorwagon 1885 ............................................................................8 Figure 13: Modern Highway System ...................................................................................9 Figure 14: Los Angles Urban Sprawl ..................................................................................9 Figure 15: World First Commerci al Jet Airliner A Boeing 707 ........................................10 Figure 16: Tampa Airport 1948 (Ori ginally Name Drew Airfield)...................................11 Figure 17: Tampa International Airport 2005 ....................................................................12 Figure 18: Virgin Galactics Spaceshiptwo .......................................................................13 Figure 19: Rocketplane XP ................................................................................................13 Figure 20: EADS Astrium Space Jet .................................................................................14 Figure 21: Space Adventures Xerus Spaceplane ..............................................................14 Figure 22: Revamped Shuttle Prototype X-33 VentureStar ...........................................14 Figure 23: Galactic Suite Space Hotel ...............................................................................15 Figure 24: Correlation between T echnology and Cultural Developments ........................16 v

PAGE 9

Figure 25: Layers of Earths Atmosphere ..........................................................................17 Figure 26: Parabolic Trajectories of Suborbital Flights .....................................................18 Figure 27: Suntower Concept ............................................................................................18 Figure 28: Kennedy Space Center VAP and Pads 39A & 39B .........................................20 Figure 29: U.S. Spaceports ................................................................................................22 Figure 30: Spaceport America Conceptu al Design by Foster + Partners ..........................23 Figure 31: Vision Spaceport Artwor k of a Spaceport by Pat Rawlings ............................23 Figure 32: Diagram of Suborbi tal Point-to-Point Travel ...................................................24 Figure 33: Diagram of Typical Airport Component Relationships...................................30 Figure 34: Standard Airport Typologies ............................................................................31 Figure 35: Diagram of Vertical Segregation within the Terminal .....................................34 Figure 36: Passenger Flow Chart .......................................................................................35 Figure 37: Kansai International Airport (Photo by Carpkazu 2006) .................................37 Figure 38: Aerial of KIA ....................................................................................................38 Figure 39: KIA Siteplan .....................................................................................................38 Figure 40: KIA Floorplans A Te rminal with Linear Piers ..............................................39 Figure 41: KIA Circulation Map ........................................................................................40 Figure 42: KIA Section Through Terminal: Forms of Space ............................................40 Figure 43: Main Public Concourse ....................................................................................41 Figure 44: International Gate Lounge ................................................................................41 Figure 45: KAI Ceiling: Airfolds .......................................................................................42 Figure 46: Airport, Train Station & Hotel Arrangement ...................................................42 Figure 47: KIA Station .......................................................................................................43 Figure 48: Hotel Nikko ......................................................................................................43 Figure 49: Aerotropolis Schematic by Dr. John D. Kasarda .............................................44 Figure 50: Airport City Diagram .......................................................................................46 Figure 51: Map of Aerotropoli Worldwide by Dr. John D. Kasarda .................................47 Figure 52: Dubai World Central Airport City ....................................................................47 Figure 53: Denver Inte rnational Airport ............................................................................48 Figure 54: Symbolism for Global Community ..................................................................49 vi

PAGE 10

Figure 55: Spaceport America Site Plan (Foster + Partners) .............................................54 Figure 56: Virgin Galactic Logo ........................................................................................55 Figure 57: Conceptual Images of Spaceport America .......................................................56 Figure 58: Conceptual Images of Spaceport America .......................................................56 Figure 59: Public Viewing Area ........................................................................................57 Figure 60: Spaceport America Interior Plan Section (Fos ter + Partners) ..........................58 Figure 61: Sustainable Design Techniques ........................................................................59 Figure 62: Exploded Axonometric of Sp aceport America (Foster + Partners) .................59 Figure 63: NASTAR Advanced Spat ial Disorientation Trainer (ASDT) ..........................60 Figure 64: NASTAR Hypobaric Chamber ........................................................................60 Figure 65: NASTAR High-G Centrifuge Training Simulator ...........................................61 Figure 66: Airspace Diagram .............................................................................................73 Figure 67: Atlanta, GA Site 1 (from Google Maps )..........................................................76 Figure 68: Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX Sites 2 & 3 (from Google Maps)...................................76 Figure 69: Atlanta Population Density (from Google Maps )............................................77 Figure 70: Dallas-Ft. Worth Population Density (from Google Maps).............................77 Figure 71: Atlanta Global Coordinates (map from Google Earth )....................................78 Figure 72: Dallas-Ft. Worth Gl obal Coordinates (map from Google Earth )....................78 Figure 73: Atlanta Windrose Diagram ...............................................................................79 Figure 74: Dallas-Ft. Worth Windrose Diagram ...............................................................79 Figure 75: Atlanta, GA Average Temperature ..................................................................80 Figure 76: Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX Average Temperature ....................................................80 Figure 77: Atlanta Site 1 Access Routes (map from Google Earth ).................................81 Figure 78: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Access Routes (map from Google Earth )..................81 Figure 79: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Access Routes (map from Google Earth )..................81 Figure 80: Atlanta Site 1 E xpansion Areas (map from Google Earth )..............................82 Figure 81: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Expansion Areas (map from Google Earth )..............82 Figure 82: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Expansion Areas (map from Google Earth )..............82 Figure 83: Atlanta Site 1 Area (map from Google Earth ).................................................83 Figure 84: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Area (map from Google Earth )..................................83 vii

PAGE 11

Figure 85: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Area (map from Google Earth )..................................83 Figure 86: Atlanta Site 1 Areas of Impact (map from Google Earth )...............................84 Figure 87: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Areas of Impact (map from Google Earth )................84 Figure 88: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Areas of Impact (map from Google Earth )................84 Figure 89: Hartsfield-Jackson A tlanta Intl Airport Airspace ...........................................85 Figure 90: Dallas-Ft. Worth Intl Airport Airspace ...........................................................85 Figure 91: Dallas-Ft. Worth Intl Airport Airspace ...........................................................85 Figure 92: Atlanta Site 1 Topography ...............................................................................86 Figure 93: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Topography ................................................................86 Figure 94: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Topography ................................................................86 Figure 95: Atlanta Site 1 Soil Map ....................................................................................87 Figure 96: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Soil Map .....................................................................87 Figure 97: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Soil Map .....................................................................87 Figure 98: Hartsfield-Jac kson Atlanta Airport Hub ...........................................................88 Figure 99: Site Location Map Showing Rings of Impact ..................................................89 Figure 100: Diagram of the Spaceshiptwo Flight Path ......................................................94 Figure 101: Initial Concept Diagram .................................................................................96 Figure 102: Basic Terminal Section ..................................................................................96 Figure 103: Section Through Terminal ..............................................................................97 Figure 104: Section Through Circ ulation Corridor & Terminal ........................................97 Figure 105: Site Selections for Spaceport Facilities (map from Google Earth )................97 Figure 106: Site 3 Area ......................................................................................................98 Figure 107: Spaceport Master plan Concept Diagram 1 .....................................................99 Figure 108: Spaceport Master plan Concept Diagram 2 .....................................................99 Figure 109: Spaceport Traffic Flow Study ......................................................................100 Figure 110: Preliminary Spaceport Circulation Diagram ................................................101 Figure 111: Schematic Spaceport Masterplan Diagram ..................................................102 Figure 112: Schematic Spaceport Masterplan .................................................................103 Figure 113: Aerial View of Spaceport Schematic Masterplan ........................................103 Figure 114: Inspirational Images from Science Fiction ...................................................105 viii

PAGE 12

Figure 116: Hierarchy Concept Diagram .........................................................................106 Figure 117: Flight Paths for Orb ital and Sub-Orbital Spacecraft ....................................106 Figure 118: Organization of the Cosmos .........................................................................107 Figure 119: Conceptual Circulation Diagrams ................................................................107 Figure 120: Balance and Order ........................................................................................108 Figure 115: Aerospace Terminal Passenger Flow Diagram ............................................109 Figure 121: Conceptual Sketches of Aerospace Terminal Facilities 1-6 .........................111 Figure 122: Conceptual Sketches of Aerospace Terminal Facilities 7-11 .......................112 Figure 123: Conceptual Sketches of Aerospace Terminal Facilities 12-15 .....................113 Figure 124: Aerospace Terminal Complex Parti Diagram ..............................................114 Figure 125: Aerospace Terminal Complex Underlying Geometry..................................115 Figure 126: Aerospace Terminal Complex Degr ees of Enclosure in Plan and Section ..116 Figure 127: Hierarchy of Aerospace Terminal Complex ................................................116 Figure 128: Aerospace Terminal Complex Form Sketch ................................................117 Figure 129: Aerospace Terminal Complex Geometrical Forms ......................................117 Figure 130: Schematic Circulation Diag ram of Aerospace Terminal Complex ..............118 Figure 131: Spaceport Masterplan and Surrounding Context, Scale 1:2000 ...................120 Figure 132: Figure-Ground of Spaceport and Surrounding Context, Scale 1:2000 ........121 Figure 133: Masterplan of Aerospace Term inal Complex and Context, Scale 1:400 .....122 Figure 134: Aerial of Spaceport Masterplan ....................................................................123 Figure 135: Aerial of Aerospace Terminal Complex and Context..................................124 Figure 136: Underground Fl oor Plan, Scale 1:400 ..........................................................127 Figure 137: Ground Floor Plan, Scale 1:400...................................................................128 Figure 138: Second Floor Plan, Scale 1:400 ....................................................................129 Figure 139: Third Floor Plan, Scale 1:400 ......................................................................130 Figure 140: Fourth Fl oor Plan, Scale 1:400 .....................................................................131 Figure 141: Observation Deck Plan, Scale 1:400 ............................................................132 Figure 142: Roof Plan, Scale 1:400 .................................................................................133 Figure 143: Departure Level Pa ssenger Flow Map, Scale 1:133 .....................................134 Figure 144: Arrival Level Pa ssenger Flow Map, Scale 1:133 .........................................135 ix

PAGE 13

Figure 145: Third Floor Landside Departures Level, Scale 1:80 ....................................136 Figure 146: Second Floor Spaceside Departures Level, Scale 1:80 ................................137 Figure 147: NW to SE Section Perspectiv e through Aerospace Terminal, Scale 1:100 .138 Figure 148: SW to NE Section Perspectiv e through Aerospace Terminal, Scale 1:100 .138 Figure 149: East to West Section Perspect ive through Aerospace Terminal, Scale 1:100 139 Figure 150: East to West Elevation of Aerospace Terminal, Scale 1:100 .......................139 Figure 151: Enlarge Second Floor Plan of Landside Arrivals, Scale 1:50 ......................140 Figure 152: Enlarge Third Floor Plan of Landside Departures, Scale 1:50 .....................141 Figure 153: Exploded Axonometric of Aerospace Terminal and Details ........................142 Figure 154: Passenger Journey from Dr op Off to Take Off, Views 1-4 ..........................143 Figure 155: Passenger Journey from Dr op Off to Take Off, Views 5-8 ..........................144 Figure 156: Passenger Journey from Dr op Off to Take Off, Views 9-12 ........................145 Figure 157: Aerial Views of the Aerospace Terminal .....................................................146 x

PAGE 14

From Airport to Spaceport: Designing for an Aerospace Revolution Paula Selvidge ABSTRACT "Airports will shape business location and urban development in the 21st century as much as highways did in the 20th century, railroads in the 19th and seaports in the 18th" John D. Kasarda, Ph.D. Kenan-Flagler Busi ness School, University of North Carolina http://www.aerotropolis.com/author.html I say, spaceports will shape th e urban development of the 21st century, more than airports, bringing about an aer ospace revolution. Just as new technologies triggered the global revolutions of the past, so the invent ion of reusable spacecraft will revolutionize transportation. The invention of such spacecraft suggests the need for a different kind of transportation hub: a spaceport. Not unlike an airport, a spaceport would be a center for transportation, but both terrestrial and extr aterrestrial. Commercializing space travel would improve the efficiency of world travel and impact the cultural perspective of the world at large. This new transport nexus would not only need to accommodate new modes of operation, but would need to respond to the emerging global society. An allinclusive spaceport, it would become a city unto itself. A study of the changing world and the spiraling correlation between technological advancement and cultural development, in relation to the architecture of transport facilities, is the focus of the following thesis investigation. xi

PAGE 15

xii A correlative study of airports, airport termin als, and the evoluti on of airports into aerotropoli due to globalization, provides th e ground work for the development of an urban spaceport. Restrictions and opport unities relevant to spaceport and aerospace terminal design are explored. An extensive investigation in the field of urban planning, tran sportation, and space travel, along with some speculation, reveals the implications that a commercial space program might have on soci ety and architecture. Then, research into the programming and design of spaceports acts as a spring-board for the design process. Though no commercial spaceports exist as of yet, a conceptual study provides insight into the extrat errestrial side of the operations. Finally, a spaceport masterplan and aerospac e terminal that responds to the needs and concerns of the global community, as well as attempts to fulfill its dreams, is proposed as a precedent for redevelopment and implementation in the near future.

PAGE 16

1 Figure 1: Diagram Showing Project Research Subjects

PAGE 17

INTRODUCTION BRIEF HISTORY OF TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY: CAUSES AND EFFECTS For as long as humans have inhabite d the Earth, a spir it of innovation and exploration has driven the e volution of civilization. The invention and use of hand tools can be traced as far back as human histor y. The Stone Age, Bronze Age, Copper Age and Steel Age each signify a time period that new types of tools were invented and used. The significance of such inventions is their corr esponding effect on civiliz ation; just as the advent of cutting tools gave way to new t echniques for hunting, cooking and building in ancient times, the advancements in transporta tion technology have inspired exploration and cultural exchange. Beginning with the advent of the boat that primitive humans forged in order to cross rivers to the crui se ships of today, boats are still the primary means of transporting great quantitie s of goods and people across the ocean. Figure 2: Mesolithic vessel, found in Pesse, Netherlands The oldest known boat in the world (8500 B.C.E.) ( http://www.civilization.ca/media/docs/images/bog05b.jpg ) SEAFARING VESSELS: BEGIN OF CROSS-CULTURATION The boat is the earliest known form of tran sportation vehicle, predating the wheel. The discovery of a preserved canoe, carved ou t of the wood of a tree trunk, dates back 10,000 years. With a manned floatation device, humans could transport themselves and their belongings to new lands, cross large bodi es of water to explore and hunt, and move goods to trade with neighboring tribes. The boat as a tool was extremely useful to ancient 2

PAGE 18

peoples and played a great part in the spr ead of civilization and cultural around the world. Tribes began to mix and cross breed, cultures traded traditions and populations expanded. As the human population grew, so did the si ze of boats and the technologies that propelled them. When boats became large e nough to transport gangs of men over vast bodies of water, the need for docking stations arose. These seaports were the centers for trade, so it was only natural that cities grew up around them. Figure 3: Port Scene with the Embarkation of St Ursula 1641 by Claude Lorrain ( http://www.oilpaintingshop.com/lorrain/6.jpg ) The development of seaport architecture e volved over time into the busy harbors of today. Aside from large warehouses to st ore imported goods for distribution, major seaports gained popularity as places for s hopping and entertainment. Pier 39 in San Francisco ( Figures 4-6 ) is a good example of how the modern harbor has been adapted as a sort of outdoor shopping mall, with produce st ands, restaurants, bars and the like. The harbor is also the place where cruise line passengers pass the time when the ship is at berth, therefore places to expl ore and relax are located at th is waterfront for convenience. Even after the creation of the wheel in ancient times, boats/ships remained the primary form of transportati on. Not until the Industrial Age and the invention of the steam engine, did the wheel gain significance on a global level. Figure 4: San Francisco Harbor 1908 Notice the long warehouse depots stretching out into the bay. ( http://www.hellosanfrancisco.com /Images/Panoramic/8172006San_Fra ncisco_from_Air_Ship_c1908.j pg ) 3

PAGE 19

Figure 5: San Francisco Harbor Today Same long warehouse depots exist today. ( http://image50.webshots.com/50/5/18/17/487551817yXNlsr_fs.jpg ) Figure 6: Pier 39, San Francisco Harbor Historic harbors now offer shopping and dining that attract crowds of people. ( http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/db/Pier_39_San_Francisco_CA.JPG ) LOCOMOTIVES: INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION PRIORITIZES EFFICIENCY The first use of the wheel on a transport de vice is said to have occurred many years after its invention. Its original use for cooking and spinning clay pots was simple, but the assembly of a wheeled vehicle was slightly mo re difficult. Its roll as a wheel didnt begin until around 4000 B.C.E., when wagon carts pulled by animals were used to move people short distances. The animal driven carts were fine for traveling l ong distances too, as long as frequent stops were made for the animals to rest. Later, when the need to move large amounts of goods long distances came about, th e wagonway was formed a set of wheel carts linked together set on tracks and drawn by animals (Figure 7 ). 4

PAGE 20

Figure 7: Typical Wagonway in the 1800s Before the invention of the steam engine version. ( http://www.burradon-camperdown. co.uk/resources/Wagonway.jpg ) There is even evidence that a sort of wagonway track system existed during the Roman Empire some 2000 years ago. Still, the animal power was limited, and far too slow for the ever growing capacity of th e human race. As civilization progressed, populations grew, and the spread of villages and farms dotted the landscape, so too grew the need to transport raw materials and goods long distances in a more efficient manner. Hence, the steam powered cart system, known as the locomotive was invented. Figure 8: Early 1800s Steam Locomotive ( http://www.trains.com/ctr/objects/images/0-4-0_2.jpg ) In Britain, at the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, when machines were created to replace man-powered operations in manuf acturing, others were adapting these machines to transportation. Th e steam engine, originally a machine to pump water and turn geared factory machin es, was adapted to propel a set of wheeled carts along a track thus, the locomotive wa s born. Of course, ma ny modifications and improvements were made to create the modern day train system, but the motive and function behind it still apply to move larg e amounts of goods and people long distances more efficiently. People no longer needed to live near the seaports to exchange goods. The ability to travel the country over land, al lowed the population that lived far from the 5

PAGE 21

coast to exchange goods with those near the ports. As long as ther e was access to a rail line or depot, they could get th e supplies they needed and trad e wares. Just as the demand for exploration gave birth to sea-faring ve ssels in ancient times, so the demand for efficient transportation led to the railroad system in the 19th century. Figure 9: North American Rail System created by Radi cal Cartography ( http://www.radicalcartography.net/?rail ) In North America, during the 1800s, train us e exploded with rail lines running clear across the continent in every direction. Th e improved socio-economic conditions that resulted from this transportation system boosted America to the top of the world commerce list. Subsequent effects on the urban environment and architecture also stemmed from the development of the railro ad. The ability to move goods from ships inland via train (and vice versa) was of great benefit to the tradi ng industry. Therefore, rail lines were located at seaports to incr ease the efficiency of moving products between ships and trains. A new arch itectural typology, the warehouse, was designed to house the goods before being loading onto trains or sh ips to be transported. The warehouse depot had a large open plan and high roof lines that allowed quan tities of goods to be stacked up until they could clear customs and be delivered. 6

PAGE 22

Figure 10: Grand Central Station, NY, 1920 Its monumental design recalls that of ancient Roman temples. ( http://theboweryboys.blogspot.com/2 008/05/podcast-grand-central.html ) Figure 11: Interior of Grand Central Station, NY ( http://lh6.ggpht.com/allencreek/RwlTqCL ki2I/AAAAAAAAAaw/0M9L9wH0_as/original.jpg ) Passenger train stations, on the other hand, we re generally located in the middle of the city. As a symbol of economic power, passenger stations were designed to impress by their monumentality. These elaborately de signed oversized buildings, such as New Yorks Grand Central Station, incorporated passenger service areas, railroad operations offices, convenient stores and va st circulation halls. The integr ation of services at these early train stations were the beginnings of the all inclusive transport facility. Even though its popularity as a long distance people mover ha s waned over the last century, in lieu of faster modes of transportation, the rail sy stem continues to transport goods across the country, and its monumentality is preserved in the architecture of its many stations. AUTOMOBILES: PRIVATIZATION PROMPTS URBAN SPRAWL Shortly after the developmen t of the modern railroad, came the invention of the automobile a vehicle made for private c onveyance. Initially, only the wealthy could afford such a vehicle, making it a status symbol to simply own one. However, the exclusiveness of private tran sportation diminished with the advent of mass production. 7

PAGE 23

Figure 12: Karl Benz Motorwagon 1885 ( http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/1885Benz.jpg ) The first automobile was based on the same steam engine as the locomotive. This steam power vehicle, however, wasnt so successful. Not until the gasoline powered motorwagen, built in Germany by Karl Benz in 1885, did the general public start to take notice. Benz began selling his three wheeled version in Europe in 1888, and later a four wheeled version. Aside from the Benz motorwag en, other self-propelled vehicles of all means and methods were being developed throughout the late 1800s, none of which seemed to capture the market. The first affo rdable automobile began production in the United States in 1914 by none other than He nry Ford, the leader of mass production. He realized that a machine run assembly line w ould increase the efficiency of automobile production, and thereby decrease the cost in te rms of time. As a result, the purchase price of the automobile, his Ford Model T, was lo w enough that almost anyone could afford to own one. Once word of the production met hod got out, manufacturers across the world began revamping their factories to accommodate assembly line production. New automobile production companies started poppin g up everywhere. Competition fueled the machine, so to speak, and automobile t echnology saw rapid growth in the years following. 8

PAGE 24

Figure 13: Modern Highway System ( http://img494.imageshack.us/img494/3497/panamerica6gp7gp.jpg ) The growing population of automobile owners in the early 1900s increased traffic on public roads so much that planners saw fit to create a highway system that accommodated the increase. Thus began the paved interstate system of roads that connects cities and their surrounding suburbs. This interstate highway system allowed citizens to live just outside the city, but still with in driving distance to work inside the city all that was necessary was a short commute in their personal automobile. From an urban planning viewpoint, this highway system opened the door to urban sprawl a 20th century building trend where people who wanted to escape the hustle and bustle of the city, would establish sustai nable neighborhoods further and further away from the city center. The new neighborhood developments created a whole new architectural perspective; one th at decentralized the city and redistributed the various live, work and play services throughout the surr ounding lands. As populati ons grew, the city grew wider and wider. The result of this trend still affects us today, as populations continue to spread into the countryside, transforming the natura l land into hundreds of suburban neighborhoods, like the one shown in Figure 14. Figure 14: Los Angles Urban Sprawl Accessible Only By Freeway ( http://www.photodiary.org/large/e_1167.jpg ) 9

PAGE 25

AEROPLANES: INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE DEMANDS EFFICIENCY Somewhere in the mist of all the locomo tion and automotive hoopla, there loomed a dream of flying. The desire to fly can be tra ced back to ancient times. Much evidence has been discovered in the drawings and writings of the ancients that reveal a desire to fly: illustrations of bird shaped devices and descriptions of self propelled flying machines. Documents, dating as early as the 15th century, show that Leonardo Da Vinci was designing a winged aircraft. None theless, the first successful motorized aircraft didnt fly until the early 20th century. Many potential designs were tested in those early years, but the ones that actually succeeded were drafted into military service, along with their designers, to fight in World War I and Worl d War II. Aircraft became weapons of war and the designs that came out of the era reflect ed it. The jet fighter plane, for instance, materialized during World War II. During war times, the majority of air service in the states was limited. Because of the focus on the m ilitary, the commercial side of air travel didnt really take off until the end of World War II. Thereafter, with an excess of pilots and aircraft at hand, the commerc ial business of air travel be gan to explode. The designs of aircraft turned to passenger planes, like the Boeing 707 shown in Figure 15. Though it was considered the first commercially successful jet airliner, it was not the first jet airliner to ferry passengers. The de Havilland Co met, takes the title as the first jet airliner to fly passengers for profit in 1952. Figure 15: World First Commercial Jet Airliner A Boeing 707 ( http://commons.wikimedia.o rg/wiki/File:Travolta707.JPG ) 10

PAGE 26

By the 1970s, airlines multiplied and airports sprang up in every major city. (Actually, most were located ju st outside the city due to the noise output of the aircraft and the lack of available land within the city). As the dema nd for air travel increased, and aircraft and airports grew in size, the costs of the tickets decreased. Like automobiles, what was initially available only to the wea lthy became affordable to the masses. More people began flying to their destinations, rather than driving or taking the train, because it was faster and more efficient. Figure 16: Tampa Airport 1948 (Originally Name Drew Airfield) ( http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Drew_field_tampa_11-060p.jpg ) 11

PAGE 27

Figure 17: Tampa International Airport 2005 ( Google Earth Image 2009 ) As the fashion of flying wore off and b ecame commonplace to the typical vacationer, the business commuter population arose as the primary consumer. Business men and women began to take advantage of the conveni ence and economy of air travel to conduct national and international busin ess in person. The ability to increase the client base of ones company beyond the local vicinity prov ed a great advantage over non-commuter competition. Manufacturers took advantage by employing airlines to transport their products to a number of intern ational distribution areas. Even the government exploited air travel to improve the e fficiency of mail delivery. Thusfar, no other invention has had such a great impact on global commerce as the airplane. It is only in the past couple of decades, however, that its full potential as a transportation device has been realized. Initially, considered somewhat of a nuisance, airports were built on the outskirts of the city away from residences and businesses. However, as businesses realized the benefits of air shipping, they be gan to relocate their offices closer to the airport to gain more direct access to the airc raft. Express delivery services, like Fedex, as well as many distribution firms base their success on the ability to transport products as quickly as possibl e. Efficient delivery has become a very important aspect for the success of many bus inesses worldwide, and not just for the delivery of goods, but people as well. In this age of international commerce, where time is money, doing business face to face is often cr itical to gaining a clients trust, and there 12

PAGE 28

isnt always a lot of time in which to do so. Therefore, faster means of trans-continental transportation are always sought. REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLES AND SPACEPLANES: INNOVATION SAVES TIME What does the future hold for world travelers? For some, the thrill of flying is just as exciting as the destination. For others, the hour s spent flying in an airplane can prove to be frustrating and exhausting a waste of time. Well, imagine if the time it took to fly to around the world was ten times shorter. Better yet, imagine the intended destination wasnt even on Earth, but outer space. Technol ogy to do just that is well on its way. In the past several years, great strides in the field of private space travel have been made. Research and development into reusable launch vehicles (or RLVs) is showing promise towards being the next generation of transportation. Comb ining the technology of aircraft with the technology of spacecraft, a more efficient vehicle for space travel is being constructed one that is not only faster, but is comp letely reusable and operates on far less natural resources than the NASA space shuttle. Several privately owned companies have already begun fabricating protot ypes of reusable space vehicles, such as the SpaceshipTwo, Rocketplane, EADS Astriums Space Jet, and the Xerus Spaceplane (see Figures 18-21). Figure 18: Virgin Galactics Spaceshiptwo ( http://www.spaceportamerica.com/news/photo-gallery.html) Figure 19: Rocketplane XP ( http://www.rocketplaneglobal.com/press/20071026a.jpg ) 13

PAGE 29

Figure 20: EADS Astrium Space Jet ( http://www.chaoticsynapticactivity.com/images/space_plane2.jpg ) Figure 21: Space Adventur es Xerus Spaceplane ( http://www.thespacereview.com/archive/13a.jpg) Figure 22: Revamped Shuttle Prototype X-33 VentureStar ( http://fugitivethought.com/projects/area51/x33.jpg ) Like the transportation vehicles of the pa st, these reusable launch vehicles will initially have a rather limited scope. The first space vehicles being designed are singlestage-to-orbit vehicles that will take tour ists on short trips to the edge of space to experience weightlessness and re turn them back to the same location. However, others are working on single-stage and multi-stage-to-o rbit vehicles to shuttle people to low Earth orbit (LEO) and the Inte rnational Space Station (ISS). Even NASA is attempting to redesign a more efficient space shuttle to get their astronauts into space ( Figure 22 ). Still others are focusing on super high-speed suborbi tal spaceplanes (a type of RLV) to ferry passengers across the planet in far less time than aircraft. At any rate the full potential of each of these vehicles waits just over the horizon. If the development of space tourisms 14

PAGE 30

was made an immediate priority, within as few as 30 years it could evolve into a largescale international industry one that encompasses a wide range of applications and customers (Collins 2000, 20). Just 100km, the distance between London and Oxford, separates the earths surface and the threshold of space 100km is the smallest of small steps only 10 times higher than the flight paths of commercial airl iners (Wade 2006, 29). A spacecraft capable of flying beyond the atmosphere into the neares t reaches of outer sp ace and returning to Earth spells great potential on multiple levels. Since it only takes a few hours to blast off, circle the Earth, and g lide back down to land, it is possible to utilize these space vehicles for point-to-point travel as well as Earth-to -orbit transport. Until recently, spacecraft and space travel have been reserved for the sele ct trained astronauts employed by the various governments of the world. These privileged few have gotten to experience things that no common man has been allowed. Because RLVs and spaceplanes are more efficient, reusable, and have fairly quick turn around tim es, means that soon lay people (those with no previous astronautical traini ng) will be able to experience the weightlessness of outer space, catch a breath taking view of the Ea rths surface curving miles beneath them, and return safely to their intended destinati on. Plans of LEO space hotels are also in the works, which would allow people to stay longer in zero-gravity space. Figure 23: Galactic Suite Space Hotel ( http://yeinjee.com/disc overy/tag/astronomy/ ) Other commercial opportunities al so exist that utilize the space vehicles to transport materials to and from orbit and around the worl d, such as delivery of biomedical supplies and emergency courier service for those companies who simply cant wait. Many privately operated RLVs would likely be employed by the U.S. government and other corporations to lift satellites into orbit, and deliver payloads and crew to the International Space Station. The spectrum of possibilities surrounding these reusable vehicles and their 15

PAGE 31

16 transport efficiency are enough to suggest that aerospace travel will be the next era in transportation history. Figure 24: Correlation between Technology and Cultural Developments ON THE EDGE OF AN AEROSPACE REVOLUTION HOW SPACECRAFT AND SPACEPLANES MIGHT EFFECT CIVILIZATION An Aerospace Revolution awaits! Although many of these new space vehicles are being commissioned primarily to allow privat e citizens access to space, there is no stopping the socio-economic pressures of inte rnational commerce from taking control and exploiting the technology to improve worl dwide transportation. In fact, speed and efficiency are the two major benefits that sp ace travel technology can offer; they are also the two constant demands of modern society. There simply is no such thing as too fast. Modern society has acclimated itself to th e increasing speed of life. For this reason, efficiency and convenience are the keys to successfully living in the 21st century from farming to eating meals, from buying a car to washing a car, from building a house to cleaning a house all aspects of modern life are speeding up, as is expected. The premise of supply and demand applies the spiraling correlation between cultural developments, societal desires and technological advancement is clear demand drives innovation. In the case of space travel, space tourism could spur the development of space transportation systems in much the same way th at modern fleets of transport aircraft were spurred by the tourist and business traveler (Rogers 1998, 35). Thereafter, the international commerce market will drive the progress and the flood gates will open.

PAGE 32

Spaceplanes that ferry people to and from space will transform th e whole culture of space transport into that of an airline bus iness (Ashford 2000, 14). In an Ad Astra article, Eric Anderson of Space Adventures sa id he sees space tourism as a progressive step as more and more people do it, it will become more accepted. Fifty years from now, well look back on space tourism as some thing that really opened up space to the public (Carey 2006, 34). This revolution is comparable to that in aeronautics 100 years ago, when the invention of the aeroplane led to the rapid replacement of balloons for most purposes, and to an explosive growth in demand. Balloons cannot fly into wind. Ballistic missiles cannot fly more than once. In each case, aeroplanes provide the solution (Ashford 2000, 17). Well, in this high-tech, fast-paced, spaceage, where conservation of resources is of utmost importance, the more efficient reusab le space vehicles are the solution; and they have arrived just in time. It is a known fact that our planets resources are diminishing, so every effort that we can put fo rth to conserve resources is a step in the right direction. The use of RLVs instead of the current space shuttle, and spaceplanes instead of traditional aircraft would significantly reduce th e amount of resources consumed to get to space or transverse the planet. First, these new RLVs and spaceplanes use hybrid solid/liquid propulsion engines that already consume less fuel than the space shuttle. Second, and which may not seem like much, subo rbital spaceplanes save fuel by flying at altitudes 100km or more above the Earths surf ace, where the density of the air is so low that drag (the slowing down of the plane due to friction across its surface) is insignificant. At these heights, engines can be shut off and the spaceplane can simply glide back down to Earth until it needs power again to either land or launch into space for another round. Figure 25: Layers of Earths Atmosphere ( http://www.kowoma.de/en/gps/additional/atmosphere_02.jpg ) 17

PAGE 33

Figure 26: Parabolic Trajectori es of Suborbital Flights ( Davis et al. 2008, 6 ) To reach the maximum efficiency in point-t o-point (PTP) suborbital transportation, a spaceplane would fly a parabolic tr ajectory or series thereof (see Figure 26 ). The engines would only need to be on at the low point s of the trajectory. The number of parabolas performed would depend on the distance of the flight. Once the private space travel companies are established meaning they have tested the safety of the spacecraft and repeatedly put passengers into space with no major disasters that is when the aerospace revolu tion will begin. The price to fly will decrease and more people will take advantage of the aerospace technology for a variety of activities. What might now be viewed as a dventure or sport for the barnstormer and the risk-taker is what leads to yet one more giant step for mankind. The advent of greater access to space, more efficient travel, great er opportunities for exploration, and the chance at expanding the limits of human expe rience are there for the taking (U.S. 2005, 10). Besides the typical activities of space f light such as, courier service, passenger transport and cargo delivery, there are some more ambitious space bound activities that have been proposed in the fields of solar power collection, entertai nment, manufacturing, R&D, and maintenance. Figure 27: Suntower Concept ( http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Suntower.jpg ) 18

PAGE 34

One such proposal is to build a solar tower ( Figure 27) with hundreds of photovoltaic panels designed to collect solar energy and transmit it to the Earths surface for use. Another suggests round trip tours to the moon, along with overnight stays at space hotels are being planned for the future Manufacturing products in microgravity, or the vacuum of space, that cant be made on Earth, as well as mining the moon for resources to bring back to Ea rth are other activities. One of the more important activities involves building space laborat ories, like SpaceHab, to c onduct biological experiments that might lead to the development of new medicines. And to maintain all of the space structures, space robots that could be rented are another possibility. The development of these other space bound activities depends on the development of low-cost access on demand, which in turn depends on the devel opment of mature spaceplanes (Ashford 2000, 13). Therefore, progress in the fi eld of space travel technology and its infrastructure should be a top priority. It is unquestionabl e that the development of a space-tourism industry [and space travel in gene ral] as described above will be extremely beneficial for world economic growth not to mention the millions of jobs created to operate the various entities associates w ith the space travel industry (Collins 2000, 20). One entity, in particular, which is the focus of this masters thesis, is vital for an aerospace revolution to occur, and that is a spaceport. Jus t as conventional airplanes cannot operate without airports spacecraft that may one day provide PTP [point-to-point] suborbital transportation will re quire a similar infrastructure of spaceports (Davis 2008, 63). WHAT IS A SPACEPORT? Put simply, a spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft; similar to a seaport for ships and an airport for aircraft. A NAS A Vision Spaceport Partnership Report on spaceports defines it as, the facilities, equi pment, personnel, and vicinity required to prepare space-bound craft for fli ght, initiate and manage the flight, and receive the craft at the end of the flight. For Earth-based spacep orts, vicinity refers to the land occupied by the facilities and equipment (McClesk ey 2000, 15). Spaceports will be a vital architectural element of a new age of spaceborne commerce (McCleskey 1999, 1). 19

PAGE 35

SPACEPORTS TODAY In the U.S., the vicinity is dispersed over multiple spaceports facilities. These spaceport facilities, such as the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, have traditionally been rese rved for government or military operations. Established in 1962, the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Islands in Florida has remained the launching operations center for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The KSC site, which li es adjacent to the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, only uses about 6,000 acres of its 140,000 acre site to launch its spacecraft. A variety of missiles, rockets, and shuttles have been launched from the KSC and Cape Canaveral sites over the last 50 years. The combine site includes 48 missile/rocket launch pads, of which only seven are actively used, and two active shuttle launch pads. The other federal spaceports Edwards AFB, Reagan Te st Site, Vandenberg AFB, Wallops Flight Facility, and White Sands Missile Range are used mainly for landing, testing and tracking operations. Traditionally, launch sites have been located near the coast, so the pieces that separate during multi-stage launches can drop into the sea where they cause less damage and can be reclaimed. However, this feature will be less necessary with the new single stage and two-stage space craft since there is nothing that drops away. Figure 28: Kennedy Space Center VAP and Pads 39A & 39B ( http://picasaweb.google.com/robertadibble/SpaceShuttles#5015013354329134770 ) U.S. SPACE ACTIVITY The NASA KSC has been actively operat ional since its in ception in 1958 and remains a leader in scientific research in the U.S. However, budget cuts and other factors that have occurred over the last decade have diminished the operat ional activities of the 20

PAGE 36

space program at large. With only 13 shuttle missions scheduled before the retirement of the space shuttle Endeavour in 2010, current opinions of NAS A held by of those in the space science and engineering fields are less th an optimistic. Lately, questions have risen concerning what NASA plans to do for the fi ve years between the decommissioning of the space shuttle in 2010 and the launching of the new shuttle Constellation in 2015. The options are limited to relying on the Russians for access to space (and the ISS), or continue to use the derelict old shuttle past its expiration. There is anothe r alternative, however, that NASA officials are consider ing. If, no when, the private space travel companies begin steady operations of their launc h vehicles, which is likely to happen in the next two years, the government could utilized them to get the NASA crews and supplies into space. With federal government funding, the private sector companies could be operational much quicker. In 2006, the Co mmercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program of NASA plopped down a half a billion dollar prize for a competition to the firm who could design and build a vehicle that would deliver crew and supplies to the ISS. Two companies emerged as the wi nners and split the prize money: Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) and Rock etplane Kistler (Berger 2006). If the companies can prove that their spacecraft will work reliably, then NASA may begin utilize the private sector ve hicles and facilities to c ontinue their space missions. EMERGENCE OF COMMERCIAL SPACEPORTS: A NEW PERSPECTIVE In the realm of spaceports, there are currently only a few privately owned and operate spaceports in the U.S. Most are aba ndoned air force bases or airports with ample space, hangers and runways that have been converted for use as testing sites for spacecraft. According to the Federal Aviati on Administration (FAA) 2008 registry, there are seven non-federa l spaceports (see Figure 29 ). These non-federal spaceports, with the exception of the Blue Origin Launch Site, are primarily intended for vehicle testing. The Blue Origin Site, which received the first F AA permit for reusable suborbital rockets, is intending to offer passenger se rvice in the near future. 21

PAGE 37

Figure 29: U.S. Spaceports ( http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ast/industry/media/spaceports.gif ) The concept of a spaceport designed for the purpose of space tourism is rather new. Eight requests for proposed commercial spacepor ts have been received by the FAA in the past year. Two common characteristics of many of the proposed spaceports are inland geography a contrast to the coastal loca tion of present-day U.S. spaceports and interest in RLV passenger operations (FAA 2008, 60). No commercial spaceports such as this have ever existed, though plans of one in New Mexico are already in the works. Spaceport America, designed by Foster + Partners (see Figures 30,55,57-61 ), will be the first commercial spaceport facility designed specifically for passenger space tourism. Located in the middle of the New Mexico dese rt north of Las Cruces, Spaceport America is designed around the astronaut experience and the Shipshiptwo vehicle technology. The Spaceshiptwo vehicles operated by Vi rgin Galactic, the spaceliner company operating out of the spaceport, will carry payi ng customers to the edge of space and back. Only a hand full of companies have begun conceptual designs for spaceports: Space Adventures Spaceport Singapore and the Unite d Arab Emirates Sp aceport in Dubai. Since the architects de signing these new commercial spac eports have already consulted with the space travel companies involved, thei r designs provide much needed insight into the programming of spaceports. Being an in spirational model for this thesis, an investigation into the technologies, materi als and functions of Spaceport America is conducted and discussed later. 22

PAGE 38

Figure 30: Spaceport America Conceptu al Design by Foster + Partners ( http://www.fosterandpartners. com/Projects/1613/Default.aspx) In order to keep up with the private sector, NASA is now looking into organizing a private commercial spaceport of their own, wh ere they will offer aerospace engineers and various space vehicle develope rs a launch site on which to test their vehicles. NASA plans to utilize the extra space at the KSC to build a test bed launch site complete with hangers, launch pads and runways to accommodate a variety of space vehicles. An artist rendering of what the spaceport might look like can be seen in Figure 31, from aeroplane runways to vertical launch pads. Of course, there will be a minimum fee associated with the use of the site, but their hoping it will stimulate the aerospace engineering arena and provide funding for their own research and development. Figure 31: Vision Spaceport Artwork of a Spaceport by Pat Rawlings ( McCleskey 2001, 17 ) 23

PAGE 39

SPACEPORTS: VISION OF THE FUTURE The scope of this research, however, is to provide a view of the future where space travel is common and commercial spaceports are the new centers of transportation. This view deviates from the uni-modal spaceports desc ribed in the last section. This approach assumes this capability is needed to satisfy visionary commercial markets, such as space solar power and public space travel, as well as human exploration enterprises (McCleskey 1999, 1). In the new era of aerospace transpor tation, say 50 years in the future, space flight is the prim ary means of transcontinental travel, as well as for regular scheduled trips to orbit. This does not suggest that other fo rms of transportation would be obsolete. Quiet the contrary, space travel would just be another dimension to the transportation system. To say that people w ould regularly visit the ISS, stay in space hotels, commute to other countries for work, or to orbit for that matter, is not so far fetched; neither is the idea that people will want to ride in spacecraft as an alternative to conventional air travel. It will be as comm onplace as flying in a Boeing 747 today. There would be RLVs taking small groups of pe ople and cargo into or bit, and suborbital spaceplanes designed to take loads of passengers around the world to far off destinations. Figure 32: Diagram of Suborbital Point-to-Point Travel ( Davis et al. 2008, 2 ) 24

PAGE 40

The new suborbital transportation would operate much like todays commercial aircraft, except it will be faster and much more exciting (Rogers 1998, 34). People would arrive at the spaceport, board the spacecr aft, fly around the planet, land at another spaceport, deboard, and go on their merry way. (Well, it might be slightly more complicated than that, but its the simplest explanation.) Just as conventional airplanes cannot operate without airpor ts, spacecraft that may one day provide PTP suborbital transportation will require a similar infrastructure of spaceports. Point-to-point suborbital transportation, in particular, may drive the proliferation of spaceports, as the vehicles will require facilities worldwide fo r takeoffs, landings, and maintenance (Davis et. Al. 2008, 63, 65). Katie Roberts, a s pokeswoman for the New Mexico Economic Development Department agrees, that the sust ainability of this i ndustry is point-to-point service so there would be spaceports all around the world. Its going to be the new generation of Fedex, or when you can get fr om Paris in two or three hours (Iannotta 2006, 40). Unlike the isolated uni-modal spac eport concepts discussed earlier (like Spaceport America), this implies that the commer cial spaceport of the future is integrated into a city and capable of handling vast numbers of passengers, as well as multiple forms of transportation it will be a transportation hub. Master planni ng of spaceports will involve synthesis of many different m odes of transportation, such as ground transportation (road and rail), sea, and air travel (M cCleskey 2001, 17). Another assumption is that because spacecraft and the infrastructure to operate them costs more, only major cities around the wo rld will have spaceports. Therefore, a spaceport would act as a hub in a hub-n-spoke system. Intercontinental travelers arriving by spacecraft or spaceplane would need to catch a short air flight to their final destination and vice versa. This is another reason w hy spaceports would need to be multi-modal. In addition, the location and urban contex t surrounding the spaceport is important in terms of support systems available to sustain it, including human resources and infrastructure. This is not to imply that isolated spaceports, such as Spaceport America, would not be useful, but to gain the most be nefit from a commercial spaceport, it must coexist with an urban community. A spaceport must be in a location where the local labor force is large enough to handle it. Spaceports and space transportation maturation must 25

PAGE 41

necessarily evolve the technologi cal capability to operate much as airports do today at the edge of or in the city. This means impr ovements in reliability and safety will apply (McCleskey 2000, 14). A spaceport as such would be more than a simple launching facility; it would be a transportation nexus. The infrastructure involved in a spaceport of this nature would be very similar to that of a hub airport. It w ould need multiple runway s to accommodate take off and landing of spacecraft and aircraft; it would need hanger facilities, storage warehouses, fuel depots, a control tower, a fi re station, access roadways, train station facilities, and parking garages. Mostly importantly it would need terminal facilities that provide passenger access to the craft, and a tr am system to connect them all. There may also be vertical launch facilities on s ite, which would require additional support structures, such as tracking centers, launc h pads, assembly buildings, and gantries. Overall, the infrastructure would be much th e same as an airport. One major difference, however, being the separate aerospace termin als giving passenger acc ess to the various spacecraft and spaceplanes. An aerospace terminal would be unique, not just in appearance, but in function. Because of the added risks taken by passengers flying into space, the aerospace terminal would house the necessary facili ties and equipment needed to train them for the space experience. It would also include a medi cal center to conduct physical exams of passengers prior to and after flights. Th e boarding and deboarding method of spacecraft might also be different from aircraft, making the interface between building and spacecraft unique. Because there would be a wi de range of people visiting the spaceport, and the aerospace terminal specifically, it would likely have an abundance of amenities for not only passengers, but guests. It might also possibly ha ve a large educational and entertainment area for families and visitors to explore while they wait, or during a leisurely afternoon outing. Cons idering that the technology would be fairly new, the aerospace terminal(s) would be a sort of marketing tool in and of itself to encourage people to take the leap into space flight. A bove all, it would be designed to get people interested in space science and space travel. Therefore, the aerospace terminal would be 26

PAGE 42

more than just a connection point between pa ssenger and spacecraft, but a sort of space themed recreation center for all to enjoy. The most important feature of the aerosp ace terminal is the space flight training center. During space flight, the body is subject to additional stre sses and sensations that it is not use to here on Earth, such as high pr essure g-forces and weightlessness. These forces can pose health risks or cause panic in an unprepared passenger. Therefore, novice passengers would be required to attend a space f light training program prior to their first space flight. This training would involve classroom instruction, simulators and sensory stimulation tests designed to prepare the passenger for space flight conditions. Visitors, not intending to fly, might also participat e in training activities. An experienced passenger, on the other hand, would not need any training; they will have gone through the training some time before and be fa miliar with the effects of space flight. The training center would likely be an enti ty within the termin al building, along with a medical center designed to provide physical examinations to potential passengers. Since the health risks of space flight are higher than those of air flight, especially for sick passengers, each passenger would need to under go a physical examination to ensure that they are healthy enough to endure space fli ght conditions. Eric Anderson, CEO of Space Adventures believes anyone able to ride a roller coaster should be able to fly in a suborbital space vehicle (Carey 2006, 32). This may be true, but common sense requires that the health of passengers be assessed in case they do not reali ze they are sick. This means that the physical exam would be rather intense. Just as pilots must obtain a medical certificate validating their good health every year, so a space flight passenger would get a certificate of good health perhap s every five years. Examinations of individual passenger prior to every flight du ring the five year period would be limited to a basic physical. The certificate of good health could be issued by a family doctor, or by a doctor at the medical center in the terminal. Either way a certificate of good health would be presented prior to an y training or ticketing. For those passengers staying longer in or bit, more intense training would be required, as well as a post fli ght medical exam to check that no health problems have resulted from the lack of gr avity or exposure to radiation. 27

PAGE 43

These additional procedures will affect the standard passenger process through the terminal (see Figure 115 for an example of passenger flow through the aerospace terminal). A first time passenger navigating through these procedures would likely spend more time in the terminal prior to space fli ght than he/she would on the flight. The major benefit of this new space tr ansportation, however, becomes ev ident when an experienced passenger flies half way around the world for a meeting, and returns the same day. An experienced passenger would spend about the sa me amount of time in the terminal as a passenger does for an air flight today, but th e time spent on the flight is far less. The overall travel time for an experienced passenge r on a suborbital PTP flight ends up being only a matter of minutes; signifi cantly less than it would be on a traditional aircraft (see Table 1 ). Route Distance (km) Aircraft Duration (hr) Concorde Duration (hr) Suborbital Duration (min) London New York 5,900 7 h 30 3.5 66 71 London Singapore 9,560 11 h 30 8* 75 78 New York Tokyo 10,900 12 h 50 9* 81 85 Table 1: Travel Time Comparison for Different Modes of Transportation ( Davis et. al. 2008, 14 ) The culmination of these suppositions results in a vision of the fu ture that thrives on space travel. A vision that shows people from all walks of life becoming astronauts, businesses relying on space transport, and international commerce depending on it to succeed. It shows space commerce beginning to emerge and the spirit of space exploration revived. A vision of an aerospace revolution! This vision, which supports the argument of an aerospace revo lution, establishes a basis for a line of inquiry that involves rese arch in the fields of airport design, urban planning, terrestrialism, government regulati ons, space architecture, astronaut training, and spaceport programming. The research that follows and this vision combine to form the very essences of this project, and l eads to the design of a spaceport and aerospace terminal that responds to the needs and c oncerns of the global community, as well as attempts to fulfill its dreams. 28

PAGE 44

PERCEDENT STUDY RESEARCH As building types go, airports are prob ably the most similar to commercial spaceports. On a basic functional level, they are identical in that they connect the public to a particular mode of transportation, be it air travel or space travel. In lieu of an existing commercial spaceport, an airport is the obvious precedent to examine. Remembering that a commercial spaceport, like an airport, w ould accommodate a vari ety of transportation means, including aircraft and spacecraft, the main functional systems, program spaces, design features and concepts of the typical airport apply. These systems, as well as the latest trends in airport de sign provide the basis for the development of a commercial spaceport. AIRPORT TYPOLOGY In analyzing the airport typology, the first step was to identify the basic infrastructural components and define any unfamiliar terms (many of which are included in the Definitions section at the end of th is document). The typi cal layouts of airport components the main terminal building, airs ides, roadways and runways are shown in Figure 33. The main terminal building acts as the main entrance and staging area for all passengers and guests visiting the airport facility The airside(s) are the restricted areas that allow passenger access to the aircraft. Ther e are three types of roadways at airports: public roads that provide passenger access to drop-off and pick-up areas, service roads for employees and delivery/service vehicles th at connect directly to the terminals, and access roads that allow airport authorities and emergency vehicles to access the runways. The runways, used for take offs and landings, are the most critical since they must be situated according to local climate, aviation regulations and site limitations. These four 29

PAGE 45

main components are the first to be laid out on the site. Of course, a variety of layouts stem from these basic four, depending on site limits, use level, scale and scope. Figure 33: Diagram of Typical Airport Component Relationships (Adapted from Blow 33 ) Elaborating on these basic layouts, airports terminal buildings have five basic schemes (see Figure 34 ), which can be combined to cr eate a variety of organizational patterns. The linear terminal scheme is the simplest and has the most straight forward circulation. Circulation along it s length provides access to gates along the perimeter. The disadvantages are that the amenities are often duplicated, and transfer passengers can have extremely long walks from gate to gate. The remote terminal scheme is the most flexible in that the apron stands may or may not be fixed. This scheme can utilize mobile lounges to transport passengers to and from airplanes, wh ich makes for short walking distances. However, mobile transporter br eakdowns and weather can slow processing greatly and inconvenience the passenger. Ther e is a need for greater security in this arrangement as well. 30

PAGE 46

Figure 34: Standard Airport Typologies 31

PAGE 47

The terminal with piers or fingers has a main terminal building with sterile airsides extending from it. The centralization of amen ities within the main terminal is very economical and produces a clear relationship be tween the public landside and the sterile airside. The apron stands and gates typically line the perimeter of the airside piers providing added security. The pier s can be arranged in a number of ways to fit the site or any other organizational criteria. The piers scheme is, however, pr one to congestion due to long walking distances for passengers, especi ally those transferring from one airside to another, as well as long conveying distances for baggage. The terminal with satellites scheme has a stand alone main terminal that functions as the public staging area. The main terminal is connected to satellite airsides via train, tram or travellator. This scheme can be easily expanded with a dditional satellites, but expanding the main terminal is limited. The satellites scheme can also have long walking distances depending on the arrangement of the airsides. The unit terminal scheme allows each terminal to operate autonomously with its own amenities. Each unit terminal has its own form (usually linear or pier style) and is connect ed to the other unit terminals via train, tram, or roadway. Transferring between the unit terminals is oftentimes confusing and difficult. Each of the standard layouts and scheme s has advantages and disadvantages that suggest the appropriate type and scale of airport for which it is best. For the purposes of a large, multi-modal commercial spaceport that caters to airplanes and spaceplanes, a unit terminal arrangement with a separate aerospace terminal seems to be the most appropriate. Given that space f light would be the newest fo rm of transportation offered, the aerospace terminal should b ecome an icon of the spaceport. In this configuration, the aerospace terminal stands apart from the rest of the facility, allowing it to have a distinct appearance that dominates the entire spaceport. In any event, the organizational layout established at the beginning of the design process should be flexible and expandable, so that any future alternat ions or additions can easily adapt to the existing geometry. As a re sult, the masterplan becomes a flexible, spatial diagram of a strategic nature (Edw ards 2005, 55). This geometry should also manifest itself at all scales of the terminal buildings. The architect has the primary task 32

PAGE 48

of finding clear organizing patterns which can regulate development over time. Such patterns expressed as structural layouts are be st evolved with a clear sense of geometric progression (Edwards 2005, 55). In this sense, the organizational pa ttern serves a dual purpose, (1) it clarifies the functional order of the plan through the structure and spaces and (2) it arranges the spaces into a perc eivable journey for passengers to follow (Edwards 2005, xv). There is no other building type quite as compli cated and demanding as an airport, therefore, simplicity and order are critical. Typologically, an airport terminal is a unique building, one that speaks of space, speed, light and flight (Edwards 2005, xi). A well ordered, spacious terminal allows for the influx of passengers to move about the terminal with easy. However, it can be uncomfortable with only a few occupants. A well designed airport terminal gives meaning and identity to an otherwise a lienating environment by striking a balance between function and drama (Edwards 2005, 84). An architectural e xpression of flight, symbolic of its function, along with the play of volumes and light, can add dimension and often soften a harsh, utilitarian feel of a term inal. So, if order and organization are to be found in the plan of terminal s, then beauty and event are created by the different applications of structure, space and light in section (E dwards 2005, 128). The initial simplicity of design gives way to pluralit y. Order erodes into romantic confusion (Edwards 2005, xv). This dichotomy between an ordered plan and a dramatic section corresponds to the dichotomy between the nece ssary function of the terminal, with its emphasis on circulation, and the theatrica l experience desired by its users. The aerospace terminal design in this project needs to perform in the same manner, if not more towards the dramatic. The novelty of space flight during this nascent period, calls for a bold expression that draws atten tion. Though not literal, the aerospace terminal would be a sort of billboard advertising what it offers to passersby. The dichotomy of its function and expression would be most eviden t when seen by approaching viewers on the ground, but it may also exhibit this duality to the sky for those fly over to enjoy. Other dichotomous relationships present in th e terminal must also be handled with as much intentness, such as between landside and airside, public and private, accessible and sterile, and arrivals and departures. However, due to the amount of security required in 33

PAGE 49

airports, these relationships are necessarily sepa rate. In small to medium airports, they are usually distributed horizontall y. But, in large airports, the arrivals and departures are oftentimes vertically separated on different fl oors for added control, and so that the flow of passengers doesnt collide. Together, the vertical and horizontal distribution of these relationships helps organizes the passengers, and aids in security management. Examples of vertical distribution with in the airport terminal are shown in Figure 35. Horizontal distribution follows the typological sche mes discussed earlier in Figure 34. Figure 35: Diagram of Vertical Segregation within the Terminal ( Edwards 2005, 125 ) Passenger organization is the most importa nt function of the airport terminal, therefore, emphasis should be upon routes movement and circulation (Edwards 2005, xiii). The grouping and staging of passengers regulates the flow of traffic through the various check points. The flow chart for passenger arrivals and departures is shown in Figure #. The various check point s should be strategically lo cated to meet regulations, and large enough to accommodate the masses of enplaning and deplaning passengers. 34

PAGE 50

Characteristically, the passenger r oute should be as clear and legible as possible, utilizing a variety of architectural elements material, colors, textures, even structure to signal the critical points in the passengers j ourney (Edwards 2005, 127). A geometric ordering at all scales, from the structur e to the light fixtures, lends to the legibility and efficiency of the terminal. Eventually, these visual clues guide the passenger to their destination, be it landside or airside. In this transitory e nvironment, the architect creates a gateway to flight and in the opposite direction, a gateway to continents; and in the case of an aerospace terminal, a gateway to space flight (Edwards 2005, xi). Therefore, whatever the ultimate destination, the passenger should unde rstand that he/she has reached that threshold arrivals should see the city or la ndscape, and departures should see aeroplanes (or spaceplanes) (Edwards 2005, xv). Figure 36: Passenger Flow Chart (Adapted from Blow 1996, 35 ) 35

PAGE 51

Another important feature of a well designed airport, that of intermodality, contributes to the efficiency of the entire system that, and well, people love options. Providing multiple ways for people to access a nd move about the airport and terminal facilities is a great way to reduce congestion. Most airports provide roadways for public vehicular access, but modern airports are marked by intermodality, terminals which are huge in scale and often linked directly in to rail systems (Edwards 2005, xii). There should be a range of pathways and transport options for pedestrians within the terminals as well. In addition to stairs, elevators, and walkways, there should be the choice of using escalators, travellators, or trams that speed up movement and reduce walking distances. Maximizing dwell time while limiting the dist ance passengers have to walk is another balancing act. This is where the passenger prioriti es and the airport priorities collide. Regardless of any possible debate, the custom er comes first. The opportunity to take a faster route should always be offered to those who do not have the luxury of time. On the flip side, there are always non-fl ying guests, as well as passengers, who are perfectly willing and wanting to relax and enj oy their time in an airport. As previously noted, transport buildings take on a role beyond the utilitari an: they celebrate physical travel and social connection (Edwards 2005, xi ). For this reason, th ey include a variety of gathering space and amenities. If someone is stranded in the airport for several hours waiting for a flight, they should be able to grab a bite to eat, watch a show, do some shopping, catch up on work and have a haircut, for example. No one should need to suffer from boredom. Aside from retail shops and restaurants, spaces for reading, reflecting and quite contemplation should also be offered for those passenger/visitors who wish to escape the hustle and bustle of the concourse. Aside from facilitating ci rculation between transpor tation modes, processing passengers, handling cargo and baggage, provi ding passenger services, and organizing and grouping passengers, an airline terminal (or spaceport terminal) must create a sense of place. Following the conventions set forth here for good airport and terminal design, virtually warrants a good, func tional spaceport and terminal. 36

PAGE 52

PRECEDENT STUDY AIRPORT There are several examples of good modern airport desi gn that incorporate these characteristics, such as: Chep Lap Kok in Hong Kong, Denver Inte rnational Airport and Beijing Capital International Airport. The designs are innovative and captivating. They show just how the balance of function, structur e and beauty can be made even in the most complicated of building types. One airport in pa rticular is such a gr eat example of airport design that it was studied as a precedent to this project. KANSAI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Kansai International Airport in Osaka, Japan designed by Renzo Piano was selected for of its high-tech and thoughtful appro ach to airport design. Pianos emphasis on making Kansai a multi-modal transportation nexus with all the splendor and beauty of a flight is what makes it a model for the new ge neration of airport desi gn. Just looking at it from a distance, one can see that it is more than just a simply shelter for passengers. Figure 37: Kansai International Airport (Photo by Carpkazu 2006) ( http://commons.wikimedia.org /wiki/Image:Finair_MD-11.JPG ) The architects use of technology and envi ronmental design in a building of this scale and complexity is a feat in and of its elf. For one, the entire airport terminal is 37

PAGE 53

constructed on a man-made island ( Figure 38 ) with some 906 hydraulic jacks supporting the foundation. As a separate island it can ope rate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week without disturbing the community. However, this means that any expansion will require more land to be created. Figure 38: Aerial of KIA ( http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Kix_aerial_photo.jpg ) The clear order of Kansai can not be denied. The terminal is laid out in a linear pier configuration with pier arms extend out from the central terminal to reach an overall length of just over a mile. Possibly the longest building in the world, it provides frontage for at least 41 apron stands around its perimeter. The runways lay parallel to the terminal on the southeast side, while the main access road circulates on the northwest side. Figure 39: KIA Siteplan ( Transportation 1997, 13 ) 38

PAGE 54

Figure 40: KIA Floorplans A Terminal with Linear Piers (Adapted from Blow 1996, 72 ) The layout of the airport components and inte rior spaces inside the terminal produces a clear distinction betw een landside and airside. The main terminal in the center houses all the amenities, ticket count ers, inspection stations, bagga ge carousels, etc., while the gate lounges reside in the arms. International passengers circulate through the main terminal and out through the pier concourses to the gate lounges fo r departure and vice versa for arrivals. The domestic departures proceed straight forward through the main terminal to the gate lounges on the opposite side. 39

PAGE 55

Figure 41: KIA Circulation Map (Adapted from http://www.kansai-airport.or.jp/en/route/index.html ) Even within a multi-level terminal, such as this, the circulation is clear and legible. The design is thought to be the first to us ed light and structure to guide passengers through the terminal. This is accomplished thr ough the strategic ordering of architectural and structural elements. Columns, beams, lattice girders and sweeping lantern lights are guiding elements that direct, deflect and assemble weary passengers (Edwards 2005, 176). Kansais architecture of space and light, and the design of structure and constructional details, seem to push at the fr ontiers of the tectonic experience (Edwards 2005, 176). These elements combined with the form of the space allude to its function and create a sense of place. For example, the main public concourse with its wide walkway, heavy structure above, solid earthy to nes, pedestrian bri dges, and monumental rectangular form lit from skylights above, resembles that of an urban main street. The gate lounges in the airside wings, on the othe r hand, have thin, curving lattice girders, brightly colored details, large glass window s overlooking the apron and a rounded tubular form that hint at the idea of flight (see Figures 42,44). The circulation spaces sandwiched between the floors are long and lin ear; and the upper level area is a large, open, airy parklike space. Figure 42: KIA Section Throug h Terminal: Forms of Space (Adapted from Transportation 1997, 16 ) 40

PAGE 56

Figure 43: Main Public Concourse ( http://abramsj.tripod.com/japan /images/day11_kansai_airport.jpg ) Figure 44: International Gate Lounge ( http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Kansai_ International_Airport_Terminal_Interior.jpg ) Because Kansai International Airport sits on an island, it was important that it be a multi-modal facility. Within the terminal, a tram system runs the length of the pier arms allowing passengers to quickly get to their gates. Just outsi de the terminal, public light rail and high-speed rail lines terminate in the airport train station that lies beneath the parking garage. This stru cture is joined directly to the ma in terminal facility via several 41

PAGE 57

pedestrian bridges. One central bridge pa sses through the parking structure and connects with a luxury hotel on the other side (see Figure 48 ). A bridge that spans the gap between the airport island and the ma inland connects the airport ac cess road with the public thoroughfare, and carries the rail system across. Figure 45: KAI Ceiling: Airfolds ( http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Kansai_International_Airport01n4272.jpg ) Figure 46: Airport, Train Station & Hotel Arrangement ( http://j-click.jtb.co.jp/info/ecw/img/88.gif) 42

PAGE 58

Figure 47: KIA Station ( http://farm1.static.flickr.com/28/64965778_49dbc47372.jpg?v=0 ) Figure 48: Hotel Nikko ( http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/681355.jpg ) 43

PAGE 59

DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH It is always important to cons ider other issues that might effect or be effected by the design. Two issues related to the design of a spaceport are discussed below. These issues influenced the development of the project and spaceport design. Figure 49: Aerotropolis Schema tic by Dr. John D. Kasarda ( http://www.aerotropolis.com/aerotropolisSchematic.html ) 44

PAGE 60

AEROTROPOLIS AND THE AIRPORT CITY This investigation into the concept of an aerotropolis, a term defined by Dr. John D. Kasarda, is the backbone supporting the idea that a strategic masterplan is necessary to stitch a spaceport into the physical and social fabric of an urban environment, such as a city. Kasardas insight into the evolution of airports lends to the understanding and structuring of the urban context that surrounds airports. As he explai ns in his 2007 article for Airport Innovation [an] airport city is really the urban core of the more geographically expansive aerotropolis [which includes] extensiv e outlying corridors and clusters of aviation-oriented businesses and their associated residential developments (Kasarda 2007, 108). Airports are practically b ecoming cities unto themselves surrounded by supporting infrastr ucture, businesses, housing, entertainment and shopping districts. This trend has emerge d as a response to the fast-paced world in which we live where greater efficiency is paramount, followed closely by agility; and that distance equals time. For every laptop or der a real 747 must carry it in its hold (Lindsay 2006, 80). Therefore, time, accessibi lity and location are key features of an aerotropolis. Companies, increasingly reliant on air transportation to move people and goods quickly in a global economy, locate ne arby (Nasser 2003, 01A). Even service oriented businesses that require executives and staff to undertake fr equent long-distance travel are moving closer to airports (Kasarda 2007, 108). 45

PAGE 61

Figure 50: Airport City Diagram Thusfar, most airports have evolved largely spontaneously with development filling in around them creating arterial bottlen ecking of roadways. In the future, strategic infrastructural planning could re duce this congestion allowing airports to mature into a city with the airport as the transportation node at the center (Kasarda, Aug/Sep 2006). In doing so, the terminal would act as the town centre with promenades, parks, oases, inside and outside the buildings (Edwards 2005, xiii). The shops and restaurants inside the terminal would form the main street, whil e the airport hotel would effectively be the central business district. The warehouses and hangers on the property would constitute an industrial zone (see Figure 50 ). Other business, residentia l and manufacturing districts would, of course, be filled in around it, establishing an aero tropolis. As the transportation node, the airport would be a multi-modal faci lity with dedicated expressway links (aerolanes) and high-speed rail (aerotrains) connected to bu sinesses and residences in the vicinity, as well as to neighbor ing cities (Kasarda Aug/Sep 2006). 46

PAGE 62

Figure 51: Map of Aerotropoli Wo rldwide by Dr. John D. Kasarda ( http://images.fastcompany.com/maga zine/107/aerotropolis_map.gif ) Several aerotropoli are already emerging around the world. At whatever level of development, these airports are growing in a deliberate fashion just as Dr. Kasarda envisioned an aerotropolis would. A few up and coming aerotropoli worth mentioning are Dubai World Central, Hong Kongs SkyCity, Beijing Capital Airport City and Denver International. These few have either already exhibited charac teristics of aerotropoli or are intentionally planning to beco me one. Dubai World Central (DWC) is a perfect example of a planned aerotropolis at its conceptual stage. Designed complete ly from scratch, the masterplan shown in Figure 52, demonstrates how the land can be divided up and how each district would relate to the central ai rport. In DWC, each district is assigned a purpose and named accordingly: Aviation C ity, Logistics City, Residential City, Commercial City and Golf City make up the plan and are strategically arranged into the system. Each district is then zoned for a pa rticular land use. Alt hough it has not yet been built, it has already been deem ed the largest aerotropolis in the world. The airport alone would cover 54 square miles, have six parall el runways and six concourses, and be able to serve 120 million passengers a year. It will have enough residences to house all the airport staff, a cargo facility able to handle 12 million tons of cargo per year, and plenty of leisure activities for th e residents and visitors. Figure 52: Dubai World Central Airport City (http://www.gowealthy.com/gowealthy/wcms/en/ home/real-estate/uae/dubai/dubai-worldcentral/location_map.jpg) 47

PAGE 63

Denver International Airport is another good example of planning for the future. When Denvers Stapleton International Ai rport reached its capacity in the 1990s, authorities decided it was time for a new airport. In 1995, the Denver International Airport was built to replace it. The airport is located some 25 miles outside the city of Denver in the plains overlooking the city. The reason for locating it in the middle of the open plains was to avoid noise impacts to developed areas, to accommodate a generous runway layout that would not be compromise d by winter storms, and to allow for future expansion (Wikipedia). Planning for expansion is one of the main characteristics of an aerotropolis. Denver International is the larg est airport in North America, having over 53 square miles of land, in which only 33,000 acr es are occupied by the airport. The planners wanted to ensure that it had to have enough room to add runways when business grew and enough land around it to accommodate industrial cargo facilities, commercial and residential space (Nasser 2003 01A). There is currently enough extra land to add up to 12 more runways and double the size of the airpor t. However, this additional land was intended to be use for commercial and residential development. If development continues as planned, it could very well grow into the first aerotropolis in North America. Figure 53: Denver International Airport ( http://farm1.static.flickr.com/43/75748924_59e3a5385b.jpg?v=1135536635 ) One might misconstrue aerotropolis land uses as simply additional sprawl In reality, the aerotropolis grows according to a rational system (Kasarda Aug/Sep 2006). If left to grow haphazardly, the businesses a nd residences will expand around an airport and encroach upon it so that it can no longe r expand itself to meet the needs of the growing city. But, if a rational system were established at the time the airport was built 48

PAGE 64

and enough land was assembled to accommodate growth, then an aerotropolis would be formed. The aerotropolis represents the logic of globalization made fl esh in the form of cities (Lindsay 2006, 80). Spaceports, could, and should, be designed for the same type of expansion. A spaceport could easily be adapted to the aerot ropolis model, whereby the spaceport, being the new transportation nexus, resides at the center of a greater urban environment. The information gathered about the aerotropolis m odel and its examples are used in the site analysis and master planning of the spaceport in this project. GLOBALIZATION AND TERRESTRIALISM Globalization is upon us, whether we like it or not. The Earths resources are depleting and world wide pollution stands to destroy life as we know it. It may not be tomorrow, or 30 years from now, but it is inevitable. As its most intelligent inhabitants we are honor-bounded, if not for the sake of survival, to alleviate the problems with our environment. It is a huge task, but with 6.7 bi llion people (population of the world as of 2008) working, it could be done. The only way to make progress in cleaning up the world and finding better solutions to the energy problem is to be like-minded in our goals. Globalisation reflects a political shift toward s international politics, by definition a shift that allows people to feel part of a larger whole, with world trade and the reversal of pollution and the depletion of the Earths resources as the unifying goal (Bartlett et al. 2000, 87). Figure 54: Symbolism for Global Community (Adapted from http://www.thewayncc.org/images/ Peace%20On%20Earth%20Hands.jpg) The conquering of space is a unique chal lenge the can help to unify the world and encourage us to collaborate as a species. In the emerging global society, the collective 49

PAGE 65

project is essential not just as a symbol of human unity, but for future economic progress (Armstrong Introduction 2000, 5). Finding solutions to preserve the planet should be this collective goal. As discussed earlier, many opportunitie s await in space that could greatly improve the state of the plan et, like space solar power. It is our duty to explore these opportunities for the goo d of the planet. Leveraging the realities of space flight, th e global community will learn to transcend the artificial boundaries that separate humankind, including national and so cio-cultural ones. Once people begin seeing the Earth as single sphere in space, as home, then this change will happen. The iconography of the planet Earth as seen from orbit has become a powerful symbol of international harmony a nd peaceful collaboration between nations (Bartlett et al. 2000, 87). The common dream of space flight that once unified the world, will again, as we enter this new era. The quest to fulfill a new dream that of personal space flight will unify the Earths cultures and bond us together into a single race. As terrestrials with a common agenda to save the planet, we shall succeed. Getting into space was the first step. Now it is up to us to push the limits of space until all boundaries disappear. The spaceport, and more specifically the aero space terminal, will be the first stop for anyone going into space. Not only will space unify humans, it will perform the additional role of consolidating the relati onship between technology and people (Bartlett et al. 2000, 91). Therefore, the terminal de sign and program should reflect the unifying nature of its function, and sha ll become a metaphysical symbol of what the people see as its future. In doing so, it will explicitly b ecome an icon of space flight and implicitly inspire global harmony. In his discussion about airport terminals, science fiction writer J.G. Ballard said that concourses are w here everybody briefly becomes a true worldcitizen (Edwards 2005, xv). It is not a place that belongs to a nation, a government or a culture, but a place that belongs to all peopl e, collectively. In an aerospace terminal, where people gather before flying into space or after returning from space, this will be even more true, so its aesthetic and func tional composition should convey its collective nature. In one direction, the aerospace terminal will be the gateway to space flight, and in 50

PAGE 66

the other direction, it will ha ve the grand purpose of being the gateway to all that is terrestrial. 51

PAGE 67

SPACEPORT RESEARCH In general, any investigati on into the design of a space port should begin with the prescriptive regulations supplied by the govern ment. These regulations or lack thereof, are discussed here. Then, to further inform the project, the conceptual design of a commercial spaceport and an existing space flight training center are examined. GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS Though the federal government will no doubt eventually control the entire commercial space flight industry within the United States, at this time, no strict regulations have yet been established fo r the design and operations of commercial spaceports. In fact, the only piece of legislat ion written so far has been the Commercial Space Transportation Act of 2003, which has a fairly general scope. According to the 2008 U.S. Commercial Space Transportation Developments and Concepts publication, the Federal Aviation Administrations Office of Commercial Space Transportation (FAA/AST) specifically, licenses and regul ates U.S. commerci al space launch and reentry activity, as well as the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites, as authorized by Executive Order 12465 and Titl e 49 United States Code, Subtitle IX, Chapter 701 (formerly the Commercial Sp ace Launch Act). FAA/ASTs mission is to ensure public health and safety and the safe ty of property while protecting the national security and foreign policy interests of th e United States during commercial launch and reentry operations. In addition, FAA/AST is directed to encourage, facilitate, and promote commercial space launches and reentries (FAA 2008, i). So far, no specific rules, laws and guidelines exist concerning the space launch vehicles, the operations, the infrastructure or design of the spaceport. In short, the FAA is currently only authorized to grant permits to the various astropreneurs to fly customers into space, and to license 52

PAGE 68

those spaceports designated for space touris m activities. (Notably, only six spaceports have obtained licenses from the FAA to conduct commercial space travel operations; three of which are collocated with federal launch sites.) In many ways, the environment we are in is similar to the barnstorming days of early aviation (U.S. 2005, 8). Patricia Grace Smith, Associate Administrator for the FAAs Office of Commercial Sp ace Transportation, has said th at there must be a period of time given before the government can regu late the space travel industry (David 2005, 16). Back in the days of the Wrights Brot hers, there were no rules on when or where flights could be made or who particip ated. There was no FAA even, until after commercial aviation became a regular practice. Those early fliers took great risk as part of the deal and those people who flew with the pioneers also flew because they loved the thrill (U.S. 2005, 8). There are some who say that the aviation industry would never have happened if the government had regulated it during those critic al years. The same can be said of the nascent space flight i ndustry. Recognizing this fact, the federal government set an eight year trail period, which started in 2003, for the industry to complete its testing and begin initial operat ions. After this eight year developmental period, the space flight industry would be reevaluate based on progress, and the FAA/AST would either allocate more time or begin implementing rules and regulations. In the Commercial Space Transportation Act, and in other congressional hearings on commercial human space flight, the concern is geared more towards the safety of the uninvolved public, than passengers at this point this is compared to a similar era in the early days of aviation (David 2005, 16). Safe ty begins with thos e people on the ground who are completely unaware of what is going on above them. Since the FAAs mission is to provide safety, it is only logical that they would st art by protecting the public and property. After that other issues of environmental impact, labor laws, security of the facility (post 9-11), and impact on air traffic would come into play. Then, the safety of the passengers and crew would be addressed; most likely requiring some form of passenger preparations, such as space f light training and medical evaluations. 53

PAGE 69

In lieu of any set regulations the laws and guidelines assign ed to airports in regards to their operations, infrastructure and design are applied to this spaceport and aerospace terminal design. SPACEPORT AMERICA As discussed previously, the few commercial spaceports presently being planned are strictly for the purpose of space tourism. None theless, these spaceports offer plenty of information on the programming and design of spaceport terminal facilities. Figure 55: Spaceport America Si te Plan (Foster + Partners) ( http://www.fosterandpartners. com/Projects/1613/Default.aspx) One example in particular, which has evol ved the furthest with respect to its architectural design, is the inspiration for this thesis project. Spaceport America was conceived in the early 1990s by a group cal led the Southwest Space Task Force. Aware of the exciting discoveries in space flight technology, this group wanted to boost the already thriving space industry in New Mexi co by building the first purpose-built commercial spaceport. They acquired a 27 s quare-mile piece of desert land, 45 miles north of Las Cruces, New Mexico to be the site of this inland spaceport. Currently in its schematic phase, the construction of the spacepor t infrastructure and terminal facility is expected to be completed by the end of 2010. In 2005, Sir Richard Branson announced that his space tourism company, Virgin Galactic, would make Spaceport America its worl d headquarters. Virgin Galactic aims to be the worlds first successful space tourism enterprise, and will be the first spaceliner operating out of Spaceport America. Aspiring to its CEOs, Sir Richard Bransons, desire to open space up to all people, Virgin Galactic will offer its customers a seat on one of their spaceship for a ride thats out of this world. On these quick trips to the edge of space 54

PAGE 70

and back, passengers will experience the pow er of a rocket hurling them through the atmosphere, the weightlessness of zero gravity, and the transcendent view of the Earths surface curving beneath them. Figure 56: Virgin Galactic Logo ( http://www.virgingalactic.com/ ) By 2006, Sir Norman Foster + Partners, in conjunction with URS Corporation and DMJM, were already working on designs for the spaceport (see Figures 55,57-61 ). The initial concept of the spaceport was de rived from the Virgin Galactic logo (Figure 56 ), where Sir Richard Bransons eye became the form of the terminal building. From that, the design continued to evolve into what is now a grand sym bol of space flight. Its form, scheme and structure all lend to the functiona l and metaphorical natu re of the terminal. The sinuous shape of the build ing in the landscape and its interior spaces seek to capture the drama and mystery of space flight it self, articulating the thrill of space travel for the first space tourists (Foster + Partne rs 2008). Craved out of the New Mexico desert, the circular terminal is sunken into the landscape not only to take advantage of the thermal mass for cooling, but to symbolize the bond humans have to mother Earth. The raised earth around the terminal protects it fr om the harsh New Mexico climate, while allowing the warm westerly winds to be pu lled through the mass of earth and cooled to naturally ventilate the building. To add to the drama, the sc ulpted roof covering of the terminal building adulates as the desert surf ace, and from a distance seems to rise from it like the mountains beyond. The view of the te rminal upon approach, prepares passengers for the excitement and mystery that awaits. 55

PAGE 71

Figure 57: Conceptual Images of Spaceport America ( http://vyonyx.com/category/pro/tran/ ) Figure 58: Conceptual Images of Spaceport America ( http://www.fosterandpartners. com/Projects/1613/Default.asp) Passengers enter the terminal from the we st by passing though a d eep channel cut out of the landscape its walls lined with historical information of the region and space flight. The passengers journey down to the te rminal facility sugge sts a moving into the Earth, as if to protect and co mfort the passengers before th ey are released out to the unknown and unfamiliar space. Schematically, the terminal is divided horizontally east and west and on two floors. The more private, sensitive areas, like the control rooms, are on the first floor of the west side, and have limited access and visibility. The public areas located on the second floor and east side of th e terminal, are encased in glass that allow light from skylights to fill the terminals in terior. Passengers and guests enter the terminal at the second floor on the west side. They are then taken across an air bridge, also encased in glass, over the super-sized spaces hip hanger to east side of the terminal; suggesting a transition from Earth to space flig ht. This is similar to the transition that occurs in airline terminals wh en passengers move from landside to airside. The public viewing area, shown in Figure 58, lies at the en d of the journey on the eastern most side of the terminal and offers a panoramic view of the runway and service deck through floor to ceiling glazing. This procession through the terminal is essential to the functional operations, but more it builds passenger excitement for space flight. 56

PAGE 72

Figure 59: Public Viewing Area ( http://www.fosterandpartners. com/Projects/1613/Default.asp) As the first to introduce personal space flight technology to the people, Virgin Galactic plans to immerse its passengers in the astronaut experience. These activities, besides ensuring passenger safety, health and comfortable, will allow them to get the most out of their trip by preparing them for the new sensations they will encounter. During the four days prior to flight, passengers will go through zero-g training, flight simulations, mission planning, spacesuit fitting, and medical examinations. In order to accommodate for these activities, the Spaceport America terminal is designed around this passenger experience, ergo it incl udes the physical spaces need ed for these activities. In addition to the typical public spaces lobbi es, lounges, viewing ga llery and restrooms other passenger specific spaces are included, such as training classrooms, crew meeting rooms, dressing rooms, and simulation rooms. Even a cafeteria is included for passengers who will likely spend all day in the terminal during training. Since few passengers will be on these space flights, the expe rience will be rather intimate. For this reason, the spaces designated for the passengers are rela tively small to encourage communication, fellowship and celebration. The public areas occupy approximately 18,000 square feet. 57

PAGE 73

The other spaces within the terminal account for the administration offices, staff areas, service areas, and indoor hange r facilities large enough to f it two completely assembled spaceships (see Figure 59 ). Overall, the entire terminal facility is approximately 100,000 square feet. Figure 60: Spaceport Amer ica Interior Plan Section (Foster + Partners) ( http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/images /spaceport_fromabove_tcm23-1874723.jpg ) Finally, the sustainable construction methods and architectural details express the functional and metaphorical nature of the term inal best. Some of the construction details that have already been mentioned in the prev ious paragraphs are re iterated here, such as the ventilation technique. As mentioned before, the termin al building lies in a dug out section of the desert floor with an earth be rm along the west side. As a passive cooling method, wind captured on the west side of the berm is drawn through channels embedded in the earth and subsequently cooled before it enters the building. Vents placed at the upper edges of the terminal draw the cool air in from these channels and expel warm air by convection. Under floor radiant cooling and heating is included to manage the temperature within the terminal during extr eme weather. Passive day-lighting is also incorporated through skylights in the ceiling. Internally, th e floor to ceiling glazing allows sunlight to reach down into the remote portions of the hanger. The roof itself is made of thin shell concrete that acts as a thermal mass trapping heat during the day and releasing it at night when the temperature drop s. The smooth surface al so releases heat as wind passes across it during breezy days. Photov oltaic solar panels are attached to the roof for added energy conservation. And fi nally, local material and construction techniques top off the sustainable features of the terminal. Figure 60 illustrates the various sustainable technique s proposed in the terminal design that give it a LEEDs Platinum accreditation. By simply incorpora ting these environmental friendly features 58

PAGE 74

into the terminal design, the relationship of the terminal a nd its inhabitants to the Earth is reinforced. Figure 61: Sustainable Design Techniques ( http://www.fosterandpartners. com/Projects/1613/Default.asp) Figure 62: Exploded Axono metric of Spaceport America (Foster + Partners) ( http://www.fosterandpartners. com/Projects/1613/Default.asp) SPACE FLIGHT TRAINING: NASTAR CENTER Astronaut or not, all humans going into space on either orbital or suborbital vehicles will need some sort of training. The expe rience is so unlike anything on Earth, both physiologically and psychologically, that preparat ion is critical, not only for the safe and comfort of the passenger, but for their overall enjoyment. An exact training program for such flight s is something the industry has not yet standardized, though some have speculated wh at types of training might be required. Based on experience and the sensations the pi lots underwent during test flights of their spaceships, Virgin Galactic has already devised a training program for its first passengers. This training will eventually be conducted within the Spaceport America terminal, however, until the sp aceport is built the training is being provided by the Nastar Center in Philadelphia. The Nastar Center specializes in traini ng astronauts and air force pilots for the extreme sensations they experience during flig ht. When Virgin Galactic approached them about training their passengers, the Nastar Center group created a space flight training 59

PAGE 75

course designed specifically to prepare their passengers for s uborbital space flight. Knowing the physiological and psychologica l stresses the human body undergoes during space flight, such as g-force pressure, we ightlessness, and disorientation, a training course involving simulator equipment a nd classroom instruction was established. The equipment at the Nastar Center used for space flight training test human tolerances under various conditions. These c onditions do not occur na turally on Earth, so they must be artificially created by various machines. Each training simulator is specially designed to induce certain sensations. The physical motion of the equipment combined with the visual display simulates the various conditions and situations that would be encountered during space flight. A few of th ese simulators are shown in the figures below. The spatial disorientation trainer ( Figure 62 ), for instance, tests a persons ability to remain conscious, relaxed and functional while being flipped around in multiple directions. These interactive simulators are programmed with flight exercises that trainees respond to during the te st, while instructors monitor their vital signs and observe their reactions on a video screen. Anot her simulator, the hypobaric chamber ( Figure 63 ), prepares passengers for emergency situations where a change in air pressure occurs. It involves pressure breathing exercises, use of oxygen equipment, and rapid decompression emergency procedures. This is slightly more involved than the preflight instructions passengers receive on airline flights due to the heighten risks of space flight. Figure 63: NASTAR Advanced Spatial Disorientation Trainer (ASDT) ( http://www.nastarcenter.com/ ) Figure 64: NASTAR Hy pobaric Chamber ( http://www.nastarcenter.com/ ) 60

PAGE 76

Figure 65: NASTAR High-G Cent rifuge Training Simulator ( http://www.thespacereview.com/archive/1062a.jpg ) One of the most effective pieces of training equipment is the centrifuge ( Figure 64 ). The high-g centrifuge is used to test g-force reaction. G-forc e is a measure of an objects acceleration due to gravity. It is equal to the reaction force an object experiences as a result of this acceleration plus gravity. Po sitive gees produce the feeling of heaviness perceived by the body when rapidly accelerated upward during lift-off or vertical climb; similar to the feeling experienced when movi ng upward on a roller coaster. Negative gees produce the sensation of wei ghtlessness when the body is acc elerated down towards the center of gravity. Negative gees can only be achieved near a body of gravity, such as the Earth, which has a positive g-force of 1. Hence, a g-force above +1 must be maintained to escape Earths atmosphere. A centrifuge tests a persons g-tolerance, which various tremendously depending on magnitude, dire ction, duration, location, body posture, health, and body type. Passengers on Virgin Gala ctic flights would need to be able to tolerate +3.5Gz (head to toe) on vertical climb and +6Gx (front to back) on reentry. The centrifuge at the Nastar Center has a 25 foot arm capable of rotating at a speed necessary to simulate a maximum of 15G. Th e gondola at the end of the arm can itself rotate 360 degrees along two axes in or der to simulate different body postures. Completely enclosed within the gondola, the participant sits in front of a simulated cockpit where they are prompted to perfor m flight task operations. These tasks are intended to keep the mind stimulated and to test whether the pe rson can function under the physical and mental distress of g-forces. Of course, passengers would never have to perform such tasks during actual flight, but it helps to have some distraction from the physiological discomfort of g-force. 61

PAGE 77

Outside Earths gravity field, the vacuum of space has a g-force of zero, which produces an actual weightless effect on object s. Virgin Galactic passengers will only experience 3-5 minutes of actual weightle ssness during their space tours. First time floaters arent so graceful, so passengers wi ll be shown various maneuvers, such as how to perform a zero-g somersault and move about the cabin, that will enhance their experience during this weightless period. Explan ations of what others have experienced in zero-g, will also help prepare the passengers for their trip. This type of classroom instruction is included in the Virgin Galact ic training as a way to ensure passengers get the most out of their trip to space. The benefit of using simulators for space f light training is that if something goes wrong the test can be terminated immedi ately and any medical attention can be administer on the spot. Therefore, any tr aining center, like the Nastar Center, or spaceport, like Spaceport America, that conducts space flight training on site, should be equipped to handle any medical emergencies that might occur. Space within the terminal should be allocated appropriately for the vari ous training stations a nd medical facilities. The Nastar Center incorporates all of thes e major training stations with the necessary medical equipment to function safely. The 20,000 square foot facility is divided into thirds. The first third includes two classrooms, administration and staff offices, a meeting room and a lobby. The second third is a singl e training bay that houses a variety of training equipment including, among others, the altitude chamber, ASDT, gyrolab and training theater. The final third contains the human centrifuge, control room, observation area, VIP area, offices, medical station, resear ch labs and a conference room. The facility is laid out so that multiple stations can be run simultaneously. 62

PAGE 78

PROGRAM The program is basically a deta iled description of the projec t in terms of architecture. It explains the reason for the project, the pl an for designing the project, and the scope and extent of the project. DESIGN PROBLEM There is a call for change in the world of transportation that stems from a socioeconomic need for faster, more efficient tr ansportation, and an environmental need for energy conservative solutions in space travel. The technologi es being developed today in the realm of personal and commercial space flight will very likely be the change that revolutionizes transportation. With space fli ght research and development on the rise, there is no time to waste in designing a facility capable of handing a commercial space travel enterprise. Fifty years from now, a commercial spacep ort that operates much like an airport will be required to bring this technology to the masses. Certainly, no existing spaceport is equipped to handle the number of people who will want to participate in space travel once it is proven to be safe. According to Futrons 2001 space tourism market study by 2021, over 15,000 passengers could be flying annually, and some 60 passengers could be on orbital space flights. (Beard and Starzyk 2002, 2-3). This isnt much compared to the airline industry, but the prospect of su borbital point-to-point service could up those numbers drastically by 2060. At this point, no spaceports, current or proposed, are intending to offer space travel as an alternative to air travel; nor are any spaceports planning to commercial ize space travel to the extent envisioned in this project. Because this technology is developing so quick ly, there is an urgent need for planners and architects to begin preparing for this ne w transportation era by developing strategies 63

PAGE 79

for handling the business of space travel in th e form of commercial spaceports. The time to begin planning for this transportation revolution is now. DESIGN PLAN The design plan for this thesis project i nvolves first developing a masterplan of a spaceport that supports a variety of aircraft and spacecraft; is multi-modal; is flexible and expandable; has a clear geomet ric order; and, functions efficiently. Aside from the basic components and infrastructure, these are the most important attributes drawn from the research that are integrated into the space port masterplan. Before beginning the master planning process, however, a lo cation for the spaceport has to be selected. Then the infrastructure can be organized and the spaceport components arranged on the site. Once the general layout of th e spaceport is completed, the location of the aerospace terminal is determined. For a commercial spacep ort to be successful in the future, it must function efficiently and safel y, while presenting this new t echnology to the public in an appropriate manner. The venue suitable for in troducing space travel to the public is an aerospace terminal. Similar to an airline terminal, which connects passengers to aircraft, an aerospace terminal connects passengers to orbital and suborbital spacecraft. The aerospace terminal is the central focus of th e design portion of the pr oject. The design of the aerospace terminal is one that specifi cally caters to intercontinental and orbital travelers; has clear, legible circulation; organizes passenge rs efficiently; is spatially flexible; balances function with dramatic expr ession; creates a sense of place; educates, entertains; provides a safe, comfortable envi ronment; and, expresses its identity through architecture that is monument al and iconic. These objectives combine the basic principles of good airport terminal design with the desired qualities anticipated for a space travel terminal. PROGRAM COMPONENTS AND SPACES Prior to beginning the design of the spaceport masterplan or the aerospace terminal, a program had to be created that defined the components and spaces necessary to meet 64

PAGE 80

these objectives and successfully achieve an efficient design. This program outlines the scope and extent of the de sign project as envisioned. SPACEPORT MASTERPLAN COMPONENTS As discussed previously, for a commercial spaceport to be efficient it must be multimodal and act as a transporta tion hub. In doing so, it will al low people to commute from the surrounding urban community by train, bus or car, as well as th roughout the region, around the world, and into space via airplane spaceplane or spacecraft. Therefore, a spaceport would consist of the typical airport components, such as parking garages, service hangers, fire station, control tower, and airline terminal f acilities; some atypical facilities, such as a train station, a hotel or mu seum; plus facilities spec ific to space flight, such as loading pods, longer runways and special aerospace terminal facilities. Components of the spaceport masterplan: 2 three mile long runways for spaceplane and spacecraft operations this length is an estimate based on the needs of future spacecraft 1 two mile long runway for airplane operations average runway length on U.S. airports Multiple taxiways/taxilanes Airline terminal facili ties: 3 domestic terminals with 44 gates each totaling 132 gates 2 international terminals with 25 gates each totaling 50 gates Fire station Control tower for local air traffic monitoring Control room for space traffic monitoring Area for fuel storage tanks Area for service hangers Area for warehouses Security booths at entran ces to airport property Hotel/Conference facility Parking garages/lots for passengers, spaceport visitors, hotel guests, employees and the general public Rail line and stations Property Line Fence 65

PAGE 81

Industrial, commercial and residential zones Public roads to access the drop-off and pick-up areas of the terminals Service roads for employees and delivery /service vehicles to access terminals Access roads for airport aut horities and emergency vehicles to access the runways Number of Gates at Top Six U.S. Airports Airport Name Number of Gates Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta Intl Airport 204 Chicago Ohara Intl Airport 186 Dallas-Ft. Worth 155 Los Angeles Intl Airport 113 Denver Intl Airport 91 JFK Intl Airport in New York 108 Table 2: Airport Gate Statistics as of 2008 AEROSPACE TERMINAL SPACES The spaces within the aerospace terminal building are determined by the functional activities taking place within it. These activitie s are either required by the greater function of space flight, or proposed as marketab le amenities and attractions. The space allocations for the various terminal functions were carefully determined using the FAA Advisory Circular No. 150/5360-13 Planni ng and Design Guidelines for Airport Terminal Facilities with the assistance of Mr. Howard Klei n, Airport Planner for URS in Tampa (and thesis committee member). First, a forecast for the number of passengers was calculated for the different terminals. Then those estimates were used to calculate the square footage of the program spaces within the aerospace terminal. Programs Spaces for the Aerospace Termin al based on approximately 2 million enplanements per year and 20 gate stands: (SF = Square Feet, LF=Linear Feet) Ticketing Lobby incl. Counter Length, Qu euing and Lateral Circulation ~7,000 SF Ticket Counters Frontage ~130 LF Ticketing Offices ~2,750 SF Waiting Lobby ~2,570 SF Concourse (Effective Corridor Width) 24-36 LF 66

PAGE 82

Security Station (2 incl. weapon check & x-ray at 600 SF per station) ~1,200 SF Departure Lounges (675 SF for Spacecraft, 1,500-2,000 SF for Spaceplanes) ~25,875 SF Jetties Gates: 5 for orbital sp acecraft seating up to 10 15 for sub-orbital sp aceplanes seating 150 Service Aprons and Stand Positions 20 Immigration/Passport Control Area (INS) ~4,770 SF Public Health Services ~910 SF Customs (USCS) ~4,710 SF Animal & Plant Health Inspect ion Service (APHIS) ~2,260 SF Baggage Claim (2 Oval Devices at 100 LF, 200 LF of Frontage) ~6,286 SF Airline Operations Offices ~3,753 SF Airport Management Offices ~2,800 SF Airport Security/Police ~10,000 SF Truck Service Docks Building Maintenance & Utilities Areas ~1,900 SF Storages Rooms ~500 SF Dressing Rooms for Orbital Travelers ~256 SF Food Services ~28,000 SF Coffee Shops 35-40 SF/coffee shop seat ~14,000 SF Snack kiosk 15-25% of coffee shop space ~6,500 SF Bar Lounges 25-30% of coffee shop space ~7,500 SF Retail Shops ~14,415 SF News & Tobacco (min. 150 SF, 600-700/million enplanements) ~1,424 SF Gift Shops (min. 150 SF, 600-700/million enplanements) ~1,424 SF Drug Store (min. 700 SF, 600-700/million enplanements) ~1,424 SF Barber Shop/Shoe Shine (150 SF/chair) ~244 SF Auto Rental Counters (350-400 SF/million enplanement) ~814 SF Flower Shop ~400 SF Displays (min. 50 SF, 90-100 SF/million enplanements) ~203 SF Insurance Counter/Machines (min. 50 SF, 150-175 SF/million enplanements) ~356 SF Public Lockers (70-80 SF/millions enplanements) ~163 SF 67

PAGE 83

Public Telephones (100-110/millions enplanements) ~224 SF Automated Post Office ~125 SF Vending Machines (min. 50 SF, 150 SF/millions enplanements) ~305 SF Toilets (1800 SF/500 peak hour enplanements) ~6,168 SF USO/Travelers Aid ~203 SF Nursery (with private toilet) ~122 SF Transportation Museum ~10,000 SF Space Science Museum ~10,000 SF Theater ~1,500 SF Simulation Ride Room 300 SF x 2 ~600 SF Observation Deck/Viewing Undefined Training Center Lobby/Reception Area ~400 SF Classrooms 300 SF x 2 ~600 SF Meeting Room ~400 SF Centrifuge Room incl. Control Room, Ob servation Room (35 ft radius) ~5,148 SF Disorientation Room & Control Room (20 ft radius) ~1,757 SF Hyperbaric Altitude Chamber & Control ~800 SF Medical Center: Lobby, Reception, Offices Break Room, Exam Rooms ~1,560 SF Control Room ~20,000 SF Control Tower ~8,400 SF Total Gross SF 240,508 SF Building Mechanical (3% of total gross area) 7,215 SF Circulation (Corridors, Stairs, Elevators, etc. 30% of total gross area) 74,317 SF Building Structure (5% of total gross area) 16,102SF Total Goss SF 338,143 SF Gross SF Per Passenger 197 SF 68

PAGE 84

PROJECT SITE As a precedent for commercial spaceport design, it is important to consider all the factors that contribute to and effect the overall spaceport operations. Of these factors, the most critical one and also the first to be determined, is where the initial spaceport facilities will be located. Foremost, the site location must reinforce the efficiency aspect of space travel. A primary goal of [point-t o-point/suborbital] transportation is to significantly reduce the amount of time that it takes cargo an d passengers to reach long distance destinations (Davis 2008, 65). Efficiency is the nu mber one benefit of space travel, so a spaceport must reinforce th is concept in its design and location. SITE CRITERIA Selecting a site for the spaceport involved fi rst researching the basic design standards and guidelines for an airport. It was determin ed in a previous section that because there are no such guidelines to date for spaceports, and since this spaceport will offer air travel as well as space travel, using the Federal Av iation Administration ai rport guidelines was the logical place to start. In addition to these standards, other factor s generated out of the speculations made for the project were also applied. From this information, a set of prioritized criteria were formulated and each potential site evaluated accordingly. The following list defines the ten criteria. Prioritized Site Criteria: 1. Target User Base: Since this projec t centers on providing a more efficient method of transportation to the public, th e spaceport should be located near an area where those users who will benefit the most are located. According to the aerotropolis research, those that rely heavily on transportation are distribution 69

PAGE 85

companies and those frequent traveler s involved in world commerce. Although there will be the occasional vacationer pa rticipating in space travel, the target market for this type of travel would be individuals and companies involved in world commerce or orbital enterprises. Therefore, the majority of customers would be business men and women taking suborbital point-to-point flights, or researchers and engineers bound for orb it. As the number one driver, this criterion indicates a spaceport location near an existing business center a metropolitan area where the business popul ation can take advantage of the reduced travel time that suborbital flight offers. The anchor city, outside of which the spaceport would be located, s hould be one that will benefit from an additional transportation hub to service the area. In ot her words, the existing airport serving the anchor city is at maximum capacity, and would welcome the additional air travel service of the spaceport to the area. 2. Population Density: The population of th e service area, including the entire metropolitan area, should be enough to sustain the spaceports operations, both the transportation and entertainment rela ted operations. The spaceport will also need to employ a large number of workers, with a variety of skills, and will therefore need a large labor pool from which to draw. This condition implies a site located near a city with a metro population in the millions. 3. Latitude: According to various space travel sources, orbital travel is most efficient along an equatorial path. The cl oser the launch site is to the equator, the less atmosphere must be penetrated for a spacecraft to reach orbit. It is for this reason that the NASA launch facility is located in Florida. For a U.S. based commercial spaceport providing regular scheduled trips to orbit, a site located in the southern region of the country is best. 4. Climate: Climate can severely hamper the operations of a launch facility. Airports are often closed, or flights delayed, due to bad weather conditions. So, the general climate of the selected site area should not be too harsh, especially in terms of wind. Wind is an important f actor in the launching of space vehicles, as well as the take off and landing of ai rcraft. Runways are generally aligned in 70

PAGE 86

the direction of the prevailing wind. Ther efore, data must be collected to determine its direction and the direction of any cro sswinds that may exist. Crosswinds require more land for additiona l runways, so a site location that has unidirectional wind is better than a site with constant wind changes. In places where it snows, additional facilities and services are required to clear runways and maintain operations, which can be cost ly. Thus, to reduce the cost of the building infrastructure and minimize complications during operation, a location with a rather temperate climate and calm steady winds is best for a spaceport. 5. Access: Just like airports, access to and fr om the spaceport is just as important to the efficiency of the transportation system as the spaceplanes. Direct access to major roadways, rail lines and tramways is necessary for a facility of this scale to function. Passengers should be able to utilize a variet y of transportation means, to get to and around the spacepor t. The spaceport should also be linked to the anchor city in such a way as to reduce congestion and allow faster connections. This calls for the site to be located within reasonable driving distance to the anchor city center. The si te should also have access to an existing rail line, so high speed trains can be implemented as another means of connecting to the city. If possible, tram or subway routes should connect to the site as well. In this way, the spaceport becomes a multi-modal facility an attribute that is extremely impor tant to its overall efficiency. 6. Expansion Area: The trends described in the aerotropolis research suggest that a transportation nexus, such as a spaceport, would draw urban development to its perimeter. It is even possible to have designated areas of development within the spaceport property, such as business districts, residential parks, shopping areas and industrial/manufacturing zones. For this type of development to occur though, the site must be located in a sp arsely populate area where the potential for growth is possible, and within proximity to the anchor city for all the reasons mentioned in 1, 2 and 5 above. The site should also encompass an area large enough for the spaceport to expand and urban development to fill in around it. Cities are always shaped by the stateof-the-art transportation devices present 71

PAGE 87

at the time of their founding, observes Joel Garreau, author of Edge City Because of the airport [and the internet], its possible to imagine a world capital in a place that was once an absolute backwater (Lindsay 2006, 80).Therefore, a vacant stretch of land in the middle of nowhere that meets all the previous criteria would be perfect. 7. Site Area: Aside from being large enough to accommodate for growth, the initial site area for the spaceport alone needs to be sufficiently long to accommodate runway lengths at leas t three miles (15,840 feet) in two directions; the direction of the prevailing wind and the crosswind. The FAA guidelines recommend that the length s hould provide for the longest runway needed for the largest/heaviest craft to take off and land, plus some extra for safety. Depending on the direction of the wind(s), multiple runways may be required in more than one direction. Gi ven the assumption that vertical launch vehicles will improve in safety and relia bility, does not elim inate the required safety buffer needed around the launch pads. Therefore, space should be allotted for them if they are included. 8. Environmental Impact: All airport designers must submit an environmental impact report to the Federal Aviation Ad ministration for approval. Because of their size and function, airports dama ge the environment on a much greater scale than most structures. Such impacts include: water and air pollution, ecosystem disturbances, noise, traffic, and cultural impacts. The goal of the impact report is to show how the area might be disrupted and what mitigation techniques will be implemented to limit the impact. In the real world, outside the scope of this thesis pr oject, a spaceport designer w ould likely have to deal with the same sorts of impact mitigation and submit a similar report. The selected site can greatly reduce how mu ch the designer must content with in terms of initial impact. The selected site would be evaluated in terms of potential environmental impacts to the natural land and surrounding neighborhoods. Completing an environm ental impact report would involve market research, traffic surveying, soil testing, ground water surveying, 72

PAGE 88

ecological studies, pollution generation te sting, cultural studies, etc. Without getting bogged down with this research, th e scope of this project will include locating a site with as few superficial e nvironmental factors with which to deal. 9. Airspace: Airspace is the volume of ai r through which air borne device fly. Airspace is divided into classes (A,B,C,D,E & G) that define its vertical range, shape, and type (controlled and non-cont rolled). Typically, co mmercial airliners operate in controlled Class E airspace during flight. At landing and takeoff, however, airplanes pass through another class of airspace that revolves around the airport. Airports are assigned a class of airspace based on their size, instrument capability, traffic and pur pose. Large commercial airports are generally assigned Class B controlled airspace. The cont rolled volume of airspace extends out for about 30 miles from some central point at the airport, and up to 18,000 feet, forming an upside-down cake like shape in the air (see Figure 65 ). The traffic control is responsib le for controlling any and all fly objects inside its airspace. A spaceport w ould have a similar type of controlled airspace that would extend even higher for space vehicle operations (see Figure 32). To avoid conflicts and disruptions to the airspace of existing airports, the spaceport site should not be located w ithin any airports 30 mile Class B airspace. Overlapping of airspace is permitted, but complicating the airspace too much or crowding the airspace should be avoided. Figure 66: Airspace Diagram ( http://www.ultraflightradio.com/se gmenthelpgraphics/AirspaceUFR.gif ) 10. Topography: The topography of the site is important for the layout of the general infrastructure of the spaceport. R unways need to be fairly level for take off and landing. The FAA specifies approximately 2% maximum grade differential across the lengt h of a runway. Minor leve ling of the site by moving earth can be done, but only in cases where it is cost effective. The FAA 73

PAGE 89

guidelines also state that runway lengths need to increase 10 feet for every foot of slope off dead level. (For instance, a three mile long runway with a 1% slope has a slope differential of 158.4 feet across its length, and ther efore would need an additional 1584 feet making the to tal runway length 17,424 feet or 3.3 miles). So, the land of the site should be as close to flat as possible. The runway strength is also important to the take o ff and land of aircraft and spacecraft. The shear weight of an aircraft must be supported by the soil beneath the runways and taxiways; not to mention the impact force of landing an aircraft. The ability to add soil and compact it allows for some flexibility in site selection, but a site with solid, compact soil is preferred. Though no soil composition tests or research has been done for this project, the criterion for a fl at site is observed. Clearly, the city or cities near where the spaceport would be located is extremely important, as the first four of these criteria pertain to the selection of an anchor city; whereas the last six concern th e physical site area of the spac eport. Therefore, selection of the anchor city is first in the task. SITE ANALYSIS The site analysis process began with determ ining which U.S. cities have an adequate target user base (criteria 1). First, an internet search wa s performed for the top business centers in the United States. The list be low was compiled from the 2008 Mastercard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index posted on their website: [ http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/e n/insights/studies/2008/wcoc/index.html ]. Top 10 Business Centers in the United States according to the 2008 Index: 1. New York 2nd in the world 2. Chicago 5th in the world 3. Los Angeles 17th in the world 4. Philadelphia 18th in the world 5. Boston 21st in the world 6. Atlanta 25th in the world 7. San Francisco 28th in the world 74

PAGE 90

8. Miami 29th in the world 9. Houston 34th in the world 10. Dallas 35th in the world Then, a second internet search was performed for the busiest airports in the United States. This list of Busiest U.S. Airports for 2007 was taken from the Federal Aviation Administration website: [ http://www.faa.gov/news/updates/busiest_airports/] Top 10 Busiest Airports in the United States in 2007 (by passengers count): 1. Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta Intl (ATL), GA 2. Chicago/OHare Intl (ORD), IL 3. Dallas/Ft. Worth Intl (DFW), TX 4. Los Angeles International (LAX), CA 5. Denver International (DEN), CO 6. Las Vegas/Mc Carran Intl. (LAS), NV 7. Houston/G. Bush Intercontl. (IAH), TX 8. Phoenix Sky Harbor Intl. (PHX), AZ 9. Charlotte/Douglas Intl. (CLT), NC 10. Philadelphia International (PHL), PA The cities that appear on both these list were evaluated as possible anchor cities: Atlanta, GA, Dallas, TX, Los Angeles, CA, Houston, TX, and Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia was immediately eliminated by criterions 3 and 4, due to its northern latitude and harsh winter weather. Each of the other four cities was analyzed and evaluated based on the rest of the criteria. Though their populations, latitudes, and climates fit the bill, both Los Angeles and H ouston failed at criterion 1 and 5. These cities are so dense and sprawled out that no piece of land large enough could be found within close enough proximity to their business centers to efficiently serve the target market users. Only Atlanta and Dalla s/Ft. Worth had vacant land, or nearly vacant land, that met this and most of the other criteria. After narrowing the site opti ons down to two anchor city locations, each area was compared and examined in Google Earth to find suitable plots of land that met the criteria. Multiple sites were reviewed around the Atlanta and Dallas areas. The best three 75

PAGE 91

of these sites were then analyzed thoroughly according to the ten cr iteria. A variety of data was collected through the internet and used in this an alysis including: area maps, climate charts, population stat istics, windrose charts, topographical maps, soil maps, and airspace charts. The following is the analysis of the respective cities and the data gathered on the three best sites based on the ten criteria: Figure 67: Atlanta, GA Site 1 (from Google Maps ) 6th U.S. Center of Commerce City & 25th in the World Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta Intl is the No. 1 Busiest Airport in the U.S. with 2007 Total Enplanements at 89,379,287 Figure 68: Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX Sites 2 & 3 (from Google Maps ) 10th U.S. Center of Commerce City & 35th in the World Dallas-Ft. Worth Intl is the 3rd Busiest Airport in the U.S. with 2007 Total Enplanements at 59,786,476 76

PAGE 92

Figure 69: Atlanta Population Density (from Google Maps ) City Population 2007: 519,14 5 Metro Population: 5,626,4 00, 6% Increase Since 2006 Density of the City: 3,939 per Sq. Ft. Figure 70: Dallas-Ft. Worth Population Density (from Google Maps ) City Population 2007: 1,232,940 Metro Populat ion: 6,145,037, 2.5% Increase Since 2006 Density of the City: 3,605 per Sq. Ft. 77

PAGE 93

Figure 71: Atlanta Global Coordinates (map from Google Earth ) Figure 72: Dallas-Ft. Worth Global Coordinates (map from Google Earth) 78

PAGE 94

Figure 73: Atlanta Windrose Diagram ( http://home.pes.com/windroses/ ) Prevailing Winds from the East and West with a Crosswind from the Northwest Figure 74: Dallas-Ft. Worth Windrose Diagram ( http://home.pes.com/windroses/ ) Strong Prevailing Wind from the South 79

PAGE 95

Figure 75: Atlanta, GA Average Temperature ( http://www.rssweather.com/climate/Georgia/Atlanta/temp.png ) Coldest Month: January, Average Low of 33.5 F Warmest Month: July, Average High 89.4 F Mean Daily Average Temperature is 72 F Figure 76: Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX Average Temperature ( http://www.rssweather.com/climate/Texas/Dallas-Fort%20Worth/temp.png ) Coldest Month: January, Average Low of 34 F Warmest Month: July, Average High 95.4 F Mean Daily Average Temperature is 76.3 F 80

PAGE 96

Figure 77: Atlanta Site 1 Access Routes (map from Google Earth ) 35 Miles to Downtown Atlanta I-75 Borders the West Edge of the Site Railroad Line Crosses to the North Figure 78: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Access Routes (map from Google Earth ) 36 Miles to Downtown Dallas, 32 Miles to Ft. Worth I-35E & I-35W Junction at the Northeast Corner of the Site Railroad Line Along the East Side Figure 79: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Access Routes (map from Google Earth ) 27 Miles to Downtown Dallas, 25 Miles to Ft. Worth I-35W to the South, Hwy 287/Hwy 67 Junction to the North Railroad Junction at the South Corner 81

PAGE 97

Figure 80: Atlanta Site 1 Expansion Areas (map from Google Earth ) Figure 81: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Expansion Areas (map from Google Earth ) Figure 82: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Expansion Areas (map from Google Earth ) 82

PAGE 98

Figure 83: Atlanta Site 1 Area (map from Google Earth ) East-West Length prox. 7,345 Acres of Site: ~3.7 Miles or 19,530 Feet Available Site Area: Ap Figure 84: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Area (map from Google Earth ) North-South L 9,030 Acres ength of Site: ~4 Miles or 21,120 Feet Available Site Area: Approx Figure 85: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Area (map from Google Earth ) North-South 6,000 Acres Length of Site: ~3.6 Miles or 19 ,430 Feet, Available Area: Approx. 83

PAGE 99

Figure 86: Atlanta Site 1 Areas of Impact (map from Google Earth ) Small River Runs Through the Site Sparse Residential On and Around the Site Figure 87: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Areas of Impact (map from Google Earth ) Small River Runs Through the Site Dense Residential Lies to the East of the Site Figure 88: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Areas of Impact (map from Google Earth ) Two Small Rivers Run Through the Site Sparse Residential On and Around the Site 84

PAGE 100

Figure 89: Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta Intl Airport Airspace Site 1 Lies Just Inside the 30 Nautical Mile Airspace Ring of ATL Airport Figure 90: Dallas-Ft. Worth Intl Airport Airspace Site 2 Lies Well Within the 30 Nautic al Mile Airspace Ring of DFW Airport Figure 91: Dallas-Ft. Worth Intl Airport Airspace Site 3 Lies Within the 30 Nautical Mile Airspace Ring and Along the Flight Path of DFW Airport 85

PAGE 101

Figure 92: Atlanta Site 1 Topography Site Area: 7,345 Acres MSL: 837 Feet Site Differential: ~70 Feet Figure 93: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Topography Site Area: 9,030 Acres MSL: 642 Feet Site Differential: ~60 Feet Figure 94: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Topography Site Area: 6,000 Acres MSL: 666 Feet Site Differential: ~70 Feet 86

PAGE 102

Figure 95: Atlanta Site 1 Soil Map USDA Soil Survey: Predominantly Chewacla Loam and Pacolet-Saw Complex Figure 96: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 2 Soil Map USDA Soil Survey: Predominantly Ponder Loam and Sanger Clay Figure 97: Dallas-Ft. Worth Site 3 Soil Map USDA Soil Survey: Predominantly He iden Clay and Houston Black Clay SITE SELECTION The site selected for this th esis project is very importa nt to the underlining concept of efficient transportation. E ach of the three sites has adva ntages and disadvantages, and 87

PAGE 103

could potentially be the site for a commercial spaceport in the future. However, for this commercial spaceport based on all the criteria set forth in this doc ument, only one of these emerged as the most appropriate. The Atlanta, Georgia Site 1 not only met all th e criteria, but the culture of the area is familiar, which will help in the design pro cess. Site 1 lies 30 miles south of downtown Atlanta along the Interstate75 corridor half way betwee n Atlanta and Macon in the southwest quadrant of the greater Atlanta me tropolitan area. The population of Atlanta is growing exponentially, to the point that the city now presides over 140 cities and towns in 28 counties in Georgia. Atlanta is the capital of Georgia and considered the ninth largest metropolitan area in the United States. The Atlanta site 1 lies at the intersection of five of these counties, thereby allowing the co st and benefits of the new spaceport to be shared. Currently, the combined population of the five counties (Clayton, Fayette, Henry, Butts and Spalding) is 525,090. Ho wever, with the current rate of growth it is likely to greatly increase over the next few years. Th e population of Atlanta has thusfar spread as far north and east as the mountai ns and protected forests areas allow. Now, it is beginning to spread to the south and we st of the city toward the si te area. Residents are already moving into the areas around the site and new residentia l developments are being established. Figure 98: Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta Airport Hub ( http://www.barnabu.co.uk/wp-content/upl oads/usa-air-route s-google-earth.JPG ) It has already been said that Atlanta is a major business commerce center, so there is no doubt that the business population is sufficien t to support a spaceport. Atlanta is also home to the busiest airport in the Unit ed States. According to many sources the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airpor t has already reach its capacity and can no 88

PAGE 104

longer expand to accommodate the increasi ng demand. The spaceport could easily support the additional air travel de mand needed for the metro area. The winds in the Atlanta area blow most fr equently from the east and west, therefore runways are typical laid along an east-west compass direction. This is good for take off and landing of spacecraft since th eir flight paths typical foll ow the rotation of the Earth. The cooler Atlanta temperature, compared to Dallas, is also beneficial to the take off and landing operations of aircraft. Figure 99: Site Location Map Showing Rings of Impact As far as access to and from the spaceport, multiple roadways border around the site. Interstate 75 runs along the west edge of the site and Highway 23 crosses just to the north; both provide direct acc ess to downtown Atlanta to the north and Macon to the south. Highway 16 runs along the south edge of the site and connect s the spaceport to the smaller suburban towns and rural areas. There is also a railroad lin e the follows Highway 23 north into Atlanta and termin ates downtown. It could easily be adapted to a light rail system that connects to the Atlanta MARTA system, and allows cargo to be move from the city to the spaceport and back. In a ddition, a high speed rail system could be implemented along the I-75 route that conne cts to the ATL airport and downtown Atlanta. The multimodal aspect is completely covered. All three sites have plenty of space for expansion and growth, however, the Atlanta site seems to be more apt to grow into th e area and utilize the sp ace around the spaceport as intended by the aerotropolis model. 89

PAGE 105

The size and shape of the land available for the spaceport is completely appropriate for the infrastructure and urban development to fill in around it. The extended three mile long runways can be positioned across the east-w est length of the site leaving plenty of space to the north and south for other spacepor t facilities. The only obstacles within the site area that are of concern ar e the 100 or so residences and a small river. The river is fairly easy to contend with as most infrastruc ture can span over it. Unfortunately, if some residences need to be moved for the benefit of a spaceport, so be it. Besides, many more residences will likely fill in the surround areas to take their place as the spaceport area grows. Amongst the three best sites, the Atlanta site was the furthest away from the citys existing airport, causing the least amount of airspace disruption. As mentioned previously, airspace can overl ap as long as it doesnt cau se too much confusion. The Atlanta site airspace would indeed overlap with the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta Intl Airports airspace, but the flight paths woul d be parallel and woul d therefore not cause that many issues. 90

PAGE 106

DESIGN RESTRICTIONS & OPPORTUNITIES All design projects have parameters either inherent in the si te or supplied by an external source. Those parameters limit the scope and scale of th e project allowing the designer to focus on the elements of the project that can be freely manipulated. SITE LIMITATIONS In addition to the government regulations desc ribed earlier, the site itself restricts the design of the spaceport. Those same qualities, mentioned in the Site Selection section, that are benefits of the site also serve as limitations to guide the design. These site limitations drive the design decisions made fo r the master planning of the spaceport, and also serve as context to which the de sign of the spaceport facilities can respond. Being the most restrictive elements of th e spaceport masterplan, the runways are the first to be placed on the site. The overall site area and shape, topology, prevailing wind direction, surrounding land uses, f light path obstacles and FAA regulations are the initial factors considered in determining the number and layout of runways. Once the runways are laid out, they, along with ot her factors, such as the size of the spaceport facilities (grounds and buildings), type and location of access roads, and lo cation of rail lines, influence the placement of the other spaceport components. The masterplan describing the arrangement of runways and other spaceport components is revealed in a later section. SPACE VEHICLE DESIGN LIMITATIONS The designs of the space vehicles operating out of the spaceport restrict the design freedom of the terminal faci lity. Just as Spaceport Ameri ca is designed around Virgin Galactics Spaceshiptwo vehicle, a spacepor t in the future would be designed around 91

PAGE 107

the spaceships used then. There is no way to know absolutely what commercial space vehicles might be like 50 years from now, but based on current models, several assumptions can be made about their designs. Fi rst, there will be both spacecraft designed to transport people and cargo to orbit, and spaceplanes used for suborbital point-to-point travel around the world. These vehicles will most like look and function differently. An orbital spacecraft would be de signed to withstand the consta nt exposure to radiation in space and the heat of reentry. An orbital vehi cle would also be configured to dock with space stations, like the ISS, or space hotels. From the passengers point of view, a spacecraft would be a whole different experien ce. An orbital spacecraft would be smaller than the typical airplane and seat fewer passengers. Since spacecraft would have the ability to dock with space stations, the portal through which people and cargo pass might be smaller, possibly round, and on the top, botto m or rear of the vehi cle rather than the side like an airplane. This would imply a different method of boarding and deboarding that would affect the design of th e terminal and passenger interface. A suborbital spaceplane, on the other hand, would likely be very similar to an airplane in shape, size, capacity, and point of entry. The method of boarding and deboarding would be the same as that of the typical airliner. The design of the terminal and interface would, therefore, resemble that of an airline terminal. These similarities would prove beneficial to the passenger processing efficiency of the suborbital operations, because passengers would alr eady be familiar with the interface method. Whatever the design of space vehicles, the terminal facility should support it while still being flexible to change s. The aerospace terminal design for this project is based on the assumptions mention above, though any future spaceport terminal would necessarily accommodate both types of space vehicles in order to maintain the efficient multi-modal quality of a spaceport. DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES: FORM, STRUCTURE, MATERIALS AND CHARACTER The aerospace terminal form, structure, mate rials, and design characteristics combine to make up the final design. Each of thes e design opportunities shoul d be explored to arrive at a suitable solution. The initial form of the building is the first step in designing 92

PAGE 108

the aerospace terminal facility. As mentioned earlier, the form of th e building should be monumental and iconic so that passersby w ill recognize and remember the building. First impressions are the grandest and most importa nt. Along with the form, the structure is the next most expressive element of architecture. The development of the structure, whether it is hidden or exposed, and its design can grea tly influence the percep tion of the space, as in Kansai International Airport, where the heavy beams anchored the space to earth and the light, thin beams seem to lift the space. Materiality is another design feature that makes a space. Information gathered about commonly used materials in space bound structures, such as the International Space Sta tion, airports, conceptual spaceport designs, and other space related architecture can pr ovide inspiration for the design of the aerospace terminal. The spaces created by the combination of form, structure, and materials give the space its character and se nse of place. The idea would be to create a futuristic perception of space by bringing the sens ations of space flight, in terms of visual and textural experience, into the design of the aerospace terminal. By having these elements reflect the passenger experience, the entire building becomes a standing advertisement of its function; not in a tac ky way, but a subtle way that provides an entertaining and comfortable at mosphere for the passengers. TIME RESTRICTIONS Unfortunately, the time allotted for completing this thesis project restricts the extent to which these design elements can be explor ed. Therefore, there wi ll be a narrowing the focus to that which can be accomplished with the intent that further research and development will occur in the future. 93

PAGE 109

SUMMARY OF INTENT TRANSFORMATION OF RESEARCH INTO A DESIGN The goal of this masters project is to tran sform the research into (a) a masterplan of a new spaceport with its supporting urban envi ronment and (b) a design of an aerospace terminal, which includes its adjoining hotel and parking garages. A spaceport that responds to the needs of the community and demonstrates its ability to engage the urban fabric provides the context within which an aerospace terminal is designed. Considering the design opportunities and rest rictions, the focus of the design is on the form of the terminal facilities, and the pr ogram and structure of the terminal. The character of the main concourse is also looked at in closer detail, rounding out this research project, taking it from the master planning scale to th e spatial scale. As a precedent, along with the supporting research, this project is mean t to open the door to further research and development in the fields of commerci al spaceport planning and terminal design. Figure 100: Diagram of the Spaceshiptwo Flight Path ( http://www.virgingalactic.com/multimed ia/album/graphics-and-illustrations/) 94

PAGE 110

DESIGN CONCEPTS INITIAL DESIGN IDEAS After contemplating the research, determin ing the program and deciding a plan of action, the design development phase began. Th e initial ideas at th e forefront of the process were based on assumptions make earlier in the Vision of the Future section: that there would only be a handful of spaceports around the world; that space flight would be commonplace and therefore, spaceports would be the new transportation hub; that the aerospace terminal would be unique in appe arance and function because it serves additional functions other than just flight interface; and, that the passenger experience through the aerospace terminal w ould be different. Starting w ith these initial ideas and design began to form. MASTERPLAN DEVELOPMENT The first conceptual design that came to mind, before any research, was a masterplan of a spaceport (see Figure 101 ) with the main terminal in the center, long arms curling out from the center forming the airside concourses, and a circular building stretching out from the middle to form the aerospace terminal. The roadways (shown in green) would circulate in front of the main te rminal and around two parking garages. As a basic concept it seemed efficient in its layout and put the aerospace terminal in the center of the spaceport giving it prominence. All of the components were there, however, it did not consider the spatial requirements of the program, which was developed later. It was a good beginning to the masterplan though. 95

PAGE 111

Figure 101: Initial Concept Diagram Other diagrams, like the basi c section through a terminal and the section through the circulation corridor (Figures 102-104) were made during the research as a study of the spaceport components. These were used to flush out how the spaceport components connected and relate d to one another. Figure 102: Basic Terminal Section 96

PAGE 112

Figure 103: Sectio n Through Terminal Figure 104: Section Through Ci rculation Corridor & Terminal Once the site was selected and the runway s laid out, the loca tion of the spaceport facilities was determined. The quantity of land available around the runways suggested three sites for the spaceport (shown in Figure 105). All three sites ha d plenty of room for the spaceport facilities, but site 3 made the most sense. Site 3 was the closest to the intersection of two major roadways, Interstate-75 and Highway 25, and allowed the spaceport to stretch out along th e length of the runway. This aspect was good because of its expansion capabilities and its di rect connection to the runways. Figure 105: Site Selections for Spaceport Facilities (map from Google Earth ) 97

PAGE 113

The land area of site 3, shown in red, encompasses approximately 3,360 acres. This is plenty of land for all the spaceport fac ilities, runways, and the accompanying urban infrastructure needed to support the spaceport. Figure 106: Site 3 Area After site 3 was chosen for the spaceport to reside, masterplan concepts were explored. The two masterplan concept diagrams ( Figures 107 & 108 ) show the runways in green, the existing roadways in orange, and the spaceport facil ities in purple. The aerospace terminal being the focal point of th e spaceport it is shown as a star. Masterplan concept diagram 1 evolved from the initia l concept diagram and shows the aerospace terminal in the center of the plan. Master plan concept diagram 2 shows the aerospace terminal at the far west end of the spacepor t. This location for the aerospace terminal building would put it in a prominent position to be seen from the interstate and at a focal point of the spaceport. The uniqueness of the aerospace termin al suggests that is should be located where it can be seen as an ic on of the spaceport. The second diagram allows for the most exposure of the aerospace terminal so it was deemed the most appropriate to proceed forward. 98

PAGE 114

Figure 107: Spaceport Masterplan Concept Diagram 1 Figure 108: Spaceport Masterplan Concept Diagram 2 Circulation is a major factor in designing an efficient spaceport, so to ensure that the circulation to and around the spaceport worke d, several traffic flow diagrams were made and studied (see Figure 109 ). These diagrams show the terminals along the north edge with roadways on the south directing traffic fl ow. The red lines represent departure traffic 99

PAGE 115

flow on the 3rd level, the green lines represen t arrival traffic flow on the 2nd level, and the black lines represent ground leve l traffic flow. In the first a nd third diagrams, the traffic flows in one direction along the departure a nd arrival level with two-way traffic on the ground level. The second diagram shows tw o-way traffic on all levels. The one-way traffic flow is safer and more efficient when it come to picking up and dropping off passengers, because the cars can stop and reme rge with traffic in line no turns or uturns necessary. Creating a one-w ay loop road allows vehicles to keep moving passed the terminals without having to stop and wait. Figure 109: Spaceport Traffic Flow Study 100

PAGE 116

The diagram below shows how the various circulation paths would relate and connect. The light rail train, shown in blue, coming from downtown Atlanta would make a loop passing the urban area to the sout h of the spaceport then run underneath the spaceport terminals. The vehicular roadways, in orange, would make overlapping loops. The secondary roads would connect perpe ndicular to the main spaceport access road loop. The main access loop road would pass in front of the terminal(s) and loop back around. These are not closed loop system, of cour se, there are cross roads that allow entry to and exit from the loop roads. The terminal (s) would have an internal tram system to transport passengers between terminals and parking structures. The passenger themselves would form a traffic loop pattern as depart ing passengers travel towards the gates and arriving passengers return. Each of these pa thways connects to each other and creates a continuous movement in a nd around the spaceport. Figure 110: Preliminary Spa ceport Circulation Diagram From the concept of how the traffic needs to flow combined with the conceptual masterplan diagram, a clearer masterplan star ted to take form. The schematic masterplan diagram (Figures 111) shows how the spaceport components could be arranged and related to each other to cr eate a holistic plan a plan that is multi-model, ordered, expandable and most importantly efficient. The roadway grid aligns with the airline terminal facilities creating a repetitive angl ed pattern directed toward the aerospace terminal facilities at the west end of the scheme. Each terminal along the south side of the runways connects directly to the taxi lane s allowing for shorter time on the ground before 101

PAGE 117

take off. Land surrounding the runways can be utilized for fuel storage, service hangers, transport company warehouses, etc., while still having land available for the spaceport to grow in the future. The land directly to the south and west of the spaceport facilities could be filled in with commercial, industrial and residential. Planni ng for this supporting infrastructure, as well as the spaceport facilities, is what the aerotropolis model proposes. If growth is planned for ah ead of time it will not happen chaotically and the spaceport will run the most efficiently. Figure 111: Schematic Spac eport Masterplan Diagram The schematic masterplan and aerial view of the scheme below clarifies more accurately the size, shape and arrangement of the spaceport facilities and surrounding urban environment. A revised final spaceport ma sterplan is shown later. The next step, since the location of the aer ospace terminal has been determined is to design the aerospace terminal. 102

PAGE 118

Figure 112: Schematic Spaceport Masterplan Figure 113: Aerial View of Spa ceport Schematic Masterplan 103

PAGE 119

AEROSPACE TERMINAL CONCEPTUAL DESIGN At this time, the idea of space travel is for most still a fantastic dream. Most dont even realize that the technology is already available, or that commercial space travel is right around the corner. To most, the concept of space travel brings to mind such images as the ones pictured below from Star Trek, Star Wars, video games, and television. As a culture, especially in America, we have been fascinated with space, space technology, aliens, etc., for years because it was a mystery the last place to explore. So fascinated, in fact that the government set up an entire entity (NASA) tasked to go to space and study it. Of course, in that realm only a select fe w have been able to go into space. But now, on the verge of an aerospace revolution, it is very nearly possible that all will have the chance to at least to visit space. The concept of the aerospace terminal begins by using those dreams, those images of what we imagined as inspiration to design a terminal that makes that fantasy a reality. For the aerospace terminal design to accomplish this grand task, while reaching the objectives set forth earlier to have clear, legible circulation, organize passengers efficiently, be spatially flexible, balance func tion and dramatic expression, create a sense of place that is safe and comfortable, educate, entertain, and establish its identity by being monumental and iconic certain concepts ha d to be explored. Though several of these objectives can be accomplished with the program, the architecture is used to reinforce the concept. To be monumental and iconic, the aerosp ace terminal design had to stand out from the other spaceport facility and urban contex t. A hierarchy starting with the land, to the urban context, to the spaceport facility, to the aerospace terminal had to be easily recognized visually in plan and in section. Th e aerospace terminal being the largest, most expressive, unique building on the premises makes both an impression that the viewer can recall and helps orient those in the visual area. If it is tall enough to be seen for miles, then it can stand as a landmark as well. A diagram showing the concept of hierarchy is show in Figure 115. 104

PAGE 120

Figure 114: Inspirational Images from Science Fiction ( http://www.trekmovie.com/wp-conte nt/uploads/sto/STOStarbase.jpg ) ( http://theatomizer.com/ArtAward s/Images/SpaceStationGoodHope.jpg ) ( http://www.coronacomingattractions.com/sites/default/files/star_trek_space_station.jpg ) ( http://media.photobucket.com/image/st%20deep%20space%209%20station%20star%20trek%202nd%20 generation/hobbit874/DS9/ds9.jpg) ( http://www.chasedesigns.com/bryce/airs pace/airspacelarge/s paceport%20large.jpg ) ( http://www.juliebolder.com/SBminiature.htm ) The circulation and organization of passenge r is the most important feature of a terminal in general. Therefore, establishing the circulation in a unique manner was the goal. Somehow, relating the circulation within the terminal to the flight path of the spaceships travel as they fly around the plan et and into space seemed like a good starting point. A couple very basic diagrams of the f light paths for orbit and sub-orbit craft are shown in Figure 117. With the earth as the shaded ball in the middle, the sub-orbital route 105

PAGE 121

takes off from point A, flies around the planet and lands at point B. The orbital flight takes off from point A, goes into the space, e ither flies around the planet or docks with a space station, and lands back at point A. This concept helped to set up a general path a passenger might take through the aerospace termin al. It also influenced the general form of the building. Figure 115: Hierarchy Concept Diagram Figure 116: Flight Paths for Or bital and Sub-Orbital Spacecraft Next, the idea that the organization of the cosmos should somehow play a role in the ordering of the aerospace terminal facilities seemed appropriate. The sun lies at the center of our solar system with each planet circul ating around it at various distances. The earth is set up the same way; it is round, with concentric rings of atmosphere surrounding it at various distances (refer to Figure 25 ). This cosmic ordering applied to the aerospace terminal design resolved itself into the form of the building and its spatial planning. The design becomes a metaphor of cosmic order. 106

PAGE 122

Figure 117: Organization of the Cosmos Thinking more about the circulation and the de sire to make it more interesting than a straight boring walk to the gate, the two di agrams below developed. The first circulation diagram explains how movement occurs from within a central core and radiates outward to a circular ring and then rotates around the ring. The s econd diagram explains how the movement could be shifted as it moves out ward to create a sense of discovery and exploration. These two ideas also play a pa rt in designing the ci rculation and spatial planning within the aerospace terminal. Figure 118: Conceptual Circulation Diagrams With order and balance being such strong no tions arising out of the research, from the general airport design guidelines, to the precedent study airport, to this conceptual exploration, it seemed most appr opriate to use these terms to help drive the design of the aerospace terminal. Order, as defined in th e Webster's New World College Dictionary, 4th Ed., is the sequence or arrangement of thi ngs or events; series; succession; a fixed or definite plan; a state or cond ition in which everything is in its right place and functioning properly, etc. Balance, is defined as a stat e of equilibrium or equipoise; the pleasing 107

PAGE 123

harmony of various elements in a design; harm onious proportion; to bring into a state of equilibrium, etc. The one symbol that illustrates both of these notions is the Chinese yinyang symbol. In Chinese philosophy, two opposi ng forces are inherently interconnected and interdependent one cannot exist wit hout the other. They combine to form a complete unit. This symbol and the philosophy behind it greatly influe nced the design of the aerospace terminal in term s of form, circulation, spatia l organization, and structure. Figure 119: Balance and Order ( http://mobiltippek.files.wordpr ess.com/2009/04/ying-yang.jpg ) Finally, the passenger flow diagram ( Figure 121 ) was created to study exactly how passengers move through the aerospace terminal. With the additional spaces necessary for space flight training, medical examinations, and visitors entertainment, this helped in devising how the spaces were laid out inside the terminal, the proximity of the spaces to one another and the sequence of the spaces. A ne w traveler must visit more places within the terminal than an experience traveler. Th e space flight training and medical screening areas are only visited by depa rting passengers, so they shoul d be located along their path to the gate. The concessions and leisure activities are patronized predominantly by passengers waiting to board thei r flights, so the majority of them should be located spaceside near the concourse. These ideas of hierarchy, order, balance, cosmic circulation, and sequence, together with the program, were used to drive the design and reinforced the objectives and function of the aerospace terminal. 108

PAGE 124

Figure 120: Aerospace Termin al Passenger Flow Diagram 109

PAGE 125

SCHEMATIC DESIGN EXPLORATION OF TERMINAL FORMS With the conceptual ideas at the forefront a series of vignettes were made to visualize the aerospace terminal co mplex in three dimensions (see Figure 121-123 ). They evolved over the course of a few weeks from th e simple cylindrical disk in sketch #1, to the rather odd variations in sketches #7.1 and #7.2, to the sexy, curvaceous design in sketch #13; each design building on the qualities of hierarchy, balance, order and unity. In each vignette, the round form is bisected by the main vehicular access road dividing the structure into the terminal side and the hotel side. Even though the scope of this project does not include de signing the hotel, it is mean t to serve the spaceport guests and is thereby a part of th e overall form. The two opposing f unctions of the terminal and the hotel create a balance across the intersecting roadwa y. The terminals primary function is circulation and movement, while the hotel is a place to stop and relax. The terminal functions as a procession of spaces that most effectively begin and end at the same elevation, which suggests a linear, flat form. The hotel, on the other hand, is large blocks of small rooms that can be stacke d on repetitive floors built up so as to allow guests a view out at the spaceport. In these de signs, an attempted is made to balance the terminal and hotel in form and functi on to create a unified, holistic design. 110

PAGE 126

Figure 121: Conceptual Sketches of Aerospace Terminal Facilities 1-6 111

PAGE 127

Figure 122: Conceptual Sketches of Aerospace Termina l Facilities 7-11 112

PAGE 128

Figure 123: Conceptual Sketches of Aerospace Terminal Facilities 12-15 113

PAGE 129

Each of the sketches were analyzed and certa in features, such as the separate orbital pods, hotel shape, parking structures, tower lo cation, and terminal form were recombined to create the final design form, whic h is reveal in the following sections. EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT The ideas about circulation, along with the co ncepts of balance, order and unity are illustrated here in a parti diagram ( Figure 124 ) of the aerospace terminal complex (i.e. from this point forward aerospace terminal complex refers to the terminal and the hotel and parking garage structures; otherwise, the terminal by itself will be called the aerospace terminal ). This parti diagram represents the aerospace terminal as a solid circle with circulation arrows radiating outwards from the middle to points outside the outer circle, which would be the gate s. The hotel is represented by the dotted circle and shows a direct connection to the terminal with the two-way arrow. The outer solid circle represents the unity of the whole form as it is contained with itself. The three circles the two opposing smaller circles encompassed by the la rge circle is an ab stract representation of the yin-yang symbol. Figure 124: Aerospace Termin al Complex Parti Diagram 114

PAGE 130

Evolving this parti further, a geometric order for the aerospace terminal complex became clear. The three lines bisecting the large circle is the roadway dividing the aerospace terminal from the hotel and parking structures The two opposing, but equal, interior circles became the hotel and landside structures. These two circular structures stand separate from the outer large circular areas surroundi ng it, making a gap between the forms. The triangular forms facing the cente r create an entrance to the terminal and hotel structures, and funnel the pedestrian traffic towards their centers. The two triangles overlap the bisecting roadway making the conne ction between the two circle forms. The five small circles at the top become the orbi tal pods in the final design. The small circle in the center of the upper circle will become the control tower. Figure 125: Aerospace Terminal Complex Underlying Geometry The degrees of enclosure of the aerospace te rminal complex shown in the diagram in Figure 126 imply a central core that is completely private, surrounded by semi-private space, and an outer ring of almost open space. The location of windows and skylights throughout the terminal reinforce this concept. The hierarchy diagram in Figure 127 clarif ies the connection be tween the hotel and aerospace terminal, and shows how the two diffe rent forms balance each other in section as well as in plan. 115

PAGE 131

Figure 126: Aerospace Terminal Complex Degrees of Enclosure in Plan and Section Figure 127: Hierarchy of Ae rospace Terminal Complex The next two diagrams show exactly how the geometric forms come together and how they related in term of circulation and spatial organi zation. The upper half forms the aerospace terminal landside and spaceside, wh ile the lower half forms the hotel and parking garages. In the exploded version of the form, one can see how the individual pieces relate and how the circulation filters in to the center then radiates outward to the gates. The entire complex functions together to create an efficient circulation system that accommodates pedestrians, cars, trains, tram s, spaceplanes and spacecraft. The schematic circulation diagram of the aerospace termin al complex in Figure 130, illustrates the horizontal and vertical traffic flow thr ough and around the aerospace terminal. The floor plates of each level of the terminal complex are shown in two dimensions to help clarify the vertical changes. A more detailed ci rculation drawing is included in the final graphics. 116

PAGE 132

Figure 128: Aerospace Terminal Complex Form Sketch Figure 129: Aerospace Terminal Complex Geometrical Forms 117

PAGE 133

Figure 130: Schematic Circulation Diagram of Aerospace Terminal Complex 118

PAGE 134

119 FINAL DESIGN GRAPHICS PRECEDENT FOR A COMMERCIAL SPACEPORT AND AEROSPACE TERMINAL The following graphics represent the transfor mation of this thesis research into an architectural vision meant to act as a preceden t for future spaceport concepts and designs. In other words, these graphics illustrate onl y one of many possible in terpretations of this information, and is not itself necessarily th e perfect solution. However, the diversity of information amassed in this document, including these graphics, will expand the compilation of literature that can be util ized by the next generation of spaceport designers. Therefore, keep an open mind, think about life as we know it, and just imagine what the future holds. FINAL SPACEPORT MASTERPLAN The final masterplan of the spaceport incorporates ideas of the aerotropolis as described by Mr. John Kasarda and complies with the general airport regulations and design principles as mentione d previously. The spaceport acts as an anchor for the urban community that is planned for and antici pated. The spaceport land area includes ample space for growth and expansion. There is a cl ear geometric order to the spaceport and the surrounding urban fabric creating an all inclusive urban plan for the future. The spaceport is multi-modal, which accommodates vehicular tr affic, light rail trains, terminal trams, planes, spaceplanes, spacecraft, and pedestri an traffic. The layout of the spaceport and urban context form a functionally efficient transportation hub. Refe r to Figures 131-135 for masterplan graphics.

PAGE 135

Figure 131: Spaceport Masterplan and Surrounding Context, Scale 1:2000 120

PAGE 136

Figure 132: Figure-Ground of Spaceport and Surrounding Context, Scale 1:2000 121

PAGE 137

Figure 133: Masterplan of Aerospace Terminal Complex and Context, Scale 1:400 122

PAGE 138

Figure 134: Aerial of Spaceport Masterplan 123

PAGE 139

124 Figure 135: Aerial of Aerospa ce Terminal Complex and Context

PAGE 140

FINAL AEROSPACE TERMINAL COMPLEX As one approaches the aerospace terminal from the access road ( View #1, Figure 154) the idea of balance becomes clear as th e two opposing forms that stand apart the aerospace terminal and hotel complex begi n to merge across the roadway to form a single unified complex (View #2, Figure 154 ). The complex itself as seen from a distance is so unique, compared to the surrounding stru ctures, in that is resembles what most imagine a flying saucer to look lik e making it easily recognizable (see Figure 134 ). Once close enough to actually see the aerospace terminal in its entirety it seems to almost hover above the ground. Its curved outer skin folds around the second floor space then stops allowing the structural bends to penetrate through the floor and extend down to the ground. These exposed structural columns a nd bends support the second floor allowing the ground floor to remain open for easily transfer and load ing of baggage (See Figure 147). There is a clear geometric order in plan and in section. The aerospace terminal plan is laid out with the landsid e building in the center and the spaceside bu ilding surrounding it. There is a clear separati on between the two structures forming a ribbon of open space. The only connection between landside and spaceside is through three tubular passageways, which a departing passenger must pass through after cl earing security and an arriving passenger must pass through before entering immigration. The space inbetween the structures is landscaped and cont ains underground water basins that collect rainwater runoff from the buildings drainage system. In section, the levels are fairly standard: the service/baggage handling area occupies the ground floor, the arrivals are on the second floor, the departures are on the th ird floor, and visitors /entertainment area inhabits the fourth floor. A tr ain station is also incorporat ed underground with directed access to the terminal lobby. Vertical circul ation within the lobby connects the various levels of the terminal with the train station underground and the pede strian bridge on the fourth level that joins to the hotel across the roadway. The program spaces of the terminal and th e circulation of the passengers follow the same clear geometric order as the terminal its elf. Passengers filter in through the wide

PAGE 141

open lobby with floor to ceiling double story glazing that a llows light to flood inside. Passenger converge toward the cen ter of the landside building where they then radiate out to either the space training center, the medi cal screening area, or through the security check points, and out to the spaceside build ing through glass tubular passageways. Inside the spaceside building, passengers land onto a catwalk that circles above the inside of the spaceside leisure area. The passe ngers circulate around th e catwalk to one of the escalators or elevators that takes them down to the concourse level. Passengers then have the choice of roaming around the leisure area, or heading dire ctly to their gate lounge to wait for their flight. Since this is an international terminal the gate lounges are clearly indicated by color fo r easy identification. See Figur es 136-142 for the layout of the program spaces, Figures 143-144 for the de tailed passenger flow maps, Figures 147150 for the terminal sections showing the floor levels, Figures 151-152 for the detailed floor plans of the landside departures and arrivals, and Figures 154-156 for the passenger journey through the aerospace terminal. The concourse is the most expressive pa rt of the terminal design and gives the perception of space flight. The structure of the main concourse and lounge area resembles that of a high-tech space stat ion. The large columns extend to the roof where an oversized bolt secures the top point of a curved beam. The curved beam s support the roof panels as they curve around to form the exterior walls of the concourse lounge. The beams then act like support columns as they pass through the floor to the ground. These steel bends and columns act as the primary supports structure for the concourse area. Curved glass beams are also used in the main concourse as secondary structure to support the paneling system. The composite panels that clad the exte rior of the terminal cease at about 10 feet above the concourse floor and become glazi ng to allow passengers a view of the apron activities outside. Glass skyli ghts are strategically placed above the circulation paths and around the gateway as a way of guiding pa ssengers through the terminal by using daylighting. The overall form of the aerospace terminal complex and the detailed structure of the concourse offer passengers a perception of sp ace flight that prepares them for their journey into space. The clear geometric order of the terminal that balances form and

PAGE 142

function provides passengers with an effici ent, yet exciting, experience. Its unique design sets the aerospace terminal apart from the rest of the spaceport faci lities allowing it to become an icon of the spaceport and a landm ark for the area. Refer to Figures 136-157 for aerospace terminal complex graphics. Figure 136: Underground Floor Plan, Scale 1:400

PAGE 143

Figure 137: Ground Floor Plan, Scale 1:400 128

PAGE 144

Figure 138: Second Floor Plan, Scale 1:400 129

PAGE 145

Figure 139: Third Floor Plan, Scale 1:400 130

PAGE 146

Figure 140: Fourth Floor Plan, Scale 1:400 131

PAGE 147

Figure 141: Observation Deck Plan, Scale 1:400 132

PAGE 148

133 Figure 142: Roof Plan, Scale 1:400

PAGE 149

Figure 143: Departure Level Passe nger Flow Map, Scale 1:133 134

PAGE 150

Figure 144: Arrival Level Passenger Flow Map, Scale 1:133 135

PAGE 151

Figure 145: Third Floor Landside Departures Level, Scale 1:80 136

PAGE 152

Figure 146: Second Floo r Spaceside Departures Level, Scale 1:80 137

PAGE 153

Figure 147: NW to SE Section Perspectiv e through Aerospace T erminal, Scale 1:100 Figure 148: SW to NE Section Perspectiv e through Aerospace T erminal, Scale 1:100 138

PAGE 154

Figure 149: East to West Section Perspect ive through Aerospace Terminal, Scale 1:100 Figure 150: East to West Elevation of Aerospace Terminal, Scale 1:100 139

PAGE 155

Figure 151: Enlarge Second Floor Plan of Landside Arrivals, Scale 1:50 140

PAGE 156

Figure 152: Enlarge Third Floor Plan of Landside Departures, Scale 1:50 141

PAGE 157

Figure 153: Exploded Ax onometric of Aerospace Terminal and Details 142

PAGE 158

Figure 154: Passenger Journey from Drop Off to Take Off, Views 1-4 143

PAGE 159

Figure 155: Passenger Journey from Drop Off to Take Off, Views 5-8 144

PAGE 160

Figure 156: Passenger Journey from Drop Off to Take Off, Views 9-12 145

PAGE 161

146 Figure 157: Aerial Views of the Aerospace Terminal

PAGE 162

147 DEFINITIONS Aircraft Gate Parking Positions : used for parking aircraft to enplane and deplane passengers. The passenger boarding devi ce is part of the gate position. Airline Operational Areas: areas set aside for airline personnel, equipment, and servicing activities related to ai rcraft arrivals and departures. Airport Access System : This component is composed of the functional elements which enable ground ingress and egress to and fr om the airport termin al facility. They include all vehicular and pedestri an paths, parking and curbside. Airside: (see also Connector ) restricted area giving access to aircraft loading and unloading (apron). Apron: The apron comprises the area and faciliti es used for aircraft gate parking and aircraft support and servicing operations. It includes the parking positions, service areas, taxilanes and se rvice/fire lanes. ASL (Above Sea Level) : Elevation above sea level. Channel : passenger route through the terminal. Concourse : a passageway for circulation between aircraft gate parking positions and the main terminal building. Connector : (see also Airside ) The connector consists of the structure(s) and/or facilities normally located between the aircraft gate position and the main terminal building. At low activity airports, i.e., less than approximately 200,000 annual enplaned passengers; this component is often combin ed with the terminal building component. It normally contains the concourse, depart ure lounges, security inspection station, airlines operations areas, passenger amenities, and building maintenance and utilities. Curb : platforms and curb areas (including medi an strips) which provide passengers and visitors with vehicle loading and unloading areas adjacent to the terminal.

PAGE 163

148 Customs : ( see also federal inspection service ) security area where international passengers are processed and baggage inspected. Dwell Time : time spend in the terminal. Federal Inspection Services : (see also customs ) a control point for processing passengers arriving on in ternational flights. Hub-and-Spoke System : System of transportation, where traffic moves along spokes, like those of a bicycle wheel, to a center hub, then are redistributed back out along other spoke paths. Most common or ganization for air transport. Inbound Baggage Facility : The nonpublic area for receivi ng baggage from an arriving light and public areas for bagga ge pickup by arriving passengers. Intraline and Interline Baggage Facility : a nonpublic area for processing baggage transferred from one flight to another. Jetty or Loading Bridge: adjustable corridor connecting airside terminal to aircraft (23m wide). Landside : non-restricted area of an airport acc essible to the non-traveling public. LEO (Low Earth Orbit) : An orbit from 160-2000km above the Earths surface. The ISS revolves and most orbital and suborbital human space flights occur within this altitude range. Main Terminal Building : public area that includes lobbi es, counters, circulation, service areas, baggage facilities, administrative offices, inspections service areas and passenger amenities. MSL (Mean Sea Level) : Average elevation of the area above sea level. Multi-Stage-To-Orbit (MSTO) : a space vehicle that launches using expendable rockets that are detached prior to the second stage that boos t the vehicle into orbit. Pier : extension protruding from terminal bu ilding giving access to airline gates. Orbital Spacecraft or Spaceplane: a rocket powered space vehicle that reaches space (above 100km) and can remain in space for at least one complete orbit. The altitude and speed of the vehicle at perigee factors into its ability to remain in orbit. Outbound Baggage Facility : a nonpublic area for sorting and processing baggage for departing flights.

PAGE 164

149 Point-to-Point System (PTP): System of transportation, wher e the traffic moves directly between destinations, rather than through a central hub. Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) : a vehicle that is capable of launching into space more than once, in contrast to expendable launc h vehicles which is discarded after one launch, like most rocket. Service/Fire Lanes : identified rights-of-way on the ap ron designated for aircraft ground service vehicles and tire equipment. Security Inspection Station : a control point for passenge r and baggage inspection and controlling public access to parked aircraft. Satellite : airside building separate from termin al building surrounded by airline gates Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) : a reusable space vehicle that can reach orbit from the surface without jettisoning any hardware. Sterile Area : area within terminal building acce ssible only by security-cleared passengers and airport staff. Suborbital Spacecraft or Spaceplane : a rocket power space vehi cle that reaches space, but due to its trajectory ha ving too low an altitude at perigee or too slow a speed, cannot complete an orbit. The vehicle operate s at the edge of space to take advantage of the less dense air. It combines the features of an aircraft with those of a spacecraft. Taxilanes: reserved to provide taxiing aircraft with access to and from parking positions. Taxiway: pathway for aircraft to move around the airfield. Travellator : horizontal moving walkway (+1.4m wi dth & +/-60m long, 1:15 incline).

PAGE 165

150 REFERENCES Transportation Facilities: New Concepts in Architecture & Design. 1st ed. Tokyo, Japan: Meisei Publications, 1997. Armstrong, Rachel and Maggie Toy. "Space Architecture: Editorial Introduction." Architectural Design Vol. 70, No. 2 (March 2000): 4-5. Ashford, David. "How Soon Will Space Tourism Start?" Architectural Design Vol. 70, No. 2 (March 2000): 10-17. Bartlett Discussion: Space Architecture. Architectural Design. Vol. 70, No. 2 (March 2000): 86-91. Beard and Starzyk. Space Tourism Market Study, October 2002. Available from Futron Corporation. http://www.futron.com/pdf/resource_cente r/white_papers/SpaceTourismMarketSt udy.pdf, Internet, Accessed 20 September 2008. Berger, Brian. SpaceX, Rocketplane Kistler Win NASA COTS Competition. Space News. 18 August 2006. Available from Space.com: Http://www.space.com/news/060818_nasa_cot s_wrap.html, Internet, Accessed 28 November 2008. Blow, Christpher J. Airport Terminals. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Butherworth Architecture, 1996. Carey, Bjorn. "Space Tourism Options for Today and Tomorrow." Ad Astra 18, no. 3 (Fall, 2006): 32-34. Collins, Patrick. Space Tourism the Key to the Coming Economic Boom. Architectural Design. Vol. 70, No. 2 (March 2000): 18-20. David, Leonard. "Licensed to Fly?" Ad Astra 17, no. 1 (Spring, 2005): 16-17. Davis, Luke, et al. Great Expectations: An Assessment of the Potential for Suborbital Transportation. Masters Thesis, International Space University, 2008.

PAGE 166

151 Edwards, Brian and Brian Edwards. The Mode rn Airport Terminal: New Approaches to Airport Architecture. 2nd ed. London; New York: Spon Press, 2005. FAA Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Commercial Space Transportation Developments and Concepts. Office of Commercial Space Transportation, FAA/AST, January 2008. Foster + Partners, Inc. Foster + Partne rs. [corporate site, 201 0]. Available from: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Pract ice/Default.aspx, In ternet, Accessed 8 August 2009. Iannotta, Ben. "Turning Space Travel into Tourism." Aerospace America 44, no. 11 (November, 2006): 36-41. Kasarda, John Do. "Airport Cities and the Aerotropolis: New Planning Models." Airport Innovation (April 2007): 106-110. Available from: http://www.aerotropolis.com/files/2007_04_AirportInnovation_NewPLanningMo dels.pdf, Internet, Accessed 28 May 2008. . "The New Business Model." Airport World (August/September 2006). Available from: http://www.aerotropolis.com /files/2006_08_NewModel.pdf, Internet, Accessed 28 May 2008. Lindsay, Greg. "Rise of the Aerotropolis ." Fast Company no. 107 (July/August, 2006): 76-85. McCleskey, Carey M. Strategic Space La unch Concept and Technology Roadmaps to Develop Visionary Spaceports 50th International Astronautical Congress, International Astronautical Federation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 1999. Available from NASA Ke nnedy Space Center website: http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/ne xgen/spaceport_main.htm, Internet, Accessed 2 September 2008. . Spaceport Concept and Technology Roadmapping: Investment Steps to Routine, Low Cost Spaceport Systems Final Report to the NASA Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Te chnology (SERT) Program, November 2000. Available from NASA Kennedy Space Center website: http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/ne xgen/spaceport_main.htm, Internet, Accessed 28 November 2008. . Vision Spaceport: Renewing Americas Space Launch Infrastructure & Operations. Vision Spaceport Partners hip Final Report, Spaceport Technology Development Office, April 2001. Available from NASA Kennedy Space Center website: http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/spaceport_main.htm, Internet, Accessed 28 November 2008.

PAGE 167

152 Nasser, Haya El. "New 'cities' springi ng up around many U.S. airports." USA Today. (Sept 25, 2003): 01A. GeneralOneFile Gale Document Number: CJ133448538. University of South Florida. 28 May 2008. Rogers, T. F. "The Prospects for Space Tour ism." The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 23, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 33-37. U.S. House of Representatives, Committ ee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Aviation. Commercial Space Transportation: Beyond the X Prize: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aviation of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session, February 9, 2005. Washington: U.S. G.P.O, 2005. Virgin Galactic, Inc. Spaceport America. [corporate site, 2006]. Available from: http://www.spaceportamerica.com/home.html, Internet, Accessed 13 May 2008. Wade, David. "A Zoom with a View." I EE Review 52, no. 1 (January, 2006): 28-32.

PAGE 168

153 BIBLIOGRAPHY "Foster, URS Unveil Designs for Space Tourism's Giant Leap." Architectural Record 195, no. 10 (October, 2007): 49. "Private Space Flight: Virgin Birth." The Economist 386, (January 26, 2008): 12-13. "Securing Virgin Territory." Popular Science 268, no. 3 (March, 2006): 34. "SpaceShipOne: Up, Up and Away." The Economist 371, (June 26, 2004): 17. "Space America: Foster, URSs Final Frontie r." Architectural Record, no. 9 (September, 2007). "Space Tourism Space Architecture." Domus no. 899 (January, 2007): 14-33. "Starship Enterprise: The Next Generati on." The Economist 386, (January 26, 2008): 6668. "Tourism Takes Off." Popular Science 268, no. 1 (January, 2006): 57. Transportation Facilities: New Concepts in Architecture & Design. 1st ed. Tokyo, Japan: Meisei Publications, 1997. Adam, Robert, [1948-]. "Globalisation and Ar chitecture: The Challe nges of Globalisation are Relentlessly Shaping Architecture's Relationship with Society and Culture." Architectural Review, 2008 Fe b., n.1332 no. 1332 (p.74-77, 2008): 74-77. Andreu, Paul and Filippo Beltrami Gadola. Pa ul Andreu : The Discovery of Universal Space. Milano: L'Arcaedizioni, 1997. Armstrong, Rachel and Maggie Toy. "Space Architecture: Editorial Introduction." Architectural Design Vol. 70, No. 2 (March 2000): 4-5. Armstrong, Rachel. David Bowie. Architect ural Design. Vol. 70, No. 2 (March 2000): 39. Ashford, D. M. "New Commercial Opportuni ties in Space." Aeronautical Journal 111, (February, 2007): 61-75.

PAGE 169

154 Ashford, David. "How Soon Will Space Tourism Start?" Architectural Design Vol. 70, No. 2 (March 2000): 10-17. Auer, Catherine. "Space, a Tourist-Friendly Place." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 58, no. 3 (May/June, 2002): 11-12. Baird, Stephen. "Space: The New Frontier!" The Technology Teacher 67, no. 7 (April, 2008): 13-19. Bartlett Discussion: Space Architecture. Architectural Design. Vol. 70, No. 2 (March 2000): 86-91. Beard and Starzyk. Space Tourism Market Study, October 2002. Available from Futron Corporation. http://www.futron.com/pdf/resource_cente r/white_papers/SpaceTourismMarketSt udy.pdf, Internet, Accessed 20 September 2008. Belfiore, Michael. "It's a Rocket! it's a Plane! it's . Rocketplane!" Popular Science 269, no. 2 (August, 2006): 44-48. Berger, Brian. SpaceX, Rocketplane Kistler Win NASA COTS Competition. Space News. 18 August 2006. Available from Space.com: Http://www.space.com/news/060818_nasa_cot s_wrap.html, Internet, Accessed 28 November 2008. Best, Allen. "Flying High: Like Highways before them, Airports have Become Transforming Forces in the Tourist Towns of the West." Planning, 2007 may, v.73, n.5 73, no. 5 (p.[38]-41, 2007): [38]-41. Bilstein, Roger E. The American Aerosp ace Industry : From Workshop to Global Enterprise. Twayne's Evolution of Mode rn Business Series. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1996. Bittner, Regina, Wilfried Hack enbroich [1965-], and Kai Vo ckler. "Transnational Spaces." Volume (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 2005, n.3 no. 3 (p.44-49, 2005): 4449. Blow, Christpher J. Airport Terminals. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Butherworth Architecture, 1996. Butterworth-Hayes, Philip. "Space Tourism Race Speeds Up." Aerospace America 45, no. 8 (August, 2007): 4-7.

PAGE 170

155 Carey, Bjorn. "Space Tourism Options for Today and Tomorrow." Ad Astra 18, no. 3 (Fall, 2006): 32-34. Cass, Stephen. "Space Treks." Discover 29, no. 4 (April, 2008): 48-49. Cervero, Robert. "Futuristic Transit and Futuristic Cities." Transportation Quarterly, 1992 Apr., v.156, n.2 156, no. 2 (p.193-204, 1992): 193-204. Chandler, David. "Dreams of the New Space Race." Nature 448, (August 30, 2007): 988991. Chandler, David L. "Dawn of a New Space Age." New Scientist 182, (June 26, 2004): 67. Cho, Aileen. "Airports of the Future." ENR 251, no. 24 (December 15, 2003): 34-66. Collins, Patrick. Space Tourism the Key to the Coming Economic Boom. Architectural Design. Vol. 70, No. 2 (March 2000): 18-20. Cray, Dan. "Will we Take Vacations in Sp ace?" Time 155, no. 14 (April 10, 2000): 63. David, Leonard. "Licensed to Fly?" Ad Astra 17, no. 1 (Spring, 2005): 16-17. Davis, Luke, et al. Great Expectations: An Assessment of the Potential for Suborbital Transportation. Masters Thesis, International Space University, 2008. Diamandis, Peter H. "X Prize." Architectur al Design Vol. 70, No. 2 (March 2000): 34-35. Dilworth, Dianna. "Foster, URS Unveils Designs for Space Tourism's Giant Leap." Architectural Record, 2007 Oct., v.195, n.10 195, no. 10 (p.[49], 2007): [49]. Dornheim, Michael A. "SpaceShipWon." Aviation Week & Space Technology 161, no. 14 (October 11, 2004): 34-36. Edwards, Brian and Brian Edwards. The Mode rn Airport Terminal: New Approaches to Airport Architecture. 2nd ed. London; New York: Spon Press, 2005. FAA Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Commercial Space Transportation Developments and Concepts. Office of Commercial Space Transportation, FAA/AST, January 2008 Foster + Partners, Inc. Foster + Partne rs. [corporate site, 201 0]. Available from: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Pract ice/Default.aspx, In ternet, Accessed 8 August 2009.

PAGE 171

156 Foust, Jeff. Screening and Training For Commercial Human Spaceflight. The Space Review. 18 February 2008 Available from The Space Review. http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1062/1, Internet, Accessed 20 December 2008. Fiorino, Frances. "The Sky's no Limit." Aviation Week & Space Technology 163, no. 5 (August 1, 2005): 34. Griffin, Kenneth W. Building T ype Basics for Transit Facil ities. Building Type Basics Series. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley, 2004. Hanley, Richard E., Inc NetLibrary, and New York Academy of Sciences. Moving People, Goods, and Information in the 21s t Century [Electronic Resource] : The Cutting-Edge Infrastructures of Networked Cities. The Networked Cities Series. London ; New York: Routledge, 2004. Harris, Nigel. "The Emerging Global City: Transport." Cities, 1994 Oct., v.11, n.5 11, no. 5 (p.332-336, 1994): 332-336. Henricks, Mark. "Space Cowboys." Entrepreneur 33, no. 4 (April, 2005): 24. Hewitt, William F. "Airports and Airlines are Going Green." Planning, 2007 Nov., v.73, n.10 73, no. 10 (p. 22-25, 2007): 22-25. Hitt, Jack. "The Discover Interview: Burt Rutan." Discover (October, 2007): 30-3, 87. Holland, Dorothy, Gretchen Fox, and Vinci Daro. "Social Movements and Collective Identity: A Decentered, Dialogic View ." Anthropological Quarterly 81, no. 1 (Winter, 2008): 95-126. Hopkins, Mark M. "Space Settlements: Th e State of the Art." Ad Astra 18, no. 2 (Summer, 2006): 23. Iannotta, Ben. "Turning Space Travel into Tourism." Aerospace America 44, no. 11 (November, 2006): 36-41. John F. Kennedy Space Center. America's Sp aceport : John F. Kennedy Space Center. Washington, D.C.?: National Aeronau tics and Space Administration, John F. Kennedy Space Center, 2004. Kasarda, John Do. "Airport Cities and the Aerotropolis: New Planning Models." Airport Innovation (April 2007): 106-110. Available from: http://www.aerotropolis.com/files/2007_04_AirportInnovation_NewPLanningMo dels.pdf, Internet, Accessed 28 May 2008.

PAGE 172

157 . "The New Business Model." Airport World (August/September 2006). Available from: http://www.aerotropolis.com /files/2006_08_NewModel.pdf, Internet, Accessed 28 May 2008. . "From Airport City to Aerotropolis." Airport World 6, no. 4 (Aug-Sep 2001): pg. 42-45. Available from: http://www.aerotropolis.com/files/2001_09A irportWorld.pdf, Internet, Accessed 28 May 2008. . "Planning the 'Aerotropolis'." Air port World 5, no. 5 (Oct-Nov 2000): 52-53. Available from: http://www.aerotropolis.com/files/2000_11_A irportWorld_planning_aerotropolis. pdf, Internet, Accessed 28 May 2008. King, Anthony D. Spaces of Global Cultures : Architecture, Urbanism, Identity. The Architext Series. London ; New York: Routledge, 2004. Klerkx, Greg. "Space Initiative." American Heritage 55, no. 5 (October, 2004): 39-40. Kross, John. "X Prize Ends in Desert Dram a." Ad Astra 16, no. 4 (Winter, 2005): 14-17. Landers, Jay. "Design Concepts Unveiled for New Mexico Space Terminal." Civil Engineering (American Society of Civ il Engineers) 77, no. 11 (November, 2007): 14-16. Latham, Alan. "Transnational Urbanism: Lo cating Globalization, by M.P. Smith [Book Review]." Environment and Planning B, Planning & Design, 2002 Jan., v.29, n.1 29, no. 1 (p.153-155, 2002): 153-155. Leary, Warren E. "Into Orbit (Maybe Beyond) on Wings of Giant Solar Sails." New York Times (Late New York Edition) (June 21, 2005): F3. Lindsay, Greg. "Rise of the Aerotropolis ." Fast Company no. 107 (July/August, 2006): 76-85. Mahoney, Patrick G. "The Second Space Age." Machine Design 80, no. 5 (March 6, 2008): 58-60, 62, 64. Mangu-Ward, Katherine. "Space Travel for Fun and Profit." Current (Washington, D.C.) no. 492 (May, 2007): 11-15. McCleskey, Carey M. Strategic Space La unch Concept and Technology Roadmaps to Develop Visionary Spaceports 50th International Astronautical Congress, International Astronautical Federation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 1999. Available from NASA Ke nnedy Space Center website:

PAGE 173

158 http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/ne xgen/spaceport_main.htm, Internet, Accessed 2 September 2008. . Spaceport Concept and Technology Roadmapping: Investment Steps to Routine, Low Cost Spaceport Systems Final Report to the NASA Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Te chnology (SERT) Program, November 2000. Available from NASA Kennedy Space Center website: http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/ne xgen/spaceport_main.htm, Internet, Accessed 28 November 2008. . Vision Spaceport: Renewing Americas Space Launch Infrastructure & Operations. Vision Spaceport Partners hip Final Report, Spaceport Technology Development Office, April 2001. Available from NASA Kennedy Space Center website: http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/spaceport_main.htm, Internet, Accessed 28 November 2008. McCullough, Edward D. "Space Colonization." Aerospace America 44, no. 12 (December, 2006): 92. Melchert Saguas Presas, L. "Transnationa l Urban Spaces and Urban Environmental Reforms: Analyzing Beijing's Environm ental Restructuring in the Light of Globalization." Cities, 2004 A ug., v.21, n.4 21, no. 4 (p.321-328, 2004): 321-328. Merkel, Jayne and Aileen Cho. "For Airport Desi gners and Architects, the Future is at the Gate." ENR 251, no. 24 (December 15, 2003): 36-8, 40. Mojave Air & Space Port. [corporate site, 2008]. Available from: http://www.mojaveairport.com/spacesh ipone.htm, Internet, Accessed 13 May 2008. Moore-Wilton, Max. Aerotropoli: Airport Ci ties Sydney Airport Corporation Limited, 2007. Available from: http://www.aerotropolis.com/files/2007_01_A erotropoli.pdf, Internet, Accessed 28 May 2008. Morgan, Richard. "Space Tourism Survives Fatal Blast." Discover 29, no. 1 (January, 2008): 45. Nasser, Haya El. "New 'cities' springi ng up around many U.S. airports." USA Today. (Sept 25, 2003): 01A. GeneralOneFile Gale Document Number: CJ133448538. University of South Florida. 28 May 2008. NASA, Space Florida. [corporate site]. Available from: http://www.spaceflorida.gov/home.php, Internet, Accessed 13 May 2008.

PAGE 174

159 Outside Line. Virgin Galactic. [corporate site, 2008]. Available from: http://www.virgingalactic.com/htmls ite/index.php?language=E nglish, Internet, Accessed 13 May 2008. Pasztor, Andy. "In Race to Take Tourists into Orbit, Partners Split, Spar." Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition) (February 13, 2007): A1, A22. Pearson, Helen. "Experts Challenge Claims for Space Tourism." Nature 429, (June 24, 2004): 792. Peeters, Walter A. R. Space Marketing: A European Perspective. Space Technology Library: V. 11. El Segundo, Calif.; Dordr echt The Netherlands; Boston: Published jointly by Microcosm Press; Kluw er Academic Publishers, 2000. Reiss, Spencer. "Rocket Man." Wire d 13, no. 1 (January, 2005): 136-41, 143, 180-1. Rocketplane, Inc. Rocketplane. [cor porate site, 2008]. Available from: http://www.rocketplane.com/index.htm, Internet, Accessed 13 May 2008. Rogers, T. F. "The Prospects for Space Tour ism." The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 23, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 33-37. Rydin, Yvonne and Thornley, Andy. Planning Research 2000, Planning in a Global Era. Urban and Regional Planning and Devel opment. Aldershot ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002. Simonyi, Charles. "From CEO to Space Tourist." Newsweek 150, no. 24 (December 10, 2007): 102. Smith, Patricia Grace. "The Will to Find Out, th e Desire to do Better, to Go Farther, to Open Closed Doors, the Courage to Ask Questions at the Edge." Vital Speeches of the Day 73, no. 4 (April, 2007): 157-159. Stroh, Michael. "Up and Away." Popular Science 270, no. 4 (April, 2007): 31, 33. Thomas, Cathy Booth. "The Space Cowboys." Time 169, no. 10 (March 5, 2007): 52-58. U.S. House of Representatives, Committ ee on Science, Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics, and United St ates Senate, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space. Commercial Human Space Flight: Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics, Committee on Science, House of Representatives and the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate, One Hundred Eighth Congress, First Session, July 24, 2003. Washington: U.S. G.P.O, 2004.

PAGE 175

160 U.S.House of Representatives, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Aviation. The Future of Aviation Technology "is the Sky the Limit?" [Microform]: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aviation of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastruc ture, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Se ssion, May 16, 2000. Washington: U.S. G.P.O, 2001. U.S. House of Representatives, Committ ee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Aviation. Commercial Space Transportation: Beyond the X Prize: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aviation of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session, February 9, 2005. Washington: U.S. G.P.O, 2005. U.S. Senate, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportati on. The Commercial Space Transportation Act of 2003: Re port of the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation on S. 1260. One Hundred Eighth Congress, First Session, July 24, 2003. Senate Report 108111. Washington: U.S. G.P.O, 2003. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Of fice of Commercial Space Transportation, Office of the Associate Administrato r for Commercial Space Transportation. Commercial Space Transportation ... [Elect ronic Resource]: Year in Review. Vol. Jan 2008. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, 2008. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Office of International Aviation. The FAA International, Answer Book: Answers to Commonly Asked Qu estions about FAA Regulations and Procedures. Washingt on, D.C. 800 Independence Ave., S.W., Washington 20591: U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, 1994. Virgin Galactic, Inc. Spaceport America. [corporate site, 2006]. Available from: http://www.spaceportamerica.com/home.html, Internet, Accessed 13 May 2008. Wade, David. "A Zoom with a View." I EE Review 52, no. 1 (January, 2006): 28-32. Waite, Richard. "Foster Enters Space Race. Architects' Journal 225, no. 15 (April 19, 2007): 11.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam 22 Ka 4500
controlfield tag 007 cr-bnu---uuuuu
008 s2010 flu s 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0003445
035
(OCoLC)
040
FHM
c FHM
049
FHMM
090
XX9999 (Online)
1 100
Selvidge, Paula.
0 245
From airport to spaceport :
b designing for an aerospace revolution
h [electronic resource] /
by Paula Selvidge.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
2010.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.
502
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
538
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
3 520
ABSTRACT: "Airports will shape business location and urban development in the 21st century as much as highways did in the 20th century, railroads in the 19th and seaports in the 18th" John D. Kasarda, Ph.D. Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina http://www.aerotropolis.com/author.html I say, spaceports will shape the urban development of the 21st century, more than airports, bringing about an aerospace revolution. Just as new technologies triggered the global revolutions of the past, so the invention of reusable spacecraft will revolutionize transportation. The invention of such spacecraft suggests the need for a different kind of transportation hub: a spaceport. Not unlike an airport, a spaceport would be a center for transportation, but both terrestrial and extraterrestrial. Commercializing space travel would improve the efficiency of world travel and impact the cultural perspective of the world at large. This new transport nexus would not only need to accommodate new modes of operation, but would need to respond to the emerging global society. An all-inclusive spaceport, it would become a city unto itself. A study of the changing world and the spiraling correlation between technological advancement and cultural development, in relation to the architecture of transport facilities, is the focus of the following thesis investigation. A correlative study of airports, airport terminals, and the evolution of airports into aerotropoli due to globalization, provides the ground work for the development of an urban spaceport. Restrictions and opportunities relevant to spaceport and aerospace terminal design are explored. An extensive investigation in the field of urban planning, transportation, and space travel, along with some speculation, reveals the implications that a commercial space program might have on society and architecture. Then, research into the programming and design of spaceports acts as a spring-board for the design process. Though no commercial spaceports exist as of yet, a conceptual study provides insight into the extraterrestrial side of the operations. Finally, a spaceport masterplan and aerospace terminal that responds to the needs and concerns of the global community, as well as attempts to fulfill its dreams, is proposed as a precedent for redevelopment and implementation in the near future.
590
Advisor: Theodore Trent Green, R.A.
653
Architecture
Transportation
Travel
Technology
Aerotropolis
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x School of Architecture and Community Design
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.3445