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Testing and evaluation of a novel virtual reality integrated adaptive driving system

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Title:
Testing and evaluation of a novel virtual reality integrated adaptive driving system
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Fowler, Matthew
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
AEVIT
SSI
Drive by Wire
Simulator
Reaction Time
Dissertations, Academic -- Mechanical Engineering -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Virtual simulators have proven to be extremely effective tools for training individuals for tasks that might otherwise be cost-prohibitive, dangerous, or impractical. One advantage of using a virtual simulator is that it provides a safe environment for emergency scenarios. For many years the United States military and NASA have used simulators, including those affixed with drive-by-wire (DBW) controls, effectively and efficiently to train subjects in a variety of ways. A DBW system utilizes electrical circuits to actuate servo motors from a given input signal to achieve a desired output. In DBW systems the output is not directly mechanically connected to a control surface (steering, acceleration, deceleration, etc.); usually, the input controller is linked by electrical wires to a localized servo motor where direct control can be given. This project is aimed at developing a novel simulator for a future training program using DBW systems that caters specifically to individuals who currently use or will be using for the first time vehicle modifications in order to drive and maintain their independence. Many of these individuals use one or a combination of powered steering, acceleration, braking, or secondary DBW controls to drive. The simulator integrates a virtual training environment and advanced electronic vehicle interface technology (AEVIT) DBW controls (4-way joystick, gas-brake lever/small zero-effort steering wheel). In a 30 participant study of three groups (able-bodied individuals, elderly individuals, and individuals with disability), it was found that training with a DBW joystick steering system will require more instruction and simulator practice time than a gas-brake lever/small steering wheel combination (GB/S) to obtain a similar level of competency. Drivers using the joystick completed predetermined driving courses in longer times, at slower speeds, with more errors than the other DBW system. On average, the reaction time to a stopping signal was fastest with the gas-brake lever at 0.54 seconds. Reaction times for the standard vehicle controls and the joystick were 0.741 and 0.677 seconds respectively. It was noted that reaction times using DBW controls were shorter overall. When driving in traffic, drivers committed 4.9, 5.1, and 8.3 driving infractions per minute using standard vehicle controls (No Drive by Wire, (NDBW)), the gas/brake and steering system, and joystick system respectively. Most drivers felt that the GB/S system was easier to learn, easier to operate, safer, and more reliable than the joystick system.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.M.E.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Matthew Fowler.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.

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ABSTRACT: Virtual simulators have proven to be extremely effective tools for training individuals for tasks that might otherwise be cost-prohibitive, dangerous, or impractical. One advantage of using a virtual simulator is that it provides a safe environment for emergency scenarios. For many years the United States military and NASA have used simulators, including those affixed with drive-by-wire (DBW) controls, effectively and efficiently to train subjects in a variety of ways. A DBW system utilizes electrical circuits to actuate servo motors from a given input signal to achieve a desired output. In DBW systems the output is not directly mechanically connected to a control surface (steering, acceleration, deceleration, etc.); usually, the input controller is linked by electrical wires to a localized servo motor where direct control can be given. This project is aimed at developing a novel simulator for a future training program using DBW systems that caters specifically to individuals who currently use or will be using for the first time vehicle modifications in order to drive and maintain their independence. Many of these individuals use one or a combination of powered steering, acceleration, braking, or secondary DBW controls to drive. The simulator integrates a virtual training environment and advanced electronic vehicle interface technology (AEVIT) DBW controls (4-way joystick, gas-brake lever/small zero-effort steering wheel). In a 30 participant study of three groups (able-bodied individuals, elderly individuals, and individuals with disability), it was found that training with a DBW joystick steering system will require more instruction and simulator practice time than a gas-brake lever/small steering wheel combination (GB/S) to obtain a similar level of competency. Drivers using the joystick completed predetermined driving courses in longer times, at slower speeds, with more errors than the other DBW system. On average, the reaction time to a stopping signal was fastest with the gas-brake lever at 0.54 seconds. Reaction times for the standard vehicle controls and the joystick were 0.741 and 0.677 seconds respectively. It was noted that reaction times using DBW controls were shorter overall. When driving in traffic, drivers committed 4.9, 5.1, and 8.3 driving infractions per minute using standard vehicle controls (No Drive by Wire, (NDBW)), the gas/brake and steering system, and joystick system respectively. Most drivers felt that the GB/S system was easier to learn, easier to operate, safer, and more reliable than the joystick system.
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Testing and Evaluation of a Novel Virtual Reality Integrated Adaptive Driving System by Matthew R. Fowler A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering College of Engineering University of South Florida Major Professor: Rajiv Dubey, Ph.D. Kathryn DeLaurentis, Ph.D. Shuh Jing Ying, Ph.D. Date of Approval: April 7 2010 K eywords: AEVIT, SSI, Drive by Wire, Simulator, Reaction Time Copyright 2010 Matthew R. Fowler

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Acknowledgements Certain individuals have given sacrificially of their time and efforts as I have written this paper, and to them I am grateful I would like to say t hank you to my family, namely my mother and father who have encouraged me to always do my best in every endeavor that I undertake. Their encouragement and guidance has kept me focused and pointed in the right direction. Thank you to my wife to be, for her unwavering love, kindness, and patience She is my best friend and someone I can alway s depend on. Jaime, thank you for your unending support and I love you Furthermore, I am indebted to my academic peers and mentors. Thank you to all of the professors who have put in so much extra time to help me understand and appreciate the principles of engineering. Thank you to all of my friends for the missed notes you let me review and the enjoyable times we spent away from the books I am grateful for my thesis committee for their willingness to review my work I especially would like to thank Dr Kathryn DeLaurentis for the innumerable hours that she has assisted me in the lab. She cannot be thanked enough for her s uggestions and wisdom. Thank you to our study participants. Above all, I would like to thank my Savior, Jesus Christ, for without him this would never be possible. He is the steadfast rock on which I stand, and He has given me the strength to continue on. For I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me. Phi l i ppians 4:13

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i Table of Contents List of Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... v iii List of Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... v i i iv Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ x v i v Chapter 1: Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 1 1.1 M otivation ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 1 1.2 Research Objective ................................ ................................ ......................... 3 Chapter 2: Back ground ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 5 2.1 History of Simulators ................................ ................................ ..................... 5 2.2 History of Virtual Reality ................................ ................................ ............... 8 2. 3 Enhanced Presence in Simulators ................................ ................................ 10 2.4 Current Research ................................ ................................ .......................... 13 2. 4 .1 Dynamic Traffic Behavior ................................ ............................. 13 2. 4 .2 National Advanced Driving Simulator ................................ ........... 14 2. 4 .3 Low cost Mechanical Driving Simulator ................................ ........ 15

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ii Chapter 3 : Simulators Used for Therapy and Training ................................ ................... 1 7 3.1 Review of Simulator Based Therapy ................................ ............................ 1 8 3. 2 Transfer of Training ................................ ................................ ..................... 1 9 3.3 Evaluation of Driving Performance ................................ .............................. 21 Chapter 4 : Assistive Devices in Vehicles ................................ ................................ ....... 25 4.1 Types of Chairs and Securements ................................ ................................ 2 6 4.2 Vehicle Modifications Ramps, and Lifts ................................ ...................... 2 8 4 3 Primary Controls ................................ ................................ .......................... 29 4 3 .1 Mechanical Controls ................................ ................................ ...... 30 4 3 .2 Drive by Wire Controls ................................ ................................ 30 4 4 Secondary Controls ................................ ................................ ...................... 32 4 5 Orthotic Devices ................................ ................................ .......................... 32 Chapter 5: DBW Simulator Design ................................ ................................ ................ 3 4 5.1 SSI Simulator ................................ ................................ ............................... 3 5 5.2 AEVIT Control System ................................ ................................ ................ 37 5.3 Input Controls ................................ ................................ .............................. 41 5. 3 .1 Gas Brake Lever ................................ ................................ ............ 41

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iii 5. 3 .2 Digital Steering Wheel ................................ ................................ ... 42 5. 3 .3 4 way Joystick ................................ ................................ ............... 43 5. 4 AEVIT Controller Switch ................................ ................................ ............ 45 5. 5 Simulator AEVIT Control System Integration ................................ .......... 47 Chapter 6: Human Subject Testing ................................ ................................ ................. 56 6.1 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 56 6.1.1 Acceleration and Bra king Test ................................ ....................... 56 6.1.2 Steering Test ................................ ................................ .................. 62 6.1.3 Driving in Traffi c ................................ ................................ ........... 64 6 .2 Driving Performance Survey ................................ ................................ ........ 69 Chapter 7: Results and Discussion ................................ ................................ ................. 70 7.1 Evaluation of Acceler ation and Braking Performance ................................ ... 70 7. 2 Evaluation of Steering Data ................................ ................................ .......... 73 7.3 Evaluation of Drivers in Traffi c ................................ ................................ .... 78 7 .4 Driving Performance Survey ................................ ................................ ........ 81 Chapter 8: Co nclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 86 Chapter 9: Future Work ................................ ................................ ................................ 90

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iv 9.1 Development of a New Drive by Wire Controller ................................ ........ 90 9.2 Developmen t of an Immersive Environment ................................ ................. 91 9.3 Driver Training Program ................................ ................................ .............. 92 List of References ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 93 Appendices ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 97 Appendix A: Boot Up Procedures ................................ ................................ ...... 98 Appendix B : Types of SSI Driver Errors ................................ .......................... 113 Appendix C : Human Subject Testing Data ................................ ....................... 115 Appendix D : Parts Lists and Drawings ................................ ............................. 166 Appendix E : Maintenance Issues ................................ ................................ ...... 168 A ppendix F: Participant Survey ................................ ................................ ........ 169

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v List of Tables Table 2.1 Factors Affecting Enhanced Presence [9] ................................ ..................... 11 Table 5.1 Joystick Acceleration/Braking Delay ................................ ........................... 54 Table 5.2 GB Acceleration/Braking Delay ................................ ................................ ... 54 T able 5.3 Steering Lag Times ................................ ................................ ..................... 55 Table 6.1 Sample Characteristics ................................ ................................ ............... 56 Table 6.2 Testing Matrix ................................ ................................ ............................. 58 Table 7.1 Average A ccelerat ion and Braking Delay ................................ .................... 70 Table 7.2 Average Reaction Time Standard Deviations ................................ ............... 71 Table 7. 3 Summary of Steering Results ................................ ................................ ...... 75 Table 7. 4 Route ................................ ................................ ................ 79 Table 7.5 ................................ ................................ ................ 80 Table 7.6 Traffic Tests Error Totals ................................ ................................ ............ 8 1 Table 7.7 A verage Quantitative Survey Results ................................ .......................... 82 Table 7.8 Standard Deviation of Survey Responses ................................ ..................... 83

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vi Table C.1 NDBW Acceleration/Braking Data ................................ ............................ 115 Table C.2 GB/S Acceleration/Braking Data ................................ ............................... 116 Table C. 3 Joystick Acceleration/Braking Data ................................ ........................... 117 Table C.4 Sample Steering, Data, Group 1, Participant 2 ................................ ........... 118 Table C.5 ................................ ................................ .... 164 Table D.1 Chain Drive Parts List ................................ ................................ .............. 166 Table D.2 AEVIT Parts List ................................ ................................ ...................... 167 Table E.1 Troubleshooting ................................ ................................ ........................ 168 Table F.1 Quantitative Survey Results ................................ ................................ ...... 165

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vii List of Figures Figure 2 .1 Albert E. Link, Simulator Pioneer [1] ................................ .............................. 6 Figure 2.2 Link Trainer Sometimes C ................................ ...... 7 Figure 2.3 Bellows System in the B ase P latform of a Link Trainer [5] ........................... 7 Figure 2.4 Douglas Engelbart [6] ................................ ................................ ................... 9 Figure 2.5 Engelbart's Contribution to Virtual R eality, the GUI [7] and the M ouse [8] ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 10 Figure 2 .6 Heilig's Sensorama [10] ................................ ................................ .............. 12 Figure 2.7 National Advanced Driving Simulator [1 1 ] ................................ ................. 14 Figure 2.8 Low cost Simu lator [12] ................................ ................................ ............. 16 Figure 3 .1 Army Humvee Roll Over Simulator [14] ................................ .................... 17 Figure 3.2 Split Wheel Design [1 6 ] ................................ ................................ ............. 19 Figure 4.1 Types of Wheelchairs [22], [23] ................................ ................................ 26 Figure 4 .2 EZ Lock Securement System [2 4 ] ................................ ............................... 27 Figure 4 .3 Anchoring Strap [25] ................................ ................................ .................. 27

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viii Figure 4.4 Vehicle Modifications ................................ ................................ ................ 29 Figure 4.5 Examples of Mechanical Controls ................................ .............................. 30 Figure 4.6 Types of One Handed Steering Device [34] ................................ ................ 31 Figure 4.7 AEVIT Secondary Control Unit [35] ................................ .......................... 32 Figure 4.8 Some Electronic Mobility Controls Orthotic Attachments [36] ................... 33 Figure 5.1 SSI Modular Driving Simulator [37] ................................ ........................... 36 Figure 5.2 Range of Motion of Pedals ................................ ................................ ......... 37 Figure 5. 3 AEVIT System Layout [38] ................................ ................................ ........ 38 Figure 5.4 AEVIT Speed Signal vs. Steering Response ................................ ............... 39 Figure 5.5 AEVIT Vehicle Simulator ................................ ................................ .......... 40 Figure 5. 6 AEVIT Gas Brake Lever ................................ ................................ .......... 42 Figure 5. 7 AEVIT Digital Steering Wheel ................................ ................................ ... 42 Figure 5. 8 Attached Orthotic Device ................................ ................................ ........... 43 Figure 5. 9 AEVIT 4 Way Joystick ................................ ................................ .............. 43 Figure 5.10 Joystick Control Bands [38] ................................ ................................ ...... 44 Figure 5.11 Steering Wheel Drift Band [38] ................................ ................................ 45 Figure 5.1 2 AEVIT Controller Switch ................................ ................................ ......... 46

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ix Figure 5.13 AEVIT Switch Diagrams ................................ ................................ .......... 47 Figure 5.14 Firewall Cutout ................................ ................................ ......................... 49 Figure 5.15 Support Bracket ................................ ................................ ........................ 49 Figure 5.16 SSI Platform ................................ ................................ ............................. 49 Figure 5.17 Bearing Assembly Bracket ................................ ................................ ........ 50 Figure 5.18 Servomotor Mounting Bracket and Shaft ................................ .................. 50 Figure 5.19 Universal Joint ................................ ................................ .......................... 51 Figure 5.20 Assembled Steering Unit ................................ ................................ .......... 51 Figure 5.21 Complete Assembly ................................ ................................ .................. 52 Figure 5.22 Final Setup ................................ ................................ ............................... 53 Figure 6.1 Acceleration and Braking Test Instructions ................................ ................. 60 Figure 6.2 Acceleration and Braking Test Start P osition ................................ ............. 60 Figure 6.3 Stop Command Issued ................................ ................................ ................ 61 Figure 6.4 Sample Braking Results ................................ ................................ .............. 62 Figure 6.5 Steering Instructions ................................ ................................ ................... 62 Figure 6.6 Steering Test Start Position ................................ ................................ ......... 63 Figure 6.7 Steering Test 180 Degree Turn ................................ ................................ ... 63

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x Figure 6.8 Steering Test End Position ................................ ................................ .......... 64 Figure 6.9 Traffic Driving Scenario Configurations ................................ .................... 65 Figure 6.10 Route "A" Start Position ................................ ................................ ........... 65 Figure 6.11 ................................ ................................ ........... 66 Figure 6.12 ................................ .............. 66 Figure 6.13 Sample Feedback Screen ................................ ................................ .......... 66 Figure 7.1 Av erage Reaction Time ................................ ................................ .............. 72 Figure 7.2 Average Braking Distance ................................ ................................ .......... 73 Figure 7. 3 Sample Steering Data (Group 1, Participant 1, Lane P osition) ..................... 74 Figure 7. 4 Sample Steering Data (Group 1, Participant 1, S peed) ................................ 74 Figure 7. 5 Common Steering Mistakes ................................ ................................ ........ 77 Figure A.1 SSI Power Switch ................................ ................................ ...................... 98 Figure A.2 SSI Power Button ................................ ................................ ...................... 98 Figure A.3 SSI Main Menu ................................ ................................ ......................... 99 Figure A.4 "Other" Screen ................................ ................................ ........................... 99 Figure A.5 SSI Maintenance Screen ................................ ................................ .......... 100 Figure A.6 SSI Calibration Screen ................................ ................................ ............. 100

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xi Figure A.7 SSI Brake Calibration Screen 1 ................................ ................................ 101 Figure A.8 SSI Brake Calibration Screen 2 ................................ ................................ 101 Figure A.9 SSI Brake Calibration Screen 3 ................................ ................................ 102 Figure A.10 SSI Main Menu Return Screen ................................ ............................... 102 Figure A.11 SSI Evaluation of Physical Capacities Screen ................................ ........ 103 Figure A.12 SSI Motor Skills Screen ................................ ................................ ......... 103 Figure A. 13 SSI Reaction Time Test Screen ................................ .............................. 104 Figure A.14 SSI Behavioral Evaluation with Measurement Screen ............................ 104 Figure A.15 SSI Practice Driving Screen ................................ ................................ ... 105 Figure A.16 SSI City Routes Screen ................................ ................................ .......... 106 Figure A.17 AEVIT Vehicle Simulator OFF position ................................ ................ 107 Figure A.18 AEVIT Simulator Module ON Position ................................ ................. 108 Figure A.19 AEVIT Information Center O FF Switch ................................ ................ 108 Fi gure B.1 Traffic Collision ................................ ................................ ....................... 111 Figure B.2 Dan gerous Intersection Crossing ................................ .............................. 111 Figu re B.3 Speeding Infraction ................................ ................................ .................. 112 Figure B 4 Improper Lane Position ................................ ................................ ............ 112

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xii Figure B. 5 Inadequate Space Cushion ................................ ................................ ....... 112 Fig ure B.6 Turn Signal Missed ................................ ................................ .................. 112 Figure C.1 Steering Results, Participant 1 ................................ ................................ .. 134 Figure C.2 Speed Results, Participant 1 ................................ ................................ .... 134 Figure C.3 Steering Results, Participant 2 ................................ ................................ .. 135 Figure C.4 Speed Results, Participant 2 ................................ ................................ ..... 135 Figure C.5 Steering Results, Participant 3 ................................ ................................ .. 136 Figure C.6 Speed Results, Participant 3 ................................ ................................ ..... 136 Figure C.7 Steering Results, Participant 4 ................................ ................................ .. 137 Figure C.8 Speed Results, Participant 4 ................................ ................................ ..... 137 Figure C. 9 Steering Results, Participant 5 ................................ ................................ .. 138 Figure C. 10 Speed Results, Participant 5 ................................ ................................ ... 138 Figure C.11 Steering Results, Participant 6 ................................ ................................ 139 Figure C.12 Speed Results, Participant 6 ................................ ................................ ... 139 Figure C.13 Steering Results, Participant 7 ................................ ................................ 140 Figure C.14 Speed Results, Participant 7 ................................ ................................ ... 140 Figure C. 15 Steering Results, Participant 8 ................................ ................................ 1 41

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xiii Figure C. 16 Speed Results, Participant 8 ................................ ................................ ... 141 Figure C.17 Steering Results, Participant 9 ................................ ................................ 14 2 Figure C. 18 Speed Results, Participant 9 ................................ ................................ ... 14 2 Figure C.19 Steering Results, Participant 10 ................................ .............................. 14 3 Figure C. 20 Speed Results, Participant 10 ................................ ................................ 14 3 Figure C. 21 Steering Results, Participant 11 ................................ .............................. 14 4 Figure C.2 2 Speed Results, Participant 11 ................................ ................................ 14 4 Figure C.23 Steering Results, Participant 12 ................................ .............................. 14 5 Figure C.24 Speed Results, Participant 12 ................................ ................................ 14 5 Figure C.25 Steering Results, Participant 13 ................................ .............................. 14 6 Figure C.26 Speed Results, Participant 13 ................................ ................................ 14 6 Figure C.27 Steering Results, Participant 14 ................................ .............................. 14 7 Figure C.28 Speed Results, Participant 14 ................................ ................................ 14 7 Figure C.29 Steering Results, Participant 15 ................................ .............................. 14 8 Figure C.30 Speed R esults, Participant 15 ................................ ................................ 14 8 Figure C.31 Steering Results, Participant 16 ................................ .............................. 14 9 Figure C.32 Speed Results, Participant 16 ................................ ................................ 14 9

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xiv Figure C.33 Steering Results, Participant 17 ................................ .............................. 150 Figure C.34 Speed Results, Participant 17 ................................ ................................ 150 Figure C.35 Steering Results, Participant 18 ................................ .............................. 15 1 Figure C.36 Speed Results, Participant 18 ................................ ................................ 15 1 Figure C.37 Steering Results, Participant 19 ................................ .............................. 15 2 Figure C.38 Speed Results, Participant 19 ................................ ................................ 15 2 Figure C.39 Steering Results, Participant 20 ................................ .............................. 15 3 Figure C.40 Speed Results, Participant 20 ................................ ................................ 15 3 Figure C.41 Steering Results, Participant 21 ................................ .............................. 15 4 Figure C.42 Speed Results, Participant 21 ................................ ................................ 15 4 Figure C.43 Steering Results, Participant 22 ................................ .............................. 1 55 Figure C.44 Speed Results, Participant 22 ................................ ................................ 1 55 Figure C.45 Steering Results, Partici pant 23 ................................ .............................. 156 Figure C.46 Speed Results, Participant 23 ................................ ................................ 156 Figure C.47 Steering Results, Participant 24 ................................ .............................. 157 Figure C.48 Speed Results, Participant 24 ................................ ................................ 157 Figure C.49 Steering Results, Participant 25 ................................ .............................. 158

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xv Figure C.50 Speed Results, Participant 25 ................................ ................................ 158 Figure C.51 Steering Results, Participant 26 ................................ .............................. 159 Figure C.52 Speed Results, Participant 26 ................................ ................................ 159 Figure C.53 Steering Results, Participant 27 ................................ .............................. 160 Figure C.54 Speed Results, Participant 27 ................................ ................................ 160 Figure C.55 Steering Results, Participant 28 ................................ .............................. 161 Fig ure C.56 Speed Results, Participant 28 ................................ ................................ 161 Figure C.57 Steering Results, Participant 29 ................................ .............................. 162 Figure C.58 Speed Results, Participant 29 ................................ ................................ 162 Figure C.59 Steering Results, Participant 30 ................................ .............................. 163 Figure C.60 Speed Results, Participant 30 ................................ ................................ 163 Figure D.1 SSI/AEVIT Integration ................................ ................................ ............ 166 Figure D.2 Controller Switch Trace Diagram ................................ ............................ 167

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xvi Testing and Evaluation of a Novel Virtual Reality Integrated Adaptive Driving System Matthew R. Fowler ABSTRACT Virtual simulators have proven to be extremely effective tools for training individuals for tasks that might otherwise be cost prohibitive, dangerous, or impractical. One advantage of using a virtual simulator is that it provides a safe environment for eme rgency scenarios. For many years the United States military and NASA have used simulators, including those affixed with drive by wire (DBW) controls, effectively and efficiently to train subjects in a variety of ways. A DBW system utilizes electrical circ uits to actuate servo motors from a given input signal to achieve a desired output. In DBW systems the output is not directly mechanically connected to a control surface (steering, acceleration, deceleration, etc.); usually, the input controller is linked by electrical wires to a localized servo motor where direct control can be given. This project is aimed at developing a novel simulator for a future training program using DBW systems that caters specifically to individuals who currently use or will be u sing for the first time vehicle modifications in order to drive and maintain their independence. Many of these individuals use one or a combination of powered steering, acceleration, braking, or secondary DBW controls to drive. The simulator integrates a virtual training environment and advanced electronic vehicle interface technology (AEVIT) DBW controls (4 way joystick, gas brake lever/small zero effort steering wheel)

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xvii In a 30 participant study of three groups (able bodied individuals, elderly individu als, and individuals with disability), i t was found that training with a DBW joystick steering system will require more instruction and simulator practice time than a gas brake lever/small steering wheel combination (GB/S) to obtain a similar level of comp etency. Drivers using the joystick completed predetermined driving courses in longer times at slower speeds with more errors than the other DBW system. On average, the reaction time to a stopping signal was fastest with the gas brake lever at 0.54 seconds. Reaction times for the standard vehicle controls and the joystick were 0.741 and 0.677 seconds respectively. It was noted that r eaction times using DBW controls were shorter overall When driving in traffic, drivers committed 4.9, 5.1, and 8.3 driving infractions per minute using standard vehicle controls (No Drive by Wire, ( NDBW) ) the gas/brake and steering system, and joystick system respectively. Mos t drivers felt that the GB/S system was easier to le arn, easier to operate, safer, and more reliable than the joystick system.

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1 Chapter 1: Overview 1.1 Motivation n their ability to drive. In fact, it is a necessity, being the primary means for going to the store to get groceries, participating in social activities, and maintaining a sense of independence. Most take the privilege of driving for granted and do not t hink twice about how they might get around without a vehicle. However, c ertain individuals with disabilities, particularly those who suffer from a degree of paralysis cannot drive without some form of vehicle modification. For the paraplegic who has full u pper mobility, a vehicle must be modified so that acceleration and braking controls can be utilized by the hands. On the other hand, a quadriplegic, who only has limited mobility in their hands, requires more extensive vehicle modifications in order to dri ve. Once an individual with a disability does have a vehicle fitted with adaptive controls, they must undergo training in order to obtain a new license. This training is organized and conducted by state run Vocational Rehab agencies. Drivers, in the pres ence of an evaluator, practice on road with their new adaptive equipment in order to learn the necessary skills to proficiently drive. The problem is that this instruction is not always on a closed course; rather, it is given in parking lots and less frequ ently used roads where the possibility that traffic will be encountered does exist In the event that

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2 training is conducted on a closed circuit, it is still not entirely a completely controlled environment. There is still a danger that a new driver may lose control of the vehicle while using unfamiliar controls and have an accident. The solution to this problem is to develop a training environment that is safe, controlled, and easy t o access for those who might require it A driving simulator can offer all of these aspects. At the same time, it can be tailored to meet each individual s unique needs. A number of studies have developed driving simulators that can be used for rehabilitat ion and training for stroke victims who use either the right or left side of their body for control. H owever, to the all have excluded individuals who require Drive By Wire (DBW) controls to maintain their driving independe nce. DBW controls electronically link input and output devices in vehicles whereas mechanical controls link interfaces to terminal devices. In most cases, the studies require that individuals to have the ability to use both hands and feet. The thesis topi cs include the background and history of simulation technology, simulator use for therapy and training purposes assistive devices for vehicles DBW simulator design, a participant study, results, conclusions, and ideas for future work. Chapter 2 gives the reader an overview of simulator technology and describes the current state of the art. Chapter 3 describes the need for simulators for safe training while outlining the limitations of recent studies. Chapter 4 includes an overview of assistive devices (pr imary and secondary controls, orthotic devices, lift, etc.) that persons with disability commonly use during driving tasks. Chapters 5 and 6 detail the integration of DBW systems and a standard driver training simulator and an investigation of

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3 performance of individuals using the setup, including testing method s Chapters 7 and 8 discuss the results of the human subject tests and the conclusion s that can be drawn from the data. Furthe r more, chapter 9 elaborates on how the simulator can be enhanced to facili tate the development an effective training program. Ideas for future research are also mentioned. 1.2 Research Objective As previously mentioned there are currently no driving simulators with DBW controls in use for training individuals with disabilities or for the elderly population. The objective of this thesis is to develop the framework for a novel driver training simulator that can be easily utilized to meet the need s of those individuals and develop the state of the art of the vehicle modification and training industry This new idea for an integrated DBW simulator will give persons with disabilities the necessary extensive training before actually using the ro adways and reduce the cost of their training. Vehicle modifications encompass a vast number of different controls and adaptations including mechanical and electromechanical controls This study does not include the integration of adaptive mechanical contr ols Mechanical controls in this study are limited to the s tandard gas and brake pedals, and steering wheel found on all vehicles Adaptive equipment is limited to DBW controls (4 way joystick, gas brake lever/small zero effort steering wheel) and some att ached orthotic devices. This paper will seek to address the current issues related to vehicle modifications and DBW controls. Furthermore the following questions are to be studied after human subject testing of 30 individuals :

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4 1. What are the differences in performance among different user groups? 2. What are the differences in performance among different driving systems? 3. What is the difference in the learning curve among groups? 4. Is there a difference in safe driving practices using DBW controls versus standard equipment? 5. How do users perceive the use of the adaptive driving systems? 6. In what areas can adaptive driving equipment help those without a disability or the elderly? The objectives include: 1. Set up a working virtual reality simulator with DBW controls (AEVIT joystick, AEVIT gas/brake lever with small steering wheel) 2. Test the systems 3. Conduct a participant study 4. Determine relationships and trends

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5 Chapter 2 : Background The Air Force trains pilots to deal with aircraft malfunctions, vehicle control, and combat situations before placing them in multi million dollar aircraft. Navy officers are trained to maneuver large vessels safely and NASA astronauts practice missions and procedures to perfection all with out the risk of human safety or equipment damage. It is evident that any number of these activities would be impractical and unsafe to practice in a real environment. 2.1 History of Simulators The use of simulators dates back to the early 20 th century as a direct result of the n aeronautics. In 1929, the cost of flying was relatively high and out of the reach of most Americans. Edwin Albert Link (Figure 2.1) a young man with a burning desire to fly was one of these Americans who did not have the financial means to fly. For a year and a half, he worked on the development of a simulator that would emulate the sense of flying.

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6 Figure 2.1 Albert E. Link, Simulator Pioneer [1] Albert finally built the Link Trai ner (Figure 2.2) which is often referred to as the Blue Box. Being an organ maker by trade, he had extensive knowledge of pumps and was able to implement working dials and gauges in his design. The Trainer looked like a miniature version of an aircraft, ha ving short, stubby wings and a fuselage large enough for a grown man to sit in. The fuselage was mounted via a universal joint which allows for the simulat ion of pitch and roll Each axis was independently adjustable; the model could be lifted and lowered via a bellows system similar to those found in organs [2]. The Link Trainer bellows movement was driven by an electric pump that was coordinated (Figure 2.3) The design was awarded a patent in 1934 [3]

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7 Figure 2.2 Link Trainer S ometimes C [4] Figure 2. 3 Bellows System in the B ase P latform of a Link Trainer [5] While the first Blue Box trainers were built and sold as amusement rides for parks, t

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8 interest and purchased six for a price of $3500 each in 1934 [1]. The Army Air Corps intended to use the simulators to train their pilots to fly in hazardous conditions (night, flog, etc.). Subsequently, thousands of units were produced and used by over half a million airmen in countries around the globe and b y the end of World War II, nearly every pilot from every branch of the military had logged some time in a Link T ra iner [3]. Although advanced high fidelity simulators, it only simulated the sensation of motion accompanied with realistic controls and working gauges In order to effectively train individuals in a simulator, the environment must be able simulate a variety of configurations, something the Link trainer could not easily do. While some models had an opaque canopy for simulating night flight navigation via instrumentation only, it was unable to visually simulate rain, snow, or other inclement weather condition. This was not available until the integration of virtual reality in simulators. 2.2 History of Virtual Reality The idea that v irtual data could be output on a display screen such that information could be easily seen and comprehended by a viewer was first proposed by a Navy radar technician and electrical engineer by the name of Douglas Engelbart (Figure 2.4) Before his ideas and the subsequent invention of a graphical user interface (GUI ), large room sized com puters delivered data via strings of numbers in an enigmatic language that was only readable by those well versed in programming. Engelbart hypothesized that if a person could interact and manipulate computers, it would change the way people viewed and use d them. Indeed, he was right.

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9 Figure 2.4 Douglas Engelbart [6] Virtual simulators, essentially, are simply graphical user interfaces that incorporate a means of modifying the virtual environment in the form of a controller. Y position developed in 1964 and patented six years later (Figure 2.5) The device consisted of a small woode n shell in which two small wheels (one for the x position and one for the y position) contact ed the flat surface on which the mouse was placed. As an individual moved the mouse, the wheels would roll and change th e position of the cursor on the display. With its development, the user could now interact with the display and react to t he information being delivered, paving the way for advanced controllers and interfaces that are used today [8]

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10 Figure 2.5 Engelb art's Contribution to V irtual R eality, the GUI [7] and the M ouse [8] 2 .3 Enhanced Presence in Simulators research. The combination of a dynamic platform and a graphical user int erface used in conjunction with a manipulative controller give subjects an enhanced presence in simulators. The goal of simulator design is to make the unreal environment seem as if it was real In order for enhanced presence in a virtual environment (VE) to occur, two aspects must exist: involvement and immersion [9]. Witmer and Singer define involvement as the degree in which a person focuses on a given task. Focus can be divided by a preoccupation with other thoughts and distractions. However, as a user of a VE focuses on the stimuli of the simulator, their involvement increases. This is affected by the ability of the virtual environment to has a high degree of involv ement is a video game. The game is entertaining, interesting,

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11 and often includes some sort of plot that encourages the user to maintain focus so that one can advance in the game. Secondly, there must be immersion. According to Witmer and Singer, the video game gives a high degree of involvement but does little to immerse the user in the environment. sensory data from the surrounding environment. Many simulators often are in enclosed spaces. This effectively forces the user to get a sense of presence from the virtual environment only. A person who is ideally immersed in a virtual environment will feel as if th ey are moving with the simulated environment and not apart from it [9] Table 2 1 list s and briefly describes factors influencing enhanced presence. Table 2.1 Factors Affecting Enhanced Presence [9] Control Factors Degree of control Immediacy of control Anticipation of events Mode of control Physical environment modifiability Sensory Factors Sensory modality Environmental richness Multimodal presentation Consistency of multimodal presentation Degree of movement perception Active search Realism Factors Scene realism Information consistency with objective world Meaningfulness of experience Separation anxiety/disorientation Distraction Factors Isolation Selective attention Interface awareness

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12 One of the earliest known simulators to integrate immersion and involvement to obtain presence was developed by Morton Heilig in 195 6 The simulator had a short 10 minute video (visual) of a motorcycle ride through New York city in which users were subjected to urban smells (olfactory) traffic noises (auditory) and vibrations (tactile) from the seat on which they sat [10] This technique is called multimodal presentation (affecting mult iple senses) and is one of the sensory factors proposed by Witmer and Singer. Despite the multimodal presentation, the Sensorama (Figure 2.6) does not allow the user to interact with the environment Figure 2 .6 Heilig's Sensorama [1 0 ]

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13 2.4 Current Resea rch 2.4.1 Dynamic Traffic Behavior Furthermore, enhanced presence is increased by scene realism. In driving simulators, a dynamic traffic program allows users to experience real world driving scenarios in that ambient traffic behaves very similarly to the real world, thus, increasing scene realism. Recent research by Wright (University of Leeds), Leeds (University of Minnesota), and Cohn (University of Leeds) argues that for simulators to be most developed. This can be attained by implementing autonomous traffic with varying personalities. The ir hypothesis was backed by a participant study that concluded that a more natural traffic behavior contributes significantly to the realism of driving within a virtual environment. Since driving simulators are being used more often for safely training, testing in vehicle systems, and evaluation of driver behavior, there is a need for enhanced realism in order for results to be valid and relevant to real world scenarios. Currently, autonomous vehicle traffic is made of two parts: ambient and event driven. Event driven traffic is design ed to react to a specific scenario introduced by the user. For instance, if a person approaches a stop sign at an intersection, another vehicle might run the stop sign and force the user to react to avoid a collision. Secondly, the ambient traffic serves to disguise event driven vehicle and create the feeling of a busy roadway. A driving experience is directly enhanced by a bette r ambient traffic behavior [13]

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14 2. 4 2 National Advanced Driving Simulator and immersive driving simulators. The National Advanced Driving Simulator (NASD) (Figure 2.7) funded by the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration, presence in that it can provide very realistic motion in the virtual environment while delivering high fidelity sounds in a vehicle cabin among other features Figure 2.7 National Advanced Driving Simulator [1 1 ] The NASD 1 has 13 degrees of freedom and can reproduce accelerations similar to those experienced in the real world under a variety of scenarios. During turning and stopping tasks, driver s experience the greatest forces due to change in velocity. The NADS 1 is capable of delivering the motions that simulate these resulting accelerations. Moreover, the 360 degree view further immerse s the subject in the virtual environment and make s training for lane changing and checking of blind spots possible. The NADS 1 is able to accept a number of different vehicle designs ; a variety of full size vehicle shells

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15 can be inserted into the simulator Trucks and cars respond to user inputs differently and therefore require differing responses from the simulator for an acc urate simulated control response. This is achievable by the flexibility of a programmable response curve for each type of vehicle [1 1 ] 2. 4 3 Low Cost Mechanical Driving Simulator The NADS simulator is highly effective in that it gives users enhanced prese nce. However, its equipment that provides its high fidelity is extremely expensive At the same time, a large facility is required to house the simulator The cost prevents it from being produced in any quantity and therefore limits public access for training. This is the case with most modern dynamic simulators and the reason that static simulators are much more common despite being much less effective All s imulators that are mounted to a dynamic platform utilize the same basic concept. By adju sting the pitch or roll in any direction, the sensation of movement is created. This sensation is detected in the cues. In simulators, the same feeling of movement can be achi eved by tilting a seat so that the acceleration due to gravity creates the sense of change in velocity assuming that the rotation rate of tilt is low Even though the motion is rotational, the human body feels as if there is translational motion, especiall y if a simulated virtual environment shows translational motion while bl ocking all external references The limitation is that acceleration equal to gravity is the maximum achievable by this technique. Acceleration higher than gravity can be established on ly by a translational acceleration

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16 This method was implemented by researchers at the Politecnico de Milano in Milano, Italy. Their goal was to create a low cost dynamic driving simulator (Figure 2.8) so that rehabilitation centers and other training site s could afford to have a realistic ground vehicle driving simulator. The simulator has four degrees of freedom (rotation ab out x, y, z and translation in x ). The simulator is mounted on a track and can be accelerated so that acceleration higher than gravit y is possible. Additionally, simulated translation along the x axis (forward/rearward) is obtained by small rotations about the y axis. In contrast, simulated translation along the y axis (left/right) is simulated by rotation about the x axis. Simul ated t ranslation in the z axis (vertical) is impo s sib le since acceleration due to gravity already at a maximum. Their results showed that perceived translation s in x and y are possible but z is more difficult to obtain [12] Figure 2.8 Low cost Simulator [12]

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17 Chapter 3 : Simulators Used for Therapy and Training Simulators have long been implemented for training and have more recently for therapy. The military trains pilots and war fighters using simulators for task s that might be very dangerous, expensive or impossible in the real world. For example, a pilot could be trained to deal safely with the loss of propulsive power in a virtual environment. In an actual aircraft, the test could potentially be life endangering. Furthermore, a so lider could be trained to escape a vehicle after roll over under varying conditions while his performance is recorded (Figure 3.1) Figure 3 .1 Army Humvee Roll Over Simulator [14] After training, the results can be used to further education. The United States is aware of cases in which this type of repetitive simulated muscle memory training has save d lives [15].

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18 3.1 Review of Simulator Based Therapy I nherent ly, driving simulators are effective and useful tools for training individuals. They model driving behavior and performance. Naturally, they are being used for stroke victims. Researchers at Stanford University have researched methods of therapy for persons who suffer from brain damage from stroke using driving simulators for steering tasks. Before their work, the intent of simulator design was to determine how the use of drugs and alcohol impaired driving ability and decision making. Their split wheel design studies the limitations of individuals with impaired upper mobility as a resu lt of head injury or stroke and supports the use of simulators for therapy By adding simple task to a driving scene, in addition to sensory feedback steer a Therapy (SEAT) (Figure 3.2) The steering wheel consists of a direct drive motor attached to a split steering wheel and an assortment of force sensors. This allows the researchers to determine how a subject uses both arms in steering wheel control. Persons with upper arm limitations, particularly stroke victims, will use the unaffected arm to both pull and push the steering wheel. This habit can be monitored with the use of the SE AT because the steering split steering wheel was capable of measuring forces on each side.

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19 Figure 3.2 Split Wheel Design [1 6 ] For testing, vehicle speed remained a t a fixed constant, which eliminated the need for the subject to have to control acceler ation and braking. In the same way a steering wheel controls lane position of a vehicle, the SEAT controlled the lateral position of the vehicle in the virtual environment. Subjects were asked to sit in a wheelchair with their positions on the steering wheel. A steering task designed to encourage the use of the impaired limb was given to the participants Their results document an increased use of the affected limb during the bimanual task [16]. 3.2 Transfer of Training Trainin g in simulators has several obvious advantages over training in the real world, but it is also important to note that there can be some negative aspects as well. One of the most important aspects of driving simulators is the effectiveness of the transfer of training. Positive transfer of training occurs when simulator training re sults in

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20 the positive improvement in the real world scenario. On the other hand, negative training occurs when performance is degraded as a result of the simulator training. Simulators have proven their validity in the past simply because they a re safer, cheaper, and can train users for simple tasks where the environment and parameters of the task can easily be controlled Benjamin Bollmann and Lukas Friedrich, of ETH Zurich, Switzerland, developed a series of tests to determine how training in a VE affect ed performance in the real world. Three groups with different levels of training were established: no training, real world training, and VE training. Study participants were asked to complete three task s to test their motor skills and one to understand the usefulness of simulator training for cognitive tasks. Their results varied wid ely from one group to the other, h owever, those who were trained in a V E and in the real world performed better than those who received no training at all. This result was ex pected. However, it was also noted that, if the subject was given some sort of distracting interference during a motor skills oriented task in the real world, those who trained in the virtual environment performed better than those with real world training The researchers concluded that this was due to the fact that VE trainees had to develop their motor skills without the benefit from any form of haptic feedback. Therefore, their increased performance was directly related to muscle memory without any sens ory. T heir cognitive ability was free to deal with the interference Furthermore, since the virtual environment does not have haptic feedback it becomes more diff icult to accurately complete tasks, and the training model becomes more effective [17]

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21 These findings are important and relevant to driving simulator training in that often drivers in the real world experience a significant number of distractions even over short durations. A driver might have passengers who are talking, make adjustments to the ra dio or climate controls, or even answer telephone calls. These all represent major and to continue driving safely. 3.3 Evaluation of Driving Performance One of th e current limitations of training in driving simulators is that there is not a standard for evaluation of driver performance Presently, a driver must test at a local branch of the Department of Motor Vehicles with an evaluator. The driving privilege allow s individuals to maintain their independence and is critical in order to have a sense of self sufficiency. Often times, those who have a traumatic brain injury or an acquired brain injury are limited and even precluded from rejoining the workforce because their license must be reinstated before legally being able to drive again In order for individuals who have brain injury to regain their driving freedom, they are subjected to qualitative tests behind the wheel of a vehicle. The use of a virtual reality driving simulator would provide an objective and qualitative assessment of driving capability [18] A recent study uses driving performance related to a stopping (stop sign) task in a simulator to compare the performance of adult drivers who do and do no t have a brain injury. They found that a virtual reality simulator can, in fact, be used to determine an

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22 acceptable set of objective qualifications to evaluate the driving ability of a person with an acquired brain injury. Before th is research study, most driving research was aimed the evaluation of healthy individuals. The same is true for research on driving accidents. There is a scarcity of research on the accident and circumstances related to those accidents involving persons with disabilities, particu larly those with acquired brain injury. These studies are necessary because they are the basis that governing bodies use to modify and ratify new traffic laws to promote safety and minimize deaths [1 8 ] Furthermore, The U.S. D epartment of Transportation s tudied the causes of fatal traffic crashed and determined that the likelihood of being involved in a fatal traffic accident at an intersection controlled by a stop sign is 2.5 times as likely than at an intersection controlled by a light [1 9 ] On the other hand, there have been no studies on the driving violations and traffic accidents caused by those with brain injury. A person driving uses a complex integration of the senses to safely maneuver. However, this can be difficult for those who have an acquire d brain injury. The clinical or subjective. Virtual reality simulators eliminate these errors by providing a realistic driving scene removed from subjectivity and e nhanced by the ability to repeatedly assign tasks in a safe environment. In the study, performance is determined by vehicle speed, lane use, traffic signal response, and a few other parameters [1 8 ] The specific task studied related to stopping at an intersection which was controlled by a stop sign. Fifteen persons with acquired brain

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23 injuries were compared against 9 healthy individual control subjects. The persons with disability and the healthy controls were matched on the basis of driving experience and age. The study did not, however, include persons who required the use of assistive driving devices. The ir vir tual reality driving simulator consists of a software and hardware portion. Steering is controlled by a steering wheel and a gas/brake foot p edal. The virtual environment is displayed on a desktop computer display. The system integrates forced feedback to make the experience more realistic. The software was custom design ed and included situations that a driver might encounter on a regular basis within the real driving world. The simulated route is approximately 1 mile long and included a number of stop signs. For every .2 second interval, data was collected on the speed, deviation from the center of the lane, distance to stop sign, and turn angl e. The stopping zone in which data was analyzed was plus and minus 25 feet of the stop sign. This zone is established by the DMV in NJ and NY. During the task a driver stopped fully if their vehicle speed reached 0 mph. They also were evaluated by the amou nt of time that they spent, fully stopped at the sign, and by approaching and departing speeds. Overall, those with acquired brain injury were more likely to not stop, stop over a longer distance, and remain stopped at the sign for shorter lengths of time. Approaching and departing speeds were similar to the Nevertheless, both of the groups were able to show a marked pattern of improvement from repeated exposure to the tests. This shows that the simulator can be used as an effective tool for rehabilitation and the consequent need for an evaluative

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24 standard Great gains were shown over a relatively short period of time. The sample size was too small to justify establishing guidelines for driving rehabilitation and clinical va lidity of using virtual simulators for training, but shows the need for improved research on the topic [1 9 ] The information from this study is helpful for the creation of driver simulator training program for this study despite the lack of concrete guidel ines.

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25 Chapter 4: Assistive Devices in Vehicles Persons with a disability often time s require some sort of vehicle modification or installation of adaptive equipment. This may include the installation of ramps lowered floors, transmission controls for gear selection, hand or foot controls, or even voice activated controls. Depending on the degree of the disability, extensive changes may be necessary. It is somewhat common for powered wheelchair users to have l owered floors in their vehicles. Someone with diabetes may only need a form of mechanical hand controls due to their lack of sensation in lower limbs as a result of poor circulation Whatever the need is, drivers with disabilities require evaluation by a s tate appointed based on both physical and cognitive ability and writes a prescription for the necessary equipment and vehicle modifications [20] Once a vehicle has bee n properly modified by a certified National Mobility Equipment Dealers Association (NMEDA) business, the driver must essentially go through a basic driver training course with the driver rehabilitation specialist [20]. This training is organized by the eac these vehicle modifications and the subsequent training are rather costly.

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26 4.1 Types of Chairs and Securements Many individuals who have a disability use a wheelchair to maintain their independence Wheelc hair design is broad category including many types and styles Figure 4.1 shows a few: manual chairs (a) powered wheelchairs (b) specialized chairs for athletic activities (c), and scooters (d) Chair s typically include a form of se curement device so that the chair can be safely locked in place in a vehicle. Figure 4.1 Types of Wheelchairs [22], [23] In fact, the American Disabilities Act has several requirements for modified vans and public transportation vehicle. All vehicles regardless of size must have at least one two part device for securing chairs; one device must secure the chair while a shoulder (a) (b) (c) (d)

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27 and lap belt must secure the user Vehicles over 22 feet in length must have at least two of these systems [21]. Figure 4 .2 EZ Lock Securement System [2 4 ] (a) Locking bracket on bottom of powered chair (b) EZ Lock docking base Figure 4 .3 Anchoring Strap [25] The EZ lock system (Figure 4.2) is a very convenient method for securing necessary for a person to drive the wheelchair into the base. This motion causes the base to latch onto the bracket and lock the chair in place. Some models can be unlatched (a) (b)

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28 remotely via an electronic switch. There is also a cable operated backup system. This system is more costly than the strapping method seen in F igure 4.3. In contrast, a second party must secure the chair for the individual, making it less convenient. In order for the chair to properly be secured, more than one strap must be implemented. In an effort to ensure safety for vehicle occupants the Americans with Disabilities Act requires that [25] : 1. 2. The occupant must be secured so that he or she is forward or rearwar d facing. 3. Each securement (EZ Lock, strap, etc.) must be capable of withstanding a tensile force of at least 2,500 lbs so that the chair does not move more than 4. A lap and shoulder belt must be available for the rider to wear 4.2 Vehicle Modifications Ramps, and Lifts In some cases, drivers who use manual chairs and have a high degree of mobility can transfer into a vehicle and then load the chair into the seat behind. Others, especially those using heavy chairs require lift s and/or lowered floors. Minivans are the most popular vehicle for modification. They are smaller than full sized vans but are still large enough for an individual to drive a wheelchair into while seated therein Minivans need to be equipped with a lowered floor. This allows a user to easily drive a chair into the van via a side opening ramp (Figure 4.4) without hitting his or her head on the ceiling

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29 Middle seats are removed to allow for extra room. Rear access ramps are also available but these are more s uited for wheelchair bound passengers. One disadvantage of a lowered minivan floor is that a driver must take extra care on uneven surfaces. Speed bumps are common causes of damage. If a person with a disability chooses to modify a full sized van lift is n ecessary as the floor height is too high for a ramp. Side lifts and ramps require extra room in a parking space. Additionally, l ift s and powered ramps can be operated by one person [26] Figure 4.4 Vehicle Modifications (a) Minivan with a ramp and lowered floor [28], (b) Van equipped with a lift [29] 4. 3 Primary Controls Primary controls consist of two major categories: mechanical and drive by wire. Mechanical controls typically cost less than $1000 dollars whereas advanced electronic control systems can cost as much as 70 times that. The nature of primary controls is to allow a driver with a disability to effect the gas or brake and steering wheel. Primary controls may be implement ed in one controller (gas brake/ steering) or can be split into two separate controllers (gas brake and steering) (b) (a)

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30 4. 3 .1 Mechanical Controls Mechanical controls are usually cost effective solutions for individuals who have paraplegia or full upper mobility. According to the National Mobility Equipment Dealers Association, there are four types of hand controls for acceleration and braking (push pull, twist p ush, push rock, and right angle push). Mechanical controls are advantageous in ve the vehicle. Pedal extensions and portable controls (used for rental cars by users with good upper body strength) are some other forms of primary mechanical controls [30] Figure 4.5 show s some examples of mechanical controls. Figure 4.5 Examples of M echanical Controls (a) Right angle push acceleration braking control [ 31 ], (b) Left foot accelerator control [ 32 ] 4. 3 .2 Drive by Wire Control s Drive by wire controls are far more expensive than mechanical controls and are only installed in a vehicle when absolutely necessary. This type of equipment is best suited for individuals with tetraplesia or extremely limited mobility in all limbs. A drive (a) (b)

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31 by wire device or electronic control uses electrical power produced b y the vehicle to affect an actuator such as a servo and give a desired motion based on the Typically, the control reduces the necessary input force by approximately 40% or 70%; it is termed as a mobility equipment industry. Furthermore, necessary length of travel for full operation is generally reduced to a few inches [33] The majority of drivers using electronic controls have the ability to use both arms for vehicle control. Depending on the u steering controller while the other will operate a gas brake controller. Gas and b rake control is typically a lever type interface in which the operator pushes in one direction for acceleration and the other for braking. Steering can be accomplished via a remotely located miniature steering wheel. In the event that a driver does not have full use of both arms, the two separate controls can be integrated into one. Currently there are two styles of one handed contro l; the tri pin or joystick one handed driving system ( Figure 4.6 ) [33 ]. Figure 4.6 Type of One Handed Steering Devic e [34]

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32 4. 4 Secondary Controls Adaptive equipment not related to accelerating, braking, or steering the vehicle is considered a secondary control. Some secondary controls are absolutely necessary for the proper function of the vehicle while other operate vehicle accessories These include: remote transmission shifting units, EZ Lock disengagement controls, climate control, remote i gnition, airbag switch, interior and exterior lights, powered parking brakes, signaling devices, horn, etc. [30]. Some mobility equipment dealers offer integrated control interfaces in the form of a button activated or touch screen display (Figure 4.7) Figure 4.7 AEVIT Secondary Control Unit [35] 4. 5 Orthotic Devices Some individuals are unable to safely utilize adaptive equipment without a specialized attachment. For this reason mobility equipment dealers offer several types of

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33 orthotic attachment s to suit a variety of needs. Often times, a user lacks manual dexterity and is unable to firmly and securely grasp the control. In this case, a tri pin attachment can be installed. It allow s an individual to maintain constant control of the steering or acceleration controller. Extension levers, loops, straps, T handles, knobs, and splints are also commonly used [36] (Figure 4.8) Figure 4.8 Some Electronic Mobility Controls Orthotic Attachments [36]

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34 Chapter 5: DBW Simulator Design A person learning a new skill set requires adequate training and instruction in order to master the task and develop pertinent motor skills. The same is true for individuals with newly modified vehicles using adaptive equipment. Simulators offer a safe mean s of providing this training Not only is it advantageous in that the risk associated with driving in a virtual environment is essentially removed but, it provides a means of low cost training as the cost of training with vehicle modification evaluators i s very high. This project is aimed at studying how a simulator can be used for training individuals with disabilities. Typically, persons with a limited range of motion in their hands and feet use electronic or drive by wire (DBW) controls. They will benefit the most from th is simulator. It will allow users to practice safe vehicle control and become proficient drivers before undergoing evaluation with their newly modified vehicles Since drivers with disabilities have few resources of training safely in their vehicles before using public roadways and parking lots, this is a necessary and important tool. The simulator consists of two major components: the SSI (Simulator Systems International) simulator and the AEVIT ( Advanced Electronic Vehicle Interfa ce Technology by Electronic Mobility Controls ) DBW control system. The SSI simulator displays the virtual driving environment. Secondly, the AEVIT system is equipped with

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35 two separate input controller systems : a 4 way joystick and a small steering wheel/ga s brake lever. The signals from the controllers are processed in an input drive module and the signal is then read by a servo motor controller. The steering servo is mechanically linked by a gear set to the original integrated steering column on the SSI si mulator unit. The gas/brake pedals are connected to the servo mo tor through a series of steel cables. 5.1 SSI Simulator The SSI simulator is essentially a Windows based computer that has been built around a steering wheel and column (Fig ure 5.1) A number of the basic function s on a keyed ignition, shift lever, overdrive switch, emergency flashers, windshield wipers, horn, and high beams. Additionally, there are some auxiliary switches. Two lit switches can be activated to indicate to the computer that the seat belt is fastened and the hand brake is applied. The simulator model used in this project was equipped with only one view screen. I n order for a driver to look to the left or right of the windshield or to check right or left blind spots, an associated switch must be flipped and held.

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36 Figure 5.1 SSI Modular Driving Simulator [37] Springs attached to the steering shaft return the s teering wheel to center position whenever a driver releases it. This model s a real car that is in motion. However, if a driver is stopped in the virtual environment, the wheel unrealistically has a tendency to return to center. Acceleration and braking con trols are used with the simulator to control acceleration and braking The pedals are mounted on a weighted base. At rest the pedals are at 65 degree s They are at a 35 degree angle when fully depressed (Figure 5.2) These angles are comparable to real veh icles. There is an option for a third pedal for clutch. It is not used for this project.

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37 Figure 5.2 Range of Motion of Pedals 5.2 AEVIT Control System The AEVIT (Advanced Electronic Vehicle Interface Technology) system is a servomotor control syste m developed by EMC (Electronic Mobility Controls). A single servomotor controls both the gas and brake functions while another separate servomotor controls steering functions. The system is modular in that the contro l l er drive module is capable of acceptin g a variety of controllers. Therefore, the same basic hardware can be used to interface with a joystick, lever, small steering wheel, etc.. The controls are equipped with redundant potentiometers so that controller and servo position can be checked for err ors for safety. Figure 5.3 shows the general system layout.

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38 Figure 5.3 AEVIT System Layout [ 38] The I nformation C enter is the interface that gives important data to the driver. This unit also shows what may be malfunctioning so that the necessary repairs can be made. It is equipped with four buttons labeled Scroll (left or right), Select, and Esc. These are used to naviga te through the menus so that changes can be made to the program and diagnostic reports can be view ed Furthermore, the Esc button can be used to power off the system once the vehicle has been parked and the ignition has been turned off. The Vehicle Inter face module gathers information about the vehicle and adjusts output accordingly. The unit is equipped so that a coil pulse and speed signal can be detected. The coil pulse uses information from the engine (typica l l y from a fuel injector wire) to determine i f the vehicle is running. Secondly, the speed signal relayed to the AEVIT vehicle interface module comes from the power control module on cruise

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39 controlled vehicles [38] The output signal is important to the AEVIT system because the s rotational rate is scaled dependent upon speed. Full left steering input was given from the right steering endstop and the time i t took for full rotation was recorded. The total degrees of rotation where divided by the travel time. Figure 5.4 shows this relationship. As vehicle speed increases between 0 and 25 mph or from 55 to 90 mph, the rate at which the steering wheel rotates is virtually constant. However, between 25 and 55mph, the rate decreases linearly as speed increases. Th is variable steering rate helps prevent oversteer at high speeds and understeer at lower speeds by altering the rate of rotation of the steering servo During testing the AEVIT simulator speed was set to 15 mph, 55 mph, and 40 mph in the city routes, highw ay routes, and all other routes respectively so that the average vehicle speed matched the appropriate steering response. In the future, a system should be designed so that the setting can be dynamic and in accordance with the actual vehicle speed. Figure 5 .4 AEVIT Speed Signal vs. Steering Response 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Rotational Rate (deg/s) Speed (mph) AEVIT Speed Signal vs. Steering Response

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40 Typically, the AEVIT system is connected to an actual running vehicle. However, for this study, hooking up the system to a running vehicle is neither feasible nor possible. For this reason, an AEVIT ve hicle simulator module (Fig. 5.5) is used. This device is able to simulate signals that a vehicle ordinarily would deliver: ignition, coil pulse, speed signal, parking lights, brake lights. It also has a remote off switch. Figure 5 .5 AEVIT Vehicle Sim ulator The Drive Module is the main processing unit to the AEVIT system. Information from the input controller is processed and delivered to the servomotor encoder. Power is also distributed to the rest of the system from the Drive Module Steering and gas brake functions require separate servomotors. Therefore, a vehicle equipped with both steering and gas brake controls, requires two of these modules as each can drive only one servomotor. The Drive Module contains four processors; EMC divides the unit into two sides with each side having an active and back processors are used is to safely allow a single processor to reset itself while the system remains in operation. Each time the system is shut down and booted up aga in, the system will switch to the other side for main control [38]

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41 5.3 Input Device s The AEVIT system can accept a wide variety of input devices making it versatile for a number of users. For persons with very little strength and limited range of motio n, the 4 way joystick can be used. Whereas the person with a greater range of motion and strength might be prescribed a combination of two controllers (2 way joysticks, small steering wheel, gas brake levers). All AEVIT controllers have redundant safety d evices. When the system is activated, each controller uses three potentiometers to determine controller position. When these values do not match an error is recorded. In the event that one potentiometer fails, an audible alarm sounds but the syst e m continu es to operate uninterrupted. This project utilizes both a gas brake lever/small steering wheel combination and a 4 way joystick during human subject testing 5. 3 .1 Gas Brake Lever A gas brake lever (Fig. 5.6) is an input device that controls the gas and brake functions. It operates about a single axis having a throw of about five inches Using the information center, the lever can be setup so that the acceleration direction can be either forwards or rearwards As a person pushes the lever forward the resistance increase s linearly, returning to center whenever no force is applied. Internally, on each side of the lever is an oil filled shock that can be adjusted using tension clips. Since each side can be adjus ted separately, the force required for forward and rearward action can be different [38]. Typical orthotic devices attached to the lever include a T handle, splint, and tri pin.

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42 Figure 5. 6 AEVIT Gas Brake Lever 5. 3 .2 Digital Steering Wheel The digit al steering wheel (Fig.5.7) i s a small zero effort steering controller. The reduced diameter, 6 inches, is ideal for individuals with limited range of motion in the hand. Full range of rotation is 6.875 turns. According to EMC, this is one of the most popular steering devices installed in modified vehicles due to its ease of use [38] Intuitively, as a driver rotates the AEVIT wheel in the counterclockwise direction, the steering wheel rotates in the sa me direction, causing the vehicle to steer left. Moreover, a rotation in the clockwise direction causes the vehicle to steer right. Spinning orthotic devices such as a swiveling tri pin, rotating pin, or spinner knob (Fig. 5.8) are commonly implemented. Figure 5. 7 AEVIT Digital Steering Wheel

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43 Figure 5. 8 Attached Orthotic Device 5. 3 .3 4 Way Joystick For individuals with disabilities who have very little strength, range of motion, or use of only one hand, a joystick (Fig. 5.9) is typically prescribed. The 4 way joystick is considered a zero effort device, combining gas, brake, and steering functions in one controller Although it is not adjustable, the effort to move the joystick through its full range of travel is approximatel y 4 to 6 ounces of force [38]. Figure 5. 9 AEVIT 4 Way Joystick This device, like the gas brake lever, can be programmed so that the gas and brake directions (forward or rearward) can be reversed. Left or right steering motion of the vehicle is achieved by pushing the joystick left or right respectively. Adequate vehic le control is somewhat more difficult to maintain with the joystick. The driver must be able to independently control one function from the other. This requires well developed motor skills. For example, as a driver is making a turn he or she is required t o decelerate to a safe cornering speed and then accelerate the vehicle halfway through the turn. With the

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44 joystick, this action must be carried out while the appropriate angle to the left or right is held constant Furthermore, the joystick has a three c ontrol band s: centering, holding, and motion (Fig 5.10) The total range of motion of the controller is 60 degrees, 30 from each side of the center position. The centering band is activated whenever the joystick position is between 10 degrees of center. After the steering wheel has rotated, a driver can return it to center by holding the joystick within this range. The rate at which it returns to center is linearly proportion ate to the proximity of the center position on the joystick. The closer to center the faster it returns. The motion band is between 15 and 30 degrees from the center position on each side. When the joystick is held in this band, the wheel will rotate and continue to rotate until the endstop on the steering column is reached. As the position of the joystick approaches 30 degrees, the rate of rotation of the wheel increase s linearly. In between the centering and motion bands is a 5 degree holding band, from 10 15 degrees on each side of the center. It is commonly used during extended t urns where the wheel remains at a constant position. As the name suggest, the servomotor, and consequently, the steering wheel do es not move in this band Figure 5.10 Joystick Control Bands [38]

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45 When the driver gives an input command from the joystic k so that the actual steering wheel does not rotate more than 5 degrees from center it remains in what is called the drift band (Fig. 5.11) When the wheel is in this range, returning the joystick to center does not center the steering wheel. The purpos e is to allow the driver to make small alignment corrections without the wheel returning to center. This helps to compensate for wind, a crown in the road, or other factors that might cause a temporary change in the straight ahead center position of the ve hicle. The Drift Band is not retained in memory so as soon as the steering wheel rotates past the 5 degree mark in either direction, the steering wheel will return to its original center position when the joystick returns to center [39] Figure 5.11 S teering Wheel Drift Band [38] 5. 4 AEVIT Controller Switch During the course of this research study, it was necessary to change between different control systems. In order to do this, each controller had to be unplugged from the drive module and replaced with the next system of input devices. Each system has

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46 two controller plugs: one for the gas brake controller and another for the steering controller. The AEVIT sys tem, however, is designed so that these are very difficult to unplug. This prevents the interface from becoming disjointed when in use in a vehicle. Additionally, these wires in the connectors are very delicate and could be damaged from repetitive installa tion and removal. For these reasons, a simple, easy to use switch was proposed and developed by Matt Wills I t was important that it be able to switch between the two systems in one step. Ordinary switches typically can on l y switch between 2 or 4 contacts at a time. The AEVIT controller however has two sets of 12 pin connectors. Therefore, in order to switch between the two control systems a larger switch had to be used. Figure 5.12 AEVIT Controller Switch The AEVIT controller switch utilizes a manua l, two position rotary switch to change between the gas brake/steering controller combination and the 4 way joystick. The separate inputs can be switched to a common output to the AEVIT system that is read by the drive modules The male connectors at the terminal end of each controller plug into the appropriate 12 pin female connector on a printed circuit board Each of the

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47 two systems, have one plug for gas brake and steering. As seen in Figure 5.12, the top view of the printed circuit board shows the lay out of the terminals. The top row is for the gas brake connectors while the lower row holds the steering connectors. The first, second, and third columns hold the joystick inputs, outputs, and gas brake/steering combination inputs respectively. The front f ace of the switch shows that the up position selects the gas brake/steering wheel controls and the lower position selects the joystick controller. All of t he components of the switch are house d in an aluminum enclosure A parts list and printed circuit boa rd trace diagram can be found in Appendix D. Figure 5.1 3 AEVIT Switch Diagrams 5. 5 Simulator AEVIT Control System Integration One of the goals of this research project is to determine the effectiveness of using DBW controls for training individuals with disabilities. For this reas on the SSI simulator and the EMC AEVIT contr ols system had to be integrated. The SSI simulator, unlike a real vehicle has a nearly horizontal steering column and the pedals are simply connected to potentiometers to give the computer acceleration and braking inputs. The steering wheel give s the simulator software data that indicates where the steerin g wheel is at In order for the simulator to work properly, these values must be present and with in expected ranges

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48 Furthermore, when an authorized mobility equipment dealer installs an AEVIT steering servo motor it is linked directly to the steering col umn. This drives the steering wheel but also, more importantly, allows a third party to disengage the servo drive without its complete removal. The study involves the use of both an AEVIT controlled vehicle and a pedal/steering wheel controlled vehicle. Th us, the two systems had to be linked in a similar way; the AEVIT system had to be able to be disengaged without removal. In order for the simulator to provide a more immersive environment for the user, the driver needed to feel as if he or she was drivin g from the left side of the vehicle. The SSI simulator is large and requires an equally large flat surface on which to sit. The shell of the van did not have an adequate space. Furthermore, it was not feasible to remove the SSI steering column and remotely locate the assembly, along with its measuring devices (potentiometers). Therefore, the van required modification so that the SSI unit could sit was cut away (Fig. 5. 14) to provide free space where a platform could be installed. The platform is supported by the remaining portion of the firewall and a supplemental support bracket (Fig.5.15).

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49 Figure 5 .14 Firewall Cutout (courtesy of Matt Wills) Figure 5.15 Support Bracket (courtesy of Matt Wills) Figure 5.16 shows the platform mounted with the support bracket installed. The gas brake servo is mounted below the platform on a cross member. The two vertical tabs are present so that the SSI unit can be safely bo lted to the vehicle. Figure 5.16 SSI Platform (courtesy of Matt Wills)

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50 After the SSI simulator is placed on the platform, a mechanical connection is still required for the DBW system to function in conjunction with it. A bearing assembly bracket was d esigned to support the linkage. Figure 5.17 Bearing Assembly Bracket (courtesy of Matt Wills) motor shaft and the servomotor mountin g bracket. The gear on the left is par t of the servomotor system. Figure 5.18 Servomotor Mounting Bracket and Shaft (courtesy of Matt Wills)

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51 The steering gear assembly is pictured below in Figure 5.19. The servomotor shaft attaches to the assembly via a universal joint. This is required d ue to the fact that the servomotor shaft and the steering wheel do not rotate about parrallel axes This does increase the resitance to rotation somehwat; however, it is not enough to affect performance. Figure 5.19 Universal Joint (courtesy of Matt Wills) Figure 5.20 Assembled Steering Unit (courtesy of Matt Wills)

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52 The assembly of the steering unit can be seen in Figure 5.20. The servo motor can easily be disengaged in the event that a user needs to use the standard vehicle steering wheel. The AEVIT servomotor is equipped with a lever (green in the picture above) that, when in the position shown, engages the servomotor to the steering wheel When the lever is rotated 90 degrees, the unit becomes disengaged. Figure 5.21 show s the entire assembly installed in the vehicle shell. aluminum plate make up the gear train. The servomotor shaft is connected to the SSI wheel by this chain drive. A fiberglass cover was fabricated and install ed over the spur gears to eliminate the risk of bodily injury. Figure 5.21 Complete Assembly The gas and brake pedals are actuated by a different servo motor. As the servo rotates, it wraps a steel cable around its shaft. The cable, being connected at the other end to the gas or brake pedal, pulls the pedal down as if it were being pressed by a foot. Since

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53 this is not a rigid link, it is not necessary to disengage the cable before using the system without the AEVIT interface. It is important to note t hat the van is actually never physically moving. The GB lever is placed to the left of the SSI whereas the small steering wheel is placed to the right of the driver. When the joystick is used, it is placed to the right of the user. The setup was done so th at it similarly resembles actual vehicle modifications. Figure 5.22 Final Setup The reaction time in the acceleration and braking test data using DBW control was skewed in that the actual reaction time was affected by a delay in the servo system setu p. The SSI system measures the reaction time as the time it takes a driver to remove their foot from the accelerator and begin applying the brake. When using the DBW systems for acceleration and braking, the servo system must receive the input and del i ver

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54 the relative output command to the servomotor. The brake pedal is then applied only after the servomotor takes up the slack in the accelerator cable and then begins to engage the brake cable, consequently registering a reaction time the SSI simulator. Some tests were conducted to determine what those values were. A Tektronix TDS 1002 2 channel oscilloscope was used with two PCB Electronics accelerometers to determine the delay. Input signals were filtered. Furthermore, results in Chapter 7 for DBW reaction times were reduced and determined by the following equation: Actual Reaction Time = SSI Reaction Time Pedal Lag Servo Output Lag Table 5 .1 Joystick Acceleration/Braking Delay Pedal Lag Servo Output Lag Trial Cursor 1 Cursor 2 Delay (s) Cursor 1 Cursor 2 Delay (s) 1 1.82 2.36 0.54 0.108 0.148 0.04 2 1.18 1.64 0.46 0.1 0.14 0.04 3 2.86 3.32 0.46 0.032 0.076 0.044 4 2.82 3 .28 0.46 0.016 0.056 0.04 5 0.9 1.34 0.44 0.516 0.556 0.04 Average = 0.472 Average = 0.0408 Std Dev = 0.038987 Std Dev = 0.001789 Table 5 .2 GB Acceleration/Braking Delay Pedal Lag Servo Output Lag Trial Cursor 1 Cursor 2 Delay (s) Cursor 1 Cursor 2 Delay (s) 1 0.33 0.79 0.46 0.224 0.292 0.068 2 0.15 0.31 0.46 0.104 0.176 0.072 3 0.28 0.75 0.47 0 0.072 0.072 4 0.16 0 .62 0.46 0.336 0.404 0.068 5 0.08 0.53 0.45 0.016 0.084 0.068 Average = 0.46 Average = 0.0696 Std Dev = 0.007071 Std Dev = 0.002191

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55 The servo output lag and pedal lag were unaffected by the selected AEVIT simulator module speed setting. Average response time for the joystick (when the AEVIT simulator module was set to 40 mph) equaled the response times when unit was set to 80 mph and 1 5 mph When the steering response time was tested, it was found that the average delay for the joystick was about 0.017s. The GB/S system had an average response time of 0.031s. This was approximately twice the joysticks lag. It must also be noted that t he lag times were unaffected by the vehicle speed setting on the AEVIT simulator module. Table 5 .3 Steering Lag Times Joystick Delay GB/S Delay Trial Cursor 1 Cursor 2 Delay (s) Cursor 1 Cursor 2 Delay (s) 1 0.324 0.344 0.02 0.012 0.052 0.04 2 0.068 0.084 0.016 0.076 0.104 0.028 3 0.084 0.096 0.012 0.052 0.076 0.024 4 0.116 0.132 0.016 0.128 0.16 0.032 5 0.092 0.112 0.02 0.1 0.132 0.032 Averag e = 0.0168 Average = 0.0312 Std Dev = 0.003347 Std Dev = 0.005933

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56 Chapter 6: Human Subject Testing 6.1 Methods In an effort to determine the effectiveness of using the AEVIT controllers in a virtual environment a human subject study was completed (IRB approval #107994). T he sample consisted of 30 individuals from three groups: able bodied individuals (Group 1, n=10), elderly individuals (Group 2, n=10), and individuals with disability (Group 3, n=10). An effort was made to obtain a sample that consisted of ratio of male to female of 1 to 1. Table 6.1 Sample Characteristics Able bodied Elderly Disability n=10 n=10 n=10 Gender Male 5 5 7 Female 5 5 3 Age (avg ) 36 72 39.8 Each of the subjects involved in the study gave their informed consent prior to the start of any type license were capable of using both hands, and were able to receive verbal instr uctions. Participant s who require a form of hearing aide were permitted Drivers who used manual or DBW controls for driving fell into the category of individuals with disability,

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57 regardless of age. The study did not include individuals with a disability w ho use adaptive foot controls. After giving consent, drivers were asked to sit inside of the shell of a van (front portion only) A common vehicle seat was used for individuals who do not use a wheelchair while driving. If the height of the seat was inappr opriate, a seat pad was allowed so that the driver could see the viewing screen and access all of the controls. For those who use and chose to stay in their wheelchairs, the vehicle seat was removed. A seatbelt attached to the vertical column was available ; however, most persons chose to not use it. Furthermore, t he van shell rests on four castors and can be raised or lowered as required The van is stationary and does not move in any way. During testing, the subjects were videotaped from two angles: a fac e view and side view so that hand motions (and foot motions in some cases) could be observed and viewed at a later time. Three types of tests were given with three types of control systems defined as : 1. Standard steering wheel and gas/brake pedals 2. DBW joysti ck controller 3. DBW steering wheel and gas/brake controllers System 1 involved the use of only the SSI simulator while systems 2 and 3 utilized the AEVIT DBW adaptive control system in conjunction with the SSI virtual environment Individuals who have a disability were unable to utilize the gas/brake pedals in the SSI system and where consequently excluded from test ing for that type of system

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58 Table 6.2 shows a visual representation of the tests administered to each group. Table 6.2 Test ing Matrix Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Acceleration/Braking Steering Driving in Traffic Standard steering wheel and gas/brake pedals DBW joystick controller DBW steering wheel and gas/brake controllers The order in which each system was used was randomized for each person prior to testing. This order was maintained throughout each test. If, for instance, a driver was randomly selected to use system 1, 3, then 2, all tests would be administered on the sys tems in that order. Furthermore, each person was given following basic instruction on how to use each DBW control before beginning the acceleration and braking test with that controller. For the digital steering wheel: 1. Counter clockwise rotation causes t he vehicle to turn left. System :

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59 2. Clock wise rotation of the wheel causes the vehicle to turn right. For the gas/brake lever: 1. Pushing the lever forward will cause the vehicle to accelerate. 2. Pulling the lever rearward will cause the vehicle to decelerate and eventua lly stop. For the 4 way joystick: 1. Pushing the joystick forward causes the vehicle to accelerate. 2. Pulling back on the joystick will cause the vehicle to decelerate and eventually stop. 3. To turn left, push the joystick to the left. 4. To turn right, push the joy stick to the right. 5. Tap the joystick in either to make small lane adjustments. 6. Holding the joystick to the left or right for small adjustments will likely cause the vehicle to oversteer, resulting in a loss of control. Information related to the different joystick control bands was withheld from the driver. An attempt was made so that the DBW controls were placed in a manner so the comfortable position from the armrest. The three types of tests using the aforementioned driving systems are detailed in the following subsections.

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60 6.1.1 Acceleration and Braking Test The acceleration and braking test was administered to each individual on each applicable system over three trials. Before starting, it was explained that the driver was to start the vehicle and accelerate to 50 mph per hour (Fig. 6.1) At that point a stop sign would appear on the screen and they were to quickly come to a complete stop. A practice trial was allowed at the beginning of testing for each system so that the user could become familiar with the task being given and the basic function of the controls The individual was then asked if they understood the task and questions were answered. Figure 6 .1 Acceleration and Braking Test Instructions Figure 6 2 Acceleration and Braking Test Start Position

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61 At the start of the test, the vehicle sits at rest near the side of a straight track. The road is straight with short walls to either side (Fig. 6. 2 ) The driver was asked to start the vehicle with the key and shift into drive using the lever on the column and reminded to accelerate to 50 mph Once the vehicle was shifted into drive, it would roll forward if the brake was not applied. A large stop sign appeared in the center of the screen a short time after the vehicle reached the designated speed. After the vehicle was stopped, if the driver released the brake before coming to a complete stop, they were asked to hold the brake until th e screen changed. Figure 6.3 Stop Command Issued Results were displayed to the driver on the screen Quantitative data was taken on the speed of the vehicle, reaction time, stopping distance, reaction distance and braking distance as seen in F igure 6. 4 performance were also recorded.

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62 Figure 6.4 Sample Braking Results 6.1.2 Steering Test The steering test was composed of several straight and turning sections. At the beginning of the steering test, the study participant was given audible instructions and the screen displayed the exercise guidelines (Fig. 6.5) and at in park in the middle of the right lane on a two lane road (Fig. 6.6) Figure 6.5 Steering Instructions

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63 Fi gure 6.6 Steering Test Start Position As the driving course progress ed the posted speed limits change d between 20 and 55 mph. The driver was told that the route begins with a speed limit of 30 mph and to obey all traffic laws while driving. Furthermore, the driver was informed that they were being graded on their ability to maintain their lane position and their speed relative to the posted speed limit. The route began with a straight level path, eventually leading to a short climb. After the climb, the posted speed was reduced to 20 mph; a 180 degree smooth right hand turn followed. Figure 6.7 Steering Test 180 Degree Turn

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64 A downhill grade led to a long straightway where the speed limit increased to 55 mph. At the end of the straight path, the speed limit was reduced and the participant was instructed to follow the road into a roundabout, taking the first exit available. Out of the turn, the road widened, then narrowed, and the participant was eventually asked to stop next to a yellow sign near an in terstate highway entrance (Fig. 6.8). Figure 6.8 Steering Test End Position The test was administered only on c e with each of the systems. Notable observations and lan e width, lane position, vehicle speed, and posted speed were recorded at 0.2 second intervals 6.1.3 Driving in Traffic A pair of test courses was designed to incorporate both city and highway driving in an effort to better understand the performance of each of the driving controls. The SSI simulator is equipped with a virtual city/highway environment that has eight different starting positions (4 city, 4 highway). The SSI menu labels

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65 right ). With error checking, the driver is notified of the driving infractions being committed as the y are being made. A screenshot of each driving error can be found in Appendix G. Figure 6.9 Traffic Driving Scenario Configuration s The simulated vehicle began on the side of an uphill one way street, parallel parked on t 6.10 ). The driver was told to start the vehicle, pull out, and make the first available right turn when it was safe to do so. The route ended when the driver parked next a wall with graffiti on it (Fig. 6.1 1 ). Figure 6.1 0 Route "A" Start Position

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66 Fi gure 6.1 1 Route the traveling lanes to the left was going at highway speeds. The driver was asked to start the vehicle, obey all traffic laws, and pull out and join traffic when it was safe to do so. It is worthy of noting that, at the beginning of the route, the driver must quickly merge onto the road before colliding with the sign on the shoulder ahead. The route continued until the driver either crashed o r reached the end of the route. The starting (left) and ending (right) positions are sh own in Figure 6.12 Figure 6.1 2 For all cases, e ach participant was asked to obey all traffic laws and to listen for dire ctions for an audible route to follow. Individuals were also reminded that they were

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67 not to use the parking lane on the si de of the road as a turning lane Right turns on red were disallowed. The instructions were given so that the participant had enough t ime to The specific instructions that were given to each driver are as follows: Route Approximate time 5 min utes 1. Take first right 2. Go through intersection 3. Take a right 4. Take a left at the dead end 5. Take next left 6. Take next left 7. Take next right 8. Park on left side of road next to wall with graffiti on it Approximate time 3 minutes 1. Merge into traffic. 2. Go under the overpass. 3. Get into left lane. 4. Exit the interstate where cones force you to do so. Total scenario time, speed infractions (quantity and duration), inadequate space cushion (quantity and duration), improper lane position (quantity and duration), turn

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68 signals missed (quantity) and dangerous intersection crossings (quantity), and notable observations were recorded The results were displayed on the screen so that the driver could see them (Fig. 6.14). If for a ny reason, a driver crashed at the very beginning of the test, the test was restarted and the driver was given another try. However, if the crash was not sever and the simulation did not end, the driver was allowed to put the vehicle into reverse, back up off of the obstacle and continue on the way when the path was clear. If the driver missed an instruction and did not follo w the given route directions, he or she was asked to complete make the same type of turn at the next possible opportu nity. The driver then completed the test on a similar parallel route. Figure 6.1 3 Sample Feedback Screen

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69 6.2 Driving Performance Su rvey Before, b etween and after each test, the participants were asked a series of questions about their opinions on the separate control systems. If the participant had used a DBW system before the beginning of testing information was requested on their views of their adaptive equipment. The testing questions related to their views of the systems safety, ease of learning to use, system ease of use, system reliability, their ability to control gas, brake, or steering, level of confidence, ease of operation proficiency, and realism of each scenario. Additionally, questions relating standard driving equipment to DBW controls were asked to the able bodied and elderly groups. A sample copy of the participant survey can be found in Appendix F.

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70 Chapter 7: Results and Discussion 7.1 Evaluation of Acceleration and Braking Performance The results of the acceleration and braking test can be found in Table 7.1. As previously noted, GB/S stands for gad brake system with small steering wheel and NDBW stands for standard vehicle controls (No DBW). For this test, the stop sign appeared a short time after the vehicle reached 50 mph. Table 7.1 Average Acceleration and Braking Test Results Maximum Speed (m i /hr) NDBW GB/S Joystick 18 64 56.6 56.6 56.4 65+ 49.9 50.2 55.6 Disability 56.5 55.7 Reaction Time (s) NDBW GB/S Joystick 18 64 0.788 0.537 0.7 65+ 0.694 0.565 0.7 Disability 0.560 0.632 Braking Distance (ft) NDBW GB/S Joystick 18 64 122.72 127.06 127.9 65+ 106.21 111.33 126.4 Disability 126.34 124.73 Stopping Distance (ft) NDBW GB/S Joystick 18 64 182.18 207.64 215.0 65+ 157.51 192.78 213.7 Disability 208.54 210.81 For group 1, the average maximum vehicle speed was about the same for the standard vehicle controls, in addition to both of the DBW control systems. For group 2, it

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71 was found that the largest average maximum vehicle speed was acquired when participants wer e using the joystick. For Group 3, individuals with disability, average maximum vehicle speed was 0.8 m/hr faster when using the GB/S system versus the joystick system. Table 7.2 Average Reaction Time Standard Deviations NDBW Max Speed (mi/hr) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) 18 64 1.173030264 0.219503832 19.85810933 65+ 2.166527061 0.238125561 17.75048311 Disability GB/S Max Speed (mi/hr) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) 18 64 1.134226228 0.162649225 15.89806107 65+ 1.520968665 0.167780265 19.60839178 Disability 1.03413947 0.165268745 15.32008647 Joystick Max Speed (mi/hr) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) 18 64 1.124255584 0.170940622 18.98543431 65+ 2.177335556 0.244635975 28.14128486 Disability 2.072628795 0.387068654 26.78736579 The reaction time was fastest (0.537s, 0.565s, 0.560s for Groups 1, 2, 3 respectively) for all three groups when the GB/S system was used. For group 1, the reaction time was 0.088 seconds slower when the NDBW wire system was used versus the joystick. On the other hand, in elderly drivers, the opposite was true. The NBDW system reaction time was faster than the joystick by 0.006 seconds. Group 3 drivers were able to exhibit a reaction time of 0.560 seconds, on average, using the GB/S. Their time was 0.072 seconds slower using the joystick. It must be noted that the reaction times

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72 listed in Table 7.1 are adjusted from what the SSI system measured. The measured reaction time was reduced by 0.53 seconds for th e GB/S system and 0.51 seconds for the joystick system (Fig. 7.1) A detailed explanation of the adjus tment can be found Chapter 5.5 are reduced from the actual mea sured values by approximately 0.5 s for each of the systems. Figure 7.1 Average Reaction Time

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73 Figure 7.2 Average Braking Distance Despite the lag incurred by the servo system, it realistically shows how far the vehicle would travel before coming to a complete stop. In all cases, drivers were able to stop faster when using the GB/S system than when using the joystick system. Furthermo re, participants in Groups 1 and 2 were able to brake the fastest when using the standard controls. Braking distance is a variable based on maximum vehicle speed and cannot readily be used to determine driver performance for the vehicle control systems. 7 .2 Evaluation of Steering Data The steering test was a very good indicator of how the participant could maneuver the vehicle along straight path and around a simple curve. Since drivers in Groups 1 and 2 have driven with standard vehicle controls for some time and can safely do so in the real world, their performance using this system in the virtual environment should follow

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74 suit. Indeed, results did show that drivers using the NDBW system made fewer errors while maintaining a speed closer the posted speed limit. Figure 7. 3 Sample Steering Data (Group 1, participant 1, lane position) Figure 7. 4 Sample Steering Data (Group 1, Participant 1, speed)

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75 Figures 7. 3 and 7.4 show a general trend of most of the drivers. Lane error was calculated by: 1. If position is between 900 and 2100 units, % error = 0 2. If position is greater than 2100 or less than 900, % error = (position lane width)/lane wi d th*100 The NDBW system was marked by the least lane position errors, higher average posted speed, and typically c ompletion of the designated route in a s horter time frame. In figure 7.3 the % error is the relative distance that the vehicle is outside of the lane. 100% on the y axis means that the vehicle is one full lane width outside of the lane. In this case, it i s evident that the driver had the most difficulty maintain lane position when using the joystick. Moreover, when using the NDBW system, there were only three instances over the entire route w hen the vehicle was outside of the lane. Table 7.3 show s the relative velocity in terms of posted speed. Sharp vertical lines in the graph represent a change in the posted speed. In general, drivers were able to maintain the highest percentage of the posted speed when using the NDBW system. Secondly, the GB/S s ystem had the next highest speeds. Finally, the average joystick speeds were the lowest of the three systems. Table 7.3 Summary of Steering Results NDBW GB/S Joystick Speed % Abs Error Speed % Abs Error Speed % Abs Error Able Bodied 39.45 7.94 35.09 36.98 28.44 64.18 Elderly 39.57 15.68 28.85 61.34 21.50 81.07 Disabled N/A N/A 33.14 54.10 33.43 54.15 AVERAGE 39.51 11.81 32.36 50.81 27.79 66.47 Note: Speed is in miles per hour

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76 Table 7.2 shows the average percentage of the posted speed and the percent absolute error for of all drivers on each of the three systems. The percent absolute error is Group s 1 and 2 maintained nearly the same percentage of the posted speed when using the NDBW system at about 39.5%. However, Group 1 had about half of the position errors as Group 2 When using the GB/S system, Group 1, 2, and 3 maintained 35.1, 28.9, and 33.1 percent of the posted speed and had 37.0, 61.3, and 54.1 percent lane position error respectively. Using the joystick system, Group 1, 2, and 3 maintained 28.4, 21.5, and 33.4 percent of the posted speed and had 64.2, 81.1, and 54.2 percent lane position error respectively.

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77 Figure 7. 5 Common Steer ing Mistakes Common steering errors committed in the steering test can easily be seen i n the graphs shown in Figure 7.5 from 105 140 seconds and from 150 210 seconds. In the first time frame, an oscillatory wave shows a loss of vehicle control. As the driver makes a correction to steer the vehicle back into the lane, he or she holds the wheel position too long and must the n sharply steer to the other direction to counteract the oversteering

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78 mistake. At some point, if the driver either makes a correction too sharply or if vehicle speed is not reduced, the vehicle begins to fishtail. In this case, as the driver began to lose control, he applied the brake to slow the vehicle and was able to regain control. Secondly, in the second time frame, the lane position becomes constant. This alone does not necessarily represent an error. However, when this is accompanied by a nearly inst antaneous change in vehicle speed to zero miles per hour, it shows that the vehicle has crashed into an obstacle. A full set of position and velocity graphs for all 30 parti cipants can be found in Appendices C.2 C.4. A sample of the discrete data points taken at 0.2 seconds intervals can also be found in C.2. 7.3 Evaluation of Drivers in Traffic The traffic driving tests were another method for determining how participants drove and were able to understand the control of each of the driving systems. For all participant groups, the time spent driving in the city route was significantly longer than the time spent on the highway. For this reason, it was necessary to normalize the errors with respect to time. Ta bles 7.4 and 7.5 show the total number of errors (x number of instances; s duration in seconds), error rate, and the percentage of the total driving time that errors were being committed. A more detailed list of error totals, including individual types o f errors can be found in Appendix C.5. An explanation of these e rrors can be found in Appendix B joystick system. The majority of these errors came from the inability to maintain lane

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79 position. It was evident from the steering tests that the joystick controller was the most difficult to maintain a straight heading with. It is interesting to note that for Group 1 drivers in the city, fewer mistakes per minute occurred with the use of the GB/S system, despite having little training with it. Elderly drivers followed suit, having an error rate of 4.8 per minute using the GB/S system while demonstrating an error rate of 5.33 instances per minute with the NBDW system. Nevertheless, while error rates were lower in elderly drivers, the duration of the time that these errors were being committed was 3.32% higher. This means that with the GB/S system, elderly drivers were not easily able to quickly correct errors. Table 7.4 Route "A" Error Totals Route "A" NDBW Total Time Errors (x) Errors (s) Error Rate (x/min) % Error Time 18 64 3258 227 294 4.18 9.02 65+ 2995 266 326 5.33 10.88 Disability n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a GB/S Total Time Errors (x) Errors (s) Error Rate (x/min) % Error Time 18 64 3356 222 239 3.97 7.12 65+ 3478 278 494 4.80 14.20 Disability 3247 281 404 5.19 12.44 Joystick Total Time Errors (x) Errors (s) Error Rate (x/min) % Error Time 18 64 3153 323 507 6.15 16.08 65+ 2863 378 495 7.92 17.29 Disability 3463 350 544 6.06 15.71

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80 Table 7.5 Route "E" Error Totals Route "E" NDBW Total Time Errors (x) Errors (s) Error Rate (x/min) % Error Time 18 64 1722 123 116 4.29 6.74 65+ 1827 180 195 5.91 10.67 Disability n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a GB/S Total Time Errors (x) Errors (s) Error Rate (x/min) % Error Time 18 64 2083 171 233 4.93 11.19 65+ 1879 228 300 7.28 15.97 Disability 1679 149 187 5.32 11.14 Joystick Total Time Errors (x) Errors (s) Error Rate (x/min) % Error Time 18 64 2124 433 528 12.23 24.86 65+ 2120 350 611 9.91 28.82 Disability 1437 283 384 11.82 26.72 From Table 7.5, joystick. For Group 1, 6.7% of the time was spent commiting errors with the NDBW system, 11.2% with the GB/S system, and 24.9% of the time using the joystick. For Group 2, percent of the time committing errors was 10.7%, 16.0%, and 28.8% for the NDBW, GB/S, and joystick systems respectively. In group 3, drivers had some real w orld experience using either mechanical hand controls or DBW control systems. The error rate for this group was 222% higher when using the joystick ( 5.32 errors/min versus 11.82 errors/minute). Group 2 drivers on the joystick systems, had the lowest error rate (9.9 errors/minute) among the other groups, yet, the percent of the total time spend committing errors was the highest at 28.8%. This indicates that elderly drivers have the most difficult time correcting errors quickly. A review of the total error ra tes for both routes shows that there is little difference in the performance of Group 1 and 2 drivers when using the NDBW or GB/S systems. At

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81 the same time, these participants committed 3 4 more errors per minute when using the joystick. For Group1, the to tal time spent committing errors was approximately 11% higher when using the joystick versus the NBDW or the GB/S system. With all three systems, elderly drivers were the slowest to correct their mistakes. Drivers with disabilities as a whole performed the best among the three groups when using the joystick. They committed nearly 1 error less per minute on average. The time they spent committing these errors was 0.67% shorter than able bodied participants and 3.26% less than elderly drivers. Table 7.6 Traffic Tests Error Totals Total NDBW Total Time Errors (x) Errors (s) Error Rate (x/min) % Error Time 18 64 4980 350 410 4.22 8.23 65+ 4822 446 521 5.55 10.80 Disability n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a GB/S Total Time Errors (x) Errors (s) Error Rate (x/min) % Error Time 18 64 5439 393 472 4.34 8.68 65+ 5357 506 794 5.67 14.82 Disability 4926 430 591 5.24 12.00 Joystick Total Time Errors (x) Errors (s) Error Rate (x/min) % Error Time 18 64 5277 751 1035 8.54 19.61 65+ 4983 724 1106 8.72 22.20 Disability 4900 631 928 7.73 18.94 7.4 Driving Performance Survey Following each of the tests, subjects were asked a series of questions pertaining to their thoughts about each system. The averages of their quantitative responses after completing all of the tests are tabulated in Table 7.7 The complete responses table can be

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82 found in Appendix F. In the table a response of 1 indicates unreliable, very difficult, etc.. A response of 5 represents very reliable, very easy, etc.. Table 7. 7 Average Quantitative Survey Results Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 GB/S AVG AVG AVG Ease of Learning: 3.9 3.1 4.5 Proficiency: 4.3 4.2 4.4 Ease of Operating System: 3.8 2.8 4.6 System Safety 3.3 2.8 3.6 Confidence: 3.7 2.5 4.4 System Reliability: 3.9 4 4.2 Realism of Scenarios: 4 3.6 4.3 Joystick AVG AVG AVG Ease of Learning: 2.7 1.9 2.8 Proficiency: 3.2 2.6 3.4 Ease of Operating System: 3.2 1.7 3.2 System Safety 2.2 2.1 2.2 Confidence: 2.4 1.8 2.9 System Reliability: 3 3.5 3.2 Realism of Scenarios: 3.9 3.2 4 W/out DBW AVG AVG AVG Ease of Learning: 4.5 3.4 Proficiency: 4.4 4.4 Ease of Operating System: 4.5 3.5 System Safety 4.2 3.2 Confidence: 4.5 3.1 System Reliability: 4.3 3.8 Realism of Scenarios: 3.8 3.6

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83 Table 7.8 Standard Deviation of Survey Responses Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 GB/S AVG AVG AVG Ease of Learning: 0.567646 1.054093 0.707107 Proficiency: 0.674949 0.971825 0.516398 Ease of Operating System: 0.421637 1.20185 0.699206 System Safety 0.823273 1.658312 1.173788 Confidence: 0.483046 1.236033 0.699206 System Reliability: 1.100505 1.054093 1.229273 Realism of Scenarios: 0.942809 1.740051 0.483046 Joystick AVG AVG AVG Ease of Learning: 1.159502 1.581139 0.918937 Proficiency: 0.788811 1.236033 1.349897 Ease of Operating System: 1.316561 0.971825 1.229273 System Safety 1.135292 1.364225 1.229273 Confidence: 0.843274 1.364225 1.286684 System Reliability: 1.054093 1.130388 1.032796 Realism of Scenarios: 0.875595 1.536591 0.471405 W/out DBW AVG AVG AVG Ease of Learning: 0.707107 1.130388 Proficiency: 0.843274 0.726483 Ease of Operating System: 0.707107 1.130388 System Safety 1.032796 1.658312 Confidence: 0.707107 1.481366 System Reliability: 0.674949 1.224745 Realism of Scenarios: 1.135292 1.236033 Drivers in both Group 1 and 2 felt that the NDBW system was the easiest to learn, easiest to operate, safest and most reliable. They also felt that while using this system, they were most proficient and confident. The joystick system was the most difficult to learn, most difficult to operate, most unsafe, and least reliable according to their

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84 responses. In a similar fashion, drivers with disabilities felt that the GB/S system was easier to learn, easier to operate, safer, and more reliable than the joystick system. All drivers agreed that the system gave them realistic scenarios of driving. After administering the acceleration and braking test to all 30 individuals from each of the three test groups it was found that, in general, individuals between the ages 18 64 performed better than the elderly group for each of the three systems. This gen eralization is made based on the fact that a higher maximum vehicle speed constitutes a better control of the acceleration interface. Furthermore, the test not only requires the subject to follow onscreen commands for stopping, he or she must also maintain a straight vehicle heading as there are boundaries in the virtual environment to either side. The user must actively think about how to correct an error in heading. Therefore, some of ite the well known fact that, in most cases, as age increases, so does reaction time, a longer reaction time might suggest that the individual does not have adequate control of the vehicle and must actively concentrate on steering at the same time. When dr iving in traffic and using the joystick system, drivers with disabilities made fewer errors than the other two groups. All of the user groups, on average, exhibited a shorter reaction time to applying the brake when being issued a visual stop command whil e using GB/S controls. In the acceleration and braking tests, Group 1 drivers had only slightly better reaction times when using the joystick over the standard vehicle controls. Elderly drivers had nearly identical reaction times when using the standard ve hicle controls or the joystick system.

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85 When the driver applies the brake, he or she must pick up the foot, move it over the brake, and then begin applying the brakes. When using the DBW controls, the driver simply has to move the wrist a slight distance w ithout physically becoming disconnected from the interface. This alone shortens their reaction time. However, presently, the servo motor must mechanically take the place of the foot, applying the gas or brake. This took more time than the driver took to tr ansfer the foot to the other pedal. Consequently, stopping distances were longer when using DBW system in the simulator. The joystick is a type of coupled system in which the gas/brake and steering inputs are integrated on the same controller. For this re ason, many users found it difficult to control acceleration functions independently from the steering functions When a driver was trying to correct lane position using the joystick, often times, he or she would apply maximum acceleration or let go or the stick to return it to center and then make the steering correction instead of maintain the proper forward accel eration angle on the joystick and making the steering correction at the same time. In fact, nearly all of the participants felt that the GB/S system was easier to control because the inputs were on separate controllers. The results of the performance tests confirm this feeling conveyed by the study participants. With the GB/S system there were fewer errors and drivers were able to complete the scenarios in less time, which indicates that the maximum vehicle speed was higher and there were fewer obstacle col lisions.

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86 Chapter 8: Conclusions From the results in the previous chapter it can be seen that, of the two DBW driving systems, the AEVIT joystick is the most difficult to master. While errors were common for drivers using the DBW GB/S steerin g system, they were nearly twice as common with the joystick system. In the steering test, elderly drivers had a relative error as high as 81% when using the joystick system. ex pected that more errors would occur in that environment. However a far greater number of errors were incurred when the driver was driving on the highway In that E required to adjust the steering wheel angle t o maintain their lane position. Error rates were lower in the city partly because From the results in this study, it was not possible to quantitatively determine if there was a difference in the learning curve between the user groups for any of the control systems More specific tests need to be designed to further investigate the matter With that said, driver tended to show improvement as the testing progressed. Some also stated that they fe lt mo re comfortable with the controls at the end of the testing versus at the beginning.

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87 When participants were driving through the city and highway routes, they were asked to maintain safe driving practices. This included the use of turn signals, and che cking mirrors before making lane adjustments. While driving with the GB/S system drivers had to remove one of their hands from either the gas/brake controller or the small steering wheel. Some decided to remove their hand from the steering controller on th e right and reach over the steering column to engage the turn signal rather than using the left hand to operate the signal. The latter was the safer choice as the time that the hand was removed from the controller was shorter. Additionally, many drivers sa fely coast without acceleration or braking input before making a turn. Essentially that is what happens when the gas brake lever is re turned to the neutral position. When drivers were asked about how they perceived the system, a variety of responses ensu they were unable to correct steering mistakes. They also stated that it was nearly impossible to keep the vehicle on a straight path for any length of time. Furthermore, it was iterat ed more than once that the joystick would take much more time to learn but that it could be done, given enough time and training. Most drivers felt that the acceleration and braking controls for all of the three systems were adequate and fairly easy to con trol. In conclusion, a simulator utilizing DBW control systems can be an effective training tool for drivers with disabilities. In most cases, able bodied person who were capable of driving with the standard pedal and steering wheel were happy to continue using that system rather than having to learn a new DBW system. This was particularly true for the elderly drivers. The only apparent benefit of using DBW control systems for

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88 elderly drivers and individuals without disabili ty was a reduced reaction time. Additio nally, it could be helpful for the elderly who do not have the strength or dexterity required to rotate a standard steering wheel. However, the shortened reaction times were diminished by the extended time for the servo to actuate the gas or brake pedals. More information is needed to develop a useful program that can be used for training with DBW controls in lieu of the somewhat unsafe real world training. From this study however, it is evident that training with the joystick requires much more practice f or proficiency over the GB/S controls. In this study eight persons with a disability used mechanical controls in their personal vehicles whereas 2 used DBW systems. Some driver s stated that the system appeared to be somewhat sluggish. In fact, however, t he system was extremely responsive having a response time for steering of less than 0.03 seconds. Participants were oversteering and consequently, felt as if they were unable to quickly control the vehicle. This happened particularly often with the elderl y participants. The results show that in a future training lab, the drive by wire joystick would require a significantly larger amount of training time versus the GB/S system. This is evidenced by the fact that most drivers did poorly with the j oystick and even stated that the system was much more difficult and less reliable than the other systems. Most could be used to asses the amount of training that ma y still be required. Furthermore, some of the drivers were left handed but were asked to used the controls with theh right hand so that the number of uncontrolled variables could be limited. For training, drivers

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89 should be allow ed to use their dominate han d. Secondary controls, not used in this study, need to be implemented for realism and ease of use. The same holds true for orthotic devices.

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90 Chapter 9: Future Work 9.1 Development of a New Drive by Wire Controller This study lays the groundwork for a further study related to the development of a new DBW controller. Currently modified vehicles with adaptive driving equipment require extensive modifications and the cost is extravagantly high. A new type of system coul d be developed so that it is self contained and portable. A plug and play interface would allow the controller to be used in more than one vehicle, even allowing a driver to utilize a rented automobile, a common limitation that inhibits some freedom for dr ivers with disabilities. The controller could interface with an assistive steering and acceleration/braking computer to provide the terminal locomotion necessary for vehicle control. Ideally, this new type of system would provide, for those who require it a less expensive and more efficient means of vehicle modification. The development of a new state of the art DBW of controller would necessitate a human factors study to further understand what is necessary in DBW controller design to facilitate adequat e vehicle control. Information from this study could be used to supplement this further investigation.

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91 9.2 Development of an Immersive Environment According to Witmer and Singer, in order for a virtual environment to be the most effective, it must give the sense of presence, a concept not realized until both involvement and immersion coexist [9]. Involvement happens when a subject is interested in t he task and enjoys the experience of driving in a virtual environment. The USF driving simulator, despite being captivating for users, cannot be an effective training tool until immersion is developed. It is necessary to exclude the surrounding environment from the driver, as this presents a number of distractions, detracting from the realism. The screen in th e simulator is also somewhat small and the field o f view is limited to what normally can be seen from the windshield. Peripheral vision in the vehicle is nonexistent. A curved screen with at least a 180 degree arc would allow drivers to feel more involved and to make faster gains from a training perspective. Additionally, the current simulator lacks a form of dynamic feedback. Dynamic real world more effectively. This could be implemented at the control interface so that a controller. Additionally, an enhance d sensation of realism could be developed by the implementation of a dynamic platform. The van shell and scre en could be mounted to the platform and would move in accordance with the control input from the driver.

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92 9.3 Driver Training Program Another eventual goal future related project s is to develop a low cost driver training program that can be used to train individuals to drive with DBW systems before actually doing so on the road. Further study must be conducted to determine what constitutes enough training for proficiency with DBW controls although the results of this study demonstrate that the joystick s ystem is much more difficult To investigate the requirements for adequate driving control in an virtual environment, an individual could be trained in a simulator and then demonstrate their proficiency in a real vehicle. Their performance should be compa red to a control group that trains solely in a modified vehicle. State approved guidelines for proficiency with adaptive driving equipment should be applied. Additionally, careful attention should be given to the positive and negative trends in the transf er of training from a simulated environment to the real world. It would seem that training with the joystick system would require much more practice and training than for the GB/S system. Furthermore, the simulator should be expanded so that training with mechanical controls is possible, since the majority of adaptive equipment installed in vehicles is of this type.

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93 List of References [1] "Biography of Edwin A. Link." Edwin A Link Archives. Binghamton University, 22 Feb 2010. Web. 19 Mar 2010. . [2] "Link Trainer." N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Jan 2010. . [3] "U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet LINK TRAINER." United States Air Force, n.d. Web. 9 Jan 2010. . [ 4 ] "Link Trainer." Reynolds Alberta Museum. Web. 10 Jan 2010. . [ 5 ] "Simulation History." IRADIS Foundation, 20 Sep 2006. Web. 11 Jan 2010. . [6] "Welcome Doug Engelbart Institute." Doug Engelbart Institute, 2010. Web. 12 Jan 2010. . [7] "The mother of all demos." Charles Country Cafe, n.d. Web. 13 Jan 2010. . [8] "The first e ver mouse." Celebrating the mother of all demos. Web. 12 Jan 2010. . [9] Witmer, Bob G., and Michael J. Singer. "Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnair e." Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 7.3 (1998): 225 40. Print. [10] Hendriks, Arne "Sensorama ...why not go the whole way?." N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan 2010. .

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94 [1 1 ] "The National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS." Vehicle Safety Research. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, n.d. Web. 14 Jan 2010. . [12] Casolo, F., S. Cinquemani, and M. Cocetta. "Functional Mechanical Design of a Low Cost D riving Simulator". Mechatronics and Its Applications, 2008. ISMA 2008. 5th International Symposium on. 2008. 1 6. Print. [1 3 ] Wright, Steve, Nicholas J. Ward, and Anthony G. Cohn. "Enhanced Presence in Driving Simulators using Autonomous Traffic with Vir tual Personalities." Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 11.6 (2002): 578 90. Print. [14] Gussman, Neil. "Upside Down in a Humvee Training." N.p., 13 Mar 2 009. Web. 19 Jan 8 2010. . [15] Tones, Toni. "Airmen train with Humvee simulator ." United States Air Force, 28 Jan 2008. Web. 19 Mar 2010. . [16] Johnson, M. J., et al. "Control Strategies for a Split Wheel Car Steering Simulator for Upper Limb Stroke Therapy". Robotics and Automation, 2000. Proceedings. ICRA '00. IEEE Internat ional Conference on. 2000. 1372 1377 vol.2. Print. [1 7 ] Friedrich, Lukas. "Transfer of training in general V.R. environments." Dept. of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zrich n. pag. Web. Mar 2008. < http://people.ee.ethz.ch/~lukasfr/Transfer_of_training_in_general_VR_environ ments.pdf>. [1 8 ] Schultheis, M. T., et al. "Stopping Behavior in a VR Driving Simulator: A New Clinical Measure for the Assessment of Driving". Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2006. EMBS '06. 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE. 2006. 4921 4924. Print. [1 9 ] Campbell BN, Smith JD, Najim WG. Analysis of fatal crashes due to signal and stop sign violation, US Department of Transportation 2004, 1 161. [20 ] "Driving with Mobility Challenges." Car Talk, n.d. Web. 19 Mar 2010. .

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95 [21] "Questions and Answers Concerning Common Wheelchairs and Public Transit ." Federal Transit Administration. US DOT, n.d. Web. 15 Jan 2010. [22] "Types of Wheelchair." Rolling Wheelchairs. N.p., 13 May 2008. Web. 16 Jan 2010. [23] "Scooters." On The Go Mobility. Web. 16 Jan 2010. . [24] "Docking Bases." Wheelchair Docking Systems, n.d. Web. 16 Jan 2010. . [25] "Wheelchair Vans." Apple Independence Mobility, n.d. Web. 16 Jan 2010. . [26 ] "ADA Wheelchair Securement in Vehicles." The Wheelchair Site, n.d. Web. 19 Jan 2010. . [27] Perr, Anita, and Kitch Barnicle. "ADA Wheelchair Securement in Vehicles." The Wheelchair Site. The Wheelchair Site, n.d. Web. 19 Mar 2010. . [28] "2009 Toyota Sienna Wheelchair Access Ramp." Truck Trend. Web. 20 Jan 2010. [29] "Wheelchair Lift Van." Red Sea Transportation. Web. 20 Jan 2010. . [31] "Hand Controls." Mobility Express n.d. Web. 24 Jan 2010. . [32] "Left Foot Gas Pedal." Web. 24 Jan 2010. . [33] "Adaptive Equipment." National C enter for Biotechnology Information, n.d. Web. 25 Jan 2010. [34] "AEVIT 2.0 Owners Manual." Baton Rouge, LA: Electronic Mobility Controls, Print. [35] "Vehicle Interface Module." Electronic Mobility Controls. Web. 26 Jan 2010. .

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96 [36] "AEVIT Orthotic Devices." EMC. Web. 2 7 Jan 2010. . [37] "Steering Control Module." Simulator Systems International. Web. 25 Jan 2010. < http://www.simulatorsystems.com/hw3_steering.htm>. [38] "AEVIT Owners Manual Rev 2 ." Baton Rouge, LA: Electronic Mobility Controls, Print. [39] EGB IIF Electronic Gas Brake System Installation Guide ." Baton Rouge, LA: Electronic Mobility Controls, Print.

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97 Appendices

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Appendix A : Boot Up Procedures 98 A.1 SSI Simulator 1. Verify that the power cord from the SSI computer is plugged in. 2. (Fig. A.1) Figure A.1 SSI Power Switch 3. Push the red SSI Power Button (Fig. A.2) The rear cooling fan should turn on and the green light in the center of the red button will shine. Figure A.2 SSI Power Button 4. Once the operating system has loaded and the SSI Simulator program is ready, tap t he touchpad or click an installed USB mouse to begin. 5. Enter the correct username and password.

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Appendix A: (Continued) 99 A.1.1. SSI Menu Navigation Figure A. 3 SSI Main Menu 1. The Main Menu (Fig. A.3) appears after the correct username and password had been entered. The brake cal ibration, acceleration and braking tests, steering tests, from here Calibration of Brake (for all control systems) 1. 2. Figure A.4 "Other" Screen

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Appendix A: (Continued) 100 3. Clic Settings. Figure A.5 SSI Maintenance Screen 4. Figure A.6 SSI Calibration Screen

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Appendix A: (Continued) 101 5. brake. Figure A.7 SSI Brake Calibration Screen 1 6. Let go of the Figure A.8 SSI Brake Calibration Screen 2

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Appendix A: (Continued) 102 7. Verify that full application of the brake causes the slider to move all the way up and down. Figure A.9 SSI Brake Calibration Screen 3 8. menu. Figure A.10 SSI Main Menu Return Screen

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Appendix A: (Continued) 103 Acceleration and Braking Test 1. 2. 3. Figure A.11 SSI Evaluation of Physical Capacities Screen 4. Figure A.12 SSI Motor Skills Screen

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Appendix A: (Continued) 104 5. Figure A.13 SSI Reaction Time Test Screen Steering Test 1. From the main menu, click 2. 3. Figure A.14 SSI Behavioral Evaluation with Measurement Screen

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Appendix A: (Continued) 105 1. 2. Figure A.15 SSI Practice Driving Screen 3. Figure A.16 SSI City Routes Screen

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Appendix A: (Continued) 106 A.2. Boot up Procedure for AEVIT Simulator 1. Engage the red blade switch to connect the battery to the SSI system. The order in which the system is turned on is very important. As a rule turn the rocker Buttons on AEVIT Simulat or module from left to right: 1. 2. 3. 4. system will not shut down by its own) 5. any effect on system) 6. effect on system) 7. fect on system) 8. A fter the AEVIT system has booted, it will require calibration. The instructions can be found in Appendix A.3. To power off the AEVIT system, on the simulator module: 1. 2.

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Appendix A: (Continued) 107 3. (Fig A.19). Figure A.17 AEVIT Vehicle Simulator OFF position

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Appendix A: (Continued) 108 Figure A.18 AEVIT Simulator Module ON Position Figure A.1 9 AEVIT Information Center Off Switch

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Appendix A: (Continued) 109 A.3 Calibr ation of AEVIT Controllers Boot Up Procedure ( 4 axis joystick) 1. Verify that A has been selected on the black switch box. 2. Connect Power supply cord. Be sure that the power supply is turned on and that the alligator clips are connected to the battery. 3. Throw t he switches on the AEVIT Vehicle Simulator Module labeled, Simulator Power and Ignition 4. The AEVIT Information Center will then display the following message: Warning: Steering Type Changed to 4 Axis Joystick SELECT to Confirm Press Function/Select button. 5. The AEVIT Information Center will then display the following message: Warning: Gas/Brake Type Changed to 2 Axis Joystick SELECT to Confirm

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Appendix A: (Continued) 110 Press Function/Select button. 6. The AEVIT Information Center will then display the following message: Gas Brake Not Booted Manually Test Drive Side 1: Waiting Side 2: Waiting P ush the joystick forward and rearward until both sides read Booted 7. The AEVIT Information Center will then display the following message: Steering Not Booted Manually Test Drive Side 1: Waiting Side 2: Waiting P ush the joystick left and right until both sides read Booted 8. Verify that the servo motor is engaged. If not, center the SSI steering wheel and rotate the engage lever and secure with the locking pin. Boot Up Procedure (Steering Wh eel and Gas/Brake Lever) 1. Verify that B has been selected on the black switch box.

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Appendix A: (Continued) 111 2. Connect Power supply cord. Be sure that the power supply is turned on and that the alligator clips are connected to the battery. 3. Throw the switches on the AEVIT Vehicle Simul ator Module labeled, Simulator Power and Ignition 4. The AEVIT Information Center will then display the following message: Warning: Steering Type Changed to WHEEL SELECT to Confirm Press Function/Select button. 5. The AEVIT Information Center will then display the following message: Steering system not aligned Rotate the small steering wheel so that the arrows align and the warning goes away. 6. The AEVIT Information Center will then display the following message: Warning: Gas/Brake Type Changed to LEVER

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Appendix A: (Continued) 112 SELECT to Confirm Press Function/Select button. 7. The AEVIT Information Center will then display the following message: Gas Brake Not Booted Manually Test Drive Side 1: Waiting Side 2: Waiting Press the gas/brake lever forwar d and rearward until both sides read Booted 8. The AEVIT Information Center will then display the following message: Steering Not Booted Manually Test Drive Side 1: Waiting Side 2: Waiting Rotate the gas/brake lever forward and rearward until both sides read Booted 9. Verify that the servo motor is engaged. If not, center the SSI steering wheel and rotate the engage lever and secure with the locking pin.

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Appendix B : Types of SSI Driver Errors 113 offenses. The figures below show each offense in progress. 1. Traffic Collision The driver strikes another vehicle 2. Dangerous Intersection Crossing The driver goes through an intersection controlled by a red light 3. Speeding Infraction The driver is exceeding the speed limit by more than 5 mph 4. Improper Lane Position The driver is drifting out of the lane 5. Inadequate Space Cushion The driver is unsafely following the vehicle in front 6. Turn Signal Missed The driver failed to signal before making a turn or changing lanes Figure B.1 Traffic Collision Figure B.2 Dangerous Intersection Crossi ng

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Appendix B: (Continued) 114 Figure B .3 Speeding Infraction Figure B .5 Inadequate Space Cushion Figure B 4 Improper Lane Position Figure B .6 Turn Signal Missed

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Appendix C : Human Subject Testing Data 115 C.1 Acceleration and Braking The following tables include dat a for each of the three systems for each participant : Table C.1 NDBW Acceleration/Braking Data Group 1 Vehicle Speed (mph) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) Reaction Distance (ft) Braking Distance (ft) No Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average 1 57.5 0.668 0.5 176.13 179.00 51.27 38.37 124.93 140.27 2 57.6 0.867 0.5 195.23 179.00 66.57 38.37 128.67 140.50 3 57.5 0.790 0.5 188.13 178.67 60.57 38.30 127.57 140.13 4 55.7 1.337 0.5 224.87 169.33 99.43 37.23 125.43 132.27 5 54.8 0.668 0.5 160.70 164.33 48.73 36.50 111.97 127.67 6 57.5 0.634 0.5 173.30 179.00 48.60 38.40 124.67 140.47 7 57.5 0.790 0.5 186.40 179.00 60.63 38.37 125.80 140.50 8 56.4 0.668 0.5 170.63 172.67 50.30 37.63 120.30 135.20 9 56.6 0.891 0.5 191.00 173.67 67.20 37.73 123.80 135.93 10 54.6 0.568 0.5 155.43 162.33 41.33 36.37 114.07 126.40 Group 2 Vehicle Speed (mph) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) Reaction Distance (ft) Braking Distance (ft) No Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average 11 53.9 0.892 0.5 174.27 159.33 64.17 35.97 110.10 123.37 12 53.0 0.891 0.5 166.70 154.67 63.10 35.37 103.60 119.37 13 53.3 0.613 0.5 159.23 156.00 43.60 35.53 115.60 120.60 14 53.2 0.635 0.5 145.83 155.33 45.00 35.43 100.80 119.97 15 56.6 0.880 0.5 191.57 173.67 66.47 37.73 125.10 136.13 16 56.5 1.048 0.5 201.33 173.33 78.87 37.67 122.47 135.60 17 57.0 0.491 0.5 163.33 176.33 37.30 38.03 126.00 138.03 18 57.6 0.703 0.5 186.03 179.00 53.80 38.37 132.20 140.50 19 57.5 0.790 0.5 186.80 179.00 60.60 38.37 126.20 140.47 20 52 1.315 0.5 193.33 149 91.53 34.63 101.8 116.53 Group 3 Vehicle Speed (mph) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) Reaction Distance (ft) Braking Distance (ft) No Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average 21 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 22 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 23 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 24 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 25 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 26 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 27 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 28 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 29 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 30 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

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Appendix C : (Continued) 116 Table C.2 GB/S Acceleration/Braking Data 18 64 Vehicle Speed (mph) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) Reaction Distance (ft) Braking Distance (ft) No Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average 1 57.5 1.303 0.5 232.53 178.67 99.93 38.37 132.63 140.37 2 57.5 1.112 0.5 217.43 179.00 85.40 38.37 132.03 140.40 3 57.6 1.046 0.5 210.50 179.00 80.27 38.40 130.20 140.53 4 54.8 1.214 0.5 208.63 164.33 88.47 36.53 120.13 127.83 5 56.4 0.914 0.5 193.00 172.67 68.90 37.60 124.13 135.23 6 57.5 0.957 0.5 203.07 179.00 73.43 38.37 129.60 140.43 7 57.6 0.912 0.5 199.80 179.00 70.00 38.40 129.77 140.53 8 54.6 0.813 0.5 175.67 163.33 59.30 36.43 116.40 126.73 9 56.2 1.192 0.5 214.63 171.67 89.47 37.47 125.20 133.97 10 56.5 1.204 0.5 221.13 172.67 90.63 37.63 130.50 135.33 65+ Vehicle Speed (mph) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) Reaction Distance (ft) Braking Distance (ft) No Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average 11 57.2 1.459 0.5 243.87 177.00 111.33 38.10 132.60 138.73 12 56.4 1.092 0.5 208.77 172.33 82.20 37.60 126.53 135.00 13 56.2 1.003 0.5 198.93 172.00 75.33 37.50 123.63 134.30 14 53.4 1.248 0.5 199.53 157.00 88.43 35.60 111.10 121.30 15 53.7 1.204 0.5 200.60 158.67 86.53 35.80 114.10 122.70 16 54.4 1.293 0.5 209.93 162.00 94.33 36.23 116.17 125.57 17 55.3 0.981 0.5 190.87 167.00 71.97 36.90 118.93 130.30 18 57.6 1.192 0.5 226.57 179.00 91.43 38.57 135.13 140.63 19 57.5 1.482 0.5 248.77 179.00 113.63 38.33 135.13 140.33 20 56.1 1.214 0.5 217.03 171 90.80 37.43 125.93 133.63 Disabili ty Vehicle Speed (mph) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) Reaction Distance (ft) Braking Distance (ft) No Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average 21 56.3 0.892 0.5 190.50 172.33 67.13 37.57 123.37 134.73 22 56.7 0.936 0.5 196.63 174.67 70.93 37.83 125.70 136.63 23 54.3 1.137 0.5 197.37 161.67 82.30 36.10 115.03 125.53 24 56.2 1.047 0.5 211.37 171.33 78.23 37.50 133.13 134.13 25 55.4 0.980 0.5 191.63 167.33 72.53 36.93 119.10 130.33 26 57.5 0.991 0.5 206.50 179.00 76.00 38.37 130.50 140.40 27 57.6 1.085 0.5 214.33 179.00 83.27 38.40 131.07 140.53 28 56.7 1.416 0.5 236.27 174.67 107.03 37.80 129.20 136.50 29 57.5 1.314 0.5 228.73 179.00 100.83 38.37 127.90 140.47 30 56.8 1.104 0.5 212.03 175.00 83.63 37.93 128.40 137.13

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Appendix C : (Continued) 117 Table C. 3 Joystick Acceleration/Braking Data 18 64 Vehicle Speed (mph) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) Reaction Distance (ft) Braking Distance (ft) No Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average 1 57.4 1.335 0.5 232.10 178.00 100.67 38.27 131.43 139.80 2 57.5 1.471 0.5 247.33 178.67 112.73 38.30 134.60 140.27 3 55.4 0.970 0.5 188.97 167.33 71.80 36.97 132.17 130.27 4 56.4 1.326 0.5 226.23 173.00 99.80 37.63 126.43 135.30 5 53.9 1.115 0.5 193.67 159.67 80.07 35.87 113.60 123.47 6 57.5 1.057 0.5 211.50 179.00 81.03 38.33 133.80 140.33 7 56.1 1.203 0.5 214.40 171.00 90.00 37.43 124.40 133.73 8 57.1 0.958 0.5 199.63 176.33 72.90 38.07 126.70 138.10 9 56.6 1.036 0.5 204.43 173.67 78.23 37.77 126.17 135.93 10 56.5 1.204 0.5 231.93 172.67 102.30 37.63 129.60 135.23 65+ Vehicle Speed (mph) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) Reaction Distance (ft) Braking Distance (ft) No Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average 11 57.4 1.292 0.5 232.10 178.67 98.97 38.30 133.17 140.07 12 54.0 0.853 0.5 170.60 160.00 61.80 36.00 108.75 123.90 13 57.1 1.158 0.5 217.23 176.00 88.13 38.00 129.13 138.00 14 55.0 0.992 0.5 185.57 165.00 72.90 36.63 112.70 128.23 15 57.5 1.536 0.5 253.10 179.00 117.90 38.40 135.20 140.50 16 54.4 1.149 0.5 200.90 161.67 83.07 36.27 117.80 125.63 17 55.4 0.880 0.5 185.30 167.33 64.97 36.93 120.37 130.57 18 57.0 1.549 0.5 249.97 175.67 117.83 37.93 132.10 137.67 19 57.4 1.280 0.5 230.60 178.33 97.93 38.23 132.63 139.80 20 50.7 1.037 0.5 211.80 143 70.10 33.8 141.70 109.20 Disabili ty Vehicle Speed (mph) Reaction Time (s) Stopping Distance (ft) Reaction Distance (ft) Braking Distance (ft) No Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average Average Ideal Average 21 57.5 0.776 0.5 221.10 179.00 87.90 38.33 133.20 140.33 22 57.2 1.058 0.5 212.30 177.33 80.80 38.20 131.50 139.17 23 54.8 0.668 0.5 164.27 164.00 48.43 36.50 115.83 127.57 24 52.6 1.990 0.5 257.55 152.50 140.50 35.00 117.10 117.35 25 52.9 1.058 0.5 181.43 154.00 74.53 35.23 106.87 118.57 26 57.5 1.057 0.5 211.43 179.00 81.10 38.37 130.30 140.50 27 57.5 0.823 0.5 188.97 178.67 63.17 38.37 125.77 140.30 28 55.8 1.522 0.5 230.40 169.00 113.10 37.20 117.30 132.00 29 57.5 1.102 0.5 213.50 179.00 84.53 38.40 128.97 140.47 30 53.6 1.214 0.5 227.17 158.00 86.73 35.77 140.43 122.13

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Appendix C : (Continued) 118 C.2. Steering Data for Able Bodied Individuals Steering data (lane width, vehicle position, vehicle speed, and posted speed limit) was taken for each of the 30 participants at 0.2 second intervals. In all cases, the first data point was taken one time interval before the vehicle began in motion; the last data point was taken as the participant reached the round about and the posted speed limit is reduced Lane width and position are relative. The vehic le is inside of the lan e when position is less than 2100 and greater than 900. Posted speed limit and posted vehicle speed are in km/hr. A c omplete record of steering data was too extensive for inclusion in this paper; however, it is on record at the Unive rsity of South Florida. Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 0 3000 1901 0 90 3000 1901 0 90 3000 1901 0 90 0.2 3000 1901 1 90 3000 1901 1 90 3000 1901 1 90 0.4 3000 1901 1 90 3000 1901 1 90 3000 1901 4 90 0.6 3000 1901 2 90 3000 1901 1 90 3000 1901 6 90 0.8 3000 1901 3 90 3000 1901 2 90 3000 1901 9 90 1 3000 1901 5 90 3000 1901 3 90 3000 1901 12 90 1.2 3000 1901 6 90 3000 1901 4 90 3000 1902 15 90 1.4 3000 1901 8 90 3000 1901 6 90 3000 1909 17 90 1.6 3000 1901 9 90 3000 1901 8 90 3000 1918 20 90 1.8 3000 1901 11 90 3000 1901 10 90 3000 1929 23 90 2 3000 1901 12 90 3000 1901 12 90 3000 1943 25 90 2.2 3000 1901 14 90 3000 1901 14 90 3000 1959 26 90 2.4 3000 1901 15 90 3000 1901 17 90 3000 1978 27 90 2.6 3000 1901 17 90 3000 1901 19 90 3000 1999 27 90 2.8 3000 1896 19 90 3000 1896 21 90 3000 2031 28 90 3 3000 1892 21 90 3000 1888 24 90 3000 2059 29 90 3.2 3000 1892 22 90 3000 1881 25 90 3000 2076 31 90 3.4 3000 1892 24 90 3000 1871 27 90 3000 2078 32 90 3.6 3000 1892 26 90 3000 1857 28 90 3000 2070 33 90 3.8 3000 1886 27 90 3000 1843 30 90 3000 2049 34 90 4 3000 1878 29 90 3000 1827 32 90 3000 2019 35 90 4.2 3000 1864 31 90 3000 1813 33 90 3000 1984 36 90 4.4 3000 1857 32 90 3000 1800 34 90 3000 1941 37 90 4.6 3000 1850 32 90 3000 1785 34 90 3000 1889 38 90 4.8 3000 1842 33 90 3000 1772 35 90 3000 1825 39 90 Table C.4 Sample Steering Data, Group 1, Participant 2

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Appendix C : (Continued) 119 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 5 3000 1835 34 90 3000 1764 35 90 3000 1744 40 90 5.2 3000 1828 35 90 3000 1757 36 90 3000 1676 41 90 5.4 3000 1819 36 90 3000 1750 36 90 3000 1615 42 90 5.6 3000 1807 37 90 3000 1743 37 90 3000 1542 44 90 5.8 3000 1792 38 90 3000 1736 37 90 3000 1497 45 90 6 3000 1772 38 90 3000 1732 37 90 3000 1453 46 90 6.2 3000 1758 39 90 3000 1732 38 90 3000 1424 48 90 6.4 3000 1743 40 90 3000 1732 38 90 3000 1403 49 90 6.6 3000 1728 40 90 3000 1732 38 90 3000 1392 50 90 6.8 3000 1714 41 90 3000 1732 39 90 3000 1390 52 90 7 3000 1700 41 90 3000 1732 39 90 3000 1402 54 90 7.2 3000 1686 41 90 3000 1732 39 90 3000 1431 55 90 7.4 3000 1672 42 90 3000 1732 39 90 3000 1468 57 90 7.6 3000 1661 42 90 3000 1732 40 90 3000 1529 58 90 7.8 3000 1654 43 90 3000 1732 40 90 3000 1606 58 90 8 3000 1647 43 90 3000 1732 40 90 3000 1685 58 90 8.2 3000 1640 43 90 3000 1732 40 90 3000 1774 57 90 8.4 3000 1633 44 90 3000 1732 41 90 3000 1876 57 90 8.6 3000 1624 44 90 3000 1732 41 90 3000 1991 58 90 8.8 3000 1615 44 90 3000 1732 42 90 3000 2136 59 90 9 3000 1608 44 90 3000 1733 42 90 3000 2251 59 90 9.2 3000 1606 45 90 3000 1741 43 90 3000 2346 59 90 9.4 3000 1606 45 90 3000 1748 44 90 3000 2419 59 90 9.6 3000 1606 45 90 3000 1758 44 90 3000 2472 59 90 9.8 3000 1606 45 90 3000 1772 45 90 3000 2505 60 90 10 3000 1606 46 90 3000 1789 44 90 3000 2520 60 90 10.2 3000 1606 46 90 3000 1807 44 90 3000 2513 61 90 10.4 3000 1606 46 90 3000 1828 43 90 3000 2483 61 90 10.6 3000 1612 46 90 3000 1849 43 90 3000 2417 62 90 10.8 3000 1619 46 90 3000 1870 42 90 3000 2335 62 90 11 3000 1626 46 90 3000 1889 41 90 3000 2187 63 90 11.2 3000 1631 46 90 3000 1904 40 90 3000 2046 64 90 11.4 3000 1631 46 90 3000 1920 40 90 3000 1880 64 90 11.6 3000 1631 46 90 3000 1934 39 90 3000 1676 65 90 11.8 3000 1631 47 90 3000 1948 38 90 3000 1506 65 90 12 3000 1631 47 90 3000 1963 38 90 3000 1349 65 90 12.2 3000 1632 47 90 3000 1971 37 90 3000 1192 66 90 12.4 3000 1639 48 90 3000 1978 37 90 3000 1071 67 90 12.6 3000 1645 48 90 3000 1985 37 90 3000 995 67 90 12.8 3000 1653 48 90 3000 1992 37 90 3000 948 68 90 13 3000 1663 48 90 3000 1999 37 90 3000 929 68 90 13.2 3000 1674 48 90 3000 2007 38 90 3000 940 69 90 13.4 3000 1685 48 90 3000 2014 38 90 3000 990 69 90 13.6 3000 1697 49 90 3000 2014 39 90 3000 1066 70 90 13.8 3000 1704 49 90 3000 2014 39 90 3000 1177 70 90 14 3000 1711 49 90 3000 2014 40 90 3000 1284 69 90 14.2 3000 1718 49 90 3000 2014 40 90 3000 1397 69 90 14.4 3000 1725 49 90 3000 2012 41 90 3000 1501 69 90 14.6 3000 1732 49 90 3000 2005 42 90 3000 1588 69 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 120 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 14.8 3000 1739 49 90 3000 1997 43 90 3000 1651 69 90 15 3000 1746 50 90 3000 1990 43 90 3000 1687 69 90 15.2 3000 1753 50 90 3000 1981 44 90 3000 1696 70 90 15.4 3000 1760 50 90 3000 1967 44 90 3000 1679 70 90 15.6 3000 1766 50 90 3000 1953 45 90 3000 1635 70 90 15.8 3000 1766 50 90 3000 1938 45 90 3000 1565 69 90 16 3000 1766 50 90 3000 1919 45 90 3000 1466 70 90 16.2 3000 1766 50 90 3000 1899 45 90 3000 1341 70 90 16.4 3000 1766 50 90 3000 1878 46 90 3000 1187 71 90 16.6 3000 1766 50 90 3000 1854 46 90 3000 941 71 90 16.8 3000 1766 51 90 3000 1833 46 90 3000 732 71 90 17 3000 1766 51 90 3000 1812 46 90 3000 525 71 90 17.2 3000 1766 51 90 3000 1788 47 90 3000 341 71 90 17.4 3000 1766 51 90 3000 1773 47 90 3000 164 71 90 17.6 3000 1763 51 90 3000 1759 48 90 3000 43 71 90 17.8 3000 1757 51 90 3000 1749 48 90 3000 62 71 90 18 3000 1757 51 90 3000 1742 48 90 3000 124 71 90 18.2 3000 1757 51 90 3000 1738 49 90 3000 159 71 90 18.4 3000 1757 51 90 3000 1738 49 90 3000 159 71 90 18.6 3000 1757 51 90 3000 1740 49 90 3000 124 71 90 18.8 3000 1757 51 90 3000 1747 49 90 3000 63 72 90 19 3000 1757 51 90 3000 1754 49 90 3000 27 72 90 19.2 3000 1757 51 90 3000 1765 50 90 3000 146 71 90 19.4 3000 1757 51 90 3000 1779 50 90 3000 293 71 90 19.6 3000 1753 51 90 3000 1793 50 90 3000 467 70 90 19.8 3000 1745 51 90 3000 1812 50 90 3000 664 70 90 20 3000 1731 50 90 3000 1825 51 90 3000 869 69 90 20.2 3000 1717 50 90 3000 1839 51 90 3000 1115 68 90 20.4 3000 1703 50 90 3000 1853 51 90 3000 1239 68 90 20.6 3000 1691 50 90 3000 1866 51 90 3000 1312 67 90 20.8 3000 1684 50 90 3000 1883 52 90 3000 1343 67 90 21 3000 1677 50 90 3000 1896 52 90 3000 1364 66 90 21.2 3000 1669 50 90 3000 1905 52 90 3000 1379 66 90 21.4 3000 1661 50 90 3000 1911 52 90 3000 1395 65 90 21.6 3000 1654 50 90 3000 1918 53 90 3000 1409 65 90 21.8 3000 1646 49 90 3000 1918 53 90 3000 1423 64 90 22 3000 1639 49 90 3000 1914 53 90 3000 1438 64 90 22.2 3000 1632 49 90 3000 1903 53 90 3000 1452 63 90 22.4 3000 1624 49 90 3000 1888 54 90 3000 1466 63 90 22.6 3000 1616 49 90 3000 1867 54 90 3000 1482 63 90 22.8 3000 1609 49 90 3000 1839 54 90 3000 1498 62 90 23 3000 1602 49 90 3000 1804 54 90 3000 1513 62 90 23.2 3000 1595 49 90 3000 1757 55 90 3000 1526 61 90 23.4 3000 1593 49 90 3000 1714 55 90 3000 1541 61 90 23.6 3000 1594 49 90 3000 1668 55 90 3000 1555 60 60 23.8 3000 1601 48 90 3000 1615 55 90 3000 1568 60 60 24 3000 1608 48 90 3000 1573 55 90 3000 1583 60 60 24.2 3000 1616 48 90 3000 1514 55 90 3000 1599 59 60 24.4 3000 1619 48 90 3000 1463 55 90 3000 1617 59 60

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Appendix C : (Continued) 121 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 24.6 3000 1619 48 90 3000 1420 56 90 3000 1631 59 60 24.8 3000 1623 48 90 3000 1379 56 90 3000 1645 58 60 25 3000 1630 48 90 3000 1342 56 90 3000 1661 58 60 25.2 3000 1642 48 90 3000 1307 56 90 3000 1676 57 60 25.4 3000 1656 48 90 3000 1274 56 90 3000 1689 56 60 25.6 3000 1670 48 90 3000 1245 56 90 3000 1703 56 60 25.8 3000 1684 48 90 3000 1217 56 90 3000 1716 55 60 26 3000 1698 48 90 3000 1191 56 90 3000 1733 54 60 26.2 3000 1712 48 90 3000 1170 56 90 3000 1745 53 60 26.4 3000 1726 47 90 3000 1149 56 90 3000 1755 52 60 26.6 3000 1740 47 90 3000 1131 56 90 3000 1761 52 60 26.8 3000 1756 47 90 3000 1118 55 90 3000 1763 51 60 27 3000 1770 47 90 3000 1110 55 90 3000 1763 51 60 27.2 3000 1786 47 90 3000 1110 54 90 3000 1757 51 60 27.4 3000 1800 47 90 3000 1117 54 90 3000 1746 51 60 27.6 3000 1814 47 90 3000 1132 53 90 3000 1729 50 60 27.8 3000 1828 47 90 3000 1153 53 90 3000 1708 50 60 28 3000 1842 47 90 3000 1188 53 90 3000 1680 49 60 28.2 3000 1857 47 90 3000 1226 52 90 3000 1652 49 60 28.4 3000 1870 47 90 3000 1270 52 90 3000 1620 49 60 28.6 3000 1884 47 90 3000 1320 52 90 3000 1585 49 60 28.8 3000 1895 47 90 3000 1372 52 90 3000 1545 49 60 29 3000 1902 47 90 3000 1430 52 90 3000 1501 49 60 29.2 3000 1906 47 90 3000 1488 52 90 3000 1453 48 60 29.4 3000 1906 47 90 3000 1551 51 90 3000 1394 48 60 29.6 3000 1903 47 90 3000 1613 51 90 3000 1339 47 60 29.8 3000 1895 47 90 3000 1674 51 90 3000 1285 47 60 30 3000 1882 47 90 3000 1733 51 90 3000 1228 46 60 30.2 3000 1866 47 90 3000 1789 51 90 3000 1172 46 60 30.4 3000 1849 46 90 3000 1849 51 90 3000 1119 45 60 30.6 3000 1832 46 90 3000 1894 51 90 3000 1071 45 60 30.8 3000 1816 46 90 3000 1931 51 90 3000 1027 44 60 31 3000 1799 46 90 3000 1961 51 90 3000 988 44 60 31.2 3000 1781 46 90 3000 1986 51 60 3000 952 44 60 31.4 3000 1764 46 90 3000 2000 51 60 3000 927 44 60 31.6 3000 1747 46 60 3000 2008 51 60 3000 910 44 60 31.8 3000 1731 46 60 3000 2010 51 60 3000 901 45 60 32 3000 1712 46 60 3000 2005 51 60 3000 900 45 60 32.2 3000 1694 46 60 3000 1991 51 60 3000 907 46 60 32.4 3000 1675 46 60 3000 1972 51 60 3000 924 46 60 32.6 3000 1654 46 60 3000 1945 51 60 3000 948 47 60 32.8 3000 1635 46 60 3000 1912 51 60 3000 988 47 60 33 3000 1614 46 60 3000 1872 51 60 3000 1039 47 60 33.2 3000 1600 46 60 3000 1825 51 60 3000 1092 47 60 33.4 3000 1587 46 60 3000 1773 51 60 3000 1154 46 60 33.6 3000 1571 46 60 3000 1705 51 60 3000 1223 46 60 33.8 3000 1557 46 60 3000 1636 51 60 3000 1300 45 60 34 3000 1543 45 60 3000 1576 51 60 3000 1382 45 60 34.2 3000 1528 45 60 3000 1522 51 60 3000 1469 44 60

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Appendix C : (Continued) 122 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 34.4 3000 1512 45 60 3000 1474 51 60 3000 1558 43 60 34.6 3000 1498 44 60 3000 1429 52 60 3000 1659 42 60 34.8 3000 1491 44 60 3000 1400 52 60 3000 1747 41 60 35 3000 1488 43 60 3000 1382 52 60 3000 1839 41 30 35.2 3000 1480 43 60 3000 1373 53 60 3000 1887 40 30 35.4 3000 1498 43 60 3000 1375 53 60 3000 1910 40 30 35.6 3000 1510 43 60 3000 1386 53 60 3000 1922 39 30 35.8 3000 1524 43 60 3000 1408 53 60 3000 1929 39 30 36 3000 1538 42 60 3000 1438 53 60 3000 1937 38 30 36.2 3000 1550 42 60 3000 1475 53 60 3000 1942 36 30 36.4 3000 1557 42 60 3000 1517 53 60 3000 1942 35 30 36.6 3000 1559 42 60 3000 1566 53 60 3000 1942 34 30 36.8 3000 1560 42 60 3000 1607 53 60 3000 1942 33 30 37 3000 1567 42 60 3000 1648 52 60 3000 1938 32 30 37.2 3000 1573 42 60 3000 1689 52 60 3000 1931 32 30 37.4 3000 1583 42 60 3000 1730 52 60 3000 1924 31 30 37.6 3000 1593 43 60 3000 1769 52 60 3000 1916 30 30 37.8 3000 1599 43 60 3000 1803 52 60 3000 1908 29 30 38 3000 1607 43 60 3000 1837 51 60 3000 1895 28 30 38.2 3000 1614 43 60 3000 1868 51 60 3000 1881 28 30 38.4 3000 1620 43 60 3000 1892 51 60 3000 1867 27 30 38.6 3000 1628 43 60 3000 1908 51 60 3000 1853 27 30 38.8 3000 1635 43 60 3000 1920 51 60 3000 1834 26 30 39 3000 1642 43 60 3000 1927 51 60 3000 1816 26 30 39.2 3000 1649 43 60 3000 1927 51 60 3000 1795 25 30 39.4 3000 1656 43 60 3000 1922 51 60 3000 1771 25 30 39.6 3000 1663 44 60 3000 1915 51 60 3000 1751 25 30 39.8 3000 1671 44 60 3000 1904 51 60 3000 1738 24 30 40 3000 1678 44 60 3000 1890 50 60 3000 1569 24 30 40.2 3000 1685 44 60 3000 1872 50 60 3000 1471 23 30 40.4 3000 1691 44 60 3000 1851 50 60 3000 1423 23 30 40.6 3000 1698 44 60 3000 1835 49 60 3000 1411 23 30 40.8 3000 1699 44 60 3000 1821 49 60 3000 1192 22 30 41 3000 1699 44 60 3000 1812 48 60 3000 1090 22 30 41.2 3000 1699 44 60 3000 1808 48 60 3000 1110 22 30 41.4 3000 1699 44 60 3000 1808 48 60 3000 1231 21 30 41.6 3000 1699 44 60 3000 1814 47 60 3000 1227 21 30 41.8 3000 1693 44 60 3000 1821 47 60 3000 1251 21 30 42 3000 1686 44 60 3000 1828 46 60 3000 1368 21 30 42.2 3000 1679 43 60 3000 1835 45 60 3000 1600 21 30 42.4 3000 1672 43 60 3000 1842 45 30 3000 1804 22 30 42.6 3000 1666 43 60 3000 1850 44 30 3000 1852 24 30 42.8 3000 1657 43 60 3000 1859 44 30 3000 1977 26 30 43 3000 1647 43 60 3000 1866 43 30 3000 1920 28 30 43.2 3000 1634 42 60 3000 1873 43 30 3000 1892 28 30 43.4 3000 1620 42 60 3000 1873 42 30 3000 1761 28 30 43.6 3000 1606 42 60 3000 1873 41 30 3000 1564 28 30 43.8 3000 1593 41 60 3000 1873 41 30 3000 1510 27 30 44 3000 1580 41 60 3000 1868 40 30 3000 1409 26 30

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Appendix C : (Continued) 123 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 44.2 3000 1568 41 60 3000 1860 40 30 3000 1479 26 30 44.4 3000 1555 41 60 3000 1853 39 30 3000 1547 25 30 44.6 3000 1541 41 60 3000 1845 38 30 2500 1388 25 30 44.8 3000 1527 40 30 3000 1831 35 30 2500 1346 25 30 45 3000 1511 40 30 3000 1817 32 30 3000 1611 26 30 45.2 3000 1497 40 30 3000 1802 28 30 3000 1583 26 30 45.4 3000 1483 39 30 3000 1794 26 30 3000 1411 26 30 45.6 3000 1465 39 30 3000 1790 24 30 3000 1351 25 30 45.8 3000 1456 39 30 3000 1790 24 30 3000 1443 25 30 46 3000 1449 39 30 3000 1793 23 30 3000 1438 24 30 46.2 3000 1438 39 30 3000 1800 23 30 3000 1520 24 30 46.4 3000 1422 38 30 3000 1814 22 30 3000 1744 23 30 46.6 3000 1408 38 30 3000 1791 22 30 3000 1888 24 30 46.8 3000 1392 37 30 3000 1658 23 30 3000 2068 25 30 47 3000 1378 36 30 3000 1526 23 30 3000 2169 26 30 47.2 3000 1364 35 30 3000 1426 25 30 3000 2325 28 30 47.4 3000 1350 34 30 3000 1147 27 30 3000 2425 30 30 47.6 3000 1338 33 30 3000 784 28 30 3000 2272 31 30 47.8 3000 1331 33 30 3000 483 30 30 3000 1852 32 30 48 3000 1324 32 30 3000 134 31 30 3000 1491 32 30 48.2 3000 1323 31 30 3000 453 32 30 3000 1232 31 30 48.4 3000 1330 30 30 3000 797 32 30 3000 773 30 30 48.6 3000 1364 30 30 3000 962 31 30 3000 397 30 90 48.8 3000 1410 29 30 3000 1342 31 30 3000 216 30 90 49 3000 1358 28 30 3000 1526 30 30 3000 204 30 90 49.2 3000 1301 28 30 3000 1616 29 30 3000 354 30 90 49.4 3000 1306 27 30 3000 1698 29 30 3000 633 31 90 49.6 3000 1302 27 30 3000 1572 28 30 3000 944 31 90 49.8 3000 1093 26 30 3000 1526 27 30 3000 1351 31 90 50 3000 1017 26 30 3000 1406 27 30 3000 1707 32 90 50.2 3000 1093 25 30 3000 1137 26 30 3000 2045 32 90 50.4 3000 1048 25 30 3000 919 26 30 3000 2416 31 90 50.6 3000 997 25 30 3000 628 25 30 3000 2598 31 90 50.8 3000 1064 24 30 3000 268 25 30 3000 2657 31 90 51 3000 1268 24 30 3000 83 25 30 3000 2560 31 90 51.2 3000 1284 23 30 2500 185 24 30 3000 2267 31 90 51.4 3000 1315 23 30 2500 535 24 30 3000 1830 30 90 51.6 3000 1408 23 30 3000 1173 24 30 3000 1305 30 90 51.8 3000 1404 22 30 3000 1571 25 30 3000 824 30 90 52 3000 1443 22 30 3000 1824 26 30 3000 336 30 90 52.2 3000 1563 22 30 3000 2113 26 30 3000 134 30 90 52.4 3000 1550 22 30 3000 2471 27 30 3000 593 29 90 52.6 3000 1542 22 30 3000 2653 27 30 3000 1039 29 90 52.8 3000 1623 22 30 3000 2781 28 30 3000 1446 29 90 53 3000 1648 23 30 3000 2889 29 30 3000 1789 29 90 53.2 3000 1665 23 30 3000 2901 30 30 3000 2072 29 90 53.4 3000 1735 23 30 3000 2755 30 30 3000 2327 29 90 53.6 3000 1753 23 30 3000 2697 31 30 3000 2573 29 90 53.8 2500 1513 23 30 3000 2540 32 30 3000 2816 28 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 124 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 54 2500 1428 23 30 3000 2274 32 30 3000 3053 28 90 54.2 3000 1658 23 30 3000 1868 32 30 3000 3222 28 90 54.4 3000 1699 23 30 3000 1726 31 30 3000 3325 28 90 54.6 3000 1543 23 30 3000 1665 31 30 3000 3293 28 90 54.8 3000 1476 23 30 3000 1592 30 30 3000 3191 28 90 55 3000 1505 23 30 3000 1579 30 90 3000 3048 28 90 55.2 3000 1631 23 30 3000 1684 30 90 3000 2869 28 90 55.4 3000 1556 23 30 3000 1860 30 90 3000 2709 27 90 55.6 3000 1566 23 30 3000 2100 30 90 3000 2553 27 90 55.8 3000 1621 23 30 3000 2446 30 90 3000 2371 27 90 56 3000 1574 23 30 3000 2775 30 90 3000 2216 27 90 56.2 3000 1528 23 30 3000 3103 30 90 3000 2034 29 90 56.4 3000 1441 23 30 3000 3442 30 90 3000 1815 30 90 56.6 3000 1432 23 30 3000 3653 30 90 3000 1616 31 90 56.8 3000 1501 23 30 3000 3772 30 90 3000 1438 33 90 57 3000 1451 23 30 3000 3801 30 90 3000 1253 34 90 57.2 3000 1456 23 30 3000 3734 30 90 3000 1061 36 90 57.4 3000 1303 23 30 3000 3672 0 90 3000 833 37 90 57.6 3000 1236 23 30 3000 3672 0 90 3000 637 36 90 57.8 3000 1241 23 30 3000 3672 0 90 3000 444 36 90 58 3000 1319 22 30 3000 3672 0 90 3000 263 36 90 58.2 3000 1310 22 30 3000 3672 0 90 3000 93 36 90 58.4 3000 1286 22 30 3000 3672 0 90 3000 67 36 90 58.6 3000 1271 23 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 221 37 90 58.8 3000 1227 23 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 392 38 90 59 3000 1196 23 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 552 40 90 59.2 3000 1181 24 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 679 40 90 59.4 3000 1186 25 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 792 41 90 59.6 3000 1207 26 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 892 42 90 59.8 3000 1240 26 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 979 43 90 60 3000 1284 27 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1052 45 90 60.2 3000 1335 28 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1110 46 90 60.4 3000 1395 29 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1151 48 90 60.6 3000 1461 29 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1176 49 90 60.8 3000 1542 30 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1192 50 90 61 3000 1614 31 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1187 51 90 61.2 3000 1685 31 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1160 51 90 61.4 3000 1747 32 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1176 53 90 61.6 3000 1804 32 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1214 53 90 61.8 3000 1857 32 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1282 54 90 62 3000 1907 32 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1362 54 90 62.2 3000 1947 33 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1479 54 90 62.4 3000 1975 33 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1604 55 90 62.6 3000 1993 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1719 55 90 62.8 3000 1997 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1756 56 90 63 3000 1991 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1731 56 90 63.2 3000 1979 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1669 56 90 63.4 3000 1960 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1592 56 90 63.6 3000 1938 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1513 55 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 125 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 63.8 3000 1916 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1439 55 90 64 3000 1893 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1359 54 90 64.2 3000 1874 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1293 54 90 64.4 3000 1855 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1231 55 90 64.6 3000 1836 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1172 56 90 64.8 3000 1817 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1109 57 90 65 3000 1793 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1060 58 90 65.2 3000 1767 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1015 59 90 65.4 3000 1740 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 972 60 90 65.6 3000 1712 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 927 61 90 65.8 3000 1690 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 893 62 90 66 3000 1672 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 860 63 90 66.2 3000 1656 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 834 63 90 66.4 3000 1639 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 813 64 90 66.6 3000 1622 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 798 65 90 66.8 3000 1605 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 785 66 90 67 3000 1593 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 778 67 90 67.2 3000 1584 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 778 68 90 67.4 3000 1581 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 782 68 90 67.6 3000 1579 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 790 69 90 67.8 3000 1575 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 806 70 90 68 3000 1573 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 826 71 90 68.2 3000 1565 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 853 72 90 68.4 3000 1555 34 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 892 73 90 68.6 3000 1546 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 932 74 90 68.8 3000 1536 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 979 75 90 69 3000 1527 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1033 76 90 69.2 3000 1512 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1093 76 90 69.4 3000 1496 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1156 77 90 69.6 3000 1474 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1217 78 90 69.8 3000 1465 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1274 79 90 70 3000 1459 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1327 80 90 70.2 3000 1457 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1375 80 90 70.4 3000 1461 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1417 81 90 70.6 3000 1468 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1452 82 90 70.8 3000 1479 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1478 83 90 71 3000 1490 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1495 83 90 71.2 3000 1496 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1506 84 90 71.4 3000 1479 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1510 85 90 71.6 3000 1441 37 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1505 85 90 71.8 3000 1412 37 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1493 86 90 72 3000 1407 37 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1466 86 90 72.2 3000 1403 37 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1434 87 90 72.4 3000 1399 37 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1394 87 90 72.6 3000 1389 37 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1340 87 90 72.8 3000 1378 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1285 87 90 73 3000 1380 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1221 87 90 73.2 3000 1387 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1151 86 90 73.4 3000 1393 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1079 86 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 126 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 73.6 3000 1393 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1005 85 90 73.8 3000 1393 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 924 85 90 74 3000 1393 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 836 84 90 74.2 3000 1393 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 742 84 90 74.4 3000 1393 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 640 83 90 74.6 3000 1393 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 524 83 90 74.8 3000 1393 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 445 82 90 75 3000 1393 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 400 82 90 75.2 3000 1393 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 395 81 90 75.4 3000 1400 35 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 433 81 90 75.6 3000 1408 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 531 81 90 75.8 3000 1415 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 688 82 90 76 3000 1422 36 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 870 82 90 76.2 3000 1431 37 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1096 82 90 76.4 3000 1445 37 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1402 83 90 76.6 3000 1459 37 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1690 83 90 76.8 3000 1471 38 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1975 83 90 77 3000 1478 38 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2232 83 90 77.2 3000 1485 39 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2453 84 90 77.4 3000 1492 39 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2671 84 90 77.6 3000 1504 40 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2798 84 90 77.8 3000 1519 40 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2909 84 90 78 3000 1538 41 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 3005 84 90 78.2 3000 1555 42 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 3080 84 90 78.4 3000 1569 42 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 3098 84 90 78.6 3000 1583 43 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 3085 84 90 78.8 3000 1597 43 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 3038 85 90 79 3000 1611 44 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2975 85 90 79.2 3000 1625 44 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2896 85 90 79.4 3000 1641 45 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2794 85 90 79.6 3000 1655 46 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2647 85 90 79.8 3000 1665 46 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2471 85 90 80 3000 1674 47 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2299 85 90 80.2 3000 1682 47 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 2112 84 90 80.4 3000 1688 48 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1895 84 90 80.6 3000 1693 49 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1718 84 90 80.8 3000 1693 49 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1551 84 90 81 3000 1693 50 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1395 84 90 81.2 3000 1693 50 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1251 84 90 81.4 3000 1688 51 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 1117 84 90 81.6 3000 1681 51 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 976 84 90 81.8 3000 1669 51 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 867 84 90 82 3000 1655 51 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 770 84 90 82.2 3000 1639 52 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 684 84 90 82.4 3000 1620 52 90 3000 3672 0 90 3000 608 84 90 82.6 3000 1605 53 90 3000 3672 1 90 3000 545 84 90 82.8 3000 1591 53 90 3000 3682 3 90 3000 486 85 90 83 3000 1578 53 90 3000 3700 5 90 3000 445 85 90 83.2 3000 1561 54 90 3000 3724 7 90 3000 417 85 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 127 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 83.4 3000 1540 54 90 3000 3743 9 90 3000 399 86 90 83.6 3000 1519 55 90 3000 3747 11 90 3000 395 86 90 83.8 3000 1494 55 90 3000 3732 11 90 3000 404 86 90 84 3000 1466 56 90 3000 3701 10 90 3000 423 87 90 84.2 3000 1440 56 90 3000 3657 10 90 3000 455 87 90 84.4 3000 1416 57 90 3000 3607 9 90 3000 500 88 90 84.6 3000 1401 57 90 3000 3548 9 90 3000 557 88 90 84.8 3000 1387 58 90 3000 3485 9 90 3000 627 88 90 85 3000 1372 58 90 3000 3414 8 90 3000 739 89 90 85.2 3000 1352 59 90 3000 3331 8 90 3000 839 89 90 85.4 3000 1334 59 90 3000 3257 8 90 3000 953 90 90 85.6 3000 1323 59 90 3000 3185 7 90 3000 1080 90 90 85.8 3000 1320 60 90 3000 3112 7 90 3000 1221 91 90 86 3000 1326 60 90 3000 3038 7 90 3000 1368 91 90 86.2 3000 1343 61 90 3000 2966 6 90 3000 1511 92 90 86.4 3000 1366 61 90 3000 2892 6 90 3000 1653 92 90 86.6 3000 1391 62 90 3000 2820 6 90 3000 1748 93 90 86.8 3000 1414 62 90 3000 2749 6 90 3000 1814 93 90 87 3000 1435 63 90 3000 2679 5 90 3000 1849 93 90 87.2 3000 1458 63 90 3000 2620 5 90 3000 1852 94 90 87.4 3000 1472 64 90 3000 2571 5 90 3000 1822 94 90 87.6 3000 1486 64 90 3000 2523 4 90 3000 1759 95 90 87.8 3000 1499 65 90 3000 2483 4 90 3000 1645 95 90 88 3000 1507 65 90 3000 2448 4 90 3000 1518 95 90 88.2 3000 1514 66 90 3000 2421 4 90 3000 1391 96 90 88.4 3000 1520 66 90 3000 2397 4 90 3000 1280 96 90 88.6 3000 1520 67 90 3000 2376 3 90 3000 1177 97 90 88.8 3000 1519 67 90 3000 2362 3 90 3000 1114 97 90 89 3000 1512 68 90 3000 2350 2 90 3000 1072 98 90 89.2 3000 1510 68 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1050 98 90 89.4 3000 1505 69 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1051 98 90 89.6 3000 1494 69 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1075 99 90 89.8 3000 1480 70 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1119 99 90 90 3000 1465 70 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1184 100 90 90.2 3000 1447 71 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1272 100 90 90.4 3000 1435 71 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1383 100 90 90.6 3000 1427 72 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1495 100 90 90.8 3000 1431 72 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1565 100 90 91 3000 1447 72 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1642 99 90 91.2 3000 1473 73 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1680 98 90 91.4 3000 1501 73 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1683 98 90 91.6 3000 1531 74 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1647 98 90 91.8 3000 1560 74 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1575 98 90 92 3000 1591 75 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1469 97 90 92.2 3000 1620 75 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1330 96 90 92.4 3000 1650 75 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 1129 96 90 92.6 3000 1680 76 90 3000 2350 0 90 3000 931 95 90 92.8 3000 1709 76 90 3000 2350 1 90 3000 721 94 90 93 3000 1733 77 90 3000 2350 2 90 3000 510 94 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 128 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 93.2 3000 1760 77 90 3000 2350 2 90 3000 310 93 90 93.4 3000 1791 78 90 3000 2350 3 90 3000 148 93 90 93.6 3000 1815 78 90 3000 2350 4 90 3000 21 92 90 93.8 3000 1813 78 90 3000 2350 5 90 3000 40 92 90 94 3000 1799 78 90 3000 2350 7 90 3000 64 92 90 94.2 3000 1785 78 90 3000 2350 10 90 3000 55 92 90 94.4 3000 1771 79 90 3000 2350 13 90 3000 1 92 90 94.6 3000 1751 79 90 3000 2340 15 90 3000 80 92 90 94.8 3000 1730 79 90 3000 2321 19 90 3000 191 92 90 95 3000 1713 79 90 3000 2284 22 90 3000 318 91 90 95.2 3000 1690 79 90 3000 2237 25 90 3000 469 91 90 95.4 3000 1677 79 90 3000 2201 26 90 3000 592 92 90 95.6 3000 1661 79 90 3000 2165 28 90 3000 700 92 90 95.8 3000 1638 80 90 3000 2127 29 90 3000 794 92 90 96 3000 1610 80 90 3000 2088 30 90 3000 870 92 90 96.2 3000 1577 80 90 3000 2044 30 90 3000 917 92 90 96.4 3000 1541 80 90 3000 1985 32 90 3000 944 93 90 96.6 3000 1504 80 90 3000 1929 33 90 3000 954 93 90 96.8 3000 1465 80 90 3000 1862 34 90 3000 950 93 90 97 3000 1417 80 90 3000 1804 35 90 3000 930 93 90 97.2 3000 1378 81 90 3000 1765 36 90 3000 892 92 90 97.4 3000 1340 81 90 3000 1735 37 90 3000 840 92 90 97.6 3000 1300 81 90 3000 1714 37 90 3000 775 92 90 97.8 3000 1274 81 90 3000 1698 37 90 3000 704 91 90 98 3000 1258 81 90 3000 1684 36 90 3000 671 91 90 98.2 3000 1257 82 90 3000 1677 36 90 3000 686 91 90 98.4 3000 1269 82 90 3000 1670 36 90 3000 751 91 90 98.6 3000 1296 82 90 3000 1675 36 90 3000 866 91 90 98.8 3000 1328 82 90 3000 1675 35 90 3000 1055 91 90 99 3000 1355 82 90 3000 1672 35 90 3000 1234 91 90 99.2 3000 1382 82 90 3000 1667 35 90 3000 1399 90 90 99.4 3000 1407 83 90 3000 1658 35 90 3000 1541 90 90 99.6 3000 1434 83 90 3000 1646 36 90 3000 1658 89 90 99.8 3000 1464 83 90 3000 1626 37 90 3000 1751 89 90 100 3000 1498 83 90 3000 1608 37 90 3000 1820 88 90 100.2 3000 1538 83 90 3000 1584 38 90 3000 1865 87 90 100.4 3000 1579 83 90 3000 1564 39 90 3000 1885 87 90 100.6 3000 1617 84 90 3000 1549 40 90 3000 1884 86 90 100.8 3000 1650 84 90 3000 1540 41 90 3000 1859 86 90 101 3000 1678 84 90 3000 1538 42 90 3000 1814 82 90 101.2 3000 1702 84 90 3000 1536 43 90 101.4 3000 1720 84 90 3000 1535 44 90 101.6 3000 1733 84 90 3000 1533 45 90 101.8 3000 1741 85 90 3000 1527 46 90 102 3000 1743 85 90 3000 1519 47 90 102.2 3000 1739 85 90 3000 1504 48 90 102.4 3000 1729 85 90 3000 1483 49 90 102.6 3000 1714 85 90 3000 1461 51 90 102.8 3000 1692 85 90 3000 1435 52 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 129 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 103 3000 1659 85 90 3000 1406 53 90 103.2 3000 1627 85 90 3000 1388 53 90 103.4 3000 1588 85 90 3000 1378 54 90 103.6 3000 1546 86 90 3000 1378 54 90 103.8 3000 1499 86 90 3000 1387 55 90 104 3000 1468 86 90 3000 1406 55 90 104.2 3000 1447 86 90 3000 1399 56 90 104.4 3000 1438 86 90 3000 1359 56 90 104.6 3000 1436 86 90 3000 1348 56 90 104.8 3000 1437 86 90 3000 1336 56 90 105 3000 1437 86 90 3000 1321 57 90 105.2 3000 1439 87 90 3000 1316 57 90 105.4 3000 1442 87 90 3000 1323 57 90 105.6 3000 1446 87 90 3000 1326 58 90 105.8 3000 1453 87 90 3000 1326 58 90 106 3000 1460 87 90 3000 1326 58 90 106.2 3000 1474 87 90 3000 1326 59 90 106.4 3000 1488 87 90 3000 1333 59 90 106.6 3000 1502 87 90 3000 1347 60 90 106.8 3000 1515 87 90 3000 1369 60 90 107 3000 1523 87 90 3000 1398 61 90 107.2 3000 1527 88 90 3000 1436 61 90 107.4 3000 1527 88 90 3000 1489 62 90 107.6 3000 1527 88 90 3000 1545 62 90 107.8 3000 1533 88 90 3000 1594 63 90 108 3000 1480 88 90 3000 1638 63 90 108.2 3000 1440 88 90 3000 1675 64 90 108.4 3000 1407 88 90 3000 1707 64 90 108.6 3000 1376 88 90 3000 1725 65 90 108.8 3000 1339 88 90 3000 1736 65 90 109 3000 1305 89 90 3000 1737 66 90 109.2 3000 1263 89 90 3000 1731 66 90 109.4 3000 1234 89 90 3000 1723 67 90 109.6 3000 1215 89 90 3000 1722 67 90 109.8 3000 1210 89 90 3000 1722 68 90 110 3000 1217 89 90 3000 1729 68 90 110.2 3000 1229 89 90 3000 1736 69 90 110.4 3000 1245 89 90 3000 1741 70 90 110.6 3000 1266 90 90 3000 1739 70 90 110.8 3000 1284 90 90 3000 1725 71 90 111 3000 1302 90 90 3000 1696 71 90 111.2 3000 1320 90 90 3000 1659 72 90 111.4 3000 1338 90 90 3000 1613 73 90 111.6 3000 1356 90 90 3000 1562 73 90 111.8 3000 1374 90 90 3000 1510 74 90 112 3000 1392 90 90 3000 1451 74 90 112.2 3000 1411 90 90 3000 1403 75 90 112.4 3000 1423 90 90 3000 1364 76 90 112.6 3000 1429 90 90 3000 1330 76 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 130 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 112.8 3000 1433 90 90 3000 1308 77 90 113 3000 1439 90 90 3000 1293 78 90 113.2 3000 1450 90 90 3000 1287 78 90 113.4 3000 1466 90 90 3000 1288 79 90 113.6 3000 1486 90 90 3000 1300 80 90 113.8 3000 1498 90 90 3000 1314 80 90 114 3000 1512 90 90 3000 1338 81 90 114.2 3000 1533 90 90 3000 1353 81 90 114.4 3000 1562 89 90 3000 1365 82 90 114.6 3000 1594 89 90 3000 1369 82 90 114.8 3000 1630 89 90 3000 1364 83 90 115 3000 1666 88 90 3000 1350 83 90 115.2 3000 1708 88 90 3000 1327 84 90 115.4 3000 1745 87 90 3000 1295 84 90 115.6 3000 1778 87 90 3000 1249 85 90 115.8 3000 1807 86 90 3000 1204 85 90 116 3000 1833 86 90 3000 1156 85 90 116.2 3000 1854 85 90 3000 1119 85 90 116.4 3000 1870 85 90 3000 1091 85 90 116.6 3000 1880 84 90 3000 1072 86 90 116.8 3000 1879 84 90 3000 1066 86 90 117 3000 1865 83 90 3000 1074 86 90 117.2 3000 1836 83 90 3000 1097 86 90 117.4 3000 1796 82 90 3000 1132 87 90 117.6 3000 1748 81 90 3000 1189 87 90 117.8 3000 1700 81 90 3000 1258 87 90 118 3000 1652 80 90 3000 1320 87 90 118.2 3000 1605 80 90 3000 1386 87 90 118.4 3000 1562 79 90 3000 1461 87 90 118.6 3000 1513 78 90 3000 1523 87 90 118.8 3000 1473 78 90 3000 1590 88 90 119 3000 1650 88 90 119.2 3000 1694 88 90 119.4 3000 1734 88 90 119.6 3000 1772 88 90 119.8 3000 1800 88 90 120 3000 1810 88 90 120.2 3000 1785 88 90 120.4 3000 1757 88 90 120.6 3000 1722 88 90 120.8 3000 1675 88 90 121 3000 1631 88 90 121.2 3000 1591 88 90 121.4 3000 1557 88 90 121.6 3000 1525 88 90 121.8 3000 1490 88 90 122 3000 1446 88 90 122.2 3000 1406 88 90 122.4 3000 1370 88 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 131 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 122.6 3000 1336 88 90 122.8 3000 1304 88 90 123 3000 1283 88 90 123.2 3000 1267 88 90 123.4 3000 1255 88 90 123.6 3000 1251 88 90 123.8 3000 1251 88 90 124 3000 1258 88 90 124.2 3000 1265 88 90 124.4 3000 1271 88 90 124.6 3000 1277 88 90 124.8 3000 1284 88 90 125 3000 1290 88 90 125.2 3000 1296 88 90 125.4 3000 1303 88 90 125.6 3000 1310 88 90 125.8 3000 1316 88 90 126 3000 1323 88 90 126.2 3000 1327 88 90 126.4 3000 1325 88 90 126.6 3000 1311 88 90 126.8 3000 1284 88 90 127 3000 1245 89 90 127.2 3000 1194 89 90 127.4 3000 1129 89 90 127.6 3000 1050 89 90 127.8 3000 956 89 90 128 3000 847 89 90 128.2 3000 726 89 90 128.4 3000 592 89 90 128.6 3000 453 89 90 128.8 3000 311 89 90 129 3000 179 89 90 129.2 3000 64 90 90 129.4 3000 23 90 90 129.6 3000 75 90 90 129.8 3000 88 90 90 130 3000 57 90 90 130.2 3000 16 90 90 130.4 3000 132 90 90 130.6 3000 288 91 90 130.8 3000 507 91 90 131 3000 715 91 90 131.2 3000 929 91 90 131.4 3000 1143 91 90 131.6 3000 1351 91 90 131.8 3000 1542 91 90 132 3000 1715 91 90 132.2 3000 1859 91 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 132 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 132.4 3000 1967 91 90 132.6 3000 2037 91 90 132.8 3000 2064 91 90 133 3000 2052 91 90 133.2 3000 2007 91 90 133.4 3000 1887 91 90 133.6 3000 1733 91 90 133.8 3000 1569 91 90 134 3000 1405 91 90 134.2 3000 1246 91 90 134.4 3000 1099 91 90 134.6 3000 969 92 90 134.8 3000 859 92 90 135 3000 764 92 90 135.2 3000 714 92 90 135.4 3000 696 92 90 135.6 3000 718 92 90 135.8 3000 772 92 90 136 3000 855 92 90 136.2 3000 963 92 90 136.4 3000 1093 92 90 136.6 3000 1240 92 90 136.8 3000 1398 92 90 137 3000 1556 92 90 137.2 3000 1703 92 90 137.4 3000 1832 92 90 137.6 3000 1937 92 90 137.8 3000 2013 93 90 138 3000 2061 93 90 138.2 3000 2081 93 90 138.4 3000 2076 93 90 138.6 3000 2045 93 90 138.8 3000 1989 93 90 139 3000 1911 93 90 139.2 3000 1799 93 90 139.4 3000 1679 93 90 139.6 3000 1532 93 90 139.8 3000 1406 93 90 140 3000 1276 94 90 140.2 3000 1146 94 90 140.4 3000 1019 94 90 140.6 3000 876 94 90 140.8 3000 764 94 90 141 3000 650 94 90 141.2 3000 572 93 90 141.4 3000 517 93 90 141.6 3000 487 93 90 141.8 3000 497 92 90 142 3000 541 91 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 133 Table C. 4 (Continued) NDBW GB/s Joystick Time Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted Width Position Speed Posted 142.2 3000 617 91 90 142.4 3000 723 90 90 142.6 3000 849 90 90 142.8 3000 985 89 90 143 3000 1120 88 90 143.2 3000 1239 88 90 143.4 3000 1333 87 90 143.6 3000 1397 87 90 143.8 3000 1431 86 90

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Appendix C : (Continued) 134 The following graphs show the steering results for each participant with respect to time. Group 1, Participant 1: (Age 36, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C.1 Steering Results, Participant 1 Figure C.2 Speed Results, Partici pant 1

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Appendix C : (Continued) 135 Group 1, Participant 2: (Age 25, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C.3 Steering Results, Participant 2 Figure C.4 Speed Results, Participant 2

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Appendix C : (Continued) 136 Group 1, Participant 3: (Age 24, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C.5 Steering Results, Participant 3 Figure C.6 Speed Results, Participant 3

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Appendix C : (Continued) 137 Group 1, Participant 4: (Age 25, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C.7 Steering Results, Participant 4 Figure C.8 Speed Results, Participant 4

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Appendix C : (Continued) 138 Group 1, Participant 5: (Age 35, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 9 Steering Results, Participant 5 Figure C. 10 Speed Results, Participant 5

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Appendix C : (Continued) 139 Group 1, Participant 6: (Age 40, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C.11 Steering Results, Participant 6 Figure C.12 Speed Results, Participant 6

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Appendix C : (Continued) 140 Group 1, Participant 7: (Age 23, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C.13 Steering Results, Participant 7 Figure C.14 Speed Results, Participant 7

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Appendix C : (Continued) 141 Group 1, Participant 8: (Age 54, Left Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 15 Steering Results, Participant 8 Figure C. 16 Speed Results, Participant 8

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Appendix C : (Continued) 142 Group 1, Participant 9: (Age 48, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 17 Steering Results, Participant 9 Figure C. 18 Speed Results, Participant 9

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Appendix C : (Continued) 143 Group 1, Participant 10: (Age 50, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 19 Steering Results, Participant 10 Figure C. 20 Speed Results, Participant 10

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Appendix C : (Continued) 144 C.3. Steering Data for Elderly Drivers Group 2, Participant 11: (Age 79, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 21 Steering Results, Participant 11 Figure C.2 2 Speed Results, Participant 11

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Appendix C : (Continued) 145 Group 2, Participant 12: (Age 71, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 23 Steering Results, Participant 12 Figure C. 24 Speed Results, Participant 12

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Appendix C : (Continued) 146 Group 2, Participant 13: (Age 73, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 25 Steering Results, Participant 13 Figure C. 26 Speed Results, Participant 13

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Appendix C : (Continued) 147 Group 2, Participant 14: (Age 65 Left Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 2 7 Steering Results, Participant 1 4 Figure C. 28 Speed Results, Participant 14

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Appendix C : (Continued) 148 Group 2, Participant 15: (Age 69 Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 29 Steering Results, Participant 15 Figure C. 30 Speed Results, Participant 15

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Appendix C : (Continued) 149 Group 2, Participant 16: (Age 67 Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 31 Steering Results, Participant 16 Figure C. 3 2 Speed Results, Participant 1 6

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Appendix C : (Continued) 150 Group 2, Participant 17: (Age 75 Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 33 Steering Results, Participant 17 Figure C. 34 Speed Results, Participant 17

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Appendix C : (Continued) 151 Group 2, Participant 18: (Age 72 Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 35 Steering Results, Participant 18 Figure C. 36 Speed Results, Participant 18

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Appendix C : (Continued) 152 Group 2, Participant 19: (Age 69 Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C.37 Steering Results, Participant 19 Figure C.38 Speed Results, Participant 19

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Appendix C : (Continued) 153 Group 2, Participant 20: (Age 80, Right Handed, Does not use DBW controls) Figure C. 39 Steering Results, Participant 20 Figure C. 40 Speed Results, Participant 20

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Appendix C : (Continued) 154 C.4. Steering Data for Drivers with Disabilities Group 3, Participant 21: (Age 19, Right Handed, Does Use Mechanical Hand Controls) Figure C. 41 Steering Results, Participant 21 Figure C. 4 2 Speed Results, Participant 21

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Appendix C : (Continued) 155 Group 3, Participant 22: (Age 58, Right Handed, Does Use Mechanical Hand Controls) Figure C. 43 Steering Results, Participant 22 Figure C. 4 4 Speed Results, Participant 22

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Appendix C : (Continued) 156 Group 3, Participant 23: (Age 49, Right H anded, Does Use Mechanical Hand Controls) Figure C. 4 5 Steering Results, Participant 23 Figure C. 4 6 Speed Results, Participant 23

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Appendix C : (Continued) 157 Group 3, Participant 24: (Age 45, Right Handed, Does Use Mechanical Hand Controls) Figure C. 4 7 Steering Results, Participant 24 Figure C. 4 8 Speed Results, Participant 24

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Appendix C : (Continued) 158 Group 3, Participant 25: (Age 48, Right Handed, Does Use Mechanical Hand Controls) Figure C. 4 9 Steering Results, Participant 25 Figure C. 50 Speed Results, Participant 25

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Appendix C : (Continued) 159 Group 3, Participant 26: (Age 26, Right Handed, Does Use Mechanical Hand Controls) Figure C. 51 Steering Results, Participant 26 Figure C. 5 2 Speed Results, Participant 26

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Appendix C : (Continued) 160 Group 3, Participant 27: (Age 27, Right Handed, Does Use Mechanical Hand Controls) Figure C. 53 Steering Results, Participant 27 Figure C. 5 4 Speed Results, Participant 27

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Appendix C : (Continued) 161 Group 3, Participant 28: (Age 55, Left Handed, Does Use DBW Controls) Figure C. 5 5 Steering Results, Participant 28 Figure C. 5 6 Speed Results, Participant 28

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Appendix C : (Continued) 162 Group 3, Participant 29: (Age 40, Right Handed, Does Use Mechanical Hand Controls) Figure C. 57 Steering Results, Participant 29 Figure C. 58 Speed Results, Partici pant 29

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Appendix C : (Continued) 163 Group 3, Participant 30: (Age 34, Left Handed, Does Use DBW Controls) Figure C. 59 Steering Results, Participant 30 Figure C. 60 Speed Results, Participant 30

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Appendix C : (Continued) 164 C.5. Driving in Traffic Table C.5 Data for A NDBW Time (s) Speeding (x) Speeding (s) Space Cushion (x) Space Cushion (s) Lane Position (x) Lane Position (s) Missed Signal (x) Red Light (x) 18 64 3258 11 50 6 10 120 234 80 10 65+ 3176 15 56 18 27 142 269 108 4 Dis ability n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a E NDBW Time (s) Speeding (x) Speeding (s) Space Cushion (x) Space Cushion (s) Lane Position (x) Lane Position (s) Missed Signal (x) Red Light (x) 18 64 1722 0 6 5 7 97 103 21 0 65+ 2038 0 0 7 13 135 194 50 0 Disability n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a A GB/S Time (s) Speeding (x) Speeding (s) Space Cushion (x) Space Cushion (s) Lane Position (x) Lane Position (s) Missed Signal (x) Red Light (x) 18 64 3356 1 4 2 1 121 234 90 8 65+ 3893 0 0 4 8 184 525 109 6 Dis ability 3247 15 38 9 26 145 340 103 9

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Ap pendix C : (Continued) 165 E GB/S Time (s) Speeding (x) Speeding (s) Space Cushion (x) Space Cushion (s) Lane Position (x) Lane Position (s) Missed Signal (x) Red Light (x) 18 64 2083 0 0 2 2 130 231 39 0 65+ 2115 0 0 1 0 175 352 89 0 Dis ability 1679 0 0 4 4 109 183 36 0 A Joystick Time (s) Speeding (x) Speeding (s) Space Cushion (x) Space Cushion (s) Lane Position (x) Lane Position (s) Missed Signal (x) Red Light (x) 18 64 3153 10 29 10 23 193 455 105 5 65+ 3195 6 19 10 16 226 523 165 5 Disability 3463 11 26 19 38 210 480 108 2 E Joystick Time (s) Speeding (x) Speeding (s) Space Cushion (x) Space Cushion (s) Lane Position (x) Lane Position (s) Missed Signal (x) Red Light (x) 18 64 2124 0 0 7 10 248 518 178 0 65+ 2340 0 0 3 3 263 686 132 0 Dis ability 1437 0 0 7 6 186 378 90 0 Note: The columns that use x as the unit signify an x number of instances in which the error was committed. Table C.5 (Continued)

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Appendix D : Parts List and Drawings 166 D.1. Gear Train for Coupling Systems Figure D.1 SSI/AEVIT Integration (court esy of Matt Wills) Table D.1 Chain Drive Parts List Part Qty #40 Sprocket, 12 teeth, 3/4" bore 1 #40 Sprocket, 16 teeth, 1" bore 1 #40 Idler sprocket ball bearing 1 #40 Roller Chain, 2' 1 #40 Roller Chain Link 1

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Appendix D : (Continued) 167 D.2.AEVIT Controller Switch Figure D. 2 Controller Switch T race D iagram (courtesy of Matt Wills) Table D.2 AEVIT Parts List Part Qty Tyco/AMP MATE N LOK socket 22 26 AWG 48 Tyco/AMP MATE N LOK male plug 12 pos 4 Tyco/AMP MATE N LOK female plug 12 pos 6 4" solid 22 AWG wire 72 Printed Circuit Board (etched according to pattern) 1 Aluminum stand offs 4 4" x 6" x 2" Aluminum enclosure 1 2 position rotary switch 1 Red etched copper traces Blue Drilled holes Yellow MATE N LOK plug location

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Appendix E: Maintenance Issues 1 68 Table E.1 Troubleshooting Problem Cause Gas/brake is disabled Switch on the lower side of the gas/brake drive module has been disabled Steering is disabled Switch on the lower side of the steering drive module has been disabled Steering servo will not rotate through its full range of motion in both directions SSI steering wheel was not center when the steering servo was engaged AEVIT system gives an alarm for missing coil pulse Coil Pulse is not present, No current solution Low Battery is indicated on the AEVIT Information Center Battery charger has become unplugged or disconnected

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Appendix F: Participant Survey 169 Sample Procedure Questions Sample questions asked prior to each initial use of a control or driving aid: 1. Have you ever used this system? If yes Please describe your (negative and positive) experiences with this system (specify). 1.1. Please rank [1 5; unsafe very safe] system safety. 1.2. Please rank [1 5; difficult very eas y] system ease of learning to use. 1.3. Please rank [1 5; difficult very easy] system ease of use. 1.4. Please rank [1 5; unreliable very reliable] system reliability. {i.e., system behaved consistently as expected} 1.5. How do you perceive this system? Functional tests (acceleration, braking, steering) Sample questions asked after each driving control system: 1. Please describe your (negative and positive) experiences with this system. 2. Was it easy to navigate/operate this system? Please describe your experience. 3. Please ran k [1 5; difficult very easy] system ease of learning to use. 4. I was able [the system allowed me] to brake on time [1 5; unable easily able]. 5. Please rank your ability to control the steering [1 5; unable easily able].

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Appendix F: (Continued) 170 6. I was able [the system allowed me] to ac celerate to the desired speed [1 5; unable easily able]. 7. Please rank your confidence [1 5; not confident very confident] in using this system in the beginning/at the end? 8. Please describe your experience.{i.e., confidence in driving correctly and confidence in driving safely} Driving test routes and Sample questions asked after each test/trial using a different driving control: 1. Please describe your (negative/positive) experiences with each system. 2. Please describe your experience in learning how to use each system? 3. Please rank your ease of learning [1 5; difficult very easy]. 4. I felt that as I used the system I became more proficient (circle one): 5. Strongly disagree, Disagree; Neutral; Agree; Strongly Agree 6. Please describe your experien ce in navigating/operating each system? 7. Please rank your ease of operating the system [1 5; difficult very easy]. 8. Please rank [1 5; unsafe very safe] system safety. 9. Did you feel confident using the system (specify system) at the start/end (specify)? {i.e. confidence in driving correctly and confidence in driving safely} 10. Please rank your confidence in using the system [1 5; not confident very confident]. 11. Please rank [1 5; unreliable very reliable] the system reliability. {i.e., system behaved consistently as expected}

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Appendix F: (Continued) 171 12. The system gave me realistic scenarios of driving (circle one): 13. Strongly disagree, Disagree; Neutral; Agree; Strongly Agree Final questions asked after all trials 1. What system did you like most/least? 2. What system was easiest/most difficult to l earn to use? 3. What system took least/most time to learn? 4. What system was easiest/most difficult to use? 5. What system was most/least reliable? {i.e., system behaved consistently as expected} 6. What system would you prefer using in your vehicle? 7. Share your ideas about equipment that would make it easier or more comfortable for you to drive? 8. How would you compare the adaptive driving equipment with conventional controls in terms of: 8.1. Ease of learning to use [1 5; difficult very easy]? 8.2. Ease of use [1 5; difficult ve ry easy]? 8.3. Reaction time (brake, accelerate, steer) [1 5; slow very fast] 8.4. Reliability [1 5; unreliable very reliable]? 8.5. Comfort [1 5; uncomfortable very comfortable]? If you do not have a disability and do not need an adaptive driving aid in your vehicle: 9. Wo uld you prefer to use a D B W system over traditional means? Why/why not? Note: The results of the survey are tabulated on the following pages.

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Appendix F: (Continued) 172 Table F.1 Continued Participant Able bodied Elderly Disabled BEFORE GB/S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G System Safety: 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 8 4.8 Ease of Learning to Use: 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 4 6 4.6 System Ease of Use: 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 9 4.9 System Reliability: 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 7 4.7 BE FORE JOYSTICK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G System Safety: x x x x x x x x 1 x 1 1 Ease of Learning to Use: x x x x x x x x 1 x 1 1 System Ease of Use: x x x x x x x x 2 x 2 2 System Reliability: x x x x x x x x 1 x 1 1 Fu nctional Tests Ac celeration and Braking Able bodied Elderly Disabled AFTER GB/S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G Ease of Learning to Use: 2 3 5 4 3 4 3 3 4 5 3 6 3.6 5 5 4 3 3 4 5 4 4 2 3 9 3.9 5 4 3 2 5 4 5 3 3 5 3 9 3.9 Able to Brake on Time: 3 3 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 5 3 7 3.7 5 5 4 3 3 3 5 3 4 4 3 9 3.9 4 5 4 2 5 4 5 5 1 3 3 8 3.8 Ability to Control Steering: 3 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 3 3 3.3 4 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 2.3 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 2 4 3 2 3.2 Able to Accelerate: 4 4 4 3 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 9 3.9 4 2 4 4 2 2 2 5 4 3 3 2 3.2 4 5 3 3 4 4 5 5 3 5 4 1 4.1 Confidence at Beginning: 1 3 4 2 1 2 4 3 2 3 2 5 2.5 3 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 3 1 2 4 2.4 4 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 1 2.1 Confidence at End: 3 3 5 4 3 4 3 3 4 5 3 7 3.7 4 4 4 5 2 3 4 4 3 2 3 5 3.5 5 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 1 4 3 5 3.5 Table F.1 Quantitative Survey Results

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Appendix F: (Continued) 173 Table F.1 Continued AFTER Joystick 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G Ease of Learning to Use: 3 3 5 4 1 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 3.4 3 1 2 1 2 5 1 1 2 1 1 9 1.9 3 3 2 4 4 2 2 1 1 5 2 7 2.7 Able to Brake on Time: 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 4 4 3 6 3.6 5 1 2 3 1 2 1 1 4 2 2 2 2.2 4 4 5 4 5 3 4 2 1 5 3 7 3.7 Ability to Control Steering: 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 0 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 4 1.4 3 3 2 3 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2.2 Able to Accelerate: 4 3 5 2 5 3 4 2 4 2 3 4 3.4 4 1 3 4 2 3 1 3 4 2 2 7 2.7 3 4 4 3 5 4 4 4 1 3 3 5 3.5 Confidence at Beginning: 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2.2 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 6 1.6 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1.5 Confidence at End: 3 3 4 1 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 0 3 4 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 5 1.5 4 4 1 4 5 1 2 1 1 3 2 6 2.6 AF TER W/out DBW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G Ease of Learning to Use: 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 4.4 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 1 4 3 4.3 Able to Brake on Time: 3 5 5 3 5 4 3 4 3 5 4 0 4 5 4 3 5 4 4 4 2 5 4 4 0 4 Ability to Control Steering: 4 3 5 4 4 3 5 4 4 5 4 1 4.1 5 3 4 5 4 3 3 2 3 1 3 3 3.3 Able to Accelerate: 5 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 2 5 4 1 4.1 5 3 4 5 5 4 3 5 4 3 4 1 4.1 Confidence at Beginning: 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 5 3.5 5 4 3 3 3 2 4 4 4 1 3 3 3.3 Confidence at End: 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 3 4.3 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 2 3 9 3.9 Dr iving Test Routes AF TER "A" and "E" Able bodied Elderly Disabled AFTER GB/S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G Ease of Learning: 3 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 9 3.9 3 2 4 3 2 5 2 4 3 3 3 1 3.1 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 3 5 5 4 5 4.5 Proficiency: 4 4 3 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 3 4.3 4 5 4 4 2 4 5 5 5 4 4 2 4.2 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4.4 Ease of Operating System: 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 8 3.8 4 1 3 3 2 4 1 4 3 3 2 8 2.8 5 5 5 3 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 6 4.6 Table F.1 Quantitative Survey Results Table F.1 (Continued)

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Appendix F: (Continued) 174 Table F.1 Continued System Safety 2 3 2 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 3.3 5 1 1 4 1 3 1 4 4 4 2 8 2.8 5 4 5 3 4 3 4 4 1 3 3 6 3.6 Confidence: 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 7 3.7 4 1 3 4 1 3 1 3 3 2 2 5 2.5 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 3 4 4 4.4 System Reliability: 2 5 2 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 9 3.9 5 5 4 4 2 4 5 5 3 3 4 0 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 1 5 4 2 4.2 Realism of Scenarios: 2 5 3 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 4 5 1 5 4 4 5 1 2 5 4 3 6 3.6 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 4.3 AF TER Joystick 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G Ease of Learning: 2 2 5 2 1 3 4 3 3 2 2 7 2.7 3 1 4 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 9 1.9 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 5 2 8 2.8 Proficiency: 4 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 2 3 2 3.2 4 1 4 2 2 4 1 2 2 4 2 6 2.6 4 4 1 4 5 2 3 4 2 5 3 4 3.4 Ease of Operating System: 2 2 5 1 5 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 3.2 3 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 7 1.7 3 4 5 3 3 2 3 3 1 5 3 2 3.2 System Safety 1 2 2 4 1 3 4 1 2 2 2 2 2.2 4 1 4 3 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 2.1 2 4 1 3 2 1 1 3 1 4 2 2 2.2 Confidence: 2 2 3 2 1 3 4 2 3 2 2 4 2.4 4 1 4 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 8 1.8 3 4 1 4 5 2 3 3 1 3 2 9 2.9 System Reliability: 2 5 2 4 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 0 3 4 5 4 3 2 4 5 2 3 3 3 5 3.5 3 3 4 3 5 3 3 3 1 4 3 2 3.2 Realism of Scenarios: 2 5 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 9 3.9 4 1 3 3 4 5 1 2 5 4 3 2 3.2 4 4 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 4 AFTER W/out DBW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G Ease of Learning: 5 5 5 3 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 4.5 5 3 3 4 2 5 3 2 4 3 3 4 3.4 Proficiency: 3 3 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 4.4 5 5 5 4 3 5 5 5 4 3 4 4 4.4 Ease of Operating System: 5 4 5 3 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4.5 5 2 3 4 3 5 2 4 4 3 3 5 3.5 System Safety 3 2 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 2 4.2 5 1 3 4 2 5 1 4 5 2 3 2 3.2 Confidence: 4 4 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 4.5 5 1 3 4 3 5 1 3 4 2 3 1 3.1 System Reliability: 3 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 3 4.3 5 5 3 5 3 5 5 2 3 2 3 8 3.8 Table F.1 Quantitative Survey Results Table F.1 (Continued)

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Appendix F: (Continued) 175 Table F.1 Continued Realism of Scenarios: 2 5 2 4 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 8 3.8 5 2 4 4 4 5 2 2 4 4 3 6 3.6 Comparison of controls Able bodied Elderly Disabled DBW vs Conventional 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 AV G Ease of Learning to Use: 2 2 5 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 5 3.5 4 1 3 2 2 5 1 2 4 2 2 6 2.6 Ease of Use: 2 2 2 4 4 4 3 2 3 4 3 0 3 4 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 0 2 Reaction Time to Brake: 3 4 4 4 5 4 3 4 2 3 3 6 3.6 4 2 3 4 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 9 2.9 Reaction Time to Accelerate: 3 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 6 3.6 4 5 3 4 2 3 5 4 3 5 3 8 3.8 Reaction Time for Steering: 2 3 1 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 2 7 2.7 4 5 3 3 1 2 5 4 2 5 3 4 3.4 Reliability: 2 5 2 4 3 3 4 2 3 3 3 1 3.1 5 5 3 4 2 2 5 4 3 3 3 6 3.6 Comfort: 2 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 8 3.8 5 1 4 3 2 2 1 3 4 4 2 9 2.9 Table F.1 Quantitative Survey Results Table F.1 (Continued)